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Sample records for susceptible plants indicating

  1. Red Blood Cell Parameters as Indices of Susceptibility to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anaemia recorded in infected cattle by 38 days post-infection (pi) was mildest in WF and most severe in SG. It was concluded that low red blood cell values (PCV, Hb and RBC) are some of the markers that are consistently associated with susceptibility of cattle to trypanosomosis. Of the three cattle breeds studied, the ...

  2. Assessing MRI susceptibility artefact through an indicator of image distortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Illanes Alfredo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Susceptibility artefacts in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI caused by medical devices can result in a severe degradation of the MR image quality. The quantification of susceptibility artefacts is regulated by the ASTM standard which defines a manual method to assess the size of an artefact. This means that the estimated artefact size can be user dependent. To cope with this problem, we propose an algorithm to automatically quantify the size of such susceptibility artefacts. The algorithm is based on the analysis of a 3D surface generated from the 2D MR images. The results obtained by the automatic algorithm were compared to the manual measurements performed by study participants. The results show that the automatic and manual measurements follow the same trend. The clear advantage of the automated algorithm is the absence of the inter- and intra-observer variability. In addition, the algorithm also detects the slice containing the largest artefact which was not the case for the manual measurements.

  3. Host plant susceptibility to the swede midge (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Rebecca H

    2007-08-01

    The relative resistance and susceptibility of various cruciferous plants to swede midge, Contarinia nasturtii (Kieffer) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), damage was investigated to provide growers with planting recommendations and to identify potential sources of resistance to the swede midge. Broccoli cultivars experienced more severe damage than cabbage, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts. The broccoli 'Paragon', 'Eureka', and 'Packman' are highly susceptible to the swede midge, whereas 'Triathlon' and 'Regal' showed reduced susceptibility to damage and slower development of damage symptoms. No differences were found between normal and red cultivars of cabbage and cauliflower in damage severity and progression of damage symptoms. Four new plant species (Brassica juncea Integlifolia group, Erucastrum gallicum (Willd.) O. E. Shulz., Lepidium campestre (L.) R.Br., and Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medic.) are reported as hosts of the swede midge. The weed species Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb, Camelina microcarpa Andrz. ex Dc., and Erysimum cheiranthoides L. exhibited no damage symptoms, and they seem to be nonhost crucifers for the swede midge.

  4. Nuclear processes associated with plant immunity and pathogen susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motion, Graham B; Amaro, Tiago M M M; Kulagina, Natalja; Huitema, Edgar

    2015-07-01

    Plants are sessile organisms that have evolved exquisite and sophisticated mechanisms to adapt to their biotic and abiotic environment. Plants deploy receptors and vast signalling networks to detect, transmit and respond to a given biotic threat by inducing properly dosed defence responses. Genetic analyses and, more recently, next-generation -omics approaches have allowed unprecedented insights into the mechanisms that drive immunity. Similarly, functional genomics and the emergence of pathogen genomes have allowed reciprocal studies on the mechanisms governing pathogen virulence and host susceptibility, collectively allowing more comprehensive views on the processes that govern disease and resistance. Among others, the identification of secreted pathogen molecules (effectors) that modify immunity-associated processes has changed the plant-microbe interactions conceptual landscape. Effectors are now considered both important factors facilitating disease and novel probes, suited to study immunity in plants. In this review, we will describe the various mechanisms and processes that take place in the nucleus and help regulate immune responses in plants. Based on the premise that any process required for immunity could be targeted by pathogen effectors, we highlight and describe a number of functional assays that should help determine effector functions and their impact on immune-related processes. The identification of new effector functions that modify nuclear processes will help dissect nuclear signalling further and assist us in our bid to bolster immunity in crop plants. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Plant Photosynthetic Responses During Insect Effector-Triggered Plant Susceptibility and Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramig, Greta G; Harris, Marion O

    2015-06-01

    Gall-inducing insects are known for altering source-sink relationships within plants. Changes in photosynthesis may contribute to this phenomenon. We investigated photosynthetic responses in wheat [Triticum aestivum L. (Poaceae: Triticeae)] seedlings attacked by the Hessian fly [Mayetiola destructor (Say) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae], which uses a salivary effector-based strategy to induce a gall nutritive tissue in susceptible plants. Resistant plants have surveillance systems mediated by products of Resistance (R) genes. Detection of a specific salivary effector triggers downstream responses that result in a resistance that kills neonate larvae. A 2 × 2 factorial design was used to study maximum leaf photosynthetic assimilation and stomatal conductance rates. The plant treatments were-resistant or susceptible wheat lines expressing or not expressing the H13 resistance gene. The insect treatments were-no attack (control) or attack by larvae killed by H13 gene-mediated resistance. Photosynthesis was measured for the second and third leaves of the seedling, the latter being the only leaf directly attacked by larvae. We predicted effector-based attack would trigger increases in photosynthetic rates in susceptible but not resistant plants. For susceptible plants, attack was associated with increases (relative to controls) in photosynthesis for the third but not the second leaf. For resistant plants, attack was associated with increases in photosynthesis for both the second and third leaves. Mechanisms underlying the increases appeared to differ. Resistant plants exhibited responses suggesting altered source-sink relationships. Susceptible plants exhibited responses suggesting a mechanism other than altered source-sink relationships, possibly changes in water relations that contributed to increased stomatal conductance. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please

  6. Evaluation of indicators to determine black sigatoka susceptibility in five banana hybrid cultivars ( Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Pérez Armas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This work had the objective of determining the variation of growth, development and yields indicators of five banana hybrid cultivars. The research was carried in the Agroindustrial Farm Marta Abreu, Cienfuegos, in a carbonated Brown soil. It was made a characterization of the soil and the climatic variables. A field experiment was developed with a design in blocks at random with four repetitions with five banana cultivars as treatments (‘FHIA-18’, ‘FHIA-02’, ‘FHIA-01’, ‘SH-3436 L-9’ and ‘FHIA-23’ . The plots had an area of 56 m2 with 16 plants, been evaluated eight for a total 32 plants for cultivar. The variable evaluated were the spotty youngest leaf, number of leaf by plant, incubation time (PI, evolution time of symptoms (TES and developing time of symptoms (TED, severity index (IS, active photosynthetic index (INHE and infection relative index. The cultivars FHIA-23 and SH 3436 L9 presented a hither time of development of the disease. In a general the more susceptible cultivar to the black Sigatoka under of the farm condition was FHIA-23. The clones FHIA-18, FHIA-01 and FHIA-02 presented the best behavior in the spotted youngest leaf and the number of leaf up to the flowering and the harvest time. The clones FHIA-01 and FHIA-18 have the better response to Black Sigatoka attending to the incubation period, the evolution time of the symptom and develo pment time of the disease

  7. Energy performance indicator report: fluid milk plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    In Canada, the dairy sector consumes significant amounts of energy and is looking for new ways of saving energy. The aim of this study, performed by the Competitive Analysis Centre Inc., was to find novel energy savings ideas for fluid milk plants. For this purpose, the energy consumption of 17 fluid milk plants, which accounts for over 50% of total Canadian output, was analyzed; first, at the plant level, and then by 8 categories at the sub-plant level in order to develop benchmarks that could be applied at both these levels. The paper provides background information on Canada's fluid milk sector and outlines the methodology used to develop and apply energy efficiency measures in the sector; the study findings are also presented. This report found that the energy consumption of the Canadian fluid milk sector could be lowered by applying the energy saving proposals developed herein.

  8. National Wetland Plant List Indicator Rating Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    other vegeta- tive and reproductive organs floating on the water surface). Examples include Lemna minor (common duckweed), Brasenia schreberi...standing water or saturated soils. Typical growth forms include herba- ceous, shrubs, woody vines, and trees. Examples of upland plants include Artemisia

  9. Egyptian plant species as new ozone indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madkour, S.A.; Laurence, J.A

    2002-12-01

    Of more than 30 species of plants from Egypt screened for sensitivity to ozone, four were found to be suitable for use as bioindicators. - The aim of this study was to test and select one or more highly sensitive, specific and environmentally successful Egyptian bioindicator plants for ozone (O{sub 3}). For that purpose more than 30 Egyptian species and cultivars were subjected to extensive screening studies under controlled environmental and pollutant exposure conditions to mimic the Egyptian environmental conditions and O{sub 3} levels in urban and rural sites. Four plant species were found to be more sensitive to O{sub 3} than the universally used O{sub 3}-bioindicator, tobacco Bel W3, under the Egyptian environmental conditions used. These plant species, jute (Corchorus olitorius c.v. local), clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L. c.v. Masry), garden rocket (Eruca sativa c.v. local) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. c.v. local), ranked in order of decreasing sensitivity, exhibited typical O{sub 3} injury symptoms faster and at lower O{sub 3} concentrations than Bel W3. Three variables were tested in search of a reliable tool for the diagnosis and prediction of O{sub 3} response prior to the appearance of visible foliar symptoms: pigment degradation, stomatal conductance (g{sub s}) and net photosynthetic CO{sub 2} assimilation (P{sub net}). Pigment degradation was found to be unreliable in predicting species sensitivity to O{sub 3}. Evidence supporting stomatal conductance involvement in O{sub 3} tolerance was found only in tolerant species. A good correlation was found between g{sub s}, restriction of O{sub 3} and CO{sub 2} influx into the mesophyll tissues, and P{sub net}. Changes in P{sub net} seemed to depend largely on fluctuations in g{sub s}.

  10. Analysis of plant harvest indices for bioregenerative life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayudhan, A.; Kohlmann, K. L.; Westgate, P. J.; Ladisch, M. R.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Harvest indices, which are measures of the ratio of edible to total plant weight, are redefined to include edible sugars derived from enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose content of inedible plant components. Compositional analysis and carbohydrate contents of rapeseed, rice, soybeans, cowpea, wheat, sweet potato, white potato, and lettuce were analyzed to develop such generalized harvest indices. Cellulose conversion is shown to extend considerably the food available from plants otherwise grown for their oil and protein content in a bioregenerative life support system.

  11. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Susceptible and Resistant Rice Plants during Early Infestation by Small Brown Planthopper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan; Fang, Xianping; Yang, Yong; Xue, Gang-Ping; Chen, Xian; Zhang, Weilin; Wang, Xuming; Yu, Chulang; Zhou, Jie; Mei, Qiong; Fang, Wang; Yan, Chengqi; Chen, Jianping

    2017-01-01

    The small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus Fallén, Homoptera, Delphacidae-SBPH) is one of the major destructive pests of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Understanding on how rice responds to SBPH infestation will contribute to developing strategies for SBPH control. However, the response of rice plant to SBPH is poorly understood. In this study, two contrasting rice genotypes, Pf9279-4 (SBPH-resistant) and 02428 (SBPH-susceptible), were used for comparative analysis of protein profiles in the leaf sheath of rice plants in responses to SBPH infestation. One hundred and thirty-two protein spots that were differentially expressed between the resistant and susceptible rice lines were identified with significant intensity differences (≥2-fold, P < 0.05) at 0, 6, and 12 h after SBPH infestation. Protein expression profile analysis in the leaf sheath of SBPH-resistant and SBPH-susceptible rice lines after SBPH infestation showed that proteins induced by SBPH feeding were involved mainly in stress response, photosynthesis, protein metabolic process, carbohydrate metabolic process, energy metabolism, cell wall-related proteins, amino acid metabolism and transcriptional regulation. Gene expression analysis of 24 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) showed that more than 50% DEPs were positively correlated with their mRNA levels. Analysis of some physiological indexes mainly involved in the removal of oxygen reactive species showed that the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) were considerably higher in Pf9279-4 than 02428 during SBPH infestation. The catalase (CAT) activity and hydroxyl radical inhibition were lower in Pf9279-4 than 02428. Analysis of enzyme activities indicates that Pf9279-4 rice plants defend against SBPH through the activation of the pathway of the salicylic acid (SA)-dependent systemic acquired resistance. In conclusion, this study provides some insights into the molecular networks involved on cellular and physiological

  12. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Susceptible and Resistant Rice Plants during Early Infestation by Small Brown Planthopper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Dong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus Fallén, Homoptera, Delphacidae-SBPH is one of the major destructive pests of rice (Oryza sativa L.. Understanding on how rice responds to SBPH infestation will contribute to developing strategies for SBPH control. However, the response of rice plant to SBPH is poorly understood. In this study, two contrasting rice genotypes, Pf9279-4 (SBPH-resistant and 02428 (SBPH-susceptible, were used for comparative analysis of protein profiles in the leaf sheath of rice plants in responses to SBPH infestation. One hundred and thirty-two protein spots that were differentially expressed between the resistant and susceptible rice lines were identified with significant intensity differences (≥2-fold, P < 0.05 at 0, 6, and 12 h after SBPH infestation. Protein expression profile analysis in the leaf sheath of SBPH-resistant and SBPH-susceptible rice lines after SBPH infestation showed that proteins induced by SBPH feeding were involved mainly in stress response, photosynthesis, protein metabolic process, carbohydrate metabolic process, energy metabolism, cell wall-related proteins, amino acid metabolism and transcriptional regulation. Gene expression analysis of 24 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs showed that more than 50% DEPs were positively correlated with their mRNA levels. Analysis of some physiological indexes mainly involved in the removal of oxygen reactive species showed that the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione (GSH were considerably higher in Pf9279-4 than 02428 during SBPH infestation. The catalase (CAT activity and hydroxyl radical inhibition were lower in Pf9279-4 than 02428. Analysis of enzyme activities indicates that Pf9279-4 rice plants defend against SBPH through the activation of the pathway of the salicylic acid (SA-dependent systemic acquired resistance. In conclusion, this study provides some insights into the molecular networks involved on cellular and

  13. Susceptibility of ornamental pepper banker plant candidates to common greenhouse pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susceptibility of four potential ornamental pepper banker plant candidates [Black Pearl (BP), Explosive Ember (EE), Masquerade (MA), Red Missile (RM), and a commercial pepper cultivar Blitz (BL)] were evaluated against three common greenhouse pests - Bemisia tabaci, Polyphagotarsonemus latus and Fra...

  14. Genetic consequences of habitat fragmentation in plant populations: susceptible signals in plant traits and methodological approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Ramiro; Quesada, Mauricio; Ashworth, Lorena; Herrerias-Diego, Yvonne; Lobo, Jorge

    2008-12-01

    Conservation of genetic diversity, one of the three main forms of biodiversity, is a fundamental concern in conservation biology as it provides the raw material for evolutionary change and thus the potential to adapt to changing environments. By means of meta-analyses, we tested the generality of the hypotheses that habitat fragmentation affects genetic diversity of plant populations and that certain life history and ecological traits of plants can determine differential susceptibility to genetic erosion in fragmented habitats. Additionally, we assessed whether certain methodological approaches used by authors influence the ability to detect fragmentation effects on plant genetic diversity. We found overall large and negative effects of fragmentation on genetic diversity and outcrossing rates but no effects on inbreeding coefficients. Significant increases in inbreeding coefficient in fragmented habitats were only observed in studies analyzing progenies. The mating system and the rarity status of plants explained the highest proportion of variation in the effect sizes among species. The age of the fragment was also decisive in explaining variability among effect sizes: the larger the number of generations elapsed in fragmentation conditions, the larger the negative magnitude of effect sizes on heterozygosity. Our results also suggest that fragmentation is shifting mating patterns towards increased selfing. We conclude that current conservation efforts in fragmented habitats should be focused on common or recently rare species and mainly outcrossing species and outline important issues that need to be addressed in future research on this area.

  15. Preliminary indications for antibiotic susceptibility tests in less than six hour in positive blood cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesselina Kroumova

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A rapid determination of the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of pathogens responsible for sepsis represents a significant milestone for a timely correct antibiotic therapy.The system HB&L® (ALIFAX allows reduced time in the detection of bacterial growth and consequently is able to detect the growth or absence of certain microorganisms in the presence of a given antibiotic. In this study three system for rapid antibiotic susceptibility tests among bacteria isolated from blood were compared: HB&L® (ALIFAX,VITEK®2 (bioMérieux and essays Etest® (bioMérieux. Present findings indicate that HB&L® (ALIFAX is rapid reliable instrument that may support the clinician for a rapid and appropriate treatment, particularly in the critical patient.

  16. Genetic and sexual separation between insect resistant and susceptible Barbarea vulgaris plants in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toneatto, F; Nielsen, J K; Ørgaard, M; Hauser, T P

    2010-08-01

    Co-evolution between herbivores and plants is believed to be one of the processes creating Earth's biodiversity. However, it is difficult to disentangle to what extent diversification is really driven by herbivores or by other historical-geographical processes like allopatric isolation. In the cruciferous plant Barbarea vulgaris, some Danish individuals are resistant to herbivory by flea beetles (Phyllotreta nemorum), whereas others are not. The flea beetles are, in parallel, either resistant or susceptible to the plants defenses. To understand the historical-evolutionary framework of these interactions, we tested how genetically divergent resistant and susceptible plants are, using microsatellite markers. To test whether they are reproductively fully compatible, resistant and susceptible plants were grown intermixed in an outdoor experiment, and the paternity of open-pollinated offspring was determined by analysis of molecular markers. Resistant and susceptible Danish plants were genetically strongly differentiated and produced significantly fewer hybrids than expected from random mating or nearest neighbour mating. Our results suggest that the two types belong to different evolutionary lineages that have been (partly) isolated at some time, during which genetic and reproductive divergence evolved. A parsimonious scenario could be that the two plant types were isolated in different refugia during the previous ice age, from which they migrated into and met in Denmark and possibly neighbouring regions. If so, resistance and susceptibility has for unknown reasons become associated with the different evolutionary lineages.

  17. Air pollution tolerance indices of some plants around Ama industrial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Green house gases pollute the atmosphere and cause global warming which has become a worldwide environmental problem. In order to evaluate the ability of plants to absorb such gases, the air pollution tolerance indices (APTI) of some plants around an industrial complex in Nigeria, were determined. The total ...

  18. Air Pollution tolerance indices (apti) of some plants around Otorogun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the air pollution tolerance indices (APTI) of six plant species around Otorogun gas plant in Ughelli-South Local Government Area of Delta State. Four physiological and biochemical parameters, which are leaf relative water content (RWC), Ascorbic acid content (AA), total leaf chlorophyll (TCh) and leaf ...

  19. Susceptibility of Australian plant species to Phytophthora ramorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kylie Ireland; Daniel H& uuml; berli; Bernard Dell; Ian Smith; David Rizzo; Giles. Hardy

    2010-01-01

    Phytophthora ramorum is an invasive plant pathogen causing considerable and widespread damage in nurseries, gardens, and natural woodland ecosystems of the United States and Europe, and is classified as a Category 1 pest in Australia. It is of particular interest to Australian plant biosecurity as, like P. cinnamomi; it has...

  20. Medicinal plants indications from herbal healers for wound treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Willianne Alves do Nascimento

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to identify medicinal plants indicated by commercial herbal healers for wound treatment, in street markets. A descriptive study conducted in a capital city in the northeast of Brazil, through interviews. The results indicate that plant commerce by healers of both genders, aged between 37 to 52 years, from those 69.3% learned about their function with family members. Forty-eight plant species were cited for wound treatment, between those, all participants cited Barbatimão and Mastic. From the plants Sambacaitá, Open Nettle, Yellow Uchi, Corona, Xiquexique, Senna and Pindaíba no properties to prove their indication was found for wound treatment. The stem bark was the most indicated part (96.15%, 81.03% of participants informed that plants should be kept dry for conservation. Studies to clarify the biological activities and collateral effects of medicinal plants are needed, beyond training for healers about indications, prepare, storage/conservation, and expiration date.

  1. Virus Infection of Plants Alters Pollinator Preference: A Payback for Susceptible Hosts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon C Groen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant volatiles play important roles in attraction of certain pollinators and in host location by herbivorous insects. Virus infection induces changes in plant volatile emission profiles, and this can make plants more attractive to insect herbivores, such as aphids, that act as viral vectors. However, it is unknown if virus-induced alterations in volatile production affect plant-pollinator interactions. We found that volatiles emitted by cucumber mosaic virus (CMV-infected tomato (Solanum lycopersicum and Arabidopsis thaliana plants altered the foraging behaviour of bumblebees (Bombus terrestris. Virus-induced quantitative and qualitative changes in blends of volatile organic compounds emitted by tomato plants were identified by gas chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry. Experiments with a CMV mutant unable to express the 2b RNA silencing suppressor protein and with Arabidopsis silencing mutants implicate microRNAs in regulating emission of pollinator-perceivable volatiles. In tomato, CMV infection made plants emit volatiles attractive to bumblebees. Bumblebees pollinate tomato by 'buzzing' (sonicating the flowers, which releases pollen and enhances self-fertilization and seed production as well as pollen export. Without buzz-pollination, CMV infection decreased seed yield, but when flowers of mock-inoculated and CMV-infected plants were buzz-pollinated, the increased seed yield for CMV-infected plants was similar to that for mock-inoculated plants. Increased pollinator preference can potentially increase plant reproductive success in two ways: i as female parents, by increasing the probability that ovules are fertilized; ii as male parents, by increasing pollen export. Mathematical modeling suggested that over a wide range of conditions in the wild, these increases to the number of offspring of infected susceptible plants resulting from increased pollinator preference could outweigh underlying strong selection pressures favoring pathogen

  2. Virus Infection of Plants Alters Pollinator Preference: A Payback for Susceptible Hosts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Simon C; Jiang, Sanjie; Murphy, Alex M; Cunniffe, Nik J; Westwood, Jack H; Davey, Matthew P; Bruce, Toby J A; Caulfield, John C; Furzer, Oliver J; Reed, Alison; Robinson, Sophie I; Miller, Elizabeth; Davis, Christopher N; Pickett, John A; Whitney, Heather M; Glover, Beverley J; Carr, John P

    2016-08-01

    Plant volatiles play important roles in attraction of certain pollinators and in host location by herbivorous insects. Virus infection induces changes in plant volatile emission profiles, and this can make plants more attractive to insect herbivores, such as aphids, that act as viral vectors. However, it is unknown if virus-induced alterations in volatile production affect plant-pollinator interactions. We found that volatiles emitted by cucumber mosaic virus (CMV)-infected tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and Arabidopsis thaliana plants altered the foraging behaviour of bumblebees (Bombus terrestris). Virus-induced quantitative and qualitative changes in blends of volatile organic compounds emitted by tomato plants were identified by gas chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry. Experiments with a CMV mutant unable to express the 2b RNA silencing suppressor protein and with Arabidopsis silencing mutants implicate microRNAs in regulating emission of pollinator-perceivable volatiles. In tomato, CMV infection made plants emit volatiles attractive to bumblebees. Bumblebees pollinate tomato by 'buzzing' (sonicating) the flowers, which releases pollen and enhances self-fertilization and seed production as well as pollen export. Without buzz-pollination, CMV infection decreased seed yield, but when flowers of mock-inoculated and CMV-infected plants were buzz-pollinated, the increased seed yield for CMV-infected plants was similar to that for mock-inoculated plants. Increased pollinator preference can potentially increase plant reproductive success in two ways: i) as female parents, by increasing the probability that ovules are fertilized; ii) as male parents, by increasing pollen export. Mathematical modeling suggested that over a wide range of conditions in the wild, these increases to the number of offspring of infected susceptible plants resulting from increased pollinator preference could outweigh underlying strong selection pressures favoring pathogen resistance

  3. Virus Infection of Plants Alters Pollinator Preference: A Payback for Susceptible Hosts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Matthew P.; Bruce, Toby J. A.; Caulfield, John C.; Furzer, Oliver J.; Reed, Alison; Robinson, Sophie I.; Miller, Elizabeth; Davis, Christopher N.; Pickett, John A.; Whitney, Heather M.; Glover, Beverley J.; Carr, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Plant volatiles play important roles in attraction of certain pollinators and in host location by herbivorous insects. Virus infection induces changes in plant volatile emission profiles, and this can make plants more attractive to insect herbivores, such as aphids, that act as viral vectors. However, it is unknown if virus-induced alterations in volatile production affect plant-pollinator interactions. We found that volatiles emitted by cucumber mosaic virus (CMV)-infected tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and Arabidopsis thaliana plants altered the foraging behaviour of bumblebees (Bombus terrestris). Virus-induced quantitative and qualitative changes in blends of volatile organic compounds emitted by tomato plants were identified by gas chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry. Experiments with a CMV mutant unable to express the 2b RNA silencing suppressor protein and with Arabidopsis silencing mutants implicate microRNAs in regulating emission of pollinator-perceivable volatiles. In tomato, CMV infection made plants emit volatiles attractive to bumblebees. Bumblebees pollinate tomato by ‘buzzing’ (sonicating) the flowers, which releases pollen and enhances self-fertilization and seed production as well as pollen export. Without buzz-pollination, CMV infection decreased seed yield, but when flowers of mock-inoculated and CMV-infected plants were buzz-pollinated, the increased seed yield for CMV-infected plants was similar to that for mock-inoculated plants. Increased pollinator preference can potentially increase plant reproductive success in two ways: i) as female parents, by increasing the probability that ovules are fertilized; ii) as male parents, by increasing pollen export. Mathematical modeling suggested that over a wide range of conditions in the wild, these increases to the number of offspring of infected susceptible plants resulting from increased pollinator preference could outweigh underlying strong selection pressures favoring pathogen resistance

  4. Infection of host plants by Cucumber mosaic virus increases the susceptibility of Myzus persicae aphids to the parasitoid Aphidius colemani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauck, Kerry E; De Moraes, Consuelo M; Mescher, Mark C

    2015-06-04

    Plant viruses can profoundly alter the phenotypes of their host plants, with potentially far-reaching implications for ecology. Yet few studies have explored the indirect, host-mediated, effects of plant viruses on non-vector insects. We examined how infection of Cucurbita pepo plants by Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) impacted the susceptibility of aphids (Myzus persicae) to attack by the parasitoid wasp Aphidius colemani. In semi-natural foraging assays, we observed higher rates of aphid parasitism on infected plants compared to healthy plants. Subsequent experiments revealed that this difference is not explained by different attack rates on plants differing in infection status, but rather by the fact that parasitoid larvae successfully complete their development more often when aphid hosts feed on infected plants. This suggests that the reduced nutritional quality of infected plants as host for aphids--documented in previous studies--compromises their ability to mount effective defenses against parasitism. Furthermore, our current findings indicate that the aphid diet during parasitoid development (rather than prior to wasp oviposition) is a key factor influencing resistance. These findings complement our previous work showing that CMV-induced changes in host plant chemistry alter patterns of aphid recruitment and dispersal in ways conducive to virus transmission.

  5. OPDA has key role in regulating plant susceptibility to the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne hapla in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Gleason

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Jasmonic acid (JA is a plant hormone that plays important roles in regulating plant defenses against necrotrophic pathogens and herbivorous insects, but the role of JA in mediating the plant responses to root-knot nematodes has been unclear. Here we show that an application of either methyl jasmonate (MeJA or the JA-mimic coronatine (COR on Arabidopsis significantly reduced the number of galls caused by the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne hapla. Interestingly, the MeJA-induced resistance was independent of the JA-receptor COI1 (CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1. The MeJA-treated plants accumulated the JA precursor cis-(+-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA in addition to JA/JA-Isoleucine, indicating a positive feedback loop in JA biosynthesis. Using mutants in the JA-biosynthetic pathway, we found that plants deficient in the biosynthesis of JA and OPDA were hyper-susceptible to M. hapla. However, the opr3 mutant, which cannot convert OPDA to JA, exhibited wild-type levels of nematode galling. In addition, mutants in the JA-biosynthesis and perception which lie downstream of opr3 also displayed wild-type levels of galling. The data puts OPR3 (OPDA reductase 3 as the branch point between hyper-susceptibility and wild-type like levels of disease. Overall, the data suggests that the JA precursor, OPDA, plays a role in regulating plant defense against nematodes.

  6. OPDA Has Key Role in Regulating Plant Susceptibility to the Root-Knot NematodeMeloidogyne haplainArabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Cynthia; Leelarasamee, Natthanon; Meldau, Dorothea; Feussner, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is a plant hormone that plays important roles in regulating plant defenses against necrotrophic pathogens and herbivorous insects, but the role of JA in mediating the plant responses to root-knot nematodes has been unclear. Here we show that an application of either methyl jasmonate (MeJA) or the JA-mimic coronatine (COR) on Arabidopsis significantly reduced the number of galls caused by the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne hapla . Interestingly, the MeJA-induced resistance was independent of the JA-receptor COI1 (CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1). The MeJA-treated plants accumulated the JA precursor cis -(+)-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) in addition to JA/JA-Isoleucine, indicating a positive feedback loop in JA biosynthesis. Using mutants in the JA-biosynthetic pathway, we found that plants deficient in the biosynthesis of JA and OPDA were hyper-susceptible to M. hapla. However, the opr3 mutant, which cannot convert OPDA to JA, exhibited wild-type levels of nematode galling. In addition, mutants in the JA-biosynthesis and perception which lie downstream of opr3 also displayed wild-type levels of galling. The data put OPR3 (OPDA reductase 3) as the branch point between hyper-susceptibility and wild-type like levels of disease. Overall, the data suggests that the JA precursor, OPDA, plays a role in regulating plant defense against nematodes.

  7. Viability and susceptibility of propagation material from coffee plants to Colletotrichum sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Ogoshi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to verify the viability of propagation material from coffee plants descended from germplasm susceptible to blister spot disease as well as its susceptibility to Colletotrichum sp. relative to commercial coffee cultivars. In the first experiment, fruits were harvested from plants with and without symptoms of blister spot and sowed in trays containing a commercial sterilized substrate. The percentages of germinated seeds, viable plantlets and seedlings were evaluated. In diseased tissues, pathogens were isolated and identified though a pathogenicity test. In the second experiment, ten commercial cultivars and one cultivar originating from plants with blister spot were inoculated with the pathogens to assess the severity of anthracnose. Significant differences were not observed with respect to seed germination. However, the viability of plantlets and seedlings was reduced in the cultivar originating from plants with blister spot (Genotype Originated from Diseased Plants-GODP. These plants showed characteristic symptoms of blister spot, including necrosis in the leaves and hypocotyls, wilting and death. In the necrotic lesions, we observed characteristic sporulation of Colletotrichum sp. The cultivar most susceptible to anthracnose in cotyledonary leaves was Catuaí Vermelho (GODP, which presented the highest area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC. In conclusion, the viability of propagation material from coffee plants that had descended from plants with symptoms of blister spot (GODP was reduced compared with plants from other genotypes, although seed germination was not affected. Moreover, GODP species are more susceptible to Anthracnose on the cotyledonary leaves relative to the other analyzed commercial cultivars. This work is the first to report on different symptoms exhibited by seedlings originating from the seeds of plants with symptoms of blister spot..

  8. In vitro susceptibility testing of Yersinia species to eight plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-05-24

    May 24, 2012 ... 10010 Afr. J. Biotechnol. Table 1. The inhibitory effect of neat ethanolic plant extracts and some natural antimicrobials against Yersinia sp. Extract. Diameter of zones of inhibition (mm). YPS. YE 0:3. YE 0:8. YK 0:11, 23. YI 0:52, 53 YIL 0:52, 53. Cymbopogon citratus (DC) staft leaves. 12.7. 16.5. 10.4*. 14.4.

  9. Biometric Indices of Arachis hypogaea Plant Grown in Kutchalli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kutchalli drilling waste pit materials (WPM) in the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation, NNPC, exploration site in Borno State of Nigeria was evaluated for systemic toxicity to inhabitants (man, animal and plants) via the food chain. In this experiment, biometric indices were analysed using standard methods. Results ...

  10. Air pollution tolerance indices of plants growing around Umuebulu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A composite sample of eight leaves for each plant was used for laboratory analysis. Four physiological and biochemical parameters: leaf relative water content (RWC), ascorbic acid content (AAC), total leaf chlorophyll (TLC) and pH of leaf extract were used to compute the Air pollution tolerance indices (APTI). Results ...

  11. Interactions between Plant Extracts and Cell Viability Indicators ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interactions between Plant Extracts and Cell Viability. Indicators during Cytotoxicity Testing: Implications for. Ethnopharmacological Studies. Sze Mun Chan1, Kong Soo Khoo2 and Nam Weng Sit1*. 1Department of Biomedical Science, 2Department of Chemical Science, Faculty of Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman,.

  12. Dynamic metabolic responses of brown planthoppers towards susceptible and resistant rice plants

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Caixiang; Du, Ba; Hao, Fuhua; Lei, Hehua; Wan, Qianfen; He, Guangcun; Wang, Yulan; Tang, Huiru

    2017-01-01

    Summary Brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål, BPH) causes huge economic losses in rice‐growing regions, and new strategies for combating BPH are required. To understand how BPHs respond towards BPH‐resistant plants, we systematically analysed the metabolic differences between BPHs feeding on the resistant and susceptible plants using NMR and GC‐FID/MS. We also measured the expression of some related genes involving glycolysis and biosyntheses of trehalose, amino acids, chitin and fatty ...

  13. Granivory of invasive, naturalized, and native plants in communities differentially susceptible to invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. M. Connolly; D. E. Pearson; R. N. Mack

    2014-01-01

    Seed predation is an important biotic filter that can influence abundance and spatial distributions of native species through differential effects on recruitment. This filter may also influence the relative abundance of nonnative plants within habitats and the communities' susceptibility to invasion via differences in granivore identity, abundance, and food...

  14. Musca domestica laboratory susceptibility to three ethnobotanical culinary plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Zayyat, Elham A; Soliman, Mohammed I; Elleboudy, Noha A; Ofaa, Shaimaa E

    2015-10-01

    Throughout history, synanthropic Musca domestica had remained a worldwide problem whenever poor sanitation and bad hygienic conditions exists. Houseflies growing resistance to chemical insecticides are a rising environmental problem that necessitates search for alternatives. Mentha cervina, Ocimum basilicum, and Coriandrum sativum were tested for bioactivity on M. domestica adults and larvae. They are culinary Mediterranean plants. In adulticidal bioassay, using both CDC bottles and fumigation techniques, basil was the most effective extract with LC50 1.074 and 34.996 g/L, respectively. Concerning larvicidal bioassay by fumigation technique, coriander had the highest toxicity index with LC50 29.521 g/L. In both dipping and feeding technique, basil had the highest toxicity with LC50 32.643 and 0.749 g/L, respectively. Basil showed the highest toxicity results in four out of the five models tested followed by coriander then mint; this result highlights the potentiality of basil as a green insecticide in management of flies and opens new insight in the industrialization of basil-based fly control products.

  15. Decreased Polysaccharide Feruloylation Compromises Plant Cell Wall Integrity and Increases Susceptibility to Necrotrophic Fungal Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan T Reem

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of cell wall composition and structure determines the strength, flexibility, and function of the primary cell wall in plants. However, the contribution of the various components to cell wall integrity and function remains unclear. Modifications of cell wall composition can induce plant responses known as Cell Wall Integrity control. In this study, we used transgenic expression of the fungal feruloyl esterase AnFAE to examine the effect of post-synthetic modification of Arabidopsis and Brachypodium cell walls. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing AnFAE showed a significant reduction of monomeric ferulic acid, increased amounts of wall-associated extensins, and increased susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea, compared with wild type. Transgenic Brachypodium showed reductions in monomeric and dimeric ferulic acids and increased susceptibility to Bipolaris sorokiniana. Upon infection, transgenic Arabidopsis and Brachypodium plants also showed increased expression of several defense-related genes compared with wild type. These results demonstrate a role, in both monocot and dicot plants, of polysaccharide feruloylation in plant cell wall integrity, which contributes to plant resistance to necrotrophic pathogens.

  16. Detection of heavy metal containing emissions through selected plant indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenbeck, H.

    1974-06-01

    For the detection of heavy metal-containing atmospheric pollutants by existing vegetation, single wild growing trees or bushes are most suitable. The frequently occurring elder was therefore used for determination of the spread of zinc-, lead-, and cadmium-containing pollutants in the western Ruhr area covering roughly 900 sq km. From 44 uniformly distributed locations and a further one outside the industrial Ruhr area leaf samples of elder (Sambucus nigra) were taken and analyzed by stripping voltammetry. The normal concentration was considered as exceeded when values of more than 100 ppM Zn, 10 ppM Pb and 0.5 ppM Cd were measured. The results, of which only excerpts are presented, show that the maximum Zn concentrations at 82 percent of the locations exceeded the normal value, the maximum Cd concentration exceeded the normal value at 40 percent of the locations and those of lead exceeded the normal value at all locations. Zinc and lead were found to be widespread long-term emission components, while Cd was found over longer periods of time in the elder samples only at certain points. In the vicinity of a zinc plant certain test plants were grown under standard conditions and the same soil in the direction of the main wind direction with a control patch on the leeward side. In addition, the soil around the zinc plant was used for cultivation of the indicator plants for the purpose of determining the effects of the dust sediments on the plants. Soil polluted by heavy metal emission increased the sensitivity of plants towards atmospheric effects of air pollutants.

  17. Use of Aeromonas spp. as general indicators of antimicrobial susceptibility among bacteria in aquatic environments in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru eUsui

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobials are widely used, not only for treating human infections, but also for treatment of livestock and in fish farms. Human habitats in Southeastern Asian countries are located in close proximity to aquatic environments. As such, the human populations within these regions are at risk of exposure to antimicrobial resistant bacteria (ARB, and thereby disseminating antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs. In this study, we collected water samples from 15 sites (5 sites in Chao Phraya River, 2 sites at the mouth of Chao Phraya River, 3 sites in Ta Chin River, and 5 sites at city canals and 12 sites (6 sites at city canals, 2 sites at chicken farms, 2 sites at pig farms, and 2 samples from sites at pig farms that were subsequently treated at a biogas plant in Thailand in 2013 and 2014, respectively. In total, 117 Aeromonas spp. were isolated from the water samples, and these organisms exhibited various antimicrobial susceptibility profiles. Moreover, there was a significant correlation between the environmental concentration of tetracyclines and the rates of tetracycline resistance in the isolated Aeromonas spp. Notably, however, the concentration and resistance rates of tetracycline in samples derived from pig farms were higher than those of samples harvested from other aquatic environments. These findings suggest that the high concentrations of antimicrobials observed in these aquatic environments likely select for ARGs. Furthermore, they indicate that Aeromonas spp. comprise an effective marker for monitoring antimicrobial resistance in aquatic environments.

  18. Classification of auxin plant hormones by interaction property similarity indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomić, Sanja; Gabdoulline, Razif R.; Kojić-Prodić, Biserka; Wade, Rebecca C.

    1998-01-01

    Although auxins were the first type of plant hormone to be identified, little is known about the molecular mechanism of this important class of plant hormones. We present a classification of a set of about 50 compounds with measured auxin activities, according to their interaction properties. Four classes of compounds were defined: strongly active, weakly active with weak antiauxin behaviour, inactive and inhibitory. All compounds were modeled in two low-energy conformations, `P' and `T', so as to obtain the best match to the `planar' and `tilted' conformations, respectively, of indole 3-acetic acid. Each set of conformers was superimposed separately using several different alignment schemes. Molecular interaction energy fields were computed for each molecule with five different chemical probes and then compared by computing similarity indices. Similarity analysis showed that the classes are on average distinguishable, with better differentiation achieved for the T conformers than the P conformers. This indicates that the T conformation might be the active one. Further, a screening was developed which could distinguish compounds with auxin activity from inactive compounds and most antiauxins using the T conformers. The classifications rationalize ambiguities in activity data found in the literature and should be of value in predicting the activities of new plant growth substances and herbicides.

  19. Dynamic metabolic responses of brown planthoppers towards susceptible and resistant rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Caixiang; Du, Ba; Hao, Fuhua; Lei, Hehua; Wan, Qianfen; He, Guangcun; Wang, Yulan; Tang, Huiru

    2017-10-01

    Brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål, BPH) causes huge economic losses in rice-growing regions, and new strategies for combating BPH are required. To understand how BPHs respond towards BPH-resistant plants, we systematically analysed the metabolic differences between BPHs feeding on the resistant and susceptible plants using NMR and GC-FID/MS. We also measured the expression of some related genes involving glycolysis and biosyntheses of trehalose, amino acids, chitin and fatty acids using real-time PCR. BPH metabonome was dominated by more than 60 metabolites including fatty acids, amino acids, carbohydrates, nucleosides/nucleotides and TCA cycle intermediates. After initial 12 h, BPHs feeding on the resistant plants had lower levels of amino acids, glucose, fatty acids and TCA cycle intermediates than on the susceptible ones. The levels of these metabolites recovered after 24 h feeding. This accompanied with increased level in trehalose, choline metabolites and nucleosides/nucleotides compared with BPH feeding on the susceptible plants. Decreased levels of BPH metabolites at the early feeding probably resulted from less BPH uptakes of sap from resistant plants and recovery of BPH metabolites at the later stage probably resulted from their adaptation to the adverse environment with their increased hopping frequency to ingest more sap together with contributions from yeast-like symbionts in BPHs. Throughout 96 h, BPH feeding on the resistant plants showed significant up-regulation of chitin synthase catalysing biosynthesis of chitin for insect exoskeleton, peritrophic membrane lining gut and tracheae. These findings provided useful metabolic information for understanding the BPH-rice interactions and perhaps for developing new BPH-combating strategies. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Advanced techniques using the plant as indicator of irrigation management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara dos Santos Esteves

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The methodologies which are considered the most promising for irrigation management are those based on the analysis of the water status of the plants themselves. This justifies the study and improvement of indicators based on automatic and continuous measures to enable real-time monitoring data, as indices from sap flow, dendrometry and leaf turgor pressure techniques. The aim of this paper is to analyze such methodologies in order to demonstrate their principles, advantages and challenges. In conclusion, the methodologies analyzed still have many technological advances and challenges before being presented to the final user. The future research should work these tools for elaboration of technical indexes that allow their simplification, on the instrumental point of view, and the interpretation of their results.

  1. Plant breeding by using radiation mutation - Development of radiation indicator plants by molecular breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jang Ryol; Kwak, Sang Soo; Kwon, Seok Yoon [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    - tSOD1, cytosolic CuZnSOD cDNA was cloned from tobacco cDNA library by PCR. To develop the under-producing the transgenic plants, the vectors were constructed using by antisense and co-supressing technology. The transgenic tobacco plants were confirmed that over 60% of kanamycin-resistant plants were introduced the foreign gene by PCR and transformed one copy through Southern blot analysis. - In an attempt to identify marker genes for gamma irradiation of plants, expression patterns of diverse genes upon gamma irradiation of young tobacco plants were investigated. With the knowledge of distinctive expression patterns of diverse genes, irradiation-indicating marker plants could be developed by engineering and monitoring multiple radiation-responsive genes. Additionally, a gamma irradiation-responsive NtTMK1 receptor-like kinase gene was molecular biologically characterized. -Uranium reductase gene (Cytochrome C3) and radiation resistance gene (recA) have been cloned from Desulfovibrio and Deinococcus radiodurans. -Two plant transformation vectors (pCYC3 and pDrecA) have been constructed. - Tobacco transgenic plants of have been obtained. 52 refs., 5 figs. (Author)

  2. Revealing different systems responses to brown planthopper infestation for pest susceptible and resistant rice plants with the combined metabonomic and gene-expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Caixiang; Hao, Fuhua; Hu, Jing; Zhang, Weilin; Wan, Linglin; Zhu, Lili; Tang, Huiru; He, Guangcun

    2010-12-03

    Brown planthopper (BPH) is a notorious pest of rice plants attacking leaf sheaths and seriously affecting global rice production. However, how rice plants respond against BPH remains to be fully understood. To understand systems metabolic responses of rice plants to BPH infestation, we analyzed BPH-induced metabolic changes in leaf sheaths of both BPH-susceptible and resistant rice varieties using NMR-based metabonomics and measured expression changes of 10 relevant genes using quantitative real-time PCR. Our results showed that rice metabonome was dominated by more than 30 metabolites including sugars, organic acids, amino acids, and choline metabolites. BPH infestation caused profound metabolic changes for both BPH-susceptible and resistant rice plants involving transamination, GABA shunt, TCA cycle, gluconeogenesis/glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, and secondary metabolisms. BPH infestation caused more drastic overall metabolic changes for BPH-susceptible variety and more marked up-regulations for key genes regulating GABA shunt and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites for BPH-resistant variety. Such observations indicated that activation of GABA shunt and shikimate-mediated secondary metabolisms was vital for rice plants to resist BPH infestation. These findings filled the gap of our understandings in the mechanistic aspects of BPH resistance for rice plants and demonstrated the combined metabonomic and qRT-PCR analysis as an effective approach for understanding plant-herbivore interactions.

  3. Multicenter evaluation of fully automated BACTEC Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube 960 system for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemer, Pascale; Palicova, Frantiska; Rüsch-Gerdes, Sabine; Drugeon, Henri B; Pfyffer, Gaby E

    2002-01-01

    The reliability of the BACTEC Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) 960 system for testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis susceptibility to the three front-line drugs (isoniazid [INH], rifampin [RIF], and ethambutol [EMB]) plus streptomycin (STR) was compared to that of the BACTEC 460 TB system. The proportion method was used to resolve discrepant results by an independent arbiter. One hundred and ten strains were tested with an overall agreement of 93.5%. Discrepant results were obtained for seven strains (6.4%) with INH (resistant by BACTEC MGIT 960; susceptible by BACTEC 460 TB), for one strain (0.9%) with RIF (resistant by BACTEC MGIT 960; susceptible by BACTEC 460 TB), for seven strains (6.4%) with EMB (six resistant by BACTEC MGIT 960 and susceptible by BACTEC 460 TB; one susceptible by BACTEC MGIT 960 and resistant by BACTEC 460 TB), and for 19 strains (17.3%) with STR (resistant by BACTEC MGIT 960 and susceptible by BACTEC 460 TB). After resolution of discrepant results, the sensitivity of the BACTEC MGIT 960 system was 100% for all four drugs and specificity ranged from 89.8% for STR to 100% for RIF. Turnaround times were 4.6 to 11.7 days (median, 6.5 days) for BACTEC MGIT 960 and 4.0 to 10.0 days (median, 7.0 days) for BACTEC 460 TB. These data demonstrate that the fully automated and nonradiometric BACTEC MGIT 960 system is an accurate method for rapid susceptibility testing of M. tuberculosis.

  4. Performance indicators and indices of sludge management in urban wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, C; Saldanha Matos, J; Rosa, M J

    2016-12-15

    Sludge (or biosolids) management is highly complex and has a significant cost associated with the biosolids disposal, as well as with the energy and flocculant consumption in the sludge processing units. The sludge management performance indicators (PIs) and indices (PXs) are thus core measures of the performance assessment system developed for urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The key PIs proposed cover the sludge unit production and dry solids concentration (DS), disposal/beneficial use, quality compliance for agricultural use and costs, whereas the complementary PIs assess the plant reliability and the chemical reagents' use. A key PI was also developed for assessing the phosphorus reclamation, namely through the beneficial use of the biosolids and the reclaimed water in agriculture. The results of a field study with 17 Portuguese urban WWTPs in a 5-year period were used to derive the PI reference values which are neither inherent to the PI formulation nor literature-based. Clusters by sludge type (primary, activated, trickling filter and mixed sludge) and by digestion and dewatering processes were analysed and the reference values for sludge production and dry solids were proposed for two clusters: activated sludge or biofilter WWTPs with primary sedimentation, sludge anaerobic digestion and centrifuge dewatering; activated sludge WWTPs without primary sedimentation and anaerobic digestion and with centrifuge dewatering. The key PXs are computed for the DS after each processing unit and the complementary PXs for the energy consumption and the operating conditions DS-determining. The PX reference values are treatment specific and literature based. The PI and PX system was applied to a WWTP and the results demonstrate that it diagnosis the situation and indicates opportunities and measures for improving the WWTP performance in sludge management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prioritising watersheds on the basis of regional flood susceptibility and vulnerability in mountainous areas through the use of indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogelis, Carolina; Werner, Micha

    2013-04-01

    Settlements in peri-urban areas of many cities in mountainous areas such as in the Andes are susceptible to hazards such as flash floods and debris flows. Additionally these settlements are in many cases informal and thus vulnerable to such hazards, resulting in significant risk. Such watersheds are often quiet small, and generally there is little or no information from gauges to help characterise risk. To help identify watersheds in which flood management measures are to be targeted, a rapid assessment of risk is required. In this paper a novel approach is presented where indicators of susceptibility and vulnerability to flash floods were used to prioritize 106 mountain watersheds in Bogotá (Colombia). Variables recognized in literature to determine the dominant processes both in susceptibility and vulnerability to flash floods were used to construct the indicators. Susceptibility was considered to increase with flashiness and the possibility of debris flow events occurring. This was assessed through the use of an indicator composed of a morphometric indicator and a land use indicator. The former was constructed using morphological variables recognized in literature to significantly influence flashiness and occurrence of debris flows; the latter was constructed in terms of percentage of vegetation cover, urban area and bare soil. The morphometric indicator was compared with the results of a debris flow propagation algorithm to assess its capacity in indentifying the morphological conditions of a watershed that make it able to transport debris flows. Propagation was carried out through the use of the Modified Single Flow Direction algorithm, following previous identification of source areas by applying thresholds identified in the area-slope curve of the watersheds and empirical thresholds. Results show that the morphometric variables can be grouped in four categories: size, shape, hypsometry and energy, with the energy the component found to best explain the

  6. Rock fall susceptibility assessment using structural geological indicators for detaching processes such as sliding or toppling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzner, Sandra; Tilch, Nils; Lotter, Michael; Kociu, Arben

    2010-05-01

    A structural geological assessment of cliffs in terms of rock fall susceptibility is expensive and time-consuming particularly in remote areas (exposed cliffs) where it may even be impossible. Hence it is important to develop methods and strategies that can be used to extrapolate the acquired knowledge from representative sub-regions to the whole study area. Using a case study in Carinthia (Austria), a GIS method was developed which can be used for regional, qualitative determination of the susceptibility of cliffs in carbonatic sedimentary rock, regarding two potential initial detachment processes of rock fall: sliding and/or toppling. During the development of this GIS method, it was found that not all of the mapped structural geologic parameters are equally suitable for a comprehensive regionalisation. Subsequently, only those parameters were included in the assessment which experts deemed to be representative in terms of parameter homogeneity/heterogeneity and thus applicable to the entire survey region: bedding thickness, tectonic lineaments, orientation of discontinuities and type of rock mass structure. Regions of homogeneity/heterogeneity differ with regard to parameter values, as well as parameter uncertainties and scattering. At first, the cliffs were categorised in terms of potential form and size of rock blocks by overlaying various parameter maps. In the next step, the relative orientation of the rock mass structures and their variations towards slope aspect and slope inclination were considered within a region of homogeneity. This allowed an accurate estimate of the possible maximum dip angle (or apparent dip angle) of a joint set over a wide area. It also permitted those areas to be pointed out in which process-initialising sliding and/or toppling might be possible along one or several joint sets. Comparing this method to the acquired field data has proven the approach to be successful when it comes to assessing cliffs in carbonate rocks in terms of

  7. Development of radiation indicator plants by molecular breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jang-Ryol; Min, Sung-Ran; Jeong, Won-Joong; Kwak, Sang-Soo; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Kwon, Seok-Yoon; Pai, Hyun-Sook; Cho, Hye-Sun; In, Dong-Su; Oh, Seung-Chol; Park, Sang- Gyu; Woo, Je-Wook; Kin, Tae-Hwan; Park, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Chang-Sook [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Taejeon (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    To develop the transgenic plants with low level of antioxidant enzyme, transgenic tobacco plants (157 plants) using 8 different plant expression vectors which have APX genes in sense or antisense orientation under the control of CaMV 35S promoter or stress-inducible SWPA2 promoter were developed. The insertion of transgene in transgenic plants was confirmed by PCR analysis. The total APX activities of transgenic plants were enhanced or reduced by introduction of APX gene in plants. To clone the radiation-responsive genes and their promoter from plants, the NeIF2Bb, one of radiation-responsive genes from tobacco plant was characterized using molecular and cell biological tools. Promoter of GST6, a radiation-responsive gene, was cloned using RT-PCR. The GST6 promoter sequence was analyzed, and known sequence motif was searched. To develop the remediation technology of radioactively contaminated soil using transgenic plants uranium reductase and radiation resistance genes have been introduced in tobacco and indian mustard plans. The uranium reductase and radiation resistance (RecA) genes were confirmed in transgenic tobacco and indian mustard plants by PCR analysis. Also, Gene expression of uranium reductase and radiation resistance were confirmed in transgenic indian mustard plants by northern blot analysis. 42 refs., 12 figs. (Author)

  8. Suitable indicators using stem diameter variation-derived indices to monitor the water status of greenhouse tomato plants

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Zhaojiang; Duan, Aiwang; Chen, Deli; Dassanayake, Kithsiri Bandara; Wang, Xiaosen; Liu, Zugui; LIU Hao; Gao, Shengguo

    2017-01-01

    It is very important to seek a simple nondestructive method to continuously measure plant water status for irrigation scheduling. Changes in stem diameter in response to plant water status and soil water content (SWC) were experimentally investigated during the growing seasons of 2011/2012 and 2012/2013 in pot-cultivated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) plants in a plastic greenhouse. This study was conducted to determine suitable SDV (stem diameter variation)-derived indices as indicators...

  9. Comparison of manual mycobacteria growth indicator tube and epsilometer test with agar proportion method for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Karabulut

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Antimycobacterial susceptibility tests take weeks, and delayed therapy can lead to spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Therefore, rapid, accurate and cost-effective methods are required for proper therapy selection. In this study, the Mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT and epsilometer test (Etest methods were compared to the agar proportion method for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Materials and Methods: The susceptibility tests against isoniazid (INH, rifampin (RIF, streptomycin (STM and ethambutol (ETM of 51 M. tuberculosis complex isolates were analyzed by the MGIT, Etest and agar proportion methods. Results: The concordance between MGIT/Etest and agar proportion methods was 98% for INH and 100% for RIF, STM, ETM. There were not statistically significant differences in results of the susceptibility tests between MGIT/Etest and the reference agar proportion method. Conclusion: The results have shown that MGIT and Etest methods can be used instead of the agar proportion method, because these two methods are more rapid and easier than the agar proportion method.

  10. Damage of fluorine-indicator plants in the wild flora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borsdorf, W.

    1962-01-01

    In an area of middle-Germany, which has an abundance of fluorine-containing exhaust gases, the wild flora and some cultivated plants were examined in order to find out about their availability as an indicator for the extent and intensity of damages of fluorine. As a result of three years of observation, a list of 59 kinds was found, whereby 4 sensitivity-groups were determined based on the macroscopic damage (necroses of the edges and the rim of the leaves, less frequently in the intercostal fields). Vitis vinifera L., Carpinus betulus L., Iris germanic L., Arrhenatherum elatium L., J. and C. Presl and Dactylis glomerata L. proved to be highly sensitive. Generally the kinds of gramiceea and Polygonacea seem to be sensitive, those of the Liabiates, composites papilionacea crucifers, and Umbelifera on the other hand seem to be very resistant. The amount of damage is influenced among other things by a number of environmental factors (formation of the terrain, main directions of the wind, precipitations, degree of wooded area).

  11. Wounding induces local resistance but systemic susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea in pepper plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Tania; Gutiérrez, Jorge; Veloso, Javier; Gago-Fuentes, Raquel; Díaz, José

    2015-03-15

    Cotyledon wounding in pepper caused the early generation of hydrogen peroxide both locally (cotyledons) and systemically (upper true leaves). However, 72 h later there is a different wound response between local and systemic organs, as shown by resistance to the pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea, that increased locally and decreased systemically. Signaling by ethylene and jasmonic acid was assessed by using two inhibitors: 1-methylcyclopropene (MCP, inhibitor of ethylene receptors) and ibuprofen (inhibitor of jasmonate biosynthesis). MCP did not affect the modulation of resistance levels to Botrytis by wounding, ruling out the involvement of ethylene signaling. Ibuprofen did not inhibit wound-induced resistance at the local level, but inhibited wound-induced systemic susceptibility. Moreover, changes of biochemical and structural defenses in response to wounding were studied. Peroxidase activity and the expression of a peroxidase gene (CAPO1) increased locally as a response to wounding, but no changes were observed systemically. Lignin deposition was induced in wounded cotyledons, but was repressed in systemic leaves of wounded plants, whereas soluble phenolics did not change locally and decreased systemically. The expression of two other genes involved in plant defense (CABPR1 and CASC1) was also differentially regulated locally and systemically, pointing to a generalized increase in plant defenses at the local level and a systemic decrease as a response to wounding. Wound-induced defenses at the local level coincided with resistance to the necrotroph fungus B. cinerea, whereas depleted defenses in systemic leaves of wounded plants correlated to induced susceptibility against this pathogen. It may be that the local response acts as a sink of energy resources to mount a defense against pathogens, whereas in systemic organs the resources for defense are lower. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative Susceptibility of Plants Native to the Appalachian Range of the United States to Inoculation With Phytophthora ramorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.G. Linderman; Patricia B. de Sá; E.A. Davis

    2008-01-01

    Phytophthora ramorum, cause of sudden oak death of trees or ramorum blight of other plant species, has many hosts. Some geographic regions, such as the Appalachian range of the eastern United States, are considered high risk of becoming infested with the pathogen because known susceptible plants occur there and climatic characteristics appear...

  13. Genetic and sexual separation between insect resistant and susceptible Barbarea vulgaris plants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toneatto, Fiorello; Nielsen, Jens Kvist; Ørgaard, Marian

    2010-01-01

    . In the cruciferous plant Barbarea vulgaris, some Danish individuals are resistant to herbivory by flea beetles (Phyllotreta nemorum), whereas others are not. The flea beetles are, in parallel, either resistant or susceptible to the plants defenses. To understand the historical-evolutionary framework...... was determined by analysis of molecular markers. Resistant and susceptible Danish plants were genetically strongly differentiated and produced significantly fewer hybrids than expected from random mating or nearest neighbour mating. Our results suggest that the two types belong to different evolutionary lineages...

  14. Hemicryptophytes plant species as indicator of grassland state in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plots of 10 m X 10 m were installed along a land use gradient (from communal lands to the protected area via the buffer zone) in three vegetation types for plant biomass harvesting and hemicryptophytes traits measurement. The hemicryptophyte density, biovolume, tussock size, contact frequency, contribution to total plant ...

  15. Fatty acid composition of the anterior cingulate cortex indicates a high susceptibility to lipid peroxidation in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Sarah K; Jenner, Andrew M; Spiro, Adena S; Batterham, Marijka; Halliday, Glenda M; Garner, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress contributes to Parkinson's disease (PD) etiology. Although previous studies have focused on sources of free radical formation in brain regions affected by PD, less is known regarding changes in lipid composition and the implications for susceptibility to peroxidation. To assess fatty acid profiles from control and PD tissues that are susceptible to PD pathology but devoid of severe destruction. We used gas chromatography methods to assess fatty acid profiles from control (n = 10) and PD (n = 9) postmortem tissues. We focused on the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a region that accumulates alpha-synuclein, but does not undergo severe destruction, and compared this to the occipital cortex, a region that is pathologically spared. Our data indicate a significant 33% increase in the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (mol%) present in the PD ACC as compared to control ACC. Increases in highly unsaturated 22:5n-6 and 22:6n-3 fatty acids were particularly pronounced (109% and 73%, respectively). Calculation of a peroxidation index (accounting for total fatty acyl double bounds) indicated a 44% increase in susceptibility of the PD ACC to lipid peroxidation compared to control ACC. Such differences were not detected in the occipital cortex from the same donors. Assessment of F2-isprostane levels confirmed that PD tissue lipids were more oxidized than controls. The global composition of fatty acids in the PD ACC is altered in a way that increases susceptibility to peroxidation in a region-specific manner. This has important implications for PD, supporting the oxidative stress hypothesis of PD pathogenesis.

  16. Small mammals as indicators of cryptic plant species diversity in the central Chilean plant endemicity hotspot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Root-Bernstein

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Indicator species could help to compensate for a shortfall of knowledge about the diversity and distributions of undersampled and cryptic species. This paper provides background knowledge about the ecological interactions that affect and are affected by herbaceous diversity in central Chile, as part of the indicator species selection process. We focus on the ecosystem engineering role of small mammals, primarily the degu Octodon degus. We also consider the interacting effects of shrubs, trees, avian activity, livestock, slope, and soil quality on herbaceous communities in central Chile. We sampled herbaceous diversity on a private landholding characterized by a mosaic of savanna, grassland and matorral, across a range of degu disturbance intensities. We find that the strongest factors affecting endemic herbaceous diversity are density of degu runways, shrub cover and avian activity. Our results show that the degu, a charismatic and easily identifiable and countable species, could be used as an indicator species to aid potential conservation actions such as private protected area uptake. We map areas in central Chile where degus may indicate endemic plant diversity. This area is larger than expected, and suggests that significant areas of endemic plant communities may still exist, and should be identified and protected.

  17. Integrative analyses of leprosy susceptibility genes indicate a common autoimmune profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Deng-Feng; Wang, Dong; Li, Yu-Ye; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2016-04-01

    Leprosy is an ancient chronic infection in the skin and peripheral nerves caused by Mycobacterium leprae. The development of leprosy depends on genetic background and the immune status of the host. However, there is no systematic view focusing on the biological pathways, interaction networks and overall expression pattern of leprosy-related immune and genetic factors. To identify the hub genes in the center of leprosy genetic network and to provide an insight into immune and genetic factors contributing to leprosy. We retrieved all reported leprosy-related genes and performed integrative analyses covering gene expression profiling, pathway analysis, protein-protein interaction network, and evolutionary analyses. A list of 123 differentially expressed leprosy related genes, which were enriched in activation and regulation of immune response, was obtained in our analyses. Cross-disorder analysis showed that the list of leprosy susceptibility genes was largely shared by typical autoimmune diseases such as lupus erythematosus and arthritis, suggesting that similar pathways might be affected in leprosy and autoimmune diseases. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) and positive selection analyses revealed a co-evolution network of leprosy risk genes. Our analyses showed that leprosy associated genes constituted a co-evolution network and might undergo positive selection driven by M. leprae. We suggested that leprosy may be a kind of autoimmune disease and the development of leprosy is a matter of defect or over-activation of body immunity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Environmental Occurrence and Antibiotic Susceptibility Profile of Listeria monocytogenes at a Slaughterhouse Raw Processing Plant in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Claudia; Morar, Adriana; Tîrziu, Emil; Nichita, Ileana; Imre, Mirela; Imre, Kálmán

    2016-10-01

    This survey was conducted to investigate the occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes isolates in the environment of a pig slaughterhouse raw processing plant complex in western Romania. A total of 97 environmental samples from food contact (n = 60) and nonfood contact (n = 37) surfaces were examined with standard methods. The susceptibility of the isolates to 17 antimicrobial agents was determined with the VITEK 2 automated system. Overall, 25 (25.8%) samples were positive for L. monocytogenes , with recovery rates of 23.3% (n = 14) and 29.7% (n = 11) for food contact and nonfood contact surfaces, respectively. All 25 tested isolates were resistant to benzylpenicillin, imipenem, and fusidic acid. Resistance was observed to oxacillin (23 isolates; 92%), fosfomycin (23 isolates; 92%), clindamycin (22 isolates; 88%), rifampin (14 isolates; 56%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (12 isolates; 48%), tetracycline (11 isolates; 44%), and ciprofloxacin (1 isolate; 4%). No resistance was found to seven tested agents: gentamicin, moxifloxacin, erythromycin, linezolid, teicoplanin, vancomycin, and tigecycline. All tested L. monocytogenes isolates were resistant to four to nine antimicrobial agents. These results indicate a high prevalence of multidrug-resistant L. monocytogenes isolates in this pork-processing environment, providing baseline information for hygienists and public health specialists.

  19. Protein oxidation in plant mitochondria as a stress indicator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, I.M.; Kristensen, B.K.

    2004-01-01

    Plant mitochondria produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) as an unavoidable side product of aerobic metabolism, but they have mechanisms for regulating this production such as the alternative oxidase. Once produced, ROS can be removed by several different enzyme systems. Finally, should the first...... oxidation of cysteine and methionine side chains is an important mechanism for regulating enzyme activity. Mitochondria from both mammalian and plant tissues contain a number of oxidised proteins, but the relative abundance of these post-translationally modified forms is as yet unknown......, as are the consequences of the modification for the properties and turnover time of the proteins. Specific proteins appear to be particularly vulnerable to oxidative carbonylation in the matrix of plant mitochondria; these include several enzymes of the Krebs cycle, glycine decarboxylase, superoxide dismutase and heat...

  20. Peat soil composition as indicator of plants growth environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noormets, M.; Tonutare, T.; Kauer, K.; Szajdak, L.; Kolli, R.

    2009-04-01

    Exhausted milled peat areas have been left behind as a result of decades-lasting intensive peat production in Estonia and Europe. According to different data there in Estonia is 10 000 - 15 000 ha of exhausted milled peat areas that should be vegetated. Restoration using Sphagnum species is most advantageous, as it creates ecological conditions closest to the natural succession towards a natural bog area. It is also thought that the large scale translocation of vegetation from intact bogs, as used in some Canadian restoration trials, is not applicable in most of European sites due to limited availability of suitable donor areas. Another possibility to reduce the CO2 emission in these areas is their use for cultivation of species that requires minimum agrotechnical measures exploitation. It is found by experiments that it is possible to establish on Vaccinium species for revegetation of exhausted milled peat areas. Several physiological activity of the plant is regulated by the number of phytohormones. These substances in low quantities move within the plant from a site of production to a site of action. Phytohormone, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is formed in soils from tryptophane by enzymatic conversion. This compound seems to play an important function in nature as result to its influence in regulation of plant growth and development. A principal feature of IAA is its ability to affect growth, development and health of plants. This compound activates root morphology and metabolic changes in the host plant. The physiological impact of this substance is involved in cell elongation, apical dominance, root initiation, parthenocarpy, abscission, callus formation and the respiration. The investigation areas are located in the county of Tartu (58˚ 22' N, 26˚ 43' E), in the southern part of Estonia. The soil of the experimental fields belongs according to the WRB soil classification, to the soils subgroups of Fibri-Dystric Histosols. The investigation areas were

  1. Antibiotic Susceptibility Profile of Aeromonas Species Isolated from Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isoken H. Igbinosa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Aeromonas species isolated from Alice and Fort Beaufort wastewater treatment plant in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined using the disc diffusion method, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay was employed for the detection of antibiotics resistance genes. Variable susceptibilities were observed against ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, gentamicin, minocycline, among others. Aeromonas isolates from both locations were 100% resistant to penicillin, oxacillin, ampicillin, and vancomycin. Higher phenotypic resistance was observed in isolates from Fort Beaufort compared to isolates from Alice. Class A pse1 β-lactamase was detected in 20.8% of the isolates with a lower detection rate of 8.3% for blaTEM gene. Class 1 integron was present in 20.8% of Aeromonas isolates while class 2 integron and TetC gene were not detected in any isolate. The antibiotic resistance phenotypes observed in the isolates and the presence of β-lactamases genes detected in some isolates are of clinical and public health concern as this has consequences for antimicrobial chemotherapy of infections associated with Aeromonas species. This study further supports wastewater as potential reservoirs of antibiotic resistance determinants in the environment.

  2. Biometric Indices of Arachis hypogaea Plant Grown in Kutchalli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JTEkanem

    2009-08-10

    145-151. 11. Budak, N., Baenziger, P. S., Eskridge,. K. M. Baltensperger, D. D. and. Morenno-Sevilla. B. (1995) Plant Height. Response of Semi-dwarf and non Semi- dwarf Wheat to the environment. Crop. Science 35: 447-451.

  3. Air pollution tolerance indices of plants growing around Umuebulu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FRANKLIN

    2012-12-03

    Dec 3, 2012 ... photosynthesis; the light-driven process in which carbon dioxide is fixed to yield carbohydrates and oxygen. It is evident that chlorophyll content of plants varies from species to species; age of leaf and also with the pollution level as well as with other biotic and abiotic conditions. (Katiyar and Dubey, 2001).

  4. Interactions between Plant Extracts and Cell Viability Indicators ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol, methanol and water extracts were obtained for each plant by sequential solvent extraction. Cytotoxicity was evaluated in triplicate, from 640 to 5 μg/mL, two-fold, serially on monkey kidney epithelial (Vero) cells. Results: The hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts ...

  5. Antagonism between phytohormone signalling underlies the variation in disease susceptibility of tomato plants under elevated CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Li, Xin; Sun, Zenghui; Shao, Shujun; Hu, Lingfei; Ye, Meng; Zhou, Yanhong; Xia, Xiaojian; Yu, Jingquan; Shi, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Increasing CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) have the potential to disrupt plant–pathogen interactions in natural and agricultural ecosystems, but the research in this area has often produced conflicting results. Variations in phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signalling could be associated with variations in the responses of pathogens to plants grown under elevated [CO2]. In this study, interactions between tomato plants and three pathogens with different infection strategies were compared. Elevated [CO2] generally favoured SA biosynthesis and signalling but repressed the JA pathway. The exposure of plants to elevated [CO2] revealed a lower incidence and severity of disease caused by tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and by Pseudomonas syringae, whereas plant susceptibility to necrotrophic Botrytis cinerea increased. The elevated [CO2]-induced and basal resistance to TMV and P. syringae were completely abolished in plants in which the SA signalling pathway nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related genes 1 (NPR1) had been silenced or in transgenic plants defective in SA biosynthesis. In contrast, under both ambient and elevated [CO2], the susceptibility to B. cinerea highly increased in plants in which the JA signalling pathway proteinase inhibitors (PI) gene had been silenced or in a mutant affected in JA biosynthesis. However, plants affected in SA signalling remained less susceptible to this disease. These findings highlight the modulated antagonistic relationship between SA and JA that contributes to the variation in disease susceptibility under elevated [CO2]. This information will be critical for investigating how elevated CO2 may affect plant defence and the dynamics between plants and pathogens in both agricultural and natural ecosystems. PMID:25657213

  6. The development and evaluation of programmatic performance indicators associated with maintenance at nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wreathall, J.; Fragola, J.; Appignani, P.; Burlile, G.; Shen, Y. (Science Applications International Corp., Columbus, OH (USA))

    1990-05-01

    This report summarizes the development and evaluation of programmatic performance indicators of maintenance. These indicators were selected by: (1) creating a formal framework of plant processes; (2) identifying features of plant behavior considered important to safety; (3) evaluating existing indicators against these features; and (4) performing statistical analyses for the selected indicators. The report recommends additional testing. 32 refs., 29 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. Dutch Environmental Risk Indicator for Plant Protection Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijne, R.; Linden, van der A.M.A.; Deneer, J.W.; Groenwold, J.G.; Wipfler, E.L.

    2012-01-01

    The NMI 3 focusses on indicators for emissions to surface water and the related aquatic risk resulting from agricultural use of pesticides in the Netherlands. The risk indicator is the exposure toxicity ratio. The model also considers the risk to groundwater, soil organisms and the terrestrial

  8. Screening for Terminal Drought Tolerance in Iranian and Exotic Safflower Genotypes Using Drought Tolerance and Susceptibility Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Maleki Nejad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to evaluate drought tolerance of safflower genotypes (Carthamus tinctorius L. at the research farm of Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran during growing season of 2012. One hundred genotypes including 81 foreign genotypes along with 19 Iranian genotypes were evaluated under normal and moisture stress conditions according to a simple lattice design with two replications. Drought tolerance and sensitivity indices including mean productivity (MP, geometric mean productivity (GMP, stress tolerance index (STI, tolerance (TOL and stress susceptibility index (SSI were studied. Results of this study indicated that genotypes were significantly different for grain yield in both moisture conditions. Among all indices, MP, GMP and STI were identified as the best indices that can be used to determine tolerant genotypes. Based on MP, GMP and STI and also principal component analysis PI 369847 (Tajikistan, CART 56 (USA, PI 657820 (Jordan, PI 305527 (Soudan were determined as the most tolerant genotypes and PI 537652 (Mexico, CART 131 (Prague, PI 470942 (Bangladesh, PI 209286 (Romania and CART 32 (German as the most sensitive ones. Results also indicated that the biplot of principal component analysis is a powerful technique to discriminate genotypes based on the measured indices. The superior safflower genotypes can be used in future breeding programs.

  9. Manipulation of the Xanthophyll Cycle Increases Plant Susceptibility to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Zeng, Lizhang; Liu, Jian; Xing, Da

    2015-05-01

    The xanthophyll cycle is involved in dissipating excess light energy to protect the photosynthetic apparatus in a process commonly assessed from non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of chlorophyll fluorescence. Here, it is shown that the xanthophyll cycle is modulated by the necrotrophic pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum at the early stage of infection. Incubation of Sclerotinia led to a localized increase in NPQ even at low light intensity. Further studies showed that this abnormal change in NPQ was closely correlated with a decreased pH caused by Sclerotinia-secreted oxalate, which might decrease the ATP synthase activity and lead to a deepening of thylakoid lumen acidification under continuous illumination. Furthermore, suppression (with dithiothreitol) or a defect (in the npq1-2 mutant) of violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE) abolished the Sclerotinia-induced NPQ increase. HPLC analysis showed that the Sclerotinia-inoculated tissue accumulated substantial quantities of zeaxanthin at the expense of violaxanthin, with a corresponding decrease in neoxanthin content. Immunoassays revealed that the decrease in these xanthophyll precursors reduced de novo abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis and apparently weakened tissue defense responses, including ROS induction and callose deposition, resulting in enhanced plant susceptibility to Sclerotinia. We thus propose that Sclerotinia antagonizes ABA biosynthesis to suppress host defense by manipulating the xanthophyll cycle in early pathogenesis. These findings provide a model of how photoprotective metabolites integrate into the defense responses, and expand the current knowledge of early plant-Sclerotinia interactions at infection sites.

  10. Manipulation of the Xanthophyll Cycle Increases Plant Susceptibility to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The xanthophyll cycle is involved in dissipating excess light energy to protect the photosynthetic apparatus in a process commonly assessed from non-photochemical quenching (NPQ of chlorophyll fluorescence. Here, it is shown that the xanthophyll cycle is modulated by the necrotrophic pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum at the early stage of infection. Incubation of Sclerotinia led to a localized increase in NPQ even at low light intensity. Further studies showed that this abnormal change in NPQ was closely correlated with a decreased pH caused by Sclerotinia-secreted oxalate, which might decrease the ATP synthase activity and lead to a deepening of thylakoid lumen acidification under continuous illumination. Furthermore, suppression (with dithiothreitol or a defect (in the npq1-2 mutant of violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE abolished the Sclerotinia-induced NPQ increase. HPLC analysis showed that the Sclerotinia-inoculated tissue accumulated substantial quantities of zeaxanthin at the expense of violaxanthin, with a corresponding decrease in neoxanthin content. Immunoassays revealed that the decrease in these xanthophyll precursors reduced de novo abscisic acid (ABA biosynthesis and apparently weakened tissue defense responses, including ROS induction and callose deposition, resulting in enhanced plant susceptibility to Sclerotinia. We thus propose that Sclerotinia antagonizes ABA biosynthesis to suppress host defense by manipulating the xanthophyll cycle in early pathogenesis. These findings provide a model of how photoprotective metabolites integrate into the defense responses, and expand the current knowledge of early plant-Sclerotinia interactions at infection sites.

  11. Towards spatially smart abatement of human pharmaceuticals in surface waters: defining impact of sewage treatment plants on susceptible functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gils, J.A.G.; Coppens, L.J.C.; Laak, ter T.L.; Raterman, B.W.; Wezel, van A.P.

    2015-01-01

    For human pharmaceuticals, sewage treatment plants (STPs) are a major point of entry to surface waters. The receiving waters provide vital functions. Modeling the impact of STPs on susceptible functions of the surface water system allows for a spatially smart implementation of abatement options at,

  12. Towards spatially smart abatement of human pharmaceuticals in surface waters : Defining impact of sewage treatment plants on susceptible functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppens, Lieke J C; van Gils, Jos A G; Ter Laak, Thomas L; Raterman, Bernard W; van Wezel, Annemarie P

    2015-01-01

    For human pharmaceuticals, sewage treatment plants (STPs) are a major point of entry to surface waters. The receiving waters provide vital functions. Modeling the impact of STPs on susceptible functions of the surface water system allows for a spatially smart implementation of abatement options at,

  13. Identification of maize genes associated with host plant resistance or susceptibility to Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin accumulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowena Y Kelley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin contamination of maize pose negative impacts in agriculture and health. Commercial maize hybrids are generally susceptible to this fungus. Significant levels of host plant resistance have been observed in certain maize inbred lines. This study was conducted to identify maize genes associated with host plant resistance or susceptibility to A. flavus infection and aflatoxin accumulation. RESULTS: Genome wide gene expression levels with or without A. flavus inoculation were compared in two resistant maize inbred lines (Mp313E and Mp04:86 in contrast to two susceptible maize inbred lines (Va35 and B73 by microarray analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA was used to find genes contributing to the larger variances associated with the resistant or susceptible maize inbred lines. The significance levels of gene expression were determined by using SAS and LIMMA programs. Fifty candidate genes were selected and further investigated by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR in a time-course study on Mp313E and Va35. Sixteen of the candidate genes were found to be highly expressed in Mp313E and fifteen in Va35. Out of the 31 highly expressed genes, eight were mapped to seven previously identified quantitative trait locus (QTL regions. A gene encoding glycine-rich RNA binding protein 2 was found to be associated with the host hypersensitivity and susceptibility in Va35. A nuclear pore complex protein YUP85-like gene was found to be involved in the host resistance in Mp313E. CONCLUSION: Maize genes associated with host plant resistance or susceptibility were identified by a combination of microarray analysis, qRT-PCR analysis, and QTL mapping methods. Our findings suggest that multiple mechanisms are involved in maize host plant defense systems in response to Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin accumulation. These findings will be important in identification of DNA markers for breeding maize lines

  14. The Janus face of reactive oxygen species in resistance and susceptibility of plants to necrotrophic and biotrophic pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barna, B; Fodor, J; Harrach, B D; Pogány, M; Király, Z

    2012-10-01

    Plant pathogens can be divided into biotrophs and necrotrophs according to their different life styles; biotrophs prefer living, while necrotrophs prefer dead cells for nutritional purposes. Therefore tissue necrosis caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) during pathogen infection increases host susceptibility to necrotrophic, but resistance to biotrophic pathogen. Consequently, elevation of antioxidant capacity of plants enhances their tolerance to development of necroses caused by necrotrophic pathogens. Plant hormones can strongly influence induction of ROS and antioxidants, thereby influencing susceptibility or resistance of plants to pathogens. Pathogen-induced ROS themselves are considered as signaling molecules. Generally, salicylic acid (SA) signaling induces defense against biotrophic pathogens, whereas jasmonic acid (JA) against necrotrophic pathogens. Furthermore pathogens can modify plant's defense signaling network for their own benefit by changing phytohormone homeostasis. On the other hand, ROS are harmful also to the pathogens, consequently they try to defend themselves by elevating antioxidant activity and secreting ROS scavengers in the infected tissue. The Janus face nature of ROS and plant cell death on biotrophic and on necrotrophic pathogens is also supported by the experiments with BAX inhibitor-1 and the mlo mutation of Mlo gene in barley. It was found that ROS and elevated plant antioxidant activity play an important role in systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and induced systemic resistance (ISR), as well as in mycorrhiza induced abiotic and biotic stress tolerance of plants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Stylet penetration activities by Aphis craccivora (Hymenoptera: Aphididae) on plants and excised plant parts of resistant and susceptible cultivars of cowpea (Leguminosae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annan, B.; Tingey, W.M.; Schaefers, G.A.; Tjallingii, W.F.; Backus, E.A.; Saxena, K.N.

    2000-01-01

    Direct current electrical penetration graphs (DC-EPGs) were used to analyze the stylet penetration activities of cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch, on plants of aphid-resistant (ICV-12) and aphid-susceptible (ICV-1) cultivars of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers. Aphid stylet penetration on

  16. Suitable indicators using stem diameter variation-derived indices to monitor the water status of greenhouse tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zhaojiang; Duan, Aiwang; Chen, Deli; Dassanayake, Kithsiri Bandara; Wang, Xiaosen; Liu, Zugui; Liu, Hao; Gao, Shengguo

    2017-01-01

    It is very important to seek a simple nondestructive method to continuously measure plant water status for irrigation scheduling. Changes in stem diameter in response to plant water status and soil water content (SWC) were experimentally investigated during the growing seasons of 2011/2012 and 2012/2013 in pot-cultivated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) plants in a plastic greenhouse. This study was conducted to determine suitable SDV (stem diameter variation)-derived indices as indicators of tomato plant water status for irrigation scheduling. The experiment was designed as a two-factor randomized block using the SWC and growth stages as variables. The SWC was controlled at 70-80% (well-watered), 60-70% (slightly deficit watered), 50-60% (moderately deficit watered) of the field capacity (FC), and the prescribed growing stages were vegetative, flowering and fruit-forming, and harvesting stages. Regression analysis showed that the SD6 (the difference between the stem diameter value at 06:00 am and the initial sensor reading) was closely related to the SWC (p<0.01) during rapid vegetative growth, whereas the MDS (the maximum daily shrinkage) was closely related to the SWC (p<0.01) during slow vegetative growth. Our results suggest that SDV-derived indicators can be used for determining plant water status and for scheduling irrigation at different growth/developmental stages.

  17. Occurrence of paracrystalloids and their particles in resistant and susceptible carnation plants infected with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp dianthi race 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouellette, G.B.; Rioux, D.; Simard, M.; Baayen, R.P.

    2004-01-01

    Uncommon, opaque particles (of approximately 20-22 nm, referred to as OP), aggregating into paracrystalloids occurred only next to colonized cells in carnation plants of either a susceptible or resistant cultivar (cv.) infected with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi. In the susceptible plant, those

  18. Glucosinolates from Host Plants Influence Growth of the Parasitic Plant Cuscuta gronovii and Its Susceptibility to Aphid Feeding1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic plants acquire diverse secondary metabolites from their hosts, including defense compounds that target insect herbivores. However, the ecological implications of this phenomenon, including the potential enhancement of parasite defenses, remain largely unexplored. We studied the translocation of glucosinolates from the brassicaceous host plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) into parasitic dodder vines (Convolvulaceae; Cuscuta gronovii) and its effects on the parasite itself and on dodder-aphid interactions. Aliphatic and indole glucosinolates reached concentrations in parasite tissues higher than those observed in corresponding host tissues. Dodder growth was enhanced on cyp79B2 cyp79B3 hosts (without indole glucosinolates) but inhibited on atr1D hosts (with elevated indole glucosinolates) relative to wild-type hosts, which responded to parasitism with localized elevation of indole and aliphatic glucosinolates. These findings implicate indole glucosinolates in defense against parasitic plants. Rates of settling and survival on dodder vines by pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) were reduced significantly when dodder parasitized glucosinolate-producing hosts (wild type and atr1D) compared with glucosinolate-free hosts (cyp79B2 cyp79B3 myb28 myb29). However, settling and survival of green peach aphids (Myzus persicae) were not affected. M. persicae population growth was actually reduced on dodder parasitizing glucosinolate-free hosts compared with wild-type or atr1D hosts, even though stems of the former contain less glucosinolates and more amino acids. Strikingly, this effect was reversed when the aphids fed directly upon Arabidopsis, which indicates an interactive effect of parasite and host genotype on M. persicae that stems from host effects on dodder. Thus, our findings indicate that glucosinolates may have both direct and indirect effects on dodder-feeding herbivores. PMID:27482077

  19. Focal effector accumulation in a biotrophic interface at the primary invasion sites of Colletotrichum orbiculare in multiple susceptible plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irieda, Hiroki; Ogawa, Suthitar; Takano, Yoshitaka

    2016-01-01

    We identified virulence-related effectors of a hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen Colletotrichum orbiculare, and found that a novel interface was generated by a biotrophic interaction between C. orbiculare and the host cucumber, in which the effectors secreted from the pathogen accumulated preferentially. The interface was located around the biotrophic primary hyphal neck. Here, we showed that C. orbiculare also developed this interface in a biotrophic interaction with melon, which belongs to Cucurbitaceae. Furthermore, C. orbiculare developed interface in the interaction with a susceptible plant, Nicotiana benthamiana, which is distantly related to Cucurbitaceae, suggesting that the spatial regulation strategy for effectors in C. orbiculare is not specific to cucumber; rather, it is conserved among the various plants that are susceptible to this pathogen.

  20. Energy indicators impact in multi-criteria sustainability analyse of thermal power plant unit

    OpenAIRE

    Škobalj Predrag D.; Kijevčanin Mirjana Lj.; Jovanović Marina P.; Afgan Naim H.; Erić Milić D.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents method for sustainability assessment of thermal power plant unit using multi-criteria analysis with aim to create base for business decision. Seven options of possible status of thermal power plant „Kolubara A” unit No. 2 with energy indicators of sustainable development were shown. Energy indicators of sustainable development consists of sets of resource preservation, economic, environmental, and social indicators. Sustainability assessment often fails to account for soci...

  1. Susceptibility of brassicaceous plants to feeding by flea beetles, Phyllotreta spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroka, Juliana; Grenkow, Larry

    2013-12-01

    Crucifer-feeding flea beetles, Phyllotreta spp., are chronic insect pests in Canadian prairie canola production. Multiple laboratory and field feeding bioassays were conducted to determine the susceptibility of a wide range of crucifer species, cultivars, and accessions to feeding by flea beetles with the goal of discovering sources of resistant germplasm. In 62 bioassays of 218 entries, no consistent decreased feeding by flea beetles was seen on any entries of Brassica carinata A. Braun, Brassica juncea (L.) Czern., Brassica napus L., or Brassica rapa L. There was reduced feeding on condiment mustard Sinapis alba L. lines but not on canola-quality lines with reduced amounts of glucosinolates, which were fed on at levels equal to B. napus. Analyses of glucosinolate content found decreased quantities of hydroxybenzyl and butyl glucosinolates in preferred canola-quality S. alba lines and increased levels of hydroxybutenyl glucosinolates compared with levels in condiment S. alba lines. Eruca sativa Mill. was an excellent flea beetle host; Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz lines experienced little feeding. Lines of Crambe abyssinica Hochst. ex R. E. Fries and Crambe hispanica L. had reduced feeding levels compared with Brassica entries, but Crambe glabrata DC did not. The results indicate possible sources of resistance to Phyllotreta flea beetles, while highlighting the complicated roles that glucosinolates may play in Phyllotreta host preference.

  2. Biomonitoring of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and ozone with indicator plant set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, E.J.; Cheng, M.L. [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Plant Pathology and Entomology

    1997-12-31

    Studies on the responses of several indicator plants to peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and ozone during the past four years in the exposure chambers and in the greenhouse in Taiwan showed that some indicator plant sets were suitable for biomonitoring these two pollutants. Four plant species including Sword-leaf lettuce, black nightshade (Solanum nigrum), quickweed (Galinsoga parviflora) and Double-fortune tomato were recommended for use in together to monitor both PAN and ozone simultaneously. Some of the plants were from tissue culture to increase the genetic uniformity. There was no sensitivity difference between the tissue culture plantlets and the seed-grown plants. The specific symptoms of bronzing, silvering and glazing as expressed on lettuce, black nightshade or quickweed can be used as indication if PAN concentrations over 4--5 ppbv in Taiwan. Whereas the fleck and stippling on tomato leaves indicated that ozone was at least over 50 ppbv. Totally about 30 indicator plant stations had been set up in four major urban areas (Taipei, Taichung, Chayi, and Kaohsiung) to comprehensively monitor the occurrence of PAN and ozone in the atmosphere. A standardized procedure for cultivating the plants was established. As the cost is low, the operation is easy, and no electric power is needed, the application of this technique is very promising, especially in the developing countries.

  3. Contributions on the diagnosis of fluorine damage. I. Fluorine damage in indicator plants in the wild flora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borsdorf, W.

    1960-01-01

    In an area of Central Germany affected by gaseous waste containing fluorine, the wild flora and some cultivated plants were investigated as to their suitability as indicators of fluorine pollution. As a result of three years of observation a list of 59 species is presented, four susceptibility groups being distinguished on the basis of the macroscopic symptoms of the damage (necrosis on the leaf tips and margins, less frequently in the zones between the ribs). Vitis vinifera L., Carpinus betula L., Iris germanica L., Arrenatherum clatius (L.) J.u.C. Presl and Dactylis glomenata L. proved to be extremely sensitive. The intensity of the symptoms is influenced, among other things, by a number of environmental factors (topographic features, predominant direction of winds, precipitation and degree of afforestation). 6 references.

  4. Detection of heavy metal containing emissions by use of indicator plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenbeck, H.

    1974-01-01

    Plants can be used as indicators of air pollution components containing heavy metals. Investigations carried out over a large area on the naturally-growing indicator plant elder (Sambucus nigra), have shown that emissions containing heavy metals (zinc, lead, cadmium) occurred in many places temporarily but also over long periods in the western Ruhr region and at one control station in northern Sauerland. Investigations using the standard test plant method, carried out in the surroundings of a zinc foundry, made it possible to separate the effects of heavy metal sediments in the soil from that of emissions acting on the surface of plants. The concentration of heavy metals in the soil increases the sensitivity of plants towards atmospheric effects of air pollutants. 23 references, 24 figures, 8 tables.

  5. Development of safety assessment of nuclear power plants using indicators; Ydinvoimalaitosten turvallisuuden arvioinnin kehittaeminen tunnuslukujen avulla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiippana, P.

    1997-11-01

    The study is based on an indicator system which is under development at the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). The goal of this study was to define and develop both PSA-based indicators and indicators from failure statistics. As PSA-based indicators the possibility was studied to define and express the risk importance of exemptions from the Technical Specifications, failures, preventive maintenance and other disconnections of devices covered by the Technical Specifications, operating events covered by Guide YVL 1.5 and plant modifications. In this piece of research the applicability of plant specific living PSA-models used for calculation of indicators was examined. The research included both Loviisa and Olkiluoto nuclear power plants in Finland. 47 refs.

  6. Meta-analysis of susceptibility of woody plants to loss of genetic diversity through habitat fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranckx, Guy; Jacquemyn, Hans; Muys, Bart; Honnay, Olivier

    2012-04-01

    Shrubs and trees are assumed less likely to lose genetic variation in response to habitat fragmentation because they have certain life-history characteristics such as long lifespans and extensive pollen flow. To test this assumption, we conducted a meta-analysis with data on 97 woody plant species derived from 98 studies of habitat fragmentation. We measured the weighted response of four different measures of population-level genetic diversity to habitat fragmentation with Hedge's d and Spearman rank correlation. We tested whether the genetic response to habitat fragmentation was mediated by life-history traits (longevity, pollination mode, and seed dispersal vector) and study characteristics (genetic marker and plant material used). For both tests of effect size habitat fragmentation was associated with a substantial decrease in expected heterozygosity, number of alleles, and percentage of polymorphic loci, whereas the population inbreeding coefficient was not associated with these measures. The largest proportion of variation among effect sizes was explained by pollination mechanism and by the age of the tissue (progeny or adult) that was genotyped. Our primary finding was that wind-pollinated trees and shrubs appeared to be as likely to lose genetic variation as insect-pollinated species, indicating that severe habitat fragmentation may lead to pollen limitation and limited gene flow. In comparison with results of previous meta-analyses on mainly herbaceous species, we found trees and shrubs were as likely to have negative genetic responses to habitat fragmentation as herbaceous species. We also found that the genetic variation in offspring was generally less than that of adult trees, which is evidence of a genetic extinction debt and probably reflects the genetic diversity of the historical, less-fragmented landscape. ©2011 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. Moss and vascular plant indices in Ohio wetlands have similar environmental predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Schumacher, William; Gara, Brian; Adams, Jean V.; Viau, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Mosses and vascular plants have been shown to be reliable indicators of wetland habitat delineation and environmental quality. Knowledge of the best ecological predictors of the quality of wetland moss and vascular plant communities may determine if similar management practices would simultaneously enhance both populations. We used Akaike's Information Criterion to identify models predicting a moss quality assessment index (MQAI) and a vascular plant index of biological integrity based on floristic quality (VIBI-FQ) from 27 emergent and 13 forested wetlands in Ohio, USA. The set of predictors included the six metrics from a wetlands disturbance index (ORAM) and two landscape development intensity indices (LDIs). The best single predictor of MQAI and one of the predictors of VIBI-FQ was an ORAM metric that assesses habitat alteration and disturbance within the wetland, such as mowing, grazing, and agricultural practices. However, the best single predictor of VIBI-FQ was an ORAM metric that assessed wetland vascular plant communities, interspersion, and microtopography. LDIs better predicted MQAI than VIBI-FQ, suggesting that mosses may either respond more rapidly to, or recover more slowly from, anthropogenic disturbance in the surrounding landscape than vascular plants. These results supported previous predictive studies on amphibian indices and metrics and a separate vegetation index, indicating that similar wetland management practices may result in qualitatively the same ecological response for three vastly different wetland biological communities (amphibians, vascular plants, and mosses).

  8. Development of a performance-based industrial energy efficiency indicator for corn refining plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, G. A.; Decision and Information Sciences; USEPA

    2006-07-31

    Organizations that implement strategic energy management programs have the potential to achieve sustained energy savings if the programs are carried out properly. A key opportunity for achieving energy savings that plant managers can take is to determine an appropriate level of energy performance by comparing their plant's performance with that of similar plants in the same industry. Manufacturing facilities can set energy efficiency targets by using performance-based indicators. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), through its ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} program, has been developing plant energy performance indicators (EPIs) to encourage a variety of U.S. industries to use energy more efficiently. This report describes work with the corn refining industry to provide a plant-level indicator of energy efficiency for facilities that produce a variety of products--including corn starch, corn oil, animal feed, corn sweeteners, and ethanol--for the paper, food, beverage, and other industries in the United States. Consideration is given to the role that performance-based indicators play in motivating change; the steps needed to develop indicators, including interacting with an industry to secure adequate data for an indicator; and the actual application and use of an indicator when complete. How indicators are employed in the EPA's efforts to encourage industries to voluntarily improve their use of energy is discussed as well. The report describes the data and statistical methods used to construct the EPI for corn refining plants. Individual equations are presented, as are the instructions for using them in an associated Excel spreadsheet.

  9. In vitro and in vivo susceptibility of Leishmania major to some medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Maleki

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Our findings indicate that the tested plant extracts are effective against Leishmania major both during in vitro and in vivo experiments, but further researches are required to recommend a potential plant extract as an alternative drug.

  10. The detection of snail host habitats in liver fluke infected farms by use of plant indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondelaud, Daniel; Hourdin, Philippe; Vignoles, Philippe; Dreyfuss, Gilles; Cabaret, Jacques

    2011-09-27

    Field investigations in 361 liver fluke infected cattle- or sheep-breeding farms on acid soil were carried out during thirty years in March and April to record indicator plants in relation to the category of site colonized by the intermediate host of liver fluke, the snail Galba truncatula. Seven types of snail zones and six species of indicator plants were recorded in the 7709 positive sites studied. The most frequent habitats were located at the peripheral extremities of open drainage furrows. Juncus acutiflorus, Juncus effusus, Glyceria fluitans, and Agrostis stolonifera were the indicator plants. Plant indicators were highly efficient (38-80% of variance explained) when used with the size of site area within a hydrographical zone. The identification of positive sites for G. truncatula is a key for controlling the intermediate host on pastures through biological control with predatory molluscs. The positive sites may be detected using a two-step method including first categorization of hydrographical zones and then, within a zone, use of one or several indicator plants (frequently J. acutiflorus). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Peroxidase activity as an indicator of water stress in sweet pepper plants

    OpenAIRE

    Klar, Antonio Evaldo; Jadoski, Sidnei Osmar; Lima, Giusepina Pace Pereira [UNESP

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the physiological and biochemical behavior of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants under different soil water availability conditions and the efficiency of the peroxidase (EC. 1.11. 1.7) activity as an indicator of water stress in plants. The experiment was carried out at the Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas UNESP, Botucatu, SP. Sweet pepper plants were grown for 230 days after transplanting of seedlings and arranged in a completely randomized exp...

  12. Artificial neural network model for prediction of safety performance indicators goals in nuclear plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souto, Kelling C.; Nunes, Wallace W. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Rio de Janeiro, Nilopolis, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Aplicacoes Computacionais; Machado, Marcelo D., E-mail: dornemd@eletronuclear.gov.b [ELETROBRAS Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Combustivel Nuclear - GCN.T

    2011-07-01

    Safety performance indicators have been developed to provide a quantitative indication of the performance and safety in various industry sectors. These indexes can provide assess to aspects ranging from production, design, and human performance up to management issues in accordance with policy, objectives and goals of the company. The use of safety performance indicators in nuclear power plants around the world is a reality. However, it is necessary to periodically set goal values. Such goals are targets relating to each of the indicators to be achieved by the plant over a predetermined period of operation. The current process of defining these goals is carried out by experts in a subjective way, based on actual data from the plant, and comparison with global indices. Artificial neural networks are computational techniques that present a mathematical model inspired by the neural structure of intelligent organisms that acquire knowledge through experience. This paper proposes an artificial neural network model aimed at predicting values of goals to be used in the evaluation of safety performance indicators for nuclear power plants. (author)

  13. Neonicotinoid insecticides alter induced defenses and increase susceptibility to spider mites in distantly related crop plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrianna Szczepaniec

    Full Text Available Chemical suppression of arthropod herbivores is the most common approach to plant protection. Insecticides, however, can cause unintended, adverse consequences for non-target organisms. Previous studies focused on the effects of pesticides on target and non-target pests, predatory arthropods, and concomitant ecological disruptions. Little research, however, has focused on the direct effects of insecticides on plants. Here we demonstrate that applications of neonicotinoid insecticides, one of the most important insecticide classes worldwide, suppress expression of important plant defense genes, alter levels of phytohormones involved in plant defense, and decrease plant resistance to unsusceptible herbivores, spider mites Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae, in multiple, distantly related crop plants.Using cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, corn (Zea mays and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum plants, we show that transcription of phenylalanine ammonia lyase, coenzyme A ligase, trypsin protease inhibitor and chitinase are suppressed and concentrations of the phytohormone OPDA and salicylic acid were altered by neonicotinoid insecticides. Consequently, the population growth of spider mites increased from 30% to over 100% on neonicotinoid-treated plants in the greenhouse and by nearly 200% in the field experiment.Our findings are important because applications of neonicotinoid insecticides have been associated with outbreaks of spider mites in several unrelated plant species. More importantly, this is the first study to document insecticide-mediated disruption of plant defenses and link it to increased population growth of a non-target herbivore. This study adds to growing evidence that bioactive agrochemicals can have unanticipated ecological effects and suggests that the direct effects of insecticides on plant defenses should be considered when the ecological costs of insecticides are evaluated.

  14. Neonicotinoid insecticides alter induced defenses and increase susceptibility to spider mites in distantly related crop plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepaniec, Adrianna; Raupp, Michael J; Parker, Roy D; Kerns, David; Eubanks, Micky D

    2013-01-01

    Chemical suppression of arthropod herbivores is the most common approach to plant protection. Insecticides, however, can cause unintended, adverse consequences for non-target organisms. Previous studies focused on the effects of pesticides on target and non-target pests, predatory arthropods, and concomitant ecological disruptions. Little research, however, has focused on the direct effects of insecticides on plants. Here we demonstrate that applications of neonicotinoid insecticides, one of the most important insecticide classes worldwide, suppress expression of important plant defense genes, alter levels of phytohormones involved in plant defense, and decrease plant resistance to unsusceptible herbivores, spider mites Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), in multiple, distantly related crop plants. Using cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), corn (Zea mays) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants, we show that transcription of phenylalanine ammonia lyase, coenzyme A ligase, trypsin protease inhibitor and chitinase are suppressed and concentrations of the phytohormone OPDA and salicylic acid were altered by neonicotinoid insecticides. Consequently, the population growth of spider mites increased from 30% to over 100% on neonicotinoid-treated plants in the greenhouse and by nearly 200% in the field experiment. Our findings are important because applications of neonicotinoid insecticides have been associated with outbreaks of spider mites in several unrelated plant species. More importantly, this is the first study to document insecticide-mediated disruption of plant defenses and link it to increased population growth of a non-target herbivore. This study adds to growing evidence that bioactive agrochemicals can have unanticipated ecological effects and suggests that the direct effects of insecticides on plant defenses should be considered when the ecological costs of insecticides are evaluated.

  15. Inoculation of susceptible and resistant potato plants with the late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazebnik, Jenny; Tibboel, Marianne; Dicke, Marcel; Loon, van Joop J.A.

    2017-01-01

    Plants are exposed to microbial pathogens as well as herbivorous insects and their natural enemies. Here, we examined the effects of inoculation of potato plants, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae), with the late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary (Peronosporales: Pythiaceae)

  16. Biofilm Formation and Disinfectant Susceptibility of Persistent and Nonpersistent Listeria monocytogenes Isolates from Gorgonzola Cheese Processing Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Annalisa; Bertolotti, Luigi; Brito, Luisa; Civera, Tiziana

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the biofilm-forming ability and/or the disinfectant susceptibility accounted for the persistence of Listeria monocytogenes in Gorgonzola cheese processing plants. For this purpose, a set of 16 L. monocytogenes isolates collected in the 2004-2007 period was analyzed, including 11 persistent isolates collected in different years, within the collection period, and displaying identical or highly correlated pulsotypes. The evaluation of biofilm-forming ability was assessed using crystal violet (CV) staining and the enumeration of viable cells on stainless steel coupons (SSC). Absorbance values obtained with CV staining for persistent and nonpersistent isolates were not significantly different (rm-ANOVA p > 0.05) and the cell counts from nonpersistent isolates showed to be higher compared with persistent isolates (rm-ANOVA p  0.05). A greater influence of organic matter on MS could explain why P3 was efficient in reducing to effective levels the majority of the isolates at the lowest concentration suggested by the manufacturer (0.2% [v/v]), while the same purpose required a higher concentration (1% [v/v]) of MS. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the persistence of these isolates in Gorgonzola cheese processing plants was linked neither to the biofilm-forming ability nor to their susceptibility to hydrogen peroxide-based disinfectants; therefore, other factors should contribute to the persistent colonization of the dairies.

  17. Transcriptome Profiling of Huanglongbing (HLB) Tolerant and Susceptible Citrus Plants Reveals the Role of Basal Resistance in HLB Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunsheng; Zhou, Lijuan; Yu, Xiaoyue; Stover, Ed; Luo, Feng; Duan, Yongping

    2016-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is currently the most destructive disease of citrus worldwide. Although there is no immune cultivar, field tolerance to HLB within citrus and citrus relatives has been observed at the USDA Picos farm at Ft. Pierce, Florida, where plants have been exposed to a very high level of HLB pressure since 2006. In this study, we used RNA-Seq to evaluate expression differences between two closely related cultivars after HLB infection: HLB-tolerant "Jackson" grapefruit-like-hybrid trees and HLB susceptible "Marsh" grapefruit trees. A total of 686 genes were differentially expressed (DE) between the two cultivars. Among them, 247 genes were up-expressed and 439 were down-expressed in tolerant citrus trees. We also identified a total of 619 genes with significant differential expression of alternative splicing isoforms between HLB tolerant and HLB susceptible citrus trees. We analyzed the functional categories of DE genes using two methods, and revealed that multiple pathways have been suppressed or activated in the HLB tolerant citrus trees, which lead to the activation of the basal resistance or immunity of citrus plants. We have experimentally verified the expressions of 14 up-expressed genes and 19 down-expressed genes on HLB-tolerant "Jackson" trees and HLB-susceptible "Marsh" trees using real time PCR. The results showed that the expression of most genes were in agreement with the RNA-Seq results. This study provided new insights into HLB-tolerance and useful guidance for breeding HLB-tolerant citrus in the future.

  18. Energy audit in small wastewater treatment plants: methodology, energy consumption indicators, and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foladori, P; Vaccari, M; Vitali, F

    2015-01-01

    Energy audits in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) reveal large differences in the energy consumption in the various stages, depending also on the indicators used in the audits. This work is aimed at formulating a suitable methodology to perform audits in WWTPs and identifying the most suitable key energy consumption indicators for comparison among different plants and benchmarking. Hydraulic-based stages, stages based on chemical oxygen demand, sludge-based stages and building stages were distinguished in WWTPs and analysed with different energy indicators. Detailed energy audits were carried out on five small WWTPs treating less than 10,000 population equivalent and using continuous data for 2 years. The plants have in common a low designed capacity utilization (52% on average) and equipment oversizing which leads to waste of energy in the absence of controls and inverters (a common situation in small plants). The study confirms that there are several opportunities for reducing energy consumption in small WWTPs: in addition to the pumping of influent wastewater and aeration, small plants demonstrate low energy efficiency in recirculation of settled sludge and in aerobic stabilization. Denitrification above 75% is ensured through intermittent aeration and without recirculation of mixed liquor. Automation in place of manual controls is mandatory in illumination and electrical heating.

  19. Predicting rarity and decline in animals, plants, and mushrooms based on species attributes and indicator groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musters, C J M; Kalkman, Vincent; van Strien, Arco

    2013-09-01

    In decisions on nature conservation measures, we depend largely on knowledge of the relationship between threats and environmental factors for a very limited number of species groups, with relevant environmental factors often being deduced from the relationship between threat and species traits. But can relationships between traits and levels of threats be identified across species from completely different taxonomic groups; and how accurately do well-known taxonomic groups indicate levels of threat in other species groups? To answer these questions, we first made a list of 152 species attributes of morphological and demographic traits and habitat requirements. Based on these attributes we then grew random forests of decision trees for 1183 species in the 18 different taxonomic groups for which we had Red Lists available in the Netherlands, using these to classify animals, plants, and mushrooms according to their rarity and decline. Finally, we grew random forests for four species groups often used as indicator groups to study how well the relationship between attribute and decline within these groups reflected that relationship within the larger taxonomic group to which these groups belong. Correct classification of rarity based on all attributes was as high as 88% in animals, 85% in plants, and 94% in mushrooms and correct classification of decline was 78% in animals, 69% in plants, and 70% in mushrooms. Vertebrates indicated decline in all animals well, as did birds for all vertebrates and vascular plants for all plants. However, butterflies poorly indicated decline in all insects. Random forests are a useful tool to relate rarity and decline to species attributes thereby making it possible to generalize rarity and decline to a wider set of species groups. Random forests can be used to estimate the level of threat to complete faunas and floras of countries or regions. In regions like the Netherlands, conservation policy based on attributes known to be relevant

  20. Putting community data to work: some understory plants indicate red spruce regeneration habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alison C. Dibble; John C. Brissette; Malcolm L. Hunter

    1999-01-01

    When harvested, red spruce (Picea rubens) at low elevations is vulnerable to temporary displacement by balsam fir (Abies balsamea) and hardwoods. If indicator plants can be found by which to assess spruce regeneration habitat, then biota dependent on red spruce dominance could benefit. Associations between spruce seedlings (0.1-0.5...

  1. Acid-base indicator properties of dyes from local plants I: Dyes from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. MIKE HORSFALL

    ABSTRACT: The acid-base indicator properties of aqueous and ethanol extracts from calyces of H. sabdariffa (Zobo) and a dye obtained from the ripe fruits of Basella alba (Indian spinach), two local plants, were investigated. A purple coloured dye obtained from the ripe fruits of Basella alba showed a λmax at. 580nm ...

  2. Criterion II: Indicators for conservation and maintenance of plant and animal resources on rangelands (Chapter 3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda A. Joyce; William Fox; Paul Geissler; Rodney Heitschmidt; Lori Hidinger; Duncan Patten; John Spence; Laurence L. Strong; Robert Unnasch; Robert A. Washington-Allen

    2010-01-01

    Five criteria were established by the Sustainable Rangelands Roundtable to be used to assess rangeland sustainability on a national scale. One of those criteria is the conservation and maintenance of plant and animal resources. Within this criterion, 10 indicators were developed through the expert opinions of rangeland scientists, rangeland management agency personnel...

  3. Reduced glutathione as a persistence indicator of alien plants of the Amelancheir family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Dolgova

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available It was proved that glutathione is an important indicator of the vegetation condition and persistence. According to the amount of glutathione the studied mespilus species are adapted to the environmental conditions. Increase of the glutathione amount is caused by some abiotic factors, e.g. temperature. Some differences of the glutathione content may be explained by the plants species patterns.

  4. Fusion of Plant Height and Vegetation Indices for the Estimation of Barley Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Tilly

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant biomass is an important parameter for crop management and yield estimation. However, since biomass cannot be determined non-destructively, other plant parameters are used for estimations. In this study, plant height and hyperspectral data were used for barley biomass estimations with bivariate and multivariate models. During three consecutive growing seasons a terrestrial laser scanner was used to establish crop surface models for a pixel-wise calculation of plant height and manual measurements of plant height confirmed the results (R2 up to 0.98. Hyperspectral reflectance measurements were conducted with a field spectrometer and used for calculating six vegetation indices (VIs, which have been found to be related to biomass and LAI: GnyLi, NDVI, NRI, RDVI, REIP, and RGBVI. Furthermore, biomass samples were destructively taken on almost the same dates. Linear and exponential biomass regression models (BRMs were established for evaluating plant height and VIs as estimators of fresh and dry biomass. Each BRM was established for the whole observed period and pre-anthesis, which is important for management decisions. Bivariate BRMs supported plant height as a strong estimator (R2 up to 0.85, whereas BRMs based on individual VIs showed varying performances (R2: 0.07–0.87. Fused approaches, where plant height and one VI were used for establishing multivariate BRMs, yielded improvements in some cases (R2 up to 0.89. Overall, this study reveals the potential of remotely-sensed plant parameters for estimations of barley biomass. Moreover, it is a first step towards the fusion of 3D spatial and spectral measurements for improving non-destructive biomass estimations.

  5. Cell wall-related genes studies on peach cultivars with differential susceptibility to woolliness: looking for candidates as indicators of chilling tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genero, Melisa; Gismondi, Mauro; Monti, Laura L; Gabilondo, Julieta; Budde, Claudio O; Andreo, Carlos S; Lara, María V; Drincovich, María F; Bustamante, Claudia A

    2016-06-01

    The results obtained indicate that a β-xylosidase gene may act as good indicator of chilling tolerance and provide new insights into the complex issue of peach fruit woolliness. The storage of peaches at low temperatures for prolonged periods can induce a form of chilling injury (CI) called woolliness, characterized by a lack of juiciness and a mealy texture. As this disorder has been associated with abnormal cell wall dismantling, the levels of 12 transcripts encoding proteins involved in cell wall metabolism were analysed in cultivars with contrasting susceptibility to this disorder selected from five melting flesh peach cultivars. The resistant ('Springlady') and susceptible ('Flordaking') cultivars displayed differences in the level of expression of some of the selected genes during fruit softening and in woolly versus non-woolly fruits. From these genes, the level of expression of PpXyl, which encodes for a putative β-xylosidase, was the one that presented the highest correlation (negative) with the susceptibility to woolliness. PpXyl expression was also analysed in a cultivar ('Rojo 2') with intermediate susceptibility to woolliness, reinforcing the conclusion about the correlation of PpXyl expression to the presence of woolliness symptom. Moreover, the level of expression of PpXyl correlated to protein level detected by Western blot. Analyses of the promoter region of the PpXyl gene (1637 bp) isolated from the three cultivars showed no differences suggesting that cis-elements from other regions of the genome and/or trans elements could be responsible of the differential PpXyl expression patterns. Overall, the results obtained indicate that PpXyl may act as a good indicator of woolliness tolerance and that the regulation of expression of this gene in different cultivars does not depend on sequences upstream the coding sequence.

  6. Phylogenetic analysis of K+ transporters in bryophytes, lycophytes, and flowering plants indicates a specialization of vascular plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Lucia Gomez-Porras

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available As heritage from early evolution, potassium (K+ is absolutely necessary for all living cells. It plays significant roles as stabilizer in metabolism and is important for enzyme activation, stabilization of protein synthesis and neutralization of negative charges on cellular molecules as proteins and nucleic acids. Land plants even enlarged this spectrum of K+ utilization after having gone ashore, despite the fact that K+ is far less available in their new oligotrophic habitats than in sea water. Inevitably, plant cells had to improve and to develop unique transport systems for K+ accumulation and distribution. In the past two decades a manifold of K+ transporters from flowering plants has been identified at the molecular level. The recently published genome of the fern ally Selaginella moellendorffii now helps in providing a better understanding on the molecular changes involved in the colonization of land and the development of the vasculature and the seeds. In this article we present an inventory of K+ transporters of this lycophyte and pigeonhole them together with their relatives from the moss Physcomitrella patens, the monocotyledon Oryza sativa, and two dicotyledonous species, the herbaceous plant Arabidopsis thaliana, and the tree Populus trichocarpa. Interestingly, the transition of green plants from an aqueous to a dry environment coincides with a dramatic reduction in the diversity of voltage-gated potassium channels followed by a diversification on the basis of one surviving K+ channel class. The first appearance of K+ release (Kout channels in S. moellendorffii that were shown in Arabidopsis to be involved in xylem loading and guard cell closure coincides with the specialization of vascular plants and may indicate an important adaptive step.

  7. Energy indicators impact in multi-criteria sustainability analyse of thermal power plant unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škobalj Predrag D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents method for sustainability assessment of thermal power plant unit using multi-criteria analysis with aim to create base for business decision. Seven options of possible status of thermal power plant „Kolubara A” unit No. 2 with energy indicators of sustainable development were shown. Energy indicators of sustainable development consists of sets of resource preservation, economic, environmental, and social indicators. Sustainability assessment often fails to account for social influence on energy system. Considering to this, special focus will be on social indicators, their definition, forming, and impact on multi-criteria sustainability analysis. Analysis of quality of the selected options (energy systems in respect to sustainable development by compare of their general index of sustainability is presented. Methodology of multi-criteria analyse of thermal power plant unit can show decision makers how to find best available options when the social indicators impact is leading. The aim of this paper is to choose the criteria for the evaluation of the available options, determine the relative importance of specific criteria and present methodology of multi-criteria analysis in the decision-making process.

  8. Development of a Leading Performance Indicator from Operational Experience and Resilience in a Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela F. Nelson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of operational performance indicators is of utmost importance for nuclear power plants, since they measure, track, and trend plant operation. Leading indicators are ideal for reducing the likelihood of consequential events. This paper describes the operational data analysis of the information contained in the Corrective Action Program. The methodology considers human error and organizational factors because of their large contribution to consequential events. The results include a tool developed from the data to be used for the identification, prediction, and reduction of the likelihood of significant consequential events. This tool is based on the resilience curve that was built from the plant's operational data. The stress is described by the number of unresolved condition reports. The strain is represented by the number of preventive maintenance tasks and other periodic work activities (i.e., baseline activities, as well as, closing open corrective actions assigned to different departments to resolve the condition reports (i.e., corrective action workload. Beyond the identified resilience threshold, the stress exceeds the station's ability to operate successfully and there is an increased likelihood that a consequential event will occur. A performance indicator is proposed to reduce the likelihood of consequential events at nuclear power plants.

  9. Screening of Fruits of Seven Plants Indicated for Medicinal Use in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldulaimi, Omar

    2017-07-01

    Coumarins exert many biological effects in humans, animals, and plants, which make the evaluation of their biological activities and study of their role in ethnomedicine highly valued. Here, we selected seven plants which have ethnopharmacological use as antimicrobial in Iraq and the aims were to quantify the two structural isomers bergapten and methoxsalen in their seeds, to evaluate the antibacterial activities against several clinical isolates, and to isolate bergapten and methoxsalen from Ammi majus. Seven plants were extracted by petroleum ether (PE) and ethanol (EtOH). Bergapten and methoxsalen were separated and purified by preparative thin-layer chromatography. Quantification of the furanocoumarins has been conducted by high-performance liquid chromatography, and all the plant extracts and pure compounds were checked for antibacterial activities utilizing alamar blue microplate assay. Cuminum cyminum was deprived of bergapten and methoxsalen and methoxsalen was not detected from Apium graveolens. Bergapten was abundant in PE more than in EtOH; on the other hand, EtOH was rich in methoxsalen. The separation of the two structural isomers was performed using normal phase chromatography and ultraviolet light as an indicator. All extracts showed weak to moderate antibacterial activities against Gram-positive isolates which were more sensitive than the negative ones. C. cyminum extract was least active, uncover the antibacterial role of bergapten and methoxsalen. These findings support the medicinal use of seeds of seven plants from Apiaceae family and quantify the two pharmacologically important furanocoumarins (bergapten and methoxsalen). This study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial activities of seven plants seeds used in local medicine in Iraq. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to quantify bergapten and xanthotoxin in non-polar and polar extracts of these seeds. This study supports the medicinal use of these plants and clarifies the

  10. Root Exudation by Aphid Leaf Infestation Recruits Root-Associated Paenibacillus spp. to Lead Plant Insect Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bora; Song, Geun Cheol; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2016-03-01

    Aphids are a large group of hemipteran pests that affect the physiology, growth, and development of plants by using piercing mouthparts to consume fluids from the host. Based an recent data, aphids modulate the microbiomes of plants and thereby affect the overall outcome of the biological interaction. However, in a few reports, aboveground aphids manipulate the metabolism of the host and facilitate infestations by rhizosphere bacteria (rhizobacteria). In this study, we evaluated whether aphids alter the plant resistance that is mediated by the bacterial community of the root system. The rhizobacteria were affected by aphid infestation of pepper, and a large population of gram-positive bacteria was detected. Notably, Paenibacillus spp. were the unique gram-positive bacteria to respond to changes induced by the aphids. Paenibacillus polymyxa E681 was used as a rhizobacterium model to assess the recruitment of bacteria to the rhizosphere by the phloem-sucking of aphids and to test the effect of P. polymyxa on the susceptibility of plants to aphids. The root exudates secreted from peppers infested with aphids increased the growth rate of P. polymyxa E681. The application of P. polymyxa E681 to pepper roots promoted the colonization of aphids within 2 days of inoculation. Collectively, our results suggest that aphid infestation modulated the root exudation, which led to the recruitment of rhizobacteria that manipulated the resistance of peppers to aphids. In this study, new information is provided on how the infestation of insects is facilitated through insect-derived modulation of plant resistance with the attraction of gram-positive rhizobacteria.

  11. Silencing of the tomato phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase C2 (SlPLC2) reduces plant susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonorazky, Gabriela; Guzzo, María Carla; Abd-El-Haliem, Ahmed M; Joosten, Matthieu H A J; Laxalt, Ana María

    2016-12-01

    The tomato [Solanum lycopersicum (Sl)] phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase C (PI-PLC) gene family is composed of six members, named SlPLC1 to SlPLC6, differentially regulated on pathogen attack. We have previously shown that the fungal elicitor xylanase induces a raise of SlPLC2 and SlPLC5 transcripts and that SlPLC2, but not SlPLC5, is required for xylanase-induced expression of defense-related genes. In this work we studied the role of SlPLC2 in the interaction between tomato and the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. Inoculation of tomato leaves with B. cinerea increases SlPLC2 transcript levels. We knocked-down the expression of SlPLC2 by virus-induced gene silencing and plant defense responses were analyzed upon B. cinerea inoculation. SlPLC2 silenced plants developed smaller necrotic lesions concomitantly with less proliferation of the fungus. Silencing of SlPLC2 resulted as well in a reduced production of reactive oxygen species. Upon B. cinerea inoculation, transcript levels of the salicylic acid (SA)-defense pathway marker gene SlPR1a were diminished in SlPLC2 silenced plants compared to non-silenced infected plants, while transcripts of the jasmonic acid (JA)-defense gene markers Proteinase Inhibitor I and II (SlPI-I and SlPI-II) were increased. This implies that SlPLC2 participates in plant susceptibility to B. cinerea. © 2016 BSPP and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A component of the Sec61 ER protein transporting pore is required for plant susceptibility to powdery mildew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jing eZhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Biotrophic pathogens, like the powdery mildew fungi, require living plant cells for their growth and reproduction. During infection, a specialized structure called the haustorium is formed by the fungus. The haustorium is surrounded by a plant cell-derived extrahaustorial membrane (EHM. Over the EHM, the fungus obtains nutrients from and secretes effectors into the plant cell. In the plant cell these effectors interfere with cellular processes such as pathogen defense and membrane trafficking. However, the mechanisms behind effector delivery are largely unknown. This paper provides a model for and new insights into a putative transfer mechanism of effectors into the plant cell. We show that silencing of the barley Sec61βa protein results in decreased susceptibility to the powdery mildew fungus. HvSec61βa is a component of both the endoplasmic reticulum (ER translocon and retrotranslocon pores, the latter being part of the ER-associated protein degradation machinery (ERAD. We provide support for a model suggesting that the retrotranslocon function of HvSec61βa is required for successful powdery mildew fungal infection. HvSec61βa-GFP and a luminal ER marker were co-localized to the ER, which was found to be in close proximity to the EHM around the haustorial body, but not the haustorial fingers. This differential EHM proximity suggests that the ER, including HvSec61βa, may be actively recruited by the haustorium, potentially to provide efficient effector transfer to the cytosol. Effector transport across this EHM-ER interface may occur by a vesicle-mediated process, while the Sec61 retrotranslocon pore potentially provides an escape route for these proteins to reach the cytosol.

  13. Aquatic indicator organisms as a tool to monitor discharges from nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Outola, Iisa; Vartti, Vesa-Pekka; Klemola, Seppo [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, P.O. Box 14, 00881 Helsinki (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    There are four operating nuclear power plant units in Finland at two separate locations. The units started operation during 1977-1980. The surveillance of radioactive substances in the vicinities of the nuclear power plant is carried out under the permanent monitoring programs. Some 1000 samples are taken annually from the surroundings of the power plants to confirm that the discharges from the power plants are within permissible release limits and to monitor the dispersion of discharges in the environment. Aquatic indicator organisms (macro-algae, periphyton, mussels, crustacean, submerged aquatic plants) are included in the monitoring program. The indicator organisms are valuable monitoring objects both in normal and emergency situations because they accumulate effectively and often very rapidly radioactive substances from the medium. Six different species (Periphyton, Fucus vesiculosus, Myriophyllum spicatum, Potamogeton pectinatus, Saduria entomon, Macoma Baltica/Mytilus edulis) are collected regularly. Number of sampling location for each species varies from 1 to 7. Some species are collected continuously, some 1-2 times in a year. In this study we have evaluated the monitoring results for the aquatic indicator organisms for the period of 2005-2010 concerning concentration of discharge nuclides. Our aim was to answer the following questions using the monitoring data from aquatic organisms: 1) Which radionuclides are released to the marine environment and how often do we detect them? 2) How far from the nuclear power plants discharge radionuclides are detected? 3) How concentration of discharge radionuclides has changed with time in aquatic organisms? The number of discharge nuclides detected in the aquatic indicator samples was 11. Most of them were only detected in few samples, but {sup 58}Co, {sup 60}Co, {sup 54}Mn and {sup 110m}Ag were detected more frequently. Most of the observations above detection limits were made within the 5 km distance from the

  14. Thick root of cucumber: other susceptible plants and the effect of pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, van der D.J.; Paternotte, P.; Hamelink, R.

    2002-01-01

    Thick root is a relatively new disorder of cucumber grown in artificial substrates. Plants of cucumber, tomato, sweet pepper, lupin, anthurium, Cucurbita ficifolia, C. maxima and two lines from crosses between C. maxima and C. moschata were grown in thick root disease (TRD)-infested nutrient

  15. The role of habitat filtering in the leaf economics spectrum and plant susceptibility to pathogen infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Miranda E; Cronin, James P.; Mitchell, Charles E.

    2016-01-01

    1.The Leaf Economics Spectrum (LES) describes global covariation in the traits of plant leaves. The LES is thought to arise from biophysical constraints and habitat filtering (ecological selection against unfit trait combinations along environmental gradients). However, the role of habitat filtering in generating the LES has not been tested experimentally.

  16. Comparative analysis of the response and gene regulation in cold resistant and susceptible tea plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Qiuyan; Wang, Xuewen; Pan, Cheng; Wang, Yiwei; Kong, Lei; Jiang, Huiguang; Xu, Yiqun; Wang, Wenzhi; Pan, Yuting; Li, Yeyun; Jiang, Changjun

    2017-01-01

    Cold environment is the main constraint for tea plants (Camellia sinensis) distribution and tea farming. We identified two tea cultivars, called var. sinensis cv. Shuchazao (SCZ) with a high cold-tolerance and var. assamica cv. Yinghong9 (YH9) with low cold-tolerance. To better understand the response mechanism of tea plants under cold stress for improving breeding, we compared physiological and biochemical responses, and associated genes expression in response to 7-day and 14-day cold acclimation, followed by 7-day de-acclimation in these two tea cultivars. We found that the low EL50, low Fv/Fm, and high sucrose and raffinose accumulation are responsible for higher cold tolerance in SCZ comparing with YH9. We then measured the expression of 14 key homologous genes, known as involved in these responses in other plants, for each stages of treatment in both cultivars using RT-qPCR. Our results suggested that the increased expression of CsCBF1 and CsDHNs coupling with the accumulation of sucrose play key roles in conferring higher cold resistance in SCZ. Our findings have revealed key genes regulation responsible for cold resistance, which help to understand the cold-resistant mechanisms and guide breeding in tea plants.

  17. Key performance indicators in plant asset management: hype, burden or real help?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovanovic, A. (Steinbeis Advanced Risk Technologies, Stuttgart (Germany)); Bareiss, J.M. (EnBW, Stuttgart (Germany))

    2010-05-15

    The paper tackles the increasing role and use of indicators (e.g. the key performance indicators, KPIs) in asset management in power and process plants, in particular for risk and safety management (safety performance indicators, SPIs), inspection, maintenance, emerging risks analysis and aging management. The two main aspects of the use of indicators are monitoring of performance (e.g. of a single unit) and benchmarking (e.g. among different units). The basis for the considerations presented in the paper are several international projects in the field, showing that the main issue in the field is not and cannot be just the introduction of new indicators as such. They deal with the principles of establishing indicators, establishing generally accepted indicators (goal 'globally accepted' indicators), creating of 'repositories' of indicators in industry and respective tools. The repository/tool developed in the EU project iNTeg-Risk is presented in more detail. The main proposed criteria for successful introduction are the acceptance, transparency and clear added value, e.g. when the indicators help in finding solutions for the issues where the conventional analysis, e.g. the one based on engineering models and analysis is too expensive, complex or simply unavailable. Three practical cases are briefly shown in the paper: one for the improved asset management in a refinery, one for the identification of indicators helping to deal with emerging risks (how to identify them and how to assess risks of a new technology) and one for the implementation of a complex aging management program for industrial plants. (orig.)

  18. Medicinal plants indicated for flu and colds in the South of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjoriê da Costa Mendieta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We sought to know the medicinal plants used for flu and colds by farmers from the South of Rio Grande do Sul State and to compare it with scientific evidence. This descriptive study was conducted with 12 farmers living at Ilha dos Marinheiros, in the city of Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. We used descriptive analysis, comparing the results with the scientific literature. Thirteen plants were cited as used for cold and flu: Achyrocline satureioides, Allium sativum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata, Citrus sinensis, Gochnatia polymorpha, Illicium verum, Mentha piperita, Mikania sp., Ocimum selloi, Origanum majorana and Verbena sp. Results show popular knowledge meeting scientific evidence for most indications, seen that 84,6% of cited plants are in agreement with the literature. Thus, we emphasize the richness of popular knowledge, the need of its appreciation and constant approximation of health professionals to this knowledge, integrated with science.

  19. A simple nonnative plant indicator (NNPI) for describing ecological stress: Application to wetlands of the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods: Nonnative plants (NNP) are recognized indicators of disturbance to wetlands and other ecosystems, and often are direct stressors competing with native plant species and communities, or altering ecosystem processes. NNP species frequently co-occur and ...

  20. Towards spatially smart abatement of human pharmaceuticals in surface waters: Defining impact of sewage treatment plants on susceptible functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppens, Lieke J C; van Gils, Jos A G; Ter Laak, Thomas L; Raterman, Bernard W; van Wezel, Annemarie P

    2015-09-15

    For human pharmaceuticals, sewage treatment plants (STPs) are a major point of entry to surface waters. The receiving waters provide vital functions. Modeling the impact of STPs on susceptible functions of the surface water system allows for a spatially smart implementation of abatement options at, or in the service area of, STPs. This study was performed on a nation-wide scale for the Netherlands. Point source emissions included were 345 Dutch STPs and nine rivers from neighboring countries. The Dutch surface waters were represented by 2511 surface water units. Modeling was performed for two extreme discharge conditions. Monitoring data of 7 locations along the rivers Rhine and Meuse fall mostly within the range of modeled concentrations. Half of the abstracted volumes of raw water for drinking water production, and a quarter of the Natura 2000 areas (European Union nature protection areas) hosted by the surface waters, are influenced by STPs at low discharge. The vast majority of the total impact of all Dutch STPs during both discharge conditions can be attributed to only 19% of the STPs with regard to the drinking water function, and to 39% of the STPs with regard to the Natura 2000 function. Attributing water treatment technologies to STPs as one of the possible measures to improve water quality and protect susceptible functions can be done in a spatially smart and cost-effective way, using consumption-based detailed hydrological and water quality modeling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Antifungal activity of essential oils from Iranian plants against fluconazole-resistant and fluconazole-susceptible Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghil Sharifzadeh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assay the antifungal activity of selected essential oils obtained from plants against both fluconazole (FLU-resistant and FLU-susceptible C. albicans strains isolated from HIV positive patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC. Materials and Methods: The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation method from Myrtus communis (My. communis, Zingiber officinale roscoe (Z. officinale roscoe, Matricaria chamomilla (Ma. chamomilla, Trachyspermum ammi (T. ammi and Origanum vulgare (O. vulgare. The susceptibility test was based on the M27-A2 methodology. The chemical compositions of the essential oils were obtained by gas chromatography- mass spectroscopy (GC-MS. Results: In GC-MS analysis, thymol (63.40%, linalool (42%, α-pinene (27.87%, α-pinene (22.10%, and zingiberene (31.79% were found to be the major components of T. ammi, O. vulgare, My. communis, Ma. chamomilla and Z. officinale roscoe, respectively. The results showed that essential oils have different levels of antifungal activity. O. vulgare and T. ammi essential oils were found to be the most efficient (P

  2. Susceptibility of Cultivated Plants to Sumatran Elephant (Elephas maxi,us sumatranus in The Human Elephants Conflict Area in Aceh Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaniwa Berliani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Study on human-elephant conflict was conducted in Aceh Province in August 2013-April 2014 to assess susceptibility of farms by crop raiding elephants. The locations were determined by selected areas impacted by elephant conflict incuding Cot Girek, Mane, Meureudu, Sampoiniet, and Pantai Ceureumen. 150 respondents was interviewed to assess the variety of the commodity plants species cultivated by local community within study areas, species of damaged commodity plants, species of undamaged commodity plants, and the planting system. there were 29 species considered as commodity plants cultivated by farmers. Moreover, 5 commodity plants were considered as high risk plants damaged by elephant including areca, banana, oil palm, paddy, and rubber. on the other hand, species considered as low risk or undamaged consist of cacao, coffee, chili, candlenut, and patchioli. Those low risk or undemaged commodity plants species have a potential to be promoted as elephant-friendly crop commodities in area adjacent to elephant habitat based on the analysis and the categorization of susceptibility of cultivated plants against crop raiding elephant. One of the problem of humn-elephant conflict is crop raiding of village farms. it is a assumed that elephants might destroy a particular species therefore information on the species could assist farmers in selecting appropriate crop to be planted. there is a risk that current polyculture and monoculture planting system used by farmers will not prevent farms from crop raiding elephants.

  3. Congenital abnormalities and indicators of germinal mutations in the vicinity of the Paks nuclear plant, Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siffel, C; Otos, M; Czeizel, A E

    1996-05-01

    The objective of the study was to check the occurrence of phenotypic manifestations of germinal mutations in children born within a 30 km radius of the Paks nuclear power plant, Hungary. The study took the form of a comparative analysis between observed and expected rates based on the Hungarian baseline rates, as well as between children born before and after the operation of the nuclear plant. Data were taken from the database of the Hungarian Congenital Abnormality Registry completed by active search in the study region, and comprised 26 893 children born between 1980 and 1992 in the 55 settlements of the study region. The results were presented as overall figures as well as being grouped by different congenital abnormalities, in addition to the so-called indicators of germinal mutations: sentinel anomalies, Down syndrome and unidentified multiple congenital abnormalities. The observed occurrence of all but one group of congenital abnormalities corresponded to the expected rate, as did the three groups of indicator conditions. Of the 55 settlements, eight had spatial clusters; however, these could be explained by overdiagnosis or chance. There was no significant increase in the variables studied after the operation of the nuclear plant. We conclude that the slightly elevated radiation background (0.2-0.4 microSv/year) due to the operation of the nuclear plant studied does not affect germinal and somatic mutations in children.

  4. Heterogeneous Responses to Antioxidants in Noradrenergic Neurons of the Locus Coeruleus Indicate Differing Susceptibility to Free Radical Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Ramatis B.; Gravina, Fernanda S.; Lim, Rebecca; Brichta, Alan M.; Callister, Robert J.; van Helden, Dirk F.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the antioxidants trolox and dithiothreitol (DTT) on mouse Locus coeruleus (LC) neurons. Electrophysiological measurement of action potential discharge and whole cell current responses in the presence of each antioxidant suggested that there are three neuronal subpopulations within the LC. In current clamp experiments, most neurons (55%; 6/11) did not respond to the antioxidants. The remaining neurons exhibited either hyperpolarization and decreased firing rate (27%; 3/11) or depolarization and increased firing rate (18%; 2/11). Calcium and JC-1 imaging demonstrated that these effects did not change intracellular Ca2+ concentration but may influence mitochondrial function as both antioxidant treatments modulated mitochondrial membrane potential. These suggest that the antioxidant-sensitive subpopulations of LC neurons may be more susceptible to oxidative stress (e.g., due to ATP depletion and/or overactivation of Ca2+-dependent pathways). Indeed it may be that this subpopulation of LC neurons is preferentially destroyed in neurological pathologies such as Parkinson's disease. If this is the case, there may be a protective role for antioxidant therapies. PMID:22577493

  5. Distinguishing plant population and variety with UAV-derived vegetation indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Joseph; Balota, Maria

    2017-05-01

    Variety selection and seeding rate are two important choice that a peanut grower must make. High yielding varieties can increase profit with no additional input costs, while seeding rate often determines input cost a grower will incur from seed costs. The overall purpose of this study was to examine the effect that seeding rate has on different peanut varieties. With the advent of new UAV technology, we now have the possibility to use indices collected with the UAV to measure emergence, seeding rate, growth rate, and perhaps make yield predictions. This information could enable growers to make management decisions early in the season based on low plant populations due to poor emergence, and could be a useful tool for growers to use to estimate plant population and growth rate in order to help achieve desired crop stands. Red-Green-Blue (RGB) and near-infrared (NIR) images were collected from a UAV platform starting two weeks after planting and continued weekly for the next six weeks. Ground NDVI was also collected each time aerial images were collected. Vegetation indices were derived from both the RGB and NIR images. Greener area (GGA- the proportion of green pixels with a hue angle from 80° to 120°) and a* (the average red/green color of the image) were derived from the RGB images while Normalized Differential Vegetative Index (NDVI) was derived from NIR images. Aerial indices were successful in distinguishing seeding rates and determining emergence during the first few weeks after planting, but not later in the season. Meanwhile, these aerial indices are not an adequate predictor of yield in peanut at this point.

  6. Antimicrobial susceptibility of streptococci from various indications of swine, horses, dogs and cats as determined in the BfT-GermVet monitoring program 2004-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Stefan; Alesík, Eva; Grobbel, Mirjam; Lübke-Becker, Antina; Werckenthin, Christiane; Wieler, Lothar H; Wallmann, Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    A total of 500 streptococci from two indications of swine (beta-haemolytic streptococci from infections of the urinary/genital tract including strains from the mastitis metritis agalactia syndrome as well as S. suis from infections of the central nervous system and the musculoskeletal system), two indications of horses (S. equi from respiratory tract infections and beta-haemolytic streptococci from infections of the genital tract), as well as three indications of dogs and cats (beta-haemolytic streptococci from infections of the respiratory tract, the urinary/genital tract, and skin/ear/mouth) were investigated for their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. Regardless of the animal origin and indication, the most frequently detected resistance properties were resistances against sulfamethoxazole (20-78%), tetracycline (17-93%) as well as gentamicin (14-79%). Resistance to penicillins or cephalosporins was very rarely detected - if at all.

  7. Treatment efficiency in wastewater treatment plant of Hat Yai Municipality by quantitative removal of microbial indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duangporn Kantachote

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of treatment in a wastewater treatment plant of Hat Yai Municipality through stabilization ponds and constructed wetlands was monitored by using the bacterial indicators, total coliforms (TC, fecal coliforms (FC, Escherichia coli and fecal streptococci (FS, and photosynthetic microbes. The sequence of water flow in the wastewater treatment plant is as follows: primary or anaerobic pond (P, facultative pond (F, maturation pond (M, constructed wetlands (W1, W2 and W3, and an effluent storage pond (S for the treated wastewater. The wastewater treatment plant has an approximate area of 3,264,000 m2 (2,040 rai and its dry weather flow was running at only 40,000 m3/ day. There were 10 sampling times used for all the 7 ponds during July-October, 2006.Statistical analysis using a Two-Factorial Design model, indicated that pond types significantly affected temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO, and pH (p<0.05, whereas the time of sampling during the day had a significant effect (p<0.05 only on the temperature and light intensity available to the ponds. There were also significant different removal efficiencies of the different bacterial indicator groups tested (p<0.05. The overall performance of the wastewater treatment plant effectively removed TC, FC, E. coli, and FS as follows, 99.8%, 99.8%, 75.8% and 98.8%, respectively. The amounts of bacterial indicators, except for E. coli, showed a negative correlation with levels of light intensity and DO, whereas there was no correlation between the pH and the different indicator bacteria. There was a positive middle level correlation between pHand chlorophyll a.There were five different divisions of photosynthetic organisms detected throughout the plant as follows, Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, Bacillariophyta, Euglenophyta, and Pyrrhophyta. The least diversity was found in the anaerobic pond (P as there were only 15 genera. Euglena, an indicator of dirty water, was detected only in this pond. The

  8. Carbon isotopic composition of Ambrosia and Artemisia pollen: assessment of a C₃-plant paleophysiological indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, David M

    2012-09-01

    There is limited evidence on how shifts in plant physiological performance influence vegetation variations in the paleorecord. To evaluate δ¹³C of pollen from C₃ plants as an indicator of community-level physiology, small quantities (10-30 grains) of untreated pollen and sporopollenin from herbarium specimens of Ambrosia (A. tomentosa and A. psilostachya) and Artemisia (A. frigida, A. ludoviciana and A. dracunculus), genera abundant in grassland pollen profiles, were isolated by micromanipulation. Their δ¹³C values were measured using a spooling-wire microcombustion device interfaced with an isotope-ratio mass spectrometer. Leaf δ¹³C was also measured. Carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) for untreated pollen, sporopollenin and leaves was compared with historic records of seasonal precipitation amount, vapor pressure deficit and the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). Each species showed positive correlations between Δ of untreated pollen and sporopollenin. Sporopollenin Δ was most strongly correlated with PDSI. Correlations among leaf Δ and moisture indicators were stronger for Ambrosia than Artemisia. These results suggest that sporopollenin Δ indicates the level of moisture stress in C₃ plants. Therefore, δ¹³C analysis of pollen promises to help address important paleoecological questions, such as how community-level physiology contributes to shifts in vegetation composition. © 2012 The Author. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Ecological specialization and rarity indices estimated for a large number of plant species in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobaied, Samira; Machon, Nathalie; Porcher, Emmanuelle

    2015-06-01

    The biological diversity of the Earth is being rapidly depleted due to the direct and indirect consequences of human activities. Specialist or rare species are generally thought to be more extinction prone than generalist or common species. Testing this assumption however requires that the rarity and ecological specialization of the species are quantified. Many indices have been developed to classify species as generalists vs. specialists or as rare vs. common, but large data sets are needed to calculate these indices. Here, we present a list of specialization and rarity values for more than 2800 plant species of continental France, which were computed from the large botanical and ecological dataset SOPHY. Three specialization indices were calculated using species co-occurrence data. All three indices are based on (dis)similarity among plant communities containing a focal species, quantified either as beta diversity in an additive (Fridley et al., 2007 [6]) or multiplicative (Zeleny, 2008 [15]) partitioning of diversity or as the multiple site similarity of Baselga et al. (2007) [1]. Species rarity was calculated as the inverse of a species occurrence.

  10. Mapping flood and flooding potential indices: a methodological approach to identifying areas susceptible to flood and flooding risk. Case study: the Prahova catchment (Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharia, Liliana; Costache, Romulus; Prăvălie, Remus; Ioana-Toroimac, Gabriela

    2017-04-01

    Given that floods continue to cause yearly significant worldwide human and material damages, flood risk mitigation is a key issue and a permanent challenge in developing policies and strategies at various spatial scales. Therefore, a basic phase is elaborating hazard and flood risk maps, documents which are an essential support for flood risk management. The aim of this paper is to develop an approach that allows for the identification of flash-flood and flood-prone susceptible areas based on computing and mapping of two indices: FFPI (Flash-Flood Potential Index) and FPI (Flooding Potential Index). These indices are obtained by integrating in a GIS environment several geographical variables which control runoff (in the case of the FFPI) and favour flooding (in the case of the FPI). The methodology was applied in the upper (mountainous) and middle (hilly) catchment of the Prahova River, a densely populated and socioeconomically well-developed area which has been affected repeatedly by water-related hazards over the past decades. The resulting maps showing the spatialization of the FFPI and FPI allow for the identification of areas with high susceptibility to flashfloods and flooding. This approach can provide useful mapped information, especially for areas (generally large) where there are no flood/hazard risk maps. Moreover, the FFPI and FPI maps can constitute a preliminary step for flood risk and vulnerability assessment.

  11. Determination of installation capacity in reservoir hydro-power plants considering technical, economical and reliability indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseini, S.M.H.; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Fotouh-Firuzabad, Mahmood

    2008-01-01

    One of the most important issues in planning the ‘‘reservoir” type of hydro-power plants (HPP) is to determine the installation capacity of the HPPs and estimate its annual energy value. In this paper, a method is presented. A computer program has been developed to analyze energy calculation...... the technical, economic and reliability indices will determine the installation capacity of an HPP. By applying the above-mentioned algorithm to an existing HPP named ‘‘Bookan” (located in the westnorth of Iran); the capacity of 30 MW is obtained....

  12. A new family of standardized and symmetric indices for measuring the intensity and importance of plant neighbour effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diaz Sierra, R.; Verwijmeren, M.; Rietkerk, M.G.; Resco de Dios, Victor; Baudena, M.

    Measurements of competition and facilitation between plants often rely upon intensity and importance indices that quantify the net effect of neighbours on the performance of a target plant. A systematic analysis of the mathematical behaviour of the indices is lacking and leads to structural

  13. Peculiar ultrastructural characteristics of fungal cells and of other elements apposed to and in vessel walls in plants of a susceptible carnation cultivar, infected with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp dianthi race 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouellette, G.B.; Baayen, R.P.; Rioux, D.; Simard, M.

    2004-01-01

    Uncommon, opaque particles (of approximately 20-22 nm, referred to as OP), aggregating into paracrystalloids occurred only next to colonized cells in carnation plants of either a susceptible or resistant cultivar (cv.) infected with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi. In the susceptible plant, those

  14. Phylogenomic Analyses Indicate that Early Fungi Evolved Digesting Cell Walls of Algal Ancestors of Land Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ying; Wang, Sishuo; Sekimoto, Satoshi; Aerts, Andrea L.; Choi, Cindy; Clum, Alicia; LaButti, Kurt M.; Lindquist, Erika A.; Yee Ngan, Chew; Ohm, Robin A.; Salamov, Asaf A.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Berbee, Mary L.

    2015-01-01

    As decomposers, fungi are key players in recycling plant material in global carbon cycles. We hypothesized that genomes of early diverging fungi may have inherited pectinases from an ancestral species that had been able to extract nutrients from pectin-containing land plants and their algal allies (Streptophytes). We aimed to infer, based on pectinase gene expansions and on the organismal phylogeny, the geological timing of the plant–fungus association. We analyzed 40 fungal genomes, three of which, including Gonapodya prolifera, were sequenced for this study. In the organismal phylogeny from 136 housekeeping loci, Rozella diverged first from all other fungi. Gonapodya prolifera was included among the flagellated, predominantly aquatic fungal species in Chytridiomycota. Sister to Chytridiomycota were the predominantly terrestrial fungi including zygomycota I and zygomycota II, along with the ascomycetes and basidiomycetes that comprise Dikarya. The Gonapodya genome has 27 genes representing five of the seven classes of pectin-specific enzymes known from fungi. Most of these share a common ancestry with pectinases from Dikarya. Indicating functional and sequence similarity, Gonapodya, like many Dikarya, can use pectin as a carbon source for growth in pure culture. Shared pectinases of Dikarya and Gonapodya provide evidence that even ancient aquatic fungi had adapted to extract nutrients from the plants in the green lineage. This implies that 750 million years, the estimated maximum age of origin of the pectin-containing streptophytes represents a maximum age for the divergence of Chytridiomycota from the lineage including Dikarya. PMID:25977457

  15. City plants as ecological indicator of environment quality in St. Petersburg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapunov, Valentin; Glazyrina, Tatyana

    2017-04-01

    Under increase of natural hazard activity and anthropogenic pressure the effective and cheep monitoring methods become necessary. Majority of modern methods of monitoring, such as space and air, needs significant foundation. The simplest monitoring method is biological indication, basing on essay of variability, sex ration and sexual dimorphism. Such a method does not need long time efforts and may be realized by short observation. Urban plants are natural indicators of ecological pressure. Check or their state may give us significant information on area pollution by use of principles of phenogenic indication. Genetic and phenotypic variability of different organism have general principles and constants. The per cent of abnormal organisms and coefficient of variability are stable for majority of species under favorable state and increase under unfavorable conditions. The basis for indication is both state of adult trees and morphological variability of pollen grains. The part of dried threes and threes infected by parasites-xylophagous is correlated with toxic pollution. Float asymmetry of lives is measure of mutagenic pollution. Abnormal form of three (dichotomy, curved) is criteria of teratogenic pollution. Importance of such an indication is increased by such incidents as Chernobyl, Fucusima and so on. Algorithm for analyze of such a data is considered. The map of ecological pressure of St. Petersburg is presented.

  16. Variation in species-level plant functional traits over wetland indicator status categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy-Sulentic, Miles E.; Kolb, Thomas E.; Merritt, David M.; Palmquist, Emily C.; Ralston, Barbara E.; Sarr, Daniel A.

    2017-01-01

    Wetland indicator status (WIS) describes the habitat affinity of plant species and is used in wetland delineations and resource inventories. Understanding how species-level functional traits vary across WIS categories may improve designations, elucidate mechanisms of adaptation, and explain habitat optima and niche. We investigated differences in species-level traits of riparian flora across WIS categories, extending their application to indicate hydrologic habitat. We measured or compiled data on specific leaf area (SLA), stem specific gravity (SSG), seed mass, and mature height of 110 plant species that occur along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona. Additionally, we measured leaf δ13C, δ15N, % carbon, % nitrogen, and C/N ratio of 56 species with C3 photosynthesis. We asked the following: (i) How do species-level traits vary over WIS categories? (ii) Does the pattern differ between herbaceous and woody species? (iii) How well do multivariate traits define WIS categories? (iv) Which traits are correlated? The largest trait differences among WIS categories for herbaceous species occurred for SSG, seed mass, % leaf carbon and height, and for woody species occurred for height, SSG, and δ13C. SSG increased and height decreased with habitat aridity for both woody and herbaceous species. The δ13C and hence water use efficiency of woody species increased with habitat aridity. Water use efficiency of herbaceous species increased with habitat aridity via greater occurrence of C4 grasses. Multivariate trait assemblages differed among WIS categories. Over all species, SLA was correlated with height, δ13C, % leaf N, and C/N; height was correlated with SSG and % leaf C; SSG was correlated with % leaf C. Adaptations of both herbaceous and woody riparian species to wet, frequently inundated habitats include low-density stem tissue. Adaptations to drier habitats in the riparian zone include short, high-density cavitation-resistant stem tissue, and high water use

  17. Influence of the Amazon Hydrological Regime on Eutrophication Indicators of a Hydroelectric Power Plant Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Jean Carlos A; Hauser-Davis, Rachel Ann; da Costa Lobato, Tarcísio; de Morais, Jefferson M; de Oliveira, Terezinha F; F Saraiva, Augusto Cesar

    2017-05-01

    Dam constructions in the Amazon have increased exponentially in the last decades, causing several environmental impacts and serious anthropogenic impacts in certain hydroelectric power plant reservoirs in the region have been identified. The assessment of the trophic status of these reservoirs is of interest to indicate man-made changes in the environment, but must take into account the hydrological cycle of the area. This can be relevant for environmental management actions, aiding in the identification of the ecological status of water bodies. In this context, physico-chemical parameters and eutrophication indicators were determined in a hydroelectric power plant reservoir in the Brazilian Amazon to assess trophic variations during the regional hydrological regime phases on the reservoir, namely dry, filling, full and emptying stages. The local hydrological regimes were shown to significantly influence TSS and turbidity, as well as NH 4 , NO 3 , PO 4 , with higher values consistently observed during the filling stage of the reservoir. In addition, differences among the sampling stations regarding land use, population and anthropogenic activities were reflected in the PO 4 3- values during the different hydrological phases.

  18. Hippopotamus (H. amphibius) diet change indicates herbaceous plant encroachment following megaherbivore population collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chritz, Kendra L; Blumenthal, Scott A; Cerling, Thure E; Klingel, Hans

    2016-09-12

    Megaherbivores (>1000 kg) are critical for ecosystem health and function, but face population collapse and extinction globally. The future of these megaherbivore-impoverished ecosystems is difficult to predict, though many studies have demonstrated increasing representation of C3 woody plants. These studies rely on direct observational data, however, and tools for assessing decadal-scale changes in African ecology without observation are lacking. We use isotopic records of historical common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) canines to quantify herbaceous vegetation change in Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda following a period of civil unrest and poaching. This poaching event led to population collapse of two threatened African megaherbivore species: hippopotamus and African elephants (Loxodonta africana). Serial carbon isotope ratios (δ(13)C) in canine enamel from individuals that lived between 1960-2000 indicated substantial increases in C3 herbaceous plants in their diet (<20% C3 in the 1960s to 30-45% C3 in the 80s and 90s), supported by other observational and ecological data. These data indicate megaherbivore loss results in succession of both woody and herbaceous C3 vegetation and further reaching effects, such as decreased grazing capacity and herbivore biodiversity in the area. Given multiple lines of evidence, these individuals appear to accurately capture herbaceous vegetation change in Mweya.

  19. Effects of Planting Date and Plant Density on Physiological Indices, Quantity and Quality Traits of Two Varieties of Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sepehri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Marigold (Calendula officinalis L. is originated from North West Africa and Mediterranean area, is a medicinal plant used for several purposes. It is an annual herb or short-lived perennial from the Asteraceae family with yellow or orange flowers. The Marigold has been used as a traditional medicine and food dye, but is currently used as an anti-inflammatory and wound healer. It is grown for drug, obtained from the flowers. The flowers blossom during summer three or more times per year. The essential oil of yellow or orange petals of Calendula officinalis L. is one of the important yield components which is used for food and medicine. Moreover, the seed has an oil content of 5-20 %. Seed oil could be used as a binder in paints, coating and cosmetics. Growth, development and production of medicinal plants, as well as other plants are affected by genetic and agronomic factors. Planting date and plant density are two most important factors that can affect yield and yield components. Planting date affects the quantity and quality of secondary metabolites of medicinal plants. The optimum sowing date and plant density can improve the light and temperature absorption and other factors during the growing season. The positive effects of optimal planting date and plant density has been described by a number of researchers. The Plant population is dependent on the plant characters, growth period, time and method of cultivation. Also, the suitable sowing date has advantages for maximum production. Early sowing in the spring causes weakly establishment of plant and late planting date shortens growth period and simultaneous flowering period due to high temperature in summer. In this study, the effects of plant density and planting date on physiological indices, quantity and quality of two varieties of spare and compact marigold has been evaluated. Materials and Methods In order to determine the effects of planting date and plant density on

  20. Monitoring of Heavy Metals Spread in the Vicinity of Combined Heat and Power Plant-3, Using Indicator Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manara A. Mukasheva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Examination of heavy metals content in the vicinity of Combined Heat and Power Plant-3 in Karaganda showed that all the examined plants store the detectable chemical elements in concentrations, exceeding the background ones several times. The examined plants look more suppressed, have different distortions of morphological characteristics, if compared to the background ones

  1. Transcriptome Profiling of the Endophyte Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN Indicates Sensing of the Plant Environment and Drought Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibani-Tezerji, Raheleh; Rattei, Thomas; Sessitsch, Angela; Trognitz, Friederike; Mitter, Birgit

    2015-09-08

    It is widely accepted that bacterial endophytes actively colonize plants, interact with their host, and frequently show beneficial effects on plant growth and health. However, the mechanisms of plant-endophyte communication and bacterial adaption to the plant environment are still poorly understood. Here, whole-transcriptome sequencing of B. phytofirmans PsJN colonizing potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants was used to analyze in planta gene activity and the response of strain PsJN to plant stress. The transcriptome of PsJN colonizing in vitro potato plants showed a broad array of functionalities encoded in the genome of strain PsJN. Transcripts upregulated in response to plant drought stress were mainly involved in transcriptional regulation, cellular homeostasis, and the detoxification of reactive oxygen species, indicating an oxidative stress response in PsJN. Genes with modulated expression included genes for extracytoplasmatic function (ECF) group IV sigma factors. These cell surface signaling elements allow bacteria to sense changing environmental conditions and to adjust their metabolism accordingly. TaqMan quantitative PCR (TaqMan-qPCR) was performed to identify ECF sigma factors in PsJN that were activated in response to plant stress. Six ECF sigma factor genes were expressed in PsJN colonizing potato plants. The expression of one ECF sigma factor was upregulated whereas that of another one was downregulated in a plant genotype-specific manner when the plants were stressed. Collectively, our study results indicate that endophytic B. phytofirmans PsJN cells are active inside plants. Moreover, the activity of strain PsJN is affected by plant drought stress; it senses plant stress signals and adjusts its gene expression accordingly. In recent years, plant growth-promoting endophytes have received steadily growing interest as an inexpensive alternative to resource-consuming agrochemicals in sustainable agriculture. Even though promising effects are

  2. Indication of the condition of woody plants of parks in Dnipropetrovsk on morpho-physiological indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. E. Ivanchenko

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The condition of woody plants of parks in the city of Dnipropetrovsk on morpho-physiological index of model trees was investigated. The highest values on the V.A. Alekseev vitality index were recorded for plants in Gagarin Park and Sevastopolskiy Park, the lowest values for Kalinin Park and Мolodezhnyj Park. The lowest values for length and thickness of annual sprouting relative to the control (Petrikovka Park were found in Kalinin, Globa and Molodezhnyj parks for all studied species of trees, the smallest difference from the control group of plants being found for Robinia pseudoacacia L. There was a lower quantity of leaves on the annual sprouting in plants in Globa, Kalinin and Мolodezhnyj parks. In other parks, the difference between the experiment and the control was not statistically significant. The area of leaves in the trees was lower in the city parks compared with those of the park in the village, with the exception of Gagarin Park. More important, relative to the above-mentioned parameters, were differences in the assimilation area of the annual sprouting, with the exception of Gagarin Park. The amount of chlorophyll a + b in leaves of woody plants of different parks of the city less than in control. The greatest differences of pigment concentration in the leaves of Acer platanoides L. and Tilia plathyphyllos Scop. were found in Kalinin Park. For the leaves of the R. pseudoacacia no significant differences were found between the content of the amount of chlorophyll a + b in the trees which grow in Gagarin, Khmelnitsky and Sevastopolskiy parks and the background values for this parameter. It was found that the amount of chlorophyll a + b in the leaves of T. plathyphyllos and R. pseudoacacia by weight of the leaves on the annual sprouting was lower in the city parks compared with the trees in the village park, with the exception of Gagarin Park. For A. platanoides this difference was found to be significant in all experimental sites

  3. Risk assessment of cadmium-contaminated soil on plant DNA damage using RAPD and physiological indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wan; Yang, Y S; Li, P J; Zhou, Q X; Xie, L J; Han, Y P

    2009-01-30

    Impact assessment of contaminants in soil is an important issue in environmental quality study and remediation of contaminated land. A random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) 'fingerprinting' technique was exhibited to detect genotoxin-induced DNA damage of plants from heavy metal contaminated soil. This study compared the effects occurring at molecular and population levels in barley seedlings exposed to cadmium (Cd) contamination in soil. Results indicate that reduction of root growth and increase of total soluble protein level in the root tips of barley seedlings occurred with the ascending Cd concentrations. For the RAPD analyses, nine 10-base pair (bp) random RAPD primers (decamers) with 60-70% GC content were found to produce unique polymorphic band patterns and subsequently were used to produce a total of 129 RAPD fragments of 144-2639 base pair in molecular size in the root tips of control seedlings. Results produced from nine primers indicate that the changes occurring in RAPD profiles of the root tips following Cd treatment included alterations in band intensity as well as gain or loss of bands compared with the control seedlings. New amplified fragments at molecular size from approximately 154 to 2245 bp appeared almost for 10, 20 and 40 mg L(-1) Cd with 9 primers (one-four new polymerase chain reaction, (PCR) products), and the number of missing bands enhanced with the increasing Cd concentration for nine primers. These results suggest that genomic template stability reflecting changes in RAPD profiles were significantly affected and it compared favourably with the traditional indices such as growth and soluble protein level at the above Cd concentrations. The DNA polymorphisms detected by RAPD can be applied as a suitable biomarker assay for detection of the genotoxic effects of Cd stress in soil on plants. As a tool in risk assessment the RAPD assay can be used in characterisation of Cd hazard in soil.

  4. Effect of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici on the soil-to-root translocation of heavy metals in tomato plants susceptible and resistant to the fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales Escobosa, Alma Rosa; Wrobel, Katarzyna; Landero Figueroa, Julio Alberto; Gutíerrez Corona, J Felix; Wrobel, Kazimierz

    2010-12-08

    The purpose of this work was to gain an insight on the potential role of the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in the translocation of metals and metalloids from soil to plant roots in tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum). Two varieties of tomato (one susceptible and another resistant to infection by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici) were challenged with the fungus for different periods of time, and several elements (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Pb) were determined in roots and in soil substrate. Additionally, phenolic plant products were also analyzed for the evaluation of the plant response to biotic stress. In order to obtain representative results for plants cultivated in noncontaminated environments, the infected and control plants were grown in commercial soil with natural, relatively low metal concentrations, partly associated with humic substances. Using such an experimental design, a specific role of the fungus could be observed, while possible effects of plant exposure to elevated concentrations of heavy metals were avoided. In the infected plants of two varieties, the root concentrations of several metals/metalloids were increased compared to control plants; however, the results obtained for elements and for phenolic compounds were significantly different in the two plant varieties. It is proposed that both Lycopersicum esculentum colonization by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and the increase of metal bioavailability due to fungus-assisted solubilization of soil humic substances contribute to element traffic from soil to roots in tomato plant.

  5. Mosses in Ohio wetlands respond to indices of disturbance and vascular plant integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Schumacher, William; Gara, Brian; Viau, Nick

    2016-01-01

    We examined the relationships between an index of wetland habitat quality and disturbance (ORAM score) and an index of vascular plant integrity (VIBI-FQ score) with moss species richness and a moss quality assessment index (MQAI) in 45 wetlands in three vegetation types in Ohio, USA. Species richness of mosses and MQAI were positively associated with ORAM and VIBI-FQ scores. VIBI-FQ score was a better predictor of both moss species richness and MQAI than was either ORAM score or vegetation type. This result was consistent with the strict microhabitat requirements for many moss species, which may be better assessed by VIBI-FQ than ORAM. Probability curves as a function of VIBI-FQ score were then generated for presence of groups of moss species having the same degree of fidelity to substrate and plant communities relative to other species in the moss flora (coefficients of conservatism, CCs). Species having an intermediate- or high degree of fidelity to substrate and plant communities (i.e., species with CC ≥ 5) had a 50% probability of presence (P50) and 90% probability of presence (P90) in wetlands with intermediate- and high VIBI-FQ scores, respectively. Although moss species richness, probability of presence of species based on CC, and MQAI may reflect wetland habitat quality, the 95% confidence intervals around P50 and P90 values may be too wide for regulatory use. Moss species richness, MQAI, and presence of groups of mosses may be more useful for evaluating moss habitat quality in wetlands than a set of “indicator species.”

  6. Intraspecific Differences in Spectral Reflectance Curves as Indicators of Reduced Vitality in High-Arctic Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Zagajewski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing is a suitable candidate for monitoring rapid changes in Polar regions, offering high-resolution spectral, spatial and radiometric data. This paper focuses on the spectral properties of dominant plant species acquired during the first week of August 2015. Twenty-eight plots were selected, which could easily be identified in the field as well as on RapidEye satellite imagery. Spectral measurements of individual species were acquired, and heavy metal contamination stress factors were measured contemporaneously. As a result, a unique spectral library of dominant plant species, heavy metal concentrations and damage ratios were achieved with an indication that species-specific changes due to environmental conditions can best be differentiated in the 1401–2400 nm spectral region. Two key arctic tundra species, Cassiope tetragona and Dryas octopetala, exhibited significant differences in this spectral region that were linked to a changing health status. Relationships between field and satellite measurements were comparable, e.g., the Red Edge Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (RENDVI showed a strong and significant relationship (R2 = 0.82; p = 0.036 for the species Dryas octopetala. Cadmium and Lead were below detection levels while manganese, copper and zinc acquired near Longyearbyen were at concentrations comparable to other places in Svalbard. There were high levels of nickel near Longyearbyen (0.014 mg/g, while it was low (0.004 mg/g elsewhere.

  7. A Combined Heuristic and Indicator-based Methodology for Design of Sustainable Chemical Process Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halim, Iskandar; Carvalho, Ana; Srinivasan, Rajagopalan

    2011-01-01

    The current emphasis on sustainable production has prompted chemical plants to minimize raw material and energy usage without compromising on economics. While computer tools are available to assistin sustainability assessment, their applications are constrained to a specific domain of the design......, and high-lights trade-offs between environmental and economic objectives. This is complemented by SustainPro which evaluates the alternatives and screens them in-depth through indicators for profit and energy, water, and raw material usage. This results in accurate identification of the root causes......, comprehensive generation of design alternatives, and effective reduction of the optimization search space. The frame-work is illustrated using anacetone process and a methanol and dimethyl ether production case study....

  8. Lysophosphatidylcholine enhances susceptibility in signaling pathway against pathogen infection through biphasic production of reactive oxygen species and ethylene in tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wi, Soo Jin; Seo, So yeon; Cho, Kyoungwon; Nam, Myung Hee; Park, Ky Young

    2014-08-01

    It was previously reported that the amounts of lysophosphatidylcholines (lysoPCs), which are naturally occurring bioactive lipid molecules, significantly increase following pathogen inoculation, as determined using ultraperformance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight/mass spectrometry analyses. Here, real-time quantitative RT-PCR was performed for the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) genes, Nt1PLA2 and Nt2PLA2, which are responsible for LysoPCs generation. The transcription level of Nt2PLA2 in pathogen-infected tobacco plants transiently peaked at 1h and 36 h, whereas induction of Nt1PLA2 transcription peaked at 36 h. A prominent biphasic ROS accumulation in lysoPC (C18:1(9Z))-treated tobacco leaves was also observed. Transcription of NtRbohD, a gene member of NADPH oxidase, showed biphasic kinetics upon lysoPC 18:1 treatment, as evidenced by an early transient peak in phase I at 1h and a massive peak in phase II at 12h. Each increase in NtACS2 and NtACS4 transcription, gene members of the ACC synthase family, was followed by biphasic peaks of ethylene production after lysoPC 18:1 treatment. This suggested that lysoPC (C18:1)-induced ethylene production was regulated at the transcriptional level of time-dependent gene members. LysoPC 18:1 treatment also rapidly induced cell damage. LysoPC 18:1-induced cell death was almost completely abrogated in ROS generation-impaired transgenic plants (rbohD-as and rbohF-as), ethylene production-impaired transgenic plants (CAS-AS and CAO-AS), and ethylene signaling-impaired transgenic plants (Ein3-AS), respectively. Taken together, pathogen-induced lysoPCs enhance pathogen susceptibility accompanied by ROS and ethylene biosynthesis, resulting in chlorophyll degradation and cell death. Expression of PR genes (PR1-a, PR-3, and PR-4b) and LOX3 was strongly induced in lysoPC 18:1-treated leaves, indicating the involvement of lysoPC 18:1 in the defense response. However, lysoPC 18:1 treatment eventually resulted in cell death, as

  9. Peracetic Acid (PAA Disinfection: Inactivation of Microbial Indicators and Pathogenic Bacteria in a Municipal Wastewater Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Bonetta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have noted that treated and untreated wastewaters are primary contributors of a variety of pathogenic microorganisms to the aquatic ecosystem. Conventional wastewater treatment may not be sufficient to achieve microbiologically safe effluent to be discharged into natural waters or reused, thus requiring wastewater effluents to be disinfected. In recent years, peracetic acid (PAA has been adopted as a disinfectant for wastewater effluents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the disinfection efficiency of PAA at low doses (range 0.99–2.10 mg/L against microbial indicators and pathogenic bacteria in a municipal wastewater plant. Samples of untreated sewage and effluents before and after PAA treatment were collected seasonally for 1 year and were analysed for pathogenic Campylobacter, Salmonella spp., E. coli O157:H7 and E. coli virulence genes using molecular methods; moreover, the detection of specific microbial indicators (E. coli, faecal coliforms, enterococci, C. perfringens and Salmonella spp. were carried out using culturing methods. Salmonella spp. DNA was found in all untreated sewage and effluent before PAA treatment, whereas it was recovered in 50% of the samples collected after PAA treatment. Although E. coli O157:H7 was never identified, the occurrence of Shiga-like toxin I amplicons was identified in 75% of the untreated sewage samples, in 50% of the effluents assayed before PAA treatment, and in 25% of the effluents assayed after PAA treatment, whereas the stx2 gene was never found. Campylobacter coli was only detected in one effluent sample before PAA treatment. In the effluents after PAA treatment, a lower load of indicator bacteria was observed compared to the effluents before treatment. The results of this study highlight that the use of low doses of PAA seems to lead to an improvement of the microbiological quality of the effluent, although it is not sufficient to guarantee its suitability for irrigation

  10. Quantitative detection of Cucumber vein yellowing virus in susceptible and partially resistant plants using real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picó, Belén; Sifres, Alicia; Nuez, Fernando

    2005-09-01

    A method for the detection of Cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV) that combines reverse transcription with real-time PCR (SYBR((R)) Green chemistry) was developed using specific primers designed from a nucleotide sequence of the RNA polymerase gene (NIb) conserved among all the available CVYV strains. This method provided a linear assay over five to six orders of magnitude and reproducibly detected titres as low as 10(3) molecules of the target CVYV cDNA. Real-time PCR gave reproducible results for the quantification of CVYV in young leaves of susceptible and resistant cucumber landraces after mechanical inoculation. Significant differences in the starting amount of target cDNA were found between the analyzed genotypes, indicating differences in viral accumulation that correlated to their different levels of resistance. Real-time PCR results validated our previous findings using slot-blot hybridization, the dominance of the strong resistance to CVYV displayed by C.sat 10, and provided improved reliability and sensitivity of detection. This method has great potential in resistance breeding for germplasm screening, characterization of resistance mechanisms and genetic studies.

  11. Nepenthesin protease activity indicates digestive fluid dynamics in carnivorous Nepenthes plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buch, F.; Kaman, W.E.; Bikker, F.J.; Yilamujiang, A.; Mithöfer, A.

    2015-01-01

    Carnivorous plants use different morphological features to attract, trap and digest prey, mainly insects. Plants from the genus Nepenthes possess specialized leaves called pitchers that function as pitfall-traps. These pitchers are filled with a digestive fluid that is generated by the plants

  12. Energy performance indicators of wastewater treatment: a field study with 17 Portuguese plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Catarina; Rosa, Maria João

    2015-01-01

    The energy costs usually represent the second largest part of the running costs of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). It is therefore crucial to increase the energy efficiency of these infrastructures and to implement energy management systems, where quantitative performance metrics, such as performance indicators (PIs), play a key role. This paper presents energy PIs which cover the unit energy consumption, production, net use from external sources and costs, and the results used to validate them and derive their reference values. The results of a field study with 17 Portuguese WWTPs (5-year period) were consistent with the results obtained through an international literature survey on the two key parcels of the energy balance--consumption and production. The unit energy consumption showed an overall inverse relation with the volume treated, and the reference values reflect this relation for trickling filters and for activated sludge systems (conventional, with coagulation/filtration (C/F) and with nitrification and C/F). The reference values of electrical energy production were derived from the methane generation potential (converted to electrical energy) and literature data, whereas those of energy net use were obtained by the difference between the energy consumption and production.

  13. Development of Behavioral Indicators of Competences for Safety Culture of Nuclear Power Plants: A Preliminary Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Kwangsu; Kim, Sa Kil; Oh, Yeon Ju; Shin, Youmin; Lee, Yong-Hee; Jang, Tong Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The term of safety competency in nuclear field was presented in the OECD/NEA workshop held in 1999. A model of the safety culture competencies in nuclear power plants was developed by KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute). In general, a competency (competence) is defined as 'cluster of employee's attribute, knowledge, skill, ability or other characteristic that contributes to successful job performance'. We also defined safety culture competency as 'cluster of various internal characteristics (e.g., knowledge, skill, ability, motive, attitude and etc.) of employee that contribute to perform job safely and shape a healthy and strong safety culture.' By this definition, the safety culture competency is the broader construct including job competency. An employee having high level of safety culture competency shows extra discretionary effort to improve safety of peer, team and organization in addition to the individual's successful and safe job accomplishment. The behavioral indicators for each of the competencies are focal points of conversations on progress and are monitored continuously by self-assessment and managers or supervisors' intervention. Deficiencies in any of these indicators can point to coaching, training or other learning opportunities that employees may be required in order to improve. The purpose of this study was to derive a model of safety competencies for improving safety culture of NPPs and develop a set of behavioral indicators of each competency. In addition, the method of measuring behavioral indicators was suggested. For the application of developed safety culture competences and behavioral indicators, the most suitable measuring method for behavioral indicators must be developed. In the case of behavioral observations, behavioral dimensions (frequency, persistence and latency), observation possibility, occurrence basis of behavior (daily job performance, situational dependent) are considered to

  14. The Plant Membrane-Associated REMORIN1.3 Accumulates in Discrete Perihaustorial Domains and Enhances Susceptibility to Phytophthora infestans1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Tolga O.; Richardson, Annis; Dagdas, Yasin F.; Mongrand, Sébastien; Kamoun, Sophien; Raffaele, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous pathogens such as the oomycete Phytophthora infestans infect plants by developing specialized structures termed haustoria inside the host cells. Haustoria are thought to enable the secretion of effector proteins into the plant cells. Haustorium biogenesis, therefore, is critical for pathogen accommodation in the host tissue. Haustoria are enveloped by a specialized host-derived membrane, the extrahaustorial membrane (EHM), which is distinct from the plant plasma membrane. The mechanisms underlying the biogenesis of the EHM are unknown. Remarkably, several plasma membrane-localized proteins are excluded from the EHM, but the remorin REM1.3 accumulates around P. infestans haustoria. Here, we used overexpression, colocalization with reporter proteins, and superresolution microscopy in cells infected by P. infestans to reveal discrete EHM domains labeled by REM1.3 and the P. infestans effector AVRblb2. Moreover, SYNAPTOTAGMIN1, another previously identified perihaustorial protein, localized to subdomains that are mainly not labeled by REM1.3 and AVRblb2. Functional characterization of REM1.3 revealed that it is a susceptibility factor that promotes infection by P. infestans. This activity, and REM1.3 recruitment to the EHM, require the REM1.3 membrane-binding domain. Our results implicate REM1.3 membrane microdomains in plant susceptibility to an oomycete pathogen. PMID:24808104

  15. Trichome morphology as an indicator of high rubber bearing guayule (Parthenium argentatum gray) plants in native populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, I.J.; Dhillon, S.P.; Hanson, G.P.

    1979-01-01

    Parthenium argentatum Gray (guayule) and P. incanum (mariola) grow in close asociations in their native habitat of Mexico. Variation in rubber concentration and morphology of guayule has been known for a long time. Studies of over 75 native guayule plants indicated the presence of at least three prominent forms of guayule plants. Group I guayule plants have oblanceolate leaves and leaf margins are entire to two-toothed. T-shaped leaf trichomes are with centrally attached stalk and cap cell with two blunt ends. Plants in this group are high in rubber, containing on the average 17% rubber. Group II guayule plants have narrow elliptic leaves and leaf margins are entire to four-toothed. T-shaped trichomes have an acentrally attached stalk and a cap cell with short end blunt, long end pointed and straight. Rubber content in these plants averages 10%. Group III guayule plants have ovate leaves and leaf margins are four- to eight-toothed. T-trichomes have an acentrally attached stalk and a cap cell with short end blunt, long end pointed and wavy or curved. These plants on the average contain 6% rubber. Morphological as well as biochemical data indicate the presence of mariola genes in the last two groups of plants and this has resulted in an increase in trichome length and a decrease in the rubber content. Group II guayule plants are of more common occurrence than the others. Based on the data presented here, high rubber bearing guayule plants in native stands can be easily selected by analyzing trichome morphology. 16 figures, 2 tables.

  16. Airborne peptidoglycans as a supporting indicator of bacterial contamination in a metal processing plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Cyprowski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess exposure to airborne endotoxins and peptidoglycans (PGs as well as possibility of using PGs as a surrogate measure of bacterial exposure in workplaces in a metal processing plant. Material and Methods: Personal dosimetry (N = 11 was used to obtain data on concentrations of viable bacteria, total number of bioaerosol particles, endotoxins and peptidoglycans. To investigate the size distributions of aerosol particles responsible for transport of endotoxins and PGs, air samples (N = 5 were additionally collected using the 8-stage cascade impactor. Endotoxins and PGs were assayed with the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL test and a kinetic version of the silkworm larvae plasma (SLP test, respectively. Results: Median concentrations of airborne PGs (14.6 ng/m3, endotoxins (0.2 ng/m3, viable bacteria (1.16×103 CFU/m3 and the total number of bioaerosol particles (1.81×106 cells/m3 were determined. Qualitative analysis revealed presence of 19 bacterial species belonging to 14 genera. The calculations showed strong, significant correlations (p < 0.05 between endotoxins, viable bacteria (r = 0.75 and the total number of bioaerosol particle concentrations (r = 0.76 as well as between PGs and the total number of bioaerosol particle concentrations (r = 0.72. Size distribution analysis showed that the highest concentrations of bacterial aerosols occurred in the range of 2.1–3.3 μm. In the case of endotoxins, an increase of concentrations in 2 ranges of aerodynamic diameters: 1.1–3.3 μm and 5.8–9 μm was shown. For PGs there was a visible gradual increase of their concentrations in the range 2.1–9 μm. Conclusions: Peptidoglycans can be treated as a supporting indicator of bacterial contamination in metal processing plants, particularly when an assessment of an immunotoxic potential of microbiological hazards needs to be performed. However, to be extrapolated to other occupational and non

  17. Plant species diversity indicators for use in the computation of critical loads and dynamic risk assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobben, van H.F.; Posch, M.; Wamelink, G.W.W.; Hettelingh, J.P.; Vries, de W.

    2015-01-01

    Soil models can be used to derive critical loads by computing the deposition that leads to critical limits for abiotic conditions, i.e. conditions that are just tolerated by an ecosystem. In this chapter various approaches are discussed to assess these critical limits for plant communities and plant

  18. Nepenthesin protease activity indicates digestive fluid dynamics in carnivorous Nepenthes plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buch, F. (Franziska); W.E. Kaman (Wendy); F.J. Bikker (Floris); Yilamujiang, A. (Ayufu); Mithöfer, A. (Axel)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractCarnivorous plants use different morphological features to attract, trap and digest prey, mainly insects. Plants from the genus Nepenthes possess specialized leaves called pitchers that function as pitfall-traps. These pitchers are filled with a digestive fluid that is generated by the

  19. Phylogenetic analysis of F-bZIP transcription factors indicates conservation of the zinc deficiency response across land plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro, Pedro Humberto Araújo R F; Lilay, Grmay Hailu; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors control important developmental and physiological processes in plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the three gene F-bZIP subfamily has been associated with zinc deficiency and salt stress response. Benefiting from the present abundance of plant genomic...... data, we performed an evolutionary and structural characterization of plant F-bZIPs. We observed divergence during seed plant evolution, into two groups and inferred different selective pressures for each. Group 1 contains AtbZIP19 and AtbZIP23 and appears more conserved, whereas Group 2, containing...... of AtZIP4. A survey of AtZIP4 orthologs promoters across different plant taxa revealed an enrichment of the Zinc Deficiency Response Element (ZDRE) to which both AtbZIP19/23 bind. Overall, our results indicate that while the AtbZIP24 function in the regulation of the salt stress response may...

  20. Water Footprint Assessment in Waste Water Treatment Plant: Indicator of the sustainability of urban water cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Llanos, Eva; Durán Barroso, Pablo; Matías Sánchez, Agustín; Fernández Rodríguez, Santiago; Guzmán Caballero, Raúl

    2017-04-01

    The seventeen Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) represent a challenge for citizens and countries around the world by working together to reduce social inequality, to fight poverty and climate change. The Goal six water and sanitation aims for ensuring, among others, the protection and restoration of water-related ecosystem (target 6.6) and encouraging the water use efficiency (target 6.3). The commitment to this goal is not only the development of sanitation infrastructure, but also incorporates the necessity of a sustainable and efficient management from ecological and economic perspectives. Following this approach, we propose a framework for assessing the waste water treatment plant (WWTP) management based on the Water Footprint (WF) principles. The WF as indicator is able to highlight the beneficial role of WWTPs within the environment and provide a complementary information to evaluate the impact of a WWTP regarding to the use of freshwater and energy. Therefore, the footprint family provides an opportunity to relate the reduction of pollutant load in a WWTP and the associated consumptions in terms of electricity and chemical products. As a consequence, the new methodology allows a better understanding of the interactions among water and energy resources, economic requirements and environmental risks. Because of this, the current technologies can be improved and innovative solutions for monitoring and management of urban water use can be integrated. The WF was calculated in four different WWTP located in the North East of Extremadura (SW Spain) which have activated sludge process as secondary treatment. This zone is characterized by low population density but an incipient tourism development. The WF estimation and its relationship with the electricity consumption examines the efficiency of each WWTP and identifies the weak points in the management in terms of the sustainability. Consequently, the WF establishes a benchmark for multidisciplinary decision

  1. Historic Mining and Agriculture as Indicators of Occurrence and Abundance of Widespread Invasive Plant Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calinger, Kellen; Calhoon, Elisabeth; Chang, Hsiao-Chi; Whitacre, James; Wenzel, John; Comita, Liza; Queenborough, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances often change ecological communities and provide opportunities for non-native species invasion. Understanding the impacts of disturbances on species invasion is therefore crucial for invasive species management. We used generalized linear mixed effects models to explore the influence of land-use history and distance to roads on the occurrence and abundance of two invasive plant species (Rosa multiflora and Berberis thunbergii) in a 900-ha deciduous forest in the eastern U.S.A., the Powdermill Nature Reserve. Although much of the reserve has been continuously forested since at least 1939, aerial photos revealed a variety of land-uses since then including agriculture, mining, logging, and development. By 2008, both R. multiflora and B. thunbergii were widespread throughout the reserve (occurring in 24% and 13% of 4417 10-m diameter regularly-placed vegetation plots, respectively) with occurrence and abundance of each varying significantly with land-use history. Rosa multiflora was more likely to occur in historically farmed, mined, logged or developed plots than in plots that remained forested, (log odds of 1.8 to 3.0); Berberis thunbergii was more likely to occur in plots with agricultural, mining, or logging history than in plots without disturbance (log odds of 1.4 to 2.1). Mining, logging, and agriculture increased the probability that R. multiflora had >10% cover while only past agriculture was related to cover of B. thunbergii. Proximity to roads was positively correlated with the occurrence of R. multiflora (a 0.26 increase in the log odds for every 1-m closer) but not B. thunbergii, and roads had no impact on the abundance of either species. Our results indicated that a wide variety of disturbances may aid the introduction of invasive species into new habitats, while high-impact disturbances such as agriculture and mining increase the likelihood of high abundance post-introduction.

  2. Historic Mining and Agriculture as Indicators of Occurrence and Abundance of Widespread Invasive Plant Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellen Calinger

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic disturbances often change ecological communities and provide opportunities for non-native species invasion. Understanding the impacts of disturbances on species invasion is therefore crucial for invasive species management. We used generalized linear mixed effects models to explore the influence of land-use history and distance to roads on the occurrence and abundance of two invasive plant species (Rosa multiflora and Berberis thunbergii in a 900-ha deciduous forest in the eastern U.S.A., the Powdermill Nature Reserve. Although much of the reserve has been continuously forested since at least 1939, aerial photos revealed a variety of land-uses since then including agriculture, mining, logging, and development. By 2008, both R. multiflora and B. thunbergii were widespread throughout the reserve (occurring in 24% and 13% of 4417 10-m diameter regularly-placed vegetation plots, respectively with occurrence and abundance of each varying significantly with land-use history. Rosa multiflora was more likely to occur in historically farmed, mined, logged or developed plots than in plots that remained forested, (log odds of 1.8 to 3.0; Berberis thunbergii was more likely to occur in plots with agricultural, mining, or logging history than in plots without disturbance (log odds of 1.4 to 2.1. Mining, logging, and agriculture increased the probability that R. multiflora had >10% cover while only past agriculture was related to cover of B. thunbergii. Proximity to roads was positively correlated with the occurrence of R. multiflora (a 0.26 increase in the log odds for every 1-m closer but not B. thunbergii, and roads had no impact on the abundance of either species. Our results indicated that a wide variety of disturbances may aid the introduction of invasive species into new habitats, while high-impact disturbances such as agriculture and mining increase the likelihood of high abundance post-introduction.

  3. Historic Mining and Agriculture as Indicators of Occurrence and Abundance of Widespread Invasive Plant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calinger, Kellen; Calhoon, Elisabeth; Chang, Hsiao-chi; Whitacre, James; Wenzel, John; Comita, Liza; Queenborough, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances often change ecological communities and provide opportunities for non-native species invasion. Understanding the impacts of disturbances on species invasion is therefore crucial for invasive species management. We used generalized linear mixed effects models to explore the influence of land-use history and distance to roads on the occurrence and abundance of two invasive plant species (Rosa multiflora and Berberis thunbergii) in a 900-ha deciduous forest in the eastern U.S.A., the Powdermill Nature Reserve. Although much of the reserve has been continuously forested since at least 1939, aerial photos revealed a variety of land-uses since then including agriculture, mining, logging, and development. By 2008, both R. multiflora and B. thunbergii were widespread throughout the reserve (occurring in 24% and 13% of 4417 10-m diameter regularly-placed vegetation plots, respectively) with occurrence and abundance of each varying significantly with land-use history. Rosa multiflora was more likely to occur in historically farmed, mined, logged or developed plots than in plots that remained forested, (log odds of 1.8 to 3.0); Berberis thunbergii was more likely to occur in plots with agricultural, mining, or logging history than in plots without disturbance (log odds of 1.4 to 2.1). Mining, logging, and agriculture increased the probability that R. multiflora had >10% cover while only past agriculture was related to cover of B. thunbergii. Proximity to roads was positively correlated with the occurrence of R. multiflora (a 0.26 increase in the log odds for every 1-m closer) but not B. thunbergii, and roads had no impact on the abundance of either species. Our results indicated that a wide variety of disturbances may aid the introduction of invasive species into new habitats, while high-impact disturbances such as agriculture and mining increase the likelihood of high abundance post-introduction. PMID:26046534

  4. Phylogenetic analysis of K+ transporters in bryophytes, lycophytes, and flowering plants indicates a specialization of vascular plants

    OpenAIRE

    Judith Lucia Gomez-Porras; Diego Mauricio eRiaño Pachón; Begoña eBenito; Rosario eHaro; Kamil eSklodowski; Alonso eRodríguez-Navarro; Ingo eDreyer

    2012-01-01

    As heritage from early evolution, potassium (K+) is absolutely necessary for all living cells. It plays significant roles as stabilizer in metabolism and is important for enzyme activation, stabilization of protein synthesis and neutralization of negative charges on cellular molecules as proteins and nucleic acids. Land plants even enlarged this spectrum of K+ utilization after having gone ashore, despite the fact that K+ is far less available in their new oligotrophic habitats than in sea wa...

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of K+ transporters in bryophytes, lycophytes, and flowering plants indicates a specialization of vascular plants

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-Porras, Judith Lucia; Riaño-Pachón, Diego Mauricio; Benito, Begoña; Haro, Rosario; Sklodowski, Kamil; Rodríguez-Navarro, Alonso; Dreyer, Ingo

    2012-01-01

    As heritage from early evolution, potassium (K+) is absolutely necessary for all living cells. It plays significant roles as stabilizer in metabolism and is important for enzyme activation, stabilization of protein synthesis, and neutralization of negative charges on cellular molecules as proteins and nucleic acids. Land plants even enlarged this spectrum of K+ utilization after having gone ashore, despite the fact that K+ is far less available in their new oligotrophic habitats than in sea w...

  6. Nepenthesin protease activity indicates digestive fluid dynamics in carnivorous nepenthes plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Buch

    Full Text Available Carnivorous plants use different morphological features to attract, trap and digest prey, mainly insects. Plants from the genus Nepenthes possess specialized leaves called pitchers that function as pitfall-traps. These pitchers are filled with a digestive fluid that is generated by the plants themselves. In order to digest caught prey in their pitchers, Nepenthes plants produce various hydrolytic enzymes including aspartic proteases, nepenthesins (Nep. Knowledge about the generation and induction of these proteases is limited. Here, by employing a FRET (fluorescent resonance energy transfer-based technique that uses a synthetic fluorescent substrate an easy and rapid detection of protease activities in the digestive fluids of various Nepenthes species was feasible. Biochemical studies and the heterologously expressed Nep II from Nepenthes mirabilis proved that the proteolytic activity relied on aspartic proteases, however an acid-mediated auto-activation mechanism was necessary. Employing the FRET-based approach, the induction and dynamics of nepenthesin in the digestive pitcher fluid of various Nepenthes plants could be studied directly with insect (Drosophila melanogaster prey or plant material. Moreover, we observed that proteolytic activity was induced by the phytohormone jasmonic acid but not by salicylic acid suggesting that jasmonate-dependent signaling pathways are involved in plant carnivory.

  7. Three Ulcerative Colitis Susceptibility Loci Are Associated with Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis and Indicate a Role for IL2, REL, and CARD9

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, Marcel; Lamberts, Laetitia E.; Franke, Lude; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Ellinghaus, Eva; Boberg, Kirsten Muri; Melum, Espen; Folseraas, Trine; Schrumpf, Erik; Bergquist, Annika; Bjornsson, Einar; Fu, Jingyuan; Westra, Harm Jan; Groen, Harry J. M.; Fehrmann, Rudolf S. N.; Smolonska, Joanna; van den Berg, Leonard H.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Porte, Robert J.; Weismueller, Tobias J.; Wedemeyer, Jochen; Schramm, Christoph; Sterneck, Martina; Guenther, Rainer; Braun, Felix; Vermeire, Severine; Henckaerts, Liesbet; Wijmenga, Cisca; Ponsioen, Cyriel Y.; Schreiber, Stefan; Karlsen, Tom H.; Franke, Andre; Weersma, Rinse K.

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease characterized by inflammation and fibrosis of the bile ducts. Both environmental and genetic factors contribute to its pathogenesis. To further clarify its genetic background, we investigated susceptibility loci recently

  8. Differences in Stylet Sheath Occurrence and the Fibrous Ring (Sclerenchyma) between xCitroncirus Plants Relatively Resistant or Susceptible to Adults of the Asian Citrus Psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, El-Desouky; Richardson, Matthew L.; Abdo, Zaid; Hall, David G.; Shatters, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina citri, Hemiptera: Liviidae), is the principal vector of the phloem-limited bacteria strongly associated with huanglongbing (HLB), the world’s most serious disease of citrus. Host plant resistance may provide an environmentally safe and sustainable method of controlling ACP and/or HLB. Two xCitroncirus accessions (hybrids of Poncirus trifoliata and Citrus spp.), that are relatively resistant (UN-3881) or relatively susceptible (Troyer-1459) to ACP adults with regard to adult longevity, were compared in relation to ACP feeding behavior and some structural features of the leaf midrib. The settling (putative feeding/probing) sites of ACP adults on various parts of the leaf were not influenced primarily by plant accession. However, fewer ACP stylet sheaths were found in the midrib and fewer stylet sheath termini reached the vascular bundle (phloem and/or xylem) in UN-3881 compared to Troyer-1459 plants. Furthermore, in midribs of UN-3881 leaves the fibrous ring (sclerenchyma) around the phloem was significantly wider (thicker) compared to that in midribs of Troyer-1459 leaves. Our data indicate that feeding and/or probing by ACP adults into the vascular bundle is less frequent in the more resistant (UN-3881) than in the more susceptible (Troyer-1459) accessions. Our results also suggest that the thickness of the fibrous ring may be a barrier to stylet penetration into the vascular bundle, which is important for successful ACP feeding on the phloem and for transmitting HLB-associated bacteria. These results may help in the development of citrus plants resistant to ACP, which in turn could halt or slow the spread of the HLB-associated bacteria by this vector. PMID:25343712

  9. Differences in stylet sheath occurrence and the fibrous ring (sclerenchyma between xCitroncirus plants relatively resistant or susceptible to adults of the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Desouky Ammar

    Full Text Available The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina citri, Hemiptera: Liviidae, is the principal vector of the phloem-limited bacteria strongly associated with huanglongbing (HLB, the world's most serious disease of citrus. Host plant resistance may provide an environmentally safe and sustainable method of controlling ACP and/or HLB. Two xCitroncirus accessions (hybrids of Poncirus trifoliata and Citrus spp., that are relatively resistant (UN-3881 or relatively susceptible (Troyer-1459 to ACP adults with regard to adult longevity, were compared in relation to ACP feeding behavior and some structural features of the leaf midrib. The settling (putative feeding/probing sites of ACP adults on various parts of the leaf were not influenced primarily by plant accession. However, fewer ACP stylet sheaths were found in the midrib and fewer stylet sheath termini reached the vascular bundle (phloem and/or xylem in UN-3881 compared to Troyer-1459 plants. Furthermore, in midribs of UN-3881 leaves the fibrous ring (sclerenchyma around the phloem was significantly wider (thicker compared to that in midribs of Troyer-1459 leaves. Our data indicate that feeding and/or probing by ACP adults into the vascular bundle is less frequent in the more resistant (UN-3881 than in the more susceptible (Troyer-1459 accessions. Our results also suggest that the thickness of the fibrous ring may be a barrier to stylet penetration into the vascular bundle, which is important for successful ACP feeding on the phloem and for transmitting HLB-associated bacteria. These results may help in the development of citrus plants resistant to ACP, which in turn could halt or slow the spread of the HLB-associated bacteria by this vector.

  10. Epidemiological modeling of Phytophthora ramorum: network properties of susceptible plant genera movements in the nursery sector of England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco Pautasso; Tom Harwood; Mike Shaw; Xiangming Xu; Mike Jeger

    2008-01-01

    Since the first finding of Phytophthora ramorum in the U.K. (on Viburnum tinus, 2002), the pathogen has been reported throughout the country on a variety of susceptible species both in the horticultural sector and in woodlands and historic gardens. The nursery network may have properties which affect the epidemic threshold for...

  11. Members of Gammaproteobacteria as indicator species of healthy banana plants on Fusarium wilt-infested fields in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köberl, Martina; Dita, Miguel; Martinuz, Alfonso; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele

    2017-03-27

    Culminating in the 1950's, bananas, the world's most extensive perennial monoculture, suffered one of the most devastating disease epidemics in history. In Latin America and the Caribbean, Fusarium wilt (FW) caused by the soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (FOC), forced the abandonment of the Gros Michel-based export banana industry. Comparative microbiome analyses performed between healthy and diseased Gros Michel plants on FW-infested farms in Nicaragua and Costa Rica revealed significant shifts in the gammaproteobacterial microbiome. Although we found substantial differences in the banana microbiome between both countries and a higher impact of FOC on farms in Costa Rica than in Nicaragua, the composition especially in the endophytic microhabitats was similar and the general microbiome response to FW followed similar rules. Gammaproteobacterial diversity and community members were identified as potential health indicators. Healthy plants revealed an increase in potentially plant-beneficial Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, while diseased plants showed a preferential occurrence of Enterobacteriaceae known for their plant-degrading capacity. Significantly higher microbial rhizosphere diversity found in healthy plants could be indicative of pathogen suppression events preventing or minimizing disease expression. This first study examining banana microbiome shifts caused by FW under natural field conditions opens new perspectives for its biological control.

  12. The aquatic vascular plant Ruppia maritima as an indicator organism for contaminated sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagliabue, M.D.; Thursby, G.B.; Walker, H.A. [Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States); Johnston, R.K.

    1995-12-31

    An ongoing estuarine ecological risk assessment case study for the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard in the Great Bay Estuary (New Hampshire, Maine) was the catalyst to continue development a rooted aquatic plant sediment toxicity test. Laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate effects of lead, the primary site contaminant on R. maritima in the Great Bay. Although the aquatic vascular plant Zostra marina comprises up to 46% of the Great Bay subtidal habitat, R. maritima`s much smaller size makes it a more practical laboratory organism. Effects on Ruppia may offer useful insights into potential effects on Zostra or other aquatic vascular plants. Presently rooted vascular plants are not found in Clark Cove located adjacent to a landfill disposal site on the shipyard. The absence of rooted vegetation can be contributed to, physical parameters of the site (turbidity, grain size, texture) or chemical parameters (heavy metal/Pb contamination, redox potential). Exposure of bedded and nonbedded plants occurred over a four day and ten day period using lead sulfate. Concentrations for bedded exposures were as follows, 0.3, 0.5, 0.8, 1.0 simultaneously extracted metal/acid volatile sulfide (SEM/AVS) molar ratios, and 0.1, 1.0, 10.0 and 100.0mg/l Pb for water only exposures. Reduction in cumulative leaf growth was observed for the Clark Cove sediments as well as the spiked sediments as compared to reference sediments.

  13. New Insights into the Geography and Modelling of Wind Erosion in the European Agricultural Land. Application of a Spatially Explicit Indicator of Land Susceptibility to Wind Erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Borrelli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The current state of the art in erosion research does not provide answers about the “where” and “when” of wind erosion in European agricultural lands. Questions about the implications for the agricultural productivity remain unanswered. Tackling this research gap, the study provides a more comprehensive understanding of the spatial patterns of land susceptibility to wind erosion in European agricultural lands. The Index of Land Susceptibility to Wind Erosion (ILSWE was applied in a GIS environment. A harmonized input dataset ranked following a fuzzy logic technique was employed. Within the 36 European countries under investigation, moderate (17.3 million ha and high levels (8.8 million ha of land susceptibility to wind erosion were predicted. This corresponds to 8.0% and 4.1% of total agricultural land, respectively.

  14. Phytochemical and pharmacological notes of plants indicated to treat tumors in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joabe Gomes de Melo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The plants used in traditional medicine have been considered an important source of molecules with pharmacological activity, including antitumor. The aim of this study was to present a pharmacological description and the phytochemical components related to antitumor activity of thirty plants commonly cited in Brazil to treat tumors as well as offering an overview of approaches that are necessary for the development of herbal medicines from these resources. In the search for studies with these plants, five database were used (SciELO, Scirus, Scopus, Biological Abstracts and Web of Science, with the following keywords: tumor AND Species AND cancer. We consider all the scientific synonyms of species available in the Tropicos® database (http://www.tropicos.org/. We surveyed papers from the period between 1980 and 2008. Twnety one species (70% have at least one evaluation of a class of molecule or metabolite isolated against a pharmacological model. Most species (60% has in vivo studies. Of the thirty plant species, two stood out for having pharmacological studies in vitro, in vivo and clinical with positive results: Chelidonium majus L., Papaveraceae, and Aloe arborescens Mill., Xanthorrhoeaceae. Although there is generally a good activity of species presented here, there is a need for further studies in order to evaluate the possibility of developing some byproduct.

  15. An indicator of plant species richness of semi-natural habitats and crops on arable farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manhoudt, A.G.E.; Udo de Haes, H.A.; Snoo, de G.R.

    2005-01-01

    As a straightforward method of assessing on-farm biodiversity, plant species numbers were compared in a fixed sampling area for each type of habitat distinguished independent of farm size and applicable for comparing different farm strategies. Using the species-area relationship, the minimum

  16. Basis for the development of sustainable optimisation indicators for activated sludge wastewater treatment plants in the Republic of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, G T; McCann, B P

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the basis of a stakeholder-based sustainable optimisation indicator (SOI) system to be developed for small-to-medium sized activated sludge (AS) wastewater treatment plants (WwTPs) in the Republic of Ireland (ROI). Key technical publications relating to best practice plant operation, performance audits and optimisation, and indicator and benchmarking systems for wastewater services are identified. Optimisation studies were developed at a number of Irish AS WwTPs and key findings are presented. A national AS WwTP manager/operator survey was carried out to verify the applied operational findings and identify the key operator stakeholder requirements for this proposed SOI system. It was found that most plants require more consistent operational data-based decision-making, monitoring and communication structures to facilitate optimised, sustainable and continuous performance improvement. The applied optimisation and stakeholder consultation phases form the basis of the proposed stakeholder-based SOI system. This system will allow for continuous monitoring and rating of plant performance, facilitate optimised operation and encourage the prioritisation of performance improvement through tracking key operational metrics. Plant optimisation has become a major focus due to the transfer of all ROI water services to a national water utility from individual local authorities and the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive.

  17. Effect of Various Doses Application of Metribuzin Herbicide and Plant Density on Yield and Physiological Indices of Wheat (Triticum aestivum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Naghshbandi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to survey the influence of metribuzin herbicide on physiological indices and yield of wheat, an experiment was conducted at experimental field of Plant Pest and Disease Research Institute, Karaj, Iran during 2007. Treatments were in factorial arrangement laid out in four randomized complete blocks. The factors investigated were three plant densities: 400, 500 and 600 plant.m-2 and metribuzin doses: 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 kg.ha-1. The result showed that the highest physiological indices and grain yield were obsevered in densities of 500 plant.m-2 and in applications of 0.6 and 0.8 kg. ha-1. Higher rates could be provided an acceptable level of weed control. Plant density could provide good control on weed and could be decrease using herbicide too by decreasing of available light for weed. This strategy can reduce the peresure of selection in resistant weeds population.

  18. Over-expression in the nucleotide-binding site-leucine rich repeat gene DEPG1 increases susceptibility to bacterial leaf streak disease in transgenic rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lijia; Li, Min; Wang, Wujing; Wang, Lijuan; Hao, Guojing; Guo, Chiming; Chen, Liang

    2012-04-01

    Bacterial leaf streak of rice (BLS) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc) is a widely-spread disease in the main rice-producing areas of the world. Investigating the genes that play roles in rice-Xoc interactions helps us to understand the defense signaling pathway in rice. Here we report a differentially expressed protein gene (DEPG1), which regulates susceptibility to BLS. DEPG1 is a nucleotide-binding site (NBS)-leucine rich repeat (LRR) gene, and the deduced protein sequence of DEPG1 has approximately 64% identity with that of the disease resistance gene Pi37. Phylogenetic analysis of DEPG1 and the 18 characterized NBS-LRR genes revealed that DEPG1 is more closely related to Pi37. DEPG1 protein is located to the cytoplasm, which was confirmed by transient expression of DEPG1-GFP (green fluorescent protein) fusion construct in onion epidermal cells. Semi-quantitative PCR assays showed that DEPG1 is widely expressed in rice, and is preferentially expressed in internodes, leaf blades, leaf sheaths and flag leaves. Observation of cross sections of leaves from the transgenic plants with a DEPG1-promoter::glucuronidase (GUS) fusion gene revealed that DEPG1 is also highly expressed in mesophyll tissues where Xoc mainly colonizes. Additionally, Xoc negatively regulates expression of DEPG1 at the early stage of the pathogen infection, and so do the three defense-signal compounds including salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic-acid (ACC). Transgenic rice plants overexpressing DEPG1 exhibit enhanced susceptibility to Xoc compared to the wild-type controls. Moreover, enhanced susceptibility to Xoc may be mediated by inhibition of the expression of some SA biosynthesis-related genes and pathogenesis-related genes that may contribute to the disease resistance. Taken together, DEPG1 plays roles in the interactions between rice and BLS pathogen Xoc.

  19. Effect of plant growth regulators on indices of growth analysis for sweet passion fruit seedlings (Passiflora alata Curtis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sílvia Fernandes Boaro

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the effects of GA3 + IBA + cinetina on the growth of Passiflora alata Curtis plants through growth analysis. The experiment was carried out by completely randomized block design, with six treatments and four replications. The plant growth regulators, gibberellin (GA3, auxin (IBA and cytokinin (kinetin, were applied to leaves at concentrations of 0 (control, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125mL.L-1. The applications were performed at 48, 55, 52, 69, and 76 days after the emergence of the plants and the growths were evaluated five times at 7-day intervals. The first evaluations were accomplished 55 days after plant emergence. The leaf area ratio (RAF, specific leaf area (AFE, liquid assimilation rate (TCA, and relative growth rate (TCR were analyzed. The following data were also analyzed for P. alata Curtis plants: leaf area, leaf lamina dry mass and total leaves dry mass. The growth analysis, which employed the ANACRES computer program, indicated that the growth regulators increased plant productivity.

  20. Cultural and wild plant species as bio indicators and phyto-remedies of PHC contaminated soils in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breus, I.; Larionova, N.; Semenova, E.; Breus, V. [Kazan State Univ., Dept. of Geography and Geoecology (Russian Federation)

    2005-07-01

    The biological indicators are widely used along with the chemical and physical soil characteristics for the ecological risk assessment for soils during and after anthropogenic impacts. In many cases it often happens that only biological indicators are capable of establishing the physiological activity of contaminant complex in soil and of revealing the critical levels of soil contamination. Bio-testing is often used to determine the toxicity of various environmental objects - soils, waters, sediments and wastes. Firstly bio-testing demands the selection of testable biological organisms adequate to studying objects. The test objects must be representative for a given contaminated ecosystem community which is influenced by toxicants. So one can obtain data adequate to the real situation and also minimise the mistakes during the extrapolation of data obtained in bio-testing. Among bio-testing methods the methods of soil toxicity determination using high plants gained wide distribution. And moreover, if such plants are relatively tolerant to soil contamination and can accumulate sufficient plant biomass, it is possible to expect their phyto-remediation effect, which can be realized by different mechanisms. But the experimental investigations of the plant use for soil remediation in Russia are now still under development. The aims of this work were: i) the determination and selection of informative bio-indicative parameters could be used for evaluation of PHC (petroleum hydrocarbons) - soil contamination levels; ii) the choose of test plants based on these values; and iii) the revelation of the possible phyto-remediation effects in soil contaminated with PHC.In laboratory experiments the phyto-toxicity of soil contaminated with PHC was evaluated in relation to 35 plant species and sorts traditional and non-traditional for Russia and cultivated for fodder green biomass purposes, and also for some wild plant species. The following parameters were determined in the

  1. Quantitative Performance of Spectral Indices in Large Scale Plant Health Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Helmi Z. M. Shafri; Mohanad S. Ezzat

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Oil palm trees are planted in large scale areas. The detection and mapping of diseases are considered as important for oil palm industry and need a timely detection to control the disease spread. Approach: Vegetation analysis of airborne hyperspectral imagery could be an ideal method to deal with this problem since this data could be acquired on user demand. Airborne hyperspectral dataset was preprocessed in order to prepare it for the ve...

  2. Overexpression of the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry2Aa2 protein in chloroplasts confers resistance to plants against susceptible and Bt-resistant insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kota, M; Daniell, H; Varma, S; Garczynski, S F; Gould, F; Moar, W J

    1999-03-02

    Evolving levels of resistance in insects to the bioinsecticide Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) can be dramatically reduced through the genetic engineering of chloroplasts in plants. When transgenic tobacco leaves expressing Cry2Aa2 protoxin in chloroplasts were fed to susceptible, Cry1A-resistant (20,000- to 40,000-fold) and Cry2Aa2-resistant (330- to 393-fold) tobacco budworm Heliothis virescens, cotton bollworm Helicoverpa zea, and the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua, 100% mortality was observed against all insect species and strains. Cry2Aa2 was chosen for this study because of its toxicity to many economically important insect pests, relatively low levels of cross-resistance against Cry1A-resistant insects, and its expression as a protoxin instead of a toxin because of its relatively small size (65 kDa). Southern blot analysis confirmed stable integration of cry2Aa2 into all of the chloroplast genomes (5, 000-10,000 copies per cell) of transgenic plants. Transformed tobacco leaves expressed Cry2Aa2 protoxin at levels between 2% and 3% of total soluble protein, 20- to 30-fold higher levels than current commercial nuclear transgenic plants. These results suggest that plants expressing high levels of a nonhomologous Bt protein should be able to overcome or at the very least, significantly delay, broad spectrum Bt-resistance development in the field.

  3. Diurnal Water Table Fluctuations: An Underutilized Indicator of Ground-water Consumption by Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, J. P.; Shea, J.; Keller, J.; Butler, J. J.; Kluitenberg, G.; Whittemore, D. O.

    2005-12-01

    Hydrographs from shallow wells in areas with phreatophytes frequently display a distinctive pattern of diurnal fluctuations. Although first linked to variations in plant water use early in the last century, these diurnal fluctuations have received relatively little attention in the ecohydrology literature. In particular, little attention has been given to exploiting the information embedded in the water-level data to improve understanding of plant water use. Results from two field sites in western Kansas will be presented to demonstrate the insights that can be gleaned from these fluctuations. At one site the vegetation is representative of the native riparian-zone assemblage found over much of the Great Plains (major phreatophyte is the cottonwood [ Populus spp.]), whereas at the other site the vegetation is dominated by invasive species (salt cedar [ Tamarix spp.] and Russian olive [ Elaeagnus angustifoli]). Both sites have a network of shallow wells and neutron probe access tubes for monitoring water-table position and moisture content, respectively. The onset and termination of ground-water use by plants during the growing season is readily identifiable at both sites. Data from the first site show that the maximum depth from which phreatophytes can draw water depends on the previous hydrologic conditions experienced at the site, and not the physiological limits of the plant. Phreatophyte control actions (mulch cutting and chemical treatment) have recently been applied in a sequential fashion to a portion of the second site. The initial impact of those actions on ground-water consumption was not as large as expected, suggesting that forbs and grasses, which were not significantly impacted by these actions, also use substantial amounts of ground water. The magnitude of the diurnal fluctuations ranges appreciably between the sites, and even between wells at the same site. A portion of this difference can be attributed to variations in plant water uptake across a

  4. Acid-base indicator properties of dyes from local plants I: dyes from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In strong acid/strong base titrations using the dyes as indicators, the end-points obtained agreed well with those obtained using conventional indicators. The dyes were found not suitable for weak acid/weak base titrations. The Ka of the purple dye from Basella alba was of the order of 10-5 while that of the red dye from H.

  5. The agar microdilution method - a new method for antimicrobial susceptibility testing for essential oils and plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golus, J; Sawicki, R; Widelski, J; Ginalska, G

    2016-11-01

    To develop a new agar microdilution technique suitable for the assessment of the antimicrobial activity of natural plant products such as essential oils or plant extracts as well as to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of several essential oils and plant extracts. The proposed agar microdilution method was evolved on the basis of the CLSI agar dilution method, approved for conventional antimicrobials. However, this new method combines convenience and time/cost effectiveness typical for microtitre methods with the advantages of the agar dilution of hydrophobic or coloured substances. Different concentrations of the tested agents were added to Eppendorf tubes with molten Mueller-Hinton agar, vortexed and dispensed into the 96-well microplate in a small volume of 100 μl per well which allows for rapid, easy and economical preparation of samples as well as providing a uniform and stable dispersion without separation of the oil-water phases which occurs in methods with liquid medium. Next, the agar microdilution plates were inoculated with four reference bacterial strains. The results of our study demonstrated that the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were successfully determined using the agar microdilution method even with hydrophobic essential oils or strongly coloured plant extracts. The new agar microdilution method avoids the problems associated with testing of water insoluble, oily or strongly coloured plant natural products. Moreover, it enables the reliable, cheap and easy MIC determination of such agents. In the era of increasing antibiotic resistance high hopes are associated with new drugs of plant origin. However, the lack of standardized and reliable testing methods for assessing antibacterial activity of plant natural products causes impediment to research into this area. This study demonstrated that the agar microdilution method can be used successfully for testing oily and coloured substances. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Susceptibility of parent and interspecific Fl hybrid pine trees to tip moth damage in a coastal North Carolina planting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxine T. Highsmith; John Frampton; David 0' Malley; James Richmond; Martesa Webb

    2001-01-01

    Tip moth damage arnong families of parent pine species and their interspecific F1 hybrids was quantitatively assessed in a coastal planting in North Carolina. Three slash pine (Pinus elliotti var. elliotti Engelm.), two loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), and four interspecific F1 hybrid pine families were used. The...

  7. A component of the Sec61 ER protein transporting pore is required for plant susceptibility to powdery mildew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wen-Jing; Hanisch, Susanne; Kwaaitaal, Mark Adrianus Cornelis J

    2013-01-01

    Biotrophic pathogens, like the powdery mildew fungi, require living plant cells for their growth and reproduction. During infection, a specialized structure called the haustorium is formed by the fungus. The haustorium is surrounded by a plant cell-derived extrahaustorial membrane (EHM). Over the....... Effector transport across this EHM-ER interface may occur by a vesicle-mediated process, while the Sec61 retrotranslocon pore potentially provides an escape route for these proteins to reach the cytosol....... the EHM, the fungus obtains nutrients from and secretes effector proteins into the plant cell. In the plant cell these effectors interfere with cellular processes such as pathogen defense and membrane trafficking. However, the mechanisms behind effector delivery are largely unknown. This paper provides...... and retrotranslocon pores, the latter being part of the ER-associated protein degradation machinery. We provide support for a model suggesting that the retrotranslocon function of HvSec61βa is required for successful powdery mildew fungal infection. HvSec61βa-GFP and a luminal ER marker were co-localized to the ER...

  8. Assessment of NDE for key indicators of aging cables in nuclear power plants - Interim status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, S. W.; Ramuhalli, P.; Fifield, L. S.; Prowant, M. S.; Dib, G.; Tedeschi, J. R.; Suter, J. D.; Jones, A. M.; Good, M. S.; Pardini, A. F.; Hartman, T. S.

    2016-02-01

    Degradation of the cable jacket, electrical insulation, and other cable components of installed cables within nuclear power plants (NPPs) is known to occur as a function of age, temperature, radiation, and other environmental factors. System tests verify cable function under normal loads; however, the concern is over cable performance under exceptional loads associated with design-basis events (DBEs). The cable's ability to perform safely over the initial 40-year planned and licensed life has generally been demonstrated and there have been very few age-related cable failures. With greater than 1000 km of power, control, instrumentation, and other cables typically found in an NPP, replacing all the cables would be a severe cost burden. Justification for life extension to 60 and 80 years requires a cable aging management program to justify cable performance under normal operation as well as accident conditions. Currently the gold standard for determining cable insulation degradation is the elongation-at-break (EAB). This, however, is an ex-situ measurement and requires removal of a sample for laboratory investigation. A reliable nondestructive examination (NDE) in-situ approach is desirable to objectively determine the suitability of the cable for service. A variety of tests are available to assess various aspects of electrical and mechanical cable performance, but none of these tests are suitable for all cable configurations nor does any single test confirm all features of interest. Nevertheless, the complete collection of test possibilities offers a powerful range of tools to assure the integrity of critical cables. Licensees and regulators have settled on a practical program to justify continued operation based on condition monitoring of a lead sample set of cables where test data is tracked in a database and the required test data are continually adjusted based on plant and fleet-wide experience. As part of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability program sponsored

  9. Antimicrobial susceptibility of coagulase-positive and coagulase-variable Staphylococci from various indications of swine, dogs and cats as determined in the BfT-GermVet monitoring program 2004-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Stefan; Alesík, Eva; Werckenthin, Christiane; Grobbel, Mirjam; Lübke-Becker, Antina; Wieler, Lothar H; Wallmann, Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    A total of 248 coagulase-positive and coagulase-variable staphylococci from two indications of swine (infections of the urinary/genital tract including strains from the mastitis metritis agalactia syndrome as well as infections of the skin) as well as two indications of dogs/cats (respiratory tract infections and infections of skin/ear/mouth) were investigated for their susceptibility to numerous antimicrobial agents. Regardless of the animal origin and indication, the most frequently detected resistance properties were resistances against penicillin G (53-77%) and ampicillin (42-75%), tetracycline (33-52%) as well as erythromycin (13-27%). Oxacillin-resistant staphylococci were rarely detected.

  10. Reduced maximal inhibition in phenotypic susceptibility assays indicates that viral strains resistant to the CCR5 antagonist maraviroc utilize inhibitor-bound receptor for entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westby, Mike; Smith-Burchnell, Caroline; Mori, Julie; Lewis, Marilyn; Mosley, Michael; Stockdale, Mark; Dorr, Patrick; Ciaramella, Giuseppe; Perros, Manos

    2007-03-01

    Maraviroc is a CCR5 antagonist in clinical development as one of a new class of antiretrovirals targeting human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) coreceptor binding. We investigated the mechanism of HIV resistance to maraviroc by using in vitro sequential passage and site-directed mutagenesis. Serial passage through increasing maraviroc concentrations failed to select maraviroc-resistant variants from some laboratory-adapted and clinical isolates of HIV-1. However, high-level resistance to maraviroc was selected from three of six primary isolates passaged in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). The SF162 strain acquired resistance to maraviroc in both treated and control cultures; all resistant variants were able to use CXCR4 as a coreceptor. In contrast, maraviroc-resistant virus derived from isolates CC1/85 and RU570 remained CCR5 tropic, as evidenced by susceptibility to the CCR5 antagonist SCH-C, resistance to the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100, and an inability to replicate in CCR5 Delta32/Delta32 PBL. Strain-specific mutations were identified in the V3 loop of maraviroc-resistant CC1/85 and RU570. The envelope-encoding region of maraviroc-resistant CC1/85 was inserted into an NL4-3 background. This recombinant virus was completely resistant to maraviroc but retained susceptibility to aplaviroc. Reverse mutation of gp120 residues 316 and 323 in the V3 loop (numbering from HXB2) to their original sequence restored wild-type susceptibility to maraviroc, while reversion of either mutation resulted in a partially sensitive virus with reduced maximal inhibition (plateau). The plateaus are consistent with the virus having acquired the ability to utilize maraviroc-bound receptor for entry. This hypothesis was further corroborated by the observation that a high concentration of maraviroc blocks the activity of aplaviroc against maraviroc-resistant virus.

  11. Development of robust hyperspectral indices for the detection of deviations of normal plant state

    OpenAIRE

    Delalieux, S.; J. A. N. van Aardt; Zarco-Tejada, Pablo J.; Kempeneers, P.; Verstraeten, W.W.; Coppin, P.

    2007-01-01

    This research was conducted to assess the potential of hyperspectral indices to detect iron defi-ciency in capital-intensive multi-annual crop systems. A well-defined hyperspectral multi-layer dataset was constructed for a peach orchard in Zaragoza, Spain, consisting of hyperspectral measurements at various monitoring levels (leaf, crown, airborne). Trees were subjected to four different treatments of iron application (0 g / tree, 60 g / tree, 90 g / tree, and 120 g / tree). Ground-based meas...

  12. Plants of restricted use indicated by three cultures in Brazil (Caboclo-river dweller, Indian and Quilombola).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Eliana

    2007-05-04

    A detailed record of plants cited during ethnopharmacological surveys, suspected of being toxic or of triggering adverse reactions, may be an auxiliary means to pharmacovigilance of phytomedicines, in that it provides greater knowledge of a "bad side" to plant resources in the Brazilian flora. This study describes 57 plant species of restricted use (abortive, contraceptive, contraindicated for pregnancy, prescribed in lesser doses for children and the elderly, to easy delivery, in addition to poisons to humans and animals) as indicated during ethnopharmacological surveys carried out among three cultures in Brazil (Caboclos-river dwellers, inhabitants of the Amazon forest; the Quilombolas, from the pantanal wetlands; the Krahô Indians, living in the cerrado savannahs). These groups of humans possess notions, to a remarkable extent, of the toxicity, contraindications, and interaction among plants. A bibliographical survey in the Pubmed, Web of Science and Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases has shown that 5 out of the 57 species have some toxic properties described up to the present time, they are: Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae), Brosimum gaudichaudii Trécul (Moraceae), Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae), Senna occidentalis (L.) Link (Fabaceae), Strychnos pseudoquina A. St.-Hil. (Loganiaceae) and Vernonia brasiliana (L.) Druce (Asteraceae).

  13. Evaluation of Physiological Indices of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Plant Under Different Irrigation Intervals and Superabsorbent Polymer A200

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saidi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Water deficiency stress as the most important abiotic stress plays an important role in the yield suppression of plants worldwide. Considering physiological indices to improve drought resistance is of paramount importance. The objective of present study was to evaluate the effects of different irrigation intervals (irrigation after 5, 7, 9 and 11 days and rates of superabsorbent polymer (Nil, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 percent of pot medium weight on some physiological parameters of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum plant under greenhouse condition. The study carried out at College of Agriculture, Ilam University during 2009-2010 using a factorial layout in randomized complete blocks design (RCBD with three replications. Statistical analysis showed significant effects of the irrigation and superabsorbent polymer on total yield and plant physiological parameters including leaf relative water content (RWC, water use efficiency (WUE, total soluble solids (TSS, chlorophyll, proline and malondialdehyde (MDA content. In drought conditions total yield, RWC, WUE and chlorophyll a reduced but MDA accumulation, proline content and TSS increased. Application of superabsorbent polymer significantly caused increasing of total yield, RWC, WUE, chlorophyll a and decreasing of MDA content, proline and TSS. Our results showed that superabsorbent polymers can absorb and retain extremely large amounts of water and decreased adverse effects of drought stress on the plants.

  14. Insights on the susceptibility of plant pathogenic fungi to phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and its chemical derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puopolo, Gerardo; Masi, Marco; Raio, Aida; Andolfi, Anna; Zoina, Astolfo; Cimmino, Alessio; Evidente, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas chlororaphis subsp. aureofaciens strain M71 produced two phenazine compounds as main secondary metabolites. These metabolites were identified as phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) and 2-hydroxyphenazine (2-OH P). In this study, the spectrum of the activity of PCA and 2-OH P was evaluated against a group of crop and forestal plant pathogenic fungi by an agar plate bioassay. PCA was active against most of the tested plant pathogens, while 2-OH P slightly inhibited a few fungal species. Furthermore, four semisynthesised derivatives of PCA (phenazine-1-carboxymethyl, phenazine-1-carboxamide, phenazine-1-hydroxymethyl and phenazine-1-acetoxymethyl) were assayed for their antifungal activity against 11 phytopathogenic species. Results showed that the carboxyl group is a structural feature important for the antifungal activity of PCA. Since the activity of phenazine-1-carboxymethyl and phenazine-1-carboxamide, the two more lipophilic and reversible PCA derivatives remained substantially unaltered compared with PCA.

  15. Effect of a plant preparation Citrosept on selected immunity indices in blood of slaughter turkey hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzbieta Rusinek-Prystupa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction and objective[/b]. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of per os administration of 3 various dosages of a Citrosept preparation (a grapefruit extractto growing turkey hens on changes in their selected haematological and immunological blood indices. An attempt was also undertaken to select the most efficient dose of the preparation with respect to the mentioned indices in turkey hens. [b]Materials and methods[/b]. The experiment was conducted on 180 turkey hens allocated at random to 4 groups, 45 birds in each group. Samples of their full blood were analyzed for haematological indices, such as red blood cell count (RBS, haemoglobin content (Hb, haematocrit value (Ht, and white blood cell count (WBC. Samples of blood plasma were assayed to determine the activity of lysozyme (chamber-diffusive method and heterophils capability to reduce nitro blue tetrazolium (stimulated and spontaneous NBT test. Phagocytic activity of leucocytes against Staphylococcus aureus 209P strain was assessed and expressed as the percentage of phagocytic cells (% PC and phagocytic index (PI. [b]Results[/b]. The administration of the grapefruit extract to turkey hens with drinking water caused a significant increase in haemoglobin content in blood, as well as an increase in non-specific humoral immunity marker (activity of lysozyme and non-specific cellular immunity marker (percentage of phagocytic cells; P ≤ 0.05. [b]Conclusions[/b]. The results obtained enabled the positive evaluation of the advisability of applying the Citrosept preparation in the feeding of turkey hens at the age of 6–9 weeks. Among the doses examined, the most efficient with respect to the stimulation of the non-specific humoral and cellular immunity was the dose of 0.021 ml/kg of body weight.

  16. The Use of a 2,2'-Azobis (2-Amidinopropane) Dihydrochloride Stress Model as an Indicator of Oxidation Susceptibility for Monoclonal Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Michelle Z; Wang, Y John; Bregante, Daniel; Chan, Wayman; Andersen, Nisana; Hilderbrand, Amy; Leiske, Danielle; Salisbury, Cleo M

    2018-02-01

    Protein oxidation is a major pathway for degradation of biologic drug products. Past literature reports have suggested that 2,2-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH), a free radical generator that produces alkoxyl and alkyl peroxyl radicals, is a useful model reagent stress for assessing the oxidative susceptibility of proteins. Here, we expand the applications of the AAPH model by pairing it with a rapid peptide map method to enable site-specific studies of oxidative susceptibility of monoclonal antibodies and their derivatives for comparison between formats, the evaluation of formulation components, and comparisons across the stress models. Comparing the free radical-induced oxidation model by AAPH with a light-induced oxidation model suggests that light-sensitive residues represent a subset of AAPH-sensitive residues and therefore AAPH can be used as a preliminary screen to highlight molecules that need further assessment by light models. In sum, these studies demonstrate that AAPH stress can be used in multiple ways to evaluate labile residues and oxidation sensitivity as it pertains to developability and manufacturability. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Ozonated water reduces susceptibility in tomato plants to Meloidogyne incognita by the modulation of the antioxidant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronico, Pasqua; Paciolla, Costantino; Sasanelli, Nicola; De Leonardis, Silvana; Melillo, Maria Teresa

    2017-05-01

    Few studies have been carried out on the effect of ozonated water (O3 wat) on the oxidative stress of root systems and, in particular, in combination with biotic stress. The aim of this study was to determine whether aqueous ozone is effective in the control of root-knot nematode (RKN) infection and to investigate the concomitant changes in the basal defence system. A tomato cultivar susceptible to Meloidogyne incognita was treated with O3 wat as a soil drench. No negative effects were seen following ozone application in comparison with the control under the exposure conditions used. The treatment reduced significantly the nematode infection rate and induced changes in the morphology of nematode feeding sites, some of which were characterized by visible symptoms of senescence. The antioxidant response, as well as parameters of oxidative damage, were examined in untreated and O3 wat-treated galls at 2, 4 and 7 days after inoculation and compared with uninfected roots. High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), H2 O2 and malondialdehyde were generated in galls in response to combined abiotic and biotic stresses. Throughout the experimental period, the activities and relative transcript levels of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase produced different responses when exposed to ozone treatment and/or infection. The results demonstrate how O3 wat protects tomato against the RKN M. incognita through the modulation of basal defence mechanisms. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  18. Transcriptome Profiling of Huanglongbing (HLB) Tolerant and Susceptible Citrus Plants Reveals the Role of Basal Resistance in HLB Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yunsheng; Zhou, Lijuan; Yu, Xiaoyue; Stover, Ed; Luo, Feng; Duan, Yongping

    2016-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is currently the most destructive disease of citrus worldwide. Although there is no immune cultivar, field tolerance to HLB within citrus and citrus relatives has been observed at the USDA Picos farm at Ft. Pierce, Florida, where plants have been exposed to a very high level of HLB pressure since 2006. In this study, we used RNA-Seq to evaluate expression differences between two closely related cultivars after HLB infection: HLB-tolerant “Jackson” grapefruit-like-hybrid tr...

  19. Engineering canker-resistant plants through CRISPR/Cas9-targeted editing of the susceptibility gene CsLOB1 promoter in citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Aihong; Chen, Shanchun; Lei, Tiangang; Xu, Lanzhen; He, Yongrui; Wu, Liu; Yao, Lixiao; Zou, Xiuping

    2017-12-01

    Citrus canker, caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), is severely damaging to the global citrus industry. Targeted editing of host disease-susceptibility genes represents an interesting and potentially durable alternative in plant breeding for resistance. Here, we report improvement of citrus canker resistance through CRISPR/Cas9-targeted modification of the susceptibility gene CsLOB1 promoter in citrus. Wanjincheng orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) harbours at least three copies of the CsLOB1G allele and one copy of the CsLOB1- allele. The promoter of both alleles contains the effector binding element (EBEPthA4 ), which is recognized by the main effector PthA4 of Xcc to activate CsLOB1 expression to promote citrus canker development. Five pCas9/CsLOB1sgRNA constructs were designed to modify the EBEPthA4 of the CsLOB1 promoter in Wanjincheng orange. Among these constructs, mutation rates were 11.5%-64.7%. Homozygous mutants were generated directly from citrus explants. Sixteen lines that harboured EBEPthA4 modifications were identified from 38 mutant plants. Four mutation lines (S2-5, S2-6, S2-12 and S5-13), in which promoter editing disrupted CsLOB1 induction in response to Xcc infection, showed enhanced resistance to citrus canker compared with the wild type. No canker symptoms were observed in the S2-6 and S5-13 lines. Promoter editing of CsLOB1G alone was sufficient to enhance citrus canker resistance in Wanjincheng orange. Deletion of the entire EBEPthA4 sequence from both CsLOB1 alleles conferred a high degree of resistance to citrus canker. The results demonstrate that CRISPR/Cas9-mediated promoter editing of CsLOB1 is an efficient strategy for generation of canker-resistant citrus cultivars. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Effects of an Ad Libitum Consumed Low-Fat Plant-Based Diet Supplemented with Plant-Based Meal Replacements on Body Composition Indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakše, Boštjan; Pinter, Stanislav; Jakše, Barbara; Bučar Pajek, Maja; Pajek, Jernej

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To document the effect of a diet free from animal-sourced nutrients on body composition indices. Methods. This was a nonrandomized interventional (n = 241)-control (n = 84) trial with a 10-week, low-fat, plant-based diet supplemented with two daily meal replacements. The meals were allowed to be eaten to full satiety without prespecified calorie restrictions. Control subjects received weekly lectures on the rationale and expected benefits of plant-based nutrition. Body composition indices were measured with bioimpedance analysis. Results. Relative to controls, in cases, postintervention body fat percentage was reduced by 4.3 (95% CI 4.1-4.6)% points (a relative decrement of -13.4%), visceral fat by 1.6 (95% CI 1.5-1.7) fat cross-sectional surface units, and weight by 5.6 kg (95% CI 5.2-6), while muscle mass was reduced by 0.3 kg (95% CI 0.06-0.5) with a relative increase of muscle mass percentage of 4.2 (3.9-4.4)% points. Analysis of covariance showed significantly larger adjusted fat reductions in cases compared to controls. Late follow-up revealed further weight loss in 60% of cases and no significant change in controls. Conclusions. Low-fat, plant-based diet in free-living nonresidential conditions eaten ad libitum enables significant and meaningful body fat reductions with relative preservation of muscle mass. This trial is registered with NCT02906072, ClinicalTrials.gov.

  1. Effects of an Ad Libitum Consumed Low-Fat Plant-Based Diet Supplemented with Plant-Based Meal Replacements on Body Composition Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boštjan Jakše

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To document the effect of a diet free from animal-sourced nutrients on body composition indices. Methods. This was a nonrandomized interventional (n=241-control (n=84 trial with a 10-week, low-fat, plant-based diet supplemented with two daily meal replacements. The meals were allowed to be eaten to full satiety without prespecified calorie restrictions. Control subjects received weekly lectures on the rationale and expected benefits of plant-based nutrition. Body composition indices were measured with bioimpedance analysis. Results. Relative to controls, in cases, postintervention body fat percentage was reduced by 4.3 (95% CI 4.1–4.6% points (a relative decrement of −13.4%, visceral fat by 1.6 (95% CI 1.5–1.7 fat cross-sectional surface units, and weight by 5.6 kg (95% CI 5.2–6, while muscle mass was reduced by 0.3 kg (95% CI 0.06–0.5 with a relative increase of muscle mass percentage of 4.2 (3.9–4.4% points. Analysis of covariance showed significantly larger adjusted fat reductions in cases compared to controls. Late follow-up revealed further weight loss in 60% of cases and no significant change in controls. Conclusions. Low-fat, plant-based diet in free-living nonresidential conditions eaten ad libitum enables significant and meaningful body fat reductions with relative preservation of muscle mass. This trial is registered with NCT02906072, ClinicalTrials.gov.

  2. Relationship Between Remotely-sensed Vegetation Indices, Canopy Attributes and Plant Physiological Processes: What Vegetation Indices Can and Cannot Tell Us About the Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen G. Nelson

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation indices (VIs are among the oldest tools in remote sensing studies. Although many variations exist, most of them ratio the reflection of light in the red and NIR sections of the spectrum to separate the landscape into water, soil, and vegetation. Theoretical analyses and field studies have shown that VIs are near-linearly related to photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by a plant canopy, and therefore to light-dependent physiological processes, such as photosynthesis, occurring in the upper canopy. Practical studies have used time-series VIs to measure primary production and evapotranspiration, but these are limited in accuracy to that of the data used in ground truthing or calibrating the models used. VIs are also used to estimate a wide variety of other canopy attributes that are used in Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer (SVAT, Surface Energy Balance (SEB, and Global Climate Models (GCM. These attributes include fractional vegetation cover, leaf area index, roughness lengths for turbulent transfer, emissivity and albedo. However, VIs often exhibit only moderate, non-linear relationships to these canopy attributes, compromising the accuracy of the models. We use case studies to illustrate the use and misuse of VIs, and argue for using VIs most simply as a measurement of canopy light absorption rather than as a surrogate for detailed features of canopy architecture. Used this way, VIs are compatible with "Big Leaf" SVAT and GCMs that assume that canopy carbon and moisture fluxes have the same relative response to the environment as any single leaf, simplifying the task of modeling complex landscapes.

  3. Relationship Between Remotely-sensed Vegetation Indices, Canopy Attributes and Plant Physiological Processes: What Vegetation Indices Can and Cannot Tell Us About the Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Edward P; Huete, Alfredo R; Nagler, Pamela L; Nelson, Stephen G

    2008-03-28

    Vegetation indices (VIs) are among the oldest tools in remote sensing studies. Although many variations exist, most of them ratio the reflection of light in the red and NIR sections of the spectrum to separate the landscape into water, soil, and vegetation. Theoretical analyses and field studies have shown that VIs are near-linearly related to photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by a plant canopy, and therefore to light-dependent physiological processes, such as photosynthesis, occurring in the upper canopy. Practical studies have used time-series VIs to measure primary production and evapotranspiration, but these are limited in accuracy to that of the data used in ground truthing or calibrating the models used. VIs are also used to estimate a wide variety of other canopy attributes that are used in Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer (SVAT), Surface Energy Balance (SEB), and Global Climate Models (GCM). These attributes include fractional vegetation cover, leaf area index, roughness lengths for turbulent transfer, emissivity and albedo. However, VIs often exhibit only moderate, non-linear relationships to these canopy attributes, compromising the accuracy of the models. We use case studies to illustrate the use and misuse of VIs, and argue for using VIs most simply as a measurement of canopy light absorption rather than as a surrogate for detailed features of canopy architecture. Used this way, VIs are compatible with "Big Leaf" SVAT and GCMs that assume that canopy carbon and moisture fluxes have the same relative response to the environment as any single leaf, simplifying the task of modeling complex landscapes.

  4. Occurrence, molecular characterization and antibiogram of water quality indicator bacteria in river water serving a water treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okeke, Benedict C., E-mail: bokeke@aum.edu [Department of Biology, Auburn University at Montgomery, P.O. Box 244023, Montgomery, AL 36124 (United States); Thomson, M. Sue [Department of Biology, Auburn University at Montgomery, P.O. Box 244023, Montgomery, AL 36124 (United States); Moss, Elica M. [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, Alabama A and M University, AL 35762 (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Water pollution by microorganisms of fecal origin is a current world-wide public health concern. Total coliforms, fecal coliforms (Escherichia coli) and enterococci are indicators commonly used to assess the microbiological safety of water resources. In this study, influent water samples and treated water were collected seasonally from a water treatment plant and two major water wells in a Black Belt county of Alabama and evaluated for water quality indicator bacteria. Influent river water samples serving the treatment plant were positive for total coliforms, fecal coliforms (E. coli), and enterococci. The highest number of total coliform most probable number (MPN) was observed in the winter (847.5 MPN/100 mL) and the lowest number in the summer (385.6 MPN/100 mL). Similarly E. coli MPN was substantially higher in the winter (62.25 MPN/100 mL). Seasonal variation of E. coli MPN in influent river water samples was strongly correlated with color (R{sup 2} = 0.998) and turbidity (R{sup 2} = 0.992). Neither E. coli nor other coliform type bacteria were detected in effluent potable water from the treatment plant. The MPN of enterococci was the highest in the fall and the lowest in the winter. Approximately 99.7 and 51.5 enterococci MPN/100 mL were recorded in fall and winter seasons respectively. One-way ANOVA tests revealed significant differences in seasonal variation of total coliforms (P < 0.05), fecal coliforms (P < 0.01) and enterococci (P < 0.01). Treated effluent river water samples and well water samples revealed no enterococci contamination. Representative coliform bacteria selected by differential screening on Coliscan Easygel were identified by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis. E. coli isolates were sensitive to gentamicin, trimethoprim/sulfamethazole, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, tetracycline, ampicillin, cefixime, and nitrofurantoin. Nonetheless, isolate BO-54 displayed decreased sensitivity compared to other E. coli isolates. Antibiotic sensitivity

  5. The proteome map of spinach leaf peroxisomes indicates partial compartmentalization of phylloquinone (vitamin K1) biosynthesis in plant peroxisomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babujee, Lavanya; Wurtz, Virginie; Ma, Changle; Lueder, Franziska; Soni, Pradeep; van Dorsselaer, Alain; Reumann, Sigrun

    2010-03-01

    Leaf peroxisomes are fragile, low-abundance plant cell organelles that are difficult to isolate from one of the few plant species whose nuclear genome has been sequenced. Leaf peroxisomes were enriched at high purity from spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and approximately 100 protein spots identified from 2-dimensional gels by a combination of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and de novo sequencing. In addition to the predominant enzymes involved in photorespiration and detoxification, several minor enzymes were detected, underscoring the high sensitivity of the protein identification. The tryptic peptides of three unknown proteins shared high sequence similarity with Arabidopsis proteins that carry putative peroxisomal targeting signals type 1 or 2 (PTS1/2). The apparent Arabidopsis orthologues are a short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase (SDRa/IBR1, At4g05530, SRL>) and two enoyl-CoA hydratases/isomerases (ECHIa, At4g16210, SKL>; NS/ECHId, At1g60550, RLx(5)HL). The peroxisomal localization of the three proteins was confirmed in vivo by tagging with enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP), and the targeting signals were identified. The single Arabidopsis isoform of naphthoate synthase (NS) is orthologous to MenB from cyanobacteria, which catalyses an essential reaction in phylloquinone biosynthesis, a pathway previously assumed to be entirely compartmentalized in plastids in higher plants. In an extension of a previous study, the present in vivo targeting data furthermore demonstrate that the enzyme upstream of NS, chloroplastic acyl-CoA activating enzyme isoform 14 (AAE14, SSL>), is dually targeted to both plastids and peroxisomes. This proteomic study, extended by in vivo subcellular localization analyses, indicates a novel function for plant peroxisomes in phylloquinone biosynthesis.

  6. Convergence in mycorrhizal fungal communities due to drought, plant competition, parasitism and susceptibility to herbivory: Consequences for fungi and host plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A. Gehring

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants and mycorrhizal fungi influence each other’s abundance, diversity and distribution. How other biotic interactions affect the mycorrhizal symbiosis is less well understood. Likewise, we know little about the effects of climate change on the fungal component of the symbiosis or its function. We synthesized our long-term studies on the influence of mistletoe parasites, insect herbivores, competing trees, and drought on the ectomycorrhizal fungal communities associated with a foundation tree species of the southwestern United States, pinyon pine (Pinus edulis, and described how these changes feed back to affect host plant performance. We found that drought and all three of the biotic interactions studied resulted in similar shifts in ectomycorrhizal fungal community composition, demonstrating a convergence of the community towards dominance by a few closely related fungal taxa. Ectomycorrhizal fungi responded similarly to each of these stressors resulting in a predictable trajectory of community disassembly, consistent with ecological theory. Although we predicted that the fungal communities associated with trees stressed by drought, herbivory, competition, and parasitism would be poor mutualists, we found the opposite pattern in field studies. Our results suggest that climate change and the increased importance of herbivores, competitors and parasites that can be associated with it, may ultimately lead to reductions in ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity, but that the remaining fungal community may be beneficial to host trees under the current climate and the warmer, drier climate predicted for the future.

  7. Occurrence, molecular characterization and antibiogram of water quality indicator bacteria in river water serving a water treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, Benedict C; Thomson, M Sue; Moss, Elica M

    2011-11-01

    Water pollution by microorganisms of fecal origin is a current world-wide public health concern. Total coliforms, fecal coliforms (Escherichia coli) and enterococci are indicators commonly used to assess the microbiological safety of water resources. In this study, influent water samples and treated water were collected seasonally from a water treatment plant and two major water wells in a Black Belt county of Alabama and evaluated for water quality indicator bacteria. Influent river water samples serving the treatment plant were positive for total coliforms, fecal coliforms (E. coli), and enterococci. The highest number of total coliform most probable number (MPN) was observed in the winter (847.5 MPN/100 mL) and the lowest number in the summer (385.6 MPN/100 mL). Similarly E. coli MPN was substantially higher in the winter (62.25 MPN/100 mL). Seasonal variation of E. coli MPN in influent river water samples was strongly correlated with color (R(2)=0.998) and turbidity (R(2)=0.992). Neither E. coli nor other coliform type bacteria were detected in effluent potable water from the treatment plant. The MPN of enterococci was the highest in the fall and the lowest in the winter. Approximately 99.7 and 51.5 enterococci MPN/100 mL were recorded in fall and winter seasons respectively. One-way ANOVA tests revealed significant differences in seasonal variation of total coliforms (Pcoliforms (Pcoliform bacteria selected by differential screening on Coliscan Easygel were identified by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis. E. coli isolates were sensitive to gentamicin, trimethoprim/sulfamethazole, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, tetracycline, ampicillin, cefixime, and nitrofurantoin. Nonetheless, isolate BO-54 displayed decreased sensitivity compared to other E. coli isolates. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern can be employed in microbial source tracking. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Influence of planting frame in the cultivar “Corojo 2006” of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. on productive indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gustavo González Gómez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was developed in the General CCS-F Victor Ramos Hernandez, Located in the area of the Oven, on a carbonated brown floor. The valued variety of tobacco was the Corojo 2006, with the objective of evaluating different plantation marks, for they were evaluated it four plantation distances that in turn were the valued treatments with a design of totally randomized in parcels of 20 m of long and wide The utilized materials they are characteristic of a field investigation and the cultural attentions were carried out by the Technical Instructive of the Tobacco (2011. the main indicators of the cultivation were evaluated like they were number of leaves, long and wide of the leaves, dry mass and yield, with its respective economic valuation. The data were processed with the statistical package it ESTATISTICA version 8 on Windows, through an analysis of simple variance and a test of multiple comparison for Tukey for 5% of probability of the error, The reached results indicate us that the best yields are obtained when the plants have a distance among them of 0.30 m and the lowest results when they are planted 0.25 m.

  9. DNA strand breaks in the lymphocytes of workers exposed to diisocyanates: indications of individual differences in susceptibility after low-dose and short-term exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczynski, B; Merget, R; Mensing, T; Rabstein, S; Kappler, M; Bracht, A; Haufs, M G; Käfferlein, H U; Brüning, T

    2005-06-01

    Diisocyanates are chemically reactive and induce asthma, but data on genotoxic effects of diisocyanates in humans are limited. The investigation presented here used short term diisocyanate chamber exposure to study DNA strand breaks in lymphocytes of 10 healthy individuals and of 42 workers, with airway symptoms, who had previously been exposed to diisocyanates. The alkaline version of the Comet assay was used to analyse DNA strand breaks in lymphocytes. In addition, blood samples of 10 further control individuals without any exposure to diisocyanates were studied. Substances studied were 4,4'-methylenediphenyldiisocyanate (MDI, n=25), 2,4-toluenediisocynate and 2,6-toluenediisocyanate (TDI, n=5), and 1,6-hexamethylenediisocyanate (HDI, n=12), at concentrations between 5 and 30 ppb for 2 h. Lymphocytes isolated from the subjects before exposure and 30 min and 19 h after were used to evaluate DNA damage. No significant changes in DNA strand-break frequencies were measured, as Olive tail moment (OTM), either between groups or before and after diisocyanate exposure. OTM was similar in subjects with an asthmatic reaction (MDI, n=5; TDI, n=1; HDI, n=1) and in subjects without such a reaction. However, a small and susceptible group (about 10% of the individuals studied) could be identified with higher frequencies of DNA strand breaks in lymphocytes after chamber exposure. The occurrence of DNA damage in this group may be based on indirect mechanisms such as oxidative stress or apoptosis.

  10. Prediction of wastewater quality indicators at the inflow to the wastewater treatment plant using data mining methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeląg, Bartosz; Barbusiński, Krzysztof; Studziński, Jan; Bartkiewicz, Lidia

    2017-11-01

    In the study, models developed using data mining methods are proposed for predicting wastewater quality indicators: biochemical and chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, total nitrogen and total phosphorus at the inflow to wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The models are based on values measured in previous time steps and daily wastewater inflows. Also, independent prediction systems that can be used in case of monitoring devices malfunction are provided. Models of wastewater quality indicators were developed using MARS (multivariate adaptive regression spline) method, artificial neural networks (ANN) of the multilayer perceptron type combined with the classification model (SOM) and cascade neural networks (CNN). The lowest values of absolute and relative errors were obtained using ANN+SOM, whereas the MARS method produced the highest error values. It was shown that for the analysed WWTP it is possible to obtain continuous prediction of selected wastewater quality indicators using the two developed independent prediction systems. Such models can ensure reliable WWTP work when wastewater quality monitoring systems become inoperable, or are under maintenance.

  11. Psidium guajava 'Paluma' (the guava plant) as a new bio-indicator of ozone in the tropics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furlan, C.M. [Departamento de Botanica, Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 11461, 05422-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: furlancm@yahoo.com.br; Moraes, R.M. [Instituto de Botanica, SMA, CP 4005, 01061-970 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Bulbovas, P. [Departamento de Botanica, Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 11461, 05422-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Domingos, M. [Instituto de Botanica, SMA, CP 4005, 01061-970 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Salatino, A. [Departamento de Botanica, Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 11461, 05422-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sanz, M.J. [Fundacion Centro de Estudios Ambientales del Mediterraneo, C/C. Darwin, 14, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain)

    2007-06-15

    Psidium guajava 'Paluma' saplings were exposed to carbon filtered air (CF), ambient non-filtered air (NF), and ambient non-filtered air + 40 ppb ozone (NF + O{sub 3}) 8 h per day during two months. The AOT40 values at the end of the experiment were 48, 910 and 12 895 ppb h{sup -1}, respectively for the three treatments. After 5 days of exposure (AOT40 = 1497 ppb h{sup -1}), interveinal red stippling appeared in plants in the NF + O{sub 3} chamber. In the NF chamber, symptoms were observed only after 40 days of exposure (AOT40 = 880 ppb h{sup -1}). After 60 days, injured leaves per plant corresponded to 86% in NF + O{sub 3} and 25% in the NF treatment, and the average leaf area injured was 45% in NF + O{sub 3} and 5% in the NF treatment. The extent of leaf area injured (leaf injury index) was explained mainly by the accumulated exposure of ozone (r {sup 2} = 0.91; p < 0.05). - Psidium guajava 'Paluma', a tropical species widely used in Brazilian food industry, is a potential sensitive bio-indicator of ozone.

  12. Bioavailability and soil-to-plant transfer factors as indicators of potentially toxic element contamination in agricultural soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamo, Paola, E-mail: paola.adamo@unina.it [Dipartimento di Agraria, Università di Napoli Federico II, via Università 100, 80055 Portici (Italy); Iavazzo, Pietro [Dipartimento di Agraria, Università di Napoli Federico II, via Università 100, 80055 Portici (Italy); Albanese, Stefano [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, dell' Ambiente e delle Risorse, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Mezzocannone 8, 80134 Napoli (Italy); Agrelli, Diana [Dipartimento di Agraria, Università di Napoli Federico II, via Università 100, 80055 Portici (Italy); De Vivo, Benedetto; Lima, Annamaria [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, dell' Ambiente e delle Risorse, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Mezzocannone 8, 80134 Napoli (Italy)

    2014-12-01

    Soil pollution in agricultural lands poses a serious threat to food safety, and suggests the need for consolidated methods providing advisory indications for soil management and crop production. In this work, the three-step extraction procedure developed by the EU Measurement and Testing Programme and two soil-to-plant transfer factors (relative to total and bioavailable concentration of elements in soil) were applied on polluted agricultural soils from southern Italy to obtain information on the retention mechanisms of metals in soils and on their level of translocation to edible vegetables. The study was carried out in the Sarno river plain of Campania, an area affected by severe environmental degradation potentially impacting the health of those consuming locally produced vegetables. Soil samples were collected in 36 locations along the two main rivers flowing into the plain. In 11 sites, lettuce plants were collected at the normal stage of consumption. According to Italian environmental law governing residential soils, and on the basis of soil background reference values for the study area, we found diffuse pollution by Be, Sn and Tl, of geogenic origin, Cr and Cu from anthropogenic sources such as tanneries and intensive agriculture, and more limited pollution by Pb, Zn and V. It was found that metals polluting soils as a result of human activities were mainly associated to residual, oxidizable and reducible phases, relatively immobile and only potentially bioavailable to plants. By contrast, the essential elements Zn and Cu showed a tendency to become more readily mobile and bioavailable as their total content in soil increased and were more easily transported to the edible parts of lettuce than other pollutants. According to our results, current soil pollution in the studied area does not affect the proportion of metals taken up by lettuce plants and there is a limited health risk incurred. - Highlights: • Soil pollution in an intensively farmed area of

  13. Integrative Analysis of the microRNAome and Transcriptome Illuminates the Response of Susceptible Rice Plants to Rice Stripe Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Yang

    Full Text Available Rice stripe virus (RSV is one of the most serious rice viruses in East Asia. To investigate how rice responds to RSV infection, we integrated miRNA expression with parallel mRNA transcription profiling by deep sequencing. A total of 570 miRNAs were identified of which 69 miRNAs (56 up-regulated and 13 down-regulated were significantly modified by RSV infection. Digital gene expression (DGE analysis showed that 1274 mRNAs (431 up-regulated and 843 down-regulated genes were differentially expressed as a result of RSV infection. The differential expression of selected miRNAs and mRNAs was confirmed by qRT-PCR. Gene ontology (GO and pathway enrichment analysis showed that a complex set of miRNA and mRNA networks were selectively regulated by RSV infection. In particular, 63 differentially expressed miRNAs were found to be significantly and negatively correlated with 160 target mRNAs. Interestingly, 22 up-regulated miRNAs were negatively correlated with 24 down-regulated mRNAs encoding disease resistance-related proteins, indicating that the host defense responses were selectively suppressed by RSV infection. The suppression of both osa-miR1423-5p- and osa-miR1870-5p-mediated resistance pathways was further confirmed by qRT-PCR. Chloroplast functions were also targeted by RSV, especially the zeaxanthin cycle, which would affect the stability of thylakoid membranes and the biosynthesis of ABA. All these modifications may contribute to viral symptom development and provide new insights into the pathogenicity mechanisms of RSV.

  14. Functional characterizations of chemosensory proteins of the alfalfa plant bug Adelphocoris lineolatus indicate their involvement in host recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Hua Gu

    Full Text Available Insect chemosensory proteins (CSPs have been proposed to capture and transport hydrophobic chemicals from air to olfactory receptors in the lymph of antennal chemosensilla. They may represent a new class of soluble carrier protein involved in insect chemoreception. However, their specific functional roles in insect chemoreception have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we report for the first time three novel CSP genes (AlinCSP1-3 of the alfalfa plant bug Adelphocoris lineolatus (Goeze by screening the antennal cDNA library. The qRT-PCR examinations of the transcript levels revealed that all three genes (AlinCSP1-3 are mainly expressed in the antennae. Interestingly, these CSP genes AlinCSP1-3 are also highly expressed in the 5(th instar nymphs, suggesting a proposed function of these CSP proteins (AlinCSP1-3 in the olfactory reception and in maintaining particular life activities into the adult stage. Using bacterial expression system, the three CSP proteins were expressed and purified. For the first time we characterized the types of sensilla in the antennae of the plant bug using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Immunocytochemistry analysis indicated that the CSP proteins were expressed in the pheromone-sensitive sensilla trichodea and general odorant-sensitive sensilla basiconica, providing further evidence of their involvement in chemoreception. The antennal activity of 55 host-related semiochemicals and sex pheromone compounds in the host location and mate selection behavior of A. lineolatus was investigated using electroantennogram (EAG, and the binding affinities of these chemicals to the three CSPs (AlinCSP1-3 were measured using fluorescent binding assays. The results showed several host-related semiochemicals, (Z-3-hexen-1-ol, (E-2-hexen-1-al and valeraldehyde, have a high binding affinity with AlinCSP1-3 and can elicit significant high EAG responses of A. lineolatus antennae. Our studies indicate the three antennae

  15. Plants as Indicators of Past and Present Zones of Upwelling Soil CO2 at the ZERT Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, M. E.; Sharma, B.; Zhou, X.; Shaw, J. A.; Dobeck, L.; Cunnningham, A.; Spangler, L.; ZERT Team

    2011-12-01

    By their very nature, photosynthetic plants are sensitive and responsive to CO2, which they fix during the Calvin-Benson cycle. Responses of plants to CO2 are valuable tools in the surface detection of upwelling and leaking CO2 from carbon sequestration fields. Plants exposed to upwelling CO2 rapidly exhibit signs of stress such as changes in stomatal conductance, hyperspectral signatures, pigmentation, and viability (Lakkaraju et al. 2010; Male et al. 2010). The Zero Emission Research and Technology (ZERT) site in Bozeman, MT is an experimental facility for surface detection of CO2 where 0.15 ton/day of CO2 was released (7/19- 8/15/2010, and 7/18 - 8/15/2011) from a 100m horizontal injection well, (HIW), 1.5 m underground with deliberate leaks of CO2 at intervals, and from a vertical injector, (VIW), (6/3-6/24/2010). Soil CO2 concentrations reached 16%. Plants at ZERT include Taraxacum officinale (Dandelion), Dactylis glomerata (Orchard Grass), Poa pratensis, (Kentucky Bluegrass), Phleum pratense (Timothy), Bromus japonicus (Japanese Brome), Medicago sativa (Alfalfa) and Cirsium arvense (Canadian Thistle). Dandelion leaves above the zones of upwelling CO2 at the HIW and the VIW changed color from green to reddish-purple (indicative of an increase in anthocyanins) to brown as they senesced within two weeks of CO2 injection. Their increased stomatal conductance along with their extensive surface area combined to make water loss occur quickly following injection of CO2. Xeromorphic grass leaves were not as profoundly affected, although they did exhibit changes in stomatal conductance, accelerated loss of chlorophyll beyond what would normally occur with seasonal senescence, and altered hyperspectral signatures. Within two weeks of CO2 injection at the HIW and the VIW, hot spots formed, which are circular zones of visible leaf senescence that appear at zones of upwelling CO2. The hot spots became more pronounced as the CO2 injection continued, and were detectable

  16. Preparing "Chameleon Balls" from Natural Plants: Simple Handmade pH Indicator and Teaching Material for Chemical Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Naoki; Asano, Takayuki; Itoh, Toshiyuki; Onoda, Makoto

    1995-12-01

    Anthocyanins are found in the flowers and fruits of natural plants. Since their color depends on pH, they are sometines used as a pH indicator. Since these sequences are reversible, they are also useful in demonstrating chemical equilibrium in the repetitive color changes of anthocyanins from flowers by controlling pH conditions. We prepared the polysaccharide beads conatining water extracts of red cabbage as calcium alginate. The beads showed a clear red color under acidic conditions, turned blue at neutral pH of 7, and orange-yellow at pH of 13. This color change could be demonstrated over and over. Because the color changes of these polysaccharide beads depended darmatically on pH, junior high students in science classes called them "chameleon balls" when we demonstrated this reaction for them. In this paper we describe how polysaccharide beads, which are made from calcium alginate with natural pigments, served as a teaching tool for the chemical equilibrium of anthocyanins under different pH conditions. Preparation of the chameleon ball is very easy. The most important thing is that making the chameleon ball is great fun. The ball should therefore be viewed not only as a handmade pH indicator but also an interesting teaching tool of the chemical equilibrium reaction.

  17. Lemna minor plants chronically exposed to ionising radiation: RNA-seq analysis indicates a dose rate dependent shift from acclimation to survival strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoeck, Arne; Horemans, Nele; Nauts, Robin; Van Hees, May; Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Blust, Ronny

    2017-04-01

    Ecotoxicological research provides knowledge on ionising radiation-induced responses in different plant species. However, the sparse data currently available are mainly extracted from acute exposure treatments. To provide a better understanding of environmental exposure scenarios, the response to stress in plants must be followed in more natural relevant chronic conditions. We previously showed morphological and biochemical responses in Lemna minor plants continuously exposed for 7days in a dose-rate dependent manner. In this study responses on molecular (gene expression) and physiological (photosynthetic) level are evaluated in L. minor plants exposed to ionising radiation. To enable this, we examined the gene expression profiles of irradiated L. minor plants by using an RNA-seq approach. The gene expression data reveal indications that L. minor plants exposed at lower dose rates, can tolerate the exposure by triggering acclimation responses. In contrast, at the highest dose rate tested, a high number of genes related to antioxidative defense systems, DNA repair and cell cycle were differentially expressed suggesting that only high dose rates of ionising radiation drive L. minor plants into survival strategies. Notably, the photosynthetic process seems to be unaffected in L. minor plants among the tested dose rates. This study, supported by our earlier work, clearly indicates that plants shift from acclimation responses towards survival responses at increasing dose rates of ionising radiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of planting pattern and density on growth indices, yield and yield component of corn (Zea mays in competition with redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retrofelexus(

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    alireza barkhi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted in 2002-2003 using split-split plot arrangement based on Rondomised Compelete Block Design with three replications at Feiz Abad Agricultural Research Station of Qazvin, in order to study of planting patterns and corn densitis effect in competition with redroot pigweed. Main plots inclouded two planting pattern of corn (P1: single row and P2: double row, sub plots inclouded two corn densities (D1:7 and D2:10 plant/m2 and sub sub plots inclouded 4 weed densities (C1:0, C2:2, C3:6, C4:12 plant/m2. Sampling conducted in 2-weekly intervals and growth indices evaluated. Results indicated that with increasing of weed density CGR, TDW, LAI, number of seeds in row, grain and ear yield decreased but plant height increased. Also LAI, CGR, TDW, number of weed seed and seed,s weight of weed increased. By increasing in corn density LAI, CGR, TDW, ear and grain yield increased, but length and diameter of ear and number of seeds in row decreased. Also LAI and CGR of weed increased, but TDW was decreased. In double row planting pattern just CGR, LAI, TDW of corn were higher significantly than single row planting pattern. But single row planting of weed caused higher LAI, NAR, RGR, CGR and TDW of weed in comparison with double row planting pattern. In 2-way interaction, double row planting pattern and zero densities and 2 weeds/m2 had highest grain yield respectively. There were no significant differences for 3-way interactions but double row planting pattern 10 plant density of corn/m2 zero weed/ m2 had highest grain yield.

  19. Screening Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, and Clostridium perfringens as Indicator Organisms in Evaluating Pathogen-Reducing Capacity in Biogas Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watcharasukarn, Montira; Kaparaju, Prasad Laxmi-Narasimha; Steyer, Jean-Philippe

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify an indicator organism(s) in evaluating the pathogen-reducing capacity of biogas plants. Fresh cow manure containing 10(4) to 10(5) colony forming unit (CFU) per milliliter of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis along with an inoculated Clostridium...... perfringens strain were exposed to 37A degrees C for 15 days, 55A degrees C for 48 h, and 70A degrees C for 24 h. C. perfringens was the most heat-resistant organism followed by E. faecalis, while E. coli was the most heat-sensitive organism. E. coli was reduced below detection limit at all temperatures...... with log(10) reductions of 4.94 (10 s), 4.37 (40 min), and 2.6 (5 days) at 70A degrees C, 55A degrees C, and 37A degrees C, respectively. Maximum log(10) reductions for E. faecalis were 1.77 at 70A degrees C (1 day), 1.7 at 55A degrees C (2 days) and 3.13 at 37A degrees C (15 days). For C. perfringens...

  20. Metrics of ozone risk assessment for Southern European forests: Canopy moisture content as a potential plant response indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, A.; Sicard, P.; Vitale, M.; Carriero, G.; Renou, C.; Paoletti, E.

    2015-11-01

    Present standards for protecting ecosystems from ozone (O3), such as AOT40, use atmospheric concentrations. A stomatal flux-based approach (Phytotoxic O3 Dose, PODY) has been suggested. We compared the spatial and temporal distribution of AOT40 and PODY - with and without a hourly threshold of uptake (POD1 and POD0) - for Pinus halepensis and Fagus sylvatica in South-eastern France and North-western Italy. Ozone uptake was simulated by including limitation due to soil water content, as this is an important parameter in water-limited environments. Both AOT40 and POD1 exceeded the critical levels suggested for forests. AOT40 suggested a larger O3 risk relative to PODY. No significant spatial and temporal difference occurred between POD1 and POD0. The use of POD0 in the assessment of ambient O3 risk for vegetation is thus recommended, because it is more biologically-meaningful than AOT40 and easier to be calculated than POD1. Canopy Moisture Content (CMC), a proxy of foliar water content, was modelled and tested as a potential plant O3 response indicator. CMC response to O3 was species-specific, and thus cannot be recommended in the epidemiology of O3 injury to forests.

  1. Fossil climbing perch and associated plant megafossils indicate a warm and wet central Tibet during the late Oligocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feixiang; Miao, Desui; Chang, Mee-Mann; Shi, Gongle; Wang, Ning

    2017-04-13

    Understanding the Tibetan Plateau's palaeogeography and palaeoenvironment is critical for reconstructing Asia's climatic history; however, aspects of the plateau's uplift history remain unclear. Here, we report a fossil biota that sheds new light on these issues. It comprises a fossil climbing perch (Anabantidae) and a diverse subtropical fossil flora from the Chattian (late Oligocene) of central Tibet. The fish, Eoanabas thibetana gen. et sp. nov., is inferred to be closely related to extant climbing perches from tropical lowlands in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. It has osteological correlates of a labyrinth organ, which in extant climbing perches gives them the ability to breathe air to survive warm, oxygen-poor stagnant waters or overland excursion under moist condition. This indicates that Eoanabas likewise lived in a warm and humid environment as suggested by the co-existing plant assemblage including palms and golden rain trees among others. As a palaeoaltimeter, this fossil biota suggests an elevation of ca. 1,000 m. These inferences conflict with conclusions of a high and dry Tibet claimed by some recent and influential palaeoaltimetry studies. Our discovery prompts critical re-evaluation of prevailing uplift models of the plateau and their temporal relationships with the Cenozoic climatic changes.

  2. Traffic-related heavy metals uptake by wild plants grow along two main highways in Hunan Province, China: effects of soil factors, accumulation ability, and biological indication potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yunbo; Dai, Qingyun; Jiang, Kang; Zhu, Yun; Xu, Bibo; Peng, Chuan; Wang, Tengfei; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-07-01

    This study was performed to investigate pollution of traffic-related heavy metals (HMs-Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, and Cd) in roadside soils and their uptake by wild plants growing along highways in Hunan Province, China. For this, we analyzed the concentration and chemical fractionation of HMs in soils and plants. Soil samples were collected with different depths in the profile and different distances from highway edge. And leaves and barks of six high-frequency plants were collected. Results of the modified European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) showed that the mobile fraction of these HMs was in the order of Cd > Pb > Zn > Cu > Cr. A high percentage of the mobile fraction indicates Cd, Pb, and Zn were labile and available for uptake by wild plants. The total concentration and values of risk assessment code (RAC) showed that Cd was the main risk factor, which were in the range high to very high risk. The accumulation ability of HMs in plants was evaluated by the biological accumulation factor (BAF) and the metal accumulation index (MAI), and the results showed that all those plant species have good phyto-extraction ability, while accumulation capacity for most HMs plants tissues was bark > leaf. The highest MAI value (5.99) in Cinnamomum camphora (L) Presl indicates the potential for bio-monitoring and a good choice for planting along highways where there is contamination with HMs.

  3. Root isolations of Metarhizium spp. from crops reflect diversity in the soil and indicate no plant specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinwender, Bernhardt M.; Enkerli, Jürg; Widmer, Franco

    2015-01-01

    Metarhizium spp. have recently been shown to be associated with the roots of different plants. Here we evaluated which Metarhizium species were associated with roots of oat (Avena sativa), rye (Secale cereale) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea), common crop plants in Denmark. Thirty-six root samples...

  4. Detection of 140 clinically relevant antibiotic-resistance genes in the plasmid metagenome of wastewater treatment plant bacteria showing reduced susceptibility to selected antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepanowski, Rafael; Linke, Burkhard; Krahn, Irene; Gartemann, Karl-Heinz; Gützkow, Tim; Eichler, Wolfgang; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas

    2009-07-01

    To detect plasmid-borne antibiotic-resistance genes in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) bacteria, 192 resistance-gene-specific PCR primer pairs were designed and synthesized. Subsequent PCR analyses on total plasmid DNA preparations obtained from bacteria of activated sludge or the WWTP's final effluents led to the identification of, respectively, 140 and 123 different resistance-gene-specific amplicons. The genes detected included aminoglycoside, beta-lactam, chloramphenicol, fluoroquinolone, macrolide, rifampicin, tetracycline, trimethoprim and sulfonamide resistance genes as well as multidrug efflux and small multidrug resistance genes. Some of these genes were only recently described from clinical isolates, demonstrating genetic exchange between clinical and WWTP bacteria. Sequencing of selected resistance-gene-specific amplicons confirmed their identity or revealed that the amplicon nucleotide sequence is very similar to a gene closely related to the reference gene used for primer design. These results demonstrate that WWTP bacteria are a reservoir for various resistance genes. Moreover, detection of about 64 % of the 192 reference resistance genes in bacteria obtained from the WWTP's final effluents indicates that these resistance determinants might be further disseminated in habitats downstream of the sewage plant.

  5. Evaluation of heavy metal pollution in water wells and soil using common leafy green plant indicators in the Al-Kharj region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hammad, Bushra Ahmed; Abd El-Salam, Magda Magdy

    2016-06-01

    This study was performed to determine the levels of eight heavy metals in irrigation well water and soil and to assess the suitability of some leafy green plants that are commonly cultivated in the Al-Kharj region, Saudi Arabia, for human consumption using an atomic absorption spectrometer. The mean concentrations of metals ranged from 0.0001 to 0.436 mg/L in well water and from 0.248 to 164.52 mg/kg in soil. The heavy metal concentrations showed significant differences among the different leafy green plants studied. Parsley (4.98 mg/kg) exhibited higher levels of Pb than other leafy green plants, whereas mallow (0.097 mg/kg) revealed greater amounts of Cd than other plants. All of the leafy green plants retained essential metals (Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn) more than the toxic metals (Pb and Cd). The levels of some of the metals in the leafy green plants were found to meet the FAO/WHO-recommended limits. The monitoring of heavy metals in leafy green plants must be continued because these plants are the main source of food for humans in many parts of the world and are considered to be bio-indicators for environmental pollution.

  6. Phytophthora megakarya and P. palmivora, Causal Agents of Black Pod Rot, Induce Similar Plant Defense Responses Late during Infection of Susceptible Cacao Pods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahin S.; Shao, Jonathan; Lary, David J.; Strem, Mary D.; Meinhardt, Lyndel W.; Bailey, Bryan A.

    2017-01-01

    Phytophthora megakarya (Pmeg) and Phytophthora palmivora (Ppal) cause black pod rot of Theobroma cacao L. (cacao). Of these two clade 4 species, Pmeg is more virulent and is displacing Ppal in many cacao production areas in Africa. Symptoms and species specific sporangia production were compared when the two species were co-inoculated onto pod pieces in staggered 24 h time intervals. Pmeg sporangia were predominantly recovered from pod pieces with unwounded surfaces even when inoculated 24 h after Ppal. On wounded surfaces, sporangia of Ppal were predominantly recovered if the two species were simultaneously applied or Ppal was applied first but not if Pmeg was applied first. Pmeg demonstrated an advantage over Ppal when infecting un-wounded surfaces while Ppal had the advantage when infecting wounded surfaces. RNA-Seq was carried out on RNA isolated from control and Pmeg and Ppal infected pod pieces 3 days post inoculation to assess their abilities to alter/suppress cacao defense. Expression of 4,482 and 5,264 cacao genes was altered after Pmeg and Ppal infection, respectively, with most genes responding to both species. Neural network self-organizing map analyses separated the cacao RNA-Seq gene expression profiles into 24 classes, 6 of which were largely induced in response to infection. Using KEGG analysis, subsets of genes composing interrelated pathways leading to phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, ethylene and jasmonic acid biosynthesis and action, plant defense signal transduction, and endocytosis showed induction in response to infection. A large subset of genes encoding putative Pr-proteins also showed differential expression in response to infection. A subset of 36 cacao genes was used to validate the RNA-Seq expression data and compare infection induced gene expression patterns in leaves and wounded and unwounded pod husks. Expression patterns between RNA-Seq and RT-qPCR were generally reproducible. The level and timing of altered gene expression was

  7. Phytophthora megakarya and P. palmivora, Causal Agents of Black Pod Rot, Induce Similar Plant Defense Responses Late during Infection of Susceptible Cacao Pods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahin S; Shao, Jonathan; Lary, David J; Strem, Mary D; Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Bailey, Bryan A

    2017-01-01

    Phytophthora megakarya (Pmeg) and Phytophthora palmivora (Ppal) cause black pod rot of Theobroma cacao L. (cacao). Of these two clade 4 species, Pmeg is more virulent and is displacing Ppal in many cacao production areas in Africa. Symptoms and species specific sporangia production were compared when the two species were co-inoculated onto pod pieces in staggered 24 h time intervals. Pmeg sporangia were predominantly recovered from pod pieces with unwounded surfaces even when inoculated 24 h after Ppal. On wounded surfaces, sporangia of Ppal were predominantly recovered if the two species were simultaneously applied or Ppal was applied first but not if Pmeg was applied first. Pmeg demonstrated an advantage over Ppal when infecting un-wounded surfaces while Ppal had the advantage when infecting wounded surfaces. RNA-Seq was carried out on RNA isolated from control and Pmeg and Ppal infected pod pieces 3 days post inoculation to assess their abilities to alter/suppress cacao defense. Expression of 4,482 and 5,264 cacao genes was altered after Pmeg and Ppal infection, respectively, with most genes responding to both species. Neural network self-organizing map analyses separated the cacao RNA-Seq gene expression profiles into 24 classes, 6 of which were largely induced in response to infection. Using KEGG analysis, subsets of genes composing interrelated pathways leading to phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, ethylene and jasmonic acid biosynthesis and action, plant defense signal transduction, and endocytosis showed induction in response to infection. A large subset of genes encoding putative Pr-proteins also showed differential expression in response to infection. A subset of 36 cacao genes was used to validate the RNA-Seq expression data and compare infection induced gene expression patterns in leaves and wounded and unwounded pod husks. Expression patterns between RNA-Seq and RT-qPCR were generally reproducible. The level and timing of altered gene expression was

  8. Monocot and dicot MLO powdery mildew susceptibility factors are functionally conserved in spite of the evolution of class-specific molecular features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appiano, M.; Catalano, D.; Santillan Martinez, M.I.; Lotti, C.; Zheng Zheng, Zheng; Visser, R.G.F.; Ricciardi, L.; Bai, Y.; Pavan, S.N.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Specific members of the plant Mildew Locus O (MLO) protein family act as susceptibility factors towards powdery mildew (PM), a worldwide-spread fungal disease threatening many cultivated species. Previous studies indicated that monocot and dicot MLO susceptibility proteins are

  9. Karrikins Identified in Biochars Indicate Post-Fire Chemical Cues Can Influence Community Diversity and Plant Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Kochanek

    Full Text Available Karrikins are smoke-derived compounds that provide strong chemical cues to stimulate seed germination and seedling growth. The recent discovery in Arabidopsis that the karrikin perception system may be present throughout angiosperms implies a fundamental plant function. Here, we identify the most potent karrikin, karrikinolide (KAR1, in biochars and determine its role in species unique plant responses.Biochars were prepared by three distinct commercial-scale pyrolysis technologies using systematically selected source material and their chemical properties, including karrikinolide, were quantified. Dose-response assays determined the effects of biochar on seed germination for two model species that require karrikinolide to break dormancy (Solanum orbiculatum, Brassica tourneforttii and on seedling growth using two species that display plasticity to karrikins, biochar and phytotoxins (Lactuca sativa, Lycopersicon esculentum. Multivariate analysis examined relationships between biochar properties and the plant phenotype.Results showed that karrikin abundant biochars stimulated dormant seed germination and seedling growth via mechanisms analogous to post-fire chemical cues. The individual species response was associated with its sensitivity to karrikinolide and inhibitory compounds within the biochars. These findings are critical for understanding why biochar influences community composition and plant physiology uniquely for different species and reaffirms that future pyrolysis technologies promise by-products that concomitantly sequester carbon and enhance plant growth for ecological and broader plant related applications.

  10. High-throughput identification of ionizing radiation-sensitive plant genes and development of radiation indicator plant and radiation sensing Genechip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Sub; Kim, Jinbaek; Ha, Bokeun; Kim, Sang Hoon; Kim, Sunhee

    2013-05-15

    Physiological analysis of monocot model plant (rice) in response to ionizing radiation (cosmic-ray, gamma-ray, Ion beam). - Identification of antioxidant characters through cytochemical analysis. - Comparison of antioxidant activities in response to ionizing irradiation. - Evaluation of anthocyanin quantity in response to ionizing irradiation. Ionization energy response gene family analysis via bioinformatic validation. - Expression analysis of monocot and dicot gene families. - In silico and bioinformatic approach to elucidate gene function. Characterization and functional analysis of genes specifically expressed in response to ionizing irradiation (cosmic-ray, gamma-ray, Ion beam). - High throughput trancriptomic analysis of plants under ionizing radiation using microarray. - Promotor and cis-element analysis of genes specifically expressed in response to ionizing radiation. - Validation and function analysis of candidate genes. - Elucidation of plant mechanism of sensing and response to ionization energy. Development of bioindicator plants detecting ionization energy. - Cloning and identification of 'Radio marker genes (RMG)'. - Development of Over-expression (O/E) or Knock-out (K/O) plant using RMG. Development of Genechip as an ionization energy detector. - Expression profiling analysis of genes specifically expression in response to ionization energy. - Prepare high-conserved gene specific oligomer. - Development of ionization energy monitoring Genechip and application.

  11. Application of multiple locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), phage typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing to subtype Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolated from pig farms, pork slaughterhouses and meat producing plants in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, D M; O'Grady, D; Fanning, S; Cormican, M; Delappe, N; Egan, J; Mannion, C; Fanning, J; Gutierrez, M

    2011-08-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium is a common zoonotic pathogen encountered in Irish pigs and the pork industry and its characterisation using highly discriminatory typing methods is necessary for epidemiological studies, outbreak investigation and control. Multiple locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), phage typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were applied to characterise 301 S. typhimurium isolates of porcine origin isolated from farms, slaughterhouses and pork meat producing plants in Ireland over a four-year period. 154 MLVA patterns were obtained compared to 19 phage types and 38 AMR patterns, and MLVA was particularly useful for discriminating isolates of the same phage type, e.g. DT104 and DT104b, or isolates that were Untypable or in the category of "react with phage but does not conform to a recognised phage type" (RDNC) by the phage typing method. Cluster analysis of MLVA profiles using a minimum spanning tree (MST) demonstrated two major clusters (I and II), which showed to have a clear association with phage types, cluster I associated to phage types DT104, U302 and DT120 and cluster II associated to DT193 and U288. The results of this present study showed that MLVA is highly discriminatory and permitted the identification of identical profiles among isolates obtained at different points of the pork food chain. The same MLVA profile was observed in some cases among isolates with different phage types. While this can be explained by the fact that some phage types are closely related, it also indicates that combining phage typing and MLVA enhances strain typing of S. typhimurium. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Stable C & N isotopes in 2100 Year-B.P. human bone collagen indicate rare dietary dominance of C4 plants in NE-Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffranchi, Zita; Huertas, Antonio Delgado; Jiménez Brobeil, Sylvia A.; Torres, Arsenio Granados; Riquelme Cantal, Jose A.

    2016-12-01

    C4 plants (e.g. maize, millet), part of our current diet, are only endemic of reduced areas in South-Europe due to their need of warm climates. Since the first vestiges of agriculture in Europe remains of C4 plants were recorded but their overall proportion in the human diet remains unknown. Therefore, isotopic (δ13C and δ15N) composition of bone collagen from the skeletal remains (human and animals) of a Celtic population, Cenomani Gauls, from Verona (3rd to 1st century BC) in the NE Italy provide a new perspective on this matter. The δ13C collagen values of 90 human skeletal individuals range between -20.2‰ and -9.7‰ (V-PDB) with a mean value of -15.3‰. As present day C4 plants have δ13C values around -11‰, which is equivalent to -9.5‰ for samples of preindustrial age, the less negative δ13C values in these individuals indicate a diet dominated by C4 plants. This palaeodietary study indicates that some European populations predominantly consumed cultivated C4 plants 2100 year B.P. This is supported by the paleobotanical records and ancient Roman sources (e.g. Pliny the Elder), which indicate that millet was a staple food in South-Europe.

  13. Which plant for which skin disease? Part 2: Dermatophytes, chronic venous insufficiency, photoprotection, actinic keratoses, vitiligo, hair loss, cosmetic indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Juliane; Wölfle, Ute; Korting, Hans Christian; Schempp, Christoph

    2010-11-01

    This paper continues our review of scientifically evaluated plant extracts in dermatology. After plants effective against dermatophytes, botanicals with anti-edema effects in chronic venous insufficiency are discussed. There is good evidence from randomized clinical studies that plant extracts from grape vine leaves (Vitis vinifera), horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), sea pine (Pinus maritima) and butcher's broom (Ruscus aculeatus) can reduce edema in chronic venous insufficiency. Plant extracts from witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana), green tea (Camellia sinensis), the fern Polypodium leucotomos and others contain antioxidant polyphenolic compounds that may protect the skin from sunburn and photoaging when administered topically or systemically. Extracts from the garden spurge (Euphorbia peplus) and from birch bark (Betula alba) have been shown to be effective in the treatment of actinic keratoses in phase II studies. Some plant extracts have also been investigated in the treatment of vitiligo, various forms of hair loss and pigmentation disorders, and in aesthetic dermatology. © The Authors • Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

  14. Evaluation of growth and biochemical indicators of Salvinia natans exposed to zinc oxide nanoparticles and zinc accumulation in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Changwei; Liu, Xu; Li, Xiuling; Zhao, Yongjun

    2014-01-01

    The adverse effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) with an average diameter of 25 nm on the aquatic plant Salvinia natans (L.) All. were determined. Growth, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, peroxidase activity, and chlorophyll content of the plants were measured after 7 days of exposure to different concentrations of ZnO NPs (1 to 50 mg L(-1)). The particle distribution in the culture medium (without plants) during the first 24 h was determined using a Nanotrac 250 particle analyzer. We also investigated the zinc accumulation in leaves and roots of the plant after 7 days of exposure. Exposure to 50 mg L(-1) ZnO NPs significantly increased SOD and CAT activities (P  0.05). NPs completely precipitated at the bottom of the container at 8 h except for the portions of dissolution and aggregation on the roots. ZnO NPs at a concentration of 50 mg L(-1) can adversely affect S. natans, and their stress is affected by their aggregation and dissolution.

  15. Verde plant bug associatioin with boll damage including cotton boll rot and potential in-season indicators of damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton along the Gulf Coast of south Texas has experienced loss from cotton boll rot especially during the last 10 to 15 years, and stink bugs and plant bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae and Miridae) that feed on cotton bolls have been suspected in introducing the disease. A replicated grower field surv...

  16. Effects of in-plant interventions on reduction of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and background indicator microorganisms on veal calf hides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) serotypes in veal have recently been recognized as a problem. Because hides are considered to be the principal source of EHEC and hide intervention strategies have been shown to be very efficacious in the control of EHEC in beef processing plants, various h...

  17. Wild plant species in bio-indication of radioactive-contaminated sites around Jaslovské Bohunice nuclear power plant in the Slovak Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micieta, Karol; Murín, Gustáv

    2007-01-01

    In a long-term study of contaminated soil around Jaslovské Bohunice nuclear power plant (NPP), 24 species of local flora were used to show impact of serious accidents from 1976 to 1977. The 19-km-long banks of the Jaslovské Bohunice NPP wastewater recipient have been identified as contaminated by (137)Cs. In total, more than 67,000m(2) of riverbanks have been found as being contaminated at levels exceeding 1Bq (137)Csg(-1) of soil. Used phytotoxic and cytogenetic "in situ" tests were extended by analyses of pollen grains. Although the dose of some samples of radioactive soil was relatively high (322kBqkg(-1)) no significant impact on the biological level of tested wild plant species was observed.

  18. Longitudinal measurements of tarnished plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) susceptibility to insecticides in Arkansas, Louisiana and Mississippi: Associations with insecticide use and insect control recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dose-response assays were conducted from 2008 through 2015 to measure the susceptibility of field populations of Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) from the Delta regions of Arkansas, Louisiana and Mississippi to acephate, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, permethrin and sulfoxaflor. A total of 229 fi...

  19. Botrytis pseudocinerea Is a Significant Pathogen of Several Crop Plants but Susceptible to Displacement by Fungicide-Resistant B. cinerea Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesken, Cecilia; Weber, Roland W S; Rupp, Sabrina; Leroch, Michaela; Hahn, Matthias

    2015-10-01

    Botrytis cinerea is one of the most important pathogens worldwide, causing gray mold on a large variety of crops. Botrytis pseudocinerea has been found previously to occur together with B. cinerea in low abundance in vineyards and strawberry fields. Here, we report B. pseudocinerea to be common and sometimes dominant over B. cinerea on several fruit and vegetable crops in Germany. On apples with calyx end rot and on oilseed rape, it was the major gray mold species. Abundance of B. pseudocinerea was often negatively correlated with fungicide treatments. On cultivated strawberries, it was frequently found in spring but was largely displaced by B. cinerea following fungicide applications. Whereas B. cinerea strains with multiple-fungicide resistance were common in these fields, B. pseudocinerea almost never developed resistance to any fungicide even though resistance mutations occurred at similar frequencies in both species under laboratory conditions. The absence of resistance to quinone outside inhibitors in B. pseudocinerea was correlated with an intron in cytB preventing the major G143A resistance mutation. Our work indicates that B. pseudocinerea has a wide host range similar to that of B. cinerea and that it can become an important gray mold pathogen on cultivated plants. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Leaf d15N as a physiological indicator of the responsiveness of N2-fixing alfalfa plants to elevated [CO2], temperature and low water availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idoia eAriz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The natural 15N/14N isotope composition (δ15N of a tissue is a consequence of its N source and N physiological mechanisms in response to the environment. It could potentially be used as a tracer of N metabolism in plants under changing environmental conditions, where primary N metabolism may be complex, and losses and gains of N fluctuate over time. In order to test the utility of δ15N as an indicator of plant N status in N2-fixing plants grown under various environmental conditions, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. plants were subjected to distinct conditions of [CO2] (400 versus 700 mol mol-1, temperature (ambient versus ambient + 4ºC and water availability (fully watered versus water deficiency - WD. As expected, increased [CO2] and temperature stimulated photosynthetic rates and plant growth, whereas these parameters were negatively affected by WD. The determination of δ15N in leaves, stems, roots and nodules showed that leaves were the most representative organs of the plant response to increased [CO2] and WD. Depletion of heavier N isotopes in plants grown under higher [CO2] and WD conditions reflected decreased transpiration rates, but could also be related to a higher N demand in leaves, as suggested by the decreased leaf N and total soluble protein (TSP contents detected at 700 mol mol-1 [CO2] and WD conditions. In summary, leaf δ15N provides relevant information integrating parameters which condition plant responsiveness (e.g. photosynthesis, TSP, N demand and water transpiration to environmental conditions.

  1. Root isolations of Metarhizium spp. from crops reflect diversity in the soil and indicate no plant specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinwender, Bernhardt M; Enkerli, Jürg; Widmer, Franco; Eilenberg, Jørgen; Kristensen, Hanne L; Bidochka, Michael J; Meyling, Nicolai V

    2015-11-01

    Metarhizium spp. have recently been shown to be associated with the roots of different plants. Here we evaluated which Metarhizium species were associated with roots of oat (Avena sativa), rye (Secale cereale) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea), common crop plants in Denmark. Thirty-six root samples from each of the three crops were collected within an area of approximately 3ha. The roots were rinsed with sterile water, homogenized and the homogenate plated onto selective media. A subset of 126 Metarhizium isolates were identified to species by sequencing of the 5' end of the gene translation elongation factor 1-alpha and characterized by simple sequence repeat (SSR) analysis of 14 different loci. Metarhizium brunneum was the most common species isolated from plant roots (84.1% of all isolates), while M. robertsii (11.1%) and M. majus (4.8%) comprised the remainder. The SSR analysis revealed that six multilocus genotypes (MLGs) were present among the M. brunneum and M. robertsii isolates, respectively. A single MLG of M. brunneum represented 66.7%, 79.1% and 79.2% of the total isolates obtained from oat, rye and cabbage, respectively. The isolation of Metarhizium spp. and their MLGs from roots revealed a comparable community composition as previously reported from the same agroecosystem when insect baiting of soil samples was used as isolating technique. No specific MLG association with a certain crop was found. This study highlights the diversity of Metarhizium spp. found in the rhizosphere of different crops within a single agroecosystem and suggests that plants either recruit fungal associates from the surrounding soil environment or even govern the composition of Metarhizium populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Host plant resistance against tomato spotted wilt virus in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) and its impact on susceptibility to the virus, virus population genetics, and vector feeding behavior and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaraj, Sivamani; Srinivasan, Rajagopalbabu; Culbreath, Albert K; Riley, David G; Pappu, Hanu R

    2014-02-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) severely affects peanut production in the southeastern United States. Breeding efforts over the last three decades resulted in the release of numerous peanut genotypes with field resistance to TSWV. The degree of field resistance in these genotypes has steadily increased over time, with recently released genotypes exhibiting a higher degree of field resistance than older genotypes. However, most new genotypes have never been evaluated in the greenhouse or laboratory against TSWV or thrips, and the mechanism of resistance is unknown. In this study, TSWV-resistant and -susceptible genotypes were subjected to TSWV mechanical inoculation. The incidence of TSWV infection was 71.7 to 87.2%. Estimation of TSWV nucleocapsid (N) gene copies did not reveal significant differences between resistant and susceptible genotypes. Parsimony and principal component analyses of N gene nucleotide sequences revealed inconsistent differences between virus isolates collected from resistant and susceptible genotypes and between old (collected in 1998) and new (2010) isolates. Amino acid sequence analyses indicated consistent differences between old and new isolates. In addition, we found evidence for overabundance of nonsynonymous substitutions. However, there was no evidence for positive selection. Purifying selection, population expansion, and differentiation seem to have influenced the TSWV populations temporally rather than positive selection induced by host resistance. Choice and no-choice tests indicated that resistant and susceptible genotypes differentially affected thrips feeding and survival. Thrips feeding and survival were suppressed on some resistant genotypes compared with susceptible genotypes. These findings reveal how TSWV resistance in peanut could influence evolution, epidemiology, and management of TSWV.

  3. Evolution of Spermophagus seed beetles (Coleoptera, Bruchinae, Amblycerini) indicates both synchronous and delayed colonizations of host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kergoat, Gael J; Le Ru, Bruno P; Sadeghi, Seyed E; Tuda, Midori; Reid, Chris A M; György, Zoltán; Genson, Gwenaëlle; Ribeiro-Costa, Cibele S; Delobel, Alex

    2015-08-01

    Seed beetles are a group of specialized chrysomelid beetles, which are mostly associated with plants of the legume family (Fabaceae). In the legume-feeding species, a marked trend of phylogenetic conservatism of host use has been highlighted by several molecular phylogenetics studies. Yet, little is known about the evolutionary patterns of association of species feeding outside the legume family. Here, we investigate the evolution of host use in Spermophagus, a species-rich seed beetle genus that is specialized on two non-legume host-plant groups: morning glories (Convolvulaceae) and mallows (Malvaceae: Malvoideae). Spermophagus species are widespread in the Old World, especially in the Afrotropical, Indomalaya and Palearctic regions. In this study we rely on eight gene regions to provide the first phylogenetic framework for the genus, along with reconstructions of host use evolution, estimates of divergence times and historical biogeography analyses. Like the legume-feeding species, a marked trend toward conservatism of host use is revealed, with one clade specializing on Convolvulaceae and the other on Malvoideae. Comparisons of plants' and insects' estimates of divergence times yield a contrasted pattern: on one hand a quite congruent temporal framework was recovered for morning-glories and their seed-predators; on the other hand the diversification of Spermophagus species associated with mallows apparently lagged far behind the diversification of their hosts. We hypothesize that this delayed colonization of Malvoideae can be accounted for by the respective biogeographic histories of the two groups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Determination of Indicator Ecological Factors in the Habitats of Some Plant Species of Polour Mountainous Rangelands, Mazandaran Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH. Shokrollahi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was investigating some ecological factors in the habitats of four species and determining the most significant variables affecting the presence and distribution of these species. Study area, which was about 4600 ha, was located at Polur, Mazandaran province. For this purpose, after primary survey and selection of main plant species, 3 transects 150 meter in length were laid down systematically and 10 random plots (1m×1m were established in each vegetation type. The investigated plant species included Festuca ovina, Astragalus gossypinus, Poa bulbosa and Dactylis glomerata.Then, 3 soil samplings were taken from 0-30 cm in starting, mean and ending points of each transect. Soil factors such as N, P, organic material, pH, EC and texture were determined. The software SHAZAM 10 package was used to find the logical relationship between plant species and environmental variables. The statistical pattern for this research was based on qualitative function. Therefore, logic function was evaluated. The results showed that soil acidity and nitrogen were the main limiting factors affecting the presence and absence probability of Festuca ovina and Poa bulbosa but, in the habitats of Astragalus depressus, organic matter and electrical conductivity were the most important variables affecting the presence and absence probability of this species. Elevation and nitrogen were the main limiting factors in the habitats of Dactylis glomerata.

  5. Timing and host plant associations in the evolution of the weevil tribe Apionini (Apioninae, Brentidae, Curculionoidea, Coleoptera) indicate an ancient co-diversification pattern of beetles and flowering plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Sven; Friedman, Ariel L L; Astrin, Jonas J; Gottsberger, Brigitte; Letsch, Harald

    2017-02-01

    Host plant shifts of insects can lead to a burst of diversification driven by their arrival in a new adaptive zone. In this context, our study aims to explore timing and patterns in the evolution of the weevil tribe Apionini (Brentidae, Curculionoidea, Coleoptera), particularly in relation to affiliations with their host plants. The classification of Apionini is difficult because of their relatively uniform appearance. Most taxa live mono- or oligophagously on members of Asteraceae or Fabaceae, but many are associated with other plant families, like Lamiaceae, Malvaceae and Polygonaceae. However, a comprehensive hypothesis of the phylogenetic relationships within the tribe Apionini is still missing. In the present study, we reconstructed trees and estimated divergence times among tribes. These results were further used to reconstruct the ancestral host plant use in Apionini weevils and to infer if the divergence timing of putative subtribes corresponds with the occurrence and radiation of their specific host plant groups. Phylogenetic analyses confirm the monophyly of most subtribes, with the exceptions of Oxystomatina, Kalcapiina and Aspidapiina. The subribe Aplemonina is inferred to be sister to all remaining Apionini. Divergence time estimates indicate the first occurrence of Apionini in the Upper Cretaceous and a simultaneous occurrence of several families of flowering plants and the occupation by Apionini weevil herbivores. These conspicuous coincidences support either an ancient co-diversification scenario or an escalating diversification in weevils induced by the radiation of flowering plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The antimicrobial screening of a Barbadian medicinal plant with indications for use in the treatment of diabetic wound infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, S; Cohall, D H; Gossell-Williams, M; Lindo, J F

    2012-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic non-communicable disease with high prevalence in the North American and Caribbean region. Diabetic Foot Syndrome which is an associated complication can lead to the development of wounds and ulcers which can become infected. Justicia secunda, a plant known locally in Barbados as Bloodroot used in folklore for wound healing, was selected to test its ability to aid diabetic wound healing by antimicrobial activity. It was therefore tested against the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, and Enterococcus feacalis (clincal strain) which are commonly found in diabetic wounds. The plant was collected by local users. Methanol and acetone extracts of the plant were prepared with use of soxhlet extraction. The antimicrobial activity was assessed with the use of a modified Kirby-Baurer method. Concentrations of 200 mg/ml, 100 mg/ml, 10 mg/ml, and 1 mg/ml of the extract were used, with a standard ciprofloxacin 5 microg positive control, and a 5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution negative control. The J secunda methanol and acetone extracts with an extraction yield of 15.3% and 0.75%, respectively yielded no activity within the concentration range against the three strains of bacteria tested. In comparison with the positive control, relative inhibition zone diameter (RIZD) values of 0% resulted for both the negative control and the extracts, with the positive control having a value of 100%. The in vitro screen of the extracts prepared from J secunda, yielded no antimicrobial activity against the three strains of bacteria tested and therefore does not support the folklore claims by this mechanism of action.

  7. Dietary animal and plant protein intakes and their associations with obesity and cardio-metabolic indicators in European adolescents: the HELENA cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi; Mouratidou, Theodora; Vereecken, Carine; Kersting, Mathilde; Bolca, Selin; de Moraes, Augusto César F; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Moreno, Luis A; González-Gross, Marcela; Valtueña, Jara; Labayen, Idoia; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Hallstrom, Lena; Leclercq, Catherine; Ferrari, Marika; Gottrand, Frederic; Beghin, Laurent; Manios, Yannis; Ottevaere, Charlene; Van Oyen, Herman; Molnar, Denes; Kafatos, Anthony; Widhalm, Kurt; Gómez-Martinez, Sonia; Prieto, Ligia Esperanza Díaz; De Henauw, Stefaan; Huybrechts, Inge

    2015-01-21

    Previous studies suggest that dietary protein might play a beneficial role in combating obesity and its related chronic diseases. Total, animal and plant protein intakes and their associations with anthropometry and serum biomarkers in European adolescents using one standardised methodology across European countries are not well documented. To evaluate total, animal and plant protein intakes in European adolescents stratified by gender and age, and to investigate their associations with cardio-metabolic indicators (anthropometry and biomarkers). The current analysis included 1804 randomly selected adolescents participating in the HELENA study (conducted in 2006-2007) aged 12.5-17.5 y (47% males) who completed two non-consecutive computerised 24-h dietary recalls. Associations between animal and plant protein intakes, and anthropometry and serum biomarkers were examined with General linear Model multivariate analysis. Average total protein intake exceeded the recommendations of World Health Organization and European Food Safety Authority. Mean total protein intake was 96 g/d (59% derived from animal protein). Total, animal and plant protein intakes (g/d) were significantly lower in females than in males and total and plant protein intakes were lower in younger participants (12.5-14.9 y). Protein intake was significantly lower in underweight subjects and higher in obese ones; the direction of the relationship was reversed after adjustments for body weight (g/(kg.d)). The inverse association of plant protein intakes was stronger with BMI z-score and body fat percentage (BF%) compared to animal protein intakes. Additionally, BMI and BF% were positively associated with energy percentage of animal protein. This sample of European adolescents appeared to have adequate total protein intake. Our findings suggest that plant protein intakes may play a role in preventing obesity among European adolescents. Further longitudinal studies are needed to investigate the potential

  8. Comparison of Thermobifida fusca cellulases expressed in Escherichia coli and Nicotiana tabacum indicates advantages of the plant system for the expression of bacterial cellulases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes eKlinger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biofuels requires in addition to pretreatment techniques access to large quantities of inexpensive cellulases to be competitive with established first generation processes. A solution to this problem could be achieved by plant based expression of these enzymes. We expressed the complete set of six cellulases and an additional β-glucosidase expressed from Thermobifida fusca in the bacterium Escherichia coli and in tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum. This was done to determine whether functional enzyme expression was feasible in these organisms. In extracts of recombinant E. coli cells, five of the proteins were detected by western blot analysis, but exocellulases E3 and E6 were undetectable. In the plant-based expression system we were able to detect all six cellulases but not the β-glucosidase even though activity was detectable. When E. coli was used as the expression system, endocellulase E2 was active, while endocellulases E1 and E5 showed only residual activity. The remaining cellulases appeared completely inactive against the model substrates azo-carboxymethyl-cellulose (Azo-CMC and 4-methylumbelliferyl-cellobioside (4-MUC. Only the β glucosidase showed high activity against 4-MUC. In contrast, all the plant-derived enzymes were active against the respective model substrates. Our data indicate that some enzymes of bacterial origin are more active and more efficiently expressed in plants than in a bacterial host.

  9. Produção de prolina e suscetibilidade ao glufosinato de amônio em plantas transgênicas de citrumelo Swingle Proline production by transgenic plants of Swingle citrumelo and susceptibility to glufosinate ammonium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristine Elizabeth Alvarenga Carneiro

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a sensibilidade de plantas transgênicas de citrumelo Swingle com elevada produção de prolina, ao herbicida glufosinato de amônio. As plantas utilizadas apresentavam a inserção do gene mutante da enzima delta1-pirrolina-5-carboxilato sintetase (P5CS, responsável pela biossíntese de prolina. A expressão do gene p5cs em plantas transgênicas causou aumento nas quantidades de prolina em tecidos foliares, em até cinco vezes, quando comparadas às plantas-controle tratadas com 200 µM de glufosinato de amônio. As plantas transgênicas acumularam maior quantidade de NH4+ nas folhas, em relação às plantas não-transgênicas. Os danos causados pelo herbicida foram avaliados in vitro, utilizando-se discos foliares cultivados em meio MS com diferentes concentrações de glufosinato de amônio. Observou-se maior clorose em discos foliares das plantas transgênicas, o que comprova a maior suscetibilidade de plantas de citrumelo Swingle com alta produção de prolina ao herbicida.The objective of this work was to evaluate the susceptibility to glufosinate ammonium of transgenic plants of Swingle citrumelo with high proline production. The mutant gene of the enzyme delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS, the rate-limiting enzyme in proline biosynthesis, was inserted into Swingle citrumelo plants. The expression of the gene p5cs caused up to 5-fold increase on the proline content in leaf tissues of transgenic plants treated with 200 µM glufosinate ammonium, when compared with control plants. Leaves of transgenic plants accumulated higher amounts of NH4+ than the nontransgenic control. The herbicide toxicity was evaluated using leaf disks cultivated in MS medium, containing different concentrations of glufosinate ammonium. The severity of the chlorosis, observed in leaf disks of transgenic plants, confirmed the higher susceptibility of Swingle citrumelo plants, with high proline production, to this

  10. A survey of green plant tRNA 3'-end processing enzyme tRNase Zs, homologs of the candidate prostate cancer susceptibility protein ELAC2

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    Wang Zhikang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background tRNase Z removes the 3'-trailer sequences from precursor tRNAs, which is an essential step preceding the addition of the CCA sequence. tRNase Z exists in the short (tRNase ZS and long (tRNase ZL forms. Based on the sequence characteristics, they can be divided into two major types: bacterial-type tRNase ZS and eukaryotic-type tRNase ZL, and one minor type, Thermotoga maritima (TM-type tRNase ZS. The number of tRNase Zs is highly variable, with the largest number being identified experimentally in the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana. It is unknown whether multiple tRNase Zs found in A. thaliana is common to the plant kingdom. Also unknown is the extent of sequence and structural conservation among tRNase Zs from the plant kingdom. Results We report the identification and analysis of candidate tRNase Zs in 27 fully sequenced genomes of green plants, the great majority of which are flowering plants. It appears that green plants contain multiple distinct tRNase Zs predicted to reside in different subcellular compartments. Furthermore, while the bacterial-type tRNase ZSs are present only in basal land plants and green algae, the TM-type tRNase ZSs are widespread in green plants. The protein sequences of the TM-type tRNase ZSs identified in green plants are similar to those of the bacterial-type tRNase ZSs but have distinct features, including the TM-type flexible arm, the variant catalytic HEAT and HST motifs, and a lack of the PxKxRN motif involved in CCA anti-determination (inhibition of tRNase Z activity by CCA, which prevents tRNase Z cleavage of mature tRNAs. Examination of flowering plant chloroplast tRNA genes reveals that many of these genes encode partial CCA sequences. Based on our results and previous studies, we predict that the plant TM-type tRNase ZSs may not recognize the CCA sequence as an anti-determinant. Conclusions Our findings substantially expand the current repertoire of the TM-type tRNase ZSs and hint

  11. Variation of acephate susceptibility and correlation with Esterase and Glutathione S-transferase activities in field populations of the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    The tarnished plant bug (TPB) has increasingly become an economically important pest of cotton. Heavy dependence on insecticides, particularly organophosphates and pyrethroids, for TPB control facilitated resistance development to multiple classes of insecticides. To better understand resistance and...

  12. The Effect of Integrated Chemical and Biological Fertilizers on Growth Indices and Mucilage Yield of Isabgol (plantagoovata Forssk across Different Plant Densities

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    A Sepehri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Isabgol (plantagoovata Forssk is an important annual medicinal plant which is under cultivation in Iran. Isabgol has been used in medicine since ancient times, however, it has only been cultivated as a medicinal plant in recent decades. It is a diuretic, alleviates kidney and bladder complaints, gonorrhea, arthritis and hemorrhoids. In general, plants known as medicinal are rich in secondary metabolites and have potential as drugs. The biosynthesis of the secondary metabolites is controlled genetically and affected strongly by environmental factors especially chemical fertilizers. The environmental and economic impacts of chemical fertilizer application such as water pollution, low quality of agricultural production and decreasing soil productivity have encouraged farmers to use alternative nutrient sources. Sustainable farming on the basis of natural fertilizer application with the aim of omitting or decreasing chemical elements is a desirable approach to prevent these problems. Biofertilizers are some non-symbiotic and symbiotic microbes in the soil that stimulate plant growth and contribute the improvement of ecosystem. Many genera of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria such as Azospirillum, Azotobacter, Bacillus and Pseudomonas are used as biofertilizers for economically important crops. Several studies have shown that beneficial microbes, such as Azotobacter and Azospirillum, not only affect nitrogen fixation but also exhibit other favorable properties such as production of growth hormones. Nitrogen and phosphate chemical fertilizers could be replaced by biofertilizers containing Azotobacter, Azospirilium, Bacillus and Pseudomonas. In this study, we evaluated the effects of integrated application of chemical fertilizers and bio-fertilizers under different plant densities on growth indices, grain and mucilage yield of Isabgol. Materials and Methods A field experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with

  13. Cytokinin-Deficient Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants Show Multiple Developmental Alterations Indicating Opposite Functions of Cytokinins in the Regulation of Shoot and Root Meristem Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Tomáš; Motyka, Václav; Laucou, Valérie; Smets, Rafaël; Van Onckelen, Harry; Schmülling, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Cytokinins are hormones that regulate cell division and development. As a result of a lack of specific mutants and biochemical tools, it has not been possible to study the consequences of cytokinin deficiency. Cytokinin-deficient plants are expected to yield information about processes in which cytokinins are limiting and that, therefore, they might regulate. We have engineered transgenic Arabidopsis plants that overexpress individually six different members of the cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (AtCKX) gene family and have undertaken a detailed phenotypic analysis. Transgenic plants had increased cytokinin breakdown (30 to 45% of wild-type cytokinin content) and reduced expression of the cytokinin reporter gene ARR5:GUS (β-glucuronidase). Cytokinin deficiency resulted in diminished activity of the vegetative and floral shoot apical meristems and leaf primordia, indicating an absolute requirement for the hormone. By contrast, cytokinins are negative regulators of root growth and lateral root formation. We show that the increased growth of the primary root is linked to an enhanced meristematic cell number, suggesting that cytokinins control the exit of cells from the root meristem. Different AtCKX-green fluorescent protein fusion proteins were localized to the vacuoles or the endoplasmic reticulum and possibly to the extracellular space, indicating that subcellular compartmentation plays an important role in cytokinin biology. Analyses of promoter:GUS fusion genes showed differential expression of AtCKX genes during plant development, the activity being confined predominantly to zones of active growth. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that cytokinins have central, but opposite, regulatory functions in root and shoot meristems and indicate that a fine-tuned control of catabolism plays an important role in ensuring the proper regulation of cytokinin functions. PMID:14555694

  14. An ecologically-based method for selecting ecological indicators for assessing risks to biological diversity from genetically-engineered plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andow, D. A.; Lövei, Gabor L; Arpaia, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    into ecological functional groups and selecting those that deliver the identified environmental values. (3) All of the species or ecosystem processes related to the selected functional groups are identified and (4) multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) is used to rank the indicator endpoint entities, which may...... be species or ecological processes. MCDA focuses on those species and processes that are critical for the identified ecological functions and are likely to be highly exposed to the GE organism. The highest ranked indicator entities are selected for the next step. (5) Relevant risk hypotheses are identified....... Knowledge about the specific transgene and its possible environmental effects in other countries can be used to assist development of risk hypotheses. (6) The risk hypotheses are ranked using MCDA with criteria related to the severity of the potential risk. The model emphasizes transparent, expert...

  15. Why is it so difficult to identify a single indicator of water stress in plants? A proposal for a multivariate analysis to assess emergent properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolli, S C; Mazzafera, P; Souza, G M

    2014-05-01

    Because of the complexity of plant responses to water deficit, researchers have attempted to identify simplified models to understand critical aspects of the problem by searching for single indicators that would enable evaluations of the effects of environmental changes on the entire plant. However, this reductionist approach, which is often used in plant sciences, makes it difficult to distinguish systemic emergent behaviours. Currently, a new class of models and epistemology have called attention to the fundamental properties of complex systems. These properties, termed 'emergent', are observed at a large scale of the system (top hierarchical level) but cannot be observed or inferred from smaller scales of observation in the same system. We propose that multivariate statistical analysis can provide a suitable tool to quantify global responses to water deficit, allowing a specific and partially quantitative assessment of emergent properties. Based on an experimental study, our results showed that the classical approach of the individual analysis of different data sets might provide different interpretations for the observed effects of water deficit. These results support the hypothesis that a cross-scale multivariate analysis is an appropriate method to establish models for systemic understanding of the interactions between plants and their changing environment. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  16. ECDYSTEROID AND CHITINASE FLUCTUATIONS IN THE WESTERN TARNISHED PLANT BUG (Lygus hesperus) PRIOR TO MOLT INDICATE ROLES IN DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Colin S; Wang, Meixian; Miao, Yun-Gen; Hull, J Joe

    2016-06-01

    Vital physiological processes that drive the insect molt represent areas of interest for the development of alternative control strategies. The western tarnished plant bug (Lygus hesperus Knight) is a pest of numerous agronomic and horticultural crops but the development of novel control approaches is impeded by limited knowledge of the mechanisms regulating its molt. To address this deficiency, we examined the fundamental relationship underlying the hormonal and molecular components of ecdysis. At 27°C L. hesperus exhibits a temporally controlled nymph-adult molt that occurs about 4 days after the final nymph-nymph molt with ecdysteroid levels peaking 2 days prior to the final molt. Application of exogenous ecdysteroids when endogenous levels had decreased disrupted the nymphal-adult molt, with treated animals exhibiting an inability to escape the old exoskeleton and resulting in mortality compared to controls. Using accessible transcriptomic data, we identified 10 chitinase-like sequences (LhCht), eight of which had protein motifs consistent with chitinases. Phylogenetic analyses revealed orthologous relationships to chitinases critical to molting in other insects. RT-PCR based transcript profiling revealed that expression changes to four of the LhChts was coordinated with the molt period and ecdysteroid levels. Collectively, our results support a role for ecdysteroid regulation of the L. hesperus molt and suggest that cuticle clearance is mediated by LhCht orthologs of chitinases that are essential to the molt process. These results provide the initial hormonal and molecular basis for future studies to investigate the specific roles of these components in molting. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Measuring the effects of platinum from catalytic converter equipped vehicles by means of plant indicators (food and fodder plants); Wirkungsmessungen von Platin aus katalysatorbetriebenen Kraftfahrzeugen mit pflanzlichen Bioindikatoren (Nahrungs- und Futterpflanzen)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier-Reiter, W.; Sommer, B. [TUEV Energie und Umwelt GmbH, Filderstadt (Germany). Niederlassung Stuttgart

    1997-12-31

    The essential aim of the present R and D project, titled ``Measuring the effects of platinum from catalytic converter equipped vehicles by means of plant indicators - food and fodder plants (VPT 02)``, was to obtain first orienting results on the potential effects of platinum pollution on plants by means of short-time, high-dose exposure experiments. The most important effect criterion in assessing potential hazards to humans and animals via the food chain, beside any outwardly visible changes (reaction), was the analytical detection of platinum accumulation in the plants. The project was also intended as a first contribution to the ecotoxicology of platinum, in particular the behaviour of metallic platinum and water-soluble platinum compounds in the soil-plant system. [Deutsch] Die wesentliche Zielsetzung des F and E-Vorhabens `Wirkungsmessungen von Platin und Platinverbindungen mit pflanzlichen Bioindikatoren - Nahrungs- und Futterpflanzen (VPT 02)` war es, im Rahmen von Kurzzeit-Belastungsexperimenten im hohen Dosisbereich erste orientierende Ergebnisse zu den moeglichen Auswirkungen von Platin-Belastungen auf Pflanzen abzuleiten. Neben aeusserlich sichtbaren Veraenderungen der Pflanzen (Reaktion) wurde als Wirkungskriterium insbesondere die chemisch-analytisch erfassbare Platin-Anreicherung in den Pflanzen (Akkumulation) betrachtet, die eine Abschaetzung moeglicher Gefaehrdungen von Mensch und Tier ueber die Nahrungskette ermoeglicht. Zudem sollte ein erster Beitrag zur Oekotoxikologie des Platins, insbesondere zum Verhalten von metallischem Platin und wasserloeslichen Platinverbindungen im System Boden-Pflanzen, erarbeitet werden. (orig.)

  18. Quantification of tillage, plant cover, and cumulative rainfall effects on soil surface microrelief by statistical, geostatistical and fractal indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Paz-Ferreiro

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Changes in soil surface microrelief with cumulative rainfall under different tillage systems and crop cover conditions were investigated in southern Brazil. Surface cover was none (fallow or the crop succession maize followed by oats. Tillage treatments were: 1 conventional tillage on bare soil (BS, 2 conventional tillage (CT, 3 minimum tillage (MT and 4 no tillage (NT under maize and oats. Measurements were taken with a manual relief meter on small rectangular grids of 0.234 and 0.156 m2, throughout growing season of maize and oats, respectively. Each data set consisted of 200 point height readings, the size of the smallest cells being 3×5 cm during maize and 2×5 cm during oats growth periods. Random Roughness (RR, Limiting Difference (LD, Limiting Slope (LS and two fractal parameters, fractal dimension (D and crossover length (l were estimated from the measured microtopographic data sets. Indices describing the vertical component of soil roughness such as RR, LD and l generally decreased with cumulative rain in the BS treatment, left fallow, and in the CT and MT treatments under maize and oats canopy. However, these indices were not substantially affected by cumulative rain in the NT treatment, whose surface was protected with previous crop residues. Roughness decay from initial values was larger in the BS treatment than in CT and MT treatments. Moreover, roughness decay generally tended to be faster under maize than under oats. The RR and LD indices decreased quadratically, while the l index decreased exponentially in the tilled, BS, CT and MT treatments. Crossover length was sensitive to differences in soil roughness conditions allowing a description of microrelief decay due to rainfall in the tilled treatments, although better correlations between

  19. Functional grouping and establishment of distribution patterns of invasive plants in China using self-organizing maps and indicator species analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zi-Bo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we introduce two techniques - self-organizing maps (SOM and indicator species analysis (INDVAL - for understanding the richness patterns of invasive species. We first employed SOM to identify functional groups and then used INDVAL to identify the representative areas characterizing these functional groups. Quantitative traits and distributional information on 127 invasive plants in 28 provinces of China were collected to form the matrices for our study. The results indicate Jiangsu to be the top province with the highest number of invasive species, while Ningxia was the lowest. Six functional groups were identified by the SOM method, and five of them were found to have significantly representative provinces by the INDVAL method. Our study represents the first attempt to combine self-organizing maps and indicator species analysis to assess the macro-scale distribution of exotic species.

  20. Transgenic apple plants overexpressing the chalcone 3-hydroxylase gene of Cosmos sulphureus show increased levels of 3-hydroxyphloridzin and reduced susceptibility to apple scab and fire blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutabarat, Olly Sanny; Flachowsky, Henryk; Regos, Ionela; Miosic, Silvija; Kaufmann, Christine; Faramarzi, Shadab; Alam, Mohammed Zobayer; Gosch, Christian; Peil, Andreas; Richter, Klaus; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Treutter, Dieter; Stich, Karl; Halbwirth, Heidi

    2016-05-01

    Overexpression of chalcone-3-hydroxylase provokes increased accumulation of 3-hydroxyphloridzin in Malus . Decreased flavonoid concentrations but unchanged flavonoid class composition were observed. The increased 3-hydroxyphlorizin contents correlate well with reduced susceptibility to fire blight and scab. The involvement of dihydrochalcones in the apple defence mechanism against pathogens is discussed but unknown biosynthetic steps in their formation hamper studies on their physiological relevance. The formation of 3-hydroxyphloretin is one of the gaps in the pathway. Polyphenol oxidases and cytochrome P450 dependent enzymes could be involved. Hydroxylation of phloretin in position 3 has high similarity to the B-ring hydroxylation of flavonoids catalysed by the well-known flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H). Using recombinant F3'H and chalcone 3-hydroxylase (CH3H) from Cosmos sulphureus we show that F3'H and CH3H accept phloretin to some extent but higher conversion rates are obtained with CH3H. To test whether CH3H catalyzes the hydroxylation of dihydrochalcones in planta and if this could be of physiological relevance, we created transgenic apple trees harbouring CH3H from C. sulphureus. The three transgenic lines obtained showed lower polyphenol concentrations but no shift between the main polyphenol classes dihydrochalcones, flavonols, hydroxycinnamic acids and flavan 3-ols. Increase of 3-hydroxyphloridzin within the dihydrochalcones and of epicatechin/catechin within soluble flavan 3-ols were observed. Decreased activity of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase and chalcone synthase/chalcone isomerase could partially explain the lower polyphenol concentrations. In comparison to the parent line, the transgenic CH3H-lines showed a lower disease susceptibility to fire blight and apple scab that correlated with the increased 3-hydroxyphlorizin contents.

  1. Use of Non Vascular Plant Organisms as Indicators of Urban Air Pollution (Tunja, Boyacá, Colombiano

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    Diego Fernando Simijaca Salcedo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Lichens and bryophytes are useful organisms in air quality determination. In the city of Tunja (Boyacá, Colombia, is evident the lack of green areas by the increase of building, which contributes to the detriment of the atmospheric purity making unhealthy conditions to the citizens and habitats and population reduction of cryptogamic plants. Using the Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP we identified the greater influence air pollutants areas. Parmotrema  austrosinense has the highest frequency; and the Normal Femenina station with an IAP of 52,2196 is an atmospheric pollutants influenced area; Parque Santander and Semáforos, are the most contaminated (IAP 8,5333 with only two species (Heterodermia albicans and Lobariaceae  sp.. We highlight the evaluation in the Reserva Forestal Protectora El Malmo with an IAP of 34,0281 and 23 species. IAP values were grouped in isocontamination areas to be represented cartographically. The use of bioindicators organisms is a natural and economic strategy allowing us to mapping urban areas and make revegetation cities designs, generating the contaminants diminution air impact improving the citizen’s life quality. USO DE ORGANISMOS VEGETALES NO VASCULARES COMO INDICADORES DE CONTAMINACIÓN ATMOSFÉRICA URBANA (TUNJA, BOYACÁ, COLOMBIALos líquenes y briófitos son organismos útiles en la determinación de la calidad del aire. En la ciudad de Tunja (departamento de Boyacá, Colombia, es evidente la escasez de zonas verdes por el aumento en las construcciones, lo que contribuye al detrimento de la pureza atmosférica y trae consigo el deterioro de la salud de la ciudadanía y la reducción de los hábitats y poblaciones de las plantas criptógamas. Mediante la determinación del Índice de Pureza Atmosférica (IPA se identificaron las zonas con mayor influencia de contaminantes del aire. Parmotrema  austrosinense corresponde a la especie más frecuencia; y la estación de la Normal Femenina, con IPA de 52

  2. IMPROVEMENT OF SYSTEMS OF TECHNICAL WATER SUPPLY WITH COOLING TOWERS FOR HEAT POWER PLANTS TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC INDICATORS PERFECTION. Part 2

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    Yu. A. Zenovich-Leshkevich-Olpinskiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of calculation of economic efficiency that can be universal and is suitable for feasibility study of modernization of irrigation and water distribution system of cooling towers has been developed. The method takes into account the effect of lower pressure exhaust steam in the condenser by lowering the temperature of the cooling water outlet of a cooling tower that aims at improvement of technical and economic indicators of heat power plants. The practical results of the modernization of irrigation and water distribution system of a cooling tower are presented. As a result, the application of new irrigation and water distribution systems of cooling towers will make it possible to increase the cooling efficiency by more than 4 оС and, therefore, to obtain the fuel savings by improving the vacuum in the turbine condensers. In addition, the available capacity of CHP in the summer period is increased. The results of the work, the experience of modernization of irrigation and water distribution systems of the Gomel CHP-2 cooling towers system, as well as the and methods of calculating of its efficiency can be disseminated for upgrading similar facilities at the power plants of the Belarusian energy system. Some measures are prosed to improve recycling systems, cooling towers and their structures; such measures might significantly improve the reliability and efficiency of technical water supply systems of heat power plants.

  3. Investigation on the effect of different sources of fertilizers on growth indices and yield of coneflower (Echinacea purpurea L. as a medicinal plant

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    M. Ashnavar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the response of coneflower to applying chemical fertilizer and incorporation with municipal solid waste compost (MSWC, a pot experiment was conducted as completely randomized design with six treatments included: control (without applying chemical fertilizer and compost, chemical fertilizer (150 kg N, 120 kg P2O5 and 250 kg K2O per hectare from urea, triple super phosphate and potassium sulphate source, respectively (CF, 30 t.ha-1 MSWC, 15 t.ha-1 MSWC + 1 4 CF, 15 t.ha-1 MSWC+2 4 CF, and 15 t.ha-1 MSWC + 3 4 CF with three replications during 2012 in Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University. Results indicated that growth and yield indices such as the number of flowers per plant, number of lateral branches, number of petals, main flower’s diameter, receptacle’s diameter, main stem’s diameter, fresh weight of flower, dry weight of flower and concentration of chlorophyll a and b in flowering stage were affected by application of chemical fertilizer and MSWC. The incorporation 15t.ha-1 MSWC + 1 4 CF also enhanced the diameter of receptacle, main stem’s diameter, the number of petals, 30%, 30% and 50%, respectively. Meanwhile, applying 15 t.ha-1 MSWC + 1 4 CF/ha increased the concentration of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, number of flowers per plant, total fresh and dry matter of flower about 80%.

  4. Identification of indicator components for the discrimination of Cassia plants in health teas and development of analytical method for the components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Mitsuko; Sakurai, Katsumi; Fujii, Hisashi; Saito, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Components that could be used as indicators for the discrimination of senna (Cassia angustifolia) from other cassia plants contained in health teas were identified, and an analytical method for the components was developed. Our results revealed two components in senna that were not found in other Cassia spp. widely used in health teas, such as C. alata, C. corymbosa, C. obtusifolia, and C. occidentalis. Structural elucidation of the two components showed that they were isorhamnetin-3-O-gentiobioside and tinnevellin glucoside. We analyzed commercial health teas using the HPLC method developed in this study. The two indicator components were detected at 366 nm using an RP C18 column and gradient elution with a mixture of water and acetonitrile (with formic acid), as the mobile phase. Our analytical method by HPLC enabled the differentiation of senna from other Cassia plants present in health teas in which sennosides A and B were detected. Moreover, this method allowed us to predict the parts of senna in health teas from the amounts of isorhamnetin-3-O-gentiobioside and tinnevellin glucoside contained in the teas.

  5. Magnetic susceptibilities of minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Sam; Brownfield, I.K.

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic separation of minerals is a topic that is seldom reported in the literature for two reasons. First, separation data generally are byproducts of other projects; and second, this study requires a large amount of patience and is unusually tedious. Indeed, we suspect that most minerals probably are never investigated for this property. These data are timesaving for mineralogists who concentrate mono-mineralic fractions for chemical analysis, age dating, and for other purposes. The data can certainly be used in the ore-beneficiation industries. In some instances, magnetic-susceptibility data may help in mineral identification, where other information is insufficient. In past studies of magnetic separation of minerals, (Gaudin and Spedden, 1943; Tille and Kirkpatrick, 1956; Rosenblum, 1958; Rubinstein and others, 1958; Flinter, 1959; Hess, 1959; Baker, 1962; Meric and Peyre, 1963; Rojas and others, 1965; and Duchesne, 1966), the emphasis has been on the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic ranges of extraction. For readers interested in the history of magnetic separation of minerals, Krumbein and Pettijohn (1938, p. 344-346) indicated nine references back to 1848. The primary purpose of this paper is to report the magnetic-susceptibility data on as many minerals as possible, similar to tables of hardness, specific gravity, refractive indices, and other basic physical properties of minerals. A secondary purpose is to demonstrate that the total and best extraction ranges are influenced by the chemistry of the minerals. The following notes are offered to help avoid problems in separating a desired mineral concentrate from mixtures of mineral grains.

  6. Cadmium and Zn availability as affected by pH manipulation and its assessment by soil extraction, DGT and indicator plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhammad, Iqbal; Puschenreiter, Markus, E-mail: markus.puschenreiter@boku.ac.at; Wenzel, Walter W.

    2012-02-01

    Manipulation of soil pH by soil additives and / or rhizosphere processes may enhance the efficiency of metal phytoextraction. Here we report on the effect of nitric acid additions to four polluted soils on Cd and Zn concentrations in soil solution (C{sub soln}) and 0.005 M Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} extracts, and related changes in the diffusive fluxes and resupply of the metals as assessed by diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT). The responses of these chemical indicators of bioavailability were compared to metal uptake in two indicator plant species, common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg) and narrow leaf plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) grown for 75 days in a pot experiment. Lowering soil pH increased C{sub soln}, the 0.005 M Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}-soluble fractions and the DGT-measured Cd and Zn concentrations (C{sub DGT}) in the experimental soils. This was associated with enhanced uptake of Cd and Zn on soils acidified to pH 4.5 whereas plants did not survive at pH 3.5. Toxicity along with decreased kinetics of metal resupply (calculated by the 2D DIFS model) in the strong acidification treatment suggests that moderate acidification is more appropriate to enhance the phytoextraction process. Each of the chemical indicators of bioavailability predicted well (R{sup 2} > 0.70) the Cd and Zn concentrations in plantain shoots but due to metal toxicity not for dandelion. Concentration factors, i.e. the ratio between metal concentrations in shoots and in soil solution (CF) indicate that Cd and Zn uptake in plantain was not limited by diffusion which may explain that DGT did not perform better than C{sub soln}. However, DGT is expected to predict plant uptake better in diffusion-limited conditions such as in the rhizosphere of metal-accumulating phytoextraction crops. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of soil acidification was assessed for four Zn and Cd polluted soils. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For some soils moderate acidification could

  7. Transcriptome analysis reveals regulatory networks underlying differential susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea in response to nitrogen availability in Solanum lycopersicum.

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    Andrea eVega

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N is one of the main limiting nutrients for plant growth and crop yield. It is well documented that changes in nitrate availability, the main N source found in agricultural soils, influences a myriad of developmental programs and processes including the plant defense response. Indeed, many agronomical reports indicate that the plant N nutritional status influences their ability to respond effectively when challenged by different pathogens. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in N-modulation of plant susceptibility to pathogens are poorly characterized. In this work, we show that Solanum lycopersicum defense response to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea is affected by plant N availability, with higher susceptibility in nitrate-limiting conditions. Global gene expression responses of tomato against B. cinerea under contrasting nitrate conditions reveals that plant primary metabolism is affected by the fungal infection regardless of N regimes. This result suggests that differential susceptibility to pathogen attack under contrasting N conditions is not only explained by a metabolic alteration. We used a systems biology approach to identify the transcriptional regulatory network implicated in plant response to the fungus infection under contrasting nitrate conditions. Interestingly, hub genes in this network are known key transcription factors involved in ethylene and jasmonic acid signaling. This result positions these hormones as key integrators of nitrate and defense against B. cinerea in tomato plants. Our results provide insights into potential crosstalk mechanisms between necrotrophic defense response and N status in plants.

  8. In vitro susceptibility of Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia to plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzada, Fernando; Yépez-Mulia, Lilian; Aguilar, Abigaíl

    2006-12-06

    In our search for new antiprotozoal chemotherapy, we collected a selection of 26 plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Methanolic extracts of these species were screened for their antiprotozoal activity against Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia trophozoites using in vitro tests. Among the tested extracts, the derivates of following species showed selectivity and significant antiprotozoal activity: Chiranthodendron pentadactylon, Annona cherimola and Punica granatum were the most active on Entamoeba histolytica with IC50 < 30 microg/ml. Dorstenia contrajerva, Senna villosa and Ruta chalepensis were the most active toward Giardia lamblia with IC50 < 38 microg/ml. The potency of Chiranthodendron pentadactylon (IC50 2.5 microg/ml) on Entamoeba histolytica was close that of to emetine, but far less than metronidazole, drugs used as control. The results of the antiprotozoal screening support the popular uses of the studied species for the treatment of diarrhoea and dysentery in Mexican traditional medicine.

  9. Research project implementation of a risk-based performance monitoring system for nuclear power plants: Phase II - Type-D indicators. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sewell, R.T. [EQE International. Inc., Evergreen, CO (United States); Khatib-Rahbar, M. [Energy Research, Inc., Rockville, MD (United States); Erikson, H. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-02-01

    This study has established the basis for incorporating a meaningful set of Type-D performance indicators into an overall performance monitoring system based on a PSA framework. The relationships developed as part of this study enable various organizational, maintenance, and operational influences, that are manifested through key events that can be identified and reported at a plant, to be accounted for in terms of their impacts on safety. The relationships and the capability they pose are significant new and unique developments. The relationships require that plant-specific data on the key performance indicators be acquired and analyzed. This, in turn, necessitates that a regular and systematic supplementary data collection program be implemented. Hence, it is recommended here that such a data program be developed and undertaken, specifically within the context of an overall PSA-based safety monitoring system. Plant licensees should be responsible for the supplemental data collection effort; however, the data collection requirements should not pose an undue burden on the licensees. To the extent possible, the data collection program should be coordinated, and possibly integrated, with existing licensee data collection and event reporting efforts. This study was undertaken to help verify whether or not it would be feasible to proceed with a PSA-based performance monitoring program. Research performed for Part-1 investigation has resulted in the development of a systematic and structured approach for monitoring safety performance based on all types of plant events. The Type-D relationships were earlier identified as a key element of the proposed performance monitoring system, and if it would be discovered that the Type-D relationships could not be practically developed and implemented, then it would have lead to the recognition that the performance monitoring system might have little practical value. On the other hand, if the Type-D relationships could be efficiently

  10. Serum Leukocyte Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor A3 (LILRA3 Is Increased in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis and Is a Strong Independent Indicator of Disease Severity; 6.7kbp LILRA3 Gene Deletion Is Not Associated with Diseases Susceptibility.

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    Hongyan An

    Full Text Available Leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor A3 (LILRA3 is a soluble immune regulatory molecule primarily expressed by monocytes and macrophages. A homozygous 6.7kbp LILRA3 gene deletion that removes the first seven of its eight exons is predicted to lead to lack of LILRA3 protein, although this has not been experimentally confirmed. Moreover, there are conflicting results with regards to the link between the LILRA3 homozygous genetic deletion and susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS in different European populations. The aim of this study was to investigate whether LILRA3 gene deletion is associated with MS susceptibility in a North American cohort of European ancestry and assess if serum LILRA3 protein level is a marker of clinical subtype and/or disease severity in MS. A total of 456 patients with MS and 99 unrelated healthy controls were genotyped for the 6.7kbp LILRA3 gene deletion and levels of LILRA3 protein in sera determined by in-house sandwich ELISA. We showed that LILRA3 gene deletion was not associated with MS susceptibility and did not affect the age of disease onset, clinical subtype or disease severity. However, we discovered for the first time that homozygous LILRA3 gene deletion results in lack of production of LILRA3 protein. Importantly, LILRA3 protein level was significantly increased in sera of patients with MS when compared with control subjects, particularly in more severe type primary progressive MS. Multiple regression analysis showed that LILRA3 level in serum was one of the strongest independent markers of disease severity in MS, which potentially can be used as a diagnostic marker.

  11. Biomarker-indicated extent of oxidation of plant-derived organic carbon (OC) in relation to geomorphology in an arsenic contaminated Holocene aquifer, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnone, Daniel; Richards, Laura A; Polya, David A; Bryant, Charlotte; Jones, Merren; van Dongen, Bart E

    2017-10-12

    The poisoning of rural populations in South and Southeast Asia due to high groundwater arsenic concentrations is one of the world's largest ongoing natural disasters. It is important to consider environmental processes related to the release of geogenic arsenic, including geomorphological and organic geochemical processes. Arsenic is released from sediments when iron-oxide minerals, onto which arsenic is adsorbed or incorporated, react with organic carbon (OC) and the OC is oxidised. In this study we build a new geomorphological framework for Kandal Province, a highly studied arsenic affected region of Cambodia, and tie this into wider regional environmental change throughout the Holocene. Analyses shows that the concentration of OC in the sediments is strongly inversely correlated to grainsize. Furthermore, the type of OC is also related to grain size with the clay containing mostly (immature) plant derived OC and sand containing mostly thermally mature derived OC. Finally, analyses indicate that within the plant derived OC relative oxidation is strongly grouped by stratigraphy with the older bound OC more oxidised than younger OC.

  12. Habilidade competitiva de plantas de arroz com biótipos de capim-arroz resistente ou suscetível ao quinclorac Competitive ability of rice plants with barnyardgrass biotypes resistant or susceptible to quinclorac

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    S.P. Tironi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a habilidade competitiva de plantas de arroz cultivar BRS Pelota com biótipos de capim-arroz resistente ou suscetível ao herbicida quinclorac. Para isso, foi instalado experimento em casa de vegetação, em delineamento completamente casualizado com quatro repetições, sendo os tratamentos dispostos em esquema fatorial 2 x 6. As unidades experimentais constaram de vasos plásticos contendo 10 dm³ de solo, cujo pH e nível de nutrientes foram previamente corrigidos. Os tratamentos consistiram na competição entre uma planta de arroz, cultivar BRS Pelota, com populações (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 ou 5 plantas por vaso dos biótipos de capim-arroz resistente (ECH-13 ou suscetível (ECH-12 ao herbicida quinclorac. As avaliações foram realizadas aos 40 dias após emergência, sendo avaliados; massa seca da parte aérea (MSPA, taxa de crescimento (TC, área foliar específica (AFE, razão de massa foliar (RMF, razão de área foliar (RAF e índice de área foliar (IAF. A interferência no desenvolvimento do cultivar de arroz BRS Pelota foi proporcionalmente maior com o aumento da população de ambos os biótipos de capim-arroz. Os biótipos apresentaram, em geral, habilidade competitiva similar.The objective of this study was to evaluate the competitive ability of the rice cultivar BRS Pelota with biotypes resistant or susceptible to the herbicide Quinclorac. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions in a completely randomized design with four replications, with the treatments arranged in a 2 x 6 factorial. The experimental units consisted of plastic pots containing 10 dm³ of soil, with pH and nutrient level being previously corrected. The treatments consisted of a competition between a rice plant, BRS Pelota cultivar, with populations (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 plants per pot of the barnyardgrass biotypes resistant (ECH-13 or susceptible (ECH -12 to the herbicide Quinclorac. The evaluations were performed

  13. Are There Consistent Grazing Indicators in Drylands? Testing Plant Functional Types of Various Complexity in South Africa’s Grassland and Savanna Biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linstädter, Anja; Schellberg, Jürgen; Brüser, Katharina; Moreno García, Cristian A.; Oomen, Roelof J.; du Preez, Chris C.; Ruppert, Jan C.; Ewert, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Despite our growing knowledge on plants’ functional responses to grazing, there is no consensus if an optimum level of functional aggregation exists for detecting grazing effects in drylands. With a comparative approach we searched for plant functional types (PFTs) with a consistent response to grazing across two areas differing in climatic aridity, situated in South Africa’s grassland and savanna biomes. We aggregated herbaceous species into PFTs, using hierarchical combinations of traits (from single- to three-trait PFTs). Traits relate to life history, growth form and leaf width. We first confirmed that soil and grazing gradients were largely independent from each other, and then searched in each biome for PFTs with a sensitive response to grazing, avoiding confounding with soil conditions. We found no response consistency, but biome-specific optimum aggregation levels. Three-trait PFTs (e.g. broad-leaved perennial grasses) and two-trait PFTs (e.g. perennial grasses) performed best as indicators of grazing effects in the semi-arid grassland and in the arid savanna biome, respectively. Some PFTs increased with grazing pressure in the grassland, but decreased in the savanna. We applied biome-specific grazing indicators to evaluate if differences in grazing management related to land tenure (communal versus freehold) had effects on vegetation. Tenure effects were small, which we mainly attributed to large variability in grazing pressure across farms. We conclude that the striking lack of generalizable PFT responses to grazing is due to a convergence of aridity and grazing effects, and unlikely to be overcome by more refined classification approaches. Hence, PFTs with an opposite response to grazing in the two biomes rather have a unimodal response along a gradient of additive forces of aridity and grazing. The study advocates for hierarchical trait combinations to identify localized indicator sets for grazing effects. Its methodological approach may also be

  14. Characterization and quantification of path dependency in landslide susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samia, Jalal; Temme, Arnaud; Bregt, Arnold; Wallinga, Jakob; Guzzetti, Fausto; Ardizzone, Francesca; Rossi, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    Landslides cause major environmental damage, economic losses and casualties. Although susceptibility to landsliding is usually considered an exclusively location-specific phenomenon, indications exist that landslide history co-determines susceptibility to future landslides. In this contribution,

  15. Susceptibility Genes in Thyroid Autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Ban

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD are complex diseases which are caused by an interaction between susceptibility genes and environmental triggers. Genetic susceptibility in combination with external factors (e.g. dietary iodine is believed to initiate the autoimmune response to thyroid antigens. Abundant epidemiological data, including family and twin studies, point to a strong genetic influence on the development of AITD. Various techniques have been employed to identify the genes contributing to the etiology of AITD, including candidate gene analysis and whole genome screening. These studies have enabled the identification of several loci (genetic regions that are linked with AITD, and in some of these loci, putative AITD susceptibility genes have been identified. Some of these genes/loci are unique to Graves' disease (GD and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT and some are common to both the diseases, indicating that there is a shared genetic susceptibility to GD and HT. The putative GD and HT susceptibility genes include both immune modifying genes (e.g. HLA, CTLA-4 and thyroid specific genes (e.g. TSHR, Tg. Most likely, these loci interact and their interactions may influence disease phenotype and severity.

  16. Effects of tea saponin on growth and development, nutritional indicators, and hormone titers in diamondback moths feeding on different host plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hongjiao; Bai, Yan; Wei, Hui; Lin, Shuo; Chen, Yixin; Tian, Houjun; Gu, Xiaojun; Murugan, Kadarkarai

    2016-07-01

    The diamondback moth (DBM) is an important worldwide pest. This insect has been studied for several decades; however, its control remains problematic. Numerous chemical insecticides have become ineffective and chemical residues constitute an important problem. In the present study, we determined the mortality of 3rd instar DBM larvae feeding on three different host plant species and exposed to various concentrations of tea saponin (TS). In addition, we evaluated growth and development parameters, nutritional indicators, and juvenile hormone (JH) and molting hormone (MH) titers in 2nd instar larvae exposed to LC20 and LC50 doses of TS. We found that treatment of DBM larvae with LC20 and LC50 doses of TS led to lower growth rates, decreased feed consumption, reduced frass production, lower pupal weights, reduced percentage pupation, slower adult emergence percentages, and diminished fecundity, but prolonged durations of the larval and pupal periods. The efficiency of conversion of ingested and digested food increased, but the approximate digestibility did not differ significantly between treatments and controls. JH and MH titers were higher after TS treatment; these increases varied according to the host species and TS concentration. Our results indicate that TS represents a potential new alternative insecticide based on its natural origin, low cost, and minimum environmental impact. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. An experience sampling study on the ecological validity of the SWN-20: Indication that subjective well-being is associated with momentary affective states above and beyond psychosis susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pos, Karin; de Wit, Iris E; van Dijk, Floor A; Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A; Bruggeman, Richard; Meijer, Carin J; de Haan, Lieuwe; Alizadeh, Berhooz Z; Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A; Van Beveren, Nico J; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; de Haan, Lieuwe; Delespaul, Phillipe; Meijer, Carin J; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Kahn, Rene S; Schirmbeck, Frederike; Simons, Claudia J P; van Haren, Neeltje E; van Os, Jim; van Winkel, Ruud

    2017-12-01

    Subjective well-being (SWB) is associated with treatment adherence and symptom outcome in people with psychotic disorders. Also, it is associated with psychosis susceptibility and it is partly hereditable. The SWN-20 is a widely used tool to assess subjective well-being in patients; it was also found to be suitable for assessing SWB in healthy populations. Yet it is unclear how this retrospectively measured construct may be associated with momentary affective state, which is the proposed underlying mechanism of subjective well-being. This study therefore investigated the ecological validity of the SWN-20 in people at different risk for psychosis. In 63 patients with a psychotic disorder and 61 siblings of patients with a psychotic disorder we assessed whether subjective well-being as measured with the SWN-20, was associated with momentary positive affect, negative affect, reward experience and stress-sensitivity as measured by the experience sample method (ESM). Higher subjective well-being was associated with higher momentary positive affect and lower negative affect, and this association was not conditional on psychosis vulnerability. Subjective well-being was not associated with stress-sensitivity or reward-experience. SWN-20 is an easy-to-use and ecologically valid tool to measure subjective well-being in people with different vulnerability for psychosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A pilot plant study using conventional and advanced water treatment processes: Evaluating removal efficiency of indicator compounds representative of pharmaceuticals and personal care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuangyi; Gitungo, Stephen; Axe, Lisa; Dyksen, John E; Raczko, Robert F

    2016-11-15

    With widespread occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the water cycle, their presence in source water has led to the need to better understand their treatability and removal efficiency in treatment processes. Fifteen indicator compounds were identified to represent the large number of PPCPs reported worldwide. Criteria applied to determine the indicator compounds included PPCPs widely used, observed at great frequency in aqueous systems, resistant to treatment, persistent in the environment, and representative of classes of organics. Through a pilot plant investigation to understand the optimal combination of unit process for treating PPCPs, 12 treatment trains with their additive and synergistic contributions were investigated; processes included dissolved air flotation (DAF), pre- and intermediate-ozonation with and without H2O2, intermediate chlorination, dual media filtration, granular activated carbon (GAC), and UV/H2O2. Treatment trains that achieved the greatest removals involved 1. DAF followed by intermediate ozonation, dual media filtration, and virgin GAC; 2. pre-ozonation followed by DAF, dual media filtration, and virgin GAC; and, 3. DAF (with either pre- or intermediate oxidation) followed by dual media filtration and UV/H2O2. Results revealed significant removal efficiencies for virgin GAC (preceded by DAF and intermediate ozonation) and UV/H2O2 with an intensity of 700 mJ/cm(2), where more than 12 of the compounds were removed by greater than 90%. Reduced PPCP removals were observed with virgin GAC preceded by pre-ozonation and DAF. Intermediate ozonation was more effective than using pre-ozonation, demonstrating the importance of this process targeting PPCPs after treatment of natural organic matter. Removal efficiencies of indicator compounds through ozonation were found to be a function of the O3 rate constants (kO3). For compounds with low O3 rate constants (kO3 < 10 M(-1)s(-1)), H2O2 addition in the O3 reactor

  19. Prediction of retention indices for frequently reported compounds of plant essential oils using multiple linear regression, partial least squares, and support vector machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jun; Huang, Jian-Hua; He, Min; Lu, Hong-Bing; Yang, Rui; Kong, Bo; Xu, Qing-Song; Liang, Yi-Zeng

    2013-08-01

    Retention indices for frequently reported compounds of plant essential oils on three different stationary phases were investigated. Multivariate linear regression, partial least squares, and support vector machine combined with a new variable selection approach called random-frog recently proposed by our group, were employed to model quantitative structure-retention relationships. Internal and external validations were performed to ensure the stability and predictive ability. All the three methods could obtain an acceptable model, and the optimal results by support vector machine based on a small number of informative descriptors with the square of correlation coefficient for cross validation, values of 0.9726, 0.9759, and 0.9331 on the dimethylsilicone stationary phase, the dimethylsilicone phase with 5% phenyl groups, and the PEG stationary phase, respectively. The performances of two variable selection approaches, random-frog and genetic algorithm, are compared. The importance of the variables was found to be consistent when estimated from correlation coefficients in multivariate linear regression equations and selection probability in model spaces. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. The human anti-HIV antibodies 2F5, 2G12, and PG9 differ in their susceptibility to proteolytic degradation: down-regulation of endogenous serine and cysteine proteinase activities could improve antibody production in plant-based expression platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemer, Melanie; Mehofer, Ulrich; Torres Acosta, Juan Antonio; Verdianz, Maria; Henkel, Theresa; Loos, Andreas; Strasser, Richard; Maresch, Daniel; Rademacher, Thomas; Steinkellner, Herta; Mach, Lukas

    2014-04-01

    The tobacco-related species Nicotiana benthamiana has recently emerged as a promising host for the manufacturing of protein therapeutics. However, the production of recombinant proteins in N. benthamiana is frequently hampered by undesired proteolysis. Here, we show that the expression of the human anti-HIV antibodies 2F5, 2G12, and PG9 in N. benthamiana leaves leads to the accumulation of discrete heavy chain-derived degradation products of 30-40 kDa. Incubation of purified 2F5 with N. benthamiana intercellular fluid resulted in rapid conversion into the 40-kDa fragment, whereas 2G12 proved largely resistant to degradation. Such a differential susceptibility to proteolytic attack was also observed when these two antibodies were exposed to various types of proteinases in vitro. While serine and cysteine proteinases are both capable of generating the 40-kDa 2F5 fragment, the 30-kDa polypeptide is most readily obtained by treatment with the latter class of enzymes. The principal cleavage sites reside within the antigen-binding domain, the VH -CH 1 linker segment and the hinge region of the antibodies. Collectively, these results indicate that down-regulation of endogenous serine and cysteine proteinase activities could be used to improve the performance of plant-based expression platforms destined for the production of biopharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. The Effect of Integrated Chemical and Biological Fertilizers on Growth Indices and Mucilage Yield of Isabgol (plantagoovata Forssk) across Different Plant Densities

    OpenAIRE

    Sepehri, A.; Samadi, M. (PhD)

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Isabgol (plantagoovata Forssk) is an important annual medicinal plant which is under cultivation in Iran. Isabgol has been used in medicine since ancient times, however, it has only been cultivated as a medicinal plant in recent decades. It is a diuretic, alleviates kidney and bladder complaints, gonorrhea, arthritis and hemorrhoids. In general, plants known as medicinal are rich in secondary metabolites and have potential as drugs. The biosynthesis of the secondary metabolit...

  2. Simple method for estimating soil mass loading onto plant surface using magnetic material content as a soil indicator - Influence of soil adhesion to vegetation on radioactive cesium concentration in forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunaga, Yoshihito; Harada, Hisatomi

    2016-11-01

    A simple technique for estimating soil mass loading on vegetation was developed using magnetic material content as an indicator of soil adhesion. Magnetic material contents in plant and soil samples were determined by a magnetic analyzer. High recovery rates of 85-97% were achieved in a recovery test in which additional soil was added to powdered plant materials [stem of forage corn (Zea mays L.), aboveground part of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.)] at addition rates of 12.3-200 g dry soil kg-1 dry plant material including soil. Samples of different Japanese cultivated soils were tested and showed a range of magnetic contents of 1.27-16.1 g kg-1 on a dry weight basis. These levels are considered adequate for determining soil contamination in plant materials. Then, we applied this method for confirming the effect of soil adhesion on radioactive cesium concentrations in plant samples obtained at the area affected by the 2011 nuclear accident in Japan. The mean soil mass loading (±standard deviation) on forage rye (Secale cereale L.) showing mild lodging was 0.8 ± 0.6 g kg-1, but was 7.4 ± 5.0 g kg-1 for plants with serious lodging. No soil loading was detected on rye plants that showed no lodging. Radioactive cesium concentrations in the rye samples increased linearly with the increase in soil mass loading caused by plant lodging, and consequently mean radioactive cesium concentration for rye plants with serious lodging was about 2.7 times higher than that with no lodging. Cesium radioactivity in forage was affected by variations in soil mass loading onto forage plants caused by changes in plant growth and differences between plant species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Susceptibilité magnétique et indices polliniques, marqueurs de l'impact anthropique et de la dynamique fluviale dans la basse vallée du Doubs (Jura, France) entre le Ier et le VIIIe siècles après J.-C.Mineral magnetic susceptibility and palynological evidences of human impact and fluvial process in the lower Doubs valley (Jura, France) between 1st 8th century AD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannière, Boris; Bossuet, Gilles; Gauthier, Emilie

    2000-08-01

    Surface scanning magnetic susceptibility, microscopic charcoal counting and pollen analysis have been carried out on two cores from the lower Doubs valley. The interpretation of anthropogenic pollen indicators is discussed in relation to the lithological variations of sedimentary accumulation. The environmental changes which occurred during the 1 st and the 6 th century AD reflect the impact of human activities on the landscape in the immediate surroundings of the site. Magnetic susceptibility and pollen analysis indicate soil erosion as a consequence of agricultural activity. A renewal of hydric activity of the river recorded in the sedimentary sequences attests of a larger environmental evolution during the 3 rd century AD.

  4. EJSCREEN Demographic Indicators 2016 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN uses demographic factors as very general indicators of a community's potential susceptibility to the types of environmental factors included in this...

  5. EJSCREEN Demographic Indicators 2015 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN uses demographic factors as very general indicators of a community's potential susceptibility to the types of environmental factors included in this...

  6. One safety critical indicators model for regulatory actions on nuclear power plants based on a level 1 PSA; Um modelo de indicadores criticos de seguranca para acoes regulatorias em usinas nucleares baseado em uma APS nivel 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Jefferson Borges

    2006-03-15

    This study presents a general methodology to the establishment, selection and use of safety indicators for a two loop PWR plant, as Angra 1. The study performed identifies areas considered critical for the plant operational safety. For each of these areas, strategic sub-areas are defined. For each strategic sub-area, specific safety indicators are defined. These proposed Safety Indicators are based on the contribution to risk considering a quantitative risk analysis. For each safety indicator, a goal, a bounded interval and proper bases are developed, to allow for a clear and comprehensive individual behavior evaluation. Additionally, an integrated evaluation of the indicators, using expert systems, was done to obtain an overview of the plant general safety. This methodology can be used for identifying situations where the plant safety is challenged, by giving a general overview of the plant operational condition. Additionally, this study can also identify eventual room for improvements by generating suggestions and recommendations, as a complement for regulatory actions and inspections, focusing resources on eventual existing weaknesses, in order to increase or maintain a high pattern of operational safety. (author)

  7. Compensatory and Susceptive Responses of Cowpea Genotypes...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    turing genotypes of cowpea. Control of aphid's infestation in early maturing cowpea genotypes should not be delayed up to two weeks after infestation (28 days after planting) to avoid yield loss. Aphid infestation period for studies in susceptive response in medium to late matur- ing genotypes should go beyond 28 days after.

  8. Reduced uncertainty of regional scale CLM predictions of net carbon fluxes and leaf area indices with estimated plant-specific parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Hanna; Hendricks Franssen, Harrie-Jan; Han, Xujun; Baatz, Roland; Montzka, Carsten; Schmidt, Marius; Vereecken, Harry

    2016-04-01

    Reliable estimates of carbon fluxes and states at regional scales are required to reduce uncertainties in regional carbon balance estimates and to support decision making in environmental politics. In this work the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5-BGC) was applied at a high spatial resolution (1 km2) for the Rur catchment in western Germany. In order to improve the model-data consistency of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and leaf area index (LAI) for this study area, five plant functional type (PFT)-specific CLM4.5-BGC parameters were estimated with time series of half-hourly NEE data for one year in 2011/2012, using the DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) algorithm, a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach. The parameters were estimated separately for four different plant functional types (needleleaf evergreen temperate tree, broadleaf deciduous temperate tree, C3-grass and C3-crop) at four different sites. The four sites are located inside or close to the Rur catchment. We evaluated modeled NEE for one year in 2012/2013 with NEE measured at seven eddy covariance sites in the catchment, including the four parameter estimation sites. Modeled LAI was evaluated by means of LAI derived from remotely sensed RapidEye images of about 18 days in 2011/2012. Performance indices were based on a comparison between measurements and (i) a reference run with CLM default parameters, and (ii) a 60 instance CLM ensemble with parameters sampled from the DREAM posterior probability density functions (pdfs). The difference between the observed and simulated NEE sum reduced 23% if estimated parameters instead of default parameters were used as input. The mean absolute difference between modeled and measured LAI was reduced by 59% on average. Simulated LAI was not only improved in terms of the absolute value but in some cases also in terms of the timing (beginning of vegetation onset), which was directly related to a substantial improvement of the NEE estimates in

  9. Influence of Bizerte city wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) on abundance and antibioresistance of culturable heterotrophic and fecal indicator bacteria of Bizerte Lagoon (Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souissi, Mariem; Laabidi, Rached; Aissa, Patricia; Pringault, Olivier; Said, Olfa Ben

    2018-02-01

    The waste water treatment plant (WWTP) of the city of Bizerte concentrates different types of chemical and biological pollutants in the Bizerte lagoon (Tunisia). Considering four upstream and downstream WWTP discharge stations, seventy nine, culturable bacterial strains were isolated and identified from water and sediment as fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci, pathogenic staphylococci and non-enterobacteriacea. Fecal coliforms were most abundant (2.5 105 bacteria/mg) in sediment of WWTP discharge. Leuconostoc spp (23.1%) and Chryseomonasluteola (23.1%) were the most prevalent culturable fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) isolated at the upstream discharge stations. However, Staphylococcus xylosus (13.9%) was the most prevalent culturable FIB isolated at the WWTP discharge stations. Moreover, high antibioticresistance phenotypes were present in all sampling stations, but especially in WWTP discharge station in both water and sediment. Resistance levels in water and sediment, respectively were amoxicillin (58.8%; 34.8%), penicillin (50%; 31.6%), oxacillin (60%; 33.3%), cefotaxim (55.2%; 39.1%), ceftazidim (66.7%; 50%), gentamycin (42.9%; 38.9%), tobramycin (50%; 25%), vancomycin (33.3; 71.4%), amikacin (66.7%; 0%) and ciprofloxacin (100%; 100%). Interestingly, ß-lactam antibiotic resistant FIB were mostly isolated from water as well as from sediments of upstream and WWTP discharge station. Canonical correspondence analysis CCA correlating antibiotic resistance profile with the abiotic data showed that, in water column, culturable bacterial strains isolated in upstream WWTP discharge stations were interestingly correlated with the resistance to amikacin, oxacillin, cefotaxim, ciprofloxacin and gentamycin, however, in sediment, they were correlated with the resistance to amoxicillin, oxacillin, céfotaxim and vancomycin. Serious ß-lactams and aminoglycosides acquired resistance appeared mainly in fecal streptococci and pathogen staphylococci groups. Copyright © 2017

  10. Removal Efficiency of Faecal Indicator Organisms, Nutrients and Heavy Metals from a Peri-Urban Wastewater Treatment Plant in Thohoyandou, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edokpayi, Joshua N.; Odiyo, John O.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Popoola, Elizabeth O.

    2015-01-01

    Wastewater treatment facilities are known sources of fresh water pollution. This study was carried out from January to June 2014 to assess the reduction efficiency of some selected contaminants in the Thohoyandou wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The pH and electrical conductivity of the effluent fell within the South African wastewater discharge guidelines. The WWTP showed the chemical oxygen demand reduction efficiency required by the Department of Water Affairs (DWA) guidelines of 75 mg/L for the months of April and June, although it was below this standard in March and May. Free chlorine concentration varied between 0.26–0.96 mg/L and exceeded the DWA guideline value of 0.25 mg/L. The concentration of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3− N) in the influent and effluent varied between 0.499–2.31 mg/L and 7.545–19.413 mg/L, respectively. The concentration of NO3− N in the effluent complied with DWA effluent discharge standard of 15 mg/L, except in April and May. Phosphate concentrations in the influent and effluent were in the ranges of 0.552–42.646 mg/L and 1.572–32.554 mg/L, respectively. The WWTP showed reduction efficiencies of E. coli and Enterococci during some sampling periods but the level found in the effluent exceeded the recommended guideline value of 1000 cfu/100 mL for faecal indicator organisms in wastewater effluents. Consistent removal efficiencies were observed for Al (32–74%), Fe (7–32%) and Zn (24–94%) in most of the sampling months. In conclusion, the Thohoyandou WWTP is inefficient in treating wastewater to the acceptable quality before discharge. PMID:26132481

  11. Removal Efficiency of Faecal Indicator Organisms, Nutrients and Heavy Metals from a Peri-Urban Wastewater Treatment Plant in Thohoyandou, Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edokpayi, Joshua N; Odiyo, John O; Msagati, Titus A M; Popoola, Elizabeth O

    2015-06-29

    Wastewater treatment facilities are known sources of fresh water pollution. This study was carried out from January to June 2014 to assess the reduction efficiency of some selected contaminants in the Thohoyandou wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The pH and electrical conductivity of the effluent fell within the South African wastewater discharge guidelines. The WWTP showed the chemical oxygen demand reduction efficiency required by the Department of Water Affairs (DWA) guidelines of 75 mg/L for the months of April and June, although it was below this standard in March and May. Free chlorine concentration varied between 0.26-0.96 mg/L and exceeded the DWA guideline value of 0.25 mg/L. The concentration of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3(-) N) in the influent and effluent varied between 0.499-2.31 mg/L and 7.545-19.413 mg/L, respectively. The concentration of NO3- N in the effluent complied with DWA effluent discharge standard of 15 mg/L, except in April and May. Phosphate concentrations in the influent and effluent were in the ranges of 0.552-42.646 mg/L and 1.572-32.554 mg/L, respectively. The WWTP showed reduction efficiencies of E. coli and Enterococci during some sampling periods but the level found in the effluent exceeded the recommended guideline value of 1000 cfu/100 mL for faecal indicator organisms in wastewater effluents. Consistent removal efficiencies were observed for Al (32-74%), Fe (7-32%) and Zn (24-94%) in most of the sampling months. In conclusion, the Thohoyandou WWTP is inefficient in treating wastewater to the acceptable quality before discharge.

  12. Removal Efficiency of Faecal Indicator Organisms, Nutrients and Heavy Metals from a Peri-Urban Wastewater Treatment Plant in Thohoyandou, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua N. Edokpayi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater treatment facilities are known sources of fresh water pollution. This study was carried out from January to June 2014 to assess the reduction efficiency of some selected contaminants in the Thohoyandou wastewater treatment plant (WWTP. The pH and electrical conductivity of the effluent fell within the South African wastewater discharge guidelines. The WWTP showed the chemical oxygen demand reduction efficiency required by the Department of Water Affairs (DWA guidelines of 75 mg/L for the months of April and June, although it was below this standard in March and May. Free chlorine concentration varied between 0.26–0.96 mg/L and exceeded the DWA guideline value of 0.25 mg/L. The concentration of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3− N in the influent and effluent varied between 0.499–2.31 mg/L and 7.545–19.413 mg/L, respectively. The concentration of NO3− N in the effluent complied with DWA effluent discharge standard of 15 mg/L, except in April and May. Phosphate concentrations in the influent and effluent were in the ranges of 0.552–42.646 mg/L and 1.572–32.554 mg/L, respectively. The WWTP showed reduction efficiencies of E. coli and Enterococci during some sampling periods but the level found in the effluent exceeded the recommended guideline value of 1000 cfu/100 mL for faecal indicator organisms in wastewater effluents. Consistent removal efficiencies were observed for Al (32–74%, Fe (7–32% and Zn (24–94% in most of the sampling months. In conclusion, the Thohoyandou WWTP is inefficient in treating wastewater to the acceptable quality before discharge.

  13. Establishment of DRIS indices and foliar nutrient levels for corn plants fertilized with various nitrogen doses and source materials associated with marine alga Lithothamnium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. B. Bernardes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate leaf nutrient status and to establish the rules of the diagnosis and recommendation integrated system (DRIS in corn for different nitrogen doses and source materials associated with Lithothamnium. The experiment was carried out from December 2010 to February 2012 in Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. The experimental design was randomized blocks with split-split plots. The main plot treatments were nitrogen source materials (immediate release and controlled-release urea, the subplot treatments were doses of 60, 100 and 120 kg of N ha-1 and control (without N application, and the sub-sub plots were treatments with or without the use of Lithothamnium. The dose of Lithothamnium corresponded to 20% of the dose of urea. Calculations to establish the diagnosis and recommendation integrated system (DRIS were made during the experiment. In the high-yield population the treatments with the highest nitrogen dose provided the highest grain yield. The use of the controlled-release source ensured greater nutritional balance of plants. No effect of Lithothamnium on improving the efficiency of urea applied via topdressing in corn was observed. According to the DRIS indices, in the high-yield population the nutrients showed deficiencies in the following descending order: Mg>Fe>Zn>S>B>Mn>P>Cu>Ca>K>N and excess: B>S>Fe>Ca>K>Zn>Mn>Cu>Mg>P>N. The low-yield population followed the following order: Mg>Fe>Zn>Mn>Cu>N>B>P>S> Ca and excess: Zn>S>Cu>Mn>Ca>K> P>B>N>Mg>Fe.

  14. Susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoeck, Marcus Matheus Johannes

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis the author studied the diagnostic procedures for susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia (MH), with special emphasis upon refining the biological diagnostic test and improving protocols and guidelines for investigation of MH susceptibility. MH is a pharmacogenetic disease of skeletal

  15. Determinação da disseminação do vírus do enrolamento em batatal para semente pelo uso de plantas indicadoras Interplanting indicator plants to determine leaf roll spread in certified seed potato fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. P. Cupertino

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi verificado haver correlação entre a manifestação de sintomas nas plantas indicadoras intercaladas no batatal para semente e a disseminação, nêle, do vírus do enrolamento das fôlhas. Médias de 12 ensaios realizados em vários pontos do Estado de São Paulo deram os seguintes valores: 49,6% em Datura stramonium, 34,0% em Physalis sp. e 28,5% em tomateiro Santa Cruz. Somente 0,9% das plantas de batata mostraram sintomas de infecção primária pelo vírus, embora a infecção no campo tenha realmente sido de 23,6%. É sugerida a introdução do uso de plantas indicadoras na legislação que regulamenta a produção de batata-semente certificada como método auxiliar para estimativa do teor do vírus do enrolamento nos tubérculos produzidos.Leaf roll infection on the interplanted indicator plants, jimson weed, tomato, and a non-identified Physalis species is correlated to spread of the disease in the seed potato field. Result from twelve tests carried out at several localities gave the following infection averages: jimson weed, 49.6%; Physalissp., 34.0%; tomato plants, 28.5%. Potato plants showed an average of 0.9% primary leaf roll, but tuber tests indicated that field spread had been 23.6%. Potato virus Y infected 45.1% of the tobacco plants, 37.3% of Physalissp., and 18.1% of the tomato plants. Potato plants were not infected with this virus because the Ycomplex present was the one that infects tomato and pepper plants and very seldom potato plants in the field. The viruses of tomato curly top and Brazilian tobacco streak infected jimson weed at the average rates of 16.1% and 2.7%, respectively. Tomato plants showed an average of 4.1% of curly top, but no infection with the Brazilian tobacco streak virus. Potato plants were not affected by these viruses. Tomato spotted wilt virus infected several of the indicator species and also the potato plants, but there was no perpetuation of the virus through the tubers. Interplanting

  16. Functional characterization of the powdery mildew susceptibility gene SmMLO1 in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracuto, Valentina; Appiano, Michela; Ricciardi, Luigi; Göl, Deniz; Visser, Richard G F; Bai, Yuling; Pavan, Stefano

    2017-06-01

    Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is one of the most important vegetables among the Solanaceae and can be a host to fungal species causing powdery mildew (PM) disease. Specific homologs of the plant Mildew Locus O (MLO) gene family are PM susceptibility factors, as their loss of function results in a recessive form of resistance known as mlo resistance. In a previous work, we isolated the eggplant MLO homolog SmMLO1. SmMLO1 is closely related to MLO susceptibility genes characterized in other plant species. However, it displays a peculiar non-synonymous substitution that leads to a T → M amino acid change at protein position 422, in correspondence of the MLO calmodulin-binding domain. In this study, we performed the functional characterization of SmMLO1. Transgenic overexpression of SmMLO1 in a tomato mlo mutant compromised resistance to the tomato PM pathogen Oidium neolycopersici, thus indicating that SmMLO1 is a PM susceptibility factor in eggplant. PM susceptibility was also restored by the transgenic expression of a synthetic gene, named s-SmMLO1, encoding a protein identical to SmMLO1, except for the presence of T at position 422. This indicates that the T → M polymorphism does not affect the protein role as PM susceptibility factor. Overall, the results of this work are of interest for the functional characterization of MLO proteins and the introduction of PM resistance in eggplant using reverse genetics.

  17. Erodibilidade e suscetibilidade à erosão dos solos de cerrado com plantio de Acacia mangium em Roraima.= Erodibility and susceptibility to erosion of the savannah (cerrado soils planted with Acacia mangium in the State of Roraima.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Frutuoso do Vale Júnior

    2009-07-01

    -referenced through GPS and located on maps of declivities by the software ARCMAPE 8,0 allowing to cross the values of R with the declivity. There were evaluate the relations of the type of soils, its position in the landscape and susceptibility the erosion. The results obtained indicated that the areas studiedy are inserted in two distinct geomorphopedologic units: Jacitara/Mucajai/Santa Cecilia (JMSta and Serra da Lua (SL, and demonstrated distinct susceptibility to erosion; The JMSta units presented the most elevated values of R, inserted in plain relief, with declivity between 1% and 3%. The ground of unit SL, presented small values of R and is located in terrain with declivity between 3% and 13%, which becomes it more vulnerable to erosion; The types of soils decreasing order of values of R are: Neossolos (RQo, Argissolos (PAd, Gleissolos (GXbd, Latossolos (LAd, LVd, LVAd, LVA Plintico, Plintossolos (FFCd. In conclusion, there is the necessity to adopt simple practices of ground conservation, varying from plantation on the curve of level to terracing.

  18. Caracterização anatômica de folhas de cafeeiros resistentes e suscetíveis ao bicho-mineiro Anatomical characterization of leaves from coffee plants resistant and susceptible to leaf miner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Alves Ramiro

    2004-12-01

    reduction of the photosynthetic area. The Coffee Breeding Program of the Agronomic Institute (IAC has transferred through crossing genes that confer resistance to leaf miner from Coffea racemosa to the susceptible species C. arabica. The main objective of this study was to characterize leaf tissues, at histological level, from the parental species C. racemosa and C. arabica, and also from hybrids exhibiting different resistance levels. Histological analyses were performed in leaf transversal sections, and included measurements of cuticles and epidermis thickness, total palisade and spongy parenchyma, total leaf thickness, and percentage of the palisade parenchyma from total mesophyll. Results revealed that there were significant differences in leaf thickness between parental species C. arabica and C. racemosa. However, in hybrids no such difference could be observed between resistant and susceptible progenies, suggesting that the anatomical differences of parental genotypes are not related to resistance mechanisms to L. coffeella. When leaf lesions caused by insect attack were measured one and four days after larvae eclosion a slow insect development was observed in resistant plants, which could be related to a presence of specific chemicals in the palisade parenchyma.

  19. Plant planting

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes planting activities on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (formerly Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge) between 1995 and 2009.

  20. The influence of the forerunner plant and the irrigation on some quality indicators of the wheat plant (Triticum aestivum L. in their growth conditions on the acid soils in the North-Western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana ARDELEAN

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper sustains the importance of the forerunner plant concerning the quality of the wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and is based on the research carried out during 2006-2008 on a long term trial placed on the brown luvic (acid soils from Oradea in 1990. In non-irrigating and irrigating conditions as well the smallest protein, wet gluten and dry gluten values were obtained in wheat mono-crop; the values increased in the forerunner plant, wheat-maize and the biggest values were registered in the forerunner plant, wheat-maize-soybean.

  1. Plant-Pathogen Interaction-Related MicroRNAs and Their Targets Provide Indicators of Phytoplasma Infection in Paulownia tomentosa × Paulownia fortunei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqiang Fan

    Full Text Available Paulownia witches' broom (PaWB caused by a phytoplasma, has caused extensive losses in the yields of paulownia timber and resulted in significant economic losses. However, the molecular mechanisms in Paulownia that underlie the phytoplasma stress are poorly characterized. In this study, we use an Illumina platform to sequence four small RNA libraries and four degradome sequencing libraries derived from healthy, PaWB-infected, and PaWB-infected 15 mg·L-1 and 30 mg·L-1 methyl methane sulfonate (MMS-treated plants. In total, 125 conserved and 118 novel microRNAs (miRNAs were identified and 33 miRNAs responsive to PaWB disease were discovered. Furthermore, 166 target genes for 18 PaWB disease-related miRNAs were obtained, and found to be involved in plant-pathogen interaction and plant hormone signal transduction metabolic pathways. Eleven miRNAs and target genes responsive to PaWB disease were examined by a quantitative real-time PCR approach. Our findings will contribute to studies on miRNAs and their targets in Paulownia, and provide new insights to further understand plant-phytoplasma interactions.

  2. Use of digestate from a decentralized on-farm biogas plant as fertilizer in soils: An ecotoxicological study for future indicators in risk and life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivato, Alberto; Vanin, Stefano; Raga, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    was assessed by a battery of ecotoxicological tests considering the potential pollutants present in the digestate as a whole by using the ‘‘matrixbased” approach (also known as ‘‘whole effluent toxicity” for eluates or waste water effluents). The directand indirect tests included plant bioassays with Lepidium...

  3. Sentinel plant monitoring of Phytophthora ramorum at a research nursery over a six-year-period indicates limited aerial pathogen spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas Pastalka; Karen Suslow; Wolfgang Schweigkofler

    2017-01-01

    The National Ornamentals Research Site at Dominican University of California (NORS-DUC) is a research nursery that was established in 2009 to study invasive plant pathogens like Phytophthora ramorum, causal agent of sudden oak death and ramorum blight. In order to fulfill federal and state regulations, the possible...

  4. Antibiotic susceptibility of Atopobium vaginae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verschraegen Gerda

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have indicated that a recently described anaerobic bacterium, Atopobium vaginae is associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV. Thus far the four isolates of this fastidious micro-organism were found to be highly resistant to metronidazole and susceptible for clindamycin, two antibiotics preferred for the treatment of BV. Methods Nine strains of Atopobium vaginae, four strains of Gardnerella vaginalis, two strains of Lactobacillus iners and one strain each of Bifidobacterium breve, B. longum, L. crispatus, L. gasseri and L. jensenii were tested against 15 antimicrobial agents using the Etest. Results All nine strains of A. vaginae were highly resistant to nalidixic acid and colistin while being inhibited by low concentrations of clindamycin (range: G. vaginalis strains were also susceptible for clindamycin ( 256 μg/ml but susceptible to clindamycin (0.023 – 0.125 μg/ml. Conclusion Clindamycin has higher activity against G. vaginalis and A. vaginae than metronidazole, but not all A. vaginae isolates are metronidazole resistant, as seemed to be a straightforward conclusion from previous studies on a more limited number of strains.

  5. Indicators for the feasibility of WEEE processing plants in Brazil : a relationship between virgin mineral copper ore and the recycling of consumer electronic products

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Henrique Alves Cândido; Wilson Kindlein Júnior; Felipe Palombini

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses the economic analysis of the implementation of WEEE – Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive – processing plants in Brazil, through the study of potential copper extraction from this secondary source. A comparative approach was performed on its copper grade related to levels of its virgin ore mineral extracted from mines located in Brazil, in the United States and through a global average. The results demonstrate that the amount of copper mass originated from ...

  6. Guideline on dependability management for the power industry: detailed description of international power plant equipment dependability indicators; Guide de gestion de la surete de fonctionnement dans l`industrie electrique: description detaillee d`indicateurs de surete de fonctionnement internationaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Procaccia, H.; Silberberg, S.

    1997-10-01

    Dependability Management involves the management of reliability, availability maintainability and maintenance support, and in the power industry is necessary to ensure that plant meets the Reliability, Availability and Maintainability (RAM) targets set by the Utilities. In 1993, a joint (Standard on Dependability Programme Management - Part 1: Dependability Programme Management), ISO 9000-`: 1993 (Quality Management and Quality Assurance Standards - Part 4: Guide to Dependability Programme Management). UNIPEDE established a group of experts (Nulethermaint) to produce guidelines on its implementation specifically for use in the power industry. The present document comprises Part 2 OF THE UNIPEDE plant performance indicators and can be applied to both nuclear and fossil plant. There are five different equipment dependability indicators, all relating to equipment maintenance activities and the impact that these activities have on the loss of both system function and unit capability. Per year, each of the indicators can be applied separately to both preventive maintenance and corrective maintenance, giving rise to as many as ten indicator values for each item of equipment. Used in this way, the indicators provide a comprehensive picture of the maintenance strategy employed for key pieces of equipment, and its effectiveness. They are, therefore, a valuable managerial tool for improving maintenance activities at the unit level within a utility. This document provides guidance on the division of both nuclear and fossil power plant into their component parts and in each case the types of equipment having the most dominant effect on dependability are identified. These are the items which merit the greatest attention with regard to the equipment dependability indicators. (authors).

  7. Assessing Steady-state Fluorescence and PRI from Hyperspectral Proximal Sensing as Early Indicators of Plant Stress: The Case of Ozone Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Colombo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available High spectral resolution spectrometers were used to detect optical signals ofongoing plant stress in potted white clover canopies subjected to ozone fumigation. Thecase of ozone stress is used in this manuscript as a paradigm of oxidative stress. Steadystatefluorescence (Fs and the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI were investigatedas advanced hyperspectral remote sensing techniques able to sense variations in the excessenergy dissipation pathways occurring when photosynthesis declines in plants exposed to astress agent. Fs and PRI were monitored in control and ozone fumigated canopies during a21-day experiment together with the traditional Normalized Difference Vegetation Index(NDVI and physiological measurements commonly employed by physiologists to describestress development (i.e. net CO2 assimilation, active fluorimetry, chlorophyll concentrationand visible injuries. It is shown that remote detection of an ongoing stress through Fs andPRI can be achieved in an early phase, characterized by the decline of photosynthesis. Onthe contrary, NDVI was able to detect the stress only when damage occurred. These resultsopen up new possibilities for assessment of plant stress by means of hyperspectral remotesensing.

  8. Indicators: Phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosphorus, like nitrogen, is a critical nutrient required for all life. Phosphate (PO4), which plays major roles in the formation of DNA, cellular energy, and cell membranes (and plant cell walls). Too much phosphorus can create water quality problems.

  9. Monocot and dicot MLO powdery mildew susceptibility factors are functionally conserved in spite of the evolution of class-specific molecular features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appiano, Michela; Catalano, Domenico; Santillán Martínez, Miguel; Lotti, Concetta; Zheng, Zheng; Visser, Richard G F; Ricciardi, Luigi; Bai, Yuling; Pavan, Stefano

    2015-10-26

    Specific members of the plant Mildew Locus O (MLO) protein family act as susceptibility factors towards powdery mildew (PM), a worldwide-spread fungal disease threatening many cultivated species. Previous studies indicated that monocot and dicot MLO susceptibility proteins are phylogenetically divergent. A bioinformatic approach was followed to study the type of evolution of Angiosperm MLO susceptibility proteins. Transgenic complementation tests were performed for functional analysis. Our results show that monocot and dicot MLO susceptibility proteins evolved class-specific conservation patterns. Many of them appear to be the result of negative selection and thus are likely to provide an adaptive value. We also tested whether different molecular features between monocot and dicot MLO proteins are specifically required by PM fungal species to cause pathogenesis. To this aim, we transformed a tomato mutant impaired for the endogenous SlMLO1 gene, and therefore resistant to the tomato PM species Oidium neolycopersici, with heterologous MLO susceptibility genes from the monocot barley and the dicot pea. In both cases, we observed restoration of PM symptoms. Finally, through histological observations, we demonstrate that both monocot and dicot susceptibility alleles of the MLO genes predispose to penetration of a non-adapted PM fungal species in plant epidermal cells. With this study, we provide insights on the evolution and function of MLO genes involved in the interaction with PM fungi. With respect to breeding research, we show that transgenic complementation assays involving phylogenetically distant plant species can be used for the characterization of novel MLO susceptibility genes. Moreover, we provide an overview of MLO protein molecular features predicted to play a major role in PM susceptibility. These represent ideal targets for future approaches of reverse genetics, addressed to the selection of loss-of-function resistant mutants in cultivated species.

  10. Identification of nonregular indication according to change of grain size/surface geometry in nuclear power plant (NPP reactor vessel (RV-upper head alloy 690 penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungcho Kim

    2017-10-01

    From the computer simulation and experimental investigation results, it was possible to obtain the nonregular TOFD indications from the coarse grains in the alloy 690 penetration tube of RVHP; these nonregular indications may be classified as PWSCC. By comparing the computer simulation and experimental results, we were able to confirm a clear difference between the coarse grain signal and the PWSCC signal.

  11. In vitro Phenotypic Antibiotic Susceptibility Profiles Of Food Indicator ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Gram-negative bacteria from granulated sugar samples had 7.69% phenotypic resistance profiles while the Gram-negative bacteria from table salt samples had between 13.3% and 20.0% resistance profiles. The resistance profiles of Gram-positive bacteria from granulated sugar samples was between 8.0% and 19.0% ...

  12. Molecular analysis of Arabidopsis susceptibility to oomycete pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludwig, N.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412352818

    2016-01-01

    Plants are under constant attack by pathogens, but successful infections are more exception than rule. Plants use their defense system to fend off many attackers. On the other hand, they also contain so-called susceptibility genes (S genes), that facilitate or support the infection process.

  13. The use of natural abundance stable isotopic ratios to indicate the presence of oxygen-containing chemical linkages between cellulose and lignin in plant cell walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Youping; Stuart-Williams, Hilary; Farquhar, Graham D; Hocart, Charles H

    2010-06-01

    Qualitative and quantitative understanding of the chemical linkages between the three major biochemical components (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) of plant cell walls is crucial to the understanding of cell wall structure. Although there is convincing evidence for chemical bonds between hemicellulose and lignin and the absence of chemical bonds between hemicellulose and cellulose, there is no conclusive evidence for the presence of covalent bonds between cellulose and lignin. This is caused by the lack of selectivity of current GC/MS-, NMR- and IR-based methods for lignin characterisation as none of these techniques directly targets the possible ester and ether linkages between lignin and cellulose. We modified the widely-accepted "standard" three-step extraction method for isolating cellulose from plants by changing the order of the steps for hemicellulose and lignin removal (solubilisation with concentrated NaOH and oxidation with acetic acid-containing NaClO(2), respectively) so that cellulose and lignin could be isolated with the possible chemical bonds between them intact. These linkages were then cleaved with NaClO(2) reagent in aqueous media of contrasting (18)O/(16)O ratios. We produced cellulose with higher purity (a lower level of residual hemicellulose and no detectable lignin) than that produced by the "standard" method. Oxidative artefacts may potentially be introduced at the lignin removal stage; but testing showed this to be minimal. Cellulose samples isolated from processing plant-derived cellulose-lignin mixtures in media of contrasting (18)O/(16)O ratios were compared to provide the first quantitative evidence for the presence of oxygen-containing ester and ether bonds between cellulose and lignin in Zea mays leaves. However, no conclusive evidence for the presence or lack of similar bonds in Araucaria cunninghamii wood was obtained. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Indicators for the feasibility of WEEE processing plants in brazil: a relationship between virgin mineral copper ore and the recycling of consumer electronic products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Henrique Alves Cândido

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the economic analysis of the implementation of WEEE – Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive – processing plants in Brazil, through the study of potential copper extraction from this secondary source. A comparative approach was performed on its copper grade related to levels of its virgin ore mineral extracted from mines located in Brazil, in the United States and through a global average. The results demonstrate that the amount of copper mass originated from the recycling of disassembly of twenty electronic products ranges from 0.24% to 17.83% of its total mass, with an average of 3.63% of copper. In eighteen of these products, values greater than 0.4% were found, which surpass current levels of copper in ore mines in the USA. In fourteen products, these rates exceed the index of 1.5% copper in the ore, considered the minimum rate for the feasibility of opening new units of copper underground mining in Brazil. Thus, this paper shows the economic analysis that aims to guide on the viability of deploying WEEE processing plants, focusing on the expansion of recycling and reuse of copper by the processing industry.

  15. IMPROVEMENT OF SYSTEMS OF TECHNICAL WATER SUPPLY WITH COOLING TOWERS FOR STEAM POWER PLANTS TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC INDICATORS PERFECTION. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Zenovich-Leshkevich-Olpinskiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the temperature of cooling water and increase the efficiency of use of power resources the main directions of modernization of systems of technical water supply with cooling towers at steam power plants are presented. The problems of operation of irrigation systems and water distribution systems of cooling towers are reviewed. The design of heat and mass transfer devices, their shortcomings and the impact on the cooling ability of the cooling tower are also under analysis. The use of droplet heat and mass transfer device based on the lattice polypropylene virtually eliminates the shortcomings of the film and droplet-film heat and mass transfer devices of the cooling tower, increasing lifetime, and improving the reliability and efficiency of the operation of the main equipment of thermal power plants. The design of the water distribution devices of cooling towers is also considered. It is noted that the most effective are water-spattering low-pressure nozzles made of polypropylene that provides uniform dispersion of water and are of a high reliability and durability.

  16. Genetic susceptibility of periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laine, M.L.; Crielaard, W.; Loos, B.G.

    2012-01-01

    In this systematic review, we explore and summarize the peer-reviewed literature on putative genetic risk factors for susceptibility to aggressive and chronic periodontitis. A comprehensive literature search on the PubMed database was performed using the keywords ‘periodontitis’ or ‘periodontal

  17. Fourie susceptible.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    a number of cultivars exhibited field resistance to halo blight and bacterial brown spot, all cultivars were more or less susceptible to .... Cerillos. Alubia. I. 91. 57. Kranskop. Red speckled sugar. II. 97. 63. OPS-RS1. Red speckled sugar. II. 96. 63. OPS-RS2. Red speckled sugar. I. 100. 61. OPS-RS3. Red speckled sugar. II. 97.

  18. Viral indicators for fecal contamination - a one-year viral metagenomic study of treatment efficiency in danish waste water treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellmér, Maria; Stranddorf, Kasper; Seidel, Michael

    2017-01-01

    from two urban waste water treatment plants in Copenhagen. All samples are investigated for their viral content and the presence of pathogens by metagenomic sequencing and analyzed specifically for HAdV, JCPyV, norovirus GI and GII (NoV GI and GII) using quantitative (q)PCR. Preliminary qPCR results......, the number of identified pathogenic viral species decreases with treatment of the waste water. Further bioinformatic analyses will investigate the seasonal variations of viral composition within a sample as well as the effect of the treatment system. Updated qPCR and metagenomics data will be presented.......Viral pathogens in irrigation water are a major threat to public health due to their possibility to cause disease in humans. When using reclaimed water for irrigation it is therefore important to make sure that the water is free from pathogens which can contaminate the crops. In this study we...

  19. Predicting the indicators of the safety performance monitoring after implementation of integrated management system (IMS in a combined cycle power plant in Yazd city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Laal

    2015-07-01

    .Conclusion: Findings show that Cubic regression can be an appropriate to olforinvestigating the indicators trends and for their predictionin planning and monitoring the performance ofsafety unitso that the decision-making for determining the priority of organizations’ safety programs would be facilitated.

  20. Photosynthesis and fluctuating asymmetry as indicators of plant response to soil disturbance in the Fall-Line Sandhills of Georgia: a case study using Rhus copallinum and Ipomoea pandurata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, D. Carl; Brown, Michelle L.; Duda, Jeffrey J.; Graham, John H.; Emlen, John M.; Krzysik, Anthony J.; Balbach, Harold E.; Kovacic, David A.; Zak, John C.

    2004-01-01

    We examined net photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance, and leaf fluctuating asymmetry on two species (Rhus copallinum and Ipomoea pandurata) as indicators of stress at nine sites across a gradient of soil disturbance at Fort Benning, Georgia. There were three sites for each of three disturbance levels. Physical habitat disturbance was caused by activities associated with infantry training, including mechanized elements (tanks and personnel carriers) and foot soldiers. In addition, we examined the influence of prescribed burns and microhabitat effects (within meter‐square quadrats centered about the plant) on these measures of plant stress. Net photosynthesis declined with increasing disturbance in the absence of burning for both species. However, when sites were burned the previous year, net photosynthesis increased with increasing disturbance. Developmental instability in Rhus, as measured by fluctuating asymmetry, also declined with increasing disturbance in the absence of burning but increased with disturbance if sites were burned the previous year. Developmental instability was much less sensitive to burning in Ipomoea and in general was lowest at intermediate disturbance sites. Microenvironmental and microhabitat effects were weakly correlated with measures of plant stress when all sites were combined. However, higher correlations were obtained within site categories, especially when the recent history of prescribed burning was used as a category. Finally, using all of the combined data in a discriminant function analysis allowed us to correctly predict the disturbance level of more than 80% of the plants. Plant stress is responsive to both large‐scale perturbations, such as burning, and microhabitat parameters. Because of this, it is important to include macro‐ and microhabitat parameters when assessing stress. Similarly, we found a combination of developmental and physiological indicators of stress was superior to using them

  1. Use of digestate from a decentralized on-farm biogas plant as fertilizer in soils: An ecotoxicological study for future indicators in risk and life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivato, Alberto; Vanin, Stefano; Raga, Roberto; Lavagnolo, Maria Cristina; Barausse, Alberto; Rieple, Antonia; Laurent, Alexis; Cossu, Raffaello

    2016-03-01

    Over the last decade, the number of decentralized farm biogas plants has increased significantly in the EU. This development leads not only to an increasing amount of biogas produced, but also to a higher amount of digestate obtained. One of the most attractive options to manage the digestate is to apply it as biofertiliser to the soil, because this gives the opportunity of recovering the nutrients, primarily nitrogen and phosphorus, and of attenuating the loss of organic matter suffered by soils under agricultural exploitation. Studies have claimed that digestates can present a residual biodegradability, and contain complex organic elements, salts or pathogenic bacteria that can damage terrestrial organisms. However few ecotoxicological studies have been performed to evaluate the ecological impact of digestate application on soil. In this study, the use of digestate as biofertiliser in agriculture was assessed by a battery of ecotoxicological tests considering the potential pollutants present in the digestate as a whole by using the "matrix-based" approach (also known as "whole effluent toxicity" for eluates or wastewater effluents). The direct and indirect tests included plant bioassays with Lepidium sativum, earthworm bioassays with Eisenia fetida, aquatic organisms (Artemia sp. and Daphnia magna) and luminescent bacteria bioassays (Vibrio fischeri). Direct tests occurred to be more sensitive than indirect tests. The earthworm bioassays did not show serious negative effects for concentrations up to 15% (dry weight/dry weight percent, w/w dm) and the plant bioassays showed no negative effect, but rather a positive one for concentrations lower than 20% (w/w dm), which encourages the use of digestate as a biofertiliser in agriculture provided that proper concentrations are used. The indirect tests, on the eluate, with the using aquatic organisms and luminescent bacteria showed an LC50 value of 13.61% volume/volume percent, v/v) for D. magna and no toxicity for

  2. Carbon Isotopic Ratio Of Individual Lignin Moieties In Stalagmite As A Novel Indicator Of Past C3/C4 Plant Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, J.; Huang, Y.; Tan, M.

    2004-12-01

    Oxygen isotopes,layer thickness,and trace elements of stalagmite provide excellent records of past climatic and environmental change.However,carbon isotopic ratios of speleothem are difficult to interpret,because multiple sources of carbon contribute to the formation of calcite.Organic humic substances inbeded in the stalagmite layers are potential paleoenvironmental archives,but their molecular compositions have not been characterized.Here we report the first molecular-level characterization of stalagmite organic matter using pyrolysis-gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry.Py-GC/MS analyses reveal that speleothems contain a large suite of lignin derived aromatic moeties,and the sample-to-sample variations in composition are relatively small.These compounds were fragments of microbial-oxidized lignin macromolecules,which were derived from vegetation growing in the overlaying soil.Py-GC/IRMS was used to measure isotopic ratio of the compounds found in stalagmites.Two sets of samples were studied.The first set of samples was collected along the longitudinal section of a speleothem,TS0302,from Shihua Cave,Beijing.The \\delta13C records of organic compounds show temporal variation, which is compared with the \\delta13C of bulk carbonate. The other set of samples was the top sediment of five speleothems in China (TS0301,Shihua Cave(39.83N,115.67E),Beijing;TW02,Water Cave(41.31N,124.1E),Liaoning;YMB01,Bailong Cave(24.38N, 102.71E),Yunnan;TJ9401,Jiguan Cave(33.75N,111.6E),Henan).The \\delta13C of organic compounds in these samples is roughly consistent with the C4 grass photosynthesis.Based on the results,we have developed a new approach to unravel the past changes in C3/C4 plant ratios based on carbon isotopic ratios of individual monomeric lignin molecules by using Py-GC/IRMS.Our approach overcomes the problems associated with interpreting carbon isotopic data of speleothem calcite.The new approach allows high resolution reconstruction of past regional variations in the

  3. Applying moss bags with Haplocladium mirophyllum plant to indicate variation of the five heavy metals pollution in Shanghai area during the period of 2006-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU Jiming

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available By means of AAS method,the concentrations of Cu,Pb,Zn,Cd and Cr in the plants of moss Haplocladium microphyllum in moss bags located in 16 sites in Shanghai during the period of 2006-2011 were determined.Based on an integrated pollution index,the most serious pollution areas were Institute of Steel Science in Baoshan district with heavy industry and Zhongshan Park with heavy traffic,while Dongping national forest park in Chongming island in the suburb of Shanghai were slightly polluted.Cluster analysis and Principal component analysis (PCA showed that 20 sites could be divided into three site groups to reveal the variation of five heavy metal elements.The pollution states of 20 sites based on the integrated pollution index were similar to those resulted from Cluster analysis and PCA.Compared with those in 2006,the changes of five heavy elements in 16 sites in 2011 varied much.The sites with distinct concentration increase for Cu,Zn,Pb,Cd and Cr account for 93.75%,87.5%,68.75%,50.00% and 43.75% of the total determined sties respectively,while those without distinct increase or decrease for Cu,Zn,Pb,Cd and Cr account for 6.25%,6.25%,31.25%,50% and 50%.Only Zn in Institute of Steel Science of Baoshan district and Cr in Luwan higher school in 2011 decreased distinctly compared with those in 2006.Though the pollution of the five metal elements in the institute of steel science in Baoshan was heaviest,compared with those of 2006,the increase rate of five metal elements was lower and the trend of environmental degradation in the site were relatively weak,while the trend of environmental degradation were distinct in the newly developing area along Xinlin road in Minghang district.The atmospheric environment changes in typical areas,such as Mount Sheshan,JinShan Petrochemical Plant,and Zhongshan Park,were also compared and discussed.

  4. Acquired changes in stomatal characteristics in response to ozone during plant growth and leaf development of bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) indicate phenotypic plasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elagoez, Vahram [Plant Biology Graduate Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)]. E-mail: velagoz@nsm.umass.edu; Han, Susan S. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    Bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines 'S156' (O{sub 3}-sensitive)/'R123' (O{sub 3}-tolerant) and cultivars 'BBL 290' (O{sub 3}-sensitive)/'BBL 274' (O{sub 3}-tolerant) were used to study the effects of O{sub 3} on stomatal conductance (g {sub s}), density, and aperture size on leaf and pod surfaces with the objective of establishing links between the degree of plant sensitivity to O{sub 3} and plasticity of stomatal properties in response to O{sub 3}. Studies in open-top chambers (OTCs) and in continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) established a clear relationship between plant developmental stages, degrees of O{sub 3} sensitivity and g {sub s}: while 'S156' had higher g {sub s} rates than 'R123' earlier in development, similar differences between 'BBL 290' and 'BBL 274' were observed at later stages. G {sub s} rates on the abaxial leaf surfaces of 'S156' and 'BBL 290', accompanied by low leaf temperatures, were significantly higher than their O{sub 3}-tolerant counterparts. Exposure to O{sub 3} in CSTRs had greater and more consistent impacts on both stomatal densities and aperture sizes of O{sub 3}-sensitive cultivars. Stomatal densities were highest on the abaxial leaf surfaces of 'S156' and 'BBL 290' at higher O{sub 3} concentrations (60 ppb), but the largest aperture sizes were recorded on the adaxial leaf surfaces at moderate O{sub 3} concentrations (30 ppb). Exposure to O{sub 3} eliminated aperture size differences on the adaxial leaf surfaces between sensitive and tolerant cultivars. Regardless of sensitivity to O{sub 3} and treatment regimes, the smallest aperture sizes and highest stomatal densities were found on the abaxial leaf surface. Our studies showed that O{sub 3} has the potential to affect stomatal plasticity and confirmed the presence of different control mechanisms for stomatal development on each leaf surface. This

  5. Genetic Susceptibility to Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Kovacic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a complex multifocal arterial disease involving interactions of multiple genetic and environmental factors. Advances in techniques of molecular genetics have revealed that genetic ground significantly influences susceptibility to atherosclerotic vascular diseases. Besides further investigations of monogenetic diseases, candidate genes, genetic polymorphisms, and susceptibility loci associated with atherosclerotic diseases have been identified in recent years, and their number is rapidly increasing. This paper discusses main genetic investigations fields associated with human atherosclerotic vascular diseases. The paper concludes with a discussion of the directions and implications of future genetic research in arteriosclerosis with an emphasis on prospective prediction from an early age of individuals who are predisposed to develop premature atherosclerosis as well as to facilitate the discovery of novel drug targets.

  6. Sensitivity and Variability of Two Plant Water Stress Indicators: Exploring Criteria for Choosing a plant Monitoring Method for Avocado Irrigation Management Sensibilidad y Variabilidad de Dos Indicadores de Estrés Hídrico en Plantas: Explorando Criterios para la Elección de Métodos de Fitomonitoreo para Manejo del Riego en Palto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M Celedón

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Avocado (Persea americana Mill. is a fruit-tree species highly susceptible to water deficit, which makes irrigation management a difficult task for growers. When irrigation is inadequate, trees suffer growth reduction, fruit losses, and roots damage. This study addressed the question of how to assess water stress in avocado trees and the considerations to choose an indicator to measure the plant water stress. In this work the sensitivity and variability of two water stress indicators in response to water deficit were analyzed: stem water potential (SWP and maximum daily trunk shrinkage (MDTS. During a period of high water demand, avocado trees planted in a clay loam soil were subjected to water stress by withholding irrigation and compared to control trees irrigated according to the maximal crop evapotranspiration. During the study, avocado trees reached a minimum SWP of -0.9 MPa and a maximum MDTS of ~ 285 μm. To better understand avocado tree response to water deficit, leaf abscisic acid, stomatal conductance, soil moisture, and vapor pressure deficit were also measured. Interestingly, it was found that water stress indicators showed differences with control after 3 d of withholding irrigation. It was possible to observe that MDTS was more sensitive in detecting water stress than SWP, signal strength of 4.5 vs. 1.2 respectively; however, MDTS higher variability counteracted its performance as stress indicator, coefficient of variation of 32% vs. 9%, respectively. This study confirms that monitoring water stress is an important tool for avocado irrigation management and should consider both, the sensitivity and variability of the indicator.El palto (Persea americana Mill. es una especie frutal altamente sensible al estrés hídrico, haciendo el manejo del riego una tarea difícil para los productores. Cuando el riego es inadecuado, los árboles reducen el crecimiento, pierden fruta y sufren dano radical. Este estudio aborda el tema de c

  7. Marijuana Usage and Hypnotic Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzini, Louis R.; McDonald, Roy D.

    1973-01-01

    Anonymous self-reported drug usage data and hypnotic susceptibility scores were obtained from 282 college students. Frequent marijuana users (more than 10 times) showed greater susceptibility to hypnosis than nonusers. (Author)

  8. Diet analysis by next-generation sequencing indicates the frequent consumption of introduced plants by the critically endangered red-headed wood pigeon (Columba janthina nitens) in oceanic island habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Haruko; Setsuko, Suzuki; Horikoshi, Kazuo; Suzuki, Hajime; Umehara, Shoko; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Isagi, Yuji

    2013-10-01

    Oceanic island ecosystems are vulnerable to the introduction of alien species, and they provide a habitat for many endangered species. Knowing the diet of an endangered animal is important for appropriate nature restoration efforts on oceanic islands because introduced species may be a major component of the diets of some endangered species. DNA barcoding techniques together with next-generation sequencing may provide more detailed information on animal diets than other traditional methods. We performed a diet analysis using 48 fecal samples from the critically endangered red-headed wood pigeon that is endemic to the Ogasawara Islands based on chloroplast trnL P6 loop sequences. The frequency of each detected plant taxa was compared with a microhistological analysis of the same sample set. The DNA barcoding approach detected a much larger number of plants than the microhistological analysis. Plants that were difficult to identify by microhistological analysis after being digested in the pigeon stomachs were frequently identified only by DNA barcoding. The results of the barcoding analysis indicated the frequent consumption of introduced species, in addition to several native species, by the red-headed wood pigeon. The rapid eradication of specific introduced species may reduce the food resources available to this endangered bird; thus, balancing eradication efforts with the restoration of native food plants should be considered. Although some technical problems still exist, the trnL approach to next-generation sequencing may contribute to a better understanding of oceanic island ecosystems and their conservation.

  9. Contrasting effect of dark-chilling on chloroplast structure and arrangement of chlorophyll-protein complexes in pea and tomato: plants with a different susceptibility to non-freezing temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garstka, Maciej; Venema, Jan Henk; Rumak, Izabela; Gieczewska, Katarzyna; Rosiak, Malgorzata; Koziol-Lipinska, Joanna; Kierdaszuk, Borys; Vredenberg, Wim J; Mostowska, Agnieszka

    2007-10-01

    The effect of dark-chilling and subsequent photoactivation on chloroplast structure and arrangements of chlorophyll-protein complexes in thylakoid membranes was studied in chilling-tolerant (CT) pea and in chilling-sensitive (CS) tomato. Dark-chilling did not influence chlorophyll content and Chl a/b ratio in thylakoids of both species. A decline of Chl a fluorescence intensity and an increase of the ratio of fluorescence intensities of PSI and PSII at 120 K was observed after dark-chilling in thylakoids isolated from tomato, but not from pea leaves. Chilling of pea leaves induced an increase of the relative contribution of LHCII and PSII fluorescence. A substantial decrease of the LHCII/PSII fluorescence accompanied by an increase of that from LHCI/PSI was observed in thylakoids from chilled tomato leaves; both were attenuated by photoactivation. Chlorophyll fluorescence of bright grana discs in chloroplasts from dark-chilled leaves, detected by confocal laser scanning microscopy, was more condensed in pea but significantly dispersed in tomato, compared with control samples. The chloroplast images from transmission-electron microscopy revealed that dark-chilling induced an increase of the degree of grana stacking only in pea chloroplasts. Analyses of O-J-D-I-P fluorescence induction curves in leaves of CS tomato before and after recovery from chilling indicate changes in electron transport rates at acceptor- and donor side of PS II and an increase in antenna size. In CT pea leaves these effects were absent, except for a small but irreversible effect on PSII activity and antenna size. Thus, the differences in chloroplast structure between CS and CT plants, induced by dark-chilling are a consequence of different thylakoid supercomplexes rearrangements.

  10. Waste indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E. [Cowi A/S, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2003-07-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  11. Quality indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth-Andersen, Christian

    1991-01-01

    to the issue of how well these indicators perform, using market data provided by consumer magazines from 3 countries. The results strongly indicate that price is a poor quality indicator. The paper also presents some evidence which suggests that seller reputation and easily observable characteristics are also......In recent literature it has been suggested that consumers need have no knowledge of product quality as a number of quality indicators (or signals) may be used as substitutes. Very little attention has been paid to the empirical verification of these studies. The present paper is devoted...

  12. The Aging Kidney: Increased Susceptibility to Nephrotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhui Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Three decades have passed since a series of studies indicated that the aging kidney was characterized by increased susceptibility to nephrotoxic injury. Data from these experimental models is strengthened by clinical data demonstrating that the aging population has an increased incidence and severity of acute kidney injury (AKI. Since then a number of studies have focused on age-dependent alterations in pathways that predispose the kidney to acute insult. This review will focus on the mechanisms that are altered by aging in the kidney that may increase susceptibility to injury, including hemodynamics, oxidative stress, apoptosis, autophagy, inflammation and decreased repair.

  13. Comparative analyses of coding and noncoding DNA regions indicate that Acropora (Anthozoa: Scleractina) possesses a similar evolutionary tempo of nuclear vs. mitochondrial genomes as in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I-Ping; Tang, Chung-Yu; Chiou, Chih-Yung; Hsu, Jia-Ho; Wei, Nuwei Vivian; Wallace, Carden C; Muir, Paul; Wu, Henry; Chen, Chaolun Allen

    2009-01-01

    Evidence suggests that the mitochondrial (mt)DNA of anthozoans is evolving at a slower tempo than their nuclear DNA; however, parallel surveys of nuclear and mitochondrial variations and calibrated rates of both synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions across taxa are needed in order to support this scenario. We examined species of the scleractinian coral genus Acropora, including previously unstudied species, for molecular variations in protein-coding genes and noncoding regions of both nuclear and mt genomes. DNA sequences of a calmodulin (CaM)-encoding gene region containing three exons, two introns and a 411-bp mt intergenic spacer (IGS) spanning the cytochrome b (cytb) and NADH 2 genes, were obtained from 49 Acropora species. The molecular evolutionary rates of coding and noncoding regions in nuclear and mt genomes were compared in conjunction with published data, including mt cytochrome b, the control region, and nuclear Pax-C introns. Direct sequencing of the mtIGS revealed an average interspecific variation comparable to that seen in published data for mt cytb. The average interspecific variation of the nuclear genome was two to five times greater than that of the mt genome. Based on the calibration of the closure of Panama Isthmus (3.0 mya) and closure of the Tethy Seaway (12 mya), synonymous substitution rates ranged from 0.367% to 1.467% Ma(-1) for nuclear CaM, which is about 4.8 times faster than those of mt cytb (0.076-0.303% Ma(-1)). This is similar to the findings in plant genomes that the nuclear genome is evolving at least five times faster than those of mitochondrial counterparts.

  14. Tolerant and Susceptible Sesame Genotypes Reveal Waterlogging Stress Response Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linhai; Li, Donghua; Zhang, Yanxin; Gao, Yuan; Yu, Jingyin; Wei, Xin; Zhang, Xiurong

    2016-01-01

    Waterlogging is a common adverse environmental condition that limits plant growth. Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is considered a drought-tolerant oil crop but is typically susceptible to harmful effects from waterlogging. The present study used comparative analysis to explore the waterlogging stress response associated with two sesame genotypes. The RNA-seq dataset generated during a time course of 0, 3, 9 and 15 h of waterlogging as well as 20 h post-drainage indicated that stress gradually suppressed the expression of sesame genes, with 9 h as the critical time point for the response of sesame to waterlogging stress. Of the 19,316 genes expressed during waterlogging, 72.1% were affected significantly. Sesame of both tolerant and susceptible genotypes showed decreased numbers of upregulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) but increased numbers of downregulated DEGs at the onset of waterlogging. However, the tolerant-genotype sesame exhibited 25.5% more upregulated DEGs and 29.7% fewer downregulated DEGs than those of the susceptible-genotype strain between 3 and 15 h. The results indicated that the tolerant sesame displayed a more positive gene response to waterlogging. A total of 1,379 genes were significantly induced and commonly expressed in sesame under waterlogging conditions from 3 to 15 h regardless of tolerance level; of these genes, 98 are known homologous stress responsive genes, while the remaining 1,281 are newly reported here. This gene set may represent the core genes that function in response to waterlogging, including those related mainly to energy metabolism and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. Furthermore, a set of 3,016 genes functioning in energy supply and cell repair or formation was activated in sesame recovery from waterlogging stress. A comparative analysis between sesame of the tolerant and susceptible genotypes revealed 66 genes that may be candidates for improving sesame tolerance to waterlogging. This study provided a comprehensive

  15. System of performance indicators for management of a hydroelectric power plant; Rede de indicadores de desempenho para gestao de uma usina hidreletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandeira, Anselmo Alves

    1997-07-01

    This thesis addresses the development of a management system for manufacturing, based upon a performance measurement system, applied to a case study of the strategy of an electric energy-producing company. By defining performance parameters, determining the critical success factors and applying a gaps analysis, it is possible to identify the areas where the company ought to channel its efforts to improve its productive performance. The thesis selects indicators associated with the following parameters of efficacy, efficiency, productivity, quality, innovation and profitability, in order to evaluate the performance of its different levels of operation. A practical application of a performance measurement system, which was undertaken during the period of observation, is presented at the end of this thesis. It is believed that the theoretical content of this thesis can be easily adapted to the situation of other companies. (author)

  16. The role of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase in plant-microbe interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, James Mitch; Coaker, Gitta

    2011-05-01

    Plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPases are the primary pumps responsible for the establishment of cellular membrane potential in plants. In addition to regulating basic aspects of plant cell function, these enzymes contribute to signaling events in response to diverse environmental stimuli. Here, we focus on the roles of the PM H+-ATPase during plant-pathogen interactions. PM H+-ATPases are dynamically regulated during plant immune responses and recent quantitative proteomics studies suggest complex spatial and temporal modulation of PM H+-ATPase activity during early pathogen recognition events. Additional data indicate that PM H+-ATPases cooperate with the plant immune signaling protein RIN4 to regulate stomatal apertures during bacterial invasion of leaf tissue. Furthermore, pathogens have evolved mechanisms to manipulate PM H+-ATPase activity during infection. Thus, these ubiquitous plant enzymes contribute to plant immune responses and are targeted by pathogens to increase plant susceptibility.

  17. Solar Indices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  18. RBC indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this. The results are used to diagnose different types of anemia . ... These test results indicate the type of anemia: MCV below normal. Microcytic anemia (may be due to low iron levels, lead poisoning, or thalassemia ). MCV normal. Normocytic anemia (may ...

  19. Geographical Indications

    OpenAIRE

    Anechitoae Constantin; Grigoru? Lavinia-Maria

    2011-01-01

    “The denomination of origin” may be the name of a region, a specific place or country used to describe an agricultural or food product. "The geographical indication" may be the name of a region, a specific place or a country, used to describe an agricultural or food product. The indication of provenance and the denomination of origin serve to identify the source and origin of goods or services.

  20. Indicators: Dissolved Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) is the amount of oxygen that is present in water. It is an important measure of water quality as it indicates a water body's ability to support aquatic life. Water bodies receive oxygen from the atmosphere and from aquatic plants.

  1. Variation in Susceptibility to Wheat dwarf virus among Wild and Domesticated Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, Jim; Shad, Nadeem; Kvarnheden, Anders; Westerbergh, Anna

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the variation in plant response in host-pathogen interactions between wild (Aegilops spp., Triticum spp.) and domesticated wheat (Triticum spp.) and Wheat dwarf virus (WDV). The distribution of WDV and its wild host species overlaps in Western Asia in the Fertile Crescent, suggesting a coevolutionary relationship. Bread wheat originates from a natural hybridization between wild emmer wheat (carrying the A and B genomes) and the wild D genome donor Aegilops tauschii, followed by polyploidization and domestication. We studied whether the strong selection during these evolutionary processes, leading to genetic bottlenecks, may have resulted in a loss of resistance in domesticated wheat. In addition, we investigated whether putative fluctuations in intensity of selection imposed on the host-pathogen interactions have resulted in a variation in susceptibility to WDV. To test our hypotheses we evaluated eighteen wild and domesticated wheat taxa, directly or indirectly involved in wheat evolution, for traits associated with WDV disease such as leaf chlorosis, different growth traits and WDV content. The plants were exposed to viruliferous leafhoppers (Psammotettix alienus) in a greenhouse trial and evaluated at two time points. We found three different plant response patterns: i) continuous reduction in growth over time, ii) weak response at an early stage of plant development but a much stronger response at a later stage, and iii) remission of symptoms over time. Variation in susceptibility may be explained by differences in the intensity of natural selection, shaping the coevolutionary interaction between WDV and the wild relatives. However, genetic bottlenecks during wheat evolution have not had a strong impact on WDV resistance. Further, this study indicates that the variation in susceptibility may be associated with the genome type and that the ancestor Ae. tauschii may be useful as genetic resource for the improvement of WDV resistance in wheat. PMID

  2. Application of translocation, γ-H2AX, and Sam68 as a biological indicators for the assessment of radiation exposure in nuclear power plant workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Kwang Hee; Park, Hyung Sun; Nam, Seon Young [Korea Hydro Nuclear Power Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    This study showed that confirmation of the initial dose estimated by dicentric analysis is provided by the subsequent FISH analysis for translocation frequency and provides further evidence for the valid use of FISH as a retrospective biological dosimeter. The IAEA manual on cytogenetic dosimetry recommends a halftime value of 3 y to correct for the decrease of dicentrics in case of delayed sampling based on the patient data of Buckton. Support for this comes from the cytogenetic follow up of an individual exposed to tritium, which also indicated a decline in dicentrics with a half-time of ∼3 y. Naturally, the RBE of tritium, as well as other kinds of ionizing radiation, depends on the dose, exposure conditions, and studied parameters. The information about the RBE of tritium that is most important from an applied standpoint is that associated with the range of low doses. In our study, the dose dependence of tritium RBE was not identified because of very low dose Tritium (< 1mSv). However, The strong smooth relationship between translocation yield and age is shown in Table 2. The translocation yields reported here are only slightly lower than already published. The implication is that the increase of yield with age could be due to environmental factors, to a natural aging process or both. In addition, we confirmed that γ-H2AX and Sam68 associated with DNA damage and apoptosis, can be new biological indicators for radiation exposure. Radiation workers are exposed to ionizing radiation from various sources. Ionizing radiation produces several types of DNA lesion, including DNA base alterations, DNA. DNA cross-links, and single- and double-strand breaks. As a protocol for biological dosimetry recommended by IAEA (2001), the analysis of solid stained dicentric chromosomes has been used since the mid 1960s. The intervening years have seen great improvements bringing the technique to a point where dicentric analysis has become a routine component of the radiological

  3. Alcohol increases hypnotic susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmens-Wheeler, Rebecca; Dienes, Zoltán; Duka, Theodora

    2013-09-01

    One approach to hypnosis suggests that for hypnotic experience to occur frontal lobe activity must be attenuated. For example, cold control theory posits that a lack of awareness of intentions is responsible for the experience of involuntariness and/or the subjective reality of hypnotic suggestions. The mid-dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex and the ACC are candidate regions for such awareness. Alcohol impairs frontal lobe executive function. This study examined whether alcohol affects hypnotisability. We administered 0.8 mg/kg of alcohol or a placebo to 32 medium susceptible participants. They were subsequently hypnotised and given hypnotic suggestions. All participants believed they had received some alcohol. Participants in the alcohol condition were more susceptible to hypnotic suggestions than participants in the placebo condition. Impaired frontal lobe activity facilitates hypnotic responding, which supports theories postulating that attenuation of executive function facilitates hypnotic response, and contradicts theories postulating that hypnotic response involves enhanced inhibitory, attentional or other executive function. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Position indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, David E.

    1981-01-01

    A nuclear reactor system is described in which a position indicator is provided for detecting and indicating the position of a movable element inside a pressure vessel. The movable element may be a valve element or similar device which moves about an axis. Light from a light source is transmitted from a source outside the pressure vessel to a first region inside the pressure vessel in alignment with the axis of the movable element. The light is redirected by a reflector prism to a second region displaced radially from the first region. The reflector prism moves in response to movement of the movable element about its axis such that the second region moves arcuately with respect to the first region. Sensors are arrayed in an arc corresponding to the arc of movement of the second region and signals are transmitted from the sensors to the exterior of the reactor vessel to provide indication of the position of the movable element.

  5. Degree of host susceptibility in the initial disease outbreak influences subsequent epidemic spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severns, Paul M.; Estep, Laura K.; Sackett, Kathryn E.; Mundt, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Disease epidemics typically begin as an outbreak of a relatively small, spatially explicit population of infected individuals (focus), in which disease prevalence increases and rapidly spreads into the uninfected, at-risk population. Studies of epidemic spread typically address factors influencing disease spread through the at-risk population, but the initial outbreak may strongly influence spread of the subsequent epidemic.We initiated wheat stripe rust Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici epidemics to assess the influence of the focus on final disease prevalence when the degree of disease susceptibility differed between the at-risk and focus populations.When the focus/at-risk plantings consisted of partially genetic resistant and susceptible cultivars, final disease prevalence was statistically indistinguishable from epidemics produced by the focus cultivar in monoculture. In these experimental epidemics, disease prevalence was not influenced by the transition into an at-risk population that differed in disease susceptibility. Instead, the focus appeared to exert a dominant influence on the subsequent epidemic.Final disease prevalence was not consistently attributable to either the focus or the at-risk population when focus/at-risk populations were planted in a factorial set-up with a mixture (~28% susceptible and 72% resistant) and susceptible individuals. In these experimental epidemics, spatial heterogeneity in disease susceptibility within the at-risk population appeared to counter the dominant influence of the focus.Cessation of spore production from the focus (through fungicide/glyphosate application) after 1.3 generations of stripe rust spread did not reduce final disease prevalence, indicating that the focus influence on disease spread is established early in the epidemic.Synthesis and applications. Our experiments indicated that outbreak conditions can be highly influential on epidemic spread, even when disease resistance in the at-risk population

  6. Susceptibility of pathogenic and nonpathogenic Naegleria ssp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiteman, L.Y.

    1988-01-01

    The susceptibility of four species of Naegleria amoebae to complement-mediated lysis was determined. The amoebicidal activity of normal human serum (NHS) and normal guinea pig serum (NGPS) for Naegleria amoebae was measured by an in vitro cytotoxicity assay. Release of radioactivity from amoebae labeled with {sup 3}H-uridine and visual observation with a compound microscope were used as indices of lysis. Susceptibility or resistance to complement-mediated lysis in vitro correlated with the in vivo pathogenic potential. Nonpathogenic Naegleria amoebae were lysed at a faster rate and at higher cell concentrations than were pathogenic amoebae. Electrophoretic analysis of NHS incubated with pathogenic or nonpathogenic Naegleria spp. demonstrated that amoebae activate the complement cascade resulting in the production of C3 and C5 complement cleavage products. Treatment with papain or trypsin for 1 h, but not with sialidase, increase the susceptibility of highly pathogenic, mouse-passaged N. fowleri to lysis. Treatment with actinomycin D, cycloheximide or various protease inhibitors for 4 h did not increase susceptibility to lysis. Neither a repair process involving de novo protein synthesis nor a complement-inactivating protease appear to account for the increase resistance of N. fowleri amoebae to complement-mediated lysis. A binding study with {sup 125}I radiolabeled C9 indicated that the terminal complement component does not remain stably bound to the membrane of pathogenic amoebae.

  7. yield indicators

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    YIELD INDICATORS. P. NTAWURUHUNGA, P.R. RUBAIHAYOI, J.B.A. WHYTE, A.G.O. DIXONZ and use. osnzu1. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, East and Southern Africa, Centre, PO. Box 7878, l Kampala ... most important sources of food energy in several ... efficiency in selecting and identifying cassava.

  8. Anthropometric indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oguoma, V. M.; Nwose, E. U.; Skinner, T. C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The current anthropometric indices used for diagnosis of cardio-metabolic syndrome (CMS) in sub-Saharan Africa are those widely validated in the western world. We hereby aim to compare the sensitivity and specificity of these tools in identifying risk factors for CMS. METHOD: The study...

  9. Cold-induced sudden reversible lowering of in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence after saturating light pulses : a sensitive marker for chilling susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcher, W; Neuner, G

    1989-03-01

    In chilling-sensitive plants (Glycine max, Saintpaulia ionantha, Saccharum officinarum) a sudden reversible drop in chlorophyll fluorescence occurs during photosynthetic induction immediately following saturating light pulses at low temperatures in the range 4 to 8 degrees C. A comparison of two soybean cultivars of different chilling sensitivities revealed that this phenomenon, termed lowwave, indicates specific thresholds of low temperature stress. Its occurrence under controlled chilling can be regarded as a quantitative marker for screening chilling susceptibility in angiosperms.

  10. Unravelling early events in the Taphrina deformans-Prunus persica interaction: an insight into the differential responses in resistant and susceptible genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetaz, Laura A; Bustamante, Claudia A; Goldy, Camila; Rivero, Nery; Müller, Gabriela L; Valentini, Gabriel H; Fernie, Alisdair R; Drincovich, María F; Lara, María V

    2017-08-01

    Leaf peach curl is a devastating disease affecting leaves, flowers and fruits, caused by the dimorphic fungus Taphrina deformans. To gain insight into the mechanisms of fungus pathogenesis and plant responses, leaves of a resistant and two susceptible Prunus persica genotypes were inoculated with blastospores (yeast), and the infection was monitored during 120 h post inoculation (h.p.i.). Fungal dimorphism to the filamentous form and induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), callose synthesis, cell death and defence compound production were observed independently of the genotype. Fungal load significantly decreased after 120 h.p.i. in the resistant genotype, while the pathogen tended to grow in the susceptible genotypes. Metabolic profiling revealed a biphasic re-programming of plant tissue in susceptible genotypes, with an initial stage co-incident with the yeast form of the fungus and a second when the hypha is developed. Transcriptional analysis of PRs and plant hormone-related genes indicated that pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins are involved in P. persica defence responses against T. deformans and that salicylic acid is induced in the resistant genotype. Conducted experiments allowed the elucidation of common and differential responses in susceptible versus resistant genotypes and thus allow us to construct a picture of early events during T. deformans infection. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Graphene susceptibility in Holstein model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousavi, Hamze, E-mail: hamze.mousavi@gmail.co [Department of Physics, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nano Science and Nano Technology Research Center, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    We study the effects of the electron-phonon interaction on the temperature dependence of the orbital magnetic susceptibility of monolayer graphene. We use the linear response theory and Green's function formalism within the Holstein Hamiltonian model. The results show that the effects of the electron-phonon interaction on the susceptibility of graphene sheet have different behaviors in two temperature regions. In the low temperature region, susceptibility increases when the electron-phonon coupling strength increases. On the other hand, the susceptibility reduces with increasing the electron-phonon coupling strength in the high temperature region. - Highlights: Effect of electron-phonon interaction on the susceptibility of graphene is studied. Linear response theory and Green's function technique in Holstein model are used. Effect of electron-phonon on susceptibility has different behaviors in two temperature regions.

  12. Topological susceptibility from slabs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bietenholz, Wolfgang [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-543, Distrito Federal, C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Forcrand, Philippe de [Institute for Theoretical Physics, ETH Zürich,CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); CERN, Physics Department, TH Unit, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Gerber, Urs [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-543, Distrito Federal, C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo,Edificio C-3, Apdo. Postal 2-82, Morelia, Michoacán, C.P. 58040 (Mexico)

    2015-12-14

    In quantum field theories with topological sectors, a non-perturbative quantity of interest is the topological susceptibility χ{sub t}. In principle it seems straightforward to measure χ{sub t} by means of Monte Carlo simulations. However, for local update algorithms and fine lattice spacings, this tends to be difficult, since the Monte Carlo history rarely changes the topological sector. Here we test a method to measure χ{sub t} even if data from only one sector are available. It is based on the topological charges in sub-volumes, which we denote as slabs. Assuming a Gaussian distribution of these charges, this method enables the evaluation of χ{sub t}, as we demonstrate with numerical results for non-linear σ-models.

  13. Topological Susceptibility from Slabs

    CERN Document Server

    Bietenholz, Wolfgang; Gerber, Urs

    2015-01-01

    In quantum field theories with topological sectors, a non-perturbative quantity of interest is the topological susceptibility chi_t. In principle it seems straightforward to measure chi_t by means of Monte Carlo simulations. However, for local update algorithms and fine lattice spacings, this tends to be difficult, since the Monte Carlo history rarely changes the topological sector. Here we test a method to measure chi_t even if data from only one sector are available. It is based on the topological charges in sub-volumes, which we denote as slabs. Assuming a Gaussian distribution of these charges, this method enables the evaluation of chi_t, as we demonstrate with numerical results for non-linear sigma-models.

  14. Biological indicators and biological indication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haseloff, H.P.

    1982-02-01

    Pollutants in the environment cause more and more situations of burden for living beings. In certain organisms, i.e. in biological indicators, there is a correlation between the extent of the damage and the degree of the burden. That is why environmental burdens can be recognized and, in part, be quantitatively recorded. Depending of the choice of materials and the damage parameters the respective differentiated statements can be made. Compared to technical measuring stations biological indicators facilitate the assessment of situations of burden with the help of biological-ecological parameters.

  15. Novel disease susceptibility factors for fungal necrotrophic pathogens in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albor Dobón

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Host cells use an intricate signaling system to respond to invasions by pathogenic microorganisms. Although several signaling components of disease resistance against necrotrophic fungal pathogens have been identified, our understanding for how molecular components and host processes contribute to plant disease susceptibility is rather sparse. Here, we identified four transcription factors (TFs from Arabidopsis that limit pathogen spread. Arabidopsis mutants defective in any of these TFs displayed increased disease susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea and Plectosphaerella cucumerina, and a general activation of non-immune host processes that contribute to plant disease susceptibility. Transcriptome analyses revealed that the mutants share a common transcriptional signature of 77 up-regulated genes. We characterized several of the up-regulated genes that encode peptides with a secretion signal, which we named PROVIR (for provirulence factors. Forward and reverse genetic analyses revealed that many of the PROVIRs are important for disease susceptibility of the host to fungal necrotrophs. The TFs and PROVIRs identified in our work thus represent novel genetic determinants for plant disease susceptibility to necrotrophic fungal pathogens.

  16. T3SS-dependent differential modulations of the jasmonic acid pathway in susceptible and resistant genotypes of Malus spp. challenged with Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugé De Bernonville, Thomas; Gaucher, Matthieu; Flors, Victor; Gaillard, Sylvain; Paulin, Jean-Pierre; Dat, James F; Brisset, Marie-Noëlle

    2012-06-01

    Fire blight is a bacterial disease of Maloideae caused by Erwinia amylovora (Ea). This necrogenic enterobacterium uses a type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject type III effectors into the plant cells to cause disease on its susceptible hosts, including economically important crops like apple and pear. The expressions of marker genes of the salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) defense regulation pathways were monitored by RT-qPCR in leaves of two apple genotypes, one susceptible and one resistant, challenged with a wild type strain, a T3SS-deficient strain or water. The transcriptional data taken together with hormone level measurements indicated that the SA pathway was similarly induced in both apple genotypes during infection by Ea. On the contrary, the data clearly showed a strong T3SS-dependent down-regulation of the JA pathway in leaves of the susceptible genotype but not in those of the resistant one. Accordingly, methyl-jasmonate treated susceptible plants displayed an increased resistance to Ea. Bacterial mutant analysis indicated that JA manipulation by Ea mainly relies on the type III effector DspA/E. Taken together, our data suggest that the T3SS-dependent down-regulation of the JA pathway is a critical step in the infection process of Malus spp. by Ea. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Genetic diversity and in vitro antibiotic susceptibility profile of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-06

    Apr 6, 2009 ... sulfomethoxazole. Key words: Genetic diversity, Salmonella, water, antibiotic susceptibility. INTRODUCTION ... The emergence of antibiotic resistant bacterial patho- gens has become a major public health .... sludge tank; strains 26, 32, 36, 37, 38, 39 and 40 isolated from Amalinda waste water plant's ...

  18. Compensatory and susceptive responses of cowpea genotypes to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cowpea seedlings of the second trial were infested with five four-day-old aphids per seedling two weeks after planting. The aphids were allowed to form colonies and fed on the seedlings until symptoms of damage were observed. When the susceptible seedlings became stunted with distorted leaves and yellowing of ...

  19. Wheat Mds-1 encodes a heat-shock protein and governs susceptibility towards the Hessian fly gall midge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant pests including insects must manipulate plants in order to utilize the nutrition and environment of the host. Here, we show that the heat-shock protein gene Mayetiola destructor susceptibility gene-1 (Mds-1) is a major susceptibility gene in wheat that allows the gall midge M. destructor, com...

  20. Microwave susceptibility experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConaghy, C.

    1984-05-29

    In certain experimental environments, systems can be affected or damaged by microwave pulses. I have conducted tests at LLNL to understand the phenomenology of microwave susceptibility of system components and subsystem components. To date, my experiments have concentrated on bipolar transistors, similar to what might be used in discrete analog circuits, and on CMOS RAM chips, which might be used in a computer memory system. I observed a decrease in failure energies for both the transistor and the integrated curcuit as I shortened the microwave pulse width. An S band (2.86 GHz) transmit/receive (T/R) tube has also been tested both at S band and at X band (8.16 GHz). The S band pulse had limitations in rise-time from zero power, which had an effect on the amount of power that could be transmitted through the T/R tube, as much as 0.7% of the incident power passed through the tube. All tests were conducted in closed-waveguide or coax test-fixtures, in contrast to the anechoic chambers utilized by other experimenters. I have used both S band and X band Klystron generators. For very high power (greater than 1 MW), I used an additional pulse-compression cavity at S band. Other subsystem components such as an X band mixer and an X band T/R tube will be tested in the future. 8 references.

  1. [Antimicrobial susceptibility cumulative reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canut-Blasco, Andrés; Calvo, Jorge; Rodríguez-Díaz, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Martínez, Luis

    2016-10-01

    Cumulative reports on antimicrobial susceptibility tests data are important for selecting empirical treatments, as an educational tool in programs on antimicrobial use, and for establishing breakpoints defining clinical categories. These reports should be based on data validated by clinical microbiologists using diagnostic samples (not surveillance samples). In order to avoid a bias derived from including several isolates obtained from the same patient, it is recommended that, for a defined period, only the first isolate is counted. A minimal number of isolates per species should be presented: a figure of >=30 isolates is statistically acceptable. The report is usually presented in a table format where, for each cell, information on clinically relevant microorganisms-antimicrobial agents is presented. Depending on particular needs, multiple tables showing data related to patients, samples, services or special pathogens can be prepared. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  2. DETERMINACIÓN DE LA SUSCEPTIBILIDAD A DROGAS DE PRIMERA LÍNEA EN AISLAMIENTOS DE MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS POR LA TÉCNICA DEL TUBO INDICADOR DE CRECIMIENTO MICOBACTERIANO Determining the susceptibility to first-line drugs in M. tuberculosis isolates using the mycobacteria growth indicator tube method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Rocío Sierra Parada

    2008-03-01

    etambutol.Background. The appearance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates resistant to drugs has triggered the search for quicker and more reliable methods to determine the susceptibility to anti-tuberculosis drugs. Objective. To evaluate the susceptibility of M. tuberculosis isolates to anti-tuberculosis first line drugs by Mycobacterium growth indicator tube method (MGIT. Materials and methods. Forty-nine isolates of M. tuberculosis were tested, coming from the Mycobacteriology Laboratory of Microbiology Department of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia. The MGIT method was evaluated and compared in order to determine resistance or susceptibility to rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol and streptomycin with the gold standard method, the multiple proportion method (PM. Results. With the PM method, of 49 isolates, 26 (53.0% were sensitive to all four antibiotics, 12 (24.5% were resistant to one antibiotic and 11 (22.5% to more than one antibiotic. Using the MGIT method, of 49 isolates, 31 (63.3% were sensitive to all four antibiotics, 8 (16.3% were resistant to one antibiotic and 10 (20.6% were resistant to more than one antibiotic. The concordance percentages observed oscillated between 83.7% and 97.9% and the kappa index was between 0.61 and 0.83 for the different antibiotics analyzed. The sensitivity of the MGIT method to the rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol and streptomycin was of 88.9, 95.2, 62.5 and 58% respectively and specifity was of 97.7, 92.3, 98.8 y 98.4% respectively. Using the MGIT method, isolates resistant to M. tuberculosis were determined in an average time of 7.85 days. Conclusions. The MGIT method permits obtaining reliable results in less time than conventional methods with isoniazid and rifampicin which are the antibiotics that determine the multi-resistance of M tuberculosis and to a lesser degree to streptomycin and ethambutol.

  3. [Antimicrobial susceptibility in Chile 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes-D, Marcela; Silva, Francisco; García, Patricia; Bello, Helia; Briceño, Isabel; Calvo-A, Mario; Labarca, Jaime

    2014-04-01

    Bacteria antimicrobial resistance is an uncontrolled public health problem that progressively increases its magnitude and complexity. The Grupo Colaborativo de Resistencia, formed by a join of experts that represent 39 Chilean health institutions has been concerned with bacteria antimicrobial susceptibility in our country since 2008. In this document we present in vitro bacterial susceptibility accumulated during year 2012 belonging to 28 national health institutions that represent about 36% of hospital discharges in Chile. We consider of major importance to report periodically bacteria susceptibility so to keep the medical community updated to achieve target the empirical antimicrobial therapies and the control measures and prevention of the dissemination of multiresistant strains.

  4. In vitro susceptibility of goat mononuclear cells to bluetongue virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, A K; Prasad, G

    1996-08-01

    Goat peripheral blood mononuclear cells were cultured and their susceptibility to bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 1 was tested. A small number of adherent and non-adherent cells were found positive for BTV antigens by immunoperoxidase and immunofluorescence tests. Both adherent and non-adherent cells supported limited level of viral replication as evidenced by low titre in the biological assay, thus indicating their susceptibility.

  5. pso.ATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    isolates vere made using standard methods, Antibiotic susceptibility tests against commonly prescribed ... Acute otitis media is rapid with short .... sensitivity tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests: The antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of major Gram positive and negative bacterial isolates obtained from clinical specimens.

  6. Hypnotic susceptibility and dream characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamore, N; Barrett, D

    1989-11-01

    This study examined the relationship of hypnotic susceptibility to a variety of dream characteristics and types of dream content. A Dream Questionnaire was constructed synthesizing Gibson's dream inventory and Hilgard's theoretical conceptions of hypnosis. Employing the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility and the Field Inventory for evaluating hypnotic response, several dream dimensions correlated significantly with hypnotizability. For subjects as a whole, the strongest correlates were the frequency of dreams which they believed to be precognitive and out-of-body dreams. Ability to dream on a chosen topic also correlated significantly with hypnotic susceptibility for both genders. For females only, there was a negative correlation of hypnotic susceptibility to flying dreams. Absorption correlated positively with dream recall, ability to dream on a chosen topic, reports of conflict resolution in dreams, creative ideas occurring in dreams, amount of color in dreams, pleasantness of dreams, bizarreness of dreams, flying dreams and precognitive dreams.

  7. Ancestral susceptibility to colorectal cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Huhn, S.; Pardini, Barbara; Naccarati, Alessio; Vodička, Pavel (ed.); Hemminki, K.; Försti, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2012), s. 197-204 ISSN 0267-8357 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/07/1430; GA ČR GAP304/10/1286 Grant - others:EU FP7(XE) HEALTH-F4-2007-200767 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : cancer susceptibility * molecular epidemiology * genetic susceptibility Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.500, year: 2012

  8. Perception of volatiles produced by UVC-irradiated plants alters the response to viral infection in naïve neighboring plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Youli; Danna, Cristian H; Ausubel, Frederick M; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2012-07-01

    Interplant communication of stress via volatile signals is a well-known phenomenon. It has been shown that plants undergoing stress caused by pathogenic bacteria or insects generate volatile signals that elicit defense response in neighboring naïve plants. Similarly, we have recently shown that naïve plants sharing the same gaseous environment with UVC-exposed plants exhibit similar changes in genome instability as UVC-exposed plants. We found that methyl salicylate (MeSA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) serve as volatile signals communicating genome instability (as measured by an increase in the homologous recombination frequency). UVC-exposed plants produce high levels of MeSA and MeJA, a response that is missing in an npr1 mutant. Concomitantly, npr1 mutants are impaired in communicating the signal leading to genome instability, presumably because this mutant does not develop new necrotic lesion after UVC irradiation as observed in wt plants. To analyze the potential biological significance of such plant-plant communication, we have now determined whether bystander plants that receive volatile signals from UVC-irradiated plants, become more resistant to UVC irradiation or infection with oilseed rape mosaic virus (ORMV). Specifically, we analyzed the number of UVC-elicited necrotic lesions, the level of anthocyanin pigments, and the mRNA levels corresponding to ORMV coat protein and the NPR1-regulated pathogenesis-related protein PR1 in the irradiated or virus-infected bystander plants that have been previously exposed to volatiles produced by UVC-irradiated plants. These experiments showed that the bystander plants responded similarly to control plants following UVC irradiation. Interestingly, however, the bystander plants appeared to be more susceptible to ORMV infection, even though PR1 mRNA levels in systemic tissue were significantly higher than in the control plants, which indicates that bystander plants could be primed to strongly respond to bacterial

  9. MorTAL Kombat: the story of defense against TAL effectors through loss-of-susceptibility

    OpenAIRE

    Hutin, Mathilde; Alvaro L Pérez-Quintero; Lopez, Camilo; Szurek, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Many plant-pathogenic xanthomonads rely on Transcription Activator-Like (TAL) effectors to colonize their host. This particular family of type III effectors functions as specific plant transcription factors via a programmable DNA-binding domain. Upon binding to the promoters of plant disease susceptibility genes in a sequence-specific manner, the expression of these host genes is induced. However, plants have evolved specific strategies to counter the action of TAL effectors and confer resist...

  10. MorTAL Kombat: the story of defense against TAL effectors through loss-of-susceptibility

    OpenAIRE

    Mathilde eHutin; Alvaro L Pérez-Quintero; Camilo eLopez; Boris eSzurek

    2015-01-01

    Many plant-pathogenic xanthomonads rely on Transcription Activator-Like (TAL) effectors to colonize their host. This particular family of type III effectors functions as specific plant transcription factors via a novel programmable DNA-binding domain. Upon binding to the promoters of plant disease susceptibility genes in a sequence-specific manner, the expression of these host genes is induced. However, plants have evolved specific strategies to counter the action of TAL effectors and confer ...

  11. A novel transcription factor JcNAC1 response to stress in new model woody plant Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiaobo; Zheng, Xiaojiang; Huang, Xiaoqi; Lii, Yifan; Shao, Caixia; Xu, Ying; Chen, Fang

    2014-02-01

    Jatropha curcas, a biodiesel plant with a short life cycle, has great potentials to be a new model woody plant. In this study, we found a plant-specific transcription factor JcNAC1, an intriguing regulator modulating plant responses to abiotic stresses and pathogen infection. Expression of JcNAC1 was strongly increased when plants were treated with abscisic acid, salt and polyethylene glycol, and was decreased with salicylic acid, ethylene, and pathogens. Overexpressing JcNAC1 plants showed enhanced tolerance to drought and increased susceptibility to pathogens. Furthermore, over-expression of JcNAC1 in plants also resulted in the expression changes of some stress-related maker genes including curcin-L, which is a special stress-inducible ribosome-inactivating protein gene in J. curcas. These results indicate that JcNAC1 is responsible for stress responses in J. curcas.

  12. Susceptibility of lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to entomopathogenic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Cottrell, Ted E

    2005-06-01

    We investigated differential susceptibility of lady beetles to entomopathogenic nematodes, for two reasons: (1) to estimate potential nontarget effects on natural lady beetle populations, (2) to compare the susceptibility of exotic versus native lady beetle species. We hypothesize that successful establishment of some exotically introduced arthropods may be due, in part, to a lower susceptibility relative to competing native species. In laboratory studies, we compared the pathogenicity, virulence, and reproductive capacity of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema carpocapsae among two native (Coleomegilla maculata and Olla v-nigrum) and two successfully established exotic (Harmonia axyridis and Coccinella septempunctata) lady beetles, and a known susceptible lepidopteran host, Agrotis ipsilon. After 1 and 2 days of exposure to either nematode species, mortality of A. ipsilon was higher than in all lady beetles. Thus, we predict that nematode field applications would have significantly less impact on lady beetle populations than on a susceptible target pest. Additionally, the impact of soil-applied nematodes may be lower on lady beetles than on soil-dwelling hosts because the former spends relatively less time on the soil. Exotic lady beetles were less susceptible to nematode infection than native species. Reproductive capacity data also indicated lower host suitability in H. axyridis, but not in C. septempunctata. Overall, the hypothesis that low susceptibility to pathogens in certain exotic lady beetles may have contributed to competitive establishment was supported (especially for H. axyridis). Additional studies incorporating different hosts and pathogens from various geographic locations will be required to further address the hypothesis.

  13. MorTAL Kombat: the story of defense against TAL effectors through loss-of-susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutin, Mathilde; Pérez-Quintero, Alvaro L; Lopez, Camilo; Szurek, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Many plant-pathogenic xanthomonads rely on Transcription Activator-Like (TAL) effectors to colonize their host. This particular family of type III effectors functions as specific plant transcription factors via a programmable DNA-binding domain. Upon binding to the promoters of plant disease susceptibility genes in a sequence-specific manner, the expression of these host genes is induced. However, plants have evolved specific strategies to counter the action of TAL effectors and confer resistance. One mechanism is to avoid the binding of TAL effectors by mutations of their DNA binding sites, resulting in resistance by loss-of-susceptibility. This article reviews our current knowledge of the susceptibility hubs targeted by Xanthomonas TAL effectors, possible evolutionary scenarios for plants to combat the pathogen with loss-of-function alleles, and how this knowledge can be used overall to develop new pathogen-informed breeding strategies and improve crop resistance.

  14. MorTAL Kombat: the story of defense against TAL effectors through loss-of-susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde eHutin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Many plant-pathogenic xanthomonads rely on Transcription Activator-Like (TAL effectors to colonize their host. This particular family of type III effectors functions as specific plant transcription factors via a novel programmable DNA-binding domain. Upon binding to the promoters of plant disease susceptibility genes in a sequence-specific manner, the expression of these host genes is induced. However, plants have evolved specific strategies to counter the action of TAL effectors and confer resistance. One mechanism is to avoid the binding of TAL effectors by mutations of their DNA binding sites, resulting in resistance by loss-of-susceptibility. This article reviews our current knowledge of the susceptibility hubs targeted by Xanthomonas TAL effectors, possible evolutionary scenarios for plants to combat the pathogen with loss-of-function alleles, and how this knowledge can be used overall to develop new pathogen-informed breeding strategies and improve crop resistance.

  15. Impact of wastewater application on magnetic susceptibility in Terric Histosol soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokołowska, Zofia; Alekseev, Andrey; Skic, Kamil; Brzezińska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we attempted to analyse the changes in magnetic susceptibility in Terric Histosol soil irrigated with municipal wastewater in a period of four years. Effects of different plants (poplar and willow), wastewater doses, depths, as well as the concentration of the elements and the total carbon content were tested. The study showed that systematic wastewater irrigation diminished magnetic susceptibility values in the top layer of soil. However, statistical analysis revealed that both doses of wastewater and growing plants did not have a significant impact on the magnetic susceptibility of obtained results. Magnetic susceptibility decreased significantly with the depth, in accordance with higher total carbon and lower content of magnetic particles. High correlation coefficients were found between magnetic susceptibility and Zn, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MnO content, whereas no correlation was observed for Cr, as well as for Pb.

  16. Genetic heterogeneity in breast cancer susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, T I

    1996-01-01

    Approximately 20% of breast cancer patients have a family history of the disease, and in one-fourth of these cases breast cancer appears to be inherited as an autosomally dominant trait. Five genes and gene regions involved in breast cancer susceptibility have been uncovered. Germ-line mutations in the recently cloned BRCA1 gene at 17q21 is considered to be responsible for the disease in a majority of the breast-ovarian cancer families and in 40-45% of the site-specific breast cancer families, but appears not to be involved in families with both male and female breast cancer cases. The BRCA2 locus at 13q12-q13 appears to be involved in 40-45% of the site-specific breast cancer families, and in most of the families with affected males. The gene located in this region, however, does not seem to confer susceptibility to ovarian cancer. The TP53 gene is involved in breast cancer development in the Li-Fraumeni syndrome and Li-Fraumeni syndrom-like families, whereas germ-line mutations in the androgen receptor (AR) gene is present in a subset of male breast cancers. Furthermore, females who are obligate carriers of ataxia telangiectasia (AT) have a 4-12 times relative risk of developing breast cancer as compared with the general female population, indicating that germ-line mutations in AT also confer susceptibility to breast cancer.

  17. In vitro susceptibility testing of Dientamoeba fragilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, N; Marriott, D; Harkness, J; Ellis, J T; Stark, D

    2012-01-01

    Dientamoeba fragilis is a commonly encountered trichomonad which has been implicated as a cause of gastrointestinal disease in humans. Despite the frequency of reports recording infections with this parasite, little research has been undertaken in terms of antimicrobial susceptibility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of D. fragilis to several commonly used antiparasitic agents: diloxanide furoate, furazolidone, iodoquinol, metronidazole, nitazoxanide, ornidazole, paromomycin, secnidazole, ronidazole, tetracycline, and tinidazole. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed on four clinical strains of D. fragilis, designated A, E, M, and V, respectively. Molecular testing followed, and all strains were determined to be genotype 1. The activities of antiprotozoal compounds at concentrations ranging from 2 μg/ml to 500 μg/ml were determined via cell counts of D. fragilis trophozoites grown in dixenic culture. Minimum lethal concentrations (MLCs) were as follows: ornidazole, 8 to 16 μg/ml; ronidazole, 8 to 16 μg/ml; tinidazole, 31 μg/ml; metronidazole, 31 μg/ml; secnidazole, 31 to 63 μg/ml; nitazoxanide, 63 μg/ml; tetracycline, 250 μg/ml; furazolidone, 250 to 500 μg/ml; iodoquinol, 500 μg/ml; paromomycin, 500 μg/ml; and diloxanide furoate, >500 μg/ml. This is the first study to report the profiles of susceptibility to a wide range of commonly used treatments for clinical isolates of D. fragilis. Our study indicated 5-nitroimidazole derivatives to be the most active compounds in vitro against D. fragilis.

  18. Resistant and susceptible responses in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) to bacterial stem blight caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemchinov, Lev G; Shao, Jonathan; Lee, Maya N; Postnikova, Olga A; Samac, Deborah A

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial stem blight caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae is a common disease of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L). Little is known about host-pathogen interactions and host defense mechanisms. Here, individual resistant and susceptible plants were selected from cultivars Maverick and ZG9830 and used for transcript profiling at 24 and 72 hours after inoculation (hai) with the isolate PssALF3. Bioinformatic analysis revealed a number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in resistant and susceptible genotypes. Although resistant plants from each cultivar produced a hypersensitive response, transcriptome analyses indicated that they respond differently at the molecular level. The number of DEGs was higher in resistant plants of ZG9830 at 24 hai than in Maverick, suggesting that ZG9830 plants had a more rapid effector triggered immune response. Unique up-regulated genes in resistant ZG9830 plants included genes encoding putative nematode resistance HSPRO2-like proteins, orthologs for the rice Xa21 and soybean Rpg1-b resistance genes, and TIR-containing R genes lacking both NBS and LRR domains. The suite of R genes up-regulated in resistant Maverick plants had an over-representation of R genes in the CC-NBS-LRR family including two genes for atypical CCR domains and a putative ortholog of the Arabidopsis RPM1 gene. Resistance in both cultivars appears to be mediated primarily by WRKY family transcription factors and expression of genes involved in protein phosphorylation, regulation of transcription, defense response including synthesis of isoflavonoids, and oxidation-reduction processes. These results will further the identification of mechanisms involved in resistance to facilitate selection of parent populations and development of commercial varieties.

  19. Resistant and susceptible responses in alfalfa (Medicago sativa to bacterial stem blight caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev G Nemchinov

    Full Text Available Bacterial stem blight caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae is a common disease of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. Little is known about host-pathogen interactions and host defense mechanisms. Here, individual resistant and susceptible plants were selected from cultivars Maverick and ZG9830 and used for transcript profiling at 24 and 72 hours after inoculation (hai with the isolate PssALF3. Bioinformatic analysis revealed a number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs in resistant and susceptible genotypes. Although resistant plants from each cultivar produced a hypersensitive response, transcriptome analyses indicated that they respond differently at the molecular level. The number of DEGs was higher in resistant plants of ZG9830 at 24 hai than in Maverick, suggesting that ZG9830 plants had a more rapid effector triggered immune response. Unique up-regulated genes in resistant ZG9830 plants included genes encoding putative nematode resistance HSPRO2-like proteins, orthologs for the rice Xa21 and soybean Rpg1-b resistance genes, and TIR-containing R genes lacking both NBS and LRR domains. The suite of R genes up-regulated in resistant Maverick plants had an over-representation of R genes in the CC-NBS-LRR family including two genes for atypical CCR domains and a putative ortholog of the Arabidopsis RPM1 gene. Resistance in both cultivars appears to be mediated primarily by WRKY family transcription factors and expression of genes involved in protein phosphorylation, regulation of transcription, defense response including synthesis of isoflavonoids, and oxidation-reduction processes. These results will further the identification of mechanisms involved in resistance to facilitate selection of parent populations and development of commercial varieties.

  20. Indicadores hídrico-mecânicos de compactação do solo e crescimento de plantas Hydric and mechanical indicators of soil compaction and plant growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Ivonir Gubiani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O efeito da compactação do solo sobre o crescimento de plantas é uma informação necessária para orientar o manejo do solo. Embora o intervalo hídrico ótimo (IHO tenha sistematizado a relação entre compactação e fatores físicos diretamente relacionados com o crescimento de plantas, sua eficiência para prever respostas biológicas, sobretudo a produção de grãos, ainda não foi comprovada. Resultados de pesquisas em nível celular indicam que os níveis de estresses hídricos e mecânicos que ocorrem nas raízes durante o secamento do solo são parcialmente representados pelo IHO. Consequentemente, a previsão de resposta no crescimento e na produção das culturas não se confirma na maioria dos casos. Além do refinamento dos limites do IHO, novos índices precisam ser desenvolvidos, com capacidade de integrar a variação dos fatores físicos do solo ao longo do ciclo de crescimento das plantas, determinados por fatores meteorológicos. Indicadores de frequência, período de ausência e acumulado de estresses hídricos mecânicos foram sugeridos. Sem avanços, a capacidade de previsão do risco de redução na produção das culturas por compactação do solo será pequena e insuficiente para orientar ações de manejo do solo.The effect of soil compaction on plant growth is widely used as orientation for soil management. Although the limiting water range (LLWR underlies the systematization of the relationship between compaction and physical factors directly related to plant growth, its efficiency to predict biological responses, especially of grain yield, has not yet been proven. Results of research at the cellular level indicate that the water and mechanical stress levels that occur in the roots during soil drying are partially represented by the LLWR. Consequently, the expected response in crop growth and production cannot be achieved in most cases. In addition to refining the boundaries of the LLWR, new indexes need to be

  1. Índices agronômicos do meloeiro associados à dose adequada de nitrogênio, em ambiente protegido e no campo Muskmelon plant agronomical indice values associated with adequadenitrogen fertilizer rate, in unheated greenhouse and field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evando Luiz Coelho

    2005-10-01

    conditions. Two experiments, in unheated greenhouse and field conditions, were carried out with similar procedures. Each experiment consisted of four randomized blocks containing five treatments or five nitrogen rates (0, 75, 150, 300, and 450 kg ha-1 of N, applied as urea. Part of the fertilizer was placed in furrows (30%, before seedling transplantation, and the remaining 70% were trickle-applied through part of the plant cycle. Initially, 14 days after transplantation, plant chlorosis intensity was evaluated by scores from 0 (no chlorosis to 5 (leaves completely chlorotics. At 25 and 53 days after transplantation, at first and second fruit setting, FLA and FLW were determined. At both experiments, chlorosis intensity decreased, FLA and FLW increased with increasing N rates. Chlorosis intensity values associated with MFY were 0.22 and 1.11 at greenhouse and field, respectively. In the greenhouse, at first and second sampling dates, FLA values associated with MFY were 107 and 72 cm² and FLW values were 0.36 and 0.26 g, respectively. In the field, the corresponding values were 89 and 69 cm² and 0.39 and 0.30 g, respectively. These are proposed melon plant index values indicators of the added N fertilizer rate adequacy.

  2. Susceptibility of Two Sitophilus species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae to Essential Oils from Foeniculum vulgare and Satureja hortensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asgar Ebadollahi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the insecticidal activity of essential oils from Fennel, Foeniculum vulgare (Apiaceae, and Summer savory, Satureja hortensis (Lamiaceae, against two stored-product insects. Essential oils from two species of plants were obtained by Clevenger-type water distillation and their fumigant toxicities were tested against adults of the wheat weevil, Sitophilus granarius and rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (Curculionidae. The mortality was determined after 24 and 48 hrs from beginning of exposure. LC50 values of each essential oil were estimated for each insect species. Fumigation bioassays revealed that essential oils from two plants had strong insecticidal activity on experimental insects. LC50 values indicated that S. granarius was more susceptible than S. oryzae to essential oils at the exposure time 24 and 48 hrs. The mortality effect of S. hortensis oil was lower than F. vulgare oil. The LC50 values decreased with the duration of exposure to the essential oil concentrations. In all case, responses varied according to plant material, concentration, and exposure time. These results indicated that essential oils from S. hortensis and F. vulgare could be applicable to the management of stored product insects to decrease ecologically detrimental effects of utilization synthetic insecticides.

  3. Chemical processes of coal for use in power plants. Part 1: Approximate analysis and associated indexes of pulverized coal; Procesos quimicos del carbon para su uso en centrales termoelectricas. Parte 1: Analisis aproximado e indices asociados del carbon pulverizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altamirano-Bedolla, J. A.; Manzanares-Papayanopoulos, E.; Herrera-Velarde, J. R. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: emp@iie.org.mx

    2010-11-15

    The usage of hydrocarbons, such as natural gas, oil products and coal, will be the main source of energy to the mankind for next generations. Therefore, the actual research and technological developments point out to employ with high efficiency those fuels. The main interests are to release most of the energy as possible and to guide the combustion reactions. It is well known that during the combustion process of coal, the chemical energy is converted to thermal energy, which it allows the steam production, and therefore to produce energy through an electric generator. The main interest of the work presented here is to study the behavior of the coal combustion processes in function of the approximate analysis and some associate indices of that analysis, to point out the optimization of the coal usage as main fuel in electrical power generation plants. [Spanish] El uso de hidrocarburos como son el gas natural, los derivados del petroleo y el carbon mineral, continuara siendo en las proximas decadas la principal fuente de energia de la humanidad. Por consiguiente, la investigacion cientifica y los desarrollos tecnologicos actualmente se enfocan en emplear de manera mas eficiente dichos combustibles, satisfaciendo entre otros factores, dos intereses principales: liberar la mayor cantidad de energia, reduciendo al minimo el material combustible no quemado, y direccionar las reacciones del proceso de combustion para minimizar la cantidad de productos no deseados resultantes de la reaccion. A traves de los procesos quimicos de combustion del carbon, se transforma la energia quimica a energia termica, lo que permite la produccion de vapor para a su vez impulsar una turbina la cual esta acoplada a un generador electrico. El objetivo del presente trabajo es el estudio del comportamiento de los procesos quimicos que se llevan a cabo durante las reacciones de combus-tion del carbon en funcion del analisis aproximado y de los indices asociados resultantes de dicho analisis; lo

  4. Students' Ideas about Plants and Plant Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Charles R.; Stein, Mary; McNair, Shannan; Barman, Natalie S.

    2006-01-01

    Because the National Science Education Standards (1996) outline specific things K-8 students should know about plants, and previous data indicated that elementary students had difficulty understanding some major ideas about plants and plant growth, the authors of this article thought it appropriate to initiate an investigation to determine the…

  5. Indications for Three Independent Domestication Events for the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) and New Insights into the Origin of Tea Germplasm in China and India Revealed by Nuclear Microsatellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meegahakumbura, M K; Wambulwa, M C; Thapa, K K; Li, M M; Möller, M; Xu, J C; Yang, J B; Liu, B Y; Ranjitkar, S; Liu, J; Li, D Z; Gao, L M

    2016-01-01

    Tea is the world's most popular non-alcoholic beverage. China and India are known to be the largest tea producing countries and recognized as the centers for the domestication of the tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze). However, molecular studies on the origin, domestication and relationships of the main teas, China type, Assam type and Cambod type are lacking. Twenty-three nuclear microsatellite markers were used to investigate the genetic diversity, relatedness, and domestication history of cultivated tea in both China and India. Based on a total of 392 samples, high levels of genetic diversity were observed for all tea types in both countries. The cultivars clustered into three distinct genetic groups (i.e. China tea, Chinese Assam tea and Indian Assam tea) based on STRUCTURE, PCoA and UPGMA analyses with significant pairwise genetic differentiation, corresponding well with their geographical distribution. A high proportion (30%) of the studied tea samples were shown to possess genetic admixtures of different tea types suggesting a hybrid origin for these samples, including the Cambod type. We demonstrate that Chinese Assam tea is a distinct genetic lineage from Indian Assam tea, and that China tea sampled from India was likely introduced from China directly. Our results further indicate that China type tea, Chinese Assam type tea and Indian Assam type tea are likely the result of three independent domestication events from three separate regions across China and India. Our findings have important implications for the conservation of genetic stocks, as well as future breeding programs.

  6. Indicadores de qualidade de solos de área de mineração e metalurgia de chumbo: II - Mesofauna e plantas Soil quality indicators in lead mining and metalurgy area: II - Mesofauna and plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Jurema Barros

    2010-08-01

    riqueza de grupos de organismos e ocorrência de representantes dos grupos Pseudoscorpiones, Mollusca e Isopoda apenas nesse solo. Os grupos Aracnídeos e Psocoptera também foram considerados bons indicadores ambientais, com incremento de suas populações nos solos com maiores teores de metais pesados (solos 2, 3 e 5, possivelmente devido à menor ocorrência de organismos competidores/predadores desses grupos. Os teores de metais pesados nos indivíduos do grupo Formicidae tiveram relação direta com os teores de Pb extraídos com HNO3 0,5 mol L-1 no solo. Quanto ao acúmulo de metais pesados nas plantas coletadas na área, com exceção do solo 1, todas as espécies encontravam-se sob efeito fitotóxico para Pb e Zn, o que sugere a proibição de pastejo na área.The influence of soil management or the contaminant application to the soil, usually induce to a quicker response in the soil mesofauna than in other pedogenic properties; these organisms are therefore good environmental quality indicators. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the organisms groups of the soil mesofauna and determine Pb and Zn contents in plants in the mining and metallurgy plant in Adrianópolis (PR,to originate biological indicators of the quality of these solis. At the selected locations the following contamination forms were analized: site 1 - reference (native wood; site 2 - residue incorporated in the profile; sites 3 and 6 - close to the chimneys of the plant, with potential import of particulate matter; site 5 - great waste volume covering the soil. Berlese funnels were utilized to collect samples from the 0 to 5 cm layer (20 funnels x 5 sites x 1 layer x 4 times = 400 samples. After the separation of the mesofauna, the organisms were selected and identified. Ants samples were microwave digested with concentrated HNO3 and the Pb, Cu, Ni and Zn contents were determined by inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES. Plants from Poaceae family were

  7. Efficacy of phosphatidylcholine in the modulation of motion sickness susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, R. L.; Ryan, P.; Homick, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of pharmacological doses of phosphatidylcholine (lecithin) in the modulation of motion sickness induced by exposure to coriolis stimulation in a rotating chair. Subjects received daily dietary supplements of 25 grams of lecithin (90 percent phosphatidylcholine) and were tested for their susceptibility to motion sickness after 4 h, 2 d, and 21 d. A small but statistically significant increase in susceptibility (+15 percent) was noted 4 h after supplemental phosphatidylcholine, with four of nine subjects demonstrating a marked increase in susceptibility. This finding was attributed to choline's stimulatory action on cholinergic systems, an action which opposes that of the classical antimotion sickness drug scopolamine. Chronic lecithin loading revealed a trend towards reduced susceptibility, possibly indicating the occurrence of adaptive mechanisms such as receptor down-regulation. Withdrawal from lecithin loading, perhaps coupled with anticholinergic treatment, might prove to be a potent prophylactic regimen and ought to be tested.

  8. Susceptibility of Some Stone and Pome Fruit Rootstocks to Crown Gall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rhouma

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of different fruit rootstocks to crown gall disease was investigated in greenhouse and field experiments with numerous strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens over three years. Plants were inoculated in the roots and shoots for pot experiments. Field experiments were performed in a naturally contaminated nursery plot. The genotypes Prunus dulcis and P. persica showed a high level of susceptibility to A. tumefaciens. Among the stone rootstocks, bitter almond was highly susceptible in all experiments. Apricot and Cadaman rootstocks displayed low susceptibility but larger galls, showing that there was no relation between rootstock susceptibility and gall size. Among pome rootstocks, quince BA29 was resistant to the disease, while MM106 was susceptible in potted trials; however, in the field essays, pome rootstocks did not become galled, possibly because the strains had selected for and adapted to stone rootstocks.

  9. Aquifer susceptibility in Virginia, 1998-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelms, David L.; Harlow, George E.; Plummer, L. Niel; Busenberg, Eurybiades

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Virginia Department of Health, sampled water from 171 wells and springs across the Commonwealth of Virginia between 1998 and 2000 as part of the Virginia Aquifer Susceptibility study. Most of the sites sampled are public water supplies that are part of the comprehensive Source Water Assessment Program for the Commonwealth. The fundamental premise of the study was that the identification of young waters (less than 50 years) by multiple environmental tracers could be used as a guide for classifying aquifers in terms of susceptibility to contamination from near-surface sources. Environmental tracers, including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), tritium (3H), and tritium/helium-3 (3H/3He), and carbon isotopes (14C and d13C) were used to determine the age of water discharging from wells and springs. Concentrations of CFCs greater than 5 picograms per kilogram and 3H concentrations greater than 0.6 tritium unit were used as thresholds to indicate that parts of the aquifer sampled have a component of young water and are, therefore, susceptible to near-surface contamination. Concentrations of CFCs exceeded the susceptibility threshold in 22 percent of the wells and in one spring sampled in the Coastal Plain regional aquifer systems. About 74 percent of the samples from wells with the top of the first water zone less than 100 feet below land surface exceeded the threshold values, and water supplies developed in the upper 100 feet of the Coastal Plain are considered to be susceptible to contamination from near-surface sources. The maximum depth to the top of the screened interval for wells that contained CFCs was less than 150 feet. Wells completed in the deep confined aquifers in the Coastal Plain generally contain water older than 1,000 years, as indicated by carbon-14 dating, and are not considered to be susceptible to contamination under natural conditions. All of the water samples from wells

  10. Diagnóstico precoce da carência de boro em castanheiro: Selecção de tecido indicador Early diagnosis of boron deficiency in chestnut: sellection of plant tissue indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Portela

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available O objectivo deste estudo foi identificar um tecido indicador na detecção precoce da carência de B no castanheiro, que permita a correcção atempada da carência de B. Num souto com deficiência de B instalou-se um ensaio em que se utilizaram dois níveis de B: B0, e B1 onde se aplicou 100 g de Granubor (14,6% por árvore. Colheu-se no início de Julho, quando as flores femininas estavam em plena floração, os seguintes tecidos: folhas completamente expandidas, amentilhos androgínicos e flores femininas. No período normal de colheita (Setembro, voltou-se a amostrar as folhas. Determinaram-se as concentrações de macro e micronutrientes nos diversos tecidos. As concentrações de B nos tecidos amostrados em Julho revelaram-se correlacionadas com as de B na folha colhida em Setembro. Enquanto as concentrações de B na folha, em Setembro e em Julho, estavam correlacionadas com a produção de castanha, os outros tecidos não mostraram correlação significativa. Assim, estes resultados sugerem que a folha, colhida em Julho, foi o órgão que se mostrou mais eficiente no diagnóstico precoce da carência de B.This study aims to identify a plant tissue indicator to be used in the early diagnosis of B deficiency in chestnut, which provides a tool to decide the correction measures to be applied in time to improve yield. An orchard with apparent B deficiency was selected, and two levels of B fertilization, B0 and B1- 100 g/tree of Granubor (14.6% of B, were applied. In July, when female flowers were in bloom, the following tissues were sampled: expanded leaves, androgynous catkins and female flowers. Leaves were collected again in the normal period (September and the concentrations of macro- and micronutrients in plant tissues were determined. B content in the tissues collected in July was positively correlated with B contents in leaves sampled in September. Boron concentrations in leaves, irrespective of the sampling period, were correlated

  11. Inherited susceptibility and radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, J.B. [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States)

    1997-03-01

    There is continuing concern that some people in the general population may have genetic makeups that place them at particularly high risk for radiation-induced cancer. The existence of such a susceptible subpopulation would have obvious implications for the estimation of risks of radiation exposure. Although it has been long known that familial aggregations of cancer do sometimes occur, recent evidence suggests that a general genetic predisposition to cancer does not exist; most cancers occur sporadically. On the other hand, nearly 10% of the known Mendelian genetic disorders are associated with cancer. A number of these involve a familial predisposition to cancer, and some are characterized by an enhanced susceptibility to the induction of cancer by various physical and chemical carcinogens, including ionizing radiation. Such increased susceptibility will depend on several factors including the frequency of the susceptibility gene in the population and its penetrance, the strength of the predisposition, and the degree to which the cancer incidence in susceptible individuals may be increased by the carcinogen. It is now known that these cancer-predisposing genes may be responsible not only for rare familial cancer syndromes, but also for a proportion of the common cancers. Although the currently known disorders can account for only a small fraction of all cancers, they serve as models for genetic predisposition to carcinogen-induced cancer in the general population. In the present report, the author describes current knowledge of those specific disorders that are associated with an enhanced predisposition to radiation-induced cancer, and discusses how this knowledge may bear on the susceptibility to radiation-induced cancer in the general population and estimates of the risk of radiation exposure.

  12. pitting corrosion susceptibility pitting corrosion susceptibility of aisi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Abstract. The susceptibility of austenitic (AISI 301) stainless steel to pitting corrosion was evaluated in sodium chloride. (NaCl) solutions ... AISI 301 steel suffers from pitting corrosion in all the investigated solutions. AISI 301 steel suffers from ..... [1] Ijeomah, M.N.C. Elements of Corrosion and Protection. Theory, Auto Century ...

  13. Magnetic Susceptability Measurements in Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jason; Mallory, Kendall; Seim, Ryan

    2000-04-01

    A new undergraduate research facility in magnetic susceptability measurements on superconductors is being developed at the University of Northern Colorado. Initial data measurements of the magnetic susceptability of various superconductors will be presented. These measurements were obtained with a liquid helium/nitrogen dewar that was reassembled for use in this project. The cryostat consists of two separate dewars, the first of which contains liquid nitrogen, the second, liquid helium. The liquid nitrogen dewar is used to keep the helium bath from evaporating off too quickly. Data on the evaporation rates of the two liquids will also be presented.

  14. When do arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi protect plant roots from pathogens?

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin A. Sikes

    2010-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are mainly thought to facilitate phosphorus uptake in plants, but they can also perform several other functions that are equally beneficial. Our recent study sheds light on the factors determining one such function, enhanced plant protection from root pathogens. Root infection by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum was determined by both plant susceptibility and the ability of an AM fungal partner to suppress the pathogen. The non-susceptible plant species...

  15. Susceptibility pays off: insights into the mlo-based powdery mildew resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appiano, Michela

    2016-01-01

    Powdery mildew (PM) is a worldwide-occurring plant disease caused by ascomycete fungi of the order Erysiphales. A conspicuous number of plant species are susceptible to this disease, the occurrence of which is increasing due to the influence of climate change. Symptoms are easy to recognize by the

  16. Relative susceptibility of two sweetpotato varieties to storage root damage by sweetpotato flea beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and wireworm (Coleoptera: Elateridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Mark R; Kennedy, George G

    2011-02-01

    The feeding of soil dwelling insects on storage roots is one of the most serious management issues faced by sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. (Convolvulaceae), growers in the southern United States. Field studies were conducted to evaluate the relative susceptibility of two commonly grown sweetpotato varieties to sweetpotato flea beetle, Chaetocnema confinis Crotch (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae, various species). The incidence and severity of sweetpotato flea beetle damage was significantly lower in the variety Covington than Beauregard in two small plot replicated studies. Surveys conducted in commercial sweetpotato fields also showed significantly less sweetpotato flea beetle damage in fields planted to Covington compared with those planted to Beauregard. There was no clear evidence of varietal effect on the incidence of wireworm damage in the study. Results indicate that the severity of wireworm damage as measured by the size of feeding scars may be less in Covington than Beauregard.

  17. Comparative Life Histories of Greenbugs and Sugarcane Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Coinfesting Susceptible and Resistant Sorghums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayoumy, Mohamed H; Perumal, Ramaswamy; Michaud, J P

    2016-02-01

    Host-plant resistance has been a fundamental component of aphid management in cereal crops. Over decades, various sources of resistance to greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), were bred into cultivars of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, to counter recurring virulent greenbug biotypes. The recent invasion of sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), raised questions about plant-mediated interactions between the two aphids and the possibility of using greenbug antibiosis against sugarcane aphid. The present work was undertaken to characterize the impact of PI 550610 resistance to 'biotype I' greenbug, expressed in seed parental line KS 116B, on aphid life histories and to observe plant-mediated interactions between aphid species in its presence and absence. At 23°C, sugarcane aphid nymphs matured 1.5 d faster than greenbug nymphs on susceptible hybrid P8500, but at similar rates on the resistant line, which delayed maturity by 1-1.5 d in both species and increased juvenile mortality by three- to fourfold. Sugarcane aphid reproductive rate was double that of greenbug on susceptible sorghum (4.45 vs. 2.30 nymphs per female per day), but not significantly different on the resistant one (3.09 vs. 2.27). Thus, PI 550610 expresses antibiosis, not tolerance, to these aphids. Coinfestation of P8500 had a positive effect on greenbug intrinsic rate of increase (rm), which changed to negative on KS 116B, whereas the rm of sugarcane aphid was unaffected by coinfestation with greenbug on either cultivar. The results indicate that KS 116B will be useful for producing sugarcane aphid-resistant hybrids, and that PI 550610 antibiosis changes the sugarcane aphid-greenbug interspecific relationship from commensalism to amensalism. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Indications for Three Independent Domestication Events for the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis (L. O. Kuntze and New Insights into the Origin of Tea Germplasm in China and India Revealed by Nuclear Microsatellites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M K Meegahakumbura

    Full Text Available Tea is the world's most popular non-alcoholic beverage. China and India are known to be the largest tea producing countries and recognized as the centers for the domestication of the tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L. O. Kuntze. However, molecular studies on the origin, domestication and relationships of the main teas, China type, Assam type and Cambod type are lacking.Twenty-three nuclear microsatellite markers were used to investigate the genetic diversity, relatedness, and domestication history of cultivated tea in both China and India. Based on a total of 392 samples, high levels of genetic diversity were observed for all tea types in both countries. The cultivars clustered into three distinct genetic groups (i.e. China tea, Chinese Assam tea and Indian Assam tea based on STRUCTURE, PCoA and UPGMA analyses with significant pairwise genetic differentiation, corresponding well with their geographical distribution. A high proportion (30% of the studied tea samples were shown to possess genetic admixtures of different tea types suggesting a hybrid origin for these samples, including the Cambod type.We demonstrate that Chinese Assam tea is a distinct genetic lineage from Indian Assam tea, and that China tea sampled from India was likely introduced from China directly. Our results further indicate that China type tea, Chinese Assam type tea and Indian Assam type tea are likely the result of three independent domestication events from three separate regions across China and India. Our findings have important implications for the conservation of genetic stocks, as well as future breeding programs.

  19. Indications for Three Independent Domestication Events for the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) and New Insights into the Origin of Tea Germplasm in China and India Revealed by Nuclear Microsatellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meegahakumbura, M. K.; Wambulwa, M. C.; Thapa, K. K.; Li, M. M.; Möller, M.; Xu, J. C.; Yang, J. B.; Liu, B. Y.; Ranjitkar, S.; Liu, J.; Li, D. Z.; Gao, L. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tea is the world’s most popular non-alcoholic beverage. China and India are known to be the largest tea producing countries and recognized as the centers for the domestication of the tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze). However, molecular studies on the origin, domestication and relationships of the main teas, China type, Assam type and Cambod type are lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings Twenty-three nuclear microsatellite markers were used to investigate the genetic diversity, relatedness, and domestication history of cultivated tea in both China and India. Based on a total of 392 samples, high levels of genetic diversity were observed for all tea types in both countries. The cultivars clustered into three distinct genetic groups (i.e. China tea, Chinese Assam tea and Indian Assam tea) based on STRUCTURE, PCoA and UPGMA analyses with significant pairwise genetic differentiation, corresponding well with their geographical distribution. A high proportion (30%) of the studied tea samples were shown to possess genetic admixtures of different tea types suggesting a hybrid origin for these samples, including the Cambod type. Conclusions We demonstrate that Chinese Assam tea is a distinct genetic lineage from Indian Assam tea, and that China tea sampled from India was likely introduced from China directly. Our results further indicate that China type tea, Chinese Assam type tea and Indian Assam type tea are likely the result of three independent domestication events from three separate regions across China and India. Our findings have important implications for the conservation of genetic stocks, as well as future breeding programs. PMID:27218820

  20. Secondary effects of glyphosate on plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyphosate is a unique herbicide with interesting secondary effects. Unfortunately, some have assumed that the secondary effects that occur in glyphosate-susceptible plants treated with glyphosate, such as altered mineral nutrition, reduced phenolic compound production and pathogen resistance, also ...

  1. Topological susceptibility from the overlap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Debbio, Luigi; Pica, Claudio

    2003-01-01

    The chiral symmetry at finite lattice spacing of Ginsparg-Wilson fermionic actions constrains the renormalization of the lattice operators; in particular, the topological susceptibility does not require any renormalization, when using a fermionic estimator to define the topological charge. Theref...

  2. Plants regenerated from tissue culture contain stable epigenome changes in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Hume; Ding, Bo; Simon, Stacey A; Feng, Suhua; Bellizzi, Maria; Pellegrini, Matteo; Wang, Guo-Liang; Meyers, Blake C; Jacobsen, Steven E

    2013-03-19

    Most transgenic crops are produced through tissue culture. The impact of utilizing such methods on the plant epigenome is poorly understood. Here we generated whole-genome, single-nucleotide resolution maps of DNA methylation in several regenerated rice lines. We found that all tested regenerated plants had significant losses of methylation compared to non-regenerated plants. Loss of methylation was largely stable across generations, and certain sites in the genome were particularly susceptible to loss of methylation. Loss of methylation at promoters was associated with deregulated expression of protein-coding genes. Analyses of callus and untransformed plants regenerated from callus indicated that loss of methylation is stochastically induced at the tissue culture step. These changes in methylation may explain a component of somaclonal variation, a phenomenon in which plants derived from tissue culture manifest phenotypic variability. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00354.001.

  3. Estimation of the Population Susceptibility Against Measles in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibolenová, Jana; Chladná, Zuzana; Švihrová, Viera; Baška, Tibor; Waczulíková, Iveta; Hudečková, Henrieta

    2017-03-01

    In Slovakia, thanks to a highly effective vaccination programme, no domestic cases of measles have been reported since 1999. However, there are several outbreaks of measles currently hitting some countries in Europe. Difficulties in reaching the goal of measles elimination make it necessary to monitor the status of the population susceptibility to prevent similar outbreaks in the future. We hypothesize that immunity wanes overtime, which can substantially impact the population susceptibility. This work introduces a model that estimates a proportion of individuals susceptible to measles in the Slovak population in 2015. Our analysis is based on an age-cohort model that incorporates waning immunity, vaccination schedule and changes in demographic structure. The inputs of the model are data on the vaccination coverage, last seroprevalence survey in 2002 and age structure of the population. In a short-term horizon, waning immunity does not affect the estimated proportion of the susceptible population. However, in a long-term horizon, the antibody titers can fall below the level of protection, which would result in a substantial transfer of initially immune individuals to the compartment of the susceptible ones. Incorporating of waning immunity in the cohort model has indicated that the most susceptible cohorts are not-vaccinated youngest children and cohorts born between 1969 and 1986. Applying the model to the current situation shows that people aged 30-45 years and unvaccinated infants represent the most susceptible groups. Model partially replaces missing seroprevalence survey, but, because the parameters of model and phenomenon of waning immunity are not exactly known, we suggest reintroducing the regular national serosurveys in order to empirically determine the level of susceptibility for measles in Slovakia.

  4. A landslide susceptibility map of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeckx, Jente; Vanmaercke, Matthias; Duchateau, Rica; Poesen, Jean

    2017-04-01

    Studies on landslide risks and fatalities indicate that landslides are a global threat to humans, infrastructure and the environment, certainly in Africa. Nonetheless our understanding of the spatial patterns of landslides and rockfalls on this continent is very limited. Also in global landslide susceptibility maps, Africa is mostly underrepresented in the inventories used to construct these maps. As a result, predicted landslide susceptibilities remain subject to very large uncertainties. This research aims to produce a first continent-wide landslide susceptibility map for Africa, calibrated with a well-distributed landslide dataset. As a first step, we compiled all available landslide inventories for Africa. This data was supplemented by additional landslide mapping with Google Earth in underrepresented regions. This way, we compiled 60 landslide inventories from the literature (ca. 11000 landslides) and an additional 6500 landslides through mapping in Google Earth (including 1500 rockfalls). Various environmental variables such as slope, lithology, soil characteristics, land use, precipitation and seismic activity, were investigated for their significance in explaining the observed spatial patterns of landslides. To account for potential mapping biases in our dataset, we used Monte Carlo simulations that selected different subsets of mapped landslides, tested the significance of the considered environmental variables and evaluated the performance of the fitted multiple logistic regression model against another subset of mapped landslides. Based on these analyses, we constructed two landslide susceptibility maps for Africa: one for all landslide types and one excluding rockfalls. In both maps, topography, lithology and seismic activity were the most significant variables. The latter factor may be surprising, given the overall limited degree of seismicity in Africa. However, its significance indicates that frequent seismic events may serve as in important

  5. Magnetic susceptibility as a biosignature in stromatolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petryshyn, Victoria A.; Corsetti, Frank A.; Frantz, Carie M.; Lund, Steve P.; Berelson, William M.

    2016-03-01

    Microbialites have long been a focus of study in geobiology because they are macroscopic sedimentary records of the activities of microscopic organisms. However, abiotic processes can result in microbialite-like morphologies. Developing robust tools for substantiating the biogenicity of putative microbialites remains an important challenge. Here, we report a new potential biosignature based on the detrital magnetic mineral component present in nearly all sedimentary rocks. Detrital grains falling onto a hard, abiogenic, chemically precipitated structure would be expected to roll off surfaces at high incline angles. Thus, the distribution of grains in an abiogenic microbialite should exhibit a dependence on the dip angle along laminae. In contrast, a microbialite formed by the active trapping and binding of detrital grains by microorganisms could exhibit a distribution of detrital grains significantly less dependent on the dip angle of the laminae. However, given that most ancient stromatolites are micritic (composed of carbonate mud), tracking detrital grains vs. precipitated carbonate is not straightforward. Recent advances in our ability to measure miniscule magnetic fields open up the possibility to map magnetic susceptibility as a tracer of detrital grains in stromatolites. In abiogenic carbonate precipitation experiments, magnetic susceptibility fell to zero when the growth surface was inclined above 30° (the angle at which grains rolled off). In cyanobacterial mat experiments, even vertically inclined mats held magnetic material. The results indicate that cyanobacterial mats trap and bind small grains more readily than abiogenic carbonate precipitates alone. A variety of stromatolites of known and unknown biogenicity were then analyzed. Tested stromatolites span many different ages (Eocene to Holocene) and depositional environments (hot springs, lakes), and compositional forms (micritic, sparry crusts, etc.). The results were consistent with the laboratory

  6. Progress report on the evaluation of the susceptibility of the holm oak (Quercus ilex) forest ecosystem to Phytophthora ramorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eduardo Moralejo; Enrique Descals

    2006-01-01

    In preliminary studies on the susceptibility of plant members of the holm oak (Quercus ilex) forest, detached leaves of several woody species were highly susceptible when inoculated with zoospore suspensions of local isolates of Phytophthora ramorum (Moralejo and Hernández 2002). Since then, there have been reports of natural...

  7. Can Pierce’s disease resistance introgressed into Vitis vinifera be translocated from a resistant rootstock to a susceptible scion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this research is to evaluate the potential of a non-transgenic, PD-resistant Vitis vinifera selection used as an experimental rootstock to confer systemic resistance to PD-susceptible V. vinifera scions. Source of PD-susceptible plant material was the wine grape variety ‘Chardonnay’, kno...

  8. Susceptibility of microorganism to selected medicinal plants in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Masud Rana

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: Further chemical and pharmacological investigations are required to identify and isolate chemical constituents responsible for these potential bioactivities and thus to determine their full spectrum of efficacy.

  9. In vitro susceptibility testing of Yersinia species to eight plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... wild honey, processed honey (Laser brand) and processed coffee (Nescafe) on Yersinia pesudotuberculosis, Yersinia enterocolitica 0:3, Yersinia enterocolitica 0:8, Yersinia Kristensenii 0:11, 23, Yersinia intermidia 0:52, 53, and Yersinia intermidia-like bacteria were evaluated. In this study, only processed honey did not ...

  10. Genetic diversity and in vitro antibiotic susceptibility profile of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We assessed the genetic diversity of forty Salmonella isolates obtained from selected domestic water and waste water sources in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa using DNA fingerprinting and antibiotic susceptibility profile as test indices. Restriction digests and SDS/PAGE as well as the DNA dendograms of the ...

  11. Measles outbreak reveals measles susceptibility among adults in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    5 Namibia Country Office, Center for Global Health, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Windhoek, Namibia. 6 World Health Organization Field ... The wide age distribution of cases indicated measles-susceptible individuals accumulated over several decades prior to the start of the outbreak. S Afr Med J 2016 ...

  12. Profiles of antibiotic susceptibilities of bacterial isolates and physico ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Profiles of antibiotic susceptibilities of bacterial isolates and physico-chemical quality of water supply in rural Venda communities, South Africa. ... These effective antibiotics are therefore indicated in the empiric treatment of diarrhoeal cases or water-borne diseases of bacterial aetiology. Keywords: Water quality, Microbial, ...

  13. Species distribution and antifungal susceptibility profile of Candida ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 51 isolates of Candida species were recovered from 122 urine samples. Candida albicans was the most prevalent species 41.2% (21 isolates), followed by C. parapsilosis (27.5%), C. glabrata (17.6%), C. krusei (7.8%) and C. tropicalis (5.9%). Antifungal susceptibility test indicated that 100% and 96.1% of the ...

  14. Transcriptome profiling of resistant and susceptible Cavendish banana roots following inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chun-yu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fusarium wilt, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 (Foc TR4, is considered the most lethal disease of Cavendish bananas in the world. The disease can be managed in the field by planting resistant Cavendish plants generated by somaclonal variation. However, little information is available on the genetic basis of plant resistance to Foc TR4. To a better understand the defense response of resistant banana plants to the Fusarium wilt pathogen, the transcriptome profiles in roots of resistant and susceptible Cavendish banana challenged with Foc TR4 were compared. Results RNA-seq analysis generated more than 103 million 90-bp clean pair end (PE reads, which were assembled into 88,161 unigenes (mean size = 554 bp. Based on sequence similarity searches, 61,706 (69.99% genes were identified, among which 21,273 and 50,410 unigenes were assigned to gene ontology (GO categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG, respectively. Searches in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG mapped 33,243 (37.71% unigenes to 119 KEGG pathways. A total of 5,008 genes were assigned to plant-pathogen interactions, including disease defense and signal transduction. Digital gene expression (DGE analysis revealed large differences in the transcriptome profiles of the Foc TR4-resistant somaclonal variant and its susceptible wild-type. Expression patterns of genes involved in pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP recognition, activation of effector-triggered immunity (ETI, ion influx, and biosynthesis of hormones as well as pathogenesis-related (PR genes, transcription factors, signaling/regulatory genes, cell wall modification genes and genes with other functions were analyzed and compared. The results indicated that basal defense mechanisms are involved in the recognition of PAMPs, and that high levels of defense-related transcripts may contribute to Foc TR4 resistance in

  15. Impact of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium on Brown Planthopper and Tolerance of Its Host Rice Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Mamunur Rashid

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål, appeared as a devastating pest of rice in Asia. Experiments were conducted to study the effects of three nutrients, nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K, on BPH and its host rice plants. Biochemical constituents of BPH and rice plants with varying nutrient levels at different growth stages, and changes in relative water content (RWC of rice plants were determined in the laboratory. Feeding of BPH and the tolerance of rice plants to BPH with different nutrient levels were determined in the nethouse. Concentrations of N and P were found much higher in the BPH body than in its host rice plants, and this elemental mismatch is an inherent constraint on meeting nutritional requirements of BPH. Nitrogen was found as a more limiting element for BPH than other nutrients in rice plants. Application of N fertilizers to the rice plants increased the N concentrations both in rice plants and BPH while application of P and K fertilizers increased their concentrations in plant tissues only but not in BPH. Nitrogen application also increased the level of soluble proteins and decreased silicon content in rice plants, which resulted in increased feeding of BPH with sharp reduction of RWC in rice plants ultimately caused susceptible to the pest. P fertilization increased the concentration of P in rice plant tissues but not changed N, K, Si, free sugar and soluble protein contents, which indicated little importance of P to the feeding of BPH and tolerance of plant against BPH. K fertilization increased K content but reduced N, Si, free sugar and soluble protein contents in the plant tissues which resulted in the minimum reduction of RWC in rice plants after BPH feeding, thereby contributed to higher tolerance of rice plants to brown planthopper.

  16. Reducing Susceptibility to Courtesy Stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachleda, Catherine L; El Menzhi, Leila

    2017-04-19

    In light of the chronic shortage of health professionals willing to care for HIV/AIDS patients, and rising epidemics in many Muslim countries, this qualitative study examined susceptibility and resistance to courtesy stigma as experienced by nurses, doctors, and social workers in Morocco. Forty-nine in-depth interviews provided rich insights into the process of courtesy stigma and how it is managed, within the context of interactions with Islam, interactions within the workplace (patients, other health professionals), and interactions outside the workplace (the general public, friends, and family). Theoretically, the findings extend understanding of courtesy stigma and the dirty work literature. The findings also offer practical suggestions for the development of culturally appropriate strategies to reduce susceptibility to courtesy stigmatization. This study represents the first to explore courtesy stigma as a process experienced by health professionals providing HIV/AIDS care in an Islamic country.

  17. Jasmonate signalling drives time-of-day differences in susceptibility of Arabidopsis to the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, Robert A; Stoker, Claire; Stone, Wendy; Adams, Nicolette; Smith, Rob; Grant, Murray; Carré, Isabelle; Roden, Laura C; Denby, Katherine J

    2015-12-01

    The circadian clock, an internal time-keeping mechanism, allows plants to anticipate regular changes in the environment, such as light and dark, and biotic challenges such as pathogens and herbivores. Here, we demonstrate that the plant circadian clock influences susceptibility to the necrotrophic fungal pathogen, Botrytis cinerea. Arabidopsis plants show differential susceptibility to B. cinerea depending on the time of day of inoculation. Decreased susceptibility after inoculation at dawn compared with night persists under constant light conditions and is disrupted in dysfunctional clock mutants, demonstrating the role of the plant clock in driving time-of-day susceptibility to B. cinerea. The decreased susceptibility to B. cinerea following inoculation at subjective dawn was associated with faster transcriptional reprogramming of the defence response with gating of infection-responsive genes apparent. Direct target genes of core clock regulators were enriched among the transcription factors that responded more rapidly to infection at subjective dawn than subjective night, suggesting an influence of the clock on the defence-signalling network. In addition, jasmonate signalling plays a crucial role in the rhythmic susceptibility of Arabidopsis to B. cinerea with the enhanced susceptibility to this pathogen at subjective night lost in a jaz6 mutant. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Transcriptome and Small RNAome Dynamics during a Resistant and Susceptible Interaction between Cucumber and Downy Mildew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa Burkhardt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber ( L. downy mildew, caused by the obligate oomycete pathogen (Berk. and Curt. Rostov., is the primary factor limiting cucumber production. Although sources of resistance have been identified, such as plant introduction line PI 197088, the genes and processes involved in mediating resistance are still unknown. In the current study, we conducted a comprehensive transcriptome and small RNAome analysis of a resistant (PI 197088 and susceptible (‘Vlaspik’ cucumber during a time course of infection using Illumina sequencing. We identified significantly differentially expressed (DE genes within and between resistant and susceptible cucumber leaves over a time course of infection. Weighted gene correlation network analyses (WGCNA created coexpression modules containing genes with unique expression patterns between Vlaspik and PI 197088. Recurring data trends indicated that resistance to cucumber downy mildew is associated with earlier response to the pathogen, hormone signaling, and regulation of nutrient supply. Candidate resistance genes were identified from multiple transcriptome analyses and literature support. Additionally, parallel sequencing of small RNAs (sRNAs from cucumber and during the infection time course was used to identify and quantify novel and existing microRNA (miRNA in both species. Predicted miRNA targets of cucumber transcripts suggest a complex interconnectedness of gene expression regulation in this plant–pathogen system. This work bioinformatically uncovered gene expression patterns involved in the mediation of or response to resistance. Herein, we provide the foundation for future work to validate candidate resistance genes and miRNA-based regulation proposed in this study.

  19. Genetic Susceptibility to Vitiligo: GWAS Approaches for Identifying Vitiligo Susceptibility Genes and Loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Changbing; Gao, Jing; Sheng, Yujun; Dou, Jinfa; Zhou, Fusheng; Zheng, Xiaodong; Ko, Randy; Tang, Xianfa; Zhu, Caihong; Yin, Xianyong; Sun, Liangdan; Cui, Yong; Zhang, Xuejun

    2016-01-01

    Vitiligo is an autoimmune disease with a strong genetic component, characterized by areas of depigmented skin resulting from loss of epidermal melanocytes. Genetic factors are known to play key roles in vitiligo through discoveries in association studies and family studies. Previously, vitiligo susceptibility genes were mainly revealed through linkage analysis and candidate gene studies. Recently, our understanding of the genetic basis of vitiligo has been rapidly advancing through genome-wide association study (GWAS). More than 40 robust susceptible loci have been identified and confirmed to be associated with vitiligo by using GWAS. Most of these associated genes participate in important pathways involved in the pathogenesis of vitiligo. Many susceptible loci with unknown functions in the pathogenesis of vitiligo have also been identified, indicating that additional molecular mechanisms may contribute to the risk of developing vitiligo. In this review, we summarize the key loci that are of genome-wide significance, which have been shown to influence vitiligo risk. These genetic loci may help build the foundation for genetic diagnosis and personalize treatment for patients with vitiligo in the future. However, substantial additional studies, including gene-targeted and functional studies, are required to confirm the causality of the genetic variants and their biological relevance in the development of vitiligo. PMID:26870082

  20. Antimycotics susceptibility testing of dermatophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsić-Arsenijević Valentina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatophytes are moulds that produce infections of the skin, hair and nails of humans and animals. The most common forms among these infections are onychomycosis and tinea pedis affecting 20% of world population. These infections are usually chronic. The treatment of dermatophytoses tends to be prolonged partly because available treatments are not very effective. Antifungal drug consumption and public health expenditure are high worldwide, as well as in Serbia. For adequate therapy, it is necessary to prove infection by isolation of dermatophytes and to test the antifungal susceptibility of isolates. Susceptibility testing is important for the resistance monitoring, epidemiological research and to compare in vitro activities of new antifungal agents. The diffusion and dilution methods of susceptibility tests are used, and technical issues of importance for the proper performance and interpretation of test results are published in the document E.DEF 9.1 (EUCAST and M38-A2 (CLSI. The aim of our paper is to promptly inform the public about technical achievements in this area, as well as the new organization of laboratory for medical mycology in our country. The formation of laboratory networks coordinated by the National Reference Laboratory for the cause of mycosis need to enable interlaboratory studies and further standardization of methods for antifungal susceptibility testing of dermatophytes, reproducibility of tests and clinical correlation monitoring (MIK values and clinical outcome of dermatophytosis. The importance of the new organization is expected efficient improvement in the dermatophytosis therapy at home, better quality of patient's life and the reduction of the cost of treatment.

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibilities and clinical sources of Facklamia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaClaire, L; Facklam, R

    2000-08-01

    Facklamia spp. are gram-positive cocci, arranged in short chains or diplos, and resemble viridans streptococci on 5% sheep blood agar. Eighteen strains representing four species of Facklamia were isolated from blood cultures, an abscess, bone, cerebrospinal fluid, gall bladder, vaginal swab, and one unknown source. Cultures were tested against 15 antimicrobial agents by using the broth microdilution MIC method. Reduced susceptibilities to the beta lactams, erythromycin, clindamycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline were found. These results indicate that the susceptibilities of the Facklamia species are varied and that some strains have resistance patterns which may present difficulty in managing systemic infections in patients.

  2. Gene Expression Analysis of Plum pox virus (Sharka Susceptibility/Resistance in Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Rubio

    Full Text Available RNA-Seq has proven to be a very powerful tool in the analysis of the Plum pox virus (PPV, sharka disease/Prunus interaction. This technique is an important complementary tool to other means of studying genomics. In this work an analysis of gene expression of resistance/susceptibility to PPV in apricot is performed. RNA-Seq has been applied to analyse the gene expression changes induced by PPV infection in leaves from two full-sib apricot genotypes, "Rojo Pasión" and "Z506-7", resistant and susceptible to PPV, respectively. Transcriptomic analyses revealed the existence of more than 2,000 genes related to the pathogen response and resistance to PPV in apricot. These results showed that the response to infection by the virus in the susceptible genotype is associated with an induction of genes involved in pathogen resistance such as the allene oxide synthase, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase 2 and the major MLP-like protein 423. Over-expression of the Dicer protein 2a may indicate the suppression of a gene silencing mechanism of the plant by PPV HCPro and P1 PPV proteins. On the other hand, there were 164 genes involved in resistance mechanisms that have been identified in apricot, 49 of which are located in the PPVres region (scaffold 1 positions from 8,050,804 to 8,244,925, which is responsible for PPV resistance in apricot. Among these genes in apricot there are several MATH domain-containing genes, although other genes inside (Pleiotropic drug resistance 9 gene or outside (CAP, Cysteine-rich secretory proteins, Antigen 5 and Pathogenesis-related 1 protein; and LEA, Late embryogenesis abundant protein PPVres region could also be involved in the resistance.

  3. Gene Expression Analysis of Plum pox virus (Sharka) Susceptibility/Resistance in Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Manuel; Ballester, Ana Rosa; Olivares, Pedro Manuel; Castro de Moura, Manuel; Dicenta, Federico; Martínez-Gómez, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    RNA-Seq has proven to be a very powerful tool in the analysis of the Plum pox virus (PPV, sharka disease)/Prunus interaction. This technique is an important complementary tool to other means of studying genomics. In this work an analysis of gene expression of resistance/susceptibility to PPV in apricot is performed. RNA-Seq has been applied to analyse the gene expression changes induced by PPV infection in leaves from two full-sib apricot genotypes, "Rojo Pasión" and "Z506-7", resistant and susceptible to PPV, respectively. Transcriptomic analyses revealed the existence of more than 2,000 genes related to the pathogen response and resistance to PPV in apricot. These results showed that the response to infection by the virus in the susceptible genotype is associated with an induction of genes involved in pathogen resistance such as the allene oxide synthase, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase 2 and the major MLP-like protein 423. Over-expression of the Dicer protein 2a may indicate the suppression of a gene silencing mechanism of the plant by PPV HCPro and P1 PPV proteins. On the other hand, there were 164 genes involved in resistance mechanisms that have been identified in apricot, 49 of which are located in the PPVres region (scaffold 1 positions from 8,050,804 to 8,244,925), which is responsible for PPV resistance in apricot. Among these genes in apricot there are several MATH domain-containing genes, although other genes inside (Pleiotropic drug resistance 9 gene) or outside (CAP, Cysteine-rich secretory proteins, Antigen 5 and Pathogenesis-related 1 protein; and LEA, Late embryogenesis abundant protein) PPVres region could also be involved in the resistance.

  4. Measurements of temperature dependence of 'localized susceptibility'

    CERN Document Server

    Shiozawa, H; Ishii, H; Takayama, Y; Obu, K; Muro, T; Saitoh, Y; Matsuda, T D; Sugawara, H; Sato, H

    2003-01-01

    The magnetic susceptibility of some rare-earth compounds is estimated by measuring magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) of rare-earth 3d-4f absorption spectra. The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility obtained by the MCD measurement is remarkably different from the bulk susceptibility in most samples, which is attributed to the strong site selectivity of the core MCD measurement.

  5. In vitro susceptibility testing of fluoroquinolone activity against Salmonella: recent changes to CLSI standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humphries, R. M.; Fang, F. C.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2012-01-01

    significance, and data supporting the revised ciprofloxacin break points. We encourage clinical laboratories to adopt the revised CLSI ciprofloxacin break points for all Salmonella isolates in which susceptibility testing is indicated and discuss the technical issues for laboratories using commercial...... antimicrobial susceptibility systems. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved....

  6. Novel susceptibility locus at 22q11 for diabetic nephropathy in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessman, Maija; Forsblom, Carol; Kaunisto, Mari A

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) affects about 30% of patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and contributes to serious morbidity and mortality. So far only the 3q21-q25 region has repeatedly been indicated as a susceptibility region for DN. The aim of this study was to search for new DN susceptibility loc...

  7. Studies on the susceptibility of peas and field peas cultivars to Ascochyta pisi (Lib.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Furgał-Węgrzycka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to find the plants resistant to Ascochyta pisi causing leaf and spot-pot of peas and field peas. Fourty five cultivars of peas and field peas and 6 breeding materials were tested in field in the period 1975-1978. Cultivars: Bartel, Birte, Borek, Cebeco, Finale and Paloma were to be less susceptible. In laboratory and greenhouse conditions peas and field peas cultivares were examined for susceptible to pathotypes 2 and 4 of Ascochyta pisi. The results obtained proved that cultivars: Borel, cebeco, Finale and Paloma were to be less susceptible to two pathotypes of Ascochyta pisi.

  8. Herbivore defense responses and associated herbivore defense mechanism as revealed by comparing a resistant wild soybean with a susceptible cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyi Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants have evolved sophisticated defense mechanisms against herbivores to help them adapt to the environment. Understanding the defense mechanisms in plants can help us control insects in a more effective manner. In this study, we found that compared with Tianlong 2 (a cultivated soybean with insect susceptibility, ED059 (a wild soybean line with insect resistance contains sharper pubescence tips, as well as lower transcript levels of wound-induced protein kinase (WIPK and salicylic acid-induced protein kinase (SIPK, which are important mitogen-activated protein kinases involved in early defense response to herbivores. The observed lower transcript levels of WIPK and SIPK induced higher levels of jasmonic acid (JA, JA biosynthesis enzymes (AOC3 and some secondary metabolites in ED059. Functional analysis of the KTI1 gene via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in Arabidopsis thaliana indicated that it plays an important role in herbivore defense in ED059. We further investigated the molecular response of third-instar Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner larvae to Tianlong 2 and ED059. We found apoptotic cells only in the midguts of larvae that fed on ED059. Compared with larvae reared on the susceptible cultivar Tianlong 2, transcript levels of catalase (CAT and glutathione S-transferase (GST were up-regulated, whereas those of CAR, CHSB, and TRY were down-regulated in larvae that fed on the highly resistant variety ED059. We propose that these differences underlie the different herbivore defense responses of ED059 and Tianlong 2.

  9. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing in India - A status survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha V

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to a variety of antimicrobial agents is emerging in bacterial pathogens throughout the world. Since the accuracy of the antimicrobial susceptibility data is associated with the performance standard of the test, strict adherence to the standard procedures is essential. The Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion susceptibility test, performed in accordance to NCCLS method gives reliable results and hence predicts clinical efficacy of the antibiotic tested. To assess the standard of performance of the antimicrobial susceptibility test, a survey was conducted by National Institute of Biologicals during 1999-2000. The findings indicated an urgent need of setting up a national quality control laboratory to provide the performance standards, reference Q.C. strains and quality antibiotic discs to ensure reproducible and reliable results.

  10. Predisposition testing for breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzone, K A

    1997-05-01

    To provide an overview of breast cancer predisposition syndromes and the breast and Ovarian cancer susceptibility genes identified to date. To describe the clinical implications of genetic testing for breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility. Published research and educational manuscripts, books, conference proceedings, and personal experiences. Nurses must become knowledgeable of predisposition genetic testing for inherited breast cancer risk including: understanding of the gene being analyzed and associated cancer risks, indications for testing, the limitations of the test, the management options for mutation carriers, risks and benefits of testing, and the long-term psychosocial sequelae. Predisposition testing for alterations in breast cancer susceptibility genes is rapidly moving into the general oncology and primary care community where nurses will play a major role in the provision of genetic services. The role of nursing in cancer genetics includes practice and education, nursing research, and policy initiatives.

  11. Prioritization of Disease Susceptibility Genes Using LSM/SVD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Lejun; Yang, Ronggen; Yan, Qin; Sun, Xiao

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the role of genetics in diseases is one of the most important tasks in the postgenome era. It is generally too expensive and time consuming to perform experimental validation for all candidate genes related to disease. Computational methods play important roles for prioritizing these candidates. Herein, we propose an approach to prioritize disease genes using latent semantic mapping based on singular value decomposition. Our hypothesis is that similar functional genes are likely to cause similar diseases. Measuring the functional similarity between known disease susceptibility genes and unknown genes is to predict new disease susceptibility genes. Taking autism as an instance, the analysis results of the top ten genes prioritized demonstrate they might be autism susceptibility genes, which also indicates our approach could discover new disease susceptibility genes. The novel approach of disease gene prioritization could discover new disease susceptibility genes, and latent disease-gene relations. The prioritized results could also support the interpretive diversity and experimental views as computational evidence for disease researchers.

  12. Characterization and quantification of path dependency in landslide susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samia, Jalal; Temme, Arnaud; Bregt, Arnold; Wallinga, Jakob; Guzzetti, Fausto; Ardizzone, Francesca; Rossi, Mauro

    2017-09-01

    Landslides cause major environmental damage, economic losses and casualties. Although susceptibility to landsliding is usually considered an exclusively location-specific phenomenon, indications exist that landslide history co-determines susceptibility to future landslides. In this contribution, we quantified the role of landslide path dependency (the effect of landslides on landslides) using a multi-temporal landslide inventory from Italy. The fraction of landslides following earlier landslides in the same location exhibited an exponential decay, with susceptibility increasing 15-fold right after an initial landslide, and returning to pre-landslide values after about 25 years. We investigated the role of the geometry and location of a previous landslide for the occurrence of follow-up landslides. Larger landslides are more likely to cause follow-up landslides. Also landslide shape, topographic wetness index, the vertical distance to the nearest channel network, the absolute profile curvature and relative slope position of an earlier landslide, however, are important in predicting whether a follow-up landslide occurs. Combined in a binary logistic model, these attributes correctly predict 60% of times whether a landslide will be followed-up. These findings open the way for time-variant mapping of susceptibility to landslides, by including the effect of the spatio-temporal history of landsliding on susceptibility.

  13. MorTAL Kombat : the story of defense against TAL effectors through loss-of-susceptibility [plus corrigendum

    OpenAIRE

    Hutin, M.; Perez-Quintero, A. L.; Lopez, C; Szurek, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Many plant-pathogenic xanthomonads rely on Transcription Activator-Like (TAL) effectors to colonize their host. This particular family of type Ill effectors functions as specific plant transcription factors via a programmable DNA-binding domain. Upon binding to the promoters of plant disease susceptibility genes in a sequence-specific manner, the expression of these host genes is induced. However, plants have evolved specific strategies to counter the action of TAL effectors and confer resist...

  14. Large-scale analysis of differential gene expression in coffee genotypes resistant and susceptible to leaf miner–toward the identification of candidate genes for marker assisted-selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background A successful development of herbivorous insects into plant tissues depends on coordination of metabolic processes. Plants have evolved complex mechanisms to recognize such attacks, and to trigger a defense response. To understand the transcriptional basis of this response, we compare gene expression profiles of two coffee genotypes, susceptible and resistant to leaf miner (Leucoptera coffella). A total of 22000 EST sequences from the Coffee Genome Database were selected for a microarray analysis. Fluorescence probes were synthesized using mRNA from the infested and non-infested coffee plants. Array hybridization, scanning and data normalization were performed using Nimble Scan® e ArrayStar® platforms. Genes with foldchange values +/-2 were considered differentially expressed. A validation of 18 differentially expressed genes was performed in infected plants using qRT-PCR approach. Results The microarray analysis indicated that resistant plants differ in gene expression profile. We identified relevant transcriptional changes in defense strategies before insect attack. Expression changes (>2.00-fold) were found in resistant plants for 2137 genes (1266 up-regulated and 873 down-regulated). Up-regulated genes include those responsible for defense mechanisms, hypersensitive response and genes involved with cellular function and maintenance. Also, our analyses indicated that differential expression profiles between resistant and susceptible genotypes are observed in the absence of leaf-miner, indicating that defense is already build up in resistant plants, as a priming mechanism. Validation of selected genes pointed to four selected genes as suitable candidates for markers in assisted-selection of novel cultivars. Conclusions Our results show evidences that coffee defense responses against leaf-miner attack are balanced with other cellular functions. Also analyses suggest a major metabolic reconfiguration that highlights the complexity of this response. PMID

  15. Biochemical analysis of plant protection afforded by a nonpathogenic endophytic mutant of Colletotrichum magna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, R.S.; Freeman, S.; Clifton, D.R.; Morrel, J.; Brown, G.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    A nonpathogenic mutant of Colletotrichum magna (path-1) was previously shown to protect watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings from anthracnose disease elicited by wild-type C. magna. Disease protection was observed in stems of path-1-colonized cucurbits but not in cotyledons, indicating that path-1 conferred tissue-specific and/or localized protection. Plant biochemical indicators of a localized and systemic (peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, lignin, and salicylic acid) 'plant-defense' response were investigated in anthracnose-resistant and -susceptible cultivars of cucurbit seedlings exposed to four treatments: (1) water (control), (2) path-1 conidia, (3) wild-type conidia, and (4) challenge conditions (inoculation into path-1 conidia for 48 h and then exposure to wild-type conidia). Collectively, these analyses indicated that disease protection in path-1 colonized plants was correlated with the ability of these plants to mount a defense response more rapidly and to equal or greater levels than plants exposed to wild-type C. magna alone. Watermelon plants colonized with path-1 were also protected against disease caused by Colletotrichum orbiculare and Fusarium oxysporum. A model based on the kinetics of plant-defense activation is presented to explain the mechanism of path-1-conferred disease protection.

  16. Biochemical analysis of plant protection afforded by a nonpathogenic endophytic mutant of Colletotrichum magna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redman, R.S.; Rodriguez, R.J. (Geological Survey, Seattle, WA (United States) Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Botany); Clifton, D.R.; Morrel, J.; Brown, G. (Geological Survey, Seattle, WA (United States)); Freeman, S. (Volcani Center, Bet Dagan (Israel). Dept. of Plant Pathology)

    1999-02-01

    A nonpathogenic mutant of Colletotrichum magna (path-1) was previously shown to protect watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings from anthracnose disease elicited by wild-type C. magna. Disease protection was observed in stems of path-1-colonized cucurbits but not in cotyledons, indicating that path-1 conferred tissue-specific and/or localized protection. Plant biochemical indicators of a localized and systemic (peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, lignin, and salicylic acid) plant-defense response were investigated in anthracnose-resistant and-susceptible cultivars of cucurbit seedlings exposed to four treatments: (1) water (control), (2) path-1 conidia, (3) wild-type conidia, and (4) challenge conditions (inoculation into path-1 conidia for 48 h and then exposure to wild-type conidia). Collectively, these analyses indicated that disease protection in path-1-colonized plants was correlated with the ability of these plants to mount a defense response more rapidly and to equal or greater levels than plants exposed to wild-type C. magna alone. Watermelon plants colonized with path-1 were also protected against disease caused by Colletotrichum orbiculare and Fusarium oxysporum. A model based on the kinetics of plant-defense activation is presented to explain the mechanism of path-1-conferred disease protection.

  17. Wound-induced pectin methylesterases enhance banana (Musa spp. AAA) susceptibility to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Jiang, Shuang; Lin, Guimei; Cai, Jianghua; Ye, Xiaoxi; Chen, Houbin; Li, Minhui; Li, Huaping; Takác, Tomás; Samaj, Jozef; Xu, Chunxiang

    2013-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that plant pectin methylesterases (PMEs) are directly involved in plant defence besides their roles in plant development. However, the molecular mechanisms of PME action on pectins are not well understood. In order to understand how PMEs modify pectins during banana (Musa spp.)-Fusarium interaction, the expression and enzyme activities of PMEs in two banana cultivars, highly resistant or susceptible to Fusarium, were compared with each other. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of PMEs and their effect on pectin methylesterification of 10 individual homogalacturonan (HG) epitopes with different degrees of methylesterification (DMs) were also examined. The results showed that, before pathogen treatment, the resistant cultivar displayed higher PME activity than the susceptible cultivar, corresponding well to the lower level of pectin DM. A significant increase in PME expression and activity and a decrease in pectin DM were observed in the susceptible cultivar but not in the resistant cultivar when plants were wounded, which was necessary for successful infection. With the increase of PME in the wounded susceptible cultivar, the JIM5 antigen (low methyestrified HGs) increased. Forty-eight hours after pathogen infection, the PME activity and expression in the susceptible cultivar were higher than those in the resistant cultivar, while the DM was lower. In conclusion, the resistant and the susceptible cultivars differ significantly in their response to wounding. Increased PMEs and thereafter decreased DMs acompanied by increased low methylesterified HGs in the root vascular cylinder appear to play a key role in determination of banana susceptibility to Fusarium.

  18. Susceptibility of Freesia to hydrogen fluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolting, H.G.

    1973-01-01

    Freesia's are very sensitive to hydrogen-fluoride. If they are exposed for a long period to concentrations between 0.5 and 0.9 part per billion several cultivars may show a severe damage. Differences in susceptibility between the varieties appear to exist. Some varieties that were heavily injured by HF had almost no flowers and a much lower yield of corns. After fumigation during a long period with very low concentrations of HF, besides the damage characteristic for HF (necrotic leaf tips and margins) there appeared oblong brown spots and stripes between the veins, which mimic the symptoms caused by the third freesia virus, also called bladnecrose. Some of the cultivars show this effect rather generally, in others it occurs only in a few plants. It could be demonstrated with the cultivars Rose Marie and Royal Blue that the sensitivity for HF increases by the presence of bladnecrose. This points to a synergistic action of hydrogen fluoride and the bladnecrose virus.

  19. Multiscale/multiresolution landslides susceptibility mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grozavu, Adrian; Cătălin Stanga, Iulian; Valeriu Patriche, Cristian; Toader Juravle, Doru

    2014-05-01

    elevation models based on topographical maps, 1:25,000 and 1:5,000), the lithology (from geological maps, 1:200,000), land cover and land use (from CLC 2006 to maps derived from orthorectified aerial images, 0.5 meters resolution), rainfall (from Worldclim, ECAD to our own data), the seismicity (the seismic zonation of Romania) etc. The landslide inventory was created as polygonal data based on aerial images (resolution 0.5 meters), the information being considered at county level (NUTS 3) and, eventually, at communal level (LAU2). The methodological framework is based on the logistic regression as a quantitative method and the analytic hierarchy process as a semi-qualitative methods, both being applied once identically for all scales and once recalibrated for each scale and resolution (from 1:1,000,000 and one km pixel resolution to 1:25,000 and ten meters resolution). The predictive performance of the two models was assessed using the ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curve and the AUC (Area Under Curve) parameter and the results indicate a good correspondence between the susceptibility estimated for the test samples (0.855-0.890) and for the validation samples (0.830-0.865). Finally, the results were compared in pairs in order to fix the errors at small scale and low resolution and to optimize the methodology for landslide susceptibility mapping on large areas.

  20. Indications for Three Independent Domestication Events for the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) and New Insights into the Origin of Tea Germplasm in China and India Revealed by Nuclear Microsatellites

    OpenAIRE

    Meegahakumbura, M. K.; M C Wambulwa; Thapa, K. K.; Li, M.M.; M. Möller; Xu, J. C.; J B Yang; B.Y. Liu; Ranjitkar, S; J Liu; Li, D. Z.; Gao, L. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tea is the world?s most popular non-alcoholic beverage. China and India are known to be the largest tea producing countries and recognized as the centers for the domestication of the tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze). However, molecular studies on the origin, domestication and relationships of the main teas, China type, Assam type and Cambod type are lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings Twenty-three nuclear microsatellite markers were used to investigate the genetic d...

  1. Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance of Listeria monocytogenes Strains Isolated from a Pork Processing Plant and Its Respective Meat Markets in Southern China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Lili; Olsen, Rikke Heidemann; Ye, Lei

    2016-01-01

    A total of 78 Listeria monocytogenes isolates from a pork processing plant and the respective meat markets in southern China were examined. This number includes 60 isolates from pork at markets, 5 from cooked pork products at markets, 10 from pork at a processing plant, and 3 from food......-contact surfaces at the processing plant. All isolates were subjected to serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and molecular basis of antibiotic resistance. Four serogroups were identified among the 78 tested isolates, with serogroup I (serotypes: 1/2a and 3a...... types were found persistent from the processing plant to markets indicating that these two types of isolates were able to survive under environmental adverse conditions from the processing plant to markets, which need to be monitored. Compared to samples from the pork processing plant, the prevalence of...

  2. Susceptibility of Aeromonas Hydophila Isolates to Antimicrobial Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Stojanov

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila is a microorganism widely distributed in nature: in water, soil, food. It is also part of the normal bacterial flora of many animals. As an opportune microorganism it is a secondary biological agent that contributes to the occurrence of a fish disease and its deterioration. Frequently, its presence is an indication of bad zoohygiene and zootechnical conditions in fish ponds. Reduced quality and quantity of feed, mechanical injuries, parasitosis, seasonal oscillation in temperature present some of the factors that produce favorable conditions for bacterial proliferation of aeromonas in fish ponds, so clinical symptoms of the disease occur. Aeromonas is almost always present in clinical isolates and may be unjustly accused for bad health of fish. Antibiotic therapy is applied even when the clinical findings are clear, what certainly effects the susceptibility to chemotherapeutics. The subject of our work was bacteriological examination of the material obtained from the carps with the observed skin changes and the carps without these changes. Also, antimicrobial susceptibility of Aeromonas hydrophila was tested. The aim of this research was to determined the presence of Aeromonas hydrophilia in the carp ponds and to test antibiotic susceptibility. The material consisted of the samples from the fish ponds where the carps were with and without changed skin. The method the isolation of Aeromonas hydrophila was used. The diffusion disk technique was used for testing antibiotic susceptibility. The isolates were tested for their susceptibility to Florephenikol, Flumequine, Olaqindox and Oxitetracycline. The obtained results point that antimicrobial susceptibility was the same regardless of the origin of the samples, i.e. the resistance was the same for both groups of samples (the strains isolated from the fish with skin changes and the strains from fish without changes on skin. The strains were highly resistant: 35% were resistant to

  3. Inoculation of Transgenic Resistant Potato by Phytophthora infestans Affects Host Plant Choice of a Generalist Moth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kibrom B Abreha

    Full Text Available Pathogen attack and the plant's response to this attack affect herbivore oviposition preference and larval performance. Introduction of major resistance genes against Phytophthora infestans (Rpi-genes, the cause of the devastating late blight disease, from wild Solanum species into potato changes the plant-pathogen interaction dynamics completely, but little is known about the effects on non-target organisms. Thus, we examined the effect of P. infestans itself and introduction of an Rpi-gene into the crop on host plant preference of the generalist insect herbivore, Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. In two choice bioassays, S. littoralis preferred to oviposit on P. infestans-inoculated plants of both the susceptible potato (cv. Desiree and an isogenic resistant clone (A01-22: cv. Desiree transformed with Rpi-blb1, when compared to uninoculated plants of the same genotype. Both cv. Desiree and clone A01-22 were equally preferred for oviposition by S. littoralis when uninoculated plants were used, while cv. Desiree received more eggs compared to the resistant clone when both were inoculated with the pathogen. No significant difference in larval and pupal weight was found between S. littoralis larvae reared on leaves of the susceptible potato plants inoculated or uninoculated with P. infestans. Thus, the herbivore's host plant preference in this system was not directly associated with larval performance. The results indicate that the Rpi-blb1 based resistance in itself does not influence insect behavior, but that herbivore oviposition preference is affected by a change in the plant-microbe interaction.

  4. Genetic susceptibility to environmental toxicants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    The toxicological challenges to the chemical industry have in recent years been greatly affected by the rapid innovation and development of analytical, molecular and genetic technologies. ECETOC recognises the importance of developing the technical and intellectual skill bases in academia...... and industrial based laboratories to meet the rapid development of the science base of toxicology. As the technology to determine genetic susceptibility develops, so scientist will be able to describe altered gene expression provoked by chemicals long before they are able to offer valid interpretations...... of their meaning. A potential for inadvertently raising concerns over the effect of chemicals in experimental animals or man, or even the intentional misrepresentation of results to suggest chemicals are “playing” with our genes is enormous. History has shown that some individuals and groups in society are willing...

  5. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND SUSCEPTIBILITY OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    In recent years, the problem of multiple drug resistance is growing and the outlook for the use ... The plant leaves and twigs were air-dried for two weeks. They were pulverized into powder with a mechanical blender and sieved with 0.50mm mesh. ... Phytochemical Analysis: The extracts of Evolvulus alsinoides were tested ...

  6. Jasmonate signalling drives time-of-day differences in susceptibility of Arabidopsis to the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingle, R.A.; Stoker, C.; Stone, W.; Adams, N.; Smith, R.W.; Grant, M.; Carré, I.; Roden, L.C.; Denby, K.J.

    2015-01-01

    The circadian clock, an internal timekeeping mechanism, allows plants to anticipate regular changes in the environment, such as light and dark, and biotic challenges such as pathogens and herbivores. Here, we demonstrate that the plant circadian clock influences susceptibility to the necrotrophic

  7. Accuracy of magnetic resonance based susceptibility measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdevig, Hannah E.; Russek, Stephen E.; Carnicka, Slavka; Stupic, Karl F.; Keenan, Kathryn E.

    2017-05-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is increasingly used to map the magnetic susceptibility of tissue to identify cerebral microbleeds associated with traumatic brain injury and pathological iron deposits associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Accurate measurements of susceptibility are important for determining oxygen and iron content in blood vessels and brain tissue for use in noninvasive clinical diagnosis and treatment assessments. Induced magnetic fields with amplitude on the order of 100 nT, can be detected using MRI phase images. The induced field distributions can then be inverted to obtain quantitative susceptibility maps. The focus of this research was to determine the accuracy of MRI-based susceptibility measurements using simple phantom geometries and to compare the susceptibility measurements with magnetometry measurements where SI-traceable standards are available. The susceptibilities of paramagnetic salt solutions in cylindrical containers were measured as a function of orientation relative to the static MRI field. The observed induced fields as a function of orientation of the cylinder were in good agreement with simple models. The MRI susceptibility measurements were compared with SQUID magnetometry using NIST-traceable standards. MRI can accurately measure relative magnetic susceptibilities while SQUID magnetometry measures absolute magnetic susceptibility. Given the accuracy of moment measurements of tissue mimicking samples, and the need to look at small differences in tissue properties, the use of existing NIST standard reference materials to calibrate MRI reference structures is problematic and better reference materials are required.

  8. Proteochemometric modeling of HIV protease susceptibility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lapins, Maris; Eklund, Martin; Spjuth, Ola; Prusis, Peteris; Wikberg, Jarl E S

    2008-01-01

    .... Therefore, we used proteochemometrics to model the susceptibility of HIV to protease inhibitors in current use, utilizing descriptions of the physico-chemical properties of mutated HIV proteases...

  9. Assessing transport susceptibility of rapeseed meal fractionation products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Bojanowska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Having considered increasing production of liquid and solid biofuels from rapeseed and bearing in mind its stable and unquestionable position in  the food and animal feed industries, a rational approach towards technologically and logistically efficient utilization of by-products from rapeseed processing is required. The aim of the research presented in the article is to assess the transport susceptibility of rapeseed meal fractions, varying according to particle size and chemical composition. Methods: Resistance to changes stimulating self-heating has been assumed as the main criterion of transport susceptibility. The following diagnostic variables have been experimentally determined: total protein, crude fat and crude fiber content, porosity, and water activity in the fraction of examined meal. In order to organize a set of particles and to indicate their optimal applications according to criteria chosen with regard to both  utilization and transportation, two aggregate indicators have been calculated. Results: It has been proved that medium-sized particle fractions (0.075-0.4 mm exhibit the lowest transport susceptibility, whereas the those with the largest granulations (>3 mm -have the highest. One significant relationship is the decline of feeding value and concurrent increase in the transport susceptibility of meal fractions, which in practice means that those fractions least-favoured by the animal feed industry can be least cumbersome to transport. Conclusions: It has been suggested that there should be a division of rapeseed meal into two products with different applications and different transport susceptibility. The fractioning of meal can bring numerous, measurable benefits for the meal industry and logistics processes for solid biofuels, where storage and transport properties have considerable importance, alongside commodity price and transport costs.

  10. Rapid, automated, nonradiometric susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex to four first-line antituberculous drugs used in standard short-course chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Isik Somuncu; Thomsen, Vibeke Østergaard; Marjamäki, Merja

    2004-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis necessitates rapid and accurate susceptibility testing. The nonradiometric BACTEC Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube 960 (MGIT) system for susceptibility testing was evaluated on 222 clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates...... MGIT system is a rapid and reliable alternative for susceptibility testing of M. tuberculosis complex to first-line drugs....

  11. Citotoxicidade de plantas com indicativo etnográfico para a desinfecção de água Cytotoxicity of plants as an ethnographic indicator for water disinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Gonçalves

    2009-01-01

    disinfectants which, combined with organic residues, result in trihalomethane (potentially oncogenic. The aim of this work was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of five plant extracts, capable of promoting water disinfection, against six cell lines: Vero (ATCC CCl81 African green monkey cells; MDBK (ATCC CCL 24 Martin Darby Bonne kidney cells; MDCK (ATCC CCL 34 Canis familiaris kidney cells; CRFK (ATCC CCL 94 Felix catus kidney cells; PK 15 (ATCC CCL 33 Sus scrofa kidney cells; RK13 (ATCC CCL 37 Oryctolagus cuniculus kidney cells, as well as to evaluate the most sensitive cell cultures for the toxicity test of plant extracts. The most toxic extract was that of white goosefoot (Chenopodium album against all tested cells. California arrowhead (Sagittaria montevidensis extract had median toxicity and extracts of "erva baleeira" (Cordia curassavica, miracle leaf (Bryophyllum pinnatum [Kurz] and colombian waxweed (Cuphea carthagenensis [Jacq.] J.F. Macbride were the least toxic. This finding was statistically significant (p=0.99 when the plant extracts were compared regarding the concentrations and the studied cells. The most sensitive cells were VERO (monkey kidney and CRFK (feline kidney compared to the others (MDBK, MDCK, PK 15, RK 13, with significant difference (p=0.99. In conclusion, plant extracts must be evaluated as to their toxicity before being used as health resources and some cells are more effective than others in the detection of cytopathogenic effects.

  12. Identification of RAPD marker for the White Backed Plant Hopper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-08

    Mar 8, 2010 ... The experimental material consisted of two parents Gurjari (white backed plant hopper resistant) and. Jaya (white backed plant hopper susceptible) and their F2 progeny. The purpose of the study was the identification of RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) marker for white backed plant hopper.

  13. Antimicrobial nature and use of some medicinal plants in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty eight medicinal plants in Nigeria were screened for their antimicrobial activity. Twenty three (47.91%) of the plants caused over 70% mortality of the test organism which include anopheline and culicine larva. Bacillus spp. and Escherichia coli were shown to be susceptible to the antimicrobial activity of some plants.

  14. Hormesis and plant biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calabrese, Edward J. [Department of Public Health, Environmental Health Sciences Division, Pleasant Street, Morrill I, N344, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)], E-mail: edwardc@schoolph.umass.edu; Blain, Robyn B. [Department of Public Health, Environmental Health Sciences Division, Pleasant Street, Morrill I, N344, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2009-01-15

    A database has been developed that demonstrates experimental evidence of hormesis. It includes information from a broad range of biological models, including plants, and information on study design, dose-response features, and physical/chemical properties of the agents. An assessment of plant hormetic dose responses is presented based on greater than 3000 plant endpoints. Plant hormetic dose responses were observed for numerous endpoints including disease incidence, reproductive indices, mutagenic endpoints, various metabolic parameters, developmental processes, and a range of growth indicators. Quantitative features of these dose responses typically display a maximum stimulatory response less than two-fold greater than controls and a width of the stimulatory response usually less than 10-fold in dose range. The database establishes that hormetic dose responses commonly occur in plants, are broadly generalizable, and have quantitative features similar to hormetic dose responses found for animals. - Hormesis commonly occurs within plant species.

  15. Smoking tobacco in Costa Rica: susceptibility, consumption and dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Fonseca-Chaves

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify factors associated with susceptibility, tobacco use and addiction in young people from 13 to 15 years of age, to determine conditions of risk and identify possible correlates to the development of public policies on smoking in Costa Rica. Materials and methods. Information available from the four rounds of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS Costa Rica was used. It was based on a sample size of 11 540 youngsters from public and private schools. Indicators of interest and logistic regression models for smoking, susceptibility and addiction were estimated. Results. The prevalence of current consumption shows a significant decrease over the 14 years of the study (17.3% in 1999 and 5.0% in 2013 and, to a lesser intensity, in the index of smoking susceptibility (19.3% in 1999 and 12.4% in 2013. The proportion of young people with addiction has shown a significant increase in the same period. Conclusions. The conditions that explained the significant reduction in smoking prevalence and less susceptibility must be maintained and deepened to achieve full compliance of the MPower measures.

  16. Soil susceptibility to compaction under use conditions in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mazurana

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The degree of soil compaction is intensified by its inadequate management, compaction being variable depending on soil type since even under identical management conditions, different types have different abilities to withstand load. The objective of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility to compaction of different classes of soils under no-tillage (NT croping system compared to the original condition. Thus, i soils with the same source material have distinct resistance to compression with increased NT adoption time; ii the most sensitive indicators of this change are the ratios mass:volume and volume:volume and; iii there is a relationship between resistance and compaction susceptibility with the amount and type of oxide. Soil samples were collected in areas under NT and under natural condition in order to assess the impact imposed by the NT on the attributes density and porosity, precompression stress and compressibility index and relate them to the oxide type of, and content in, the soils under study. The results show that the density and macroporosity were those most affected by the NT agricultural use, regardless of soil type, that is, its dynamic is related more to soil use and less to mineralogical characteristics. The soil resistance and compaction susceptibility were higher in soil developed in basalt, followed by those developed in sandstone and granite. Both the organic matter content and type and concentration of iron oxides were related to the soil resistance and susceptibility to compaction.

  17. Spin susceptibility of Anderson impurities in arbitrary conduction bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Tie-Feng; Tong, Ning-Hua; Cao, Zhan; Sun, Qing-Feng; Luo, Hong-Gang

    2015-10-01

    Spin susceptibility of Anderson impurities is a key quantity in understanding the physics of Kondo screening. Traditional numerical renormalization group (NRG) calculation of the impurity contribution χimp to susceptibility, defined originally by Wilson in a flat wide band, has been generalized before to structured conduction bands. The results brought about non-Fermi-liquid and diamagnetic Kondo behaviors in χimp, even when the bands are not gapped at the Fermi energy. Here, we use the full density-matrix (FDM) NRG to present high-quality data for the local susceptibility χloc and to compare them with χimp obtained by the traditional NRG. Our results indicate that those exotic behaviors observed in χimp are unphysical. Instead, the low-energy excitations of the impurity in arbitrary bands only without gap at the Fermi energy are still a Fermi liquid and paramagnetic. We also demonstrate that unlike the traditional NRG yielding χloc less accurate than χimp, the FDM method allows a high-precision dynamical calculation of χloc at much reduced computational cost, with an accuracy at least one order higher than χimp. Moreover, artifacts in the FDM algorithm to χimp and origins of the spurious non-Fermi-liquid and diamagnetic features are clarified. Our work provides an efficient high-precision algorithm to calculate the spin susceptibility of impurity for arbitrary structured bands, while negating the applicability of Wilson's definition to such cases.

  18. Studies on maize inbred lines susceptibility to herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović Lidija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of results obtained during long- term studies on the response of maize inbred lines to herbicides. Under the agroecological conditions of Zemun Polje the response (reaction of maize inbred lines to herbicides of different classes was investigated. Biological tests were performed and some agronomic, morphological, physiological and biochemical parameters were determined when the response of maize inbred lines to herbicides was estimated. The use of active ingredients of herbicides from triazine, acetanilide, thiocarbamate to new chemical groups (sulfonylurea etc., have been resulted in changes in weed suppression and susceptibility of inbred lines. Obtained results show that effects of herbicides on susceptible maize genotypes can be different: they can slowdown the growth and development and affect the plant height; they can also affect the stages of the tassel and ear development and at the end they can reduced grain yield of the tested inbreds. Numerous studies confirmed the existence of differences in susceptibility level of maize genotypes in relation to herbicides. According to gained results the recommendations for growers are made on the possibility of the application of new herbicides in the hybrid seed production.

  19. Contrasting Susceptibilities to Flavescence Dorée in Vitis vinifera, Rootstocks and Wild Vitis Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eveillard, Sandrine; Jollard, Camille; Labroussaa, Fabien; Khalil, Dima; Perrin, Mireille; Desqué, Delphine; Salar, Pascal; Razan, Frédérique; Hévin, Cyril; Bordenave, Louis; Foissac, Xavier; Masson, Jean E.; Malembic-Maher, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Flavescence dorée (FD) is a quarantine disease of grapevine, involving interactions between the plants, leafhopper vectors, and FD phytoplasma. Characterizing the susceptibility of vine varieties could limit disease propagation. After extensive surveys in vineyards, we showed that Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) is highly susceptible, with a high proportion of symptomatic branches and phytoplasma titers, in contrast to Merlot (M). Localized insect transmissions and grafting showed that phytoplasma circulate in the whole plant in the CS cultivar, but in M they are restricted to the transmission point. Insect-mediated transmission under high confinement mimicking natural conditions confirmed these phenotypes and allowed the classification of 28 Vitis accessions into three distinct categories, according to the percentage of infected plants and their phytoplasma titers. Reduced symptoms, low phytoplasma titers, and low percentages of infected plants were found to be associated in the Vitis vinifera cultivars tested. Interestingly, the low susceptibility of M was observed for one of its parents, i.e., Magdeleine Noire des Charentes. Rootstocks and their Vitis parents, although having high percentages of infected plants and intermediate to high phytoplasma titers, shared a symptomless response. This is troubling, because rootstocks can constitute a silent reservoir of contamination in mother plants or when they grow wild nearby vineyards. Altogether, data suggest distribution of genetic traits within the Vitis genus involved in insect-mediated phytoplasma transmission, multiplication, circulation, and symptom development. PMID:27965681

  20. Does competition between soybeans and Wild Poinsettia with low-level resistance or susceptibility to glyphosate affect physiology and secondary metabolism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André da Rosa Ulguim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Wild Poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla L. has elevated potential to reduce the soybean yield and is a difficult to control plant due to herbicide resistance. The objectives of this study were to determine the changes in the photosynthetic physiological parameters, secondary metabolite levels, cellular damage, and antioxidant system activity in soybean plants and Wild Poinsettia biotypes with a low level of resistance or susceptibility to glyphosate in competition with soybeans. Two replacement series experiments were conducted in a greenhouse under competition between soybeans and the low-level resistant biotype (experiment I or susceptible biotype (experiment II. The treatments consisted of different proportions of soybean plants and Wild Poinsettia [100:0 (pure stand of soybean, 50:50, and 0:100 (pure stand of Wild Poinsettia] and different evaluation periods (the 2013/14 and 2014/15 growing seasons. The following parameters were analyzed: the chlorophyll, carotenoid (CRT, total phenol, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, and lipid peroxidation levels and the catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, and superoxide dismutase (SOD enzyme activity. Generally, competition between the soybeans and the Wild Poinsettia biotypes did not alter the photosynthetic parameters or the photosynthetic pigment levels of the crop. For the weed biotypes, competition with the soybeans negatively affected photosynthesis. Greater losses of chlorophylls and CRTs were observed for the susceptible biotype when in competition with soybeans, whereas the opposite trend was observed for the biotype with a low level of resistance. No cellular damage or alterations in antioxidant system enzyme activity was observed, which indicated a lack of oxidative stress.

  1. Effect of seedling age on the susceptibility and early growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Screen house studies were conducted to test the effect of various seedling ages on the susceptibility and early growth of Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White, 1919) Chitwood, 1949 infested okra Abelmoschus esculentus (L) Moench seedlings. Pure culture of M. incognita infected Celosia argentea L. cv. TLV-13 plant ...

  2. Host phenology and leaf effects on susceptibility of California bay laurel to Phytophthora ramorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven F. Johnston; Michael F. Cohen; Tamas Torok; Ross K. Meentemeyer; Nathan E. Rank

    2016-01-01

    Spread of the plant pathogen Phytophthora ramorum, causal agent of the forest disease sudden oak death, is driven by a few competent hosts that support spore production from foliar lesions. The relationship between traits of a principal foliar host, California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica), and susceptibility to

  3. Simulated winter browsing may lead to induced susceptibility of willows to beavers in spring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veraart, A.J.; Nolet, B.A.; Rosell, F.; De Vries, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Browsing may lead to an induced resistance or susceptibility of the plant to the herbivore. We tested the effect of winter browsing by Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber L., 1758) on food quality of holme willows (Salix dasyclados Wimm.) in and after the following growth season. Shrubs were pruned in

  4. Sublethal Triclosan Exposure Decreases Susceptibility to Gentamicin and Other Aminoglycosides in Listeria monocytogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ellen Gerd; Gram, Lone; Kastbjerg, Vicky Gaedt

    2011-01-01

    The human food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is capable of persisting in food processing plants despite cleaning and sanitation and is likely exposed to sublethal biocide concentrations. This could potentially affect susceptibility of the bacterium to biocides and other antimicrobial agents...

  5. Influence of tectonic folding on rockfall susceptibility, American Fork Canyon, Utah, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Coe

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine rockfall susceptibility of folded strata in the Sevier fold-thrust belt exposed in American Fork Canyon in north-central Utah. Large-scale geologic mapping, talus production data, rock-mass-quality measurements, and historical rockfall data indicate that rockfall susceptibility is correlated with limb dip and curvature of the folded, cliff-forming Mississippian limestones. On fold limbs, rockfall susceptibility increases as dip increases. This relation is controlled by several factors, including an increase in adverse dip conditions and apertures of discontinuities, and shearing by flexural slip during folding that has reduced the friction angles of discontinuities by smoothing surface asperities. Susceptibility is greater in fold hinge zones than on adjacent limbs primarily because there are greater numbers of discontinuities in hinge zones. We speculate that susceptibility increases in hinge zones as fold curvature becomes tighter.

  6. Expression of cry2Ah1 and two domain II mutants in transgenic tobacco confers high resistance to susceptible and Cry1Ac-resistant cotton bollworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengyan; Wang, Zeyu; Zhou, Yiyao; Li, Changhui; Wang, Guiping; Wang, Hai; Zhang, Jie; Liang, Gemei; Lang, Zhihong

    2018-01-11

    To improve the novel Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal gene cry2Ah1 toxicity, two mutants cry2Ah1-vp (V354VP) and cry2Ah1-sp (V354SP) were performed. SWISS-MODEL analysis showed two mutants had a longer loop located between β-4 and β-5 of domain II, resulting in higher binding affinity with brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) of Helicoverpa armigera comparing with Cry2Ah1. The cry2Ah1, cry2Ah1-vp, and cry2Ah1-sp were optimized codon usage according to plant codon bias, and named mcry2Ah1, mcry2Ah1-vp, and mcry2Ah1-sp. They were transformed into tobacco via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and a total of 4, 8, and 24 transgenic tobacco plants were obtained, respectively. The molecular detection showed the exogenous gene was integrated into tobacco genome, and successfully expressed at the transcript and translation levels. Cry2Ah1 protein in transgenic tobacco plants varied from 4.41 to 40.28 μg g -1 fresh weight. Insect bioassays indicated that all transgenic tobacco plants were highly toxic to both susceptible and Cry1Ac-resistant cotton bollworm larvae, and the insect resistance efficiency to Cry1Ac-resistant cotton bollworm was highest in mcry2Ah1-sp transgenic tobacco plants. The results demonstrated that cry2Ah1 was a useful Bt insecticidal gene to susceptible and Cry1Ac-resistant cotton bollworm and had potential application for insect biocontrol and as a candidate for pyramid strategy in Bt crops.

  7. Plant virus infections control stomatal development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Rose R.; Emblow, Mark S. M.; Hetherington, Alistair M.; Foster, Gary D.

    2016-09-01

    Stomata are important regulators of carbon dioxide uptake and transpirational water loss. They also represent points of vulnerability as bacterial and fungal pathogens utilise this natural opening as an entry portal, and thus have an increasingly complex relationship. Unlike the situation with bacterial and fungal pathogens, we know very little about the role of stomata in viral infection. Here we report findings showing that viral infection influences stomatal development in two susceptible host systems (Nicotiana tabacum with TMV (Tobacco mosaic virus), and Arabidopsis thaliana with TVCV (Turnip vein-clearing virus)), but not in resistant host systems (Nicotiana glutinosa and Chenopodium quinoa with TMV). Virus infected plants had significantly lower stomatal indices in systemic leaves of susceptible systems; N. tabacum 9.8% reduction and A. thaliana 12.3% reduction, but not in the resistant hosts. Stomatal density in systemic leaves was also significantly reduced in virus infected A. thaliana by 19.6% but not in N. tabacum or the resistant systems. In addition, transpiration rate was significantly reduced in TMV infected N. tabacum.

  8. Emergence of native plant seeds in response to seed pelleting, planting depth, scarification, and soil anti-crusting treatment, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clint Shock; Erik Feibert; Lamont Saunders; Nancy Shaw

    2010-01-01

    Seed of native plants is needed to restore rangelands of the Intermountain West. Reliable commercial seed production is desirable to provide the quantity of seed needed for restoration efforts. Establishment of native seed crops has been difficult, because fall-planted seed is susceptible to bird damage, soil crusting, and soil erosion. Fall planting is important for...

  9. Indicators+: a proposal for everyday peace indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Ginty, Roger

    2013-02-01

    Many of the approaches to measuring peace favoured by international organisations, INGOs and donor governments are deficient. Their level of analysis is often too broad or too narrow, and their aggregated statistical format often means that they represent the conflict-affected area in ways that are meaningless to local communities. This article takes the form of a proposal for a new generation of locally organised indicators that are based in everyday life. These indicators are inspired by practice from sustainable development in which indicators are crowd sourced. There is the potential for these to become 'indicators+' or part of a conflict transformation exercise as communities think about what peace might look like and how it could be realised. The article advocates a form of participatory action research that would be able to pick up the textured 'hidden transcript' found in many deeply divided societies and could allow for better targeted peacebuilding and development assistance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Effects of Cold Stress on Photosynthesis in Hibiscus Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Miriam; Quiles, María José

    2015-01-01

    The present work studies the effects of cold on photosynthesis, as well as the involvement in the chilling stress of chlororespiratory enzymes and ferredoxin-mediated cyclic electron flow, in illuminated plants of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. Plants were sensitive to cold stress, as indicated by a reduction in the photochemistry efficiency of PSII and in the capacity for electron transport. However, the susceptibility of leaves to cold may be modified by root temperature. When the stem, but not roots, was chilled, the quantum yield of PSII and the relative electron transport rates were much lower than when the whole plant, root and stem, was chilled at 10°C. Additionally, when the whole plant was cooled, both the activity of electron donation by NADPH and ferredoxin to plastoquinone and the amount of PGR5 polypeptide, an essential component of the cyclic electron flow around PSI, increased, suggesting that in these conditions cyclic electron flow helps protect photosystems. However, when the stem, but not the root, was cooled cyclic electron flow did not increase and PSII was damaged as a result of insufficient dissipation of the excess light energy. In contrast, the chlororespiratory enzymes (NDH complex and PTOX) remained similar to control when the whole plant was cooled, but increased when only the stem was cooled, suggesting the involvement of chlororespiration in the response to chilling stress when other pathways, such as cyclic electron flow around PSI, are insufficient to protect PSII.

  11. Search for new breast cancer susceptibility genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenburg, Rogier Abel

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the search for new high-risk breast cancer susceptibility genes by linkage analysis. To date 20-25% of familial breast cancer is explained by mutations in the high-risk BRCA1 and BRCA2 breast cancer susceptibility genes. For the remaining families the genetic etiology is

  12. Mapping markers linked to porcine salmonellosis susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galina-Pantoja, L.; Siggens, K.; Schriek, van M.G.M.; Heuven, H.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify pig chromosomal regions associated with susceptibility to salmonellosis. Genomic DNA from pig reference populations with differences in susceptibility to Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis as quantified by spleen and liver bacterial colonization at day 7

  13. Crystal morphology change by magnetic susceptibility force

    OpenAIRE

    Katsuki, Aiko; Aibara, Shigeo; Tanimoto, Yoshifumi

    2006-01-01

    We found a change in morphology when lysozyme crystals were grown in a magnetic field. The phenomenon was caused by the magnetic force derived from the magnetic susceptibility gradient. We propose that this force should be called the “magnetic susceptibility force".

  14. Multivariate technique for determination of soil pedoenvironmental indicators in Southern Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanildo Amorim de Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of statistical techniques to evaluate soil attribute behaviour is an important tool for choosing the most adequate form of soil management. Thus, the aim of this study was to jointly assess the physical and chemical attributes and the magnetic susceptibility characteristics of three environments and to use multivariate statistics to define which attributes have the greatest potential as environmental change indicators. The study was conducted in three areas: one with archaeological black earth (and planted maize; one with pasture; and one of the forest. Sixty-four (64 deformed and non-deformed soil samples each were collected within these areas, with a 70 x 70 m grid spaced every 10 meters at depths of 0.0-0.2 and 0.4-0.6 m, to determine the chemical attributes (fertility, as well as the physical attributes (texture and magnetic susceptibility. The data were analyzed through multivariate statistics. The archaeological dark earth areas have different behaviours between pastures and forests: chemical attributes have greater interaction in archaeological dark earth due to the high fertility of the anthropic horizons. The attributes that may indicate environmental changes are calcium, potential acidity and clay for archaeological dark earth, forest and pasture areas, respectively.

  15. Genetic susceptibility to pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Alison P

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in both men and women in the United States. However, it has the poorest prognosis of any major tumor type, with a 5-yr survival rate of approximately 5%. Cigarette smoking, increased body mass index, heavy alcohol consumption, and a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus have all been demonstrated to increase risk of pancreatic cancer. A family history of pancreatic cancer has also been associated with increased risk suggesting inherited genetic factors also play an important role, with approximately 5-10% of pancreatic cancer patients reporting family history of pancreatic cancer. While the genetic basis for the majority of the familial clustering of pancreatic cancer remains unclear, several important pancreatic cancer genes have been identified. These consist of high penetrance genes including BRCA2 or PALB2, to more common genetic variation associated with a modest increase risk of pancreatic cancer such as genetic variation at the ABO blood group locus. Recent advances in genotyping and genetic sequencing have accelerated the rate at which novel pancreatic cancer susceptibility genes have been identified with several genes identified within the past few years. This review addresses our current understanding of the familial aggregation of pancreatic cancer, established pancreatic cancer susceptablity genes and how this knowledge informs risk assessment and screening for high-risk families. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Genetic Susceptibility to Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Alison P.

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in both men and women in the United States. However, it has the poorest prognosis of any major tumor type, with a 5-yr survival rate of approximately 5%. Cigarette smoking, increased body mass index, heavy alcohol consumption, and a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus have all been demonstrated to increase risk of pancreatic cancer. A family history of pancreatic cancer has also been associated with increased risk suggesting inherited genetic factors also play an important role, with approximately 5–10% of pancreatic cancer patients reporting family history of pancreatic cancer. While the genetic basis for the majority of the familial clustering of pancreatic cancer remains unclear, several important pancreatic cancer genes have been identified. These consist of high penetrance genes including BRCA2 or PALB2, to more common genetic variation associated with a modest increase risk of pancreatic cancer such as genetic variation at the ABO blood group locus. Recent advances in genotyping and genetic sequencing have accelerated the rate at which novel pancreatic cancer susceptibility genes have been identified with several genes identified within the past few years. This review addresses our current understanding of the familial aggregation of pancreatic cancer, established pancreatic cancer susceptablity genes and how this knowledge informs risk assessment and screening for high-risk families. PMID:22162228

  17. Ultrastructural Changes Caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in Meloidogyne javanica Induced Giant Cells in Fusarium Resistant and Susceptible Tomato Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattah, F.; Webster, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) seedlings, susceptible (cv. Pearson A-I Improved) and resistant (cv. Pearson Improved) to race 1 Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Sacc.) Snyd &Hans., were inoculated with Meloidogyne javanica (Trueb) Chitwood second-stage juveniles and 3 weeks later with race 1 F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici spores. One week after fungal inoculation, no fungus was visible in root tissue of the tomato cultivars and the giant cells were normal. Two weeks after fungal inoculation, abundant hyphae were visible in xylem tissues of Fusarium-susceptible but not of Fusarium-resistant plants. In susceptible plants, giant cell degeneration occurred, characterized by membrane and organelle disruption. In addition, where hyphae were in direct contact with the giant cell, dissolution of the giant cell wall occurred. Three weeks after fungal inoculation, fungal hyphae and spores were visible inside xylem tissues and giant cells in Fusarium-susceptible plants and in xylem tissue of the resistant plants. In susceptible and resistant plants, giant cell degeneration was apparent. Giant cell walls were completely broken down in Fusarium-susceptible tomato plants. In both cultivars infected by Fusarium, giant cell nuclei became spherical and dark inclusions occurred within the chromatin material which condensed adjacent to the fragmented nuclear membrane. No such ultrastructural changes were seen in the giant cells of control plants inoculated with nematode alone. Giant cell deterioration in both cultivars is probably caused by toxic fungal metabolites. PMID:19295778

  18. Fidelity susceptibility in the quantum Rabi model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Bo-Bo; Lv, Xiao-Chen

    2018-01-01

    Quantum criticality usually occurs in many-body systems. Recently it was shown that the quantum Rabi model, which describes a two-level atom coupled to a single model cavity field, presents quantum phase transitions from a normal phase to a superradiate phase when the ratio between the frequency of the two-level atom and the frequency of the cavity field extends to infinity. In this work, we study quantum phase transitions in the quantum Rabi model from the fidelity susceptibility perspective. We found that the fidelity susceptibility and the generalized adiabatic susceptibility present universal finite-size scaling behaviors near the quantum critical point of the Rabi model if the ratio between frequency of the two-level atom and frequency of the cavity field is finite. From the finite-size scaling analysis of the fidelity susceptibility, we found that the adiabatic dimension of the fidelity susceptibility and the generalized adiabatic susceptibility of fourth order in the Rabi model are 4 /3 and 2, respectively. Meanwhile, the correlation length critical exponent and the dynamical critical exponent in the quantum critical point of the Rabi model are found to be 3 /2 and 1 /3 , respectively. Since the fidelity susceptibility and the generalized adiabatic susceptibility are the moments of the quantum noise spectrum which are directly measurable by experiments in linear response regime, the scaling behavior of the fidelity susceptibility in the Rabi model could be tested experimentally. The simple structure of the quantum Rabi model paves the way for experimentally observing the universal scaling behavior of the fidelity susceptibility at a quantum phase transition.

  19. Centrality of host cell death in plant-microbe interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, Martin B; Fluhr, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is essential for proper growth, development, and cellular homeostasis in all eukaryotes. The regulation of PCD is of central importance in plant-microbe interactions; notably, PCD and features associated with PCD are observed in many host resistance responses. Conversely, pathogen induction of inappropriate cell death in the host results in a susceptible phenotype and disease. Thus, the party in control of PCD has a distinct advantage in these battles. PCD processes appear to be of ancient origin, as indicated by the fact that many features of cell death strategy are conserved between animals and plants; however, some of the details of death execution differ. Mammalian core PCD genes, such as caspases, are not present in plant genomes. Similarly, pro- and antiapoptotic mammalian regulatory elements are absent in plants, but, remarkably, when expressed in plants, successfully impact plant PCD. Thus, subtle structural similarities independent of sequence homology appear to sustain operational equivalence. The vacuole is emerging as a key organelle in the modulation of plant PCD. Under different signals for cell death, the vacuole either fuses with the plasmalemma membrane or disintegrates. Moreover, the vacuole appears to play a key role in autophagy; evidence suggests a prosurvival function for autophagy, but other studies propose a prodeath phenotype. Here, we describe and discuss what we know and what we do not know about various PCD pathways and how the host integrates signals to activate salicylic acid and reactive oxygen pathways that orchestrate cell death. We suggest that it is not cell death as such but rather the processes leading to cell death that contribute to the outcome of a given plant-pathogen interaction.

  20. Evaluating performances of simplified physically based models for landslide susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formetta, G.; Capparelli, G.; Versace, P.

    2015-12-01

    Rainfall induced shallow landslides cause loss of life and significant damages involving private and public properties, transportation system, etc. Prediction of shallow landslides susceptible locations is a complex task that involves many disciplines: hydrology, geotechnical science, geomorphology, and statistics. Usually to accomplish this task two main approaches are used: statistical or physically based model. Reliable models' applications involve: automatic parameters calibration, objective quantification of the quality of susceptibility maps, model sensitivity analysis. This paper presents a methodology to systemically and objectively calibrate, verify and compare different models and different models performances indicators in order to individuate and eventually select the models whose behaviors are more reliable for a certain case study. The procedure was implemented in package of models for landslide susceptibility analysis and integrated in the NewAge-JGrass hydrological model. The package includes three simplified physically based models for landslides susceptibility analysis (M1, M2, and M3) and a component for models verifications. It computes eight goodness of fit indices by comparing pixel-by-pixel model results and measurements data. Moreover, the package integration in NewAge-JGrass allows the use of other components such as geographic information system tools to manage inputs-output processes, and automatic calibration algorithms to estimate model parameters. The system was applied for a case study in Calabria (Italy) along the Salerno-Reggio Calabria highway, between Cosenza and Altilia municipality. The analysis provided that among all the optimized indices and all the three models, the optimization of the index distance to perfect classification in the receiver operating characteristic plane (D2PC) coupled with model M3 is the best modeling solution for our test case.

  1. The antibacterial activity of some medicinal plants used in Meru ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gram positive bacteria (S. aureus and B. cereus) were more susceptible to the plant extracts than Gram negative bacteria (E. coli and P. aeruginosa). The MIC and MBC of the positive control antibiotics (Ampicillin for gram positive and Gentamycin for gram negative) were less than 1mg/ml. The most susceptible bacteria was ...

  2. Growth and Reproduction of Glyphosate-Resistant and Susceptible Populations of Kochia scoparia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vipan; Jha, Prashant

    2015-01-01

    Evolution of glyphosate-resistant kochia is a threat to no-till wheat-fallow and glyphosate-resistant (GR) cropping systems of the US Great Plains. The EPSPS (5-enol-pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) gene amplification confers glyphosate resistance in the tested Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad populations from Montana. Experiments were conducted in spring to fall 2014 (run 1) and summer 2014 to spring 2015 (run 2) to investigate the growth and reproductive traits of the GR vs. glyphosate-susceptible (SUS) populations of K. scoparia and to determine the relationship of EPSPS gene amplification with the level of glyphosate resistance. GR K. scoparia inbred lines (CHES01 and JOP01) exhibited 2 to 14 relative copies of the EPSPS gene compared with the SUS inbred line with only one copy. In the absence of glyphosate, no differences in growth and reproductive parameters were evident between the tested GR and SUS inbred lines, across an intraspecific competition gradient (1 to 170 plants m-2). GR K. scoparia plants with 2 to 4 copies of the EPSPS gene survived the field-use rate (870 g ha-1) of glyphosate, but failed to survive the 4,350 g ha-1 rate of glyphosate (five-times the field-use rate). In contrast, GR plants with 5 to 14 EPSPS gene copies survived the 4,350 g ha-1 of glyphosate. The results from this research indicate that GR K. scoparia with 5 or more EPSPS gene copies will most likely persist in field populations, irrespective of glyphosate selection pressure. PMID:26580558

  3. Phosphorylcholine impairs susceptibility to biofilm formation of hydrogel contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selan, Laura; Palma, Stefano; Scoarughi, Gian Luca; Papa, Rosanna; Veeh, Richard; Di Clemente, Daniele; Artini, Marco

    2009-01-01

    To compare silicone-hydrogel, poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA), and phosphorylcholine-coated (PC-C) contact lenses in terms of their susceptibility to biofilm formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Laboratory investigation. Biofilm formation on colonized test lenses was evaluated with confocal microscopy and in vitro antibiotic susceptibility assays. The results of the latter assays were compared with those performed on planktonic cultures of the same organism. For both microorganisms, sessile colonies on silicone-hydrogel and pHEMA lenses displayed lower antibiotic susceptibility than their planktonic counterparts. In contrast, the susceptibility of cultures growing on PC-C lenses was comparable with that for planktonic cultures. In particular, minimum inhibitory concentration for Tazocin (piperacillin plus tazobactam; Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, Aprilia, Italy; S. epidermidis) and gentamicin (P. aeruginosa) was identical, either in the presence of PC-C support or in planktonic cultures (Tazocin, lenses (0.4 mug/ml) with respect to planktonic cultures (0.2 mug/ml). Confocal microscopy of lenses colonized for 24 hours with P. aeruginosa green fluorescent protein-expressing cells revealed a sessile colonization on silicone-hydrogel lens and a few isolated bacterial cells scattered widely over the surface of the PC-C lens. An increase in antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial cultures was associated with diminished bacterial adhesion. Our results indicate that PC-C lenses seem to be more resistant than silicone-hydrogel and pHEMA lenses to bacterial adhesion and colonization. This feature may facilitate their disinfection.

  4. Landslide Inventory and Susceptibility Mapping in Tropical Areas - Southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidzik, K.; Ramirez-Herrera, M. T.; Regmi, N. R.; Leshchinsky, B. A.

    2016-12-01

    Landslides are one of the common catastrophic phenomena in the world. In regions of humid-warm tropical climate they are triggered by extreme storms causing loss of life and economic devastation. In this study we mapped susceptibility to landslides in the tropical mountains of Guerrero (South Mexico) based on the inventory of landslide features triggered by the hurricane Manuel of September 2013. Landslide inventory was produced using interpretation of satellite images and automatic identification of landslides employing the Contour Connection Method (CCM). A map of susceptibility to landslides was developed by computing probability of landslide occurrence from statistical relationships of existing landslides using LiDAR elevation model and derived landslide-causing factors using a logistic regression method. Landslide inventory includes 419 features produced by the hurricane Manuel on the area of 22 km2, and > 1,000 older features, suggesting high landslide activity in this area. Most landslides in the region are small, but some large slides exist, such as the catastrophic landslide in La Pintada that caused 71 fatalities and destroyed a large part of the village. Our results indicate that the distance to streams, human activity, presence or absence of dense vegetation and orientation of slopes (on some areas) strongly influence the spatial distribution of landslides. Results showed high susceptibility zones encompass 30% of the study area and occur mostly along topographic convergence. Applied approach identified most of the landslides within the high susceptibility zone and suggested that it is a valid applicable method to map areas susceptible to landslides in southern Mexico but also on other humid-warm tropical regions.

  5. Application of Physically based landslide susceptibility models in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho Vieira, Bianca; Martins, Tiago D.

    2017-04-01

    Shallow landslides and floods are the processes responsible for most material and environmental damages in Brazil. In the last decades, some landslides events induce a high number of deaths (e.g. Over 1000 deaths in one event) and incalculable social and economic losses. Therefore, the prediction of those processes is considered an important tool for land use planning tools. Among different methods the physically based landslide susceptibility models having been widely used in many countries, but in Brazil it is still incipient when compared to other ones, like statistical tools and frequency analyses. Thus, the main objective of this research was to assess the application of some Physically based landslide susceptibility models in Brazil, identifying their main results, the efficiency of susceptibility mapping, parameters used and limitations of the tropical humid environment. In order to achieve that, it was evaluated SHALSTAB, SINMAP and TRIGRS models in some studies in Brazil along with the Geotechnical values, scales, DEM grid resolution and the results based on the analysis of the agreement