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Sample records for suse cyclotron munich

  1. Munich conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    'The Standard Model has survived impact for another year', declared Don Perkins of Oxford, summarizing the 24th International Conference on High Energy Physics held in Munich from 4-10 August. 'But is this a triumph or a frustration for physics?' he added. The twin pillars of the Standard Model, the electroweak unification of electromagnetism and the weak nuclear force, and the field theory (quantum chromodynamics) of the quark-gluon interactions responsible for the strong nuclear force, have not trembled since the electroweak unification went to the textbooks in 1983, but from time to time small cracks have appeared which might have gone on to shake the theory severely, if not undermine it. Major conference summarizers have got used to singing the praises of the Standard Model, but this year at Munich even detailed examination failed to reveal any serious cracks, while looking deeper into physics even some anomalous results hinting at gaps in understanding have either gone away or have diminished credibility

  2. Paediatrics: Messages from Munich

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Midulla; E. Lombardi (Enrico); M.W.H. Pijnenburg (Mariëlle); Balfour-Lynn, I.M. (Ian M.); J. Grigg (Jonathan); K. Bohlin (Kajsa); F. Rusconi (Franca); P. Pohunek (Petr); E. Eber (Ernst)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this article is to describe paediatric highlights from the 2014 European Respiratory Society (ERS) International Congress in Munich, Germany. Abstracts from the seven groups of the ERS Paediatric Assembly (Respiratory Physiology and Sleep, Asthma and Allergy, Cystic Fibrosis,

  3. Paediatrics: messages from Munich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Midulla

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe paediatric highlights from the 2014 European Respiratory Society (ERS International Congress in Munich, Germany. Abstracts from the seven groups of the ERS Paediatric Assembly (Respiratory Physiology and Sleep, Asthma and Allergy, Cystic Fibrosis, Respiratory Infection and Immunology, Neonatology and Paediatric Intensive Care, Respiratory Epidemiology, and Bronchology are presented in the context of the current literature.

  4. The new Munich neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, W.A.

    1998-01-01

    The Munich FRM II neutron source currently under construction is to replace the FRM I research reactor in Munich, also known as 'atomic egg'. The project is executed by the Free State of Bavaria as a construction project of the Munich Technical University and managed by the University. As main contractor for the construction project, Siemens AG is also co-applicant in the licensing procedure under the Atomic Energy Act for the construction phase. The project is carried out to build a modern high flux neutron source required for a broad range of applications in research and technology mainly with thermal and cold neutrons. The 'neutron gap' existing in Germany is to be closed with the FRM II. As a national research installation, the FRM II is available to all interested scientists from a variety of disciplines. (orig.) [de

  5. Medical Cyclotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesel, D. L.; Antaya, T. A.

    Particle accelerators were initially developed to address specific scientific research goals, yet they were used for practical applications, particularly medical applications, within a few years of their invention. The cyclotron's potential for producing beams for cancer therapy and medical radioisotope production was realized with the early Lawrence cyclotrons and has continued with their more technically advanced successors — synchrocyclotrons, sector-focused cyclotrons and superconducting cyclotrons. While a variety of other accelerator technologies were developed to achieve today's high energy particles, this article will chronicle the development of one type of accelerator — the cyclotron, and its medical applications. These medical and industrial applications eventually led to the commercial manufacture of both small and large cyclotrons and facilities specifically designed for applications other than scientific research.

  6. German Librarianship and Munich Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Ümit Özen

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available There are 27 municipal libraries including the Central Public Library in Munich. The other important libraries in the city are Bayern State National Library, Maximillian University Library, a technical highschool library and the "Deutsches Musuem" Library. All these libraries are financed locally. The author introduces these libraries briefly and compares German libraries with Turkish libraries. He concludes that although theoretically there are not distinctive differences, in practice, buildings and their layout are better in Germany where more variety of services are offered. In Turkey standardization has not been realized yet. Turkey needs to computerize and network to improve the services offered in an efficient way.

  7. Cyclotrons: 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.A. (comp.)

    1978-01-01

    A compilation is presented of the experimental facilities of the world's cyclotrons including history and status, staff and operation, research staff, target facilities, magnet, acceleration system, vacuum system, characteristic beams, beam properties, and a plan view of the facility for each cyclotron. (GHT)

  8. Cyclotrons: 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    A compilation is presented of the experimental facilities of the world's cyclotrons including history and status, staff and operation, research staff, target facilities, magnet, acceleration system, vacuum system, characteristic beams, beam properties, and a plan view of the facility for each cyclotron

  9. Status report of the Triton/Munich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinks, U.

    1988-01-01

    At the Accelerator Laboratory of the Universities of Munich a booster for the existing MP-tandem is under construction. The Tritron project was finally funded in January this year. The Tritron is a cyclotron with separated orbits with both the magnets and cavities superconducting. It will increase the ion energies by a factor of 4.9, so a 12 C 6+ -beam will have a maximum energy of 21 MeV/u e.g. The cryostat has a diameter of 3.6 m. The beam is injected at a radius r 1 = 66 cm and extracted after almost 20 turns at r 2 = 145 cm. The turn separation is δR = 4 cm. The bending is made by 12 flat magnet sectors, each consisting of 20 magnetic channels of window frame type. In each channel the magnetic field (∼ 1.4 T) is adjustable individually, so that the beam always can be guided along the spiral orbit. The gradient is alternating from one sector to the next resulting in strong focusing in both transversal directions. In each second intermediate gap a wedge-shaped accelerating cavity of the reentrant type is installed for the 20 parallel beams. The radial cavity length is 1.2 m, the outside width 0.7 m. The radial length of the accelerating lips is 0.9 m, the gap width at injection radius 6 cm, at extraction radius 13 cm. The rf-frequency is ∼ 170 MHz, the maximum voltage at injection U(r 1 ) ≅ 270 kV, at extraction U(r 2 ) ≅ 540 kV per cavity. If the bunchers cross the cavity at a rf-phase with increasing accelerating voltage, they are focused longitudinally, resulting in ∼ 0.2 synchrotron oscillations per turn. The longitudinal focusing causes the rf-phase to change automatically corresponding to the necessary energy gain and to the radial characteristic of the voltage amplitude along the gap. 2 references, 6 figures, 1 table

  10. Medical cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, A.P.

    1976-01-01

    Cyclotrons as tools for therapy and for the production of radionuclides for use in nuclear medicine have been extensively reviewed in the literature. The current world status with respect to cyclotrons used primarily for research, development and application in nuclear medicine is reviewed here in the context of geographical distribution and type of use, presently available commercial types, machine characteristics and trends. Aspects of design requirements from a user perspective such as machine, beam and target characteristics are covered. Some special problems concerning many factors which can lead to effective production of the desired radionuclide or product are considered in light of machine characteristics. Consideration is also given to future directions for accelerators in nuclear medicine

  11. The Munich Parasomnia Screening in Psychiatry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, M.P.C.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Groetelaers, L.; Lim, S.; Egger, J.I.M.; Coenen, A.M.L.

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim was to investigate the subjective experience of parasomnias and other nocturnal behaviors in depression and schizophrenia. Materials and methods Using the Munich Parasomnia Screening (MUPS), 21 parasomnias and other nocturnal behaviors were assessed in 85 participants; 27 were

  12. The upgraded Munich linear heavy ion postaccelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratzinger, U.; Nolte, E.; Geier, R.; Gartner, N.; Morinaga, H.

    1987-01-01

    The Munich heavy ion postaccelerator was extended, consisting of two cavities with an interdigital H-type structure now. The frequency is doubled in the second section. A special kind of beam dynamics for O 0 -synchronous particle structures was developed, which results in good particle transmission though only one compact quadrupole-doublet is installed over the length of both linacs. Beamtime experience confirms the transport calculations

  13. The Munich accelerator for fission fragments MAFF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habs, D.; Groß, M.; Assmann, W.; Ames, F.; Bongers, H.; Emhofer, S.; Heinz, S.; Henry, S.; Kester, O.; Neumayr, J.; Ospald, F.; Reiter, P.; Sieber, T.; Szerypo, J.; Thirolf, P. G.; Varentsov, V.; Wilfart, T.; Faestermann, T.; Krücken, R.; Maier-Komor, P.

    2003-05-01

    The Munich Accelerator for Fission Fragments MAFF has been designed for the new Munich research reactor FRM-II. It will deliver several intense beams (˜3×10 11 s -1) of very neutron-rich fission fragments with a final energy of 30 keV (low-energy beam) or energies between 3.7 and 5.9 MeV· A (high-energy beam). Such beams are of interest for the creation of super-heavy elements by fusion reactions, nuclear spectroscopy of exotic nuclei, but they also have a potential for applications, e.g. in medicine. Presently the Munich research reactor FRM-II is ready for operation, but authorities delay the final permission to turn the reactor critical probably till the end of 2002. Only after this final permission the financing of the major parts of MAFF can start. On the other hand all major components have been designed and special components have been tested in separate setups.

  14. The Munich accelerator for fission fragments MAFF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habs, D.; Gross, M.; Assmann, W.; Ames, F.; Bongers, H.; Emhofer, S.; Heinz, S.; Henry, S.; Kester, O.; Neumayr, J.; Ospald, F.; Reiter, P.; Sieber, T.; Szerypo, J.; Thirolf, P.G.; Varentsov, V.; Wilfart, T.; Faestermann, T.; Kruecken, R.; Maier-Komor, P.

    2003-01-01

    The Munich Accelerator for Fission Fragments MAFF has been designed for the new Munich research reactor FRM-II. It will deliver several intense beams (∼3x10 11 s -1 ) of very neutron-rich fission fragments with a final energy of 30 keV (low-energy beam) or energies between 3.7 and 5.9 MeV·A (high-energy beam). Such beams are of interest for the creation of super-heavy elements by fusion reactions, nuclear spectroscopy of exotic nuclei, but they also have a potential for applications, e.g. in medicine. Presently the Munich research reactor FRM-II is ready for operation, but authorities delay the final permission to turn the reactor critical probably till the end of 2002. Only after this final permission the financing of the major parts of MAFF can start. On the other hand all major components have been designed and special components have been tested in separate setups

  15. MAFF – The Munich accelerator for fission fragments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CERN, Genf, Switzerland. Abstract. At the new high flux reactor FRM-II in Munich the accelerator MAFF (Munich accel- erator for fission ..... 16th Int. Conf. on the Application of Accelerators in Research and Industry,. CAARI 2000, Denton, Texas. [12] M Cavenago, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 663 (2000). [13] H-J Maier et al, Nucl.

  16. Cyclotron waves in plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Lominadze, D G

    2013-01-01

    Cyclotron Waves in Plasma is a four-chapter text that covers the basic physical concepts of the theory of cyclotron waves and cyclotron instabilities, brought about by the existence of steady or alternating plasma currents flowing perpendicular to the magnetic field.This book considers first a wide range of questions associated with the linear theory of cyclotron oscillations in equilibrium plasmas and in electron plasmas in metals and semiconductors. The next chapter deals with the parametric excitation of electron cyclotron oscillations in plasma in an alternating electric field. A chapter f

  17. MICHIGAN: Cyclotron conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    A sense of excitement was in the air as cyclotron physicists and engineers from 17 countries convened on 30 April for the opening of the Tenth International Conference on Cyclotrons and Their Applications. Some 50 years after its invention, the redoubtable cyclotron remains a topic of compelling current interest. Cyclotron experts gathered at Michigan State University's Kellogg Center to hear of latest developments, of progress and successes on new machines which had come into operation, of new projects which were underway, and of dreams which lay ahead

  18. MAFF–The Munich accelerator for fission fragments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Research reactors; linear accelerator; beam transport; particle sources and targets; ion sources. Abstract. At the new high flux reactor FRM-II in Munich the accelerator MAFF (Munich accelerator for fission fragments) is under design. In the high neutron flux of 1014 n/cm2 s up to 1014 neutron-rich fission fragments per ...

  19. MAFF–The Munich accelerator for fission fragments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    At the new high flux reactor FRM-II in Munich the accelerator MAFF (Munich accelerator for fission fragments) is under design. In the high neutron flux of 1014 n/cm2 s up to 1014 ... The through-going beam tube has been installed in the heavy water tank of the reactor. Tests of the target ion source in a special oven to test ...

  20. Major Conference about Astronomical Technology in Munich

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    Press Conference on Monday, March 27, 2000 Which are the latest astronomical discoveries made with the new 8-10 metre class astronomical telescopes? Will it be possible to construct even more powerful instruments on the ground and in space to explore the near and distant Universe at all wavelengths from gamma-rays to radio waves? Which research areas in this dynamical science are likely to achieve break-throughs with emerging new technologies? These are some of the central themes that will be discussed by more than 600 specialists from all over the world at an international conference in Munich (Germany), "Astronomical Telescopes and Instruments 2000" , beginning on Monday, March 27, 2000. During five days, the modern architecture of the new International Congress Center in the Bavarian capital will be the scene of lively exchanges about recent progress at the world's top-class astronomical research facilities and the presentation of inspired new ideas about future technological opportunities. The conference will be accompanied by numerous on-site exhibition stands by the major industries and research organisations in this wide field. This meeting is the latest in a series, organised every second year, alternatively in the USA and Europe by the International Society for Optical Engineering (SPIE) , this year with the European Southern Observatory (ESO) as co-sponsor and host institution. The conference will be opened in the morning of March 27 by the Bavarian Minister of Science, Research and Arts, Hans Zehetmair . His address will be followed by keynote speeches by Massimo Tarenghi (European Southern Observatory), James B. Breckenridge (National Science Foundation, USA), Harvey Butcher (Netherlands Foundation for Research in Astronomy) and Albrecht Ruediger (Max Planck Institut für Quantenoptik, Germany). The conference is subtitled "Power Telescopes and Instrumentation into the New Millennium" and will be attended by leading scientists and engineers from all

  1. An overview of Smorn V-Munich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryter, R.C.; La Wanda, E. Klobe; Hendrix, S.P.

    1988-03-01

    At the recent fifth Symposium on Reactor Noise (SMORN V), over half the participants represented power utilities, and thirteen out of ninety papers covered practical experience of plant monitoring by noise analysis. In 1986 the Nuclear Energy Agency published a State of the Art Report on Reactor Noise Analysis providing an assessment of the applicability of noise techniques to power reactor operations, which was drawn up by a working group of the NEA Committee on Reactor Physics in the aftermath of the 1984 SMORN IV symposium in Dijon. Since that time, the practical applications of noise analysis techniques to plant surveillance have become more widespread, in particular in the areas of loose part detection and vibration monitoring. Theoretical understanding of the methods has continued to improve. These advances were presented at the SMORN V symposium, held in Munich from 12th - 16th October 1987. The meeting also recommended that the 1986 State of the Art report should be updated, and the present overview is intended, like its predecessor, for a wide audience including national safety authorities and managers in the nuclear industry. The full proceedings of the symposium, to be published in 1988 by Pergamon Press, will include all the papers presented at the meeting. This document was assembled and edited at Oak Ridge National Laboratory from the summaries of each session provided by the session chairmen. Topics which were divided into multiple sessions for the purpose of the conference have been regrouped into single chapters. A complete list of the papers presented at the conference is included in the appendix

  2. 20 years Rossendorf cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-08-01

    On the occasion of the 20th anniversary of initiating of the Rossendorf cyclotron accounts are given of most important works and results in the field of accelerator engineering and utilization of this machine. The reports show the trend of development and actual spectrum of application. The enclosed literature lists give a survey of technical and experimental works at cyclotron. (author)

  3. Medical cyclotron facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    This report examines the separate proposals from the Austin Hospital and the Australian Atomic Energy Commission for a medical cyclotron facility. The proponents have argued that a cyclotron facility would benefit Australia in areas of patient care, availability and export of radioisotopes, and medical research. Positron emission tomography (PET) and neutron beam therapy are also examined

  4. Vancouver Cyclotron Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, David J.

    1993-01-01

    Although no longer on the high energy frontier, the cyclotron field is still a major scientific growth area. Its progress is highlighted at the international conference on cyclotron design, development and utilization held at intervals of about three years, under the auspices of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP). Vancouver, surrounded by mountains, water and some cyclotrons, provided a pleasant setting for the 13th Conference, held last summer. With over 200 cyclotrons in operation around the world, the attendance, 241 delegates and 26 industrial exhibitors, was a near record, reflecting the flourishing state of the field. The early sessions covered the initial operation of new or upgraded cyclotron facilities. Major facilities completed since the previous Conference in Berlin in May 1989 included the 400 MeV ring cyclotron at Osaka, the U400M cyclotron at Dubna which will be coupled to the U400 to give 20 MeV nucléon uranium beams, the 130 MeV cyclotron at Jyvaskyla (in Finland, the furthest north!), the 110 MeV JAERI machine in Japan, and the 65 MeV proton therapy cyclotron in Nice. Among the facility upgrades were the KFA cyclotron at Julich which will inject the 2.5 GeV storage ring COSY, and the addition of an FM mode to the K=200 CW mode at Uppsala to give protons up to 180 MeV. The impressive current of 1.5 mA at 72 MeV obtained from the PSI Injector II will soon be injected into the 590 MeV ring

  5. Cyclotrons for isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, B.F.; Stevenson, N.R.

    1995-06-01

    Cyclotrons continue to be efficient accelerators for radioisotope production. In recent years, developments in the accelerator technology have greatly increased the practical beam current in these machines while also improving the overall system reliability. These developments combined with the development of new isotopes for medicine and industry, and a retiring of older machines indicates a strong future for commercial cyclotrons. In this paper we will survey recent developments in the areas of cyclotron technology, and isotope production, as they relate to the new generation of commercial cyclotrons. We will also discuss the possibility of systems capable of extracted energies up to 100 MeV and extracted beam currents of up to 2.0 mA. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  6. Sanatorio para la infancia, en Munich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haind, Friedrich F.

    1964-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objects to be met in the design this Children's Building were to provide suitable control and protection of the children, adequate working conditions for the nurses, and develop a pleasant family environment. This clinic is an extension of that run by the Sisters of Saint Benedict in Lechnerstrasse, Munich. It consists of two blocks, of 4 and 5 floor levels. It has a semibasement, housing the services, and some spare rooms and other facilities, described in the enclosed plans. The ground floor provides room for 25 beds, for the older boys. On the second floor there are 30 beds for those recently born, whilst the third floor has space for 30 beds for prematurely born babies. The nurses live in the attic, where there are 15 bedrooms, each with two beds, a kitchen and suitable auxiliary facilities. Much thought has been given to the design of details, the general distribution and circulation system has been planned with much care, and the overall functional efficiency of the building as a children's clinic has been kept a paramount factor. All this makes this building an outstanding one among those of this type.Los objetivos principales perseguidos aquí son: conseguir una eficaz vigilancia y protección de los niños; organizar los puestos de trabajo de las enfermeras para que resulten prácticos y agradables, y crear un ambiente familiar La clínica construida —como ampliación de las instalaciones que las Hermanas de San Benito poseen en la calle Lachner, en Munich— comprende dos cuerpos de edificio unidos, de 4 y 5 plantas de altura, respectivamente, y está distribuida del siguiente modo: el semisótano aloja, además de la zona de servicios, una serie de dependencias, que vienen descritas en la respectiva documentación gráfica. La planta baja alberga 25 camas; está destinada a los niños mayores y colegiales; la planta primera, con 30 camas, a los recién nacidos, y la planta segunda, con 30 camas, a la sección de prematuros

  7. Epigenetics Europe conference. Munich, Germany, 8-9 September 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeltsch, Albert

    2011-12-01

    At the Epigenetics Europe conference in Munich, Germany, held on 8-9 September 2011, 19 speakers from different European countries were presenting novel data and concepts on molecular epigenetics. The talks were mainly focused on questions of the generation, maintenance, flexibility and erasure of DNA methylation patterns in context of other epigenetic signals like histone tail modifications and ncRNAs.

  8. Industrial applications of cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditroi, F.

    1998-01-01

    Since the putting into operation of the Debrecen Cyclotron Laboratory with an MGC-20E (or U-103) machine, a lot of demands have been emerged on the practical exploitation of this facility. Since the cyclotron works at least in one half of its running time for medical purposes (isotope production), the rest can be devoted for fundamental research and practical applications. Special beam lines and laboratory facilities have been built for the purposes of materials investigation. These are mainly irradiation chambers, special irradiation facilities and sample holder/changers as well as special laboratory facilities for sample preparation and low background measurements

  9. Electron-Cyclotron Waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.

    1994-01-01

    The essential elements of the theory of electron cyclotron waves are reviewed, The two main electro-magnetic modes of propagation are identified and their dispersion and absorption properties are discussed. The importance of the use of the relativistic resonance condition is stressed.

  10. Cyclotron produced radiopharmaceuticals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopička, Karel; Fišer, Miroslav; Hradilek, Pavel; Hanč, Petr; Lebeda, Ondřej

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 2 (2003), s. A763-A768 ISSN 0011-4626 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK4055109 Keywords : cyclotron * radionuclides * radiopharmaceuticals Subject RIV: CH - Nuclear ; Quantum Chemistry Impact factor: 0.263, year: 2003

  11. Instituto de bioquímica Munich - Alemania Federal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beckert, -

    1975-05-01

    Full Text Available This building, situated in Martinsried, Munich, was awarded the first prize in an international contest. It consists of 15 departments, basically meant for education and research. The complex occupies a large ground, with extensive green zones and covered passages that connect the different blocks, all of them very low: class rooms, testing rooms, electronic microscopy, library, social centre, restaurant auditorium, housing, etc.Este edificio, situado en Martinsried, Munich, fue seleccionado, con el primer premio, en un concurso internacional convocado al efecto. Comprende 15 departamentos destinados, fundamentalmente, a la enseñanza e investigación. El conjunto ocupa una amplia parcela, con profusión de zonas verdes y pasos cubiertos que enlazan los diferentes bloques, todos ellos de poca altura: clases, salas de ensayos, microscopía electrónica, biblioteca, centro social, restaurante, salón de actos, viviendas, etcétera.

  12. A power shaft for the Munich MP-tandem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffens, H.; Rohrer, L.; Skorka, S.J.

    1977-01-01

    A rotating, insulated power shaft developed for the Munich MP-Tandem is described. The shaft transfers energy at a rate of several kW to vacuum pumps and beam optical equipment in regions of high electrostatic potential and has now been running trouble free for over 3500 h. The relatively simple design can be adapted for similar devices in horizontal or vertical electrostatic acccelerators with a suitable column grading pitch. It can easily be upgraded for higher energy transfer rates

  13. [The social dimension of tuberculosis in the City of Munich].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreweck, C; Kerner, E; Güllich, K; Halder, G

    2013-11-01

    Germany is a low-incidence country for tuberculosis, but there is no time for complacency. With an annual incidence of 10 per 100,000 population the City of Munich counts twice as many cases of tuberculosis compared to the national average. Reasons for the concentration of tuberculosis in big cities include the high proportion of migrants from countries with high prevalence of tuberculosis and from socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. Munich's population is growing fast and is expected to exceed 1.5 million in the near future. Migrants looking for employment now come predominantly from Romania, Bulgaria and Poland. The proportion of foreign born patients with tuberculosis increased over the last ten years from 49 to 80 %. Asylum seekers and migrants need special attention from the public tuberculosis services. The proportion of tuberculosis patients with social problems increased from 37 to 55 % over the last 6 years. Demands for medical and social support have increased and the case management is increasingly complex. In 2011 the ambulatory treatment of 6 immigrants was supervised by the public health services in Munich. Increasingly, uninsured patients from southeastern states of the European Union need medical treatment. In Europe the overall number of tuberculosis cases is decreasing. The proportion of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis in Eastern Europe is alarming. 15 of worldwide 27 countries with the highest MDR load are located in the European Region. In Munich the number of MDR cases is still low at 1-4 cases each year. But duration, cost and side effects of therapy are strong barriers to treatment success. All patients have the right to get adequate diagnostic work-up and effective treatment no matter in which country they reside. To realize this request with cross-border control and care, is a big challenge to the public health service in a global perspective. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Production cyclotron's project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larcher de Fernandez, A.M.; Palcos, M.C.

    1987-01-01

    In December 1986 the National Atomic Energy Commission signed a contract to aquire a production cyclotron which will have a beam intensity up to 100 μA and a maximum energy of 40 MeV. The concretion of this project will allow the country to supply itself of an important variety of medical radioisotopes. The advantages of these radioisotopes could be summarized in the following way: shorter periods, in some cases absence of beta-minus emission, as well as lower γ energies and radionuclides without carrier. All this will contribute to improve the radiological protection and a better quality information could be obtained with a minimum of radiation. The installation is divided into two areas: cyclotron area and production area. This division results from the analysis of the safety problems that will appear. (M.E.L.) [es

  15. Goodbye Synchro-Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    On 17 December, after having seen many other physics machines come and go during its 33-year career, CERN's 600 MeV SynchroCyclotron (SC) is being shut down. Judged simply by its length (to say nothing of its quality), the research career of this machine testifies to the wisdom and imagination of the CERN pioneers who proposed it in the early 1950s

  16. Cyclotrons in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera Ruiz, Hernan

    2004-01-01

    Cyclotron accelerators are prolific sources of charged particle for the production of radionuclides and have become an essential tool in the practice of modern nuclear medicine by providing reliable radiotracers for SPECT and PET studies. In a recent survey conducted by the IAEA in 2001, the growth in the number of cyclotron facilities installed in laboratories and hospitals in developed as well as developing countries was recorded. This trend, which started in the late 70's, continues in the present time also and all indications are that it will continue in the next five to ten years. The reasons for this growth are several: technology involved has become more user or 'hospital friendly', third party reimbursement for several clinical studies based on F-18 PET radiopharmaceuticals at least in some of the advanced countries started in 1998 and above all, the clear irrefutable and demonstrable conclusion of the positive cost/benefit outcomes of PET studies in the field of oncology to a lesser degree, thus far, for cardiology and neurology. It is however recognizable that the overall financial cost of the technology, which comprises the premises to house the facility, the cyclotron accelerator, the corresponding radiochemistry and quality control equipment and the PET cameras can be nevertheless an expensive proposition that requires careful advance planning. This fact is even more relevant when the facility is planned for installation in a developing country, which, frequently, in addition to having a lack of sufficient financial resources, do have shortage of qualified human resources to efficiently run the facility. In spite of the above, it is fact that more and more public as well as private organizations in the developing countries are setting up cyclotron/PET programmes or are seriously considering the installation of such a facility

  17. Radiographic Morphometry of the Lumbar Spine in Munich Miniature Pigs†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelke, Elisabeth C; Post, Christina; Pfarrer, Christiane D; Sager, Martin; Waibl, Helmut R

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of human spinal column disease remains high, and animal models still play important roles in prophylactic, diagnostic, and therapeutic research. Because of their similar size to humans, pigs remain an important spine model. For pigs to serve as a model for the human spine, basic similarities and differences must be understood. In this study, morphometric data of the lumbar spine of Munich miniature pigs (Troll) were recorded radiologically, evaluated, and compared with recorded human data. Whereas humans have a constant number of 5 lumbar vertebrae, Munich minipigs had 5 or 6 lumbar vertebrae. Compared with their human counterparts, the lumbar vertebral bodies of the minipigs were remarkably larger in the craniocaudal (superior–inferior) direction and considerably smaller in the dorsoventral and laterolateral directions. The porcine vertebral canal was smaller than the human vertebral canal. The spinal cord extended into the caudal part of the porcine lumbar vertebral canal and thus did not terminate as cranial, as seen in humans. The lumbar intervertebral spaces of the pig were narrower in craniocaudal direction than human intervertebral spaces. These differences need to be considered when planning surgical actions, not only to avoid pain and irreversible damage to the minipigs but also to achieve accurate scientific results. PMID:27177570

  18. Cyclotrons and positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, A.P.; Fowler, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    The state of the art of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) technology as related to cyclotron use and radiopharmaceutical production is reviewed. The paper discusses available small cyclotrons, the positron emitters which can be produced and the yields possible, target design, and radiopharmaceutical development and application. 97 refs., 12 tabs

  19. Cyclotrons and positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, A.P.; Fowler, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    The state of the art of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) technology as related to cyclotron use and radiopharmaceutical production is reviewed. The paper discusses available small cyclotrons, the positron emitters which can be produced and the yields possible, target design, and radiopharmaceutical development and application. 97 refs., 12 tabs. (ACR)

  20. Medical cyclotron: why, where, how

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheer, Kurt; Comar, Dominique; Kellershohn, Claude

    1976-01-01

    Cyclotrons for medical purposes are particularly useful for the production of radioactive isotopes of elements normally constituting organic matter ( 15 O, 13 N, 11 C). The short half-life and positron emission of those elements are of great interest in medical diagnosis. Many others carrier-free radioisotopes can be produced by cyclotrons. Three categories of cyclotrons are mentioned. Desk top cyclotron only adapted to the production of short-lived radioisotopes in a hospital; low energy and average energy cyclotrons which require well-entrained personnel for their operation and are best adapted to the production of radioelements on a regional or even national scale. Examples relative to the interest of short-lived radioisotopes in lung and brain investigations and tumor detection are given

  1. Electron Cyclotron Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoekzema, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    An introduction is given to plasma heating and current drive with electromagnetic waves in the electron cyclotron range of frequencies, with emphasis on application in tokamak plasmas. Propagation and absorption of these waves is generally well described by linear theory, a short overview of which is given. Electron cyclotron absorption is limited to regions of the plasma where the gyromotion of electrons is in resonance with the wave frequency and can be well localised, even in smaller experiments. Apart from being able to provide global heating and non-inductive current drive, ECRH and ECCD are therefore important tools to study and manipulate locally instabilities in the plasma which are electron temperature gradient or current driven. Important potential control applications in a reactor grade plasma include mode stabilisation to prevent disruptions, transport manipulation (e.g. to maintain burn) and correction of the bootstrap current profile. The use of EC waves in major tokamak experiments has in the past been restricted due to the lack of suitable sources. These sources are, however, now rapidly becoming available

  2. [Morbidity spectrum and drug therapy of homeless persons in Munich].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egen, V

    1998-01-01

    In Germany there are currently approx. 200,000 homeless single people, and the trend is rising. As a result of the situation in which they find themselves, many of these persons are ill and in need of medical treatment. A study was performed in Munich/Germany, focussing on a medical practice providing care for the homeless, to investigate their illnesses and pharmacological therapy. The medical practice was located in a municipal shelter. Each year about 350 different destitute homeless men--about 15 per cent of all single homeless people in Munich--were cared for. The men, whose ages ranged from about 17 to 74 years were single and the majority lived in shelters, bed and breakfast accommodations, or shared apartments. About ten per cent lived on the street. For the study, 171 randomly selected medical records were analysed for the period of July 1994 to June 1995. The homeless men suffered principally from the following illnesses: psychiatric illnesses (36%), infectious and parasitic diseases (31%), skin diseases (30%), injuries (29%), diseases of the skeleton, of the muscles and of the connective tissues (28%), diseases of the respiratory organs (27%), cardiovascular diseases (24%), and diseases of the digestive organs (17%). Seventy-five per cent of the patients received drug treatment. In the case of 37% of the patients, wounds were treated and dressed in the medical practice itself. The most frequently prescribed drugs were: analgesics (12%), antibiotics (10%), antihypertensives (10%), gastrointestinal treatments (9%), treatments for colds (9%), and dermatopharmacological preparations (6%). It was surprising that only 16% of the psychic ill patients were treated with drugs, while over 60% of the other illnesses were mostly treated pharmacologically. The interaction with alcohol was the reason for that. The study showed that the practice did not sufficiently reach women and homeless people living on the street. The homeless situation, the personal and social

  3. Cyclotron Section - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakewicz, E.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The main aim of our Department is to put into operation the AIC-144 cyclotron for medical purposes. In 1998 the following works were performed: 1. The new R.F. generator for AIC-144 cyclotron was put into operation. We carried out many tests in full range of frequency (from 10 MHz up to 27.5 MHz) and power (up to 120 kW). The remote control of generator from operation room was designed, made and checked. Many efforts were done to improve Q-factor of the resonator. The new electrical contacts between resonator and acceleration chamber were made; improving of the energetic fitting resonator-feeder was performed. The new moving system of the trimmers was made and put into operation. We carried out some experiments with a model of the resonator leading to improvement of the energetic parameters for 18-27 MHz. 2. To obtain best acceleration and extraction of protons (20-60 MeV) and deuterons (10-30 MeV) the series of measurements of the magnetic field were carried out. Then, the proper correction of the magnetic field structure was made. Inside the acceleration chamber the ferromagnetic correcting units were mounted. The fine structure of the field was corrected (decrease of the 1 st harmonic's amplitude in the center and in the extraction region). Then, as a result of the series of measurements and experiments in 1998 for the first time we obtained a proton beam with energy about 40 MeV (internal beam). The maximal energies of deuterons (30 MeV) and α-particles (60 MeV) were reached. For the first time we used inner beam of protons to obtain isotope 11 C after irradiation of the B 2 O 3 targets. 3. In cooperation with the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, calculations and computer simulation of the beam extraction system for protons, deuterons and α-particles were carried out. All needed materials and arrangement for building the extraction system were bought. The Technical documentation was prepared together with our Division of Mechanical

  4. Applied research with cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apel, P.; Dmitriev, S.; Gulbekian, G.; Gikal, B.; Ivanov, O.; Reutov, V.; Skuratov, V.

    2005-01-01

    During the past three decades the Flerov laboratory carried out research and development of a number of applications that have found or may find use in modern technologies. One of the applications is the so-called ion track technology enabling us to create micro- and nano-structured materials. Accelerated heavy ion beams are the unique tools for structuring insulating solids in a controllable manner. At FLNR JINR the U-400 cyclotron and the IC-100 cyclotron are employed for irradiation of materials to be modified by the track-etch technique. For practical applications, U-400 delivers the 86 Kr ion beams with total energies of 250, 350, 430 and 750 MeV, and the 136 Xe ion beams with the energy of 430 MeV. The cyclotron is equipped with a specialized channel for irradiation of polymer foils. IC-100 is a compact accelerator specially designed for the technological uses. High-intensity krypton ion beams with the energy of ∼ 1 MeV/u are available now at IC-100. Production of track-etch membranes is an example of mature technology based on irradiation with accelerated ions. The track-etch membranes offer distinct advantages over other types of membranes due to their precisely determined structure. One-pore, oligo-pore and multi-pore samples can serve as models for studying the transport of liquids, gases, particles, solutes, and electrolytes in narrow channels. Track-etch pores are also used as templates for making nano wires, nano tubes or array of nano rods. The microstructures obtained this way may find use in miniaturized devices such as sensors for biologically important molecules. Bulk and surface modification for the production of new composites and materials with special optical properties can be performed with ion beams. Flexible printed circuits, high-performance heat transfer modules, X-ray filters, and protective signs are examples of products developed in collaboration with research and industrial partners. Some recent achievements and promising ideas that

  5. An automated fast transfer system at the research reactor Munich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.; Henkelmann, R.; Baumgaertner, F.

    2004-01-01

    An automated fast sample transfer system for the determination of measurements of short-lived isotopes has been constructed at the Research Reactor Munich FRM. Instrumental neutron activation analysis and analysis of fissile materials by delayed neutron counting are performed on this transfer device. A LabVIEW TM program on a PC with WindowsNT operating system controls the whole pneumatic system via a PCI-1200 interface and four signal conditioning SCXI-modules of National Instruments. Infrared sensors are used to monitor key points in the transfer system. The sample capsule can be automatically removed from the 'rabbit' in a special switch prior to spectrum collection. γ-Spectra are acquired by a HPGe detector with the Loss-Free-Counting method of Westphal. The delayed neutrons are measured by five 3 He-detectors and a multichannel scaler. The transfer time is about 200 ms. The system and its mode of operation for routine work will be described

  6. [Cyclotron based nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    This report contains descriptions of research programs carried out by Institute staff, as well as progress on new instrumentation during the period, April 1, 1990, to March 31, 1991. The K500 cyclotron and ECR source provided beam for 4140 hours during the period. The beam was actually available for experiments 1927.50 hours and 1110.50 hours was devoted to developing new beams and exploring cyclotron performance. A wide range of beams from protons to Xe with energies from 2.4 MeV/u to 60 MeV/U have been used in experiments. The highest total energy beam accelerated was 35 MeV/u 63 Cu. The ECR source, made a tremendous improvement in accelerator performance and reliability. Substantial amounts of beam time were devoted to investigations of hot nuclei, electron-positron, giant resonances, atomic effects of high velocity ion beams, astrophysics related reactions and proton and alpha bremsstrahlung. Scientific accomplishments included determination of the heat capacity of nuclei through new insight into the level densities and establishing a lower limit for electron positron resonances a factor of ten better than previous measurements. The proton spectrometer, constructed for studies of the Gamow-Teller interaction is complete, and initial physics measurements will be made in the next few months. All of the BaF 2 crystals have been delivered and acceptance tests are underway. A K=315 MDM spectrometer has been obtained from Oxford University and is scheduled for installation in Spring 1992, after removal of the K=150 Enge split pole spectrometer. Institute groups continue participation in MEGA, instrumentation projects for RHIC, and few nucleon studies at LAMPF and KEK. Reports of these activities are included

  7. A cyclotron as a mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bricault, P.; Auger, G.; Bajard, M.; Baron, E.; Bibet, D.; Chabert, A.; Ferme, J.; Gaudart, L.; Joubert, J.; Audi, G.; Fifield, K.

    1992-01-01

    Taking advantage of the system of coupled cyclotrons at GANIL, a method has been developed for mass measurements with a cyclotron. The secondary nuclei are produced in a target located between the two separated sector cyclotrons by the interaction of a beam coming from the first cyclotron. They are subsequently accelerated in the second cyclotron. The prior tuning of this cyclotron for those very low intensity is accomplished using a beam having the same q/A ratio at the right velocity. For fine tuning, a probe inside one sector of the cyclotron has been developed. This new probe is described and first results are presented. (author) 7 refs., 4 figs

  8. Superconducting magnets for isochronous cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, E.R.

    1979-01-01

    Different approaches using superconductivity for isochronous cyclotrons and examination of advantages and disadvantages of each of them are considered. The discussion is focused on isochronous cyclotrons designed for heavy particle acceleration up to kinetic energies of approximately 0.5 times the rest energy of the accelerated ion. A quantitative solution for the influence of the field edges and for the various values of the valley fields are given. The Indiana University cyclotron is considered where both the coil and the associated pole tip material operate at a cryogenic temperature. Offered are advantages for the design which provide reduction in size and impivement in terms of beam dynamics

  9. Proton therapy with spot scanning: the Rinecker Proton Therapy Center in Munich. Part 2: Technical and physical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borchert, H. J.; Mayr, M.; Schneider, R. A.; Arnold, M. R.; Geismar, D. E.; Wilms, M.; Wisser, L.; Herbst, M.

    2008-01-01

    The Rinecker Proton Therapy Center (RPTC) in Munich is about to introduce into clinical radiation therapy, a 2D scanning technique (spot scanning) of a single proton pencil beam. It will be available at four gantries and a fifth treatment room allocates a fixed beam unit for a scattering technique. A superconducting cyclotron extracts protons with a constant energy of 250 MeV. Far upstream of the patient follows modulation of the energy with a degrader according to the prescription of the patients treatment planning. A 10 mm pencil beam at full width of half maximum (FWHM) will enable scanning of individual tumour volumes at any depth i.e. 1 minute for a target volume of 1 litre and a dose of 2 Gy. Innovative solutions will be established for other important issues such as dosimetric monitoring, safety concepts and positioning of the patient. The physical characteristics of proton beam spot scanning offer exceptional possibilities in conformal radiation therapy. Together with intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) it significantly improves the sparing of organs at risk and of healthy tissues. (author)

  10. Ion Cyclotron Resonance Facility (ICR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — his facility is charged with developing and exploiting the unique capabilities of Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry, and leads the...

  11. Cyclotron radiation as Tokamak diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiedler-Ferrari, N.

    1985-01-01

    A brief introduction to the use of Electron Cyclotron Emission as diagnostics in tokamaks is made. The utilization feasibility of this dignostics in the TBR-1 and TTF2A tokamaks is discussed. (L.C.) [pt

  12. Spiral Inflector For Compact Cyclotron

    CERN Document Server

    Karamysheva, G A

    2004-01-01

    Compact cyclotron for explosives detection by nuclear resonance absorption of γ-rays in nitrogen is under development [1] Cyclotron will be equipped with the external ion source. The injection system consists of a double-drift beam bunching system, a spiral inflector, beam diagnostics, focusing and adjustment elements [2]. The spiral inflector for ion bending from axial to median plane is used. Computer model of spiral inflector for the Customs cyclotron is developed. 3D electrostatic field calculations of the designed inflector are performed. Calculated electric field map and magnetic field map of the cyclotron [3] are used for beam dynamic simulations. Numeric simulations are carried out for 500 particles using code for calculation of particle dynamics by integration of differential equations in Cartesian coordinate system written in MATLAB. Direct Coulomb particle-to-particle method is used to take into account space-charge effects.

  13. BEST medical radioisotope production cyclotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaiduc, Vasile; Milton, Bruce; Suthanthiran, Krishnan; Gelbart, W. Z.; Johnson, Richard R.

    2013-04-01

    Best Cyclotron Systems Inc (BCSI) is currently developing 14 MeV, 25 MeV, 35MeV and 70MeV cyclotrons for radioisotope production and research applications as well as the entire spectrum of targets and nuclear synthesis modules for the production of Positron Emission Tomography (PET), Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) and radiation therapy isotopes. The company is a subsidiary of Best Medical International, renowned in the field of medical instrumentation and radiation therapy. All cyclotrons have external negative hydrogen ion sources, four radial sectors with two dees in opposite valleys, cryogenic vacuum system and simultaneous beam extraction on opposite lines. The beam intensity ranges from 400 μA to 1000 μA, depending on the cyclotron energy and application [1].

  14. BEST medical radioisotope production cyclotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabaiduc, Vasile; Milton, Bruce; Suthanthiran, Krishnan; Johnson, Richard R. [Best Cyclotron Systems Inc., 7-8765 Ash Street, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6P 6T3 (Canada); Gelbart, W. Z. [Advanced System Designs Inc., 5295 Bear Bay Road, Garden Bay, BC, V0N 1S1 (Canada)

    2013-04-19

    Best Cyclotron Systems Inc (BCSI) is currently developing 14 MeV, 25 MeV, 35MeV and 70MeV cyclotrons for radioisotope production and research applications as well as the entire spectrum of targets and nuclear synthesis modules for the production of Positron Emission Tomography (PET), Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) and radiation therapy isotopes. The company is a subsidiary of Best Medical International, renowned in the field of medical instrumentation and radiation therapy. All cyclotrons have external negative hydrogen ion sources, four radial sectors with two dees in opposite valleys, cryogenic vacuum system and simultaneous beam extraction on opposite lines. The beam intensity ranges from 400 {mu}A to 1000 {mu}A, depending on the cyclotron energy and application.

  15. EC-5 fifth international workshop on electron cyclotron emission and electron cyclotron heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prater, R.; Lohr, J. [eds.

    1985-12-31

    This report contains papers on the following topics: electron cyclotron emission measurements; electron cyclotron emission theory; electron cyclotron heating; gyrotron development; and ECH systems and waveguide development. These paper have been indexed separately elsewhere. (LSP).

  16. Cyclotron for Beam Therapy Application

    CERN Document Server

    Alenitsky, Yu G; Karamysheva, G A; Kostromin, S A; Mitsyn, G V; Molokanov, A G; Onishchenko, L M; Samsonov, E V; Vorozhtsov, S B; Zaplatin, N L

    2005-01-01

    The basic parameters of the proton isochronous cyclotron on the fixed energy are considered. The energy of protons is $E_{p}\\sim $ 220~MeV, intensity of the extracted beam is $I_{p}\\sim $ 0.1~$\\mu$A. The cyclotron is projected on the basis of compact magnet with four sectors and the diameter of poles 300 cm. Two dees of the accelerating system are located in valleys.

  17. Cyclotron Production of Medical Radioisotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila-Rodríguez, M. A.; Zárate-Morales, A.; Flores-Moreno, A.

    2010-08-01

    The cyclotron production of radioisotopes for medical applications is gaining increased significance in diagnostic molecular imaging techniques such as PET and SPECT. In this regard, radioisotope production has never been easier or more convenient until de introduction of compact medical cyclotrons in the last few decades, which allowed the use of short-lived radioisotopes in in vivo nuclear medicine studies on a routine basis. This review outlines some general considerations about the production of radioisotopes using charged particle accelerators.

  18. Multicavity proton cyclotron accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Hirshfield

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available A mechanism for acceleration of protons is described, in which energy gain occurs near cyclotron resonance as protons drift through a sequence of rotating-mode TE_{111} cylindrical cavities in a strong nearly uniform axial magnetic field. Cavity resonance frequencies decrease in sequence from one another with a fixed frequency interval Δf between cavities, so that synchronism can be maintained between the rf fields and proton bunches injected at intervals of 1/Δf. An example is presented in which a 122 mA, 1 MeV proton beam is accelerated to 961 MeV using a cascade of eight cavities in an 8.1 T magnetic field, with the first cavity resonant at 120 MHz and with Δf=8 MHz. Average acceleration gradient exceeds 40 MV/m, average effective shunt impedance is 223 MΩ/m, but maximum surface field in the cavities does not exceed 7.2 MV/m. These features occur because protons make many orbital turns in each cavity and thus experience acceleration from each cavity field many times. Longitudinal and transverse stability appear to be intrinsic properties of the acceleration mechanism, and an example to illustrate this is presented. This acceleration concept could be developed into a proton accelerator for a high-power neutron spallation source, such as that required for transmutation of nuclear waste or driving a subcritical fission burner, provided a number of significant practical issues can be addressed.

  19. [Cyclotron based nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    The period 1 April 1992--31 March 1993 saw the initial runs of three new spectrometers, which constitute a major portion of the new detection capabilities developed for this facility. These devices are the Proton Spectrometer (PSP) (data from which are shown on the cover of this document), the Mass Achroniat Recoil Mass Spectrometer (MARS), and the Multipole Dipole Multipole (MDM) Particle Spectrometer. The ECR-K500 cyclotron combination operated 5,849 hours. The beam was on target 39% of this time. Studies of nuclear dynamics and nuclear thermodynamics using the neutron ball have come to fruition. A critical re-evaluation of the available data on the giant monopole resonance indicated that the incompressibility is not specified to a range smaller than 200--350 MeV by those data. New systematic experiments using the MDM spectrometer are now underway. The MEGA collaboration obtained the first data on the μ → eγ decay rate and determination of the Michel parameter in normal μ decay. Experiments appear to confirm the existence of monoenergetic pair peaks even for relatively low Z projectile -- Z target combinations. Studies of the (α,2α) knockout reaction indicate that this reaction may prove to be a valuable tool for determination of reaction rates of astrophysical interest. Theoretical work reported in this document ranges from nuclear structure calculations using the IBM-2 model to calculations of kaon production and the in-medium properties of the rho and phi mesons. Nuclear dynamics and exotic shapes and fragmentation modes of hot nuclei are also addressed. New measurements of x-ray emission from highly ionized ions, of molecular dissociation and of surface interactions are reported. The research is presented in nearly 50 brief summaries usually including data and references

  20. The Munich High Ability Test Battery (MHBT): A multidimensional, multimethod approach

    OpenAIRE

    CHRISTOPH PERLETH; KURT A. HELLER

    2008-01-01

    After a brief introduction the theoretical basis of the Munich High Ability Test-Battery (MHBT) will be outlined in the first part of the article. The MHBT has been developed in the framework of the Munich longitudinal study of giftedness and talent. The MHBT includes not only cognitive predictors measuring several dimensions and types of giftedness concerning intellectual, creative or social abilities etc., but also giftedness-relevant non-cognitive personality and social moderators measurin...

  1. Munich anatomy and the distribution of bodies from the Stadelheim execution site during National Socialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, Mathias; Waschke, Jens; Marckmann, Georg; Steger, Florian

    2017-05-01

    During the reign of National Socialism (NS) anatomical institutes regularly received bodies of executed prisoners in steadily increasing numbers. After 1939, the execution site at Stadelheim prison in Munich supplied not only Munich anatomy but also the institutes in Erlangen, Innsbruck and Würzburg. Due to the disappearance of the Munich body journals, the exact dimension and procedure of body procurement from Stadelheim remained unknown for 70 years. After consultation of a wide range of sources, including rediscovered fragments of the body journals, it is now possible to give an almost comprehensive account of the developments. This article deals with the attempts at recovering information on body procurement from Stadelheim prison during the NS period, which already indicated the significance of Munich anatomy in organizing the distribution of bodies. Thereafter, it addresses the number and distinct groups of Stadelheim prisoners, executed and delivered to the four anatomical institutes, the differences in the handling of their bodies, and the extent to which in particular Munich anatomy profited from the massive increase in executions. Finally, it unveils the role of the Munich Anatomical Institute in distributing those bodies among the anatomies during the Second World War, making it not only the main beneficiary but also the interim center of this process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of Medical Cyclotron in KIRAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, Jong Seo; Jung, In Su; An, Dong Hyun

    2005-01-01

    This paper is presented on the development and status of medical cyclotron at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS) at present. We have developed medical cyclotron which is KIRAMS-13. And the improvement of KIRAMS-13 is presented. Furthermore, the design of new cyclotrons, such as KIRAMS-5 and KIRAMS-30 cyclotron, are presented, and R and D studies for future plan of heavy ion accelerator are discussed

  3. MC-50 AVF cyclotron operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yu Seok; Chai, Jong Seo; Bak, Seong Ki; Park, Chan Won; Jo, Young Ho; Hong, Seong Seok; Lee, Min Yong; Jang Ho Ha

    2000-01-01

    The first cyclotron in Korea, MC-50 cyclotron is used for neutron irradiation, radionuclide development, production and material and biomedical research. 50.5MeV and 35MeV proton beam have been extracted with 20-60μA. A total of beam extraction time are 1095.7 hours. 206.5 hours are used for the developments and 663.8 hours are for radionuclide production and development and 225.4 hours for application researches. The shutdown days are 23 days. Fundamental data for failure decrement and efficient beam extraction were composed and maintenance technologies were developed

  4. MC-50 AVF cyclotron operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu Seok; Chai, Jong Seo; Bak, Seong Ki; Park, Chan Won; Jo, Young Ho; Hong, Seong Seok; Lee, Min Yong; Jang Ho Ha

    2000-01-01

    The first cyclotron in Korea, MC-50 cyclotron is used for neutron irradiation, radionuclide development, production and material and biomedical research. 50.5MeV and 35MeV proton beam have been extracted with 20-60{mu}A. A total of beam extraction time are 1095.7 hours. 206.5 hours are used for the developments and 663.8 hours are for radionuclide production and development and 225.4 hours for application researches. The shutdown days are 23 days. Fundamental data for failure decrement and efficient beam extraction were composed and maintenance technologies were developed.

  5. The development of cyclotron radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Seung Dae; Chun, K. W.; Suh, Y. S.; Lee, J. D.; Ahn, S. H. and others

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop the radiopharmaceuticals and automatic synthetic unit for labelled compounds, and to establish mass production system of radiopharmaceuticals. These will contribute to the early diagnosis of the disease hard to cure. The contents of this project are as follows, the development of the radiopharmaceutical for imaging of cancer, the development of automatic synthesizer for the synthesis of radio-pharmaceuticals, the development of hormone derivatives labelled with 12 '3I, the development of the radiopharmaceuticals for therapy of cancer labelled with cyclotron produced radionuclides, the development of radiopharmaceuticals for therapy of cancer labelled with cyclotron produced radionuclides, the development of radiopharmaceuticals for imaging of myocardial metabolism

  6. PIXE analysis by baby cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hyogo; Tanaka, Teruaki; Ito, Takashi; Toda, Yohjiro; Wakasa, Hideichiro

    1988-01-01

    The Japan Steel Works, Ltd. has been supplying a very small sized cyclotron (Baby Cyclotron) to hospitals and research facilities. The cyclotron is designed to produce short-lived radioisotopes for medical use. In the present study, this cyclotron is modified so that it can serve for PIXE analysis. The PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission) technique has the following features: (1) Down to 1 ng of trace material in a sample (mg - μg) can be detected, (2) An analysis run is completed in one to ten minutes, permitting economical analysis for a large number of samples, (3) Several elements can be analyzed simultaneously, with an almost constant sensitivity for a variety of elements ranging from aluminum to heavy metals, (4) Analysis can be performed nondestructively without a chemical process, and (5) The use of microbeam can provide data on the distribution of elements with a resolution of several μm. Software for analysis is developed to allow the modified equipment to perform peak search, background fitting, and identification and determination of peaks. A study is now being conducted to examine the performance of the equipment for PIXE analysis of thin samples. Satisfactory results have been obtained. The analysis time, excluding the background correction, is 5-10 min. (Nogami, K.)

  7. Radiological safety management in medical cyclotron facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senthilkumar, M.; Nagalakshmi, B.; Manisha, V.I.; Pushpangadan, K.D.; Agarwal, S.P.

    2005-01-01

    A new era of Nuclear Medicine diagnosis has started with Medical Cyclotron technology. Medical Cyclotron produces positron emitters, which can be used in molecular imaging of the organs. In Medical Cyclotron, particles such as protons, deuterons are accelerated and made to bombard with suitable target material to produce radioisotopes, which are positron emitters. The positron emitters are produced by the (p,α), (p,n) or (d,n) reaction. The neutron activation of the surrounding medium draws the major attention in radiation safety. The license for such medical cyclotron facilities is issued by Atomic Energy Regulatory Board in India on the basis of regulations drawn from Radiation Protection Rules 1971 promulgated by Govt. of India under Atomic Energy Act, 1962. In this paper, the following aspects i) the steps involved in cyclotron installation ii) Design, Operational specifications and other features of various medical cyclotrons iii) Regulatory requirements for a cyclotron installation have been discussed

  8. Development of cyclotron solid targetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Souza, J.; Deans, T.; Cryer, D.; Price, R.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Western Australia's first medical cyclotron was recently installed in the Department of Medical Technology and Physics at Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital. The cyclotron is routinely used for 18 F production using a liquid target, and now research is being undertaken into solid target bombardment for production of novel isotopes such as 124 I, 64 Cu and 96 Tc. The IBA Cyclone 18/9 has a maximum proton beam energy of 18MeV and maximum beam current of 80μA. A proton beam is generated by the acceleration of H- ions in the evacuated cyclotron (10 -6 bar) which are then stripped of 2 electrons just prior to exiting a target port. Each port has two strippers which are made of 10μm thick carbon with dimensions 12mmxl3mm. Due to their thinness, the strippers are easily ruptured. The Cyclone 18/9 has 8 target ports. In order to fit a target onto the cyclotron when the cyclotron is already evacuated the target is first evacuated to 10 -3 bar by a roughing pump before an isolation valve at the port is opened. This stops any damage that may occur by the flow of air from the target reservoir to the cyclotron eg to the strippers. The first step in the project to develop solid targetry is to build a beam line in order to measure the beam profile. If successful, this design will be improved in order to have a beam line and target holder that are suitable for use in solid target bombardment. A 40cm beam line with an internal diameter of 3.6cm was built to fit onto the IBA Cyclone 18/9. The beam line, made out of aluminium, incorporates a step 5cm from the end at which a target material can be fitted. A cover fits onto the beam line, behind the target in order to maintain vacuum. The cover is held in place by the vacuum within the beam line. At the end of bombardment, the beam line can be isolated from the vacuum of the target and normal air pressure restored. In doing so the cover plate falls open and the target falls into a lead pot, ready for removal from the cyclotron

  9. Experiences with publicly promoted solar plants in Munich, the capital of Bavaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmalschlaeger, T.; Sammueller, K.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to prepare, execute, and evaluate a poll among all the operators of solar heating plants promoted by the 'Foerderprogramm Energieeinsparung der Landeshauptstadt Muenchen' (Energy Conservation Promotion Programme for Munich). In the period from 1989 to April 1992 grants of upto 30% of investment costs were accorded by the city administration of Munich for solar heating plants and the technical energy conserving measures, notably high-efficiency boilers and some photovoltaic plants. The principal upper limit for grants was 25,000 DM per one or two-family house plus another 4.000 DM in certain borderline cases. Until early 1992 more than 350 households had made use of the grants offered by the Munich administration through this programme to finance thir solar heating plant. (orig.) [de

  10. TRIUMF cyclotron vacuum system refurbishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekachev, I.

    2008-03-01

    The cyclotron at TRIUMF was commissioned to full energy in 1974. The volume of the cyclotron vacuum tank is about 100 m3 and it operates at 5×10-8 Torr pressure during beam production. The pumping is mainly based on a Phillips B-20 cryogenerator (Stirling cycle 4-cylinder engine). The cryogenerator supplies helium gas at 16 K and 70 K to cryopanels in the tank. The decreasing reliability of the B-20 and demanding maintenance requirements triggered the decision to completely overhaul or replace the cryogenerator. Replacement with the LINDE-1630 helium refrigerator was found to be the most attractive (technically and economically) option. The details of the proposal with installation of the helium refrigerator and with a continuous flow liquid nitrogen shield cooling system are presented.

  11. Isochronous cyclotrons. Multicharged ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelaev, I.A.

    1976-01-01

    Isochronous cyclotrons for heavy ions are considered. A development of the heavy ion acceleration technique is discussed. The advantages of heavy ion acceleration by means of the isochronous cyclotron in the energy range up to 10 MeV/nucleon are shown. The requirements to an increase of the beam intensity and decrease of the accelerator dimensions are determined. A considerable increase in the beam intensity is achieved in cascade accelerators of heavy ions. Various schemes of such accelerators are considered, and their parameters are given. To obtain the nuclei with energy of 10 GeV/nucleon and higher, some accelerating complexes are projected, e.g. nuclotrons, where the superconducting magnets are supposed to be used. New methods for heavy ion acceleration are worked out, especially, the collective methods of acceleration

  12. The development of cyclotron radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Seung Dae; Chun, K. W.; Suh, Y. S.; Lee, J. D.; Ahn, S. H. and others

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to developthe radiopharmaceuticals and automatic synthetic unit for labelled compounds, and to establish mass production system of radiopharmaceuticals. These will contribute to the early diagnosis of the disease hard to cure. The contents of this project are as follows, the development of the radiopharmaceutical for imaging of cancer, the development of automatic synthesizer for the synthesis of radio-pharmaceuticals, the development of hormone derivatives labelled with {sup 12}'3I, the development of the radiopharmaceuticals for therapy of cancer labelled with cyclotron produced radionuclides, the development of radiopharmaceuticals for therapy of cancer labelled with cyclotron produced radionuclides, the development of radiopharmaceuticals for imaging of myocardial metabolism.

  13. Cyclotron radiation from hot plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, F.; Henning, J.; Duechs, D.

    1975-11-01

    In calculating the energy transport and losses due to cyclotron radiation there are two major requirements: the absorption coefficient has to be known and the proper geometry of the plasma has to be taken into account. In this report Trubnikov's integral formulae for the absorption coefficient have been evaluated numerically and compared with the approximative formulas of previous authors. Deviations by a factor of 2 - 10 in various frequency regimes are not unusual. With these coefficients the rate of change of the energy density due to cyclotron radiation in a plasma as well as the radiation density at a plasma surface are computed for plasma slab and plasma cylinder. Sometimes considerable differences to the results of previons papers can found. Many simple formulae interpolating the numerical results are given in the text, and the FORTRAN computer programs have been reproduced in the appendices. (orig.) [de

  14. Cyclotron production of Cu-61

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lebeda, Ondřej; Ráliš, Jan; Seifert, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 40, 2 Supplement (2013), S323-S323 ISSN 1619-7070. [Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM). 19.10.2013-23.10.2013, Lyon] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA02010797 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : cyclotron U-120M * PET * Cu-61 Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  15. The perceived social impacts of the 2006 World Cup on Munich residents

    OpenAIRE

    Ohmann, Susanne; Jones, Ian; Wilkes, Keith

    2006-01-01

    All major sporting events result in a variety of impacts upon the host community. To date, the majority of existing studies have focused upon the wider economic impacts, with few empirical studies of the social impacts upon local residents. This paper explores the perceived impacts of the 2006 Football World Cup upon residents of one of the host\\ud cities–Munich. Using a multi-stage sampling technique, 180 Munich residents were randomly selected. Of these, 132 agreed to participate in face-to...

  16. Commercial compact cyclotrons in the 90's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, B.F.

    1995-09-01

    Cyclotrons continue to be efficient accelerators for radio-isotope production. In recent years, developments in the accelerator technology have greatly increased the practical beam current in these machines while also improving the overall system reliability. These developments combined with the development of new isotopes for medicine and industry, and a retiring of older machines indicate a strong future for commercial cyclotrons. In this paper the authors will survey recent developments in the areas of cyclotron technology, as they relate to the new generation of commercial cyclotrons. Design criteria for the different types of commercial cyclotrons will be presented, with reference to those demands that differ from those in a research oriented cyclotron project. The authors also discuss the possibility of systems designed for higher energies and capable of extracted beam currents of up to 2.0 mA

  17. Commercial compact cyclotrons in the 90's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, B.F.

    1995-09-01

    Cyclotrons continue to be efficient accelerators for radio-isotope production. In recent years, developments in the accelerator technology have greatly increased the practical beam current in these machines while also improving the overall system reliability. These developments combined with the development of new isotopes for medicine and industry, and a retiring of older machines indicate a strong future for commercial cyclotrons. In this paper we will survey recent developments in the areas of cyclotron technology, as they relate to the new generation of commercial cyclotrons. Design criteria for the different types of commercial cyclotrons will be presented, with reference to those demands that differ from those in a research oriented cyclotron project. We will also discuss the possibility of systems designed for higher energies and capable of extracted beam currents of up to 2.0 mA. (author)

  18. Method and apparatus for ion cyclotron spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, David A [Idaho Falls, ID; Scott, Jill R [Idaho Falls, ID; McJunkin, Timothy R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-08-17

    An ion cyclotron spectrometer may include a vacuum chamber that extends at least along a z-axis and means for producing a magnetic field within the vacuum chamber so that a magnetic field vector is generally parallel to the z-axis. The ion cyclotron spectrometer may also include means for producing a trapping electric field within the vacuum chamber that includes at least a first section that induces a first magnetron effect that increases a cyclotron frequency of an ion and at least a second section that induces a second magnetron effect that decreases the cyclotron frequency of an ion. The cyclotron frequency changes induced by the first and second magnetron effects substantially cancel one another so that an ion traversing the at least first and second sections will experience no net change in cyclotron frequency.

  19. Advances in superconducting cyclotrons at MSU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blosser, H.; Antaya, T.; Au, R.

    1987-01-01

    Intensive work on superconducting cyclotrons began at MSU in late 1973 (a brief earlier study had occurred in the early 1960's) and continues vigorously at present. One large cyclotron, the ''K500'', has been operating for a number of years, a second, the ''K800'', is nearing completion, the first operating tests of its magnet having occurred at the time of the previous conference, and a third, the ''medical cyclotron'', is now also nearing completion with first operation of its magnet expected just after the present conference. These cyclotrons like other superconducting cyclotrons are all dramatically smaller than comparable room temperature machines; overall weight is typically about 1/20th of that of room temperature cyclotrons of the same energy. This large reduction in the quantities of materials is partially offset by added complexity, but finally, a net overall cost savings of 50 to 70 % typically results; as a consequence the superconducting cyclotron is widely viewed as the cyclotron of the future. The thirteen years of experience at MSU involving three of these cyclotrons, together with much important work at other laboratories, gives a rather clear view of the advantages and disadvantages of various design approaches including by now a rather significant period of long term evaluation. This paper reviews highlights of this program. (author)

  20. The localization of marbles from busts of the Residence at Munich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    51 Greek, Roman and Renaissance marble busts from the Antiquarium of the Residence in Munich were studied for their C- and O-isotopic composition. Apart from some overlapping values, this technique permits - contrary to microscopic and chemical methods - localization of different Turkish, Greek and Italian marbel deposits. (orig.) [de

  1. The Munich MIDY Pig Biobank – A unique resource for studying organ crosstalk in diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Blutke

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions: The broad spectrum of well-defined biosamples in the Munich MIDY Pig Biobank that will be available to the scientific community provides a unique resource for systematic studies of organ crosstalk in diabetes in a multi-organ, multi-omics dimension.

  2. Cyclotrons for therapeutic and medical diagnostic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, Malay Kanti; Dutta, Atanu; Mallik, C.; Bhandari, R.K.

    2009-01-01

    Cyclotron has got its most successful application in the production of radionuclide. More than hundred cyclotron installations worldwide are engaged in the production of PET and SPECT isotopes ( 11 C, 13 N, 15 O, 18 F, 123 I, 203 Tl, 67 Ga) used in medical diagnostics, including isotopes for therapeutic applications ( 64 Cu, l03 Pd, 186 Re etc.). Keeping pace with the world trend of exploding number of medical cyclotrons, VECC is also setting up a high current (∼350 μA), 30 MeV proton cyclotron facility, which will be mostly dedicated for radioisotope production, besides its R and D utilization in material science. Besides, to bring down the operating cost, we are exploring the possibility of using permanent magnet, instead of copper coils, in a 10 MeV PET cyclotron. During last decade, the cyclotron has got potential application in particle therapy. About fifteen particle therapy facilities are under construction world-wide and about half of them will be using cyclotrons. Specifically, the development of 250 MeV proton superconducting cyclotron has fulfilled nicely most of the requirements for a hospital based machine. Based on experience accrued in developing the K500 superconducting cyclotron, VECC has proposed a project in XI-th five year plan on design and development of 250 MeV proton superconducting cyclotron for therapy. Our activities in these fields will be briefly presented here. The preliminary design calculations for the proposed 250 MeV proton superconducting cyclotron will be discussed specifically. (author)

  3. Dubna Cyclotrons - Status and Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbekyan, G. G.; Gikal, B. N.; Bogomolov, S. L.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Itkis, M. G.; Kalagin, V. V.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Sokolov, V. A.

    2005-09-01

    In Laboratory of nuclear reactions there are 4 accelerators of heavy ions. Cyclotrons U - 400, U - 400M, U - 200 and DC-40 accelerate ions from P up to Bi with energy from 3 up to 100 MeV/nucleon with high intensity. The large program of scientific and applied researches is carried out on the beams of heavy ions. In Laboratory the project DRIBs allowing obtaining beams of the accelerated radioactive ions is being realized. The first experiments on 6 He and 8 He beams are carried out.

  4. Summary on electron cyclotron theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerhof, E.

    2003-01-01

    The papers presented within the Theory Sessions of the conference clearly reflect the general trends of the research field. The growing use of Electron Bernstein Waves (EBW) for plasma heating and current drive in overdense plasmas goes hand in hand with an increased theoretical understanding of EBW excitation. While the expanding number of devices with powerful ECRH systems allowing ever more detailed experiments is reflected in the increased detail of modelling and consequent understanding of the experimental results. Apart from these general trends, some more fundamental contributions to the field of electron cyclotron wave propagation are highlighted. (author)

  5. Electromagnetism applications in nuclear engineering: cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobrega Bastos; Dalla Riva, Maria Teresa Cristina da.

    1995-08-01

    Particle accelerators, with special emphasis on cyclotrons, are presented. Other electromagnetic devices and their importance in technology and research are also shown. An experimental arrangement for positrons source productions using a cyclotron aiming at non-destructive testing for radiations damage studies is presented. 46 refs., 23 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Trends in cyclotrons for radionuclide production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera Ruiz, H.; Lambrecht, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    The IAEA recently concluded a worldwide survey of the cyclotrons used for radionuclide production. Most of the institutions responded to the questionnaire. The responses identified technical, utilisation and administrative information for 206 cyclotrons. Compiled data includes the characteristics, performance and popularity of each of the different commercial cyclotrons. Over 20 cyclotrons are scheduled for installation in 1998. The expansion in the number of cyclotron installations during the last decade was driven by the advent of advances in medical imaging instrumentation (namely, positron emission tomography (PET), and more recently by 511 KeV emission tomography); introduction of user friendly compact medical cyclotrons; and recent governmental decisions that permit reimbursement for cyclotron radiopharmaceutical studies by the government or insurance companies. The priorities for the production of clinical, commercial and research radionuclides were identified. The emphasis is on radionuclides used for medical diagnosis with SPET (e.g. 123 I, 201 Tl) and PET (e.g. 11 C, 13 N, 15 O, 18 F) radiopharmaceuticals, and for individualized patient radiation treatment planning (e.g. 64 Cu, 86 Y, 124 I) with PET. There is an emerging trend to advance the cyclotron as an alternative method to nuclear reactors for the production of neutron-rich radionuclides (e.g. 64 Cu, 103 Pd, 186 Re) needed for therapeutic applications. (authors)

  7. Radiation shielding for medical compact cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futatsukawa, Syoji; Hatakeyama, Satoru; Saito, Yoshihiro; Sera, Kouichiro; Hatano, Kentaro; Sasaki, Toshiaki.

    1993-01-01

    We are using a medical compact cyclotron for PET (positron emission tomography) and PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission) analysis in Nishina Memorial Cyclotron Center. The cyclotron vault is covered by concrete wall of 1.5 m thickness. However, a big penetrating window of 1.8 m square was needed at the concrete wall between the cyclotron vault and the PIXE room for beam transport equipment. This window was closed by packing materials of iron shots, small grained polyethylenes mixed with boron and lead grains for shielding of neutrons and γ-rays. Several measurement data have showed that this method is useful for shielding of radiations from the compact cyclotron. (author)

  8. The cyclotron development activities at CIAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tianjue; Li Zhenguo; An Shizhong; Yin Zhiguo; Yang Jianjun; Yang Fang

    2011-01-01

    The cyclotron has an obvious advantage in offering high average current and beam power. Cyclotron development for various applications, e.g. radioactive ion-beam (RIB) generation, clean nuclear energy systems, medical diagnostics and isotope production, were performed at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) for over 50 years. At the moment two cyclotrons are being built at CIAE, the 100 MeV, CYCIAE-100, and a 14 MeV, the CYCIAE-14. Meanwhile, we are designing and proposing to build a number of cyclotrons with different energies, among them are the CYCIAE-70, the CYCIAE-800, and the upgrading of CYCIAE-CRM, which is going to increase its beam current to mA level. The contribution will present an overall introduction to the cyclotron development activities conducted at CIAE, with different emphasis to each project in order to demonstrate the design and construction highlights.

  9. Recent development and progress of IBA cyclotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleeven, W., E-mail: Willem.Kleeven@iba-group.com [Ion Beam Applications s.a. Chemin du Cyclotron 3, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Abs, M., E-mail: Michel.Abs@iba-group.com [Ion Beam Applications s.a. Chemin du Cyclotron 3, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Delvaux, J.L., E-mail: Jean-Luc.Delvaux@iba-group.com [Ion Beam Applications s.a. Chemin du Cyclotron 3, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Forton, E., E-mail: Eric.Forton@iba-group.com [Ion Beam Applications s.a. Chemin du Cyclotron 3, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Jongen, Y., E-mail: Yves.Jongen@iba-group.com [Ion Beam Applications s.a. Chemin du Cyclotron 3, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Medeiros Romao, L., E-mail: Luis.MedeirosRomao@iba-group.com [Ion Beam Applications s.a. Chemin du Cyclotron 3, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Nactergal, B., E-mail: Benoit.Nactergal@iba-group.com [Ion Beam Applications s.a. Chemin du Cyclotron 3, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Nuttens, V., E-mail: Vincent.Nuttens@iba-group.com [Ion Beam Applications s.a. Chemin du Cyclotron 3, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Servais, T., E-mail: Thomas.Servais@iba-group.com [Ion Beam Applications s.a. Chemin du Cyclotron 3, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Vanderlinden, T., E-mail: Thierry.Vanderlinden@iba-group.com [Ion Beam Applications s.a. Chemin du Cyclotron 3, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Zaremba, S., E-mail: Simon.Zaremba@iba-group.com [Ion Beam Applications s.a. Chemin du Cyclotron 3, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2011-12-15

    Several cyclotron development projects were recently realized by Ion Beam Applications S.A. (IBA). This contribution presents three of them: (i) the intensity enhancement of the Cyclone 30 cyclotron, a machine mainly used for the production of SPECT isotopes. This project is related with the increased demand for {sup 201}Tl because of the shortage of Mo/Tc generators from nuclear reactors, (ii) development of a new versatile multiple-particle K = 30 isotope-production cyclotron (the Cyclone 30XP) being able to accelerate H{sup -}, D{sup -} and also {alpha}-particles. The {alpha}-beam of this cyclotron will allow the production of new therapeutic isotopes (e.g. {sup 211}At) and (iii) commissioning of the Cyclone 70 cyclotron installed for Arronax in France. This machine is similar to the C30XP but provides higher energy (K = 70) and allows research on new types of medical isotopes.

  10. Developing the smallest possible medical cyclotron

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Imagine a portable medical cyclotron operated in a conventional radioactive facility at a hospital. Imagine a nurse or technician switching it on and producing isotopes at the patient’s bedside. Sounds like science fiction? Think again.   CERN has teamed up with Spain’s national scientific research centre (CIEMAT) to develop an avant-garde cyclotron to be used for Positron Emission Tomography (PET). “We plan to make a cyclotron that doesn't need an insulated building or ‘vault’: a cyclotron small enough to fit inside a hospital lift,” explains Jose Manuel Perez, who is leading the CIEMAT/CERN collaboration. “It will be the smallest possible medical cyclotron for single patient dose production and will dramatically reduce costs for hospitals.” While PET technology has transformed imaging techniques, many of its medical benefits have remained confined to highly specialised hospitals. “Studies have foun...

  11. Neutron radiography using small cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihara, Yoshiaki; Tarumi, Yuji; Ozaki, Masakazu; Kakihira, Shoji; Tazawa, Shuichi; Nakanii, Takehiko

    1995-01-01

    For neutron radiography, as a neutron source, a small cyclotron has been used in this facility, which was developed for the production of short life radioisotopes by Sumitomo Heavy Industries Ltd. Further, the development of the use of fast ion beam for industrial fields has been advanced, Neutron radiography was carried out earliest in 1983, and thereafter, the activation analysis using charged particles, the ion irradiation to semiconductor elements, the measurement of wear by using the nuclides produced with the cyclotron as the tracer and so on have been performed. The specification of this neutron radiography facility is shown. The method of irradiating proton beam to a beryllium target is adopted. The features of the moderator, the device for improving neutron flux, the collimators and so on are explained. The heightening of neutron characteristics by the improvement of the moderator is shown. Thermal neutrons have the large cross section of absorption or scattering in hydrogen and special elements, and show the transparent property in general metals. Accordingly, the have the merit that the photographing of good contrast can be done for the hydrocarbon materials in metallic enclosures. The examples of the application of thermal neutron radiography to space rockets, aircrafts, automobiles and others are shown. (K.I.)

  12. Cyclotrons: From Science to Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, Michael

    2011-04-01

    Lawrence's invention of the cyclotron, whose 80th anniversary we have just celebrated, not only revolutionized nuclear physics, but proved the starting point for a whole variety of recirculating accelerators, from the smallest microtron to the largest synchrotron, that have had an enormous impact in almost every branch of science and in several areas of medicine and industry. Cyclotrons themselves have proved remarkably adaptable, incorporating a variety of new ideas and technologies over the years: frequency modulation, edge focusing, AG focusing, separate magnet sectors, axial and azimuthal injection, ring geometries, stripping extraction, superconducting magnets and rf...... Even FFAGs, those most complex members of the cyclotron (fixed-magnetic-field) family, are making a comeback. Currently there are more than 50 medium or large cyclotrons around the world devoted to research. These provide intense primary beams of protons or stable ions, and correspondingly intense secondary beams of neutrons, pions, muons and radioactive ions, for experiments in nuclear, particle and condensed-matter physics, and in the materials and life sciences. Far outnumbering these, however, are the 800 or so small and medium cyclotrons used to produce radioisotopes for medical and other purposes. In addition, a rapidly growing number of 230-MeV proton cyclotrons are being built for cancer therapy -12 brought into operation since 1998 and as many more in the works. Altogether, cyclotrons are flourishing!

  13. Injection and extraction for cyclotrons

    CERN Document Server

    Kleeven, W

    2006-01-01

    The main design goals for beam injection are explained and special problems related to a central region with internal ion source are considered. The principle of a PIG source is addressed. The issue of vertical focusing in the cyclotron centre is briefly discussed. Several examples of numerical simulations are given. Different ways of (axial) injection are briefly outlined. A proposal for a magnetostatic axial inflector is given. Different solutions for beam extraction are treated. These include the internal target, extraction by stripping, resonant extraction using a deflector and self-extraction. The different ways of creating a turn-separation are explained. The purpose of different types of extraction devices such as harmonic coils, deflectors and gradient corrector channels are outlined. Several illustrations are given in the form of photographs and drawings.

  14. The low-energy museum. Collection Brandhorst, Munich; Das Niedrigenergiemuseum. Sammlung Brandhorst, Muenchen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brensing, Christian [CBE-enterprises, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-01-15

    The Federal Republic of Germany internationally belongs to the countries with the highest rate of new buildings of museums. During the 1980ies, a regular boom in the building of museums began. Due to the collections and foundations of private patrons, new art treasures are made accessible to the public every year. The perfect image of such a generous gift to the city Munich is the museum Brandhorst which solemnly was opened in May 2009 after a construction period of three years.

  15. [The Munich intensive care transport system. Patient transport and intensive care conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huf, R; Weninger, E; Schildberg, F W; Peter, K

    1997-01-01

    In November 1990 a new program for transporting critically ill patients by a 24-h specialized intensive care transportation system at the Munich Hospital Grosshadern was established. All medical equipment similar to that in the ICU allows invasive and non-invasive monitoring, drug administration, and a sophisticated respiratory therapy, provided by a Siemens Servo 300 ventilator. Even extracorporal lung augmentation (ECLA) and cardiac pump assistance by special mobile devices are possible during the transport.

  16. On the evaluation of the Munich-Frascati Werber-type experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafka, Peter

    1974-01-01

    The theory of optimal evaluation is sketched and applied to the case of short pulses of gravitational radiation. The concepts of one-detector and multi-detector sensitivity are clarified. Comparison of the equivalent circuits of various detectors and tests with artificial pulses show that the pulses reported by Weber should be detectable in coincidence between Munich and Frascati. First negative results are presented

  17. Beyond victimhood. The struggle of Munich anatomist Titus von Lanz during National Socialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, Mathias; Waschke, Jens; Marckmann, Georg; Steger, Florian

    2015-09-01

    The article analyzes the life and career of the anatomist Titus von Lanz (1897-1967) of Munich focusing on the period of National Socialism (NS). Von Lanz lost his position as an associate professor at the Anatomical Institute of Munich University because of his marriage to a "half-Jewish" woman in 1938. In contrast to most of his colleagues affected by National Socialist measures, von Lanz had opportunities to save his career and made extensive use of them. His story is that of a complicated struggle for the continuation of his work, involving a wide range of supporters from prestigious physicians to high-ranking National Socialist officials as well as the alienation of his colleagues at the Munich department of anatomy. The article tries to clarify these developments through the presentation of his social background, his supporters, his enemies, the research he conducted during NS and von Lanz' own remembrance of these developments from the post-war period. It aims at laying out a critical appreciation of his motives and actions, thereby contributing to the understanding of individual behavior of anatomists under NS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Meaningful, entertaining, popular and ‘Bavarian’: art into design in nineteenth century Munich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Muthesius

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Among European regional stereotypes few come across as strongly and consistently as ‘Bavaria’. Its strength is derived from the ways in which it appears to be firmly and comprehensively grounded in its land and its people. This article traces the way in which some of the stereotype’s associated forms and images, principally those related to the domestic environment, were first conceived during the nineteenth century. The principal claim is that it was the nineteenth century artists, architects and designers in the Kunststadt Munich, who, helped by the critics, arrived at very specific valorisations of their designs, which could then be applied in an essentialist way to all artefacts of the region, old or new. The article divides the Munich design activities into two phases. During the 1850s designers aimed for a poetic and ‘volkstümlich / popular’ kind of decoration of common objects, including scenes from Bavarian ‘folk’ poetry. In the second phase, during the 1870s and 1880s, interest turned more directly to the domestic environment of Alpine houses, valorising a plain wooden character. Clearly, an absolute belief in in a primeval and unchanging ‘Bavaria’ cannot be entertained any more. But neither should one classify it all as modern kitsch. The latter attitude must be the reason why the subject has hardly been touched on in the copious art histories of Munich so far.

  19. 10 GHz ECRIS for Warsaw Cyclotron

    CERN Document Server

    Sudlitz, K

    1999-01-01

    Cusp type, 10 GHz ECRIS has been built and tested earlier. For obtaining intensive beams, more relevant for cyclotron, cusp geometry has been replaced by hexapole. Discharge chamber (stainless steel, 50 mm diameter, 250 mm long) is an extension of a coaxial line, feeding RF (9,6 GHz, up to 200 W) to the plasma. The NdFeB hexapole (0,52 T on the surface) has been used. The axial magnetic field is created by water cooled coils. The axial injection line dedicated to K160 isochronous heavy ion cyclotron has been constructed. The line consists of Glaser lenses, double focusing magnet, solenoid and mirror type inflector. The system provides sufficient transmission of the beam from ECR ion source to the firsts orbits of the cyclotron for m/q ranging from 7 to 2. After successful initial tests which were done in July 1997 the ECRIS serves as an external source for Warsaw Cyclotron.

  20. Progress report: Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Calcutta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This volume of the progress report brings out the scientific and technical activities of Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Calcutta during the year 1999. This includes brief review of the various R and D activities of the Centre and outside users of the cyclotron from the universities and other research institutes. The operational activities of the cyclotron with ECR ion sources, accelerator oriented research activities, activities on detector, target and electronics are reported. The activities of the Computer and Informatics group are described. The status report of the ongoing projects is also provided. The main activities of the superconducting cyclotron project, radioactive ion beam project, heavy ion experimental facility, advanced computational facility, recovery and analysis of helium from hot springs and material science research are described

  1. Cyclotrons for high-intensity beams

    CERN Document Server

    Seidel, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the important physical and technological aspects of cyclotrons for the acceleration of high-intensity beams. Special emphasis is given to the discussion of beam loss mechanisms and extraction schemes.

  2. Cyclotron emission near stellar mass black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apparao, K. M. V.

    1984-01-01

    Cyclotron emission in the inner regions of an accretion disk around a matter accreting black hole can be appreciable. In the case of the X-ray source Cyg X-1, cyclotron emission may provide the soft photons needed for 'Comptonization' to produce high energy X-rays. The inverse correlation between the fluxes of high energy and low energy X-rays during the 'high' and 'low' states of Cyg X-1, may be understood as a result of the variation of the rate of accretion and the Compton scattering of the cyclotron photons. In the case of the X-ray source GX 339-4, the observed optical flux during the high states does not seem to be due to cyclotron emission, but probably due to reprocessing of high energy X-rays by the outer regions of the disk.

  3. Nonlinear evolution of drift cyclotron modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aamodt, R.E.; Cohen, B.I.; Lee, Y.C.; Liu, C.S.; Nicholson, D.R.; Rosenbluth, M.N.

    1981-01-01

    The space-time evolution of the drift-cyclotron instability as influenced by the nonlinear shift in the ion-cyclotron frequency is studied analytically, numerically, and by computer simulation. The analysis is specialized to the case of a single coherent wave with frequency near both a cyclotron harmonic and the ion diamagnetic frequency. Such an analysis is motivated by observations of large-amplitude ion-cyclotron waves in the 2XIIB mirror experiment, which were highly monochromatic and often exhibited these frequency characteristics. A nonlinear dispersion relation describing saturation of the instability is derived by means of a self-consistent analytical solution of the Vlasov--Poisson equations to third order in the wave amplitude. Solitary wave and self-similar solutions are obtained that describe nonlinear wave propagation. Numerical solution of a nonlinear evolution equation and particle simulation confirm the analysis

  4. Cyclotron/PET project in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engler, H.

    2006-01-01

    The Positron Computed Tomography (PET) is a tri dimensional image technique which shows biochemical information. PET is used in neurology and cardiology diseases. The National Center Cyclotron PET has been found to research, development and health science applications.

  5. Method and apparatuses for ion cyclotron spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, David A [Idaho Falls, ID; Scott, Jill R [Idaho Falls, ID; McJunkin, Timothy R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-03-06

    An ion cyclotron spectrometer may include a vacuum chamber that extends at least along a z-axis and means for producing a magnetic field within the vacuum chamber so that a magnetic field vector is generally parallel to the z-axis. The ion cyclotron spectrometer may also include means for producing a trapping electric field within the vacuum chamber. The trapping electric field may comprise a field potential that, when taken in cross-section along the z-axis, includes at least one section that is concave down and at least one section that is concave up so that ions traversing the field potential experience a net magnetron effect on a cyclotron frequency of the ions that is substantially equal to zero. Other apparatuses and a method for performing ion cyclotron spectrometry are also disclosed herein.

  6. Fault analysis as part of urban geothermal exploration in the German Molasse Basin around Munich

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziesch, Jennifer; Tanner, David C.; Hanstein, Sabine; Buness, Hermann; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.; Thomas, Rüdiger

    2017-04-01

    Faults play an essential role in geothermal exploration. The prediction of potential fluid pathways in urban Munich has been started with the interpretation of a 3-D seismic survey (170 km2) that was acquired during the winter of 2015/2016 in Munich (Germany) within the Bavarian Molasse Basin. As a part of the research project GeoParaMoL*, we focus on the structural interpretation and retro-deformation analysis to detect sub-seismic structures within the reservoir and overburden. We explore the hydrothermal Malm carbonate reservoir (at a depth of 3 km) as a source of deep geothermal energy and the overburden of Tertiary Molasse sediments. The stratigraphic horizons, Top Aquitan, Top Chatt, Top Bausteinschichten, Top Lithothamnien limestone (Top Eocene), Top and Base Malm (Upper Jurassic), together with the detailed interpretation of the faults in the study area are used to construct a 3-D geological model. The study area is characterised by synthetic normal faults that strike parallel to the alpine front. Most major faults were active from Upper Jurassic up to the Miocene. The Munich Fault, which belongs to the Markt-Schwabener Lineament, has a maximum vertical offset of 350 metres in the central part, and contrary to previous interpretation based on 2-D seismic, this fault dies out in the eastern part of the area. The south-eastern part of the study area is dominated by a very complex fault system. Three faults that were previously detected in a smaller 3-D seismic survey at Unterhaching, to the south of the study area, with strike directions of 25°, 45° and 70° (Lüschen et al. 2014), were followed in to the new 3-D seismic survey interpretation. Particularly noticeable are relay ramps and horst/graben structures. The fault with a strike of 25° ends in three big sinkholes with a maximum vertical offset of 60 metres. We interpret this special structure as fault tip horsetail-structure, which caused a large amount of sub-seismic deformation. Consequently, this

  7. NIRS-Chiba isochronous cyclotron 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, H.; Kumamoto, Y.; Yamada, T.; Hiramoto, T.

    1976-02-01

    The cyclotron facility installed according to the recommendation of the Atomic Energy Committee of Japan is used for neutron therapy and production of short-lived radioisotopes. Construction on the facility was started in the autumn of 1972, and completed in March 1974. Described are the following: beam transport and the experimental hall, machine research and improvement, machine time sharing and the particles and energies, characteristics of the cyclotron, and facility personnel. (auth.)

  8. Building 211 cyclotron characterization survey report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-30

    The Building 211 Cyclotron Characterization Survey includes an assessment of the radioactive and chemical inventory of materials stored within the facility; an evaluation of the relative distribution of accelerator-produced activation products within various cyclotron components and adjacent structures; measurement of the radiation fields throughout the facility; measurement and assessment of internal and external radioactive surface contamination on various equipment, facility structures, and air-handling systems; and an assessment of lead (Pb) paint and asbestos hazards within the facility.

  9. 57 Co produced in cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landini, Liliane; Osso Junior, Joao Alberto

    2000-01-01

    The Cyclotron CV-28 of IPEN-CNEN/SP is a particle accelerator, used mainly in the radioisotope production, applied in 'in vivo' diagnosis in nuclear medicine. Some of them are employed in the calibration of Diagnosis equipment, such as gamma and X-rays detectors. Co-57 is an example of this application. A natural nickel foil was used as target and irradiated with proton beams of 24 MeV energy. The radioactivity analysis of the irradiated target was performed by Gamma Spectroscopy with a HPGe detector. A 259,74MBq (7,02 mCi) Co-57 source was prepared, 67 days after the last bombardment, with impurity levels of 1.13% for Co-56 and 1.29% for Co-58. The thick target yields for Co-57 and for the main radionuclidic impurities were measured, after the chemical separation of the irradiated target, extrapolated to the last EOB: 1.076 MBq (29.09 mCi)/mA.h, 0.012 MBq (0.33 mCi)/mA.h and 0.014 MBq (0.37 mCi)/mA.h, for Co-57, Co-56 and Co-58, respectively. (author)

  10. A national medical cyclotron facility: report to the Minister of Health by the Medical Cyclotron Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Research and training in nuclear medicine in Australia are both limited by the lack of a medical cyclotron facility. The Committee recommends the establishment of a national medical cyclotron to provide a supply of short-lived radioisotopes for research in relevant fields of medicine, and for diagnostic use in nuclear medicine

  11. Mental illness in a representative sample of homeless men in Munich, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichter, M M; Koniarczyk, M; Greifenhagen, A; Koegel, P; Quadflieg, N; Wittchen, H U; Wölz, J

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the study was to reliably assess the 6-month and lifetime prevalence of mental illness according to DSM-III criteria in a representative sample of homeless individuals in the city of Munich, Germany. Because the characteristics of the homeless population were unknown, we first conducted a pre-sampling survey to determine a proportionate allocation of the main interviews in three nested sampling strata. For the pre-sampling we approached 300 males, who appeared to be homeless, for a brief interview; of these, 271 were homeless according to our definition and were allocated to one of three sectors ("shelter", "meal services", "outdoor"). Thereafter, we randomly sampled homeless males in these three strata until the indicated allocations were met. The Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS) was used for diagnostic classification according to DSM-III in the main interview. Results from this representative urban sample show that the mean age of the homeless males was 43 years; most were unmarried or divorced, had a relatively low level of school education and a long duration of homelessness. Based on the main interviews with 146 homeless males the following lifetime prevalence rates were obtained: 91.8% for substance use disorder (82.9% alcohol dependence), 41.8% for affective disorders, 22.6% for anxiety disorders and 12.4% for schizophrenia. Of the homeless males in Munich, 94.5% had at least one DIS/DSM-III axis I diagnosis. Six-month prevalence data is also presented. Results are compared with those of a very similar study on homeless individuals in Los Angeles, which also used DIS/DSM-III diagnoses. In comparison with representative community samples in the United States and in Germany, mental illness was much more frequent among homeless individuals in Munich as well as in Los Angeles. Implications for health care planning are discussed.

  12. Bernhard von Gudden, neuro-ophthalmology and the Munich School of Neuroanatomy and Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danek, Adrian

    2006-12-01

    Bernhard von Gudden, psychiatrist to the Royal House of Bavaria (1824-1886), had studied ocular torsion by means of self-observation in the mirror and with the help of after-images for his dissertation of 1848, but later turned to experimental neuroanatomy. Several findings are connected with his name, among them the transverse peduncular tract, part of the accessory optic system. August Forel, Emil Kraepelin and Franz Nissl belonged to his Munich school that took neuroanatomical research as a guiding principle for scientific psychiatry.

  13. Superconducting cyclotron magnet coil short

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallory, M.L.; Blosser, H.G.; Clark, D.J.; Launer, H.; Lawton, D.; Miller, P.; Resmini, F.

    1982-01-01

    In February 1981, a short circuit appeared in the superconducting coil of the K500 cyclotron. The short is resistive in character and therefore has no effect on steady state operation of the magnet. The resistance of the short varies, sometimes being below threshold of detection as a heat load on the cooling system and sometimes being significant. The resistance under certain conditions shows approximately cyclic phenomena with time constants in the range of seconds and other approximately cyclic phenomena which correlate with gross operating parameters of the magnet (shifting current from one coil to another at high field and lowering and raising the liquid helium level). A number of diagnostic studies of the short have been made, using 1) an array of flux sensing loops to sense the magnetic effect of the short, 2) voltage comparisons between upper and lower sections of the coil, 3) comparisons of forces in the nine member coil support system and 4) the effect of the short on the thermal charactersitics of the coil. Insulation failure or a metal chip shorting out turns have been explored in some detail but a convincing determination of the exact cause of the short may never be available, (even the extreme step of unwinding the coil having a significant probability that an imperfection with the observed characteristics would pass unnoticed). Analysis of the characteristics of the short indicated that the most serious consequence would be failure of the coils mechanical support system in the event that the magnet was quickly discharged, as in a dump or quench. To deal with this hazard, the support system has been modified by installing solid supports which prevent the coil from moving by an amount sufficient to damage the support system. We have also reexamined the data and calculations used in the original coil design and have made some additional measurements of the properties of the materials (yield strength, friction coefficient, Young's modulus) used in the

  14. The Munich Anatomical Institute under National Socialism. First results and prospective tasks of an ongoing research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, Mathias; Waschke, Jens; Marckmann, Georg; Steger, Florian

    2013-07-01

    While research into the history of German anatomy under National Socialist rule has increased during the last decade, the story of one of the most important anatomical institutes of the time, the Anatomische Anstalt Munich, has not yet been explored. This study presents the results of an ongoing, cooperative research project at the universities of Halle and Munich and focuses on the history of the institution, its personnel and organization, and its interactions with the National Socialist regime. It reveals continuity and disruption within the institute following Munich anatomists' involvement with the regime's policies and ideology as well as their becoming victims to these policies. Also documented is the manner in which the Munich anatomy benefited from the massive increase in executions, especially during the Second World War, by receiving and using the bodies of prisoners executed at the Stadelheim prison in Munich for scientific purposes. Finally, an outlook is presented regarding planned research aiming to fully understand the history of the Anatomische Anstalt during National Socialism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Radiation shielding and health physics instrumentation for PET medical cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, B.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Modern Medical Cyclotrons produce a variety of short-lived positron emitting PET radioisotopes, and as a result are the source of intense neutron and gamma radiations. Since such cyclotrons are housed within hospitals or medical clinics, there is significant potential for un-intentional exposure to staff or patients in proximity to cyclotron facilities. Consequently, the radiological hazards associated with Cyclotrons provide the impetus for an effective radiological shielding and continuous monitoring of various radiation levels in the cyclotron environment. Management of radiological hazards is of paramount importance for the safe operation of a Medical Cyclotron facility. This work summarised the methods of shielding calculations for a compact hospital based Medical Cyclotron currently operating in Canada, USA and Australia. The design principle and operational history of a real-time health physics monitoring system (Watchdog) operating at a large multi-energy Medical Cyclotron is also highlighted

  16. Neutron spectrum measurement in a medical Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathian, V.; Phadnis, U.V.; Sharma, D.N.; Deepa, S.; Soni, P.S.

    2008-01-01

    Radio nuclides are being used in diagnostic purpose as well as therapeutic purpose under medical category for early detection of malignancies. The diagnosis using radio nuclides are playing very important role. PET scan is a miles stone in medical history. These scan is done using a positron emitter 18 F. This radio nuclide is produced by the reaction 18 O(p, n) 18 F in Medical cyclotron of Radiation Medicine center (RMC), India. The neutron production is an unwanted by product. These neutrons will make lot of radiation protection problem as neutron itself and also these neutrons will produce induced activity in the different elements of cyclotron shielding material as well as the wall materials in long run. So the accurate neutron dose measurement is very important and this depends on the accurate neutron spectrum. The unfolding of neutron spectrum and measurement of neutron dose in cyclotron of RMC using activation foil technique is presented in this paper. (author)

  17. Radiation shielding aspects of compact medical cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, B.; Ruth, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    Hospital-based compact medical cyclotrons are commonly used to produce large activities of short-lived PET radioisotopes such as fluorine-18 (HL110 min) and oxygen-18 (HL= 20 min), by bombarding suitably enriched gas or liquid targets with 11-15 MeV protons. High energy prompt neutron/gamma radiation fields are generated as the nuclear reaction product. The compact medical cyclotrons are installed either inside or in the close proximity of the nuclear medicine clinic. Therefore the adequacy of the radiation shielding is vitally important for the radiological safety of the patients and members of the public. The present paper highlights the important radiation shielding aspects of some compact medical cyclotrons presently available in the international market. 2 tabs., 4 figs

  18. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, S.M. Finn, R.D.

    1992-08-04

    This report describes the author's continuing long term goal of promoting nuclear medicine applications by improving the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The program has 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry /Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. An essential strategy is as follows: novel radionuclides and radiotracers developed in the Radiochemistry/Cyclotron section under the DOE grant during the 1989--1992 grant period, will be employed in the Pharmacology and Immunology sections of the DOE grant during the 1992--1995 grant period. The development of novel radionuclides and tracers is of course useful in and of itself, but their utility is greatly enhanced by the interaction with the immunology and pharmacology components of the program.

  19. Pulse selection system for the Oslo cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messelt, S.

    1984-09-01

    The beam from a cyclotron usually consists of short beam bursts with a time separation corresponding to the cyclone frequency. The report deals with a system for increasing the time separation in order to avoid ambiguities resulting from time overlap of events due to successive beam pulses. This is done by using a pair of electrostatic deflection plates driven at some integer fraction of the cyclotron frequency. This pulse selectrion system, which is used for the Oslo cyclotron, is described. The pulsing system has been tested by measuring gamma-rays from a thick target in one of the beam lines down-stream from the exit slit of the 90degr. magnet. The resuls of tests with 13 MeV and 23 MeV protons and division factor of 3 and 4, respectively, are shown. (RF)

  20. Scientific instruments, scientific progress and the cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baird, David; Faust, Thomas

    1990-01-01

    Philosophers speak of science in terms of theory and experiment, yet when they speak of the progress of scientific knowledge they speak in terms of theory alone. In this article it is claimed that scientific knowledge consists of, among other things, scientific instruments and instrumental techniques and not simply of some kind of justified beliefs. It is argued that one aspect of scientific progress can be characterized relatively straightforwardly - the accumulation of new scientific instruments. The development of the cyclotron is taken to illustrate this point. Eight different activities which promoted the successful completion of the cyclotron are recognised. The importance is in the machine rather than the experiments which could be run on it and the focus is on how the cyclotron came into being, not how it was subsequently used. The completed instrument is seen as a useful unit of scientific progress in its own right. (UK)

  1. Radiation exposure to workers at cyclotron facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, M.S.; Sanches, M.P.; Sanchez, A.S.; Rodrigues, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals quickly furnish the information doctors need to establish a precise diagnosis of the patient's condition, and therefore to prescribe the most effective therapy. In cancerology, F18-FDG, the most widely used PET imaging tracer, excels in the early detection of cancer tumors, even very tiny ones, which it locates and clearly distinguishes from healthy surrounding tissues. IPEN-CNEN/SP has two cyclotron accelerators used mainly for radioisotope production to be utilized in nuclear medicine for diagnosis and therapy. The first is a CV-28 cyclotron, variable energy that came into operation in 1982, which was used to produce F18-FDG and Iodine 123 up to 1998. The second, a Cyclone 30 cyclotron, 30 MeV, commenced operation in 1998 for certification purpose, and due to increase demand for radiopharmaceuticals in Brazil, started F18-FDG production in 1999. Cyclotron Laboratory will be a reference Research and Developing Center in our country and will help the Brazilian and Latin-American community. It is necessary to have an adequate database to allow regular follow up and analysis of the individual dose distributions for each group involved in the cyclotron activities. These databases are also important means to assess the effectiveness of efforts in order to maintain doses ALARA and reduce inequalities. The official individual occupational dosimetry is provided by certified Laboratory of Thermoluminescent Dosimetry at IPEN-CNEN/SP. This paper describes the occupational doses distribution in Laboratory of Cyclotrons at IPEN-CNEN/SP from January, 1998 to July, 2000 and propose improvements for the future. (author)

  2. Licensing requirements for Cyclotrons in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, M.L.; Blanes, A.; Sanchez, M.; Lorenz, P.; Hernando, M.L.; Diez, A.; Alvarez, C.

    2002-01-01

    CSN is responsible for the licensing and inspection of the radioactive facilities. In Spain several cyclotrons have been installed for production of positron emitting radionuclides for use in diagnosis and nuclear medicine investigation. Currently there are 6 cyclotrons, the first one began to operate in Madrid in 1996 and the last two in Sevilla and Madrid in March, 2001. Two of them are an auto shielded cyclotron. All accelerate negative ion (H -), Only one, in addition, accelerates deuteron (d). The acceleration energies range between 9 to 18 MeV, current intensity varies from 50 to 100 μA. Maximum activities of radioisotope, focussing exclusively on the 1 8F , being the one that they mainly produce, fluctuate between 1.4 and 5 Ci (52 -185 GBq) at the end of bombardment. These facilities of positron emitting isotope production consist basically of a cyclotron vault in which the bombardment of the targets takes place, a control room where the machine operation is controlled, a technical room, a hot laboratory where the chemical synthesis of the radiopharmaceuticals, 18 F-Fluordeoxiglucose (1 8F DG) and 13 N- Amonia takes place and finally a room for pharmaceutical quality control. The radiological hazards associated to this type of facilities are related to the external radiation and contamination. Main external radiation exposure only occurs during the bombardment of the target by the accelerated particles; this interaction produces prompt and secondary gamma, X rays and neutron radiation. Additionally, residual radioactivity induced by activation of the materials of the cyclotron exists, this should be taken into account mostly during the operations of maintenance, although in the Spanish cyclotrons, of negative ion beams, the residual radioactivity is lower compared to the positive ion beam ones

  3. Cubierta para naves de grandes dimensiones en hormigón, Munich (Alemania Federal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bomhard, H.

    1972-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the study, design and building of wide span concrete halls which, at present, are greatly influenced by the advances made in pre-stressed concrete, préfabrication and the development of modern building methods, as well as the new techniques in building with light concrete. The influence which gave origin to these halls is also described. Chosen as an example is the hall, with a span of 150 metres and a maximum hight of 27.30 metres, for the Munich goods station, showing the importance of this type of construction.El artículo describe el estudio, proyecto y construcción de naves de gran luz en hormigón que, en el momento actual, están decisivamente influenciadas por los adelantos en hormigón pretensado, en prefabricación y por el desarrollo de los modernos métodos de construcción, así como por las nuevas técnicas de la construcción en hormigones ligeros. Se detalla igualmente la influencia que originan estas naves de grandes dimensiones. Se toma como ejemplo la nave, de 150 m de luz y 27,30 m de altura máxima, para la estación de mercancías de Munich, haciendo patente su gran importancia en este tipo de construcciones.

  4. Worksite-screenings for hypertension with follow-up: experiences from the Munich Blood Pressure Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hense, H W; Keil, U

    1989-01-01

    In 1983/84, the Munich Blood Pressure Program (MBP) performed worksite screenings for arterial hypertension at 18 Munich companies. A participation of 51% (n = 7310) was achieved. After duplicate measurements of casual blood pressure 1084 participants were suspected of having actual hypertension. All suspected cases were invited for a reexamination to reduce the number of false-positive hypertensives. Individuals with persisting hypertension after this two-step-screening were predominantly male, on the average younger than 50 years and showed a low level of antihypertensive drug treatment. About 75% of all detected hypertensives saw a family physician subsequent to the screenings for further management. Referrals and patient compliance were frequently reinforced by a computer based reminder system. A follow-up examination was performed among the MBP participants after two years. It showed that in 417 confirmed hypertensives of the primary screenings a marked increase in the proportion of treated and controlled hypertensives had occurred. This was true for younger and older hypertensives.

  5. OECD Global Science Forum's Astronomy Workshop to take place in Munich

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    On December 1 to 3, the city of Munich (Bavaria, Germany) will be the venue for a "Workshop on Large Scale Programmes and Projects in Astronomy and Astrophysics" organised by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Global Science Forum in co-operation with the European Southern Observatory (ESO). The Workshop will be chaired by Ian Corbett (ESO). The Global Science Forum brings together science policy officials from the OECD countries. The delegates, who meet twice a year, look at a range of generic issues in science funding and seek to identify and maximise opportunities for international co-operation in basic scientific research. This Workshop was proposed by Germany and agreed by the delegates to the Global Science Forum in June. Government officials and scientists will be able to review in detail the information and the observational and technological advances needed for major progress in the field during the next 15- 20 years. The research subjects reviewed will cover the full range from planets, solar systems, life in the Universe, stars, galaxies, extreme objects to cosmology. Related technological challenges, virtual observatories and other data handling issues will also be considered. The primary objective is to specify the policy issues relating to priority-setting, planning, funding and, above all, international co-ordination and co-operation. The Workshop will focus on issues relevant to the process through which astronomy advances, and will highlight means to enhance that process in light of longer-term scientific and political trends. There will probably be a follow-up meeting early in 2004, from which a policy level report will be prepared for consideration by the Global Science Forum and so transmitted to governments. Eighteen delegations, from non-OECD as well as OECD countries, will attend, each consisting of senior programme managers from the national ministry, funding agency or research council, and one or more senior

  6. Building on TR-24 success. Advanced Cyclotron Systems Inc. launches a new cyclotron model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell Watt; William Gyles; Alexander Zyuzin

    2015-01-01

    ACSI is designing a new 30 MeV cyclotron based on the TR-24. While minimizing changes from the proven TR-24, including maintaining the same outer dimensions, the energy of the cyclotron will be increased to 30 MeV, which will make it the most compact, non-superconducting, 30 MeV cyclotron design to date. Maximum beam current will match the TR-24 at 1 mA. With the size and footprint of a typical low energy PET cyclotron, this system will offer users a cost effective solution for a diversified facility capable of producing a wide spectrum of PET and SPECT radioisotopes for research and commercial distribution. (author)

  7. Emergency situation in a medical cyclotron facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Bhat, M.K.; Singh, D.K.; Pthania, B.S.; Pandit, A.G.; Jacob, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Medical cyclotron is a particle accelerator used in producing short lived radioisotopes such as 18 F, 11 C, 15 O, 13 N, 18 F-2 gas etc. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a nuclear imaging modality that has rapidly gained favour. 18 F-FDG is the most widely used radiopharmaceutical with a half-life of 109.8 min. Having more than five years experience in this field we face lots of emergency conditions in the medical cyclotron facility. On the basis of harm we have divided in to three categories i.e. Harm of (a) working personnel, (b) Equipment and (c) environment. Radioactive gas leak and Target foil rupture is considered as the major emergency situations during medical cyclotron operations because there is a potential of over exposure to the working personnel. Radiation protection survey of a self-shielded medical cyclotron installation was carried out during normal and emergency conditions. It is found that the induced activity in the target foil increases with its successive usages. Recommendations have also been made to reduce personal exposure while handling the radioactive gas leak and target foil rupture conditions

  8. The irradiation facility at the AGOR cyclotron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandenburg, Sytze; Ostendorf, Reint; Hofstee, Mariet; Kiewiet, Harry; Beijers, Hans

    The KVI is conducting radiobiology research using protons up to 190 MeV from the superconducting AGOR cyclotron in collaboration with the University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG) since 1998. Using the same set-up, we have started irradiations for radiation hardness studies of detectors and

  9. The Data Cyclotron query processing scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goncalves, R.; Kersten, M.

    2011-01-01

    A grand challenge of distributed query processing is to devise a self-organizing architecture which exploits all hardware resources optimally to manage the database hot set, minimize query response time, and maximize throughput without single point global coordination. The Data Cyclotron

  10. The Data Cyclotron query processing scheme.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Goncalves (Romulo); M.L. Kersten (Martin)

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractA grand challenge of distributed query processing is to devise a self-organizing architecture which exploits all hardware resources optimally to manage the database hot set, minimize query response time, and maximize throughput without single point global coordination. The Data Cyclotron

  11. Radioisotope production with a medical cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvester, D.J.

    1974-01-01

    The cyclotron of Hammersmith hospital in England was completed and started the operation in 1955. The feature is in its design operable at high beam current, reaching 500μA in internal beam and 300μA in external beam. In 1960's, twelve nuclides of radioactive pharmaceuticals were produced with the cyclotron. C-11, N-13 and O-15 have been used in the form of radioactive gases such as CO or H 2 O to test lung functions. F-18 has been used for bone scanning. K-43 is employed in the research of electrolyte balancing together with Na-24 and Br-77. Fe-52 is utilized in iron ion researches as a tracer. Cs-129 is highly evaluated as an isotope for imaging cardiac clogging part. Radioisotopes must be much more used in the examination of in vivo metabolic function. For this purpose, peculiarly labelled compounds should be further developed. It is welcome that the persons paying attention to the medical prospect of cyclotrons are increasing. The author hopes to continue his endeavour to find new products made with the cyclotron for human welfare. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  12. Application of cyclotrons in beam technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogloblin, A. A.; Unezhev, V. N.; Zagryadskiy, V. A.; Ryazanov, A. I.; Novikov, V. I.; Latushkin, S. T.; Malamut, T. Yu.

    2017-09-01

    Some currently developed applications of cyclotrons (beam technologies) are discussed. They include new methods for producing radioisotopes for medical purposes and investigations into the radiation strength ofmaterials and the wear of units of variousmachines and devices bymeans of beams of radioactive nuclei.

  13. Microwave power coupling with electron cyclotron resonance ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma was produced at 2.45 GHz using 200 – 750 W microwave power. The plasma was produced from argon gas at a pressure of 2 × 10−4 mbar. Three water-cooled solenoid coils were used to satisfy the ECR resonant conditions inside the plasma chamber. The basic parameters of ...

  14. Tokamak startup with electron cyclotron heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holly, D.J.; Prager, S.C.; Shepard, D.A.; Sprott, J.C.

    1980-04-01

    Experiments are described in which the startup voltage in a tokamak is reduced by approx. 60% by the use of a modest amount of electron cyclotron resonance heating power for preionization. A 50% reduction in volt-second requirement and impurity reflux are also observed

  15. Tokamak startup with electron cyclotron heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holly, D J; Prager, S C; Shepard, D A; Sprott, J C

    1980-04-01

    Experiments are described in which the startup voltage in a tokamak is reduced by approx. 60% by the use of a modest amount of electron cyclotron resonance heating power for preionization. A 50% reduction in volt-second requirement and impurity reflux are also observed.

  16. Electron-cyclotron-resonance ion sources (review)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golovanivskii, K.S.; Dougar-Jabon, V.D. [People`s Friendship Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1992-01-01

    The physical principles are described and a brief survey of the present state is given of ion sources based on electron-cyclotron heating of plasma in a mirror trap. The characteristics of ECR sources of positive and negative ions used chiefly in accelerator technology are presented. 20 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. A visual assistance environment for cyclotron operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, Tetsuya; Murakami, Tohru; Agematsu, Takashi; Okumura, Susumu; Arakawa, Kazuo.

    1993-01-01

    A computer-based operation system for a cyclotron which assists inexperienced operators has been developed. Cyclotron start-up operations require dozens of adjustable parameters to be finely tuned to maximize extracted beam current. The human interfaces of the system provide a visual environment designed to enhance beam parameter adjustments. First, the mental model of operators is analyzed. It is supposed to be composed of five partial mental models: beam behavior model, feasible setting regions model, parameter sensitivity model, parameter mutual relation model, and status map model. Next, based on these models, three visual interfaces are developed, i.e., (1) Beam trajectory is rapidly calculated and graphically displayed whenever the operators change the cyclotron parameters. (2) Feasible setting regions (FSR) of the parameters that satisfy the cyclotron's beam acceptance criteria are indicated. (3) Search traces, being a historical visual map of beam current values, are superimposed on the FSRs. Finally, to evaluate system effectiveness, the search time required to reach maximum beam current conditions was measured. In addition, system operability was evaluated using written questionnaires. Results of the experiment showed that the search time to reach specific beam conditions was reduced by approximately 65% using these interfaces. The written questionnaires survey showed the operators highly evaluate system operability. (author)

  18. Ion cyclotron resonance heating system on Aditya

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. An ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) system has been designed, fabricated indigenously and commissioned on Tokamak Aditya. The system has been commissioned to operate between 20·0 and 47·0 MHz at a maximum power of 200 kW continuous wave (CW). Duration of 500 ms is sufficient for operation.

  19. Development of HM12 cyclotron for PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Takuzo; Kawama, Tetsuo; Fujii, Kazuo

    2000-01-01

    In Japan, there are at present more than 30 PET (Positron Emission Tomography) facilities. The movements of medical insurance application to the PET diagnosis using [ 18 F] FDG (2-[ 18 F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose) by the Ministry of Health and Welfare are being enhanced by PET related people. Therefore, more clinical centers using PET system are expected to be built in the near future. HM12 cyclotron was developed to meet such market demands for PET, and the prototype machine has been rent to Cyclotron Radio Isotope Center (CYRIC) of Tohoku University since Oct. 1998 for their use of clinical research with positron emitters like 11 C, 13 N, 15 O and 18 F. We got many technical data of HM12 Cyclotron on the clinical base. The data was enough to establish the reliability of HM12 system operation under the clinical condition. The first commercial product of HM12 Cyclotron was delivered to National Cancer Center in March 2000. The final performance test will be finished by the end of June 2000. (author)

  20. <600> MeV synchro-cyclotron

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1971-01-01

    One of the 14 pancakes of the new magnet coils for the 600 MeV synchro-cyclotron which were wound and coated with epoxy resin on the CERN site. These new coils will replace the present ones which have been in use for more than 14 years but are now showing signs of deteriorations.

  1. Comparison between californium and cyclotron SEU tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazco, Raoul; Provost-Grellier, Antoine; Chapuis, T.; Labrunee, M.; Falguere, D.; Koga, R.

    Experimental equipment which performs heavy ion testing for programmable integrated circuits is presented. This equipment is used along with two different means of heavy ion simulator to perform Single Event Upset (SEU) tests on representative circuits: a dedicated Cf 252 fission decay source to simulate high LET particles is questioned by the discrepancies observed between Cf 252 and cyclotron results.

  2. Transport of a high brightness proton beam through the Munich tandem accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, M., E-mail: marcus.moser@unibw.de [Universität der Bundeswehr München, Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik LRT2, Department für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, 85577 Neubiberg (Germany); Greubel, C. [Universität der Bundeswehr München, Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik LRT2, Department für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, 85577 Neubiberg (Germany); Carli, W. [Beschleunigerlabor MLL, 85478 Garching (Germany); Peeper, K.; Reichart, P.; Urban, B.; Vallentin, T. [Universität der Bundeswehr München, Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik LRT2, Department für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, 85577 Neubiberg (Germany); Dollinger, G., E-mail: guenther.dollinger@unibw.de [Universität der Bundeswehr München, Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik LRT2, Department für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, 85577 Neubiberg (Germany)

    2015-04-01

    Basic requirement for ion microprobes with sub-μm beam focus is a high brightness beam to fill the small phase space usually accepted by the ion microprobe with enough ion current for the desired application. We performed beam transport simulations to optimize beam brightness transported through the Munich tandem accelerator. This was done under the constraint of a maximum ion current of 10 μA that is allowed to be injected due to radiation safety regulations and beam power constrains. The main influence of the stripper foil in conjunction with intrinsic astigmatism in the beam transport on beam brightness is discussed. The calculations show possibilities for brightness enhancement by using astigmatism corrections and asymmetric filling of the phase space volume in the x- and y-direction.

  3. 17th European photovoltaic solar energy conference and exhibition, Munich 22.-26.10.2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, S.

    2002-01-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises the photovoltaics (PV) conference and exhibition held in Munich in October 2001 from the Swiss point of view. The contributions made by representatives of Swiss institutions and companies are presented including papers on the progress being made in third generation crystalline and multi-crystalline silicon technology, amorphous and micro-crystalline silicon solar cells, thin film solar cells based on compound semiconductors and thermo-photovoltaics. Further papers deal with PV modules on the market, building-integrated solar power systems and new developments in PV systems technology. The exhibition that accompanied the conference, including the 12 Swiss exhibitors who were present, is reviewed as are international market developments. Contributions concerning the application of photovoltaics in developing countries are also reviewed

  4. Comparison of the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire with the Horne-Östberg’s Morningness-Eveningness Score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zavada, Andrei; Gordijn, Marijke C.M.; Beersma, Domien G.M.; Daan, Serge; Roenneberg, Till

    2005-01-01

    We report on results from an Internet survey of sleeping habits in a Dutch population using the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire (MCTQ), supplemented with the Horne-Östberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ). The MCTQ was completed by 5,055 responders, of which 2,481 also completed the MEQ.

  5. Directory of cyclotrons used for radionuclide production in Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    The directory of cyclotrons used for radionuclide production is an update of the data base on cyclotrons that was compiled in 1983 by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The directory contains technical, utilization and administrative information supplied to the IAEA as of October 1997. The directory was prepared through information collected by questionnaires sent to institutions that either have a cyclotron, or that were identified to be in the process of installation of a cyclotron. The directory contains 206 entries for cyclotrons operating in 34 Member States. The largest concentration of cyclotrons for radionuclide production are located in the United States of America (66), Japan (33) and Germany (22). The largest number of cyclotrons for a single country is the United States of America. The expansion in number of cyclotrons during the last decade has been driven by the advent of advances in medical imaging instrumentation (PET, SPET and more recently 511 KeV emission tomography); introduction of user friendly compact medical cyclotrons from several companies that manufacture cyclotrons; and recent decisions that 15 O-oxygen PET studies in Japan, and 18 F-FDG PET studies in Germany are eligible for reimbursement by government or insurance companies

  6. MMS Observations of Harmonic Electromagnetic Cyclotron Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usanova, M.; Ahmadi, N.; Ergun, R.; Trattner, K. J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Torbert, R. B.; Mauk, B.; Le Contel, O.; Giles, B. L.; Russell, C. T.; Burch, J.; Strangeway, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Harmonically related electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves with the fundamental frequency near the O+ cyclotron frequency were observed by the four MMS spacecraft on May 20, 2016. The wave activity was detected by the spacecraft on their inbound passage through the Earth's morning magnetosphere during generally quiet geomagnetic conditions but enhanced solar wind dynamic pressure. It was also associated with an enhancement of energetic H+ and O+ ions. The waves are seen in both magnetic and electric fields, formed by over ten higher order harmonics, most pronounced in the electric field. The wave activity lasted for about an hour with some wave packets giving rise to short-lived structures extending from Hz to kHz range. These observations are particularly interesting since they suggest cross-frequency coupling between the lower and higher frequency modes. Further work will focus on examining the nature and role of these waves in the energetic particle dynamics from a theoretical perspective.

  7. Safety of material handling for superconducting cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajra, D.P.

    2009-01-01

    State of the art of material handling for superconducting cyclotron project has been ensured through advance safety analysis and safety planning for selection and procurement of proper material handling equipment at right time and right place to minimized time, cost over run and man-day loss. Mechanization of material handling is the most important aspect of safety. Typical problems of superconducting cyclotron material handling was solved by indigenous design, fabrication and utilization of a unique material handling equipment for 180 deg rotation of a 28 tons single weight complicated upper pole-cap assembly with safety and ease. Material handling is an art and has been implemented through the science of safe movement, handling during manufacturing and assembly and installation of SCC project. (author)

  8. The Cyclotron Center of the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podhorsky, D.; Ruzicka, J.; Macasek, F.; Makaiova, I.; Saro, S.; Kristiak, J.; Fulup, M.

    2001-01-01

    The Cyclotron Center of the Slovak Republic was established at the beginning of August 1999 - within the Slovak-Office of Standards, Metrology and Testing (SOSMT), in Bratislava, Slovak Republic. It will have two cyclotrons - a large heavy and light cyclotron DC-72, which will be constructed by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna, Russian Federation, and a small commercial light ion cyclotron IBA 18/9. The heavy ion source of the electron resonance type (DECRS-2M) will be used for low and medium energy experiments in physics. The small electron accelerator is planned for different applications, including improving the properties of plastics, increasing the resistance of cables to fire and temperature, the sterilization of medical disposables in the CC SR. The main purpose of the Cyclotron Center of the Slovak Republic (CC SR) is to catch the present approach and trends in the area of improving of inhabitants life and health quality using the progressive technology, which is introduced by bringing into practice of the physical equipment - accelerators, producing beams of high energy particles. Experts of nuclear physics and of the related branches have no experimental basis in Slovakia, as after dissolution of the former the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic all bigger nuclear equipment were left in the Czech Republic. The Slovak Republic is one of the European countries where cancer and cardiovascular diseases have a rapidly increasing tendency (the rate of new oncological cases is approximately 20,000/year at the population of 5 million inhabitants) - early diagnostics of population is necessary to be updated urgently. The Slovak Republic use a great part of electricity (about 60 %) from its own nuclear power stations and thus it is in need of education of rising generations of experts from different nuclear fields. The Government of the Slovak republic on June 18, 1996 approved the strategic aim of building up the Cyclotron Laboratory at the

  9. Electrostatic ion cyclotron velocity shear instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemons, D. S.; Winske, D.; Gary, S. P.

    1992-01-01

    A local electrostatic dispersion equation is derived for a shear flow perpendicular to an ambient magnetic field, which includes all kinetic effects and involves only one important parameter. The dispersion equation is cast in the form of Gordeyev integrals and is solved numerically. Numerical solutions indicate that an ion cyclotron instability is excited. The instability occurs roughly at multiples of the ion cyclotron frequency (modified by the shear), with the growth rate or the individual harmonics overlapping in the wavenumber. At large values of the shear parameter, the instability is confined to long wavelengths, but at smaller shear, a second distinct branch at shorter wavelengths also appears. The properties of the instability obtained are compared with those obtained in the nonlocal limit by Ganguli et al. (1985, 1988).

  10. New magnet pole shape for isochronous cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorn, C.E.; Chasman, C.; Baltz, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    A new design has been developed for shaping pole tips to produce the radially increasing fields required for isochronous cyclotrons. The conventional solid hill poles are replaced by poles mounted over a small secondary gap which tapers radially from maximum at the magnet edge to zero near the center. Field measurements with a model magnet and calculations with the code TRIM show an increase in field at the edge of the magnet without the usual corresponding large increase in fringing, and a radial field shape more nearly field independent than for conventional hills. The flying hills have several advantages for variable energy multiparticle cyclotrons: (1) a large reduction in the power dissipated by isochronizing trim coils; (2) a more constant shape and magnitude flutter factor, eliminating flutter coils and increasing the operating range; and (3) a sharper fall-off of the fringe field, simplifying beam extraction

  11. Neutron radiography with the cyclotron, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraoka, Eiichi; Fujishiro, Masatoshi; Tsujii, Yukio

    1985-01-01

    Neutron radiography is well recognized as a powerful tool in nondestructive testing, but not widely used yet owing to lack of high intense thermal neutron source convenient for practical use. A new neutron radiograph facility, utilizing a sub-compact cyclotron as neutron source and equipped with vertical and horizontal irradiation ports, is presented in this article. A series of experiment, prior to its construction, was conducted using beams of a variable energy cyclotron at Tohoku University to investigate the characteristics of thermal neutron obtained, from 9 Be (p, n) reaction and thermalized by elastic scattering process. This article describes a computer simulation of neutron moderator to analyze conditions getting maximal thermal neutron flux. Some of practical neutron radiograph examination of aero-space components and museum art objects of classic bronze mirror are also presented together with an attempt realizing real time imaging technique. (author)

  12. ARRONAX, a high intensity cyclotron in Nantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, F.; Michel, N.; Guertin, A.; Martino, J. [Nantes Univ., SUBATECH, IN2P3-CNRS, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, 44 (France); Barbet, J.; Chatal, J.F. [Nantes Univ., Dept. de Recherche en Cancerologie, Inserm, U601, 44 (France)

    2008-07-01

    A cyclotron named ARRONAX is being built in Nantes (France). It is mainly devoted to radiochemistry and nuclear medicine research and will be operational during the last quarter of 2008. This machine will accelerate both protons and {alpha}-particles at high energy (up to 70 MeV) and high intensity (2 simultaneous proton beams with intensity up to 350 {mu}A). In nuclear medicine, these characteristics will allow the cyclotron to produce a large variety of radionuclides on a regular schedule and in sufficient amount to perform clinical trials. A priority list of 12 radioisotopes, which contains isotopes for therapeutic use as well as for PET imaging, has been established by an international scientific committee. In radiochemistry, a vertical pulsed {alpha}-beam will allow fundamental studies of radiolysis in aqueous media, which is of great interest for radiobiology and for nuclear waste management. (authors)

  13. Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry at the Cyclotron Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagornov, Konstantin O; Kozhinov, Anton N; Tsybin, Yury O

    2017-04-01

    The phenomenon of ion cyclotron resonance allows for determining mass-to-charge ratio, m/z, of an ensemble of ions by means of measurements of their cyclotron frequency, ω c . In Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS), the ω c quantity is usually unavailable for direct measurements: the resonant state is located close to the reduced cyclotron frequency (ω + ), whereas the ω c and the corresponding m/z values may be calculated via theoretical derivation from an experimental estimate of the ω + quantity. Here, we describe an experimental observation of a new resonant state, which is located close to the ω c frequency and is established because of azimuthally-dependent trapping electric fields of the recently developed ICR cells with narrow aperture detection electrodes. We show that in mass spectra, peaks close to ω + frequencies can be reduced to negligible levels relative to peaks close to ω c frequencies. Due to reduced errors with which the ω c quantity is obtained, the new resonance provides a means of cyclotron frequency measurements with precision greater than that achieved when ω + frequency peaks are employed. The described phenomenon may be considered for a development into an FT-ICR MS technology with increased mass accuracy for applications in basic research, life, and environmental sciences. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  14. Electron cyclotron emission from the PLT tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosea, J.; Arunasalam, V.; Cano, R.

    1977-07-01

    Experimental measurements of electron cyclotron emission from the PLT tokamak plasma reveal that black-body emission occurs at the fundamental frequency. Such emission, not possible by direct thermal excitation of electromagnetic waves, is herein attributed to thermal excitation of electrostatic (Bernstein) waves which then mode convert into electromagnetic waves. The local feature of the electrostatic wave generation permits spatially and time resolved measurements of electron temperature as for the second harmonic emission

  15. Cyclotron heating rate in a parabolic mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.K.

    1984-01-01

    Cyclotron resonance heating rates are found for a parabolic magnetic mirror. The equation of motion for perpendicular velocity is solved, including the radial magnetic field terms neglected in earlier papers. The expression for heating rate involves an infinite series of Anger's and Weber's functions, compared with a single term of the unrevised expression. The new results show an increase of heating rate compared with previous results. A simple expression is given for the ratio of the heating rates. (author)

  16. Use of maze in cyclotron hoppers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Fernando A.; Alves, Juliano S.; Fochesatto, Cintia; Cerioli, Luciane; Borges, Joao Alfredo; Gonzalez, Delfin; Silva, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: the increasing number of cyclotrons in Brazil due to constitutional amendment 49 /06 that enabled the production of radiopharmaceuticals with a short half - life by private companies. The radionuclides used for PET - CT require production centers near or within the diagnostic centers. In order to minimize maintenance and operating risks, gaining efficiency, our facility was the first in Brazil to use the access to a cyclotron bunker via maze, rather than armored door stopper type. Materials: the design calculations were based on the Monte Carlo method (MCNP5 - Monte Carlo N-Particletransportcode version 5). At the ends of the labyrinth are installed a door of polyethylene, for thermalization of neutrons, and other of wood for limiting access. Both legs of the maze have wall thickness of 100cm. In inspection Brazilian CNEN realize measures of dose rate for neutrons and gamma 9 points: 7 around the bunker, 1 over the bunker and 1 in the exhaust with the cyclotron operating with maximum load, double beam of 50uA for 2 hours. After commissioning were carried out around the bunker, the following measures: cumulative dose in three months with dosimeters for neutron rate dose with a gas proportional detector type filled with 3 He and polyethylene neutron moderator and dose rate with a Geiger - Mueller detector for gamma radiation. Readings with neutron detectors were classified as background radiation and dose rates were always below the limits established in standard EN 3.01, and the calculation of the predicted regardless of the intensity of irradiation inside the bunker. Conclusion: the use of labyrinths as a way to access the bunkers cyclotron has been shown to be effective as the radiation shielding and efficient by allowing quick and easy access, virtually eliminating the maintenance

  17. DAISY - the Oslo Cyclotron data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsoey, T.

    1991-08-01

    The new CACTUS multidetector system for the Oslo Cyclotron consists of 8 particle telescopes, 28 NAI detectors and 2 Ge detectors. Each detector gives rise to one energy parameter and one time parameter. Thus, a total of 80 parameters are present. The counting rate is 100 kByte/s for the highest beam intensities. A new data acquisition system, DAISY, satisfying these demands has been designed. The present report is intended as a complete technical manual for the new system. 24 refs

  18. Electron cyclotron emission measurement in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javon, C.

    1991-06-01

    Electron cyclotron radiation from Tore-Supra is measured with Michelson and Fabry-Perot interferometers. Calibration methods, essential for this diagnostic, are developed allowing the determination of electron temperature in the plasma. In particular the feasibility of Fabry-Perot interferometer calibration by an original method is demonstrated. A simulation code is developed for modelling non-thermal electron population in these discharges using measurements in non-inductive current generation regime [fr

  19. Cyclotron heating rate in a parabolic mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.K.

    1983-03-01

    Cyclotron resonance heating rates are found for a parabolic magnetic mirror. The equation of motion for perpendicular velocity is solved, including the radial magnetic field terms neglected in earlier papers. The expression for heating rate involves an infinite series of Anger's and Weber's functions, compared with a single term for the unrevised expression. The new results show an increase of heating rate compared with previous results. A simple expression is given for the ratio of the heating rates

  20. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, S.M.; Finn, R.D.

    1992-08-04

    Our goal is to improve the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis, treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The grant includes 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry/Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. The radiochemistry group seeks to develop innovative cyclotron targetry, radiopharmaceuticals, and radiolabeled antibodies, which are then used to assess important unanswered questions in tumor pharmacology and immunology. Examples include selected positron emitting radionuclides, such as Iodine-124, and Ga-66; I-124, I-123, I-131 labeled iododeoxyuridine, C-11 colchicine, and antimetabolites, like C-11 methotrexate; and radiolabeled antibodies, 3F8, M195, A33, and MRK16 for application in the pharmacology and immunology projects. The pharmacology program studies tumor resistance to chemotherapy, particularly the phenomenon of multidrug resistance and the relationship between tumor uptake and retention and the tumor response for anti-metabolite drugs. The immunology program studies the physiology of antibody localization at the tissue level as the basis for novel approaches to improving tumor localization such as through the use of an artificial lymphatic system which mechanically reduces intratumoral pressures in tumors in vivo. Quantitative imaging approaches based on PET and SPECT in radioimmunotherapy are studied to give greater insight into the physiology of tumor localization and dosimetry.

  1. Transparency of Magnetized Plasma at Cyclotron Frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. Shvets; J.S. Wurtele

    2002-03-01

    Electromagnetic radiation is strongly absorbed by a magnetized plasma if the radiation frequency equals the cyclotron frequency of plasma electrons. It is demonstrated that absorption can be completely canceled in the presence of a magnetostatic field of an undulator or a second radiation beam, resulting in plasma transparency at the cyclotron frequency. This effect is reminiscent of the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) of the three-level atomic systems, except that it occurs in a completely classical plasma. Unlike the atomic systems, where all the excited levels required for EIT exist in each atom, this classical EIT requires the excitation of the nonlocal plasma oscillation. The complexity of the plasma system results in an index of refraction at the cyclotron frequency that differs from unity. Lagrangian description was used to elucidate the physics and enable numerical simulation of the plasma transparency and control of group and phase velocity. This control naturally leads to applications for electromagnetic pulse compression in the plasma and electron/ion acceleration

  2. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, S.M.; Finn, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Our goal is to improve the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis, treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The grant includes 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry/Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. The radiochemistry group seeks to develop innovative cyclotron targetry, radiopharmaceuticals, and radiolabeled antibodies, which are then used to assess important unanswered questions in tumor pharmacology and immunology. Examples include selected positron emitting radionuclides, such as Iodine-124, and Ga-66; I-124, I-123, I-131 labeled iododeoxyuridine, C-11 colchicine, and antimetabolites, like C-11 methotrexate; and radiolabeled antibodies, 3F8, M195, A33, and MRK16 for application in the pharmacology and immunology projects. The pharmacology program studies tumor resistance to chemotherapy, particularly the phenomenon of multidrug resistance and the relationship between tumor uptake and retention and the tumor response for anti-metabolite drugs. The immunology program studies the physiology of antibody localization at the tissue level as the basis for novel approaches to improving tumor localization such as through the use of an artificial lymphatic system which mechanically reduces intratumoral pressures in tumors in vivo. Quantitative imaging approaches based on PET and SPECT in radioimmunotherapy are studied to give greater insight into the physiology of tumor localization and dosimetry

  3. Nonlinear cyclotron absorption and stimulated scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, T.H.

    1986-01-01

    In electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH), wave sources heating a plasma linearly with respect to intensity; but as the intensity of ECRH gets larger, there might appear nonlinear effects that would result in cutoff of net absorption. This thesis uses quantum mechanical theory to derive a threshold microwave intensity for nonlinear absorption. The quantum mechanical theory estimates that the threshold microwave intensity for nonlinear absorption is about 10 5 watts/cm 2 for a microwave heating experiment (T/sub e/ = 100 ev, λ = 3,783 cm, B = 2.5 kG). This value seems large considering the present power capabilities of microwave sources (10 2 ∼ 10 3 watts/cm 2 ), but for a low temperature plasma, this threshold will go down. There is another nonlinear phenomenon called stimulated cyclotron scattering that enhances photon scattering by electrons gyrating in a magnetic field. This is expected to prevent incoming photons from arriving at the central region of the fusion plasma, where absorption mainly takes place. Theory based on a photon transport model predicts that the threshold intensity for the stimulated cyclotron scattering is about 10 4 watts/cm 2 for the plasma parameters mentioned above. This value seems large also, but a longer wavelength of microwaves and a larger magnitude magnetic field, which will be the case in reactor type facilities, will lower the threshold intensity to levels comparable with the currently developed microwave sources

  4. TFTR vertically viewing electron cyclotron emission diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.

    1990-01-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Michelson interferometer has a spectral coverage of 75--540 GHz, allowing measurement of the first four electron cyclotron harmonics. Until recently the instrument has been configured to view the TFTR plasma on the horizontal midplane, primarily in order to measure the electron temperature profile. Electron cyclotron emission (ECE) extraordinary mode spectra from TFTR Supershot plasmas exhibit a pronounced, spectrally narrow feature below the second harmonic. A similar feature is seen with the ECE radiometer diagnostic below the electron cyclotron fundamental frequency in the ordinary mode. Analysis of the ECE spectra indicates the possibility of a non-Maxwellian 40--80 keV tail on the electron distribution in or near the core. During 1990 three vertical views with silicon carbide viewing targets will be installed to provide a direct measurement of the electron energy distribution at major radii of 2.54, 2.78, and 3.09 m with an energy resolution of approximately 20% at 100 keV. To provide the maximum flexibility, the optical components for the vertical views will be remotely controlled to allow the Michelson interferometer to be reconfigured to either the midplane horizontal view or one of the three vertical views between plasma shots

  5. Temperature control of a cyclotron magnet for stabilization of the JAERI AVF cyclotron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, S.; Arakawa, K.; Fukuda, M.; Nakamura, Y.; Yokota, W.; Ishimoto, T.; Kurashima, S.; Ishibori, I.; Nara, T.; Agematsu, T.; Tamura, H.; Matsumura, A.; Sano, M.; Tachikawa, T.

    2001-01-01

    Frequent corrections of the magnetic field of the JAERI AVF cyclotron were required for keeping a beam current constant during long time operation. We observed correlation between the magnetic field and the temperature of the cyclotron magnet yoke by measuring the magnetic field with an NMR probe and the temperature with platinum resistance thermometers. As a result, this instability of a cyclotron beam was induced by temperature-change of the magnet yoke caused mainly by thermal conduction from the main coil. To restrain the thermal conduction to the yoke, we have inserted temperature-controlled copper plates between the yoke and the main coil. In addition, a temperature control system for the cooling water of the trim coils has been installed, which is independent of the total cooling system for controlling the pole tip temperature. An optimum condition of the temperature control systems for stabilizing the magnetic field has been investigated

  6. Electron cyclotron heating and current drive in toroidal geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kritz, A.H.

    1993-03-01

    The Principal Investigator has continued to work on problems associated both with the deposition and with the emission of electron cyclotron heating power electron cyclotron heating in toroidal plasmas. Inparticular, the work has focused on the use of electron cyclotron heating to stabilize q = 1 and q = 2 instabilities in tokamaks and on the use of electron cyclotron emission as a plasma diagnostic. The research described in this report has been carried out in collaboration with scientists at Princeton, MIT and Livermore. The Principal Investigator is now employed at Lehigh University, and a small group effort on electron cyclotron heating in plasmas has begun to evolve at Lehigh involving undergraduate and graduate students. Work has also been done in support of the electron cyclotron heating and current drive program at the Center for Research in Plasma Physics in Lausanne, Switzerland.

  7. arXiv Cyclotrons: Magnetic Design and Beam Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Zaremba, Simon

    Classical, isochronous, and synchro-cyclotrons are introduced. Transverse and longitudinal beam dynamics in these accelerators are covered. The problem of vertical focusing and iscochronism in compact isochronous cyclotrons is treated in some detail. Different methods for isochronization of the cyclotron magnetic field are discussed. The limits of the classical cyclotron are explained. Typical features of the synchro-cyclotron, such as the beam capture problem, stable phase motion, and the extraction problem are discussed. The main design goals for beam injection are explained and special problems related to a central region with an internal ion source are considered. The principle of a Penning ion gauge source is addressed. The issue of vertical focusing in the cyclotron centre is briefly discussed. Several examples of numerical simulations are given. Different methods of (axial) injection are briefly outlined. Different solutions for beam extraction are described. These include the internal target, extracti...

  8. [Anatomical Vitamin C-Research during National Socialism and the Post-war Period: Max Clara's Human Experiments at the Munich Anatomical Institute].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schûtz, Mathias; Schochow, Maximilian; Waschke, Jens; Marckmann, Georg; Steger, Florian

    2014-01-01

    In autumn of 1942, Max Clara (1899-1966) became chairman of the anatomical institute Munich. There, he intensified his research concerning the proof of vitamin C with the bodies of executed prisoners which were delivered by the Munich-Stadelheim prison. This research on human organs was pursued by applying ascorbic acid (Cebion) to prisoners before their execution. The paper investigates this intensified and radicalized anatomical research through human experiments, which Max Clara conducted in Munich and published from Istanbul during the postwar years, as well as its scientific references from the Nazi period.

  9. Proceedings of eighth joint workshop on electron cyclotron emission and electron cyclotron resonance heating. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The theory of electron cyclotron resonance phenomena is highly developed. The main theoretical tools are well established, generally accepted and able to give a satisfactory description of the main results obtained in electron cyclotron emission, absorption and current drive experiments. In this workshop some advanced theoretical and numerical tools have been presented (e.g., 3-D Fokker-Planck codes, treatment of the r.f. beam as a whole, description of non-linear and finite-beam effects) together with the proposal for new scenarios for ECE and ECA measurements (e.g., for diagnosing suprathermal populations and their radial transport). (orig.)

  10. Proceedings of eighth joint workshop on electron cyclotron emission and electron cyclotron resonance heating. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The theory of electron cyclotron resonance phenomena is highly developed. The main theoretical tools are well established, generally accepted and able to give a satisfactory description of the main results obtained in electron cyclotron emission, absorption and current drive experiments. In this workshop some advanced theoretical and numerical tools have been presented (e.g., 3-D Fokker-Planck codes, treatment of the r.f. beam as a whole, description of non-linear and finite-beam effects) together with the proposal for new scenarios for ECE and ECA measurements (e.g., for diagnosing suprathermal populations and their radial transport). (orig.)

  11. Generation of a high-brightness pulsed positron beam for the Munich scanning positron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piochacz, Christian

    2009-11-20

    Within the present work the prerequisites for the operation of the Munich scanning positron microscope (SPM) at the high intense neutron induced positron source Munich (NEPOMUC) were established. This was accomplished in two steps: Firstly, a re-moderation device was installed at the positron beam facility NEPOMUC, which enhances the brightness of the positron beam for all connected experiments. The second step was the design, set up and initial operation of the SPM interface for the high efficient conversion of the continuous beam into a bunched beam. The in-pile positron source NEPOMUC creates a positron beam with a diameter of typically 7 mm, a kinetic energy of 1 keV and an energy spread of 50 eV. The NEPOMUC re-moderator generates from this beam a low energy positron beam (20 - 200 eV) with a diameter of less than 2 mm and an energy spread well below 2.5 eV. This was achieved with an excellent total efficiency of 6.55{+-}0.25 %. The re-moderator was not only the rst step to implement the SPM at NEPOMUc, it enables also the operation of the pulsed low energy positron beam system (PLEPS). Within the present work, at this spectrometer rst positron lifetime measurements were performed, which revealed the defect types of an ion irradiated uranium molybdenum alloy. Moreover, the instruments which were already connected to the positron beam facility bene ts considerably of the high brightness enhancement. In the new SPM interface an additional re-moderation stage enhances the brightness of the beam even more and will enable positron lifetime measurements at the SPM with a lateral resolution below 1 {mu}m. The efficiency of the re-moderation process in this second stage was 24.5{+-}4.5 %. In order to convert high efficiently the continuous positron beam into a pulsed beam with a repetition rate of 50 MHz and a pulse duration of less than 50 ps, a sub-harmonic pre-bucher was combined with two sine wave bunchers. Furthermore, the additional re-moderation stage of the

  12. Generation of a high-brightness pulsed positron beam for the Munich scanning positron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piochacz, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Within the present work the prerequisites for the operation of the Munich scanning positron microscope (SPM) at the high intense neutron induced positron source Munich (NEPOMUC) were established. This was accomplished in two steps: Firstly, a re-moderation device was installed at the positron beam facility NEPOMUC, which enhances the brightness of the positron beam for all connected experiments. The second step was the design, set up and initial operation of the SPM interface for the high efficient conversion of the continuous beam into a bunched beam. The in-pile positron source NEPOMUC creates a positron beam with a diameter of typically 7 mm, a kinetic energy of 1 keV and an energy spread of 50 eV. The NEPOMUC re-moderator generates from this beam a low energy positron beam (20 - 200 eV) with a diameter of less than 2 mm and an energy spread well below 2.5 eV. This was achieved with an excellent total efficiency of 6.55±0.25 %. The re-moderator was not only the rst step to implement the SPM at NEPOMUc, it enables also the operation of the pulsed low energy positron beam system (PLEPS). Within the present work, at this spectrometer rst positron lifetime measurements were performed, which revealed the defect types of an ion irradiated uranium molybdenum alloy. Moreover, the instruments which were already connected to the positron beam facility bene ts considerably of the high brightness enhancement. In the new SPM interface an additional re-moderation stage enhances the brightness of the beam even more and will enable positron lifetime measurements at the SPM with a lateral resolution below 1 μm. The efficiency of the re-moderation process in this second stage was 24.5±4.5 %. In order to convert high efficiently the continuous positron beam into a pulsed beam with a repetition rate of 50 MHz and a pulse duration of less than 50 ps, a sub-harmonic pre-bucher was combined with two sine wave bunchers. Furthermore, the additional re-moderation stage of the SPM

  13. Ionospheric Modification at Twice the Electron Cyclotron Frequency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Djuth, F. T; Pedersen, T. R; Gerken, E. A; Bernhardt, P. A; Selcher, C. A; Bristow, W. A; Kosch, M. J

    2005-01-01

    .... Initial observations indicate that greatly enhanced airglow occurs whenever the transmission frequency approximately matches the second electron cyclotron harmonic at the height of the upper hybrid resonance...

  14. Cyclotron will not survive yet this year without state support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcan, P.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the project of the Cyclotron Center of the Slovak republic is described. On the basis of this project the state joint-stock company Biont was constituted. Small cyclotron is in operation; big cyclotron is in process of manufacture and it will be put in operation in 2007. Small cyclotron will be used for production of radiopharmaceuticals. Positron emission tomograph (PET) in Oncological Institute of St. Elizabeth (in Bratislava) and gamma camera in Central Military Hospital (in Ruzomberok) are constituents of the Biont. The PET will be also in Biont. The hadron therapy of ophthalmic tumors is planned. Financial plans of the Biont up to 2009 are presented

  15. Cyclotron based nuclear science. Progress report, April 1, 1985-March 31, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngblood, D.H.

    1986-08-01

    Progress report for cyclotron based nuclear science cyclotron facility are summarized. Research is described under the headings heavy ion reactions, nuclear theory, atomic studies and activation analysis, superconducting cyclotron and instrumentation. Publications are listed

  16. A line-of-sight electron cyclotron emission receiver for electron cyclotron resonance heating feedback control of tearing modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oosterbeek, J.W.; Bürger, A.; Westerhof, E.

    2008-01-01

    An electron cyclotron emission (ECE) receiver inside the electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) transmission line has been brought into operation. The ECE is extracted by placing a quartz plate acting as a Fabry-Perot interferometer under an angle inside the electron cyclotron wave (ECW) beam...... for the control of plasma instabilities this line-of-sight ECE diagnostic removes the need to localize the instabilities in absolute coordinates. (C) 2008 American Institute of Physics....

  17. [Max Isserlin, Kantian orientation at Königsberg, psychotherapist with Kraepelin, founder of child psychiatry at Munich, emigrant to Britain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, U H

    2002-01-01

    This account of the life and work of Max Isserlin (1879 - 1941) wants to be a reminder of a German-Jewish fate next to Kraepelin and as a forced emigrant. Immediately after his studies at Königsberg Isserlin in 1903 came to Kraepelin at Heidelberg, later he followed him to Munich. All his life he kept a Kantian orientation and defended Kraepelin's positions out of this background. Kraepelin entrusted to him all of psychotherapy, theory and practice, which Isserlin for at least 18 years gave courses of in Kraepelin's department. His textbook of psychotherapy thus transmissions Kraepelins convictions about this topic also. During World War I Isserlin was the head of a field-hospital for brain damaged soldiers and continued working this way after the end of the war. Finally he became the founder of child psychiatry in Munich, until he was forced to leave Germany for Britain with a heavy heart.

  18. Consumption Patterns of Nightlife Attendees in Munich: A Latent-Class Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannemann, Tessa-Virginia; Kraus, Ludwig; Piontek, Daniela

    2017-09-19

    The affinity for substance use among patrons of nightclubs has been well established. With novel psychoactive substances (NPS) quickly emerging on the European drug market, trends, and patterns of use are potentially changing. (1) The detection of subgroups of consumers in the electronic dance music scene of a major German metropolitan city, (2) describing the consumption patterns of these subgroups, (3) exploring the prevalence and type of NPS consumption in this population at nightlife events in Munich. A total of 1571 patrons answered questions regarding their own substance use and the emergence of NPS as well as their experience with these substances. A latent class analysis was employed to detect consumption patterns within the sample. A four class model was determined reflecting different consumption patterns: the conservative class (34.9%) whose substance was limited to cannabis; the traditional class (36.6%) which especially consumed traditional club drugs; the psychedelic class (17.5%) which, in addition to traditional club drugs also consumed psychedelic drugs; and an unselective class (10.9%) which displayed the greatest likelihood of consumption of all assessed drugs. "Smoking mixtures" and methylone were the new substances mentioned most often, the number of substances mentioned differed between latent classes. Specific strategies are needed to reduce harm in those displaying the riskiest substance use. Although NPS use is still a fringe phenomenon its prevalence is greater in this subpopulation than in the general population, especially among users in the high-risk unselective class.

  19. High-sensitivity AMS for heavy nuclides at the Munich Tandem accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Knie, K; Korschinek, G; Rugel, G; Rühm, W; Wallner, C

    2000-01-01

    During the last years we have aimed at utilizing the high energy achievable at the Munich MP Tandem (TV=14 MV) for maximum sensitivity. One of our interests is the measurements of radionuclides around A=60 ( sup 5 sup 3 Mn, sup 6 sup 0 Fe, sup 6 sup 3 Ni) because of their high scientific potentials. However, in this mass region there are usually strong limitations in sensitivity due to a large isobaric background. Its suppression is performed by means of a gas-filled magnet and a multi DELTA E ionization chamber. A Wien filter and a time-of-flight path allow a further suppression of (non-isobaric) background. The optimization of the setup as a whole yielded detection limits of sup 5 sup 3 Mn/Mn approx 2x10 sup - sup 1 sup 4 sup 6 sup 3 Ni/Ni approx 2x10 sup - sup 1 sup 4 and sup 6 sup 0 Fe/Fe approx 2x10 sup - sup 1 sup 6 , which presently cannot be achieved by any other detection method. The overall efficiency (including ion source) is typically 10 sup - sup 5 -10 sup - sup 4. The gas-filled magnet allows an...

  20. Live cell imaging at the Munich ion microbeam SNAKE - a status report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Guido A; Siebenwirth, Christian; Drexler, Sophie E; Girst, Stefanie; Greubel, Christoph; Dollinger, Günther; Friedl, Anna A

    2015-02-18

    Ion microbeams are important tools in radiobiological research. Still, the worldwide number of ion microbeam facilities where biological experiments can be performed is limited. Even fewer facilities combine ion microirradiation with live-cell imaging to allow microscopic observation of cellular response reactions starting very fast after irradiation and continuing for many hours. At SNAKE, the ion microbeam facility at the Munich 14 MV tandem accelerator, a large variety of biological experiments are performed on a regular basis. Here, recent developments and ongoing research projects at the ion microbeam SNAKE are presented with specific emphasis on live-cell imaging experiments. An overview of the technical details of the setup is given, including examples of suitable biological samples. By ion beam focusing to submicrometer beam spot size and single ion detection it is possible to target subcellular structures with defined numbers of ions. Focusing of high numbers of ions to single spots allows studying the influence of high local damage density on recruitment of damage response proteins.

  1. Live cell imaging at the Munich ion microbeam SNAKE – a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drexler, Guido A; Siebenwirth, Christian; Drexler, Sophie E; Girst, Stefanie; Greubel, Christoph; Dollinger, Günther; Friedl, Anna A

    2015-01-01

    Ion microbeams are important tools in radiobiological research. Still, the worldwide number of ion microbeam facilities where biological experiments can be performed is limited. Even fewer facilities combine ion microirradiation with live-cell imaging to allow microscopic observation of cellular response reactions starting very fast after irradiation and continuing for many hours. At SNAKE, the ion microbeam facility at the Munich 14 MV tandem accelerator, a large variety of biological experiments are performed on a regular basis. Here, recent developments and ongoing research projects at the ion microbeam SNAKE are presented with specific emphasis on live-cell imaging experiments. An overview of the technical details of the setup is given, including examples of suitable biological samples. By ion beam focusing to submicrometer beam spot size and single ion detection it is possible to target subcellular structures with defined numbers of ions. Focusing of high numbers of ions to single spots allows studying the influence of high local damage density on recruitment of damage response proteins. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13014-015-0350-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  2. Sophisticated control system. Integrated power supply systems in the Munich natural history museum building ('zoologische Staatssammlung'); Mit ausgefeilter Anlagensteuerung. Energieverbundsysteme in der zoologischen Staatssammlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottitsch, Robert [Ottitsch GmbH und Co. KG, Ingenieurbuero Gebaeudetechnik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Since 1985, the 'Zoologische Staatssammlung' of Munich, one of the world's biggest natural history collection of the world, has its own museum building in the Munich district of Obermenzing. Recently, the heating and cooling system of the building was modernised. The user, owner and projecting expert cooperated in developing a heating and cooling centre with a modern control system which is characterised by high energy efficiency and a short amortisation period. (orig.)

  3. Emergency planning of the city of Munich with reference to nuclear facilities, especially the nuclear power stations Isar I and II, resp. the reactor in Garching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    During the hearing of Munich's city council of 13.7.1990 thirteen experts were heard on the following subjects: Hazard potential of Isar reactors and FRM reactor and appropriate radioactive waste transports; responsibilities in emergency planning. Some of the experts cannot visualize a major accident and propose not to cater for it. Shelters and evacuation are not planned for Munich, both solutions not being realizable for all inhabitants. Nuclear phaseout is seen by some as a measure of prevention. (HSCH) [de

  4. Isotope separation by ionic cyclotron resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compant La Fontaine, A.; Gil, C.; Louvet, P.

    1986-10-01

    The principle of the process of isotopic separation by ionic cyclotron resonance is explained succinctly. The theoretical calculation of the isotopic effect is given as functions of the electric and magnetic fields in the frame of single particle approximation and of plasma collective theory. Then, the main parts of the demonstration device which is in operation at the CEA, are described here: the supraconducting magnetic field, the used diagnostics, the principle of the source and the collecting apparatus. Some experimental results are given for chromium. The application of the process to ponderal separation of metal isotopes, as chromium, nickel and molybdenum is discussed in view of production of medical, structural and irradiation isotopes

  5. Electron cyclotron resonance heating of tandem mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porkolab, M.

    1978-12-19

    Heating electrons by microwave power near either the electron cyclotron frequency or its harmonic is analyzed in some detail. The purpose of this study is to determine whether electrons in current or future mirror devices could be heated by electromagnetic waves in this frequency range. Absorption lengths, accessibility conditions, and appropriate polarization are among the concerns studied. It is found that the Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX) may efficiently be heated by the extraordinary mode at omega = omega either in the solenoid-to-plug transition region or near the center of the plug at densities napprox. = 10/sup 13/cm/sup -3/.

  6. Properties of the TRIUMF cyclotron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craddock, M.K.; Blackmore, E.W.; Dutto, G.; Kost, C.J.; Mackenzie, G.H.; Richardson, J.R.; Root, L.W.; Schmor, P.

    1975-08-01

    Eight percent of the 300 keV d.c. beam from the ion source can be transmitted to 500 MeV in the TRIUMF cyclotron, without using the buncher. The beam losses are entirely accounted for; there are no significant losses due to orbit dynamic problems during 1500 turns of acceleration. The phase history is in good agreement with predictions based on the magnetic field survey. The effect of the harmonic coils and injection parameters on beam quality has been investigated. (author)

  7. RELATIVISTIC CYCLOTRON INSTABILITY IN ANISOTROPIC PLASMAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López, Rodrigo A.; Moya, Pablo S.; Muñoz, Víctor; Valdivia, J. Alejandro [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile); Navarro, Roberto E.; Araneda, Jaime A. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Viñas, Adolfo F., E-mail: rlopez186@gmail.com [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Heliophysics Science Division, Geospace Physics Laboratory, Mail Code 673, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-11-20

    A sufficiently large temperature anisotropy can sometimes drive various types of electromagnetic plasma micro-instabilities, which can play an important role in the dynamics of relativistic pair plasmas in space, astrophysics, and laboratory environments. Here, we provide a detailed description of the cyclotron instability of parallel propagating electromagnetic waves in relativistic pair plasmas on the basis of a relativistic anisotropic distribution function. Using plasma kinetic theory and particle-in-cell simulations, we study the influence of the relativistic temperature and the temperature anisotropy on the collective and noncollective modes of these plasmas. Growth rates and dispersion curves from the linear theory show a good agreement with simulations results.

  8. Ion–Cyclotron Resonance Frequency Interval Dependence on the O ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    observational data obtained from SOHO which suggests the ion–cyclotron resonance. (Marsch & Tu 1997; Doyle et al. 1999; Cranmer et al. 1999). In the kinetic model, Vlasov equation governs the time evolution of the distri- bution function of the plasma as a result of the energy transfer from ion–cyclotron waves to particles.

  9. Computer modeling of magnetic structure for IC-35 cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alenitskij, Yu.G.; Morozov, N.A.

    1998-01-01

    An extensive series of calculations has been carried out in order to design the magnetic structure of the IC-35 cyclotron for radioisotope production. The calculations were carried out by 2-D POISCR code. The average magnetic field and its variation were produced with the help of two different calculation models. The parameters of the cyclotron magnetic system are presented

  10. Lower-hybrid absorption at the ion cyclotron harmonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, S.

    1975-01-01

    In the presence of magnetic field gradients, the lower-hybrid wave can be absorbed through linear collisionless damping at the location of cyclotron or cyclotron harmonic resonances acting as singular turning points in the path of the advancing wave-front. (Auth.)

  11. A new generation of medical cyclotrons for the 90's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, B.F.

    1995-08-01

    Cyclotrons continue to be efficient accelerators for use in radio-isotope production. In recent years, developments in accelerator technology have greatly increased the practical beam current in these machines while also improving the overall system reliability. These developments combined with the development of new isotopes for medicine and industry, and a retiring of older machines indicates a strong future for commercial cyclotrons. In this paper the authors will survey recent developments in the areas of cyclotron technology as they relate to the new generation of commercial cyclotrons. Existing and potential markets for these cyclotrons will be presented. They will also discuss the possibility of systems capable of extracted energies up to 150 MeV and extracted beam currents of up to 2.0 mA

  12. Operation of the Karlsruhe Isochronous Cyclotron in 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, F.; Schweickert, H.

    1976-06-01

    The operation of the Karlsruhe Isochronous Cyclotron in 1975 is briefly surveyed. The main reasons for a very short period for maintenance, repair and installation, and several additional efforts to improve the reliability of the accelerator installation, are discussed. The status and the results of several technical developments for the cyclotron are described: 1) the axial injection system; 2) computer aided cyclotron operation; 3) ion source development; 4) capacitive current measurement at the external beam; 5) new correction coils for the cyclotron; 6) improvement of the neutron time-of-flight spectrometer. As there is an increasing interest in using this type of accelerator for research in fields other than nuclear physics, it was felt appropriate to present short surveys on investigations at our cyclotron in 1975 in the fields of: 1) solid state physics; 2) engineering; 3) materials research; 4) nuclear medicine; 5) nuclear chemistry. (orig.) [de

  13. A new generation of medical cyclotrons for the 90's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, B.F.

    1995-08-01

    Cyclotrons continue to be efficient accelerators for use in radio-isotope production. In recent years, developments in accelerator technology have greatly increased the practical beam current in these machines while also improving the overall system reliability. These developments combined with the development of new isotopes for medicine and industry, and a retiring of older machines indicates a strong future for commercial cyclotrons. In this paper we will survey recent developments in the areas of cyclotron technology as they relate to the new generation of commercial cyclotrons. Existing and potential markets for these cyclotrons will be presented. We will also discuss the possibility of systems capable of extracted energies up to 150 MeV and extracted beam currents of up to 2.0 mA. (author)

  14. Isochronous magnetic field shimming method for compact cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chuan; Yang Jianjun; Zhong Junqing; Zhang Tianjue

    2009-01-01

    A 100 MeV H-cyclotron, CYCIAE-100, is under construction at China Institute of Atomic Energy. To carry out the experimental verification of CYCIAE-100, a central region model (CRM) cyclotron was developed for the study on various technical aspects, including the main magnet, beam diagnostics, etc. An optimized multiple linear regression shimming method was investigated based on accurate mapping and bar shimming of the CRM cyclotron. By using the magnet mapping data of CRM cyclotron and the numerical simulation of the field by 3D FEM analysis, the optimized multiple linear regression shimming method was realized and verified. This method is a pre-research for the isochronous magnetic field shimming of CYCIAE-100. It can be applied in the isochronous magnetic field shimming of the compact cyclotron, which meets the requirement for beam dynamics analysis. (authors)

  15. Electrostatic ion cyclotron velocity shear instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemons, D.S.; Winske, D.; Gary, S.P.

    1992-01-01

    An electrostatic ion cyclotron instability driven by sheared velocity flow perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field is investigated in the local approximation. The dispersion equation, which includes all kinetic effects and involves only one important parameter, is cast in the form of Gordeyev integrals and solved numerically. The instability occurs roughly at multiples of the ion cyclotron frequency (but modified by the shear) with the growth rate of the individual harmonics overlapping in wavenumber. At small values of the shear parameter, the instability exists in two branches, one at long wavelength, κρ i ∼ 0.5, and one at short wavelength, κρ i > 1.5 (κρ i is the wavenumber normalized to the ion gyroradius). At larger values of the shear parameter only the longer wavelength branch persists. The growth rate of the long wavelength mode, maximized over wavenumber and frequency, increases monotonically with the shear parameter. Properties of the instability are compared to those of Ganguli et al. obtained in the nonlocal limit

  16. Electron cyclotron emission from tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sillen, R.M.J.

    1986-01-01

    Emitted electron radiation can be used as a diagnostic signal to measure the electron temperature of a thermonuclear plasma. This type of diagnostics is well established in tokamak physics. In ch. 2 of this thesis the development, calibration and special design features are treated of a six-channel prototype of a twelve-channel grating spectrometer which is built for JET at Culham for electron cyclotron emission (ECE) measurements. In order to test this prototype measurements have been performed with the T-10 tokamak at the Kurchatov Institute in Moscow. With this prototype nearly half of the temperature profile of the T-10 could be measured. Detailed observations of sawteeth instabilities have been performed. Plasma heating by electron cyclotron resonance heating experiments was studied. A detailed description of these measurements and results is given in ch. 3. Often ECE spectra from tokamaks showed non-thermal features. In order to interprete them a computer code Notec has been developed. This code that calculates the ECE radiation emerging from the plasma for a 3-D configuration, is described in ch. 4. Some preliminary results and applications are presented. (Auth.)

  17. Cyclotron Production of Technetium-99m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Katherine M.

    Technetium-99m (99mTc) has emerged as the most widely used radionuclide in medicine and is currently obtained from a 99Mo/ 99mTc generator system. At present, there are only a handful of ageing reactors worldwide capable of producing large quantities of the parent isotope, 99Mo, and owing to the ever growing shutdown periods for maintenance and repair of these ageing reactors, the reliable supply 99mTc has been compromised in recent years. With an interest in alternative strategies for producing this key medical isotope, this thesis focuses on several technical challenges related to the direct cyclotron production of 99mTc via the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc reaction. In addition to evaluating the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc and 100Mo(p,x)99Mo reactions, this work presented the first experimental evaluation of the 100Mo(p,2n) 99gTc excitation function in the range of 8-18 MeV. Thick target calculations suggested that large quantities of cyclotron-produced 99mTc may be possible. For example, a 6 hr irradiation at 500 μA with an energy window of 18→10 MeV is expected to yield 1.15 TBq of 99mTc. The level of coproduced 99gTc contaminant was found to be on par with the current 99Mo/99mTc generator standard eluted with a 24 hr frequency. Highly enriched 100Mo was required as the target material for 99mTc production and a process for recycling of this expensive material is presented. An 87% recovery yield is reported, including metallic target preparation, irradiation, 99mTc extraction, molybdate isolation, and finally hydrogen reduction to the metal. Further improvements are expected with additional optimization experiments. A method for forming structurally stable metallic molybdenum targets has also been developed. These targets are capable of withstanding more than a kilowatt of beam power and the reliable production and extraction of Curie quantities of 99mTc has been demonstrated. With the end-goal of using the cyclotron-produced 99mTc clinically, the quality of the cyclotron

  18. Investigation of the transition from forced to natural convection in the research reactor Munich II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skreba, S.; Adamek, J.; Unger, H.

    1999-01-01

    The new research reactor Munich II (FRM-II), which is under construction at the Technical University Munich, Germany, makes use of a newly developed compact reactor core consisting of a single fuel element, which is assembled of two concentric pipes. Between the fuel element's inner and outer pipe 113 involutely bent fuel plates are placed rotationally symmetric, forming 113 cooling channels of a constant width of 2.2 mm. After a shut down of the reactor, battery supported cooling pumps are started by the reactor safety system in order to remove the decay heat by a downwards directed forced flow. Three hours after they have been started, the cooling pumps are shut down and so-called 'natural convection flaps' are opened by their own weight. Through a flow path, which is provided by the opening of the natural convection flaps, the decay heat is given off to the water in the reactor pool after the direction of the flow has changed and an upwards directed natural convection flow has developed. At the Department for Nuclear and New Energy Systems of the Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany, a test facility has been built in order to confirm the concept of the decay heat removal in the FRM-II, to acquire data of single and two phase natural convection flows and to detect the dry out in a narrow channel. The thermohydraulics of the FRM-II are simulated by an electrically heated test section, which represents one cooling channel of the fuel element. At first experiments have been performed, which simulated the transition from forced to natural convection in the core of the FRM-II, both at normal operation and at a complete loss of the decay heat removal pumps. In case of normal operation, the transition from forced to natural convection takes place single phased. If a complete loss of the active decay heat removal system occurs, the decay heat removal is ensured by a quasi-steady two phase flow. In a second test series minimum heat flux densities leading to pressure pulsations

  19. Ion cyclotron emission from fusion plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauffman, Stephen Richard

    1997-11-01

    Ion cyclotron emission (ICE), characterized by a spectrum of discrete harmonics of the ion cyclotron frequency evaluated at a particular magnetic field strength, is commonly observed in fusion plasma devices. In the Joint European Torus (JET), ICE power varies linearly with the fusion alpha particle population in the plasma edge, suggesting that ICE may serve as a useful alpha particle diagnostic. Here, we use a system of wire loop probes to monitor the behavior of ICE in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). ICE in TFTR exhibits more complicated behavior than in JET. The harmonic structure varies with plasma species, and typical discharges exhibit two distinct classes of emission-one occurring transiently after the onset of neutral beam injection (NBI), and the other rising more slowly and persisting throughout NBI. Correlations with the fusion rate are observed, but the dependence is less straightforward than in JET. To understand the differences between TFTR and JET observations, we review the theory of the magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability (MCI). We then consider the theory of compressional Alfven eigenmodes (CAEs), which describes the same physics using a global approach. A numerical investigation of CAE behavior demonstrates that in TFTR, ICE behavior should depend sensitively on many quantities, including the Alfven speed near the plasma edge and the shape of the fusion product velocity distribution, while in JET, ICE behavior should depend primarily on the size of the alpha particle population. Dissimilar observations of ICE in TFTR and JET are thus consistent with a single theory, which predicts that the behavior of ICE will depend strongly on the ratio of the alpha particle birth velocity to the local Alfven speed. When alpha particles are super-Alfvenic near the plasma edge, ICE power will vary primarily with the alpha particle density, and will thus provide a simple method of monitoring this population. However, if the alpha particles are sub

  20. Cyclotron targets and production technologies used for radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiser, M.; Kopicka, K.; Hradilek, P.; Hanc, P.; Lebeda, O.; Panek, J.; Vognar, M.

    2002-01-01

    Some technical aspects of development and production of cyclotron-made radiopharmaceuticals (excluding PET) are discussed. In this field, nuclear chemistry and pharmacy are in a close contact; therefore, requirements of both should be taken into account. The principles of cyclotron targetry, separation/recovery of materials and synthesis of the active substances are given, as well as issues connected with formulation pharmaceutical forms of radioactive medical products. As the radiopharmaceuticals should fulfil the requirements for in vivo preparations, there exist a variety of demands pertaining to Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP), which is also briefly discussed. A typical production chain is presented involving the treatment of irradiated cyclotron target, choosing and validation of method for pharmacon synthesis, selection or development of necessary analytical procedures, preparing active substance according pharmaceutical standards, development of dosage form, adoption of final technology procedure and opening the clinical trial. Practical examples of real technologies based on cyclotron-made radionuclides ( 81 Rb, 123 I, 68 Ge, 211 At) are given. Special attention is devoted to the technology of enriched cyclotron targets. Frequently used medicinal products employing some cyclotron-produced active substances are characterised (Rb/Kr or Ge/Ga generators, 123 I-labelled MIBG, OIH, MAB's and some others). The cyclotron produced radioactive implants for transluminal coronary angioplasty (radioactive stent) are introduced as an example of a medical device developed for therapeutic application. (author)

  1. Feasibility study of a cyclotron complex for hadron therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, V.; Vorozhtsov, S.

    2018-04-01

    An accelerator complex for hadron therapy based on a chain of cyclotrons is under development at JINR (Dubna, Russia), and the corresponding conceptual design is under preparation. The complex mainly consists of two superconducting cyclotrons. The first accelerator is a compact cyclotron used as an injector to the main accelerator, which is a six-fold separated sector machine. The facility is intended for generation of protons and carbon beams. The H2+ and 12C6+ ions from the corresponding ECR ion sources are accelerated in the injector-cyclotron up to the output energy of 70 MeV/u. Then, the H2+ ions are extracted from the injector by a stripping foil, and the resulting proton beam with the energy of 70 MeV is used for medical purposes. After acceleration in the main cyclotron, the carbon beam can be either used directly for therapy or introduced to the main cyclotron for obtaining the final energy of 400 MeV/u. The basic requirements to the project are the following: compliance to medical requirements, compact size, feasible design, and high reliability of all systems of the complex. The advantages of the dual cyclotron design can help reaching these goals. The initial calculations show that this design is technically feasible with acceptable beam dynamics. The accelerator complex with a relatively compact size can be a good solution for medical applications. The basic parameters of the facility and detailed investigation of the magnetic system and beam dynamics are described.

  2. Compact superconducting cyclotron C400 for hadron therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jongen, Y.; Abs, M.; Blondin, A.; Kleeven, W.; Zaremba, S.; Vandeplassche, D. [IBA, Chemin du Cyclotron 3, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Aleksandrov, V.; Gursky, S.; Karamyshev, O. [JINR, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Karamysheva, G., E-mail: gkaram@nu.jinr.r [JINR, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Kazarinov, N.; Kostromin, S.; Morozov, N.; Samsonov, E.; Shirkov, G.; Shevtsov, V.; Syresin, E.; Tuzikov, A. [JINR, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation)

    2010-12-01

    The compact superconducting isochronous cyclotron C400 has been designed by the IBA-JINR collaboration. It will be the first cyclotron in the world capable of delivering protons, carbon and helium ions for cancer treatment. The cyclotron construction is started this year within the framework of the Archade project (Caen, France). {sup 12}C{sup 6+} and {sup 4}He{sup 2+} ions will be accelerated to 400 MeV/uu energy and extracted by the electrostatic deflector, H{sub 2}{sup +} ions will be accelerated to the energy of 265 MeV/uu and extracted by stripping. The magnet yoke has a diameter of 6.6 m, the total weight of the magnet is about 700 t. The designed magnetic field corresponds to 4.5 T in the hills and 2.45 T in the valleys. Superconducting coils will be enclosed in a cryostat; all other parts of the cyclotron will be warm. Three external ion sources will be mounted on the switching magnet on the injection line located below the cyclotron. The main parameters of the cyclotron, its design, the current status of the development work on the cyclotron systems are presented.

  3. Present status of device controls and hardware interfaces for the RCNP ring cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, T.; Tamura, K.; Hosono, K.

    1994-01-01

    Since the first proton beam from the injector AVF cyclotron was injected to the ring cyclotron in 1991, the computer control system has been used for the beam acceleration of the ring cyclotron. Some device control modules have been updated, and computer configuration has been changed in 1992. Total control system performs basic facilities almost satisfactory under actual cyclotron operation. (author)

  4. Isotope separation by ionic cyclotron resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louvet, P.

    1987-01-01

    The principle of the process of isotopic separation by ionic cyclotron resonance is reviewed succinctly. Afterwards, the main parts of the demonstration device which is in operation at the CEA, are described here: the superconducting magnetic field, the used diagnostics, the principle of the source and the collecting apparatus. The theoretical calculations presented here included a multi-fluid flow model of the plasma source ionic components and the theoretical calculation of the isotopic effect. This effect is given as functions of the electric and magnetic fields in the frame of single particle approximation and of plasma collective theory. Some experimental results for chromium are compared to the computations. The application of the process to ponderal separation of metal isotopes, as Chromium, Nickel, Molybdenum... is discussed in view of production of medical, structural and irradiation isotopes

  5. Simulation of cyclotron resonant scattering features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarm Fritz-Walter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available X-ray binary systems consisting of a mass donating optical star and a highly magnetized neutron star, under the right circumstances, show quantum mechanical absorption features in the observed spectra called cyclotron resonant scattering features (CRSFs. We have developed a simulation to model CRSFs using Monte Carlo methods. We calculate Green’s tables which can be used to imprint CRSFs to arbitrary X-ray continua. Our simulation keeps track of scattering parameters of individual photons, extends the number of variable parameters of previous works, and allows for more flexible geometries. Here we focus on the influence of bulk velocity of the accreted matter on the CRSF line shapes and positions.

  6. Electron cyclotron resonance heating and current drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fidone, I.; Castejon, F.

    1992-07-01

    A brief summary of the theory and experiments on electron- cyclotron heating and current drive is presented. The general relativistic formulation of wave propagation and linear absorption is considered in some detail. The O-mode and the X-mode for normal and oblique propagation are investigated and illustrated by several examples. The experimental verification of the theory in T-10 and D- III-D is briefly discussed. Quasilinear evolution of the momentum distribution and related applications as, for instance, non linear wave, damping and current drive, are also considered for special cases of wave frequencies, polarization and propagation. In the concluding section we present the general formulation of the wave damping and current drive in the absence of electron trapping for arbitrary values of the wave frequency. (Author) 13 refs.

  7. Electron - cyclotron resonance heating and current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidone, I.; Castejon, F.

    1992-01-01

    A brief summary of the theory and experiments on electron- cyclotron heating and current drive is presented. The general relativistic formulation of wave propagation and linear absorption is considered in some detail. The O-mode and the X-mode for normal and oblique propagation are investigated and illustrated by several examples. The experimental verification of the theory in T-10 and D- III-D is briefly discussed. Quasilinear evolution of the momentum distribution and related applications as, for instance, non linear wave, damping and current drive, are also considered for special cases of wave frequencies, polarization and propagation. In the concluding section we present the general formulation of the wave damping and current drive in the absence of electron trapping for arbitrary values of the wave frequency. (Author) 13 refs

  8. Ion cyclotron resonance spectrometer with fourier transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikver, R.; Suurmaa, Eh.; Syugis, A.; Tammik, A.; Lippmaa, Eh.

    1983-01-01

    The ion cyclotron resonance spectrometer with Fourier transformation intended for investigating mass specta and chemical reaction kinetics in the gaseous phase is described. The mass-spectrum of CO and N 2 positive ions is shown. The spectrometer consists of an electromagnet with power supply, a vacuum system, a cell with electronic equipment and a minicomputer. In the vacuum system (5x10 -9 Torr) there is a cubic measuring cell heated up to 400 deg C. The spectrometer mass resolution is of the 10 5 order. The spectrometer is able to operate as a high-resolution analytical mass-spectrometer of positive and negative ions. The experience of the spectrometer operation confirms its effectiveness for investigating ion-molecular reactions, in particular, proton transfer reactions

  9. Electron Cyclotron Resonances in Electron Cloud Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celata, Christine; Celata, C.M.; Furman, Miguel A.; Vay, J.-L.; Yu, Jennifer W.

    2008-01-01

    We report a previously unknown resonance for electron cloud dynamics. The 2D simulation code 'POSINST' was used to study the electron cloud buildup at different z positions in the International Linear Collider positron damping ring wiggler. An electron equilibrium density enhancement of up to a factor of 3 was found at magnetic field values for which the bunch frequency is an integral multiple of the electron cyclotron frequency. At low magnetic fields the effects of the resonance are prominent, but when B exceeds ∼(2 pi mec/(elb)), with lb = bunch length, effects of the resonance disappear. Thus short bunches and low B fields are required for observing the effect. The reason for the B field dependence, an explanation of the dynamics, and the results of the 2D simulations and of a single-particle tracking code used to elucidate details of the dynamics are discussed

  10. Ion cyclotron emission by spontaneous emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Costa, O. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Gresillon, D. [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Lab. de Physique des Milieux Ionises

    1994-07-01

    The goal of the study is to examine whether the spontaneous emission can account for ICE (ion cyclotron emission) experimental results, or part of them. A straightforward approach to plasma emission is chosen, investigating the near equilibrium wave radiation by gyrating ions, and thus building from the majority and fast fusion ions the plasma fluctuations and emission on the fast magnetoacoustic or compressional Alfven wave mode in the IC frequency range. Similarities with the ICE experiments are shown: the emission temperature in the presence of fast ions (even in a very small amount), the strong fast ion emission increase with the harmonic, the fine double-line splitting of each peak, the linear but not proportional increase of the peak width with the harmonic. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Ion extraction in the cyclotron geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodenburg, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    The detailed physics of ion beam extraction from a plasma column by intense sinusoidal radio frequency (rf) electric fields at the ion cyclotron frequency omega/sub ci/ and its harmonics is experimentally studied. Results describe the instantaneous relationship - within one rf period of approx. = 3009 nsec - between applied rf, the plasma response and the ions expelled by rf and plasma fields. Reflex discharges in H 2 , D 2 , and He with ion and electron densities greater than or equal to10 11 cm -3 are subjected to 0-5 kV zero-to-peak rf electric fields E vector and 0.65-9.00 kG background magnetic fields B 0 vector with E vector perpendicular to B 0 vector. Ion currents up to 200 μA are extracted. Nonperturbing optical diagnostics measure the relative amplitude and phase of instantaneous ion and electron density fluctuations induced by the rf during each rf cycle and the time variation of extracted ion bursts, the latter made possible by the use of a phosphor beam-stop. Detailed dependences on external electric and magnetic fields are reported. The plasma density fluctuations are in good agreement with the dispersion relation for electrostatic ion cyclotron waves (EICW), and the beam data show current enhancement at the second harmonic over that at the fundamental and evidence for a radically different mechanism for the rf-driven ion extraction process than conventional wisdom assumes. This work represents the first detailed, systematic study of the ac ion extraction process

  12. Ion cyclotron emission in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraboulet, D.

    1996-01-01

    Detection of α(3.5 MeV) fusion products will be of major importance for the achievement of self sustained discharges in fusion thermonuclear reactors. Due to their cyclotronic gyration in the confining magnetic field of a tokamak, α particles are suspected to radiate in the radio-frequency band [RF: 10-500 MHz]. Our aim is to determine whether detection of RF emission radiated from a reactor plasma can provide information concerning those fusion products. We observed experimentally that the RF emission radiated from fast ions situated in the core of the discharge is detectable with a probe located at the plasma edge. For that purpose, fast temporal acquisition of spectral power was achieved in a narrow frequency band. We also propose two complementary models for this emission. In the first one, we describe locally the energy transfer between the photon population and the plasma and we compute the radiation equilibrium taking place in the tokamak. α particles are not the unique species involved in the equilibrium and it is necessary to take into account all other species present in the plasma (Deuterium, Tritium, electrons,...). Our second model consists in the numerical resolution of the Maxwell-Vlasov with the use of a variational formulation, in which all polarizations are considered and the 4 first cyclotronic harmonics are included in a 1-D slab geometry. The development of this second model leads to the proposal for an experimental set up aiming to the feasibility demonstration of a routine diagnostic providing the central α density in a reactor. (author)

  13. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, S.M.; Finn, R.D.

    1993-11-01

    This report describes our continuing long term goal of promoting nuclear medicine applications by improving the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis, treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The program includes 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry/Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. An essential strategy is as follows: novel radionuclides and radiotracers developed in the Radiochemistry/Cyclotron section will be employed in the Pharmacology and Immunology sections during the next year. The development of novel radionuclides and tracers is of course useful in and of itself, but their utility is greatly enhanced by the interaction with the immunology and pharmacology components of the program.

  14. Design features and operating characteristics of the MC-50 cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bak, Hae Ill; Bak, Joo Shik

    1989-01-01

    The MC-50 cyclotron at Korean Cancer Center Hospital is now operational for neutron therapy and medical radioisotope production. Design features, mechanical structures and operating characteristics of the MC-50 are described in this paper. Optimum operating condition for this cyclotron has been determined by the repetitive running, and the performances of the internal beam have been investigated through the measurements of intensity and spatial distribution of the internal beam as a function of the radius of the cyclotron. Routinely, the 40 μA of 50 MeV protons have been obtained at first Faraday cup with a extraction efficiency of 61%. (Author)

  15. Shielding design of the Mayo Clinic Scottsdale cyclotron vault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riper Kenneth A. Van

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mayo Clinic Scottsdale (Scottsdale, Arizona is building a cyclotron vault containing a cyclotron with adjacent targets and a beam line leading to an external target. The targets are irradiated by high energy (15 to 16.5 MeV protons for the production of radioisotopes. We performed Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations to calculate the radiation dose outside of the vault during irradiation of the cyclotron and external targets. We present the Monte Carlo model including the geometry, sources, and variance reduction methods. Mesh tallies surrounding the vault show the external dose rate is within acceptable limits.

  16. ECR Ion Source for a High-Brightness Cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeaux, Justin; McIntyre, Peter; Assadi, Saeed

    2011-10-01

    New technology is being developed for high-brightness, high-current cyclotrons with performance benefits for accelerator-driven subcritical fission power, medical isotope production, and proton beam cancer therapy. This paper describes the design for a 65 kV electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source that will provide high-brightness beam for injection into the cyclotron. The ion source is modeled closely upon the one that is used at the Paul Scherrer Institute. Modifications are being made to provide enhanced brightness and compatibility for higher-current operation.

  17. High-current cyclotron to drive an electronuclear assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Alenitsky, Yu G

    2002-01-01

    The proposal on creation of a high-current cyclotron complex for driving an electronuclear assembly reported at the 17th Meeting on Accelerators of Charged Particles is discussed. Some changes in the basic design parameters of the accelerator are considered in view of new results obtained in the recent works. It is shown that the cyclotron complex is now the most real and cheapest accelerator for production of proton beams with a power of up to 10 MW. Projects on design of a high-current cyclotron complex for driving an electronuclear subcritical assembly are presented.

  18. Vaccination: Developing and implementing a competency-based-curriculum at the Medical Faculty of LMU Munich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, B; Reuter, S; Taverna, M; Fischer, M R; Schelling, J

    2016-01-01

    In Germany medical students should gain proficiency and specific skills in the vaccination field. Especially important is the efficient communication of scientific results about vaccinations to the community, in order to give professional counseling with a complete overview about therapeutic options. AIM OF THE PROJECT: The aim of this project is to set up a vaccination-related curriculum in the Medical Faculty at the Ludwig-Maximilians-University in Munich. The structure of the curriculum is based on the National catalogue for competency-based learning objectives in the field of vaccination (Nationaler Kompetenzbasierter Lernzielekatalog Medizin NKLM). Through this curriculum, the students will not only acquire the classical educational skills concerning vaccination in theory and practice, but they will also learn how to become independent in the decision-making process and counseling. Moreover, the students will become aware of consequences of action related to this specific topic. According to defined guidelines, an analysis was performed on courses, which are currently offered by the university. A separate analysis of the NKLM was carried out. Both analyses identified the active courses related to the topic of vaccination as well as the NKLM learning objectives. The match between the topics taught in current courses and the NKLM learning objectives identified gaps concerning the teaching of specific content. Courses were modified in order to implement the missing NKLM learning objectives. These analyses identified 24 vaccination-related courses, which are currently taught at the University. Meanwhile, 35 learning objectives on vaccination were identified in the NKLM catalogue. Four of which were identified as not yet part of the teaching program. In summary, this interdisciplinary work enabled the development of a new vaccination-related curriculum, including 35 learning objectives, which are now implemented in regular teaching courses by the Medical Faculty

  19. Vaccination: Developing and implementing a competency-based-curriculum at the Medical Faculty of LMU Munich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogel, B.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Germany medical students should gain proficiency and specific skills in the vaccination field. Especially important is the efficient communication of scientific results about vaccinations to the community, in order to give professional counseling with a complete overview about therapeutic options.Aim of the project: The aim of this project is to set up a vaccination-related curriculum in the Medical Faculty at the Ludwig-Maximilians-University in Munich. The structure of the curriculum is based on the National catalogue for competency-based learning objectives in the field of vaccination (Nationaler Kompetenzbasierter Lernzielekatalog Medizin NKLM. Through this curriculum, the students will not only acquire the classical educational skills concerning vaccination in theory and practice, but they will also learn how to become independent in the decision-making process and counseling. Moreover, the students will become aware of consequences of action related to this specific topic.Methods: According to defined guidelines, an analysis was performed on courses, which are currently offered by the university. A separate analysis of the NKLM was carried out. Both analyses identified the active courses related to the topic of vaccination as well as the NKLM learning objectives. The match between the topics taught in current courses and the NKLM learning objectives identified gaps concerning the teaching of specific content. Courses were modified in order to implement the missing NKLM learning objectives.Results: These analyses identified 24 vaccination-related courses, which are currently taught at the University. Meanwhile, 35 learning objectives on vaccination were identified in the NKLM catalogue. Four of which were identified as not yet part of the teaching program. In summary, this interdisciplinary work enabled the development of a new vaccination-related curriculum, including 35 learning objectives, which are now implemented in

  20. Fraunhofer's successors in the Optical Institute in Munich (German Title: Fraunhofers Nachfolger im Optischen Institut zu München)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventzke, Karl

    The "Optical Institute", founded by J. Utzschneider, G. Reichenbach and J. Fraunhofer in Benediktbeuern in 1809, existed until 1932 as an owner-managed enterprise. Only 17 years are covered by Fraunhofer's active co-ownership, and are thus well-researched. The remaining, much longer time that follows is treated only very sparsely. The facts of this contribution were predominantly taken from archives in Munich, and deal with the work and the persons "after Fraunhofer". The original aim was to date and assign more precisely the instruments from all periods of this once world-famous institute; they are presented here in a very compact form to encourage more detailed research.

  1. Cyclotrons for clinical and biomedical research with PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this commentary is to present some background material on cyclotrons and other particle accelerators particularly with a view toward the considerations behind acquiring and installing such a machine for purely clinical and/or biomedical research use

  2. Design of 10 MeV cyclotron accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Solhju

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Design and construction of 10MeV cyclotron has been started at Amirkabir University of Technology since 2012. So far, the conceptual and detail engineering design phases have been finalized. The main purpose of this baby cyclotron is to generate proton beam for the production of PET radioisotopes. The cyclotron consists of magnet, cavity, ion source, RF and LLRF system, vacuum system, cooling system, power amplifiers and power supplies system. In this paper, a brief of design principles for all the parts of cyclotron and their final simulation results is presented. It should be noted that these simulations have been performed and optimized by the most accurate softwares such as TOSCA, ANSYS, HFSS, SolidWorks and CST. Also, the manufacturing feasibility of all the parts is performed and their dimensions and parameters are synchronized with manufacturing standards

  3. Cryogenic system for VECC K500 superconducting cyclotron

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, G; Bhattacharyya, T K; Bhandari, R K

    2009-01-01

    VEC Centre, Kolkata in India is at an advanced stage of commissioning a K500 superconducting cyclotron. The superconducting coil of the magnet for cyclotron is cooled by liquid helium. Three liquid helium cooled cryopanels, placed inside the Dees of the radiofrequency system, maintain the vacuum in the acceleration region of the superconducting cyclotron. The cryogenic system for magnet for cyclotron has been tested by cooling the coil and energizing the magnet. The cryogenic system for cryopanels has also been tested. Heater and temperature sensor were placed on the liquid helium cold head for cryopanel. The temperature of the cold head was observed to be below 20 K upto a heat load of 11.7 watt.

  4. Neutron field inside a PET Cyclotron vault room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H.R. [UAZ, C. Cipres 10, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Mendez, R. [CIEMAT, Ave. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Iniguez, M.P. [Universidad de Valladolid, Po Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Climent, J.M.; Penuelas, I. [Servicio de Medicina Nuclear de la Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Barquero, R. [Hospital Universitario Rio Hortega, Valladolid (Spain)]. e-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com

    2006-07-01

    The neutron field around a Positron Emission Tomography cyclotron was investigated during {sup 18} F radioisotope production with an 18 MeV proton beam. In this study the Ion Beam Application cyclotron, model Cyclone 18/9, was utilized. Measurements were carried out with a Bonner sphere neutron spectrometer with pairs of thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD600 and TLD700) as thermal neutron detector. The TLDs readouts were utilized to unfold the neutron spectra at three different positions inside the cyclotron's vault room. With the spectra the Ambient dose equivalent was calculated. Neutron spectra unfolding were performed with the BUNKIUT code and the UTA4 response matrix. Neutron spectra were also determined by Monte Carlo calculations using a detailed model of cyclotron and vault room. (Author)

  5. Neutron field inside a PET Cyclotron vault room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega C, H.R.; Mendez, R.; Iniguez, M.P.; Climent, J.M.; Penuelas, I.; Barquero, R.

    2006-01-01

    The neutron field around a Positron Emission Tomography cyclotron was investigated during 18 F radioisotope production with an 18 MeV proton beam. In this study the Ion Beam Application cyclotron, model Cyclone 18/9, was utilized. Measurements were carried out with a Bonner sphere neutron spectrometer with pairs of thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD600 and TLD700) as thermal neutron detector. The TLDs readouts were utilized to unfold the neutron spectra at three different positions inside the cyclotron's vault room. With the spectra the Ambient dose equivalent was calculated. Neutron spectra unfolding were performed with the BUNKIUT code and the UTA4 response matrix. Neutron spectra were also determined by Monte Carlo calculations using a detailed model of cyclotron and vault room. (Author)

  6. H-superconducting cyclotron for PET isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, V.L.; Vorozhtsov, S.B.; Vincent, J.

    2014-01-01

    The scientific design of a 14-MeV H - compact superconducting cyclotron for producing of the 18 F and 13 N isotopes has been developed. Main requirements to the facility as a medical accelerator are met in the design. In particular, the main requirement for the cyclotron was the smallest possible size due to the superconducting magnet. The calculations show that the proposed cyclotron allows extracted beam intensity over 500 μA. To increase system reliability and production rates, an external H - ion source is applied. The choice of the cyclotron concept, design of the structure elements, calculation of the electromagnetic fields and beam dynamics from the ion source to the extraction system were performed.

  7. Maryland University sectored isochronous cyclotron (MUSIC): Progress report No. 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1967-10-09

    Progress is reported in the design, installation of various components of the cyclotron, including coils, magnets, rf system, and vacuum system. Also reported are measurements on magnets and rf components. (LEW)

  8. Maryland University sectored isochronous cyclotron (MUSIC): Progress report No. 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1967-06-30

    Progress is reported in the fabrication and testing of cyclotron components, including magnet system and rf system components. Work on vacuum components and instrumentation and control equipment is also reported. (LEW)

  9. Maryland University sectored isochronous cyclotron (MUSIC): Progress report No. 32

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1968-06-28

    Completion of magnet tests, followed by completion of installation of major cyclotron components, are reported. Intermediate level power tests of the rf system are also reported. Design and fabrication of the control system are reported to be under way. (LEW)

  10. Maryland University sectored isochronous cyclotron (MUSIC): Progress report No. 26

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1968-01-17

    Progress is reported in the fabrication, installation, and testing of cyclotron components, including magnets and coils, rf components, vacuum and control equipment. Also reported are magnet and rf component measurements. (LEW)

  11. Accelerator activities at the Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, D.K.

    2013-01-01

    The Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (VECC) at Kolkata indigenously developed the first large accelerator in the country, the room temperature cyclotron K-130 during seventies which is still delivering ions beams to the users spread all over the country for research in nuclear science and applied physics. VECC, with its vast experience and expertise in accelerator technology, took up the challenging task of constructing the first superconducting cyclotron in the country the K500 superconducting cyclotron. It has also been commissioned with internal beam. The problems associated with getting the external beam are analysed in detail since last one year and some of them are fixed. Efforts are on to get external beam from the K500 cyclotron and it is expected that soon it will also deliver beams to the users. In order to study structure of unstable nuclei that are very neutron rich or proton rich, an ISOL based RIB facility is under-development at VECC. Several components of this facility have already been tested and installed. VECC is also working on to build a world class national accelerator facility called ANURIB (Advanced National facility for Unstable and Rare Isotope Beams) at the new campus in Kolkata. This facility will serve a wide user community in nuclear and material sciences. VECC is also setting up a medical cyclotron to produce proton beam with energy up to 30 MeV and current up to 350 μA, to produce various isotopes for medical applications. This cyclotron will also be used for R and D in material science and to settle the various problems related with handling of high beam current on ADS related components. Apart from these main facilities VECC is also involved in the R and D activities related with accelerators such as studies on using cyclotrons to achieve high power proton beam, development and testing of superconducting cavities, development of superconducting magnets for FAIR project etc. (author)

  12. Process of a cyclotron modeling with SNOP program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, V.L.

    2015-01-01

    The description of the SNOP program developed in JINR and intended for numerical modeling of a beam dynamics in accelerating setups of cyclotron type is presented. The main methods of work with program components, and also stages of numerical modeling of a cyclotron, the analysis of the main characteristics of the accelerated bunch by means of the SNOP are given. The explanation of some algorithms and procedures used in the program is given. [ru

  13. Channel of Axial Injection of DC-60 Cyclotron

    CERN Document Server

    Gikal, B N; Bogomolov, S L; Borisenko, A N; Borisov, O N; Gulbekyan, G G; Ivanenko, I A; Kalagin, I V; Kazacha, V I; Kazarinov, N Yu; Khabarov, M V; Lysukhin, S N; Melnikov, V N; Paschenko, S V; Tikhomirov, A V

    2006-01-01

    The design study and realization of the axial injection beam line of DC-60 cyclotron constructed at the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research are given. The channel allows one to transport and to inject into the cyclotron ions with mass-to-charge ratio $A/Z$ being within interval A/Z=6-12 and kinetic energy up to 17 $Z/A$ keV/m.u.

  14. Ion-Beam-Excited Electrostatic Ion Cyclotron Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1976-01-01

    Self-excited electrostatic ion cyclotron waves were observed in an ion-beam-plasma system produced in a DP-operated Q-machine. The frequency of the waves showed the theoretically predicted variation with the magnetic field.......Self-excited electrostatic ion cyclotron waves were observed in an ion-beam-plasma system produced in a DP-operated Q-machine. The frequency of the waves showed the theoretically predicted variation with the magnetic field....

  15. The Medical Cyclotron Facility in RMC, Parel, BARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalakrishna, Arjun; Banerjee, Sharmila

    2017-01-01

    The Medical Cyclotron Facility in Radiation Medicine Centre (RMC) is the first one of its kind, installed in 2002. 18 F based radiotracers are produced in this facility on a routine basis for Positron Emission Tomography (PET), of in-house patients, as well as for supply to other nuclear medicine centers in Mumbai as well as Pune. The facility consists of the following sub parts - Cyclotron and support equipment; Radiochemistry synthesis laboratory; Quality control (QC) laboratory

  16. On 'conflict of conservation laws in cyclotron radiation'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, S.M.; Parle, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    The authors reconsider the apparent conflict of conservation laws in cyclotron radiation, and show that earlier workers in this field did not correctly include the effects of radiation reaction in their calculations. When a 'recoil' term, calculated using relativistic quantum theory, is included in the angular momentum of the particle the conflict disappears. It is found that the guiding centre of the particle drifts outwards during cyclotron radiation. (author)

  17. Design study of electrostatic inflector in compact cyclotron injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tianjue; Fan Mingwu

    1996-01-01

    The beam dynamics behaviour in electrostatic inflector is investigated for a vertical type injection system to a compact cyclotron. The computer aided design and matching of the inflector are based on the simulation of computed beam orbit. Modeling and simulation are done on PC-486 to form a software package. The software package can be used to develop a new type cyclotron design combining with the software package CYCCAE developed by China Institute of Atomic Energy three years ago

  18. Cyrce, a cyclotron for research and teaching in Alsace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasse, David; Marchand, Patrice; Ouadi, Ali; Pellicioli, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear imaging, often considered as a speciality, arose from the combined efforts of physics, chemistry, biology and medicine. This functional imaging modality is based on technical and scientific developments and benefits from the high sensitivity of detection of radio-isotopes. Cyrce, a cyclotron set up in Strasbourg, merges into the French national network of cyclotrons dedicated to clinical and preclinical research but also designed for teaching and pharmaceutical collaborations. (authors)

  19. Comparison between californium and cyclotron heavy ion tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazco, Raoul; Provost-Grellier, Antoine

    Experimental equipment which performs heavy ion tests for programmable integrated circuits is presented. This equipment is used along with two different means of heavy ion simulator to perform Single Event Upset (SEU) tests on representative circuits: A dedicated Cf 252 fission decay source and a cyclotron. The validity of using californium source to simulate high LET particles is questioned by the discrepancies observed between Cf 252 and cyclotron results.

  20. A measurement based analysis of the spatial distribution, temporal variation and chemical composition of particulate matter in Munich and Augsburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Schäfer

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the studies presented in this paper is to present an analysis of spatial distribution and temporal variation of particulate matter in Munich and Augsburg, Germany, and to identify and discuss the factors determining the aerosol pollution in both areas. Surface-based in-situ and remote sensing measurements of particle mass and particle size distribution have been performed in, around, and above the two cities. Two measurement campaigns were conducted in Munich, one in late spring and one in winter 2003. Another campaign has been on-going in Augsburg since 2004. Spatial and temporal variations are analyzed from this data (PM10, PM2.5, and PM1. There are higher particle mass concentrations at the urban site than at the surrounding rural sites, especially in winter. No significant difference in the major ionic composition of the particles between the urban and the rural site was detected. This is considered to be related to the spatial distribution of secondary inorganic aerosol that is more homogeneous than aerosol resulting from other sources like traffic or urban releases in general. During the measurement campaigns mixing layer heights were determined continuously by remote sensing (SODAR, ceilometer, RASS. Significant dependence of particle size distribution and particle mass concentration on mixing layer height was found. This finding paves the way to new applications of satellite remote sensing products.

  1. Return to play after thigh muscle injury in elite football players: implementation and validation of the Munich muscle injury classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrand, Jan; Askling, Carl; Magnusson, Henrik; Mithoefer, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Background Owing to the complexity and heterogeneity of muscle injuries, a generally accepted classification system is still lacking. Aims To prospectively implement and validate a novel muscle injury classification and to evaluate its predictive value for return to professional football. Methods The recently described Munich muscle injury classification was prospectively evaluated in 31 European professional male football teams during the 2011/2012 season. Thigh muscle injury types were recorded by team medical staff and correlated to individual player exposure and resultant time-loss. Results In total, 393 thigh muscle injuries occurred. The muscle classification system was well received with a 100% response rate. Two-thirds of thigh muscle injuries were classified as structural and were associated with longer lay-off times compared to functional muscle disorders (pinjuries) with increasing lay-off time associated with more severe structural injury. Median lay-off time of functional disorders was 5–8 days without significant differences between subgroups. There was no significant difference in the absence time between anterior and posterior thigh injuries. Conclusions The Munich muscle classification demonstrates a positive prognostic validity for return to play after thigh muscle injury in professional male football players. Structural injuries are associated with longer average lay-off times than functional muscle disorders. Subclassification of structural injuries correlates with return to play, while subgrouping of functional disorders shows less prognostic relevance. Functional disorders are often underestimated clinically and require further systematic study. PMID:23645834

  2. Cyclotron targets and production technologies used for radiopharmaceuticals in NPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiser, M.; Kopicka, K.; Hradilek, P.; Hanc, P.; Lebeda, O.; Panek, J.; Vognar, M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with some technical aspects of the development and production of cyclotron-made radiopharmaceuticals (excluding PET). In this field, nuclear chemistry and pharmacy are in a close contact; therefore, requirements of the both should be taken into account. The principles of cyclotron targetry, separation/recovery of materials and synthesis of active substances are given, as well as issues connected with formulation of pharmaceutical forms. As the radiopharmaceuticals should fulfil the requirements on in vivo preparations, there exist a variety of demands pertaining to Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) concept, which is also briefly discussed. A typical production chain is presented and practical examples of real technologies based on cyclotron-made radionuclides are given as they have been used in Nuclear Physics Institute of CAS (NPI). Special attention is devoted to the technology of enriched cyclotron targets. Frequently used medicinal products employing cyclotron-produced active substances are characterised (Rb/Kr generators, 123 I-labelled MIBG, OIH and MAB's). The cyclotron produced radioactive implants for transluminal coronary angioplasty (radioactive stents) are introduced as an example of a medical device developed for therapeutic application. (author)

  3. A 30 MeV H- cyclotron for isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, B.F.; Dawson, R.; Erdman, K.L.

    1989-05-01

    Because of an expanding market for radioisotopes there is a need for a new generation of cyclotrons designed specifically for this purpose. TRIUMF is cooperating with a local industrial company in designing and constructing such a cyclotron. It will be a four sector H - cyclotron, exploiting the newly developed high brightness multicusp ion source. This source with H - current capability in excess of 5 mA makes feasible accelerated H - beam intensities of up to 500 μA. Beam extraction is by stripping to H + in a thin graphite foil. Extraction of two high-intensity beams, with energy variable from 15 to 30 MeV is planned. The use of an external ion source, provision of a good vacuum in the acceleration region, and the careful choice of materials for components in the median plane leads to a cyclotron that will have low activation and can be easily serviced in spite of the very high operating beam intensities. A design extension to 70 MeV using many of the design features of the 30 MeV cyclotron can be easily made. Such a machine with a good quality variable energy beam is a highly desirable source of protons for isotope production, injection into higher energy high intensity acceleration, injection into higher energy high intensity accelerators, and as an irradiation facility for ocular melanomas. Design of the 30 MeV cyclotron is well advanced and construction is in progress

  4. Rf structure of superconducting cyclotron for therapy application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takekoshi, Hidekuni; Matsuki, Seishi; Mashiko, Katuo; Shikazono, Naomoto.

    1981-01-01

    Advantages of fast neutrons in therapeutical application are now widely recognized. Fast neutrons are generated by bombarding a thick beryllium target with high energy protons and deuterons. The AVF cyclotrons which deliver 50 MeV protons and 25 MeV deuterons are commonly used and are commercially available now. At the treatment usually rotational irradiation is taken to prevent an injury to normal tissue from the high LET effect of fast neutrons. The construction cost of both cyclotrons and isocentric irradiation installation are relatively high, so that the spread of neutron therapy is obstructed. A superconducting cyclotron for neutron therapy application was proposed by a Chalk River group. This low cost design allows the installation to be a dedicated facility located in a hospital, and small size allows installations of the complete cyclotron in a rotatable gantry. The design studies of the superconducting cyclotron based on this idea are going on at Kyoto University. The full scale model experiments for a rf structure of the cyclotron were carried out. (author)

  5. A mobile superconducting cyclotron for PET and neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, R.

    1988-01-01

    The report addresses the development of a mobile superconducting cyclotron for PET (positron emission tomography) and neutron radiography. Proposals for an ultralight cyclotron were made by Finlan et al., who suggested a novel technique of utilising a superconducting magnet with RF acceleration and iron sectors contained within the room temperature bore of the magnet. Detailed design of a cyclotron based on this concept has progressed well at Oxford Instruments. The main design priorities were to minimise the weight and power consumption of the cyclotron. The cyclotron required a large amount of shielding to reduce either radiation background levels or stray magnetic field. Thus low background levels of radiation and magnetic field are key design criteria. The superconducting magnet has a mean field of 2.35 Tesla and a room temperature bore diameter of 500 mm. Three pairs of profiled iron sectors placed in the center of the warm bore of the magnet provide an azimuthally varying magnetic field. This permits the use of high beam currents with low background. A novel technique is incorporated to reduce the stray magnetic field and radiation from the cyclotron. The RF system consists of three pairs of resonators mounted within the warm bore of the magnet between the iron sectors. (Nogami, K.)

  6. Commercial cyclotrons. Part I: Commercial cyclotrons in the energy range 10 30 MeV for isotope production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papash, A. I.; Alenitsky, Yu. G.

    2008-07-01

    A survey of commercial cyclotrons for production of medical and industrial isotopes is presented. Compact isochronous cyclotrons which accelerate negative hydrogen ions in the energy range 10 30 MeV have been widely used over the last 25 years for production of medical isotopes and other applications. Different cyclotron models for the energy range 10 12 MeV with moderate beam intensity are used for production of 11C, 13N, 15O, and 18F isotopes widely applied in positron emission tomography. Commercial cyclotrons with high beam intensity are available on the market for production of most medical and industrial isotopes. In this work, the physical and technical parameters of different models are compared. Possibilities of improving performance and increasing intensity of H- beams up to 2 3 mA are discussed.

  7. Electron cyclotron emission measurements during 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance heating in Wendelstein WVII-A stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartfuss, H.J.; Gasparino, U.; Tutter, M.; Brakel, R.; Cattanei, G.; Dorst, D.; Elsner, A.; Engelhardt, K.; Erckmann, V.; Grieger, G.; Grigull, P.; Hacker, H.; Jaeckel, H.; Jaenicke, R.; Junker, J.; Kick, M.; Kroiss, H.; Kuehner, G.; Maassberg, H.; Mahn, C.; Mueller, G.; Ohlendorf, W.; Rau, F.; Renner, H.; Ringler, H.; Sardei, F.; Weller, A.; Wobig, H.; Wuersching, E.; Zippe, M.; Kasparek, W.; Mueller, G.A.; Raeuchle, E.; Schueller, P.G.; Schwoerer, K.; Thumm, M.

    1987-11-01

    Electron cyclotron emission measurements have been carried out on electron cyclotron resonance heated plasmas in the WENDELSTEIN VII-A Stellarator. Blackbody radiation from the thermalized plasma main body as well as radiation from a small amount of weakly relativistic suprathermal electrons has been detected. In addition sideband emission has been observed near the second harmonic of the heating line source. Harmonic generation and parametric wave decay at the upper hybrid layer may be a reasonable explanation. (orig.)

  8. Particulate matter in the indoor air of classrooms—exploratory results from Munich and surrounding area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, H.; Twardella, D.; Dietrich, S.; Heitmann, D.; Schierl, R.; Liebl, B.; Rüden, H.

    Numerous epidemiological studies have demonstrated the association between particle mass (PM) concentration in outside air and the occurrence of health related problems and/or diseases. However, much less is known about indoor PM concentrations and associated health risks. In particular, data are needed on air quality in schools, since children are assumed to be more vulnerable to health hazards and spend a large part of their time in classrooms. On this background, we evaluated indoor air quality in 64 schools in the city of Munich and a neighbouring district outside the city boundary. In winter 2004-2005 in 92 classrooms, and in summer 2005 in 75 classrooms, data on indoor air climate parameters (temperature, relative humidity), carbon dioxide (CO 2) and various dust particle fractions (PM 10, PM 2.5) were collected; for the latter both gravimetrical and continuous measurements by laser aerosol spectrometer (LAS) were implemented. In the summer period, the particle number concentration (PNC), was determined using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). Additionally, data on room and building characteristics were collected by use of a standardized form. Only data collected during teaching hours were considered in analysis. For continuously measured parameters the daily median was used to describe the exposure level in a classroom. The median indoor CO 2 concentration in a classroom was 1603 ppm in winter and 405 ppm in summer. With LAS in winter, median PM concentrations of 19.8 μg m -3 (PM 2.5) and 91.5 μg m -3 (PM 10) were observed, in summer PM concentrations were significantly reduced (median PM 2.5=12.7 μg m -3, median PM 10=64.9 μg m -3). PM 2.5 concentrations determined by the gravimetric method were in general higher (median in winter: 36.7 μg m -3, median in summer: 20.2 μg m -3) but correlated strongly with the LAS-measured results. In explorative analysis, we identified a significant increase of LAS-measured PM 2.5 by 1.7 μg m -3 per increase

  9. Reevaluation of microplastics extraction efficiency with the aim of Munich Plastic Sediment Separator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobkov, Mikhail; Esiukova, Elena; Grave, Aleksei; Khatmullina, Liliya

    2017-04-01

    Invading of microplastics into marine environment is known as a global ecological threat. Specific density of microplastics can vary significantly depending on a polymer type, technological processes of its production, additives, weathering, and biofouling. Plastic particles can sink or float on the sea surface, but with time, most of drifting plastics become negatively buoyant and sink to the sea floor due to biofouling or adherence of denser particles. As a result, the seabed becomes the ultimate repository for microplastic particles and fibres. A study of microplastics content in aquatic sediments is an important source of information about ways of their migration, sink and accumulation zones. The Munich Plastic Sediment Separator (MPSS), proposed by Imhoff et al. (2012), is considered as the most effective tool for microplastic extraction. However, we observed that the numbers of marine microplastics extracted with this tool from different kinds of bottom sediments were significantly underestimated. We examined the extraction efficiency of the MPSS by adding artificial reference particles (ARPs) to marine sediment sample before the extraction procedure. Extraction was performed by two different methods: the modified NOAA method and using the MPSS. The separation solution with specific density 1.5 g/ml was used. Subsequent cleaning, drying and microscope detection procedures were identical. The microplastics content was determined in supernatant fraction, in the bulk of the extraction solution, in spoil dump fraction of MPSS and in instrument wash-out. While the extraction efficiency from natural sediments of ARPs by the MPSS was really high (100% in most cases), the extraction efficiency of marine microplastics was up to 10 times lower than that obtained with modified NOAA method for the same samples. Less than 40% of the total marine microplastics content has been successfully extracted with the MPSS. Large amounts of marine microplastics were found in the

  10. The irradiation facility at the AGOR cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburg, Sytze; Ostendorf, Reint; Hofstee, Mariet; Kiewiet, Harry; Beijers, Hans

    2007-08-01

    The KVI is conducting radiobiology research using protons up to 190 MeV from the superconducting AGOR cyclotron in collaboration with the University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG) since 1998. Using the same set-up, we have started irradiations for radiation hardness studies of detectors and components for the European Space Agency (ESA) and industrial parties. For these irradiations, we use either mono-energetic protons or a simulated solar flare energy spectrum with fluxes up to 5 × 108 protons cm-2 s-1. Furthermore, tests of radiation effects such as single event upsets, are being performed with intensities down to a few particles/s. Different energies are achieved by degrading the primary beam energy. We are currently developing the capability for heavy ion irradiations in air with beams up to Xe at beam energies between 15 and 45 MeV per nucleon. Performing the irradiations in air simplifies handling and monitoring of the device under test. The high energy allows penetration to the active layer of electronic devices, without modifications to the chip housing. The different ions provide a wide range in LET.

  11. The irradiation facility at the AGOR cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandenburg, Sytze; Ostendorf, Reint; Hofstee, Mariet; Kiewiet, Harry; Beijers, Hans

    2007-01-01

    The KVI is conducting radiobiology research using protons up to 190 MeV from the superconducting AGOR cyclotron in collaboration with University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG) since 1998. Using the same set-up, we have started irradiations for radiation hardness studies of detectors and components for the European Space Agency (ESA) and industrial parties. For these irradiations, we use either mono-energetic protons or a simulated solar flare energy spectrum with fluxes up to 5 x 10 8 protons cm -2 s -1 . Furthermore, tests of radiation effects such as single event upsets, are being performed with intensities down to a few particles/s. Different energies are achieved by degrading the primary beam energy. We are currently developing the capability for heavy ion irradiations in air with beams up to Xe at beam energies between 15 and 45 MeV per nucleon. Performing the irradiations in air simplifies handling and monitoring of the device under test. The high energy allows penetration to the active layer of electronic devices, without modifications to the chip housing. The different ions provide a wide range in LET

  12. Automation in irradiating target systems for cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Sumair G.; Sciani, Valdir; Almeida, Rosemeire S.

    2000-01-01

    Nowadays, two cyclotron are being operated at IPEN-CNEN/SP: one model CV-28, capable of accelerating p, d, 3 He 4 and α, with energies of 24, 14, 36 and 28 MeV, respectively, and beam currents up to 30 μA; the other one, model cyclone 30, accelerates protons with energy of 30 MeV and currents up to 350 μ A. Both have the objective of irradiating targets both for radioisotope production for use in Nuclear Medicine, such as 67 Ga, 201 Tl, 111 In, 123 I, 18 F, and general research. The development of irradiating systems completely automatized was the objective of this work, always aiming to reduce the radiation exposition dose to the workers and to increasing the reliability of use of these systems, because very high activities are expected in these processes. In the automation, a Programmable Logical Controller (PLC) was used connected to a feedback net, to manage all the variables involved in the irradiation processes. The program of the PLC was developed using Simatic Step Seven (S7), Software from Siemens, where all the steps are supervised in screens at a microcomputer. The assembling and sequence of leading were developed using the software from Unisoft, that keeps the operator informed about the work being carried out, at any time. (author)

  13. Archaeological studies at IPNE cyclotron laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinescu, B.; Bugoi, R.; Radulescu, M.; Manucu-Adamesteanu, Gh.; Poll, I.

    1995-01-01

    An XRF-PIXE program for systematic investigation of Greek, Roman, and Byzantine cooper and lead coins found in Romania, has been started in cooperation with the Bucharest Museum of History and Archaeology, using a 30 mCi Am-241 source and 4.7 MeV (sub-harmonic accelerating regime) alpha particles from the Bucharest U-120 Cyclotron (in vacuum measurements). The aim of the program is to identify and classify the coins in relation to their origins (workshops) e.g. Constantinople, Thessaloniki as well as local workshops on the basis of their content in minor and trace elements (lead-arsenic, tin-silver). Different Byzantine ceramics and glass pieces (bracelets) have also been analysed. Results and performances (sensitivity, experimental errors) especially for Fe, Cu, Ni, As, Ag, In, Sn, Sb, and Pb for coins and K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Zr, Rb, Ba, La, and Nd - for ceramics - are reported. Elemental analysis of Byzantine ceramics and glass samples using intense fast neutron beams (13 MeV D + Be thick target), especially for O, Mg, Al, and Si are also presented. (author)

  14. Characterization of electron cyclotron resonance hydrogen plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outten, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas yield low energy and high ion density plasmas. The characteristics downstream of an ECR hydrogen plasma were investigated as a function of microwave power and magnetic field. A fast-injection Langmuir probe and a carbon resistance probe were used to determine plasma potential (V p ), electron density (N e ), electron temperature (T e ), ion energy (T i ), and ion fluence. Langmuir probe results showed that at 17 cm downstream from the ECR chamber the plasma characteristics are approximately constant across the center 7 cm of the plasma for 50 Watts of absorbed power. These results gave V p = 30 ± 5 eV, N e = 1 x 10 8 cm -3 , and T e = 10--13 eV. In good agreement with the Langmuir probe results, carbon resistance probes have shown that T i ≤ 50 eV. Also, based on hydrogen chemical sputtering of carbon, the hydrogen (ion and energetic neutrals) fluence rate was determined to be 1 x 10 16 /cm 2 -sec. at a pressure of 1 x 10 -4 Torr and for 50 Watts of absorbed power. 19 refs

  15. Electron cyclotron emission spectroscopy on thermonuclear plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubbing, B.J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of electron cyclotron emission (ECE) enables one to infer the radial profile of the electron temperature in tokamaks. The Dutch FOM institute for plasma physics has designed, built, installed and operated a grating polychromator for ECE measurements at JET. This thesis deals with a few instrumental aspects of this project and with applications of ECE measurements in tokamak physics studies. Ch. 3 and 4 deal with the wave transport in ECE systems. In Ch. 3 a method is developed to infer the mode conversion, which is a source for transmission losses, in a waveguide component from the antenna pattern of its exit aperture. In Ch. 4 the design and manufacture of the waveguide transition system to the grating polychromator are described. In Ch. 5 a method is reported for calibration of the spectrometers, based on the use of a microwave source which simulates a large area blackbody of very high temperature. The feasibility of the method is tested by applying it to two different ECE systems. In Ch. 6 a study of heat pulse propagation in tokamak plasma's, based on measurement of the electron temperature with the grating polychromator, is presented. 105 refs.; 48 figs.; 8 tabs

  16. Electronic cyclotron radiation amplification in thermonuclear plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziebell, L.F.

    1983-01-01

    The amplified emission of electron cyclotron radiation near the fundamental frequency from an inhomogeneous, anisotropic plasma slab is investigated in a linear theory. Plasma polarization effects are consistently included. Expressions are developed in the WKB approximation for emission in the ordinary and the extraordinary modes, for propagation perpendicular to the magnetic field. Numerical results are given for the extraordinary mode, for which effects are strongest. For the case of a loss-cone-type electron momentum distribution, it is shown that the amplification is sensitively dependent on the ratio of parallel-to-perpendicular temperature and on inhomogeneities in the magnetic field. The dependence of the amplification on the distribution is further investigated by considering superpositions of loss-cone and Maxwellian components. It is show that the presence of a Maxwellian component in general reduces the emission relative to the pure loss-cone case, and situations occur in which a layer in the slab very effectively absorbs all the radiation amplified elsewhere. A peculiar behaviour of the refractive index, which occurs in the transition from the pure loss-cone to the pure Maxwellian case, is discussed. (author)

  17. A small low energy cyclotron for radioisotope measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertsche, K.J.

    1989-11-01

    Direct detection of 14 C by accelerator mass spectrometry has proved to be a much more sensitive method for radiocarbon dating than the decay counting method invented earlier by Libby. A small cyclotron (the ''cyclotrino'') was proposed for direct detection of radiocarbon in 1980. This combined the suppression of background through the use of negative ions, which had been used effectively in tandem accelerators, with the high intrinsic mass resolution of a cyclotron. Development of a small electrostatically-focused cyclotron for use as a mass spectrometer was previously reported but the sensitivity needed for detection of 14 C at natural abundance was not achieved. The major contributions of this work are the integration of a high current external ion source with a small flat-field, electrostatically-focused cyclotron to comprise a system capable of measuring 14 C at natural levels, and the analysis of ion motion in such a cyclotron, including a detailed analysis of phase bunching and its effect on mass resolution. A high current cesium sputter negative ion source generates a beam of carbon ions which is pre-separated with a Wien filter and is transported to the cyclotron via a series of electrostatic lenses. Beam is injected radially into the cyclotron using electrostatic deflectors and an electrostatic mirror. Axial focusing is entirely electrostatic. A microchannel plate detector is used with a phase-grated output. In its present form the system is capable of improving the sensitivity of detecting 14 C in some biomedical experiments by a factor of 10 4 . Modifications are discussed which could bring about an additional factor of 100 in sensitivity, which is important for archaeological and geological applications. Possibilities for measurements of other isotopes, such as 3 H, and 10 Be, and 26 Al, are discussed. 70 refs

  18. Liquid stub tuner for ion cyclotron heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumazawa, R.; Mutoh, T.; Seki, T.; Sinpo, F.; Nomura, G.; Ido, T.; Watari, T.; Noterdaeme, Jean-Marie; Zhao, Yangping

    1999-02-01

    Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating on the Large Helical Device (LHD) is characterized by high power (up to 12 MW) and steady state operation (30 minutes). The LHD is a helical device (with a major radius of 3.9 m and a minor radius of 0.6 m) with super-conducting coil windings (l=2, m=10). The main purpose of physical research is to investigate currentless and disruption-free plasma. Research and development for steady state ICRF heating has been carried out in recent years: A high RF power transmission system consisting of stub tuners, a ceramic feed-through and an ICH loop antenna has been developed. In addition, steady state operation of an RF oscillator has been achieved at a power higher than 1 MW. A liquid stub tuner has been proposed as an innovation. The liquid stub tuner makes use of the difference between the RF wave lengths in liquid and in gas due to the different relative dielectric constants. The liquid stub tuner has been experimentally proved to be a reliable RF component for high power transmission systems. Test results have quantitatively demonstrated that it can be used at high RF voltage: 61 kV for 10 seconds and 50 kV for 30 minutes. Furthermore, the liquid surface can be shifted under high RF voltage without breakdown, which suggests that it can be employed as a feedback control impedance matching tool to keep reflected RF power at a low level with regard to a temporal variation of plasma loading resistance. (author)

  19. Radiation protection problems by the operation of the cyclotron facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durcik, M.; Nikodemova, D.

    1998-01-01

    The Cyclotron Center in Bratislava will consist of two cyclotrons. First - cyclotron DC-72 with maximal energy of 72 MV for protons for making experiments, for teaching process, for radioisotope production as 123 I and for neutron and proton therapy. Second - compact cyclotron with maximal proton energy of 18 MeV will be used for radioisotopes production for medical diagnosis as 1 *F (fluorodeoxyglucose), 81 Rb/ 81 Kr generator. This paper deals with the radiation protection problems by the operation of tis cyclotron facility as radiation protection of workers, monitoring plan, ventilation, safety lock and limitation and radiation monitoring. For proposed and continuing practices at the accelerator facility, the following general principles have to be fulfilled: (1) practices should produce sufficient benefit to offset the radiation detriment they case (justification); (2) the magnitude of the individual doses should be kept as low as achievable (optimization of protection); (3) individual exposures are subject to dose limits and some control of risk from potential exposures (dose and risk limits)

  20. Design of RF system for CYCIAE-230 superconducting cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Zhiguo, E-mail: bitbearAT@hotmail.com; Ji, Bin; Fu, Xiaoliang; Cao, Xuelong; Zhao, Zhenlu; Zhang, Tinajue

    2017-05-11

    The CYCIAE230 is a low-current, compact superconducting cyclotron designed for proton therapy. The Radio Frequency system consists of four RF cavities and applies second harmonic to accelerate beams. The driving power for the cavity system is estimated to be approximately 150 kW. The LLRF controller is a self-made device developed and tested at low power using a small-scale cavity model. In this paper, the resonator systems of an S.C. cyclotron in history are reviewed. Contrary to those RF systems, the cavities of the CYCIAE230 cyclotron connect two opposite dees. Two high-power RF windows are included in the system. Each window carries approximately 75 kW RF power from the driver to the cavities. Thus, the RF system for the CY-CIAE230 cyclotron is operated in driven push–pull mode. The two-way amplifier-coupler-cavity systems are operated with approximately the same amount of RF power but 180° out of phase compared with each other. The design, as well as the technical advantage and limitations of this operating mode, of the CYCIAE230 cyclotron RF system is analyzed.

  1. Risk assessment of 30 MeV cyclotron facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Gyo Seong; Lee, Jin Woo; Kim, Chong Yeal

    2017-01-01

    A cyclotron is a kind of particle accelerator that produces a beam of charged particles for the production of medical, industrial, and research radioisotopes. More than 30 cyclotrons are operated in Korea to produce 18F, an FDG synthesis at hospitals. A 30-MeV cyclotron was installed at ARTI (Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, KAERI) mainly for research regarding isotope production. In this study, we analyze and estimate the items of risk such as the problems in the main components of the cyclotron, the loss of radioactive materials, the leakage of coolant, and the malfunction of utilities, fres and earthquakes. To estimate the occurrence frequency in an accident risk assessment, five levels, i.e., Almost certain, Likely, Possible, Unlikely, and Rare, are applied. The accident consequence level is classified under four grades based on the annual permissible dose for radiation workers and the public in the nuclear safety law. The analysis of the accident effect is focused on the radioactive contamination caused by radioisotope leakage and radioactive material leakage of a ventilation filter due to a free. To analyze the risks, Occupation Safety and Health Acts is applied. In addition, action plans against an accident were prepared after a deep discussion among relevant researchers. In this acts, we will search for hazard and introduce the risk assessment for the research 30-MeV cyclotron facilities of ARTI

  2. Potential of cyclotron based accelerators for energy production and transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stammbach, T.; Adam, S.; Fitze, H.R. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    PSI operates a 590 MeV-cyclotron facility for high intensity proton beams for the production of intense beams of pions and muons. The facility, commissioned in 1974, has been partially upgraded and is now operated routinely at a beam current of 1 mA, which corresponds to a beam power of 0.6 MW. At this current, the beam losses in the cyclotron are about 0.02%. By the end of 1995 the authors expect to have 1.5 mA of protons. Extensive theoretical investigations on beam current limitations in isochronous cyclotrons were undertaken. They show that the longitudinal space charge effects dominate. Based on their experience the authors present a preliminary design of a cyclotron scheme that could produce a 10 MW beam as a driver for an {open_quotes}energy amplifier{close_quotes} as proposed by C. Rubbia and his collaborators. The expected efficiency for the conversion of AC into beam power would be about 50% (for the RF-systems only). The beam losses in the cyclotron are expected to be a few {mu}A, leading to a tolerable activation level.

  3. Risk assessment of 30 MeV cyclotron facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Gyo Seong; Lee, Jin Woo [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chong Yeal [Dept. of Radiation Science and Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    A cyclotron is a kind of particle accelerator that produces a beam of charged particles for the production of medical, industrial, and research radioisotopes. More than 30 cyclotrons are operated in Korea to produce 18F, an FDG synthesis at hospitals. A 30-MeV cyclotron was installed at ARTI (Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, KAERI) mainly for research regarding isotope production. In this study, we analyze and estimate the items of risk such as the problems in the main components of the cyclotron, the loss of radioactive materials, the leakage of coolant, and the malfunction of utilities, fres and earthquakes. To estimate the occurrence frequency in an accident risk assessment, five levels, i.e., Almost certain, Likely, Possible, Unlikely, and Rare, are applied. The accident consequence level is classified under four grades based on the annual permissible dose for radiation workers and the public in the nuclear safety law. The analysis of the accident effect is focused on the radioactive contamination caused by radioisotope leakage and radioactive material leakage of a ventilation filter due to a free. To analyze the risks, Occupation Safety and Health Acts is applied. In addition, action plans against an accident were prepared after a deep discussion among relevant researchers. In this acts, we will search for hazard and introduce the risk assessment for the research 30-MeV cyclotron facilities of ARTI.

  4. Political order and the ambivalence of expertise: Count Rumford and welfare reform in late eighteenth-century Munich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maerker, Anna

    2010-01-01

    From 1784 to 1798, the military expert and natural philosopher Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford, worked in Munich for Elector Karl Theodor of Bavaria on a series of reforms that demanded a careful articulation of the reformer's expertise. This case study of Rumford's welfare reforms posits that the ambivalent nature of expertise, which relies simultaneously on generally accessible and on exclusive knowledge, was already present in the conceptual framework of Rumford's mechanical experimental philosophy and that this ambivalence was visible in the performative practice of the experimenter. Gestures of revelation and concealment and of displaying and obscuring were crucial to Rumford's (temporary) success in establishing his authority in Bavaria. Challenged by local advisers, the reformer called on a newly emergent form of public. Rumford's conceptual and practical articulation of expertise thus contributed to an increasing polarization of the political order in the Bavarian capital.

  5. Progress report of the Munich central railway station - airport high-speed maglev line project; Projektstand der Magnetschnellbahn Muenchen Hauptbahnhof - Flughafen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keil, J. [DB Magnetbahn GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The dates for discussing the project of a maglev railway connection from the Munich central railway station to the airport are drawing near. The plans generated so far are proof of the fact that the project is easy on man and environment. (orig.)

  6. Munich Re konsultant Gerhard Berz : katastroofid on meie ärile kasulikud / Gerhard Berz ; interv. Ulrich Schnabel, tõlk. Erik Aru

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Berz, Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    Intervjuu meteoroloogiga, kes on kolm aastakümmet arvutanud edasikindlustusfirma Munich Re heaks loodusõnnetuste riske ja viibinud ligi viiekümnes katastroofipiirkonnas. Vaatamata sellele, et 2004. aasta oli kõige kulukamate looduskatastroofide aasta, saavutas firma läbi aegade parimad majandustulemused. Lisa: Meeletu kahju

  7. Survey of medical X-ray centres in the municipal area of Munich to evaluate their technical equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dielschneider, K.

    1988-01-01

    Data were collected on the facilities and installations in various medical X-ray centres in the Munich municipal area that were to form the basis of a large-scales survey demanded by the EC Council. Questionnaires especially designed to serve that purpose were sent out to 550 adminstrative bodies maintaining X-ray centres and completed by 67.6% of these. It was evident from the survey that the firms Siemens, CHF Mueller, Hofmann, Picker and Koch and Sterzel are sharing the market between them, leaving only a small portion to a group of other suppliers. The majority of X-ray units were found to data from the period between 1971 and 1980, even though 7.4% were purchased before 1960 and have thus been in use for more than twenty years. Most generators still are of the six-pulse type, but hospitals in particular now appear to be showing a pre-dilection for twelve-pulse and multipulse generators. Special-purpose facilities are mostly encountered in clinics and similar institutions. Among these, devices for taking sectional roentgenograms prevail. The majority of fluoroscopes feature built-in spot-film devices, devices for image-intensified television and multi-leaf collimators. Most radiographic units come complete with cassette support, examining table and grid as well as multi-leaf collimators. The X-rays taken are generally processed by machine. The analysis led to the conclusion that the X-ray services available to the population of the Munich municipal area can be regarded as being very satisfactory. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Course of alcoholism in homeless men in Munich, Germany: results from a prospective longitudinal study based on a representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichter, Manfred M; Quadflieg, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    In an earlier paper (Fichter, M. M., Quadflieg, N. (1999). Alcoholism in homeless men in the mid-nineties: results from the Bavarian Public Health Study on Homelessness. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 249:34-44), we reported data on alcoholism and comorbidity in 265 homeless men in Munich. There-as in this paper-we divided the sample into three groups based on a lifetime diagnosis of alcohol dependence (N = 187), alcohol abuse (N = 17), and no diagnosis of alcoholism (N = 61) at baseline assessment. This study reports a three-year prospective longitudinal assessment of the original representative sample of homeless men in Munich. Interviews at baseline and at follow-up included the SCID-I and covered several other areas (cognitive impairment, somatic complaints, use of medical services, and other psychosocial variables). Of 247 homeless men still alive, at three-year follow-up, 185 (74.9%) were successfully traced and personally interviewed. Alcohol dependency in homeless men at first wave assessment (as compared to men not manifesting alcohol abuse or dependence) was associated with a higher proportion of homelessness at three-year follow-up, an increase of alcohol consumption at three-year follow-up, reduction of monthly income, higher death rate, and high use of general medical services but very low utilization of (specific substance) user treatment services. Alcoholism in homeless men constitutes a posited risk factor for an unfavorable course over time with regard to such a person's living situation and health status in spite of more utilization of medical services.

  9. Accelerators for hadrontherapy: From Lawrence cyclotrons to linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Braccini, S; Garlasche, M; Weiss, M; Crescenti, M; Pearce, P; Rosso, E; Wegner, R; Magrin, G; Pitta, G; Amaldi, U; Puggioni, P; Degiovanni, A; Mellace, C; Zennaro, R; Bonomi, R; Garonna, A

    2010-01-01

    Hadrontherapy with protons and carbon ions is a fast developing methodology in radiation oncology. The accelerators used and planned for this purpose are reviewed starting from the cyclotrons used in the thirties. As discussed in the first part of this paper, normal and superconducting cyclotrons are still employed, together with synchrotrons, for proton therapy while for carbon ion therapy synchrotrons have been till now the only option. The latest developments concern a superconducting cyclotron for carbon ion therapy, fast-cycling high frequency linacs and `single room' proton therapy facilities. These issues are discussed in the second part of the paper by underlining the present challenges, in particular the treatment of moving organs. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Calibration of the simulation model of the VINCY cyclotron magnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirković Saša

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The MERMAID program will be used to isochronise the nominal magnetic field of the VINCY Cyclotron. This program simulates the response, i. e. calculates the magnetic field, of a previously defined model of a magnet. The accuracy of 3D field calculation depends on the density of the grid points in the simulation model grid. The size of the VINCY Cyclotron and the maximum number of grid points in the XY plane limited by MERMAID define the maximumobtainable accuracy of field calculations. Comparisons of the field simulated with maximum obtainable accuracy with the magnetic field measured in the first phase of the VINCY Cyclotron magnetic field measurements campaign has shown that the difference between these two fields is not as small as required. Further decrease of the difference between these fields is obtained by the simulation model calibration, i. e. by adjusting the current through the main coils in the simulation model.

  11. Automatized target devices for radioisotope production at the RITs cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, P.V.; Ivanov, V.V.; Karasev, B.G.

    1981-01-01

    An automation target device intended for isotope production on the internal beam of the RITs cyclotron is decribed. The target device comprises the following main units: target head, vacuum lock, charging device, transport system for bringing the target for charging; mechanism of target discharge transport device, control interlocking and signalling control system of target radiation power. The automation target device permits radioisotope production on the cyclotron in commercial scales with automation substitution of irradiated targets. The time of substitution of one of six targets makes up only 5 min. The time of charging a new group of targets to the charge device - 60 min. Contact of the personnel with irradiated targets is practically excluded and the necessity of entering the cyclotron room for maintenance of the plant is reduced to the minimum [ru

  12. Radiation monitoring in a self-shielded cyclotron installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capaccioli, L.; Gori, C.; Mazzocchi, S.; Spano, G.

    2002-01-01

    As nuclear medicine is approaching a new era with the spectacular growth of PET diagnosis, the number of medical cyclotrons installed within the major hospitals is increasing accordingly. Therefore modern medical cyclotron are highly engineered and highly reliable apparatus, characterised with reduced accelerating energies (as the major goal is the production of fluorine 18) and often self-shielded. However specific dedicated monitors are still necessary in order to assure the proper radioprotection. At the Careggi University Hospital in Florence a Mini trace 10 MeV self-shielded cyclotron produced by General Electric has been installed in 2000. In a contiguous radiochemistry laboratory, the preparation and quality control of 1 8F DG and other radiopharmaceuticals takes place. Aim of this work is the characterisation and the proper calibration of the above mentioned monitors and control devices

  13. Stochasticity of the energy absorption in the electron cyclotron resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez T, C.; Hernandez A, O.

    1998-01-01

    The energy absorption mechanism in cyclotron resonance of the electrons is a present problem, since it could be considered from the stochastic point of view or this related with a non-homogeneous but periodical of plasma spatial structure. In this work using the Bogoliubov average method for a multi periodical system in presence of resonances, the drift equations were obtained in presence of a RF field for the case of electron cyclotron resonance until first order terms with respect to inverse of its cyclotron frequency. The absorbed energy equation is obtained on part of electrons in a simple model and by drift method. It is showed the stochastic character of the energy absorption. (Author)

  14. Design study of the KIRAMS-430 superconducting cyclotron magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Wook; Kang, Joonsun; Hong, Bong Hwan; Jung, In Su

    2016-01-01

    Design study of superconducting cyclotron magnet for the carbon therapy was performed at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science (KIRAMS). The name of this project is The Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (KHIMA) project and a fixed frequency cyclotron with four spiral sector magnet was one of the candidate for the accelerator type. Basic parameters of the cyclotron magnet and its characteristics were studied. The isochronous magnetic field which can guide the 12 C 6+ ions up to 430 MeV/u was designed and used for the single particle tracking simulation. The isochronous condition of magnetic field was achieved by optimization of sector gap and width along the radius. Operating range of superconducting coil current was calculated and changing of the magnetic field caused by mechanical deformations of yokes was considered. From the result of magnetic field design, structure of the magnet yoke was planned.

  15. CACTUS - a multidetector set-up at the Oslo Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guttormsen, M.; Bjerke, B.; Messelt, S.; Olsen, E.A.; Ramsoey, T.; Rekstad, J.; Tveter, T.S.; Wikne, J.C.; Kownacki, J.

    1989-06-01

    The design and construction of the multidetector system CACTUS is discussed, and its operation in the context of the Oslo Cyclotron is described. The multidetector system has been initiated to meet the requirements at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory in the experimental work on nuclear structure at high intrinsic excitation energy. The laboratory has developed a promising technique based on measuring γ-decay after single nucleon transfer reactions with the use of pγ coincidences. However, a proper interpretation of the experimental results has often been difficult due to low counting rates. One of the most important aims for the new experimental set-up has been to obtain pγ as well as pγγ coincidence spectra with high statistics. The CACTUS detector system which is mounted on the 90 o beam line of the cyclotron, consists of 28 NaI and 2 Ge detectors in combination with 8 Si particle telescopes

  16. Isochronous variable energy cyclotron of IPEN-CNEN/SP (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucki, G.; Zanchetta, A.A.; Gouveia, S.; Klein, H.

    1984-01-01

    The cyclotron CV-28 installed at the Radiation Damage Division of IPEN-CNEN/SP is a multi-particle radiation source where protons, deuterons, 3 He ions and alpha particles can be accelerated with variable energy up to 24, 14, 36 and 28 MeV, respectively. The cyclotron is a versatile machine that can be applied in research and development of : radioisotope production - materials science - nuclear physics - activation analysis and others. First internal beam with 24 MeV protons has been obtained in April 23, 1981. First irradiation of Cu sample, at the external beam (beam current 1.5 μA), with 28 MeV alpha particles was performed in December 29, 1983. Main characteristics of the cyclotron are given together with a description of peripheral systems and experimental capability. Presently the accelerator is being optimized for cpontinuous running. (Author) [pt

  17. Cyclotron instabilities driven by temperature anisotropy in the solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, N.; Yoon, P. H.; Zaheer, S.

    2017-10-01

    Kinetic plasma instabilities are important for regulating the temperature anisotropies of electrons and ions in solar wind. For the low beta regime, it is known that electromagnetic ion/electron cyclotron instabilities are important, but in the literature these unstable modes are discussed under the assumption of parallel propagation. The present paper extends the analysis to two (or with cylindrical symmetry, three) dimensions. The analysis is further extended to include quasilinear description with the assumption of the bi-Maxwellian velocity distribution function. Such an analysis lays the foundation for an eventual study in which cyclotron instabilities as well as obliquely propagating unstable modes such as the mirror instability are simultaneously taken into account. The present paper first lays down the basis for such future efforts in which the two- or three dimensional linear and quasilinear theories of cyclotron instabilities in the low beta regime are formulated.

  18. CAS CERN Accelerator School: Cyclotrons, linacs and their applications. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, S.

    1996-01-01

    These proceedings present the lectures given at the eighth specialized course organized by the CERN Accelerator School (CAS), the topic this time being 'Cyclotrons, Linacs and Their Applications'. Following an introductory lecture on linacs, the fundamental features of electron, ion and induction linacs are described together with their RF systems and particle sources. Cyclotrons are then introduced followed by details of their different types, their magnet and RF design, and their injection and extraction systems, with a glance towards exotic and possible future machines. Chapters are then presented on the use of linacs and cyclotrons for medical, fission, fusion and material applications, as well as for isotope production. Finally, descriptions of the design of a radioisotope facility, the matching of accelerators to their task and the computational tools used in their design are included. (orig.)

  19. Band rejection filter for measurement of electron cyclotron emission during electron cyclotron heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwase, Makoto; Ohkubo, Kunizo; Kubo, Shin; Idei, Hiroshi.

    1996-05-01

    For the measurement of electron cyclotron emission from the high temperature plasma, a band rejection filter in the range of 40-60 GHz is designed to reject the 53.2 GHz signal with large amplitude from the gyrotron for the purpose of plasma electron heating. The filter developed with ten sets of three quarters-wavelength coupled by TE 111 mode of tunable resonant cavity has rejection of 50 dB and 3 dB bandwidth of 500 MHz. The modified model of Tschebysheff type for the prediction of rejection is proposed. It is confirmed that the measured rejection as a function of frequency agrees well with the experimental results for small coupling hole, and also clarified that the rejection ratio increases for the large coupling hole. (author)

  20. Distribution of thermal neutron flux around a PET cyclotron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Yoshimune; Ishigure, Nobuhito; Mochizuki, Shingo; Ito, Kengo; Hatano, Kentaro; Abe, Junichiro; Miyahara, Hiroshi; Masumoto, Kazuyoshi; Nakamura, Hajime

    2011-05-01

    The number of positron emission tomography (PET) examinations has greatly increased world-wide. Since positron emission nuclides for the PET examinations have short half-lives, they are mainly produced using on-site cyclotrons. During the production of the nuclides, significant quantities of neutrons are generated from the cyclotrons. Neutrons have potential to activate the materials around the cyclotrons and cause exposure to the staff. To investigate quantities and distribution of the thermal neutrons, thermal neutron fluxes were measured around a PET cyclotron in a laboratory associating with a hospital. The cyclotron accelerates protons up to 18 MeV, and the mean particle current is 20 μA. The neutron fluxes were measured during both 18F production and C production. Gold foils and thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) badges were used to measure the neutron fluxes. The neutron fluxes in the target box averaged 9.3 × 10(6) cm(-2) s(-1) and 1.7 × 10(6) cm(-2) s(-1) during 18F and 11C production, respectively. Those in the cyclotron room averaged 4.1 × 10(5) cm(-2) s(-1) and 1.2 × 10(5) cm(-2) s(-1), respectively. Those outside the concrete wall shielding were estimated as being equal to or less than ∼3 cm s, which corresponded to 0.1 μSv h(-1) in effective dose. The neutron fluxes outside the concrete shielding were confirmed to be quite low compared to the legal limit.

  1. Calculations for the design and modification of the 2 cyclotrons of S.A.R.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrand, P.S.; Belmont, J.L.; Ripouteau, F.

    1983-09-01

    S.A.R.A. is a heavy ion accelerator constituted by 2 cyclotrons. The second cyclotron (post-accelerator) was entirely calculated at the I.S.N. The pole tips of the first cyclotron which is much older, have recently been modified. An almost identical procedure was used for the calculation of each element of the post-accelerator of S.A.R.A. and also for the modifications to the first cyclotron

  2. A 600 MeV cyclotron for radioactive beam production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    The magnetic field design for a 600 MeV proton cyclotron is described. The cyclotron has a single stage, a normal conducting magnet coil and a 9.8 m outside yoke diameter. It has 8 sectors, with a transition to 4 sectors in the center region. The magnetic field design was done using 1958 Harwell rectangular ridge system measurements and was compared with recent 3-dimensional field calculations with the program TOSCA at NSCL. The center region 4--8 sector transition focussing was also checked with TOSCA

  3. The Juelich compact cyclotron - a multi-purpose irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmerich, J.; Hoelzle, R.; Kogler, W.

    1977-01-01

    A commercially available variable-energy compact cyclotron has been installed at the Kernforschungsanlage Juelich. It is equipped to accelerate protons, deuterons, 3 He- and α-particles. A +- 60 0 switching magnet allows to switch the beam to any of seven external target stations. Three separately shielded target rooms allow a flexible use of the cyclotron for a wide range of applications such as production of short-lived nuclides, activation analysis, radiation damage studies in metals and studies of biological effects of fast neutron irradiation. (orig.) [de

  4. Utilization of cyclotrons for industrial and materials science applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Azim, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    The Egyptian cyclotron complex which is under construction in NRC at Inshas, shall contain provisions for radioisotopes production and fast neutrons research and applications. The current use of cyclotrons to solve problems of materials research, including those that arise during the design and manufacture of a product or hi the behavior of the product in service e.g. TLA are, reviewed. Neutron radiography in NDT of welds in metals and. alloys, crystallographic phase determination, single-crystal quality control, and internal stress measurement by neutron diffraction technique, to be used in materials science research and industry are presented too in this paper

  5. Solid targets for production of radioisotopes with cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes G, L.; Balcazar G, M.

    1999-01-01

    The design of targets for production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals of cyclotron to medical applications requires a detailed analysis of several variables such as: cyclotron operation conditions, choice of used materials as target and their physicochemical characteristics, activity calculation, the yielding of each radioisotope by irradiation, the competition of nuclear reactions in function of the projectiles energy and the collision processes amongst others. The objective of this work is to determine the equations for the calculation for yielding of solid targets at the end of the proton irradiation. (Author)

  6. Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating of a High-Density Plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, F. Ramskov

    1986-01-01

    Various schemes for electron cyclotron resonance heating of tokamak plasmas with the ratio of electron plasma frequency to electron cyclotron frequency, "»pe/^ce* larger than 1 on axis, are investigated. In particular, a mode conversion scheme is investigated using ordinary waves at the fundamental......-relativistic plasma. Radial profiles for the power deposition and the non-inductive wave-driven current due to the Bernstein waves are calculated for realistic antenna radiation patterns with parameters corresponding to the Danish tokamak DANTE and to Princeton's PLT....

  7. Production of medical radioisotopes in ORNL 86-Inch Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skidmore, M.R.

    1975-01-01

    Procedures, targets, and costs are discussed for the production of iodine-123 at the ORNL 86-Inch Cyclotron. The cyclotron is a fixed frequency machine producing 22-MeV proton beams with currents of 3 mA. Flat plate targets are used in the bombardment of readily fabricated metals when highest production rates are necessary, while capsule targets are used when flat plate coatings are difficult or when high production rates are not required. Window targets with metal foils or powders, inorganic compounds, or isotopically enriched materials are also used. (PMA)

  8. ELECTRON CYCLOTRON CURRENT DRIVE EFFICIENCY IN GENERAL TOKAMAK GEOMETRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LIN-LUI, Y.R; CHAN, V.S; PRATER, R.

    2003-01-01

    Green's-function techniques are used to calculate electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) efficiency in general tokamak geometry in the low-collisionality regime. Fully relativistic electron dynamics is employed in the theoretical formulation. The high-velocity collision model is used to model Coulomb collisions and a simplified quasi-linear rf diffusion operator describes wave-particle interactions. The approximate analytic solutions which are benchmarked with a widely used ECCD model, facilitate time-dependent simulations of tokamak operational scenarios using the non-inductive current drive of electron cyclotron waves

  9. A novel superconducting cyclotron for therapy and radioisotope production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabretta, Luciano; Cuttone, Giacomo; Maggiore, Mario; Re, Maurizio; Rifuggiato, Danilo

    2006-06-01

    The design of a four sector compact superconducting cyclotron, able to accelerate up to 250 A MeV light ions with charge/mass ratio 0.5, is in progress. Light ions like 12C 6+, 10B 5+, 6Li 3+ will be extracted by electrostatic deflectors while H 2+ ions can be extracted also by stripping, therefore a beam power of 10 kW or more is available. This cyclotron can be used for radiotherapy with protons or carbon ions and also to drive a facility for production of unusual medical radioisotopes. The main parameters and some features of the machine are here presented.

  10. Optimization approach for saddling cost of medical cyclotrons with fuzziness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abass, S.A.; Massoud, E.M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Most radiation fields are combinations of different kinds of radiation. The radiations of most significance are fast neutrons, thermal neutrons, primary gammas and secondary gammas. Thermos's composite shielding materials are designed to attenuate these types of radiation. The shielding design requires an accurate cost-benefit analysis based on uncertainty optimization technique. The theory of fuzzy sets has been employed to formulate and solve the problem of cost-benefit analysis of medical cyclotron. This medical radioisotope production cyclotron is based in Sydney, Australia

  11. Cyclotron based nuclear science: Progress report, April 1, 1987-March 31, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-08-01

    This report discusses experiment run on the K500 cyclotron and 88 in cyclotron at Texas AandM University. The main topics of these experiments are: Heavy ion reactions; Nuclear structure and fundamental interactions; Atomic and material science; Nuclear theory; and Superconducting cyclotron and instrumentation

  12. Peculiarity of the charged particles dynamics at the cyclotron resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buts, V.A.; Kuzmin, V.V.; Tolstoluzhsky, A.P.

    2016-01-01

    In this work the analysis was provided of the discrepancy between thresholds for appearance of the chaotic regime in the conditions of cyclotron resonances, obtained by analytical consideration of the particle dynamics, on the one hand, and by numerical investigation, on the other hand. The explanation is given for these threshold discrepancies.

  13. Cyclotron produced Tc-99m: testing compatibility with established kits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lebeda, Ondřej; Ráliš, Jan; Hradilek, Pavel; Hanč, Petr; van Lier, E. J.; Zyuzin, A.; Moša, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 40, 2 Supplement (2013), S424-S425 ISSN 1619-7070. [Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM). 19.10.2013-23.10.2013, Lyon] Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : cyclotron U-120M * Tc-99m * 100Mo Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  14. Unstable Electrostatic Ion Cyclotron Waves Exited by an Ion Beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1976-01-01

    Electrostatic ion cyclotron waves were observed in a quiescent cesium plasma into which a low‐energy beam of sodium ions was injected. The instability appeared when the beam velocity was above 12 times the ion thermal velocity. The waves propagated along the magnetic field with a velocity somewhat...

  15. Nonlinear Cyclotron absorption of a hole doppleron in cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voloshin, I.F.; Bugal' ter, G.A.; Demikhovskii, V.Y.; Fisher, L.M.; Yudin, V.A.

    1977-10-01

    We investigated experimentally the nonlinear behavior of the impedance of a cadmium plate in the region of existence of the hole doppleron. It is shown theoretically that this phenomenon can be attributed to nonlinear cyclotron absorption of the wave in the metal. A theory of nonlinear cyclotron absorption of a hole doppleron in cadmium is constructed. The nonlinearity is due to the influence of the wave magnetic field H that alters the trajectories of the resonant electrons responsible for the cyclotron asorption. The Lorentz force connected with the field H modulates the particle velocity along the magnetic field at a characteristic frequency ..omega../sub 0/ proportional to the square root of the wave amplitude. The modulation of the longitudinal particle velocity leads to violation of the condition of their resonant interaction with the wave, as a result of which the absorption coefficient decreases. The nonlinearity is significant when the frequency ..omega../sub 0/ is large compared with the electron-collision frequency. A decrease of the cyclotron absorption changes radically the picture of the surface-impedance oscillations of the plate in the magnetic field. We studied in the experiment the influence of the temperature, of the angle of inclination of the magnetic field, and of the frequency on the nonlinear-effect threshold field that separates the regions of linear and nonlinear behavior of the sample impedance. The measurement results are in qualitative agreement with the conclusions of the theory.

  16. Remote machining and robotic welding in a proton cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, W.; Mark, C.

    1984-01-01

    Increasing residual radiation in the TRIUMF meson research facility cyclotron at the University of British Columbia has required development of a remotely operable industrial robot cutting and vacuum tight welding capability for modification and updating of vacuum tank access ports, and for possible repairs of leaks or holes in the vacuum tank periphery

  17. Electron-cyclotron-resonant-heated electron distribution functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Y.; Nevins, W.M.; Cohen, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Recent studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) with a bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck code indicate that the energetic electron tail formed by electron-cyclotron resonant heating (ECRH) at the second harmonic is not Maxwellian. We present the results of our bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck code along with some simple analytic models of hot-electron distribution functions

  18. Development of beam instruments at JAERI cyclotron facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okumura, Susumu; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Ishibori, Ikuo; Agematsu, Takashi; Yokota, Watalu; Nara, Takayuki; Nakamura, Yoshiteru; Arakawa, Kazuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    A beam phase monitor and two kinds of fluence distribution monitors have been developed for measuring characteristics of cyclotron beams. The beam phase monitor provides a beam phase signal for tuning a beam chopping system and a beam phase selection system. A two-dimensional fluence distribution on a large area is measured with fluence distribution monitors. (author)

  19. A micropulse monitor for control of cyclotron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, D. A.; Peterson, R. J.; Da Silva, A. G.; Auler, L. T.; de Barros, S.

    1990-07-01

    A system using wall current monitors to observe the time structure of the individual beam current pulses of the Cyclotron Corp. CV28 cyclotron installed at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear of CNEN in Rio de Janeiro is described. The monitors are designed to give a faithful representation of the actual beam pulse, so the effects on the longitudinal phase space could be seen as the cyclotron parameters were changed. Beam pulses of width in the range of 1 to 4 ns and with a charge of 7 × 10-16 C or greater can be observed. With two units in the line transit times permit beam energy determination as well as charge distribution. For timing purposes a unit placed in front of a target is used to generate a start signal for time-of-flight measurements, and to monitor the effects of all parameters of the cyclotron tune. By measuring flight times in the beamlines of this machine, the energy for 28 MeV protons can be determined to about 50 keV and for the other available particles to about 30 keV.

  20. Heavy stable isotope separation by ion cyclotron resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louvet, P.; Compant La Fontaine, A.; Larousse, B.; Patris, M.

    1994-01-01

    The scientific feasibility of the ion cyclotron resonance process (ICR), as well as the technical one, has been investigated carefully for light metallic elements, whose masses lies between 40 and 100/1,2/. The present work deals mainly with the same demonstration for heavier elements such as ytterbium, gadolinium and barium. Recent results, as well as future prospects, are considered here. (authors)

  1. Nuclear physics with superconducting cyclotron at Kolkata: Scopes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Nov 27, 2015 ... At the same time, the nuclear physics programme and related experimental facility development activities are taking shape. A general review of the nuclear physics research opportunities with the superconducting cyclotron and the present status of the development of different detector arrays and other ...

  2. Unstable plasma characteristics in mirror field electron cyclotron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electron cyclotron plasma reactor are prone to instabilities in specific input power [3–7] region (150–450 watts). In this region power absorption by gas molecules in the cavity is very poor and enhanced input power gets reflected substantially without increasing ion density. There are abrupt changes in plasma characteristics ...

  3. Ion-Beam-Excited, Electrostatic, Ion Cyclotron Instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1977-01-01

    The stability limits of the ion‐beam‐excited, electrostatic, ion cyclotron instability were investigated in a Q‐machine plasma where the electrons could be heated by microwaves. In agreement with theory, the beam energy necessary for excitation decreased with increasing electron temperature....

  4. Ion-Beam-Excited Electrostatic Ion Cyclotron Instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1977-01-01

    The stability limits of the ion‐beam‐excited, electrostatic, ion cyclotron instability were investigated in a Q‐machine plasma where the electrons could be heated by microwaves. In agreement with theory, the beam energy necessary for excitation decreased with increasing electron temperature....

  5. Radiation safety aspects of the AGOR superconducting cyclotron facility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijers, JPM; de Meijer, RJ

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes shielding calculations and skyshine estimates for the new AGOR K=600 superconducting cyclotron facility. Both simple, semi-empirical models and Monte-Carlo simulations were used. The calculations are based on a 200 MeV proton beam incident on a trick aluminum target. Also the

  6. An ion trap - laser experiment at the INS cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, I.; Wada, M.; Tanaka, J.

    1994-09-01

    A new nuclear instrument which comprises an ion guide behind a recoil mass separator, an RF trap, a Penning trap and a UV laser system is being built to perform a laser-microwave double resonance experiment. Initially the instrument will be used to measure hyperfine anomalies of Ca isotopes produced by a cyclotron beam. (author)

  7. The development of technology for the improvement of cyclotron performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, Jong Seo; Kim, Y. S.; Ha, J. H.; Lee, M. Y.; Lee, H. S.

    1999-05-01

    We show the first-order beam optics theory which is a simplified theory that can be used to carry out the initial design of a cyclotron. Based on this, a computer program has been developed to determine main cyclotron parameters such as number of magnet sectors, sector angle, hill and valley fields, and overall size of the cyclotron etc. We then show the result of two-dimensional magnetic field calculation using POISSON program. By using this program, one can determine magnet yoke geometry and the average magnetic fields etc. Finally, the three-dimensional computer program OPERA-3D had been invoked to determine magnet pole tips (i.e. sector). Validity of the design can be seen by investigating magnetic fields, radial and vertical focusing frequencies as a function of the beam energy. In this report, we show the results of cyclotron magnet design. And we designed 72 MHz RF system and ion source system. We tested RF resonance each coupling methods. We show the result of RF design and prototype operation. Our developed ion source is PIG type. We described our design methods and implementation. We report the result of getting negative hydrogen ion

  8. Dynamic effects on cyclotron scattering in pulsar accretion columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brainerd, J.J.; Meszaros, P.

    1991-01-01

    A resonant scattering model for photon reprocessing in a pulsar accretion column is presented. The accretion column is optically thin to Thomson scattering and optically thick to resonant scattering at the cyclotron frequency. Radiation from the neutron star surface propagates freely through the column until the photon energy equals the local cyclotron frequency, at which point the radiation is scattered, much of it back toward the star. The radiation pressure in this regime is insufficient to stop the infall. Some of the scattered radiation heats the stellar surface around the base of the column, which adds a softer component to the spectrum. The partial blocking by the accretion column of X-rays from the surface produces a fan beam emission pattern. X-rays above the surface cyclotron frequency freely escape and are characterized by a pencil beam. Gravitational light bending produces a pencil beam pattern of column-scattered radiation in the antipodal direction, resulting in a strongly angle-dependent cyclotron feature. 31 refs

  9. Computational tools for cyclotron design, commissioning, and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kost, C.J.

    1989-05-01

    Many support systems are required in the design, commissioning, and normal operation of a modern cyclotron. Presented is an overview of the computing environment developed during these various stages at TRIUMF. The current computing environment is also discussed, with emphasis on how one can provide an integrated system which is user-friendly

  10. Injection diagnostic procedures for the Chalk River Superconducting Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, W.G.

    1984-01-01

    The beam diagnostics system for the injection beam line for the Chalk River Tandem Accelerator - Superconducting Cyclotron is described. The system has been designed such that simple and easily interpreted measurements can be made for operational beam monitoring as well as for the complete 6-dimensional beam phase-space determinations required for beam development

  11. Status of Chandigarh variable energy cyclotron and present experimental programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govil, I.M.

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes the status report of the Chandigarh variable energy cyclotron and some of the recent modifications which has improved the stability and performance of the machine considerably. The machine is now used for Proton Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) for trace element analysis along with nuclear irradiation for material science research and Nuclear Spectroscopy using (p, n γ) reaction. (author)

  12. Observation of the backward electrostatic ion cyclotron wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goree, J.; Ono, M.; Wong, K.L.

    1984-12-01

    The backward branch of the electrostatic ion cyclotron wave has been observed, we believe, for the first time. The wave, which was driven by a phased antenna structure inserted in a neon plasma, exists in the parameter ranges 2T/sub i//m/sub i/ 2 Ω/sub i/. Double-tip probe interferomety data agree with the theoretical dispersion relation

  13. Second-harmonic ion cyclotron resonance heating scenarios of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 85; Issue 4. Second-harmonic ion cyclotron resonance heating scenarios of Aditya tokamak plasma. Asim Kumar Chattopadhyay S V Kulkarni R Srinivasan Aditya Team. Volume 85 Issue 4 October 2015 pp 713-721 ...

  14. Second-harmonic ion cyclotron resonance heating scenarios of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Plasma heating with the fast magnetosonic waves in the ion cyclotron range of fre- quencies (ICRF) is one of the auxiliary heating schemes of Aditya tokamak. Numerical simulation of second-harmonic resonance heating scenarios in low-temperature, low-density Aditya plasma has been carried out for fast ...

  15. Cyclotron targets and production technologies used for radiopharmaceuticals in NPI

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fišer, Miroslav; Kopička, Karel; Hradilek, Pavel; Hanč, Petr; Lebeda, Ondřej; Panek, T.; Vognar, M.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 2 (2003), s. A737-A743 ISSN 0011-4626 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK4055109 Keywords : cyclotron * radiopharmaceuticals Subject RIV: CH - Nuclear ; Quantum Chemistry Impact factor: 0.263, year: 2003

  16. Plasma particle drifts due to traveling waves with cyclotron frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatakeyama, Rikizo; Sato, Naoyuki; Sato, Noriyoshi

    1991-01-01

    A particle orbit theory yields that traveling waves with cyclotron frequencies give rise to charged particle drifts perpendicular both to the wave propagation and external magnetic field lines. The result is applicable to particle-flux control of magnetized plasmas. (author)

  17. Maryland University sectored isochronous cyclotron (MUSIC): Progress report No. 35

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-10-29

    Efforts are reported on the installation and checkout of cyclotron components which had been previously fabricated. Final integration of subsystems and major systems leading to internal beam tests is reported near completion. Progress is reported in relation to control system components, focus and steering magnet design, and rf system testing. (LEW)

  18. Electron cyclotron resonance breakdown studies in a linear plasma ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma breakdown is studied in a small linear cylindrical system with four different gases – hydrogen, helium, argon and nitrogen. Microwave power in the experimental system is delivered by a magnetron at 2.45 ± 0.02. GHz in TE10 mode and launched radially to have ...

  19. Electron cyclotron resonance heating in a short cylindrical plasma ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma is produced and studied in a small cylindrical system. Microwave power is delivered by a CW magnetron at 2.45 GHz in TE10 mode and launched radially to have extraordinary (X) wave in plasma. The axial magnetic field required for ECR in the system is such that the ...

  20. Electron cyclotron resonance heating in a short cylindrical plasma ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma is produced and studied in a small cylindrical system. Microwave power is delivered by a CW magnetron at 2.45 GHz in TE10 mode and launched radially to have extraordinary (X) wave in plasma. The axial magnetic field required for ECR in the system is such that the first two ...

  1. Magnetic phenomena in F.F.A.G. cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beurtey, R.

    1957-01-01

    This study regroups and develops some experimental and theoretical results obtained with spiral tract cyclotrons. The method used has been studied previously by C. BLOCH, whom we thank for his helpful advice. We have tried to give the main useful results, which are also in accordance with the rather scarce experimental results obtained on spiral pole pieces. (author) [fr

  2. Assessment of radionuclidic impurities in cyclotron produced Tc-99m

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lebeda, Ondřej; van Lier, E. J.; Štursa, Jan; Ráliš, Jan; Zyuzin, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 12 (2012), s. 1286-1291 ISSN 0969-8051 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Technetium-99m * cyclotron * proton irradiation * radionuclidic impurities Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 2.517, year: 2012

  3. New irradiation facilities at the Australian national medical cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parcell, S.K.; Arnott, D.W.; Conard, E.M.

    1999-01-01

    Two new irradiation facilities have been developed at the National Medical Cyclotron for radionuclide production. The first relocates PET irradiations from the cyclotron vault to a dedicated PET beam room, to improve accessibility and reduce radiation exposures associated with target maintenance. This new facility consists of a beam line to transport 16-30 MeV proton beams from the cyclotron to 1 of 8 PET targets mounted on a target rack. The target rack has increased the number of targets available for production and experimentation. The second is a completely independent solid target irradiation facility for SPECT. This facility consists of a beam line to transport 26-30 MeV proton beams from the cyclotron to a dedicated beam room containing one solid target station. A new pneumatic target transfer system was also developed to transport the solid target to and from the existing chemistry hot cells. The beam line and target components are operated under the control of a dedicated PLC with a PC based user interface. The development and some technical aspects of these new irradiation facilities are discussed here. (author)

  4. Operational experience and recent developments at the National Medical Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conard, E.; Pac, B.; Arnott, D.W.

    1994-01-01

    The National Medical Cyclotron is a radioisotope production facility run by ANSTO and located on the grounds of the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital in Sydney, Australia. A CYCLONE 30 (IBA) cyclotron is used in the production of short-lived PET radiopharmaceuticals required by the hospital's PET Scanner and also to produce a number of bulk radiochemicals for processing and distribution throughout Australasia. Following commissioning of the cyclotron and beam lines in October 1991, and the overcoming of a number of early open-quote teething close-quote problems especially relating to the reliability of the r.f. and solid target transport systems, a steady program of improvements has been pursued. These improvements have included development of new beam diagnostics and the design and installation of a new beam line for SPECT radioisotope production. The current operations schedule includes the production of 18 FDG, 13 NH 3 , 15 O 2 and 201 Tl, 67 Ga and 123 I. This paper will discuss the process of development of the cyclotron to ably meet the present demands on it, and the problems resolved in the pursuit of this goal

  5. Feasibility study of direct cyclotron production of 227-Th

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kozempel, J.; Vlk, M.; Mičolová, P.; Lebeda, Ondřej; Moša, M.; Morgenstern, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 40, 2 Supplement (2013), S191-S192 ISSN 1619-7070. [Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM). 19.10.2013-23.10.2013, Lyon] Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : 227Th * alternative method of production 227Th * cyclotron U-120M Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  6. 40. anniversary of cyclotron of Institute of Nuclear Physics, Tashkent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umerov, R.A.; Uzakov, J.M.; Gulamov, I.R.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The Cyclotron U-150-II of Institute of Nuclear Physics was projected in middle of the last century for nuclear-physical researches in a scientific research institute of electro physical equipment in Leningrad. The Cyclotron can accelerate positive ions with beam energy of the protons 18 MeV, deuterons 20 MeV, alpha particles 40 MeV. Intensity of a beam a little some microampere. The building of a Cyclotron represents an impressive three-floor construction in volume of 2000 m 3 . The capital equipment, the high-frequency generator, sources of power supplies, vacuum pumps and other technological units are placed on the first and socle floors of a building. The second and third floors served for accommodation of scientific laboratories. A building of a Cyclotron has three experimental halls, where it was possible to carry out physical researches. They have divided from each other, and the main thing from the accelerator, concrete walls with the purpose of reduction of the big radiating background at the working accelerator, preventing realization of experiments. It provided also biological protection of the on duty personnel. The first some years of operation of the Cyclotron have revealed a line of lacks of this machine. For example, for change of energy of a beam of a Cyclotron it took 2-3 weeks. Also, for transition of acceleration of one particles to others it take same time. Time parameters of a beam were unstable. In 1968 reconstruction of the Cyclotron has been started that has allowed to bring in basic changes to parameters U-150-II. The time took on change of an operating mode of a Cyclotron was sharply reduced, and it was possible to reduce it till 10-20 hours, to improve the energy and time resolution of a beam many times over, to reduce angular straggling of particles in a beam. And, all this enormous amount of works was spent by forces of institute. In 70 th years the big development was received with works on radiating stability of materials

  7. Standardized high current solid targets for cyclotron production of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jammaz, Ibrahim

    2000-01-01

    The Cyclotron and Radiopharmaceuticals Department (CRP) is an advanced and modern facility that encompasses two essential components: radioisotope research, and radiopharmaceuticals manufacturing. Radiopharmaceuticals manufacturing program is not only quite unique, but also an essential component of King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center (KFSH and RC) in providing quality patient care for the population of the Kingdom. Accurate diagnosis and therapy with medical imaging equipment requires quality radiopharmaceuticals that are available readily and with reliability. The CRP Department provides that quality and reliability. Research activities of the CRP Department are focused on developing new radiotracers with potential usefulness in biomedical research and clinical applications. Research projects consist of: developing cyclotron targetry for radioisotope production; developing synthesis methods for radiolabeling biomolecules; and developing analytical methods for quality control. The CRP Department operates a semi-commercial radiopharmaceuticals manufacturing program that supplies the diagnostic radioactive products to several hospitals in the Kingdom and neighboring countries. These products for clinical applications are produced according to the international standards of Good Manufacturing Practices of quality and efficacy. At the heart of the radioisotope program is a medium energy cyclotron capable of accelerating a number of particles for transformation of non-radioactive atoms into radionuclides that are the primary sources for research and development activities, and for preparing radiopharmaceuticals. In addition to having the only cyclotron facility in the region, KFSH and RC also has the only Positron Emission Tomography Center (PET) in this part of the world. This combination of cyclotron and the ultra modern PET facility translates into advanced and specialized care for the patients at KFSH and RC

  8. Use of cyclotrons in medical research: Past, present, future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smathers, James B.; Myers, Lee T.

    1985-05-01

    The use of cyclotrons in medical research started in the late 1930s with the most prominent use being neutron irradiation in cancer therapy. Due to a lack of understanding of the biological effect of neutrons, the results were less than encouraging. In the 1940s and 1950s, small cyclotrons were used for isotope production and in the mid 60s, the biological effect of neutrons was more thoroughly studied, with the result that a second trial of neutron therapy was initiated at Hammersmith Hospital, England. Concurrent with this, work on the use of high energy charged particles, initially protons and alphas, was initiated in Sweden and Russia and at Harvard and Berkeley. The English success in neutron therapy led to some pilot studies in the USA using physics cyclotrons of various energies and targets. These results in turn lead to the present series of machines presently being installed at M.D. Anderson Hospital (42 MeV), Seattle (50 MeV) and UCLA (46 MeV). The future probably bodes well for cyclotrons at the two extremes of the energy range. For nuclear medicine the shift is away from the use of multiple isotopes, which requires a large range of particles and energies to 11C, 13N, 15O, and 18F, which can be incorporated in metabolic specific compounds and be made with small 8-10 MeV p+ "table top" cyclotrons. For tumor therapy machines of 60 MeV or so will probably be the choice for the future, as they allow the treatment of deep seated tumors with neutrons and the charged particles have sufficient range to allow the treatment of ocular tumors.

  9. MEMS - Munich Energy Management System. FIA Project: Exchange of research information; MEMS - Muenchner Energiemanagement-System. FIA-Projekt - Forschungs-Informations-Austausch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, H.; Fries, W.

    2001-10-01

    The City of Munich developed the project 'Munich Energy-Management-Systems (MEMS)' with financial support from the Federal Ministry of Economy and Technology. The project is based on a system of building automation using as many standard elements of hardware and software as possible. This will guarantee a high degree of independence from suppliers and subcontractors. The project has led to a reliable working base for the evaluation, measuring and control for ca. 150 municipal buildings. (orig.) [German] Mit dem Projekt 'Muenchner Energie-Management-System (MEMS)' erstellte die Landeshauptstadt Muenchen mit finanzieller Unterstuetzung des Bundesministeriums fuer Wirtschaft und Technologie ein auf der Leitzentrale Haustechnik (LZH) basierendes zentrales Energiemanagementsystem. Die Verwendung moeglichst vieler Standards in Hard- und Software ist dabei ein wesentlicher Gesichtspunkt. Dadurch wurde eine weitgehende Unabhaengigkeit von einem einzelnen Hersteller erreicht. Damit wurde ein Erfassungs-, Auswerte- und Steuerungssystem fuer derzeit rund 150 staedtische Gebaeude geschaffen. (orig.)

  10. Development of a thermal hydraulic modelling of ground water of the Malm in the Munich metropolitan area; Entwicklung einer thermisch-hydraulischen Grundwassermodellierung des Malm im Grossraum Muenchen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dussel, M.; Lueschen, E.; Thomas, R. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Angewandte Geophysik, Hannover (DE)] (and others)

    2011-10-24

    The mutual potential influence of geothermal duplicates and the scientific investigation of the relationship between seismic and hydraulic parameters are investigated in the joint research project 'Geothermal characterization of fractured karst limestone aquifers in the Munich metropolitan area'. Thirteen doublets and triplets being in production or sunk illustrate the great geothermal potential and provide important data on the development of a thermal-hydraulic modeling of the reservoir. 3D seismic Unterhaching, 3D structural model, hydrogeological model and a high-resolution 3D temperature model form the basis of the numerical modeling. Different seismic signatures, seismic attributes and variations in the interval velocities characterize the ground geophysically, and were interpreted under consideration of geological and hydrogeological background information as well as borehole measurements in terms of hydraulically conductive homogeneous areas. For the Munich metropolitan area, the numerical modeling is a decision aid for the future optimized and sustainable hydrothermal utilization of the Malm aquifer.

  11. Assessment of alcoholic standard drinks using the Munich composite international diagnostic interview (M-CIDI): An evaluation and subsequent revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuitunen-Paul, Sören; Rehm, Jürgen; Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Kadrić, Firdeus; Kuitunen, Paula T; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Manthey, Jakob

    2017-09-01

    The quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption are crucial both in risk assessment as well as epidemiological and clinical research. Using the Munich Composite International Diagnostic Interview (M-CIDI), drinking amounts have been assessed in numerous large-scale studies. However, the accuracy of this assessment has rarely been evaluated. This study evaluates the relevance of drink categories and pouring sizes, and the factors used to convert actual drinks into standard drinks. We compare the M-CIDI to alternative drink assessment instruments and empirically validate drink categories using a general population sample (n = 3165 from Germany), primary care samples (n = 322 from Italy, n = 1189 from Germany), and a non-representative set of k = 22503 alcoholic beverages sold in Germany in 2010-2016. The M-CIDI supplement sheet displays more categories than other instruments (AUDIT, TLFB, WHO-CIDI). Beer, wine, and spirits represent the most prevalent categories in the samples. The suggested standard drink conversion factors were inconsistent for different pouring sizes of the same drink and, to a smaller extent, across drink categories. For the use in Germany and Italy, we propose the limiting of drink categories and pouring sizes, and a revision of the proposed standard drinks. We further suggest corresponding examinations and revisions in other cultures. © 2017 The Authors International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Assessing the Recreation Value of Urban Woodland Using the Ecosystem Service Approach in Two Forests in the Munich Metropolitan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd Lupp

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recreation is considered an important ecosystem services (ES in urban woodlands and puts pressure on other ES. Visitor management strategies can be tools to safeguard biodiversity and ES. On-site data are necessary to evaluate the demand for outdoor recreation opportunities in urban woodlands, but also for providing more reliable values for monetization as a basis for multifunctional forest management, and for raising awareness for the importance of urban proximate forests. Such information can also be used for the assessment and monetization of socio-cultural ES, and hence, contribute to developing market-based mechanisms or to promoting these ES. In our paper, we demonstrate methods to describe recreational demand by collecting data from interviews and using camera traps in two forests in the north of Munich for visitor counting. Visitor numbers in the forests were much greater than rough estimations; visitors also had quite long travelling distances to the forests. Jogging or Nordic walking were proven to be important recreational activities. In some of the monitored locations, almost half of the recreationists carried out these sports. Depending on the method chosen, the calculative monetary value of recreation reached up to 15,440 Euro per hectare per year.

  13. Cyclotron Phase-Coherent Ion Spatial Dispersion in a Non-Quadratic Trapping Potential is Responsible for FT-ICR MS at the Cyclotron Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagornov, Konstantin O.; Kozhinov, Anton N.; Tsybin, Yury O.

    2018-01-01

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) at the cyclotron frequency instead of the reduced cyclotron frequency has been experimentally demonstrated using narrow aperture detection electrode (NADEL) ICR cells. Here, based on the results of SIMION simulations, we provide the initial mechanistic insights into the cyclotron frequency regime generation in FT-ICR MS. The reason for cyclotron frequency regime is found to be a new type of a collective motion of ions with a certain dispersion in the initial characteristics, such as pre-excitation ion velocities, in a highly non-quadratic trapping potential as realized in NADEL ICR cells. During ion detection, ions of the same m/z move in phase for cyclotron ion motion but out of phase for magnetron (drift) ion motion destroying signals at the fundamental and high order harmonics that comprise reduced cyclotron frequency components. After an initial magnetron motion period, ion clouds distribute into a novel type of structures - ion slabs, elliptical cylinders, or star-like structures. These structures rotate at the Larmor (half-cyclotron) frequency on a plane orthogonal to the magnetic field, inducing signals at the true cyclotron frequency on each of the narrow aperture detection electrodes. To eliminate the reduced cyclotron frequency peak upon dipolar ion detection, a number of slabs or elliptical cylinders organizing a star-like configuration are formed. In a NADEL ICR cell with quadrupolar ion detection, a single slab or an elliptical cylinder is sufficient to minimize the intensity of the reduced cyclotron frequency components, particularly the second harmonic. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  14. Decontamination of the activation product based on a legal revision of the cyclotron vault room on the non-self-shield compact medical cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komiya, Isao; Umezu, Yoshiyuki; Fujibuchi, Toshiou; Nakamura, Kazumasa; Baba, Shingo; Honda, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    The non-self-shield compact medical cyclotron and the cyclotron vault room were in operation for 27 years. They have now been decommissioned. We efficiently implemented a technique to identify an activation product in the cyclotron vault room. Firstly, the distribution of radioactive concentrations in the concrete of the cyclotron vault room was estimated by calculation from the record of the cyclotron operation. Secondly, the comparison of calculated results with an actual measurement was performed using a NaI scintillation survey meter and a high-purity germanium detector. The calculated values were overestimated as compared to the values measured using the Nal scintillation survey meter and the high-purity germanium detector. However, it could limit the decontamination area. By simulating the activation range, we were able to minimize the concrete core sampling. Finally, the appropriate range of radioactivated area in the cyclotron vault room was decontaminated based on the results of the calculation. After decontamination, the radioactive concentration was below the detection limit value in all areas inside the cyclotron vault room. By these procedures, the decommissioning process of the cyclotron vault room was more efficiently performed. (author)

  15. Remote target removal for the Oak Ridge 86-inch Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walls, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    A remotely operated target remover has been plaed in operation at the 86-Inch Cyclotron located in Oak Ridge. The system provides for the remote removal of a target from inside the cyclotron, loading it into a cask, and the removal of the cask from the 1.5 m (5-ft) shielding walls. The remote system consists of multiple electrical and pneumatically operated equipment which is designed for controlled step-by-step operation, operated with an electrical control panel, and monitored by a television system. The target remover has reduced the radiation exposures to operating personnel at the facility and has increased the effective operating time. The system is fast, requires a minimum of skill to operate, and has demonstrated both reliability and durability

  16. Thallium-201 production at the National Medical Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, N.R.

    1993-01-01

    The National Medical Cyclotron (NMC) began commercial production of thallium-201 chloride radiochemical solution in May 1993. This material is supplied to the laboratories of Australian Radioisotopes (ARI) at Lucas Heights where it is the active ingredient in the manufacture of the radiopharmaceutical thallous ( 201 Tl) chloride injection BP. Complete substitution of imported material will not occur immediately but should take place gradually over the next 12 months or so. The nuclear medicine community in Australia has shown an interest in such issues as price, availability and full Australian manufacturing capability of thallium-201 owing to its large-scale usage. This brief article explains how thallium-201 is generally made and how NMC production should evolve as experience in cyclotron production of radioisotopes begins to be accumulated in Australia

  17. Transparency of magnetized plasma at the cyclotron frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvets, G.; Wurtele, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiation is strongly absorbed by a magnetized plasma if the radiation frequency equals the cyclotron frequency of plasma electrons. It is demonstrated that absorption can be completely canceled in the presence of a magnetostatic field of an undulator, or a second radiation beam, resulting in plasma transparency at the cyclotron frequency. This effect is reminiscent of the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) of three-level atomic systems, except that it occurs in a completely classical plasma. Unlike the atomic systems, where all the excited levels required for EIT exist in each atom, this classical EIT requires the excitation of nonlocal plasma oscillation. A Lagrangian description was used to elucidate the physics of the plasma transparency and control of group and phase velocity. This control leads to applications for electromagnetic pulse compression and electron/ion acceleration

  18. Studies of radioisotope production with an AVF cyclotron in TIARA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekine, Toshiaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    The production of radioisotopes to be used mainly for nuclear medicine and biology is studied with an AVF cyclotron in TIARA. A production method of no-carrier-added {sup 186}Re with the {sup 186}W(p,n){sup 186}Re reaction has been developed; this product may be used as a therapeutic agent in radioimmunotherapy due to the adequate nuclear and chemical properties. For the study of the function of plants using a positron-emitter two-dimensional imaging system, a simple method of producing the positron emitter {sup 18}F in water was developed by taking advantage of a highly-energetic {alpha} beam from the AVF cyclotron. (author)

  19. Physics of electron cyclotron current drive on DIII-D

    CERN Document Server

    Petty, C C; Harvey, R W; Kinsey, J E; Lao, L L; Lohr, J; Luce, T C; Makowski, M A; Prater, R

    2002-01-01

    OAK A271 PHYSICS OF ELECTRON CYCLOTRON CURRENT DRIVE ON DIII-D. Recent experiments on the DIII-D tokamak have focused on determining the effect of trapped particles on the electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) efficiency. The measured ECCD efficiency increases as the deposition location is moved towards the inboard midplane or towards smaller minor radius for both co and counter injection. The measured ECCD efficiency also increases with increasing electron density and/or temperature. The experimental ECCD is compared to both the linear theory (Toray-GA) as well as a quasilinear Fokker-Planck model (CQL3D). The experimental ECCD is found to be in better agreement with the more complete Fokker-Planck calculation, especially for cases of high rf power density and/or loop voltage. The narrow width of the measured ECCD profile is consistent with only low levels of radial transport for the current carrying electrons.

  20. Approach to increase beam intensity extracted from a cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, M.; Hojo, S.; Katagiri, K.; Miyahara, N.; Noda, A.; Noda, K.; Sugiura, A.; Wakui, T.; Smirnov, V.; Vorozhtsov, S.; Goto, A.

    2017-09-01

    To increase the beam intensity of cyclotrons used for producing radionuclides, beam loss during extraction must be reduced. Extraction efficiency is limited by the beam parameters in front of the deflector, especially angular distribution. Computer simulation of the second harmonic mode for 18 MeV protons, which is frequently used, has been carried out to understand beam behavior in a cyclotron. The extraction efficiency is determined by the width of the angular distribution of particles in the phase space plot at the deflector. An effective method to reduce the width is to shorten the bunch at injection. The simulation shows that the bunch phase length at injection must be ⩽30° to realize a 30 μA extraction beam current and satisfy the deflector heat limit of 200 W.

  1. Interpretation of ion cyclotron emission from fusion and space plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dendy, R.O.

    1994-01-01

    Superthermal ion cyclotron emission (ICE) is observed in both fusion and space plasma. Typical spectra display strong peaks at sequential multiple ion cyclotron harmonics, and distinct energetic ion populations are present in the emitting regions. In JET and TFTR, for example, ICE appears to be driven by fusion products or by injected beam ions in the outer mid plane; and in the Earth's ring current, radiation belts, and bow shock, ICE has been observed by the spacecraft OGO 3, GEOS 1 and 2 and AMPTE/IRM, often in conjunction with highly non-Maxwellian proton populations. Common emission mechanisms, arising from collective relaxation of energetic ion populations, appear to operate in both the fusion and space plasma environments. These are reviewed here, and the potential role of ICE as a diagnostic of energetic ion populations is also examined. (Author)

  2. Effect of hot α-particles on ion cyclotron absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cairns, R.A.; Kay, A.; Lashmore-Davies, C.N.

    1987-01-01

    Ion cyclotron heating involves mode conversion of the incident fast wave to a Bernstein mode, which is generally stongly damped and only propagates in a localized region of the plasma. The usual theoretical approach to this problem involves solution of fourth or higher order equations, but by treating the Bernstein mode as a driven response to the fast wave we obtain a simple second order equation. Comparison of its solutions with those of higher order equations shows that this approach gives good results. The same method can be used to consider the effect of a small population of hot α-particles on ion cyclotron heating, since it does away with the need for a small larmor radius expansion. The results indicate that a small concentration of α-particles can absorb a substantial fraction of the incident energy

  3. A beam energy measurement system at NIRS-930 cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojo, S.; Honma, T.; Sakamoto, Y.; Miyahara, N.; Okada, T.; Komatsu, K.; Tsuji, N.; Yamada, S.

    2005-01-01

    A beam energy measurement system employing a set of capacitive probes has been developed at NIRS-930 cyclotron. Principle of the measurement is applying a modified-TOF method, so that the two proves are installed at one of the straight section in the beam transport line. Usually they are separated about 5.8 m, which is equivalent to the almost final path length of the beam extracted in the cyclotron. In the measurement, two beam signals are superimposed by adjusting a position of the downstream-probe along the beam direction with watching an oscilloscope screen roughly. In order to determine the beam energy accurately the signals are processed by MCA with suitable electric module. (author)

  4. Centering of the ion trajectory in the cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toprek, Dragan

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present the theory of the horizontal motion ions through the acceleration gap in the case of a static magnetic field and time-varying electric field. It also describes the motion of the center of the ion trajectory through the acceleration gap and also during the acceleration process. The result also describes analytically the angle through which the ion passed (so called 'flying angle') between two acceleration gaps. That angle can be measured from the center of the ion trajectory or from the center of the cyclotron. The analysis shows that the 'flying angle' of the ions measured in these two reference systems is not same. Namely, the 'flying angle' of the ion measured from the center of its trajectory is bigger than in the case when the 'flying angle' is measured from the center of the cyclotron. It shows that difference between 'flying angle' in these two reference systems becomes less and less during acceleration process

  5. Ernest Orlando Lawrence (1901-1958), Cyclotron and Medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, William T.

    2005-09-01

    On August 8, 2001, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory celebrated the centennial of the birth of its founder (and namesake), Ernest Orlando Lawrence. For the occasion, many speeches were given and old speeches were remembered. We recall the words of the late Luis Alvarez, a Nobel Laureate and one of the Lawrence's closest colleagues: ''Lawrence will always be remembered as the inventor of the cyclotron, but more importantly, he should be remembered as the inventor of the modern way of doing science''. J. L. Heilbron and R. W. Seidel, in the introduction of their book, ''Lawrence and His Laboratory'' stated, ''The motives and mechanisms that shaped the growth of the Laboratory helped to force deep changes in the scientific estate and in the wider society. In the entrepreneurship of its founder, Ernest Orlando Lawrence, these motives, mechanisms, and changes came together in a tight focus. He mobilized great and small philanthropists, state and local governments, corporations, and plutocrats, volunteers and virtuosos. The work they supported, from astrophysics and atomic bombs, from radiochemistry to nuclear medicine, shaped the way we observe, control, and manipulate our environment.'' Indeed, all over the civilized world, the ways we do science changed forever after Lawrence built his famed Radiation Laboratory. In this editorial, we epitomize his legacy of changing the way we do medicine, thereby affecting the health and well being of all humanity. This year marks the 75th anniversary of the invention of the cyclotron by Ernest Orlando Lawrence at the University of California at Berkeley. Lawrence conceived the idea of the cyclotron early in 1929 after reading an article by Rolf Wideroe on high-energy accelerators. In the spring of 1930 one of his students, Nels Edlefsen, constructed two crude models of a cyclotron. Later in the fall of the same year, another student, M. Stanley Livingston

  6. A pythonic integrated solution for virtual prototyping of cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Bin; Yang Jun; Xiong Yongqian; Chen Dezhi; Yu Tiaoqin; Dong Tianlin; Zhang Tianjue; Fan Mingwu

    2007-01-01

    Virtual prototyping (VP) is a novel technique in engineering, which is desired to be applied to cyclotron design and development. Some sub-prototyping components, including beam dynamics, magnet, RF system and control system of cyclotrons, have been developed separately, but an integrated platform which encapsulates these different components is required for global system optimization. Considering that the VP integrated platform is a large-scale software and has numerous loose-coupled components, this paper describes the pythonic approach to implement this platform. By mixing the high-level interpreted Python language and the compiled languages like Fortran/C/C++ in an effective method, this approach can achieve a combination of code efficiency, flexibility and compactness

  7. PHYSICS OF ELECTRON CYCLOTRON CURRENT DRIVE ON DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PETTY, C.C.; PRATER, R.; LUCE, T.C.; ELLIS, R.A.; HARVEY, R.W.; KINSEY, J.E.; LAO, L.L.; LOHR, J.; MAKOWSKI, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    OAK A271 PHYSICS OF ELECTRON CYCLOTRON CURRENT DRIVE ON DIII-D. Recent experiments on the DIII-D tokamak have focused on determining the effect of trapped particles on the electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) efficiency. The measured ECCD efficiency increases as the deposition location is moved towards the inboard midplane or towards smaller minor radius for both co and counter injection. The measured ECCD efficiency also increases with increasing electron density and/or temperature. The experimental ECCD is compared to both the linear theory (Toray-GA) as well as a quasilinear Fokker-Planck model (CQL3D). The experimental ECCD is found to be in better agreement with the more complete Fokker-Planck calculation, especially for cases of high rf power density and/or loop voltage

  8. Magnetic field trimming studies for a separated-sector cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, E.D.; Martin, J.A.; Mallory, M.L.; McDaniel, F.E.; Irwin, F.

    1975-01-01

    Magnetic field studies were made for a four-sector, K = 330 (E = Kq 2 /A MeV), separated-sector cyclotron using a 1 / 10 scale model of a single sector equipped with 11 trimming coils. Data are presented showing the effects of saturation at high magnetic fields on the field contour and on the trimming coil characteristics. Some implications of these measurements for the design of separated-sector machine magnets are given. (U.S.)

  9. Electron Cyclotron Waves Polarization in the TJII Stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappa, A.; Martinez-Fernandez, J.; Wagner, D.

    2013-05-01

    This report describes the theoretical calculations related with the electron cyclotron (EC) waves polarization control in the TJII stellarator. Two main aspects will be distinguished: the determination of the vacuum polarization that the wave must exhibit if a given propagation mode in a cold plasma is desired and the calculation of the behavior of the grooved polarizers and other transmission systems used to launch the vacuum wave with the required polarization. (Author) 13 refs.

  10. Present status of control system for the RCNP ring cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, K.; Yamazaki, T.; Hosono, K.

    1994-01-01

    The computer control system of the RCNP Ring Cyclotron was used for operation since 1991. In the initial stage we had many troubles for the software as well as hardware. In 1992, we modified the system configuration and overcame the problems which observed during the actual operation. Summary of the control system is shown and typical troubles are summarized with our means of settling. (author)

  11. Theoretical and numerical study of cyclotron in space charge conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazoll, V.

    1988-11-01

    During the last decade, the need of high ion beam intensities urged the cyclotron laboratories to amplify the efforts to study the space charge effects in these machines. The cyclotron space charge effects are intimately linked to two specific features of this kind of accelerator; - the beam is formed of a succession of bunches having about the same size for transverse and longitudinal dimensions, - the radial and longitudinal motions are strongly coupled. The analytical model developed in this thesis explains some effects produced by the space charge forces. It describes the motion of an ion contained in a bunch. This ion moves under the effects of the guiding field forces, the accelerator cyclotron field forces and the space charge forces created by the other particles of the bunch. The solutions of the first order differential equations describe the small motion around one particle, which is taken as a reference particle. These solutions are valid in the vicinity of the bunch center, where the space charge forces are considered linear. The results of the model are compared with those obtained from a multiparticle code. This code has been already used successfully at GANIL (the Great National Heavy Ions Accelerator). The evolution of the whole beam has also been studied with this code, which takes into acount the non linear space charge effects and all the couplings. The results obtained by the numerical study of a proposed new injector for the cyclotrons of GANIL shows that it is possible to obtain an important increase of the beam intensity [fr

  12. Ion–Cyclotron Resonance Frequency Interval Dependence on the O ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... The frequency intervals in which O VI ions get in resonance with ion–cyclotron waves are calculated using the kinetic model, for the latest six values found in literature on O VI ion number densities in the 1.5–3 region of the NPCH. It is found that the common resonance interval is 1.5 kHz to 3 kHz.

  13. Alignment of mapping system for magnet cyclotron DECY-13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idrus Abdul Kudus; Taufik; Kurnia Wibowo

    2016-01-01

    A cyclotron is composed of some main and specific components, such as magnet system, ion source, RF system and extractor. A magnet is one of important component in a cyclotron that serves as ion beam bending so the ion beam trajectory is circular. Magnet design should with the requirement of cyclotron that proton energy is 13 MeV. In the construction of the cyclotron magnet, a mapping tool of the magnetic field is required for analysis in shimming process in order to optimize the magnetic field. The magnetic field mapping process is carried out in the median plane of the magnet poles. The magnetic field mapping is carried out repeatedly during the shimming process. During this process, the mapping tool is possible to experience a shift or change in position, for that it is necessary to alignment in order to make sure that the probe is in the median plane of magnet poles and to ensure their positions are always the same on each repetition mapping. During this process, it is possible to experience a shift mapping tool or change the position, for this it is needed to process alignment to ensure the position of the probe is in the median plane magnetic poles and ensure their positions are always the same on each repetition mapping. Alignment on the mapping tool are the height position, zeroing tesla meter and two hall probe mapping. The parameters form the basis for magnetic field measurements based on the three elements: an alignment system on the engine mapping, mapping tool reference point and stage movement of x-y coordinates. Shifts occur due to change in elevation mapping tool table and center coordinates x and y in the mapping process. Changes made to shift mapping coordinates can be shifted as far as 1 to 2 mm for each hall probe in the x and y coordinates with altitude changes 0.05° mapping table and measurement of tesla meter changes in 0.002 T. (author)

  14. Shielding simulation of the CDTN cyclotron bunker using MCNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalle, Hugo M.; Campolina, Daniel de A.M., E-mail: dallehm@cdtn.b, E-mail: campolina@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Div. de Reatores e Radiacoes

    2011-07-01

    The Nuclear Technology Development Centre (CDTN/CNEN) has contracted services from General Electric in order to install a cyclotron for radioisotopes production and PET radiopharmaceutical synthesis. The Monte Carlo code MCNP5 was used to determine the TVL (tenth value layer) of the concrete and verify shielding calculations performed by GE. The simulations results show values of equivalent dose rates in agreement with those calculated using the methodology adopted by GE, the NCRP-144 and the NCRP-51. (author)

  15. Ion–Cyclotron Resonance Frequency Interval Dependence on the O ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The frequency intervals in which O VI ions get in resonance with ion–cyclotron waves are calculated using the kinetic model, for the latest six values found in literature on O VI ion number densities in the 1.5–3 region of the NPCH. It is found that the common resonance interval is 1.5 kHz to 3 kHz. The -variations of wave ...

  16. Silicon meets cyclotron: muon spin resonance of organosilicon radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Robert; Samedov, Kerim; Percival, Paul W

    2014-07-21

    Muons, generated at a high-powered cyclotron, can capture electrons to form muonium atoms. Muon spin resonance spectra can be recorded for organosilyl radicals obtained by addition of muonium atoms to silylenes and silenes. We present a brief summary of progress in this new area since the first such experiments were reported in 2008. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Cyclotron production and cyclometallation chemistry of 192Ir

    OpenAIRE

    Langille, G.; Storr, T.; Zeisler, S.; Andreoiu, C.; Schaffer, P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To explore new questions and techniques in nuclear medicine, new isotopes with novel chemical and nuclear properties must be developed. We are interested in the small cyclotron production of new radiometals for the development of new radiopharmaceuticals (RX). In an example of RX multifunctionality, Luminescence Cell Imaging (LCI) has been combined with radio-isotopes to allow compounds that can be imaged with both optical microscopy and nuclear techniques [1]. Within this fie...

  18. Radionuclide production and radiopharmaceutical chemistry with BNL cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, R.M.; Wolf, A.P.

    1985-01-01

    The Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) radiopharmaceutical chemistry program focuses on production and utilization of radionuclides having a half-life of > 2 hr. However, a major portion of the BNL program is devoted to short-lived radionuclides, such as 11 C and 18 F. Activities encompassed in the program are classified into seven areas: cyclotron parameters, radiochemistry, design and rapid synthesis of radiopharmaceuticals and labeled compounds, radiotracer evaluation in animals, studies in humans, technology transfer, and several other areas

  19. The cyclotron laboratory and the RFQ accelerator in Bern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braccini, S.; Ereditato, A.; Kreslo, I.; Nirkko, M.; Scampoli, P.; von Bremen, K.; Weber, M.

    2013-07-01

    Two proton accelerators have been recently put in operation in Bern: an 18 MeV cyclotron and a 2 MeV RFQ linac. The commercial IBA 18/18 cyclotron, equipped with a specifically conceived 6 m long external beam line ending in a separate bunker, will provide beams for routine 18-F and other PET radioisotope production as well as for novel detector, radiation biophysics, radioprotection, radiochemistry and radiopharmacy developments. The accelerator is embedded into a complex building hosting two physics laboratories and four Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) laboratories. This project is the result of a successful collaboration between the Inselspital, the University of Bern and private investors, aiming at the constitution of a combined medical and research centre able to provide the most cutting-edge technologies in medical imaging and cancer radiation therapy. The cyclotron is complemented by the RFQ with the primary goals of elemental analysis via Particle Induced Gamma Emission (PIGE), and the detection of potentially dangerous materials with high nitrogen content using the Gamma-Resonant Nuclear Absorption (GRNA) technique. In this context, beam instrumentation devices have been developed, in particular an innovative beam profile monitor based on doped silica fibres and a setup for emittance measurements using the pepper-pot technique. On this basis, the establishment of a proton therapy centre on the campus of the Inselspital is in the phase of advanced study.

  20. The cyclotron laboratory and the RFQ accelerator in Bern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braccini, S.; Ereditato, A.; Kreslo, I.; Nirkko, M.; Weber, M.; Scampoli, P.; Bremen, K. von

    2013-01-01

    Two proton accelerators have been recently put in operation in Bern: an 18 MeV cyclotron and a 2 MeV RFQ linac. The commercial IBA 18/18 cyclotron, equipped with a specifically conceived 6 m long external beam line ending in a separate bunker, will provide beams for routine 18-F and other PET radioisotope production as well as for novel detector, radiation biophysics, radioprotection, radiochemistry and radiopharmacy developments. The accelerator is embedded into a complex building hosting two physics laboratories and four Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) laboratories. This project is the result of a successful collaboration between the Inselspital, the University of Bern and private investors, aiming at the constitution of a combined medical and research centre able to provide the most cutting-edge technologies in medical imaging and cancer radiation therapy. The cyclotron is complemented by the RFQ with the primary goals of elemental analysis via Particle Induced Gamma Emission (PIGE), and the detection of potentially dangerous materials with high nitrogen content using the Gamma-Resonant Nuclear Absorption (GRNA) technique. In this context, beam instrumentation devices have been developed, in particular an innovative beam profile monitor based on doped silica fibres and a setup for emittance measurements using the pepper-pot technique. On this basis, the establishment of a proton therapy centre on the campus of the Inselspital is in the phase of advanced study

  1. Activation analysis utilizing byproduct neutrons of cyclotron internal target runs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, K.; Finn, R.; Smith, P.; Tavano, E.; Dwyer, J.; Sheh, H.

    1985-01-01

    The neutron flux generated by the CS-30 cyclotron at Mt Sinai Medical Center during routine internal target runs was characterized by employing various elements as neutron monitors. The characteristic (p,xn) nuclear reactions from internal targets bombarded by 26.5 Mev protons and the cyclotron inner wall bombarded by stray protons produce a neutron flux of approximately 2 x 10 9 cm -2 s -1 at energies up to 22 MeV at a point immediately outside the cyclotron vacuum chamber. Samples exposed to neutron fluences up to 5 x 10 14 cm -2 were analyzed with a Ge(Li) detector. Although the detection limits are relatively high (i.e., Au-0.2 μg; In-1 μg; Na-50 μg), this mode of neutron activation analysis is ancillary to other irradiations and allows a large number of samples to be monitored. This approach may provide an alternative to a neutron generator for research activation applications. (orig.)

  2. NIRS report concerning the cyclotron usages. FY 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    This report describes the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) cyclotron usages concerning of: Operation and improvement-development of the cyclotrons in 2000 (total 1,302 hr operation, development of the insulating septum, renewal of the magnetic channel and radiofrequency (RF) pre-amplifier, and improvement of the magnetic interference); Development of neutron detectors in the cosmic environment (the phoswich detector, low-pressure proportional counter, bubble dosimeter and new type phoswich detector); Development of detectors of charged particle components in the cosmic radiation (Liulin-4J and position sensitive silicon detector); Measurement of the energy and angular distribution of secondary electrons from water vapor with heavy-ion impact; Phase II clinical trials of proton beam therapy for ophthalmological tumors (34 patients in 1996-2000 and survival rate 100% within 3 years); Application of cyclotrons for RI production (mainly, 11 C, 13 N, 15 O and 18 F for basic and clinical PET); Studies on the spread-out peak of proton beam (for radiotherapy); and Related materials to above (details). (N.I.)

  3. Neutron spectra due 13N production in a PET cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benavente, J.A.; Vega-Carrillo, H.R.; Lacerda, M.A.S.; Fonseca, T.C.F.; Faria, F.P.; Silva, T.A. da

    2015-01-01

    Monte Carlo and experimental methods have been used to characterize the neutron radiation field around PET (Positron Emission Tomography) cyclotrons. In this work, the Monte Carlo code MCNPX was used to estimate the neutron spectra, the neutron fluence rates and the ambient dose equivalent (H*(10)) in seven locations around a PET cyclotron during 13 N production. In order to validate these calculations, H*(10) was measured in three sites and were compared with the calculated doses. All the spectra have two peaks, one above 0.1 MeV due to the evaporation neutrons and another in the thermal region due to the room-return effects. Despite the relatively large difference between the measured and calculated H*(10) for one point, the agreement was considered good, compared with that obtained for 18 F production in a previous work. - Highlights: • MCNPX code was used to estimate the neutron spectra in a PET cyclotron. • Neutrons were estimated when 13 N is produced. • Neutron spectra show evaporation and room-return neutrons. • Calculated H*(10) were compared with measured H*(10)

  4. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, S.M.; Finn, R.D.

    1992-08-04

    Our goal is to improve the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis, treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The grant includes 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry/Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. The radiochemistry group seeks to develop innovative cyclotron targetry, radiopharmaceuticals, and radiolabeled antibodies, which are then used to assess important unanswered questions in tumor pharmacology and immunology. Examples include selected positron emitting radionuclides, such as Iodine-124, and Ga-66; I-124, I-123, I-131 labeled iododeoxyuridine, C-11 colchicine, and antimetabolites, like C-11 methotrexate; and radiolabeled antibodies, 3F8, M195, A33, and MRK16 for application in the pharmacology and immunology projects. The pharmacology program studies tumor resistance to chemotherapy, particularly the phenomenon of multidrug resistance and the relationship between tumor uptake and retention and the tumor response for anti-metabolite drugs. The immunology program studies the physiology of antibody localization at the tissue level as the basis for novel approaches to improving tumor localization such as through the use of an artificial lymphatic system which mechanically reduces intratumoral pressures in tumors in vivo. Quantitative imaging approaches based on PET and SPECT in radioimmunotherapy are studied to give greater insight into the physiology of tumor localization and dosimetry.

  5. The theory of accelerated particles in AVF cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, W.M.

    1978-01-01

    This thesis deals with the study of the motion of accelerated charged particles in an AVF cyclotron. This study has been done on behalf of the VICKSI- project of the Hahn-Meitner-Institut in West Berlin. A new theory is developed which facilitates an accurate description of the influence of the acceleration on the motion in the median plane of a cyclotron. The theory is applied to systems with 1 or 2 Dee electrodes, the frequency of the accelerating voltage being equal to the revolution frequency of the particles or a higher harmonic of this frequency. It turned out that the betatron oscillations in the radial phase space may be disturbed considerably as a result of the acceleration. In the theory the author makes use of the Hamilton formalism. After a number of canonical transformations a Hamilton function was found, in which the most important effects show themselves clearly. The corresponding equations of motion can be solved very quickly with the help of a simple computer program. The results of this theory are in agreement with those of extensive numerical orbit integration programmes. In this thesis attention is also devoted to the centering of the beam in the VICKSI cyclotron just after injection, the possibility to obtain single-turn extraction and the interpretation of the high frequency phase measurements. (Auth.)

  6. Development of a collision induced dissociation ion cyclotron resonance spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Y.N.

    1982-01-01

    A transient analysis ion cyclotron resonance spectrometer is developed to investigate the phenomena of collision induced dissociation. The Fourier transform method and the modified maximum entropy spectral analysis or covariance least square method are implemented in measuring the mass spectrum of the ion ensemble. The Fourier transform method can be used in quantitative analysis while the maximum entropy method as developed here is useful for qualitative analysis only. The cyclotron resonance frequency, relaxation time constant, and the relative ion population are observable from the Fourier transform spectrum. These parameters are very important in investigating collision induced dissociation process and other topics in gas phase chemistry. The ion cyclotron resonance spectrometer is not only developed to study fragments and their abundance from a parent ion, but also to determine the threshold energy and reaction cross section in the collision induced dissociation process. When hard sphere model is used in the ion-molecule collision, the radius of acetone ion measured from the reactive cross section is 2.2 angstrom which is very close to the physical dimension of acetone. The threshold energy for acetone ion in collision induced dissociation process is 1.8 eV which is similar to the result obtained by the angle-resolved mass spectrometer

  7. Transparency of Magnetized Plasma at Cyclotron Frequency; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. Shvets; J.S. Wurtele

    2002-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiation is strongly absorbed by a magnetized plasma if the radiation frequency equals the cyclotron frequency of plasma electrons. It is demonstrated that absorption can be completely canceled in the presence of a magnetostatic field of an undulator or a second radiation beam, resulting in plasma transparency at the cyclotron frequency. This effect is reminiscent of the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) of the three-level atomic systems, except that it occurs in a completely classical plasma. Unlike the atomic systems, where all the excited levels required for EIT exist in each atom, this classical EIT requires the excitation of the nonlocal plasma oscillation. The complexity of the plasma system results in an index of refraction at the cyclotron frequency that differs from unity. Lagrangian description was used to elucidate the physics and enable numerical simulation of the plasma transparency and control of group and phase velocity. This control naturally leads to applications for electromagnetic pulse compression in the plasma and electron/ion acceleration

  8. Emittance Measurement for Beamline Extension at the PET Cyclotron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sae-Hoon Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Particle-induced X-ray emission is used for determining the elemental composition of materials. This method uses low-energy protons (of several MeV, which can be obtained from high-energy (of tens MeV accelerators. Instead of manufacturing an accelerator for generating the MeV protons, the use of a PET cyclotron has been suggested for designing the beamline for multipurpose applications, especially for the PIXE experiment, which has a dedicated high-energy (of tens MeV accelerator. The beam properties of the cyclotron were determined at this experimental facility by using an external beamline before transferring the ion beam to the experimental chamber. We measured the beam profile and calculated the emittance using the pepper-pot method. The beam profile was measured as the beam current using a wire scanner, and the emittance was measured as the beam distribution at the beam dump using a radiochromic film. We analyzed the measurement results and are planning to use the results obtained in the simulations of external beamline and aligned beamline components. We will consider energy degradation after computing the beamline simulation. The experimental study focused on measuring the emittance from the cyclotron, and the results of this study are presented in this paper.

  9. Electron cyclotron emission from energetic electrons in TMX-upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, R.F.; James, R.; Lasnier, C.J.; Casper, T.A.

    1984-01-01

    Measurements are reported of electron cyclotron emission from the mirror confined energetic electrons confined in the end cells of TMX-U. Electron cyclotron emission is measured both nearly parallel to the magnetic field (whistler emission) and nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field. Whistler emission has been measured in the East end cell in the frequency range 12-18 GHz, which corresponds to fundamental emission near the bottom of the magnetic well (f/sub c/ at midplane = 14 GHz). The results are compared with a radiation transfer model. Agreement between the whistler measurements and the model are quite good and confirm that the whistler emission is generally optically thick and that an average perpendicular temperature for the hot component can be measured if the cold component density is not too high. Perpendicular emission has been measured in both end cells in the frequency ranges 30-40 GHz (2-3 harmonic) and 56-70 GHz (4-5 harmonic). The perpendicular emission is generally optically thin and can reveal information about the time history of the energetic electron density and energy spectrum. The results are compared with a model of cyclotron emission valid for low density plasma of arbitrary distribution function. Nonthermal emissions caused by microinstabilities are to be discussed

  10. Electrostatic ion-cyclotron waves in a nonuniform magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartier, S.L.; D'Angelo, N.; Merlino, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    The properties of electrostatic ion-cyclotron waves excited in a single-ended cesium Q machine with a nonuniform magnetic field are described. The electrostatic ion-cyclotron waves are generated in the usual manner by drawing an electron current to a small exciter disk immersed in the plasma column. The parallel and perpendicular (to B) wavelengths and phase velocities are determined by mapping out two-dimensional wave phase contours. The wave frequency f depends on the location of the exciter disk in the nonuniform magnetic field, and propagating waves are only observed in the region where f> or approx. =f/sub c/i, where f/sub c/i is the local ion-cyclotron frequency. The parallel phase velocity is in the direction of the electron drift. From measurements of the plasma properties along the axis, it is inferred that the electron drift velocity is not uniform along the entire current channel. The evidence suggests that the waves begin being excited at that axial position where the critical drift velocity is first exceeded, consistent with a current-driven excitation mechanism

  11. Quench analysis of a novel compact superconducting cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sundeep; Dutta Gupta, Anjan; Kanti Dey, Malay; Pal, Gautam

    2017-02-01

    Design and analysis of a compact superconducting cyclotron dedicated for medical applications in the fields of nuclear medicine and therapy is presently being pursued in our organization. The novelty of this cyclotron lies in the fact that it does not consist of any iron-pole. The cyclotron magnet will be made of a set of NbTi coils comprising of solenoid and sector coils which are housed in two halves on either sides of the median plane. The average magnetic field is 1.74 T and the maximum extraction energy is 25 MeV, which is sufficient for production of 99mTc from Mo. In this paper, quench analyses of the coils have been discussed in details considering adiabatic condition. The entire cryostat magnet along with coils, formers and support links were modelled for the quench simulation. Self and mutual inductances of all the coils were obtained from a separate magnetic analysis and used in the simulation. Parametric analyses were carried out with different quench initiation energy at various critical locations on the coil surface. The corresponding quench behaviour, i.e. maximum temperature rise, maximum voltage and current decay in each of the coils have been studied.

  12. Electromagnetic ion beam instabilities - Growth at cyclotron harmonic wave numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Charles W.; Gary, S. Peter

    1987-01-01

    The linear theory of electromagnetic ion beam instabilities for arbitrary angles of propagation is studied, with an emphasis on the conditions necessary to generate unstable modes at low harmonics of the ion cyclotron resonance condition. The present results extend the analysis of Smith et al. (1985). That paper considered only the plasma parameters at a time during which harmonic wave modes were observed in the earth's foreshock. The parameters of that paper are used as the basis of parametric variations here to establish the range of beam properties which may give rise to observable harmonic spectra. It is shown that the growth rates of both left-hand and right-hand cyclotron harmonic instabilities are enhanced by an increase in the beam temperature anisotropy and/or the beam speed. Decreases in the beam density and/or the core-ion beta reduce the overall growth of the cyclotron harmonic instabilities but favor the growth of these modes over the growth of the nonresonant instability and thereby enhance the observability of the harmonics.

  13. The cyclotron laboratory and the RFQ accelerator in Bern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braccini, S.; Ereditato, A.; Kreslo, I.; Nirkko, M.; Weber, M. [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Laboratory for High Energy Physics (LHEP), University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Scampoli, P. [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Laboratory for High Energy Physics (LHEP), University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland and Department of Physical Sciences, University Federico II, Via Cintia, I-60126 Napoli (Italy); Bremen, K. von [SWAN Isotopen AG, Inselspital, CH-3010 Bern (Switzerland)

    2013-07-18

    Two proton accelerators have been recently put in operation in Bern: an 18 MeV cyclotron and a 2 MeV RFQ linac. The commercial IBA 18/18 cyclotron, equipped with a specifically conceived 6 m long external beam line ending in a separate bunker, will provide beams for routine 18-F and other PET radioisotope production as well as for novel detector, radiation biophysics, radioprotection, radiochemistry and radiopharmacy developments. The accelerator is embedded into a complex building hosting two physics laboratories and four Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) laboratories. This project is the result of a successful collaboration between the Inselspital, the University of Bern and private investors, aiming at the constitution of a combined medical and research centre able to provide the most cutting-edge technologies in medical imaging and cancer radiation therapy. The cyclotron is complemented by the RFQ with the primary goals of elemental analysis via Particle Induced Gamma Emission (PIGE), and the detection of potentially dangerous materials with high nitrogen content using the Gamma-Resonant Nuclear Absorption (GRNA) technique. In this context, beam instrumentation devices have been developed, in particular an innovative beam profile monitor based on doped silica fibres and a setup for emittance measurements using the pepper-pot technique. On this basis, the establishment of a proton therapy centre on the campus of the Inselspital is in the phase of advanced study.

  14. Foil changer for the Chalk River superconducting cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, C.R.; Kilborn, R.I.; Mouris, J.E.; Proulx, D.R.; Weaver, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    Capture of an injected beam in the Chalk River superconducting cyclotron requires that a carbon stripping foil be accurately placed in a dee to intercept the incoming beam. Foil radial position must be precisely adjustable and foils must be easily replaced. A foil changing apparatus has been designed, built and tested to meet these requirements. The main components are a supply magazine, a transport system, and unloading and loading mechanisms. The magazine is on top of the cyclotron. It holds 300 foils and can be isolated from machine vacuum for refilling. Each foil is mounted on a stainless steel frame. A stainless steel roller chain fitted with 33 copper sleeves (shrouds) carries foils, one per shroud, down a dee stem to the midplane. A 12-bit absolute optical shaft encoder senses foil position. To replace a foil a shroud is positioned at the top of the cyclotron, a foil is removed, and another is transferred from the magazine to the empty shroud. Three stepping motors and associated electronics provide mechanical drive and are interfaced with a CAMAC control system

  15. Composite Scale of Morningness: psychometric properties, validity with Munich ChronoType Questionnaire and age/sex differences in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, K S

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed at testing psychometric properties of the Composite Scale of Morningness (CSM) and validating it with mid sleep on free days (MSF) derived from the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire (MCTQ) in Poland, along with analyzing age and sex differences in the CSM and MSF. A sample of 952 Polish residents (62.6% females) aged between 13 and 46 was tested. Additionally, a sample of 33 university students were given MCTQ and filled in a sleep diary for 8 days. MSF derived from MCTQ was related to the one from sleep diary (r=.44). The study revealed good reliability of the CSM (α=.84) and its validity: greater morningness preference was associated with earlier MSF from MCTQ (r=-.52). CSM scores were distributed over its full range, with a mean of 34, and did not differ between sexes, although females were earlier than males by 23minutes in MSF. Regarding age, eveningness estimated with both CSM and MSF was greatest in subjects aged 16-18years, and a shift toward eveningness during puberty and a shift back toward morningness in older age was observed. The Polish version of the CSM consisted of two components of morningness. Cutoff scores were: for evening types (lower 10%) 24 or less, for morning types (upper 10%) 43 or more. The Polish CSM presents good psychometric properties, which are similar to those reported in other language versions, and also presents sex/age patterns similar to those found previously. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Weather and air pollutants have an impact on patients with respiratory diseases and breathing difficulties in Munich, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanka, E. R.; Bayerstadler, A.; Heumann, C.; Nowak, D.; Jörres, R. A.; Fischer, R.

    2014-03-01

    This study determined the influence of various meteorological variables and air pollutants on airway disorders in general, and asthma and/or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in particular, in Munich, Bavaria, during 2006 and 2007. This was achieved through an evaluation of the daily frequency of calls to medical and emergency call centres, ambulatory medical care visits at general practitioners, and prescriptions of antibiotics for respiratory diseases. Meteorological parameters were extracted from data supplied by the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast. Data on air pollutant levels were extracted from the air quality database of the European Environmental Agency for different measurement sites. In addition to descriptive analyses, a backward elimination procedure was performed to identify variables associated with medical outcome variables. Afterwards, generalised additive models (GAM) were used to verify whether the selected variables had a linear or nonlinear impact on the medical outcomes. The analyses demonstrated associations between environmental parameters and daily frequencies of different medical outcomes, such as visits at GPs and air pressure (-27 % per 10 hPa change) or ozone (-24 % per 10 μg/m3 change). The results of the GAM indicated that the effects of some covariates, such as carbon monoxide on consultations at GPs, or humidity on medical calls in general, were nonlinear, while the type of association varied between medical outcomes. These data suggest that the multiple, complex effect of environmental factors on medical outcomes should not be assumed homogeneous or linear a priori and that different settings might be associated with different types of associations.

  17. Damage by the Great East Japan Earthquake and current status of the Sendai cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakui, Takashi; Itoh, Masatoshi; Shimada, Kenzi; Yoshida, Hidetomo; Shinozuka, Tsutomu; Sakemi, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake has inflicted damages on the accelerator facility of the Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (CYRIC), Tohoku University. The K=110 MeV cyclotron was slanted due to the damage of props supporting the cyclotron. The cyclotron building has also been slightly inclined. This situation requires the re-alignment of all the beam transport line and the cyclotron. Some of the shield doors at experimental rooms were broken and blocked the entrance. The earthquake caused also a lot of damages to some components of the cyclotron as well as the beam transport lines, such as beam ducts, magnets, vacuum pumps and power supplies. Fortunately, no one was injured at CYRIC. The restoration work was started on July 2011 and will be completed by July 2012. This report describes the situation of damages and the current status of the restoration work. (author)

  18. Electron cyclotron heating and current drive in toroidal geometry. Technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kritz, A.H.

    1993-03-01

    The Principal Investigator has continued to work on problems associated both with the deposition and with the emission of electron cyclotron heating power electron cyclotron heating in toroidal plasmas. Inparticular, the work has focused on the use of electron cyclotron heating to stabilize q = 1 and q = 2 instabilities in tokamaks and on the use of electron cyclotron emission as a plasma diagnostic. The research described in this report has been carried out in collaboration with scientists at Princeton, MIT and Livermore. The Principal Investigator is now employed at Lehigh University, and a small group effort on electron cyclotron heating in plasmas has begun to evolve at Lehigh involving undergraduate and graduate students. Work has also been done in support of the electron cyclotron heating and current drive program at the Center for Research in Plasma Physics in Lausanne, Switzerland.

  19. Operational experience and recent developments at the National Medical Cyclotron, Sydney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conard, E.M.; Arnott, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    The National Medical Cyclotron, Sydney, Australia commenced operation in mid 1991, with a mission to provide PET and SPECT radionuclides throughout Australia. The realization of the present production capacity has been synonymous with the development of the facility's industrial cyclotron (IBA Cyclone 30). The choice of cyclotron was based on the Cyclone 30's virtues as a compact, user-friendly, energy efficient cyclotron, offering the beam quality characteristic of negative ion technology. Development of the cyclotron has improved reliability and increased beam capacity, while improvements to targetry have increased production reliability. More recently, the installation and commissioning of a new solid target irradiation facility has provided much needed redundancy. This paper describes the major cyclotron and targetry developments carried out to date. (orig.)

  20. Static harmonization of dynamically harmonized Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanova, Ekaterina; Kostyukevich, Yury; Nikolaev, Eugene

    2017-08-01

    Static harmonization in the Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance cell improves the resolving power of the cell and prevents dephasing of the ion cloud in the case of any trajectory of the charged particle, not necessarily axisymmetric cyclotron (as opposed to dynamic harmonization). We reveal that the Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance cell with dynamic harmonization (paracell) is proved to be statically harmonized. The volume of the statically harmonized potential distribution increases with an increase in the number of trap segments.

  1. Neutron dose rate in the facility at the Cyclotron Center of Chung Shan Medical University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Juiping; Chen Chienyi

    2008-01-01

    The neutron dose equivalent rate (DR) leaking from the self-shielded cyclotron was measured using an FHT-751 neutron counting system in the facility at the Cyclotron Center of Chung Shan Medical University. This system was calibrated using two 252 Cf neutron sources and simulated according to MCNP code. The results show various DRs up to 120 μSv h -1 in the cyclotron room. Two-dimensional distributions of measured neutron DRs indicate an explicit, heavy leakage of neutrons through the self-shielded interlock. The neutron DR of the operating cyclotron that is hazardous to the health of medical personal and the public is evaluated. (author)

  2. Operational health and physics service during the maintenance of the Australian National Medical Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, B.

    1994-01-01

    Modern Medical Cyclotrons use intense beams of high energy protons or deuterons to produce large activities of short and medium lived radionuclides. After continuous operation for prolonged periods the Cyclotron components become activated through various nuclear interactions therefore, the risk of personal radiation hazard while handling such activated cyclotron components is high. This paper describes all operational aspects of the Health Physics service evolved during the first preventative maintenance program of the Australian National Medical Cyclotron, which took place in June 1993. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  3. Review of Cyclotrons for the Production of Radioactive Isotopes for Medical and Industrial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmor, Paul

    2011-02-01

    Radioactive isotopes are used in a wide range of medical, biological, environmental and industrial applications. Cyclotrons are the primary tool for producing the shorter-lived, proton-rich radioisotopes currently used in a variety of medical applications. Although the primary use of the cyclotron-produced short-lived radioisotopes is in PET/CT (positron emission tomography/computed tomography) and SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) diagnostic medical procedures, cyclotrons are also producing longer-lived isotopes for therapeutic procedures as well as for other industrial and applied science applications. Commercial suppliers of cyclotrons are responding by providing a range of cyclotrons in the energy range of 3-70MeV for the differing needs of the various applications. These cyclotrons generally have multiple beams servicing multiple targets. This review article presents some of the applications of the radioisotopes and provides a comparison of some of the capabilities of the various current cyclotrons. The use of nuclear medicine and the number of cyclotrons supplying the needed isotopes are increasing. It is expected that there will soon be a new generation of small "tabletop" cyclotrons providing patient doses on demand.

  4. Comparison of neutron fluxes in an 18-MeV unshielded cyclotron room and a 16.5-MeV self-shielded cyclotron room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujibuchi, Toshioh; Horitsugi, Genki; Yamaguchi, Ichiro; Eto, Akihisa; Iwamoto, Yasuo; Obara, Satoshi; Iimori, Takashi; Masuda, Yoshitada; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Hatazawa, Jun

    2012-07-01

    Some medical compact cyclotrons have self-shielding to reduce neutron fluxes. Thermal neutron fluxes in an 18-MeV unshielded cyclotron room and in a 16.5-MeV self-shielded cyclotron room were evaluated. In addition, the radioactivities in concrete and metals due to thermal neutrons in the cyclotron rooms for 30 years were calculated of operation such that the sum of the ratio of the nuclide concentration to the nuclide clearance level was equal to 1. The thermal neutron flux from the unshielded cyclotron was approximately 10(2) cm(-2) s(-1), whereas that from the self-shielded cyclotron was approximately 10(2) cm(-2) s(-1). The thermal neutron fluxes for concrete, stainless steel, vessel steel, and aluminum that reached their clearance levels were 9.80 × 10(4), 2.17 × 10(3), 1.87 × 10(4), and 2.41 × 10(5) cm(-2) s(-1), respectively. The specific activities in the cyclotron room were found to be sufficiently below the clearance level when the self-shield was employed.

  5. Multi-scale modeling of urban air pollution: development and application of a Street-in-Grid model (v1.0) by coupling MUNICH (v1.0) and Polair3D (v1.8.1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngseob; Wu, You; Seigneur, Christian; Roustan, Yelva

    2018-02-01

    A new multi-scale model of urban air pollution is presented. This model combines a chemistry-transport model (CTM) that includes a comprehensive treatment of atmospheric chemistry and transport on spatial scales down to 1 km and a street-network model that describes the atmospheric concentrations of pollutants in an urban street network. The street-network model is the Model of Urban Network of Intersecting Canyons and Highways (MUNICH), which consists of two main components: a street-canyon component and a street-intersection component. MUNICH is coupled to the Polair3D CTM of the Polyphemus air quality modeling platform to constitute the Street-in-Grid (SinG) model. MUNICH is used to simulate the concentrations of the chemical species in the urban canopy, which is located in the lowest layer of Polair3D, and the simulation of pollutant concentrations above rooftops is performed with Polair3D. Interactions between MUNICH and Polair3D occur at roof level and depend on a vertical mass transfer coefficient that is a function of atmospheric turbulence. SinG is used to simulate the concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and ozone (O3) in a Paris suburb. Simulated concentrations are compared to NOx concentrations measured at two monitoring stations within a street canyon. SinG shows better performance than MUNICH for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations. However, both SinG and MUNICH underestimate NOx. For the case study considered, the model performance for NOx concentrations is not sensitive to using a complex chemistry model in MUNICH and the Leighton NO-NO2-O3 set of reactions is sufficient.

  6. Development of Code for Simulation of Acceleration of Ions from Internal Source to End of Extraction System in Cyclotrons and Preliminary Design Study of 8MeV Cyclotron for Production of Radioisotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Kostromin, Sergey

    2006-01-01

    Development of Code for Simulation of Acceleration of Ions from Internal Source to End of Extraction System in Cyclotrons and Preliminary Design Study of 8MeV Cyclotron for Production of Radioisotopes

  7. Concepts and strategies to establish a cyclotron/PET center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernan Vera Ruiz; D, Ph.

    2004-01-01

    Cyclotron accelerators are prolific sources of charged particle for the production of radionuclides and have become an essential tool in the practice of modern nuclear medicine by providing reliably radiotracers for SPECT and PET studies. In a recent survey conducted by the IAEA in 2001 (1) , the growth in the number of cyclotron facilities installed in laboratories and hospitals in developed as well as developing nations was put into evidence This trend, which started in the late 70's, continues up to the present time, and all indications are that it will continue in the next future. The reasons for this growth are several, amongst them it can be mentioned the fact that the technology involved has became more user or 'hospital friendly', third party reimbursement for several of clinical studies based on F-18 PET radiopharmaceuticals at least in some of the advanced countries starting with F-18FDG in 1998, and above all, the clear, irrefutable and demonstrable Conclusion of the positive cost/benefit outcomes of PET studies in the field of oncology and to a lesser degree, thus far, for cardiology and neurology. It is however recognized that the overall financial cost of the technology, which comprises the premises to house the facility, the cyclotron accelerator, the corresponding radiochemistry and quality control equipment and the PET camera can nevertheless be an expensive proposition that requires careful advance planning. This fact is even more relevant when the facility is planed for installation in a developing country which frequently, in addition to having a lack of sufficient financial resources, do have shortages of qualify human resources for advance planning and later, to run efficiently the facility. Several are the steps that needs consideration when planning a cyclotron facility, the most critical ones are a careful definition of the mission and scope of the facility including the utilization programme of the facility as a whole, followed by a

  8. Cyclotron operating mode determination based on intelligent methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouda, M.M.E.M.

    2011-01-01

    Particle accelerators are generators that produce beams of charged particles with energies depending on the accelerator type. The MGC-20 cyclotron is a cyclic particle accelerator used for accelerating protons, deuterons, alpha particles, and helium-3 to different energies. Main applications are isotopes production, nuclear reactions studies, and mass spectroscopy studies and other industrial applications. The cyclotron is a complicated machine depends on using a strong magnetic field and high frequency-high voltage electric field together to accelerate and bend charged particles inside the accelerating chamber. It consists of the following main parts, the radio frequency system, the main magnet with the auxiliary concentric and harmonic coils, the electrostatic deflector, and the ion source, the beam transport system, and high precision and high stability DC power supplies.To accelerate a particle to certain energy, one has to adjust the cyclotron operating parameters to be suitable to accelerate this particle to that energy. If the cyclotron operating parameters together are adjusted to accelerate a charged particle to certain energy, then these parameters together are named the operating mode to accelerate this particle to that energy. For example the operating mode to accelerate protons to 18 MeV is named the (18 MeV protons operating mode). The operating mode includes many parameters that must be adjusted together to be successful to accelerate, extract, focus, steer a particle from the ion source to the experiment. Due to the big number of parameters in the operating modes, 19 parameters have been selected in this thesis to be used in an intelligent system based on feed forward back propagation neural network to determine the parameters for new operating modes. The new intelligent system depends on the available information about the currently used operating modes.The classic way to determine a new operating mode was depending on trial and error method to

  9. Japanese version of the Munich Parasomnia Screening: translation and linguistic validation of a screening instrument for parasomnias and nocturnal behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komada Y

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Yoko Komada,1 Raoul Breugelmans,2 Stephany Fulda,3 Sae Nakano,4 Aya Watanabe,4,5 Chieri Noda,4,6 Shingo Nishida,1 Yuichi Inoue1 1Department of Somnology, 2Department of Medical Education, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan; 3Sleep and Epilepsy Center, Neurocenter of Southern Switzerland, Civic Hospital (EOC of Lugano, Lugano, Switzerland; 4Department of International Medical Communications, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, 5Language Center, University of Fukui, Fukui, Japan; 6Department of Applied Linguistics and Communication, Birkbeck, University of London, London, UK Objective: There is no broad screening instrument that can comprehensively assess parasomnias and sleep-related movement disorders listed in the International Classification of Sleep Disorders. The aim of this study was to develop the Japanese version of the Munich Parasomnia Screening (MUPS, a screening instrument for parasomnias and nocturnal behaviors, which was developed and validated at the Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry. Methods: A multi-step translation methodology consisting of forward translation, back translation, expert review, and cognitive debriefing interviews was performed between June and November 2011. Results: The English version of the MUPS was translated into Japanese, and the original author performed an expert review on the basis of a detailed report on the forward and back translation steps. The cognitive debriefing was carried out in five patients with parasomnia. The mean time to fill out the questionnaire was 8 minutes (ranging from 2 to 17 minutes. The authors reviewed and discussed the results of the cognitive debriefing interviews and modified the Japanese version. The final Japanese version was confirmed to be conceptually equivalent to the original English version. Conclusion: The Japanese version of the MUPS is an easy-to-use self-rating instrument for parasomnia and nocturnal behavior screening, consistent with the original version. The

  10. Criticality accidents in a fuel reprocessing plant are equivalent to a nuclear explosion. Comment on the statement by Prof. Dr. Armin Weiss, University of Munich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgaertner, F.

    1984-12-01

    The need for comment results from the fact that Prof. Weiss, endowed with the authority of a professor at the University of Munich, maintains that there could be a nuclear explosion, propagates this claim by an open letter, and that all the inhabitants of the districts adjoining Wackersdorf are concerned. The brochure points out the prerequisites for a substantial nuclear explosion, describes the consequences of a criticality accident in a fuel reprocessing plant, and looks into the background motives (scientific, private) for making such a claim. (DG) [de

  11. Development of overt proteinuria in the Munich Wistar Frömter rat is suppressed by replacement of chromosome 6 in a consomic rat strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, Angela; Weiss, Judith; Schlesener, Maria

    2007-01-01

    In a cross between the Munich Wistar Frömter (MWF) rat and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) was identified on rat chromosome 6 (RNO6) that demonstrated the strongest linkage to albuminuria among several QTL identified. The QTL represented the only locu...... in MWF is determined by a complex interplay of several QTL, our data demonstrate that genetic exchange of one locus on RNO6 leads to marked suppression of early-onset albuminuria and renal damage in MWF. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Jan...

  12. Reanálisis del diagnóstico de alcoholismo en Perú: el test de alcoholismo Munich (malt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus-Dieter Gorené

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available El Test de Alcoholismo Munich (MALT fue traducido al español y aplicado a una muestra constituida por 145 probandos peruanos, de los cuales 94 eran alcohólicos. El MALT consta de dos partes: la primera está conformada por siete preguntas que son contestadas por el médico y la segunda sección está formada por 24 preguntas y son contestadas por el paciente. Tanto el coeficiente de validación para toda la prueba (r=0.87 como el coeficiente de confiabilidad de la parte autoadministrable (r=0.93 fueron elevados.

  13. Cyclotron facilities in Brazil: Current status and licensing aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facure, A.; Carvalho, S.M.; Di Prinzio, R.; Silveira, C.S.; Gasparian, P.B.R.; Franca, W.F., E-mail: facure@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-09-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a highly sensitive and accurate nuclear medicine imaging technology but the major problem of this technique is the use of radioisotopes with short half-life, less than two hours. The production and selling of short half-life radioisotopes used to be monopoly of the Brazilian Government. In 2006, a Constitutional Amendment revoked the state monopoly due to the need for the use of short half-life radioisotopes in nuclear medicine centers very far from the government production facilities. The aim of this study is to describe the current status of short half-life radioisotopes production in Brazil and discuss some licensing process. In Brazil, as has been occurring worldwide, the number of nuclear medicine centers is increasing. Currently there are 123 services performing PET scans in Brazil. There are 14 cyclotrons operating in Brazil. The type of licensing process conducted in Brazil does not take into account the population density of each state, with a free competition model being adopted. Because of this there is a lot of equipment concentrated in the Southeast and no cyclotrons operating in the Northern part of the country. One of the biggest obstacles during the licensing process is the designation of qualified personnel as operation workers and radiation safety officers. The number of cyclotron accelerators and PET/CT equipment increased in recent years. However, a number of external factors such as the distance from the nuclear medicine centers, and qualified personnel have proved crucial for the economic viability of this type of facility. (author)

  14. Electromagnetic waves near the proton cyclotron frequency: Stereo observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jian, L. K. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Wei, H. Y.; Russell, C. T. [Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Luhmann, J. G. [Space Science Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Klecker, B. [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Omidi, N. [Solana Scientific Inc., Solana Beach, CA 92075 (United States); Isenberg, P. A. [Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Goldstein, M. L.; Figueroa-Viñas, A. [Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, MD 20771 (United States); Blanco-Cano, X., E-mail: lan.jian@nasa.gov [Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Coyoacán D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-05-10

    Transverse, near-circularly polarized, parallel-propagating electromagnetic waves around the proton cyclotron frequency were found sporadically in the solar wind throughout the inner heliosphere. They could play an important role in heating and accelerating the solar wind. These low-frequency waves (LFWs) are intermittent but often occur in prolonged bursts lasting over 10 minutes, named 'LFW storms'. Through a comprehensive survey of them from Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory A using dynamic spectral wave analysis, we have identified 241 LFW storms in 2008, present 0.9% of the time. They are left-hand (LH) or right-hand (RH) polarized in the spacecraft frame with similar characteristics, probably due to Doppler shift of the same type of waves or waves of intrinsically different polarities. In rare cases, the opposite polarities are observed closely in time or even simultaneously. Having ruled out interplanetary coronal mass ejections, shocks, energetic particles, comets, planets, and interstellar ions as LFW sources, we discuss the remaining generation scenarios: LH ion cyclotron instability driven by greater perpendicular temperature than parallel temperature or by ring-beam distribution, and RH ion fire hose instability driven by inverse temperature anisotropy or by cool ion beams. The investigation of solar wind conditions is compromised by the bias of the one-dimensional Maxwellian fit used for plasma data calibration. However, the LFW storms are preferentially detected in rarefaction regions following fast winds and when the magnetic field is radial. This preference may be related to the ion cyclotron anisotropy instability in fast wind and the minimum in damping along the radial field.

  15. Intensity limits of the PSI Injector II cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolano, A.; Adelmann, A.; Barlow, R.; Baumgarten, C.

    2018-03-01

    We investigate limits on the current of the PSI Injector II high intensity separate-sector isochronous cyclotron, in its present configuration and after a proposed upgrade. Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactors, neutron and neutrino experiments, and medical isotope production all benefit from increases in current, even at the ∼ 10% level: the PSI cyclotrons provide relevant experience. As space charge dominates at low beam energy, the injector is critical. Understanding space charge effects and halo formation through detailed numerical modelling gives clues on how to maximise the extracted current. Simulation of a space-charge dominated low energy high intensity (9.5 mA DC) machine, with a complex collimator set up in the central region shaping the bunch, is not trivial. We use the OPAL code, a tool for charged-particle optics calculations in large accelerator structures and beam lines, including 3D space charge. We have a precise model of the present (production) Injector II, operating at 2.2 mA current. A simple model of the proposed future (upgraded) configuration of the cyclotron is also investigated. We estimate intensity limits based on the developed models, supported by fitted scaling laws and measurements. We have been able to perform more detailed analysis of the bunch parameters and halo development than any previous study. Optimisation techniques enable better matching of the simulation set-up with Injector II parameters and measurements. We show that in the production configuration the beam current scales to the power of three with the beam size. However, at higher intensities, 4th power scaling is a better fit, setting the limit of approximately 3 mA. Currents of over 5 mA, higher than have been achieved to date, can be produced if the collimation scheme is adjusted.

  16. Practical experience and challenges in the operation of medical cyclotron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Sonkawade, Rajendra G; Pandey, Anil K; Tripathi, Madhavi; Damle, Nishikant A; Kumar, Praveen; Bal, Chandra S

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article was to share 10 years of operational experience of medical cyclotron and to provide working knowledge on the same. This experience has helped us gain working knowledge on cyclotron operation with practical points, which may help in improving F yield, minimizing the breakdown time, and help in the prevention of the occurrence of unusual events. Our facility has a self-shielded radioisotope delivery system eclipse 111 medical cyclotron with an 11 MeV proton beam in use for the past 10 years to produce positron emitters - namely, F, N, and F-2 gas - for PET imaging. During F production, we have followed a set protocol comprising the following: monitoring target pressure, rinsing the target with O water just immediately after bombardment, ion source feedback, radiofrequency (RF) feedback, and recording any unusual events that occurred during the operation. Besides this, enrichment of O water, target volume, target current, energy of the beam, variation in argon pressure on the target, bombardment duration, target status (new or old target or total number of previous bombardments on the same target), status of the delivery lines from target to the radiochemistry module (old or new) were also recorded. Rinsing with O water immediately after bombardment increases the life of the target and delivery line. The frequent problems encountered were with the ion source, RF, and target foil rupture. These problems were solved by rebuilding the ion source, changing the fuse of RF, and rebuilding the target. F yield can be increased by rinsing with O water immediately after bombardment. The effect of target leak - that is, rupture of vacuum window - can be avoided by immediate stoppage of bombardment.

  17. Optimation of DECY-13 cyclotron magnet mapping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taufik; Kurnia Wibowo; Frida Iswining Dyah; Suprapto

    2016-01-01

    A cyclotron magnet serves to deflect the particle beam so that the beam trajectory is circular and also serves to focus the beam. The magnetic flux density of a cyclotron magnet must satisfy the isochronous curve. The magnetic field distribution need to be measured in order to know that the magnetic flux density has fulfilled the isochronous curve, therefore a mapping system is needed to obtain the magnetic field distribution data. The design and construction of mechanical system of magnetic field mapping has been carried out in 2013 using fly mode algorithm, but the test results is not accurate yet. Therefore it is necessary to optimize of the magnetic field mapping system. The aim of this optimization is to improve the accuracy of step position and the precision of magnetic field measurement of the mapping system of DECY-13 cyclotron magnet. The research was done by changing the mapping methods that previously based on the fly mode with the step mode. In the step mode, the magnetic field data would be taken when the probe has been completely stopped at the specified position. The magnet mapping system has been optimized with 89.58 % of the average step position accuracy. The mapping system has to be started at minimum of 2 hours after the Magnet Power Supply (MPS) is turned on, in order to get 3.53 gauss of the precision of magnetic field measurement. Although the magnetic field measurement of 1 st sensor and 2 nd sensor have measurement maximum different of 6.3 gauss but the two sensors have the same pattern of magnetic field average. The mapping result from one of 2 sensors can be used to calculate magnetic field parameter if the magnetic field is symmetric. (author)

  18. Mapping system, magnetic measurement and shimming in CRM cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Junqing; Lv Yinlong; Yin Zhiguo

    2008-01-01

    The Central Region Model (CRM) is a compact H - cyclotron. Because of the intrinsic asymmetry of the magnet, its machining and assembly are very complicated. To guarantee the magnet field distribution, it is necessary to measure and shim the magnetic field. This paper presents a study on the design and use of the mapping system based on the Hall Effect and the re-machining of shimming bars after analyzing the magnetic field measurement data to achieve the isochronous field and good vertical focusing frequency. The method to effectively reduce the amplitude of the 1st harmonic by shimming bars 1s also introduced. (authors)

  19. The effect of plasma drift on the electromagnetic cyclotron instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, V.H.; Rycroft, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    It is shown that the drift of plasma across a homogeneous magnetic field causes the generation of a wave electric field which, for waves propagating along the magnetic field in the whistler mode, is in the direction of the magnetic field. This leads to Landau damping of the wave field by the background electron distribution, simultaneously with amplification via the electromagnetic cyclotron instability. The drift velocity of the plasma for zero net growth of a whistler mode signal is calculated. It is suggested that such a process occurs in the equatorial region of the magnetosphere during a geomagnetic storm and accounts for the missing band of emissions at half the equatorial gyrofrequency. (Auth.)

  20. Maximal heat loading of electrostatic deflector's septum at the cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzumanov, A.; Borissenko, A.

    2002-01-01

    An electrostatic deflector is used for extraction of accelerated particles at the isochronous cyclotron U-150 (Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kazakhstan). Efficiency of beam extraction depends on a set of factors. Decisive is heat state of the septum and essentially beam extraction is limited by beam power dissipation on the deflector. Due to the works carried on for radioisotope production, determination of septum's maximal heat loading, optimization of the septum's geometry represent the interest. Maximum heat loading of deflector's septum and it's dependence on septum's geometry and thermal-physical properties of septum's material are presented in the paper as result of numerical calculation. The obtained results are discussed

  1. Electron cyclotron emission diagnostics for mirror devices (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, R.F.; James, R.A.; Lasnier, C.J.; Casper, T.

    1985-01-01

    Electron cyclotron emission (ECE) has proven to be a useful diagnostic in tokamaks for measuring T/sub e/ and its radial variation. The application of ECE to mirror devices is discussed here, with emphasis on measurements of the properties of energetic electrons in tandem mirror end cells, which can be viewed both parallel and perpendicular to B. The parallel or whistler view is generally optically thick and can yield a measurement of perpendicular temperature. High harmonic perpendicular emission is optically thin and can yield important information about the hot electron buildup and the energy and spatial distribution. Experimental results from TMX-U and appropriate modeling are presented

  2. Life Sciences at the Cyclotron Center of the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podhorsky, D.; Kovac, P.; Macasek, F.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation the history and present status of the Cyclotron Center of the Slovak (CC SR) are presented. A state run scientific center and production facility ensuring: - the basic and applied research in nuclear physics, chemistry, biology and medicine; - production of radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals; - and applications of heavy ions and electron accelerator technologies in medicine and material science. Current financial status of the CC SR is following: Deblocation of the Russian; Federation debt to the Slovak Republic (94 %); State budget of the Slovak Republic (3 %); IAEA (3 %)

  3. Tokamak start-up with electron-cyclotron heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holly, D.J.; Prager, S.C.; Shepard, D.A.; Sprott, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments are described in which the start-up voltage in a tokamak is reduced by about a factor of two by the use of a modest amount of electron cyclotron resonance heating power for pre-ionization. The solution of the zero-dimensional start-up equations indicates that the effect is due to the high initial density which increases the rate at which the conductivity increases in the neutral-dominated initial plasma. The effect extrapolates favourably to larger tokamaks. A 50% reduction in the start-up volt-second requirement and impurity reflux is also observed. (author)

  4. The operator view of the Superconducting Cyclotron at LNS Catania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giove, D.; Cuttone, G.; Rovelli, A.

    1992-01-01

    The upper level of a distributed control system designed for the Superconducting Cyclotron (SC), will be discussed. In particular, we will present a detailed description of the operator view of this accelerator along with the tools for I/O points management, data representations, data archiving and retrieval. A dedicated program, developed by us, working under X-Window will be described as a starting point for a new man-machine interface approach in small laboratories opposed to the first industrial available packages. (author)

  5. Electron cyclotron resonance microwave ion sources for thin film processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, L.A.; Gorbatkin, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    Plasmas created by microwave absorption at the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) are increasingly used for a variety of plasma processes, including both etching and deposition. ECR sources efficiently couple energy to electrons and use magnetic confinement to maximize the probability of an electron creating an ion or free radical in pressure regimes where the mean free path for ionization is comparable to the ECR source dimensions. The general operating principles of ECR sources are discussed with special emphasis on their use for thin film etching. Data on source performance during Cl base etching of Si using an ECR system are presented. 32 refs., 5 figs

  6. TORCAPP: time-dependent cyclotron orbit calculation and plotting package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddox, L.B.; McNeilly, G.S.

    1979-11-01

    TORCAPP calculates the motion of charged particles in electromagnetic fields with time as the independent variable, and produces a variety of printed and plotted output of results. Finite-size beam behavior is studied conveniently by following groups of particles which define an appropriate phase space area. Since time is the independent variable, general motion in the near-median-plane region may be followed. This includes, for example, loops not enclosing the origin and strongly radial motions. Thus, TORCAPP is particularly useful for injection studies for isochronous cyclotrons, or other devices with near-median-plane charged particle motion

  7. AGOR a supraconducting cyclotron for light and heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gales, S.

    1986-10-01

    The main design characteristics of the AGOR K600 superconducting cyclotron are presented with special emphasis on the original aspects of the proposed accelerator: the acceleration of both light (protons up to 200 MeV) and heavy ions, the design of the axial injection and central region geometry, the magnet, the RF structures, the extraction system, and the solutions adopted for the cryostat and the superconducting coils. Examples of calculations on the beam dynamics and beam properties will be given. The actual project status is reviewed

  8. Observation of the backward electrostatic ion-cyclotron wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goree, J.; Ono, M.; Wong, K.L.

    1985-01-01

    The backward branch of the electrostatic ion-cyclotron wave has been observed for the first time. The wave, which was driven by a phased antenna structure inserted in a neon plasma, exists in the parameter ranges 2T/sub i//m/sub i/ 2 or approx. =T/sub i/, and ω/sub p/i > Ω/sub i/. Double-tip probe interferometry data agree with the theoretical dispersion relation. The antenna couples into the wave more readily on the side of the antenna where it has its smallest wavenumber

  9. Electromagnetism applications in nuclear engineering: cyclotron; Aplicacoes do eletromagnetismo na engenharia nuclear; ciclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobrega Bastos; Dalla Riva, Maria Teresa Cristina da

    1995-08-01

    Particle accelerators, with special emphasis on cyclotrons, are presented. Other electromagnetic devices and their importance in technology and research are also shown. An experimental arrangement for positrons source productions using a cyclotron aiming at non-destructive testing for radiations damage studies is presented. 46 refs., 23 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Electron cyclotron absorption in Tokamak plasmas in the presence of radial transport of particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Paulo R. da S.; Ziebell, Luiz F.

    1998-01-01

    We use quasilinear theory to study effects of particle radial transport on the electron cyclotron absorption coefficient by a current carrying plasma, in a tokamak modelated as a plasma slab. Our numerical results indicate significant modification in the profile of the electron cyclotron absorption coefficient when transport is taken into account relative to the situation without transport. (author)

  11. High vacuum test of the dynamic components of the cyclotron dee chamber at the 224 cm variable energy cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chintalapudi, S.N.; Bandopadhyay, D.K.; Ghosh, D.K.; Gowariker, S.R.

    1979-01-01

    The 224 cm Variable Energy Cyclotron constructed and commissioned at Calcutta comprises a number of dynamic components in the high vacuum Dee Chamber. The static and dynamic conditions of these components have to be tested for high vacuum worthiness prior to their installation in the Dee Tank. A special set up was fabricated and used for simulating the Dee Chamber conditions and testing the components. A high vacuum of the order of 1 x 10 -5 torr was achieved under both dynamic and static conditions with and without coolant hydraulic pressures. The details of the set up, methods employed for the various tests carried out and the results obtained are described. (auth.)

  12. Effect of ion clouds micromotion on measured signal in Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance: Computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirov, Gleb; Kostyukevich, Yury; Kharybin, Oleg; Nikolaev, Eugene

    2017-08-01

    Particle-in-cell-based realistic simulation of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance experiments could be used to generate ion trajectories and a signal induced on the detection electrodes. It has been shown recently that there is a modulation of "reduced" cyclotron frequencies in ion cyclotron resonance signal caused by Coulomb interaction of ion clouds. In this work it was proposed to use this modulation in order to determine frequency difference between an ion of known m/z and all other ions generating signal in ion cyclotron resonance cell. It is shown that with an increase of number of ions in ion cyclotron resonance trap, the modulation index increases, which lead to a decrease in the accuracy of determination of peak intensities by super Fourier transform resolution methods such as filter diagonalization method.

  13. Automatic radioisotope production devices adapted to a medical cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouzel, C.; Le Poec, C.; Jarry, E.; Knipper, R.; Comar, D.

    1979-01-01

    The authors describe an irradiation device set up beside a compact medical cyclotron (520.CGR-MeV cyclotron). The variable energy machine can accelerate 3-22 MeV protons, 3-13 MeV deuterons, 6-26 MeV alpha particles and 5-31 MeV helium-3 particles, the currents extracted at the maximum energies reaching 50 μA for 4 He and 3 He, 70 μA for protons and deuterons. The essential characteristics demanded of the apparatus in order to produce a regular and abundant supply of short-lived radioisotopes were as follows: - Flexibility of use or the possibility of fast, completely non-manual target changing. - Simplicity of operation: the target-holder components must be easily interchangeable and the transfer of radioisotopes from the irradiation point to the chemical laboratory must be rapid. - Working safety: the automatic target-holder cooling controls must be duplicated by manual controls. - Target cooling efficiency: these targets, whether gaseous, liquid or solid, must be able to support a high particle current. (Auth.)

  14. Shielding design and performance confirmation of cyclotron facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Takashi; Kurata, Yasutaka; Kumamoto, Yoshikazu; Inada, Tetsuo; Hashizume, Tadashi

    1978-01-01

    Medical uses of cyclotrons have become active recently in the form of carcinoma therapy and utilization of short-lived radioisotopes. For the shielding design of medical purpose accelerators, already ''Guide-line for shielding calculation for medical purpose high energy accelerator laboratories'' and ''Guide-line for shielding calculation for fast neutron laboratories'' were published. However, the calculation method for cyclotrons is not clear. As for the fundamental concept, the shielding for neutrons generated by the interaction of accelerated particles and the materials used for accelerator construction should be considered as well as the type, energy and intensity of radiations. Also about the activation of air and cooling water, the reactions due to fast and thermal neutrons as well as charged particles should be considered. Then the amount of neutron generation, spectra of neutron energy, angular distribution of neutron, γ ray emitted with neutrons, attenuation of neutron beam and other specific items such as skyshine are described. The specific items include so-called ''groundshine'', 41 Ar generation due to (n-r) reaction, 13 N and 15 O due to fast neutrons and activation of cooling water. Next, the actual results of shielding calculation are described in the case of Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Institute of Nuclear Study (University of Tokyo), Medical Science Research Laboratory of University of Tokyo and National Institute of Radiological Sciences. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  15. Response of thermal ions to electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. J.; Fuselier, S. A.

    1994-01-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves generated by 10 - 50 keV protons in the Earth's equatorial magnetosphere will interact with the ambient low-energy ions also found in this region. We examine H(+) and He(+) distribution functions from approx. equals 1 to 160 eV using the Hot Plasma Composition Experiment instrument on AMPTE/CCE to investigate the thermal ion response to the waves. A total of 48 intervals were chosen on the basis of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave activity: 24 with prevalent EMIC waves and 24 with no EMIC waves observed on the orbit. There is a close correlation between EMIC waves and perpendicular heated ion distributions. For protons the perpendicular temperature increase is modest, about 5 eV, and is always observed at 90 deg pitch angles. This is consistent with a nonresonant interaction near the equator. By contrast, He(+) temperatures during EMIC wave events averaged 35 eV and sometimes exceeded 100 eV, indicating stronger interaction with the waves. Furthermore, heated He(+) ions have X-type distributions with maximum fluxes occurring at pitch angles intermediate between field-aligned and perpendicular directions. The X-type He(+) distributions are consistent with a gyroresonant interaction off the equator. The concentration of He(+) relative to H(+) is found to correlate with EMIC wave activity, but it is suggested that the preferential heating of He(+) accounts for the apparent increase in relative He(+) concentration by increasing the proportion of He(+) detected by the ion instrument.

  16. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry: technique developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Alan G.; Schweikhard, Lutz

    1992-09-01

    In the three years since the 11th International Mass Spectrometry Conference, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry has advanced both theoretically and experimentally with respect to ion formation and transfer to the ion trap, ion trap design and operation, ion excitation and detection, data reduction, and in chemical and analytical applications. In this short review, we shall describe several new ion sources for FT-ICR MS (e.g. high pressure, fast neutral beam, and continuous- flow atom bombardment), various new ion traps employing screens (e.g. for simultaneous trapping of positive and negative ions), guard wires (for improved isotopic abundance accuracy), and multiple sections. In addition, the ICR excitation and detection processes have recently been treated in quite full theoretical detail, leading to improved understanding of the origin and relative magnitudes of signals at multiples and combinations of the three fundamental ion frequencies: cyclotron, magnetron, and trapping. Recent chemical applications of FT-ICR MS have concentrated on ion/molecule chemistry (e.g. clusters, such as C60), whereas the primary analytical applications have come from laser desorption FT-ICR MS (e.g. polymers, surface analysis).

  17. Detection of unapproachable leaks in VECC K-500 superconducting cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, M.; Polley, A.

    2013-01-01

    K-500 super conducting cyclotron of VECC is very compact. Many areas of it are unapproachable. At the time of commissioning process of Magnet, RF cavity and other systems of VECC K-500 superconducting cyclotron, many vacuum related leaks were developed. These leaks were located by using different methods of leak detection. Special methods were also used to detect some leaks. Periodic vacuum failure was observed in cryostat of SCC at the time of commission of superconducting magnet. As cryostat was not easily approachable, thorough study was made. The study confirmed us that periodic change in pressure was due to air leak at cryostat outer vacuum chamber. This critical leak was identified using special technique and the leak was repaired after taking out the cryostat. Several unapproachable magnet dependent leaks were developed from C-seal in between liner and beam chamber and trimmer driving unit. Leaks were also formed in the ceramic part of dee stems during building up of R.F. voltage. Causes of these leaks were identified and rectified. Another unapproachable critical leak still exists in the bobbin of cryostat. This unapproachable leak also has relation with magnetic field. Leak rate increases with increase of magnetic field. For this reason upper magnetic field of SCC is limited to maintain thermal insulation of cryostat. (author)

  18. Export of radiopharmaceuticals and establishment of export base of cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Kyungil; Kim, Youngsik

    2006-01-01

    Sam young Unit ech has seized an opportunity to advance into the radiopharmaceuticals market through successful transfer of radiopharmaceuticals manufacturing technology and medical cyclotron, an original technology in nuclear medicine that is the core of less developed areas in nuclear-related fields. The company has continued to push for research development and establishment of market base through industry-academia-research center cooperation with an aim to complement relatively less developed domestic technology and market than in advanced countries, and is making efforts to establish export base in the overseas market based on stabilized supply in the domestic market. As for radiopharmaceuticals, the company is exporting Tc-99m generator to Vietnam, Thailand and the Philippines and preparing itself to export manufacture facilities for Tc-99m generator to Syria and Kazakhstan. In addition, it plans to export 13Mev Cyclotron that has been commercialized after being developed in the domestic market to the U. S. The company plans to grow up to play a pivotal role in the domestic RT area by conducting proactive business activities with an aim to revitalize the domestic market and further domestic original technologies and products in the global market

  19. Electrostatic deflector development at the Chalk River superconducting cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, W.T.; Mitchel, G.R.; Almeida, J.; Schmeing, H.

    1991-01-01

    An electrostatic deflector is used to extract heavy-ion beans from the Chalk River superconducting cyclotron. Deflector voltages up to 100 kV across a 7 m gap (143 kV/cm) are needed to extract the full range of beams that the cyclotron is designed to accelerate. This goal remains a challenge, but substantial progress has been made over the past year. Voltages over 90 kV have been reliably maintained over a 7.5 mm gap with a magnetic field of 3 T. Voltages of 74 kV have been used with a reduced gap of 4.75 mm (corresponding to a field greater than 150 kV/cm) to extract beams with magnetic fields up to 4.25 T. Major progress was achieved when the authors introduced a water-cooled, negative high-voltage electrode, and changed the sparking plates and the thin septum from molybdenum to stainless steel. Efforts are continuing to attain a field of at least 143 kV/cm over a gap of at least 6 mm width

  20. The variable cyclotron line of GX 301-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreykenbohm, I.; Wilms, J.; Coburn, W.; Kuster, M.; Rothschild, R.E.; Heindl, W.A.; Kretschmar, P.; Staubert, R

    2004-06-01

    We present a 200 ksec observation of the High Mass X-ray Binary GX 301-2 taken in 2000 November with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer during the pre-periastron flare and the actual periastron passage of the neutron star. To model the spectrum we use a power law with the Fermi Dirac cutoff and a cyclotron line at higher energies plus either a reflection component or a heavily absorbed partial covering component. Although completely different, both models describe the data equally well. Phase resolved spectra show that the energy and the depth of the cyclotron resonant scattering feature vary strongly with pulse phase: It is deepest in the fall of the main pulse, the rise of the secondary pulse, and the pulse minimum in-between with {tau}{sub C}{approx}0.3. In the other phase bins the line is much less deep with {tau}{sub C}{approx}0.1. The energy of the line correlates strongly with its depth and varies by 25 % from 30.1 keV in the fall of the secondary pulse to 37.9 keV in the fall of the main pulse.

  1. Cyclotrons with fast variable and/or multiple energy extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Baumgarten

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the possibility in principle of stripping extraction in combination with reverse bends in isochronous separate-sector cyclotrons (and/or fixed field alternating gradient accelerators. If one uses reverse bends between the sectors (instead of or in combination with drifts and places stripper foils at the sector exit edges, the stripped beam has a reduced bending radius and it should be able to leave the cyclotron within the range of the valley—even if the beam is stripped at less than full energy. We are especially interested in stripping of H_{2}^{+}, as it doubles the charge to mass ratio of the ions. However the method could be applied to other ions or ionized molecules as well. For the production of proton beams by stripping extraction of an H_{2}^{+} beam, we discuss possible designs for three types of machines: First, a low-energy cyclotron for the simultaneous production of several beams at multiple energies—for instance 15, 30, and 70 MeV—thus allowing beam delivery on several isotope production targets. In this case it can be an advantage to have a strong energy dependence of the direction of the extracted beam. Second, we consider a fast variable-energy proton machine for cancer therapy that should allow extraction (of the complete beam at all energies in the range of about 70 MeV to about 250 MeV into the same beam line. Third, we consider a high-intensity high-energy machine, where the main design goals are extraction with low losses, low activation of components, and high reliability. Especially if such a machine is considered for an accelerator driven system (ADS, this extraction mechanism has advantages: Beam trips by the failure of electrostatic elements could be avoided and the turn separation would be less critical, which allows operation at lower main cavity voltages. This would in turn reduce the number of rf trips. The price that has to be paid for these advantages is an increase in size and/or field

  2. Medical isotope production experience at the V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solin, L.M.

    2000-01-01

    Radium Institute cyclotron MGC-20 is used since 1990. There are four cyclotrons of such type in Russia and four abroad: in Finland, in Hungary, in North Korea and in Egypt. The Radium institute cyclotron was used in different fields, such as radioisotope production, nuclear physics, physics and engineering. For ten years some improvements of the Radium Institute cyclotron operation have been made. Those are: creation of the automatic control system based on IBM PC, development of a new power supply for the ion source, creation of the deflector electronic protection from discharges, change of the main elements of the cyclotron with high induced radioactivity. Moreover we investigated the possibility of the negative ions acceleration at the MGC-20 cyclotron without ion source exchange. The maximum value of the proton beam current reached was about 30 μA for 10 MeV H - beam energy. To extract the proton beam from the cyclotron after the stripping foil we made an additional output beam line. It was used for determination of the horizontal and vertical emittance. A special device was constructed and used for measurements of emittance. The latter amounted 30 π mm mrad for horizontal direction and 16 π mm mrad for vertical direction

  3. Image reconstruction of cyclotron beam based on Hopfield network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, Tetsuya; Murakami, Thoru; Tanizaki, Naoaki (Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Tanashi, Tokyo (Japan). Systems Engineering Lab.)

    1991-12-01

    This paper describes a beam image reconstruction method based on Hopfield neural networks. The images of beam emitted from cyclotrons are measured as three projection patterns by 3-wire beam sensors. The reconstruction of beam image is necessary because the measured projection patterns are not easy to understand for inexperienced operators. First, the energy function is defined using the measured projection patterns as constraints. Then surface tension terms, which make the surface area minimal, are added to it in order to generate smooth images. The weights of links of the Hopfield network are determined by the coefficients of the energy function. Through the convergence of the network, beam images which satisfy the projection patterns and look natural for human sense can be reconstructed. (author).

  4. Health physics considerations at a neutron therapy facility cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleck, J.H.; Krueger, D.J.; Mc Laughlin, J.E.; Smathers, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    The U.C.L.A. Neutron Therapy Facility (NTF) is one of four such facilities in the United States currently involved in NCI sponsored trials of neutron therapy and reflects the present interest in the use of high energy neutron beams for treating certain types of human cancers. The NTF houses a CP-45 negative ion cyclotron which accelerates a 46 MeV proton beam for production of neutrons from a beryllium target. In addition to patient treatment, the NTF is involved in the production of positron emitting radioisotopes for diagnostic use in Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The activation of therapy treatment collimators, positron and neutron target systems, and a high and rapidly varying external radiation environment in a clinical setting have contributed to the need for a comprehensive radiation control program in which patient care is balanced with the maintenance of occupational exposures to ALARA levels

  5. PET - medical cyclotron facility and its application in clinical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soni, P.S.

    2005-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a minimally invasive method of nuclear medicine imaging that uses short-lived radiopharmaceuticals to detect and assess perfusion and metabolic activity in various organ systems. When compared to anatomical information that is provided by radiological techniques such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radiology, PET can provide information about functional and metabolism that is complementary to the structural information provided by these techniques. PET is a diagnostic method that creates high-resolution 2D and 3D tomographic images of the distribution of cyclotron produced positron-emitting radionuclides in the body; the radiolabeled compounds include substrates, ligands, drugs. antibodies, neurotransmitters and many other molecules that are tracers for specific biological processes. Thus the resulting PET images can be considered images of these biochemical or physiological processes

  6. Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves observed in the plasma depletion layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Murr, D.

    1991-01-01

    Observations from AMPTE/CCE in the earth's magnetosheath on October 5, 1984 are presented to illustrate 0.1 - 4.0 Hz magnetic field pulsations in the subsolar plasma depletion layer (PDL) for northward sheath field during a magnetospheric compression. The PDL is unambiguously identified by comparing CCE data with data from IRM in the upstream solar wind. Pulsations in the PDL are dominated by transverse waves with F/F(H+) 1.0 or less and a slot in spectral power at F/F(H+) = 0.5. The upper branch is left hand polarized while the lower branch is linearly polarized. In the sheath the proton temperature anisotropy is about 0.6 but it is about 1.7 in the PDL during wave occurrence. The properties and correlation of waves with increased anisotropy indicate that they are electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves.

  7. Television imaging system for fast neutron radiography using baby cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Koji; Miya, Kenzo; Katoh, Norihiko.

    1993-01-01

    A television imaging system for fast neutron radiography (FNR-TV) developed using the fast neutron source reactor YAYOI was applied to the baby-cyclotron based fast neutron source to get images of thick objects quickly. In the system the same technique as a current television imaging system of thermal neutron radiography was applied, while the luminescent converter was used to detect fast neutrons. Using the CR39 track etch method it took about 7 h to get an image, while the FNR-TV only 20 s enough for taking the same object. However the FNR-TV imaging result of the simulation model of a large explosive device for the space launch vehicle of H-2 type was not so good as the image taken with the CR39 track etch method. The reason was that the luminescence intensity of the FNR-TV converter was a quarter of that in the YAYOI. (author)

  8. Ion cyclotron heating experiments in EBT-S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baity, F.W.; Davis, W.A.; Eldridge, O.C.; Glowienka, J.C.; Hillis, D.L.; Rasmussen, D.A.; Richards, R.K.; Mullen, J.H.; Owens, T.L.

    1982-01-01

    Fast-wave heating and propagation experiments in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) have been carried out on EBT-S under steady-state conditions at power levels up to 20 kW and under pulsed conditions at power levels up to 100 kW. The waves were launched using a single Faraday-shielded loop antenna installed on the midplane of one of the 24 cavity sectors. Substantial ion heating was observed at frequencies above the second harmonic for hydrogen plasmas and at frequencies above the third harmonic for deuterium plasmas, corresponding with the onset of wave propagation around the torus. The heating under these conditions is anomalous. In the case of deuterium plasmas, a small residual concentration (2 to 5%) of hydrogen was heated, but this component did not appear to affect the deuterium heating

  9. Acceleration of heavy-ion beams at the SF cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurada, Yuzo; Yamazaki, Tsutomu.

    1984-10-01

    With the development of the new arc-heated cathode PIG type source, heavy-ion acceleration in the SF cyclotron has been drastically augmented, which means that a stable routine operation is being realized as well as the number of ion species is increasing. Excellent performance is also being exhibited with the arc power supply and gas feeding system required for the operation of the heavy-ion source. At present, the gaseous ions which are being accelerated are as follows: He, B, C, N, O, F, Ne, S, Ar and Xe. In the meantime, the metallic ions which are being accelerated likewise are Li, Be, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Cl, Ca, Ti, Fe and Cu. In this paper, results of mainly the research of heavy-ion acceleration conducted during the period from 1983 to July 1984 are described. (author)

  10. On Ion Cyclotron Current Drive for sawtooth control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, L.-G.; Johnson, T.; Hellsten, T.; Mayoral, M.-L.; McDonald, D.; Santala, M.; Vries, P. de; Coda, S.; Sauter, O.; Mueck, A.; Buttery, R.J.; Mantsinen, M.J.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Westerhof, E.

    2006-01-01

    Experiments using Ion Cyclotron Current Drive (ICCD) to control sawteeth are presented. In particular, discharges demonstrating shortening of fast ion induced long sawteeth reported in [L.-G. Eriksson et al., Physical Review Letters 92, 235004 (2004)] by ICCD have been analysed in detail. Numerical simulations of the ICCD driven currents are shown to be consistent with the experimental observations. They support the hypothesis that an increase of the magnetic shear, due to the driven current, at the surface where the safety factor is unity was the critical factor for the shortening of the sawteeth. In view of the potential utility of ICCD, the mechanisms for the current drive have been further investigated experimentally. This includes the influence of the averaged energy of the resonating ions carrying the current and the spectrum of the launched waves. The results of these experiments are discussed in the light of theoretical considerations. (author)

  11. Status of the ITER Ion Cyclotron H&CD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beaumont Bertrand

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ITER Ion Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive system (IC H&CD is designed to deliver 20MW to a broad range of plasma scenarios between 40 and 55MHz, during very long pulses. It consists of two broadband equatorial port plug antennas, their pre-matching and matching systems, transmission lines, Radio Frequency (RF Sources and High Voltage Power Supplies. The overall project schedule has been revised and agreed by ITER Council; it re-integrates the second antenna and its power supplies in construction baseline and sets the dates for progressive installation with DT phase planned in 2035. Recent progress on ICRF subsystems is reported, covering design evolution, qualification of test articles and specific R&D results in domestic agencies, suppliers, associated laboratories and IO.

  12. Pulsed magnetic field-electron cyclotron resonance ion source operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehle, C.; Ratzinger, U.; Joest, G.; Leible, K.; Schennach, S.; Wolf, B.H.

    1996-01-01

    The pulsed magnetic field (PuMa)-electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source uses a pulsed coil to improve the peak current by opening the magnetic bottle along the beam axis. After demonstration of the principle of the pulsed magnetic extraction, the ion source was tested with different gases. We received promising results from helium to krypton. The influence of the current in the pulsed coil on the analyzed ion current was measured. With increased current levels within the pulsed coil not only the pulse height of the PuMa pulse, but the pulse length can also be controlled. By using the pulsed coil the maximum of the charge state distribution can be shifted to higher charge states. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  13. Electron-cyclotron resonance heating and current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filone, I.

    1992-01-01

    A brief summary of the theory and experiments on electron-cyclotron heating and current drive is presented. the general relativistic formulation of wave propagation and linear absorption is considered in some detail. The O-mode and the X-mode for normal and oblique propagation are investigated and illustrated by several examples. The experimental verification of the theory in T-10 and D-III-D is briefly discussed. Quasilinear evolution of the momentum distribution and related applications as, for instance, non linear wave damping and current drive, are also considered for special cases of wave frequencies, polarization and propagation. In the concluding section we present the general formulation of the wave damping and current drive in the absence of electron trapping for arbitrary values of the wave frequency. (author) 8 fig. 13 ref

  14. Uniform irradiation system using beam scanning method for cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agematsu, Takashi; Okumura, Susumu; Arakawa, Kazuo

    1994-03-01

    JAERI AVF-cyclotron is equipped with an ion beam scanner for large area irradiation. The two-dimensional fluence distribution of ion beam obtained using cellulose triacetate film dosimeter was not uniform. This is resulted from the distortion of excitation current for electromagnet of the scanner. So, the beam scanning condition, i.e., the relation between the ion species, the beam profile and the scanning width, was extremely limited to make a good uniformity. We have developed a beam scanning simulator to get fluence distributions by calculation and then compared the simulated distributions with the measured ones. It was revealed that the both of them are in good agreement and the beam scanning condition to get good uniformity was led by using this simulator. On the basis of these results, the power supply of scanner was improved. A good uniformity of beam distribution was available. (author)

  15. RF current generation near the ion cyclotron frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    An experiment has been conducted to measure unipolar currents driven by directional radio frequency waves in a cylindrical plasma mirror machine near the ion cyclotron frequency. The directional waves were launched using a four phase helical coupler which allowed the selection of both azimuthal mode number (m = +1) and direction of wave propagation. Plasma diagnostics include electron density measurements (4 mm microwave interferometer), electron temperature measurements (floating double probe), wave amplitude and coupling measurements (magnetic probes). RF power measurements (RF voltage and current probes) and RF driven plasma current measurements (Rogowski loops and current transformers). End electrodes provided a necessary external return path and an alternate method for measuring the current. Theoretical work includes an analytic approximation to the nonlinear problem of a particle in a traveling wave and computer simulations that extend this result. Nonlinear particle drifts other than trapping were found both with and without the presence of particle collisions

  16. Momentum distribution dependence of induced electron-cyclotron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziebell, L.F.; Dillenburg, D.

    1983-01-01

    The dependence of the electron-cyclotron wave amplification in an inhomogeneous plasma slab on the electron momentum distribution is investigated. Two types of distributions are considered, both featuring a loss cone and a Maxwellian component. It is shown that the perpendicular emission at the fundamental frequency is in general greatly reduced by the presence of a Maxwellian component and situations occur in which a layer in the slab very effectively absorbs all the radiation amplified elsewhere. The transition from the pure loss cone to the pure Maxwellian case is accompanied by a peculiar behaviour of the dielectric tensor components, which may invalidate the geometrical optics approximation in the calculation of the emission and the commonly held belief that the real part of the refractive index is insensitive to the shape of the momentum distribution function. (Author) [pt

  17. Mechanism for electron cyclotron heating of collisionless plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golovanivskii, K.S.; Dugard-Jabon, V.D.; Milant' ev, V.P.

    1975-01-01

    The electron distribution with respect to transverse energy is derived for electron cyclotron resonance in a constant, homogeneous magnetic field; weak relativistic effects are taken into account. After the establishment of a steady-state distribution with groups of hot and cold electrons, no energy is pumped from the rf field to the plasma. The rf electrostatic perturbations are studied on the basis of the distribution function found; it is shown that waves of two types are unstable eigenmodes of the plasma at rest and drift waves. The growth rates for the corresponding instabilities are derived. A study is also made of the stability of right-handed circularly polarized electromagnetic wave propagating along the magnetic field. Instabilities occur at frequencies which depend on the degree of anisotropy, analogous to the case of a plasma with a temperature anisotropy.

  18. More about a universal compact isochronous superconducting cyclotron archetype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laisne, A.

    1999-01-01

    Except the fact that they can accelerate protons at comparable energies, AGOR and CYCLONE 235 stand at two extremities as far as the complexity of the conceptual design is concerned. The widest range of ions species associated with a very large energy and RF frequency ranges for AGOR, a fixed energy and a constant RF frequency for only protons in CYCLONE 235. In fact, the two designs have in common the same theoretical 'model' that I described in a referred paper. Now, I suggest we look again at this model and try to show how it could be regarded as the 'Universal Compact Isochronous Superconducting Cyclotron Archetype'. Based on the behavior of CYCLONE 235, and on some more recent calculations, I will explain why the name of 'Archetype' can be used, and show how attractive is the simplicity of the ejection scheme ensued in terms of reliability and cost. (author)

  19. (p,2p) experiments at the University of Maryland cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, P.G.

    1976-11-01

    Some of the (p,2p) work which has been carried out at the Maryland Cyclotron is discussed. A brief introduction to the (p,2p) reaction is presented, and the types of experimental techniques utilized in (p,2p) studies are discussed. A brief introduction is given to the various theoretical treatments presently available to analyze (p,2p) reaction data. Secondly, experimental and theoretical studies of (p,2p) on d, 3 He, and 4 He carried out by the Maryland group are presented. Thirdly, (p,2p) results are discussed for 6 Li, 7 Li, and 12 C at 100 MeV. Fourthly, the effects of distortion on the experimental data are considered by presenting theoretical calculations for 12 C and 40 Ca at various bombarding energies

  20. Epoxy resin casting of trim coils for superconducting cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajra, D.P.; Sarkar, S.C.; Saha, Subimal; Chaudhuri, J.; Bhandari, R.K.

    2006-01-01

    The life of any magnet depends on the soundness of the coil insulation, its aging properties and initial and final endurance limitations. The insulation of water-cooled trim coils for superconducting cyclotron is made of glass fibre tape with heat cured unfilled epoxy resin combination. This type of insulation has been selected to achieve excellent stability against thermal and electromagnetic stresses, tight dimensional control, good dielectric strength, non-hygroscopic and considerably low vapour-pressure as it will be inside rough vacuum. The process development and the difficulties encountered for appropriate selection of epoxy resin combination, potting, vacuum process, curing cycle, control of coil dimension to achieve a sound coil absolutely free from cracks, trapped air and voids has been discussed. (author)

  1. Ion-cyclotron modes in weakly relatavistic plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venugopal, C.; Kurian, P.J.; Renuka, G.

    1994-01-01

    We derive a dispersion relation for the perpendicular propagation of ion-cyclotron waves around the ion gyrofrequency Ω + in a weakly relativistic, anisotropic Maxwellian plasma. Using an ordering parameter ε, we separated out two dispersion relations, one of which is independent of the relativistic terms, while the other depends sensitively on them. The solutions of the former dispersion relation yield two modes: a low-frequency (LF) mode with a frequency ω + and a high-frequency (HF) mode with ω > Ω + . The plasma is stable to the propagation of these modes. The latter dispersion relation yields a new LF mode in addition to the modes supported by the non-relativistic dispersion relation. The two LF modes can coalesce to make the plasma unstable. These results are also verified numerically using a standard root solver. (author)

  2. Electron Cyclotron Plasma Breakdown in TJ-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappa, A.; Castejon, F.; Tabares, F. L.; Tafalla, D.

    2001-07-01

    A kinetic model for second harmonic electron cyclotron breakdown in stellarator, based on the results obtained from nonlinear wave-particle interaction theory, is presented. A set of particle balance equations, that describes the H{sub 2} ionization chain by means of an electron momentum space discretization is raised an solved by numerical integration. The time evolution of the several species densities, together with the energy distribution function behaviour, is determined and thus predictions about the breakdown times and growth rates of the many plasma species are obtained for different perfil pressure conditions and different values of the injected power. The analysis of the TJ-II stellarator experimental data shows good agreement with the theoretical results. (Author) 20 refs.

  3. Radioisotope production at the cyclotron in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.G. da; Lemos, O.F.; Britto, J.L.O. de; Osso, J.A.; Bastos, M.A.V.; Braghirolli, A.M.S.; Chamma, D.F.S.; Newton, G.W.A.; Weinreich, R.

    1982-01-01

    A radioisotope production laboratory has been installed at Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear in Rio de Janeiro. It is intended primarily for processing short-lived radioisotopes produced by a multiparticle, variable energy, isochronous, compact CV-28 Cyclotron and for preparation of radiopharmaceuticals and labelled molecules. Carrier-free iodine-123, indium-111, thalium-201, bromine-77 and gallium-67 with high purity have been produced. An irradiated target transport system has been built. Special targets that can dissipate high surface power densities are being developed. Each radioisotope is processed in a remotely controlled cell equiped with electric and pneumatic systems as well as manipulators ans tongs. Quality control is achieved by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, spot tests, gamma-ray spectroscopy and thin-layer chromatography. Biological tests in mice have confirmed the good quality of the radiopharmaceuticals. (Author) [pt

  4. Fundamental ion cyclotron resonance heating of JET deuterium plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasilnikov, A V; Amosov, V N; Kaschuck, Yu A; Van Eester, D; Lerche, E; Ongena, J; Bonheure, G; Biewer, T; Crombe, K; Ericsson, G; Giacomelli, L; Hellesen, C; Hjalmarsson, A; Esposito, B; Marocco, D; Jachmich, S; Kiptily, V; Leggate, H; Mailloux, J; Kallne, J

    2009-01-01

    Radio frequency heating of majority ions is of prime importance for understanding the basic role of auxiliary heating in the activated D-T phase of ITER. Majority deuterium ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) experiments at the fundamental cyclotron frequency were performed in JET. In spite of the poor antenna coupling at 25 MHz, this heating scheme proved promising when adopted in combination with D neutral beam injection (NBI). The effect of fundamental ICRH of a D population was clearly demonstrated in these experiments: by adding ∼25% of heating power the fusion power was increased up to 30-50%, depending on the type of NBI adopted. At this power level, the ion and electron temperatures increased from T i ∼ 4.0 keV and T e ∼ 4.5 keV (NBI-only phase) to T i ∼ 5.5 keV and T e ∼ 5.2 keV (ICRH + NBI phase), respectively. The increase in the neutron yield was stronger when 80 keV rather than 130 keV deuterons were injected in the plasma. It is shown that the neutron rate, the diamagnetic energy and the electron as well as the ion temperature scale roughly linearly with the applied RF power. A synergistic effect of the combined use of ICRF and NBI heating was observed: (i) the number of neutron counts measured by the neutron camera during the combined ICRF + NBI phases of the discharges exceeded the sum of the individual counts of the NBI-only and ICRF-only phases; (ii) a substantial increase in the number of slowing-down beam ions was detected by the time of flight neutron spectrometer when ICRF power was switched on; (iii) a small D subpopulation with energies slightly above the NBI launch energy was detected by the neutral particle analyzer and γ-ray spectroscopy.

  5. Loss-cone-driven ion cyclotron waves in the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denton, R.E.; Hudson, M.K.; Roth, I.

    1992-01-01

    The theoretical properties of linear ion cyclotron waves propagating in the magnetosphere at arbitrary angles to the background magnetic field are explored. It is found that in some cases the linear wave growth of modes with oblique propagation can dominate that of the parallel propagating electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave. In particular, when the hot ring current protons have a loss cone and their temperature anisotropy A ≡ T perpendicular /T parallel - 1 is reduced, the parallel propagating EMIC wave becomes stable, while the obliquely propagating loss-cone-driven mode persists. The growth rate of the loss-cone-driven model depends strongly on the depth of the loss cone. Unlike the parallel propagating EMIC wave, it can be unstable with A = 0. Other conditions that favor the loss-cone-driven mode in comparison to the parallel mode are stronger background magnetic field, lower density of cold hydrogen, and a lower temperature for the hot anisotropic component of hydrogen. A simple analytical theory is presented which explains the scaling of the growth rate of the oblique mode with respect to various parameters. The loss-cone-driven mode is an electromagnetic mode which is preferentially nearly linearly polarized. It is nearly electrostatic in the sense that the wave electric field is aligned with the perpendicular (to B 0 ) component of the wave vector k and k perpendicular > k parallel . Since the electric and magnetic wave fields are perpendicular to B 0 , they would be difficult to distinguish from those of a linearly polarized parallel propagating electromagnetic wave with the same k parallel

  6. Energy Flow in Saturn's Ion Cyclotron Wave Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisner, J. S.; Russell, C. T.; Dougherty, M. K.; Persoon, A. M.; Blanco-Cano, X.; McAndrews, H. J.; Thomsen, M. F.; Strangeway, R. J.

    2007-12-01

    When molecules in Saturn's water-group neutral cloud are ionized, they are accelerated by the electric field associated with the motion of the magnetospheric plasma. This acceleration brings the pick-up ions to the bulk plasma speed and gives them free energy that leads to the growth of ion cyclotron waves. Ion cyclotron waves propagating along the magnetic field have been observed near the equatorial plane on almost all of Cassini's orbits through the inner magnetosphere. On near-equatorial orbits, these waves are observed to peak below the gyrofrequencies of water-group (O, OH, H2O) and molecular oxygen (O2) ions. On inclined orbits, the velocity of the spacecraft along the waves' direction of propagation produced Doppler shifts in the wave frequency. Using this shift, we calculate the phase velocity of the waves through the wave belt. We find that near the magnetic equator, the waves are propagating both parallel and anti-parallel to the magnetic field and have phase velocities of 40-50 km/s, one-half to one-third of the local Alfven speed. Beyond +/- 0.04 Rs of the magnetic equator, the water-group waves are propagating away from that plane and increasing in power until about +/- 0.25 Rs. Then they quickly damp. The wave power profile is similar for molecular oxygen waves, except these waves are about one-tenth as strong. Beyond +/- 0.3 Rs of the magnetic equator the water-group waves are absent, but the molecular oxygen waves persist until higher latitudes, although with low power. We discuss the energy carried by these waves, considering both ion species and where the background plasma gains energy from their absorption.

  7. Current drive experiments at the electron cyclotron frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erckmann, V.; Gasparino, U.; Maassberg, H.; Renner, H.; Tutter, M.; Kasparek, W.; Mueller, G.A.; Schueller, P.G.; Thumm, M.

    1991-01-01

    The experimental investigation of non-inductive current drive by electromagnetic waves in the electron cyclotron range of frequencies and the comparison with theoretical predictions attracts increasing interest in both, tokamak as well as stellarator research. In spite of the low current drive efficiency (compared to Lower Hybrid Current Drive) Electron Cyclotron Current Drive (ECCD) is a candidate for MHD-mode control and current profil shaping in tokamaks and stellarators due to the high localization of the driven currents and the capability to drive currents in the plasma centre in large machines. ECCD is an appropriate tool for the control of the pressure effects on the profile of the rotational transform, particularly the bootstrap current in stellarators. This is a crucial condition to maintain good confinement properties in low shear configurations such as W VII-AS. Basic experimental investigations were performed at the W VII-AS stellarator, where the small EC-driven currents are not masked by large inductively driven currents as in tokamaks. The theoretical treatment of ECCD in stellarators would require a Fokker Planck solution in full phase space taking into account the complex magnetic field configuration (trapped particles, loss cone effects) which is untractable. In a first approach, we have compared our experimental data to a simple analytical current drive model (linearized in slab geometry) which is incorporated in a ray-tracing code. In a second step, we have analysed the sensitivity of the model with respect to simplified assumptions on trapped particles and quasi-linear effects. (orig.)

  8. Kariibi piraadid : admiralid, ilueedid ja kröösused / Riho Laurisaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laurisaar, Riho

    2006-01-01

    Gore Verbinski lavastatud filmis "Kariibi mere piraadid : Surnud mehe aardekirst" Jack Sparrow tegelaskuju võimalikud ajaloolised prototüübid Edward Teach (Blackbeard), Henry Morgan, Francis Drake ja John Rackham

  9. Magnetic system of a superconducting separated-sector cyclotron for hadron therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, V. L.; Vorozhtsov, S. B.

    2017-07-01

    The development of a cyclotron magnetic system based on superconducting sector magnets is discussed. The cyclotron is conceived as a booster accelerator of a source of 12C6+ ions with energy of 400MeV/nucleon for the purposes of hadron therapy. The results of preliminary investigations aimed at developing such a facility have been reported in our previous papers. In this paper, we consider various configurations of the booster's magnetic system for various field levels. We also analyze the effects of the positions and shapes of superconducting coils on the magnetic field and select the optimum configuration for the cyclotron's magnetic system.

  10. Intelligent low-level RF system by non-destructive beam monitoring device for cyclotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi Asadi Malafeh, M. S.; Ghergherehchi, M.; Afarideh, H.; Chai, J. S.; Yoon, Sang Kim

    2016-04-01

    The project of a 10 MeV PET cyclotron accelerator for medical diagnosis and treatment was started at Amirkabir University of Technology in 2012. The low-level RF system of the cyclotron accelerator is designed to stabilize acceleration voltage and control the resonance frequency of the cavity. In this work an Intelligent Low Level Radio Frequency Circuit or ILLRF, suitable for most AVF cyclotron accelerators, is designed using a beam monitoring device and narrow band tunable band-pass filter. In this design, the RF phase detection does not need signal processing by a microcontroller.

  11. Directory of cyclotrons used for radionuclide production in Member States [2006 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-10-01

    The present directory of cyclotron facilities used for the production of radionuclides in Member States is an update of the one compiled by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in late 2001 and published in 2002. This directory was prepared through information collected by questionnaires that the IAEA sent to known institutions operating cyclotrons for radionuclide production. Technical as well as administrative data supplied to the IAEA as of November 2005 were taken into account. The directory is considered to include most of the cyclotrons of the world that are used at least partially for radionuclide production. There are 262 entries for cyclotrons operating in 39 Member States of the IAEA. This is an increase of 7% over the 246 reported in the 2002 cyclotron directory. This can be compared to the 350 or so cyclotrons believed to be presently operating in the world, which are involved in some aspects of radionuclide production. The increase has been in the number of cyclotrons in developed countries, but even more so in the developing countries. The increase in number during the last four years was driven by several factors, i.e. advent of advances in medical imaging, introduction of compact, user friendly medical cyclotron, and a recent decision that costs for 15 O-oxygen position emission tomography (PET) studies in Japan and 18 F-FDG PET studies in Germany and the United States of America are eligible for reimbursement by government or health insurance companies. There is no doubt that the fastest growing segment of the market is in the commercial distribution of FDG to local hospitals. The IAEA is promoting cyclotron technology as applied to nuclear medicine. Requests for cyclotron technology is steadily increasing; many developing Member States are interested in this technology. There is need to stimulate, build and maintain consulting capability in interested developing Member States. There are good reasons to believe that the number of cyclotron

  12. Simultaneous measurements of microwave photoresistance and cyclotron reflection in the multiphoton regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Du, Rui-Rui; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.

    2018-01-01

    We simultaneously measure photoresistance with electrical transport and coupled plasmon-cyclotron resonance using microwave reflection spectroscopy in high-mobility GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells under a perpendicular magnetic field. Multiphoton transitions are revealed as sharp peaks in the resistance and the cyclotron reflection on samples with various carrier densities. Our main finding is that plasmon coupling is relevant in the cyclotron reflection spectrum but has not been observed in the electrical conductivity signal. We discuss possible mechanisms relevant to reflection or dc conductivity signal to explain this discrepancy. We further confirm a trend that more multiphoton features can be observed using higher carrier density samples.

  13. Analysis for liquid cryogen spillage in the superconducting cyclotron building at VECC

    CERN Document Server

    Roy S ,; Pal, G; Bhandari, R K

    2009-01-01

    The cryogenic system uses liquid helium and liquid nitrogen to cool the superconducting cyclotron magnet and its cryopanels. In order to assess safety scenarios subsequent to an unusual leakage of cryogens from the system, a deterministic analysis has been carried out to estimate the variation of oxygen concentration with time at several locations of superconducting cyclotron building. The entire process is simulated assuming evaporated cryogens mixes instantaneously with air in the confined space, the ventilation system of the cyclotron building is operational, fresh air continuously enters the confined volume and mixes instantaneously with air in the confined space.

  14. Compact cyclotron magnetic system development on the base of graphic programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alenitskij, Yu.G.; Morozov, N.A.; Samsonov, E.V.

    1994-01-01

    Base on the graphic programming two programs are created: SPIRS-designed for selecting isochronous cyclotron spiral shim configuration and MEMFIC-designed for: magnetic measurement automated system control; magnetic measurement result processing; magnetic measurement file graphic scanning; graphic scanning of results of calculations of particle dynamics in the cyclotron. The programs are intended for operation with a personal computer equipped with graphic adapter board and video display providing for dotted graphics. Magnetic fields of two proton 16 and 20 MeV cyclotrons are calculated using the SPIRS program. 8 refs.; 4 figs

  15. Electron beam cyclotron instability of a beam-plasma system in a magnetic beach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varandas, C.A.F.; Cabral, J.A.C.

    1988-09-01

    We study the development of the electron cyclotron instability of a beam-plasma system in a magnetic beach. Beaches of positive as well as of negative B-field gradient are considered. The frequency spectrum shows either one or two cyclotron peaks depending on the B-field inhomogeneity. The central frequencies of these peaks, as opposed to their amplitudes, are independent of both the axial and radial positions of the measuring probe. The experimental results are interpreted in terms of the analysis of the instability frequency spectrum theoretically constructed from the space-time evolution, in the WKB approximation, of unstable electron cyclotron waves.

  16. Optimization of a partially non-magnetic primary radiation shielding for the triple-axis spectrometer PANDA at the Munich high-flux reactor FRM-II

    CERN Document Server

    Pyka, N M; Rogov, A

    2002-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations have been used to optimize the monochromator shielding of the polarized cold-neutron triple-axis spectrometer PANDA at the Munich high-flux reactor FRM-II. By using the Monte Carlo program MCNP-4B, the density of the total spectrum of incoming neutrons and gamma radiation from the beam tube SR-2 has been determined during the three-dimensional diffusion process in different types of heavy concrete and other absorbing material. Special attention has been paid to build a compact and highly efficient shielding, partially non-magnetic, with a total biological radiation dose of less than 10 mu Sv/h at its outsides. Especially considered was the construction of an albedo reducer, which serves to reduce the background in the experiment outside the shielding. (orig.)

  17. The 17{sup th} European photovoltaic solar energy conference and exhibition in Munich from a Swiss point of view; Die 17. europaeische Photovoltaikkonferenz in Muenchen aus Schweizer Sicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, S.

    2002-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises the photovoltaics (PV) conference and exhibition held in Munich in October 2001 from the Swiss point of view. The contributions made by representatives of Swiss institutions and companies are presented including papers on the progress being made in third generation crystalline and multi-crystalline silicon technology, amorphous and micro-crystalline silicon solar cells, thin film solar cells based on compound semiconductors and thermo-photovoltaics. Further papers deal with PV modules on the market, building-integrated solar power systems and new developments in PV systems technology. The exhibition that accompanied the conference, including the 12 Swiss exhibitors who were present, is reviewed as are international market developments. Contributions concerning the application of photovoltaics in developing countries are also reviewed.

  18. Solid targets and irradiation facilities for production of diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclides at the Debrecen cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarkanyi, F.; Ando, L.; Szucs, Z.; Mahunka, I.; Kovacs, Z.

    2000-01-01

    The MGC-20E (NIIEFA, Leningrad, USSR) variable energy compact cyclotron (k=20) was installed in ATOMKI (Debrecen, Hungary) in 1985. Protons, deuterons, 3 He- and α-particles can be accelerated with currents up to 300 μA for internal irradiation and up to 50 μA for external beams. The establishment of the Cyclotron Laboratory was partly supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The application of the cyclotron is multipurpose: basic nuclear research, application of activation technique for analytical and wear studies, application of intense fast neutron source for agro-biological, bio-medical application and for radiation damage test of electronic components, and finally radioisotope production for medical diagnostics and for other scientific and applied fields. The cyclotron laboratory has six target rooms, a radiochemistry laboratory and a medical unit equipped with PET

  19. Cyclotron-based nuclear science. Progress report, April 1, 1979-March 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    Research at the cyclotron institute is summarized. These major areas are covered: nuclear structure; nuclear reactions and scattering; polarization studies; interdisciplinary nuclear science; instrumentation and systems development; and publications. (GHT)

  20. External excitation of ion cyclotron drift waves in a two-ion species plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kando, M.; Ikezawa, S.; Sugai, H.

    1984-01-01

    Ion cyclotron drift waves propagating across a density gradient and a magnetic field have been excited externally in a two-ion species plasma, with its concentration ratio controlled. The measured dispersion relations agree with the theoretical predictions. (author)

  1. Study of the second harmonic electron cyclotron heating in JFT-2M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Katsumichi; Yamamoto, Takumi; Kawashima, Hisato

    1986-05-01

    Initial experimental results on the energy confinement time and phenomena related to the particle confinement during the 60 GHz second harmonic electron cyclotron heating (ECH) on JFT-2M tokamak are reported. (author)

  2. Pumping system of 30,000 l/sec for CIME cyclotron; Un systeme de pompage 30.000 l/sec pour le cyclotron CIME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horbowa, A.; Buhler, S.; Blache, Ph.; Chevrollier, R.; Grolet, D.; Pilot, A.; Szott, Ph. [Services Techniques, Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France); Languiller, J.; Gallardo, Ph. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France)

    1999-11-01

    The cyclotron CIME (SPIRAL facilities) has to accelerate radioactive ions produced from primary heavy beams delivered by GANIL. To avoid beam losses by charge exchange on the residual gas, the ultimate pressure in the cyclotron is expected to be better than 5.10{sup -8} mbar. In order to reach such a low pressure, a system of 30.000 l/sec twin cryo-panels has been designed for being installed inside the cyclotron. Each cryo-panel will be individually cooled by a separate set of two cryo-generators. From cryo-generators to cryo-panels, the cooling power is transferred through heat-pipes over several meters. The complete system designed and constructed in the IPN and GANIL laboratories, is presently under testing at the GANIL location. (authors) 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. The radiation damage in silicon diodes induced by stray fast neutrons from the ANSTO Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, B.

    1996-01-01

    Intense flux of fast neutrons are produced during routine isotope production runs at the National Medical Cyclotron. These stray neutrons induce irreversible displacement damage in the semiconductor devices, the vital building blocks of the various electronic instruments used in the facility. This poster highlights the results of the radiation hardness investigation study of commercial silicon diodes undertaken at the Health Physics laboratory of the National Medical Cyclotron

  4. High-intensity cyclotrons for radioisotope production and accelerator driven systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jongen, Y.; Vandeplassche, D.; Kleeven, W.; Beeckman, W.; Zaremba, S.; Lannoye, G.; Stichelbaut, F

    2002-04-22

    IBA recently proposed a new method to extract high-intensity positive ion beams from a cyclotron based on the concept of auto-extraction. We review the design of a 14 MeV, multi-milliampere cyclotron using this new technology. IBA is also involved in the design of the accelerator system foreseen to drive the MYRRHA facility, a multipurpose neutron source developed jointly by SCK-CEN and IBA.

  5. A critical evaluation of the role of the cyclotron in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolber, G.

    1984-01-01

    The present situation in heavy particle radiotherapy is reviewed. The potential of the cyclotron and competing devices is evaluated with respect to dose distribution, dose rate, versatility, size, and cost. Some related non-physical problems characterizing radiation therapy in general are briefly considered. It turns out that compact cyclotrons for 30 to 60 MeV protons hold their leading position in fast neutron therapy at least, as they do in radioisotope production

  6. Determination of Magnet Specification of 13 MeV Proton Cyclotron Based on Opera 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufik

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The magnet is one of the main components of a cyclotron, used to form a circular particle beam trajectories and to provide focusing of the beam. To support the mastery of 13-MeV proton cyclotron technologies, cyclotron magnet design must be done to satisfy cyclotron magnet requirements. This research was conducted by studying important parameters in designing the cyclotron magnet which is then used to determine the design requirements. The magnet design was based on the results of a 3D simulation using Opera 3D software. Opera 3D is a software developed by Cobham plc to solve physical problems in 3D such as magnetostatic using finite element methods. The simulation started by drawing a 3D model of the magnet using a modeler, followed by magnetic field calculations by Tosca module in the Opera 3D software. Simulation results were analyzed with the Genspeo software to determine whether the parameters of the cyclotron magnet have met design requirements. The results indicate that the magnet design satisfied the cyclotron magnet design requirement, that B in the median plane of the magnetic pole approached the isochronous curve, providing axial and radial focusing beam, crossing the resonance line at vr = 1 when the particle energy is low and the particle energy is more than 13 MeV, and lead to small enough phase shift of about 13°. The dimension of the cyclotron magnet is 1.96 m × 1.30 m × 1.21 m; its weight is 17.3 ton; its coil current is 88,024 ampere-turn; its center magnetic field is 1.27479 T; its maximum magnetic field is 1.942116 T; its minimum magnetic field is 0.7689 T; its valley gap is 120 mm; its hill gaps are 40 to 50.78 mm; and its hill angles are 35° to 44°.to 44°

  7. Optically detected cyclotron resonance in a single GaAs/AlGaAs heterojunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartsch, Gregor

    2011-09-23

    Optically detected far-infrared cyclotron resonance (FIR-ODCR) in GaAs/AlGaAs HJs is interpreted in the frame of an exciton-dissociation mechanism. It is possible to explain the ODR mechanism by an exciton drag, mediated by ballistically propagating phonons. Furthermore, very narrow resonances are presented and realistic electron mobility values can be calculated. The exceptionally narrow ODCRs allow to measure conduction-band nonparabolicity effects and resolve satellite resonances, close to the main cyclotron resonance line.

  8. Biomedical research with cyclotron produced radionuclides. Progress report, October 1, 1977--September 30, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laughlin, J.S.; Benua, R.S.; Tilbury, R.S.; Bigler, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reported on biomedical studies using cyclotron-produced 18 F, 15 O, 11 C, 13 N, 52 Fe, 38 K, 206 Bi, 73 Se, 53 Co, and 43 K. The following research projects are described: tumor detection and diagnosis; neurological studies; radiopharmaceutical development; 38 K as an indicator of blood flow to the myocardium; dosimetry for internally deposited isotopes in animals and man; cyclotron development; positron tomographic imaging with the TOKIM System; and review of positron emission transaxial tomograph instruments

  9. The 118-GHz electron cyclotron heating system on Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darbos, C.; Magne, R.; Bouquey, F.; Lambert, R.; Lennholm, M.; Traisnel, E. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, (France); Arnold, A.; Thumm, M. [Univ Karlsruhe, Inst Hochfrequenztech and Elect, Karlsruhe, (Germany); Prinz, H.O.; Thumm, M. [EURATOM, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Inst Hochleistungsimpuls und Mikrowellentech, Karlsruhe, (Germany); Hogge, J.P. [Assoc Euratom Confederat Suisse, Lausanne, (Switzerland); Lievin, C. [Thales Electron Devices, Velizy Villacoublay, (France)

    2009-07-01

    An electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) system capable of delivering 2.4 MW cw has been designed to be built at Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique. Cadarache, for the Tore Supra (TS) experiment, to provide plasma heating and current drive by electron cyclotron resonance interaction. The planned system was composed of a generator using six gyrotrons 500 kW for 5 s or 400 kW cw working at 118 GHz. Six transmission lines made of corrugated waveguide, 63.5-mm diameter, carry. the HE11 mode to one antenna composed of six fixed mirrors and three independently movable mirrors for the adjustment of the injection angles of the rf beams. The antenna was built and installed in TS., and all transmission line components ordered and installed between the gyrotron locations and the antenna. In the same way, the required six oil tanks, the six cryo-magnets, and the six modulating anode devices were designed and manufactured. In parallel, after demonstration in the factory of proper operation of the prototype gyrotron, the manufacture of a first so-called series gyrotron was made. Bill this gyrotron experienced hard limitations (overheating inducing prohibited outgassing, parasitic oscillations) during the long-pulse tests in Cadarache, and the achieved performance was 300 kW for 110 s. A new study was then carried out in collaboration with Thales Electron Devices, the EURATOM-CEA Association. and the EURATOM-Confederation Suisse Association to understand and overcome the limitations, which led to the construction of a nest, modified gyrotron. During the tests in factory of this new gyrotron, the output beam showed two peaks, a pattern never predicted by simulations. The gyrotron was nevertheless transferred to Cadarache for long-pulse testing, but all arc oil the windows definitely stopped the tests. To understand the cause of the observed two peaks, various low-level tests were then performed oil a model of the mode converter with different shapes for the launcher; but

  10. Radiation shielding analysis of medical cyclotron at Radiation Medicine Centre, Parel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gathibandhe, M.V.; Agrawal, R.A.; Utge, C.G.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: PET (Positron Emission Tomography) is a diagnostic method to obtain 3-D functional images of the distribution of radio-nuclides introduced in the human body as tracers for specific biological processes. Tracers are produced by bombardment of different target nuclides by protons and deuterons of high energy produced in the cyclotron. A Wipro-GE medical cyclotron was installed in the basement of RMC, Parel. Shielding around the cyclotron is provided in the form of borated concrete walls of required thickness to limit dose rates to design values as per AERB criteria. The roof of the cyclotron room is made of heavy concrete. Entry in to the room is through a maze. Shielding analysis for the cyclotron room has been carried out using computer code ANISN. The maze has been analyzed using code MCNP. Based on the analysis carried out additional shielding was recommended to meet the design requirements. The paper discusses the shielding analysis carried out for the cyclotron room and the maze. Dose rate estimated at various locations are highlighted

  11. Radiation safety and operational health physics of hospital based medical cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, B.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Compact, low energy, high current Medical Cyclotrons are now primarily used to produce large activities of short lived, neutron deficient, positron- emitting radioisotopes. These isotopes constitute the key ingredients of important PET (Positron Emission Tomography) radiopharmaceuticals used in diagnostic nuclear medicine. The PET-radioisotope producing Medical Cyclotrons are now increasingly installed in modern urban hospitals in many countries of the world. Modern Medical Cyclotrons run at a very high beam current (∼100-200 micro Amp) level and thereby produce intense fields of parasitic gamma rays and neutrons, causing the activation of cyclotron components, ambient air and radiation exposure to patients and members of the public. This report highlights the important operational aspects and the characteristics of the radiation fields produced by Medical Cyclotrons. The pathways of personnel radiation exposure are also analyzed. The above information constitutes the scientific basis of a sound operational health physics service, which is manifested in an effective dose reduction and an enhanced radiological safety of the Medical Cyclotron facility within the framework of ALARA

  12. Status of the ITER Ion Cyclotron H and CD system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamalle, P., E-mail: philippe.lamalle@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Beaumont, B.; Kazarian, F.; Gassmann, T. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Agarici, G. [Fusion for Energy, Carrer Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral Edificio B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Ajesh, P. [ITER India, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382424, Gujarat (India); Alonzo, T. [Solution F, Allée du Verdon, 13770 Venelles (France); Arambhadiya, B. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Argouarch, A. [CEA Cadarache, IRFM, F-13108 St-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Bamber, R. [EURATOM/CCFE Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Berger-By, G.; Bernard, J.-M.; Brun, C. [CEA Cadarache, IRFM, F-13108 St-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Carpentier, S. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Clairet, F.; Colas, L.; Courtois, X. [CEA Cadarache, IRFM, F-13108 St-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Davis, A. [EURATOM/CCFE Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Dechelle, C.; Doceul, L. [CEA Cadarache, IRFM, F-13108 St-Paul-lez-Durance (France); and others

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► We summarize the progress and outstanding issues in the development of the ITER Ion Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (IC H and CD) system. ► The system is designed to robustly couple 20 MW in quasi-CW operation for a broad range of plasma scenarios, and is upgradeable to up to 40 MW. ► The design is rendered challenging by the wide spectrum of requirements and interface constraints to which it is subject. ► R and D is ongoing to validate key antenna components, and to qualify the radio-frequency (RF) sources and the transmission and matching components. ► Intensive numerical modeling and experimental studies on antenna mock-ups have been conducted to validate and optimize the RF design. -- Abstract: The ongoing design of the ITER Ion Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive system (20 MW, 40–55 MHz) is rendered challenging by the wide spectrum of requirements and interface constraints to which it is subject, several of which are conflicting and/or still in a high state of flux. These requirements include operation over a broad range of plasma scenarios and magnetic fields (which prompts usage of wide-band phased antenna arrays), high radio-frequency (RF) power density at the first wall (and associated operation close to voltage and current limits), resilience to ELM-induced load variations, intense thermal and mechanical loads, long pulse operation, high system availability, efficient nuclear shielding, high density of antenna services, remote-handling ability, tight installation tolerances, and nuclear safety function as tritium confinement barrier. R and D activities are ongoing or in preparation to validate critical antenna components (plasma-facing Faraday screen, RF sliding contacts, RF vacuum windows), as well as to qualify the RF power sources and the transmission and matching components. Intensive numerical modeling and experimental studies on antenna mock-ups have been conducted to validate and optimize the RF design. The paper

  13. Important radiation protection aspects of the operation of a commercial medical cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, B.

    1997-01-01

    Since July 1991 the Radiopharmaceutical Division of the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) operates a 30 MeV H'- ion Medical Cyclotron (Model; CYCLONE 30, Manufacturer: Ion Beam Applications, Louvain La Neuve, Belgium). During routine isotope production operations at the cyclotron a thick copper substrate plate electroplated with thin layer of selected enriched target material are bombarded with 30 MeV proton beam current up to 450 μA. The nuclear reaction of protons with the copper atoms result in the reduction of prompt evaporation neutrons with a peak energy of ∼ 1.8 MeV. These evaporation neutrons slow down via multiple collisions with the concrete shielding walls of the target cave, bounce back to the,interior space of the cave activating the cyclotron parts, beam tube components and other utilities installed in the irradiation cave. After the completion of 60 hour isotope production run, gamma dose equivalent rates of ∼10 5 μSvh -1 were measured at contact with the target irradiation stations and beam collimators. Evidently, these gamma rays emitted from the activated cyclotron components impose crucial radiation exposure hazard problems for the cyclotron maintenance technicians. Experiments had been carried out in order to identify the specific pathways of cyclotron component activation and to assess the probable personnel radiation exposure during handling of the activated cyclotron parts. The cool-down (radioactive decay) of the activated cyclotron components was estimated experimentally at different target bombardment conditions using the wall mounted gamma area monitors interfaced to the Health Physics Data Acquisition System. The gamma dose equivalent rates at contact with various locations of interest at the target irradiation station and at the typical work areas of the maintenance personnel were carefully recorded with a radiation (gamma) survey instrument during the three years operation period of the cyclotron. A

  14. Production of simultaneous, variable energy beams from the TRIUMF cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, J.R.; Blackmore, E.W.; Dutto, G.; Kost, C.J.; Mackenzie, G.H.; Craddock, M.K.

    1975-01-01

    An extracted beam at the design energy of 500 MeV was obtained at TRIUMF in December, 1974. Later, beams of varying energies between 180 and 520 MeV were extracted down beam line 4, and further work resulted in the simultaneous extraction of a 506 MeV beam down beam line 1 and variable energy beams down line 4. In order to reduce initial activation of cyclotron components, time average beams were restricted to 100 nA, but 12 μA in a pulsed beam was very easily obtained at 500 MeV. Without optimization of the injection conditions and without use of the harmonic trim coils, an energy spread (full width) of 2.5 to 3.0 MeV was observed. Ordinarily, the macro-duty factor was 100 percent, and the micro-duty factor corresponded to a 5 ns pulse every 44 ns. The transmission to 500 MeV is consistent with the expected loss due to gas stripping. (auth)

  15. ATLAS 10 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source upgrade project

    CERN Document Server

    Moehs, D P; Pardo, R C; Xie, D

    2000-01-01

    A major upgrade of the first ATLAS 10 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source, which began operations in 1987, is in the planning and procurement phase. The new design will convert the old two-stage source into a single-stage source with an electron donor disk and high gradient magnetic field that preserves radial access for solid material feeds and pumping of the plasma chamber. The new magnetic-field profile allows for the possibility of a second ECR zone at a frequency of 14 GHz. An open hexapole configuration, using a high-energy-product Nd-Fe-B magnet material, having an inner diameter of 8.8 cm and pole gaps of 2.4 cm, has been adopted. Models indicate that the field strengths at the chamber wall, 4 cm in radius, will be 9.3 kG along the magnet poles and 5.6 kG along the pole gaps. The individual magnet bars will be housed in austenitic stainless steel, allowing the magnet housing within the aluminum plasma chamber to be used as a water channel for direct cooling of the magnets. Eight solenoid...

  16. Electron-cyclotron maser emission during solar and stellar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winglee, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    Radio bursts, with high brightness temperature 10 to the 10th power K and high degree of polarization, and the heating of the solar and stellar coronae during flares have been attributed to emission from the semirelativistic maser instability. In plasmas where the electron-plasma frequency, p, omega sub p, and the electron-cyclotron frequency, Omega sub e, are such that omega sup 2 sub p/Omega sup 2 sub e 1, x-mode growth dominates while z-mode growth dominates if omega sup 2 sub p/Omega sup 2 sub e is of order unity. The actual value of omega sup 2 sub p/Omega sup 2 sub e at which x-mode growth dominates is shown to be dependent on the plasma temperature with x-mode growth dominating at higher omega sub p/Omega sub e as the plasma temperature increases. Observations from a set of 20 impulsive flares indicate that the derived conditions for the dominance of x-mode growth are satisfied in about 75 percent of the flares

  17. Cyclotron Production of Radionuclides for Nuclear Medicine at Academic Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapi, Suzanne

    2016-09-01

    The increase in use of radioisotopes for medical imaging has led to the development of new accelerator targetry and separation techniques for isotope production. For example, the development of longer-lived position emitting radionuclides has been explored to allow for nuclear imaging agents based on peptides, antibodies and nanoparticles. These isotopes (64Cu, 89Zr, 86Y) are typically produced via irradiation of solid targets on smaller cyclotrons (10-25 MeV) at academic or hospital based facilities. Recent research has further expanded the toolbox of PET tracers to include additional isotopes such as 52Mn, 55Co, 76Br and others. The smaller scale of these types of facilities can enable the straightforward involvement of students, thus adding to the next generation of nuclear science leaders. Research pertaining to development of robust and larger scale production technologies including solid target systems and remote systems for transport and purification of these isotopes has enabled both preclinical and clinical imaging research for many diseases. In particular, our group has focused on the use of radiolabeled antibodies for imaging of receptor expression in preclinical models and in a clinical trial of metastatic breast cancer patients.

  18. RF tuning system for superconducting cyclotron at VECC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandal, Aditya; Som, S.; Pal, Saikat; Seth, S.; Mukherjee, A.K.; Gangopadhyay, P.; Prasad, J.S.; Raj, P.R.; Manna, S.K.; Banerjee, M.; Krishnaiah, K.V.; Maskawade, S.; Saha, M.S.; Biswas, S.; Panda, Umashakar

    2009-01-01

    The RF system of Superconducting cyclotron at VECC has operational frequency 9-27 MHz. It has three numbers of tunable rf amplifier cavities as well as six numbers of tunable Main resonant cavities. RF tuning system takes care of movement of nine stepper motor based sliding short movement and hydraulic driven three coupling capacitors and three trimmer capacitors. The PC-based stepper motor controlled sliding short movement system has positional accuracy of around 20 micron and PC-based hydraulically driven couplers and trimmers system has 10 micron positional accuracy. The RF power is capacitively coupled to the dee (accelerating electrode) of the main resonant cavity through Coupler (Coupling capacitor). The coupling capacitor is used to match the impedance of the main resonant cavity to the 50 Ohm output impedance of final RF power amplifier. Trimmer capacitor operates in closed loop for the adjustment of cavity phase variation arising due to temperature variation and beam loading of the cavity. Coupler can travel 100 mm. and trimmer has 20 mm. travels. A PLC based PID control system has been developed for positional control of the coupler and trimmer. One position control mode of trimmer is same as coupling capacitor and another is velocity control mode. Velocity control mode operates in close-loop. The positional data of different frequencies of nine stepper motors and three coupling capacitors are stored in a database. (author)

  19. Isochronous Cyclotron Closed Equilibrium Orbit Calculation Program Description

    CERN Document Server

    Kian, I N; Tarashkevich, R

    2003-01-01

    The Equilibrium Orbit Research Program - EORP, written in C++ with the use of Visual C++ is described. The program is intended for the calculation of the particle rotation frequency and particle kinetic energy in the closed equilibrium orbits of an isochronous cyclotron, where the closed equilibrium orbits are described through the radius and particle momentum angle: r_{eo}(\\theta) and \\varphi_{p}(\\theta). The program algorithm was developed on the basis of articles, lecture notes and original analytic calculations. The results of calculations by the EORP were checked and confirmed by using the results of calculations by the numerical methods. The discrepancies between the EORP results and the numerical method results for the calculations of the particle rotation frequency and particle kinetic energy are within the limits of \\pm1\\cdot10^{-4}. The EORP results and the numerical method results for the calculations of r_{eo}(\\theta) and \\varphi_{p}(\\theta) practically coincide. All this proves the accuracy of ca...

  20. Development of helium electron cyclotron wall conditioning on TCV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douai, D.; Goodman, T.; Isayama, A.; Fukumoto, M.; Wauters, T.; Sozzi, C.; Coda, S.; Blanchard, P.; Figini, L.; Garavaglia, S.; Miyata, Y.; Moro, A.; Ricci, D.; Silva, M.; Theiler, C.; Vartanian, S.; Verhaegh, K.; the EUROfusion MST1 Team; the TCV Team

    2018-02-01

    JT-60SA envisions electron cyclotron wall conditioning (ECWC), as wall conditioning method in the presence of the toroidal field to control fuel and impurity recycling and to improve plasma performance and reproducibility. This paper reports on Helium ECWC experiments on TCV in support of JT-60SA operation. Nearly sixty Helium conditioning discharges have been successfully produced in TCV, at a toroidal field B T  =  1.3 or 1.54 T, with gyrotrons at 82.7 GHz in X2 mode, mimicking ECWC operation in JT-60SA at the second harmonic of the EC wave. Discharge parameters were tuned in order to (i) minimize the time for the onset of ECWC plasmas, thus minimizing absorption of stray radiation by in-vessel components, (ii) improve discharge homogeneity by extending the discharge vertically and radially, and wall coverage, in particular of inboard surfaces where JT-60SA plasmas will be initiated, (iii) assess the efficiency of He-ECWC to deplete carbon walls from fuel. An optimized combination of vertical and radial magnetic fields, with amplitudes typically 0.1 to 0.6% of that of B T, has been determined, which resulted in lowest breakdown time, improved wall coverage and enhanced fuel removal. A standard ohmic D 2-plasma could be then sustained, whereas it would not have been possible without He-ECWC.

  1. Simulating Electron Cyclotron Maser Emission for Low Mass Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llama, Joe; Jardine, Moira

    2018-01-01

    Zeeman-Doppler Imaging (ZDI) is a powerful technique that enables us to map the large-scale magnetic fields of stars spanning the pre- and main-sequence. Coupling these magnetic maps with field extrapolation methods allow us to investigate the topology of the closed, X-ray bright corona, and the cooler, open stellar wind.Using ZDI maps of young M dwarfs with simultaneous radio light curves obtained from the VLA, we present the results of modeling the Electron-Cyclotron Maser (ECM) emission from these systems. We determine the X-ray luminosity and ECM emission that is produced using the ZDI maps and our field extrapolation model. We compare these findings with the observed radio light curves of these stars. This allows us to predict the relative phasing and amplitude of the stellar X-ray and radio light curves.This benchmarking of our model using these systems allows us to predict the ECM emission for all stars that have a ZDI map and an observed X-ray luminosity. Our model allows us to understand the origin of transient radio emission observations and is crucial for disentangling stellar and exoplanetary radio signals.

  2. Electron cyclotron current drive experiments on DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, R.A. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Giruzzi, G.; Gentile, B. de; Rodriguez, L. (Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-les-Durance (France)); Fyaretdinov, A.; Gorelov, Yu.; Trukhin, V. (Kurchatov Inst. of Atomic Energy, Moscow (USSR)); Harvey, R.; Lohr, J.; Luce, T.C.; Matsuda, K.; Politzer, P.; Prater, R.; Snider, R. (General Atomics, San Di

    1990-05-01

    Electron Cyclotron Current Drive (ECCD) experiments on the DIII-D tokamak have been performed using 60 GHz waves launched from the high field side of the torus. Preliminary analysis indicates rf driven currents between 50 and 100 kA in discharges with total plasma currents between 200 and 500 kA. These are the first ECCD experiments with strong first pass absorption, localized deposition of the rf power, and {tau}{sub E} much longer than the slowing-down time of the rf generated current carriers. The experimentally measured profiles for T{sub e}, {eta}{sub e} and Z{sub eff} are used as input for a 1D transport code and a multiply-ray, 3D ray tracing code. Comparisons with theory and assessment of the influence of the residual electric field, using a Fokker-Planck code, are in progress. The ECH power levels were between 1 and 1.5 MW with pulse lengths of about 500 msec. ECCD experiments worldwide are motivated by issues relating to the physics and technical advantages of the use of high frequency rf waves to drive localized currents. ECCD is accomplished by preferentially heating electrons moving in one toroidal direction, reducing their collisionality and thereby producing a non-inductively driven toroidal current. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Electron cyclotron plasma startup in the GDT experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovlev, D. V.; Shalashov, A. G.; Gospodchikov, E. D.; Solomakhin, A. L.; Savkin, V. Ya.; Bagryansky, P. A.

    2017-01-01

    We report on a new plasma startup scenario in the gas dynamic trap (GDT) magnetic mirror device. The primary 5 MW neutral beam injection (NBI) plasma heating system fires into a sufficiently dense plasma target (‘seed plasma’), which is commonly supplied by an arc plasma generator. In the reported experiments, a different approach to seed plasma generation is explored. One of the channels of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heating system is used to ionize the neutral gas and build up the density of plasma to a level suitable for NBI capture. After a short transition of approximately 1 ms the discharge becomes essentially similar to a standard one initiated by the plasma gun. This paper presents the discharge scenario and experimental data on the seed plasma evolution during ECRH, along with the dependencies on incident microwave power, magnetic configuration and pressure of a neutral gas. The characteristics of the consequent high-power NBI discharge are studied and differences from the conventional scenario are discussed. A theoretical model describing the ECR breakdown and the seed plasma accumulation in a large-scale mirror trap is developed on the basis of the GDT experiment.

  4. Broadband terahertz-power extracting by using electron cyclotron maser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shi; Du, Chao-Hai; Qi, Xiang-Bo; Liu, Pu-Kun

    2017-08-04

    Terahertz applications urgently require high performance and room temperature terahertz sources. The gyrotron based on the principle of electron cyclotron maser is able to generate watt-to-megawatt level terahertz radiation, and becomes an exceptional role in the frontiers of energy, security and biomedicine. However, in normal conditions, a terahertz gyrotron could generate terahertz radiation with high efficiency on a single frequency or with low efficiency in a relatively narrow tuning band. Here a frequency tuning scheme for the terahertz gyrotron utilizing sequentially switching among several whispering-gallery modes is proposed to reach high performance with broadband, coherence and high power simultaneously. Such mode-switching gyrotron has the potential of generating broadband radiation with 100-GHz-level bandwidth. Even wider bandwidth is limited by the frequency-dependent effective electrical length of the cavity. Preliminary investigation applies a pre-bunched circuit to the single-mode wide-band tuning. Then, more broadband sweeping is produced by mode switching in great-range magnetic tuning. The effect of mode competition, as well as critical engineering techniques on frequency tuning is discussed to confirm the feasibility for the case close to reality. This multi-mode-switching scheme could make gyrotron a promising device towards bridging the so-called terahertz gap.

  5. Ion cyclotron transmission spectroscopy in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, G.J.

    1993-09-01

    The propagation of waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies has been investigated experimentally in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor. A small, broadband, radiofrequency (rf) magnetic probe located outside the plasma limiter, at a major radius near that of the plasma center, was excited with a low power, frequency swept source (1--200 MHz). Waves propagating to a distant location were detected with a second, identical probe. The rf transmission spectrum revealed a region of attenuation over a band of frequencies for which the minority fundamental resonance was located between the outer plasma edge and the major radius of the probe location. Distinct, non-overlapping attenuation bands were observed from hydrogen and helium-3 minority species; a distinct tritium band should be observed in future DT experiments. Rapid spectrum acquisition during a helium-3 gas puff experiment showed that the wave attenuation involved the plasma core and was not a surface effect. A model in which the received power varied exponentially with the minority density, averaged over the resonance region, fit the time evolution of the probe signal relatively well. Estimation of a 1-d tunneling parameter from the experimental observations is discussed. Minority concentrations of less than 0.5 % can be resolved with this measurement.

  6. Electron cyclotron emission measurements at the stellarator TJ-K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sichardt, Gabriel; Ramisch, Mirko [Institut fuer Grenzflaechenverfahrenstechnik und Plasmatechnologie, Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany); Koehn, Alf [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Electron temperature (T{sub e}) measurements in the magnetised plasmas of the stellarator TJ-K are currently performed by means of Langmuir probes. The use of these probes is restricted to relatively low temperatures and the measurement of temperature profiles requires the acquisition of the local current-voltage characteristics which limits strongly the sampling rate. As an alternative, T{sub e} can be measured using the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) that is generated by the gyration of electrons in magnetised plasmas. Magnetic field gradients in the plasma lead to a spatial distribution of emission frequencies and thus the measured intensity at a given frequency can be related to its point of origin. The T{sub e} dependence of the intensity then leads to a temperature profile along the line of sight for Maxwellian velocity distributions. A diagnostic system for T{sub e} measurements using ECE is currently being set up at TJ-K. When non-thermal electrons are present the emission spectrum changes dramatically. Therefore, the ECE can also be used to investigate the contribution of fast electrons to previously observed toroidal net currents in TJ-K. Simulations are used to examine the role of electron drift orbits in generating these currents.

  7. Maryland University sectored isochronous cyclotron (MUSIC): Progress report No. 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1967-01-10

    The past quarter has seen further progress in the solution of the problem of achieving a cyclotron which meets or exceeds the performance requirements. The magnet system, with the exception of the trim coils and their supplies, is all on order or about to be ordered, and a high confidence level exists that the system will meet all requirements. The rf system studies, nearly complete, have indicated that the solution chosen will meet the frequency requirements and will be within the power expected. The center studies, complete in the first phase, have resulted in a preliminary center design of the electrostatic focusing system and a design of the magnetic center which provides the required axial focusing. A high degree of cooperation on the center study programs between the U of M and CSF has efficiently yielded these results. The overall schedule continues to be maintained, and the program is expected to be completed on the 37-month schedule. For better control and greater visibility on schedule progress, two reference points have been selected as more immediate objectives. These are 17 July 1967 for the start of the magnet testing program and 2 October 1967 as the start of the rf high power tests. Each task involved is being analyzed with these dates in mind, and they appear to be reasonable.

  8. OLDASS: On-line data acquisition system at SF cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omata, Kazuo; Yasue, Masaharu; Hamagaki, Hideki

    1982-01-01

    The on-line data acquisition system in the Institute for Nuclear Study, the University of Tokyo, is composed of 2 systems of Fujitsu mini-computer PFU-400 for data processing at the high energy synchrotron and one system of that computer for low energy cyclotron as terminals, the host computer being M 180 II AD of the same company. This system has been developed to have the features of being the on-line system capable of following the improvement of host computer performance, being capable of developing the on-line programmes of other experimenting groups in parallel with batch jobs or the operation of the on-line system, and capable of developing programmes using FORTRAN. The result of about 220 KB/s was obtained for the data transfer rate between the programmes of the host computer and terminals, and this fulfilled the aimed performance. The terminal system on the low energy side is provided with an ADC interface and a display interface specified particularly in addition to the miniature computer PFU400 and standard I/O devices of the manufacture. The accumulating type graphic display of the I/O devices can be switched to be connected to the host computer, and immediately displays the results transferred to the host computer and analyzed. Hard copy is also available. The above hardware and software are explained. The on-line system insures 80 K bytes of the total memory of 224 K bytes for data area. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  9. A review of automated systems for cyclotrons use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Sumair G.

    2002-01-01

    Automation has a growing role in process controls in general. It is everyday more and present in human kind's dreams, being pursued by scientists as the solution to improve the quality of life, to replace big efforts, to attend the growing demand of the world populace. Automation is a technology that can be applied in several processes to generate productivity, agility, flexibility and welfare. It opens horizons so that man can multiply his potential, develop his creativity and gives birth to a new age of realizations. Where he will certainly will be the central figure, responsible for decisions. It is up to him to find the best way. In particular, automation of target irradiation systems in cyclotrons is important in order to reduce the radiation dose received by the personnel and to increase the reliability of the method, leading to an improvement in the radioisotope production capacity. This work presents a literature review of automatized systems comparing them with the one developed at IPEN. The systems found in literature involve the use of solid, liquid and gaseous targets used in radioisotope production for Nuclear Medicine employing the techniques of PET (Positron Emission Tomography) and SPET (Single Photon Emission Tomography). (author)

  10. Electron cyclotron current drive in the Wendelstein 7-AS stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maassberg, H; Rome, M; Erckmann, V; Geiger, J; Laqua, H P; Marushchenko, N B

    2005-01-01

    High power electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) experiments in the W7-AS stellarator are analysed. In these net-current-free discharges, the ECCD and the bootstrap current are feedback controlled by an inductive current. Based on the measured density and temperature profiles, the neoclassical predictions of the bootstrap (with the ambipolar radial electric field taken into account) and the inductive current densities as well as the ECCD from the linear adjoint approach with trapped particles included are calculated. For stationary conditions, the current balance is checked. Launch-angle scans at fixed density as well as density scans at fixed launch-angle are described. Low-frequency MHD mode activity is obtained for strong co-ECCD, and for counter-ECCD a ' ι-bar approx.= 0 feature' with complete loss of the central confinement is found. The linear ECCD prediction is in reasonable agreement with the current balance except for low-density discharges with highly peaked on-axis deposition, where the ECCD predicted from linear theory exceeds by a factor of about 2 the one from the current balance. Since the bootstrap current is well balanced by the inductive current without ECCD, the linear ECCD overestimate is compared with nonlinear Fokker-Planck (FP) simulations, where two different power loss models are used to reach steady state. These volume-averaged FP simulations cannot describe the ECCD degradation at the low densities

  11. The heating of electrons in magnetic traps of low-pressure electron-cyclotron-resonance microwave-frequency reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrin, A.B.

    2005-01-01

    One analyzes procedures to maintain plasma in low-pressure electron-cyclotron-resonance microwave reactors where fast neutrons trapped by permanent magnets serve as ionization source. One studies the role of regions of electron-cyclotron heating of electrons by a wave electric field. On the basis of mathematical simulation of electron motion in magnetic traps one investigates into the effect of magnetic trap sizes on heating efficiency and words the principles to design electron-cyclotron-resonance microwave reactors [ru

  12. Study of tokamak plasma electron cyclotron emission during electron-wave interaction near the lower hybrid frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, A.

    1986-11-01

    The quasilinear theory of wave-particle interaction is presented. Diagnostic possibilities of electron cyclotron emission. To study the cyclotron radiation (whose wavelength is millimeter order), a Michelson type interferometer is used, which allows to select willingly the useful spectral field. The cyclotron radiation allows characterization of a pumping wave: in studying the spectrum part where plasma is optically thin the studied cyclotron emissivity is directly proportional to absorbed power by plasma. Saturation of power absorption by plasma has been observed and studied [fr

  13. A new simulation model to evaluate interaction between neighbouring hydro-geothermal installations developing the deep Malm aquifer in the Munich region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, J.; Wenderoth, F.; Fritzer, T.; Huber, B.; Dussel, M.; Lüschen, E.; Thomas, R.; Schulz, R.

    2012-04-01

    Currently, the Molasse basin (Bavaria) is the most dynamically developing "Geothermal region" in Germany. This is particularly relevant considering the cogeneration of heat and power. For a profitable operation very high production and reinjection rates of the geothermal well doublets or triplets are required as the energy source to such installations. This implies drilling targets with excellent structural and facial conditions, i.e. fault zones or reef areas. In turn, this forces special spatial arrangements of neighbouring well doublets which lead to mutual hydraulic influence. Hydraulic interaction is expected to increase because of an increasing number of installations in the nearest future. The new simulation model presented here allows for a quantitative analysis of the current state, for the first time on a scale larger than a single project. The model covers an area of 57 x 47 km around Munich. On the one hand it is based on a detailed revision of the existing structure and hydrogeological models. To initialize the numerical model a simplified, generalized layer structure of the aquifer was derived from all available well data ("standard profile"). On the other hand a 3D-seismic survey was carried out in the core region of the new model SW of Munich (5 x 7 km). Within the context of the revision of existing 2D seismic results in the other parts of the model area layer structure and fault zones were determined from this data. Furthermore, a facies variation map was derived from 3D-seismics and a 2D-seismics reevaluation. It was applied to "overwrite" the hydraulic conductivities of the standard profile within the affect-ed layers. The complex model structure and the achieved quality of model calibration are presented. Already in the stage of model calibration, hydraulic interaction between operating or tested wells was a key feature. Model calibration led to an improvement of the structural and parameter model of the geothermal reservoir in the following

  14. Activities in the Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biri, S.; Racz, R.

    2008-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source (ECRIS) has been operating since 1997. 2003 was the first year when we distributed the beamtime among the users. Between 2003 and 2008 the yearly operation time was around 500...600 hours. Table 1 summarizes the beamtime we supplied in 2008 for the users. The 'Hours' in the table actually mean the time when a plasma was made in the plasma chamber. In most cases a positive ion beam was extracted from the plasma so the ECRIS operated as particle accelerator. 'Beam development' means our continuous effort to produce known or new plasmas and beams with better parameters: higher charge, higher intensity, better transport efficiency, wider ion choice, higher safety, etc. It is already known for our users that the ATOMKI-ECRIS has two operation modes. The ECRIS-A is the original assembly to produce highly charged ion (HCI) beams. The ECRIS-B configuration forms large-size, low charged plasmas for some applications and for plasma investigations. In 2008 the ion source operated only 2 months in the 'B' mode (March and April), 8 months in the 'A' mode (January-February and May-October) while we did not operate it at all in the 2 last months of the year. In November the ECRIS was stopped for 3 months to perform a major renewing and refurbishing of the laboratory. The ECR ion source is one of the facilities of ATOMKI which was designed and built entirely in our institute by institute people. The goal of the renewing was to establish an up-to-date laboratory at European standard which will be attractive place for foreign and domestic researchers, students and visitors. The following parts were exchanged or upgraded: furniture, floors, lights, cables, air conditioning system, floors painting. Some photos showing the new look of the laboratory will be put to our homepage soon

  15. Electron-cyclotron heating in the Constance 2 mirror experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauel, M.E.

    1982-09-01

    Electron cyclotron heating of a highly-ionized plasma in mirror geometry is investigated. The experimental diagnosis of the electron energy distribution and the comparison of the results of this diagnosis with a two dimensional, time-dependent Fokker-Planck simulation are accomplished in four steps. (1) First, the power balance of the heated and unheated Constance 2 plasma is analyzed experimentally. It is concluded that the heated electrons escape the mirror at a rate dominated by a combination of the influx of cool electrons from outside the mirror and the increased loss rate of the ions. (2) The microwave parameters at the resonance zones are then calculated by cold-plasma ray tracing. High N/sub parallel/ waves are launched and for these waves, strong first-pass absorption is predicted. The absorption strength is qualitatively checked in the experiment by surrounding the plasma with non-reflecting liners. (3) A simplified quasilinear theory including the effect of N/sub parallel/ is developed to model the electrons. An analytic expression is derived for the RF-induced pump-out of the magnetically-confined warm electrons. Results of the Fokker-Planck simulations show the development of the electron energy distribution for several plasma conditions and verify the scaling of the analytic expression for RF-induced diffusion into the loss cone. (4) Sample x-ray and endloss data are presented, and the overall comparison between the simulation and experiment is discussed. The x-ray signals indicate that, for greater RF power, the hot electrondensity increases more rapidly than its temperature. The time history of the endloss data, illustrating RF-enhancement, suggests the predicted scaling for warm-electron pump-out. Finally, a comparison between the measured and predicted energy distribution shows that the bulk, warm and hot components of the heated Constance 2 electrons are indeed reproduced by the simulation

  16. Modeling whistler wave generation regimes in magnetospheric cyclotron maser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Pasmanik

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Numerical analysis of the model for cyclotron instability in the Earth's magnetosphere is performed. This model, based on the self-consistent set of equations of quasi-linear plasma theory, describes different regimes of wave generation and related energetic particle precipitation. As the source of free energy the injection of energetic electrons with transverse anisotropic distribution function to the interaction region is considered. A parametric study of the model is performed. The main attention is paid to the analysis of generation regimes for different characteristics of energetic electron source, such as the shape of pitch angle distributions and its intensity. Two mechanisms of removal of energetic electrons from a generation region are considered, one is due to the particle precipitation through the loss cone and another one is related to the magnetic drift of energetic particles. It was confirmed that two main regimes occur in this system in the presence of a constant particle source, in the case of precipitation losses. At small source intensity relaxation oscillations were found, whose parameters are in good agreement with simplified analytical theory developed earlier. At a larger source intensity, transition to a periodic generation occurs. In the case of drift losses the regime of self-sustained periodic generation regime is realized for source intensity higher than some threshold. The dependencies of repetition period and dynamic spectrum shape on the source parameters were studied in detail. In addition to simple periodic regimes, those with more complex spectral forms were found. In particular, alteration of spikes with different spectral shape can take place. It was also shown that quasi-stationary generation at the low-frequency band can coexist with periodic modulation at higher frequencies. On the basis of the results obtained, the model for explanation of quasi-periodic whistler wave emissions is verified.

  17. High power Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) in JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquinot, J.

    1988-01-01

    Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) powers of up to 17 MW have been coupled to JET limiter plasmas. The plasma stored energy has reached 7 MJ with 13 MW of RF in 5 MA discharges with Z/sub eff/ = 2. When I/sub p//B/sub /phi// = 1 MA/T the stored energy can be 50% greater than the Goldston L mode scaling. This is due to transient stabilisation of sawteeth (up to 3 s) and to a significant energy content in the minority particles accelerated by RF (up to 30% of the total stored energy). Central temperatures of T/sub e/ - 11 keV and T/sub i/ = 8 keV have been reached with RF alone. (He/sup 3/)D fusion experiments have given a 60 kW fusion yield (fusion rate of 2 /times/ 10/sup 16/ s/sup /minus/1/ in the form of energetic fast particles (14.7 MeV(H), 3.6 MeV(He/sup 4/)) in agreement with modelling. When transposing the same calculation to a (D)T scenario, Q is predicted to be between 0.l2 and 0.8 using plasma parameters already achieved. For the first time, a peaked density profile generated by pellet injection could be reheated and sustained by ICRF for 1.2 s. Electron heat transport in the central region is reduced by a factor 2 to 3. The fusion product n/sub io//tau//sub E/T/sub io/ reaches 2.2 /times/ 10/sup 20/ m/sup /minus/3//center dot/s/center dot/kev in 3 MA discharges which is a factor of 2.3 times larger than with normal density profile. 18 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Modeling Whistler Wave Generation Regimes In Magnetospheric Cyclotron Maser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasmanik, D. L.; Demekhov, A. G.; Trakhtengerts, V. Y.; Parrot, M.

    Numerical analysis of the model for cyclotron instability development in the Earth magnetosphere is made.This model, based on the self-consistent set of equations of quasi-linear plasma theory, describes different regimes of wave generation and related energetic particle precipitation. As the source of free energy the injection of energetic electrons with transverse anisotropic distribution function to the interaction region is considered. Two different mechanisms of energetic electron loss from the interaction region are discussed. The first one is precipitation of energetic particles via the loss cone. The other mechanism is drift of particles away from the interaction region across the mag- netic field line. In the case of interaction in plasmasphere or rather large areas of cold plasma density enhancement the loss cone precipitation are dominant. For interaction in a subauroral duct losses due to drift are most effective. A parametric study of the model for both mechanisms of particle losses is made. The main attention is paid to the analysis of generation regimes for different characteristics of energetic electron source, such as the shape of pitch-angle distributions and elec- tron density. We show that in addition to the well-known stationary generation and periodic regime with successive spikes of similar shape, more complex forms of wave spectrum exist. In particular, we found a periodic regime, in which a single period in- cludes two separate spikes with different spectral shapes. In another regime, periodic generation of spikes at higher frequencies together with quasi-stationary generation at lower frequencies occurs. Quasi-periodic regime with spike overlapping, i.e. when generation of a new spike begins before the previous one is over is also found. Results obtained are compared with experimental data on quasi-periodic regimes of whistler wave generation.

  19. Modified multipole structure for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suominen, P.

    2006-07-01

    Highly-charged heavy-ion beams are usually produced with Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS) where the microwave heated plasma is confined in a strong magnetic field. The magnetic field is divided into an axial part (produced by solenoid magnets) and to a radial part (produced by multipole magnet). Experiments have shown that the radial magnetic field component plays a crucial role in the production of highly-charged ions. However, in several modern ECRIS the radial magnetic field strength is below the optimum value, mainly due to the limits in permanent magnet technology. Unfortunately, methods to increase the radial magnetic field strength while still using permanent magnets are often limited. In this thesis work new techniques to improve the radial magnetic field have been studied by simulations and experiments. Due to the computer simulations performed a remarkable radial magnetic field improvement was reached with a relatively simple and cost-effective idea called the Modified MultiPole Structure (MMPS). The MMPS differs strongly from former studies as here the magnetic field is increased only locally without affecting the plasma size. It was not known how this would affect the properties of the plasma and production of highly-charged heavy ions. Consequently, the idea had to be studied experimentally and a new MMPS plasma chamber prototype was designed and constructed for the JYFL 6.4 GHz ECRIS. The new construction is versatile and made it possible to perform several new types of measurements. These showed that the MMPS works well and is especially applicable to increase very high charge-state ion production. Typically the ion current increases by a factor of 2 - 3 in the case of highly charged ions such as Ar16+. (orig.)

  20. Modified multipole structure for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suominen, P.

    2006-01-01

    Highly-charged heavy-ion beams are usually produced with Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS) where the microwave heated plasma is confined in a strong magnetic field. The magnetic field is divided into an axial part (produced by solenoid magnets) and to a radial part (produced by multipole magnet). Experiments have shown that the radial magnetic field component plays a crucial role in the production of highly-charged ions. However, in several modern ECRIS the radial magnetic field strength is below the optimum value, mainly due to the limits in permanent magnet technology. Unfortunately, methods to increase the radial magnetic field strength while still using permanent magnets are often limited. In this thesis work new techniques to improve the radial magnetic field have been studied by simulations and experiments. Due to the computer simulations performed a remarkable radial magnetic field improvement was reached with a relatively simple and cost-effective idea called the Modified MultiPole Structure (MMPS). The MMPS differs strongly from former studies as here the magnetic field is increased only locally without affecting the plasma size. It was not known how this would affect the properties of the plasma and production of highly-charged heavy ions. Consequently, the idea had to be studied experimentally and a new MMPS plasma chamber prototype was designed and constructed for the JYFL 6.4 GHz ECRIS. The new construction is versatile and made it possible to perform several new types of measurements. These showed that the MMPS works well and is especially applicable to increase very high charge-state ion production. Typically the ion current increases by a factor of 2 - 3 in the case of highly charged ions such as Ar 16+ . (orig.)