Sample records for susceptible-infected-susceptible region growing

  1. Susceptible-infected-susceptible epidemics on the complete graph and the star graph : Exact analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cator, E.A.; Van Mieghem, P.


    Since mean-field approximations for susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) epidemics do not always predict the correct scaling of the epidemic threshold of the SIS metastable regime, we propose two novel approaches: (a) an ?-SIS generalized model and (b) a modified SIS model that prevents the

  2. Strong ties promote the epidemic prevalence in susceptible-infected-susceptible spreading dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, Ai-Xiang; Zhou, Tao


    Understanding spreading dynamics will benefit society as a whole in better preventing and controlling diseases, as well as facilitating the socially responsible information while depressing destructive rumors. In network-based spreading dynamics, edges with different weights may play far different roles: a friend from afar usually brings novel stories, and an intimate relationship is highly risky for a flu epidemic. In this article, we propose a weighted susceptible-infected-susceptible model on complex networks, where the weight of an edge is defined by the topological proximity of the two associated nodes. Each infected individual is allowed to select limited number of neighbors to contact, and a tunable parameter is introduced to control the preference to contact through high-weight or low-weight edges. Experimental results on six real networks show that the epidemic prevalence can be largely promoted when strong ties are favored in the spreading process. By comparing with two statistical null models respe...

  3. The Accuracy of Mean-Field Approximation for Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible Epidemic Spreading

    CERN Document Server

    Qu, Bo


    The epidemic spreading has been studied for years by applying the mean-field approach in both homogeneous case, where each node may get infected by an infected neighbor with the same rate, and heterogeneous case, where the infection rates between different pairs of nodes are different. Researchers have discussed whether the mean-field approaches could accurately describe the epidemic spreading for the homogeneous cases but not for the heterogeneous cases. In this paper, we explore under what conditions the mean-field approach could perform well when the infection rates are heterogeneous. In particular, we employ the Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible (SIS) model and compare the average fraction of infected nodes in the metastable state obtained by the continuous-time simulation and the mean-field approximation. We concentrate on an individual-based mean-field approximation called the N-intertwined Mean Field Approximation (NIMFA), which is an advanced approach considered the underlying network topology. Moreove...

  4. Solving the Dynamic Correlation Problem of the Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible Model on Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Chao-Ran; Chen, Michael Z Q; Holme, Petter; Guan, Jian-Yue


    The Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible model is a canonical model for emerging disease outbreaks. Such outbreaks are naturally modeled as taking place on networks. A theoretical challenge in network epidemiology is the dynamic correlations coming from that if one node is occupied, or infected (for disease spreading models), then its neighbors are likely to be occupied. By combining two theoretical approaches---the heterogeneous mean-field theory and the effective degree method---we are able to include these correlations in an analytical solution of the SIS model. We derive accurate expressions for the average prevalence (fraction of infected) and epidemic threshold. We also discuss how to generalize the approach to a larger class of stochastic population models.

  5. Multiple phase transitions of the susceptible-infected-susceptible epidemic model on complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mata, Angélica S


    We show that the susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) epidemic dynamics running on the top of networks with a power law degree distribution can exhibit multiple phase transitions. Three main transitions involving different mechanisms responsible by sustaining the epidemics are identified: A short-term epidemics concentrated around the most connected vertex; a long-term (asymptotically stable) localized epidemics with a vanishing threshold; and an endemic phase occurring at a finite threshold. The different transitions are suited through different mean-field approaches. We finally show that the multiple transitions are due to the activations of different domains of the network that are observed in rapid (singular) variations of both stationary density of infected vertices and the participation ratio against the infection rate.

  6. Parallelized seeded region growing using CUDA. (United States)

    Park, Seongjin; Lee, Jeongjin; Lee, Hyunna; Shin, Juneseuk; Seo, Jinwook; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Shin, Yeong-Gil; Kim, Bohyoung


    This paper presents a novel method for parallelizing the seeded region growing (SRG) algorithm using Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) technology, with intention to overcome the theoretical weakness of SRG algorithm of its computation time being directly proportional to the size of a segmented region. The segmentation performance of the proposed CUDA-based SRG is compared with SRG implementations on single-core CPUs, quad-core CPUs, and shader language programming, using synthetic datasets and 20 body CT scans. Based on the experimental results, the CUDA-based SRG outperforms the other three implementations, advocating that it can substantially assist the segmentation during massive CT screening tests.

  7. SAR Imagery Segmentation by Statistical Region Growing and Hierarchical Merging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushizima, Daniela Mayumi; Carvalho, E.A.; Medeiros, F.N.S.; Martins, C.I.O.; Marques, R.C.P.; Oliveira, I.N.S.


    This paper presents an approach to accomplish synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image segmentation, which are corrupted by speckle noise. Some ordinary segmentation techniques may require speckle filtering previously. Our approach performs radar image segmentation using the original noisy pixels as input data, eliminating preprocessing steps, an advantage over most of the current methods. The algorithm comprises a statistical region growing procedure combined with hierarchical region merging to extract regions of interest from SAR images. The region growing step over-segments the input image to enable region aggregation by employing a combination of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test with a hierarchical stepwise optimization (HSWO) algorithm for the process coordination. We have tested and assessed the proposed technique on artificially speckled image and real SAR data containing different types of targets.

  8. Towards Automatic Image Segmentation Using Optimised Region Growing Technique (United States)

    Alazab, Mamoun; Islam, Mofakharul; Venkatraman, Sitalakshmi

    Image analysis is being adopted extensively in many applications such as digital forensics, medical treatment, industrial inspection, etc. primarily for diagnostic purposes. Hence, there is a growing interest among researches in developing new segmentation techniques to aid the diagnosis process. Manual segmentation of images is labour intensive, extremely time consuming and prone to human errors and hence an automated real-time technique is warranted in such applications. There is no universally applicable automated segmentation technique that will work for all images as the image segmentation is quite complex and unique depending upon the domain application. Hence, to fill the gap, this paper presents an efficient segmentation algorithm that can segment a digital image of interest into a more meaningful arrangement of regions and objects. Our algorithm combines region growing approach with optimised elimination of false boundaries to arrive at more meaningful segments automatically. We demonstrate this using X-ray teeth images that were taken for real-life dental diagnosis.

  9. Influence of growing and exploatation of bovins on regional agroecosystems


    Cornel Podar; Ioan Oroian; Friss Zsuzsa; Bianca Damian; I. Macarie; Daniela Ţerbea; Pop, Ioan A


    Scientists all over the are concerned regarding the influence of growing ruminants on regional agro-ecosystems due to green house gases resulted (CO 2, CH4, N2O5). Cattle have contributed to environmental pollution in old industrial farming systems, when the cattle number in Romania, reached 8 million, manure evacuation was not solved and manure was accumulating around the farm polluting the soil, water and air. Low density of ruminants existing in the agricultural sector of the country is no...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslava Ganeva


    Full Text Available The region of Melnik (Southwest Bulgaria has exclusively appropriate climate for wine growing. Its borders are defined by the dissemination of the wide Melnik grape vine, revealed by experts as an old local variety. Few are the wine-growing centers that carry such an effective ampelographic tradition. A few are the viticulture centers, bearing such effective tradition. The vine is grown here from the Thracian antiquity and is the basis for a livelihood, preserved and retransmitted for many generations. It is characterized by a specialization in the production and marketing of high quality red dry wines. The article deals with the development of the Melnik vineyard as a result of different political and economic conditions in the course of historical development. Various archival materials, specialized studies and personal fieldwork research have been used.

  11. Video Segmentation Using Fast Marching and Region Growing Algorithms

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    Eftychis Sifakis


    Full Text Available The algorithm presented in this paper is comprised of three main stages: (1 classification of the image sequence and, in the case of a moving camera, parametric motion estimation, (2 change detection having as reference a fixed frame, an appropriately selected frame or a displaced frame, and (3 object localization using local colour features. The image sequence classification is based on statistical tests on the frame difference. The change detection module uses a two-label fast marching algorithm. Finally, the object localization uses a region growing algorithm based on the colour similarity. Video object segmentation results are shown using the COST 211 data set.

  12. Regional frequency analysis using Growing Neural Gas network (United States)

    Abdi, Amin; Hassanzadeh, Yousef; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.


    The delineation of hydrologically homogeneous regions is an important issue in regional hydrological frequency analysis. In the present study, an application of the Growing Neural Gas (GNG) network for hydrological data clustering is presented. The GNG is an incremental and unsupervised neural network, which is able to adapt its structure during the training procedure without using a prior knowledge of the size and shape of the network. In the GNG algorithm, the Minimum Description Length (MDL) measure as the cluster validity index is utilized for determining the optimal number of clusters (sub-regions). The capability of the proposed algorithm is illustrated by regionalizing drought severities for 40 synoptic weather stations in Iran. To fulfill this aim, first a clustering method is applied to form the sub-regions and then a heterogeneity measure is used to test the degree of heterogeneity of the delineated sub-regions. According to the MDL measure and considering two different indices namely CS and Davies-Bouldin (DB) in the GNG network, the entire study area is subdivided in two sub-regions located in the eastern and western sides of Iran. In order to evaluate the performance of the GNG algorithm, a number of other commonly used clustering methods, like K-means, fuzzy C-means, self-organizing map and Ward method are utilized in this study. The results of the heterogeneity measure based on the L-moments approach reveal that only the GNG algorithm successfully yields homogeneous sub-regions in comparison to the other methods.

  13. Yarn image segmentation using the region growing algorithm (United States)

    Fabijańska, Anna


    This paper is about the development of the image segmentation algorithm for the industrial measurement system. Specifically, the problem of segmentation of textile yarn images is considered. The algorithm developed for yarn hairiness analyzer is introduced. It aims at extracting single fibers protruding from the yarn core. The algorithm is a region growing-based approach where the growth of the region is guided and constrained by the coherence enhancing diffusion filter. Results of the proposed method are presented and compared with the results provided by the traditional clustering approaches and recent, well-established segmentation methods. The comparison proves that the proposed segmentation algorithm provides high quality results and significantly outperforms other methods in number of fibers extracted from the background.

  14. Influence of growing and exploatation of bovins on regional agroecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel Podar


    Full Text Available Scientists all over the are concerned regarding the influence of growing ruminants on regional agro-ecosystems due to green house gases resulted (CO 2, CH4, N2O5. Cattle have contributed to environmental pollution in old industrial farming systems, when the cattle number in Romania, reached 8 million, manure evacuation was not solved and manure was accumulating around the farm polluting the soil, water and air. Low density of ruminants existing in the agricultural sector of the country is not significant in terms of pollution. Currently cattle have positive effects on the environment by the use of legumes, grasses and manure production contributing to the increase of agricultural production: crop production (sugar beet, potato and cereals, animal production (milk, meat, leather production and industrial production also (biogas, befouls, alcohol, oil production.

  15. Yeast diversity on grapes in two German wine growing regions. (United States)

    Brysch-Herzberg, Michael; Seidel, Martin


    The yeast diversity on wine grapes in Germany, one of the most northern wine growing regions of the world, was investigated by means of a culture dependent approach. All yeast isolates were identified by sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rDNA and the ITS region. Besides Hanseniaspora uvarum and Metschnikowia pulcherrima, which are well known to be abundant on grapes, Metschnikowia viticola, Rhodosporidium babjevae, and Curvibasidium pallidicorallinum, as well as two potentially new species related to Sporidiobolus pararoseus and Filobasidium floriforme, turned out to be typical members of the grape yeast community. We found M. viticola in about half of the grape samples in high abundance. Our data strongly suggest that M. viticola is one of the most important fermenting yeast species on grapes in the temperate climate of Germany. The frequent occurrence of Cu. pallidicorallinum and strains related to F. floriforme is a new finding. The current investigation provides information on the distribution of recently described yeast species, some of which are known from a very few strains up to now. Interestingly yeasts known for their role in the wine making process, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus ssp. uvarum, Torulaspora delbrueckii, and Zygosaccharomyces bailii, were not found in the grape samples. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Assessment of the Growing Season Regime Region of Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cessation dates, dry and wet spell lengths, frequency and number of rainy days can be, used to determine the nature of growing season; length of ... Key words: Agrometeorology, dry spells: growing season, Tanzania, unimodal rainfall. Introduction ..... most statistical' text books and in Okoola and. Salano (2002). Positive ...

  17. Relationships of a growing magnetic flux region to flares

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schadee, A.; Martin, S.F.; Bentley, R.D.; Antalova, A.; Kucera, A.; Dezs, L.; Gesztelyi, L.; Harvey, K.L.; Jones, H.; Livi, S.H.B.; Wang, J.


    Some sites for solar flares are known to develop where new magnetic flux emerges and becomes abutted against opposite polarity pre-existing magnetic flux (review by Galzauskas/1/). We have identified and analyzed the evolution of such flare sites at the boundaries of a major new and growing magnetic

  18. Lengthening of the growing season in wheat and maize producing regions

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    Brigitte Mueller


    Full Text Available Human-induced increases in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations have led to rising global temperatures. Here we investigate changes in an annual temperature-based index, the growing season length, defined as the number of days with temperature above 5 °C. We show that over extratropical regions where wheat and maize are harvested, the increase in growing season length from 1956 to 2005 can be attributed to increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. Our analyses also show that climate change has increased the probability of extremely long growing seasons by a factor of 25, and decreased the probability of extremely short growing seasons. A lengthening of the growing season in regions with these mostly rain-fed crops could improve yields, provided that water availability does not become an issue. An expansion of areas with more than 150 days of growing season into the northern latitudes makes more land potentially available for planting wheat and maize. Furthermore, double-cropping can become an alternative to current practices in areas with very long growing seasons which are also shown to increase with a warming climate. These results suggest that there is a strong impact of anthropogenic climate change on growing season length. However, in some regions and with further exacerbated climate change, high temperatures may already be or may become a limiting factor for plant productivity.

  19. Graph-based region growing for mass-segmentation in digital mammography (United States)

    Chu, Yong; Li, Lihua; Clark, Robert A.


    Mass segmentation is a vital step in CAD mass detection and classification. A challenge for mass segmentation in mammograms is that masses may contact with some surrounding tissues, which have the similar intensity. In this paper, a novel graph-based algorithm has been proposed to segment masses in mammograms. In the proposed algorithm, the procedure of region growing is represented as a growing tree whose root is the selected seed. Active leaves, which have the ability to grow, in the connection area between adjacent regions are deleted to stop growing, then separating the adjacent regions while keeping the spiculation of masses, which is a primary sign of malignancy for masses. The new constrained segmentation was tested with 20 cases in USF moffitt mammography database against the conventional region growing algorithm. The segmented mass regions were evaluated in terms of the overlap area with annotations made by the radiologist. We found that the new graph-based segmentation more closely match radiologists' outlines of these masses.

  20. Iran’s Growing Nuclear Weapons Program: A Catalyst for Regional Instability in the Middle East (United States)


    military spending . This increase has been primarily in the area of conventional forces, however there is growing evidence that Iran is also attempting to develop a nuclear weapons capability as well. This study examines Iran’s nuclear weapons program in detail, and Tehran’s increasing ability to emerge as a regional power in the Middle

  1. The terroir of vineyards - climatic variability in an Austrian wine-growing region (United States)

    Gerersdorfer, T.


    The description of a terroir is a concept in viticulture that relates the sensory attributes of wine to the environmental conditions in which the grapes grow. Many factors are involved including climate, soil, cultivar, human practices and all these factors interact manifold. The study area of Carnuntum is a small wine-growing region in the eastern part of Austria. It is rich of Roman remains which play a major role in tourism and the marketing strategies of the wines as well. An interdisciplinary study on the environmental characteristics particularly with regard to growing conditions of grapes was started in this region. The study is concerned with the description of the physiogeographic properties of the region and with the investigation of the dominating viticultural functions. Grape-vines depend on climatic conditions to a high extent. Compared to other influencing factors like soil, climate plays a significant role. In the framework of this interdisciplinary project climatic variability within the Carnuntum wine-growing region is investigated. On the one hand microclimatic variations are influenced by soil type and by canopy management. On the other hand the variability is a result of the topoclimate (altitude, aspect and slope) and therefore relief is a major terroir factor. Results of microclimatic measurements and variations are presented with focus on the interpretation of the relationship between relief, structure of the vineyards and the climatic conditions within the course of a full year period.

  2. A Study on the Application of Fuzzy Information Seeded Region Growing in Brain MRI Tissue Segmentation

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    Chuin-Mu Wang


    Full Text Available After long-term clinical trials, MRI has been proven to be used in humans harmlessly, and it is popularly used in medical diagnosis. Although MR is highly sensitive, it provides abundant organization information. Therefore, how to transform the multi-spectral images which is easier to be used for doctor’s clinical diagnosis. In this thesis, the fuzzy bidirectional edge detection method is used to solve conventional SRG problem of growing order in the initial seed stages. In order to overcome the problems of the different regions, although it is the same Euclidean distance for region growing and merging process stages, we present the peak detection method to improve them. The standard deviation target generation process (SDTGP is applied to guarantee the regions merging process does not cause over- or undersegmentation. Experimental results reveal that FISRG segments a multispectral MR image much more effectively than FAST and K-means.

  3. Automated Segmentation of Coronary Arteries Based on Statistical Region Growing and Heuristic Decision Method

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    Yun Tian


    Full Text Available The segmentation of coronary arteries is a vital process that helps cardiovascular radiologists detect and quantify stenosis. In this paper, we propose a fully automated coronary artery segmentation from cardiac data volume. The method is built on a statistics region growing together with a heuristic decision. First, the heart region is extracted using a multi-atlas-based approach. Second, the vessel structures are enhanced via a 3D multiscale line filter. Next, seed points are detected automatically through a threshold preprocessing and a subsequent morphological operation. Based on the set of detected seed points, a statistics-based region growing is applied. Finally, results are obtained by setting conservative parameters. A heuristic decision method is then used to obtain the desired result automatically because parameters in region growing vary in different patients, and the segmentation requires full automation. The experiments are carried out on a dataset that includes eight-patient multivendor cardiac computed tomography angiography (CTA volume data. The DICE similarity index, mean distance, and Hausdorff distance metrics are employed to compare the proposed algorithm with two state-of-the-art methods. Experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm is capable of performing complete, robust, and accurate extraction of coronary arteries.

  4. Particularities of Syrah wines from different growing regions of Southern Brazil: grapevine phenology and bioactive compounds. (United States)

    Sartor, Saionara; Malinovski, Luciane Isabel; Caliari, Vinícius; da Silva, Aparecido Lima; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde T


    The aim of this study was to monitor the phenological parameters of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) of Syrah variety recently introduced in the region of Marari, Água Doce, Campos Novos and São Joaquim, Santa Catarina State (SC), Brazil, and to characterize the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of wines produced from this variety of the vintages 2010 and 2011. The adaptation of the grapevine to climate conditions of these grape growing regions of Southern Brazil for this variety has also been assessed. The climate variations occurring between the phenological cycles of grapevine of Syrah for each growing region influenced the phenological extension and heat accumulation of the grapevine. The wines showed significant levels of phenolic compounds and high antioxidant activity, while catechin, a potent antioxidant, was the main phenolic compound quantified in wines. Positive correlations between the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were observed. The principal component analysis confirmed the influence of the growing region and vintages on the phenolic composition of wines, indicating the importance of climate conditions. This study identified possible phenolic markers indicative of climatic influence.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bassier


    Full Text Available Point cloud segmentation is a crucial step in scene understanding and interpretation. The goal is to decompose the initial data into sets of workable clusters with similar properties. Additionally, it is a key aspect in the automated procedure from point cloud data to BIM. Current approaches typically only segment a single type of primitive such as planes or cylinders. Also, current algorithms suffer from oversegmenting the data and are often sensor or scene dependent. In this work, a method is presented to automatically segment large unstructured point clouds of buildings. More specifically, the segmentation is formulated as a graph optimisation problem. First, the data is oversegmented with a greedy octree-based region growing method. The growing is conditioned on the segmentation of planes as well as smooth surfaces. Next, the candidate clusters are represented by a Conditional Random Field after which the most likely configuration of candidate clusters is computed given a set of local and contextual features. The experiments prove that the used method is a fast and reliable framework for unstructured point cloud segmentation. Processing speeds up to 40,000 points per second are recorded for the region growing. Additionally, the recall and precision of the graph clustering is approximately 80%. Overall, nearly 22% of oversegmentation is reduced by clustering the data. These clusters will be classified and used as a basis for the reconstruction of BIM models.

  6. Segmentation of Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis Infection Using Modified Automatic Seeded Region Growing

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    Nordin Abdul


    Full Text Available Abstract In the image segmentation process of positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (PET/CT imaging, previous works used information in CT only for segmenting the image without utilizing the information that can be provided by PET. This paper proposes to utilize the hot spot values in PET to guide the segmentation in CT, in automatic image segmentation using seeded region growing (SRG technique. This automatic segmentation routine can be used as part of automatic diagnostic tools. In addition to the original initial seed selection using hot spot values in PET, this paper also introduces a new SRG growing criterion, the sliding windows. Fourteen images of patients having extrapulmonary tuberculosis have been examined using the above-mentioned method. To evaluate the performance of the modified SRG, three fidelity criteria are measured: percentage of under-segmentation area, percentage of over-segmentation area, and average time consumption. In terms of the under-segmentation percentage, SRG with average of the region growing criterion shows the least error percentage (51.85%. Meanwhile, SRG with local averaging and variance yielded the best results (2.67% for the over-segmentation percentage. In terms of the time complexity, the modified SRG with local averaging and variance growing criterion shows the best performance with 5.273 s average execution time. The results indicate that the proposed methods yield fairly good performance in terms of the over- and under-segmentation area. The results also demonstrated that the hot spot values in PET can be used to guide the automatic segmentation in CT image.

  7. Level Set Based Hippocampus Segmentation in MR Images with Improved Initialization Using Region Growing

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    Xiaoliang Jiang


    Full Text Available The hippocampus has been known as one of the most important structures referred to as Alzheimer’s disease and other neurological disorders. However, segmentation of the hippocampus from MR images is still a challenging task due to its small size, complex shape, low contrast, and discontinuous boundaries. For the accurate and efficient detection of the hippocampus, a new image segmentation method based on adaptive region growing and level set algorithm is proposed. Firstly, adaptive region growing and morphological operations are performed in the target regions and its output is used for the initial contour of level set evolution method. Then, an improved edge-based level set method utilizing global Gaussian distributions with different means and variances is developed to implement the accurate segmentation. Finally, gradient descent method is adopted to get the minimization of the energy equation. As proved by experiment results, the proposed method can ideally extract the contours of the hippocampus that are very close to manual segmentation drawn by specialists.

  8. Region-growing technique adapted to precise microcalcification characterization in mammography (United States)

    Darboux, Michel; Dinten, Jean-Marc; Nicolas, Eric


    The early detection of breast cancer is essential for increasing the survival rate of the disease. Today, mammography is the only breast screening technique capable of detecting breast cancer at a very early stage. The presence of a breast tumor is indicated by some features on the mammogram. One sign of malignancy is the presence of clusters of fine, granular microcalcifications. We present here a three-step method for detecting and characterizing these microcalcifications. We begin with the detection of potential candidates. The aim of this first step is to detect all the pixels that could be a microcalcification. Then we focus on our specific region growing technique which provides an accurate extraction of the shape of the region corresponding to each detected growing technique which provides an accurate extraction of the shape of the region corresponding to each detected seed. This second step is essential because microcalcifications shape is a very important feature for the diagnosis. It is then possible to determine precise parameters to characterize these microcalcifications. This three-step method has been evaluated on a set of images form the mammographic image analysis society database.

  9. Where is my wine from? - A global exposure database for wineries and wine growing regions (United States)

    Daniell, James E.; Daniell, Trevor M.; Wenzel, Friedemann; Schaefer, Andreas M.; Daniell, Katherine A.; Burford, Robert


    The production of a global winery and wine database is a great undertaking and was required for the evaluation of winery risk in various locations (see NH ECS Lecture MH42/NH). The following study detailed a country wide study of wineries in 15 major wine growing locations globally in order to evaluate the ability of using existing information to detail the risk properties of the wine growing regions. In addition parameters such as the winery types, grape types, slopes, buildings, hazard properties and land use were surveyed. In terms of the winery locations, point-based as well as spatial land-use disaggregated polygons were used. For grape production, national and winery region data was aggregated from existing sources in each country. The value and type were assessed. For the slopes, global and regional DEMs such as ALOS, SRTM and EU-DEM were examined and converted within GIS envrionments. Building level information was often difficult to establish where OSM data was lacking (OpenStreetMap). Hazard parameters such as earthquake ground motion probability, weather, wind speeds, changing grape types, seasonality as well as the variability within seasons were collected with the variability being key to showing an increase or decrease in quality. Tools that were used can be applied to other exposure datasets; and shows a methodology to aggregate exposure information with respect to industries as well as other sectors using open data.

  10. Image segmentation by iterative parallel region growing with application to data compression and image analysis (United States)

    Tilton, James C.


    Image segmentation can be a key step in data compression and image analysis. However, the segmentation results produced by most previous approaches to region growing are suspect because they depend on the order in which portions of the image are processed. An iterative parallel segmentation algorithm avoids this problem by performing globally best merges first. Such a segmentation approach, and two implementations of the approach on NASA's Massively Parallel Processor (MPP) are described. Application of the segmentation approach to data compression and image analysis is then described, and results of such application are given for a LANDSAT Thematic Mapper image.

  11. Climate-Smart Landscapes for Managing Water Resources in the Tea Growing Regions of Northeast India (United States)

    Gupta, N.; Biggs, E. M.; Saikia, S. D.; Duncan, J.


    Tea is an important global agricultural commodity, both commercially and culturally. Assam, an agrarian state in northeast India is the largest single tea growing region in the world and the productivity (both in terms of quantity and quality) requires a specific range of enviro-climatic conditions. Precipitation and temperature are two climate factors which highly influence productivity. Thus water plays a critical role in sustaining future tea production in Assam. Recently the region has been affected by heterogeneous spatiotemporal distributions of precipitation and rising temperatures. This has led to temporally varying drought-like conditions during the tea production season, reducing crop resilience and degrading yield quality. Quantifying regional climate-yield characteristics enables more effective decision-making regarding climate change mitigation, water resources management and adaptation to sustain (and enhance) future tea crop production. This research used a panel based regression model to statistically quantify the extent to which precipitation and temperature variables are associated with changes in tea yield. Monthly time-series climate and yield data were regressed for the period 2004 to 2014. Yield data were obtained from 80 tea estates across the four main tea growing regions of Assam, and 120 climate variables were selected for analysis. Results indicate that periods of drought (e.g. more than 10 consecutive days of zero precipitation) are significantly associated with reductions in yield, whereas periods of intense precipitation (e.g. number of days where the 95th percentile was exceeded) are generally associated with increased yield. These results have provided an enhanced understanding of climate-yield characteristics, which will subsequently be used to deliver more climate-smart advisory decision-support services to tea producers in the region. Although water resources management practices, such as water harvesting structures, check dams

  12. A region growing technique adapted to precise micro calcification characterization in mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darboux, M.; Dinten, J.M.; Nicolas, E.


    To-day, mammography is the only breast screening technique capable of detecting breast cancer at a very early stage. The presence of a breast tumor is indicated by some features on the mammogram. One sign of malignancy is the presence of clusters of fine, granular micro-calcifications. We present here a new three-step method for detecting and characterizing these micro-calcifications. We design with the detection of potential candidates (`seeds`). The aim of this first step is to detect all the pixels be a micro-calcification. Then we focus on our specific region growing technique which provides an accurate extraction of the shape of the region corresponding to each detected seed. This second step is essential because micro-calcifications shape is a very important feature for the diagnosis. It is then possible to determine precise parameters to characterize these micro-calcifications. (authors). 4 refs.

  13. Forecasting municipal solid waste generation in a fast-growing urban region with system dynamics modeling. (United States)

    Dyson, Brian; Chang, Ni-Bin


    Both planning and design of municipal solid waste management systems require accurate prediction of solid waste generation. Yet achieving the anticipated prediction accuracy with regard to the generation trends facing many fast-growing regions is quite challenging. The lack of complete historical records of solid waste quantity and quality due to insufficient budget and unavailable management capacity has resulted in a situation that makes the long-term system planning and/or short-term expansion programs intangible. To effectively handle these problems based on limited data samples, a new analytical approach capable of addressing socioeconomic and environmental situations must be developed and applied for fulfilling the prediction analysis of solid waste generation with reasonable accuracy. This study presents a new approach--system dynamics modeling--for the prediction of solid waste generation in a fast-growing urban area based on a set of limited samples. To address the impact on sustainable development city wide, the practical implementation was assessed by a case study in the city of San Antonio, Texas (USA). This area is becoming one of the fastest-growing regions in North America due to the economic impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The analysis presents various trends of solid waste generation associated with five different solid waste generation models using a system dynamics simulation tool--Stella. Research findings clearly indicate that such a new forecasting approach may cover a variety of possible causative models and track inevitable uncertainties down when traditional statistical least-squares regression methods are unable to handle such issues.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinan Ferdinan


    Full Text Available CAMSHIFT algorithm has been widely used in object tracking. CAMSHIFT utilizescolor features as the model object. Thus, original CAMSHIFT may fail when the object color issimilar with the background color. In this study, we propose CAMSHIFT tracker combined withmean-shift segmentation, region growing, and SURF in order to improve the tracking accuracy.The mean-shift segmentation and region growing are applied in object localization phase to extractthe important parts of the object. Hue-distance, saturation, and value are used to calculate theBhattacharyya distance to judge whether the tracked object is lost. Once the object is judged lost,SURF is used to find the lost object, and CAMSHIFT can retrack the object. The Object trackingsystem is built with OpenCV. Some measurements of accuracy have done using frame-basedmetrics. We use datasets BoBoT (Bonn Benchmark on Tracking to measure accuracy of thesystem. The results demonstrate that CAMSHIFT combined with mean-shift segmentation, regiongrowing, and SURF method has higher accuracy than the previous methods.

  15. Distributions of Salmonella Subtypes Differ between Two U.S. Produce-Growing Regions (United States)

    Danyluk, Michelle D.; Worobo, Randy W.; Wiedmann, Martin


    Salmonella accounts for approximately 50% of produce-associated outbreaks in the United States, several of which have been traced back to contamination in the produce production environment. To quantify Salmonella diversity and aid in identification of Salmonella contamination sources, we characterized Salmonella isolates from two geographically diverse produce-growing regions in the United States. Initially, we characterized the Salmonella serotype and subtype diversity associated with 1,677 samples collected from 33 produce farms in New York State (NYS). Among these 1,677 samples, 74 were Salmonella positive, yielding 80 unique isolates (from 147 total isolates), which represented 14 serovars and 23 different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) types. To explore regional Salmonella diversity associated with production environments, we collected a smaller set of samples (n = 65) from South Florida (SFL) production environments and compared the Salmonella diversity associated with these samples with the diversity found among NYS production environments. Among these 65 samples, 23 were Salmonella positive, yielding 32 unique isolates (from 81 total isolates), which represented 11 serovars and 17 different PFGE types. The most common serovars isolated in NYS were Salmonella enterica serovars Newport, Cerro, and Thompson, while common serovars isolated in SFL were Salmonella serovars Saphra and Newport and S. enterica subsp. diarizonae serovar 50:r:z. High PFGE type diversity (Simpson's diversity index, 0.90 ± 0.02) was observed among Salmonella isolates across both regions; only three PFGE types were shared between the two regions. The probability of three or fewer shared PFGE types was Salmonella isolates were considerably different between the two sampled regions. These findings suggest the potential for PFGE-based source tracking of Salmonella in production environments. PMID:24747908

  16. The mechanical properties of Acer velutinum var. glabrescens wood growing in different regions of Caspian forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fardad golbabaei


    Full Text Available The major engineering properties of Acer velutinum var. glabrescens wood growing in different regions of Caspian forests (North of Iran was determined. Test materials were selected randomly from Acer velutinum var. glabrescens tree plantation and the test specimens were prepared according to ASTM D-143 standard. Mechanical and physical properties were measured on both green and air-dried samples (12% moisture content. The results of the measurement were statistically analyzed based on randomized block design and factorial experiment. The influence of specimen locations at different stem heights was examined. Based on the results of this study, Significant areas of habitat in the area, Maple Vysr Mazandaran species most resistant of the Maple Sangdeh Frame has the lowest resistance. Keywords: Maple, statice bending, compression parallel to grain, compression perpendicular to grain, tension perpendicular to grain, Acer velutinum var. glabrescens.

  17. Automatic segmentation of meningioma from non-contrasted brain MRI integrating fuzzy clustering and region growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Chun-Chih


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has become important in brain tumor diagnosis. Using this modality, physicians can locate specific pathologies by analyzing differences in tissue character presented in different types of MR images. This paper uses an algorithm integrating fuzzy-c-mean (FCM and region growing techniques for automated tumor image segmentation from patients with menigioma. Only non-contrasted T1 and T2 -weighted MR images are included in the analysis. The study's aims are to correctly locate tumors in the images, and to detect those situated in the midline position of the brain. Methods The study used non-contrasted T1- and T2-weighted MR images from 29 patients with menigioma. After FCM clustering, 32 groups of images from each patient group were put through the region-growing procedure for pixels aggregation. Later, using knowledge-based information, the system selected tumor-containing images from these groups and merged them into one tumor image. An alternative semi-supervised method was added at this stage for comparison with the automatic method. Finally, the tumor image was optimized by a morphology operator. Results from automatic segmentation were compared to the "ground truth" (GT on a pixel level. Overall data were then evaluated using a quantified system. Results The quantified parameters, including the "percent match" (PM and "correlation ratio" (CR, suggested a high match between GT and the present study's system, as well as a fair level of correspondence. The results were compatible with those from other related studies. The system successfully detected all of the tumors situated at the midline of brain. Six cases failed in the automatic group. One also failed in the semi-supervised alternative. The remaining five cases presented noticeable edema inside the brain. In the 23 successful cases, the PM and CR values in the two groups were highly related. Conclusions Results indicated

  18. [Inequalities in mortality by cardiovascular diseases in the Colombian Coffee Growing Region, 2009-2011]. (United States)

    Cardona, Dora; Cerezo, María Del Pilar; Parra, Hernán; Quintero, Liliana; Muñoz, Liliana; Cifuentes, Olga Lucía; Vélez, Silvia Clemencia


    The impact of mortality from cardiovascular diseases requires the measurement of the relationship between the local socioeconomic conditions and these death causes. To determine the inequality in mortality from cardiovascular diseases in the municipalities of the Colombian Coffee Growing Region (2009-2011). We conducted an ecological study to compare the mortality from cardiovascular diseases (hypertensive, ischemic, cerebrovascular) in municipalities and their economic situation. Mortality rates and the index of unsatisfied basic needs were obtained from the Colombian Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística (DANE) vital statistics, while the municipal gross domestic product per capita was estimated for this study. The inequality indices were calculated using regression models, and concentration and Theil indices with Epidat 3.1. The death risk resulting from ischemic or hypertensive diseases was greater in those municipalities with a higher index of unsatisfied basic needs. Mortality due to hypertensive disease tended to concentrate in municipalities with a higher level of unsatisfied basic needs. The municipalities with a lower gross domestic product showed a higher rate of deaths due to hypertensive disease in years 2009 and 2010, and due to ischemic disease in years 2010 and 2011. Nevertheless, this indicator does not measure the gap existing among poor communities. Disaggregated inequality indicators at municipal level are lacking. Suggested indicators are estimated only for country and provincial levels and they do not favor the characterization of health social inequalities at territorial level.

  19. Spatially explicit exposure assessment for small streams in catchments of the orchard growing region `Lake Constance (United States)

    Golla, B.; Bach, M.; Krumpe, J.


    1. Introduction Small streams differ greatly from the standardised water body used in the context of aquatic risk assessment for the regulation of plant protection products in Germany. The standard water body is static, with a depth of 0.3 m and a width of 1.0 m. No dilution or water replacement takes place. Spray drift happens always in direction to the water body. There is no variability in drift deposition rate (90th percentile spray drift deposition values [2]). There is no spray drift filtering by vegetation. The application takes place directly adjacent to the water body. In order to establish a more realistic risk assessment procedure the Federal Office for Consumer Protection and Food Safety (BVL) and the Federal Environment Agency (UBA) aggreed to replace deterministic assumptions with data distributions and spatially explicit data and introduce probabilistic methods [3, 4, 5]. To consider the spatial and temporal variability in the exposure situations of small streams the hydraulic and morphological characteristics of catchments need to be described as well as the spatial distribution of fields treated with pesticides. As small streams are the dominant type of water body in most German orchard regions, we use the growing region Lake Constance as pilot region. 2. Materials and methods During field surveys we derive basic morphological parameters for small streams in the Lake Constance region. The mean water width/depth ratio is 13 with a mean depth of 0.12 m. The average residence time is 5.6 s/m (n=87) [1]. Orchards are mostly located in the upper parts of the catchments. Based on an authoritative dataset on rivers and streams of Germany (ATKIS DLM25) we constructed a directed network topology for the Lake Constance region. The gradient of the riverbed is calculated for river stretches of > 500 m length. The network for the pilot region consists of 2000 km rivers and streams. 500 km stream length are located within a distance of 150 m to orchards. Within

  20. From the Ground Up: Growing Entrepreneurship in the North Central Region. RRD 191 (United States)

    Emery, Mary


    More than 300 people in the North Central region added their voices to a discussion on the importance of entrepreneurship to rural community vitality, often traveling long distances to attend one of 11 listening sessions held throughout the region. Among those attending were local leaders, service providers, entrepreneurs, and educators. The…

  1. Automated calculation of the distal contractile integral in esophageal pressure topography with a region-growing algorithm. (United States)

    Lin, Z; Roman, S; Pandolfino, J E; Kahrilas, P J


    The distal contractile integral (DCI) is an index of contractile vigor in high-resolution esophageal pressure topography (EPT) calculated as the product of amplitude, duration, and span of the distal esophageal contraction. The aim of this study was to develop an automated algorithm calculating DCI. The DCI was calculated conventionally using ManoView™ (Given Imaging, Los Angeles, CA, USA) software in EPT studies from 72 controls and 20 patients and compared to the calculation using a MATLAB™ (Version 7.9.0, R2009b; The MathWorks Inc., Natick, MA, USA) 'region-growing' algorithm. This algorithm first established the spatial limits of the distal contraction (the proximal pressure trough to either the distal pressure trough or to the superior margin of the lower esophageal sphincter at rest). Pixel-by-pixel horizontal line segments were then analyzed within this span starting at the pressure maximum and extending outward from that point. The limits of 'region-growing' were defined either by the spatial DCI limits or by encountering a pressure calculated as the total units of mmHg s cm greater than 20 mmHg within this domain. Excellent correlation existed between the two methods (r = 0.98, P calculation were slightly but significantly greater than with the region-growing algorithm. Differences were attributed to the inclusion of vascular pressures in the conventional calculation or to differences in localization of the distal limit of the DCI. The proposed region-growing algorithm provides an automated method to calculate DCI that limits inclusion of vascular pressure artifacts and minimizes the need for user input in data analysis. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Growing PreK-12 Educators through a Partnership of School Districts and a Regional University (United States)

    Russell, Brenda A.; Kirk, Jeffrey L.; Eddings, Bobbie J.; Farris, L. Ann


    In central Texas and regions across the country, community leaders are calling for university-community engagement, including development of structures for community-based research and service learning. Including the community in decision making regarding continuing professional education serves as a link between universities such as Texas A&M…

  3. Southern Slippage: Growing School Segregation in the Most Desegregated Region of the Country (United States)

    Siegel-Hawley, Genevieve; Frankenberg, Erica


    The South remains the most desegregated region in the country for black students, but along every measure of segregation and at each level of geography, gains made during the desegregation era are slipping away at a steady pace. This report shows that the segregation of Southern black students has been progressively increasing since judicial…



    from organized terrorist groups. India is well positioned to assist in the Indian Ocean security concerns and the Indian Navy patrols the region...drinking water crisis due to fire in water distillation plant in Male, Maldives on 04 September 2014, India was the first to respond by sending Indian Air...vehicles (OPV) for Sri Lankan Navy. 64 Indian Space Organization (ISRO) has achieved great heights in satellite launch technology and has launched not

  5. Interannual Variations in Growing-Season NDVI and Its Correlation with Climate Variables in the Southwestern Karst Region of China

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    Wenjuan Hou


    Full Text Available In this study, the updated Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI dataset for growing season (April to October, which can better reflect the vegetation vigor, was used to investigate the interannual variations in NDVI and its relationship with climatic factors, in order to preliminarily understand the climate impact on vegetation and provide theoretical basis for the response of ecosystem to climate change. Multivariate linear regression models, including the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR, were adopted to analyze the correlation between NDVI and climatic factors (temperature and precipitation together. Average growing-season NDVI significantly increased at a rate of 0.0015/year from 1982 to 2013, larger than several regions in China. On the whole, its relationship with temperature is positive and also stronger than precipitation, which indicated that temperature may be a limiting factor for the vegetation growth in the Karst region. Moreover, the correlation coefficients between grassland NDVI and climatic factors are the largest. Under the background of NDVI increasing trend from 1982 to 2013, the period of 2009–2012 was chosen to investigate the influencing factors of a sharp decline in NDVI. It can be found that the reduced temperature and solar radiation, caused by the increase in cloud cover and precipitation, may play important roles in the vegetation cover change. All in all, the systematic research on the interannual variations of growing-season NDVI and its relationship with climate revealed the heterogeneity and variability in the complicated climate change in the Karst ecosystem for the study area. It is the Karst characteristics that hinder obtaining more representative conclusions and tendencies in this region. Hence, more attention should be paid to promoting Karst research in the future.

  6. Aphasia induced by gliomas growing in the ventrolateral frontal region: assessment with diffusion MR tractography, functional MR imaging and neuropsychology. (United States)

    Bizzi, Alberto; Nava, Simone; Ferrè, Francesca; Castelli, Gianmarco; Aquino, Domenico; Ciaraffa, Francesca; Broggi, Giovanni; DiMeco, Francesco; Piacentini, Sylvie


    Lesions in the ventrolateral region of the dominant frontal lobe have been historically associated with aphasia. Recent imaging results suggest that frontal language regions extend beyond classically defined Broca's area to include the ventral precentral gyrus (VPCG) and the arcuate fasciculus (AF). Frontal gliomas offer a unique opportunity to identify structures that are essential for speech production. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the correlation between language deficits and lesion location in patients with gliomas. Nineteen patients with glioma and 10 healthy subjects were evaluated with diffusion tensor imaging magnetic resonance (MR) tractography, functional MR (verb generation task) and the Aachener Aphasie Test. Patients were divided into two groups according to lesion location with respect to the ventral precentral sulcus: (i) anterior (n=8) with glioma growing in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and underlying white matter; (ii) posterior (n=11) with glioma growing in the VPCG and underlying white matter. Virtual dissection of the AF, frontal intralobar tract, uncinate fasciculus (UF) and inferior frontal occipital fasciculus (IFOF) was performed with a deterministic approach. Seven posterior patients showed aphasia classified as conduction (4), Broca (1), transcortical motor (1) and an isolated deficit of semantic fluency; one anterior patient had transcortical mixed aphasia. All posterior patients had invasion of the VPCG, however only patients with aphasia had also lesion extension to the AF as demonstrated by tractography dissections. All patients with language deficits had high grade glioma. Groups did not differ regarding tumour volume. A functional pars opercularis was identified with functional MR imaging (fMRI) in 17 patients. Gliomas growing in the left VPCG are much more likely to cause speech deficits than gliomas infiltrating the IFG, including Broca's area. Lesion extension to the AF connecting frontal to parietal

  7. Iran's growing nuclear weapons program: A catalyst for regional instability in the Middle East. Study project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deyermond, J.J.


    Following the end of the Cold War, the United States as well as other nations around the world now find themselves in a state of political, economic, and military transition. While the US and other nations such as the Islamic Republic of Iran are undergoing significant increases in military spending. This increase has been primarily in the area of conventional forces, however there is growing evidence that Iran is also attempting to develop a nuclear weapons capability as well. This study examines Iran's nuclear weapons program in detail, and Tehran's increasing ability to emerge as a regional power in the Middle East.

  8. Mycoflora associated with Hyoscyamus muticus growing under an extremely arid desert environment (Aswan region, Egypt). (United States)

    El-Zayat, Soad A; Nassar, Mortada S M; El-Hissy, Farida T; Abdel-Motaal, Fatma F; Ito, Shin-ichi


    Hyoscyamus muticus L. (Egyptian henbane) is one of the desert medicinal plants of family Solanaceae. The plant produces pharmaceutically important compounds (tropane alkaloids) as secondary metabolites. In the present study, we describe mycoflora of H. muticus grown in four different locations in Egyptian southern desert (Aswan region): Aswan university campus, Wadi Allaqi down stream part, Aswan airport road, and Sahari city. Eighty-one species and two varieties belonging to 31 genera were isolated from soils surrounding H. muticus plants, the surface of the plants, and inside the plants as endophytic fungi. Aspergillus was the most common genus in all study areas. The highest number of genera and species of fungi were recorded in Aswan university campus followed by Aswan airport road. Fungal diversity analysis revealed that these two locations have higher fungal diversity compared to other two locations. A higher number of fungal species were isolated from rhizosphere soil and rhizoplane than from non-rhizosphere and other plant organs. Endophytic fungi were isolated from all plant parts of H. muticus. Communications between H. muticus plants and fungi under desert conditions both in rhizosphere and inside the plant are deduced.

  9. Climate change and prolongation of growing season: changes in regional potential for field crop production in Finland

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    Full Text Available Climate change offers new opportunities for Finnish field crop production, which is currently limited by the short growing season. A warmer climate will extend the thermal growing season and the physiologically effective part of it. Winters will also become milder, enabling introduction of winter-sown crops to a greater extent than is possible today. With this study we aim to characterise the likely regional differences in capacity to grow different seed producing crops. Prolongation of the Finnish growing season was estimated using a 0.5º latitude × 0.5º longitude gridded dataset from the Finnish Meteorological Institute. The dataset comprised an average estimate from 19 global climate models of the response of Finnish climate to low (B1 and high (A2 scenarios of greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions for 30-year periods centred on 2025, 2055 and 2085 (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Growing season temperature sums that suit crop growth and are agronomically feasible in Finland are anticipated to increase by some 140 °Cd by 2025, 300 °Cd by 2055 and 470 °Cd by 2085 in scenario A2, when averaged over regions, and earlier sowing is expected to take place, but not later harvests. Accordingly, the extent of cultivable areas for the commonly grown major and minor crops will increase considerably. Due to the higher base temperature requirement for maize (Zea mays L. growth than for temperate crops, we estimate that silage maize could become a Finnish field crop for the most favourable growing regions only at the end of this century. Winters are getting milder, but it will take almost the whole century until winters such as those that are typical for southern Sweden and Denmark are experienced on a wide scale in Finland. It is possible that introduction of winter-sown crops (cereals and rapeseed will represent major risks due to fluctuating winter conditions, and this could delay their adaptation for many decades. Such risks need to be

  10. Uptake of uranium, thorium and radium isotopes by plants growing in dam impoundment Tasotkel and the Lower Shu region (Kazakhstan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matveyeva, Ilona; Burkitbayev, Mukhambetkali [al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan). Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology; Jacimovic, Radojko [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Planinsek, Petra; Smodis, Borut [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Jozef Stefan International Postgraduate School, Ljubljana (Slovenia)


    The activity concentrations of isotopes of uranium, thorium and radium-226 in dominant species of plants (Xantium strumarium, Phragmites communis, Artemisia nitrosa and Artemisia serotina) growing on the territories contaminated by uranium industry of Kazakhstan (close to dam impoundment Tasotkel and the Lower Shu region) are presented. The obtained data showed the significant variations of activity concentrations of isotopes of uranium, thorium and radium-226 in above ground parts. The concentrations of most of the investigated radionuclides in the root system are higher than in the aboveground parts; it can be explained by root barrier. It was found that the highest root barrier has Xantium strumarium, especially for uranium isotopes. The concentration ratios of radionuclides were calculated, and as the result it was found that the highest accumulation ability in the investigated region has Artemisia serotina.

  11. A Self-Calibrating Multi-Band Region Growing Approach to Segmentation of Single and Multi-Band Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paglieroni, D W


    Image segmentation transforms pixel-level information from raw images to a higher level of abstraction in which related pixels are grouped into disjoint spatial regions. Such regions typically correspond to natural or man-made objects or structures, natural variations in land cover, etc. For many image interpretation tasks (such as land use assessment, automatic target cueing, defining relationships between objects, etc.), segmentation can be an important early step. Remotely sensed images (e.g., multi-spectral and hyperspectral images) often contain many spectral bands (i.e., multiple layers of 2D images). Multi-band images are important because they contain more information than single-band images. Objects or natural variations that are readily apparent in certain spectral bands may be invisible in 2D broadband images. In this paper, the classical region growing approach to image segmentation is generalized from single to multi-band images. While it is widely recognized that the quality of image segmentation is affected by which segmentation algorithm is used, this paper shows that algorithm parameter values can have an even more profound effect. A novel self-calibration framework is developed for automatically selecting parameter values that produce segmentations that most closely resemble a calibration edge map (derived separately using a simple edge detector). Although the framework is generic in the sense that it can imbed any core segmentation algorithm, this paper only demonstrates self-calibration with multi-band region growing. The framework is applied to a variety of AVIRIS image blocks at different spectral resolutions, in an effort to assess the impact of spectral resolution on segmentation quality. The image segmentations are assessed quantitatively, and it is shown that segmentation quality does not generally appear to be highly correlated with spectral resolution.

  12. Mapping growing stock volume and forest live biomass: a case study of the Polissya region of Ukraine (United States)

    Bilous, Andrii; Myroniuk, Viktor; Holiaka, Dmytrii; Bilous, Svitlana; See, Linda; Schepaschenko, Dmitry


    Forest inventory and biomass mapping are important tasks that require inputs from multiple data sources. In this paper we implement two methods for the Ukrainian region of Polissya: random forest (RF) for tree species prediction and k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) for growing stock volume and biomass mapping. We examined the suitability of the five-band RapidEye satellite image to predict the distribution of six tree species. The accuracy of RF is quite high: ~99% for forest/non-forest mask and 89% for tree species prediction. Our results demonstrate that inclusion of elevation as a predictor variable in the RF model improved the performance of tree species classification. We evaluated different distance metrics for the k-NN method, including Euclidean or Mahalanobis distance, most similar neighbor (MSN), gradient nearest neighbor, and independent component analysis. The MSN with the four nearest neighbors (k = 4) is the most precise (according to the root-mean-square deviation) for predicting forest attributes across the study area. The k-NN method allowed us to estimate growing stock volume with an accuracy of 3 m3 ha-1 and for live biomass of about 2 t ha-1 over the study area.

  13. An aerosol climatology for a rapidly growing arid region (southern Arizona): Major aerosol species and remotely sensed aerosol properties. (United States)

    Sorooshian, Armin; Wonaschütz, Anna; Jarjour, Elias G; Hashimoto, Bryce I; Schichtel, Bret A; Betterton, Eric A


    This study reports a comprehensive characterization of atmospheric aerosol particle properties in relation to meteorological and back trajectory data in the southern Arizona region, which includes two of the fastest growing metropolitan areas in the United States (Phoenix and Tucson). Multiple data sets (MODIS, AERONET, OMI/TOMS, MISR, GOCART, ground-based aerosol measurements) are used to examine monthly trends in aerosol composition, aerosol optical depth (AOD), and aerosol size. Fine soil, sulfate, and organics dominate PM2.5 mass in the region. Dust strongly influences the region between March and July owing to the dry and hot meteorological conditions and back trajectory patterns. Because monsoon precipitation begins typically in July, dust levels decrease, while AOD, sulfate, and organic aerosol reach their maximum levels because of summertime photochemistry and monsoon moisture. Evidence points to biogenic volatile organic compounds being a significant source of secondary organic aerosol in this region. Biomass burning also is shown to be a major contributor to the carbonaceous aerosol budget in the region, leading to enhanced organic and elemental carbon levels aloft at a sky-island site north of Tucson (Mt. Lemmon). Phoenix exhibits different monthly trends for aerosol components in comparison with the other sites owing to the strong influence of fossil carbon and anthropogenic dust. Trend analyses between 1988 and 2009 indicate that the strongest statistically significant trends are reductions in sulfate, elemental carbon, and organic carbon, and increases in fine soil during the spring (March-May) at select sites. These results can be explained by population growth, land-use changes, and improved source controls.

  14. Genetic Diversity in Apple Fruit Moth Indicate Different Clusters in the Two Most Important Apple Growing Regions of Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhameed Elameen


    Full Text Available The apple fruit moth (Argyresthia conjugella (A. conjugella in Norway was first identified as a pest in apple production in 1899. We here report the first genetic analysis of A. conjugella using molecular markers. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP analysis was applied to 95 individuals from six different locations in the two most important apple-growing regions of Norway. Five AFLP primer combinations gave 410 clear polymorphic bands that distinguished all the individuals. Further genetic analysis using the Dice coefficient, Principal Coordinate analysis (PCO and Bayesian analyses suggested clustering of the individuals into two main groups showing substantial genetic distance. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA revealed greater variation among populations (77.94% than within populations (22.06% and significant and high FST values were determined between the two major regions (Distance = 230 km, FST = 0.780. AFLP analysis revealed low to moderate genetic diversity in our population sample from Norway (Average: 0.31 expected heterozygosity. The positive significant correlation between the geographic and the molecular data (r2 = 0.6700 indicate that genetic differences between the two major regions may be due to geographical barriers such as high mountain plateaus (Hardangervidda in addition to isolation by distance (IBD.

  15. Chemical diversity of essential oils from flowers, leaves, and stems of Rhanterium epapposum Oliv. growing in northern border region of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Awad


    Conclusions: Essential oils from flowers, leaves and stems of R. epapposum growing in northern border region of Saudi Arabia are considered as a rich source of monoterpenes which have biological activities.

  16. Guidelines regarding the interim use and phase out of neonicotinoid insecticides to grow agricultural crops for wildlife on NWRs in the Pacific Region (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Memorandum describing a phased approach in the Pacific Region to eliminate the use of neonicotinoidinsecticides (by any method) to grow agricultural crops for...

  17. Detection of pedestrians in far-infrared automotive night vision using region-growing and clothing distortion compensation (United States)

    O'Malley, Ronan; Jones, Edward; Glavin, Martin


    We present a night-time pedestrian detection system based on automotive infrared video processing. Far-infrared or thermal night vision is a technology well suited for automatic detection of pedestrians at night as they generally appear warmer than the background. However, the appearance of a pedestrian in IR video can vary dramatically depending on the physical properties of the clothing they wear, the time spent adjusting to the outside environment, and the ambient temperature. We highlight the difficulties of detection in low temperatures (below 8 °C) when pedestrians typically wear highly insulating clothing, which can lead to distortion of the IR signature of the pedestrian. A pre-processing step is presented, which compensates for this clothing-based distortion using vertically-biased morphological closing. Potential pedestrians (Regions of Interest) are then segmented using feature-based region-growing with high intensity seeds. Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) features are extracted from candidates and utilised for Support Vector Machine classification. Positively classified targets are tracked between frames using a Kalman filter, adding robustness and increasing performance. The proposed system adapts not just to variations between images or video frames, but to variations in appearance between different pedestrians in the same image or frame. Results indicate improved performance compared to previous HOG-SVM automotive IR pedestrian detection systems, which utilised stereo IR cameras.

  18. Satellite Images for Monitoring Mangrove Cover Changes in a Fast Growing Economic Region in Southern Peninsular Malaysia

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    Kasturi Devi Kanniah


    Full Text Available Effective monitoring is necessary to conserve mangroves from further loss in Malaysia. In this context, remote sensing is capable of providing information on mangrove status and changes over a large spatial extent and in a continuous manner. In this study we used Landsat satellite images to analyze the changes over a period of 25 years of mangrove areas in Iskandar Malaysia (IM, the fastest growing national special economic region located in southern Johor, Malaysia. We tested the use of two widely used digital classification techniques to classify mangrove areas. The Maximum Likelihood Classification (MLC technique provided significantly higher user, producer and overall accuracies and less “salt and pepper effects” compared to the Support Vector Machine (SVM technique. The classified satellite images using the MLC technique showed that IM lost 6740 ha of mangrove areas from 1989 to 2014. Nevertheless, a gain of 710 ha of mangroves was observed in this region, resulting in a net loss of 6030 ha or 33%. The loss of about 241 ha per year of mangroves was associated with a steady increase in urban land use (1225 ha per year from 1989 until 2014. Action is necessary to protect the existing mangrove cover from further loss. Gazetting of the remaining mangrove sites as protected areas or forest reserves and introducing tourism activities in mangrove areas can ensure the continued survival of mangroves in IM.

  19. Adaptive region-growing with maximum curvature strategy for tumor segmentation in 18F-FDG PET (United States)

    Tan, Shan; Li, Laquan; Choi, Wookjin; Kang, Min Kyu; D'Souza, Warren D.; Lu, Wei


    Accurate tumor segmentation in PET is crucial in many oncology applications. We developed an adaptive region-growing (ARG) algorithm with a maximum curvature strategy (ARG_MC) for tumor segmentation in PET. The ARG_MC repeatedly applied a confidence connected region-growing algorithm with increasing relaxing factor f. The optimal relaxing factor (ORF) was then determined at the transition point on the f-volume curve, where the volume just grew from the tumor into the surrounding normal tissues. The ARG_MC along with five widely used algorithms were tested on a phantom with 6 spheres at different signal to background ratios and on two clinic datasets including 20 patients with esophageal cancer and 11 patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). The ARG_MC did not require any phantom calibration or any a priori knowledge of the tumor or PET scanner. The identified ORF varied with tumor types (mean ORF  =  9.61, 3.78 and 2.55 respectively for the phantom, esophageal cancer, and NHL datasets), and varied from one tumor to another. For the phantom, the ARG_MC ranked the second in segmentation accuracy with an average Dice similarity index (DSI) of 0.86, only slightly worse than Daisne’s adaptive thresholding method (DSI  =  0.87), which required phantom calibration. For both the esophageal cancer dataset and the NHL dataset, the ARG_MC had the highest accuracy with an average DSI of 0.87 and 0.84, respectively. The ARG_MC was robust to parameter settings and region of interest selection, and it did not depend on scanners, imaging protocols, or tumor types. Furthermore, the ARG_MC made no assumption about the tumor size or tumor uptake distribution, making it suitable for segmenting tumors with heterogeneous FDG uptake. In conclusion, the ARG_MC was accurate, robust and easy to use, it provides a highly potential tool for PET tumor segmentation in clinic.

  20. Developing Inventory Projection Models Using Empirical Net Forest Growth and Growing-Stock Density Relationships Across U.S. Regions and Species Group (United States)

    Prakash Nepal; Peter J. Ince; Kenneth E. Skog; Sun J. Chang


    This paper describes a set of empirical net forest growth models based on forest growing-stock density relationships for three U.S. regions (North, South, and West) and two species groups (softwoods and hardwoods) at the regional aggregate level. The growth models accurately predict historical U.S. timber inventory trends when we incorporate historical timber harvests...

  1. Arsenic concentrations in paddy soil and rice and health implications for major rice-growing regions of Cambodia. (United States)

    Seyfferth, Angelia L; McCurdy, Sarah; Schaefer, Michael V; Fendorf, Scott


    Despite the global importance of As in rice, research has primarily focused on Bangladesh, India, China, and the United States with limited attention given to other countries. Owing to both indigenous As within the soil and the possible increases arising from the onset of irrigation with groundwater, an assessment of As in rice within Cambodia is needed, which offers a "base-case" comparison against sediments of similar origin that comprise rice paddy soils where As-contaminated water is used for irrigation (e.g., Bangladesh). Here, we evaluated the As content of rice from five provinces (Kandal, Prey Veng, Battambang, Banteay Meanchey, and Kampong Thom) in the rice-growing regions of Cambodia and coupled that data to soil-chemical factors based on extractions of paddy soil collected and processed under anoxic conditions. At total soil As concentrations ranging 0.8 to 18 μg g(-1), total grain As concentrations averaged 0.2 μg g(-1) and ranged from 0.1 to 0.37 with Banteay Meanchey rice having significantly higher values than Prey Veng rice. Overall, soil-extractable concentrations of As, Fe, P, and Si and total As were poor predictors of grain As concentrations. While biogeochemical factors leading to reduction of As(V)-bearing Fe(III) oxides are likely most important for predicting plant-available As, husk and straw As concentrations were the most significant predictors of grain-As levels among our measured parameters.

  2. A Multi-Level Approach to Modeling Rapidly Growing Mega-Regions as a Coupled Human-Natural System (United States)

    Koch, J. A.; Tang, W.; Meentemeyer, R. K.


    The FUTure Urban-Regional Environment Simulation (FUTURES) integrates information on nonstationary drivers of land change (per capita land area demand, site suitability, and spatial structure of conversion events) into spatial-temporal projections of changes in landscape patterns (Meentemeyer et al., 2013). One striking feature of FUTURES is its patch-growth algorithm that includes feedback effects of former development events across several temporal and spatial scales: cell-level transition events are aggregated into patches of land change and their further growth is based on empirically derived parameters controlling its size, shape, and dispersion. Here, we augment the FUTURES modeling framework by expanding its multilevel structure and its representation of human decision making. The new modeling framework is hierarchically organized as nested subsystems including the latest theory on telecouplings in coupled human-natural systems (Liu et al., 2013). Each subsystem represents a specific level of spatial scale and embraces agents that have decision making authority at a particular level. The subsystems are characterized with regard to their spatial representation and are connected via flows of information (e.g. regulations and policies) or material (e.g. population migration). To provide a modeling framework that is applicable to a wide range of settings and geographical regions and to keep it computationally manageable, we implement a 'zooming factor' that allows to enable or disable subsystems (and hence the represented processes), based on the extent of the study region. The implementation of the FUTURES modeling framework for a specific case study follows the observational modeling approach described in Grimm et al. (2005), starting from the analysis of empirical data in order to capture the processes relevant for specific scales and to allow a rigorous calibration and validation of the model application. In this paper, we give an introduction to the basic

  3. India Should Develop Its Naval Power in View of Growing Potential Security Concerns Connected to China’s Non-Transparent Intentions in the Indian Ocean Region (United States)


    huge population, both countries provide large markets for consumer goods. This opportunity can be leveraged by both nations to increase their trade ...13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Indian Ocean is a major conduit for the international trade . Growing demand for energy and maritime trade ...REGION, by MAJ Sushil Kumar Jindal, 98 pages. Indian Ocean is a major conduit for the international trade . Growing demand for energy and maritime

  4. Climatic warming above the Arctic Circle: are there trends in timing and length of the thermal growing season in Murmansk Region (Russia) between 1951 and 2012? (United States)

    Blinova, Ilona; Chmielewski, Frank-Michael


    Anomalies in the timing of the thermal growing season have become obvious in the NE part of Fennoscandia since 2000. They are in accordance with climatic changes reported for Europe and Fennoscandia. The actual length of the growing season reached 120 days on average, onset on 30 May and ending on 27 September (1981-2010). Shifts in the timing of the growing season and its mean prolongation by 18.5 days/62a are demonstrated for Murmansk Region (1951-2012). In this period, the onset of the growing season advanced by 7.1 days/62a, while the end was extended by 11.4 days/62a. The delay in the end of the growing season is similar to the entire Fennoscandian pattern but it has not been detected in the rest of Europe. The regional pattern of climatic regimes in Murmansk Region remained stable in comparison with earlier climatic maps (1971). However, the actual shifts in the timing of the growing season were more pronounced in colder (oceanic and mountainous) parts. Recent climatic trends could influence the retreat of the tundra zone and changes in the forest line. Losses of tundra biodiversity and enrichment of the northern taiga by southern species could be expected from present climatic trends.

  5. Selección de Píxel Semilla mediante Wavelets para Crecimiento por Regiones Difuso (Selection of Seed Pixel Through Wavelets for Fuzzy Region Growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damián Valdés Santiago


    Full Text Available RESUMEN El análisis de masas y tumores en mamografía es un problema difícil porque los signos del cáncer pueden ser mínimos o estar superpuestos en el tejido. Las técnicas de procesamiento de imágenes pueden mejorar el diagnóstico reduciendo los costos. La detección de masas es un reto debido al bajo contraste y la pobre definición de los bordes. Una solución al problema es representar una masa mediante conjuntos difusos. En este trabajo se estudia la propuesta de Guliato et al. que plantean dos métodos de segmentación difusos. El primero determina el borde de una masa por crecimiento por regiones clásico, luego de un preprocesamiento difuso de la región de interés. El segundo es un método de crecimiento por regiones difuso. Estos métodos necesitan un píxel semilla y un umbral. En este trabajo se propone una selección automática del píxel semilla mediante la selección de píxeles muy correlacionados según la transformada wavelet de la imagen. Como medida de evaluación en la segmentación, se emplea la medida de ambigüedad definida por los autores citados. Con la selección de semilla propuesta se obtienen mejores resultados en la segmentación, respecto al uso de una semilla aleatoria. ABSTRACT The analysis of masses and tumors in mammography is difficult because developing signs of cancer may be minimal or masked by superimposed tissues. Image analysis techniques have the potential to improve the diagnostic accuracy of mammography, and reduce health-care costs. Detection of breast masses is a challenging problem due to low contrast and poor definition of their boundaries. An alternative to address this problem is to represent tumor or mass regions by fuzzy sets. In this paper, two methods of fuzzy segmentation proposed by Guliato et al. are studied. The first method determines the boundary of a mass by classic region growing after a fuzzy preprocessing step. The second method is a fuzzy region-growing method. This

  6. Abundance and Diversity of Wild Bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) Found in Lowbush Blueberry Growing Regions of Downeast Maine. (United States)

    Bushmann, Sara L; Drummond, Francis A


    Insect-mediated pollination is critical for lowbush blueberry (Ericaceae: Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton) fruit development. Past research shows a persistent presence of wild bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) providing pollination services even when commercial pollinators are present. We undertook the study to 1) provide a description of bee communities found in lowbush blueberry-growing regions, 2) identify field characteristics or farm management practices that influence those communities, 3) identify key wild bee pollinators that provide pollination services for the blueberry crop, and 4) identify non-crop plants found within the cropping system that provide forage for wild bees. During a 4-year period, we collected solitary and eusocial bees in over 40 fields during and after blueberry bloom, determining a management description for each field. We collected 4,474 solitary bees representing 124 species and 1,315 summer bumble bees representing nine species. No bumble bee species were previously unknown in Maine, yet we document seven solitary bee species new for the state. These include species of the genera Nomada, Lasioglossum, Calliopsis, and Augochloropsis. No field characteristic or farm management practice related to bee community structure, except bumble bee species richness was higher in certified organic fields. Pollen analysis determined scopal loads of 67-99% ericaceous pollen carried by five species of Andrena. Our data suggest two native ericaceous plants, Kalmia angustifolia L. and Gaylussacia baccata (Wangenheim), provide important alternative floral resources. We conclude that Maine blueberry croplands are populated with a species-rich bee community that fluctuates in time and space. We suggest growers develop and maintain wild bee forage and nest sites. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  7. Growth and Yield of Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. Stands in Nyírség Growing Region (North-East Hungary

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    Károly Rédei


    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: In Hungary the black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. can be considered as the most important fast-growing stand-forming exotic tree species. Due to its favourite growing technological characteristics as well as its wood utilization possibilities the present area occupied by black locust stands amounts to 460 thousand hectares. Of its growing districts Nyírség (North-East Hungary has a distinguished importance where the area of black locust stands is appr. 22 700 hectares. The Nyírség region can also be considered as one of the best black locust growing regions in the Carpathian basin. To determine their growth rate and yield as exact as possible a local numerical yield table has been constructed on the basis of surveys of the experimental plots established in pure, managed black locust stands. Material and Methods: The local black locust yield table was constructed from data gathered on 105 sampling plots with average area of 1 000 m2. The total area of the experimental plots was 9.295 ha. In the course of the stand surveys the key stand characteristics were measured, and then, on the basis of data collected, were calculated the average height, diameter (DBH, volume, basal area and stem number given separately for the main (remaining, secondary (removal and total stands per hectare. Results and Conclusion: Black locust yield table presented in this paper is the first local one in the history of the Hungarian black locust research. The programmable editing procedure allows extension and formal change of information content of the yield table according to different demands. This type of yield tables (standards somewhat reflects the local growing-technological (forest tending characteristics better way, on the other hand refer to the trend of quality and quantity changing of black locust stands growing in a given area.

  8. Models to quantify excretion of dry matter, nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon in growing pigs fed regional diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard; Prapaspongsa, Trakarn


    used in a digestibility and balance experiment. Excretion of dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and carbon (C) of the experimental diets were determined. Due to the highest dietary fibre content, VN had the lowest digestibility of N, P and C (73, 49, and 73%, respectively) compared...... with the DK and TH pig diets. From the known diet composition using standard table values on chemical and nutrient digestibly, high accuracy (bias) and low variation was found and the results could be used for prediction on chemical composition and excretion in faeces and urine in growing pigs. Calculation...

  9. Chemical diversity of essential oils from flowers, leaves, and stems of Rhanterium epapposum Oliv. growing in northern border region of Saudi Arabia


    Marwa Awad; Abdelrhman Abdelwahab


    Objective: To evaluate the medicinal uses of Rhanterium epapposum Oliv. (R. epapposum) growing in northern border region of Saudi Arabia, through the chemical diversity of essential oils extracted from its flowers, leaves and stems. Methods: Aerial parts of R. epapposum were collected in April 2014. Air dried flowers, leaves, and stems were separately subjected to hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus for 4 h to extract the essential oils. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ana...

  10. Relative Prevalence of Grapevine Leafroll-Associated Virus Species in Wine Grape-Growing Regions of California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhineet M Sharma

    Full Text Available Some diseases manifest as one characteristic set of symptoms to the host, but can be caused by multiple pathogens. Control treatments based on plant symptoms can make it difficult to effectively manage such diseases, as the biology of the underlying pathogens can vary. Grapevine leafroll disease affects grapes worldwide, and is associated with several viral species in the family Closteroviridae. Whereas some of the viruses associated with this disease are transmitted by insect vectors, others are only graft-transmissible. In three regions of California, we surveyed vineyards containing diseased vines and screened symptomatic plants for all known viral species associated with grapevine leafroll disease. Relative incidence of each virus species differed among the three regions regions, particularly in relation to species with known vectors compared with those only known to be graft-transmitted. In one region, the pathogen population was dominated by species not known to have an insect vector. In contrast, populations in the other surveyed regions were dominated by virus species that are vector-transmissible. Our survey did not detect viruses associated with grapevine leafroll disease at some sites with characteristic disease symptoms. This could be explained either by undescribed genetic diversity among these viruses that prevented detection with available molecular tools at the time the survey was performed, or a misidentification of visual symptoms that may have had other underlying causes. Based on the differences in relative prevalence of each virus species among regions and among vineyards within regions, we expect that region and site-specific management strategies are needed for effective disease control.

  11. Computer-aided detection of breast lesions in DCE-MRI using region growing based on fuzzy C-means clustering and vesselness filter (United States)

    B. Shokouhi, Shahriar; Fooladivanda, Aida; Ahmadinejad, Nasrin


    A computer-aided detection (CAD) system is introduced in this paper for detection of breast lesions in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). The proposed CAD system firstly compensates motion artifacts and segments the breast region. Then, the potential lesion voxels are detected and used as the initial seed points for the seeded region-growing algorithm. A new and robust region-growing algorithm incorporating with Fuzzy C-means (FCM) clustering and vesselness filter is proposed to segment any potential lesion regions. Subsequently, the false positive detections are reduced by applying a discrimination step. This is based on 3D morphological characteristics of the potential lesion regions and kinetic features which are fed to the support vector machine (SVM) classifier. The performance of the proposed CAD system is evaluated using the free-response operating characteristic (FROC) curve. We introduce our collected dataset that includes 76 DCE-MRI studies, 63 malignant and 107 benign lesions. The prepared dataset has been used to verify the accuracy of the proposed CAD system. At 5.29 false positives per case, the CAD system accurately detects 94% of the breast lesions.

  12. Suitability analysis for rice growing sites using a multicriteria evaluation and GIS approach in great Mwea region, Kenya. (United States)

    Kihoro, Joseph; Bosco, Njoroge J; Murage, Hunja


    Land suitability analysis is a prerequisite to achieving optimum utilization of the available land resources. Lack of knowledge on best combination of factors that suit production of rice has contributed to the low production. The aim of this study was to develop a suitability map for rice crop based on physical and climatic factors of production using a Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) & GIS approach. The study was carried out in Kirinyaga, Embu and Mberee counties in Kenya. Biophysical variables of soil, climate and topography were considered for suitability analysis. All data were stored in ArcGIS 9.3 environment and the factor maps were generated. For MCE, Pairwise Comparison Matrix was applied and the suitable areas for rice crop were generated and graduated. The current land cover map of the area was developed from a scanned survey map of the rice growing areas. According to the present land cover map, the rice cultivated area was 13,369 ha. Finally, we overlaid the land cover map with the suitability map to identify variances between the present and potential land use. The crop-land evaluation results of the present study showed that, 75% of total area currently being used was under highly suitable areas and 25% was under moderately suitable areas. The results showed that the potential area for rice growing is 86,364 ha and out of this only 12% is under rice cultivation. This research provided information at local level that could be used by farmers to select cropping patterns and suitability.

  13. Molecular and biological characterization of Potato mop-top virus (PMTV, Pomovirus) isolates from potato-growing regions in Colombia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil, José; Adams, Ian; Boonham, Neil


    samples were taken from the main potato-producing regions in Colombia and virus was recovered by planting Nicotiana benthamiana as bait plants. The complete genomes of five isolates were sequenced and three of the isolates were inoculated to four different indicator plants. Based on sequence comparisons...

  14. Characterization of leaves and flowers volatile constituents of Lantana camara growing in central region of Saudi Ar

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    Merajuddin Khan


    Full Text Available The chemical components of essential oils derived from leaves and flowers of Lantana camara growing in Saudi Arabia are analyzed for the first time using gas chromatography techniques (GC–MS, GC–FID, Co-GC, LRI determination, and database and literature searches on two different stationary phase columns (polar and nonpolar. This analysis led to the identification of total 163 compounds from leaves and flowers oils. 134 compounds were identified in the oil obtained from leaves of L. camara, whereas 127 compounds were identified in the oil obtained from flowers; these compounds account for 96.3% and 95.3% of the oil composition, respectively. The major components in the oil from leaves were cis-3-hexen-1-ol (11.3%, 1-octen-3-ol (8.7%, spathulenol (8.6%, caryophyllene oxide (7.5% and 1-hexanol (5.8%. In contrast, the major compounds in the flowers oil were caryophyllene oxide (10.6%, β-caryophyllene (9.7%, spathulenol (8.6%, γ-cadinene (5.6% and trans-β-farnesene (5.0%. To the best of our knowledge, cis-3-hexen-1-ol and 1-octen-3-ol that were identified as major components in this study have not been reported earlier from Lantana oils.

  15. Comparison on Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Properties of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot Wines from Four Wine Grape-Growing Regions in China

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    Bao Jiang


    Full Text Available The antioxidant activities in the Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from four wine grape-growing regions in China were measured by different analytical assays: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·, cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC, superoxide radical-scavenging activity (SRSA and the contents of total phenols, total flavonoids, total flavanols and total anthocyanins were determined. The results showed that the contents of phenolic compounds and the levels of antioxidant activity in the wine samples greatly varied with cultivar and environmental factors of vine growth. The contents of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from the Yuquanying region of Ningxia were significantly higher than other three regions, followed by the wines from Shacheng region of Hebei, and these parameters were the lowest in Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from the Changli regions of Hebei and Xiangning region of Shanxi. Taken together, a close relationship between phenolic subclasses and antioxidant activity was observed for the wine samples. Moreover, there were significant discrepancies in the individual phenolic composition and content of four regional Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines, among which the individual phenolic compounds (catechin, epicatechin, cinnamic acid, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, laricitrin-3-O-glucoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside revealed a significant correlation (p < 0.05 with the antioxidant capacity in present study, especially for catechin and epicatechin.

  16. Conflict resolution in the zoning of eco-protected areas in fast-growing regions based on game theory. (United States)

    Lin, Jinyao; Li, Xia


    Zoning eco-protected areas is important for ecological conservation and environmental management. Rapid and continuous urban expansion, however, may exert negative effects on the performance of practical zoning designs. Various methods have been developed for protected area zoning, but most of them failed to consider the conflicts between urban development (for the benefit of land developers) and ecological protection (local government). Some real-world zoning schemes even have to be modified occasionally after the lengthy negotiations between the government and land developers. Therefore, our study has presented a game theory-based method to deal with this problem. Future urban expansion in the study area will be predicted by a logistic regression cellular automaton, while eco-protected areas will be delimitated using multi-objective optimization algorithm. Then, two types of conflicts between them can be resolved based on game theory, a theory of decision-making. We established a two-person dynamic game for each conflict zone. The ecological compensation mechanism was taken into account by simulating the negotiation processes between the government and land developers. A final zoning scheme can be obtained when the two sides reach agreements. The proposed method is applied to the eco-protected area zoning in Guangzhou, a fast-growing city in China. The experiments indicate that the conflicts between eco-protection and urban development will inevitably arise when using only traditional zoning methods. Based on game theory, our method can effectively resolve those conflicts, and can provide a relatively reasonable zoning scheme. This method is expected to support policy-making in environmental management and urban planning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pacific island health inequities forecast to grow unless profound changes are made to health systems in the region. (United States)

    Matheson, Don; Park, Kunhee; Soakai, Taniela Sunia


    Objective Twenty years ago the Pacific's health ministers developed a 'Healthy Islands' vision to lead health development in the subregion. This paper reports on a review of health development over this period and discusses the implications for the attainment of the health related Sustainable Development Goals. Methods The review used qualitative and quantitative methods. The qualitative review included conducting semi-structured interviews with Pacific Island Government Ministers and officials, regional agencies, health workers and community members. A document review was also conducted. The quantitative review consisted of examining secondary data from regional and global data collections. Results The review found improvement in health indicators, but increasing health inequality between the Pacific and the rest of the world. Many of the larger island populations were unable to reach the health Millennium Development Goals. The 'Healthy Islands' vision remained an inspiration to health ministers and senior officials in the region. However, implementation of the 'Healthy Islands' approach was patchy, under-resourced and un-sustained. Communicable and Maternal and Child Health challenges persist alongside unprecedented levels of non-communicable diseases, inadequate levels of health finance and few skilled health workers as the major impediments to health development for many of the Pacific's countries. Conclusions The current trajectory for health in the Pacific will lead to increasing health inequity with the rest of the world. The challenges to health in the region include persisting communicable disease and maternal and child health threats, unprecedented levels of NCDs, climate change and instability, as well as low economic growth. In order to change the fortunes of this region in the age of the SDGs, a substantial investment in health is required, including in the health workforce, by countries and donors alike. That investment requires a nuanced response

  18. Chemical analysis and antioxidant activity of the essential oils of three Piperaceae species growing in the central region of Cuba. (United States)

    Rodríguez, Elisa Jorge; Saucedo-Hernández, Yanelis; Vander Heyden, Yvan; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto F; Ramis-Ramos, Guillermo; Lerma-García, María Jesús; Monteagudo, Urbano; Bravo, Luis; Medinilla, Mildred; de Armas, Yuriam; Herrero-Martínez, José Manuel


    The present study describes the phytochemical profile and antioxidant activity of the essential oils of three Piperaceae species collected in the central region of Cuba. The essential oils of Piper aduncum, P. auritum and P. umbellatum leaves, obtained by hydrodistillation, were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main components of P. aduncum oil were piperitone (34%), camphor (17.1%), camphene (10.9%), 1,8-cineol (8.7%) and viridiflorol (7.4%), whereas that of P. auritum and P. umbellatum was safrole (71.8 and 26.4%, respectively). The antioxidant properties of the essential oils were also evaluated using several assays for radical scavenging ability (DPPH test and reducing power) and inhibition of lipid oxidation (ferric thiocyanate method and evaluation against Cucurbita seed oil by peroxide, thiobarbituric acid and p-anisidine methods). P. auritum showed the strongest antioxidant activity among the Piper species investigated, but lower than those of butylated hydroxyanisol and propyl gallate.

  19. Effect of land cover and green space on land surface temperature of a fast growing economic region in Malaysia (United States)

    Sheikhi, A.; Kanniah, K. D.; Ho, C. H.


    Green space must be increased in the development of new cities as green space can moderate temperature in the cities. In this study we estimated the land surface temperature (LST) and established relationships between LST and land cover and various vegetation and urban surface indices in the Iskandar Malaysia (IM) region. IM is one of the emerging economic gateways of Malaysia, and is envisaged to transform into a metropolis by 2025. This change may cause increased temperature in IM and therefore we conducted a study by using Landsat 5 image covering the study region (2,217 km2) to estimate LST, classify different land covers and calculate spectral indices. Results show that urban surface had highest LST (24.49 °C) and the lowest temperature was recorded in, forest, rubber and water bodies ( 20.69 to 21.02°C). Oil palm plantations showed intermediate mean LST values with 21.65 °C. We further investigated the relationship between vegetation and build up densities with temperature. We extracted 1000 collocated pure pixels of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), Normalized Difference Built-up Index (NDBI), Urban Index (UI) and LST in the study area. Results show a strong and significant negative correlation with (R2= -0.74 and -0.79) respectively between NDVI, NDWI and LST . Meanwhile a strong positive correlation (R2=0.8 and 0.86) exists between NDBI, UI and LST. These results show the importance of increasing green cover in urban environment to combat any adverse effects of climate change.

  20. Responses of the photosynthetic apparatus to winter conditions in broadleaved evergreen trees growing in warm temperate regions of Japan. (United States)

    Tanaka, Chizuru; Nakano, Takashi; Yamazaki, Jun-Ya; Maruta, Emiko


    Photosynthetic characteristics of two broadleaved evergreen trees, Quercus myrsinaefolia and Machilus thunbergii, were compared in autumn and winter. The irradiance was similar in both seasons, but the air temperature was lower in winter. Under the winter conditions, net photosynthesis under natural sunlight (Anet) in both species dropped to 4 μmol CO2 m(-2) s(-1), and the quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry in dark-adapted leaves (Fv/Fm) also dropped to 0.60. In both species the maximum carboxylation rates of Rubisco (V(cmax)) decreased, and the amount of Rubisco increased in winter. A decline in chlorophyll (Chl) concentration and an increase in the Chl a/b ratio in winter resulted in a reduction in the size of the light-harvesting antennae. From measurements of Chl a fluorescence parameters, both the relative fraction and the energy flux rates of thermal dissipation through other non-photochemical processes were markedly elevated in winter. The results indicate that the photosynthetic apparatus in broadleaved evergreen species in warm temperate regions responds to winter through regulatory mechanisms involving the downregulation of light-harvesting and photosynthesis coupled with increased photoprotective thermal energy dissipation to minimize photodamage in winter. These mechanisms aid a quick restart of photosynthesis without the development of new leaves in the following spring. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Maturity stages affect the postharvest quality and shelf-life of fruits of strawberry genotypes growing in subtropical regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moshiur Rahman


    Full Text Available The postharvest changes of five promising strawberry genotypes viz. Sweet Charlie, Festival, Camarosa, FA 008 and BARI Strawberry-1 at ambient temperature were studied under sub tropical region during the winter season (December–April of 2010–2011 and 2011–2012 in Bangladesh. Irrespective of maturity stages percent fruit decay and weight of fruits were noted minimum in Camarosa and maximum in FA 008 up to day 4 of storage. The shelf life of fruits was maximum in Camarosa and minimum in FA 008 and BARI Strawberry-1 regardless of maturity stage throughout the storage period. The TSS, total sugar and ascorbic acid content of fruits were increased with the increase in maturity stage during the storage period. In 1/3rd and 2/3rd maturity stages, the TSS and total sugar content were found the highest in Festival but at full maturity stage those were recorded higher in Camarosa. The titratable acidity was noticed the highest in 1/3rd matured fruits and gradually decreased with the increase in maturity stage as well as storage duration in all the genotypes. Ascorbic acid content of strawberry gradually decreases during the storage period. Fully matured fresh fruits of Festival contained maximum ascorbic acid content while BARI Strawberry-1 contained minimum ascorbic acid that was reduced after 3 days of storage.

  2. The Growing Season, but Not the Farming System, Is a Food Safety Risk Determinant for Leafy Greens in the Mid-Atlantic Region of the United States (United States)

    Marine, Sasha C.; Pagadala, Sivaranjani; Wang, Fei; Pahl, Donna M.; Melendez, Meredith V.; Kline, Wesley L.; Oni, Ruth A.; Walsh, Christopher S.; Everts, Kathryne L.; Buchanan, Robert L.


    Small- and medium-size farms in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States use varied agricultural practices to produce leafy greens during spring and fall, but the impact of preharvest practices on food safety risk remains unclear. To assess farm-level risk factors, bacterial indicators, Salmonella enterica, and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) from 32 organic and conventional farms were analyzed. A total of 577 leafy greens, irrigation water, compost, field soil, and pond sediment samples were collected. Salmonella was recovered from 2.2% of leafy greens (n = 369) and 7.7% of sediment (n = 13) samples. There was an association between Salmonella recovery and growing season (fall versus spring) (P = 0.006) but not farming system (organic or conventional) (P = 0.920) or region (P = 0.991). No STEC was isolated. In all, 10% of samples were positive for E. coli: 6% of leafy greens, 18% of irrigation water, 10% of soil, 38% of sediment, and 27% of compost samples. Farming system was not a significant factor for levels of E. coli or aerobic mesophiles on leafy greens but was a significant factor for total coliforms (TC) (P bacteria (P < 0.001), and end-of-line groundwater had marginally higher TC counts than source samples (P = 0.059). Overall, the data suggest that seasonal events, weather conditions, and proximity of compost piles might be important factors contributing to microbial contamination on farms growing leafy greens. PMID:25616798

  3. A method for extracting burned areas from Landsat TM/ETM+ images by soft aggregation of multiple Spectral Indices and a region growing algorithm (United States)

    Stroppiana, D.; Bordogna, G.; Carrara, P.; Boschetti, M.; Boschetti, L.; Brivio, P. A.


    Since fire is a major threat to forests and wooded areas in the Mediterranean environment of Southern Europe, systematic regional fire monitoring is a necessity. Satellite data constitute a unique cost-effective source of information on the occurrence of fire events and on the extent of the area burned. Our objective is to develop a (semi-)automated algorithm for mapping burned areas from medium spatial resolution (30 m) satellite data. In this article we present a multi-criteria approach based on Spectral Indices, soft computing techniques and a region growing algorithm; theoretically this approach relies on the convergence of partial evidence of burning provided by the indices. Our proposal features several innovative aspects: it is flexible in adapting to a variable number of indices and to missing data; it exploits positive and negative evidence (bipolar information) and it offers different criteria for aggregating partial evidence in order to derive the layers of candidate seeds and candidate region growing boundaries. The study was conducted on a set of Landsat TM images, acquired for the year 2003 over Southern Europe and pre-processed with the LEDAPS (Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System) processing chain for deriving surface spectral reflectance ρi in the TM bands. The proposed method was applied to show its flexibility and the sensitivity of the accuracy of the resulting burned area maps to different aggregation criteria and thresholds for seed selection. Validation performed over an entire independent Landsat TM image shows the commission and omission errors to be below 21% and 3%, respectively.

  4. Biomarker responses of rice plants growing in a potentially toxic element polluted region: A case study in the Le'An Region. (United States)

    Ji, Yong; Zhang, Jie; Li, Xiaoli; Peng, Yongwen; Cai, Gaotang; Gao, Guiqing; Wu, Jianqiang; Liu, Jiali


    Rice plants, planted and grown in the field, were chosen in this study to evaluate the potentially toxic element pollution by combining pollutant analysis and a molecular biomarker response evaluation together in the Le'An Region, a highly polluted area due to anthropogenic activities. Soils and crops at 18 sites classified into four areas based on hydrological, geological and pollutant survey results were collected during the whole growth cycle for chemical and biological analysis. Sediment quality values and pollution indexes were combined with statistical analyses to assess the hazard of potentially toxic elements and evaluate ecological risks. As effective stress-related signals, chlorophyll (Chl), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), glutathione content (GSH) and lipoperoxidation (as TBARS) were also determined during the rice plant growth period. The results revealed that heavy metal concentrations were significantly higher than corresponding background values and significantly related to those of the soils. The maximum concentration of potentially toxic elements was observed at the tillering stage, followed by the grain filling stage and heading stage. As biomarkers in field monitoring, a significant increase or decrease in Chl, SOD, POD, CAT, GSH and TBARS in crops means a potential relationship between the indexes and pollutants. This study also demonstrates that the integrated biomarker response (IBR) calculated by combining different biomarkers could be used effectively to evaluate the pollutant-induced stress levels in different areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Neural networks combined with region growing techniques for tumor detection in [18F]-fluorothymidine dynamic positron emission tomography breast cancer studies (United States)

    Cseh, Zoltan; Kenny, Laura; Swingland, James; Bose, Subrata; Turheimer, Federico E.


    Early detection and precise localization of malignant tumors has been a primary challenge in medical imaging in recent years. Functional modalities play a continuously increasing role in these efforts. Image segmentation algorithms which enable automatic, accurate tumor visualization and quantification on noisy positron emission tomography (PET) images would significantly improve the quality of treatment planning processes and in turn, the success of treatments. In this work a novel multistep method has been applied in order to identify tumor regions in 4D dynamic [18F] fluorothymidine (FLT) PET studies of patients with locally advanced breast cancer. In order to eliminate the effect of inherently detectable high inhomogeneity inside tumors, specific voxel-kinetic classes were initially introduced by finding characteristic FLT-uptake curves with K-means algorithm on a set of voxels collected from each tumor. Image voxel sets were then split based on voxel time-activity curve (TAC) similarities, and models were generated separately on each voxel set. At first, artificial neural networks, in comparison with linear classification algorithms were applied to distinguish tumor and healthy regions relying on the characteristics of TACs of the individual voxels. The outputs of the best model with very high specificity were then used as input seeds for region shrinking and growing techniques, the application of which considerably enhanced the sensitivity and specificity (78.65% +/- 0.65% and 98.98% +/- 0.03%, respectively) of the final image segmentation model.

  6. Genetically different wine yeasts isolated from Austrian vine-growing regions influence wine aroma differently and contain putative hybrids between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces kudriavzevii. (United States)

    Lopandic, Ksenija; Gangl, Helmut; Wallner, Erich; Tscheik, Gabriele; Leitner, Gerhard; Querol, Amparo; Borth, Nicole; Breitenbach, Michael; Prillinger, Hansjörg; Tiefenbrunner, Wolfgang


    To evaluate the influence of the genomic properties of yeasts on the formation of wine flavour, genotypic diversity among natural Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains originating from grapes collected in four localities of three Austrian vine-growing areas (Thermenregion: locations Perchtoldsdorf and Pfaffstätten, Neusiedlersee-Hügelland: location Eisenstadt, Neusiedlersee: location Halbturn) was investigated and the aroma compounds produced during fermentation of the grape must of 'Grüner Veltliner' were identified. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis (AFLP) showed that the yeast strains cluster in four groups corresponding to their geographical origin. The genotypic analysis and sequencing of the D1/D2 domain of 26S rRNA encoding gene and ITS1/ITS2 regions indicated that the Perchtoldsdorf strains were putative interspecies hybrids between S. cerevisiae and Saccharomyces kudriavzevii. Analysis of the aroma compounds by GS/MS indicated a region-specific influence of the yeasts on the chemical composition of the wines. The aroma compound profiles generated by the Perchtoldsdorf strains were more related to those produced by the Pfaffstätten strains than by the Eisenstadt and Halbturn strains. Similar to the Pfaffstätten yeasts, the putative hybrid strains were good ester producers, suggesting that they may influence the wine quality favourably.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Several fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae assume the status of primary pests in fruit trees grown in Brazil, causing direct production losses. The aims of the study were to know aspects of diversity of fruit flies and their parasitoids in the fruit growing region of Livramento de Nossa Senhora, Bahia. Fruit samples were collected from 19 plant species during November/2011 and June/2014. Infestation rates were calculated in of fruit and pupae.fruit-1. The results indicate the occurrence of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann and Neosilba pendula (Bezzi. Plant species Anacardium occidentale, Averrhoa carambola, Carica papaya, Eugenia uniflora, Malpighia emarginata, Mangifera indica var. “Haden”, “Rosa” and “Tommy Atkins”, Opuntia ficus indica, Pereskia bahiensis, Psidium guajava, Spondias lutea, Spondias purpurea and Spondias tuberosa are hosts of fruit flies in the region. Unprecedented bitrophic relationships between P. bahiensis and C. capitata and Anastrepha sp. and between Opuntia ficus indica and C. capitata and A. obliqua were recorded. Unprecedented tritrophic relationship for the state of Bahia Averrhoa carambola and C. capitata and parasitoid of the Pteromalidae Family were also recorded. Tritrophic associations between M. indica var. “Tommy Atkins” and S. purpurea and A. obliqua and Doryctobracon areolatus; and between S. purpurea and A. obliqua and Utetes anastrephae were observed.

  8. Growing Pains

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony


    Heat expands and cold contracts: it’s a simple thermodynamic rule. But when temperatures swing from 300 K to near-absolute zero, this rule can mean a contraction of more than 80 metres across the LHC’s 27-km-long cryogenic system. Keeping this growth in check are compensators (a.k.a. bellows), which shrink and stretch in response to thermodynamic changes. Leak tests and X-rays now underway in the tunnel have revealed that these “joints” might be suffering from growing pains…   This 25-μm weld crack is thought to be the cause of the helium leaks. Prior to the LS1 warm-up, CERN’s cryogenic experts knew of two points in the machine’s cryogenic distribution system that were leaking helium. Fortunately, these leaks were sufficiently small, confined to known sub-sectors of the cryogenic line and – with help from the vacuum team (TE-VSC) – could easily be compensated for. But as the machine warmed up f...

  9. Volatile composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Artemisia absinthium growing in Western Ghats region of North West Karnataka, India. (United States)

    Joshi, Rajesh Kumar


    Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae) is an aromatic, herbaceous, perennial plant commonly known as wormwood. Artemisia absinthium is traditionally used as an anthelmintic, antiseptic, antispasmodic and for bacillary dysentery, cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. The essential oil composition of the leaves of A. absinthium growing in the Western Ghats region of North West Karnataka, India, is investigated for the first time in this region and the oil was screened for antimicrobial properties. The chemical composition of the hydro-distilled essential oil obtained from the leaves of A. absinthium was analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS. The oil was tested against five Gram positive and, eight Gram negative bacteria and three fungi by the tube-dilution method at a concentration range of 5000-9 µg/mL. Results demonstrated that the leave oil was found to be rich in oxygenated monoterpenes (39.7% and 41.1%). The major compounds were borneol (18.7% and 16.7%), methyl hinokiate (11.9% and 12.9%), isobornyl acetate (4.0% and 4.7%), β-gurjunene (3.8% and 4.4%) and caryophyllene oxide (3.7% and 4.3%), among 64 identified compounds, comprising 91.7% and 90.1% of the total oil. The organism Micrococcus luteus was found more susceptible to the oil with an MIC value of 25 ± 4 µg/mL, followed by Micrococcus flavus, Bacillus subtilis, Penicillium chrysogenum and Aspergillus fumigatus with MIC values of 58 ± 8, 65 ± 8, 84 ± 15 and 91 ± 13 µg/mL, respectively. The oil showing antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi validate the traditional use of the plant as an antiseptic.

  10. Diet inclusion of devil fish (Plecostomus spp.) silage and its impacts on ruminal fermentation and growth performance of growing lambs in hot regions of Mexico. (United States)

    Tejeda-Arroyo, Eduardo; Cipriano-Salazar, Moisés; Camacho-Díaz, Luis Miguel; Salem, Abdelfattah Zeidan Mohamed; Kholif, Ahmed Eid; Elghandour, Mona Mohamed Mohamed Yasseen; DiLorenzo, Nicolas; Cruz-Lagunas, Blas


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the inclusion of devil fish (Plecostomus spp.-DF) silage in Criollo × Blackbelly lamb diets in hot region of Guerrero state of Mexico. Rumen fermentation including pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA) and ammonia-N (NH3-N) and productive variables including feed intake (FI), average daily gain (ADG), and feed conversion were determined. Twenty lambs with 18 ± 1.2 kg body weight in a completely randomized design were fed a total mixed ration (TMR) of concentrate (based on soybean meal, whole oat hay, ground corn cob, vitamins-minerals supplement) with DF silage at 0 % (DF0), 9 % (DF9), 18 % (DF18), and 27 % (DF27) of the TMR for 75 days. The ruminal pH showed no difference (P > 0.05) between treatments: ranging between 6.21 and 6.36. Propionic acid molar proportions showed an irregular pattern between experimental groups, which only differed (P  0.05) among treatments. The daily FI was increased (P  0.05) among them. The ADG showed only difference (cubic effect, P = 0.02) between DF9 and DF18. The highest feed conversion was observed (cubic effect, P < 0.01) with DF18, with a value of 4.7 kg of feed to gain 1 kg of body weight. It could be concluded that the inclusion of up to 18 % of DF silage in the TMR of growing lamb diets, in hot regions of Mexico, may improve productive performance and ruminal fermentation kinetics, without any negative effects.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Kumar


    Full Text Available An efficient Autoseed Region Growing with Morphological Masking(ARGMM is imple-mented in this paper on the Lung CT Slice to segment the 'Lung Nodules',which may be the potential indicator for the Lung Cancer. The segmentation of lung nodules car-ried out in this paper through Multi-Thresholding, ARGMM and Level Set Evolution. ARGMM takes twice the time compared to Level Set, but still the number of suspected segmented nodules are doubled, which make sure that no potential cancerous nodules go unnoticed at the earlier stages of diagnosis. It is very important not to panic the patient by finding the presence of nodules from Lung CT scan. Only 40 percent of nod-ules can be cancerous. Hence, in this paper an efficient Shape and Texture analysis is computed to quantitatively describe the segmented lung nodules. The Frequency spectrum of the lung nodules is developed and its frequency domain features are com-puted. The Complete Local binary pattern of lung nodules is computed in this paper by constructing the combine histogram of Sign and Magnitude Local Binary Patterns. Lo-cal Configuration Pattern is also determined in this work for lung nodules to numeri-cally model the microscopic information of nodules pattern.

  12. Growing Region Segmentation Software (GRES) for quantitative magnetic resonance imaging of multiple sclerosis: intra- and inter-observer agreement variability: a comparison with manual contouring method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parodi, Roberto C.; Sardanelli, Francesco; Renzetti, Paolo; Rosso, Elisabetta; Losacco, Caterina [Department of Radiology, University of Genova (Italy); Ferrari, Alessandra; Levrero, Fabrizio; Pilot, Alberto [Department of Medical Physics, San Martino Hospital, Genova (Italy); Inglese, Matilde; Mancardi, Giovanni L. [Department of Neurology, University of Genova (Italy)


    Lesion area measurement in multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the key points in evaluating the natural history and in monitoring the efficacy of treatments. This study was performed to check the intra- and inter-observer agreement variability of a locally developed Growing Region Segmentation Software (GRES), comparing them to those obtained using manual contouring (MC). From routine 1.5-T MRI study of clinically definite multiple sclerosis patients, 36 lesions seen on proton-density-weighted images (PDWI) and 36 enhancing lesion on Gd-DTPA-BMA-enhanced T1-weighted images (Gd-T1WI) were randomly chosen and were evaluated by three observers. The mean range of lesion size was 9.9-536.0 mm{sup 2} on PDWI and 3.6-57.2 mm{sup 2} on Gd-T1WI. The median intra- and inter-observer agreement were, respectively, 97.1 and 90.0% using GRES on PDWI, 81.0 and 70.0% using MC on PDWI, 88.8 and 80.0% using GRES on Gd-T1WI, and 85.8 and 70.0% using MC on Gd-T1WI. The intra- and inter-observer agreements were significantly greater for GRES compared with MC (P<0.0001 and P=0.0023, respectively) for PDWI, while no difference was found between GRES an MC for Gd-T1WI. The intra-observer variability for GRES was significantly lower on both PDWI (P=0.0001) and Gd-T1WI (P=0.0067), whereas for MC the same result was found only for PDWI (P=0.0147). These data indicate that GRES reduces both the intra- and the inter-observer variability in assessing the area of MS lesions on PDWI and may prove useful in multicentre studies. (orig.)

  13. PCR detection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici and races of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici of tomato in protected tomato-growing areas of the eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey


    ÇOLAK, Ayşegül; BİÇİCİ, Mehmet


    Fusarium crown and root rot (caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, FORL) and Fusarium wilt (caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, FOL) are the most important diseases to affect tomatoes in protected growing conditions in the eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey. These diseases cause significant yield losses in this region. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) studies were used to characterize 87 isolates from Adana and Mersin provinces, representative of different l...

  14. Growing and Growing: Promoting Functional Thinking with Geometric Growing Patterns (United States)

    Markworth, Kimberly A.


    Design research methodology is used in this study to develop an empirically-substantiated instruction theory about students' development of functional thinking in the context of geometric growing patterns. The two research questions are: (1) How does students' functional thinking develop in the context of geometric growing patterns? (2) What are…

  15. Impacts of Short-Rotation Early-Growing Season Prescribed Fire on a Ground Nesting Bird in the Central Hardwoods Region of North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Tyler Pittman

    Full Text Available Landscape-scale short-rotation early-growing season prescribed fire, hereafter prescribed fire, in upland hardwood forests represents a recent shift in management strategies across eastern upland forests. Not only does this strategy depart from dormant season to growing season prescriptions, but the strategy also moves from stand-scale to landscape-scale implementation (>1,000 ha. This being so, agencies are making considerable commitments in terms of time and resources to this management strategy, but the effects on wildlife in upland forests, especially those dominated by hardwood canopy species, are relatively unknown. We initiated our study to assess whether this management strategy affects eastern wild turkey reproductive ecology on the Ozark-St. Francis National Forest. We marked 67 wild turkey hens with Global Positioning System (GPS Platform Transmitting Terminals in 2012 and 2013 to document exposure to prescribed fire, and estimate daily nest survival, nest success, and nest-site selection. We estimated these reproductive parameters in forest units managed with prescribed fire (treated and units absent of prescribed fire (untreated. Of 60 initial nest attempts monitored, none were destroyed or exposed to prescribed fire because a majority of fires occurred early than a majority of the nesting activity. We found nest success was greater in untreated units than treated units (36.4% versus 14.6%. We did not find any habitat characteristic differences between successful and unsuccessful nest-sites. We found that nest-site selection criteria differed between treated and untreated units. Visual concealment and woody ground cover were common selection criteria in both treated and untreated units. However, in treated units wild turkey selected nest-sites with fewer small shrubs (20 cm DBH but not in untreated units. In untreated units wild turkey selected nest-sites with more large shrubs (≥5 cm ground diameter but did not select for small

  16. Variation in agricultural CO2 fluxes during the growing season, collected from more than ten eddy covariance towers in the Mississippi Delta Region (United States)

    Runkle, B.; Suvocarev, K.; Reba, M. L.; Novick, K. A.; White, P.; Anapalli, S.; Locke, M. A.; Rigby, J.; Bhattacharjee, J.


    Agriculture is unique as an anthropogenic activity that plays both a large role in carbon and water cycling and whose management activities provide a key opportunity for responses to climate change. It is therefore especially crucial to bring field observations into the modeling community, test remote sensing products, encourage policy debate, and enable carbon offsets markets that generate revenue and fund climate-smart activities. The accurate measurement of agricultural CO2 exchange - both primary productivity and ecosystem respiration - in concert with evapotranspiration provides crucial information on agro-ecosystem functioning and improves our predictive capacity for estimating the impacts of climate change. In this study we report field measurements from more than 10 eddy covariance towers in the Lower Mississippi River Basin taken during the summer months of 2016. Many towers, some recently deployed, are being aggregated into a regional network known as Delta-Flux, which will ultimately include 15-20 towers by 2017. Set in and around the Mississippi Delta Region within Louisiana, Arkansas, and Mississippi, the network will collect flux, micrometeorological, and crop yield data in order to construct estimates of regional CO2 exchange. These time-series data are gap-filled using statistical and process-based models to generate estimates of summer CO2 flux. The tower network is comprised of sites representing widespread agriculture production, including rice, cotton, corn, soybean, and sugarcane; intensively managed pine forest; and bottomland hardwood forest. Unique experimental production practices are represented in the network and include restricted water use, bioenergy, and by-product utilization. Several towers compose multi-field sites testing innovative irrigation or management practices. Current mapping of agricultural carbon exchange - based on land cover layers and fixed crop emission factors - suggests an unconstrained carbon flux estimate in this

  17. Growing media [Chapter 5 (United States)

    Douglass F. Jacobs; Thomas D. Landis; Tara Luna


    Selecting the proper growing medium is one of the most important considerations in nursery plant production. A growing medium can be defined as a substance through which roots grow and extract water and nutrients. In native plant nurseries, a growing medium can consist of native soil but is more commonly an "artificial soil" composed of materials such as peat...

  18. An Ambition to Grow


    Ron Kemp; Hakkert, R.


    This report tries to gain insight in the willingness or ambition to grow of a small business owner. The main question of this report is therefore: Which factors influence the ambition to grow a business? To examine the ambition to grow an economic and a psychological perspective is given in this study.

  19. Melting ice, growing trade?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sami Bensassi; Julienne C. Stroeve; Inmaculada Martínez-Zarzoso; Andrew P. Barrett


    Abstract Large reductions in Arctic sea ice, most notably in summer, coupled with growing interest in Arctic shipping and resource exploitation have renewed interest in the economic potential of the Northern Sea Route (NSR...

  20. Growing Plants and Minds (United States)

    Presser, Ashley Lewis; Kamdar, Danae; Vidiksis, Regan; Goldstein, Marion; Dominguez, Ximena; Orr, Jillian


    Many preschool classrooms explore plant growth. However, because many plants take a long time to grow, it is often hard to facilitate engagement in some practices (i.e., since change is typically not observable from one day to another, children often forget their prior predictions or cannot recall what plants looked like days or weeks earlier).…

  1. Growing Up with "1984." (United States)

    Franza, August


    Relates changing student reaction to George Orwell's "1984" over 20 years of teaching. Finds present high school students' acceptance of Orwell's bleak world vision both a sign of student honesty and a frightening indication of the growing reality of the book. (MM)

  2. Growing through Literature. (United States)

    Thomas, Barbara J.

    "Growing through Literature" is a curriculum using Joan M. and Erik H. Erikson's theory of the Life Cycle as a structure for selecting and teaching literature to inner-city high school students at Brighton High School in Massachusetts. The program consists of four component parts: Journals, Selected Stories, Discussion, and…

  3. Growing Old in Exile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liversage, Anika; Mirdal, Gretty Mizrahi


    Some studies on immigrants and ageing focus on the question of return; others focus on how immigrants, who grow old in their countries of destination, ‘age in place’, including whether they turn to their children or to public host country provisions for care and support. However, the issues of re...

  4. 16S-23S Internal Transcribed Spacer Region PCR and Sequencer-Based Capillary Gel Electrophoresis has Potential as an Alternative to High Performance Liquid Chromatography for Identification of Slowly Growing Nontuberculous Mycobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shradha Subedi

    Full Text Available Accurate identification of slowly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria (SG-NTM of clinical significance remains problematic. This study evaluated a novel method of SG-NTM identification by amplification of the mycobacterial 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS region followed by resolution of amplified fragments by sequencer-based capillary gel electrophoresis (SCGE. Fourteen American Type Culture Collection (ATCC strains and 103 clinical/environmental isolates (total n = 24 species of SG-NTM were included. Identification was compared with that achieved by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, in-house PCR and 16S/ITS sequencing. Isolates of all species yielded a SCGE profile comprising a single fragment length (or peak except for M. scrofulaceum (two peaks. SCGE peaks of ATCC strains were distinct except for peak overlap between Mycobacterium kansasii and M. marinum. Of clinical/environmental strains, unique peaks were seen for 7/17 (41% species (M. haemophilum, M. kubicae, M. lentiflavum, M. terrae, M. kansasii, M. asiaticum and M. triplex; 3/17 (18% species were identified by HPLC. There were five SCGE fragment length types (I-V each of M. avium, M. intracellulare and M. gordonae. Overlap of fragment lengths was seen between M. marinum and M. ulcerans; for M. gordonae SCGE type III and M. paragordonae; M. avium SCGE types III and IV, and M. intracellulare SCGE type I; M. chimaera, M. parascrofulaceum and M. intracellulare SCGE types III and IV; M. branderi and M. avium type V; and M. vulneris and M. intracellulare type V. The ITS-SCGE method was able to provide the first line rapid and reproducible species identification/screening of SG-NTM and was more discriminatory than HPLC.

  5. 16S-23S Internal Transcribed Spacer Region PCR and Sequencer-Based Capillary Gel Electrophoresis has Potential as an Alternative to High Performance Liquid Chromatography for Identification of Slowly Growing Nontuberculous Mycobacteria (United States)

    Subedi, Shradha; Kong, Fanrong; Jelfs, Peter; Gray, Timothy J.; Xiao, Meng; Sintchenko, Vitali; Chen, Sharon C-A


    Accurate identification of slowly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria (SG-NTM) of clinical significance remains problematic. This study evaluated a novel method of SG-NTM identification by amplification of the mycobacterial 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region followed by resolution of amplified fragments by sequencer-based capillary gel electrophoresis (SCGE). Fourteen American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) strains and 103 clinical/environmental isolates (total n = 24 species) of SG-NTM were included. Identification was compared with that achieved by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), in-house PCR and 16S/ITS sequencing. Isolates of all species yielded a SCGE profile comprising a single fragment length (or peak) except for M. scrofulaceum (two peaks). SCGE peaks of ATCC strains were distinct except for peak overlap between Mycobacterium kansasii and M. marinum. Of clinical/environmental strains, unique peaks were seen for 7/17 (41%) species (M. haemophilum, M. kubicae, M. lentiflavum, M. terrae, M. kansasii, M. asiaticum and M. triplex); 3/17 (18%) species were identified by HPLC. There were five SCGE fragment length types (I–V) each of M. avium, M. intracellulare and M. gordonae. Overlap of fragment lengths was seen between M. marinum and M. ulcerans; for M. gordonae SCGE type III and M. paragordonae; M. avium SCGE types III and IV, and M. intracellulare SCGE type I; M. chimaera, M. parascrofulaceum and M. intracellulare SCGE types III and IV; M. branderi and M. avium type V; and M. vulneris and M. intracellulare type V. The ITS-SCGE method was able to provide the first line rapid and reproducible species identification/screening of SG-NTM and was more discriminatory than HPLC. PMID:27749897

  6. Growing unculturable bacteria. (United States)

    Stewart, Eric J


    The bacteria that can be grown in the laboratory are only a small fraction of the total diversity that exists in nature. At all levels of bacterial phylogeny, uncultured clades that do not grow on standard media are playing critical roles in cycling carbon, nitrogen, and other elements, synthesizing novel natural products, and impacting the surrounding organisms and environment. While molecular techniques, such as metagenomic sequencing, can provide some information independent of our ability to culture these organisms, it is essentially impossible to learn new gene and pathway functions from pure sequence data. A true understanding of the physiology of these bacteria and their roles in ecology, host health, and natural product production requires their cultivation in the laboratory. Recent advances in growing these species include coculture with other bacteria, recreating the environment in the laboratory, and combining these approaches with microcultivation technology to increase throughput and access rare species. These studies are unraveling the molecular mechanisms of unculturability and are identifying growth factors that promote the growth of previously unculturable organisms. This minireview summarizes the recent discoveries in this area and discusses the potential future of the field.

  7. Viking Disruptions or Growing Integration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindbæk, Søren Michael


    Long-distance communication has emerged as a particular focus for archaeological exploration using network theory, analysis, and modelling. Initial attempts to adapt methods from social network analysis to archaeological data have, however, struggled to produce decisive results. This paper...... demonstrates how formal network analysis can be combined with a contextual reading of evidence relating to a long-distance communication network in the past. A study of the combined distributions of ten vessel types in 152 settlement sites from the 10th century suggests the outline of the core structure...... of the network. The model implies that 10th century long-distance exchange in the North Sea region featured long-distance links equal to those of the Carolingian emporia trade, and represented a growth in terms of new axes of integration, above all the growing links between the Scandinavian Peninsula...

  8. Growing for different ends. (United States)

    Catts, Oron; Zurr, Ionat


    Tissue engineering and regenerative biology are usually discussed in relation to biomedical research and applications. However, hand in hand with developments of this field in the biomedical context, other approaches and uses for non-medical ends have been explored. There is a growing interest in exploring spin off tissue engineering and regenerative biology technologies in areas such as consumer products, art and design. This paper outlines developments regarding in vitro meat and leather, actuators and bio-mechanic interfaces, speculative design and contemporary artistic practices. The authors draw on their extensive experience of using tissue engineering for non-medical ends to speculate about what lead to these applications and their possible future development and uses. Avoiding utopian and dystopian postures and using the notion of the contestable, this paper also mentions some philosophical and ethical consideration stemming from the use of non-medical approaches to tissue constructs. This article is part of a directed issue entitled: Regenerative Medicine: the challenge of translation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Jurković


    Full Text Available Research studies in the area of biotechnologies in fruit growing started at the Agricultural Institute Osijek in 2006 with the establishment of the first experimental in vitro laboratory for micropropagation. The laboratory started an active research related to the Project "Biotechnological methods in fruit tree identification, selection and propagation" Project is part of program "Preservation and revitalization of grape and fruit autochthonous cultivars". The goal of this research is to determine genetic differences between autochthonous and introduced cultivars of cherry as well as cultivars and types of sour cherry, to find and optimize a method for fast recovery of clonal material. A great number of cherry cultivars and types within the population of cv. Oblacinska sour cherry exists in Croatia. A survey with the purpose of selecting autochthonous cultivars for further selection has been done in previous research. Differences have been found in a number of important agronomic traits within the populations of cv. Oblačinska sour cherry. Autochthonous cherry cultivars are suspected to be synonyms of known old cultivars which were introduced randomly and have been naturalized under a local name. Identification and description of cultivars and types of fruits is based on special visible properties which were measurable or notable. In this approach difficulties arise from the effect of non-genetic factors on expression of certain traits. Genetic-physiological problem of S allele autoincompatibility exists within cherry cultivars. Therefore it is necessary to put different cultivars in the plantation to pollinate each other. Apart form the fast and certain sort identification independent of environmental factors, biotechnological methods based on PCR enable faster virus detection compared with classical serologic methods and indexing and cover a wider range of plant pathogens including those undetectable by other methods. Thermotherapy and

  10. Growing Galaxies Gently (United States)


    New observations from ESO's Very Large Telescope have, for the first time, provided direct evidence that young galaxies can grow by sucking in the cool gas around them and using it as fuel for the formation of many new stars. In the first few billion years after the Big Bang the mass of a typical galaxy increased dramatically and understanding why this happened is one of the hottest problems in modern astrophysics. The results appear in the 14 October issue of the journal Nature. The first galaxies formed well before the Universe was one billion years old and were much smaller than the giant systems - including the Milky Way - that we see today. So somehow the average galaxy size has increased as the Universe has evolved. Galaxies often collide and then merge to form larger systems and this process is certainly an important growth mechanism. However, an additional, gentler way has been proposed. A European team of astronomers has used ESO's Very Large Telescope to test this very different idea - that young galaxies can also grow by sucking in cool streams of the hydrogen and helium gas that filled the early Universe and forming new stars from this primitive material. Just as a commercial company can expand either by merging with other companies, or by hiring more staff, young galaxies could perhaps also grow in two different ways - by merging with other galaxies or by accreting material. The team leader, Giovanni Cresci (Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri) says: "The new results from the VLT are the first direct evidence that the accretion of pristine gas really happened and was enough to fuel vigorous star formation and the growth of massive galaxies in the young Universe." The discovery will have a major impact on our understanding of the evolution of the Universe from the Big Bang to the present day. Theories of galaxy formation and evolution may have to be re-written. The group began by selecting three very distant galaxies to see if they could find evidence

  11. Investigation of Chlorosis in Peach Trees Growing in the Tokat Region Using Soil and Plant Analysis and the Effects of Soil Moisture on the Determination of the Amounts of DTPA-exractable Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn


    Karaman, M.Rüştü


    The aim of this study was the fertility analysis of soil and leaf samples collected from areas under ohlorotic and healty peach trees, and the determination of the periodical relationship between the soil properties and nutrition status of trees. The effects of soil moisture on the amounts of DTPA-extractable Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn in soil collected from these areas were also determined by incubation study. The plant and soil analysis conducted at two different stages of the growing season showed ...

  12. Tree Growth and Climate Relationship: Dynamics of Scots Pine (Pinus Sylvestris L.) Growing in the Near-Source Region of the Combined Heat and Power Plant During the Development of the Pro-Ecological Strategy in Poland. (United States)

    Sensuła, Barbara; Wilczyński, Sławomir; Opała, Magdalena

    Since the 1990s, the emission of pollutants was reduced in a majority of Polish and developing country factories whereas the level of energy production was similar to that prior to the 1990s. The conifer investigated in this study has grown for many years under the stress of industrial pollution. Despite this, the trees are preserved, to a large extent, sensitive to the natural climatic factors. We present a complex analysis of the climatic (sunshine, temperature, precipitation, humidity, and wind circulation) and anthropogenic factors influencing the radial increment dynamics of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing in the vicinity of the combined heat and power station in Łaziska (Poland). We analyzed the spatiotemporal distribution of growth reductions, the depth of reduction with respect to the distance from the emitter, the relationship between tree growth and climate during the industry development period and during proecological strategy application . Samples of carbon isotopic composition in pine needles from 2012 to 2013 were additionally determined. Pines series of 3 positions indicate that they have a similar sensitivity to most climatic elements of the previous and given year, but there is also a different rhythm between the studied populations of incremental growth of pines. The causes of diversity are due to the different types of habitat (site types) and industrial pollution. The variation in carbon stable isotopic composition in pine needles was connected with an increase of CO2.

  13. Growing Concerns With Workplace Incivility. (United States)

    Collins, Natasha Renee; Rogers, Bonnie


    Workplace incivility (WPI) is a growing issue across all public and private sectors. Occupational and environmental health nurses can educate employees and management about WPI, its risk factors and characteristics, and ways to reduce incidents of WPI.

  14. Learning Topologies with the Growing Neural Forest. (United States)

    Palomo, Esteban José; López-Rubio, Ezequiel


    In this work, a novel self-organizing model called growing neural forest (GNF) is presented. It is based on the growing neural gas (GNG), which learns a general graph with no special provisions for datasets with separated clusters. On the contrary, the proposed GNF learns a set of trees so that each tree represents a connected cluster of data. High dimensional datasets often contain large empty regions among clusters, so this proposal is better suited to them than other self-organizing models because it represents these separated clusters as connected components made of neurons. Experimental results are reported which show the self-organization capabilities of the model. Moreover, its suitability for unsupervised clustering and foreground detection applications is demonstrated. In particular, the GNF is shown to correctly discover the connected component structure of some datasets. Moreover, it outperforms some well-known foreground detectors both in quantitative and qualitative terms.

  15. Growing Oppression, Growing Resistance : LGBT Activism and Europeanisation in Macedonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miškovska Kajevska, A.; Bilić, B.


    This chapter provides one of the first socio-historical overviews of the LGBT groups in Macedonia and argues that an important impetus for the proliferation of LGBT activities has been the growing state-endorsed homophobia starting from 2008. The homophobic rhetoric of the ruling parties was clearly

  16. Exploring Classroom Hydroponics. Growing Ideas. (United States)

    National Gardening Association, Burlington, VT.

    Growing Ideas, the National Gardening Association's series for elementary, middle, and junior high school educators, helps teachers engage students in using plants and gardens as contexts for developing a deeper, richer understanding of the world around them. This volume's focus is on hydroponics. It presents basic hydroponics information along…

  17. Growing Patterns: Seeing beyond Counting (United States)

    Markworth, Kimberly A.


    Over the past two decades, mathematical patterns have been acknowledged as important early components of children's development of algebraic reasoning (NCTM 2000). In particular, growing patterns have attracted significant attention as a context that helps students develop an understanding of functional relationships (Lee and Freiman 2006; Moss et…

  18. Organization of growing random networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krapivsky, P. L.; Redner, S.


    The organizational development of growing random networks is investigated. These growing networks are built by adding nodes successively, and linking each to an earlier node of degree k with an attachment probability A{sub k}. When A{sub k} grows more slowly than linearly with k, the number of nodes with k links, N{sub k}(t), decays faster than a power law in k, while for A{sub k} growing faster than linearly in k, a single node emerges which connects to nearly all other nodes. When A{sub k} is asymptotically linear, N{sub k}(t){similar_to}tk{sup {minus}{nu}}, with {nu} dependent on details of the attachment probability, but in the range 2{lt}{nu}{lt}{infinity}. The combined age and degree distribution of nodes shows that old nodes typically have a large degree. There is also a significant correlation in the degrees of neighboring nodes, so that nodes of similar degree are more likely to be connected. The size distributions of the in and out components of the network with respect to a given node{emdash}namely, its {open_quotes}descendants{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}ancestors{close_quotes}{emdash}are also determined. The in component exhibits a robust s{sup {minus}2} power-law tail, where s is the component size. The out component has a typical size of order lnt, and it provides basic insights into the genealogy of the network.

  19. Growing random networks with fitness


    Ergun, G.; Rodgers, GJ


    Three models of growing random networks with fitness dependent growth rates are analysed using the rate equations for the distribution of their connectivities. In the first model (A), a network is built by connecting incoming nodes to nodes of connectivity $k$ and random additive fitness $\\eta$, with rate $(k-1)+ \\eta $. For $\\eta >0$ we find the connectivity distribution is power law with exponent $\\gamma=+2$. In the second model (B), the network is built by connecting nodes to nodes of conn...

  20. Neural-like growing networks (United States)

    Yashchenko, Vitaliy A.


    On the basis of the analysis of scientific ideas reflecting the law in the structure and functioning the biological structures of a brain, and analysis and synthesis of knowledge, developed by various directions in Computer Science, also there were developed the bases of the theory of a new class neural-like growing networks, not having the analogue in world practice. In a base of neural-like growing networks the synthesis of knowledge developed by classical theories - semantic and neural of networks is. The first of them enable to form sense, as objects and connections between them in accordance with construction of the network. With thus each sense gets a separate a component of a network as top, connected to other tops. In common it quite corresponds to structure reflected in a brain, where each obvious concept is presented by certain structure and has designating symbol. Secondly, this network gets increased semantic clearness at the expense owing to formation not only connections between neural by elements, but also themselves of elements as such, i.e. here has a place not simply construction of a network by accommodation sense structures in environment neural of elements, and purely creation of most this environment, as of an equivalent of environment of memory. Thus neural-like growing networks are represented by the convenient apparatus for modeling of mechanisms of teleological thinking, as a fulfillment of certain psychophysiological of functions.

  1. Regional disparities in Hungary


    Czabán, Vera


    In the past decades, exacerbating regional disparities in the European Union as well as the newly joined Eastern European states have led to a growing interest in examining the spatial embeddedness of development. Hungary, a small and very monocentric country, has experienced rapid growth in the region of its capital city and its surrounding, whereas formerly lagging regions continued to fall behind. This thesis examines growing regional disparities in Hungary in order to provide a more compr...

  2. Growing the Blockchain information infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbar, Karim; Bjørn, Pernille


    In this paper, we present ethnographic data that unpacks the everyday work of some of the many infrastructuring agents who contribute to creating, sustaining and growing the Blockchain information infrastructure. We argue that this infrastructuring work takes the form of entrepreneurial actions......, which are self-initiated and primarily directed at sustaining or increasing the initiator’s stake in the emerging information infrastructure. These entrepreneurial actions wrestle against the affordances of the installed base of the Blockchain infrastructure, and take the shape of engaging...... or circumventing activities. These activities purposefully aim at either influencing or working around the enablers and constraints afforded by the Blockchain information infrastructure, as its installed base is gaining inertia. This study contributes to our understanding of the purpose of infrastructuring, seen...

  3. Growing Vertical in the Flatland. (United States)

    Robinson, Joshua A


    The world of two-dimensional (2D) heterostructures continues to expand at a rate much greater than anyone could have predicted 10 years ago, but if we are to make the leap from science to technology, many materials challenges must still be overcome. Recent advances, such as those by Liu et al. in this issue of ACS Nano, demonstrate that it is possible to grow rotationally commensurate 2D heterostructures, which could pave the way toward single crystal van der Waals solids. In this Perspective, I provide some insight into a few of the challenges associated with growth of heterostructures, and discuss some of the recent works that help us better understand synthetic realization of 2D heterostructures.

  4. Growing bubbles rising in line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Harper


    Full Text Available Over many years the author and others have given theories for bubbles rising in line in a liquid. Theory has usually suggested that the bubbles will tend towards a stable distance apart, but experiments have often showed them pairing off and sometimes coalescing. However, existing theory seems not to deal adequately with the case of bubbles growing as they rise, which they do if the liquid is boiling, or is a supersaturated solution of a gas, or simply because the pressure decreases with height. That omission is now addressed, for spherical bubbles rising at high Reynolds numbers. As the flow is then nearly irrotational, Lagrange's equations can be used with Rayleigh's dissipation function. The theory also works for bubbles shrinking as they rise because they dissolve.

  5. Morphogenesis of Growing Soft Tissues (United States)

    Dervaux, Julien; Ben Amar, Martine


    Recently, much attention has been given to a noteworthy property of some soft tissues: their ability to grow. Many attempts have been made to model this behavior in biology, chemistry, and physics. Using the theory of finite elasticity, Rodriguez has postulated a multiplicative decomposition of the geometric deformation gradient into a growth-induced part and an elastic one needed to ensure compatibility of the body. In order to fully explore the consequences of this hypothesis, the equations describing thin elastic objects under finite growth are derived. Under appropriate scaling assumptions for the growth rates, the proposed model is of the Föppl von Kármán type. As an illustration, the circumferential growth of a free hyperelastic disk is studied.

  6. Elastic plastic analysis of growing cracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, J R; Drugan, W J; Sham, T L


    The elastic--plastic stress and deformation fields at the tip of a crack which grows in an ideally plastic solid under plane strain, shows small scale yielding conditions. Results of an asymptotic analysis suggests the existence of a crack tip stress state similar to that of the classical Prandtl field, but containing a zone of elastic unloading between the centered fan region and the trailing constant stress plastic region. The near tip expression for the rate of opening displacement delta at distance r from the growing tip is found to have the form delta-. = ..cap alpha.. J-./sigma/sub o/ + ..beta..(sigma/sub o//E) a-. ln(R/r) but the presence of the elastic wedge causes ..beta.. to have the revised value of 5.08 (for Poisson ratio = 0.3); also, (a = crack length, sigma/sub o/ = yield strength, E = elastic modulus, and J denotes the far-field value), and ( 2/)K/sup 2//E for the small scale yielding conditions considered. The parameters ..cap alpha.. and R cannot be determined from the asymptotic analysis, but comparisons with finite element solutions suggest that, for small amounts of growth, ..cap alpha.. is approximately the same for stationary and growing cracks, and R scales approximately with the size of the plastic zone, being about 15% to 30% larger. For large scale yielding, a similar form applies with possible variations in ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.., in cases which maintain triaxial constraint at the crack tip. In the fully yielded case R is expected to be proportional to the dimension of the uncracked ligament. Model crack growth criterion requiring a critical delta at some fixed r from the tip, is re-examined in light of the more accurate solution. Results suggest that the J versus relation describing growth is dependent on the extent of yielding. It is suggested that this dependency might be small for highly ductile materials, provided that a similar triaxial constraint is maintained in all cases.

  7. Infection Dynamics on Growing Networks (United States)

    Lai, Ying-Cheng; Liu, Zonghua; Ye, Nong

    We consider the entire spectrum of architectures for large, growing, and complex networks, ranging from being heterogeneous (scale-free) to homogeneous (random or small-world), and investigate the infection dynamics by using a realistic three-state epidemiological model. In this framework, a node can be in one of the three states: susceptible (S), infected (I), or refractory (R), and the populations in the three groups are approximately described by a set of nonlinear differential equations. Our heuristic analysis predicts that, (1) regardless of the network architecture, there exists a substantial fraction of nodes that can never be infected, and (2) heterogeneous networks are relatively more robust against spread of infection as compared with homogeneous networks. These are confirmed numerically. We have also considered the problem of deliberate immunization for preventing wide spread of infection, with the result that targeted immunization can be quite effective for heterogeneous networks. We believe these results are important for a host of problems in many areas of natural science and engineering, and in social sciences as well.

  8. Growing plants on atoll soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, E L; Migvar, L; Robison, W L


    Many years ago people living on atolls depended entirely on foods gathered from the sea and reefs and grown on land. Only a few plants, such as coconut (ni), Pandanus (bob), and arrowroot (mok-mok), could be grown on the lower rainfall atolls, although adequate groundwater conditions also allowed taro (iaraj, kotak, wot) to be cultivated. On higher rainfall atolls, breadfruit (ma) was a major food source, and banana (binana, kepran), lime (laim), and taros (iaraj, kotak, wot) could be grown. The early atoll populations were experts in growing plants that were vital to sustaining their nutrition requirements and to providing materials for thatch, basketry, cordage, canoe construction, flowers, and medicine. They knew which varieties of food plants grew well or poorly on their atolls, how to propagate them, and where on their atoll they grew best. They knew the uses of most native plants and what the various woods were well suited for. Many varieties of Pandanus (bob) and breadfruit (ma) grew well with high rainfall, but only a few produced well on drier atolls. Such information had been passed down through the generations although some of it has been lost in the last century. Today there are new plants and new varieties of existing plants that can be grown on atolls. There are also new materials and information on how to grow both the old and new plants more effectively. However, there are also introduced weeds and pests to control. Today, there is also an acute need to grow more of the useful plants adapted to atolls. Increasing numbers of people living on an atoll without an equal increase in income or food production stretches the available food supplies. Much has been written about the poor conditions for plant growth on atolls. As compared with many places in the world where crops are grown, however, atolls can provide some highly favorable conditions. For instance, the driving force for plant growth is sunlight, and on atolls light is abundant throughout the

  9. Case grows for climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hileman, B.


    In the four years since the IPCC stated that 'the balance of evidence suggests a discernible human influence on global climate', evidence for anomalous warming has become more compelling, and as a result scientists have become more concerned that human-induced climate change has already arrived. The article summarises recent extra evidence on global temperatures, carbon dioxide measurements, ice shelf breakup, coral bleaching, unstable climates and improved climate models. At the time of the Kyoto conference, the US became keen on the idea that enhancing forest and soil carbon sequestration was a good way to offset emissions reduction targets. Congress is however under the opinion on that the Kyoto protocol presents a threat to the US economy, and senate is very unlikely to ratify the protocol during the Clinton Administration. The debate as to whether the US government should mandate major emission reduction or wait for more scientific certainty may continue for a number of years, but, growing concern of scientists and the public for the harmful effects of climate change may cause a change. 4 figs., 8 photos.

  10. Growing and evolving soft robots. (United States)

    Rieffel, John; Knox, Davis; Smith, Schuyler; Trimmer, Barry


    Completely soft and flexible robots offer to revolutionize fields ranging from search and rescue to endoscopic surgery. One of the outstanding challenges in this burgeoning field is the chicken-and-egg problem of body-brain design: Development of locomotion requires the preexistence of a locomotion-capable body, and development of a location-capable body requires the preexistence of a locomotive gait. This problem is compounded by the high degree of coupling between the material properties of a soft body (such as stiffness or damping coefficients) and the effectiveness of a gait. This article synthesizes four years of research into soft robotics, in particular describing three approaches to the co-discovery of soft robot morphology and control. In the first, muscle placement and firing patterns are coevolved for a fixed body shape with fixed material properties. In the second, the material properties of a simulated soft body coevolve alongside locomotive gaits, with body shape and muscle placement fixed. In the third, a developmental encoding is used to scalably grow elaborate soft body shapes from a small seed structure. Considerations of the simulation time and the challenges of physically implementing soft robots in the real world are discussed.

  11. Pediatric Ovarian Growing Teratoma Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Rentea


    Full Text Available Ovarian immature teratoma is a germ cell tumor that comprises less than 1% of ovarian cancers and is treated with surgical debulking and chemotherapy depending on stage. Growing teratoma syndrome (GTS is the phenomenon of the growth of mature teratoma elements with normal tumor markers during or following chemotherapy for treatment of a malignant germ cell tumor. These tumors are associated with significant morbidity and mortality due to invasive and compressive growth as well as potential for malignant transformation. Current treatment modality is surgical resection. We discuss a 12-year-old female who presented following resection of a pure ovarian immature teratoma (grade 3, FIGO stage IIIC. Following chemotherapy and resection of a pelvic/liver recurrence demonstrating mature teratoma, she underwent molecular genetics based chemotherapeutic treatment. No standardized management protocol has been established for the treatment of GTS. The effect of chemotherapeutic agents for decreasing the volume of and prevention of expansion is unknown. We review in detail the history, diagnostic algorithm, and previous reported pediatric cases as well as treatment options for pediatric patients with GTS.

  12. [Growing old differently: Transdisciplinary perspective]. (United States)

    Zimmermann, H-P


    Growing old differently: the phrase is intended to call something other to mind than merely the fact that images and forms of old age and aging have multiplied and diversified to an enormous extent. The suggestion put forward here is that otherness (as opposed to mere differences) should be positively reinforced. In other words, it is not just a matter of noting different forms of old age and aging but more than this, of seeking out opportunities for aging differently. In order to explore this, the article follows an older strand of theory, which has recently come to be frequently quoted in gerontology: the phenomenology of difference as reasoned analytically by Lévinas and Sartre and applied to gerontology by Améry and de Beauvoir. Here, opportunities for aging crucially depend on the way we look at it, how we observe and describe it and not least, how gerontology frames it. A distinction is made between two perspectives and their associated consequences for old age: alienation and alterity. Alienation means looking at old age above all as a disconcerting "other", as a perplexing, problematic deviation from the norm of vitality. Alterity, by contrast, refers to different options for living life in old age: options to be explored and opened up in contradistinction to cultural or academic alienation. Not least, the article appeals for diversity in scholarly approaches and for cross-disciplinary perspectives.

  13. Freezing tolerance of wheat cultivars at the early growing season ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Feb 28, 2012 ... Cold stress is a worldwide abiotic stress in temperate regions that affects plant development and yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars and other winter crops. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of freezing stress at the early growing season on survival and also the relationship.

  14. Freezing tolerance of wheat cultivars at the early growing season ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cold stress is a worldwide abiotic stress in temperate regions that affects plant development and yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars and other winter crops. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of freezing stress at the early growing season on survival and also the relationship between resistances ...

  15. Menopausal women's positive experience of growing older

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, Lotte


    This paper aims to describe menopausal women's positive experience of growing older and becoming middle-aged.......This paper aims to describe menopausal women's positive experience of growing older and becoming middle-aged....

  16. Bariatric amputee: A growing problem? (United States)

    Kulkarni, Jai; Hannett, Dominic P; Purcell, Steven


    This study reviewed prevalence of patients with lower limb amputations with above normal weight profile, with body mass index over 25, in seven disablement services centres managing their amputee rehabilitation in the United Kingdom. To review two clinical standards of practice in amputee rehabilitation. Ambulant lower limb amputees should have their body weight recorded on an electronic information system, with identification of cohort with body weight >100 kg. Lower limb amputees to be provided with suitable weight-rated prosthesis. Observational study of clinical practice. Data were collected from the Clinical Information Management Systems. Inclusion criteria--subjects were ambulant prosthetic users with some prosthetic intervention in the last 5 years and had at least one lower limb amputation. In 96% of patients, the weight record profile was maintained. In addition, 86% were under 100 kg, which is the most common weight limit of prosthetic componentry. Of 15,204 amputation levels, there were 1830 transfemoral and transtibial sites in users with body weight over 100 kg. In 60 cases, the prosthetic limb build was rated to be below the user body weight. In 96% of our patients, body weight was documented, and in 97%, the prosthetic limb builds were within stated body weight limits, but this may not be the case in all the other disablement services centres in the United Kingdom. Also, the incidence of obesity in the United Kingdom is a growing problem, and the health issues associated with obesity are further compounded in the amputee population. Prosthetic componentry has distinct weight limits which must be considered during prescription. As people with amputation approach the limits of specific components, clinicians are faced with the challenge of continued provision in a safe and suitable manner. This article reviews the amputee population and the current national profile to consider trends in provision and the incidence of these challenges. © The

  17. Regional cooperation in transportation planning. (United States)


    As Floridas urbanized areas grow and merge, : neighboring jurisdictions experience interrelated : problems and opportunities, and regional : cooperation becomes an imperative. In the : transportation sector, Floridas metropolitan : planning org...

  18. China’s growing role in the South Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Erthal Abdenur


    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the flow of goods, people and ideas across the South Atlantic has increased considerably, due not only to growing trade and cooperation ties between South America and Africa, but also to the new interests of extra-regional emerging powers such as the People’s Republic of China. This article examines China’s growing role in the region in three different spheres (economic, political andsecurity interests in light of its changing strategy in developing countries; the role of non-state actors such as corporations and diaspora communities is also included. The authors conclude that, even though the Chinese state does not yet have a “South Atlantic policy”, the region has gained strategic importance for China. Finally, the article highlights China’s renewed interest in Antarctica.

  19. The apple, the tree, and a space to grow in

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaei, Shahamak


    is known about young people of foreign origin growing up as immigrant residents in Europe, despite their significant number (10 per cent in France, 13 per cent in Spain and 15 per cent in Ireland by 2010). The success or failure of immigrants’ integrational processes, considering cultural factors...... and language barriers as challenges experienced by immigrants, can have major political and social impact on the regions where they reside. It is these challenges that are investigated in depth, in this book....

  20. Magnetically controlled growing rods for scoliosis surgery. (United States)

    Metkar, Umesh; Kurra, Swamy; Quinzi, David; Albanese, Stephen; Lavelle, William F


    Early onset scoliosis can be both a disfiguring as well as a life threatening condition. When more conservative treatments fail, pediatric spinal surgeons are forced to consider operative interventions. Traditionally, these interventions have involved the insertion of a variety of implants into the patient with a limited number of anchor points controlling the spine. In the past, these pediatric patients have had multiple surgeries for elective lengthening of these devices to facilitate their growth while attempting to control the scoliosis. These patients often experience a physical and emotional toll from their multiple repeated surgeries. Growing spine techniques have also had a noted high complication rate due to implant dislodgement and infections. Recently, the development of non-invasively, self-lengthening growing rods has occurred. These devices have the potential to allow for the devices to be lengthened magnetically in a conscious patient in the surgeon's office. Areas covered: This review summarized previously published articles in the English literature using a key word search in PubMed for: 'magnetically controlled growing rods', 'Magec rods', 'magnetic growing rods' and 'growing rods'. Expert commentary: Magnetically controlled growing rods have an advantage over growing rods in lengthening the growing spine in the absence of repetitive surgeries.

  1. (GrOW) Frequently Asked Questions

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    How many applications will be shortlisted at the end of the first stage? GrOW envisages that up to 4 selected teams will be asked to submit a full research proposal for review and funding consideration. How is the review process conducted? Upon receiving complete applications, a review process begins by the GrOW team, ...

  2. Microsatellite Primers for Fungus-Growing Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen Fredsted, Palle; Gertsch, Pia J.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan (Koos)


    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...... developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants....

  3. Microsatellite primers for fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Gertsch, P J; Boomsma, JJ


    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...... developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants....

  4. Three-dimensional CT image segmentation by volume growing (United States)

    Zhu, Dongping; Conners, Richard W.; Araman, Philip A.


    The research reported in this paper is aimed at locating, identifying, and quantifying internal (anatomical or physiological) structures, by 3-D image segmentation. Computerized tomography (CT) images of an object are first processed on a slice-by-slice basis, generating a stack of image slices that have been smoothed and pre-segmented. The image smoothing operation is executed by a spatially adaptive filter, and the 2-D pre-segmentation is achieved by a thresholding process whereby each individual pixel in the input image space is consistently assigned a label, according to its CT number, i.e., the gray-level value. Given a sequence of pre-segmented images as 3-D input scene (a stack of image slices), the spatial connectivity that exists among neighboring image pixels is utilized in a volume growing process which generates a number of well-defined volumetric regions or image solides, each representing an individual anatomical or physiological structure in the input scene. The 3-D segmentation is implemented using a volume growing process so that the aspect of pixel spatial connectivity is incorporated into the image segmentation procedure. To initialize the volume growing process for each volumetric region in the input 3-D scene, a seed location for a region is defined and loaded into a queue data structure called seed queue. The volume growing process consists of a set of procedures that perform different operations on the volumetric data of a CT image sequence. Examples of experiment of the described system with CT image data of several hardwood logs are given to demonstrate usefulness and flexibility of this approach. This allows solutions to industrial web inspection, as well as to several problems in medical image analysis where low-level image segmentation plays an important role toward successful image interpretation tasks.

  5. Growing America's Energy Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The emerging U.S. bioenergy industry provides a secure and growing supply of transportation fuels, biopower, and bioproducts produced from a range of abundant, renewable biomass resources. Bioenergy can help ensure a secure, sustainable, and economically sound future by reducing U.S. dependence on foreign oil, developing domestic clean energy sources, and generating domestic green jobs. Bioenergy can also help address growing concerns about climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions to create a healthier environment for current and future generations.

  6. PD0332991 (palbociclib) for treatment of pediatric intracranial growing teratoma syndrome. (United States)

    Schultz, Kris Ann P; Petronio, Joseph; Bendel, Anne; Patterson, Richard; Vaughn, David J


    Growing teratoma syndrome is characterized by growth of mature teratoma elements of a mixed germ cell tumor despite resolution of immature/malignant elements with administration of chemotherapy. Surgical resection is the only known cure for growing teratoma syndrome but in the brain, complete resection may be impossible. In these instances, mature teratoma, although histologically benign, may be fatal. In this report, we present the case of a child with a large, rapidly growing, unresectable pineal region growing teratoma. PD0332991 was administered with stabilization of the solid, enhancing components of the mass. Minimal adverse effects were noted. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Growing wealth and growing pains: child and adolescent psychiatry in Hong Kong, Malaysia and Singapore. (United States)

    Tan, Susan; Fung, Daniel; Hung, Se-Fong; Rey, Joseph


    Several Asian regions have undergone a dramatic transformation, some becoming very affluent. This paper aims to ascertain how countries that are becoming wealthy have dealt with child and adolescent mental health issues. Population health status, child and adolescent mental health services, child psychiatry training, the number of child psychiatrists and related matters were examined in Hong Kong, Malaysia and Singapore. Hong Kong, Malaysia and Singapore are ethnically, religiously, socially and politically very different. In spite of considerable wealth and a growing recognition that mental health problems in the young are increasing, they face similar problems--lack of access to treatment due to a dearth of services and a lack of child psychiatrists (2.5, 0.5 and 2.8 per million people, respectively). Because the number of child psychiatrists is so small, their ability to provide services, advocate, train, maintain a professional identity, and deal with future crises is very limited. Other rapidly developing countries can learn from this experience and should take action early to prevent a similar outcome.

  8. The SGIA and the Common Growing Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurentiu CIOVICA


    Full Text Available Human or virtual agents are presented in our lives daily. They serve our purposes and represent us in different many situations. Nowadays the number of virtual agents is increasing daily because they are cheaper, faster and more accurate than human agents. Our aim in this article is to define a new type of intelligent agent called SGIA – Self Growing Intelligent Agent and a new defining language for it. The SGIA agent is an intelligent agent with all the common agents’ characteristics and with other special one: that to learn and grow by itself in knowledge and size.

  9. Growing pioneer plants for a lunar base (United States)

    Kozyrovska, N. O.; Lutvynenko, T. L.; Korniichuk, O. S.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Voznyuk, T. M.; Kononuchenko, O.; Zaetz, I.; Rogutskyy, I. S.; Mytrokhyn, O. V.; Mashkovska, S. P.; Foing, B. H.; Kordyum, V. A.

    A precursory scenario of cultivating the first plants in a lunar greenhouse was elaborated in frames of a conceptual study to grow plants for a permanently manned lunar base. A prototype plant growth system represents an ornamental plant Tagetes patula L. for growing in a lunar rock anorthosite as a substrate. Microbial community anticipated to be in use to support a growth and development of the plant in a substrate of low bioavailability and provide an acceptable growth and blossoming of T. patula under growth limiting conditions.

  10. Growing up Female: As Six become One (United States)

    Balto, Karen; Balto, Sylvia


    Growing up Female: As Six Become One" is an excellent film for people of any age and appropriate for any group. The film explores the lives of six American women showing how they are socialized and what their roles in society are. (Author)

  11. Growing Languages with Metamorphic Syntax Macros

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff


    simultaneously on multiple parse trees at once. The result is a highly flexible mechanism for growing new language constructs without resorting to compile-time programming. In fact, whole new languages can be defined at surprisingly low cost.This work is fully implemented as part of the bigwig system...

  12. Pueblo Girls: Growing Up in Two Worlds. (United States)

    Keegan, Marcia

    This book portrays San Ildefonso Pueblo on the east bank of the Rio Grande river in New Mexico through the lives of Sonja, age 10, and her sister Desiree, age 8. Growing up in San Ildefonso Pueblo, the girls enjoy the same activities as other American girls, such as basketball, cheerleading, playing video games, and sending e-mail. But they also…

  13. What a Pain! Kids and Growing Pains (United States)

    ... Steven Dowshen, MD Date reviewed: June 2015 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Why Do I Have Pain? How Do Pain Relievers Work? Growth Disorders I'm Growing Up - But Am I Normal? What Medicines Are and What They Do Feeling Too Tall or Too Short Contact Us Print Resources Send ...

  14. Growing Income Inequality Threatens American Education (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J.; Murnane, Richard J.


    The first of two articles in consecutive months describes the origins and nature of growing income inequality, and some of its consequences for American children. It documents the increased family income inequality that's occurred over the past 40 years and shows that the increased income disparity has been more than matched by an expanding…

  15. Growing Up in Germany: A National Report. (United States)

    Krappmann, Lothar


    Summarizes a Federal Ministry of Youth report on the conditions under which children grow up in Germany. Notes manifold problems that children face under today's living conditions. Presents recommendations and suggestions for providing a network of measures, relationships, and institutions to support children's development and education in family,…

  16. Determination of responses of growing pigs to

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Mar 9, 1998 ... The responses in growing pigs to balanced diets at different dietary energy levels are estimated from published data after recalculation of digestible energy (DE) iev- els using standard tables. Although responses in live weight gain (ADG), food intake (Fl), digestible energy intake (DEI) and food conversion ...

  17. How fast to northern hardwoods grow? (United States)

    Rapheal Zon; H.F. Scholz


    The knowledge of the rate at which trees grow in virgin forests, after clear cutting and under selective logging, is indispensable in any forest calculations or forest practice. The enactment of the Forest Crop Law, which brought under its operation about 175,000 acres of cut-over land during the first year, the example set by several progressive lumbermen in selective...

  18. Growing Up in an Alcoholic Family. (United States)

    Abbott, Stephanie


    Discusses problems faced by children growing up in an alcoholic family. Reviews four survivor roles of children of alcoholics (COAs): super-coper, scapegoat, lost child, and family mascot. Describes alcoholism as a disease of denial. Reviews the Children of Alcoholics movement begun by adult COAs to become advocates for COAs. (NB)

  19. Growing up as a Young Artist (United States)

    Szekely, George


    "Growing Up as a Young Artist" is an illustrated book assignment that involves researching family scrapbooks, photo albums and films, and inquiring about family anecdotes for clues to one's artistic roots. Students creatively reflect on their early memories of imaginative events, as each page is filled with memories of creative activities they…

  20. Play Games to Grow up Bilingual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela


    A new kind of computer game is proposed, to support the linguistic development of primary school children, growing in multilingual environments: with it players will be able to simultaneously learn multiple languages. The novel idea is to treat words in different languages as physical items, that...

  1. Play Games to Grow up Bilingual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela


    A new kind of computer game is proposed, to support the linguistic development of primary school children, growing in multilingual environments: with it players will be able to simultaneously learn multiple languages. The novel idea is to treat words in different languages as physical items, that...

  2. Preliminary characterization of slow growing rhizobial strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we did some preliminary characterization of six slow growing rhizobial strains, isolated from Retama monosperma (L.) Boiss. root nodules sampled from 3 sites along the coast of Oran (CapeFalcon, Bousfer and MersElHadjadj) in Northwestern Algeria. Results of this study showed that all strains had a very ...

  3. growing African giant rats Cricetomys gambianus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thermoregulation and evaporative water loss in growing African giant rats Cricetomys gambianus. M.H. Knight. Mammal Research Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria. With an increase in mass, weaned giant rat pups. Cricetomys gambianus, showed a corresponding decline in mass specific metabolism, conductance ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Zvedenuk


    Full Text Available The results of research work on carrot seed growing through wintering seedlings carried out at laboratory of seed studies and seed production of Transnistrian Research Institute of Agriculture, on the soil of the first terrace at the rive Dniester were presented in the article. Seed bearing plants of garden carrot ‘Krasavka’ were the object of the study. The seeds were sown to produce the seedlings on 15-16 August. In the first decade of December the plants were covered with white agrotextile with density 23g/m2 that was removed at the beginning of April. The proportion of plant that passed the winter depending on a year of cultivation was 95-100% under argotextile, and 50-80% in open plot. The plants under agrotextile reached 28 cm a high and had 5-7 well-developed leaves, while those on the open plot were at phase of active foliage growing about 10-13 cm. long. Thus, for early mechanized planting in optimal terms the wintering seedlings grown under agrotextile had the best biometrical characteristics. Moreover the outcome of carrot seedlings was 1.2-1.25 million per hectare. Such quantity of seedlings was sufficient to plant 9-10 ha of carrot plants, where the coefficient of multiplication reached 9-10, and only 3 when growing seeds through mother plant as biennial culture. Viability of seed plants grown through seedlings was 100%. Losses of plant with weight 120-150 grams from damage caused by diseases was 23%. The seed yield, when growing seedlings was 639 kg/ha, but growing through plants was 332 kg/ha. The seed outcome suitable for precise mechanized sowing through seedling growing was 77%, where seed germination was 90%, with seed fraction 1.51 and >2.0 mm. It was essentially improved their yielding characteristics. Seed outcome from this fraction obtained through planting method was 32%. The proportion of seeds in fraction 1-1.5 mm was 68%. For mechanized single-seed sowing, the seeds can be used only after mini-coating. The seed

  5. Agglomeration economies in European regions: perspectives for objective 1 regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dogaru, T.; Oort, F.G. van; Thissen, M.


    Economic growth is one of the main European policy objectives of structural funds targeted at objective 1 regions. In an empirical analysis on growth differentials over 219 European regions between 2000 and 2010, we find that – controlled for other determinants – objective 1 regions grow in

  6. Economic aspects of triticale growing: Australian farmer experience. (United States)

    Cooper, Katharine V; Elleway, Michael G


    Australian farmers grow triticale for economic benefit. A range of farmers in different localities, with different farm size, soil type, rainfall and proximity to markets, were asked why they grew triticale and how it contributed to their farm economics. The main encouragements to grow triticale relate to its agronomic prowess: its reliability and magnitude of production on all soil types and particularly in conditions in which other crops are relatively poor producers. Also in favour of triticale is its ability to produce economic return following a high yielding wheat crop, whilst providing soil benefits as a rotation crop reducing root and stubble diseases. Triticale's versatility and utility as high grade animal feed, by supplying grazing, fodder for conservation, and grain for on-farm animal production, further encourages farmers to include triticale in their cropping programs. The main inhibitor to growing triticale relates to the cost and ease of marketing the product, relative to other crops, and even triticale enthusiasts do not persist with triticale, if the economics are not in its favour. A downturn in the dairy industry, and the cessation of triticale grain receivals at bulk handling sites has resulted in a contraction of triticale production in some regions. Less triticale is likely to be grown where farmers have to provide their own storage, find their own markets, freight the product further, or have limited market options. New specific markets, such as high grade hay from reduced-awn triticale varieties, for the horse industry, may increase the profitability of triticale producing enterprises.

  7. Regional cooperation in transportation planning : [summary]. (United States)


    As Floridas urbanized areas grow and merge, : neighboring jurisdictions experience interrelated : problems and opportunities, and regional : cooperation becomes an imperative. In the : transportation sector, Floridas metropolitan : planning org...

  8. Distribution of free and total aluminium in some cocoa-growing soils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Western Region of Ghana is currently carrying the bulk of Ghana's cocoa, and so it is important to investigate the amounts and distribution of total and free Al oxides in some cocoa-growing soils from the region. Six soil series belonging to one major compound association of soils occurring in a toposequence, the ...

  9. Projecting Future Change in Growing Degree Days of Winter Wheat (United States)

    Ruiz Castillo, N.; Gaitan Ospina, C. F.; Mcpherson, R. A.


    Southwest Oklahoma is one of the most productive regions in the Great Plains where winter wheat is produced. To assess the effect of climate change on the growing degree days (GDD) available for winter wheat production, we selected from the CMIP5 archive, two of the best performing Global Climate Models (GCMs) for the region (MIROC5 and CCSM4) to project the future change in GDD under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 —a "business as usual" future trajectory for greenhouse gas concentrations. Two quantile mapping downscaling methods were applied to both GCMs to obtain local scale projections. The downscaled outputs were applied to a GDD formula to show the GDD changes between the historical period (1961-2004) and the future period (2006-2098) in terms of mean differences. The results show that at the end of the 2098 growing season, the increase in GDD is expected to be between -2.0 and 6. Depending on the GCM used, Southwest Oklahoma is expected to see an increase in future GDD under the CCSM4 GCM and a mix of increase, no change and decrease under the MIROC5 GCM.

  10. Efficient Communication Management in a Growing Organisation


    Alakotila, Susanna


    The purpose of this thesis is to analyse the importance of organisational communication and to explain how communication should be managed for it to be effective. Two fast-growing companies were interviewed for the thesis, who give entail on how they have managed communication regarding the organisational changes. Organisational communication is divided into external, stakeholder and internal communication in this study. With the help of interviews from two case companies, researcher offers r...

  11. Transformational Leadership Which Can Grow Organizational Commitment


    Silalahi, Betty Yuliani


    A meta-analysis consist of 45 studies from 20 articles and 20860 subjects evaluated the correlation between Transformational leadership and Organizational commitment. Summary analysis provided support for the hypothesis that transformational leadership has a correlation on organizational commitment. The purpose of the study is to analyzed the data from the primer study and to support the hypothesis or refuse from the studies. Result indicated that transformational leadership can grow organiza...

  12. Shape of the growing front of biofilms (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Stone, Howard A.; Golestanian, Ramin


    The spatial organization of bacteria in dense biofilms is key to their collective behaviour, and understanding it will be important for medical and technological applications. Here we study the morphology of a compact biofilm that undergoes unidirectional growth, and determine the condition for the stability of the growing interface as a function of the nutrient concentration and mechanical tension. Our study suggests that transient behaviour may play an important role in shaping the structure of a biofilm.

  13. Economic Gardening and the Grow Kentucky Program


    Robbins, Lynn W.; Allen, James E. IV


    In 2014, the Community and Economic Development Initiative of Kentucky (CEDIK) and the Kentucky Small Business Development Center (KSBDC), launched Grow Kentucky, Kentucky’s only certified Economic Gardening program. The program helps second-stage entrepreneurial growth companies penetrate existing markets, identify new markets, monitor competitors, track industry trends, locate customer clusters, use search engine optimization/social media for marketing and various other customized research....

  14. Growing Role of Retail in Distribution Channels


    Ishak Mesic


    This article aims to demonstrate the growing role of retail trade (retail) in the channels of distribution of goods both in domestic and international markets. Technical-technological development has provided great opportunities for all production of material goods, so that the focus of problem in the economic possibilities of playing shifted from production to sales opportunities, or consumption. The ultimate consumers and their needs and requirements have become a central area of study, bas...

  15. GRoW Buffalo Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohm, Martha [Univ. at Buffalo, NY (United States)


    This document provides final reporting on the GRoW Home, University at Buffalo's entry to the 2015 Solar Decathlon competition in Irvine, CA. The report summarizes fundraising efforts, documents media outreach, lists online presence, analyzes the organizer's communication, describes post-competition life of the house and future employment plans for student team members. Last, it suggests improvements for future decathlons.

  16. Exposure to vibrations in wine growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Pessina


    Full Text Available Apart the winter period, the activity in specialized agricultural cultivations (i.e. wine- and fruit-growing is distributed for a long period of the year. Some tasks, such as pesticide distribution, are repeated several times during the growing season. On the other hand, mechanization is one of the pillars on which is based the modern agriculture management. As a consequence, in wine growing the tractor driver has to be considered a worker potentially subjected to high level of vibrations, due to the poor machinery conditions often encountered, and sometimes to the rough soil surface of the vineyard combined with the high travelling speed adopted in carrying out many operations. About vibrations, the Italian Decree 81/08 basically refers to the European Directive 2002/44/CE, that provides some very strict limits of exposure, both for whole body and hand-arm districts. In Oltrepo pavese, a large hilly area located the south part of the Pavia province (Lombardy - Italy wine growing is the main agricultural activity; for this reason, a detailed survey on the vibration levels recorded at the tractor driver’s seat was carried out, in order to ascertain the real risk to which the operators are exposed. The activity in wine growing has been classified into 6 groups of similar tasks, as follows: 1. canopy management: pruning, trimming, binding, stripping, etc.; 2. soil management: harrowing, hoeing, subsoiling etc.; 3. inter-row management: chopping of pruning , pinching, grass mowing, etc.; 4. crop protection: pesticides and fungicides distribution, sulfidation, foliar fertilization, etc.; 5. grape harvesting: manual or mechanical; 6. transport: from the vineyard to the cellar. For each group of tasks, the vibration levels on 3 the traditional axes (x, y and z were recorded, and then an exposure time was calculated for each of them, in order to ascertain the risk level in comparison to what provided by the dedicated standard. Finally, a detailed

  17. Impact of climate change on mid-twenty-first century growing seasons in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Kerry H.; Vizy, Edward K. [The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Geological Sciences, Jackson School of Geosciences, Austin, TX (United States)


    Changes in growing seasons for 2041-2060 across Africa are projected using a regional climate model at 90-km resolution, and confidence in the predictions is evaluated. The response is highly regional over West Africa, with decreases in growing season days up to 20% in the western Guinean coast and some regions to the east experiencing 5-10% increases. A longer growing season up to 30% in the central and eastern Sahel is predicted, with shorter seasons in parts of the western Sahel. In East Africa, the short rains (boreal fall) growing season is extended as the Indian Ocean warms, but anomalous mid-tropospheric moisture divergence and a northward shift of Sahel rainfall severely curtails the long rains (boreal spring) season. Enhanced rainfall in January and February increases the growing season in the Congo basin by 5-15% in association with enhanced southwesterly moisture transport from the tropical Atlantic. In Angola and the southern Congo basin, 40-80% reductions in austral spring growing season days are associated with reduced precipitation and increased evapotranspiration. Large simulated reductions in growing season over southeastern Africa are judged to be inaccurate because they occur due to a reduction in rainfall in winter which is over-produced in the model. Only small decreases in the actual growing season are simulated when evapotranspiration increases in the warmer climate. The continent-wide changes in growing season are primarily the result of increased evapotranspiration over the warmed land, changes in the intensity and seasonal cycle of the thermal low, and warming of the Indian Ocean. (orig.)

  18. Trends in the Start of the Growing Season in Fennoscandia 1982–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein Rune Karlsen


    Full Text Available Global temperature is increasing, and this is affecting the vegetation phenology in many parts of the world. In Fennoscandia, as well as Northern Europe, the advances of phenological events in spring have been recorded in recent decades. In this study, we analyzed the start of the growing season within five different vegetation regions in Fennoscandia using the 30-year Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS NDVI3g dataset. We applied a previously developed pixel-specific Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI threshold method, adjusted it to the NDVI3g data and analyzed trends within the different regions. Results show a warming trend with an earlier start of the growing season of 11.8 ± 2.0 days (p < 0.01 for the whole area. However, there are large regional differences, and the warming/trend towards an earlier start of the growing season is most significant in the southern regions (19.3 ± 4.7 days, p < 0.01 in the southern oceanic region, while the start was stable or modest earlier (two to four days; not significant in the northern regions. To look for temporal variations in the trends, we divided the 30-year period into three separate decadal time periods. Results show significantly more change/trend towards an earlier start of the growing season in the first period compared to the two last. In the second and third period, the trend towards an earlier start of the growing season slowed down, and in two of the regions, the trend towards an earlier start of the growing season was even reversed during the last decade.

  19. Growing media constituents determine the microbial nitrogen conversions in organic growing media for horticulture. (United States)

    Grunert, Oliver; Reheul, Dirk; Van Labeke, Marie-Christine; Perneel, Maaike; Hernandez-Sanabria, Emma; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E; Boon, Nico


    Vegetables and fruits are an important part of a healthy food diet, however, the eco-sustainability of the production of these can still be significantly improved. European farmers and consumers spend an estimated €15.5 billion per year on inorganic fertilizers and the production of N-fertilizers results in a high carbon footprint. We investigated if fertilizer type and medium constituents determine microbial nitrogen conversions in organic growing media and can be used as a next step towards a more sustainable horticulture. We demonstrated that growing media constituents showed differences in urea hydrolysis, ammonia and nitrite oxidation and in carbon dioxide respiration rate. Interestingly, mixing of the growing media constituents resulted in a stimulation of the function of the microorganisms. The use of organic fertilizer resulted in an increase in amoA gene copy number by factor 100 compared to inorganic fertilizers. Our results support our hypothesis that the activity of the functional microbial community with respect to nitrogen turnover in an organic growing medium can be improved by selecting and mixing the appropriate growing media components with each other. These findings contribute to the understanding of the functional microbial community in growing media and its potential role towards a more responsible horticulture. © 2016 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Nurturing a growing field: Computers & Geosciences (United States)

    Mariethoz, Gregoire; Pebesma, Edzer


    Computational issues are becoming increasingly critical for virtually all fields of geoscience. This includes the development of improved algorithms and models, strategies for implementing high-performance computing, or the management and visualization of the large datasets provided by an ever-growing number of environmental sensors. Such issues are central to scientific fields as diverse as geological modeling, Earth observation, geophysics or climatology, to name just a few. Related computational advances, across a range of geoscience disciplines, are the core focus of Computers & Geosciences, which is thus a truly multidisciplinary journal.

  1. Growing Quality in Qualitative Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Ellen Macdonald PhD


    Full Text Available Qualitative methodologies are growing in popularity in health research; however, the integration of these methodologies into the clinical context is not always straightforward. In this article the author discusses some of the paradigmatic and methodological tensions that characterize the use of qualitative methodologies in clinical health research and showcase one solution to these tensions. The McGill Qualitative Health Research Group is a scholarly group of qualitative health researchers working together to advance a qualitative research agenda in clinical disciplines.

  2. Mapping Nutrients Crucial to a Growing Population (United States)

    Tarnowski, J. R.; Cassidy, E. S.; Gerber, J. S.


    Over two billion people worldwide suffer from inadequate levels of micronutrients, mainly in the form of iodine, iron, and vitamin A deficiencies. With a growing population, producing crops that contain high amounts of these micronutrients is of increased importance. Addressing these deficiencies sustainably requires a detailed examination of the agricultural production of the micronutrients. The purpose of this study is to determine whether or not enough of these important nutrients are produced to meet the nutritional needs of the global population, and to determine where nutrients are most deficient. We used area specific crop production data to map where and how much iron and vitamin A are produced from major crops.

  3. Growing in darkness: The etiolated lupin hypocotyls


    Sánchez-Bravo, José; Oliveros-Valenzuela, M Rocío; Nicolás, Carlos; Acosta, Manuel


    Epigeal germination of a dicot, like lupin (Lupinus albus L.), produces a seedling with a characteristic hypocotyl, which grows in darkness showing a steep growth gradient with an elongation zone just below the apex. The role of phytohormones, such as auxin and ethylene, in etiolated hypocotyl growth has been the object of our research for some time. The recent cloning and expression of three genes of influx and efflux carriers for polar auxin transport (LaAUX1, LaPIN1 and LaPIN3) reinforces ...

  4. Biofilm-growing intestinal anaerobic bacteria. (United States)

    Donelli, Gianfranco; Vuotto, Claudia; Cardines, Rita; Mastrantonio, Paola


    Sessile growth of anaerobic bacteria from the human intestinal tract has been poorly investigated, so far. We recently reported data on the close association existing between biliary stent clogging and polymicrobial biofilm development in its lumen. By exploiting the explanted stents as a rich source of anaerobic bacterial strains belonging to the genera Bacteroides, Clostridium, Fusobacterium, Finegoldia, Prevotella, and Veillonella, the present study focused on their ability to adhere, to grow in sessile mode and to form in vitro mono- or dual-species biofilms. Experiments on dual-species biofilm formation were planned on the basis of the anaerobic strains isolated from each clogged biliary stent, by selecting those in which a couple of anaerobic strains belonging to different species contributed to the polymicrobial biofilm development. Then, strains were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy to reveal if they are able to grow as mono- and/or dual-species biofilms. As far as we know, this is the first report on the ability to adhere and form mono/dual-species biofilms exhibited by strains belonging to the species Bacteroides oralis, Clostridium difficile, Clostridium baratii, Clostridium fallax, Clostridium bifermentans, Finegoldia magna, and Fusobacterium necrophorum. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Tracheotomy in growing rats: histological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manna Mônica Cecília Bochetti


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare morphologically three different types of tracheotomy in growing rats, applying microsurgical technique. METHODS: EPM-1 Wistar growing rats (n=57 weighing 88gm and aged 35 days were randomized in four groups, according tracheotomy incision type (longitudinal, transverse and tracheal segment excision, and sham group. Following intramuscular anesthesia with ketamine and xylazine, the trachea was exposed and incised, according to the group, and a hand-made endotracheal cannula was inserted into the organ, under sterile conditions. This cannula was removed after 7 days, and animals have been sacrificed 30 days later. Tracheas samples were submitted to histological study, stained by hematoxylin-eosin and Masson trichrome, evaluating fibrosis, inflammatory infiltrate and epidermoid metaplasia. RESULTS: There was more frequency of inflammatory infiltrate at the tracheal epithelium in the tracheal segment excision group (87% compared to the longitudinal (40% and transverse (36% incision groups (p=0.009. Evaluating epidermoid metaplasia, tracheal segment excision and the longitudinal groups presented 33% and 40%, respectively, compared to 0% of the transverse group (p=0.03. Concerning to fibrosis, in a global comparison (p=0.1 among the three groups there was no difference, however, compared to the longitudinal group the transverse group showed lower level of fibrosis (p=0.04. Sham group did not present any relevant morphologic alterations and it was used as reference pattern. CONCLUSION: Taken together, our data show that tracheal segment excision promotes more epithelium aggression and transverse tracheal incision shows less morphologic alterations.

  6. Immunotoxicity of ochratoxin A to growing gilts. (United States)

    Harvey, R B; Elissalde, M H; Kubena, L F; Weaver, E A; Corrier, D E; Clement, B A


    Ochratoxin A (OA) was incorporated in the diets of growing gilts (mean body weight, 20.1 kg) at a concentration of 2.5 mg of OA/kg of feed and was fed continuously for 35 days. Humoral and cell-mediated immunologic measurements were evaluated to determine the effects of OA on immune function in swine. Cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity to phytohemagglutinin (PHA), delayed hypersensitivity to tuberculin, PHA-induced lymphocyte blastogenesis, interleukin-2 production, total and isotype immunoglobulin concentrations, antibody response to chicken RBC, and macrophage activation were used to evaluate immune function. Gilts treated with OA had reduced cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity response to PHA, reduced delayed hypersensitivity to tuberculin, decreased stimulation index for lymphoblastogenesis, decreased interleukin-2 production when lymphocytes were stimulated with concanavalin A, and decreased number and phagocytic activity of macrophages. Differences were not observed for total and isotype immunoglobulin concentrations, or humoral hemagglutination (chicken RBC) titer. These data indicate that OA may suppress cell-mediated immune response in growing swine.

  7. Light colour preference of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Szendrő


    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the light colour preference of growing rabbits placed in a free-choice cage. The experiment was carried out on 128 Pannon White growing rabbits weaned at the age of 5 weeks and placed into blocks (2m2 of four cages. The rabbits could move freely among the four cages (0.5m2 each through swing doors. The cages differed only in the colour of the light applied (white, yellow, green or blue. The lighting schedule was 16L: 8D. From 6 until 10 weeks of age, infrared video recording was performed once a week (24 hours. The number of rabbits in each cage was counted every 15 minutes. Feed consumption was measured weekly. Between 6 and 10 weeks of age the rabbits significantly preferred white light (28.0%. The preference order was the following: yellow (26.3%, blue (23.4% and green (22.3% (P<0.001. No significant differences were recorded in the feed consumption among the cages. In conclusion, the cage preference of the rabbits was slightly affected by the light colour.

  8. Management of Infections with Rapidly Growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Hwan Kim


    Full Text Available Background Infection caused by rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM is not uncommon, andthe prevalence of RGM infection has been increasing. Clinical diagnosis is difficult becausethere are no characteristic clinical features. There is also no standard antibiotic regimenfor treating RGM infection. A small series of patients with RGM infections was studied toexamine their treatments and outcomes.Methods A total of 5 patients who had developed postoperative infections from January2009 to December 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were initially screened using amycobacteria rapid screening test (polymerase chain reaction [PCR]-reverse blot hybridizationassay. To confirm mycobacterial infection, specimens were cultured for nontuberculousmycobacteria and analyzed by 16 S ribosomal RNA and rpoB gene PCR.Results The patients were treated with intravenous antibiotics during hospitalization,and oral antibiotics were administered after discharge. The mean duration of follow-upwas 9 months, and all patients were completely cured of infection with a regimen of acombination of antibiotics plus surgical treatment. Although none of the patients developedrecurrence, there were complications at the site of infection, including hypertrophic scarring,pigmentation, and disfigurement.Conclusions Combination antibiotic therapy plus drainage of surgical abscesses appeared tobe effective for the RGM infections seen in our patients. Although neither the exact dosagenor a standardized regimen has been firmly established, we propose that our treatment canprovide an option for the management of rapidly growing mycobacterial infection.

  9. Acacia mangium: Growing and utilization. MPTS monograph series No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awang, K.; Taylor, D.


    With deforestation in the Asia-Pacific region progressing at the rate of 4.4 million ha per year, many countries have adopted plantation forestry using fast-growing species as a way to sustain the commercial supply of tree products and reduce pressure on natural forests. Acacia mangium (A. mangium) is playing a large role in this development, especially in Indonesia and Malaysia, due to its versatility and its ability to recapture grasslands dominated by the noxious weed, Imperata cylindrica. This monograph consolidates information on A. mangium from published literature, unpublished reports and studies, and observations from those familiar with the species. Priorities for future research are included in each chapter and in the final summary.

  10. Dietary supplementation of butyrate in growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Radaelli


    Full Text Available The UE restrictions imposed on the antibiotic utilization in animal husbandry have increased the interest on alternative additives capable of improving animal digestive health. Among the numerous tested products, short chain fatty acids stimulated intestinal mucus production at different level and intestinal cells proliferation in rats (Meslin et al., 2001; Moreau et al., 2003. Short and medium chain fatty acids could also modulate intestinal microflora: in rabbits, the antimicrobial activity of caprilic and capric acids was proved on various strains of Clostridium perfringens and Escherichia coli (Marounek et al., 2002. The present trial aimed to evaluate the effect of butyrate inclusion and level on growth performance, health status, digestive physiology and slaughter traits in growing rabbits.

  11. Morphogenesis of filaments growing in flexible confinements (United States)

    Vetter, R.; Wittel, F. K.; Herrmann, H. J.


    Space-saving design is a requirement that is encountered in biological systems and the development of modern technological devices alike. Many living organisms dynamically pack their polymer chains, filaments or membranes inside deformable vesicles or soft tissue-like cell walls, chorions and buds. Surprisingly little is known about morphogenesis due to growth in flexible confinements—perhaps owing to the daunting complexity lying in the nonlinear feedback between packed material and expandable cavity. Here we show by experiments and simulations how geometric and material properties lead to a plethora of morphologies when elastic filaments are growing far beyond the equilibrium size of a flexible thin sheet they are confined in. Depending on friction, sheet flexibility and thickness, we identify four distinct morphological phases emerging from bifurcation and present the corresponding phase diagram. Four order parameters quantifying the transitions between these phases are proposed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioletta NOWAK


    Full Text Available The paper presents trends in economic growth and development in twelve least developed countries from 2006 to 2015. The study is based on the data retrieved from the World Bank Database. During the analysed 10 years, seven Asian (Myanmar, Lao PDR, Bhutan, Cambodia, Timor-Leste, Bangladesh, and Afghanistan and five African (Ethiopia, Rwanda, Angola, Sudan, and Mozambique LDCs had average annual GDP per capita growth rates higher than 4.0%. GDP has been largely generated through the services and industry sectors. A few LDCs sustained strong growth mainly because of foreign assistance and in other countries remittances were a significant source of development finance. Resource rich countries recorded high inflows of foreign direct investment. In a few fast growing LDCs the state has been heavily engaged in economy. The analysed LDCs substantially improved their development indicators.

  13. Feed efficiency metrics in growing pigs. (United States)

    Calderón Díaz, J A; Berry, D P; Rebeiz, N; Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Magowan, E; Gardiner, G E; Lawlor, P G


    The objective of the present study was to quantify the interrelationships between different feed efficiency measures in growing pigs and characterize pigs divergent for a selection of these measures. The data set included data from 311 growing pigs between 42 and 91 d of age from 3 separate batches. Growth-related metrics available included midtest metabolic BW (BW), energy intake (EI), and ADG. Ratio efficiency traits included energy conversion ratio (ECR), Kleiber ratio (ADG/BW), relative growth rate (RGR), residual EI (REI), and residual daily gain (RDG). Residual intake and gain (RIG; i.e., a dual index of both REI and RDG) and residual midtest metabolic weight (RMW) were also calculated. Simple Pearson correlations were estimated between the growth and feed efficiency metrics. In litters with at least 3 pigs of each sex, pigs were separately stratified on each residual trait as high, medium, and low rank. Considerable interanimal variability existed in all metrics evaluated. Male pigs were superior to females for all metrics ( efficiency metrics improved as birth BW increased ( efficiency metrics were strong to moderate ( efficient) had lower EI and ECR and were superior for RIG ( efficient) had greater BW gain and better ECR ( Energy conversion ratio, REI, and RIG were superior ( efficient) compared with medium-RMW pigs. High-RIG pigs (i.e., more efficient) had lower EI ( efficiency traits investigated in this study were different from unity, indicating that each trait is depicting a different aspect of efficiency in pigs, although the moderate to strong correlations suggest that improvement in one trait would, on average, lead to improvements in the others. Pigs ranked as more efficient on residual traits such as REI consumed less energy for a similar BW gain, which would translate into an economic benefit for pig producers.

  14. Remotely Sensed Northern Vegetation Response to Changing Climate: Growing Season and Productivity Perspective (United States)

    Ganguly, S.; Park, Taejin; Choi, Sungho; Bi, Jian; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Myneni, Ranga


    Vegetation growing season and maximum photosynthetic state determine spatiotemporal variability of seasonal total gross primary productivity of vegetation. Recent warming induced impacts accelerate shifts on growing season and physiological status over Northern vegetated land. Thus, understanding and quantifying these changes are very important. Here, we first investigate how vegetation growing season and maximum photosynthesis state are evolved and how such components contribute on inter-annual variation of seasonal total gross primary productivity. Furthermore, seasonally different response of northern vegetation to changing temperature and water availability is also investigated. We utilized both long-term remotely sensed data to extract larger scale growing season metrics (growing season start, end and duration) and productivity (i.e., growing season summed vegetation index, GSSVI) for answering these questions. We find that regionally diverged growing season shift and maximum photosynthetic state contribute differently characterized productivity inter-annual variability and trend. Also seasonally different response of vegetation gives different view of spatially varying interaction between vegetation and climate. These results highlight spatially and temporally varying vegetation dynamics and are reflective of biome-specific responses of northern vegetation to changing climate.

  15. Growing And Assembling Cells Into Tissues (United States)

    Wolf, David A.; Schwarz, Ray P.; Lewis, Marian L.; Cross, John H.; Huls, M. Helen


    Laboratory process for growth and assembly of mammalian cells into tissue-like masses demonstrated with hamster and rat cells. New process better able to provide culture environment with reduced fluid shear stress, freedom for three-dimensional spatial orientation of particles suspended in culture medium, and localization of particles of different or similar sedimentation properties in similar spatial region.

  16. Growing Our Workforce through Business and Education (United States)

    Pauley, Douglas R.; Davidchik, Daniel


    In 2004, Central Community College (CCC) established the Mechatronics Education Center (MEC), a regional center of excellence, to help the state address the shortage of skilled technicians in the area of industrial automation. The MEC addresses the needs of the current and future workforce through the implementation of its three main components:…

  17. Segregation of chromosome arms in growing and non-growing Escherichia coli cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woldringh, Conrad L.; Hansen, Flemming G.; Vischer, Norbert O. E.


    In slow-growing Escherichia coli cells the chromosome is organized with its left (L) and right (R) arms lying separated in opposite halves of the nucleoid and with the origin (0) in-between, giving the pattern L-O-R. During replication one of the arms has to pass the other to obtain the same...

  18. Growing Youth Growing Food: How Vegetable Gardening Influences Young People's Food Consciousness and Eating Habits (United States)

    Libman, Kimberly


    Much attention is currently being paid to rising rates of obesity, especially among youth. In this context, garden-based education can have a role in improving public health. A qualitative study conducted at the Brooklyn Botanic Garden (BBG) Children's Garden provides supporting evidence for the claim that growing vegetables can improve the…

  19. Wartime diet for growing bobwhite quail (United States)

    Nestler, R.B.; Llewellyn, L.; Benner, M.


    Two experiments, using 784 bobwhite quail chicks, were conducted at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Bowie, Maryland, to find a growing diet that would meet wartime restrictions. In 1941 a diet containing 14 per cent sardine fish meal was formulated and gave satisfactory results from the standpoints of survival and growth. Since fish meal now is scarce, search was made for a diet without war-restricted commodities yet equal to the above-mentioned diet in feeding value. Ten diets were compared.....In the present experiments, quail fed this same diet modified by the substitution of 0.12 per cent of D-activated sterol for vitamin A and D feeding oil fortified showed the highest survival and the best live weights at the end of both the sixth and tenth weeks. They also were among the top three groups in requiring the least quantity of feed per unit of gain in weight; however, they consumed the greatest quantity of feed.....Of the other nine diets, that which seemed most promising, considering survival, live weight, and efficiency of feed utilization, was as follows (parts by weight) : Yellow corn, ground 26.08...Millet, ground 10.00...Alfalfa leaf meal, dehydrated 7.50...Soybean oil meal, solvent-processed 50.00...Dried whey 3.00...Special steamed bonemeal 1.50...Limestone, ground 0.80...Salt mixture 1.OO...D-activated animal sterol 0.12....100.00.....At the end of ten weeks the results on this diet (Diet l l ) , as compared with that containing sardine meal (Diet 23), were as follows: Diet No. 11 Percentage survival 71, Average live weight per bird, grams 144,....Growing mash consumed, per bird-day, grams 6.8 Feed consumed per gram of gain in weight (grams) 3.8......Diet 23....Percentage survival, 80,...Avg live weight per bird, grams....145,....Growing mash consumed , per bird-day, grams...7.4...Feed consumed per gram of gain in weight (grams)....3.9. Results were unsatisfactory when expeller-processed soybean oil meal was used in this diet to replace solvent

  20. Growing pains: twelve lessons from corporate restructuring. (United States)

    Gill, S L; Johnson, R L


    Corporate reorganization is a realignment of resources to enhance competitive strength and can follow one of two lines, vertical or horizontal. Whichever strategy is used, the reason for it remains unchanged: to provide a structural hierarchy through which strategic market niches are acquired and resources are economically deployed throughout the system. Healthcare corporate restructuring, however, is encountering growing pains, some of which were inevitable and others avoidable. When the healthcare organizational landscape is surveyed, 12 lessons can be learned about corporate reorganization: 1. Reorganization should be based on anticipated market and environmental conditions. 2. Form follows function. 3. Interdependence among multiple corporate units must be clearly acknowledged. 4. Reorganization is much more costly and politically charged than it appears at first. Reserved rights must be clearly defined. 6. The purpose and composition of the parent governing board must be distinguished from those of subsidiary boards. 7. Clarification of roles and relationships between the parent and subsidiaries is critical. 8. Unrealistic expectations of success should be confronted through up-front planning, negotiation, and creative problem solving. 9. False assumptions about corporate staffing needs create internal system warfare. 10. Physician support is crucial for success. 11. Hospital-based management skills and understanding may be inadequate for making personnel decisions in subsidiaries other than the hospital. 12. Competitive strategies must be strategically determined and must not be taken gamesmanship.

  1. Autoethnography in Health Research: Growing Pains? (United States)

    Chang, Heewon


    Autoethnography is gaining acceptance as a legitimate research method in health science research. The growing volume of published autoethnographies is indicative of this trend. After discussing the methodological tenents of this qualitative research method and its compatibility with health-related research, the author illustrates this trend with examples of published autoethnogrpahic books, theses, and journal articles. While celebrating the potential of autoethnography as a suitable health research method, the author critiques dominatly descriptive and evocative illness self-narratives that may evoke emontionally compelling responses from readers but offer insufficient sociocultural insights about the illness phenomenon. To identify a "desirable" autoethnography that provides not only a "thick description" of personal experiences but also a sociocultural interpration of such experiences, the author recommends both creators and consumers of autoethnography to ask five evaluative questions: (1) Does the autoethnography use authentic and trustworthy data?; (2) Does the autoethnography follow a reliable research process and show the process clearly?; (3) Does the autoethnography follow ethical steps to protect the rights of self and others presented and implicated in the autoethnography?; (4) Does the autoethnography analyze and interpret the sociocultural meaning of the author's personal experiences?; and (5) Does the autoethnography attempt to make a scholarly contribution with its conclusion and engagement of the existing literature? © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Growing duckweed for biofuel production: a review. (United States)

    Cui, W; Cheng, J J


    Duckweed can be utilised to produce ethanol, butanol and biogas, which are promising alternative energy sources to minimise dependence on limited crude oil and natural gas. The advantages of this aquatic plant include high rate of nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) uptake, high biomass yield and great potential as an alternative feedstock for the production of fuel ethanol, butanol and biogas. The objective of this article is to review the published research on growing duckweed for the production of the biofuels, especially starch enrichment in duckweed plants. There are mainly two processes affecting the accumulation of starch in duckweed biomass: photosynthesis for starch generation and metabolism-related starch consumption. The cost of stimulating photosynthesis is relatively high based on current technologies. Considerable research efforts have been made to inhibit starch degradation. Future research need in this area includes duckweed selection, optimisation of duckweed biomass production, enhancement of starch accumulation in duckweeds and use of duckweeds for production of various biofuels. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  3. Adult congenital heart disease: a growing epidemic. (United States)

    Ávila, Pablo; Mercier, Lise-Andrée; Dore, Annie; Marcotte, François; Mongeon, François-Pierre; Ibrahim, Reda; Asgar, Anita; Miro, Joaquim; Andelfinger, Gregor; Mondésert, Blandine; de Guise, Pierre; Poirier, Nancy; Khairy, Paul


    Medical and surgical breakthroughs in the care of children born with heart defects have generated a growing population of adult survivors and spawned a new subspecialty of cardiology: adult congenital heart disease. The prevalence of adult congenital heart disease is escalating at a rampant rate, outpacing the relatively static prevalence of pediatric congenital heart disease, because adults now surpass children in numbers by a ratio of 2:1. As such, congenital heart disease can no longer be considered primarily a pediatric specialty. Most congenital heart defects are not curable and require lifelong specialized care. Health care systems worldwide are challenged to meet the unique needs of this increasingly complex patient population, including the development of supraregional centres of excellence to provide comprehensive and multidisciplinary specialized care. In this review, we explore the incidence and prevalence of congenital heart disease and their changing patterns, address organization and delivery of care, highlight the importance of appropriate training and dedicated research, summarize the high burden of health care resource utilization, and provide an overview of common issues encountered in adults with congenital heart disease. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Bioaugmentation in growing plants for lunar bases (United States)

    Zaets, I.; Burlak, O.; Rogutskyy, I.; Vasilenko, A.; Mytrokhyn, O.; Lukashov, D.; Foing, B.; Kozyrovska, N.


    Microorganisms may be a key element in a precursory scenario of growing pioneer plants for extraterrestrial exploration. They can be used for plant inoculation to leach nutritional elements from regolith, to alleviate lunar stressors, as well as to decompose both lunar rocks and the plant straw in order to form a protosoil. Bioleaching capacities of both French marigold (Tagetes patula L.) and the associated bacteria in contact with a lunar rock simulant (terrestrial anorthosite) were examined using the model plant-bacteria microcosms under controlled conditions. Marigold accumulated K, Na, Fe, Zn, Ni, and Cr at higher concentrations in anorthosite compared to the podzol soil. Plants inoculated with the consortium of well-defined species of bacteria accumulated higher levels of K, Mg, and Mn, but lower levels of Ni, Cr, Zn, Na, Ca, Fe, which exist at higher levels in anorthosite. Bacteria also affected the Са/Mg and Fe/Mn ratios in the biomass of marigold grown on anorthosite. Despite their growth retardation, the inoculated plants had 15% higher weight on anorthosite than noninoculated plants. The data suggest that the bacteria supplied basic macro-and microelements to the model plant.

  5. Growing Bacteriophage M13 in Liquid Culture. (United States)

    Green, Michael R; Sambrook, Joseph


    Stocks of bacteriophage M13 are usually grown in liquid culture. The infected bacteria do not lyse but, instead, grow at a slower than normal rate to form a dilute suspension. The inoculum of bacteriophage is almost always a freshly picked plaque or a suspension of bacteriophage particles obtained from a single plaque, as described here. Infected cells contain up to 200 copies of double-stranded, replicative-form DNA and extrude several hundred bacteriophage particles per generation. Thus, a 1-mL culture of infected cells can produce enough double-stranded viral DNA (1-2 mg) for restriction mapping and recovery of cloned DNA inserts and sufficient single-stranded DNA (∼5-10 mg) for site-directed mutagenesis, DNA sequencing, or synthesis of radiolabeled probes. The titer of bacteriophages in the supernatant from infected cells is so high (∼10(12) pfu/mL) that a small aliquot serves as a permanent stock of the starting plaque. © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  6. The Growing Regulation of Conversion Therapy. (United States)

    Drescher, Jack; Schwartz, Alan; Casoy, Flávio; McIntosh, Christopher A; Hurley, Brian; Ashley, Kenneth; Barber, Mary; Goldenberg, David; Herbert, Sarah E; Lothwell, Lorraine E; Mattson, Marlin R; McAfee, Scot G; Pula, Jack; Rosario, Vernon; Tompkins, D Andrew


    Conversion therapies are any treatments, including individual talk therapy, behavioral (e.g. aversive stimuli), group therapy or milieu (e.g. "retreats or inpatient treatments" relying on all of the above methods) treatments, which attempt to change an individual's sexual orientation from homosexual to heterosexual. However these practices have been repudiated by major mental health organizations because of increasing evidence that they are ineffective and may cause harm to patients and their families who fail to change. At present, California, New Jersey, Oregon, Illinois, Washington, DC, and the Canadian Province of Ontario have passed legislation banning conversion therapy for minors and an increasing number of US States are considering similar bans. In April 2015, the Obama administration also called for a ban on conversion therapies for minors. The growing trend toward banning conversion therapies creates challenges for licensing boards and ethics committees, most of which are unfamiliar with the issues raised by complaints against conversion therapists. This paper reviews the history of conversion therapy practices as well as clinical, ethical and research issues they raise. With this information, state licensing boards, ethics committees and other regulatory bodies will be better able to adjudicate complaints from members of the public who have been exposed to conversion therapies.

  7. Gasification research on wood grow project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanigan, V J


    The GROW (Gasification Research on Wood) project consists of a research project on thermochemical degradation of wood particles (sawdust or hammermilled wood) on a pilot plant scale and utilizes a 100 cm (40 in.) diameter fluidized sand bed reactor at capacities of up to 1000 Kg/Hr (2200 lb/hr). Supplementary facilities include wood preparation and air conveying, a wood feed bin, feed and transfer screws, an air compressor with storage and filter tanks, an electrical preheater, a propane-fired preheater, a cyclone separator removing solids from product gas, a water scrubber to cool and clean product gas, a scrubber wate settling tank, a scrubber water cooler, a knockout drum, a demister to be installed in the future, a recycle compressor for recirculation, a recycle gas storage tank, a flare and stack with air blower to dispose of the gas, 2 CO/sub 2/ stripper columns to be installed in the future to remove CO/sub 2/ by caustic adsorption, caustic tanks, and the necessary piping, pumps, sampling, and measurement facilities. A brief report of progress on the project is given, followed by the safety implementation plan and operating, maintenance, and safety procedures. (MHR)

  8. Turkey opens electricity markets as demand grows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeigue, J.; Da Cunha, A.; Severino, D. [Global Business Reports (United States)


    Turkey's growing power market has attracted investors and project developers for over a decade, yet their plans have been dashed by unexpected political or financial crises or, worse, obstructed by a lengthy bureaucratic approval process. Now, with a more transparent retail electricity market, government regulators and investors are bullish on Turkey. Is Turkey ready to turn the power on? This report closely examine Turkey's plans to create a power infrastructure capable of providing the reliable electricity supplies necessary for sustained economic growth. It was compiled with on-the-ground research and extensive interview with key industrial and political figures. Today, hard coal and lignite account for 21% of Turkey's electricity generation and gas-fired plants account for 50%. The Alfin Elbistan-B lignite-fired plant has attracted criticism for its lack of desulfurization units and ash dam facilities that have tarnished the industry's image. A 1,100 MW hard-coal fired plant using supercritical technology is under construction. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Russian plant grows monocrystals for CERN collider

    CERN Multimedia


    "..Experts of an enterprise in Murmansk Region has started to make so-called monocrystals. They are needed for making of a huge device the construction of which has started in Switzerland. Thanks to this unique equipment scientists of the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) will be able to model the creation of the universe for the first time ever" (1/2 page).

  10. Características estomáticas de pares congenéricos de cerrado e mata de galeria crescendo numa região transicional no Brasil central Stomatal traits of cerrado and gallery forest congeneric pairs growing in a transitional region in central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi Rodrigo Rossatto


    Full Text Available Em áreas protegidas do fogo, espécies arbóreas predominantemente florestais conseguem se estabelecer no cerrado e crescer lado a lado com espécies do mesmo gênero que são características destas formações savânicas. Devido às condições ambientais diferenciadas encontradas nas formações de cerrado e de mata, estas espécies congenéricas podem se comportar como grupos funcionais distintos. Neste trabalho foi realizado um estudo comparativo da anatomia dos estômatos e da condutância estomática e taxas de transpiração foliar em 10 pares de espécies congenéricas do cerrado e de mata de galeria e das relações entre as características estomáticas selecionadas e a condutância estomática, já que a morfologia dos estômatos e sua densidade afetam a área para difusão dos gases e sua trajetória através dos poros estomáticos. Cada par foi de uma família diferente. Para a maioria das espécies, a área do poro estomático foi o fator de maior influencia no processo de trocas gasosas, pela sua correlação com a condutância estomática, enquanto a densidade estomática mostrou uma correlação negativa significativa tanto com o comprimento da célula-guarda quanto com a área do poro estomático. As espécies do cerrado apresentaram valores significativamente maiores do comprimento da célula-guarda e do poro estomático. No entanto, para a maioria dos outros parâmetros estomáticos examinados, a maior parte da variação pode ser atribuída a diferenças entre os gêneros, sendo que a variação entre as espécies dos dois ambientes parece ser um produto da historia evolutiva de cada grupo e não reflete uma especialização ao ambiente de cerrado ou de mata de galeria.In fire-protected sites of Central Brazil, forest trees can establish in the neighbouring savanna and grow side by side with cerrado trees of the same genera. Because of the large differences in their native environment, the cerrado and forest species may

  11. Pharmaceutical Industry in Vietnam: Sluggish Sector in a Growing Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Angelino


    Full Text Available Vietnam is a fast growing economy in the Asian region with a significantly high population (over 92 million in 2015. Although still expanding (about 1.1% on average during 2000–2015, the Vietnamese population is considered to be entering the ageing stage at a very high rate. The rapid expansion of the middle-income urban class and the ageing people ratio have dramatically pushed up the demand for healthcare goods, particularly in terms of pharmaceutical products. Since the early 1990s the government has addressed the necessities of rising demand for healthcare products by formulating a series of policies aimed at promoting the development of the pharmaceutical industry. However, the implementation of such policies does not seem to have been completely efficient given that the country still needs to import up to 90% of its pharmaceutical consumption. This paper aims to explore the development of the pharmaceutical industry during the years 1990–2015 and to identify a series of weaknesses in the government promotion of the industry. Future developments will also be discussed on how the Vietnamese pharmaceutical industry could increase its participation in the regional supply chain, which is currently being dominated by big players like India and China.

  12. Pharmaceutical Industry in Vietnam: Sluggish Sector in a Growing Market. (United States)

    Angelino, Antonio; Khanh, Do Ta; An Ha, Nguyen; Pham, Tuan


    Vietnam is a fast growing economy in the Asian region with a significantly high population (over 92 million in 2015). Although still expanding (about 1.1% on average during 2000-2015), the Vietnamese population is considered to be entering the ageing stage at a very high rate. The rapid expansion of the middle-income urban class and the ageing people ratio have dramatically pushed up the demand for healthcare goods, particularly in terms of pharmaceutical products. Since the early 1990s the government has addressed the necessities of rising demand for healthcare products by formulating a series of policies aimed at promoting the development of the pharmaceutical industry. However, the implementation of such policies does not seem to have been completely efficient given that the country still needs to import up to 90% of its pharmaceutical consumption. This paper aims to explore the development of the pharmaceutical industry during the years 1990-2015 and to identify a series of weaknesses in the government promotion of the industry. Future developments will also be discussed on how the Vietnamese pharmaceutical industry could increase its participation in the regional supply chain, which is currently being dominated by big players like India and China.

  13. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing in biofilm‐growing bacteria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Macià, M. D; Rojo‐Molinero, E; Oliver, A


    .... The lack of correlation between conventional susceptibility test results and therapeutic success in chronic infections is probably a consequence of the use of planktonically growing instead of biofilm‐growing bacteria...

  14. Growing skull fracture stages and treatment strategy. (United States)

    Liu, Xue-Song; You, Chao; Lu, Ma; Liu, Jia-Gang


    A growing skull fracture (GSF) is a rare but significant late complication of skull fractures, usually occurring during infancy and early childhood. Delayed diagnosis and improper treatment could exacerbate this disease. The aim of this study was to introduce a new hypothesis about, describe the stages of, and discuss the treatment strategy for GSF. The authors performed a retrospective review of 27 patients with GSF, who were grouped according to 3 different GSF stages. Over a period of 20 years, 27 patients with GSF (16 males and 11 females) were treated in the authors' department. The mean follow-up period was 26.5 months. Six patients were in the prephase of GSF (Stage 1), 10 patients in the early phase (Stage 2), and 11 in the late phase (Stage 3). All patients underwent duraplasty. All 6 patients at Stage 1 and 5 patients at Stage 2 underwent craniotomy without cranioplasty. Five patients at Stage 2 and all of the patients at Stage 3 underwent cranioplasty with autologous bone and alloplastic materials, respectively. Among all patients, 5 underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement. Symptoms in all patients at Stages 1 and 2 were alleviated or disappeared, and the cranial bones developed without deformity during follow-up. Among patients with Stage 3 GSF, no obvious improvement in neurological deficits was observed. Three patients underwent additional operations because of cranial deformation or infection. The authors identify the stages of GSF according to a new hypothesis. They conclude that accurately diagnosing and treating GSF during Stages 1 and 2 leads to a better prognosis.

  15. [Lung cancer and COPD - growing clinical problem]. (United States)

    Tyl, Michal; Domagała-Kulawik, Joanna


    A spread of the addiction of tobacco smoking is valued on near 1 billion of people in the world, that involves growing number of morbidity and mortality by the reason of smoke related diseases. Lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are the most serious and incurable diseases which are leading to a permanent disability as well as to premature death. There are factors that naturally increase the vulnerability of an individual on the coincidence of above disorders, such as pathophysiological conditions, systemic inflammation, bronchitis, emphysema, respiratory obstructive disease and precise genetic predispositions for COPD and lung cancer. The harmful substances of the tobacco smoke are the causes of the development of diseases outside the group of respiratory disorders which affects the greater scope of comorbidity among this patient group in comparison to the normal population. The similarity of the clinical picture of lung cancer and COPD may cause numerous problems for a proper and prompt diagnosis and the implementation of the appropriate treatment. On the other hand, it is evident that the patients with COPD are carefully examined and often diagnosed with cancer while those who already suffer from cancer and undertake additional function testing are in 40-50% diagnosed with COPD. The coexistance of these two diseases influences the therapeutic procedure: COPD limits the possibilities of a radical lung cancer treatment which is determined by the general health condition and the respiratory system insufficiency as far as COPD patients are concerned. The knowledge of common pathogenesis both of cancer and COPD and the mutual relations between them shall positively affect the diagnostic and therapeutic process in the high-risk patient groups.

  16. [Studies on the alkaloids of Senecio scandens growing in Guangdong]. (United States)

    Guo, Xiao-Fang; Liu, Meng-Hua; Peng, Wei; Wang, Yong-Gang; Yang, Cui-Ping; Su, Wei-Wei


    To study alkaloids of Senecio scandens growing in Guangdong. The rapid resolution liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (RRLC-ESI-MS/MS) was used to analyse alkaloids of Senecio scandens growing in Guangdong, and senkirkine was isolated and purified by silica gel column chromatography. Four alkaloids were identified as senkirkine, dehydrosenkirkine, monocrotaline and adonifoline, and senkirkine was firstly isolated from Senecio scandens growing in Guangdong. Senkirkine is the main component of Senecio scandens growing in Guangdong.

  17. Climatic growing conditions of Jatropha curcas L.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maes, W.H.; Achten, W.M.J.; Muys, B. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Division Forest, Nature and Landscape, Celestijnenlaan 200 E Box 2411, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Trabucco, A. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Division Forest, Nature and Landscape, Celestijnenlaan 200 E Box 2411, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium); International Water Management Institute (IWMI), P.O. Box 2075, Colombo (Sri Lanka)


    The massive investment in new jatropha plantations worldwide is not sufficiently based on a profound scientific knowledge of its ecology. In this article, we define the climatic conditions in its area of natural distribution by combining the locations of herbarium specimens with corresponding climatic information, and compare these conditions with those in 83 jatropha plantations worldwide. Most specimens (87%) were found in tropical savannah and monsoon climates (A{sub m}, A{sub w}) and in temperate climates without dry season and with hot summer (C{sub fa}), while very few were found in semi-arid (B{sub S}) and none in arid climates (B{sub W}). Ninety-five percent of the specimens grew in areas with a mean annual rainfall above 944 mm year{sup -1} and an average minimum temperature of the coldest month (T{sub min}) above 10.5 C. The mean annual temperature range was 19.3-27.2 C. The climatic conditions at the plantations were different from those of the natural distribution specimens for all studied climatic variables, except average maximum temperature in the warmest month. Roughly 40% of the plantations were situated in regions with a drier climate than in 95% of the area of the herbarium specimens, and 28% of the plantations were situated in areas with T{sub min} below 10.5 C. The observed precipitation preferences indicate that jatropha is not common in regions with arid and semi-arid climates. Plantations in arid and semi-arid areas hold the risk of low productivity or irrigation requirement. Plantations in regions with frost risk hold the risk of damage due to frost. (author)

  18. A growing danger: the risks posed by marihuana grow-ops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, F. [Canadian Electricity Association (Canada)


    The proliferation of sophisticated illegal indoor multi-plant marihuana cultivation operations is discussed, focusing primarily on public health and safety issues. Public health issues arise from the high level of molds and pollens caused by high humidity, which can cause asthma, respiratory conditions and allergies, particularly among children, and the likelihood of deadly levels of carbon monoxide build-up resulting from faulty rerouting of the residence's ventilation system. Safety issues discussed are: fires and electrocutions associated with the use of electrical diversions or bipasses to circumvent utility meters, the chemical and electrical hazards involved in investigating and dismantling growing operations, the significant dangers to utility crews who must repair illegal electrical bypasses, injuries by the booby-traps planted to protect the operation from other criminals or law enforcement agents, and the physical danger from the violence, including homicide and assaults, carried out by operators to exert control over production and distribution. Although in general, there is a relaxed attitude towards marihuana use in Canada. there is growing evidence of increasing public concern over large-scale growing operations. Nevertheless, to date operators of grow-ops have been dealt with lightly by the justice system. For example, in British Columbia 11,733 cases have come to the attention of police during the 1997 to 2000 period. Of these about half were dealt with informally (i.e. 'no case' seizures) and 2,255 cases led to at least one offender being convicted. The majority of convictions did not result in custodial dispositions. Only 18 per cent of the cases resulted in prison sentences, the average term being only 4.5 months.

  19. Lighting during grow-out and Salmonella in broiler flocks (United States)

    Lighting is used during broiler grow-out to modify bird behavior to reach the goals of production. The protocols for lighting intensity vary. In a field project, we evaluated if the lighting protocol impacts the burden of Salmonella in grow-out broiler flocks. Conventional grow-out flocks reared ...

  20. WSGB: A Web Service-Based Growing Book (United States)

    Dow, C. R.; Huang, L. H.; Chen, K. H.; Chiu, J. C.; Lin, C. M.


    Growing Book refers to an electronic textbook that is co-developed, and has the ability to be constantly maintained, by groups of independent authors, thus creating a rich and ever-growing learning environment that can be conveniently accessible from anywhere. This work designs and implements a Web Service-based Growing Book that has the merits of…

  1. Fruit-Growing in Latvia – Industry and Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaufmane Edīte


    result of research by the Institute of Horticulture: 1 new local breeding fruit crop cultivars were obtained and recommended for commercial orchards; variety testing including growing technologies was initiated in different regions of Latvia; 2 monitoring of harmful and favourable organisms was conducted in plantations, with development of a system for prognosis and control; and 3 research results were transferred to growers through practical recommendations, publications, seminars and demonstrations.

  2. On carbon footprints and growing energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, C.M.


    Could fractional reductions in the carbon footprint of a growing organization lead to a corresponding real reduction in atmospheric CO{sub 2} emissions in the next ten years? Curtis M. Oldenburg, head of the Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program of LBNL’s Earth Sciences Division, considers his own organization's carbon footprint and answers this critical question? In addressing the problem of energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and climate change, it is essential that we understand which activities are producing GHGs and the scale of emission for each activity, so that reduction efforts can be efficiently targeted. The GHG emissions to the atmosphere of an individual or group are referred to as the ‘carbon footprint’. This terminology is entirely appropriate, because 85% of the global marketed energy supply comes from carbon-rich fossil fuel sources whose combustion produces CO{sub 2}, the main GHG causing global climate change. Furthermore, the direct relation between CO2 emissions and fossil fuels as they are used today makes energy consumption a useful proxy for carbon footprint. It would seem to be a simple matter to reduce energy consumption across the board, both individually and collectively, to help reduce our carbon footprints and therefore solve the energyclimate crisis. But just how much can we reduce carbon footprints when broader forces, such as growth in energy use, cause the total footprint to simultaneously expand? In this feature, I present a calculation of the carbon footprint of the Earth Sciences Division (ESD), the division in which I work at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and discuss the potential for reducing this carbon footprint. It will be apparent that in terms of potential future carbon footprint reductions under projections of expected growth, ESD may be thought of as a microcosm of the situation of the world as a whole, in which alternatives to the business-as-usual use of fossil fuels are needed if

  3. Body dysmorphic disorder: a growing problem? (United States)

    Naini, Farhad B; Gill, Daljit S


    Body dysmorphic dsorder (BDD) is characterised by a preoccupation with an imagined defect in one's appearance or, in the case of a minor physical anomaly, the individual's concern is markedly excessive, causing significant distress in their life. One of the most common areas of preoccupation is the dentofacial region, with up to 20% of patients diagnosed with BDD expressing specific concern regarding their dental appearance. With the increased ability to undertake dental aesthetic and reconstructive procedures, in addition to the use of facial aesthetic procedures, it is paramount for all dental clinicians to have an understanding of this condition. BDD patients often request multiple aesthetic procedures, but remain unsatisfied with their treatment results. It is imperative for the dental clinician to diagnose this condition prior to instigating clinical treatment, and to make an appropriate referral.

  4. Growing eddies reduce tailing in rough-walled rock fractures (United States)

    Yeo, I. W.; Lee, S. H.; Lee, K. K.; Detwiler, R. L.


    We present the first direct observation of fluid flow and solute transport in a microscopic rough-walled fracture using micro-PIV to assess the evolution of non-Fickian tailing as eddies developed at larger fluid velocities. These observations demonstrated a previously-unidentified, important phenomenon: normalized BTCs became highly skewed towards later times up until a limiting fluid velocity, beyond which tailing decreased and peak concentrations increased. Further microscopic observation of particle trajectories clarified the likely cause of the reduced tailing at higher velocities. Tailing increased until the onset of eddies in large-aperture regions. As eddies became fully developed, particles were initially entrained in the eddies, but then cast back into the main flow channel, which reduced tailing. Numerical studies designed to more clearly understand the 3D nature of flow and transport showed that streamlines swirled near the fracture walls in a large-aperture region and re-entered the main flow channel. These numerical results support our interpretation of the experimental observation. This study, based on combined direct observations and numerical simulations, clearly demonstrated that there was no well-defined separation stream surface delineating so-called immobile (recirculation) and mobile zones in the 3D nature of the flow and transport and the tails decreased with growing eddies due to mass transfer by advective paths from eddies into the main flow channels. These experimental and numerical results contradict results from numerous previous studies based upon simulations in 2D fracture geometries and highlight the need for caution when using 2D simulations to understand 3D transport processes.

  5. Experimental Compaction in a Growing Dendritic Zone (United States)

    Deguen, R.; Alboussière, T.; Brito, D.; La Rizza, P.; Masson, J.


    The Earth inner core is thought to be in a state of dynamical equilibrium between dendritic solidification and compaction of the resulting solid-liquid region (or 'mushy zone') (Sumita et al.,1996). One important question is how much liquid can be trapped in the inner core, or how efficient is compaction to squeeze out the liquid phase. While this can be estimated theoretically in the case of non-reacting liquid and solid phases, this problem is somewhat more complicated in the case of a crystallizing mushy zone, as it involves a continuous mass transfer between the two phases as the system evolves. Consequences on the evolution of the connectivity of the melt as solidification proceed are difficult to assess, making the dependence of the permeability on porosity difficult to predict theoretically, particularly when the liquid fraction becomes small. Other open questions includes how does compaction and convection compete in the mushy zone? What are the effects of compaction on the thickness of the convecting zone? on the interdendritic spacing? on the structure and dimensions of chimneys? We present here preliminary results of an experiment devoted to the study of compaction during the dendritic crystallization of a model material. In our experimental set-up, compaction is promoted by a high apparent gravity, which is imposed by putting the crystallizing sample in a standard lab centrifuge, where the centrifuge acceleration can reach a few thousand g. While solidification proceed, the sample is scanned in situ with ultrasounds, allowing us to follow the propagation of the solidification front and to investigate the variations of ultrasound velocity and attenuation in the liquid, mush and solid domains.

  6. Interest grows in African oil and gas opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, D.


    As African countries continue a slow drift towards democratic government and market economics, the continent is increasingly attractive to international oil and gas companies. Though Africa remains politically diverse, and its volatile politics remains a major barrier to petroleum companies, a number of recent developments reflect its growing significance for the industry. Among recent projects and events reflecting changes in Africa: oil and gas exporter Algeria has invited foreign oil companies to help develop major gas discoveries, with a view to boosting exports to Europe; oil and gas producer Egypt invited foreign companies to explore in the Nile Delta region, and the result appears to be a flowering world scale gas play; west African offshore exploration has entered deep water and new areas, and a number of major projects are expected in years to come; Nigeria`s reputation as a difficult place to operate has been justified by recent political and civil events, but a long-planned liquefied natural gas (LNG) export plant is being built there; South Africa, which has returned to the international scene after years of trade isolation because of apartheid, is emerging as a potential driver for energy industry schemes throughout the continent. Activities are discussed.

  7. Pan-Arctic linkages between snow accumulation and growing season air temperature, soil moisture and vegetation (United States)

    Luus, K. A.; Gel, Y.; Lin, J. C.; Kelly, R. E. J.; Duguay, C. R.


    Arctic field studies have indicated that the air temperature, soil moisture and vegetation at a site influence the quantity of snow accumulated, and that snow accumulation can alter growing season soil moisture and vegetation. Climate change is predicted to bring about warmer air temperatures, greater snow accumulation and northward movements of the shrub and tree lines. Understanding the response of northern environments to changes in snow and growing season land surface characteristics requires: (1) insights into the present-day linkages between snow and growing season land surface characteristics; and (2) the ability to continue to monitor these associations over time across the vast pan-Arctic. The objective of this study was therefore to examine the pan-Arctic (north of 60° N) linkages between two temporally distinct data products created from AMSR-E satellite passive microwave observations: GlobSnow snow water equivalent, and NTSG (growing season air temperature, soil moisture and vegetation transmissivity). Due to the complex and interconnected nature of processes determining snow and growing season land surface characteristics, these associations were analyzed using the modern non-parametric technique of Alternating Conditional Expectations (ACE), as this approach does not impose a predefined analytic form. Findings indicate that regions with lower vegetation transmissivity (more biomass) at the start and end of the growing season tend to accumulate less snow at the start and end of the snow season, possibly due to interception and shading. Warmer air temperatures at the start and end of the growing season were associated with diminished snow accumulation at the start and end of the snow season. High latitude sites with warmer mean annual growing season temperatures tended to accumulate more snow, probably due to the greater availability of water vapor for snow season precipitation at warmer locations. Regions with drier soils preceding snow onset tended

  8. The Growing-up of a Star (United States)


    Using ESO's Very Large Telescope Interferometer, astronomers have probed the inner parts of the disc of material surrounding a young stellar object, witnessing how it gains its mass before becoming an adult. ESO PR Photo 03/08 ESO PR Photo 03a/08 The disc around MWC 147 (Artist's Impression) The astronomers had a close look at the object known as MWC 147, lying about 2,600 light years away towards the constellation of Monoceros ('the Unicorn'). MWC 147 belongs to the family of Herbig Ae/Be objects. These have a few times the mass of our Sun and are still forming, increasing in mass by swallowing material present in a surrounding disc. MWC 147 is less than half a million years old. If one associated the middle-aged, 4.6 billion year old Sun with a person in his early forties, MWC 147 would be a 1-day-old baby [1]. The morphology of the inner environment of these young stars is however a matter of debate and knowledge of it is important to better understand how stars and their cortège of planets form. The astronomers Stefan Kraus, Thomas Preibisch, and Keiichi Ohnaka have used the four 8.2-m Unit Telescopes of ESO's Very Large Telescope to this purpose, combining the light from two or three telescopes with the MIDI and AMBER instruments. "With our VLTI/MIDI and VLTI/AMBER observations of MWC147, we combine, for the first time, near- and mid-infrared interferometric observations of a Herbig Ae/Be star, providing a measurement of the disc size over a wide wavelength range [2]," said Stefan Kraus, lead-author of the paper reporting the results. "Different wavelength regimes trace different temperatures, allowing us to probe the disc's geometry on the smaller scale, but also to constrain how the temperature changes with the distance from the star." The near-infrared observations probe hot material with temperatures of up to a few thousand degrees in the innermost disc regions, while the mid-infrared observations trace cooler dust further out in the disc. The

  9. Leadership Makes a Difference Growing Federal Civilian Leaders (United States)



  10. Olive-Growing in Italy: Economic and Multifunctional Aspects


    Maurizio Lanfranchi; Carlo Giannetto


    Olive-growing in Italy represents a particularly qualified and appreciated field in food-processing productions. The relevant interrelations with the history, landscape, environment and culture of our country make olive-growing particularly important not only for the economy of rural areas but also for the positive effects on landscape and surrounding environment. In fact olive-growing is defining itself more and more as a multifunctional enterprise. The presence of olive growers is also emph...

  11. Multifork chromosome replication in slow-growing bacteria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Damian Trojanowski; Joanna Holówka; Katarzyna Ginda; Dagmara Jakimowicz; Jolanta Zakrzewska-czerwinska


    .... Thus, newborn cells inherit partially duplicated chromosomes. This phenomenon, which is termed multifork replication, occurs among fast-growing bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis...

  12. Water resources in a rapidly growing region-Oakland County, Michigan (United States)

    Aichele, Stephen S.


    Oakland County is a suburban county in southeast Michigan. Population and demand for water grew steadily in the county over the 20th century, and these trends are expected to continue in coming decades. Roughly 75 percent of current water demand is met by imported water from the Detroit Water and Sewerage Division (DWSD), but water use from ground-water sources within the county still exceeds 43 million gallons per day. Because much of the population growth is in areas beyond the DWSD system, an additional 20-25 million gallons per day of supply may be necessary to meet future demands. Managing the wastewater produced while also protecting human and ecosystem health also may present challenges.

  13. [Otorhinolaryngology in the field of demography, growing outpatient care and regionalization]. (United States)

    Schmidt, C E; Schuldt, T; Kaiser, A; Letzgus, P; Liebeneiner, J; Schmidt, K; Öner, A; Mlynski, R


    Otorhinolaryngology (ENT) departments are strongly affected by current changes in the reimbursement schemes for inpatients. The study was designed to investigate these effects on the ENT Department in Rostock and selected comparison clinics, as well as to outline solutions. We analyzed diagnosis-related group (DRG) reports of the ENT Clinic at Rostock University Medical Center from 2013 to 2015, according to the size of the outpatient potential. Comparisons were made with other surgical departments such as maxillofacial surgery and ophthalmology in terms of average length of stay and the resulting deductibles. We also compared billing as day surgery and complete outpatient surgery for the main small surgical procedures such as tonsillectomy and septum surgery. Finally, we compared the discounts with 22 ENT departments in other maximum care hospitals. The average case mix index of an ENT department in Germany is 0.75, case load average of 2,500 patients and common length of stay 4.1 days. In a typical academic ENT department as in Rostock, health plans usually discount around 500 T€ (thousand euro), which is considerably higher than comparable departments, e.g., oral and maxillofacial surgery or ophthalmology departments. However, discounts on a DRG for inpatient surgery is still approximately 1,000 € more revenue than surgery in an outpatient setting. The benchmark analysis shows that health plans in rural areas are more likely to accept inpatient surgery with discounts for small procedures than strict billing according to outpatient reimbursement schemes. These effects can result in an insufficient cost effectiveness of ENT departments in Germany. As a consequence, substantial restructuring of the in- and outpatient treatment seems necessary, also for academic ENT departments, e.g., in the form of day surgery or ambulatory surgical centers, outpatient clinics with special contracts and specialized inpatient surgery. However, this results in greater demands on the training of young physicians and management of patient flows within the department.

  14. Resistance and resilience to changing climate of Tuscany and Valpolicella wine grape growing regions in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boselli Maurizio


    This study aims to provide an improved assessment of the practical adaptation options for the viticulture of Tuscany and of Valpolicella and what could be the strength and resilience to climate change of grapevine varieties in these areas. According to the models tested, Italian viticulture is able to adapt better than other countries to global warming, as the placing at various altitudes up in the high hills and mountains sets off the mechanism called resilience.

  15. The Cuban Interventionary Forces: The Growing Strategic and Regional Threat to the United States and NATO. (United States)


    large military interventions are: 1) Cuba is an independent actor merely pursuing its own foreign policy designs, with Soviet economic and mili- tary...states closely allied to Cuba. - To transform Cuba--militarily as well as politically-- into a second-order power and world-class actor throua the...Intelligence (DGI-- Direccion General de Inteligencia), the Department of State Security (DSE-- Departmento de Sequridad del Estado), and the Directorate of

  16. From Pinot to Xinomavro in the world's future wine-growing regions (United States)

    Wolkovich, E. M.; García de Cortázar-Atauri, I.; Morales-Castilla, I.; Nicholas, K. A.; Lacombe, T.


    Predicted impacts of climate change on crops—including yield declines and loss of conservation lands—could be mitigated by exploiting existing diversity within crops. Here we examine this possibility for wine grapes. Across 1,100 planted varieties, wine grapes possess tremendous diversity in traits that affect responses to climate, such as phenology and drought tolerance. Yet little of this diversity is exploited. Instead many countries plant 70-90% of total hectares with the same 12 varieties—representing 1% of total diversity. We outline these challenges, and highlight how altered planting practices and new initiatives could help the industry better adapt to continued climate change.

  17. Growing season methane budget of an Inner Mongolian steppe (United States)

    Liu, Chunyan; Holst, Jirko; Yao, Zhisheng; Brüggemann, Nicolas; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Han, Shenghui; Han, Xingguo; Tas, Bart; Susenbeth, Andreas; Zheng, Xunhua

    We present a methane (CH 4) budget for the area of the Baiyinxile Livestock Farm, which comprises approximately 1/3 of the Xilin river catchment in central Inner Mongolia, P.R. China. The budget calculations comprise the contributions of natural sources and sinks as well as sources related to the main land-use in this region (non-nomadic pastoralism) during the growing season (May-September). We identified as important CH 4 sources floodplains (mean 1.55 ± 0.97 mg CH 4-C m -2 h -1) and domestic ruminants, which are mainly sheep in this area. Within the floodplain significant differences between investigated positions were detected, whereby only positions close-by the river or bayous emitted large amounts of CH 4 (mean up to 6.21 ± 1.83 mg CH 4-C m -2 h -1). Further CH 4 sources were sheepfolds (0.08-0.91 mg CH 4-C m -2 h -1) and pasture faeces (1.34 ± 0.22 mg CH 4-C g -1 faeces dry weight), but they did not play a significant role for the CH 4 budget. In contrast, dung heaps were not a net source of CH 4 (0.0 ± 0.2 for an old and 0.0 ± 0.3 μg CH 4-C kg -1 h -1 for a new dung heap). Trace gas measurements along two landscape transects (volcano, hill slope) revealed expectedly a mean CH 4 uptake (volcano: 76.5 ± 4.3; hill: 28.3 ± 5.3 μg CH 4-C m -2 h -1), which is typical for the aerobic soils in this and other steppe ecosystems. The observed fluxes were rarely influenced by topography. The CH 4 emissions from the floodplain and the sheep were not compensated by the CH 4 oxidation of aerobic steppe soils and thus, this managed semi-arid grassland did not serve as a terrestrial sink, but as a source for this globally important greenhouse gas. The source strength amounted to 1.5-3.6 kg CH 4-C ha -1 during the growing season, corresponding to 3.5-8.7 kg C ha -1 yr -1.

  18. A synthesis of growing-season and annual methane emissions among temperate, boreal, and arctic wetlands (United States)

    Treat, Claire


    Wetlands are the largest natural source of methane to the atmosphere, but predicting methane emissions from wetlands using process-based modeling remains challenging due to the decoupling between production and emission. Furthermore, methane emissions are highly variable among sites, years, and temporal scales due to differences in production, oxidation, and transport pathways. Here, I synthesize growing season, non-growing season, and annual methane emissions from chamber and eddy-covariance measurements for >150 sites in undisturbed temperate, boreal, and arctic wetlands and adjacent uplands. I compare the magnitude of fluxes among regions, wetland classifications, vegetation classifications, environmental variables, and measurement methods. Growing season measurements were most abundant in bogs, fens, and tundra sites, while marshes, swamps, and permafrost thaw features were relatively undersampled. Methane emissions were largest from intermediate and rich fens (> 15 g CH4 m-2 y-1) and lowest from upland mineral soils and polygonal tundra (≤ 3 g CH4 m-2 y-1). Non-growing season emissions accounted for 20% of annual methane emissions. Across all sites, there were no significant differences in growing season methane emissions between autochambers, manual chambers, and eddy covariance. These results provide constraints for methane emissions from temporal, boreal, and arctic wetlands utilizing the numerous flux measurements conducted over the past 25 years.

  19. Higher Education and European Regionalism. (United States)

    Paterson, Lindsay


    Speculates about the relationship between two fundamental social changes occurring in Europe: the development of a mass higher education system and the slow decay of the old states that were inherited from the 19th century, eroded from below by various movements for national and regional autonomy, and eroded from above by the growing power and…

  20. The impact of entrepreneurial capital and rapidly growing firms: the Canadian example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keen, Christian; Etemad, Hamid


    World-class competitiveness is no longer an option for firms seeking growth and survival in the increasingly competitive, dynamic and interconnected world. This paper expands on the concept of entrepreneurial capital and formalizes it as a catalyst that augments other productive factors. It provi...... hostile environments that also suffer from poor resources, this research offers significant lessons with implications for emerging firms, industries and associated regions that aspire to grow faster...

  1. Growing skull fracture with cerebrospinal fluid fistula: A rare case report and its management strategies. (United States)

    Jain, Saurabh; Gandhi, Ashok; Sharma, Achal; Mittal, Radhey Shyam


    The growing skull fracture (GSF) occurs in younger age group as a sequel of trauma. The most common site of these lesions is parietal region. Here we are presenting a case of GSF of posterior fossa with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistula. As per literature, we have not found a single case of GSF in the posterior fossa with CSF fistula. The aim of this presentation is discussing the unusual presentation of GSF and its management.

  2. Effects of Temperature and Growing Seasons on Crop Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT: Water savings can be improved through reducing agricultural water consumption. The crop water requirement (CWR) depends on several factors including temperature and growing seasons. This study investigated the effects of temperature and growing seasons on CWR in Saudi Arabia. Increase in ...

  3. The effect of lumbosacral manipulation on growing pains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid de Beer


    Conclusion: The results from this study, specifically the feedback from parent(s/guardians(s and the pain diaries, indicated that spinal manipulation is beneficial in the treatment of growing pains. The results also showed that other methods of treating growing pains, such as simple leg rubs, may also bring relief.

  4. The suitability evaluation of lignocellulosic substrate as growing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Apr 2, 2014 ... The use of peat moss (PM) as a growing media is decreasing due to high costs and environmental considerations. ... hinoki wood sawdust and rice hull) in order to evaluate their use as components of growing media. Lignocellulosic ... polyortanphome, zeolite, coco peat and sawdust are used as growth ...

  5. Using water wisely to feed growing cities | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tunisia is helping to feed its growing cities by developing more efficient and sustainable agriculture that uses rainwater and recycled urban wastewater. The article Optimising Use of Water for Urban Agriculture: Responding to the challenge of growing water scarcity in Tunisia by Boubaker Houman and Bouraoui Moez, ...

  6. Evolution of Communicative Competence in Adolescents Growing up in Orphanages (United States)

    Ribakova, Laysan A.; Parfilova, Gulfia G.; Karimova, Lilya Sh.; Karimova, Raushan B.


    The article describes features of the communicative competence evolution in adolescents growing up in orphanages. The specificity is revealed and definition is given to key concept of the research, namely "communicative competence". Authors emphasize and demonstrate the evaluation peculiarities of the adolescents, growing up in…

  7. Responses of Calathea species in different growing media ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIHORT), Ibadan to investigate the most suitable medium for the growing of Calathea species. Four Calathea species namely: C. ornata; C.nigerica; C. princeps and C.zebrina, were planted each in three growing media made up of top soil; top ...

  8. The growth performance of growing pigs during feed restriction and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jan 19, 2009 ... The growth performance of growing pigs during feed ... alimentation study to evaluate the effect of restricting growing pigs at 90, 80 and 70% of the ad libitum ... Data on the body length (BL) and height at shoulders (HS) followed the same trend as observed for ADG. Feed intakes of pigs were significantly ...

  9. Growing media alternatives for forest and native plant nurseries (United States)

    Thomas D. Landis; Nancy Morgan


    The choice of growing medium, along with container type, is one of the critical decisions that must be made when starting a nursery. The first growing medium was called "compost" and was developed in the 1930s at the John Innes Horticultural Institute in Great Britain. It consisted of a loam soil that was amended with peat moss, sand, and fertilizers (Bunt...

  10. Effects of Charcoal Inclusion on the Performance of Growing Rabbits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was carried out to study the effects of charcoal inclusion in the diet of growing rabbits fed Acacia pod meal (APM) diet. Eighteen (18) growing rabbits of mixed breeds (give the crosses) and sexes with an average initial weight of 5202±0.25g were used for this study in a completely randomized design, ...

  11. Growth and Economic Opportunities for Women (GrOW) Frequently ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Access to journals, academic library, internet and reference management software. • Access to statistical software packages for meta-analysis or software packages for qualitative data analysis are an advantage. Does GrOW promote certain review methods and approaches? GrOW will take a broad perspective on the types ...

  12. Performance and carcass characteristics of growing rabbits fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an 84 days feeding trial, the effect of feeding bacterial protein meal (BPM) either as a replacement for fish meal or for groundnut cake meal in growing rabbits was examined. A total of 20 growing rabbits having an initial body weight of 617.2 (standard error 25) g were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments. A control ...

  13. Engineering a wild fast-growing Mycoplasma bacterium to generate ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Jan 12, 2018 ... To develop a fast growing CCPP vaccine for cheaper production and long term protection, cutting edge synthetic biotechnology tools will be used to delete harmful and nonessential genes from a fast growing bacterium isolated from wild goats. These genes will be replaced by CCPP protective vaccine ...

  14. Assessment of the Growing Season over the Unimodal Rainfall ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most part of Tanzania experiences unimodal rainfall. The characteristics of rainfall such as its onset and cessation dates, dry and wet spell lengths, frequency and number of rainy days can be, used to determine the nature of growing season length of growing season end of season and its geographical variation both ...

  15. Profitability of Eucalyptus growing in Busiro, Mpigi District, Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The worthiness of investments in eucalyptus growing has been determined using the net present value (NPV) criterion. It has been proved that investments in eucalyptus growing in perpetuity (forever) and being harvested on a four (4) year rotation period can earn a present value of a perpetual periodic annuity of Ug. shs ...

  16. Rapidly Growing Esophageal Carcinosarcoma Reduced by Neoadjuvant Radiotherapy Alone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naotaka Ogasawara


    Full Text Available Esophageal carcinosarcoma is a rare malignant neoplasm consisting of both carcinomatous and sarcomatous components. It is generally treated by surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy according to the protocols used for other esophageal cancers. However, the treatment of esophageal carcinosarcoma by radiotherapy alone before surgery has not been previously described. We report a patient with a rapidly growing esophageal carcinosarcoma that was efficiently reduced by neoadjuvant radiotherapy alone. A previously healthy 69-year-old man was admitted with dysphagia. Initial esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD revealed a small nodular polypoid lesion of about 10 mm in the middle esophagus. A second EGD 1 month later showed that the tumor had expanded into a huge mass. A biopsy specimen revealed that the tumor comprised squamous cell carcinoma with spindle cell components, and the tumor was diagnosed as carcinosarcoma which was diagnosed as stage I (T1bN0M0. Due to renal dysfunction, the patient was treated with neoadjuvant radiotherapy (40 Gy without chemotherapy. A third EGD 1 month later revealed remarkable tumor reduction. He then underwent total esophagectomy with regional lymph node dissection (pStage 0, pT1aN0M0. After surgical operation, the patient was followed up without adjuvant therapy. Whole body computed tomography revealed lung metastasis 14 months after surgery, and the patient died 2 months later. The neoadjuvant radiotherapy for esophageal carcinosarcoma was considered to have contributed to the subsequent surgery and his prolonged survival time. Thus, radiotherapy alone might be a suitable neoadjuvant therapy for esophageal carcinosarcomas.

  17. Tobacco-control policies in tobacco-growing states: where tobacco was king. (United States)

    Fallin, Amanda; Glantz, Stanton A


    POLICY POINTS: The tobacco companies prioritized blocking tobacco-control policies in tobacco-growing states and partnered with tobacco farmers to oppose tobacco-control policies. The 1998 Master Settlement Agreement, which settled state litigation against the cigarette companies, the 2004 tobacco-quota buyout, and the companies' increasing use of foreign tobacco led to a rift between the companies and tobacco farmers. In 2003, the first comprehensive smoke-free local law was passed in a major tobacco-growing state, and there has been steady progress in the region since then. Health advocates should educate the public and policymakers on the changing reality in tobacco-growing states, notably the major reduction in the volume of tobacco produced. The 5 major tobacco-growing states (Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia) are disproportionately affected by the tobacco epidemic, with higher rates of smoking and smoking-induced disease. These states also have fewer smoke-free laws and lower tobacco taxes, 2 evidence-based policies that reduce tobacco use. Historically, the tobacco farmers and hospitality associations allied with the tobacco companies to oppose these policies. This research is based on 5 detailed case studies of these states, which included key informant interviews, previously secret tobacco industry documents (available at, and media articles. This was supplemented with additional tobacco document and media searches specifically for this article. The tobacco companies were particularly concerned about blocking tobacco-control policies in the tobacco-growing states by promoting a pro-tobacco culture, beginning in the late 1960s. Nevertheless, since 2003, there has been rapid progress in the tobacco-growing states' passage of smoke-free laws. This progress came after the alliance between the tobacco companies and the tobacco farmers fractured and hospitality organizations stopped opposing smoke

  18. Morphoelastic rods. Part I: A single growing elastic rod

    KAUST Repository

    Moulton, D.E.


    A theory for the dynamics and statics of growing elastic rods is presented. First, a single growing rod is considered and the formalism of three-dimensional multiplicative decomposition of morphoelasticity is used to describe the bulk growth of Kirchhoff elastic rods. Possible constitutive laws for growth are discussed and analysed. Second, a rod constrained or glued to a rigid substrate is considered, with the mismatch between the attachment site and the growing rod inducing stress. This stress can eventually lead to instability, bifurcation, and buckling. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of the genome-wide DNA methylation profiles between fast-growing and slow-growing broilers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongsheng Hu

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Growth traits are important in poultry production, however, little is known for its regulatory mechanism at epigenetic level. Therefore, in this study, we aim to compare DNA methylation profiles between fast- and slow-growing broilers in order to identify candidate genes for chicken growth. Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation-sequencing (MeDIP-seq was used to investigate the genome-wide DNA methylation pattern in high and low tails of Recessive White Rock (WRR(h; WRR(l and that of Xinhua Chickens (XH(h; XH(l at 7 weeks of age. The results showed that the average methylation density was the lowest in CGIs followed by promoters. Within the gene body, the methylation density of introns was higher than that of UTRs and exons. Moreover, different methylation levels were observed in different repeat types with the highest in LINE/CR1. Methylated CGIs were prominently distributed in the intergenic regions and were enriched in the size ranging 200-300 bp. In total 13,294 methylated genes were found in four samples, including 4,085 differentially methylated genes of WRR(h Vs. WRR(l, 5,599 of XH(h Vs. XH(l, 4,204 of WRR(h Vs. XH(h, as well as 7,301 of WRR(l Vs. XH(l. Moreover, 132 differentially methylated genes related to growth and metabolism were observed in both inner contrasts (WRR(h Vs. WRR(l and XH(h Vs. XH(l, whereas 129 differentially methylated genes related to growth and metabolism were found in both across-breed contrasts (WRR(h Vs. XH(h and WRR(l Vs. XH(l. Further analysis showed that overall 75 genes exhibited altered DNA methylation in all four contrasts, which included some well-known growth factors of IGF1R, FGF12, FGF14, FGF18, FGFR2, and FGFR3. In addition, we validate the MeDIP-seq results by bisulfite sequencing in some regions. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed the global DNA methylation pattern of chicken muscle, and identified candidate genes that potentially regulate muscle development at 7 weeks of age at methylation

  20. Comparison of the genome-wide DNA methylation profiles between fast-growing and slow-growing broilers. (United States)

    Hu, Yongsheng; Xu, Haiping; Li, Zhenhui; Zheng, Xuejuan; Jia, Xinzheng; Nie, Qinghua; Zhang, Xiquan


    Growth traits are important in poultry production, however, little is known for its regulatory mechanism at epigenetic level. Therefore, in this study, we aim to compare DNA methylation profiles between fast- and slow-growing broilers in order to identify candidate genes for chicken growth. Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation-sequencing (MeDIP-seq) was used to investigate the genome-wide DNA methylation pattern in high and low tails of Recessive White Rock (WRR(h); WRR(l)) and that of Xinhua Chickens (XH(h); XH(l)) at 7 weeks of age. The results showed that the average methylation density was the lowest in CGIs followed by promoters. Within the gene body, the methylation density of introns was higher than that of UTRs and exons. Moreover, different methylation levels were observed in different repeat types with the highest in LINE/CR1. Methylated CGIs were prominently distributed in the intergenic regions and were enriched in the size ranging 200-300 bp. In total 13,294 methylated genes were found in four samples, including 4,085 differentially methylated genes of WRR(h) Vs. WRR(l), 5,599 of XH(h) Vs. XH(l), 4,204 of WRR(h) Vs. XH(h), as well as 7,301 of WRR(l) Vs. XH(l). Moreover, 132 differentially methylated genes related to growth and metabolism were observed in both inner contrasts (WRR(h) Vs. WRR(l) and XH(h) Vs. XH(l)), whereas 129 differentially methylated genes related to growth and metabolism were found in both across-breed contrasts (WRR(h) Vs. XH(h) and WRR(l) Vs. XH(l)). Further analysis showed that overall 75 genes exhibited altered DNA methylation in all four contrasts, which included some well-known growth factors of IGF1R, FGF12, FGF14, FGF18, FGFR2, and FGFR3. In addition, we validate the MeDIP-seq results by bisulfite sequencing in some regions. This study revealed the global DNA methylation pattern of chicken muscle, and identified candidate genes that potentially regulate muscle development at 7 weeks of age at methylation level.

  1. Ultrasound in regional anaesthesia. (United States)

    Griffin, J; Nicholls, B


    Ultrasound guidance is rapidly becoming the gold standard for regional anaesthesia. There is an ever growing weight of evidence, matched with improving technology, to show that the use of ultrasound has significant benefits over conventional techniques, such as nerve stimulation and loss of resistance. The improved safety and efficacy that ultrasound brings to regional anaesthesia will help promote its use and realise the benefits that regional anaesthesia has over general anaesthesia, such as decreased morbidity and mortality, superior postoperative analgesia, cost-effectiveness, decreased postoperative complications and an improved postoperative course. In this review we consider the evidence behind the improved safety and efficacy of ultrasound-guided regional anaesthesia, before discussing its use in pain medicine, paediatrics and in the facilitation of neuraxial blockade. The Achilles' heel of ultrasound-guided regional anaesthesia is that anaesthetists are far more familiar with providing general anaesthesia, which in most cases requires skills that are achieved faster and more reliably. To this ends we go on to provide practical advice on ultrasound-guided techniques and the introduction of ultrasound into a department.

  2. Regions Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Keld; Masciarelli, Francesca; Prencipe, Andrea


    capital at the regional level, with a large-scale data set of the innovative activities of a representative sample of 2,413 Italian manufacturing firms from 21 regions, and controlling for a large set of firm and regional characteristics, we find that being located in a region characterized by a high...... level of social capital leads to a higher propensity to innovate. We find also that being located in an area characterized by a high degree of localized social capital is complementary to firms' investments in internal research and development (R&D) and that such a location positively moderates...

  3. Accumulated Growing Degree Days, Contiguous United States, 1981 - Current Year (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USA National Phenology Network has available a series of gridded products enabling researchers to analyze current year Accumulated Growing Degree Days (AGDD)...

  4. Leadership Makes a Difference Growing Federal Civilian Leaders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muellerweiss, Alice


    .... Research indicates that currently our government does not grow effective leaders. Often those "rising to the top" are technical experts with minimal leadership experiences, mostly unacquainted with the fundamentals of leadership...

  5. 7 CFR 319.37-8 - Growing media. (United States)


    ...) Approved growing media are baked expanded clay pellets, coal cinder, coir, cork, glass wool, organic and... starch, polystyrene, polyurethane, rock wool, sphagnum moss, ureaformaldehyde, stockosorb superabsorbent..., i.e., plastic particles, glass wool, organic and inorganic fibers, polyurethane, polystyrene...

  6. Growing grass for a green biorefinery - an option for Ireland?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Keeffe, S.; Schulte, R.P.O.; O'Kiely, P.; O'Donoghue, C.; Lalor, S.T.J.; Struik, P.C.


    Growing grass for a green biorefinery – an option for Ireland? Mind the gap: deciphering the gap between good intentions and healthy eating behaviour Halting biodiversity loss by 2020 – implications for agriculture A milk processing sector model for Ireland

  7. As World's Population Ages, Blindness Rates Likely to Grow (United States)

    ... As World's Population Ages, Blindness Rates Likely to Grow Study ... researchers estimate that 0.75 percent of the world's population was blind in 1990, compared to 0. ...

  8. Lilienfeld Prize Talk: How do massive black holes grow? (United States)

    Rees, Martin


    The supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei evolve in symbiosis with their hosts. This paper will review how they grow, with particular emphasis on mergers, and on the complex phenomena associated with the tidal capture and disruption of stars.

  9. Water quality assessment of razorback sucker grow-out ponds (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Water quality parameters had never been assessed in these grow-out ponds. Historically growth, condition, and survival of razorback suckers have been variable...

  10. Performance and carcass characteristics of growing rabbits fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The inclusion of BPM in diet V reduced the skin weight significantly (p0.05) affected. It was concluded that BPM can completely (to 100 %) replace FM and GNC in the diet of growing rabbits. BPM also ...

  11. Climate Prediction Center Weekly Corn Growing Degree Days (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A corn growing degree day (GDD) is an index used to express crop maturity. The index is computed by subtracting a base temperature of 50?F from the average of the...

  12. Overcrowding of accident & emergency units: is it a growing concern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    growing among the public and health care professionals. The data supporting ... overcrowding. Keywords: Overcrowding, accident, emergency surgery, Nigeria ... carried out among employees of AEDs in three ma- jor, referral teaching ...

  13. Growing together: a qualitative study of leading nurse scholars in Thailand. (United States)

    Turale, S; Klunklin, A; Chontawan, R


    Asia-Pacific nursing education and research is growing but little is known about the nature and development of nursing scholarship in the region. This qualitative study explored the perspectives of 14 leading Thai scholars about the development, facilitators and barriers relating to Thailand's nursing scholarship. In-depth interviews were digitally recorded, and data were subjected to content analysis. Five themes arose: (1) growing together, (2) visionary leadership, (3) external support to grow nurse scholars, (4) developing nursing through research, and (5) barriers to scholarship. A history of visionary nursing leadership was revealed, underpinned by leaders' values of growing nursing together. Resource sharing among universities, and a significant number of scholarships for study abroad were major facilitators of scholarship growth. Barriers to scholarship included high teaching loads, especially for newly graduated faculty; a low rate of research publications; not enough mentorship for research and changes to teaching practice; and a wide range of different agencies providing courses for entry to practice. Scholarship development in Thailand is a role model for a number of South-East Asian countries, with inclusiveness and collaboration to facilitate the growth of nursing education inside and outside of the country as a hallmark of its character. However, against a backdrop of nursing shortages, Thai scholars are challenged, in the future, to produce meaningful research outcomes, including publications of studies; to collaborate with other health professionals; change practices to overcome high teaching loads; and provide the much needed mentorship for young scholars.

  14. Analysis of multiple genetic polymorphisms in aggressive-growing and slow-growing abdominal aortic aneurysms. (United States)

    Duellman, Tyler; Warren, Christopher L; Matsumura, Jon; Yang, Jay


    The natural history of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) suggests that some remain slow in growth rate whereas many develop a more accelerated growth rate and reach a threshold for intervention. We hypothesized that different mechanisms are responsible for AAAs that remain slow growing and never become actionable vs the aggressive AAAs that require intervention and may be reflected by distinct associations with genetic polymorphisms. AAA growth rate was determined from serial imaging data in 168 control and 141 AAA patients with ultrasound or computed tomography imaging studies covering ∼5 years. Genetic polymorphisms all previously reported as showing a significant correlation with AAA with functional effects on the expression or function were determined by analysis of the genomic DNA, including angiotensin 1 receptor (rs5186), interleukin-10 (IL-10; rs1800896), methyl-tetrahydrofolate reductase (rs1801133), low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1; rs1466535), angiotensin-converting enzyme (rs1799752), and several matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) single nucleotide polymorphisms. Of the AAA patients, 81 were classified as slow AAA growth rate (3.25 mm/y, those presenting with a rupture, or those with maximal aortic diameter >5.5 cm [male] or >5.0 cm [female]). Discriminating confounds between the groups were identified by logistic regression. Analyses identified MMP-9 p-2502 single nucleotide polymorphism (odds ratio [OR], 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.31-0.94; P = .029) as a significant confound discriminating between control vs slow-growth AAA, MMP-9 D165N (OR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.26-0.95; P = .035) and LRP1 (OR, 4.99; 95% CI, 1.13-22.1; P = .034) between control vs aggressive-growth AAAs, and methyltetrahydrofolate reductase (OR, 2.99; 95% CI, 1.01-8.86; P = .048), MMP-9 p-2502 (OR, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.05-4.58; P = .037), and LRP1 (OR, 4.96; 95% CI, 1.03-23.9; P = .046) as the statistically significant confounds distinguishing slow

  15. Colonisation of soilless growing media for tomato by Trichoderma harzianum. (United States)

    De Schutter, B; Aerts, R; Rombouts, L


    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the distribution of T. harzianum in soilless media used in greenhouse growing systems for tomatoes. Growing media based on rockwool and based on coconut fibre were included. The fungus was applied to the roots of the plant by means of a conidial suspension. The upper plant parts were removed from the coconut fibre an the rockwool slab after 10 and 15 weeks respectively. Both the coconut fibre and the rockwool slab were divided into fragments with a width of 10 cm. The coconut fibre medium fragments were again divided in an upper and a lower part. For every fragment the CFU/g was determined by two different methods. In the first method a known volume of growing medium was brought into suspension using a blender and diluted. Appropriate dilutions were plated on a selective medium. In the second method a known volume of growing medium was spread directly upon a selective medium in petri dishes. All dishes were incubated at room temperature and colonies were counted. Results showed that in the case of the coconut fibre growing medium T. harzianum was isolated in every fragment of the substrate. Highest densities were measured at the site of inoculation. In the lower part of the fragments less CFU/g were counted than in the upper part. In the case of the rockwool growing medium, there were several fragments in which no T. harzianum was isolated. The dilution technique demonstrated to be most useful in cases of high density. The direct spreading-method is best applied when low densities are expected. These observations demonstrate that the growing medium based upon coconut fibre is more appropriate for colonisation by T. harzianum. However, densities are higher at the site of inoculation in both tested growing media.

  16. Effects of temperature and growing seasons on crop water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The crop water requirement (CWR) depends on several factors including temperature and growing seasons. This study investigated the effects of temperature and growing seasons on CWR in Saudi Arabia. Increase in temperature by 1°C increased the CWR by 1.9 - 2.9%, 1.9 – 3.0% and 2.2 – 3.8% for dates, alfalfa and ...

  17. Blueprint and Approach to Grow Revenue in Small Technology Companies


    Tony Bailetti


    This article examines a new approach to grow the revenue of small technology companies and technology startups. We name this new approach the business ecosystem approach. The article is organized into five sections. The first section provides a blueprint to grow revenue and an inventory of growth formulas that top management teams of small technology companies and founders of startups find useful. The second section briefly defines business ecosystems, keystones and platforms. The third secti...

  18. Understanding Economic Growth: Review Article of Why Economies Grow


    Andrew Sharpe


    The question of why economies grow has been at the heart of economic inquiry since Adam Smith. The final article is a review of the recent book Why Economies Grow: The Forces That Shape Prosperity and How to Get Them Working Again by Jeff Madrick. He argues that the growth of markets through trade, colonization, and domestic expansion was the predominate factor in Western economic development. While technological innovation is necessary to growth, it is as much a consequence of economic oppor...

  19. Blueprint and Approach to Grow Revenue in Small Technology Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Bailetti


    Full Text Available This article examines a new approach to grow the revenue of small technology companies and technology startups. We name this new approach the business ecosystem approach. The article is organized into five sections. The first section provides a blueprint to grow revenue and an inventory of growth formulas that top management teams of small technology companies and founders of startups find useful. The second section briefly defines business ecosystems, keystones and platforms. The third section describes the business ecosystem approach to grow the revenue of small technology companies and technology startups. It compares the traditional and business ecosystem approaches to growing revenue; identifies when the business ecosystem approach works better than the traditional approach; explains what small companies and startups need to do to grow revenue using the business ecosystem approach; and describes the benefits and risks of implementing the business ecosystem approach. The fourth section compares three approaches to growing revenue and highlights the differences between i business ecosystems and development communities and ii the business ecosystem approach and outsourcing. The fifth section identifies the key decisions a small technology company or technology startup needs to make to become the keystone that anchors a business ecosystem.

  20. Regional Planning. (United States)

    Bang, Bryan


    Explores ideas about regional planning and provides a framework for developing a secondary level course on regional planning. Claims that such a course can help students understand more about the world around them and improve their attitude toward contributing to the management of change. (BR)

  1. Regional Externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijman, W.J.M.


    The book offers practical and theoretical insights in regional externalities. Regional externalities are a specific subset of externalities that can be defined as externalities where space plays a dominant role. This class of externalities can be divided into three categories: (1) externalities

  2. Social vulnerability assessment: a growing practice in Europe? (United States)

    Tapsell, S.; McC arthy, S.


    This paper builds upon work on social vulnerability from the CapHaz-Net consortium, an ongoing research project funded by the European Commission in its 7th Framework Programme. The project focuses on the social dimensions of natural hazards, as well as on regional practices of risk prevention and management, and aims at improving the resilience of European societies to natural hazards, paying particular attention to social capacity building. The topic of social vulnerability is one of seven themes being addressed in the project. There are various rationales for examining the relevance of social vulnerability to natural hazards. Vulnerability assessment has now been accepted as a requirement for the effective development of emergency management capability, and assessment of social vulnerability has been recognised as being integral to understanding the risk to natural hazards. The aim of our research was to examine social vulnerability, how it might be understood in the context of natural hazards in Europe, and how social vulnerability can be addressed to increase social capacity. The work comprised a review of research on social vulnerability to different natural hazards within Europe and included concepts and definitions of social vulnerability (and related concepts), the purpose of vulnerability assessment and who decides who is vulnerable, different approaches to assessing or measuring social vulnerability (such as the use of 'classical' quantitative vulnerability indicators and qualitative community-based approaches, along with the advantages and disadvantages of both), conceptual frameworks for assessing social vulnerability and three case studies of social vulnerability studies within Europe: flash floods in the Italian Alps, fluvial flooding in Germany and heat waves in Spain. The review reveals variable application of social vulnerability analysis across Europe and there are indications why this might be the case. Reasons could range from the scale of

  3. The formation and growing properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate) fiber growing media after thermo-oxidative treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C.P. [Department of Textile Engineering, Chinese Culture University, Taipei 11192, Taiwan (China)], E-mail:; Lin, S.M. [Department of Materials and Textiles, Oriental Institute of Technology, Pan-Chiao 220, Taiwan (China)


    This research uses three kinds of recycled synthetic fibers that all possess excellent thermal plasticity property as raw material to develop a new firm cultivation media: polyethylene terephthalate, polyamide and polypropylene. One can not only freely control plants cultivation growing condition by changing bulk density of the media, but also solve disposal problem after usage by applying thermal oxidative treatment during manufacturing processes. The water content, air permeability and formation conditions of these fiber growing media that are required in plants growing habitat were discussed, and compared the fallout with rockwool (RW) growing media that is commonly used at present days. The results indicated that the polyethylene terephthalate fiber media could attain best formation characteristics among these fibers at the same bulk density range. Furthermore, the fiber media that were thermo-oxidative treated at 240-260 deg. C could obtained above 90% total porosity, 23-49% air capacity and 48-68% water availability, water contents raised from 1735-1094 to 2145-1156% under bulk densities of 0.03-0.09 g/cm{sup 3}, which conforms to the common plant growing habitat conditions. Its performance well surpasses the rockwool growing media. We also discovered that the thermo-oxidative treated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fiber media could be easily broken down and become powdery by exerting pressure, thus greatly reduce its volume and effectively improve disposal processes that are difficult presently for the huge refuse create by rockwool.

  4. The effect of lumbosacral manipulation on growing pains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid de Beer


    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether lumbosacral manipulations have an effect on growing pain symptoms. Methods: Thirty participants with growing pains between the ages of 4 and 12 years were recruited. The participants were placed into two groups of 15 participants each. Group 1 received lumbosacral manipulations to restricted joints as determined by motion palpation, while Group 2 never received any professional intervention. Often parent(s/guardian(s of children who suffer from growing pains will rub the child's legs and offer verbal reassurance in an attempt to console their children. Parent(s/guardian(s of both groups were encouraged to continue to do this throughout the duration of the trial. Instructions were given to the parents so that the same rubbing technique and rubbing cream (aqueous cream were used. Subjective changes were tracked using a pain diary that the parent(s/guardian(s were asked to complete, a six-week post-study follow-up question regarding children's growing pains and the Oucher self-report pain scale. Objective measures consisted of pressure algometer readings of the tibialis anterior muscle belly. Results: The statistical data was analysed using the Friedman test, Manne—Whitney test and the Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test. The results demonstrated that both groups responded favourably to their specific treatment over time. However, the group that received lumbosacral manipulations proved to show a quicker response to treatment; and the post study follow-up of this same group showed markedly more positive feedback than the group that did not receive the treatment. These results highlighted the positive effects of chiropractic manipulation on growing pain symptoms. Conclusion: The results from this study, specifically the feedback from parent(s/guardians(s and the pain diaries, indicated that spinal manipulation is beneficial in the treatment of growing pains. The results also showed that other methods of treating growing

  5. Lighting during grow-out and Salmonella in broiler flocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey Richard H


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lighting is used during conventional broiler grow-out to modify bird behaviour to reach the goals of production and improve bird welfare. The protocols for lighting intensity vary. In a field study, we evaluated if the lighting practices impact the burden of Salmonella in broiler flocks. Methods Conventional grow-out flocks reared in the states of Alabama, Mississippi and Texas, USA in 2003 to 2006 were sampled 1 week before harvest (n = 58 and upon arrival for processing (n = 56 by collecting feathered carcass rinsate, crop and one cecum from each of 30 birds, and during processing by collecting rinsate of 30 carcasses at pre-chilling (n = 56 and post-chilling points (n = 54. Litter samples and drag swabs of litter were collected from the grow-out houses after bird harvest (n = 56. Lighting practices for these flocks were obtained with a questionnaire completed by the growers. Associations between the lighting practices and the burden of Salmonella in the flocks were tested while accounting for variation between the grow-out farms, their production complexes and companies. Results Longer relative duration of reduced lights during the grow-out period was associated with reduced detection of Salmonella on the exterior of birds 1 week before harvest and on the broiler carcasses at the post-chilling point of processing. In addition, starting reduced lights for ≥18 hours per day later in the grow-out period was associated with decreased detection of Salmonella on the exterior of broilers arriving for processing and in the post-harvest drag swabs of litter from the grow-out house. Conclusions The results of this field study show that lighting practices implemented during broiler rearing can impact the burden of Salmonella in the flock. The underlying mechanisms are likely to be interactive.

  6. Wood biomass potentials in Brandenburg - growing competition between industry timber and energy wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasse, D. (CEBra - Centre for Energy Technology Brandenburg GmbH, Cottbus (Germany)); Laufer, S. (University of Applied Sciences Eberswalde (Germany))


    The paper presents a survey of dramatic timber market developments in recent years. It shows the significant increase of wood processing capacities in Brandenburg and neighbouring regions and the expansion of the wood energy branch at the same time which fostered a growing competition between the industrial and energetic use of wood. The comparison between the annual timber consumption and the annual timber yield potential in Brandenburg forests reflects a widening gap which cannot be covered by conventional means of forestry management. This gap amounted to 1 million m3 in 2006 and will probably double in 2007. Rapidly growing is the importance of wood from short rotation coppices on agricultural set-aside fields and former open cast mining areas. The development of alternative land use systems for the sustainable production of energy wood is a main focus of several R and D projects in Brandenburg. (orig.)

  7. SDI-Flex: a new technique of allocating growing stock for developing treatment prescriptions in uneven-aged forest stands (United States)

    Wayne D. Shepperd


    One of the difficulties of apportioning growing stock across diameter classes in multi- or uneven-aged forests is estimating how closely the target stocking value compares to the maximum stocking that could occur in a particular forest type and eco-region. Although the BDQ method had been used to develop uneven-aged prescriptions, it is not inherently related to any...

  8. Measuring efficiency of rice growing farmers using data envelopment analysis (United States)

    Zaibidi, Nerda Zura; Kasim, Maznah Mat; Ramli, Razamin; Baten, Md. Azizul; Khan, Sahubar Ali Nadhar


    Self-sufficiency in rice production has been the main issue in Malaysia agriculture. It is significantly low and does not comply with the current average rice yield of 3.7 tons per ha per season. One of the best options and the most effective way to improve rice productivity is through more efficient utilization of paddy farmers. Getting farmers to grow rice is indeed a challenge when they could very well be making better money doing something else. This paper attempts to study the efficiency of rice growing farmers in Kubang Pasu using Data Envelopment Analysis model. For comparative analysis, three scenarios are considered in this study in measuring efficiency of rice growing farmers. The first scenario considers only fertilizer factor as an input while for the second, the land size is added as another factor. The third scenario considers more details about the inputs such as the type of fertilizer, NPK and mixed and also land tenureship and size. In all scenarios, the outputs are rice yield (tons) and the profit (RM). As expected, the findings show that the third scenario establishes the highest number of efficient rice growing farmers. It reveals that the combination of outputs and inputs chosen has significant contribution in measuring efficiency of rice growing farmers.

  9. Morphodynamics of a growing microbial colony driven by cell death (United States)

    Ghosh, Pushpita; Levine, Herbert


    Bacterial cells can often self-organize into multicellular structures with complex spatiotemporal morphology. In this work, we study the spatiotemporal dynamics of a growing microbial colony in the presence of cell death. We present an individual-based model of nonmotile bacterial cells which grow and proliferate by consuming diffusing nutrients on a semisolid two-dimensional surface. The colony spreads by growth forces and sliding motility of cells and undergoes cell death followed by subsequent disintegration of the dead cells in the medium. We model cell death by considering two possible situations: In one of the cases, cell death occurs in response to the limitation of local nutrients, while the other case corresponds to an active death process, known as apoptotic or programmed cell death. We demonstrate how the colony morphology is influenced by the presence of cell death. Our results show that cell death facilitates transitions from roughly circular to highly branched structures at the periphery of an expanding colony. Interestingly, our results also reveal that for the colonies which are growing in higher initial nutrient concentrations, cell death occurs much earlier compared to the colonies which are growing in lower initial nutrient concentrations. This work provides new insights into the branched patterning of growing bacterial colonies as a consequence of complex interplay among the biochemical and mechanical effects.

  10. Growing Up of Autonomous Agents: an Emergent Phenomenon (United States)

    Morgavi, Giovanna; Marconi, Lucia


    A fundamental research challenge is the design of robust artifacts that are capable of operating under changing environments and noisy input, and yet exhibit the desired behavior and response time. These systems should be able to adapt and learn how to react to unforeseen scenarios as well as to display properties comparable to biological entities. The turn to nature has brought us many unforeseen great concepts. Biological systems are able to handle many of these challenges with an elegance and efficiency still far beyond current human artifacts. A living artifact grows up when its capabilities, abilities/knowledge, shift to a further level of complexity, i.e. the complexity rank of its internal capabilities performs a step forward. In the attempt to define an architecture for autonomous growing up agents [1]. We conducted an experiment on the abstraction process in children as natural parts of a cognitive system. We found that linguistic growing up involve a number of different trial processes. We identified a fixed number of distinct paths that were crossed by children. Once a given interpretation paths was discovered useless, they tried to follow another path, until the new meaning was emerging. This study generates suggestion about the evolutionary conditions conducive to the emergence of growing up in robots and provides guidelines for designing artificial evolutionary systems displaying spontaneous adaptation abilities. The importance of multi-sensor perception, motivation and emotional drives are underlined and, above all, the growing up insights shows similarities to emergent self-organized behaviors.

  11. Marijuana growing operations in British Columbia revisited, 1997-2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plecas, D.; Malm, A.; Kinney, B. [University College of the Fraser Valley, Abbotsford, BC (Canada). Dept. of Criminology and Criminal Justice]|[University College of the Fraser Valley, Abbotsford, BC (Canada). International Centre for Urban Research Studies


    The results of a comprehensive study of marihuana cultivation in British Columbia were presented. This report describes the incidents of marihuana grow operations coming to the attention of the police; the characteristics of marihuana growing operations; the suspects involved; the actions taken by the police and courts; and penalty. The study confirms that these operations which are dispersed throughout the province are increasing in both size and sophistication. The average number of kilograms of harvested marihuana seized per grow operation tripled from 1997 to 2003. In addition, the number of high intensity lights seized per operation also grew, leading to an associated increase in the average amount of electricity theft per operation. About 1 in 5 grow operations involved hydro theft. The average cost associated with hydro theft per operation was about $2,880 in 1997 and $3,740 in 2003. In 2003, it is estimated that growers stole more than $3,200,000 from BC Hydro. In addition to electricity by-passes, 15 per cent of indoor grow operations contained hazards such as weapons, explosives, and other drugs. 25 tabs., 34 figs.

  12. Growing older in the context of needing geriatric assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, Bente Appel; Hvitved, Ida; Andersen, Hanne Elkjær


    methodology. RESULTS: The results led to an overall essence and five themes. The five themes were identified: (i) considerations to avoid weakness, (ii) compensation for the inability to perform certain activities, (iii) aides - a symbol of freedom or limitation, (iv) lifestyle considered being particularly...... limitations in every daily life had the status of either creating freedom or being limiting in things they wished to do. Considerations about lifestyle were focused on housing and change of dwelling. This also led to thoughts about the future and end of life. Additional research regarding accommodations...... significant and (v) considerations about the end of life as a component of growing older. The essence was defined as: illness essential for the experience of growing older and pointed to the experience of growing older that highlighted that experiencing illnesses and limitations served as reminders...

  13. Meeting growing urban water needs through water reclamation and reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okun, D.A. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)


    The subject of this presentation is the crisis in water management that results from exploding urban population growth. The world population is growing at a rate of almost 100 million per year, with urban growth being most of that. The problems of providing water and controlling pollution grow exponentially as population grows. Sources of water need to be larger and are inevitably more distant and more costly, if available. In urban areas, with attendant commercial and industrial enterprises, the concentrated heavy loads of pollutants seriously overburden receiving waters. Fish is often destroyed, with the loss of both essential food and employment, to say nothing of the impact of urban pollution on downstream water supplies.

  14. On the mechanics of thin films and growing surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Holland, M. A.


    Many living structures are coated by thin films, which have distinct mechanical properties from the bulk. In particular, these thin layers may grow faster or slower than the inner core. Differential growth creates a balanced interplay between tension and compression and plays a critical role in enhancing structural rigidity. Typical examples with a compressive outer surface and a tensile inner core are the petioles of celery, caladium, or rhubarb. While plant physiologists have studied the impact of tissue tension on plant rigidity for more than a century, the fundamental theory of growing surfaces remains poorly understood. Here, we establish a theoretical and computational framework for continua with growing surfaces and demonstrate its application to classical phenomena in plant growth. To allow the surface to grow independently of the bulk, we equip it with its own potential energy and its own surface stress. We derive the governing equations for growing surfaces of zero thickness and obtain their spatial discretization using the finite-element method. To illustrate the features of our new surface growth model we simulate the effects of growth-induced longitudinal tissue tension in a stalk of rhubarb. Our results demonstrate that different growth rates create a mechanical environment of axial tissue tension and residual stress, which can be released by peeling off the outer layer. Our novel framework for continua with growing surfaces has immediate biomedical applications beyond these classical model problems in botany: it can be easily extended to model and predict surface growth in asthma, gastritis, obstructive sleep apnoea, brain development, and tumor invasion. Beyond biology and medicine, surface growth models are valuable tools for material scientists when designing functionalized surfaces with distinct user-defined properties. © The Author(s) 2013.

  15. The Fundamental Right To Grow Old With Dignity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Rabelo de Matos Silva Arruda


    Full Text Available Over the years the role the growing old in society has been changing considerably, the population is aging and increasing life expectancy. Law No. 10741/03, which established the Statute of the Elderly, where the legislator sought to ensure the right to grow old with dignity. The increase in the number of retirees and unemployment generated changing the demand in the social security system, which is being processed at the national congress. This article examines how society has been treating the elderly and preparing to deal with the aging population.

  16. Cyber-physical attacks a growing invisible threat

    CERN Document Server

    Loukas, George


    Cyber-Physical Attacks: A Growing Invisible Threat presents the growing list of harmful uses of computers and their ability to disable cameras, turn off a building's lights, make a car veer off the road,  or a drone land in enemy hands. In essence, it details the ways cyber-physical attacks are replacing physical attacks in crime, warfare, and terrorism. The book explores how attacks using computers affect the physical world in ways that were previously only possible through physical means. Perpetrators can now cause damage without the same risk, and without the political, social, or moral

  17. Sports and the Growing Musculoskeletal System: Sports Imaging Series. (United States)

    Nguyen, Jie C; Sheehan, Scott E; Davis, Kirkland W; Gill, Kara G


    Increased youth participation in sports has resulted in increased injury tolls due to shifts toward participation in competitive sports at earlier ages, increased training intensity and competition schedules, as well as specialization into one sport. The physiology of the growing musculoskeletal system makes the growing athlete particularly vulnerable to specific types of injuries. Radiologists must understand the differences between pediatric and adult athletes to recognize the particular injuries to which these young athletes are prone. Imaging and pertinent clinical details of major representative acute and overuse injuries characteristic to pediatric athletes will be discussed. © RSNA, 2017.

  18. Clinical Challenges in the Growing Medical Marijuana Field. (United States)

    Barker, Jonathan


    Unique clinical challenges arise with the growing number of patients who possess medical marijuana cards. Medical marijuana patients with mental disorders can have worsening symptoms with marijuana use. Often there is sparse continuity of care between the patient and the medical marijuana practitioner. Lack of communication between the patient's treating practitioners and the practitioner who has authorized the medical marijuana can be problematic. This article is a discussion of the new clinical challenges practitioners are likely to encounter with the growing number of medical marijuana patients. [Full article available at].

  19. Soybeans Growing inside the Advanced Astroculture Plant Growth Chamber (United States)


    This composite image shows soybean plants growing in the Advanced Astroculture experiment aboard the International Space Station during June 11-July 2, 2002. DuPont is partnering with NASA and the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison to grow soybeans aboard the Space Station to find out if they have improved oil, protein, carbohydrates or secondary metabolites that could benefit farmers and consumers. Principal Investigators: Dr. Tom Corbin, Pioneer Hi-Bred International Inc., a Dupont Company, with headquarters in Des Moines, Iowa, and Dr. Weijia Zhou, Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR), University of Wisconsin-Madison.

  20. Food Security Hotspots in India under Changing Climate and Growing Populatio (United States)

    Singh, N.; Cherkauer, K. A.; Ashfaq, M.; Rastogi, D.


    Global climate change, unprecedented population growth, and rapid urbanization have elevated the possibility of food and water shortages in many regions across the world. The likelihood of such shortages in the future is further exacerbated by the fact that increased greenhouse forcing and rapid growth in human population will continue for at least the next several decades. These socio-environmental changes will likely put some regions under enormous economic and environmental stress by forcing them to adapt to new conditions. India with its rapidly growing population and high rates of urbanization and industrialization is one such region whose agricultural resources will be particularly vulnerable to the impact of these changes. This study collectively reviews and analyses the possible impacts of climate change, population growth and resulting land use change on the availability of food and water in the coming decades for India. By analyzing and fusing a wide variety of existing data and research on the impact of land use change, population, and climate change, on water and food resources this study develops an understanding of the broader implications of each of the changes on food security in the region. In addition, the study focuses on the need to assess and quantify the combination of such impacts at a regional level and identify food security hotspots spatially across India that will help to narrow down regions in the country which will be severely affected and need priority adaptation and mitigation measures.

  1. Changing water availability during the African maize-growing season, 1979-2010 (United States)

    Estes, Lyndon D.; Chaney, Nathaniel W.; Herrera-Estrada, Julio; Sheffield, Justin; Caylor, Kelly K.; Wood, Eric F.


    Understanding how global change is impacting African agriculture requires a full physical accounting of water supply and demand, but accurate, gridded data on key drivers (e.g., humidity) are generally unavailable. We used a new bias-corrected meteorological dataset to analyze changes in precipitation (supply), potential evapotranspiration ({{E}_{p}}, demand), and water availability (expressed as the ratio P/{{E}_{p}}) in 20 countries (focusing on their maize-growing regions and seasons), between 1979 and 2010, and the factors driving changes in {{E}_{p}}. Maize-growing areas in Southern Africa, particularly South Africa, benefitted from increased water availability due in large part to demand declines driven primarily by declining net radiation, increasing vapor pressure, and falling temperatures (with no effect from changing windspeed), with smaller increases in supply. Sahelian zone countries in West Africa, as well as Ethiopia in East Africa, had strong increases in availability driven primarily by rainfall rebounding from the long-term Sahelian droughts, with little change or small reductions in demand. However, intra-seasonal supply variability generally increased in West and East Africa. Across all three regions, declining net radiation contributed downwards pressure on demand, generally over-riding upwards pressure caused by increasing temperatures, the regional effects of which were largest in East Africa. A small number of countries, mostly in or near East Africa (Tanzania and Malawi) experienced declines in water availability primarily due to decreased rainfall, but exacerbated by increasing demand. Much of the reduced water availability in East Africa occurred during the more sensitive middle part of the maize-growing season, suggesting negative consequences for maize production.

  2. Stall, Spiculate, or Run Away: The Fate of Fibers Growing towards Fluctuating Membranes (United States)

    Daniels, D. R.; Marenduzzo, D.; Turner, M. S.


    We study the dynamics of a growing semiflexible fiber approaching a membrane at an angle. At late times we find three regimes: fiber stalling, when growth stops, runaway, in which the fiber bends away from the membrane, and another regime in which spicules form. We discuss which regions of the resulting “phase diagram” are explored by (i) single and bundled actin fibers in living cells, (ii) sickle hemoglobin fibers, and (iii) microtubules inside vesicles. We complement our analysis with 3D stochastic simulations.

  3. Performance of growing rabbits fed graded levels of sugarcane peel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty five growing rabbits of mixed breeds and average weight of 894g were used in a seven week feeding trial. Five experimental diets were formulated in which sugarcane peels (SCP) was included at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% levels to replace maize offal. The rabbits were balanced for weight and allotted to the treatments ...

  4. Growing pigs fed cassava peel based diet supplemented with or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    36 growing pigs (average initial weight of 22.74 ± 0.88 kg) were allotted to three dietary treatment groups of 30%maize-based control diet and 30%cassava-peel based diet supplemented with or without Farmazyme® 3000 proenx. Each treatment had three replicates of 4 pigs/replicate (12 pigs/treatment) in a complete ...

  5. America's Growing Dilemma: Pesticides in Food and Water. (United States)

    Strauss, Valerie; Sullivan, Monica, Ed.

    Public concern about the safety of continued reliance on pesticides in agricultural production is widespread and growing. The lack of understanding of how food is grown, the role of pesticides in food production, the risk assessment and regulatory processes and alternatives to pesticide use limits citizen participation in food safety debates and…

  6. The Influence of seed treatments and growing media on seedling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A nursery trial was conducted to investigate the effects of seed treatments and soil type growing media on the germination and growth of Plukenetia conophorum. The factors considered included seed treatments with hot water at 90°C, warm water at 60°C, overnight soaking in cold water and scarification. Soil type media ...

  7. Antileishmanial activity of some plants growing in Algeria: Juglans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current study was undertaken to evaluate in vitro the antileishmanial activity of three plants growing wild in Algeria : Juglans regia, Lawsonia inermis and Salvia officinalis. The hydroalcoholic extracts of these plants were tested on the growth of the promastigotes of Leishmania major. The plant extract effects were ...

  8. Analyses of body weight patterns in growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stygar, A. H.; Dolecheck, K. A.; Kristensen, A. R.


    Frequent BW monitoring of growing pigs can be useful for identifying production (e.g. feeding), health and welfare problems. However, in order to construct a tool which will properly recognize abnormalities in pigs’ growth a precise description of the growth process should be used. In this study ...

  9. Haematological and serum biochemical response of growing rabbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 3, 2008 ... assess haematological and serum biochemical response of growing rabbits exposed to varied levels of dietary ... the diets. Serum total protein, albumin and albumin-globulin ratio significantly (P < 0.05) decreased with increase in the dietary fumonisin levels. Serum total ... Digestible energy (Kcal/Kg). 2555.

  10. Variations and Trends in the Length of the Hydrologic Growing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examine the pattern of the Hydrologic Growing Season in a part of North western Nigeria in relation to crop Production and yield. It makes use of daily rainfall data obtained from Sokoto Agricultural Development project data were also obtained from the Nigeria Meteorological services Oshodi (SADP) in two ...

  11. The suitability evaluation of lignocellulosic substrate as growing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Apr 2, 2014 ... Division of Environmental Forest Science and Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Gyeongsang National University,. Jinju, 660-701 ... as substrate to grow Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa var. glabra) in a greenhouse. Different ... All over the world, stone wool and other materials like perlite, pumice,.

  12. in_focus - Growing Better Cities: Urban Agriculture for Sustainable ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The United Nations predicts that over the next 25 years nearly all population growth will be in the cities of the developing world. At current rates, 60% of the world's total population will live in cities by 2030. As the cities grow, so does the number of urban poor. Unemployment, hunger, and malnutrition are commonplace.

  13. Haematological and Biochemical Indices of Growing Lambs Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Haematological and Biochemical Indices of Growing Lambs Fed Fore-Stomach Digesta and Poultry Litter Waste. *. 1. A. Aruwayo,. 2. Maigandi, S.A., Malami, B.S., and Daneji, A. I.. 1 National Productivity Centre, P. O. Box, 4243, Sokoto. 2 Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, ...

  14. Introduction of deciduous fruit tree growing in the tropical highlands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    to develop the deciduous fruit tree growing as a profitable enterprise. Twenty-four out .... altitudes. Significance levels were considered at 95% confidence limits. Results. Fruiting species and Cultivars. Four major deciduous fruit tree species, namely; apples, ... 71.02. 10.00. On-farm performance and management practices.

  15. Growing with EASE: Eating, Activity, and Self-Esteem (United States)

    Huettig, Carol; Rich, Shannon; Engelbrecht, Jo Ann; Sanborn, Charlotte; Essery, Eve; DiMarco, Nancy; Velez, Luisa; Levy, Luba


    A diverse group of professionals associated with Texas Woman's University's Institute for Women's Health, working collaboratively with school administrators, teachers, family support teams, and family members, developed Growing with EASE: Eating, Activity, and Self-Esteem, a nutrition program for young children and their families. In tracking the…

  16. Moderate cholecalciferol supplementation depresses intestinal calcium absorption in growing dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tryfonidou, M.A.; Stevenhagen, J.J.; Bemd, G.J.C.M. van den; Oosterlaken-Dijksterhuis, M.A.; Deluca, H.F.; Mol, J.A.; Brom, W.E. van den; Leeuwen, J.P.T.M. van; Hazewinkel, H.A.W.


    Hormonal regulation of calcium (Ca) absorption was investigated in a cholecalciferol (vitamin D3)supplemented group (hVitD) vs. a control group (cVitD) of growing Great Danes (100 vs. 12.5 μg vitamin D3/kg diet). Although Ca intakes did not differ, fractional Ca absorption was significantly lower in

  17. Soil bacteria help Ethiopian farmers grow more nutritious and higher ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Jan 11, 2013 ... Pulses — such as chickpeas, lentils, and beans — can fight malnutrition and release the soil's potential for growing high-yield, healthy pulses. ... “Good soil fertility is critical to increasing crop yields, which can make a real difference for food security and the incomes of smallholders, especially women and ...

  18. Performance Of Growing Rabbits Fed Graded Levels Of Goat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A ten-week feeding trial was conducted to assess the biological and economic performance of growing rabbits fed graded levels of goat rumen content (GRC). The GRC which contained 27.25% crude protein and 28.33% crude fibre were included at 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40% levels in diets 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively to ...

  19. The effect of lumbosacral manipulation on growing pains | de Beer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Often parent(s)/guardian(s) of children who suffer from growing pains will rub the child's legs and offer verbal reassurance in an attempt to console their children. Parent(s)/guardian(s) of both groups were encouraged to continue to do this throughout the duration of the trial. Instructions were given to the parents so that the ...

  20. Helping Educators Grow: Strategies and Practices for Leadership Development (United States)

    Drago-Severson, Eleanor


    How can we prepare practicing and aspiring education leaders for the complex, adaptive challenges they face? In "Helping Educators Grow," Eleanor Drago-Severson presents a new approach to leadership development. Too often, she argues, we teach leadership development the same way we teach world history: just the facts. Instead, we need to…

  1. Growing reforestation conifer stock: Utilizing peat/sawdust medium (United States)

    Janice K. Schaefer


    Western Forest Systems, Incorporated (WFS) (Lewiston, ID) has been utilizing a peat/sawdust blended mix as our growing medium for the past 10 years. Our decision to change from a peat/vermiculite blend to a peat/Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) sawdust blend involved worker health and safety issues, seedling culture, seedling production, and...

  2. Population level response of downy brome to soil growing medium (United States)

    Downy brome (Bromus tectorum) is the most ubiquitous exotic invasive weed in the Intermountain West. A major issue for management is the extreme generalist plastic nature of downy brome. We hypothesized that soil growing medium would effect all measured response variables representing some degree of...

  3. Growing up and being young in an Indonesian provincial town

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minza, W.M.


    This study explores the experiences of youth in the provincial town of Pontianak, West Kalimantan, done in Pontianak, the provincial capital of West Kalimantan during the years 2008-2009. It tries to understand the various patterns of relations between growing up and being young, how social

  4. Kinetic measurements on bacterial cultures growing on fibres

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rumen bacteria growing on finely dispersed cellulose. Materials and Methods. Organisms. Bacteroides succinogenes S85 and Ruminococcus [lave-. [aciens FD1 were kindly donated by Dr Marvin P. Bryant in about 1960.Ruminococcus albus 22.08.6A and Clostridium polysaccharolyticum B came from the culture collection.

  5. Electronic Waste: A Growing Challenge In Nigeria | Ukem | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a consequence, large numbers of electronic ICT products become obsolete each year, and constitute electronic waste. This paper discusses this growing problem of electronic waste from the Nigerian perspective, and highlights factors that can militate against the successful management of such waste in Nigeria.

  6. I don't want to grow old

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selberg, Hanne; Sharp-Johansen, Marie-Louise; Evron, Lotte

    the inconveniences of mus-culoskeletal, visual and auditory changes. Five two-hours' workshops were conducted with 60 students in total. The workshops consisted of an initial briefing, scenario performance, debriefing and final evaluation. (Preliminary) Results Themes from analysis: - Concerns of growing old...

  7. Growing Disparities in Life Expectancy. Economic and Budget Issue Brief (United States)

    Manchester, Joyce; Topoleski, Julie


    In a continuation of long-term trends, life expectancy has been steadily increasing in the United States for the past several decades. Accompanying the recent increases, however, is a growing disparity in life expectancy between individuals with high and low income and between those with more and less education. The difference in life expectancy…

  8. Growing small youth businesses in Kenya | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Youth make up a third of Kenya's population. Up to 35% of them are unemployed or work in informal micro-enterprises. Rachel Kalbfleisch, a 2016 IDRC Research Award recipient, wanted to know more about their ambitions and whether these youth planned to grow their businesses.

  9. Play School: Where Children and Families Learn and Grow Together (United States)

    McDermott, Lori Berger


    A growing body of national research confirms that significant levels of learning and growth occur during early childhood, and that it is important, from a public policy perspective, to increase access to quality programs and services that support the development of skills and attitudes children need to succeed. Clearly, no one-size-fits-all…

  10. Growth and haematological response of growing rabbits to diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The growth and haematological response of growing rabbits to diets containing graded levels of Sun dried Bovine Rumen Content (SBRC) was studied for a period of ten weeks. The rumen content was collected from Nsukka abattoirs and dried in sun, ground and stored in sacks. The Composition of SBRC used in this ...

  11. Sugar as an energy source for growing ducklings | Olver | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 19, No 2 (1989) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Sugar as an energy source for growing ducklings.

  12. NASA's Bioreactor: Growing Cells in a Microgravity Environment. Educational Brief. (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This brief discusses growing cells in a microgravity environment for grades 9-12. Students are provided with plans for building a classroom bioreactor that can then be used with the included activity on seed growth in a microgravity environment. Additional experimental ideas are also suggested along with a history and background on microgravity…

  13. Growing Sugarcane for Bioenergy – Effects on the Soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.


    An increasing area of sugarcane is being growing for the production of bioenergy. Sugarcane puts a high demands on the soil due to the use of heavy machinery and because large amounts of nutrients are removed with the harvest. Biocides and inorganic fertilizers introduces risks of groundwater

  14. Feed intake, growth performance and nutrient digestibility in growing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to evaluate the growth performance, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen intake of growing red sokoto bucks fed graded levels of dried sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel meal (DSOPM). Twelve animals aged between 5 – 7 months with average body weight of 9.17 kg were assigned to four dietary ...

  15. Growth response and nutrient digestibility of growing pigs to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth response and nutrient digestibility of growing pigs to qualitative and quantitative feed restriction. ... Nigerian Journal of Animal Production ... on excreted faeces, faecal dry matter output, excreted faeces/dry matter intake, dry matter digestibility, crude protein digestibility, ether extract, crude fibre digestibility and ash.

  16. Why hardwoods do not grow naturally in the west (United States)

    J. A. Larsen


    Unfortunately the beautiful hardwood trees which are native to the Eastern States do not grow naturally in the West. We have here only aspen, cottonwood, small birch, hawthorns, cherry, and alder. On the Pacific coast are oak and maple, but limited largely to lower moist sites such as streams bed and canyons. The general absence of broad leaf trees in the West is most...

  17. Closed soilless growing systems in the Netherlands: the finishing touch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Os, van E.A.


    This paper gives an overview of the latest developments in closed soilless growing systems in the Netherlands, where growers are obliged to invest in environmently friendly cropping systems, in order to comply with new legislation. Subjects of discussion will be the reasons for regulation, the

  18. Eucalypt pests and diseases: growing threats to plantation productivity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are also growing examples of host-specific pathogens native to areas where eucalypts have been planted as non-natives, which have undergone sometimes surprising host jumps. These 'new pathogens\\' threaten not only plantation forestry based on non-natives, but also eucalypts and their relatives in areas where ...

  19. Homeschooling: A Growing Option in American Education. Backgrounder. No. 2122 (United States)

    Lips, Dan; Feinberg, Evan


    A growing number of American families are choosing to homeschool their children. While research evidence is limited, evaluations of student outcomes suggest that homeschooling is successful for participating students: They do well in their learning environment, perform as well on national college assessment tests as traditional high school…

  20. Growing evidence for human health benefits of boron (United States)

    Growing evidence from numerous laboratories using a variety of experimental models shows that boron is a bioactive beneficial, perhaps essential, element for humans. Reported beneficial actions of boron include arthritis alleviation or risk reduction; bone growth and maintenance; central nervous sys...

  1. Growing up with short stature : Psychosocial consequences of hormone treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser-van Balen, J.


    Growing up with short stature. Psychosocial consequences of hormone treatment To enhance height in children with short stature, growth hormone (GH) can be used. In short children without a detectable pathology underlying their short stature, there is no medical rationale for growth hormone

  2. Neonatal airway obstruction caused by rapidly growing nasopharyngeal teratoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maartens, I.A.; Wassenberg, T.; Halbertsma, F.J.; Marres, H.A.M.; Andriessen, P.


    A case report is presented of a rapidly growing congenital nasopharyngeal teratoma (epignathus) in a preterm infant, leading to severe upper airway obstruction. Prenatal diagnosis by ultrasonography did not reveal the condition because the tumour masses were initially small and there was no

  3. Project GROW [Green River Opportunities for Work]: Final Report. (United States)

    Vikers, Theo; Gibson, Melvin Pat

    Summarizing the progress of Project Green River Opportunities for Work (Project GROW), the document reviews the study's background and the activities resulting from a third party evaluation by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. Objectives based on the evaluation and recommendations included: (1) development of an articulated and…

  4. Influence of cutting growing cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence du prélèvement des boutures de manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz) en cours de vegetation sur la sévérité des maladies et ravageurs : Influence of cutting growing cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) plants on the severity of pests and diseases.

  5. Nursery growing of some apple varieties using different grafting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out at the Eğirdir Horticultural Research Institute, between the years 2006 and 2007. The aim of this study was to investigate the advantages of apple nursery growing greenhouse rather than outdoor medium. Scions of Red Chief (dwarf), Braeburn (semi dwarf) and Mondial Gala (vigorous) apple ...

  6. Performance characteristics of growing rabbits fed diet based on a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding trial using twenty four cross bred 8-9 weeks old rabbits was conducted to investigate the effect of feeding cerelac waste - CW (a by-product of the infant food industry considered as waste) on the performance and organ characteristics of growing rabbits. Three experimental diets were formulated with diet 1 serving ...

  7. Growing degree day and sunshine radiation effects on peanut pod ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth and development of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) are affected by different uncontrollable environmental conditions. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of different planting dates, thermal temperatures (growing degree days, GDD) and daily sunshine duration on morphological and agronomic traits ...

  8. Carryover of cadmium from feed in growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Hattink, J.; Polanen, van A.; Oostrom, van J.J.; Verbunt, J.T.; Traag, W.A.; Kan, K.A.; Eijkeren, J.C.H.; Boeck, de G.; Zeilmaker, M.J.


    Growing male pigs were exposed to cadmium (Cd) at levels around 1 and 10 mg kg–1 feed for up to 12 weeks, administered as CdCl2 or Cd-cysteine (CdCys). Pigs exposed to 10 mg kg–1 showed decreased growth during the last 3 weeks. Liver and kidney concentrations of Cd continuously increased over the

  9. Fungus-Growing Termites Originated in African Rain Forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanen, Duur Kornelis; Eggleton, Paul


    extant savanna species are found in most genera, this moreover suggests that the savanna has repeatedly been colonized by fungus-growing termites. Furthermore, at least four independent "out-of-Africa" migrations into Asia, and at least one independent migration to Madagascar, have occurred. Although...

  10. The growing informalisation of work: Challenges for labour – recent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Informalisation is characterised by workers shifting from permanent employment to casual employment and fixed-term contracts, outsourcing and employment through labour brokers. These forms of employment are accompanied by growing insecurity of employment, the undermining of basic conditions of employment, the ...

  11. Growth And Some Carcass Characteristics Of Growing Pigs Fed Full ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty-six Large White X Landrace growing pigs were randomly allotted in a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement. The two dietary variables were protein source (Fish meal - FM, Chicken offal meal-COM and full·fat soybean - FFSB) and processing time of FFSB (30, 60, 90 minutes). Pigs on 90 minutes processed FFSB performed ...

  12. Growing Informal Cities: Mobile Entrepreneurs and Inclusive Growth ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Growing Informal Cities: Mobile Entrepreneurs and Inclusive Growth in South Africa, Mozambique, and Zimbabwe. Migrant entrepreneurs are an important force in the informal economy in southern Africa, but their role is often invisible to policymakers and researchers. New research on the contributions of these migrant ...

  13. Algorithm For A Self-Growing Neural Network (United States)

    Cios, Krzysztof J.


    CID3 algorithm simulates self-growing neural network. Constructs decision trees equivalent to hidden layers of neural network. Based on ID3 algorithm, which dynamically generates decision tree while minimizing entropy of information. CID3 algorithm generates feedforward neural network by use of either crisp or fuzzy measure of entropy.

  14. "Growing trees backwards": Description of a stand reconstruction model (United States)

    Jonathan D. Bakker; Andrew J. Sanchez Meador; Peter Z. Fule; David W. Huffman; Margaret M. Moore


    We describe an individual-tree model that uses contemporary measurements to "grow trees backward" and reconstruct past tree diameters and stand structure in ponderosa pine dominated stands of the Southwest. Model inputs are contemporary structural measurements of all snags, logs, stumps, and living trees, and radial growth measurements, if available. Key...

  15. The suitability evaluation of lignocellulosic substrate as growing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of peat moss (PM) as a growing media is decreasing due to high costs and environmental considerations. Therefore, diverse waste products are being used as organic amendments in certain soils before afforestation. The main objective of this work was to identify and evaluate possible substrate alternatives or ...

  16. Overcrowding of accident & emergency units: is it a growing concern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The inability of the Nigeria's Accident and Emergency Departments (AED) to meet current demands is growing among the public and health care professionals. The data supporting perceptions of insufficient capacity are limited. Therefore, this study was intended to determine the prevalence, causes, and ...

  17. Growing small youth businesses in Kenya | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Youth make up a third of Kenya's population. Up to 35% of them are unemployed or work in informal micro-enterprises. Rachel Kalbfleisch, a 2016 IDRC Research Award recipient, wanted to know more about their ambitions and whether these youth planned to grow their businesses.

  18. Environmental and Social Programmes and Rapidly Growing Retailers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter JONES


    Full Text Available This paper looks to provide an exploratory review of the extent to which the world’s fastest growing retailers are publicly reporting on their environmental and social commitments and programmes. The paper begins with an outline discussion of corporate environmental and social programmes and on public reporting processes. The paper draws its empirical material from the most recent information on environmental and social commitments and programmes posted on the world’s top twenty fastest growing retailers’ corporate web sites. While the majority of the world’s top twenty fastest growing retailers provide some public information on their commitment to environmental and social programmes there is marked variation in the extent, the nature and the detail of that information. The findings suggest that the integration of environmental and social programmes is not one of the hallmarks of rapidly growing retailers and in part this reflects the fact that many of the selected retailers are trading within emergent markets where price and availability are the principal factors driving consumer buying behaviour.

  19. Systems design methodology to develop chrysanthemum growing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, C.; Vermeulen, T.


    When chrysanthemum growers change soil for a soilless growing system they aim for labour cost reduction, quality and yield improvement and reduced emissions of nutrients. Because many attempts to come up with a viable soilless system failed, improvements and systemizations of the design process were

  20. A Comparison of Thermal Growing Season Indices for the Northern China during 1961–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linli Cui


    Full Text Available Vegetation phenology is one of the most direct and sensitive indicators of terrestrial ecosystem in response to climate change. Based on daily mean air temperature at 877 meteorological stations over northern China from 1961 to 2015, the correlations and differences for different definitions of the growing season parameters (start, end, and length of the growing season were investigated, and results show that higher correlations of 0.81–0.93 are found when indices which do not consider frost are compared with those of the same length which include the frost criteria, and lower correlations of 0.63–0.79 are observed when the length of indices is different and one of the indices includes the frost criteria or EI 3 (10 d < 5°C is included. Lower correlations and larger differences are generally observed in the eastern and northwestern parts while higher correlation and smaller difference appeared in the northeastern and southwestern parts of northern China; thus the applicability comparison and selection of different definitions have important influence on the identifying and counting of the timing and length of the growing season in the eastern and northwestern regions of northern China.

  1. The Commercial Profitability of Growing Hybrid Eucalyptus Clones in The Coast Province, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balozi Bekuta Kirongo


    Full Text Available Due to the current high demand for timber, fuelwood, and building poles and the realization that tree growing may pay dividends in the short and long term, many farmers are planting trees on their farms. Farmers are increasingly planting eucalyptus partly due to the fast growth rates of the hybrid clones as well as the opportunity to earn money within a short time. In this paper we report on the profitability of growing eucalyptus hybrid clones in the coastal region, Kenya. Tree growth and cost data was sourced from farmers in Malindi, Kilifi, and Msambweni. Market information was sourced from hardwares in North and South Coast while tree growth models were used to provide average tree sizes at various ages. Results showed that a farmer could make a net income of upto Kshs.500,000.00 (USD6,250 in 5 years. Farmers in the South Coast (Kwale and Msambweni spent more on transport than their counterparts in the North Coast (near Gede-KEFRI. This, added to the fact that trees in the South Coast (Msambweni grew less compared to those in North Coast meant that farmers in the south made less profits. Keywords: profitability, eucalyptus on-farm tree growing, renewable energy, aforestation

  2. Development of agroclimatic zoning model to delimit the potential growing areas for macaw palm ( Acrocomia aculeata) (United States)

    Falasca, Silvia; Ulberich, Ana; Pitta-Alvarez, Sandra


    The growing biodiesel production requires the use of new technologies and alternative feedstocks to maintain the growing demand of this biofuel. The macaw ( Acrocomia aculeata) is a palm native to Argentina whose fruits present high oil content. Due to its tolerance to prolonged drought, it is a promising crop for biodiesel and biokerosene production. The aim of this work was to design an agroclimatic zoning model to define the potential growing areas from macaw in Argentina. To define the agroclimatic suitability to produce oil, it was necessary to identify the requirements, limits, and biometeorological tolerance for this palm. In order to define the agroclimatic fitness of this crop in Argentina, the meteorological data corresponding to the period 1981-2010 were employed. The agroclimatic indices were integrated in a Geographic Information System. The maps were superimposed and the overlapping regions delineated the agroclimatic zoning. The agroclimatic zonation classified zones with homogeneous characteristics responding to bioclimatic requirements of this species, resulting in optimal, very suitable, suitable, and nonsuitable areas for macaw cultivation. The authors designed an agroclimatic zoning model based on bibliography. This model can be used in any part of the world, employing the same agroclimatic indices presented in this work.

  3. Regional Data


    Groezinger, Gerd; Matiaske, Wenzel


    Spatiality is an increasingly important dimension in the social sciences, as a new wave of recent publications shows. Intra-national comparisons have proved to be as fruitful as the better known inter-national analysis. Regional characteristics are found to have considerable influence on individual behaviour. This movement was fostered by methodological advances, e.g. in multi-level techniques. On the data side spatial analysis is supported by a good basic infrastructure in official and semio...

  4. Growing inter-Asian connections: Links, rivalries, and challenges in South Korean–Central Asian relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Fumagalli


    Full Text Available The geopolitical context, which emerged from the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War, combined with Korea's growing economic prowess, enabled greater dynamism and diversification in Seoul's foreign policy-making. Growing pressure from energy-intensive economies coupled with new developments and investment in logistics and infrastructure has brought different parts of the Eurasian landmass closer together in recent years. Inter-Asian connections are especially growing. This article uses the case of deepening relations between Korea and the post-Soviet Central Asian republics as a vantage point to reflect on one such example of unfolding Asian inter-connectedness. In addition it sees Seoul's engagement in the region as a fitting example of Korea's broader ambitions to assert itself as a global economic player. The article shows that Korea's policy toward Central Asia has been primarily driven by energy needs and is defined by pragmatism. It finds that the economic dimension of the relationship has greatly overshadowed other aspects such as politics and security. In its pursuit of closer ties with the region Seoul has sought to turn structural weaknesses into added value and has attempted to develop a distinctive, non-threatening profile built around the lack of a political baggage and geopolitical ambitions, and the desire to share its experience of formerly impoverished turned leading economy. In turn, Central Asia's selective integration in the world economy has continued, also thanks to its ties with Korea. The Central Asian republics welcomed the opportunity to diversify their foreign relations, the sources of foreign investment and export routes. At the same time the opaque business environment, a leadership succession, which cannot be postponed for much longer, and Seoul's “no-strings attached” approach expose Korea to some risks as regime stability might not last forever.

  5. Ecophysiological function of leaf 'windows' in Lithops species - 'Living Stones' that grow underground. (United States)

    Martin, C E; Brandmeyer, E A; Ross, R D


    Leaf temperatures were lower when light entry at the leaf tip window was prevented through covering the window with reflective tape, relative to leaf temperatures of plants with leaf tip windows covered with transparent tape. This was true when leaf temperatures were measured with an infrared thermometer, but not with a fine-wire thermocouple. Leaf tip windows of Lithops growing in high-rainfall regions of southern Africa were larger than the windows of plants (numerous individuals of 17 species) growing in areas with less rainfall and, thus, more annual insolation. The results of this study indicate that leaf tip windows of desert plants with an underground growth habit can allow entry of supra-optimal levels of radiant energy, thus most likely inhibiting photosynthetic activity. Consequently, the size of the leaf tip windows correlates inversely with habitat solar irradiance, minimising the probability of photoinhibition, while maximising the absorption of irradiance in cloudy, high-rainfall regions. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  6. Snowmelt timing, phenology, and growing season length in conifer forests of Crater Lake National Park, USA (United States)

    O'Leary, Donal S.; Kellermann, Jherime L.; Wayne, Chris


    Anthropogenic climate change is having significant impacts on montane and high-elevation areas globally. Warmer winter temperatures are driving reduced snowpack in the western USA with broad potential impacts on ecosystem dynamics of particular concern for protected areas. Vegetation phenology is a sensitive indicator of ecological response to climate change and is associated with snowmelt timing. Human monitoring of climate impacts can be resource prohibitive for land management agencies, whereas remotely sensed phenology observations are freely available at a range of spatiotemporal scales. Little work has been done in regions dominated by evergreen conifer cover, which represents many mountain regions at temperate latitudes. We used moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data to assess the influence of snowmelt timing and elevation on five phenology metrics (green up, maximum greenness, senescence, dormancy, and growing season length) within Crater Lake National Park, Oregon, USA from 2001 to 2012. Earlier annual mean snowmelt timing was significantly correlated with earlier onset of green up at the landscape scale. Snowmelt timing and elevation have significant explanatory power for phenology, though with high variability. Elevation has a moderate control on early season indicators such as snowmelt timing and green up and less on late-season variables such as senescence and growing season length. PCA results show that early season indicators and late season indicators vary independently. These results have important implications for ecosystem dynamics, management, and conservation, particularly of species such as whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) in alpine and subalpine areas.

  7. Long-term variations in phenological phases and growing season indexes in the Czech Republic (United States)

    Mozny, M.; Potop, V.; Hajkova, L.; Bares, D.; Stalmacher, M.; Trnka, M.; Bartosova, L.; Zalud, Z.


    Phenological phases reflect weather conditions immediately prior to their onset and are therefore very important documentary record of the impact of climate on plants in a particular region. We analyze the results of phenological observations in the Czech Republic in the years 1931-2010. Air temperature increases were associated with an earlier onset of phenological phases; not just the beginning of the growing season but also the interval between successive phenological phases was shorter. Spatial variability of average phenophase onset were executed by GIS methods, the maps use horizontal resolutions of 500 meters. To quantify the rate and timing of changes in canopy development was utilized Growing Season Index (GSI), which was calculated from conventional meteorological measurements. Finally, we used the GSI index for producing global maps that distinguish regional differences in the current phenological development in the Czech Republic. GSI index can be used in modeling of CO2 exchange at the interface of biosphere and atmosphere. We gratefully acknowledge the support of the Ministry of education, youth and sports project OC10010, LD11401 and National Agency for Agriculture Research project Q191C054.

  8. Bioaccumulation of cadmium by growing Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (United States)

    Li, Chunsheng; Jiang, Wei; Ma, Ning; Zhu, Yinglian; Dong, Xiaoyan; Wang, Dongfeng; Meng, Xianghong; Xu, Ying


    Bioaccumulation via growing cells is a potential technique for heavy metal removal from food materials. The cadmium bioaccumulation characteristics by growing Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated. Z. rouxii displayed powerful cadmium removal ability at low cadmium concentrations, which mainly depended on the intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation. The percentage of intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation of both yeasts obviously decreased with the increase of initial biomass and cadmium concentrations. Low pH and elevated concentrations of zinc and copper significantly decreased the intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation of both yeasts but improved the cadmium tolerance and the cell-surface cadmium bioaccumulation of Z. rouxii. Cadmium removal of Z. rouxii was improved by zinc and copper conditionally. Z. rouxii that possessed more powerful cadmium tolerance and removal ability at low pH and high concentration of competing ions can be developed into a potential cadmium removal agent using in complex food environment in future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Faba beans in diets for growing-finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to study the effects of using the new faba bean (Vicia faba L. cultivar Kontu as a domestic protein source for growing-finishing pigs.In Experiment 1,120 pigs were used with a body weight (BWof 25–110 kg to study the effects of replacing 0, 25, 50, 75,and 100%of rapeseed meal with faba beans in barley +rapeseed meal based diets. Restrictedly fed grower and finisher diets contained 137–317 and 114–260 g kg–1 faba beans, respectively. A barley +soya bean meal based diet was included as a control. The replacement of rapeseed meal with faba beans exerted a quadratic effect on daily weight gain and on the feed conversion ratio of pigs in the growing period and during total fattening (P

  10. Near tip strain evolution of a growing fatigue crack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-L. Zhu


    Full Text Available Near tip full-field strains in a growing fatigue crack have been studied in situ using the Digital Image Correlation (DIC technique in a compact tension specimen of stainless steel 316L under tension-tension cyclic loading. An error analysis of displacements and strains has been carried out, and the results show that the precision of displacements and strains in the wake of the crack is worse than that in front of the crack. A method for the determination of crack tip location is proposed for the DIC analysis. Strain ratchetting is observed ahead of the growing fatigue crack tip and found to be dependent on the distance to the crack tip; whilst normal strains appear to stabilise behind the crack tip.

  11. Structure analysis of growing network based on partial differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbo JIA


    Full Text Available The topological structure is one of the most important contents in the complex network research. Therein the node degree and the degree distribution are the most basic characteristic quantities to describe topological structure. In order to calculate the degree distribution, first of all, the node degree is considered as a continuous variable. Then, according to the Markov Property of growing network, the cumulative distribution function's evolution equation with time can be obtained. Finally, the partial differential equation (PDE model can be established through distortion processing. Taking the growing network with preferential and random attachment mechanism as an example, the PDE model is obtained. The analytic expression of degree distribution is obtained when this model is solved. Besides, the degree function over time is the same as the characteristic line of PDE. At last, the model is simulated. This PDE method of changing the degree distribution calculation into problem of solving PDE makes the structure analysis more accurate.

  12. Identification and assessment of the slowly growing child. (United States)

    Duck, S C


    Reliable measurements taken by trained personnel using appropriate equipment are essential in assessment of the slowly growing child. Linear growth plotted on appropriate statistical charts and expected growth based on parental heights are indicators of inappropriately reduced linear growth. Children older than three years of age who grow less than 1.75 in (4.5 cm) per year should be evaluated. Family and personal medical history (including prenatal and birth information) are important in the identification of familial short stature, constitutional delay and other causes of proportionate growth disorders. Other conditions, including chromosomal disorder, systemic disease and endocrine dysfunction, may be discovered during physical examination or appropriate laboratory investigation. Disproportionate growth of the limbs and trunk suggests the presence of a bone or collagen disorder. Bone age data based on radiographs of the left hand may assist in predicting the child's final height.

  13. Rotary forcespun styrofoam fibers as a soilless growing medium (United States)

    Fauzi, Ahmad; Edikresnha, Dhewa; Munir, Muhammad Miftahul; Khairurrijal


    To make styrofoam fibers from used styrofoam, rotary forcespinning technique was used because it offers high production rate and affordable production cost. The used styrofoam was dissolved in acetone to obtain styrofoam solution as a precursor of syrofoam fibers. Since the technique utilizes centrifugal force, the precursor was thrown out and its phase changed to be solid following acetone solvent evaporation. Long, clean and light styrofoam fibers were then produced. To determine if the styrofoam fibers is a good soilless growing medium, physico-chemical properties including pH and electrical conductivity, bulk density, water retention and wettability were measured. Rockwool, which is the most popular soilless growing medium and easily obtained from local farm suppliers, was selected as a benchmark to evaluate the styrofoam fibers.

  14. Circumferential buckling instability of a growing cylindrical tube

    KAUST Repository

    Moulton, D.E.


    A cylindrical elastic tube under uniform radial external pressure will buckle circumferentially to a non-circular cross-section at a critical pressure. The buckling represents an instability of the inner or outer edge of the tube. This is a common phenomenon in biological tissues, where it is referred to as mucosal folding. Here, we investigate this buckling instability in a growing elastic tube. A change in thickness due to growth can have a dramatic impact on circumferential buckling, both in the critical pressure and the buckling pattern. We consider both single- and bi-layer tubes and multiple boundary conditions. We highlight the competition between geometric effects, i.e. the change in tube dimensions, and mechanical effects, i.e. the effect of residual stress, due to differential growth. This competition can lead to non-intuitive results, such as a tube growing to be thinner and yet buckle at a higher pressure. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Design of growing points for silver nanoparticles on polypropylene membranes (United States)

    Mendieta-Jiménez, Ana L.; Carpio-Martínez, Pablo; Cortés-Guzmán, Fernando; Gómez-Espinosa, Rosa María


    The nucleation process of a nanoparticle requires an environment that stabilizes the initial seed and favors the growth action. In this paper, we present a specific design of growing points for silver nanoparticles based on the well-known affinity of the silver to the chlorine atoms and to aromatic groups by cation-π interactions. [2-(vinylphenyl)ethyl]chloromethylphenylsilane was proposed as growing point of nanoparticles, which has been synthetized and grafted on a polypropylene membrane. Nanoparticles were synthesized by chemically reducing an AgNO3 solution with NaBH4 and the so synthesized nanoparticles were also fully characterized. Using DFT-QTAIM calculations a model of the initial seed and a growth mechanism were proposed.

  16. Utilization Of Cassava and Pawpaw Diets By Growing Snails ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred and twenty five (225) growing snails of an average weight of 70g were used for the feeding trial, with five dietary treatments. The trial lasted fourteen weeks. The diets were isonitrogenous (18.30% crude protein) and Isocaloric (2500kcal/kg M. E). The treatments were T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5. The rations had 10% ...

  17. Assessment of selected native plants growing along Nairobi river for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of selected native plants growing along Nairobi river for uptake of copper, zinc and cadmium. ... 0.74 mg/Kg, Zn 16.53 ± 2.59 mg/Kg and Cd 2.57 ± 0.83 mg/Kg. Based on the results observed in the plants, Zn showed the largest accumulation and can be considered as one of the major pollutants of Nairobi River.

  18. Closed soilless growing systems in the Netherlands: the finishing touch


    Os, van, E.A.


    This paper gives an overview of the latest developments in closed soilless growing systems in the Netherlands, where growers are obliged to invest in environmently friendly cropping systems, in order to comply with new legislation. Subjects of discussion will be the reasons for regulation, the growers' reaction to the proposed legislation, the methods to comply with legislation and related problems such as the availability of good water, the systems applied and the developments in the disinfe...

  19. Growing bacteria shed elicitors of Drosophila humoral immunity. (United States)

    Karlsson, Jenny; Oldenvi, Sandra; Fahlander, Carina; Daenthanasanmak, Anusara; Steiner, Håkan


    It has been much debated how the Drosophila immune system can recognize bacterial peptidoglycan that is often hidden. We show that bacteria separated from Drosophila S2 cells by a semipermeable membrane can upregulate the Imd pathway. Supernatants from exponentially growing but not from stationary-phase bacterial cultures induce antimicrobial peptides. It is also made likely that the shed elicitors are of peptidoglycan nature. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Multifork chromosome replication in slow-growing bacteria


    Damian Trojanowski; Joanna Hołówka; Katarzyna Ginda; Dagmara Jakimowicz; Jolanta Zakrzewska-Czerwińska


    The growth rates of bacteria must be coordinated with major cell cycle events, including chromosome replication. When the doubling time (Td) is shorter than the duration of chromosome replication (C period), a new round of replication begins before the previous round terminates. Thus, newborn cells inherit partially duplicated chromosomes. This phenomenon, which is termed multifork replication, occurs among fast-growing bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. In contrast, it ...

  1. From Kennedy, to Beyond: Growing Plants in Space (United States)

    Flemming, Cedric, II; Seck, Sokhana A.; Massa, Gioia D.; Hummerick, Mary E.; Wheeler, Raymond


    Astronauts cannot have their cake and eat it too, but what about growing a salad and eating it? As NASA continues to push the envelope on Space exploration and inhabitance the need for a fresh food source becomes more vital. The Life Support team at NASA is using a system developed by ORBITEC the VEGGIE, in which astronauts aboard the ISS, and potentially the Moon and Mars, will be capable of growing food. The introduction of plants not only gives astronauts a means of independently supplying food, but also recreation, oxygen replenishment and psychological benefits. The plants were grown in "pillows", the system used for growing plants within the VEGGIE. This test included 4 types of media mixtures that are composed of a clay based media called Arcilite and Fafard #2, which is a peat moss-based media ( <1 mm Arcilite, 1-2 mm of Arcilite, 1:1 <1 mm & 1-2 mm mixture and 1:1 Arcilite & Fafard mixture). Currently, 3 lettuce cultivars are being grown in 4 mixtures of media. Tests were being conducted to see which form of media has the ratio of best growth and least amount of microbes that are harmful. That is essential because a person's body becomes more susceptible to illness when they leave Earth. As a result, test must be conducted on the "pillow" system to assess the levels of microbial activity. The cultivars were tested at different stages during their growing process for microbes. Datum show that the mix of Fafard and Arcilite had the best growth, but also the most microbes. This was due to the fact that Fafard is an organic substance so it contains material necessary for microbes to live. Data suggest that the <1 mm Arcilite has an acceptable amount of growth and a lower level of microbes, because it is non-organic.



    Scurtu Ion


    Vegetable growing in small areas (open field, plastic tunnels, unheated or heated green house or even in balcony) may be a very pleasant activity for many old persons who want to preserve their physical and mental health. Beside many common vegetable species like tomatoes, pepper, eggplant, onion, garlic, cabbage, cucumber, lettuce and so on - can be cultivated in small areas many others vegetables like broccoli, Brussels cabbage, Scorzonera hispanica, asparagus, Witloof Chicory (French endiv...

  3. Growth performance, carcass and organ characteristics of growing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth performance, carcass and organ characteristics of growing rabbits fed graded levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal in diets. ... Similarly, the weight of liver (40.35-57.05g), lungs (10.22-11.24g), heart (2.95-4.10g), kidney (8.30-10.70g), kidney fat (11.10-12.65g), small intestine (81.25-99.80g), large intestine ...

  4. Can the Indian Navy respond to a growing Chinese fleet?


    Quidachay, VIncent J.


    The purpose of this thesis is to determine whether the Indian Navy can respond to a growing Chinese fleet by analyzing the historical development of the Indian Navy since independence. Three naval expansion periods are identified, and three causal factors are measured to determine the effects of each factor on Indian naval expansion. The three factors are (1) responses to a perceived threat, (2) India's economic condition, and (3) the benefits of foreign military aid. The saidy shows that res...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scurtu Ion


    Full Text Available Vegetable growing in small areas (open field, plastic tunnels, unheated or heated green house or even in balcony may be a very pleasant activity for many old persons who want to preserve their physical and mental health. Beside many common vegetable species like tomatoes, pepper, eggplant, onion, garlic, cabbage, cucumber, lettuce and so on - can be cultivated in small areas many others vegetables like broccoli, Brussels cabbage, Scorzonera hispanica, asparagus, Witloof Chicory (French endive and vegetable with medicinal properties.

  6. The growth performance of growing pigs during feed restriction and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty two crossbred (large white x landrace) pigs were used in a 56 days restriction and 56 days realimentation study to evaluate the effect of restricting growing pigs at 90, 80 and 70% of the ad libitum feed intake of the control. The pigs averaged 35.23 ± 0.560 kg at the start of the study. There were four treatments (control, ...

  7. Pan-Arctic linkages between snow accumulation and growing-season air temperature, soil moisture and vegetation (United States)

    Luus, K. A.; Gel, Y.; Lin, J. C.; Kelly, R. E. J.; Duguay, C. R.


    Arctic field studies have indicated that the air temperature, soil moisture and vegetation at a site influence the quantity of snow accumulated, and that snow accumulation can alter growing-season soil moisture and vegetation. Climate change is predicted to bring about warmer air temperatures, greater snow accumulation and northward movements of the shrub and tree lines. Understanding the responses of northern environments to changes in snow and growing-season land surface characteristics requires: (1) insights into the present-day linkages between snow and growing-season land surface characteristics; and (2) the ability to continue to monitor these associations over time across the vast pan-Arctic. The objective of this study was therefore to examine the pan-Arctic (north of 60° N) linkages between two temporally distinct data products created from AMSR-E satellite passive microwave observations: GlobSnow snow water equivalent (SWE), and NTSG growing-season AMSR-E Land Parameters (air temperature, soil moisture and vegetation transmissivity). Due to the complex and interconnected nature of processes determining snow and growing-season land surface characteristics, these associations were analyzed using the modern nonparametric technique of alternating conditional expectations (ACE), as this approach does not impose a predefined analytic form. Findings indicate that regions with lower vegetation transmissivity (more biomass) at the start and end of the growing season tend to accumulate less snow at the start and end of the snow season, possibly due to interception and sublimation. Warmer air temperatures at the start and end of the growing season were associated with diminished snow accumulation at the start and end of the snow season. High latitude sites with warmer mean annual growing-season temperatures tended to accumulate more snow, probably due to the greater availability of water vapor for snow season precipitation at warmer locations. Regions with drier

  8. Pan-Arctic linkages between snow accumulation and growing-season air temperature, soil moisture and vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Luus


    Full Text Available Arctic field studies have indicated that the air temperature, soil moisture and vegetation at a site influence the quantity of snow accumulated, and that snow accumulation can alter growing-season soil moisture and vegetation. Climate change is predicted to bring about warmer air temperatures, greater snow accumulation and northward movements of the shrub and tree lines. Understanding the responses of northern environments to changes in snow and growing-season land surface characteristics requires: (1 insights into the present-day linkages between snow and growing-season land surface characteristics; and (2 the ability to continue to monitor these associations over time across the vast pan-Arctic. The objective of this study was therefore to examine the pan-Arctic (north of 60° N linkages between two temporally distinct data products created from AMSR-E satellite passive microwave observations: GlobSnow snow water equivalent (SWE, and NTSG growing-season AMSR-E Land Parameters (air temperature, soil moisture and vegetation transmissivity. Due to the complex and interconnected nature of processes determining snow and growing-season land surface characteristics, these associations were analyzed using the modern nonparametric technique of alternating conditional expectations (ACE, as this approach does not impose a predefined analytic form. Findings indicate that regions with lower vegetation transmissivity (more biomass at the start and end of the growing season tend to accumulate less snow at the start and end of the snow season, possibly due to interception and sublimation. Warmer air temperatures at the start and end of the growing season were associated with diminished snow accumulation at the start and end of the snow season. High latitude sites with warmer mean annual growing-season temperatures tended to accumulate more snow, probably due to the greater availability of water vapor for snow season precipitation at warmer locations. Regions

  9. Effect of Cobalt Supplementation on Performance of growing Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to study the effect of critical supplementation of wheat straw with cobalt on fibre utilization and nutrient utilization in growing cross-bred male calves. Twenty-one crossbred (HF X Local male growing calves of 3-4 months age were fed with wheat straw based diet consisting without (Co0 and with 1 (Co1 and 6 (Co6 ppm cobalt as cobaltous chloride. There was no significant difference in intake of wheat straw, concentrate and DMI between the three groups and the ratio between concentrate and wheat straw was maintained at 40:60 irrespective of dietary level of cobalt. Similarly, average cumulative body weight, net gain in body weight or feed efficiency did not differ significantly between treatments. No significant effect was observed on the digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, ether extract and fibre constituents like NDF, ADF, hemicellulose or cellulose by supplementation of 1 and 6 ppm Co to the diet of growing calves. Balance of nutrients such as Nitrogen, Calcium and Phosphorus was similar and positive in all the treatment groups. TDN and DCP values of the experimental diets remained almost similar irrespective of dietary level of cobalt. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(10.000: 299-302


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amtul HAFEEZ


    Full Text Available In distance education system use of different media enable the learners to start the course of study independently. The appearance of the internet and the expansion of web have now changed distance learning from a broadcasting way to an interactive way, and allowed connecting the learners and instructors who are geographically divided. Technological advances have created a paradigm shift in education and the definition of distance learning, as described by James Morrison (1996, who states that telecommunications, software, and the Internet eliminate walls and boundaries. In addition, he states that an increasing number of students want and need non-traditional, flexible schedules. Main findings of the study revealed that majority of the distance learners need growing technologies to interact with the tutors and peers for academic guidance and use of latest technologies make distance learners more up to date and helpful for better academic achievements. Majority of the students agreed that without any training distance learner cannot use growing technologies. It was recommended that AIOU may take steps to organize a specific website for the MS/M.phil and Ph.D scholars so that they can easily interact with peers and tutors. A comprehensive training programme may be launched to enable the tutors for using growing technologies so that they can facilitate the learners by using latest methods of teaching. Virtual classrooms can be started along with the workshops. Students and academicians of education department may use latest technologies and internet softwares which can be helpful for academic purpose.

  11. Multifork chromosome replication in slow-growing bacteria. (United States)

    Trojanowski, Damian; Hołówka, Joanna; Ginda, Katarzyna; Jakimowicz, Dagmara; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta


    The growth rates of bacteria must be coordinated with major cell cycle events, including chromosome replication. When the doubling time (Td) is shorter than the duration of chromosome replication (C period), a new round of replication begins before the previous round terminates. Thus, newborn cells inherit partially duplicated chromosomes. This phenomenon, which is termed multifork replication, occurs among fast-growing bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. In contrast, it was historically believed that slow-growing bacteria (including mycobacteria) do not reinitiate chromosome replication until the previous round has been completed. Here, we use single-cell time-lapse analyses to reveal that mycobacterial cell populations exhibit heterogeneity in their DNA replication dynamics. In addition to cells with non-overlapping replication rounds, we observed cells in which the next replication round was initiated before completion of the previous replication round. We speculate that this heterogeneity may reflect a relaxation of cell cycle checkpoints, possibly increasing the ability of slow-growing mycobacteria to adapt to environmental conditions.

  12. Biorock Electric Reefs Grow Back Severely Eroded Beaches in Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. F. Goreau


    Full Text Available Severely eroded beaches on low lying islands in Indonesia were grown back in a few months—believed to be a record—using an innovative method of shore protection, Biorock electric reef technology. Biorock shore protection reefs are growing limestone structures that get stronger with age and repair themselves, are cheaper than concrete or rock sea walls and breakwaters, and are much more effective at shore protection and beach growth. Biorock reefs are permeable, porous, growing, self-repairing structures of any size or shape, which dissipate wave energy by internal refraction, diffraction, and frictional dissipation. They do not cause reflection of waves like hard sea walls and breakwaters, which erodes the sand in front of, and then underneath, such structures, until they collapse. Biorock reefs stimulate settlement, growth, survival, and resistance to the environmental stress of all forms of marine life, restoring coral reefs, sea grasses, biological sand production, and fisheries habitat. Biorock reefs can grow back eroded beaches and islands faster than the rate of sea level rise, and are the most cost-effective method of shore protection and adaptation to global sea level rise for low lying islands and coasts.

  13. Six Ages towards a Learning Region--A Retrospective (United States)

    Longworth, Norman; Osborne, Michael


    Learning Cities and Learning Regions are terms now in common use as a result of the growing importance of lifelong learning concepts to the economic, social and environmental future of people and places. Why "learning" regions? Why not intelligent, creative, clever, smart or knowledge regions? In truth, all of these can, and some do,…

  14. Changes in the thermal growing season in Nordic countries during the past century and prospects for the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The start, end, duration and intensity of the thermal growing season (the period with mean daily temperatures exceeding 5°C during the past century (1890-1995 was analysed at nine sites in the Nordic region. Statistical comparisons were made between three adjacent 35-year periods. The results indicate that the growing season lengthened considerably at all sites between 1891-1925 and 1926-1960. Lengthening has continued at a slower rate up to the present at the eight Fennoscandian sites but not at the Icelandic site. In contrast, the intensity of the growing season, expressed by effective temperature sum above 5°C, which increased at all sites between the first two periods, has decreased slightly at all locations except Turku in recent decades. Under three scenarios, representing the range of estimated greenhouse gas-induced warming by the 2050s, the growing season is expected to lengthen at all sites. For a "Central" scenario, the greatest lengthening is computed for southern and western Scandinavia (7-8 weeks with smaller changes in Finland (4 weeks and Iceland (3 weeks. With a lengthening growing season during the past century in Fennoscandia, there are likely to have been impacts on natural and managed ecosystems. Some evidence of recent biotic and abiotic effects already exists, but other indicators of long-term change remain to be analysed. ;


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Boronia


    Full Text Available From the the analysis of physical and chemical characteristics of the soil, of some climatic and hydrological elements as well as some environmental specific factors such as drainage, surface erosion, gradient, inundability etc, result a number of limiting factors (deficiencies of the agricultural terrains, which determine certain restrictions in their use for fruit-growing. Restrictions are refered to natural factors that impose crop limitations, but also the danger of anthropic reductions through exploition with similar effects, but a differential impact. This paper aims at presenting the main terrain limiting factors, following restrictions imposed by relief, climate, pedologic and hydrological conditions (terrain constitutive elements. On the other hand, factors that generate deficiencies in fruit-growing plantations have also been considered: reduced growth, slow fruition, and slow root system development, growth and fructification cycle shortening lead to crop reductions.

  16. The Roots and Implications of East Asian Regionalism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, John


    Regionalism in East Asia is driven by historical patterns of cooperation, the common challenge of the West, the century-long quest for an Asian identity, and growing economic interdependence and integration...

  17. Prospects of development of Midlle Ural in conditions of growing economic threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Stepanovich Bochko


    Full Text Available In the article is shown that the socio-economic development of regions is exposed to influence of external and internal economic threats more actively. The regional factors determining constraining influence on growing economic threats are revealed. In the work, the analysis of the condition of the industry, agriculture, housing construction for the period 1990-2013 years is carried out; the positive and negative aspects of economic development of Middle Ural are shown. The necessity of activation of scientific and technical activity for development of high-efficiency workplaces and translation of the region on an innovation way of development is proved. The measures of counteraction to increasing economic threats in territory of the Sverdlovsk region in 2014-2015 years are offered. The offer on the necessity to consider public works as a system of measures together with the drawings, other technical and design documents, and also appropriate feasibility reports are suggested. The conclusion about the importance of development in the country a new model of economic development for maintenance of effective counteraction to economic threats is made.

  18. Growing Up in Poverty, Growing Old in Infirmity: The Long Arm of Childhood Conditions in Great Britain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gindo Tampubolon

    Full Text Available The ageing population poses a tremendous challenge in understanding the sources of inequalities in health. Though they appear to be far removed, childhood conditions are known to be inextricably linked with adult health, and in turn on health in later life. The long arm of childhood conditions hypothesis is often tested using recollection of childhood circumstances, but such subjective recall can yield potentially inaccurate or possibly biased inferences. We tested the long arm hypothesis on three outcomes in later life, arrayed from objective to subjective health, namely: gait speed, episodic memory and mental health.We used the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing 2006 enriched with retrospective life history (N = 5,913. To deal with recall problems two solutions, covariate measurement and endogenous treatment models, were applied. Retrospective childhood material lack includes growing up without running hot or cold water, fixed bath, indoor lavatory and central heating. Adjustment is made for an extensive set of confounders including sex, age, adult health, wealth, education, occupation, social support, social connections, chronic conditions, smoking, drinking, and physical exercise. It is found that material poverty when growing up shows no association with health when growing old, assuming accurate recall. Once recall problems are controlled, we found that childhood material poverty changes inversely with later life health.A poorer childhood goes with slower gait, poorer memory and more depression in later life. This result provides a further impetus to eliminate child poverty.

  19. Trends in Agricultural Growing Seasons Due to Climatic Shifts in Africa: Implications for Food Security (United States)

    Brown, M. E.; de Beurs, K.; Vrieling, A.


    Some of the most profound and direct impacts of climate change over the next few decades will be on agricultural production and the broader food system. Africa is one of the regions most vulnerable to these impacts due to their under developed economies and the predominance of small farmer, subsistence agriculture. This paper focuses on understanding variations in agricultural production due to rainfall and temperature fluctuations, which are a primary cause of food insecurity on the continent in Africa. A retrospective analysis on the relationship between climate indices and environmental productivity may provide the tools to better manage agricultural investment on the African continent. This paper will present an analysis of the relationship between phenology metrics derived from the 26 year AVHRR NDVI record and the North Atlantic Oscillation index (NAO), the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), and the Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI). We explore spatial relationships between agricultural growing conditions as measured by the NDVI and the three climate indices in Eastern, Western and Southern Africa to determine the regions and periods when they have a significant impact. The results show that the start of season and cumulative NDVI were significantly affected by variations in the climate indices. The talk will conclude with analysis which will put these climate-related factors into perspective, as just one element in the overall food security of the region. Agricultural investment policies, the functioning of markets and trade, and an increasing population are at least as important for the food security on the continent. Sustainability of livelihoods will depend both on the ability of vulnerable populations to adapt to changing growing conditions and to compete on the global market for food.

  20. Impact of porcine epidemic diarrhea on performance of growing pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Alvarez

    Full Text Available The impact of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDv infection on the US pork industry has mainly been attributed to the mortality that it causes in suckling piglets, and, consequently, much effort has been invested in the quantification of its effect in sow farms. However, no information on the performance of surviving pigs that were exposed to the PEDv as piglets is available. Here, a retrospective cohort study to evaluate the impact of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDv infection on growing pigs' performance, as indicated by mortality, average daily gain (ADG, average daily feed intake (ADFI, and feed conversion ratio (FCR was performed using production records from weaned pigs in nursery and wean-to-finish sites from sow farms that became PEDv-infected between May 2013 and June 2014. Production records from the first batch of growing pigs weaned in infected flows after the PEDv outbreak ("infected batches" were compared with those from pigs weaned within the previous 14 to 120 days ("control batches". Performance records from infected and control batches, paired by flow, were compared using non-parametric paired tests. Mortality, ADG and FCR were significantly different in PEDv-positive (infected compared with PEDv-negative (control batches, with a mean increase of mortality and FCR of 11% and 0.5, respectively, and a decrease of ADG of 0.16 lb/day. Our results demonstrate a poorer performance of growing pigs weaned after a PEDv outbreak compared with those weaned within the previous 14-120 days, suggesting that in addition to the mortality induced by PEDv in suckling pigs, the disease also impairs the performance of surviving pig. These findings help to quantify the impact of PEDv infection in the US and, ultimately, contribute to efforts to quantify the cost-effectiveness of disease prevention and control measures.

  1. Growing Mediums in Different Environments for Sunflower and Cilantro Microgreens (United States)

    Tran, B.; Gonzalez, O.


    The purpose of this experiment is to investigate the growth and subsequent harvest of young seedlings known as microgreens, which have expanded into a very profitable market. The goal of the experiment is to discover whether the nutrients, soil quality and climate influences the quality, flavor, and yield of the microgreens. To conduct this experiment, locations and soil types were chosen; the locations consisted of a greenhouse (an enclosed space which held consistent sunlight, warmth, and humidity) and a lath house (a somewhat shaded location that was open to the elements as well as temperature changes), while compost, Quick Root (a growing medium that is relatively devoid of nutrients), and a combination of the two is used in this experiment. This meant that a total of six different combinations could be tested. Along with that, two different seeds were selected, sunflower seeds and cilantro seeds. Each of the results are mainly influenced by the soil type, and a partial influence by the climate. Compost has an extreme lack in growth and did not produce enough plants to record in general. The Quick Root results show only a burst of growth would occur; also, the plants did not have a strong taste, but did grow slightly quicker within the greenhouse. Another advantage to the Quick Root results is that the root size nearly tripled compared to the 50/50 root size. 50/50 holds the strongest results i.e., growth consistency and holds a stronger taste. Originally, there was an attempt to grow sunflowers uncovered, but was not attempted again due to poor results. Overall the 50/50 held a stronger growth and taste, but also would easily excel in the long run compared to the Quick Root and the compost.

  2. Fiber level for laying hens during the growing phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednardo Rodrigues Freitas


    Full Text Available Feeding management of laying hens has been focused on the direct influence of nutrient intake on weight gain, especially at growing phase. This study evaluates nutrient digestibility, performance, development of the digestive tract, body composition, and bone quality of two strains of laying hens fed with different levels of neutral detergent fiber (NDF during the growing phase from the 7th to the 12th week of age. A total of 1,296 birds were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement (two strains x three levels of NDF with four replicates of 54 birds per treatment. Semi-heavy (Hy Line Brown and light-strain (Lohman LSL pullets were allotted to dietary treatments consisting of 14.50, 16.50, and 18.50% NDF. An interaction between strains and NDF levels was observed only for feed/gain ratio and light-strain pullets had lower performance with 18.50% NDF. The increasing levels of NDF in the diet reduced the coefficients of digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen and gross energy, and the values of metabolizable energy. Higher levels of NDF in the diet increased the relative weight of liver and intestines and reduced gizzard weight. It was also observed differences between bone quality and composition of the femur and tibia of light and semi-heavy hens. The increase in NDF level in ration for growing phase laying hens above 14.50% decreases the nutrient digestibility and the metabolizable energy of the diet; however, it does not affect the carcass composition, bone quality, feed intake, and weight gain, although it may impair feed conversion of light-strain pullets.

  3. Impact of porcine epidemic diarrhea on performance of growing pigs. (United States)

    Alvarez, Julio; Sarradell, Javier; Morrison, Robert; Perez, Andres


    The impact of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDv) infection on the US pork industry has mainly been attributed to the mortality that it causes in suckling piglets, and, consequently, much effort has been invested in the quantification of its effect in sow farms. However, no information on the performance of surviving pigs that were exposed to the PEDv as piglets is available. Here, a retrospective cohort study to evaluate the impact of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDv) infection on growing pigs' performance, as indicated by mortality, average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) was performed using production records from weaned pigs in nursery and wean-to-finish sites from sow farms that became PEDv-infected between May 2013 and June 2014. Production records from the first batch of growing pigs weaned in infected flows after the PEDv outbreak ("infected batches") were compared with those from pigs weaned within the previous 14 to 120 days ("control batches"). Performance records from infected and control batches, paired by flow, were compared using non-parametric paired tests. Mortality, ADG and FCR were significantly different in PEDv-positive (infected) compared with PEDv-negative (control) batches, with a mean increase of mortality and FCR of 11% and 0.5, respectively, and a decrease of ADG of 0.16 lb/day. Our results demonstrate a poorer performance of growing pigs weaned after a PEDv outbreak compared with those weaned within the previous 14-120 days, suggesting that in addition to the mortality induced by PEDv in suckling pigs, the disease also impairs the performance of surviving pig. These findings help to quantify the impact of PEDv infection in the US and, ultimately, contribute to efforts to quantify the cost-effectiveness of disease prevention and control measures.

  4. Growing Economic Inequality and Its (Partially Political Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Lehman Schlozman


    Full Text Available Growing economic inequality fosters inequality in the political processes of American democracy. Since the 1970’s inequalities in earnings and wealth have increased dramatically in the United States creating a higher level of inequality in disposable income than in other developed democracies. The United States also lags behind other rich nations in the way it provides for those at the bottom of the income distribution, and there is no evidence that the opportunities for success promised by the American Dream compensate for inequality in America. Technological and economic developments are significant causes of this growing economic inequality. The role of politics is more controversial, but government policy influences the distribution of income and education by the way it determines government benefits, taxes and the way markets function. For a number of reasons—including, most importantly, the relationship between education and income and the ability of the affluent to make large campaign donations—those who are economically well-off speak more loudly in politics. They are more likely to engage in most forms of individual political participation—not only ones that involve using cash but also ones that cost nothing except time. Moreover, when it comes to political voice through organizations, a professionalized domain dominated by hired experts in which the volume of political voice can be altered to reflect available economic resources, affluent interests are more likely to be organized and active. This essay considers the growing economic inequalities that form an important part of the backdrop for unequal political voice.

  5. Xylanase supplementation to rye diets for growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Pedersen, Trine Friis; Blaabjerg, Karoline


    Supplementation of xylanase to pig diets can hydrolyze arabinoxylan (AX) into lower molecular weight compounds and thereby decrease the viscosity and improve nutrient utilization. Xylanase supplementation has, however, shown variable effects in diets containing wheat, rye, and combinations thereof...... excretion of N and P did not differ among treatments. Besides a linear effect (P = 0.05) on ATTD of fat, there were neither linear nor quadratic responses to xylanase supplementation on ATTD of OM, starch, NSP, AX, fat, N, and P. In conclusion, supplementation of endo-1,4-β-xylanase did not improve...... the nutritional value of rye in growing pigs....

  6. Two New Flavone Glycosides from Chenopodiumambrosioides Growing Wildly in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala M. Hammoda


    Full Text Available Chenopodiumambrosioides (Chenopodiaceae growing wildly in Egypt was subjected to antioxidant –guided phytochemical investigation and the EtOAc fraction afforded the two new flavone glycosides; scutellarein-7-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-α-rhamnopyranoside (1 and scutella-rein-7-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-α-rhamnopyranoside (2. In addition, the invitro antioxidant activities of the plant alcohol extract, CHCl 3 fraction, EtOAc fraction and isolates were studied.

  7. How Copper Nanowires Grow and How To Control Their Properties. (United States)

    Ye, Shengrong; Stewart, Ian E; Chen, Zuofeng; Li, Bo; Rathmell, Aaron R; Wiley, Benjamin J


    Scalable, solution-phase nanostructure synthesis has the promise to produce a wide variety of nanomaterials with novel properties at a cost that is low enough for these materials to be used to solve problems. For example, solution-synthesized metal nanowires are now being used to make low cost, flexible transparent electrodes in touch screens, organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), and solar cells. There has been a tremendous increase in the number of solution-phase syntheses that enable control over the assembly of atoms into nanowires in the last 15 years, but proposed mechanisms for nanowire formation are usually qualitative, and for many syntheses there is little consensus as to how nanowires form. It is often not clear what species is adding to a nanowire growing in solution or what mechanistic step limits its rate of growth. A deeper understanding of nanowire growth is important for efficiently directing the development of nanowire synthesis toward producing a wide variety of nanostructure morphologies for structure-property studies or producing precisely defined nanostructures for a specific application. This Account reviews our progress over the last five years toward understanding how copper nanowires form in solution, how to direct their growth into nanowires with dimensions ideally suited for use in transparent conducting films, and how to use copper nanowires as a template to grow core-shell nanowires. The key advance enabling a better understanding of copper nanowire growth is the first real-time visualization of nanowire growth in solution, enabling the acquisition of nanowire growth kinetics. By measuring the growth rate of individual nanowires as a function of concentration of the reactants and temperature, we show that a growing copper nanowire can be thought of as a microelectrode that is charged with electrons by hydrazine and grows through the diffusion-limited addition of Cu(OH)2(-). This deeper mechanistic understanding, coupled to an

  8. Designing a Growing Functional Modules “Artificial Brain”

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    Jérôme Leboeuf-Pasquier


    Full Text Available

    The present paper illustrates the design process for the Growing Functional Modules (GFM learning based controller. GFM controllers are elaborated interconnecting four kinds of components: Global Goals, Acting Modules, Sensations and Sensing Modules. Global Goals trigger intrinsic motivations, Acting and Sensing Modules develop specific functionalities and Sensations provide the controlled system's feedback. GFM controllers learn to satisfy some predefined goals while interacting with the environment and thus should be considered as artificial brains. An example of the design process of a simple controller is provided herein to explain the inherent methodology, to exhibit the components' interconnections and to demonstrate the control process.

  9. Antioxidant properties of some plants growing wild in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serteser, A.; Kargioglu, M.; Gok, V.; Bagci, Y.; Musa Ozcan, M.; Arslan, D.


    In this study, the antioxidant activity of 50% aqueous methanol extracts of 38 plants growing in the Afyonkarahisar province of Turkey were evaluated by various antioxidant assay, including free radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) scavenging and metal (Fe{sup 2}+) chelating activities. The methanolic fruit extracts of the Cornus and Morus species (H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and DPPH scavenging activities, Fe{sup 2}+ chelating activity) and the methanolic leaf extracts of the Mentha species (DPPH scavenging activities) examined in the assay showed the strongest activities. These antioxidant properties depended on the concentration of samples. (Author) 30 refs.

  10. Humus application produced by organic waste transformation in growing lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Martinez, M. G.; Morales Osorio, A.; Gutierrez Martinez, R.; Marquez Monsalvo, J. J.; Reyes Reyes, G.


    Every year in Mexico are produced more tons of garbage (19 874 259 tons) than tons of corn (18 309 000 tons). Fifty percent of domestic garbage is constituted by organic remainders. In december 2005 began de project Biotransformation of Organic Remainders in Humus for its Application in growing Lands with the purpose to prove the methods of: 1) Natural outdoors transformation, 2) Accelerated fermentation with thermophilic and mesophilic microorganisms, and 3) Transformation with microorganisms such as californian red worm, Eisenia andrei, to transform efficiently fruits and vegetables remainders. (Author)

  11. Tree biomass in the North Central Region. (United States)

    Gerhard K. Raile; Pamela J. Jakes


    Methods for calculating tree biomass are outlined, and the biomass on commercial forest land is estimated for 11 north-central states. Tree biomass in the North Central Region totals 3.6 billion tons, or 50 tons per commercial forest acre. For all species, total tree biomass is concentrated in growing-stock boles.

  12. SPI-Based Analyses of Drought Changes over the Past 60 Years in China’s Major Crop-Growing Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang Xia


    Full Text Available This study analyzes the changes in drought patterns in China’s major crop-growing areas over the past 60 years. The analysis was done using both weather station data and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI rainfall data to calculate the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI. The results showed that the occurrences of extreme drought were the most serious in recent years in the Southwest China and Sichuan crop-growing areas. The Yangtze River (MLRY and South China crop-growing areas experienced extreme droughts during 1960–1980, whereas the Northeast China and Huang–Huai–Hai crop-growing areas experienced extreme droughts around 2003. The analysis showed that the SPIs calculated by TRMM data at time scales of one, three, and six months were reliable for monitoring drought in the study regions, but for 12 months, the SPIs calculated by gauge and TRMM data showed less consistency. The analysis of the spatial distribution of droughts over the past 15 years using TMI rainfall data revealed that more than 60% of the area experienced extreme drought in 2011 over the MLRY region and in 1998 over the Huang–Huai–Hai region. The frequency of different intensity droughts presented significant spatial heterogeneity in each crop-growing region.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvonko Antunović


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine the concentration of blood metabolic hormones and leptin levels in growing lambs. The research was carried out on Tsigai lambs in two periods (suckling and fattening during the winter feeding season. Lambs were suckling and ate a food mixture and alfalfa hay ad libitum, while during the fattening period they were fed only with the above mentioned mixture and alfalfa hay ad libitum. Their blood was analyzed on 35th and 75th day of age. Concentrations of minsulin, leptin and thyroid hormones were determined in the blood serum of lambs during both periods. In the blood of fattening lambs significantly higher (P0.05 insulin concentrations (1.05 and 0.54 μU/mL, were determined, compared to suckling lambs. A significant strong positive correlation between serum leptin and insulin (r = 0.85, P0.05. The concentration of thyroid hormones did not significantly differ depending on the period of measurement. These changes indicate that the measurement concentrations of metabolic hormones and leptin in blood are very important in order to understand the changes of metabolism and nutrient supply in growing lambs.

  14. Growing Pains for New Energy-Saving Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, S.


    As we contemplate a revolution in the lighting industry, it is yet unclear in what form tomorrow's solid-state lighting will emerge. Similarly, photovoltaic (PV) power supplied on a utility scale may take a different form from today's flat-plate silicon modules. The success of the PV industry-now a multibillion dollar a year industry and growing at more than 25% per year-has largely come from integrating solar cells into other products. In many cases, this integration required the formation of new business entities. The solid-state lighting industry faces hurdles that are similar to those faced by the PV industry. Therefore, based on the experiences of the PV industry and others, we predict that the growing pains of the solid-state lighting industry will include: (1) identifying entry markets, (2) integrating light-emitting diodes into attractive products, (3) attaining high reliability for these products, and (4) increasing production of these products, thus lowering costs and opening up new markets. These activities must be implemented, keeping in mind that most consumers do not care about buying ''solid-state lighting'' and ''solar cells.'' Rather, they want to buy attractive lighting and inexpensive electricity.

  15. Growing patterns to produce 'nitrate-free' lettuce (Lactuca sativa). (United States)

    Croitoru, Mircea Dumitru; Muntean, Daniela-Lucia; Fülöp, Ibolya; Modroiu, Adriana


    Vegetables can contain significant amounts of nitrate and, therefore, may pose health hazards to consumers by exceeding the accepted daily intake for nitrate. Different hydroponic growing patterns were examined in this work in order to obtain 'nitrate-free lettuces'. Growing lettuces on low nitrate content nutrient solution resulted in a significant decrease in lettuces' nitrate concentrations (1741 versus 39 mg kg(-1)), however the beneficial effect was cancelled out by an increase in the ambient temperature. Nitrate replacement with ammonium was associated with an important decrease of the lettuces' nitrate concentration (from 1896 to 14 mg kg(-1)) and survival rate. An economically feasible method to reduce nitrate concentrations was the removal of all inorganic nitrogen from the nutrient solution before the exponential growth phase. This method led to lettuces almost devoid of nitrate (10 mg kg(-1)). The dried mass and calcinated mass of lettuces, used as markers of lettuces' quality, were not influenced by this treatment, but a small reduction (18%, p < 0.05) in the fresh mass was recorded. The concentrations of nitrite in the lettuces and their modifications are also discussed in the paper. It is possible to obtain 'nitrate-free' lettuces in an economically feasible way.

  16. Elder Orphans Hiding in Plain Sight: A Growing Vulnerable Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria T. Carney


    Full Text Available Adults are increasingly aging alone with multiple chronic diseases and are geographically distant from family or friends. It is challenging for clinicians to identify these individuals, often struggling with managing the growing difficulties and the complexities involved in delivering care to this population. Clinicians often may not recognize or know how to address the needs that these patients have in managing their own health. While many such patients function well at baseline, the slightest insult can initiate a cascade of avoidable negative events. We have resurrected the term elder orphan to describe individuals living alone with little to no support system. Using public data sets, including the US Census and University of Michigan’s Health and Retirement Study, we estimated the prevalence of adults 65 years and older to be around 22%. Thus, in this paper, we strive to describe and quantify this growing vulnerable population and offer practical approaches to identify and develop care plans that are consistent with each person’s goals of care. The complex medical and psychosocial issues for elder orphans significantly impact the individual person, communities, and health-care expenditures. We hope to encourage professionals across disciplines to work cooperatively to screen elders and implement policies to prevent elder orphans from hiding in plain sight.

  17. A dynamic cellular vertex model of growing epithelial tissues (United States)

    Lin, Shao-Zhen; Li, Bo; Feng, Xi-Qiao


    Intercellular interactions play a significant role in a wide range of biological functions and processes at both the cellular and tissue scales, for example, embryogenesis, organogenesis, and cancer invasion. In this paper, a dynamic cellular vertex model is presented to study the morphomechanics of a growing epithelial monolayer. The regulating role of stresses in soft tissue growth is revealed. It is found that the cells originating from the same parent cell in the monolayer can orchestrate into clustering patterns as the tissue grows. Collective cell migration exhibits a feature of spatial correlation across multiple cells. Dynamic intercellular interactions can engender a variety of distinct tissue behaviors in a social context. Uniform cell proliferation may render high and heterogeneous residual compressive stresses, while stress-regulated proliferation can effectively release the stresses, reducing the stress heterogeneity in the tissue. The results highlight the critical role of mechanical factors in the growth and morphogenesis of epithelial tissues and help understand the development and invasion of epithelial tumors.

  18. Force-velocity measurements of a few growing actin filaments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coraline Brangbour


    Full Text Available The polymerization of actin in filaments generates forces that play a pivotal role in many cellular processes. We introduce a novel technique to determine the force-velocity relation when a few independent anchored filaments grow between magnetic colloidal particles. When a magnetic field is applied, the colloidal particles assemble into chains under controlled loading or spacing. As the filaments elongate, the beads separate, allowing the force-velocity curve to be precisely measured. In the widely accepted Brownian ratchet model, the transduced force is associated with the slowing down of the on-rate polymerization. Unexpectedly, in our experiments, filaments are shown to grow at the same rate as when they are free in solution. However, as they elongate, filaments are more confined in the interspace between beads. Higher repulsive forces result from this higher confinement, which is associated with a lower entropy. In this mechanism, the production of force is not controlled by the polymerization rate, but is a consequence of the restriction of filaments' orientational fluctuations at their attachment point.

  19. Perspective on how laser-ablated particles grow in liquids (United States)

    Zhang, DongShi; Liu, Jun; Liang, ChangHao


    Laser ablation in liquids has emerged as a new branch of nanoscience for developing various nanomaterials with different shapes. However, how to design and control nanomaterial growth is still a challenge due to the unique chemical-physical process chain correlated with nanomaterial nucleation and growth, including plasma phase (generation and rapid quenching), gas (bubble) phase, and liquid phase. In this review, through summarizing the literature about this topic and comparing with the well-established particle growth mechanisms of the conventional wet chemistry technique, our perspective on the possible nanoparticle growth mechanisms or routes is presented, aiming at shedding light on how laser-ablated particles grow in liquids. From the microscopic viewpoint, the nanoparticle growth contains six mechanisms, including LaMer-like growth, coalescence, Ostwald ripening, particle (oriented) attachment, adsorbate-induced growth and reaction-induced growth. For each microscopic growth mechanism, the vivid growth scenes of some representative nanomaterials recorded by TEM and SEM measurements are displayed. Afterwards, the scenes from the macroscopic viewpoint for the large submicro- and micro-scale nanospheres and anisotropic nanostructures formation and evolution from one nanostructure into another one are presented. The panorama of how diverse nanomaterials grow during and after laser ablation in liquids shown in this review is intended to offer a overview for researchers to search for the possible mechanisms correlated to their synthesized nanomaterials, and more expectation is desired to better design and tailor the morphology of the nanocrystals synthesized by LAL technique.

  20. Growth, cull, and, mortality as factors in managing timber in the Anthracite Region (United States)

    Miles J. Ferree


    Timberland owners in the Anthracite Region of Pennsylvania frequently ask: What tree species grow best in the region? How large should they be grown? How should we treat them to get the most out of them?

  1. Forests growing under dry conditions have higher hydrological resilience to drought than do more humid forests. (United States)

    Helman, David; Lensky, Itamar M; Yakir, Dan; Osem, Yagil


    More frequent and intense droughts are projected during the next century, potentially changing the hydrological balances in many forested catchments. Although the impacts of droughts on forest functionality have been vastly studied, little attention has been given to studying the effect of droughts on forest hydrology. Here, we use the Budyko framework and two recently introduced Budyko metrics (deviation and elasticity) to study the changes in the water yields (rainfall minus evapotranspiration) of forested catchments following a climatic drought (2006-2010) in pine forests distributed along a rainfall gradient (P = 280-820 mm yr-1 ) in the Eastern Mediterranean (aridity factor = 0.17-0.56). We use a satellite-based model and meteorological information to calculate the Budyko metrics. The relative water yield ranged from 48% to 8% (from the rainfall) in humid to dry forests and was mainly associated with rainfall amount (increasing with increased rainfall amount) and bedrock type (higher on hard bedrocks). Forest elasticity was larger in forests growing under drier conditions, implying that drier forests have more predictable responses to drought, according to the Budyko framework, compared to forests growing under more humid conditions. In this context, younger forests were shown more elastic than older forests. Dynamic deviation, which is defined as the water yield departure from the Budyko curve, was positive in all forests (i.e., less-than-expected water yields according to Budyko's curve), increasing with drought severity, suggesting lower hydrological resistance to drought in forests suffering from larger rainfall reductions. However, the dynamic deviation significantly decreased in forests that experienced relatively cooler conditions during the drought period. Our results suggest that forests growing under permanent dry conditions might develop a range of hydrological and eco-physiological adjustments to drought leading to higher hydrological

  2. Changes in Growing Season Vegetation and Their Associated Driving Forces in China during 2001–2012

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    Xianfeng Liu


    Full Text Available In recent decades, the monitoring of vegetation dynamics has become crucial because of its important role in terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, a satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI was combined with climate factors to explore the spatiotemporal patterns of vegetation change during the growing season, as well as their driving forces in China from 2001 to 2012. Our results showed that the growing season NDVI increased continuously during 2001–2012, with a linear trend of 1.4%/10 years (p < 0.01. The NDVI in north China mainly exhibited an increasing spatial trend, but this trend was generally decreasing in south China. The vegetation dynamics were mainly at a moderate intensity level in both the increasing and decreasing areas. The significantly increasing trend in the NDVI for arid and semi-arid areas of northwest China was attributed mainly to an increasing trend in the NDVI during the spring, whereas that for the north and northeast of China was due to an increasing trend in the NDVI during the summer and autumn. Different vegetation types exhibited great variation in their trends, where the grass-forb community had the highest linear trend of 2%/10 years (p < 0.05, followed by meadow, and needle-leaf forest with the lowest increasing trend, i.e., a linear trend of 0.3%/10 years. Our results also suggested that the cumulative precipitation during the growing season had a dominant effect on the vegetation dynamics compared with temperature for all six vegetation types. In addition, the response of different vegetation types to climate variability exhibited considerable differences. In terms of anthropological activity, our statistical analyses showed that there was a strong correlation between the cumulative afforestation area and NDVI during the study period, especially in a pilot region for ecological restoration, thereby suggesting the important role of ecological restoration programs in ecological recovery

  3. Dietary Supplementation of Seaweed (Ulva lactuca to alleviate the Impact of Heat Stress in Growing Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kkalid A. Abdoun, Aly B. Okab, Ahmed M. El-Waziry, Emad M. Samara and Ahmed A. Al-Haidary


    Full Text Available Several environmental and nutritional management approaches have been used to mitigate heat stress and improve performance of farm animals in semi-arid and arid regions. The present study was designed with the intention to alleviate the negative effects of heat stress and to promote the performance of growing lambs reared under hot environmental conditions. The study was conducted on 18 male Naimey lambs with average body weight of 22.78±0.49 kg, and 4-5 months old. The animals were randomly divided into 3 equal groups (A, B and C, and fed diets containing different concentrations of seaweed (Ulva lactuca for 90 days. Group A served as control and was offered diet containing 0.0% seaweed. Groups B and C served as treated groups and were offered diets containing 3.0 and 5.0% seaweed, respectively. Dietary inclusion of seaweed to the diet of growing lambs exposed to heat stress (max Ta 43.9oC, max RH 81.1%, max THI 84.6 neither influenced (P>0.05 the thermo-physiological parameters (rectal and skin temperatures, nor affected (P>0.05 the performance parameters (feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion efficiency. Furthermore, dietary seaweed supplementation did not alter (P>0.05 blood constituents or blood antioxidant capacity. However, dietary seaweed supplementation significantly (P<0.05 reduced respiratory rate, and increased serum potassium concentration. Based on the data of the present study, seaweed (Ulva lactuca supplementation to the diets of growing lambs reared under heat stress conditions did not show any indication of promoting their production performance or heat tolerance.

  4. Development of groundwater pesticide exposure modeling scenarios for vulnerable spring and winter wheat-growing areas. (United States)

    Padilla, Lauren; Winchell, Michael; Peranginangin, Natalia; Grant, Shanique


    Wheat crops and the major wheat-growing regions of the United States are not included in the 6 crop- and region-specific scenarios developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for exposure modeling with the Pesticide Root Zone Model conceptualized for groundwater (PRZM-GW). The present work augments the current scenarios by defining appropriately vulnerable PRZM-GW scenarios for high-producing spring and winter wheat-growing regions that are appropriate for use in refined pesticide exposure assessments. Initial screening-level modeling was conducted for all wheat areas across the conterminous United States as defined by multiple years of the Cropland Data Layer land-use data set. Soil, weather, groundwater temperature, evaporation depth, and crop growth and management practices were characterized for each wheat area from publicly and nationally available data sets and converted to input parameters for PRZM. Approximately 150 000 unique combinations of weather, soil, and input parameters were simulated with PRZM for an herbicide applied for postemergence weed control in wheat. The resulting postbreakthrough average herbicide concentrations in a theoretical shallow aquifer were ranked to identify states with the largest regions of relatively vulnerable wheat areas. For these states, input parameters resulting in near 90th percentile postbreakthrough average concentrations corresponding to significant wheat areas with shallow depth to groundwater formed the basis for 4 new spring wheat scenarios and 4 new winter wheat scenarios to be used in PRZM-GW simulations. Spring wheat scenarios were identified in North Dakota, Montana, Washington, and Texas. Winter wheat scenarios were identified in Oklahoma, Texas, Kansas, and Colorado. Compared to the USEPA's original 6 scenarios, postbreakthrough average herbicide concentrations in the new scenarios were lower than all but Florida Potato and Georgia Coastal Peanuts of the original scenarios and better

  5. Resources for startup and growing businesses in the science and engineering sectors (United States)

    Sabol, Joseph


    The American Chemical Society provides resources for members involved in forming startup and growing small businesses in the chemical and related sectors. In particular, the ACS Division of Small Chemical Businesses SCHB provides member benefits, informative programming at national and regional meetings, and networking opportunities for entrepreneurs. SCHB member benefits include listing in a directory of members' products and services, discounted expo booth rental at ACS national meetings, sponsorship to attend ACS leadership development courses, volunteer opportunities to shape and direct SCHB's operations, multiple social networking platforms, and professional networking opportunities with like-minded and similarly situated small business principals. SCHB's mission is ``To aid in the formation, development and growth of small chemical businesses.'' SCHB collaborates with other units in ACS, including local sections, the Chemical Entrepreneurship Council, the Division of Business Development & Management, Entrepreneurial Initiative, and Career Services. SCHB helps chemists gain skills to translate research into commercially successful products; build strong, growing companies that create jobs; and collaborate with professionals outside the chemical community. American Chemical Society, Division of Small Chemical Businesses

  6. Particles Growing in Solutions: Depletion Forces and Instability of Homogeneous Particle Distribution (United States)

    Chernov, A. A.


    Crystallites, droplets and amorphous precipitates growing from supersaturated solution are surrounded by zones, which are depleted with respect to the molecules they are built of. If two such particles of colloidal size are separated by a distance comparable to their diameters, then the depletion within the gap between particles is deeper than that at the outer portion of the particles. This will cause depletion attraction between the particles should appear. It may cause particle coagulation and decay of the originally homogeneous particle distribution into a system of clouds within which the particle number density is higher, separated by the region of the lower number density. Stability criterion, Q = 4 pi R(exp 3)c/3 >> 1, was analytically found along with typical particle density distribution wavevector q = (Q/I)(exp 1/2)(a/R)(exp 1/4). Here, R and a are the particle and molecular radii, respectively, c is the average molecular number density in solution and I is the squared diffusion length covered by a molecule during a typical time characterizing decay of molecular concentration in solution due to consumption of the molecules by the growing particles.

  7. Wood anatomy and physical and chemical properties of fast growing Athel tamarisk (Tamarix aphylla L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza oladi


    Full Text Available Athel tamarisk (Tamarix aphylla is a fast growing, evergreen tree succeeding in the most soils and can tolerate the saline conditions. Despite its ecological importance and wide distribution in central and southern parts of Iran, wood properties of this species has little been concerned. However, the potential of this species in cellulosic industries of Middle East dry countries has recently been focused. Hence, to study wood anatomy and physical and chemical properties of Athel tamarisk, 3 stands were selected and felled from the Zabol region (Sistan and Baluchestan province. Wood anatomical features of this species were studied and listed according to the list of microscopic features for hardwood identification by IAWA Committee. In addition, lignin distribution in xylem was studied using fluorescence microscopy. Calculating fiber biometry features assessed that although fiber quality is not perfect but meets the standards of paper production, comparing other commercially used hardwoods in this industry. According to chemical composition analysis, cellulose content of this wood is rather low (39% which could be a result of large amount of thin-walled paranchyma cells in xylem. Lignin content is a bit higher than average hardwoods and this component is concentrated in vessels and fibers. Physical properties of studied wood samples (specific gravity and shrinkage values were in the range of other light-weight and fast growing hardwoods and thus this wood is expected to have similar end-use quality.

  8. The Commercial Profitability of Growing Hybrid Eucalyptus Clones in The Coast Province, Kenya

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    Balozi Bekuta Kirongo


    Full Text Available Due to the current high demand for timber, fuelwood, and building poles and the realization that tree growing may pay dividends in the short and long term, many farmers are planting trees on their farms. Farmers are increasingly planting eucalyptus partly due to the fast growth rates of the hybrid clones as well as the opportunity to earn money within a short time. In this paper we report on the profitability of growing eucalyptus hybrid clones in the coastal region, Kenya. Tree growth and cost data was sourced from farmers in Malindi, Kilifi, and Msambweni. Market information was sourced from hardwares in North and South Coast while tree growth models were used to provide average tree sizes at various ages. Results showed that a farmer could make a net income of upto Kshs.500,000.00 (USD6,250 in 5 years. Farmers in the South Coast (Kwale and Msambweni spent more on transport than their counterparts in the North Coast (near Gede-KEFRI. This, added to the fact that trees in the South Coast (Msambweni grew less compared to those in North Coast meant that farmers in the south made less profits.

  9. Influence of Environmental Factors on Essential Oil Variability in Origanum compactum Benth. Growing Wild in Morocco. (United States)

    Aboukhalid, Kaoutar; Al Faiz, Chaouki; Douaik, Ahmed; Bakha, Mohamed; Kursa, Karolina; Agacka-Mołdoch, Monika; Machon, Nathalie; Tomi, Félix; Lamiri, Abdeslam


    The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of environmental factors on essential oils (EOs) composition of Origanum compactum populations sampled all over the distribution area of the species in Morocco, and to determine the extent of the chemical profiles throughout the geographical distribution of the species. The chemical compositions were submitted to canonical correlation analysis and canonical discriminant analysis that indicated a significant relationship between oil components and some environmental factors. According to their chemical composition and edapho-climatic characteristics, two major groups of populations were differentiated. The first group was composed of samples growing in regions with humid climate, clayey, sandy, and alkaline soils. These samples showed high thymol, α-terpineol, linalool, and carvacryl methyl oxide content. The second group consisted of plants belonging to semi-arid climate, and growing at high altitudes and silty soils. These samples were characterized by high carvacrol, α-thujene, α-terpinene, and myrcene content. However, populations exposed to sub-humid climate, appeared less homogeneous and belong mainly either to the first or second group. A significant correlation between some edaphic factors (pH, K2 O content, soil texture) and the EOs yield of O. compactum plants was evidenced. In spite of the correlation obtained for the oil composition with edapho-climatic factors and the variance explained by the environmental data set, the observed EO diversity might be also genetically determined. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  10. Peri-Urban Matters. Changing Olive Growing Patterns in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Laura Palazzo


    Full Text Available For centuries, olive growing has played a major role in the central regions of Italy, with hectares of olive groves surrounding hill towns and hamlets as part of a strong deep-rooted farming tradition. With reference to Lazio and Abruzzo, this article makes use of historical documentation, geographical surveys and in-depth interviews with professionals and experts, in order to provide evidence of how olive growing, once of the mixed type, now with specialized cultivations, has somehow challenged the structural features of traditional landscapes. In some cases, this ancient farming tradition has been awarded the ‘Protected Designation of Origin Brand’ according to strict technical production policies. Besides intensive crops, today also practiced on flat ground, for some years now, olive trees have been cultivated by ‘hobby farmers’. This is frequent in fringe areas, threatened by urban sprawl, within small plots belonging to detached family homes conferring a sense of rural ‘revival’. Whether all these diverse settlement patterns are socially and economically sustainable is debatable. Definitely, such persistence in land use, which now and again can be read even as a material survival of certain tree specimens, allows for olive farming as an enduring cultural practice in the face of increasing urbanization.

  11. Environmental Influences on the Growing Season Duration and Ripening of Diverse Miscanthus Germplasm Grown in Six Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Nunn


    Full Text Available The development of models to predict yield potential and quality of a Miscanthus crop must consider climatic limitations and the duration of growing season. As a biomass crop, yield and quality are impacted by the timing of plant developmental transitions such as flowering and senescence. Growth models are available for the commercially grown clone Miscanthus x giganteus (Mxg, but breeding programs have been working to expand the germplasm available, including development of interspecies hybrids. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of diverse germplasm beyond the range of environments considered suitable for a Miscanthus crop to be grown. To achieve this, six field sites were planted as part of the EU OPTIMISC project in 2012 in a longitudinal gradient from West to East: Wales—Aberystwyth, Netherlands—Wageningen, Stuttgart—Germany, Ukraine—Potash, Turkey—Adana, and Russia—Moscow. Each field trial contained three replicated plots of the same 15 Miscanthus germplasm types. Through the 2014 growing season, phenotypic traits were measured to determine the timing of developmental stages key to ripening; the tradeoff between growth (yield and quality (biomass ash and moisture content. The hottest site (Adana showed an accelerated growing season, with emergence, flowering and senescence occurring before the other sites. However, the highest yields were produced at Potash, where emergence was delayed by frost and the growing season was shortest. Flowering triggers varied with species and only in Mxg was strongly linked to accumulated thermal time. Our results show that a prolonged growing season is not essential to achieve high yields if climatic conditions are favorable and in regions where the growing season is bordered by frost, delaying harvest can improve quality of the harvested biomass.

  12. Trends in temperature and growing season length in idaho-usa during the past few decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Costa dos Santos


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study attempts to provide new information on seasonal and annual trends, on a regional scale, using records of daily air temperature over Idaho, USA, through the analysis of the Growing Season Length (GSL, and maximum and minimum air temperature data from multiple stations in the region, as well as, to obtain the temporal correlation between the daily air temperature and Sea Surface Temperature (SST indices. The analyses were conducted using long-term and high quality data sets for 35 meteorological stations for the period between 1970 and 2006. The results suggest that both daily maximum and minimum temperatures had increasing trends, but the minimum air temperature is increasing faster than the maximum air temperature. On average, the GSL has increased by 7.5 days/decade during the period 1970-2006, associated with increasing temperatures. Trends in regional air temperature and their indication of climate change are of interest to Idaho and the rest of the world. The trends obtained herein corroborate with the general idea that during the last century the globe has warmed.

  13. Biomass accumulation in rapidly growing loblolly pine and sweetgum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Thomas M.; Gresham, Charles A. [Baruch Institute of Coastal Ecology and Forest Science, Clemson University, P.O. Box 596, Georgetown, SC 29442 (United States)


    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) trees, growing in International Paper Company's study of intensive management on marginal agricultural land near Bainbridge GA, were destructively sampled at the end of the sixth growing season. All trees were single family blocks of genetically superior trees planted 2.5m apart on sub-soiled rows 3.6m apart and grown with complete competition control. Management treatments were: control, irrigation, irrigation plus fertilization, and irrigation plus fertilization plus pest control. Tree measures were basal diameter, DBH, height of live crown, diameter at base of live crown, and total height. Twenty trees of each species were destructively sampled. Stems were sectioned at 1m intervals, stem diameter determined at each end and sections were weighed green. Branches were removed and height, basal diameter, and length were measured on each branch. Branches were separated into foliated and unfoliated segments and weighed green. A stem disk and branch from each meter were returned to the lab to determine dry weight: green weight ratio. Foliated limb: foliage ratios were also determined from sub-sampled branches. Intensive culture resulted in larger growth differences for sweetgum (most intensive treatment 9.5m tall, 13.1cm DBH; control trees 5.0m tall, 6.3cm DBH) than in pine (most intensive treatment 10.3m tall, 17.7cm DBH; control, 7.6m tall, 13.4cm DBH). The pipe model of tree development explained dimensions of the upper 5m of crown with leaf biomass highly correlated to branch basal area (r{sup 2} from 0.697 to 0.947). There was a constant ratio of leaf biomass to branch basal area (50gm/cm{sup 2} for pine, 30gm/cm{sup 2} for sweetgum). We also found a constant ratio of bole basal area to cumulative branch basal area throughout the crowns. Rapidly growing pines produced about 49Mgha{sup -1} of stem biomass, 11Mgha{sup -1} of dead branch biomass, and 17Mgha{sup -1} of unfoliated branch biomass at

  14. Valine needs in starting and growing Cobb (500) broilers. (United States)

    Tavernari, F C; Lelis, G R; Vieira, R A; Rostagno, H S; Albino, L F T; Oliveira Neto, A R


    Two independent experiments were conducted with male Cobb × Cobb 500 broilers to determine the optimal valine-to-digestible-lysine ratio for broiler development. We conducted a randomized block experiment with 7 treatments, each with 8 replicates of 25 starter birds (8 to 21 d of age) and 20 finisher (30 to 43 d of age) birds. To prevent any excess of digestible lysine, 93% of the recommended level of digestible lysine was used to evaluate the valine-to-lysine ratio. The utilized levels of dietary digestible lysine were 10.7 and 9.40 g/kg for the starting and growing phases, respectively. A control diet with 100% of the recommended level of lysine and an adequate valine-to-lysine ratio was also used. The feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and carcass parameters were evaluated. The treatments had no significant effect on the feed intakes or carcass parameters in the starter and finisher phases. However, during both of the studied phases, we observed a quadratic effect on weight gain and the feed conversion ratio. The broilers of both phases that were fed test diets with the lower valine-to-lysine (Val/Lys) ratio had poorer performance compared with those broilers fed control diets. However, when higher Val/Lys ratios were used for the starting and growing broilers that were fed test diets, the 2 groups had similar performance. During the starting phase, in broilers that were fed a higher Val/Lys ratio, weight gain, and the feed conversion ratio improved by 5.5% compared with broilers fed the basal diets. The broilers in the growing phase also had improved performance (by 7 to 8%) when the test diets had higher Val/Lys ratios. Based on the analysis of the starter phase data, we concluded that the optimal digestible Val/Lys ratio for Cobb × Cobb 500 broilers is 77%, whereas for birds in the finisher phase (30 to 43 d of age), a digestible Val/Lys ratio of 76% is suggested.

  15. Fatty Acid Composition of Fourteen Wood-decaying Basidiomycete Species Growing in Permafrost Conditions

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    Daniil N. Olennikov


    Full Text Available The fatty acid (FA compositions of 14 wild wood-decaying basidiomycete species (Bjerkandera adusta, Daedaleopsis septentrionalis, Dichomitus squalens, Inonotus hispidus, I.radiatus, Irpex lacteus, Fomitopsis cajanderi, F.pinicola, F. rosea, Gloeophyllum protractum, Lenzites betulina, Phellinus pini, Trametes gibbosa, T. ochracea growing in permafrost conditions in Katanga region (Russian Federation were investigated using GC-MS. Generally, C18:2 ω 6 (linoleic acid, C18:1 ω 9 (oleic acid, C16:0 (palmitic acid and C20:0 (arachinic acid were found to be the major FA in fungal species. Data about chemical components of Daedaleopsis septentrionalis , Fomitopsis cajanderi and Gloeophyllum protractum were obtained at the first time. Increased level of degree of FA unsaturation was probably a result of extreme environmental conditions.

  16. [Burden and capability of damaged parents--how refugee children can grow in exile]. (United States)

    Adam, Hubertus; Walter, Joachim


    In trauma, dialectical tension arises between the inner perspective of the traumatized subject and the outside perspective (objective situation), between environmental stress and the subjective attribution of meaning, as well as between experience and behaviour. The traumatic process--the subject's endeavour to comprehend the overwhelming, often inconceivable experience and integrate it into its concepts of self and world--is understood against the backdrop of these interacting dimensions. The process phases "emerge from each other, run parallel, and permeate each other" (Fischer u. Riedesser, 2003). Problems that arise in the aftermath of trauma are rarely overcome by the victims alone. Attempts to process and self-heal have a social dimension, and family members are affected by war, persecution and flight in individual, varying ways. The impacts of violence experienced by parents from different crisis regions are examined in case studies with regard to the psychological development of indirectly impacted children growing up in exile.

  17. Dynamical analysis of Schrodinger operators with growing sparse potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Tcheremchantsev, S


    We consider Scr\\"odinger operators in l^2(Z^+) with potentials of the form V(n)=S(n)+Q(n). Here S is a sparse potential: S(n)=n^{1-\\eta \\over 2 \\eta}, 0<\\eta <1, for n=L_N and S(n)=0 else, where L_N is a very fast growing sequence. The real function Q(n) is compactly supported. We give a rather complete description of the (time-averaged) dynamics exp(-itH) \\psi for different initial states \\psi. In particular, for some \\psi we calculate explicitely the "intermittency function" \\beta_\\psi^- (p) which turns out to be nonconstant. As a particular corollary of obtained results, we show that the spectral measure restricted to (-2,2) has exact Hausdorff dimension \\eta for all boundary conditions, improving the result of Jitomirskaya and Last.

  18. Ranking nodes in growing networks: When PageRank fails. (United States)

    Mariani, Manuel Sebastian; Medo, Matúš; Zhang, Yi-Cheng


    PageRank is arguably the most popular ranking algorithm which is being applied in real systems ranging from information to biological and infrastructure networks. Despite its outstanding popularity and broad use in different areas of science, the relation between the algorithm's efficacy and properties of the network on which it acts has not yet been fully understood. We study here PageRank's performance on a network model supported by real data, and show that realistic temporal effects make PageRank fail in individuating the most valuable nodes for a broad range of model parameters. Results on real data are in qualitative agreement with our model-based findings. This failure of PageRank reveals that the static approach to information filtering is inappropriate for a broad class of growing systems, and suggest that time-dependent algorithms that are based on the temporal linking patterns of these systems are needed to better rank the nodes.

  19. Ranking nodes in growing networks: When PageRank fails (United States)

    Mariani, Manuel Sebastian; Medo, Matúš; Zhang, Yi-Cheng


    PageRank is arguably the most popular ranking algorithm which is being applied in real systems ranging from information to biological and infrastructure networks. Despite its outstanding popularity and broad use in different areas of science, the relation between the algorithm’s efficacy and properties of the network on which it acts has not yet been fully understood. We study here PageRank’s performance on a network model supported by real data, and show that realistic temporal effects make PageRank fail in individuating the most valuable nodes for a broad range of model parameters. Results on real data are in qualitative agreement with our model-based findings. This failure of PageRank reveals that the static approach to information filtering is inappropriate for a broad class of growing systems, and suggest that time-dependent algorithms that are based on the temporal linking patterns of these systems are needed to better rank the nodes.

  20. The Leaf Essential Oil of Eugenia reinwardtiana Growing in Australia. (United States)

    Brophy, Joseph J; Clarkson, John R; Deseo, Myrna A; Ford, Andrew J; Lawes, Douglas J; Leach, David N


    The leaf essential oils of the two chemotypes of Eugenia reinwardtiana (Blume) DC growing in Australia have been investigated. Chemotype 1, isolated in 0.2% yield, w/w, dry weight, contained major amounts of α-pinene (10-26%), limonene (1-15%), β-caryophyllene (0.7-11%), α-humulene (0.9-16%) and bicyclogermacrene (1-23%). The second chemotype, found only on coastal dunes SW of Lockerbie Qld, and isolated in 0.4-0.6% (w/w, dry weight), contained α-pinene (tr-8.5%) β-caryophyllene (12-27%) and α-humulene (1-17%) as the major terpenes. This chemotype also contained the novel aliphatic diketone, 2-butyl-2,4,4-trimethyl-5-methoxycyclohex-5-en-1,3-dione (18-33%), whose structure determination is reported herein.

  1. Cleaner Production: A Growing Movement in Brazilian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oduvaldo Vendrametto


    Full Text Available Cleaner Production (CP is gaining emphasis in both world and Brazilian production sectors. Nature’s warnings indicating the exhaustion of any capacity to absorb and regenerate waste, stricter legislation regarding pollution emitters, market competitiveness associated with environmental and social responsibility cause concerns and lead to actions to reduce aggressions against the environment. This paper shows evidence of this concern and presents cases in which a large automotive industry, acting as a partner to suppliers, promotes changes in how it delivers its products, eliminating large cardboard, plastic and wood packaging. A small company had a similar initiative, reducing the use of cardboard and plastic packaging. More important is the revelation of a widely dispersed, yet growing and incremental movement of responsibilities among companies.The benefits of cleaner production implementation were evaluated by confronting environmental and financial assessment. For the ambient evaluation, it will be used methodology of Material Intensity (Wuppertal Institute, a.

  2. Actin filaments growing against a barrier with fluctuating shape. (United States)

    Sadhu, Raj Kumar; Chatterjee, Sakuntala


    We study force generation by a set of parallel actin filaments growing against a nonrigid obstacle, in the presence of an external load. The filaments polymerize by either moving the whole obstacle, with a large energy cost, or by causing local distortion in its shape which costs much less energy. The nonrigid obstacle also has local thermal fluctuations due to which its shape can change with time and we describe this using fluctuations in the height profile of a one-dimensional interface with Kardar-Parisi-Zhang dynamics. We find the shape fluctuations of the barrier strongly affect the force generation mechanism. The qualitative nature of the force-velocity curve is crucially determined by the relative time scale of filament and barrier dynamics. The height profile of the barrier also shows interesting variation with the external load. Our analytical calculations within mean-field theory show reasonable agreement with our simulation results.

  3. Elastic instability of a crystal growing on a curved surface. (United States)

    Meng, Guangnan; Paulose, Jayson; Nelson, David R; Manoharan, Vinothan N


    Although the effects of kinetics on crystal growth are well understood, the role of substrate curvature is not yet established. We studied rigid, two-dimensional colloidal crystals growing on spherical droplets to understand how the elastic stress induced by Gaussian curvature affects the growth pathway. In contrast to crystals grown on flat surfaces or compliant crystals on droplets, these crystals formed branched, ribbon-like domains with large voids and no topological defects. We show that this morphology minimizes the curvature-induced elastic energy. Our results illustrate the effects of curvature on the ubiquitous process of crystallization, with practical implications for nanoscale disorder-order transitions on curved manifolds, including the assembly of viral capsids, phase separation on vesicles, and crystallization of tetrahedra in three dimensions.

  4. Analysis Regarding the Growing Presence of Italian Firms in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Valdemarin


    Full Text Available At the end of 2014, the number of firms with an Italian presence in Romania was 39,556, representing 19.33% out of total registered firms and this number is still growing. This article focuses on answering the following question: what kind of Italian firms are investing in Romania and why? Starting from the empirical observation that the number of Italian firms in Romania grew by 6.82% last year, we have used a PESTEL analysis to find the key points characterizing the country, paying attention also to the concept of country brand. From the point of view of Italian firms, we have also analyzed the shifting paradigm of internationalization from a Vertical Foreign Direct Investment model to a Horizontal Foreign Direct Investment model. This paper can be useful for managers and entrepreneurs who are oriented towards investing in Romania following the path of Italian firms.

  5. Capital income taxation in a growing open economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo; Sørensen, Peter Birch


    of a (low) corporate income tax will not affect consumption in the long run, but will simply lead to a replacement of shares by foreign financial assets in household portfolios. It is also found that an anticipated investment tax credit can have and that an anticipated dividend tax will have contractionary...... effects on investment before they are introduced. Moreover, it is shown that while an unanticipated dividend tax is neutral with respect to investment, it will have real effects on consumption and net foreign assets in a growing economy......The paper studies the dynamic macroeconomic effects of various forms of capital income taxation in a model of a small open economy with perfect mobility of financial capital and intertemporal optimization on the part of households and firms. One of the noteworthy results is that the introduction...

  6. Passive random walkers and riverlike networks on growing surfaces. (United States)

    Chin, Chen-Shan


    Passive random walker dynamics is introduced on a growing surface. The walker is designed to drift upward or downward and then follow specific topological features, such as hill tops or valley bottoms, of the fluctuating surface. The passive random walker can thus be used to directly explore scaling properties of otherwise somewhat hidden topological features. For example, the walker allows us to directly measure the dynamical exponent of the underlying growth dynamics. We use the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) -type surface growth as an example. The world lines of a set of merging passive walkers show nontrivial coalescence behaviors and display the riverlike network structures of surface ridges in space-time. In other dynamics, such as Edwards-Wilkinson growth, this does not happen. The passive random walkers in KPZ-type surface growth are closely related to the shock waves in the noiseless Burgers equation. We also briefly discuss their relations to the passive scalar dynamics in turbulence.

  7. Mushroom growing project at the Los Humeros, Mexico geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangel, M.E.R. [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)


    There are several projects of direct (non-electrical) use of geothermal energy in Mexico. Personnel of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) have experience in various of these projects, like drying of timber and fruits, space heating, food processing, etc. Taking this in consideration, CFE built the Los Humeros mushroom plant using for heat source the geothermal steam from Well H-1. The main purpose of the project was to take advantage of residual geothermal energy in a food production operation and to develop the appropriate technology. In 1992, existing installations were renovated, preparing appropriate areas for pasteurization, inoculation and production. The mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus var. florida and columbinus was used. A year later, CFE proposed the construction of improved facilities for growing edible mushrooms. New materials and equipment, as well as different operation conditions, were proposed on the basis of the experience gained in the initial project. The construction and renovation activities were completed in 1994.

  8. A conceptual model for growing evidence-based practice. (United States)

    Vratny, Amy; Shriver, Deb


    Nursing administration at a small medical center is developing and implementing an evidence-based practice (EBP) model of care to support a culture of quality care, clinical excellence, cost-effectiveness, critical thinking, empowerment of staff, and professional growth. The purpose of this article is to describe a conceptual model for EBP that addresses how to overcome barriers to implementation. Clinician expertise and values, experience, patient preference and expectation, and caring become grounded in a practice environment that must strive to become rooted in clinical research to evolve into a practice that is evidence-based. Education helps to nourish EBP, but leadership, enthusiasm, mentorship, clinical inquiry, and reflective practice make EBP thrive. The EBP ambassadors branch out to each department to grow journal clubs, EBP Web pages, EBP projects, research utilization projects, and staff-led practice reviews. The fruits are quality patient care and outcomes, clinical excellence, cost-effectiveness, critical thinking, empowerment of staff, and professional growth.

  9. Exploitation Strategies in Social Parasites of Fungus Growing Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clement, Janni Dolby

    One of the most remarkable and complex parasitic interactions is social parasitism, where a parasite exploits a complete society, rather than an individual organism. By integrating into a society the parasite gains protection against predators and diseases, and can redirect resources from the host...... to increase its own fitness. The host will use a sophisticated recognition system in order to accept nestmates and expel intruders from their societies. However this defence barrier can be overcome by parasites. Among the most specialized social parasites are the inquilines that exploit social insect colonies...... to this are Acromyrmex insinuator and Acromyrmex ameliae, parasites of fungus-growing ants. By still producing a worker caste both species offers a rare opportunity to study adaptive features in parasite worker behaviour. Furthermore can closely related inquiline-host combinations give us an insight in the trade...

  10. A growing social network model in geographical space (United States)

    Antonioni, Alberto; Tomassini, Marco


    In this work we propose a new model for the generation of social networks that includes their often ignored spatial aspects. The model is a growing one and links are created either taking space into account, or disregarding space and only considering the degree of target nodes. These two effects can be mixed linearly in arbitrary proportions through a parameter. We numerically show that for a given range of the combination parameter, and for given mean degree, the generated network class shares many important statistical features with those observed in actual social networks, including the spatial dependence of connections. Moreover, we show that the model provides a good qualitative fit to some measured social networks.

  11. I don't want to grow old

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selberg, Hanne; Sharp-Johansen, Marie-Louise; Evron, Lotte


    the inconveniences of mus-culoskeletal, visual and auditory changes. Five two-hours' workshops were conducted with 60 students in total. The workshops consisted of an initial briefing, scenario performance, debriefing and final evaluation. (Preliminary) Results Themes from analysis: - Concerns of growing old...... - Bodily experiences of movement reduction and in the different senses - Simulation as an eye-opener to new understandings of old age - Cognitive and bodily experiences of the time perspective - Bodily-kinesthetic learning Conclusions Our results indicate that old age simulation enhanced learning...... as a result of combined physical and cognitive activities receiving information from all the senses and emotional involvement. The study suggests bodily ac-tivity in simulation enhance learning....

  12. Intraoral tumor with rapid growing. Report of a case. (United States)

    González-Martín-Moro, Javier; Cebrián-Carretero, Jose Luis; Gómez-García, Elena; del Castillo-Pardo de Vera, Jose Luis; del Val, Daniel


    The appearance of an intraoral mass is common in our specialty. Most are benign lesions, but some are primary malignancies. Metastases account for less than 1% of all oral malignancies. An 86 year old woman was referred to our department with a large, asymptomatic, intraoral, fast-growing mass. She had no previous cancer history or other relevant physical findings. The radiology studies showed underlying bone erosion. The histological study showed a metastatic adenocarcinoma with a suspected origin in the abdomen. We were unable to identify it by non invasive diagnostic procedures. Given the patient's general status and despite the ominous prognosis of such lesions, we decided not to perform any aggressive therapy beyond removing the oral mass, in order to maintain her quality of life. There have been no local recurrences until this time.

  13. Garden sharing and garden stealing in fungus-growing ants (United States)

    Adams, Rachelle M. M.; Mueller, U. G.; Holloway, Alisha K.; Green, Abigail M.; Narozniak, Joanie

    Fungi cultivated by fungus-growing ants (Attini: Formicidae) are passed on between generations by transfer from maternal to offspring nest (vertical transmission within ant species). However, recent phylogenetic analyses revealed that cultivars are occasionally also transferred between attine species. The reasons for such lateral cultivar transfers are unknown. To investigate whether garden loss may induce ants to obtain a replacement cultivar from a neighboring colony (lateral cultivar transfer), pairs of queenright colonies of two Cyphomyrmex species were set up in two conjoined chambers; the garden of one colony was then removed to simulate the total crop loss that occurs naturally when pathogens devastate gardens. Garden-deprived colonies regained cultivars through one of three mechanisms: joining of a neighboring colony and cooperation in a common garden; stealing of a neighbor's garden; or aggressive usurpation of a neighbor's garden. Because pathogens frequently devastate attine gardens under natural conditions, garden joining, stealing and usurpation emerge as critical behavioral adaptations to survive garden catastrophes.

  14. "Something good can grow here": chicago urban agriculture food projects. (United States)

    Hatchett, Lena; Brown, Loretta; Hopkins, Joan; Larsen, Kelly; Fournier, Eliza


    Food security is a challenge facing many African-American low-income communities nationally. Community and university partners have established urban agriculture programs to improve access to high quality affordable fruits and vegetables by growing, distributing, and selling food in urban neighborhoods. While the challenge of food security is within communities of color, few studies have described these urban agriculture programs and documented their impact on the crew members who work in the programs and live in the low-income communities. More information is needed on the program impact for crew and community health promotion. Using a survey and focus group discussion from the crew and staff we describe the program and activities of four Chicago Urban Agriculture programs. We summarized the impact these programs have on crew members' perception of urban agriculture, health habits, community engagement, and community health promotion in low-income African-American neighborhoods.

  15. Russian gas exports have potential to grow through 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Rafael [Instituto Complutense de Estudios Internacionales (ICEI), Faculty of Economics, Department of Applied Economics I, Complutense University, 28223 Pozuelo de Alarcon, Madrid (Spain)


    This paper analyzes the potential for Russian gas export growth through the next decade and concludes that supply for exports will continue to grow, albeit moderately. The greater or lesser intensity of that growth will depend on the evolution of both production and internal consumption. From the production side, the pace of growth depends on the status of gas reserves and, more importantly, on the investment program pursued by the State-owned gas giant Gazprom. From the demand side, evolution depends on the way Russia's wide potential for gas savings is managed. Through this analysis, we find three likely scenarios for Russian gas exports. In the most positive, diversification of exports will be possible. In the most negative, Russia will have scant opportunity to develop an export diversification strategy. (author)

  16. Growing a photonics program in good times and bad (United States)

    Donnelly, Judith; Seebeck, Randall


    Three Rivers Community College (TRCC) is a public, associate degree-granting college located in southeastern Connecticut.. Formed in 1992 by the merger of Thames Valley State Technical College and Mohegan Community College, TRCC is a comprehensive multi-campus college with a full range of programs in technology and engineering technology. Although Connecticut is located in what has been called "Photonics Valley", stretching from Virginia to Massachusetts, eastern Connecticut has few optics related companies and is mainly known for two large Indian gaming casinos and the submarines built at General Dynamics Electric Boat Division in Groton. Yet TRCC has created a two-year associate degree program in Photonics Engineering Technology which continues to grow. This paper describes the development of a photonics technician program at a distance (in Connecticut terms) from supporting industries and explains strategies used to keep the program current with industry and student expectations.

  17. Does a Growing Static Length Scale Control the Glass Transition? (United States)

    Wyart, Matthieu; Cates, Michael E.


    Several theories of the glass transition propose that the structural relaxation time τα is controlled by a growing static length scale ξ that is determined by the free energy landscape but not by the local dynamic rules governing its exploration. We argue, based on recent simulations using particle-radius-swap dynamics, that only a modest factor in the increase in τα on approach to the glass transition may stem from the growth of a static length, with a vastly larger contribution attributable, instead, to a slowdown of local dynamics. This reinforces arguments that we base on the observed strong coupling of particle diffusion and density fluctuations in real glasses.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián KOTRLA


    Full Text Available Deliberate cultivation of plants for energy biomass is becoming increasingly important. Biomass should significantly contribute to increase the share of renewable energy in the European Union. On the research locality of Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra localized in the village Kolíňany (Slovak Republic is implemented basic research focused on the growth and production of the two genotypes energy grass Miscanthus. Research is carried out since 2010. In the third year after planting (the year 2012 were confirmed biomass production depending on the genotype of 35.45 and 36.67 t ha-1. Based on the analysis of growth and production performance of Miscanthus genotypes can be evaluated the high environmental and socio-economic aspects of growing energy crops, depending on the specific agro-ecological conditions.

  19. Infrared allows a peek inside to detect grow-ops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jastrow, B. [Infrared Solutions, Inc., Minneapolis, MN (United States)


    Apartment buildings have become a preferred location for marijuana growers in the Greater Toronto Area. The grow operations pose a fire and health risk to neighbours who may breathe in potentially harmful mould spores and pores from fertilizers. One advantage for growers is that many apartment buildings have only a single hydro meter for the entire building. As such, Toronto Hydro cannot detect extraordinary electricity consumption. This article described a method for detecting high electricity use by infrared thermography. An average size hallway electrical distribution panel is equipped with an 80 Amp or 100 Amp double-pole circuit breaker. Growers unplug the 220 Volt stove outlet and run their 1000 Watt lighting systems for long periods of time. Since the lights create excessive lamp loading, a thermal anomaly can be detected on the individual circuit breaker. High-end thermal imagers will detect this thermal pattern and transpose it into a thermograph. 1 fig.

  20. Re-classification of agro-ecological regions of Zimbabwe in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study re-classifies the agro-ecological regions (natural regions) of Zimbabwe using soil data, mean-annual rainfall and length of growing season. Rainfall data from selected meteorological stations covered the period 1972- 2006. Soil data were obtained from the soil map of Zimbabwe, while length of growing seasons ...

  1. Antigovernment Groups. A Growing Threat to US Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, Alicia L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Domestic terrorism is a growing threat in the United States, particularly from the 998 right-wing antigovernment (AG) groups in existence in 2015. In the years since the September 11, 2001 attacks in New York City, right-wing anti-government acts have oc- curred more often and killed more people in the United States than Muslim extremists. Such AG group members are often in uenced by racist, anti-Semitic, or anti-Islamic views, believe conspiracy theories about the government, and often refuse to pay taxes or participate in frivolous lawsuits in order to intentionally waste the government's time. There is, however, a violent element to these groups which participates in events ranging from the armed take-over of federal land in Oregon, to an armed stand-o with federal agents in Nevada, to the bombing of the Oklahoma City building which killed 168 people. Such acts may be conducted by a few individuals, as is the case of the Oklahoma City bombing, or an entire group. Such groups have a wide range of capabilities, with typical weapons including legal and illegal rearms, with a focus on purchasing fully automatic weapons; hand grenades, with some homemade; deadly tox- ins, like ricin (in multiple cases) and sodium cyanide (in one case); transportation, such as all-terrain vehicles (ATVs); arson, with the intent of destroying federal property; and explosives, often in large numbers and including pipe bombs, truck bombs, IEDs, and other homemade explosives. The growing acceptance of these violent methods by Republican congressmen and governors, however, only increases visibility of such groups and encourages their behavior. Coupled with the removal of the Department of Homeland Security's division responsible for monitoring such groups, the result could prove disastrous for the safety of United States citizens.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne McVeigh


    Full Text Available Growing bones are most responsive to mechanical loading. We investigated bone mass acquisition patterns following a swimming or running exercise intervention of equal duration, in growing rats. We compared changes in bone mineral properties in female Sprague Dawley rats that were divided into three groups: sedentary controls (n = 10, runners (n = 8 and swimmers (n = 11. Runners and swimmers underwent a six week intervention, exercising five days per week, 30min per day. Running rats ran on an inclined treadmill at 0.33 m.s-1, while swimming rats swam in 25oC water. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scans measuring bone mineral content (BMC, bone mineral density (BMD and bone area at the femur, lumbar spine and whole body were recorded for all rats before and after the six week intervention. Bone and serum calcium and plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH concentrations were measured at the end of the 6 weeks. Swimming rats had greater BMC and bone area changes at the femur and lumbar spine (p < 0.05 than the running rats and a greater whole body BMC and bone area to that of control rats (p < 0.05. There were no differences in bone gain between running and sedentary control rats. There was no significant difference in serum or bone calcium or PTH concentrations between the groups of rats. A swimming intervention is able to produce greater beneficial effects on the rat skeleton than no exercise at all, suggesting that the strains associated with swimming may engender a unique mechanical load on the bone

  3. On the mechanics of growing thin biological membranes (United States)

    Rausch, Manuel K.; Kuhl, Ellen


    Despite their seemingly delicate appearance, thin biological membranes fulfill various crucial roles in the human body and can sustain substantial mechanical loads. Unlike engineering structures, biological membranes are able to grow and adapt to changes in their mechanical environment. Finite element modeling of biological growth holds the potential to better understand the interplay of membrane form and function and to reliably predict the effects of disease or medical intervention. However, standard continuum elements typically fail to represent thin biological membranes efficiently, accurately, and robustly. Moreover, continuum models are typically cumbersome to generate from surface-based medical imaging data. Here we propose a computational model for finite membrane growth using a classical midsurface representation compatible with standard shell elements. By assuming elastic incompressibility and membrane-only growth, the model a priori satisfies the zero-normal stress condition. To demonstrate its modular nature, we implement the membrane growth model into the general-purpose non-linear finite element package Abaqus/Standard using the concept of user subroutines. To probe efficiently and robustness, we simulate selected benchmark examples of growing biological membranes under different loading conditions. To demonstrate the clinical potential, we simulate the functional adaptation of a heart valve leaflet in ischemic cardiomyopathy. We believe that our novel approach will be widely applicable to simulate the adaptive chronic growth of thin biological structures including skin membranes, mucous membranes, fetal membranes, tympanic membranes, corneoscleral membranes, and heart valve membranes. Ultimately, our model can be used to identify diseased states, predict disease evolution, and guide the design of interventional or pharmaceutic therapies to arrest or revert disease progression.

  4. [Double mulching application for Panax notoginseng growing seedlings]. (United States)

    Ou, Xiao-Hong; Fang, Yan; Shi, Ya-Na; Guo, Lan-Ping; Wang, Li; Yang, Yan; Jin, Hang; Liu, Da-Hui


    In order to improve the irrigation for Panax notginseng growing seedlings, different mulching ways were carried out to investigate the effects of double mulching. Field experiment was applied to study soil moisture, soil temperature and bulk density of different mulching ways while the germination rate and seedlings growth also were investigated. Compared with the traditional single mulching with pine leaves or straw, double mulching using plastic film combined with pine leaves or straw could reduce 2/3 volumes of irrigation at the early seedling time Double mulching treatments didn't need to irrigate for 40 days from seeding to germination, and kept soil moisture and temperature steady at whole seedling time about 30% and 9.0-16.6 degrees C, respectively. The steady soil moisture and temperature benefited to resist late spring cold and germinate earlier while kept germination regularly, higher rate and seedlings quality. In contrast, single mulching using pine leaves or straw had poor soil moisture and temperature preserving, needed to irrigate every 12-day, meanwhile dropped the germination and booming time 14 days and 24-26 days, respectively, reduced germination rate about 11.3%-8.7%. However, single pine leaves mulching was better than straw mulching. In addition, though better effects of soil moisture and temperature preserving as well as earlier and higher rate of germination with single plastic films mulching had, some disadvantages had also been observed, such as daily soil temperature changed greatly, seedling bed soil hardened easily, more moss and weeds resulted difficulty in later management. To the purpose of saving water and labor as well as getting higher germination rate and seedlings quality, double mulching using plastic films combined pine leaves at the early time and single mulching removing plastic films at the later time is suggested to apply in the growing seedlings of P. notoginseng.

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing in biofilm-growing bacteria. (United States)

    Macià, M D; Rojo-Molinero, E; Oliver, A


    Biofilms are organized bacterial communities embedded in an extracellular polymeric matrix attached to living or abiotic surfaces. The development of biofilms is currently recognized as one of the most relevant drivers of persistent infections. Among them, chronic respiratory infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients is probably the most intensively studied. The lack of correlation between conventional susceptibility test results and therapeutic success in chronic infections is probably a consequence of the use of planktonically growing instead of biofilm-growing bacteria. Therefore, several in vitro models to evaluate antimicrobial activity on biofilms have been implemented over the last decade. Microtitre plate-based assays, the Calgary device, substratum suspending reactors and the flow cell system are some of the most used in vitro biofilm models for susceptibility studies. Likewise, new pharmacodynamic parameters, including minimal biofilm inhibitory concentration, minimal biofilm-eradication concentration, biofilm bactericidal concentration, and biofilm-prevention concentration, have been defined in recent years to quantify antibiotic activity in biofilms. Using these parameters, several studies have shown very significant quantitative and qualitative differences for the effects of most antibiotics when acting on planktonic or biofilm bacteria. Nevertheless, standardization of the procedures, parameters and breakpoints, by official agencies, is needed before they are implemented in clinical microbiology laboratories for routine susceptibility testing. Research efforts should also be directed to obtaining a deeper understanding of biofilm resistance mechanisms, the evaluation of optimal pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models for biofilm growth, and correlation with clinical outcome. © 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  6. Minichromosome Maintenance Expression Defines Slow-Growing Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Schimmack


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Small intestinal neuroendocrine neoplasm (SI-NEN proliferation is quantified by Ki67 measurements which capture G1-G2M phases of the cell cycle. G0 and early G1 phases, typical of slow-growing cells, can be detected by minichromosome maintenance protein (MCM expression. We hypothesized that these replication licensing markers may provide clinically relevant information to augment Ki67 in low-grade neuroendocrine neoplasia. METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining (IHC, Western blot analysis, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and copy number variations of MCM2, MCM3, and Ki67 were undertaken in SI-NENs (n = 22. MCM and Ki67 expression was compared by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis (tissue microarray, independent set [n = 55]. Forty-three pancreatic NENs and 14 normal tissues were included as controls. RESULTS: In SI-NENs, MCM2 (mean: 21.2%: range: 16%-25% and MCM3 (28.7%: 22%-34% were detected in significantly more cells than Ki67 (2.3%: 0%-7%, P < .01. MCM2 mRNA correlated with Ki67 IHC (P < .05. MCM3 protein expression was higher in metastases (38-fold than in normal small intestine (P = .06 and was largely absent in normal neuroendocrine cells. There was considerable variation at the MCM copy number level (0-4 copies. MCM3 expression in proliferating cells significantly predicted overall survival (P < .002. Combinations of Ki67 and MCM2/3 in algorithms differentiated low and higher proliferative lesions (overall survival: 12 vs 6.1 years, P = .06. MCM expression was not informative in pancreatic NENs. CONCLUSION: MCMs are expressed in a higher proportion of NEN cells than Ki67 in slow-growing small intestinal lesions and correlate with survival. Assessment can be used to augment Ki67 to improve prognostic classification in these low-grade tumors.

  7. Forestry friendship : integrated land management gains growing support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, A.W.


    This article addressed the small but growing number of responsible stewards of the planet who advocate a coordinated approach to industrial growth in Alberta, with particular focus on integrated land management between oil sand mining and the forestry sector. Although Canada's oil sand resource provides the United States and Canada with a secure, long-term source of oil, Alberta's northern boreal forest has been permanently changed in the process of mining and producing this resource. Integrated land management refers to a new awareness that acting in isolation often results in negative implications for other users of the land and their resource values. It was suggested that companies can effectively reduce their cumulative impact on the environment through cooperation. A computer model was developed at the Department of Biological Sciences at the University of Alberta to calculate the cumulative effects of future industrial development. A landscape cumulative effects simulator (ALCES) makes use of a massive relational database to demonstrate how the overlay of individual types of industrial development will affect a defined area. With ALCES, the computer displays a series of maps showing the effects of industrial footprint and population growth in successive 10-year segments. It was shown that oilsands mining has changed nearly 70,000 hectares of northeast Alberta, with a series of roads, pipelines, industrial buildings and seismic lines. A customized scenario was used by ALCES in which bitumen production was assumed to increase to 2.5 million barrels per day. The model result showed that by 2100, the size of the area affected by oil sand mining pits, disposal sites, tailing ponds, and end-pit lakes will grow to between 180,000 and 250,000 hectares. The benefits of coordinated planning between competitive oil companies working in the area that stretches from Fort McMurray to the Cold Lake area were showcased by the Alberta-Pacific Forestry Industries. 2

  8. Robustness of synthetic oscillators in growing and dividing cells (United States)

    Paijmans, Joris; Lubensky, David K.; Rein ten Wolde, Pieter


    Synthetic biology sets out to implement new functions in cells, and to develop a deeper understanding of biological design principles. Elowitz and Leibler [Nature (London) 403, 335 (2000), 10.1038/35002125] showed that by rational design of the reaction network, and using existing biological components, they could create a network that exhibits periodic gene expression, dubbed the repressilator. More recently, Stricker et al. [Nature (London) 456, 516 (2008), 10.1038/nature07389] presented another synthetic oscillator, called the dual-feedback oscillator, which is more stable. Detailed studies have been carried out to determine how the stability of these oscillators is affected by the intrinsic noise of the interactions between the components and the stochastic expression of their genes. However, as all biological oscillators reside in growing and dividing cells, an important question is how these oscillators are perturbed by the cell cycle. In previous work we showed that the periodic doubling of the gene copy numbers due to DNA replication can couple not only natural, circadian oscillators to the cell cycle [Paijmans et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 113, 4063 (2016), 10.1073/pnas.1507291113], but also these synthetic oscillators. Here we expand this study. We find that the strength of the locking between oscillators depends not only on the positions of the genes on the chromosome, but also on the noise in the timing of gene replication: noise tends to weaken the coupling. Yet, even in the limit of high levels of noise in the replication times of the genes, both synthetic oscillators show clear signatures of locking to the cell cycle. This work enhances our understanding of the design of robust biological oscillators inside growing and diving cells.

  9. California Hass Avocado: Profiling of Carotenoids, tocopherol, fatty acid, and fat content during maturation and from different growing areas (United States)

    Lu, Qing-Yi; Zhang, Yanjun; Wang, Yue; Wang, David; Lee, Ru-po; Gao, Kun; Byrns, Russell; Heber, David


    The California Hass avocado (Persea Americana) is an example of a domesticated berry fruit that matures on the tree during its growing season but ripens only after being harvested. Avocados are typically harvested multiple times during the growing season in California. Previous research has demonstrated potential health benefits of avocados and extracts of avocado against inflammation and cancer cell growth, but seasonal variations in the phytochemical profile of the fruits being studied may affect the results obtained in future research. Therefore in the present study, avocados were harvested in January, April, July and September 2008 from four different growing locations in California (San Luis Obispo, Ventura, Riverside and San Diego), and analyzed fortotal fat content, fatty acid profile, carotenoids and vitamin E. A significant increase in total carotenoid and fat content of avocados from all regions was noted as the season progressed from January to September. Four carotenoids not previously described in the avocado were quantified. The total content of carotenoids was highly correlated with total fat content (r=0.99, pavocado.. Future clinical research on the health benefits of the avocado should specify the time of harvest, degree of ripening, growing area and the total phytochemical profile of the fruit or extract being studied. These steps will enable researchers to account for potential nutrient-nutrient interactions that might affect the research outcomes. PMID:19813713

  10. Growing Informal Cities: Mobile Entrepreneurs and Inclusive Growth ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Migrant entrepreneurs are an important force in the informal economy in southern Africa, but their role is often invisible to policymakers and researchers. New research on the contributions of these migrant entrepreneurs will help to raise their profile in regional, national, and municipal policies on migration, development, ...

  11. The vulnerable, rapidly growing thoracic spine of the adolescent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prolapse of disc tissue occurs into the verfebral body, causing a disturbance of growth but little if any pain. The vertebrae in the mid-thoracic region become wedge-shaped, and a kyphotic deformity results, the so-called Scheuermann's disease, or adolescent kyphosis. A plea is made for the screening of children exposed to ...

  12. Investigation of Argania spinosa L. (Skeels) polyphenols growing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Argania spinosa L. Skeels, belonging to the Argania genus of the Sapotaceae family, is a species native to Morocco and Algeria. Due to its perfect adaptation to soil and climate, this tree plays an important ecological role in a constantly threatened encroached desert region. To understand the biological role of polyphenols ...

  13. Investigation of Argania spinosa L. (Skeels) polyphenols growing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 7, 2016 ... Argania spinosa L. Skeels, belonging to the Argania genus of the Sapotaceae family, is a species native to Morocco and Algeria. Due to its perfect adaptation to soil and climate, this tree plays an important ecological role in a constantly threatened encroached desert region. To understand the biological ...

  14. Analysis of Technical Efficiency of Small Holder Maize Growing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to examine the level of technical efficiency of smallholder maize producers and identify its determinants in Horo Guduru Wollega zone of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. A Cobb-Douglass stochastic production function model was used for the analysis. To specify technical inefficiency effects ...

  15. Enhancement of UV emission in ZnO nanorods by growing additional ZnO layers on the surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yongseon; Kang, Shinhoo, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)


    Ultraviolet (UV) photoluminescence emission from ZnO nanorod arrays was greatly enhanced by growing additional thin ZnO layers on the surface after thermal reduction of the nanorods. Appropriate selection of additives based on the shape of the original ZnO samples was found to be an important factor in designing the solution composition for growing the additional ZnO layers. This is because the additives modify the growth rates with respect to crystallographic planes. Adding ethylene glycol to the solution was effective for rod-shaped ZnO nanorods in enhancing the UV emission, whereas adding polyethylenimine was better for plate-like particles. These results can be explained by the presence of non-luminescent regions near the surface, where UV emission is thought to be suppressed by non-radiative surface centers. Growing additional layers on side planes increases the volume of the optically active region of ZnO nanorods, with a lower transmittance loss; thus, it effectively enhances the UV emission intensity.

  16. Mineral contents of seed and seed oils of Capparis species growing wild in Turkey. (United States)

    Duman, Erman; Ozcan, Mehmet Musa


    The mineral contents of seed and seed oils of Capparis species growing wild in Turkey were established by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Capparis spinosa var. spinosa (2010) and Capparis ovata var. canescens variety (2009) were determined to be rich in terms of mineral matter as 19,514.60 and 16,995.92 ppm as a total, respectively. C. spinosa var. spinosa collected from Muğla-Milas region (2009) had the highest amount of Ca with 1,010.67 ppm in C. spinosa species and in C. ovata species. C. ovata var. canescens collected from Ankara-Beypazarı (2010) region had the highest amount of Ca with 833.92 ppm Ca amount in C. spinosa var. spinosa, inermis, herbaceae seeds decreased in 2010. C. spinosa var. inermis collected from Antalya-Serik (2010) in C. spinosa species had rich amount of Ca with 123.78 ppm and C. ovata var. palaestina seed oils collected from Mardin-Savur region (2009) had rich amount of Ca with 253.71 ppm in C. ovata species. The oil of C. spinosa var. herbaceae variety collected from Mardin-Midyat region (2010) was determined to have the highest major mineral matter (Ca, K, Mg, Na, and P) with 1,424.37 ppm in C. spinosa species. It was also determined that as a result, caper seed and oils were found to be important sources of nutrients and essential elements.

  17. Climatic Suitability of Growing Summer Squash (Cucurbita pepo L. as a Medicinal Plant in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad BANNAYAN


    Full Text Available Diversification of production by including a broader range of plant species, can significantly contribute to improve health and nutrition, livelihoods, household food security and ecological sustainability. Exploring the climate impact on any given crop is one of the first priorities to find new suitable areas for production and management of new crops. Summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L. is an economically valuable plant with various medicinal potentials. In order to investigate summer squash cultivation feasibility under Irans climate, three main agricultural regions (Azerbaijan, Khorasan and central part of Iran (Fars and Isfahan were selected. These regions suitability for summer squash cultivation were evaluated by considering three vital climate variables encompass temperature, precipitation, and sunshine hours. These regions show distinct and representative climatic conditions of Iran. Annual and growing season average of maximum, minimum, mean temperature, precipitation, and sunshine hours were calculated (May-September for all locations with 44 years historical weather data (1961-2005 for 8 locations (Oroomieh, Tabriz, Khoy, Mashhad, Sabzevar, Birjand, Shiraz and Isfahan, 39 years (1966-2005 for 2 locations (Kashan and Fassa, 28 years (1977-2005 for 4 locations (Ardebil, Abadeh, Bojnurd and Shargh Isfahan and 20 years (1985-2005 for 9 locations (Mahabad, Sarab, Maragheh, Parsabad, Khalkhal, Ferdous, Ghaen, Kashmar and Sarakhs. Climatic demands of summer squash were determined by four years field studies at four different locations in Iran. Our results showed Azerbaijan region has a suitable condition for this crop cultivation especially from precipitation and temperature perspectives. Central part of Iran and Khorasan were also found as partly suitable locations however as they are near to deserts with hotter and drier climate, there might be some other crops considered as priorities in these areas.

  18. 317/319 phytoremediation site monitoring report - 2005 growing season.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negri, M. C.; Gopalakrishnan, G.; Energy Systems


    In 1999, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) designed and installed a series of engineered plantings consisting of a vegetative cover system and approximately 800 hybrid poplars and willows rooting at various predetermined depths. The plants were installed using various methods including Applied Natural Science's TreeWell{reg_sign} system. The goal of the installation was to protect downgradient surface and groundwater by hydraulic control of the contaminated plume by intercepting the contaminated groundwater with the tree roots, removing moisture from the upgradient soil area, reducing water infiltration, preventing soil erosion, degrading and/or transpiring the residual volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and removing tritium from the subsoil and groundwater. This report presents the results of the monitoring activities conducted by Argonne's Energy Systems Division (ES) in the growing season of 2005. Monitoring of the planted trees began soon after the trees were installed in 1999 and has been conducted every summer since then. As the trees grew and consolidated their growth into the contaminated soil and groundwater, their exposure to the contaminants was progressively shown through tissue sampling. However, as trees grow larger, some of the findings obtained in the early years when trees were much smaller may not hold true now and need to be verified again. During the 2005 sampling campaign, data from the French Drain area confirmed the results obtained in 2004 and earlier, and the previously found correlation between soil and branch concentrations. During the 2005 summer, studies under controlled conditions (cartridges) have shown a generally linear dose response of PCE uptake, and have also shown that tree concentrations of PCE decrease after flushing with clean water in short times when trees are exposed to low levels of the contaminant. This data proves that tree concentrations are transient, and that with proper time levels can return close to

  19. Nitroimidazole-refractory giardiasis: a growing problem requiring rational solutions. (United States)

    Carter, E R; Nabarro, L E; Hedley, L; Chiodini, P L


    Giardia intestinalis is microaerophilic diarrhoea-causing protozoan common in countries with suboptimal sanitation. Standard treatment is with nitroimidazoles, but a growing number of refractory cases is being reported. Treatment failure has become increasingly prevalent in travellers who contract giardiasis in Asia. Clinicians are increasingly falling back on second-line and less well-known drugs to treat giardiasis. To review nitroimidazole-refractory G. intestinalis infection, examine the current efficacy of standard therapeutic agents, consider potential resistance mechanisms which could cause treatment failure and describe the practical aspects of managing this emerging clinical problem. A PubMed search was conducted using combinations of the following terms: refractory, Giardia, giardiasis, resistance and treatment. Articles on the pharmacotherapy, drug resistance mechanisms and use of alternative agents in nitroimidazole-refractory giardiasis were reviewed. We review the standard drugs for giardiasis, including their efficacy in initial treatment, mode of action and documented in vitro and in vivo drug resistance. We assess the efficacy of alternative drugs in nitroimidazole-refractory disease. Existing data suggest a potential advantage of combination treatment. An optimal treatment strategy for refractory giardiasis has still to be determined, so there is no standard treatment regimen for nitroimidazole-refractory giardiasis. Further work on drug resistance mechanisms and the use of drug combinations in this condition is a priority. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Micromechanics and homogenization of inelastic composite materials with growing cracks (United States)

    Costanzo, Francesco; Boyd, James G.; Allen, David H.


    A homogenization scheme is employed to derive the effective constitutive equations of an elastoplastic composite system with growing damage. The homogenization procedure followed herein is based on the thermodynamics of dissipative media. It is shown that when damage consists of sharps microcracks the macroscopic constitutive behavior is that of a so-called generalized standard material. The latter is a general dissipative medium whose constitutive equations are completely characterized by a single scalar convex potential function of the chosen state variables and whose evolution is completely characterized by a single convex dissipation potential function of the thermodynamic forces conjugate to the chosen internal state variables. The analysis presented is valid under the assumption that the evolution of the representative volume element at hand is unique and stable. The results of the theoretical analysis are then employed for formulating an approximate method for practically deriving the macroscopic constitutive equations. Computer software development for the application of said method is currently ongoing. A simple example of the numerical results obtained so far is presented.

  1. Genetic Diversity of Some Capparis L. Species Growing in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassam Al- Safadi


    Full Text Available This work investigated the genetic diversity and relationships among Capparis species growing in Syria using IRAP and ISSR techniques. Forty-seven samples of three Capparis species genotypes were collected from 21 different locations in Syria. The genotypes were morphologically identified based on the descriptions available in the literature. When IRAP technique was used, an average of 71.5% of the amplified fragments were polymorphic compared to 82.04% in ISSR. Morphological characterization along with the cluster and PCoA analyses of the data divided the studied genotypes into three groups. The groups included genotypes identified as Capparis spinosa L, C. sicula Duh., and C. aegyptia Lam. Based on the morphological description, molecular studies and statistical analyses of this study, C. aegyptia could be suggested as a separate species and not a varietal rank of C. spinosa(C. spinosa var. aegyptia (Lam.. Two samples (Alep1 and Idl were not placed in any of the three distinctive groups, despite their closeness morphologically to C. spinosa. In PCoA analysis, sample Alep1 came between C. sicula and C. spinosa and Idl was placed between C. sicula and C. aegyptia. Although hybridization between Capparis species could occur, it was not clear from the present study if these two genotypes were hybrids.

  2. Slow-growing melanoma: Report of five cases. (United States)

    Roma, Paolo; Savarese, Imma; Martino, Antonia; Martino, Domenico; Annese, Pietro; Capoluongo, Patrizio; Mordente, Ines; Nicolino, Rachele; Zalaudek, Iris; Argenziano, Giuseppe


    Epidemiologic data on melanoma reveal a considerable increase in incidence, especially of the early forms (melanoma in situ and early invasive melanoma), but the mortality rates are relatively stable. These data suggest the hypothesis of the existence of a melanoma with less aggressive biological behaviour. This hypothesis is, however, hard to be proven if the assumption is true that more and less aggressive melanomas very often exhibit overlapping clinical and histopathologic features. Digital dermoscopic imaging techniques permit today a detailed documentation of lesions over time and, therefore, represent an optimal tool to disclose the natural evolution of a given lesion. We present five case of slow-growing melanomas observed during a long-term period of follow-up. Five pigmented skin lesions from five patients with multiple atypical melanocytic nevi were examined at the baseline consultation and digital pictures were taken for monitoring purposes. The lesions have been followed-up for a long time because of the absence of significant changes over time. After a variable period of follow-up (1 to 10 years) all lesions were finally removed and subsequent histopathologic examination revealed early stage melanoma in all cases. Dermoscopy and digital follow up might be the key factors to improve the knowledge about the natural evolution of nevi and melanoma and the spectrum of undefined melanocytic proliferations.

  3. Violence: a growing danger to children. The American case. (United States)

    Sayre, J W


    A frightening, growing epidemic of senseless, irrational and inexcusable violence has seized the United States. While it involves all ages and localities, the occurrences are predominantly in areas of poverty, poor housing and unemployment. Children, particularly the adolescent and young adult male black population, are at greatest risk. There are recognized many contributing forces such as low self-esteem, family disruption and single parenting. Country-wide there is easy access to guns and lack of gun safety guards. Violent television sets an example for our youth and lends an air of adventure and excitement to their lives. The solution to this enormous problem is clearly not an easy one and must be through a combination of many social and legal changes. This is most assuredly a medical problem and demands thought and active participation by physicians. There are a number of strategies for physicians, especially pediatricians. We must look carefully at family interactions, attempting to promote more kindly behaviors, enhance self-esteem. School-age children can be helped through office discussions and collaboration with teachers. "Leave the knives and guns at home, avoid noisy arguments, use more kindly words." "Television is not real life; the actors do not die." These are our people. Their needs are great. We must help.

  4. Growing-up milk: a necessity or marketing? (United States)

    Przyrembel, Hildegard; Agostoni, Carlo


    Growing-up milk (GUM) products intended for children between 1 and 3 years of age are increasingly being introduced into the diets of young children. Although not a necessity for adequate nutrition of that age group, they can compensate for nutritional deficiencies which may occur in the transition phase of infant nutrition to family food, particularly when bad dietary patterns prevail in the family. For that purpose, GUM should be composed to decrease the overall protein intake which tends to be higher than the reference values for that age. This can be achieved by diluting fat-reduced cow's milk to a protein level comparable to infant or follow-on formulae and by partially replacing cow's milk fat with appropriate vegetable oils to increase the content of essential fatty acids and possibly by adding long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids whilst preserving the content of some minerals (such as calcium and phosphorus) and vitamins (B2 and B12) well represented in cow's milk. The content of iron, iodine, zinc and the vitamins A and D should be the same as in a follow-on formula. Based on available evidence, GUM should not be promoted as a necessity in the nutrition of young children. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Cytotoxic Activity of Alkaloids from Papaver rhoeas growing in Lebanon

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    Mohamad Ali Hijazi


    Full Text Available This paper represents the phytochemical properties of Lebanese Papaver rhoeas, from which five protopine alkaloids are isolated, namely; stylopine (1, canadine (2, sinactine (3, berberine (4, and epiberberine (5. This is the first report for the isolation of epiberberine (5 from the genus Papaver and canadine (2 from Papaver rhoeas, suggesting a new chemotype of Papaver rhoeas growing in Lebanon. The cytotoxic activity of the total ethanolic extract and the isolated alkaloids were determined by MTT assay on human colon cancer cells (HCT116, breast cancer cells (MCF7, human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT, and non-cancerous colon cells (NCM460. The compounds showed dose-dependent inhibitory effect with highest activity for compound 4 against all cell lines. The activity of the alkaloids varied between the various cell lines indicating cell type specificity and suggesting different cell-compound interactions. IC 50 values on normal cells was higher than cancer cell lines (>200 µM, indicating the selectivity of these compounds to cancer cells. It was noticed that the presence of methylenedioxy group at positions C-2 and C-3 rather than at position C-9 and C-10 potentiated the compound’s cytotoxic activity. Further studies are underway to explore the activity of these compounds at the molecular level.

  6. Hidden treasures in stem cells of indeterminately growing bilaterian invertebrates. (United States)

    Vogt, Günter


    Indeterminate growth, the life-long growth without fixed limits, is typical of some evolutionarily very successful aquatic invertebrate groups such as the decapod crustaceans, bivalve molluscs and echinoderms. These animals enlarge their organs also in the adult life period and can regenerate lost appendages and organs, which is in sharp contrast to mammals and most insects. Interestingly, decapods, bivalves and echinoderms develop only rarely neoplastic and age-related diseases, although some species reach ages exceeding 100 years. Their stem cell systems must have co-evolved with these successful life histories suggesting possession of unknown and beneficial features that might open up new vistas in stem cell biology. Research of the last decade has identified several adult stem cell systems in these groups and also some mature cell types that are capable to dedifferentiate into multipotent progenitor cells. Investigation of stem and progenitor cells in indeterminately growing bilaterian invertebrates is assumed beneficial for basic stem cell biology, aquaculture, biotechnology and perhaps medicine. The biggest treasure that could be recovered in these animal taxa concerns maintenance of stem cell niches and fidelity of stem cell division for decades without undesirable side effects such as tumour formation. Uncovering of the underlying molecular and regulatory mechanisms might evoke new ideas for the development of anti-ageing and anti-cancer interventions in humans.

  7. Tobacco growing and the sustainable development goals, Malawi. (United States)

    Kulik, Margarete C; Bialous, Stella Aguinaga; Munthali, Spy; Max, Wendy


    Negative impacts of tobacco result from human consumption and from tobacco-growing activities, most of which now occur in low- and middle-income countries. Malawi is the world's largest producer of burley tobacco and its population is affected by the negative consequences of both tobacco consumption and production. In countries like Malawi, tobacco control refers to control of the tobacco supply chain, rather than control of consumption. We review the impact of tobacco cultivation, using Malawi as an example, to illustrate the economic, environmental, health and social issues faced by low- and middle-income countries that still produce significant tobacco crops. We place these issues in the context of the sustainable development goals (SDGs), particularly 3a which calls on all governments to strengthen the implementation of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Other goals address the negative effects that tobacco cultivation has on development. The SDGs offer an opportunity for low- and middle-income countries that are dependent on tobacco production and that are not yet parties to the Convention, to reconsider joining the FCTC.

  8. Culturable fungal assemblages growing within Cenococcum sclerotia in forest soils. (United States)

    Obase, Keisuke; Douhan, Greg W; Matsuda, Yosuke; Smith, Matthew E


    The ectomycorrhizal fungus Cenococcum geophilum (Ascomycota, Dothideomycetes) forms black, round to irregular sclerotia in forest soils. Fungi that colonize the sclerotia appear to affect sclerotia viability and may play an important role in the life history of Cenococcum. Some of the fungi could also affect nutrient cycling by decomposing Cenococcum sclerotia, which are melanized and recalcitrant to decay. We used a culture-based method to document the fungal communities growing inside surface-sterilized sclerotia that were collected from forest soils. Cenococcum was successfully isolated from 297 of 971 sclerotia whereas 427 sclerotia hosted fungi other than Cenococcum. DNA barcoding of the internal transcribed spacer rDNA followed by grouping at 97% sequence similarity yielded 85 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that consisted primarily of Ascomycota (e.g. Chaetothyriales, Eurotiales, Helotiales, Pleosporales) and a few Basidiomycota and Mucoromycotina. Although most fungal OTUs were infrequently cultured, several OTUs such as members of Asterostroma, Cladophialophora, Oidiodendron, and Pleosporales were common and found across many sites. Our results suggest that Cenococcum sclerotia act as a substrate for diverse fungi. The occurrence of several OTUs in sclerotia across many sites suggests that these fungi may be active parasites of Cenococcum sclerotia or may preferentially use sclerotia as a nutrient source. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Growing networks of overlapping communities with internal structure (United States)

    Young, Jean-Gabriel; Hébert-Dufresne, Laurent; Allard, Antoine; Dubé, Louis J.


    We introduce an intuitive model that describes both the emergence of community structure and the evolution of the internal structure of communities in growing social networks. The model comprises two complementary mechanisms: One mechanism accounts for the evolution of the internal link structure of a single community, and the second mechanism coordinates the growth of multiple overlapping communities. The first mechanism is based on the assumption that each node establishes links with its neighbors and introduces new nodes to the community at different rates. We demonstrate that this simple mechanism gives rise to an effective maximal degree within communities. This observation is related to the anthropological theory known as Dunbar's number, i.e., the empirical observation of a maximal number of ties which an average individual can sustain within its social groups. The second mechanism is based on a recently proposed generalization of preferential attachment to community structure, appropriately called structural preferential attachment (SPA). The combination of these two mechanisms into a single model (SPA+) allows us to reproduce a number of the global statistics of real networks: The distribution of community sizes, of node memberships, and of degrees. The SPA+ model also predicts (a) three qualitative regimes for the degree distribution within overlapping communities and (b) strong correlations between the number of communities to which a node belongs and its number of connections within each community. We present empirical evidence that support our findings in real complex networks.

  10. Finite size induces crossover temperature in growing spin chains (United States)

    Sienkiewicz, Julian; Suchecki, Krzysztof; Hołyst, Janusz A.


    We introduce a growing one-dimensional quenched spin model that bases on asymmetrical one-side Ising interactions in the presence of external field. Numerical simulations and analytical calculations based on Markov chain theory show that when the external field is smaller than the exchange coupling constant J there is a nonmonotonous dependence of the mean magnetization on the temperature in a finite system. The crossover temperature Tc corresponding to the maximal magnetization decays with system size, approximately as the inverse of the Lambert W function. The observed phenomenon can be understood as an interplay between the thermal fluctuations and the presence of the first cluster determined by initial conditions. The effect exists also when spins are not quenched but fully thermalized after the attachment to the chain. By performing tests on real data we conceive the model is in part suitable for a qualitative description of online emotional discussions arranged in a chronological order, where a spin in every node conveys emotional valence of a subsequent post.

  11. Avocado oils and hepatic lipid metabolism in growing rats. (United States)

    Werman, M J; Neeman, I; Mokady, S


    The effect of various avocado oils on liver metabolism was studied in growing female rats. The rats were fed diets containing 10% (w/w) avocado oil for 4 wk. In comparison with rats fed refined avocado oil obtained from cored fruit by centrifugal separation, rats fed unrefined avocado oil obtained by organic solvent extraction from intact fruit, or its unsaponifiable components, showed a significant increase in total liver lipogenesis as well as in phospholipid and triglceride synthesis. Rats fed avocado-seed oil exhibited enhanced [1-14C]acetate incorporation into total liver lipids but showed the same distribution of label in the three main lipid classes as that of rats fed refined avocado oil. In addition, a significant reduction of triglycerides and protein content of plasma very-low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein fractions was observed in rats fed avocado-seed oil as compared with rats fed refined oil. Electron micrographs suggested that the alterations in hepatic lipogenesis are related to the marked proliferation of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum, which is known to be associated with induction of enzymes involved with lipid biosynthesis. The differences between the animals fed seed oil and those fed the unrefined oils, in the distribution of label within the main lipid classes, indicate that more than one factor is involved in the alterations caused by these oils.

  12. Growing our own: building a native research team. (United States)

    Gray, Jacqueline S; Carter, Paula M


    In 2006, American Indian/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) made up less than 1% of the science, engineering and health doctorates in the U.S. Early introduction of AI/AN students to research and continued opportunities are necessary to develop successful AI/AN researchers who can better serve their communities. This team was developed to form a cohort of American Indian students, staff and faculty interested in research and becoming researchers. Since implementation, the program grew from one student to over 20 AI students ranging from freshmen just entering college to doctoral students working to complete their dissertations. This article highlights the team growth, increasing structure, student needs and the faculty and staff involved. It further addresses the support and educational aspects of growing an ongoing, multidisciplinary research team committed to ethical research in Native communities. The team addresses substance use prevalence, the relationship of substance abuse to other mental health diagnoses, and treatment issues. The team includes weekly team meetings, a Blackboard site on the Internet that is populated with resources and focused on sharing materials and information, a weekly journal club discussion of research articles, and collaborative discussions on each project and the barriers and challenges that need to be addressed to move forward.

  13. Growing or connecting? An urban food garden in Johannesburg. (United States)

    Wills, Jane; Chinemana, Frances; Rudolph, Michael


    Issues of food security are of particular importance in urban areas in Africa and government policy advises on the household growing of vegetables for nutrition. The Siyakhana project is a food garden in the centre of Johannesburg which was established by a University Health Promotion Unit with the support of other stakeholders including the City authorities and a permaculture organization. It was set up with the objective of providing food for children attending early-childhood development centres and for the beneficiaries of non-governmental organizations providing home-based care for people living with HIV/AIDS. One year after start-up, an evaluation was conducted, based on the measures of outcome identified as significant by those involved in the project. Its impact on health is not yet measurable, but as the amounts of fruits and vegetables available and consumed in South Africa are low compared with WHO recommendations, it is a useful addition to food security in an urban area. Mobilizing around the food garden supported bonding among homogenous but separate third-sector organizations, through increased opportunities for networking which built trust, reciprocity and resource exchange. The project also provides a model for a community-university partnership providing opportunities for service learning by students and for social investment by the university.

  14. Effect of feed restriction on performance of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina de Oliveira


    Full Text Available This experiment assessed the effect of feed restriction in rabbits on performance and economic viability of the activity. Sixty New Zealand White rabbits, weaned at 33 days and slaughtered at 81 days of age, were used. The design was of randomized blocks with four treatments and five replications. The treatments were, as follows: 1 - free feeding, 2 - feed restriction from 35 to 40 days of age (50 g/d/rabbit, 3 - feed restriction from 54 to 61 days of age (90 g/d/rabbit and 4 - feed restriction from 33 to 40 days (50 g/d/rabbit and from 54 to 61 days of age (90 g/d/rabbit. There was no difference in the performance and carcass parameters, indicating that there was compensatory growth in the rabbits that suffered feed restriction. The best gross margin was obtained with feed restriction from 54 to 61 days age. Feed restriction in growing rabbits can be adopted at different ages because it does not interfere negatively in the performance and carcass parameters. In two periods and from 51 to 61 days, feed restriction was more economically viable for the sale of live and slaughtered rabbits, respectively.

  15. Restoration of red mud deposits by naturally growing vegetation. (United States)

    Mishra, Tripti; Singh, N B; Singh, Nandita


    Disposal of red mud (RM) poses serious environmental problems such as wind erosion, air and water pollution. To overcome these problems, effective restoration of the disposal land through naturally growing vegetation is a sustainable and economical approach. The present study involved estimation of frequency (F), density (D), abundance (Ab), and important value index (IVI) of natural flora on abandoned RM sites in order to assess their metal toxicity tolerance capacity. Based on visual observations and highest IVI, S. Asper and S. punicea were identified as effective ecological tools for the restoration of barren RM sites. From the study, remarkable differences were observed between non-rhizospheric and rhizospheric RM of both species. These rhizospheric RM analyses confirm the ability of S. asper and S. punicea for enhancing the biological activities of abandoned RM. Translocation factor (TF) of iron was maximum (2.58) in S. asper, and bioconcentration factor (BCF) was found maximum (1.25) in S. punicea, but both TF (2.58) and BCF (1.35) were high in S. asper. Therefore, this plant could be reported as an iron hyperaccumulator plant. These results suggest that these plant species can be exploited for effective restoration of RM deposited land without any inputs or maintenance.

  16. The growing impact of satellite data in daily life (United States)

    Stramondo, Salvatore


    Satellite images have a growing role in our daily life. Weather previsions, telecommunications, environmental planning, disaster mitigation and monitoring: these are only some of the fieldworks where space remote sensing data, and related processing techniques, provide extremely useful information to policy/decision makers, scientists, or to the "simple" citizen. The demonstration of the level of attention provided by the International Community to the impact of new technologies and satellite Earth Observation, in particular, onto everyday life is testified by the recent and forthcoming project calls. Horizon 2020, for instance, identified "Societal challenges" and "Science with and for Society" among the main pillars. In sub-themes we may read references to the "Environment", "Secure societies", "Climate changes", and many others, most of which soliciting the use of remote sensing technologies. In such scenario the scientists should be conscious about the capabilities and the implications in applying new technologies. Recent examples might be explanatory. Satellite data properly managed can be used to measure millimetric and/or centimetric movements of buildings and infrastructures. It has been demonstrated how long term monitoring of urban areas detecting pre-collapse deformations might provide useful hints to prevent such dramatic events. Or, in different frameworks, satellite data can be an advanced instrument for intelligence and military purposes. With such premises, ethic issues assume a key role to properly address the use of satellite technologies.

  17. Growing sensitivity of maize to water scarcity under climate change. (United States)

    Meng, Qingfeng; Chen, Xinping; Lobell, David B; Cui, Zhenling; Zhang, Yi; Yang, Haishun; Zhang, Fusuo


    Climate change can reduce crop yields and thereby threaten food security. The current measures used to adapt to climate change involve avoiding crops yield decrease, however, the limitations of such measures due to water and other resources scarcity have not been well understood. Here, we quantify how the sensitivity of maize to water availability has increased because of the shift toward longer-maturing varieties during last three decades in the Chinese Maize Belt (CMB). We report that modern, longer-maturing varieties have extended the growing period by an average of 8 days and have significantly offset the negative impacts of climate change on yield. However, the sensitivity of maize production to water has increased: maize yield across the CMB was 5% lower with rainfed than with irrigated maize in the 1980s and was 10% lower (and even >20% lower in some areas) in the 2000s because of both warming and the increased requirement for water by the longer-maturing varieties. Of the maize area in China, 40% now fails to receive the precipitation required to attain the full yield potential. Opportunities for water saving in maize systems exist, but water scarcity in China remains a serious problem.

  18. Growing up with a cochlear implant: education, vocation, and affiliation. (United States)

    Spencer, Linda J; Tomblin, J Bruce; Gantz, Bruce J


    The long-term educational/vocational, affiliation, and quality-of-life outcomes of the first and second cohorts of children with bilateral, profound hearing loss who received cochlear implants under a large National Institutes of Health-funded study was investigated in 41 of 61 eligible participants. Educational and vocational outcomes were collected from user survey data. Affiliation and quality-of-life data were collected from the Satisfaction-with-Life scale and the Deaf Identity Scale. Qualitative results indicated that compared with their hearing, adult-age peers, this group obtained high educational achievement, and they reported a very high satisfaction of life. With respect to forming an identity in these first 2 cohorts of cochlear implant users, we found that most of the individuals endorsed a dual identity, which indicates they feel just as comfortable with Deaf individuals as they do with hearing individuals. Quantitative results revealed a significant relationship between ability to hear and ability to speak, in addition to consistency of device use. Additional relationships were found between mother's and the individual's educational statuses, hearing scores, and communication system used. Younger individuals scored higher on satisfaction-with-life measures, and they also tended to endorse a dual identity more often. Taken together, these findings diminish concerns that profoundly deaf individuals growing up with cochlear implants will become culturally bereft and unable to function in the hearing world.

  19. Biotechnology and genetic optimization of fast-growing hardwoods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garton, S.; Syrkin-Wurtele, E.; Griffiths, H.; Schell, J.; Van Camp, L.; Bulka, K. (NPI, Salt Lake City, UT (United States))


    A biotechnology research program was initiated to develop new clones of fast-growing Populus clones resistant to the herbicide glyphosate and resistant to the leaf-spot and canker disease caused by the fungus Septoria musiva. Glyphosate-resistant callus was selected from stem segments cultured in vitro on media supplemented with the herbicide. Plants were regenerated from the glyphosate-resistant callus tissue. A portion of plants reverted to a glyphosate susceptible phenotype during organogenesis. A biologically active filtrate was prepared from S. musiva and influenced fresh weight of Populus callus tissue. Disease-resistant plants were produced through somaclonal variation when shoots developed on stem internodes cultured in vitro. Plantlets were screened for disease symptoms after spraying with a suspension of fungal spores. A frequency of 0.83 percent variant production was observed. Genetically engineered plants were produced after treatment of plant tissue with Agrobacterium tumefasciens strains carrying plasmid genes for antibiotic resistance. Transformers were selected on media enriched with the antibiotic, kanamycin. Presence of foreign DNA was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. Protoplasts of popular were produced but did not regenerate into plant organs. 145 refs., 12 figs., 36 tabs.

  20. Growing tropical forage legumes in full sun and silvopastoral systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Alberto do Carmo Araújo


    Full Text Available Growth was evaluated three tropical forage legumes in two cropping systems: silvopastoral system (SSP and full sun. A completely randomized design was adopted in factorial three legumes (estilosanthes cv. Campo Grande (Stylozanthes macrocephala x Stylozanthes capitata, tropical kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb. Benth and macrotiloma (Macrotyloma axillare cv. Java x two farming systems, with 4 repetitions. A eucalyptus SSP already deployed, with spatial arrangement of 12 x 2 m between trees was used. Legumes were planted in January 2014 a uniform cut being made in May 2014. The court assessment was carried out 125 days after the uniformity cut. There was difference for mass production of dry legumes (PMMSL between cultivation systems, evidencing increased productivity in the farming full sun. The macrotiloma showed higher PMSL (5.29 kg DM ha-1 cut-1, while the kudzu obtained the lowest yield (3.42 kg DM ha-1 cut-1 in the sun growing full. The cultivation of legumes in SSP increased the levels of mineral matter, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber. The shade provided by the SSP caused a reduction in the mass of dry matter production, but also altered the chemical composition of the studied legumes.