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Sample records for susceptible male partners

  1. Knowledge, Perception and Level of Male Partner Involvement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    establishing the level of male partner involvement and influence of couple knowledge and perception on male involvement in choice of ... access to care and provision of emotional and ..... although the male partners are key decision makers.

  2. Dyadic, Partner, and Social Network Influences on Intimate Partner Violence among Male-Male Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Stephenson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite a recent focus on intimate partner violence (IPV among men who have sex with men (MSM, the male-male couple is largely absent from the IPV literature. Specifically, research on dyadic factors shaping IPV in male-male couples is lacking.Methods: We took a subsample of 403 gay/bisexual men with main partners from a 2011 survey of approximately 1,000 gay and bisexual men from Atlanta. Logistic regression models of recent (,12 month experience and perpetration of physical and sexual IPV examined dyadic factors, including racial differences, age differences, and social network characteristics of couples as key covariates shaping the reporting of IPV.Results: Findings indicate that men were more likely to report perpetration of physical violence if they were a different race to their main partner, whereas main partner age was associated with decreased reporting of physical violence. Having social networks that contained more gay friends was associated with significant reductions in the reporting of IPV, whereas having social networks comprised of sex partners or closeted gay friends was associated with increased reporting of IPV victimization and perpetration.Conclusion: The results point to several unique factors shaping the reporting of IPV within male-male couples and highlight the need for intervention efforts and prevention programs that focus on male couples, a group largely absent from both research and prevention efforts. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(4:316–323.

  3. Postpartum depression and the male partner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna de Magistris

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Numerous studies have shown that postpartum depression is a phenomenon that develops in a family, social and economic context capable of influencing its course. A predominant role in the onset of the pathology is played by the relationship of the couple, but up to now few studies have been carried out on the role of the partner of the depressed mother and on the interactions between the two partners, that is, on how maternal depression influences the behaviour of the male partner and is in turn influenced, and how the depression of both parents, and not only that of the mother, influences the neuropsychic development of the child and the interactions between the child and the outside world. Objectives: The objectives are to examine the literature to arrive at an understanding of how the father figure develops during the pregnancy and how postpartum depression impacts on the couple’s relationship and the care of the children by both partners. Materials and methods: This article presents a review of recent literature on the subject through a search for articles in Pubmed and Sciencedirect (keywords: men, postpartum depression, fathers, couple, prediction, detection, and by referring to classic texts in the fields of psychiatry and psychotherapy on the development of the parental figures. Conclusions: Although up to now the literature on the consequences of postpartum depression on the couple is scanty, the data collected allow us to affirm that it is not a problem that concerns only the mother, but one that has an impact on the entire family, on the child and the partner, triggering a chain reaction of maladjustment and distress that may lead to separation and destruction of the family unit with important repercussions on society as a whole.

  4. Effect of male partner's support on spousal modern contraception in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Male partner hindrances and costs of contraceptive or transportation to clinic are important in noncompliance. Male partner education, subsidized/free contraceptives and mobile/community services will improve compliance. Keywords: Female contraception; Male partner support; Spousal contraception ...

  5. Intimate Partner Violence May Be One Mechanism by Which Male Partner Socioeconomic Status and Substance Use Affect Female Partner Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although male partners' socioeconomic status (SES and substance use is associated with worse health of female partners, the mechanism behind this link is still unknown.Objectives: To investigate whether intimate partner violence (IPV is a mechanism by which male partners' SES and substance use influence female partners' self-rated health (SRH as victims and survivors of IPV.Materials and Methods: Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS is an ongoing population-based cohort. Male and female partners' SES, anxiety, depression, and substance use, and their relationship status were measured at baseline. IPV victimization was also asked among female partners' at baseline. Female partners' subjective health was measured 3 times (baseline−1998, 3 years later−2001, and 5 years later−2003. Using AMOS, we fitted two structural equation models (SEM for data analysis. In Model 1 we tested direct paths from male partners' SES and mental health to female partners' SRH, in the absence of IPV. In the Model 2 we conceptualized female partners' IPV victimization between male partners' SES and mental health and female partners' SRH. In both models we controlled for the effect of female partners' SES and mental health.Results: In Model 1, male partners' poor SES and substance use were associated with worse trajectory of SRH of female partner. In Model 2, male to female IPV was the mechanism by which male partners' SES and substance use were associated with female partners' SRH.Conclusions: IPV is one of the mechanisms by which male partners' SES and substance use can influence female partners' health. That is, IPV may operate as a vehicle by which male partners' social and psychological risk factors impact female partners' health. Thus, this study demonstrates how male partners' socio-ecological risk factors such as low SES and substance use impact female partners' health. Therefore, there is a need for broader socio-ecological approach

  6. Knowledge, Perception and Level of Male Partner Involvement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge, Perception and Level of Male Partner Involvement in Choice of ... many practice this and the influence of the couple knowledge and perception on male ... Chi-square and binary logistic regression were used for statistical analysis.

  7. Male partner selectivity, romantic confidence, and media depictions of partner scarcity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Laramie D

    2013-01-18

    An experiment was conducted to explore the effects of exposure to partner scarcity or abundance messages on men's partner selectivity, romantic confidence, and self-assessed attractiveness. Undergraduate male participants watched a soap opera narrative featuring either two men competing over one potential female partner (partner scarcity) or two women competing over one potential male partner (partner abundance). Relative to control subjects, watching either narrative reduced romantic confidence. Experimental condition also affected partner selectivity and self-assessed attractiveness, though both effects were moderated by endorsement of traditional masculine ideology. Viewing the abundance narrative resulted in greater selectivity and self-assessed attractiveness for men high in endorsement of traditional masculinity but diminished selectivity and self-assessed attractiveness for men low in endorsement of traditional masculine identity.

  8. Male Partner Selectivity, Romantic Confidence, and Media Depictions of Partner Scarcity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laramie D. Taylor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to explore the effects of exposure to partner scarcity or abundance messages on men's partner selectivity, romantic confidence, and self-assessed attractiveness. Undergraduate male participants watched a soap opera narrative featuring either two men competing over one potential female partner (partner scarcity or two women competing over one potential male partner (partner abundance. Relative to control subjects, watching either narrative reduced romantic confidence. Experimental condition also affected partner selectivity and self-assessed attractiveness, though both effects were moderated by endorsement of traditional masculine ideology. Viewing the abundance narrative resulted in greater selectivity and self-assessed attractiveness for men high in endorsement of traditional masculinity but diminished selectivity and self-assessed attractiveness for men low in endorsement of traditional masculine identity.

  9. Pattern of Semen Fluid Abnormalities in Male Partners of Infertile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of male infertility is increasing in our environment. There is a need to evaluate the partern of abnormality with a view to recommending appropriate interventions. We aimed to to analyze the seminal fluid parameters of the male partners of the infertile couples managed in the hospital over a 12 month period ...

  10. Prostaglandin levels and semen quality in male partners of infertile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To provide data on semen prostaglandins in Nigerian men and relate this to fertility potential as provided by semen analysis results. Design: Prospective study. Setting: Infertility Clinic of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria Subjects: All male partners of infertile couples who ...

  11. Risk Factors for Hispanic Male Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancera, Bibiana M; Dorgo, Sandor; Provencio-Vasquez, Elias

    2017-07-01

    The literature review analyzed 24 studies that explored male intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration risk factors among men, in particular Hispanics, using the socioecological model framework composed of four socioecological levels for violence prevention. Six databases were reviewed within the EBSCO search engine for articles published from 2000 to 2014. Articles reviewed were specific to risk factors for IPV perpetration among Hispanic men, focusing particularly on Mexican American men. Many key factors have previously been associated with risk for IPV perpetration; however, certain determinants are unique to Hispanics such as acculturation, acculturation stress, and delineated gender roles that include Machismo and Marianismo. These risk factors should be incorporated in future targeted prevention strategies and efforts and capitalize on the positive aspects of each to serve as protective factors.

  12. Semen quality of male partners of infertile couples in Ile-Ife, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The objective was to evaluate seminal fluid indices of male partners of infertile couples so as to identify the current status of the contributions of male factor to infertility in our environment. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study of the seminal fluid indices of consecutively consenting male partners of ...

  13. Child Abuse, Risk in Male Partner Selection, and Intimate Partner Violence Victimization of Women of the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Juan; Torres, Andrea; Rodríguez, Francisco J

    2018-06-05

    The revictimization of women during the life cycle has attracted the interest of many researchers in recent years. In this study, we examined the relationship between the experience of child abuse and the subsequent victimization by a male partner in adulthood. Specifically, we proposed that childhood abuse experiences negatively affect the development of healthy interpersonal relationships in adulthood. Thus, some female victims of child abuse are more likely to select potentially abusive intimate male partners. Data from 23,863 heterosexual women from the 28 countries of the European Union who were living with their partners at the time of the study were used. We investigated the association between child abuse, partner's adherence to traditional gender roles, and general violence and intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. Multilevel structural equation modeling (MSEM) results indicated that child abuse is positively related to the partner's traditional gender role and general violence, which in turn predict IPV. Countries' level of human development was found to affect this process. We found support for the hypothesis that child abuse is related to IPV partially because it influences partner selection in adulthood. Thus, when they become adults, girls abused in childhood tend to select partners who are either traditional or generally violent. There is a persistent influence of social structural conditions (i.e., country's human development) throughout this process.

  14. Condom use and intimacy among Tajik male migrants and their regular female partners in Moscow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabrocki, Christopher; Polutnik, Chloe; Jonbekov, Jonbek; Shoakova, Farzona; Bahromov, Mahbat; Weine, Stevan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined condom use and intimacy among Tajik male migrants and their regular female partners in Moscow, Russia. This study included a survey of 400 Tajik male labour migrants and longitudinal ethnographic interviews with 30 of the surveyed male migrants and 30 of their regular female partners. of the surveyed male migrants, 351 (88%) reported having a regular female partner in Moscow. Findings demonstrated that the migrants' and regular partners' intentions to use condoms diminished with increased intimacy, yet each party perceived intimacy differently. Migrants' intimacy with regular partners was determined by their familiarity and the perceived sexual cleanliness of their partner. Migrants believed that Muslim women were cleaner than Orthodox Christian women and reported using condoms more frequently with Orthodox Christian regular partners. Regular partners reported determining intimacy based on the perceived commitment of the male migrant. When perceived commitment faced a crisis, intimacy declined and regular partners renegotiated condom use. The association between intimacy and condom use suggests that HIV-prevention programmes should aim to help male migrants and female regular partners to dissociate their approaches to condom use from their perceptions of intimacy.

  15. Is Sex with Older Male Partners Associated with Higher Sexual Risk Behavior Among Young Black MSM?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Nicholas; Mena, Leandro A; Geter, Angelica; Crosby, Richard A

    2017-08-01

    Participants at a sexual health clinic completed a survey with questions regarding sexual risk behavior and partner characteristics. Of 585 participants eligible for analysis, 124 reported generally having older male partners. These participants were significantly more likely to be HIV-infected (p < 0.001), have four or more sex partners as a "bottom" (p = 0.04), have concurrent partners (p = 0.01), and have partners suspected of having an sexually transmitted infection (p = 0.05) than participants without older partners. With analysis restricted to HIV- individuals, risk behaviors did not differ significantly between the groups. HIV- individuals with older partners may be at increased risk of HIV infection due to increased HIV prevalence among older sexual partners and not due to increased risk behaviors with these partners.

  16. Attendance of male partners to different reproductive health services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Additional in-depth interviews were conducted among married men found attending RH services. Factors that motivates the uptake of locally available RH services together with their partners were explored. Results: A total of 204 men participated in the study, 94.4 % (193/204) of them reported to have ever attended the RH ...

  17. Effect of Male Partner's Support on Spousal Modern Contraception in a Low Resource Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, Olayinka; Adeniran, Abiodun; Fawole, Adegboyega; Adesina, Kikelomo; Aboyeji, Abiodun; Adeniran, Peace

    2016-09-01

    As efforts continue to increase contraceptive uptake, male partner support remains important in spousal modern contraceptive use. A prospective cross-sectional survey involving women on modern contraception was conducted at the family planning clinic of the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria, between December 2013 and April 2014. All consenting participants completed a self-administered questionnaire designed for the study, and statistical analysis was done with SPSS version 20.0 using with chi square test and logistic regression; p value contraceptives used were IUD and injectables while male partner was responsible for discontinuation in 30(23.3%) of previous users. Covert contraceptive use was 22(7.2%), male partner support was 209(68.5%) as payment for the contraceptives (203; 66.6%) or transportation to the clinic (198; 64.9%). Also, 55(18.0%) women failed to comply with contraception recently due to male partner hindrance (25; 45.5%) or inability to pay for contraceptive (11; 20%) or transportation to the clinic (8; 14.5%). Male partners hindered contraception by reporting the woman to relatives/friends (8; 32%) or denying her money for feeding allowance (6; 24%); 277(90.8%) women want contraception to be couple decision while 261(85.6%) want contraception administered only if both partners consented. The significant predictors of male partner support were awareness about the contraceptive use (pMale partner hindrances and costs of contraceptive or transportation to clinic are important in noncompliance. Male partner education, subsidized/free contraceptives and mobile/community services will improve compliance.

  18. Hepatitis B virus infection on male partner has negative impact on in-vitro fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubis, H. P.; Halim, B.; Adenin, I.; Rusda, M.; Prasetiawan, E.

    2018-03-01

    It is common to see HBV-infected couple seeking for fertility treatment in reproductive medical centers. The effect of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection on pregnancy outcome after In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) treatment has been a controversy. The study aims this was to evaluate the outcome of in vitro fertilization in couples with the male partner being HBsAg-seropositive. A retrospective analytic study was in HBV-infected and non-HBV infected male partner groups who have been treated with in vitro fertilization (IVF) from October 2016 until May 2017 in HFC IVF Center. From 101 couples, 17 (16.83%) male partners were HBV seropositive. They had similar semen parameters compared to thenon-HBV infected group. Couples with the male partner being HBsAg-seropositive had significantly lower fertilized oocytes and cleaved embryos compared to thenon-HBV infected group. We also found lower clinical pregnancy rate in infected male partner group compared to control group (23.52% vs 51% respectively). Statistically, there was a significant difference in clinical pregnancy rate between HBV-infected group and control group (p<0.05). An hbv-infected male partner may lower the clinical pregnancy rate in couple undergoing IVF treatment. Therefore, the mechanism of impact of HBV infection on IVF outcome needs further exploration.

  19. Dyadic violence and readiness to change among male intimate partner violence offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Cory A; Schlauch, Robert C; Eckhardt, Christopher I

    2015-12-10

    Although readiness to change is associated with mandated partner violence treatment compliance and subsequent violent behaviour among male offenders (e.g. Scott and Wolfe, 2003; Eckhardt et al., 2004), our understanding of the factors associated with pretreatment change remains limited. Offender research indicates that individual and dyadic violent behaviour are highly variable and that such variability may provide insight into levels of pretreatment change (Holtzworth-Munroe and Stuart, 1994; Archer, 2002). We sought to examine the associations between indicators of change and individual as well as dyadic violence frequency in a sample of male partner violence offenders. To determine whether severity and perceived concordance in the use of violence among male offenders and their female partners influenced readiness to change at pretreatment, 82 recently adjudicated male perpetrators of intimate partner violence were recruited into the current study and administered measures of readiness to change violent behaviour (Revised Safe at Home Scale; Begun et al., 2008) as well as partner violence experiences (Revised Conflict Tactics Scale; Straus et al., 1996). Analyses revealed an interaction between offender-reported male and female violence in the prediction of pretreatment readiness to change such that greater male violence was associated with greater readiness to change among males who reported that their female partners perpetrated low, but not high, levels of violence. Consistently, greater female violence was associated with lower readiness to change only among the most violent male offenders. Results provide support for the assertion that the most violent offenders may be the most resistant to partner violence intervention efforts, particularly when they perceive themselves to be victims as well. Enhanced motivational and couples programming may facilitate treatment engagement among the high-risk group of male offenders who report concordant relationship

  20. Women have a preference for their male partner to be HPV vaccinated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Diane Medved; Alexander, Natalie Marya; Ahern, Debra Ann; Comes, Johanna Claire; Smith, Melissa Smith; Heutinck, Melinda Ann; Handley, Sandra Martin

    2014-01-01

    Peer influence and social networking can change female adolescent and young adult behavior. Peer influence on preferences for male human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination has not been documented. The primary aim of this study was to determine if women had preferences about male sexual partner HPV vaccination receipt. A prospective survey of women 18-26 years of age was conducted at an urban university student health clinic. Education about the two HPV vaccines, cervical cancer and genital warts was provided. Women self-reported their demographic and medical history data, as well as their own preferences for HPV vaccine and their preferences for their male partner HPV vaccine using a 5 point Likert scale. 601 women, mean age of 21.5 years (SD 2.4), participated between 2011 and 2012. Nearly 95% of respondents were heterosexual; condoms and contraceptives were used in over half of the population. Regardless of the woman's vaccination status, women had significantly higher (strongly agree/agree) preferences for the male partner being vaccinated with HPV4 than not caring if he was vaccinated (63.6% vs. 13.1%, ppreference was repeated for sexual risk factors and past reproductive medical history. Women who received HPV4 compared to those choosing HPV2 had a significantly lower proportion of preferences for not caring if the male partner was vaccinated (13% vs. 22%, p = 0.015). Women preferred a HPV vaccinated male partner. Peer messaging might change the male HPV vaccination uptake.

  1. Sexual HIV Risk Among Male Parolees and Their Female Partners: The Relate Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comfort, Megan; Reznick, Olga Grinstead; Dilworth, Samantha E; Binson, Diane; Darbes, Lynae A; Neilands, Torsten B

    The massively disproportionate impact of America's prison boom on communities of color has raised questions about how incarceration may affect health disparities, including disparities in HIV. Primary partners are an important source of influence on sexual health. In this paper, we investigate sexual HIV risk among male-female couples following a man's release from prison. We draw upon data from the Relate Project, a novel cross-sectional survey of recently released men and their female partners in Oakland and San Francisco, California (N=344). Inferential analyses use the actor-partner model to explore actor and partner effects on sexual HIV risk outcomes. Dyadic analyses of sexual HIV risk among male parolees and their female partners paint a complex portrait of couples affected by incarceration and of partners' influences on each other. Findings indicate that demographic factors such as education level and employment status, individual psycho-social factors such as perception of risk, and relationship factors such as commitment and power affect sexual HIV risk outcomes. The Relate Project provides a novel dataset for the dyadic analysis of sexual risk among male parolees and their female partners, and results highlight the importance of focusing on the couple as a unit when assessing HIV risk and protective behaviors. Results also indicate potentially fruitful avenues for population-specific interventions that may help to reduce sexual health disparities among couples affected by incarceration.

  2. Peripubertal castration of male rats, adult open field ambulation and partner preference behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, T; Slob, A K

    1988-09-15

    The validity of the hypothesis put forward earlier, that testicular secretions during puberty have an organizing effect on open field ambulation was examined. Male rats were castrated or sham-operated at days 21, 43 or 70. At the age of 17 weeks the males were tested in an automated, octagonal open field (3 consecutive days, 3 min/day) for locomotor activity. Male rats castrated at day 21 or day 43 ambulated more than sham-castrated controls. Males castrated at day 70 did not differ from sham-castrated controls. It thus appears that pubertal testicular secretion(s) organize adult open field locomotor activity in male rats. From 18 weeks of age partner preference behavior was tested in the same open field apparatus with one adjacent cage containing an ovariectomized female and an opposite one containing an ovariectomized female brought into heat. The females in the adjacent cages were separated from the experimental males in the octagonal cage by wire mesh. Peripubertally castrated males did not show a clear-cut partner preference, whereas the intact males preferred the vicinity of the estrous female. There were no differences among the males castrated either before, during or after puberty. Testosterone treatment (crystalline T in silastic capsules) caused peripubertally castrated males to prefer the estrous female. Thus, adult partner preference behavior does not seem to be organized by peripubertal testicular androgens.

  3. Heterosexual experience prevents the development of conditioned same-sex partner preference in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Rodríguez, Rodrigo; Tecamachaltzi-Silvaran, Miriam B; Díaz-Estrada, Victor X; Chena-Becerra, Florencia; Herrera-Covarrubias, Deissy; Paredes-Ramos, Pedro; Manzo, Jorge; Garcia, Luis I; Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2017-03-01

    Sexual partner preferences can be strengthened, weakened or even drastically modified via Pavlovian conditioning. For example, conditioned same-sex partner preference develops in sexually-naïve male rats that undergo same-sex cohabitation under the effects of quinpirole (QNP, D2 agonist). Here, we assessed the effect of prior heterosexual experience on the probability to develop a conditioned same-sex preference. Naïve or Sexually-experienced males received either Saline or QNP and cohabited during 24h with a male partner that bore almond scent on the back as conditioned stimulus. This was repeated every 4days for a total of three trials and resulted in four groups (Saline-naïve, Saline-experienced, QNP-naïve, QNP-experienced). Social and sexual preference were assessed four days after the last conditioning trial in a drug-free test in which experimental males chose between the scented familiar male and a novel sexually receptive female. Results showed that Saline-naïve, Saline-experienced and QNP-experienced displayed a clear preference for the female (opposite-sex). By contrast, only QNP-naïve males displayed a same-sex preference. Accordingly, QNP-experienced males were not affected by the conditioning process and continued to prefer females. We discuss the effects of copulation and D2 agonists on the facilitation and/or disruption of conditioned partner preferences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Role of male partners in the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osoti A

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Alfred Osoti,1–3 Hannah Han,4 John Kinuthia,1,5 Carey Farquhar3,4,6 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, AIC Kijabe Hospital, Kijabe, Kenya; 3Department of Epidemiology, 4Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, USA; 5Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya; 6Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, USA Abstract: There is emerging evidence that in resource-limited settings with a high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV burden, male partner involvement in prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT is associated with improved uptake of effective interventions and infant HIV-free survival. There is also increasing evidence that male partner involvement positively impacts non-HIV related outcomes, such as skilled attendance at delivery, exclusive breastfeeding, uptake of effective contraceptives, and infant immunizations. Despite these associations, male partner involvement remains low, especially when offered in the standard antenatal clinic setting. In this review we explore strategies for improving rates of antenatal male partner HIV testing and argue that the role of male partners in PMTCT must evolve from one of support for HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women to one of comprehensive engagement in prevention of primary HIV acquisition, avoidance of unintended pregnancies, and improved HIV-related care and treatment for the HIV-infected and uninfected women, their partners, and children. Involving men in all components of PMTCT has potential to contribute substantially to achieving virtual elimination of mother-to-child HIV transmission; promoting partner-friendly programs and policies, as well as pursuing research into numerous gaps in knowledge identified in this review, will help drive this process. Keywords: male involvement, limited-resource settings

  5. Age of partners at first intercourse among Danish males and females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wielandt, H; Boldsen, J; Jeune, B

    1989-01-01

    In 1984-1985 a representative sample of 286 Danish women (response rate = 75.3%) and 336 Danish men (response rate = 77.8%), ages 16-20 years, was interviewed about their first sexual intercourse. A cumulative frequency function was constructed and the median age at sexual debut was estimated at 16.......8 years for both male and female. Generally the age difference between the partners at first intercourse was only a few years. However, the young women almost never reported their first sexual partner as younger than themselves. A cross-check was made of the information given by two homogeneous subsamples...... of the 47 young women and 80 young men who had their first sexual intercourse with a partner who was also a debutant. Self-reported age among the males differed significantly from the age of the first sexual partner as stated by the females in these subsamples. Therefore, there is bias in the reporting...

  6. Partner Loss in Monogamous Rodents: Modulation of Pain and Emotional Behavior in Male Prairie Voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osako, Yoji; Nobuhara, Reiko; Arai, Young-Chang P; Tanaka, Kenjiro; Young, Larry J; Nishihara, Makoto; Mitsui, Shinichi; Yuri, Kazunari

    2018-01-01

    Pain is modulated by psychosocial factors, and social stress-induced hyperalgesia is a common clinical symptom in pain disorders. To provide a new animal model for studying social modulation of pain, we examined pain behaviors in monogamous prairie voles experiencing partner loss. After cohabitation with novel females, males (n = 79) were divided into two groups on the basis of preference test scores. Half of the males of each group were separated from their partner (loss group), whereas the other half remained paired (paired group). Thus, males from both groups experienced social isolation. Open field tests, plantar tests, and formalin tests were then conducted on males to assess anxiety and pain-related behaviors. Loss males showing partner preferences (n = 20) displayed a significant increase in anxiety-related behavior in the open-field test (central area/total distance: 13.65% [1.58%] for paired versus 6.45% [0.87%] for loss; p partner preferences (r = 0.15). Results indicate that social bonds and their disruption, but not social housing without bonding followed by isolation, modulate pain and emotion in male prairie voles. The prairie vole is a useful model for exploring the neural mechanisms by which social relationships contribute to pain and nociceptive processing in humans.

  7. Correlated Preferences for Male Facial Masculinity and Partner Traits in Gay and Bisexual Men in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lijun; Zheng, Yong

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies have documented the correlation between preferences for male facial masculinity and perceived masculinity: women who rate their male partner as more masculine tend to prefer more masculine faces. Men's self-rated masculinity predicts their female partner's preference for masculinity. This study examined the association between other trait preferences and preference for male facial masculinity among 556 gay and bisexual men across multiple cities in China. Participants were asked to choose the three most important traits in a romantic partner from a list of 23 traits. Each participant was then asked to choose a preferred face in each of 10 pairs of male faces presented sequentially, with each pair consisting of a masculinized and feminized version of the same base face. The results indicated that preferences for health and status-related traits were correlated with preferences for male facial masculinity in gay and bisexual men in China; individuals who were more health- or status-oriented in their preferences for a romantic partner preferred more masculine male faces than individuals with lower levels of these orientations. The findings have implications for the correlated preferences for facial masculinity and health- and status-related traits and may be related to perceived health and dominance/aggression of masculine faces based on a sample of non-Western gay and bisexual men.

  8. Trichostatin A (TSA) facilitates formation of partner preference in male prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclot, F; Wang, H; Youssef, C; Liu, Y; Wang, Z; Kabbaj, M

    2016-05-01

    In the socially monogamous prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster), the development of a social bonding is indicated by the formation of partner preference, which involves a variety of environmental and neurochemical factors and brain structures. In a most recent study in female prairie voles, we found that treatment with the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) facilitates the formation of partner preference through up-regulation of oxytocin receptor (OTR) and vasopressin V1a receptor (V1aR) genes expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that TSA treatment also facilitates partner preference formation and alters OTR and V1aR genes expression in the NAcc in male prairie voles. We thus observed that central injection of TSA dose-dependently promoted the formation of partner preference in the absence of mating in male prairie voles. Interestingly, TSA treatment up-regulated OTR, but not V1aR, gene expression in the NAcc similarly as they were affected by mating - an essential process for naturally occurring partner preference. These data, together with others, not only indicate the involvement of epigenetic events but also the potential role of NAcc oxytocin in the regulation of partner preference in both male and female prairie voles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A qualitative study of the impact of endometriosis on male partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culley, L; Law, C; Hudson, N; Mitchell, H; Denny, E; Raine-Fenning, N

    2017-08-01

    What is the impact of endometriosis on male partners of women with the condition? Endometriosis significantly impacts men across several life domains and can negatively impact emotional well-being. Endometriosis has been shown to negatively impact women's quality of life and may strain intimate relationships. Little is known about the impact on male partners. The ENDOPART study was a cross-sectional, qualitative study of 22 women with endometriosis and their male partners (n = 44) in the UK (2012-2013). Inclusion criteria: laparoscopic diagnosis of endometriosis; the presence of symptoms for at least a year; partners living together. Data were collected via face to face, semi structured interviews with partners interviewed separately. Data were analysed thematically, assisted by NVivo 10. Men reported that endometriosis affected many life domains including sex and intimacy, planning for and having children, working lives and household income. It also required them to take on additional support tasks and roles. Endometriosis also had an impact on men's emotions, with responses including helplessness, frustration, worry and anger. The absence of professional or wider societal recognition of the impact on male partners, and a lack of support available to men, results in male partners having a marginalized status in endometriosis care. Self-selection of participants may have resulted in a sample representing those with more severe symptoms. Couples included are in effect 'survivors' in relationship terms, therefore, findings may underestimate the contribution of endometriosis to relationship breakdown. The study extends knowledge about the impact of endometriosis on relationships, which thus far has been drawn largely from studies with women, by providing new insights about how this condition affects male partners. Healthcare practitioners need to take a more couple-centred, biopsychosocial approach toward the treatment of endometriosis, inclusive of partners and

  10. Transitions of male partners of women with breast cancer: hope, guilt, and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggleby, Wendy; Thomas, Jasmine; Montford, Kelly; Thomas, Roanne; Nekolaichuk, Cheryl; Ghosh, Sunita; Cumming, Ceiwen; Tonkin, Katia

    2015-03-01

    To (a) describe the types of transitions experienced by male spousal caregivers of women with breast cancer and the strategies used by male spouses to deal with these transitions and (b) examine factors related to their quality of life, including demographic variables, self-efficacy, caregiver guilt, hope, the quality of life of their partner with breast cancer, and transitions. Cross-sectional, transformational, mixed-methods approach. Participants' homes. 105 dyads of male spouses and their female partners diagnosed with stages I-III breast cancer. 600 surveys were mailed to women with breast cancer and their male partners. Significant variables were entered into a multivariate model. Male caregiver quality of life. The quality of life of male spouse participants was positively influenced by hope (p life scores reported higher hope and lower caregiver guilt scores. They reported lower quality-of-life scores if they dealt with transitions by "doing what needs to be done."
 Strategies to support male spouses of women with breast cancer should involve ways to foster hope, reduce feelings of guilt, and encourage male caregivers to engage more in supporting their spouses.

  11. Positive Parenting of Young Adolescents by Male Cohabiting Partners: The Roles of Coparenting Conflict and Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forehand, Rex; Parent, Justin; Golub, Andrew; Reid, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Fathers have often been ignored in the parenting literature. The current study focused on male cohabiting partners (MCPs) who can serve as "social stepfathers" and examined the association of coparent support and conflict with their positive parenting behavior (i.e., acceptance, firm control, and monitoring) of adolescents. Participants…

  12. Attitudes about Partner Communication Regarding Contraceptive Use among Hispanic Male College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Koreena M.; Wiley, David C.; Housman, Jeff; Martinez-Ramos, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine cultural factors that influence Hispanic male college students' intention to communicate with partners about contraception use. Participants: A sample of 239 self-identified Hispanic participants enrolled in at least 1 college course participated in this study in the spring 2014…

  13. Healthy overweight male partners of subfertile couples should not worry about their semen quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duits, Floor H.; van Wely, Madelon; van der Veen, Fulco; Gianotten, Judith

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of body mass index (BMI) on semen quality in a cohort of male partners in subfertile couples. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: A fertility center based in an academic hospital. Patient(s): Between January 2000 and January 2007, 1466 men visiting the Centre

  14. Brain activation associated to olfactory conditioned same-sex partner preference in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coria-Avila, Genaro A; Cibrian-Llanderal, Tamara; Díaz-Estrada, Victor X; García, Luis I; Toledo-Cárdenas, Rebeca; Pfaus, James G; Manzo, Jorge

    2018-03-01

    Sexual preferences can be strongly modified by Pavlovian learning. For instance, olfactory conditioned same-sex partner preference can occur when a sexually naïve male cohabits with an scented male during repeated periods under the effects of enhanced D2-type activity. Preference is observed days later via social and sexual behaviors. Herein we explored brain activity related to learned same-sex preference (Fos-Immunoreactivity, IR) following exposure to a conditioned odor paired with same-sex preference. During conditioning trials males received either saline or the D2-type receptor agonist quinpirole (QNP) and cohabitated during 24 h with a stimulus male that bore almond scent on the back as conditioned stimulus. This was repeated every 4 days, for a total of three trials. In a drug-free final test we assessed socio/sexual partner preference between the scented male and a receptive female. The results indicated that QNP-conditioned males developed a same-sex preference observed via contact, time spent, olfactory investigations, and non-contact erections. By contrast, saline-conditioned and intact (non-exposed to conditioning) males expressed an unconditioned preference for the female. Four days later the males were exposed to almond scent and their brains were processed for Fos-IR. Results indicated that the QNP-conditioned group expressed more Fos-IR in the nucleus accumbens (AcbSh), medial preoptic area (MPA), piriform cortex (Pir) and ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) as compared to saline-conditioned. Intact males expressed the lowest Fos-IR in AcbSh and VMH, but the highest in MPA and Pir. We discuss the role of these areas in the learning process of same-sex partner preferences and olfactory discrimination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Role of the male partner in the lower genitourinary tract infection of female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, B; Bhandari, H; Sharma, M; Malhotra, S; Sawhney, H; Kumar, B

    2000-07-01

    We studied the relationships of selected microbes and the role of consorts in the causation of vaginal discharge which may be due to cervicitis or vaginitis. A total of 93 consecutive patients in the reproductive age group with symptoms of vaginal discharge along with their sexual partners were studied. Samples were collected from the cervix and posterior fornix of the female patients and from the urethra and sub-prepucial area of the male partner for culture of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Gardnerella vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis, ureaplasma, candida, aerobic and anaerobic organisms. Apart from cultures, KOH and Gram stain of the discharge were made. Predominant pathogen isolated was Ureaplasma urealyticum from 40 (43.01%) females and 23 (24.7%) males. The next common pathogenic organisms isolated were candida species from 11 (11.8%) females and 5 (5.4%) males and Chlamydia trachomatis in 3 (3.2%) females and 1 (1.1%) male. Various organisms were more frequently isolated from the 29 of 43 (67.4%) couples who had had sexual intercourse 7 days prior to the recruitment as compared to 14 of 43 (32.6%) who had had coitus more than 7 days prior to their recruitment. This may be due to the spontaneous disappearance or decrease in the number of organisms to the level that they could be detected by culture. In our study, 6 (6.5%) of male partners carrying pathogenic organisms were asymptomatic, indicating that their screening and treatment is vital.

  16. Pathways from Racial Discrimination to Multiple Sexual Partners Among Male African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Steven M.; Yu, Tianyi; Allen, Kimberly A.; Pocock, Alexandra M.; Brody, Gene H.

    2014-01-01

    African American male adolescents’ involvement with multiple sexual partners has important implications for public health as well as for their development of ideas regarding masculinity and sexuality. The purpose of this study was to test hypotheses regarding the pathways through which racial discrimination affects African American adolescents’ involvement with multiple sexual partners. We hypothesized that racial discrimination would engender psychological distress, which would promote attitudes and peer affiliations conducive to multiple sexual partnerships. The study also examined the protective influence of parenting practices in buffering the influence of contextual stressors. Participants were 221 African American male youth who provided data at ages 16 and 18; their parents provided data on family socioeconomic disadvantages. Of these young men, 18.5% reported having 3 or more sexual partners during the past 3 months. Structural equation models indicated that racial discrimination contributed to sexual activity with multiple partners by inducing psychological distress, which in turn affected attitudes and peer affiliations conducive to multiple partners. The experience of protective parenting, which included racial socialization, closeness and harmony in parent-child relationships, and parental monitoring, buffered the influence of racial discrimination on psychological distress. These findings suggest targets for prevention programming and underscore the importance of efforts to reduce young men’s experience with racial discrimination. PMID:25937821

  17. Hormonal contraceptive use and mate retention behavior in women and their male partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welling, Lisa L M; Puts, David A; Roberts, S Craig; Little, Anthony C; Burriss, Robert P

    2012-01-01

    Female hormonal contraceptive use has been associated with a variety of physical and psychological side effects. Women who use hormonal contraceptives report more intense affective responses to partner infidelity and greater overall sexual jealousy than women not using hormonal contraceptives. Recently, researchers have found that using hormonal contraceptives with higher levels of synthetic estradiol, but not progestin, is associated with significantly higher levels of self-reported jealousy in women. Here, we extend these findings by examining the relationship between mate retention behavior in heterosexual women and their male partners and women's use of hormonal contraceptives. We find that women using hormonal contraceptives report more frequent use of mate retention tactics, specifically behaviors directed toward their partners (i.e., intersexual manipulations). Men partnered with women using hormonal contraceptives also report more frequent mate retention behavior, although this relationship may be confounded by relationship satisfaction. Additionally, among women using hormonal contraceptives, the dose of synthetic estradiol, but not of synthetic progesterone, positively predicts mate retention behavior frequency. These findings demonstrate how hormonal contraceptive use may influence behavior that directly affects the quality of romantic relationships as perceived by both female and male partners. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. The influence of male partners on contraceptive usage in sub-Saharan Africa-Lagos experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omololu Adegbola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Family planning programs, researches, and studies have focused mainly on women with little attention to men′s role in the contraceptive choices by the couple. Men′s exclusion from these programs has serious implications on the acceptance and use of contraceptives by the couple. Objective: To determine the influence of male partners on contraceptive use of their spouses. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study at a Tertiary Care Centre in Lagos, Nigeria. It was conducted from January 1 to April 30, 2010, where all consecutive consenting pregnant women were given structured questionnaires to give to their partners so as to evaluate the contribution of the male partners to contraceptives use in their spouses as well as assess their awareness and knowledge of contraception. Categorical variables were analyzed using Chi-square test or Fisher′s exact test as appropriate while continuous variables by t-test. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Of the 370 respondents, only 51.9% (192 knew about female contraceptive methods, while 50% (185 were willing to allow their wives to use contraception. Barrier method (17.3% and periodic abstinence (15.7% were the leading preferred choice for their wives. However, bilateral tubal ligation was the least preferred method (1.6%. Previous counseling of male partner significantly influenced their decision to allow their wives to use contraceptives (P = 0.001. Conclusion: Involving the male partner in family planning counseling plays an important role in increasing the acceptance and use of contraceptives by the couple.

  19. Traumatic childhood exposures in the lives of male perpetrators of female intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Margaret E; Scrandis, Debra A

    2013-09-01

    Despite efforts to use behavior modification interventions for male perpetrators, intimate partner violence (IPV) remains a significant problem in some male-female relationships. Childhood exposure to traumatic violent experiences, especially when untreated, can influence adult behaviors. Little is known about these possible factors in the lives of male perpetrators of IPV and if they influence their violent behavior against female intimate partners. This study's aim was to explore the life perspective of men who have been violent with their female intimate partners using Gadamer's hermeneutic phenomenology. Nine men with a history of female IPV were interviewed twice over a 5-month period. Interview content focused on their experiences in childhood and adult lives. Four themes emerged from the qualitative interviews: (a) childhood and family issues, (b) school and mental health issues, (c) substance abuse and (d) legal issues. Traumatic violent experiences in childhood, such as physical and sexual abuse, frequently led to school problems, misuse of substances, and arrests for a spectrum of crimes. These results highlight the importance of identifying traumatic violent exposures through a brief two-question screen of all children in primary care. Implications for individualized mental health treatment of male perpetrators and recommendations for further research are addressed.

  20. Pattern of semen fluid abnormalities in male partners of infertile couples in southeastern, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugboaja, J O; Monago, E N; Obiechina, N J A

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of male infertility is increasing in our environment. There is a need to evaluate the pattern of abnormality with a view to recommending appropriate interventions. We aimed to to analyze the seminal fluid parameters of the male partners of the infertile couples managed in the hospital over a 12 month period and to identify the pattern of abnormalities. A retrospective study of all the semen samples of male partners of infertile couples submitted for analysis to the microbiology laboratory of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi Nigeria between 1st January 2006 and 31st December 2006 The reports of the semen fluid analysis were retrieved from the records department and supplemented with the laboratory register. Out of the 348 semen sample reports evaluated, 237 (68.0%) had semen fluid abnormalities. 104 (30.0%) had single factor abnormalities while 133 (38.0%) had combined factor anomalies. Asthenozoospermia 58 (16.7%) was the main single abnormality, while Astheno-oligozoospermia 51 (14.7%) and Astheno-oligoteratozoospermia (13.2%) were the major combined factor abnormalities detected. Very few 5 (1.4%) of the patients had azospermia. The study showed a high rate of semen fluid abnormalities among the male partners of infertile women in our environment. The high preponderance of poor motility emphasizes the need to include men in programmes aimed at reducing sexually transmitted infections in Nigeria.

  1. Predictors of perceived male partner concurrency among women at risk for HIV and STI acquisition in Durban, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffoor, Zakir; Wand, Handan; Street, Renée A; Abbai, Nathlee; Ramjee, Gita

    2016-01-01

    Women in sub-Saharan Africa continue to be at greater risk for HIV acquisition than men. Concurrency, viz. multiple sexual partnerships that overlap over time, has been studied as a possible risk factor for HIV transmission. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of perceived male partner concurrency among sexually active, HIV negative women. Socio-demographic and behavioural data from women enrolled in a biomedical HIV prevention clinical trial were assessed in relation to perceived male partner concurrency using the Chi squared test. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed to assess the independent predictors of perceived male partner concurrency. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were obtained for HIV and STI incidence in relation to male partner concurrency. A Cox Proportional Hazards model was used to assess the association between perceived male partner concurrency and HIV and STI incidence. The results revealed that 29 % of women reported their male partners to be in concurrent sexual relationships, 22 % reported partners that were not engaging in concurrency, whilst 49 % reported not knowing their partners concurrency status. Older women, having never married, experiencing economic abuse, and women reporting individual concurrency, were found to be significant predictors of perceived male partner concurrency in the studied population. Perceived male partner concurrency was not found to be a significantly associated with incident HIV and STI infections in this analysis. The study provides insight into predictors of perceived male partner concurrency among women at high risk for STI and HIV acquisition. These results may inform the design of behavioural and biomedical interventions, to address the role of multiple sexual partnerships in HIV prevention.

  2. Urinary tract infection in male general practice patients: uropathogens and antibiotic susceptibility.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeijers, J.J.; Verbon, A.; Kessels, A.G.H.; Bartelds, A.; Donker, G.; Nys, S.; Stobberingh, E.E.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate uropathogens and their antibiotic susceptibility in male general practitioner (GP) patients presenting with an uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI). Material and Methods: A population-based study was conducted among males, 18 years and older, general practice patients,

  3. Dyadic effects of gender minority stressors in substance use behaviors among transgender women and their non-transgender male partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Sari L.; Gamarel, Kristi E.; Nemoto, Tooru; Operario, Don

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite evidence that interpersonal processes shape health behaviors, research concerning the dyadic effects of gender minority stressors on substance use behaviors of transgender people is scarce. The objective of this study was to use dyadic analysis to examine whether transgender discrimination was associated with substance use among transgender women and their male partners. Methods Transgender women and their male partners (N=191 couples; N=382 individuals) completed questionnaires. Participants’ mean age was 37.1; 79.1% were racial/ethnic minority; 61.3% earned transgender-related discrimination and past 30-day non-marijuana illicit drug use adjusting for age, relationship length, financial hardship, and depressive distress among partners in these dyads. Results Illicit drug use was reported by 31.4% of transgender women and 25.1% of their male partners. Perceived transgender discrimination was independently associated with increased odds of illicit drug use for transgender women (actor effect) but not for their male partners. Financial hardship statistically predicted drug use for both partners (actor effects). There were no partner effects for financial hardship on drug use. Overall, 34.5% of dyads had discrepant substance use. Discrimination scores of male partners differentiated dyads who reported discrepant substance use. Discussion Gender minority stressors are critical to understanding substance use among transgender women and their male partners. Integrating socioeconomic status into gender minority stress frameworks is essential. Results have implications for substance use prevention and treatment, including the need to incorporate gender minority stressors into interventions. PMID:25642440

  4. Dyadic effects of gender minority stressors in substance use behaviors among transgender women and their non-transgender male partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Sari L; Gamarel, Kristi E; Nemoto, Tooru; Operario, Don

    2014-03-01

    Despite evidence that interpersonal processes shape health behaviors, research concerning the dyadic effects of gender minority stressors on substance use behaviors of transgender people is scarce. The objective of this study was to use dyadic analysis to examine whether transgender discrimination was associated with substance use among transgender women and their male partners. Transgender women and their male partners ( N =191 couples; N =382 individuals) completed questionnaires. Participants' mean age was 37.1; 79.1% were racial/ethnic minority; 61.3% earned discrimination and past 30-day non-marijuana illicit drug use adjusting for age, relationship length, financial hardship, and depressive distress among partners in these dyads. Illicit drug use was reported by 31.4% of transgender women and 25.1% of their male partners. Perceived transgender discrimination was independently associated with increased odds of illicit drug use for transgender women (actor effect) but not for their male partners. Financial hardship statistically predicted drug use for both partners (actor effects). There were no partner effects for financial hardship on drug use. Overall, 34.5% of dyads had discrepant substance use. Discrimination scores of male partners differentiated dyads who reported discrepant substance use. Gender minority stressors are critical to understanding substance use among transgender women and their male partners. Integrating socioeconomic status into gender minority stress frameworks is essential. Results have implications for substance use prevention and treatment, including the need to incorporate gender minority stressors into interventions.

  5. Women's motivations to have sex in casual and committed relationships with male and female partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Heather L; Reissing, Elke D

    2015-05-01

    Women report a wide variety of reasons to have sex (e.g., Meston & Buss, 2010), and while it is reasonable to assume that those reasons may vary based on the context of the relationship, this assumption has not yet been tested. The purpose of this study was to explore how relationship type, sexual attraction, and the gender of one's partner interact and affect the sexual motivations of women. A total of 510 women (361 who reported exclusively other-sex attraction and 149 who reported same-sex/bisexual attraction) completed the YSEX? questionnaire. Participants rated their sexual motivations for casual sex and sex in a committed relationship with male and/or female partners, depending on reported sexual attraction. Results showed that relationship type affected reported motivation for sex: physical motivations were more strongly endorsed for casual sex, whereas emotional motivations were more strongly endorsed for sex in committed relationships. No significant differences in motivation were reported between women who reported same-sex attraction and those who did not. Women who reported bisexual attraction and identified as being lesbian, bisexual, or another sexual minority reported no significant differences in motivation for sex with male or female partners. The results of this study highlight the importance of relationship context when discussing sexual motivation and suggest a high degree of similarity in motivation for women, regardless of sexual orientation or gender of partner.

  6. Lived experiences of male intimate partners of female rape victims in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Evalina; Duma, Sinegugu E; Mayers, Pat M

    2014-09-23

    Sexual violence in South Africa is a major public health and social problem. Sexual assault or rape is a traumatic event which disrupts not only the life of the female rape victim, but also that of her male intimate partner (MIP), irrespective of whether he witnessed or was informed of the incident. The study aimed to explore the lived experiences of MIPs of female rape victims and the meaning of these experiences in the six months following the partner's rape. We conducted a longitudinal hermeneutic phenomenological study. Nine purposively sampled adult MIPs were interviewed over a period of six months. The participants were in an intimate relationship with a female rape victim prior to and immediately after the rape; their partners had been treated at a specialised centre for victims of rape and sexual assault. Four interviews were conducted with each of the nine intimate partners of female rape victims: (1) within 14 days of, (2) a month after, (3) three months after, and (4) six months after the rape. Two major themes emerged: being-in-the-world as a secondary victim of rape, and living in multiple worlds, those of their female partners, family, friends, society, employers or colleagues, professionals and the justice system. The participant's familiar world became strange and even threatening, and his relationship with his partner became uncertain. Early supportive intervention for intimate partners of female rape victims is required to prevent on-going emotional trauma and alleviate the effects of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder and suffering at intra- and interpersonal levels.

  7. Increased risk of severe depression in male partners of women with breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakaya, Naoki; Saito-Nakaya, Kumi; Bidstrup, Pernille Envold

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: A few small studies published to date have suggested that major psychosocial problems develop in the partners of cancer patients; however, to the authors' knowledge, no studies to date have addressed their risk for severe depression. In a retrospective cohort study, the risk for hosp......BACKGROUND:: A few small studies published to date have suggested that major psychosocial problems develop in the partners of cancer patients; however, to the authors' knowledge, no studies to date have addressed their risk for severe depression. In a retrospective cohort study, the risk...... for hospitalization with an affective disorder of the male partners of women with breast cancer was investigated, using unbiased, nationwide, population-based information. METHODS:: Followed were 1,162,596 men born between 1925 and 1973 who were aged ≥30 years at study entry, resided in Denmark between 1994 and 2006......-related indicators obtained from national administrative and disease registers. RESULTS:: During the 13 years of follow-up, breast cancer was diagnosed in the partners of 20,538 men. On multivariable analysis, men whose partner was diagnosed with breast cancer were found to be at an increased risk of being...

  8. Love, Trust, and HIV Risk Among Female Sex Workers and Their Intimate Male Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Bazzi, Angela Robertson; Martinez, Gustavo; Rangel, M Gudelia; Ulibarri, Monica D; Fergus, Kirkpatrick B; Amaro, Hortensia; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2015-08-01

    We examined correlates of love and trust among female sex workers and their noncommercial male partners along the Mexico-US border. From 2011 to 2012, 322 partners in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, completed assessments of love and trust. Cross-sectional dyadic regression analyses identified associations of relationship characteristics and HIV risk behaviors with love and trust. Within 161 couples, love and trust scores were moderately high (median 70/95 and 29/40 points, respectively) and correlated with relationship satisfaction. In regression analyses of HIV risk factors, men and women who used methamphetamine reported lower love scores, whereas women who used heroin reported slightly higher love. In an alternate model, men with concurrent sexual partners had lower love scores. For both partners, relationship conflict was associated with lower trust. Love and trust are associated with relationship quality, sexual risk, and drug use patterns that shape intimate partners' HIV risk. HIV interventions should consider the emotional quality of sex workers' intimate relationships.

  9. Transgenerational inheritance of susceptibility to diabetes-induced male subfertility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlínková, Gabriela; Margaryan, Hasmik; Žatecká, Eva; Valášková, Eliška; Elzeinová, Fatima; Kubátová, Alena; Bohuslavová, Romana; Pěknicová, Jana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, JUL 10 2017 (2017), č. článku 4940. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NV15-30880A; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-06825S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : HIGH-FAT DIET * MALE-INFERTILITY * GENE-EXPRESSION * SPERM PARAMETERS Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition OBOR OECD: Endocrinology and metabolism (including diabetes, hormones) Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  10. Role of male partner involvement in ART retention and adherence in Malawi's Option B+ program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesevich, Austin; Mtande, Tiwonge; Saidi, Friday; Cromwell, Elizabeth; Tweya, Hannock; Hosseinipour, Mina C; Hoffman, Irving; Miller, William C; Rosenberg, Nora E

    2017-11-01

    Malawi's Option B+ program provides all HIV-infected pregnant women free lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART), but challenges remain regarding retention and ART adherence, potentially due to male partner barriers. We explored relationships between male partner involvement and Option B+ retention and adherence. In 2014, a randomized controlled trial in Malawi compared male recruitment strategies for couple HIV testing and counseling (cHTC) at an antenatal clinic. This secondary analysis was conducted among the entire cohort (N = 200) of women, irrespective of randomization status. We assessed whether cHTC attendance, early disclosure of HIV-positive status, and partner ART reminders were associated with retention and adherence at one month after starting treatment. Retention was defined as attending HIV clinic follow-up within one day of running out of pills. Adherence was defined as taking ≥95% of ARTs by pill count. We used binomial regression to calculate adjusted risk ratios (aRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Median female age was 26 years. Most women (79%) were retained; of these, 68% were adherent. Receiving cHTC was associated with improved retention (aRR 1.33, 95% CI 1.12, 1.59). Receiving male partner ART reminders was weakly associated with retention (aRR 1.16, 95% CI 0.96, 1.39). Disclosure within one day was not associated with retention (aRR 1.08, 95% CI: 0.91, 1.28). Among those who were retained, these three behaviors were not associated with improved 95% adherence. CHTC could play an important role in improving Option B+ retention. Increasing cHTC participation and enhancing adherence-related messages within cHTC are important.

  11. The frequency of sexual dysfunctions in male partners of women with vaginismus in a Turkish sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, S; Dogan, M

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this investigation is to determine the sexual history traits, sexual satisfaction level and frequency of sexual dysfunctions in men whose partners have vaginismus. The study included 32 male partners of vaginismic patients, who presented at a psychiatry department. Subjects were evaluated by a semi-structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was developed by researchers for assessing sexually dysfunctional patients and included detailed questions with regard to socio-demographic variables, general medical and sexual history. All participants also received the Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS). According to DSM-IV-TR criteria, 65.6% of the investigated males were diagnosed with one or more sexual dysfunctions. The most common problem was premature ejaculation (50%) and the second one was erectile dysfunction (28%). The transformed GRISS subscale scores provided similar data. It is concluded that the assessment of sexual functions of males who have vaginismic partners should be an integral part of the management procedure of vaginismus for optimal outcome.

  12. Minority stress and relationship functioning among young male same-sex couples: An examination of actor-partner interdependence models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Brian A; McConnell, Elizabeth; Dyar, Christina; Mustanski, Brian; Newcomb, Michael E

    2018-05-01

    In different-sex couples, individual and partner stress can both have a negative impact on relationship functioning (actor and partner effects). Gay and bisexual men experience unique stress (sexual minority stress), but few studies have examined the effects of this stress on relationship functioning among young male couples. The current study examined (a) actor and partner effects of general and minority stress (internalized stigma, microaggressions, victimization, and outness) on relationship functioning (relationship quality and negative relationship interactions), (b) interactions between individual and partner stress as predictors of relationship functioning, and (c) dyadic coping and relationship length as moderators of actor and partner effects. Actor-partner interdependence models were tested using data from 153 young male couples. There was strong support for actor effects. Higher general stress and internalized stigma were associated with lower relationship quality, but only for those in longer relationships. Additionally, higher general stress, internalized stigma, and microaggressions, and lower outness, were associated with more negative relationship interactions. There was limited support for partner effects. Having a partner with higher internalized stigma was associated with more negative relationship interactions, but none of the other partner effects were significant. There was no support for individual and partner stress interacting to predict relationship functioning or for dyadic coping as a stress buffer. Findings highlight the influence of one's own experiences of general and minority stress on relationship functioning, but raise questions about how partner stress influences relationship functioning among young male couples. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Effects of acute corticosterone treatment on partner preferences in male and female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPlante, Kimberly A; Huremovic, Enida; Tomaszycki, Michelle L

    2014-04-01

    Stress alters physiology and behavior across species. Most research on the effects of stress on behavior uses chronic stressors, and most are correlational. The effects of acute stressors on physiology and behavior have been mixed. Here, we use zebra finches, a highly gregarious species that forms long-term pair bonds, to test the effects of an acute corticosterone (CORT) on opposite-sex partner preferences over a same-sex individual or a group (the latter is a highly appealing option). We had two competing hypotheses. First, we predicted that acute CORT would alter preferences for the opposite sex bird in both conditions in both sexes. However, since there is a sex difference in the effects of CORT on partner preferences in voles, these effects may be more pronounced in males than in females. To test our hypotheses, we administered 2 doses of CORT (10μg and 20μg) or vehicle (control) using a repeated measures design. In the male vs. female test, there was a significant Sex by Treatment interaction, such that in males, 10μg CORT increased preferences for a female over the male compared to when these same males were treated with saline at baseline. There were no effects of treatment in females. In the opposite-sex vs. group condition, there was an overall effect of Treatment, such that the 10μg dose increased preference for the opposite-sex individual over both saline treatments, regardless of sex. These findings further our understanding of the effects of an acute stressor on sexual partner preferences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Lived experiences of male intimate partners of female rape victims in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evalina van Wijk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexual violence in South Africa is a major public health and social problem. Sexual assault or rape is a traumatic event which disrupts not only the life of the female rape victim, but also that of her male intimate partner (MIP, irrespective of whether he witnessed or was informed of the incident.Objectives: The study aimed to explore the lived experiences of MIPs of female rape victims and the meaning of these experiences in the six months following the partner’s rape.Method: We conducted a longitudinal hermeneutic phenomenological study. Nine purposively sampled adult MIPs were interviewed over a period of six months. The participants were in an intimate relationship with a female rape victim prior to and immediately after the rape; their partners had been treated at a specialised centre for victims of rape and sexual assault. Four interviews were conducted with each of the nine intimate partners of female rape victims: (1 within 14 days of, (2 a month after, (3 three months after, and (4 six months after the rape.Results: Two major themes emerged: being-in-the-world as a secondary victim of rape, and living in multiple worlds, those of their female partners, family, friends, society, employers or colleagues, professionals and the justice system. The participant’s familiar world became strange and even threatening, and his relationship with his partner became uncertain.Conclusion: Early supportive intervention for intimate partners of female rape victims is required to prevent on-going emotional trauma and alleviate the effects of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder and suffering at intra- and interpersonal levels.

  15. Condom use errors and problems among young women who put condoms on their male partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Stephanie A; Graham, Cynthia A; Yarber, William L; Crosby, Richard A

    2003-01-01

    To comprehensively assess condom use errors and problems reported by women who apply condoms, given the lack of data on this aspect of condom use. Data from a questionnaire survey, using a 3-month recall period, was analyzed for a convenience sample of 102 college women who put condoms on their male partner(s) for sex (vaginal, anal, or oral). The percentage of the sample reporting that an error or problem occurred at least once is presented. Fifty-one percent put the condom on after starting sex, and 15% took the condom off before ending sex. Forty-eight percent wanted a condom but didn't have one, 46% did not leave space at the tip, 30% put the condom on wrong side up and had to flip the condom over, 26% did not use a lubricant, and 15% wanted a water-based lubricant and did not have any available. Twenty-five percent reported that their partners lost erections in association with condom use. Twenty-eight percent reported breakage, slippage, or both. Higher error scores were found for those who reported: 1) breakage or slippage, 2) partner erection problems, 3) use of another form of contraception, and 4) not having received instruction in correct condom use. Educating women as well as men about correct condom use, in addition to promoting consistent condom use, may be an important public health strategy.

  16. Clinical trial considerations on male contraception and collection of pregnancy information from female partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banholzer Maria

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little guidance regarding the risk of exposure of pregnant women/ women of childbearing potential to genotoxic or teratogenic compounds via vaginal dose delivered through seminal fluid during sexual intercourse. Method We summarize current thinking and provide clinical trial considerations for a consistent approach to contraception for males exposed to genotoxic and/or teratogenic compounds or to compounds of unknown teratogenicity, and for collection of pregnancy data from their female partners. Results Where toxicity testing demonstrates genotoxic potential, condom use is required during exposure and for 5 terminal plasma half-lives plus 74 days (one human spermatogenesis cycle to avoid conception. For non-genotoxic small molecules and immunoglobulins with unknown teratogenic potential or without a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL from embryo-fetal development (EFD studies and no minimal anticipated biological effect level (MABEL, condom use is recommended for males with pregnant partner/female partner of childbearing potential. For teratogenic small molecules with estimated seminal fluid concentration and a margin between projected maternal area under the curve (AUC and NOAEL AUC from EFD studies of ≥300 (≥100 for immunoglobulins or in the absence of a NOAEL with a margin between MABEL plasma concentration and maternal Cmax of ≥300 (≥10 for immunoglobulins, condom use is not required. However, condom use is required for margins below the thresholds previously indicated. For small molecules with available seminal fluid concentrations, condom use is required if margins are Pregnancy data should be proactively collected if pregnancy occurs during the condom use period required for males exposed to first-in-class molecules or to molecules with a target/class shown to be teratogenic, embryotoxic or fetotoxic in human or preclinical experiments. Conclusion These recommendations, based on a precaution

  17. '. . . if you bring the kit home, you [can] get time and test together with your partner': Pregnant women and male partners' perceptions regarding female partner-delivered HIV self-testing in Uganda - A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matovu, Joseph Kb; Buregyeya, Esther; Arinaitwe, Jim; Wanyenze, Rhoda K

    2017-11-01

    In 2015, the World Health Organization reported that more than 60 million people were tested for HIV in 122 low- and middle-income countries between 2010 and 2014. Despite this level of progress, over 40% of people living with HIV remain unaware of their HIV status. This calls for innovative approaches to improve uptake of HIV testing services, including use of HIV self-test (HIVST) kits. We conducted a cross-sectional, qualitative study to assess pregnant women and their male partners' perceptions regarding female partner-delivered HIVST kits. This study was conducted at two health facilities in Central Uganda between November and December 2015. Data were collected on pregnant women's willingness to take HIVST kits to their male partners and other household members using eight focus group discussions and 30 in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed following a thematic framework approach. Overall, pregnant women were willing to take HIVST kits to their partners and other household members, with the exception of their cowives. Male partners were willing to use HIVST kits brought by their female partners. Our findings suggest that secondary distribution of HIVST kits through female partners is acceptable and has the potential to improve male partner and household-member HIV testing.

  18. The Link Between Community-Based Violence and Intimate Partner Violence: the Effect of Crime and Male Aggression on Intimate Partner Violence Against Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Ligia; Schraiber, Lilia Blima; Hossain, Mazeda; Watts, Charlotte; Zimmerman, Cathy

    2015-08-01

    Both intimate partner violence (IPV) and community violence are prevalent globally, and each is associated with serious health consequences. However, little is known about their potential links or the possible benefits of coordinated prevention strategies. Using aggregated data on community violence from the São Paulo State Security Department (INFOCRIM) merged with WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence data, random intercept models were created to assess the effect of crime on women's probability of experiencing IPV. The association between IPV and male aggression (measured by women's reports of their partner's fights with other men) was examined using logistic regression models. We found little variation in the likelihood of male IPV perpetration related to neighborhood crime level but did find an increased likelihood of IPV experiences among women whose partners were involved in male-to-male violence. Emerging evidence on violence prevention has suggested some promising avenues for primary prevention that address common risk factors for both perpetration of IPV and male interpersonal violence. Strategies such as early identification and effective treatment of emotional disorders, alcohol abuse prevention and treatment, complex community-based interventions to change gender social norms and social marketing campaigns designed to modify social and cultural norms that support violence may work to prevent simultaneously male-on-male aggression and IPV. Future evaluations of these prevention strategies should simultaneously assess the impact of interventions on IPV and male interpersonal aggression.

  19. Interpersonal well-being and mental health among male partners of women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segrin, Chris; Badger, Terry; Sieger, Amelia; Meek, Paula; Lopez, Ana Maria

    2006-05-01

    The focus of this investigation was on the mental health of men whose partners had recently been diagnosed with breast cancer. In accord with theoretical models that specify the importance of interpersonal relationships in maintaining mental health, men's relationship satisfaction and perceptions of social support were predicted to be positively associated with their mental health during this stressful time. The sample included 63 male partners of women with breast cancer who participated in a three-wave panel study that assessed various indicators of mental health and interpersonal well being at T1, T1 + 6 weeks, and T1 + 10 weeks. Results indicated substantial distress in at least 25% of the men. However this distress subsided over time. Relationship satisfaction was both concurrently and prospectively associated with better mental health. Social support was negatively associated with concurrent mental health but post hoc analyses suggested that men's social networks perhaps provide greater social support to the extent that the men are emotionally distressed.

  20. Cognitive emotional consequences of male infertility in their female partners: a qualitative content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Fatemeh Zahra; Taghipour, Ali; Roudsari, Robab Latifnejad; Kimiaei, Seyed Ali; Mazlom, Seyed Reza; Amirian, Maliheh

    2015-11-01

    Infertility, as a global phenomenon and one of the most important issues of reproductive health, affects women more often than men, even when the infertility is due to a male factor. The purpose of this study was to explore the cognitive emotional experiences of women faced with male infertility. This qualitative study was conducted in 2014-2015 in Mashhad, Iran. The perceptions and experiences of healthy women whose husbands were diagnosed with primary male factor infertility were investigated using a qualitative content analysis approach. Participants were selected through purposeful sampling, and data collection was conducted using in-depth semistructured interviews. Data were analyzed using conventional content analysis with MAXqda software. Study rigor was verified via criteria proposed by Lincoln and Guba. One main theme emerged through analysis entitled "cognitive emotional reactions confronting infertility diagnosis" with sub-themes of cognitive emotional reactions when confronted with male infertility diagnosis with subthemes of disbelief and denial, fear and apprehension, suffering and emotional distress, disappointment, frustration, confusion, and joy. The diagnosis of male infertility was associated with important emotional cognitive consequences for their female partners. Emotional support, providing new insights into how to treat the issue, and trying to shorten the process of diagnosis are necessary for these women. This kind of support could reduce the psychological effects of confrontation with the diagnosis of male infertility, including social insecurity for women.

  1. Gender minority stress, mental health, and relationship quality: a dyadic investigation of transgender women and their cisgender male partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamarel, Kristi E; Reisner, Sari L; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe; Nemoto, Tooru; Operario, Don

    2014-08-01

    Research has demonstrated associations between experiences of discrimination, relationship quality, and mental health. However, critical questions remain unanswered with regard to how stigma enacted and experienced at the dyadic-level influences relationship quality and mental health for transgender women and their cisgender (nontransgender) male partners. The present study sought to examine how experiences of transgender-related discrimination (i.e., unfair treatment, harassment) and relationship stigma (i.e., the real or anticipated fear of rejection based on one's romantic affiliation) were associated with both partners relationship quality and mental health. Couples (n = 191) were recruited to participate in cross-sectional survey. Dyadic analyses using actor-partner interdependence models were conducted to examine the influence of minority stressors on clinically significant depressive distress and relationship quality. For both partners, financial hardship, discrimination, and relationship stigma were associated with an increased odds of depressive distress. For both partners, financial hardship was associated with lower relationship quality. Among transgender women, their own and their partner's higher relationship stigma scores were associated with lower relationship quality; however, among male partners, only their partner's greater relationship stigma scores were associated with lower relationship quality. Findings provide preliminary support for dyadic crossover effects of relationship stigma on the health of partners. Findings illustrate the importance of minority stress and dyadic stress frameworks in understanding and intervening upon mental health disparities among transgender women and their male partners. Couples-based interventions and treatment approaches to help transgender women and their male partners cope with minority stressors are warranted to improve the health and well-being of both partners.

  2. Concurrent sexual partnerships among female sex workers and their non-commercial male partners in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Angela Marie; Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Rangel, M Gudelia; Staines, Hugo S; Morris, Martina; Patterson, Thomas L; Ulibarri, Monica D; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the prevalence and correlates of concurrent (overlapping) sexual partnerships among female sex workers (FSWs) and their non-commercial male partners in two Mexico-US border cities. A cross-sectional survey of FSWs and their non-commercial male partners was conducted in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico (2010-2011). Eligible FSWs and verified non-commercial partners were aged ≥18 years; FSWs had ever used hard drugs (lifetime) and recently exchanged sex for money, drugs or other goods (past month). Participants underwent baseline questionnaires obtaining dates of sex and condom use with ≤5 other recurring partners, including FSWs' regular clients. These dates were compared with dates of sex with enrolled study partners to determine overlap (ie, 'recurring' concurrency). Bivariate probit regression identified recurring concurrency correlates. Among 428 individuals (214 couples), past-year recurring concurrency prevalence was 16% and was higher among women than their non-commercial male partners (26% vs 6%). In 10 couples (5%), both partners reported recurring concurrency. The majority of couples (64%) always had unprotected sex, and most of the individuals (70%) with recurring concurrency 'sometimes' or 'never' used condoms with their concurrent partners. Recurring concurrency was positively associated with FSWs' income, men's caballerismo (a form of traditional masculinity) and men's belief that their FSW partners had sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Recurring concurrency, representing sustained periods of overlapping partnerships in which unprotected sex was common, should be addressed by couple-based STI prevention interventions.

  3. Male Partner's Involvement in HIV Counselling and Testing and Associated Factors among Partners of Pregnant Women in Gondar Town, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenebe, Alemu; Gebeyehu, Abebaw; Derseh, Lemma; Ahmed, Kedir Y

    2016-01-01

    Background. Despite the existence of several programmes promoting male involvement in HIV counselling and testing during their wife's pregnancy as a part of PMTCT, few men have heeded the call. The aim of this study was to assess male partner's involvement in HCT and its associated factors. Methods. This study was based on institution based cross-sectional study design that used systematic random sampling technique. A total of 416 partners were interviewed in the data collection. Multivariable logistic regression model was fitted to identify the independent predictors. Result. In this study, the prevalence of male involvement in HCT was found to be 40.1% (95% CI: 35.3%-44.7%). The independent predictors of male involvement were partners who were younger, were cohabitant, were with multigravida wives, were knowledgeable on route of mother-to-child transmission, and discussed HCT. Conclusion. The prevalence of male involvement in HCT was found to be suboptimal compared to similar studies in Ethiopia. There is a need of interventions on partners who are older, separated, and with lower gravidity wife. Awareness creation campaign should also be created on the route of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and on the importance of discussion with wife.

  4. Microbiota of male genital tract: impact on the health of man and his partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mändar, Reet

    2013-03-01

    This manuscript describes the male genital tract microbiota and the significance of it on the host's and his partner's health. Microbiota exists in male lower genital tract, mostly in urethra and coronal sulcus while high inter-subject variability exists. Differences appear between sexually transmitted disease positive and negative men as well as circumcised and uncircumcised men. Upper genital tract is generally germ-free, except in case of infections. Prostatitis patients have frequently abundant polymicrobial communities in their semen, expressed prostatic secretion and/or post-massage urine. Coryneform bacteria have ambivalent role in male urogenital tract being frequently commensals but sometimes associated with prostatitis and urethritis. Interactions between male and female genital tract microbiota are highly likely yet there are very scarce studies on the couples' genital tract microbiota. Increase of bacterial vaginosis-type microbiota and coliforms are the most typical findings in men while the adverse effect of male genital tract bacteria on in vitro fertilization and pregnancy outcome has also been indicated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. An exploration of the perceptions of male partners involved in the birthing experience at a regional Australian hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porrett, Liesel; Barkla, Sally; Knights, Janice; de Costa, Caroline; Harmen, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    The benefits to women of having their male partners present during labor and birth have been well documented, but the effects on men of sharing the birth experience have been less well explored. Several studies have suggested that male partners' positive experiences at this time may benefit partner and family relationships subsequently, whereas negative experiences may translate into later difficulties in these relationships. This study explored the perceptions of male partners involved in the birthing experience in the Integrated Women's Health Unit of Cairns Base Hospital, Cairns, Australia, over a 6-month period in 2010. The aims of the study were to document male partners' self-reported perceptions of their antenatal, labor, and birth experiences and birth expectations and birth involvement and to determine whether these perceptions influenced their feelings that their presence during birth was beneficial to the birthing woman. Participants were men experiencing for the first time their partner giving birth. A self-administered 14-item questionnaire was used to collect data; 163 of 200 eligible participants returned completed questionnaires. Continuous variables were converted to categorical variables and chi-square testing was used to determine significant differences between groups. The relationship between beneficial presence and antenatal, labor, and birthing experiences was assessed using correlation analysis and hierarchical regression analysis. There was a significant relationship demonstrated between perceived benefit of the partners' presence and positive perception of both antenatal experience and birth involvement. There also was a positive relationship between realized birth expectations and both antenatal experience and birth involvement. This study suggests that male partners' perceptions of beneficial presence during the birth experience can be enhanced by their feeling well informed and supported during the antenatal period and feeling involved

  6. Sexually transmitted infections, sexual risk behavior, and intimate partner violence among African American adolescent females with a male sex partner recently released from incarceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartzendruber, Andrea; Brown, Jennifer L; Sales, Jessica M; Murray, Colleen C; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2012-08-01

    Social networks directly and indirectly influence sexually transmitted infections (STIs) risk. The objective was to explore associations between sex with a male recently released from incarceration and sexual risk and intimate partner violence (IPV) among African American adolescent females. Sociodemographic, psychosocial, and sexual behavior data were collected at baseline, 6, and 12 months from African American females, aged 15-21 years, participating in an HIV/STI prevention trial. Among 653 participants with ≥1 follow-up assessments, generalized estimating equations tested associations during follow-up between having a recently released partner and STI acquisition, sexual risk behaviors, and IPV, adjusting for age, treatment assignment, and corresponding baseline measure. Eighty-three (13.6%) participants had a recently released partner at 6 months and 56 (9.3%) at 12 months. Participants with a recently released partner were more likely to have the following: vaginal (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 5.48), anal (AOR: 2.43), and oral (AOR: 1.51) sex, a casual partner (AOR: 1.66), sex while high/drunk (AOR: 1.57) or with a high/drunk partner (AOR: 2.27); use condoms inconsistently (AOR: .58); acquire Chlamydia (AOR: 1.80), and experience emotional (AOR: 4.09), physical (AOR: 2.59), or sexual abuse (AOR: 4.10) by a boyfriend. They had a greater number of sex partners, lower partner communication and refusal self-efficacy, were high/drunk during sex more frequently, and used condoms during oral sex less frequently. A recently released sex partner is associated with sexual risk and IPV among African American adolescent females. Prevention programs should inform adolescents about potential risks associated with recently released partners as well as provide adolescents with skills to establish and maintain healthy sexual relationships. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Psychological characteristics of the male beater of their female partner, residing in city of Bucaramanga, Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Aguilera Torrado

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the personalities of the male beater of their female partner. Method: We evaluate, by means of BFQ / IMAFE tests, 50 convicted aggressors, registered by the Attorney General Office. We also interviewedthem. Results: Aggressors had very low marks in general culture, information, cooperativism, cordiality, altruism, friendship, generosity and empathy. They showed a low marks in reflexion, order, and in being meticulous, diligent, perseverant, as wells as, in being energetic and dynamic. High marks in submission, and in being anxious, vulnerable, emotive, impulsive, impatient and irritable. The vast majority identifies the above symptoms as culturally associate with feminism. It is clear through the interview that the economical stability, alcohol abuse or their female partner plays an important role to explain their behavior. They do not consider themselves as being violent with their female partner, rather they blame upon their cultural, social and economical status, as being the direct responsible for beating women. Conclusions: The female aggressor, usually, is a man with traditional ideas, paternal values and resistant to changes. This will be reflected upon his personality characteristics and the meaning he has for his violent behavior. Probably this may, also, reflects a homophobic and misogynist feelings, which, usually, is a product of gender identity and in the process of building his masculinity, no responding, also, to the request from the “macho” pattern asked by his paternal culture.

  8. First use of antidepressant medication in male partners of women with breast cancer in Denmark from 1998 to 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cromhout, Pernille F; Latocha, Kristine M; Olsen, Maja H

    2017-01-01

    to partners of breast cancer-free women. Cox regression analyses examined associations between exposed partners' sociodemographic characteristics, somatic comorbidity, death of female partner, and first use of antidepressant medication. RESULTS: Male partners of women with breast cancer had an increased rate...... ratio of 1.08 (95% CI, 1.03-1.13) for first use of antidepressant medication compared to the background population, corresponding to excess absolute risk of 12 cases per 10 000 person-years. This increased risk persisted throughout 14 years of follow-up. Higher age, shorter education, somatic...

  9. The importance of male partner involvement for women's acceptability and adherence to female-initiated HIV prevention methods in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Elizabeth T; van der Straten, Ariane; Chidanyika, Agnes; Chipato, Tsungai; Jaffar, Shabbar; Padian, Nancy

    2011-07-01

    Enlisting male partner involvement is perceived as an important component of women's successful uptake of female-initiated HIV prevention methods. We conducted a longitudinal study among a cohort of 955 Zimbabwean women participating in a clinical trial of the effectiveness of a female-initiated HIV prevention method (the diaphragm and lubricant gel) to: (a) describe the extent to which women involved their male partners in the decision to use the study products, and (b) measure the effect perceived male partner support had on their acceptability and consistent use of these methods. Reported levels of male partner involvement in discussions and decisions regarding: joining the study, study activities, the outcome of HIV/STI test results, and product use were very high. In multivariate analyses, regular disclosure of study product use and partner approval for the diaphragm and gel were significantly associated with women's acceptability and consistent use of the products; an essential component for determining efficacy of investigational prevention methods. These results support the need for more sophisticated measurement of how couples interact to make decisions that impact study participation and investigational product use as well as more rigorous adaptations and evaluations of existing strategies to involve male partners in female-initiated HIV prevention trials.

  10. Accurate detection of male subclinical genital tract infection via cervical culture and DNA hybridization assay of the female partner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trum, J. W.; Pannekoek, Y.; Spanjaard, L.; Bleker, O. P.; van der Veen, F.

    2000-01-01

    The accuracy of the PACE2 DNA hybridization assay of the cervix and cervical culture in female partners for the diagnosis of male subclinical genital tract infection were assessed in a male infertility population. A total of 184 men were screened for the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma

  11. Enhaced D2-type receptor activity facilitates the development of conditioned same-sex partner preference in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibrian-Llanderal, Tamara; Rosas-Aguilar, Viridiana; Triana-Del Rio, Rodrigo; Perez, Cesar A; Manzo, Jorge; Garcia, Luis I; Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2012-08-01

    Animal models have shown that the neural bases of social attachment, sexual preference and pair bonds, depend on dopamine D2-type receptor and oxytocin activity. In addition, studies have demonstrated that cohabitation can shape partner preference via conditioning. Herein, we used rats to explore the development of learned same-sex partner preferences in adulthood as a result of cohabitation during enhanced D2 activity. Experimental Wistar males (N=20), received saline or the D2 agonist (quinpirole) and were allowed to cohabitate during 24 h, with a stimulus male partner that bore almond scent on the back as conditioned stimulus. This was repeated every 4 days, for a total of three trials. Four days later they were drug-free tested for partner preference between the scented male partner and a sexually receptive female. Sexual partner preference was analyzed by measuring frequency and latency for appetitive and consummatory sexual behaviors, as well as non-contact erections. Social preference was also analyzed by measuring the frequency and latency of visits, body contacts and time spent together. Results indicated that only quinpirole-treated males displayed sexual and social preference for the scented male over the sexually receptive female. They spent more time together, displayed more body contacts, more female-like proceptive behaviors, and more non-contact erections. Accordingly, conditioned males appeared to be more sexually aroused and motivated by the known male than by a receptive female. We discuss the implications of this animal model on the formation of learned homosexual partner preferences. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Relational and sexual fluidity in females partnered with male-to-female transsexual persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramburu Alegría, C

    2013-03-01

    This paper reports on a study examining sexuality in females who remain partnered with male-to-female transsexual persons. Participants' self-view and sexual fluidity following their partners' transition from man to woman is examined. Sixteen females participated in in-depth, semi-structured interviews. An inductive process of data analysis was conducted, using the constant comparative method, an iterative process by which data are compared within and across subjects. Data were collected until thematic saturation was achieved. Four themes related to sexuality emerged: (1) questioning of sexual orientation; (2) sexual orientation categorization; (3) relational fluidity without sexual relations; and (4) relational fluidity with sexual relations. Participants maintained a heterosexual identity, yet modified their self-view to include an identity that reflected their reformed relationship. The majority of the respondents reported sexual lives that were active or evolving. Others remained in relationships that no longer included sexual activity. The study findings highlight the potential fluidity within the sexual and relational lives of females, and can enhance healthcare providers' preparedness and efficacy with diverse populations. Providers are in a unique position to offer resources to patients who identify as sexually or gender-diverse, or who are in relationships with sexually or gender-diverse persons. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing.

  13. The relationship between males' attitudes to partner violence and use of contraceptive methods in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, L; Ozaydin, N

    2005-09-01

    Interventions have been carried out to improve the reproductive health and status of women in Turkey. However, these efforts are limited due to lack of male involvement. Lifestyle risks such as partner violence need to be evaluated in terms of any effects on the use of contraception. Data collected from interviews of married women and their husbands for the 1998 Turkish Demographic and Health Survey and 1971 husbands were included in the study. The percentage of husbands who were against partner violence was 20.4%. However, 22 (0.9%) husbands had an attitude toward the use of violence against their wives. The frequency of contraceptive use was increased from the group of men who had unfavorable attitudes towards violence to the group of men who had favorable attitudes. A similar trend was found in the percentages of condom use for men, with multiple factors influencing contraceptive use. The study suggests that further investigations are needed for couple-related issues to improve the status of women in the community and to empower women for sexual health.

  14. THE EFFECT OF A MALE SURPLUS ON INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE IN INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Sunita; Trent, Katherine; South, Scott J

    2013-08-31

    Theories of the social consequences of imbalanced sex ratios posit that men will exercise extraordinarily strict control over women's behaviour when women's relationship options are plentiful and men's own options are limited. We use data from the third wave of the Indian National Family and Health Survey, conducted in 2005-06, to explore this issue, investigating the effect of the community sex ratio on women's experience of intimate partner violence in India. Multilevel logistic regression models show that a relative surplus of men in a community increases the likelihood of physical abuse by husbands even after adjusting for various other individual, household, and geographic characteristics. Further evidence of control over women when there is a sex ratio imbalance is provided by the increased odds of husbands distrusting wives with money when there is a male surplus in the local community.

  15. Offending, Adjudication, and Outcome Patterns of Solo Male, Solo Female, and Partnered Mass Murderers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurian, Elizabeth A

    2018-05-01

    Research on mass murder is limited due to differences in definitions (particularly with respect to victim count), as well as categorizations based on motive. These limitations restrict our understanding of the offending, adjudication, and outcome patterns of these offenders and can obscure potential underlying similarities to comparable types of offenders (e.g., lone actors or terrorists). To address some of these limitations, this research study, which includes an international sample of 434 cases (455 total offenders), uses descriptive and empirical analyses of solo male, solo female, and partnered mass murderers (teams of two or more) to explore offending, adjudication, and outcome patterns among these different types offenders. While the results from this research study support much previous mass murder research, the findings also emphasize the importance of large international sample sizes, objective categorizations, and the use of empirically based analyses to further advance our understanding of these offenders.

  16. The experiences of male sudden cardiac arrest survivors and their partners: a gender analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uren, Alan; Galdas, Paul

    2015-02-01

    To explore how masculinities shape the experiences of men and their partners after survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest report depression, dependence on others for daily functioning, decreased participation in society and significant decreases in quality of life. There is growing evidence that masculine gender identities play a central role in the recovery experiences of men and their families following other major cardiac events. However, to date, there has been no examination of how masculinities shape men's experiences of recovery following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Interview study guided by an interpretive description approach. Data were subjected to thematic analysis. A purposive sample of seven male sudden cardiac arrest survivors and 6 female partners was recruited in 2010 from a secondary care centre in British Columbia, Canada. Three themes were prominent in the experiences of the participants: (1) Support and self-reliance; (2) Dealing with emotional (in) vulnerability; and (3) No longer a 'He-man'. Masculinities played a role in men's experiences of recovery and adaptation following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Hegemonic masculinity partly explained men's experiences, notably their reluctance to seek professional support and reactions to changes in lifestyle. However, the study also suggests that the popular stereotype of men being 'strong and silent' in the face of ill-health may only be a part of a more complex story. Nurses would benefit from taking into consideration the potential influence of male gender identities on men's recovery postcardiac arrest. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Early Intranasal Vasopressin Administration Impairs Partner Preference in Adult Male Prairie Voles (Microtus ochrogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trenton C. Simmons

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Research supports a modulatory role for arginine vasopressin (AVP in the expression of socially motivated behaviors in mammals. The acute effects of AVP administration are demonstrably pro-social across species, providing the justification for an ever-increasing measure of clinical interest over the last decade. Combining these results with non-invasive intranasal delivery results in an attractive system for offering intranasal AVP (IN-AVP as a therapeutic for the social impairments of children with autism spectrum disorder. But, very little is known about the long-term effects of IN-AVP during early development. In this experiment, we explored whether a single week of early juvenile administration of IN-AVP (low = 0.05 IU/kg, medium = 0.5 IU/kg, high = 5.0 IU/kg could impact behavior across life in prairie voles. We found increases in fecal boli production during open field and novel object recognition testing for the medium dose in both males and females. Medium-dose females also had significantly more play bouts than control when exposed to novel conspecifics during the juvenile period. Following sexual maturity, the medium and high doses of IN-AVP blocked partner preference formation in males, while no such impairment was found for any of the experimental groups in females. Finally, the high-dose selectively increased adult male aggression with novel conspecifics, but only after extended cohabitation with a mate. Our findings confirm that a single week of early IN-AVP treatment can have organizational effects on behavior across life in prairie voles. Specifically, the impairments in pair-bonding behavior experienced by male prairie voles should raise caution when the prosocial effects of acute IN-AVP demonstrated in other studies are extrapolated to long-term treatment.

  18. The psychological impact of infertility and fertility treatment on the male partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Maeve; Dineen, Tim; Sarma, Kiran; Nolan, Aonghus

    2014-09-01

    This paper reports the findings of two studies that examined factors predicting infertility distress in male partners within couples with an infertility diagnosis and where the couple was receiving fertility treatment. A cross-sectional design was implemented using a questionnaire battery (The questionnaire battery comprised an inventory of four different standardised questionnaires compiled together into one booklet) compiled from earlier theory-building qualitative research conducted by the authors. Infertility related distress was examined in relation to a number of psychosocial variables including relationship dynamics, self-esteem, current mental health and attitudes towards idealised masculinity. The questionnaire battery was completed by 167 men undergoing or consulting for fertility treatment. Participants were recruited through Irish fertility clinics (Study 1, n = 111) and through an online survey (Study 2, n = 55). Regression analyses identified four variables that predicted variance in infertility distress in both studies: 'Attitude towards idealised masculinity', 'Mental health', 'Relationship satisfaction' and 'Self-esteem'. This finding was found to be robust having controlled for age, time since diagnosis, number of attempts at treatment and diagnostic category (male factor, female factor or mixed factor infertility). ConclusiON: Recommendations for fertility clinics and mental health professionals should be made in relation to managing infertility distress and supporting couples during fertility treatment.

  19. Detection of oncogenic human papillomavirus genotypes on spermatozoa from male partners of infertile couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Rosaria; Capra, Giuseppina; Bellavia, Carmela; Ruvolo, Giovanni; Scazzone, Concetta; Venezia, Renato; Perino, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) sperm infection and its correlation with sperm parameters in patients who attended a fertility clinic. Cross-sectional clinical study. University-affiliated reproductive medicine clinic. A total of 308 male partners of couples undergoing in vitro fertilization techniques. Specimens of semen were collected from all patients. Sperm parameters were evaluated according to the World Health Organization manual. The presence of HPV DNA was researched by the combined use of two HPV assays and a highly sensitive nested polymerase chain reaction assay followed by HPV genotyping. To examine whether HPV was associated with the sperm, in situ hybridization (ISH) analysis was performed. Results of HPV investigation were compared with sperm parameters and ISH analysis. Twenty-four out of 308 semen samples (7.8%) were HPV DNA positive, but HPV infection did not seem to affect semen quality. Moreover, ISH revealed a clear HPV localization at the equatorial region of sperm head in infected samples. Oncogenic HPV genotypes were detected on spermatozoa from asymptomatic subjects, but a role of the infection in male infertility was not demonstrated. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Nucleus accumbens core medium spiny neuron electrophysiological properties and partner preference behavior in the adult male prairie vole, Microtus ochrogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Jaime A; Johnson, Ashlyn G; Vogel, Andrea R; Patisaul, Heather B; McGraw, Lisa A; Meitzen, John

    2018-04-01

    Medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the nucleus accumbens have long been implicated in the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie numerous social and motivated behaviors as studied in rodents such as rats. Recently, the prairie vole has emerged as an important model animal for studying social behaviors, particularly regarding monogamy because of its ability to form pair bonds. However, to our knowledge, no study has assessed intrinsic vole MSN electrophysiological properties or tested how these properties vary with the strength of the pair bond between partnered voles. Here we performed whole cell patch-clamp recordings of MSNs in acute brain slices of the nucleus accumbens core (NAc) of adult male voles exhibiting strong and weak preferences for their respective partnered females. We first document vole MSN electrophysiological properties and provide comparison to rat MSNs. Vole MSNs demonstrated many canonical electrophysiological attributes shared across species but exhibited notable differences in excitability compared with rat MSNs. Second, we assessed male vole partner preference behavior and tested whether MSN electrophysiological properties varied with partner preference strength. Male vole partner preference showed extensive variability. We found that decreases in miniature excitatory postsynaptic current amplitude and the slope of the evoked action potential firing rate to depolarizing current injection weakly associated with increased preference for the partnered female. This suggests that excitatory synaptic strength and neuronal excitability may be decreased in MSNs in males exhibiting stronger preference for a partnered female. Overall, these data provide extensive documentation of MSN electrophysiological characteristics and their relationship to social behavior in the prairie vole. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This research represents the first assessment of prairie vole nucleus accumbens core medium spiny neuron intrinsic electrophysiological properties and

  1. Preventing HIV Transmission Among Partners of HIV-Positive Male Sex Workers in Mexico City: A Modeling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, João Filipe G; Marshall, Brandon D L; Escudero, Daniel; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G; González, Andrea; Flanigan, Timothy; Operario, Don; Mayer, Kenneth H; Lurie, Mark N; Galárraga, Omar

    2015-09-01

    Mexico has a concentrated HIV epidemic, with male sex workers constituting a key affected population. We estimated annual HIV cumulative incidence among male sex workers' partners, and then compared incidence under three hypothetical intervention scenarios: improving condom use; and scaling up HIV treatment as prevention, considering current viral suppression rates (CVS, 60.7 %) or full viral suppression among those treated (FVS, 100 %). Clinical and behavioral data to inform model parameterization were derived from a sample (n = 79) of male sex workers recruited from street locations and Clínica Condesa, an HIV clinic in Mexico City. We estimated annual HIV incidence among male sex workers' partners to be 8.0 % (95 % CI: 7.3-8.7). Simulation models demonstrated that increasing condom use by 10 %, and scaling up HIV treatment initiation by 50 % (from baseline values) would decrease the male sex workers-attributable annual incidence to 5.2, 4.4 % (CVS) and 3.2 % (FVS), respectively. Scaling up the number of male sex workers on ART and implementing interventions to ensure adherence is urgently required to decrease HIV incidence among male sex workers' partners in Mexico City.

  2. Oral contraceptive use in women changes preferences for male facial masculinity and is associated with partner facial masculinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Anthony C; Burriss, Robert P; Petrie, Marion; Jones, Benedict C; Roberts, S Craig

    2013-09-01

    Millions of women use hormonal contraception and it has been suggested that such use may alter mate preferences. To examine the impact of oral contraceptive (pill) use on preferences, we tested for within-subject changes in preferences for masculine faces in women initiating pill use. Between two sessions, initiation of pill use significantly decreased women's preferences for male facial masculinity but did not influence preferences for same-sex faces. To test whether altered preference during pill use influences actual partner choice, we examined facial characteristics in 170 age-matched male partners of women who reported having either been using or not using the pill when the partnership was formed. Both facial measurements and perceptual judgements demonstrated that partners of women who used the pill during mate choice have less masculine faces than partners of women who did not use hormonal contraception at this time. Our data (A) provide the first experimental evidence that initiation of pill use in women causes changes in facial preferences and (B) documents downstream effects of these changes on real-life partner selection. Given that hormonal contraceptive use is widespread, effects of pill use on the processes of partner formation have important implications for relationship stability and may have other biologically relevant consequences. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. When Violence Can Appear With Different Male Partners: Identification of Resilient and Non-resilient Women in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Herrero

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Little scholarly attention has been paid to the analysis of the history of intimate partner violence (IPV against women with different male partners and how it could be related to levels of IPV with the current male partner. From this point of view, been a victim of IPV could increase the vulnerability of women and, therefore, exert a negative influence on the selection of partners over time, thus increasing the odds of potentially mating with abusive male partners. Alternatively, for some women victims of IPV in previous relationships, there may be additional resources that reduce their vulnerability to victimization by new partners.Methodology: The present study analyzes levels of IPV in different partners of 2376 heterosexual women from the 28 countries of the European Union living together as a couple who had previously lived with a different male partner.Analysis/Discussion: Multilevel regression results indicated that resilient women were younger, more satisfied with household income, and were involved in shorter relationships. As for their previous levels of victimization, they scored lower on child abuse and non-partner adult victimization. Also, their levels of victimization from previous partners were the same as those of the non-resilient women, with the exception of physical IPV victimization where resilient women scored higher than non-resilient women. Resilient women also informed the interviewer to have ended the abusive relationship because of the violence to a greater extent than non-resilient women and seemed to suffer fewer psychological difficulties due to previous violent relationships. Finally, countries scoring higher on human development index (HDI showed a larger proportion of resilient women.Conclusion: Resilient women are mostly characterized by fewer psychological difficulties and lower frequency of adverse situations (in childhood or in adulthood when compared to non-resilient women. Although resilient

  4. Male caregivers of patients with breast and gynecologic cancer: experiences from caring for their spouses and partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Violeta; Copp, Gina; Molassiotis, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable evidence demonstrating the negative effects of caregiving particularly in the areas of psychological well-being and quality of life of family caregivers of patients with cancer. However, there is little work on male caregivers' subjective experience of caring for family members with cancer, and little is known on how caregivers experience the caring over time. The objective of the study was to explore male spouses'/partners' experience of caring for their wives/partners with breast and gynecologic cancer over a 1-year period. An exploratory longitudinal qualitative descriptive design using face-to-face interviews of 15 spouses/partners was used in this study. Content analysis of the transcribed data was conducted to extract significant categories and themes. Varying degrees of interrelated cognitive, physical, and psychological impact were experienced by caregivers that extended to 12 months. Gender-specific attitudes prevented male caregivers from supporting their own self. Male caregivers dealt with problems that arose in the caregiving congruent with their masculinity, such as minimizing disruptions, focusing on tasks, and keeping their own stress to themselves. Male caregivers as a separate group with their own needs have not received much attention in the cancer literature, and their concerns and challenges may differ from those of female caregivers. Male caregivers' concerns and challenges must be taken into consideration when planning appropriate interventions to support them in their caregiving role.

  5. AB022. The psyche of male sexual difficulties related to related to the partner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaikan, P. Ganesan

    2015-01-01

    Impression management for men aiming at courtship and love is cognitively taxing and is costly. Recent research suggests that when a man tries to impress an attractive woman his cognitive performance could be impaired and depleted. However, cognitive performance of a woman is not affected during her interaction with someone of the opposite sex (Karremans et al. 2009). By dictation of nature and anatomically too, men take an active and positive role in sexual performance; their failures in sexual performances will be revealed to the partner then and there. Men react negatively to such a failure when their confidence or self-esteems are at stake. Their psyche will strike it as a failure of life time, failure of their genetic spread and survival of the species. In subsequent sexual encounter their body and subconscious mind will switch to the physiology of anti-erectile transmission and limit the expansion of desire and arousal on other attempts. In general, we call this performance anxiety. Masters and Johnson’s pioneering work in the 70’s highlighted the negative impact of performance anxiety on sexual function. As a form of therapy, exercise such as Sensate Focus were designed for the couple to overcome the performance anxiety and phobic quality in man so that sexual arousal and penetrative erection can be practiced/achieved in a relaxed state. At the Fertility, menopausal and andrology settings of OBGYN, it is not uncommon to see male sexual dysfunctions that include lack of desire, psychogenic ED and ejaculatory dysfunctions. One of the main causes of complaints of unconsummated marriages is vaginismus (and dyspareunia) in the partner which causes psychogenic erectile dysfunction in husbands who fail to penetrate at the first or second attempts. Such couple tend to drift from sexual intimacy for months and years until there is an extended family pressure for conception. Another situation that compromises erectile capacity of otherwise a normal man with

  6. Urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations and semen quality of male partners of subfertile couples in Tokyo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguri, Tomoko; Yoshinaga, Jun; Toshima, Hiroki; Mizumoto, Yoshifumi; Hatakeyama, Shota; Tokuoka, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) has been known as a testicular toxicant in experimental rodents. Possible association between iAs exposure and semen quality (semen volume, sperm concentration, and sperm motility) was explored in male partners of couples (n = 42) who visited a gynecology clinic in Tokyo for infertility consultation. Semen parameters were measured according to WHO guideline at the clinic, and urinary iAs and methylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-hydride generation-ICP mass spectrometry. Biological attributes, dietary habits, and exposure levels to other chemicals with known effects on semen parameters were taken into consideration as covariates. Multiple regression analyses and logistic regression analyses did not find iAs exposure as significant contributor to semen parameters. Lower exposure level of subjects (estimated to be 0.5 μg kg(-1) day(-1)) was considered a reason of the absence of adverse effects on semen parameters, which were seen in rodents dosed with 4-7.5 mg kg(-1).

  7. Kisspeptin neurones in the posterodorsal medial amygdala modulate sexual partner preference and anxiety in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekunbi, D A; Li, X F; Lass, G; Shetty, K; Adegoke, O A; Yeo, S H; Colledge, W H; Lightman, S L; O'Byrne, K T

    2018-03-01

    The posterodorsal medial amygdala (MePD) is a neural site in the limbic brain involved in regulating emotional and sexual behaviours. There is, however, limited information available on the specific neuronal cell type in the MePD functionally mediating these behaviours in rodents. The recent discovery of a significant kisspeptin neurone population in the MePD has raised interest in the possible role of kisspeptin and its cognate receptor in sexual behaviour. The present study therefore tested the hypothesis that the MePD kisspeptin neurone population is involved in regulating attraction towards opposite sex conspecifics, sexual behaviour, social interaction and the anxiety response by selectively stimulating these neurones using the novel pharmacosynthetic DREADDs (designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs) technique. Adult male Kiss-Cre mice received bilateral stereotaxic injections of a stimulatory DREADD viral construct (AAV-hSyn-DIO-hM 3 D(Gq)-mCherry) targeted to the MePD, with subsequent activation by i.p. injection of clozapine-N-oxide (CNO). Socio-sexual behaviours were assessed in a counter-balanced fashion after i.p. injection of either saline or CNO (5 mg kg -1 ). Selective activation of MePD kisspeptin neurones by CNO significantly increased the time spent by male mice in investigating an oestrous female, as well as the duration of social interaction. Additionally, after CNO injection, the mice appeared less anxious, as indicated by a longer exploratory time in the open arms of the elevated plus maze. However, levels of copulatory behaviour were comparable between CNO and saline-treated controls. These data indicate that DREADD-induced activation of MePD kisspeptin neurones enhances both sexual partner preference in males and social interaction and also decreases anxiety, suggesting a key role played by MePD kisspeptin in sexual motivation and social behaviour. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Neuroendocrinology published by John Wiley

  8. Male partners' involvement in prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjate Cuco, Rosa Marlene; Munguambe, Khátia; Bique Osman, Nafissa; Degomme, Olivier; Temmerman, Marleen; Sidat, Mohsin M

    2015-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), male partners are rarely present during prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services. This systematic review aims to synthesize, from a male perspective, male partners' perceived roles, barriers and enablers of their involvement in PMTCT, and highlights persisting gaps. We carried out a systematic search of papers published between 2002 and 2013 in English on Google Scholar and PubMed using the following terms: men, male partners, husbands, couples, involvement, participation, Antenatal Care (ANC), PMTCT, SSA countries, HIV Voluntary Counseling and Testing and disclosure. A total of 28 qualitative and quantitative original studies from 10 SSA countries were included. Men's perceived role was addressed in 28% (8/28) of the studies. Their role to provide money for ANC/PMTCT fees was stated in 62.5% (5/8) of the studies. For other men, the financial responsibilities seemed to be used as an excuse for not participating. Barriers were cited in 85.7% (24/28) of the studies and included socioeconomic factors, gender role, cultural beliefs, male unfriendly ANC/PMTCT services and providers' abusive attitudes toward men. About 64% (18/28) of the studies reported enablers such as: older age, higher education, being employed, trustful monogamous marriages and providers' politeness. In conclusion, comprehensive PMTCT policies that are socially and culturally sensitive to both women and men need to be developed.

  9. Nationwide surveillance of the antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from male urethritis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamasuna, Ryoichi; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Ishikawa, Kiyohito; Uehara, Shinya; Takahashi, Satoshi; Hayami, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Shingo; Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Minamitani, Shinichi; Watanabe, Akira; Iwamoto, Aikichi; Totsuka, Kyoichi; Kadota, Junichi; Sunakawa, Keisuke; Sato, Junko; Hanaki, Hideaki; Tsukamoto, Taiji; Kiyota, Hiroshi; Egawa, Shin; Tanaka, Kazushi; Arakawa, Soichi; Fujisawa, Masato; Kumon, Hiromi; Kobayashi, Kanao; Matsubara, Akio; Naito, Seiji; Tatsugami, Katsunori; Ito, Shin; Narita, Harunori; Kanokogi, Mototsugu; Sumii, Toru; Ito, Kenji; Hosobe, Takahide; Kawai, Shuichi; Kawano, Hiromi; Takayama, Kazuo; Yamaguchi, Takamasa; Endo, Katsuhisa; Yamauchi, Takamine; Maeda, Shinichi; Yoh, Mutsumasa; Horie, Masanobu; Ito, Masayasu; Chokyu, Hirofumi; Ihara, Hideari; Akiyama, Kikuo; Uno, Satoshi; Monden, Koichi; Kaji, Shinichi; Nishimura, Hirofumi; Kawahara, Motoshi; Sato, Takashi; Konishi, Takatoshi; Nishi, Shohei; Ishihara, Satoshi; Yoshioka, Masaru

    2013-08-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae is one of the most important pathogens causing sexually transmitted infection, and strains that are resistant to several antimicrobials are increasing. To investigate the trends of antimicrobial susceptibility among N. gonorrhoeae strains isolated from male patients with urethritis, a Japanese surveillance committee conducted the first nationwide surveillance. The urethral discharge was collected from male patients with urethritis at 51 medical facilities from April 2009 to October 2010. Of the 156 specimens, 83 N. gonorrhoeae strains were tested for susceptibility to 18 antimicrobial agents. The prevalence of β-lactamase-producing strains and chromosomally mediated resistant strains were 7.2 % and 16.5 %, respectively. None of the strains was resistant to ceftriaxone, but the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ceftriaxone for 7 strains (8.4 %) was 0.125 μg/ml. One strain was resistant to cefixime (MIC 0.5 μg/ml). The MICs of fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and tosufloxacin, showed a bimodal distribution. The MIC of sitafloxacin was lower than those of the three fluoroquinolones listed here, and it was found that the antimicrobial activity of sitafloxacin was stronger than that of the fluoroquinolones. The MIC of azithromycin in 2 strains was 2 μg/ml, but no high-level resistance to macrolides was detected.

  10. Frequency and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of urinary pathogens in male outpatients in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Hugo E; Jugo, Mónica B; Macan, Alejandro; Visser, Matias; Hidalgo, Mariana; Maccallini, Gustavo Cesar

    2014-06-11

    Knowledge of the etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of uropathogens is important for determining the best treatment option. This study aimed to determine the distribution and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of bacterial strains isolated from adult male outpatients. Between November 2012 and April 2013, 3,105 community urine samples were analyzed from adult male patients who attended the Laboratorio Hidalgo, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Isolates resistant to third generation cephalosporin were tested for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production using the double-disk synergy test. Of the 3,105 urine samples analyzed, 791 (25.5%) had significant bacteriuria. The frequency of positive urine cultures increased significantly with patient age. Escherichia coli was isolated most frequently (47.3%), followed by Enterococcus faecalis (13.6%), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (11.9%). Gram-negative organisms represented 78.8% of urinary pathogens. The highest activities against Gram-negative bacteria were found with imipenem (99.0%), amikacin (98.1%), ertapenem (94.2%), fosfomycin (90.7%), and piperacillin-tazobactam (90.1%). The frequencies of ESBLs among E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and P. mirabilis were 15.2 %, 22.3%, and 8%, respectively. Fosfomycin, piperacillin-tazobactam, and nitrofurantoin were most effective against Gram-positive organisms. Fosfomycin may be an excellent option for cystitis treatment in patients without risk factors, whereas piperacillin-tazobactam is preferred for the treatment of parenchymatous UTIs, complicated UTIs, and UTIs associated with risk factors. To ensure the optimal selection of antibiotics, physicians should have access to up-to-date information about the local prevalence of antimicrobial resistance.

  11. Patient-delivered partner treatment for male urethritis: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissinger, Patricia; Mohammed, Hamish; Richardson-Alston, Gwangi; Leichliter, Jami S; Taylor, Stephanie N; Martin, David H; Farley, Thomas A

    2005-09-01

    Traditional partner referral for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is ineffective at assuring that partners are treated. Alternative methods are needed. We sought to determine whether patient-delivered partner treatment (PDPT) is better than 2 different methods of partner referral in providing antibiotic treatment to sex partners of men with urethritis and in reducing recurrence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Men who received a diagnosis of urethritis at a public STD clinic in New Orleans, Louisiana, during the period of December 2001 through March 2004 were randomly assigned according to the month of treatment for either standard partner referral (PR), booklet-enhanced partner referral (BEPR), or PDPT. At baseline and after 1 month, men were asked to provide information about each partner and were tested for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae. Most enrolled index men (n = 977) were > 24 years of age (51.6%) and African American (95%) and had > or = 2 partners (68.3%). They reported information on 1991 partners, and 78.8% were reinterviewed 4-8 weeks later. Men in the PDPT arm were more likely than men in the BEPR and PR arms to report having seen their partners, having talked to their partners about the infection, having given the intervention to their partners, and having been told by their partners that the antibiotic treatment had been taken (55.8%, 45.6%, and 35.0%, respectively; P < .001). Of men who were reinterviewed, 37.5% agreed to follow-up testing for N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis infection. Those tested were similar to those not tested with regard to the study variables measured. Among those tested, men in the PDPT and BEPR arms were less likely than those in the PR arm to test positive for C. trachomatis and/or N. gonorrhoeae (23.0%, 14.3%, and 42.7%, respectively; P < .001). Among heterosexual men with urethritis, PDPT was better than standard partner referral for treatment of partners and prevention of recurrence of C

  12. Psychosocial correlates of safe sex communication between Latina women and their stable male partners: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luft, Heidi; Larson, Elaine

    2017-05-01

    Latina women in stable relationships have risks for human immunodeficiency virus and other sexually transmitted infections. Improving safe sexual communication (SSC) could enable women to accurately assess and mitigate their risk of infection within their relationship. Literature to identify psychosocial correlates that facilitate or inhibit SSC between Latina women and their partners has not yet been synthesized. The purpose of this study was to conduct an integrative review and synthesis of empirical and theoretical research that examines psychosocial correlates of SSC among adult Latina women from the United States, Latina America, and the Caribbean with stable male partners. A systematic search of LILACS, EBSCO, and PsychInfo databases was conducted to identify qualitative and quantitative studies that investigated psychosocial correlates of SSC among adult Latina women with a stable male partner. Pertinent data were abstracted and quality of individual studies was appraised. A qualitative synthesis was conducted following Miles and Huberman's method. Five qualitative and three quantitative studies meet eligibility criteria. Factors related to SSC related to three main themes: (1) relationship factors such as length, quality, and power/control, (2) individual factors including attitudes, beliefs, background, behaviors, and intrapersonal characteristics, and (3) partner factors related to partner beliefs and behaviors. The interplay of relationship, individual, and partner factors should be considered in the assessment of SSC for Latina women with their stable partners. To inform future interventions and clinical guidelines, additional research is needed to identify which factors are most related to SSC for this population, and how comparable experiences are for Latina women of different subcultures and living in different countries.

  13. Impact of male partner's awareness and support for contraceptives on female intent to use contraceptives in southeast Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeanolue, Echezona E; Iwelunmor, Juliet; Asaolu, Ibitola; Obiefune, Michael C; Ezeanolue, Chinenye O; Osuji, Alice; Ogidi, Amaka G; Hunt, Aaron T; Patel, Dina; Yang, Wei; Ehiri, John E

    2015-09-10

    Despite the growing body of evidence on use of modern contraceptives among women in sub-Saharan African countries, little is known about the broader context in which female decision-making concerning contraceptive use occurs, particularly the role of their male partners' awareness and support of modern contraceptives. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 2468 pregnant women and their male partners enrolled in the Healthy Beginning Initiative (HBI), an intervention to increase HIV testing among pregnant women in Enugu, southeast Nigeria. The aims of this study were to determine: 1) male partners' awareness of, and support for, female contraceptive methods, and 2) influence of male partners' contraceptive awareness and support on pregnant women's expressed desire to use contraception. We used logistic regression models to examine the association between male partners' awareness and support of modern contraceptives on their spouses' desire to use contraceptives. Men's awareness of, and support for, use of modern contraceptives were significantly associated with their female partners' desire to use contraception. A majority of the men who were aware of modern contraceptives (66.5 %) and those who supported their spouses' use of contraception (72.5 %) had partners who expressed a desire to use contraception. Men who were aware of female contraception were 3 times more likely to have spouses who desired to use contraception (AOR = 3.17, 95 % C.I: 2.70-3.75). In addition, men who showed support for their spouses' use of contraception were over 5 times more likely to have spouses who indicated a desire to use contraception (AOR = 5.76, 95 % C.I: 4.82-6.88). Living in a household of 5 or more people (AOR = 1.45, 95 % C.I: 1.23-1.72) and residing in an urban area (AOR = 0.81, 95 % C.I: 0.67-0.97) were also significantly associated with women's expressed desire to use modern contraception. Men's awareness of, and support for, use of modern contraceptives were markedly

  14. Home-based HIV testing for men preferred over clinic-based testing by pregnant women and their male partners, a nested cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osoti, Alfred Onyango; John-Stewart, Grace; Kiarie, James Njogu; Barbra, Richardson; Kinuthia, John; Krakowiak, Daisy; Farquhar, Carey

    2015-07-30

    Male partner HIV testing and counseling (HTC) is associated with enhanced uptake of prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT), yet male HTC during pregnancy remains low. Identifying settings preferred by pregnant women and their male partners may improve male involvement in PMTCT. Participants in a randomized clinical trial (NCT01620073) to improve male partner HTC were interviewed to determine whether the preferred male partner HTC setting was the home, antenatal care (ANC) clinic or VCT center. In this nested cross sectional study, responses were evaluated at baseline and after 6 weeks. Differences between the two time points were compared using McNemar's test and correlates of preference were determined using logistic regression. Among 300 pregnant female participants, 54% preferred home over ANC clinic testing (34.0%) or VCT center (12.0%). Among 188 male partners, 68% preferred home-based HTC to antenatal clinic (19%) or VCT (13%). Men who desired more children and women who had less than secondary education or daily income Pregnant women and their male partners preferred home-based compared to clinic or VCT-center based male partner HTC. Home-based HTC during pregnancy appears acceptable and may improve male testing and involvement in PMTCT.

  15. The Occurrence of Male-to-Female Intimate Partner Violence on Days of Men's Drinking: The Moderating Effects of Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fals-Stewart, William; Leonard, Kenneth E.; Birchler, Gary R.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the moderating effects of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) on the day-to-day relationship between male partner alcohol consumption and male-to-female intimate partner violence (IPV) for men entering a domestic violence treatment program (n = 170) or an alcoholism treatment program (n = 169) were examined. For both samples,…

  16. Uptake of Home-Based Syphilis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Testing Among Male Partners of Pregnant Women in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Jennifer; Kinuthia, John; Roxby, Alison C; Krakowiak, Daisy; Osoti, Alfred; Richardson, Barbra A; Gone, Molly Ann; Asila, Victor; Parikh, Saloni; Farquhar, Carey

    2017-09-01

    Few men are tested for syphilis or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during their partner's pregnancy, a high-risk period for HIV and syphilis transmission. Offering home-based rapid testing of syphilis to couples during pregnancy can support prevention efforts to reduce transmission of sexually transmitted diseases and adverse pregnancy outcomes. We assessed men's uptake of paired (separate tests, single blood draw) point-of-care syphilis and HIV tests within a randomized controlled trial of pregnant women who received clinic or home partner HIV testing. We evaluated acceptance of paired HIV-syphilis testing during pregnancy or at 6 months postpartum, and evaluated whether addition of syphilis testing affected the uptake of HIV testing among men. Of 601 women, we were unable to meet 101 male partners, and 180 tested before syphilis tests were available. Paired syphilis and HIV testing was offered at home to 80 men during pregnancy and to 230 men postpartum. For syphilis, 93% of men agreed to test during pregnancy and 98% agreed postpartum. For paired syphilis and HIV testing, 91% of men tested for both during pregnancy and 96% tested postpartum. Before syphilis test introduction, 96% of men accepted HIV testing, compared with 95% of men who accepted HIV testing when paired testing was offered. Uptake of syphilis and HIV testing was high among male partners offered couple testing at home. Introducing syphilis testing did not adversely affect HIV testing among men. Point-of-care diagnostics outside facilities can increase testing of male partners who rarely accompany women to antenatal clinics.

  17. Predictors of perceived male partner concurrency among women at risk for HIV and STI acquisition in Durban, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Gaffoor, Zakir; Wand, Handan; Street, Ren?e A.; Abbai, Nathlee; Ramjee, Gita

    2016-01-01

    Background Women in sub-Saharan Africa continue to be at greater risk for HIV acquisition than men. Concurrency, viz. multiple sexual partnerships that overlap over time, has been studied as a possible risk factor for HIV transmission. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of perceived male partner concurrency among sexually active, HIV negative women. Methods Socio-demographic and behavioural data from women enrolled in a biomedical HIV prevention clinical trial were assessed in r...

  18. Lethal and nonlethal violence against an intimate female partner: comparing male murderers to nonlethal abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobash, R Emerson; Dobash, Russell P; Cavanagh, Kate; Medina-Ariza, Juanjo

    2007-04-01

    Men's lethal and nonlethal violence against an intimate female partner are compared. Various risk factors are examined to compare men's lethal and nonlethal violence against an intimate woman partner. Relative to abusers, men who kill are generally more conventional with respect to childhood backgrounds, education, employment, and criminal careers, are more likely to be possessive and jealous, and are more likely to be separated from their partner at the time of the event. Men who kill are more likely to have used violence against a previous partner, to have sexually assaulted and strangled the victim, and to have used a weapon or instrument. However, they were less likely to have been drunk at the time of the event and/or to have previously used violence against the woman they killed. Overall, the findings do not support the notion of a simple progression from nonlethal to lethal violence and raise some dilemmas for the growing area of risk assessment.

  19. Male perception about the inconveniences associated with monthly bleeding for their partner - an international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lete, Iñaki; Lobo, Paloma; Nappi, Rossella E; Pintiaux, Axelle; Fiala, Christian; Häusler, Günther; Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie

    2018-02-01

    To assess men's perceptions about monthly bleeding and associated inconveniences for their partner, as well as men's attitudes regarding the desired menstruation frequency for their partner and knowledge about hormonal contraceptives. A 15 min quantitative online survey was conducted among 5044 men aged 18-45 years, who had been in a relationship for more than 6 months, across 13 European countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, The Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain and Switzerland). Responses were compared to those obtained in a similar study among European women. Most men perceived that their partner considered her menstrual flow as moderate, lasting an average of 5.2 d, slightly longer than previously reported by women. Almost all men reported that their partners experience menstruation-related symptoms. However, prevalence of mood-related symptoms was perceived to be more frequent and physical symptoms less frequent, relative to women's self-reported symptoms. Given the option, 71% of men would choose longer intervals between their partner's periods. Maintaining the couple's sex life, social life and relationship quality were key factors cited in their preference. Overall, 42% of respondents stated that women taking hormonal contraceptives needed to have monthly periods. Men's perception regarding their partner's periods was generally consistent with that previously reported by women. Most men would prefer less frequent bleeding episodes for their partners. Although, the present data suggest that couples are discussing periods, knowledge about contraception could be improved. Health care professionals should intensify counselling to better inform both partners about their contraceptive options.

  20. Preferred and Actual Relative Height among Homosexual Male Partners Vary with Preferred Dominance and Sex Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentova, Jaroslava Varella; Stulp, Gert; Třebický, Vít; Havlíček, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown repeatedly that human stature influences mate preferences and mate choice in heterosexuals. In general, it has been shown that tall men and average height women are most preferred by the opposite sex, and that both sexes prefer to be in a relationship where the man is taller than the woman. However, little is known about such partner preferences in homosexual individuals. Based on an online survey of a large sample of non-heterosexual men (N = 541), we found that the majority of men prefer a partner slightly taller than themselves. However, these preferences were dependent on the participant’s own height, such that taller men preferred shorter partners, whereas shorter men preferred taller partners. We also examined whether height preferences predicted the preference for dominance and the adoption of particular sexual roles within a couple. Although a large proportion of men preferred to be in an egalitarian relationship with respect to preferred dominance (although not with respect to preferred sexual role), men that preferred a more dominant and more “active” sexual role preferred shorter partners, whereas those that preferred a more submissive and more “passive” sexual role preferred taller partners. Our results indicate that preferences for relative height in homosexual men are modulated by own height, preferred dominance and sex role, and do not simply resemble those of heterosexual women or men. PMID:24466136

  1. Preferred and actual relative height among homosexual male partners vary with preferred dominance and sex role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentova, Jaroslava Varella; Stulp, Gert; Třebický, Vít; Havlíček, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown repeatedly that human stature influences mate preferences and mate choice in heterosexuals. In general, it has been shown that tall men and average height women are most preferred by the opposite sex, and that both sexes prefer to be in a relationship where the man is taller than the woman. However, little is known about such partner preferences in homosexual individuals. Based on an online survey of a large sample of non-heterosexual men (N = 541), we found that the majority of men prefer a partner slightly taller than themselves. However, these preferences were dependent on the participant's own height, such that taller men preferred shorter partners, whereas shorter men preferred taller partners. We also examined whether height preferences predicted the preference for dominance and the adoption of particular sexual roles within a couple. Although a large proportion of men preferred to be in an egalitarian relationship with respect to preferred dominance (although not with respect to preferred sexual role), men that preferred a more dominant and more "active" sexual role preferred shorter partners, whereas those that preferred a more submissive and more "passive" sexual role preferred taller partners. Our results indicate that preferences for relative height in homosexual men are modulated by own height, preferred dominance and sex role, and do not simply resemble those of heterosexual women or men.

  2. Preferred and actual relative height among homosexual male partners vary with preferred dominance and sex role.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Varella Valentova

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown repeatedly that human stature influences mate preferences and mate choice in heterosexuals. In general, it has been shown that tall men and average height women are most preferred by the opposite sex, and that both sexes prefer to be in a relationship where the man is taller than the woman. However, little is known about such partner preferences in homosexual individuals. Based on an online survey of a large sample of non-heterosexual men (N = 541, we found that the majority of men prefer a partner slightly taller than themselves. However, these preferences were dependent on the participant's own height, such that taller men preferred shorter partners, whereas shorter men preferred taller partners. We also examined whether height preferences predicted the preference for dominance and the adoption of particular sexual roles within a couple. Although a large proportion of men preferred to be in an egalitarian relationship with respect to preferred dominance (although not with respect to preferred sexual role, men that preferred a more dominant and more "active" sexual role preferred shorter partners, whereas those that preferred a more submissive and more "passive" sexual role preferred taller partners. Our results indicate that preferences for relative height in homosexual men are modulated by own height, preferred dominance and sex role, and do not simply resemble those of heterosexual women or men.

  3. Lived experiences of male intimate partners of female rape victims in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evalina van Wijk

    2014-09-01

    Objectives: The study aimed to explore the lived experiences of MIPs of female rape victims and the meaning of these experiences in the six months following the partner’s rape. Method: We conducted a longitudinal hermeneutic phenomenological study. Nine purposively sampled adult MIPs were interviewed over a period of six months. The participants were in an intimate relationship with a female rape victim prior to and immediately after the rape; their partners had been treated at a specialised centre for victims of rape and sexual assault. Four interviews were conducted with each of the nine intimate partners of female rape victims: (1 within 14 days of, (2 a month after, (3 three months after, and (4 six months after the rape. Results: Two major themes emerged: being-in-the-world as a secondary victim of rape, and living in multiple worlds, those of their female partners, family, friends, society, employers or colleagues, professionals and the justice system. The participant’s familiar world became strange and even threatening, and his relationship with his partner became uncertain. Conclusion: Early supportive intervention for intimate partners of female rape victims is required to prevent on-going emotional trauma and alleviate the effects of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder and suffering at intra- and interpersonal levels.

  4. What do You Need to Get Male Partners of Pregnant Women Tested for HIV in Resource Limited Settings? The Baby Shower Cluster Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeanolue, Echezona E; Obiefune, Michael C; Yang, Wei; Ezeanolue, Chinenye O; Pharr, Jennifer; Osuji, Alice; Ogidi, Amaka G; Hunt, Aaron T; Patel, Dina; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Ehiri, John E

    2017-02-01

    Male partner involvement has the potential to increase uptake of interventions to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). Finding cultural appropriate strategies to promote male partner involvement in PMTCT programs remains an abiding public health challenge. We assessed whether a congregation-based intervention, the Healthy Beginning Initiative (HBI), would lead to increased uptake of HIV testing among male partners of pregnant women during pregnancy. A cluster-randomized controlled trial of forty churches in Southeastern Nigeria randomly assigned to either the HBI (intervention group; IG) or standard of care referral to a health facility (control group; CG) was conducted. Participants in the IG received education and were offered onsite HIV testing. Overall, 2498 male partners enrolled and participated, a participation rate of 88.9%. Results showed that male partners in the IG were 12 times more likely to have had an HIV test compared to male partners of pregnant women in the CG (CG = 37.71% vs. IG = 84.00%; adjusted odds ratio = 11.9; p HIV testing and counseling among male partners of pregnant women.

  5. Sexual violence and the risk of HIV transmission in sexual partners of male injecting drug users in Tien Du district, Bac Ninh province of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Vinh Thi; Ho, Hien Thi; Nguyen, Tri Manh; Do, Huynh Khac

    2018-04-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study among 148 women who were regular sexual partners of male injecting drug users in Tien Du, Bac Ninh province, Vietnam to identify the rate of HIV infection and factors associated with HIV transmission among them. HIV infection rate among sexual partners was high, 11.5%. Sexual violence was prevalent, 63.5% among sexual partners; 94.1% (16/17) among those with HIV. We discovered an association between sexual violence and HIV infection. Sexual partners suffering from sexual violence caused by their regular sexual partners faced 9.24 times higher HIV risk than those who did not have sexual violence.

  6. Depressive symptom trajectories in women affected by breast cancer and their male partners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottmann, Nina; Hansen, Dorte Gilså; Hagedoorn, Mariët

    2016-01-01

    whether patients and partners had similar trajectories. METHODS: A nationwide, population-based cohort of couples dealing with breast cancer was established in Denmark. Participants completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale at baseline and 5 and 12 months later. Sociodemographic......PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify subgroups of breast cancer patients and their partners based on distinct trajectories of depressive symptoms, to examine how relationship quality and medical and sociodemographic factors were associated with these trajectories, and to explore...... and medical characteristics were retrieved from registers. A trajectory finite mixture model was used to identify trajectories. RESULTS: The trajectories of depressive symptoms over time were analyzed in 546 patients and 508 partners. Among patients, 13 % had a high stable trajectory, 38 % an intermediate...

  7. Central oxytocin receptors mediate mating-induced partner preferences and enhance correlated activation across forebrain nuclei in male prairie voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Zachary V; Walum, Hasse; Jamal, Yaseen A; Xiao, Yao; Keebaugh, Alaine C; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Young, Larry J

    2016-03-01

    Oxytocin (OT) is a deeply conserved nonapeptide that acts both peripherally and centrally to modulate reproductive physiology and sociosexual behavior across divergent taxa, including humans. In vertebrates, the distribution of the oxytocin receptor (OTR) in the brain is variable within and across species, and OTR signaling is critical for a variety of species-typical social and reproductive behaviors, including affiliative and pair bonding behaviors in multiple socially monogamous lineages of fishes, birds, and mammals. Early work in prairie voles suggested that the endogenous OT system modulates mating-induced partner preference formation in females but not males; however, there is significant evidence that central OTRs may modulate pair bonding behavior in both sexes. In addition, it remains unclear how transient windows of central OTR signaling during sociosexual interaction modulate neural activity to produce enduring shifts in sociobehavioral phenotypes, including the formation of selective social bonds. Here we re-examine the role of the central OT system in partner preference formation in male prairie voles using a selective OTR antagonist delivered intracranially. We then use the same antagonist to examine how central OTRs modulate behavior and immediate early gene (Fos) expression, a metric of neuronal activation, in males during brief sociosexual interaction with a female. Our results suggest that, as in females, OTR signaling is critical for partner preference formation in males and enhances correlated activation across sensory and reward processing brain areas during sociosexual interaction. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that central OTR signaling facilitates social bond formation by coordinating activity across a pair bonding neural network. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Central oxytocin receptors mediate mating-induced partner preferences and enhance correlated activation across forebrain nuclei in male prairie voles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Zachary V.; Walum, Hasse; Jamal, Yaseen A.; Xiao, Yao; Keebaugh, Alaine C.; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Young, Larry J.

    2016-01-01

    Oxytocin (OT) is a deeply conserved nonapeptide that acts both peripherally and centrally to modulate reproductive physiology and sociosexual behavior across divergent taxa, including humans. In vertebrates, the distribution of the oxytocin receptor (OTR) in the brain is variable within and across species, and OTR signaling is critical for a variety of species-typical social and reproductive behaviors, including affiliative and pair bonding behaviors in multiple socially monogamous lineages of fishes, birds, and mammals. Early work in prairie voles suggested that the endogenous OT system modulates mating-induced partner preference formation in females but not males; however, there is significant evidence that central OTRs may modulate pair bonding behavior in both sexes. In addition, it remains unclear how transient windows of central OTR signaling during sociosexual interaction modulate neural activity to produce enduring shifts in sociobehavioral phenotypes, including the formation of selective social bonds. Here we re-examine the role of the central OT system in partner preference formation in male prairie voles using a selective OTR antagonist delivered intracranially. We then use the same antagonist to examine how central OTRs modulate behavior and immediate early gene (Fos) expression, a metric of neuronal activation, in males during brief sociosexual interaction with a female. Our results suggest that, as in females, OTR signaling is critical for partner preference formation in males and enhances correlated activation across sensory and reward processing brain areas during sociosexual interaction. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that central OTR signaling facilitates social bond formation by coordinating activity across a pair bonding neural network. PMID:26643557

  9. Risk of Intimate Partner Violence among Young Adult Males with Childhood ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wymbs, Brian; Molina, Brooke; Pelham, William; Cheong, JeeWon; Gnagy, Elizabeth; Belendiuk, Kat; Walther, Christine; Babinski, Dara; Waschbusch, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research has clearly documented the social dysfunction of youth with ADHD. However, little is known about the interpersonal relationships of adults diagnosed with ADHD in childhood, including rates of intimate partner violence (IPV). Method: Using data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study, analyses compared the level of IPV…

  10. Understanding the susceptibility to HIV of female and male students case study of LAMS school in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kissezounnon, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    This research project aims to understand the factors that influence susceptibility to HIV for female and male students in LAMS (Lycee Agricole Meidji o Sekou in Benin), in order to contribute to the reduction of the phenomenon. The results of questionnaires, group discussions and interviews show the

  11. Anonymous sex and HIV risk practices among men using the Internet specifically to find male partners for unprotected sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, H

    2012-06-01

    To examine the popularity of anonymous sex practices among men using the Internet to find male partners for unprotected sex, and how anonymous sex relates to involvement in other HIV-related risk behaviours, and to investigate the factors associated with engaging in anonymous sex. Structured telephone interviews were conducted with men who used the Internet specifically to find male partners for unprotected sex. Random sampling from 16 websites was used to obtain a national sample. The data reported in this paper were based on quantitative interviews collected with a cross-sectional study design. Between January 2008 and May 2009, confidential telephone interviews lasting approximately 1-2 h were completed with 332 men. Participants were paid $35 for their participation. Most of the men (67.4%) liked anonymous sex, and slightly more than half (51.2%) had engaged in the behaviour during the month prior to interview. Involvement in anonymous sex was associated with greater involvement in a variety of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related risk practices, such as illegal drug use, number of sex partners, and amount of unprotected sex. Four factors were associated with having vs not having anonymous sex: (1) being HIV positive; (2) answering all of the HIV-related knowledge questions correctly; (3) deriving greater enjoyment from having sex in public places, such as parks, public toilets, or adult book shops; and (4) greater impulsivity. Seven factors were associated with greater vs lesser involvement in anonymous sex among those practising the behaviour: (1) being involved in a relationship with a long-term partner; (2) liking to have sex in public places; (3) using bareback-oriented websites to identify sex partners; (4) greater impulsivity; (5) low level of condom use self-efficacy; (6) greater knowledge about HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; and either (7a) severe childhood maltreatment or (7b) Caucasian race. Men in this population often sought

  12. Deviating running kinematics and hamstring injury susceptibility in male soccer players: Cause or consequence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuermans, Joke; Van Tiggelen, Damien; Palmans, Tanneke; Danneels, Lieven; Witvrouw, Erik

    2017-09-01

    Although the vast majority of hamstring injuries in male soccer are sustained during high speed running, the association between sprinting kinematics and hamstring injury vulnerability has never been investigated prospectively in a cohort at risk. This study aimed to objectify the importance of lower limb and trunk kinematics during full sprint in hamstring injury susceptibility. Cohort study; level of evidence, 2. At the end of the 2013 soccer season, three-dimensional kinematic data of the lower limb and trunk were collected during sprinting in a cohort consisting of 30 soccer players with a recent history of hamstring injury and 30 matched controls. Subsequently, a 1.5 season follow up was conducted for (re)injury registry. Ultimately, joint and segment motion patterns were submitted to retro- and prospective statistical curve analyses for injury risk prediction. Statistical analysis revealed that index injury occurrence was associated with higher levels of anterior pelvic tilting and thoracic side bending throughout the airborne (swing) phases of sprinting, whereas no kinematic differences during running were found when comparing players with a recent hamstring injury history with their matched controls. Deficient core stability, enabling excessive pelvis and trunk motion during swing, probably increases the primary injury risk. Although sprinting encompasses a relative risk of hamstring muscle failure in every athlete, running coordination demonstrated to be essential in hamstring injury prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Gay and Bisexual Men's Perceptions of Police Helpfulness in Response to Male-Male Intimate Partner Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Finneran

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Despite several recent studies documenting high rates of intimate partner violence (IPV among gay and bisexual men (GBM, the literature is silent regarding GBM’s perceptions of IPV within their community. We examine GBM’s perceptions of same-sex IPV: its commonness, its severity, and the helpfulness of a hypothetical police response to a GBM experiencing IPV.Methods: We drew data from a 2011 survey of venue-recruited GBM (n¼989. Respondents were asked to describe the commonness of IPV, severity of IPV, and helpfulness of a hypothetical police response to IPV among GBM and among heterosexual women. We fitted a logistic model for the outcome of viewing the police response to a gay/bisexual IPV victim as less helpful than for a female heterosexual IPV victim. The regression model controlled for age, race/ethnicity, education, sexual orientation, employment status, and recent receipt of physical, emotional, and sexual IPV, with key covariates being internalized homophobia and experiences of homophobic discrimination.Results: The majority of respondents viewed IPV among GBM as common (54.9% and problematic(63.8%. While most respondents had identical perceptions of the commonness (82.7% and severity (84.1% of IPV in GBM compared to heterosexual women, the majority of the sample (59.1% reported perceiving that contacting the police would be less helpful for a GBM IPV victim than for a heterosexual female IPV victim. In regression, respondents who reported more lifetime experiences of homophobic discrimination were more likely to have this comparatively negative perception (odds ratio: 1.11, 95% confidence interval: 1.06, 1.17.Conclusion: The results support a minority stress hypothesis to understand GBM’s perceptions of police helpfulness in response to IPV. While IPV was viewed as both common and problematic among GBM, their previous experiences of homophobia were correlated with a learned anticipation of rejection and stigma from

  14. A Longitudinal Analysis of the Criminal Careers of Intimate Partner Violence Offender Subtypes: Results From a Prospective Survey of Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Delphine; Farrington, David P; Coid, Jeremy W; Piquero, Alex R

    2016-12-01

    Using data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development, a prospective longitudinal survey of more than 400 males in the United Kingdom followed from age 8 years to age 48 years, we investigated the role of Cluster B personality traits and the association with violent offending groups based on a typology theory of male intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators: those who committed family-only violence and the generally violent offender. We also considered whether offending/violent groups could be predicted using risk factors measured in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Our findings suggest that those men who are violent both within and outside the home (the generally violent men) are distinguished from those who are involved in IPV within the home only. The differences appear to be more in degree than in kind. We discuss these findings in relation to the idea of specific interventions and policy.

  15. HIV among pregnant women in Moshi Tanzania: the role of sexual behavior, male partner characteristics and sexually transmitted infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uriyo Jacqueline

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV in Tanzania, and factors contributing to this situation need to be identified. The objective of this study was to determine social, behavioral and biological risk factors of HIV infection among pregnant women in Moshi urban, Tanzania. In 2002 – 2004, consenting women (N = 2654, attending primary health clinics for routine antenatal care were interviewed, examined and biological samples collected for diagnosis of HIV and other sexually transmitted/reproductive tract infections. Results The prevalence of HIV was 6.9%. The risk for HIV was greater among women whose male partner; had other sexual partners (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 15.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 8.39–27.20, traveled frequently (AOR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.22–2.65 or consumed alcohol daily (AOR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.06–2.67. Other independent predictors of HIV were age, number of sex partners, recent migration, and presence of bacterial vaginosis, genital ulcer, active syphilis and herpes simplex virus type 2. Conclusion Development of programs that actively involve men in HIV prevention is important in reducing transmission of HIV in this population. Further, interventions that focus on STI control, the mobile population, sexual risk behavior and responsible alcohol use are required.

  16. Friends' drinking norms and male adolescents' alcohol consumption: The moderating role of performance-based peer influence susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunissen, Hanneke A; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Scholte, Ron H J; Spijkerman, Renske; Prinstein, Mitchell J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2016-12-01

    This study examined whether the relationship between friends' drinking norms and male adolescents' alcohol use is moderated by performance-based peer influence susceptibility. Seventy-three male adolescents (M = 17 years) from three schools in the Netherlands were exposed to the drinking norms of "peers" (electronic confederates) in a chat room experiment. These peers were either popular or unpopular, and conveyed pro- or anti-alcohol norms. Peer influence susceptibility was defined as the change in adolescents' answers before and after exposure to the peer norms. Multilevel regression analyses indicated that the relationship between friends' drinking norms and adolescents' alcohol use (assessed during eight weekends) was moderated by susceptibility to the pro-alcohol norms of popular peers. This relationship was stronger for adolescents who were highly susceptible. These findings suggest that a behavioral measure of peer influence susceptibility could be useful in alcohol prevention programs to select adolescents at risk for negative peer socialization. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. All rights reserved.

  17. Preferred and Actual Relative Height among Homosexual Male Partners Vary with Preferred Dominance and Sex Role

    OpenAIRE

    Valentova, Jaroslava Varella; Stulp, Gert; Třebický, Vít; Havlíček, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown repeatedly that human stature influences mate preferences and mate choice in heterosexuals. In general, it has been shown that tall men and average height women are most preferred by the opposite sex, and that both sexes prefer to be in a relationship where the man is taller than the woman. However, little is known about such partner preferences in homosexual individuals. Based on an online survey of a large sample of non-heterosexual men (N = 541), we found that t...

  18. "Maybe She Was Provoked": Exploring Gender Stereotypes About Male and Female Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarduzio, Jennifer A; Carlyle, Kellie E; Harris, Kate Lockwood; Savage, Matthew W

    2017-01-01

    The current study is concerned with the different types of gender stereotypes that participants may draw upon when exposed to news stories about intimate partner violence (IPV). We qualitatively analyzed open-ended responses examining four types of gender stereotypes-aggression, emotional, power and control, and acceptability of violence. We offer theoretical implications that extend past research on intimate terrorism and situational couple violence, the gender symmetry debate, and how stereotypes are formed. We also discuss practical implications for journalists who write stories about IPV and individuals who provide services to victims and perpetrators. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Responses of male inmates to primary partner requests for condom use: effects of message content and domestic violence history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbors, Charles J; O'Leary, Ann

    2003-02-01

    Many women at high risk for HIV infection face resistance and, in some cases, violence as a response to their requests for condom use. The current study investigated how domestically violent and nonviolent men reacted to various condom negotiation approaches. Ten different scenarios, in which the partner provides a justification for a condom request or the context suggests one, were presented to 84 male inmates selected at random from a county jail. As predicted, condom scenarios factored into groupings with content suggestive of high and low relationship threat. Of the justifications presented, yeast infections generated more favorable responses than standard HIV prevention messages. The riskiest condom negotiation scenario was one that suggested infidelity on the part of the woman. Level of male violence severity in the relationship predicted more coercive responses to suggestions of a woman's infidelity. The results suggest that creative strategies that do not call into question the fidelity or commitment of either partner may be more effective in getting men to use condoms and/or to not react violently.

  20. Neonatal maternal separation increases susceptibility to experimental colitis and acute stress exposure in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella M. Fuentes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Experiencing early life stress can result in maladjusted stress response via dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and serves as a risk factor for developing chronic pelvic pain disorders. We investigated whether neonatal maternal separation (NMS would increase susceptibility to experimental colitis or exposure to acute or chronic stress. Male mice underwent NMS from postnatal day 1–21 and as adults were assessed for open field behavior, hindpaw sensitivity, and visceromotor response (VMR to colorectal distension (CRD. VMR was also measured before and after treatment with intracolonic trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS or exposure to acute or chronic water avoidance stress (WAS. Myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, proinflammatory gene and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF receptor expression were measured in distal colon. Baseline VMR was not affected by NMS, but undergoing CRD increased anxiety-like behaviors and mechanical hindpaw sensitivity of NMS mice. Treatment with TNBS dose-dependently decreased body weight and survival only in NMS mice. Following TNBS treatment, IL-6 and artemin mRNA levels were decreased in the distal colon of NMS mice, despite increased MPO activity. A single WAS exposure increased VMR during CRD in NMS mice and increased IL-6 mRNA and CRF2 protein levels in the distal colon of naïve mice, whereas CRF2 protein levels were heightened in NMS colon both at baseline and post-WAS exposure. Taken together, these results suggest that NMS in mice disrupts inflammatory- and stress-induced gene expression in the colon, potentially contributing towards an exaggerated response to specific stressors later in life.

  1. Male partners of women with provoked vestibulodynia: attributions for pain and their implications for dyadic adjustment, sexual satisfaction, and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodoin, Mélanie; Bergeron, Sophie; Khalifé, Samir; Dupuis, Marie-José; Desrochers, Geneviève; Leclerc, Bianca

    2008-12-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia is a female genital pain condition that results in sexual dysfunction and impacts negatively on the couple. Although patients' causal attributions have been linked to worse psychosexual outcomes, no study has documented the male partners' perspective of this distressing problem and its potential influence on their psychosexual adaptation. To identify whether male partners' attributions for vestibulodynia are possible predictors of their dyadic adjustment, sexual functioning, sexual satisfaction, and psychological distress, as well as of women's pain and sexual functioning. Thirty-eight women with vestibulodynia first completed measures of pain intensity and sexual functioning. Male partners responded to mailed questionnaires assessing their own attributions for genital pain as well as their psychological distress, relationship adjustment, sexual functioning, and sexual satisfaction. Women completed the McGill-Melzack Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Attributions of male partners were measured using an adapted version of the Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ)-Partner Version. Men also filled out the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), the Sexual History Form (SHF), and the Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction (GMSEX). All four negative attribution dimensions and higher levels of women's pain intensity successfully predicted increased psychological distress in male partners. Higher levels of both internal and global attributions were associated with men's poorer dyadic adjustment, whereas global and stable attributions were related to their lower sexual satisfaction. Attributions failed to significantly predict sexual functioning in male partners and women's pain and sexual functioning. Evaluation and treatment of sexual pain problems should involve both partners and should explore the role of negative attributions.

  2. Male self-disclosure of HIV infection to sex partners: a Hawaii-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study used a cross-sectional survey design with self-report to (a) describe serostatus disclosure to recent sex partners (SPs) among a multiethnic group of HIV-infected men from Hawaii, (b) explore factors influencing disclosure, and (c) examine relationships between disclosure and condom use. Respondents recalled their sexual experiences with up to three most recent SPs in the 3 months before survey administration. The men (N = 93) reported a disclosure rate of approximately 50% with 228 SPs. Disclosure was significantly influenced by SP serostatus, relationship status, self-efficacy for disclosure decision making, and cocaine use before sex. Disclosure was also significantly associated with condom use, highlighting the transmission risk reduction benefit of disclosure for these participants. HIV caregivers should routinely address disclosure to SPs and offer interventions to enhance condom use. Interventions for strengthening efficacy beliefs for disclosure decision making should be tailored to help men with multiple SPs and those with recent cocaine use.

  3. Collaborative research to prevent HIV among male prison inmates and their female partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinstead, O A; Zack, B; Faigeles, B

    1999-04-01

    Despite the need for targeted HIV prevention interventions for prison inmates, institutional and access barriers have impeded development and evaluation of such programs. Over the past 6 years, the authors have developed a unique collaborative relationship to develop and evaluate HIV prevention interventions for prison inmates. The collaboration includes an academic research institution (the Center for AIDS Prevention Studies at the University of California, San Francisco), a community-based organization (Centerforce), and the staff and inmate peer educators inside a state prison. In this ongoing collaboration, the authors have developed and evaluated a series of HIV prevention interventions for prison inmates and for women who visit prison inmates. Results of these studies support the feasibility and effectiveness of HIV prevention programs for inmates and their partners both in prison and in the community. Access and institutional barriers to HIV intervention research in prisons can be overcome through the development of collaborative research partnerships.

  4. Male partner circumcision associated with lower Trichomonas vaginalis incidence among pregnant and postpartum Kenyan women: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintye, Jillian; Drake, Alison L; Unger, Jennifer A; Matemo, Daniel; Kinuthia, John; McClelland, R Scott; John-Stewart, Grace

    2017-03-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the world's most common curable STI and has implications for reproductive health in women. We determined incidence and correlates of T. vaginalis in an HIV-uninfected peripartum cohort. Women participating in a prospective study of peripartum HIV acquisition in Western Kenya were enrolled during pregnancy and followed until 9 months post partum. T. vaginalis was assessed every 1-3 months using wet mount microscopy. Correlates of incident T. vaginalis were determined using Cox proportional hazards models. Among 1271 women enrolled, median age was 22 years (IQR 19-27) and gestational age was 22 weeks (IQR 18-26); most (78%) were married and had uncircumcised male partners (69%). Prevalent T. vaginalis was detected in 81 women (6%) at enrolment. Among women without T. vaginalis at enrolment, 112 had T. vaginalis detected during 1079 person-years of follow-up (10.4 per 100 person-years). After adjustment for socio-economic factors, male partner circumcision status, pregnancy status and other STIs, T. vaginalis incidence was higher during pregnancy than post partum (22.3 vs 7.7 per 100 person-years, adjusted HR (aHR) 3.68, 95% CI 1.90 to 7.15, pvaginalis compared with women with uncircumcised partners (aHR 0.42, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.76, p=0.004). Employed women had lower risk of incident T. vaginalis than unemployed women (aHR 0.49, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.79, p=0.003); recent STI was associated with increased T. vaginalis risk (aHR 2.97, 95% CI 1.49 to 5.94, p=0.002). T. vaginalis was relatively common in this peripartum cohort. Male circumcision may confer benefits in preventing T. vaginalis . Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Structural Pathways between Child Abuse, Poor Mental Health Outcomes and Male-Perpetrated Intimate Partner Violence (IPV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machisa, Mercilene T.; Christofides, Nicola; Jewkes, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Background Violent trauma exposures, including child abuse, are risk factors for PTSD and comorbid mental health disorders. Child abuse experiences of men exacerbate adult male-perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV). The relationship between child abuse, poor mental health and IPV perpetration is complex but research among the general population is lacking. This study describes the relationship and pathways between history of child abuse exposure and male-perpetrated IPV while exploring the potentially mediating effect of poor mental health. Methods We analysed data from a randomly selected, two-stage clustered, cross-sectional household survey conducted with 416 adult men in Gauteng Province of South Africa. We used multinomial regression modelling to identify associated factors and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) to test the primary hypothesis that poor mental health (defined as abusing alcohol or having PTSD or depressive symptoms) mediates the relationship between child abuse and IPV perpetration. Results Eighty eight percent of men were physically abused, 55% were neglected, 63% were emotionally abused and 20% were sexually abused at least once in their childhood. Twenty four percent of men had PTSD symptoms, 24% had depressive symptoms and 36% binge drank. Fifty six percent of men physically abused and 31% sexually abused partners at least once in their lifetime. Twenty two percent of men had one episode and 40% had repeat episodes of IPV perpetration. PTSD symptomatology risk increased with severity of child trauma and other trauma. PTSD severity increased the risk for binge drinking. Child trauma, other trauma and PTSD symptomatology increased the severity of depressive symptoms. PTSD symptomatology was comorbid with alcohol abuse and depressive symptoms. Child trauma, having worked in the year before the survey, other trauma and PTSD increased the risk of repeat episodes of IPV perpetration. Highly equitable gender attitudes were protective

  6. Structural Pathways between Child Abuse, Poor Mental Health Outcomes and Male-Perpetrated Intimate Partner Violence (IPV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercilene T Machisa

    Full Text Available Violent trauma exposures, including child abuse, are risk factors for PTSD and comorbid mental health disorders. Child abuse experiences of men exacerbate adult male-perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV. The relationship between child abuse, poor mental health and IPV perpetration is complex but research among the general population is lacking. This study describes the relationship and pathways between history of child abuse exposure and male-perpetrated IPV while exploring the potentially mediating effect of poor mental health.We analysed data from a randomly selected, two-stage clustered, cross-sectional household survey conducted with 416 adult men in Gauteng Province of South Africa. We used multinomial regression modelling to identify associated factors and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM to test the primary hypothesis that poor mental health (defined as abusing alcohol or having PTSD or depressive symptoms mediates the relationship between child abuse and IPV perpetration.Eighty eight percent of men were physically abused, 55% were neglected, 63% were emotionally abused and 20% were sexually abused at least once in their childhood. Twenty four percent of men had PTSD symptoms, 24% had depressive symptoms and 36% binge drank. Fifty six percent of men physically abused and 31% sexually abused partners at least once in their lifetime. Twenty two percent of men had one episode and 40% had repeat episodes of IPV perpetration. PTSD symptomatology risk increased with severity of child trauma and other trauma. PTSD severity increased the risk for binge drinking. Child trauma, other trauma and PTSD symptomatology increased the severity of depressive symptoms. PTSD symptomatology was comorbid with alcohol abuse and depressive symptoms. Child trauma, having worked in the year before the survey, other trauma and PTSD increased the risk of repeat episodes of IPV perpetration. Highly equitable gender attitudes were protective against single and

  7. Factors Associated with Male Partner Involvement in Programs for the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV in Rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motlagabo G. Matseke

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Male partner involvement (MPI can contribute to the success of programs aimed at preventing mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT of HIV. However, the definition and measures of MPI differ according to context. This study utilized secondary cross-sectional data to investigate the prevalence and determinants of MPI among 463 male partners of HIV-infected pregnant women in rural South Africa. Results indicated that 44.1% of male partners reported involvement in most or all specified male partner involvement activities (i.e., scores of 7 to 9. Descriptive, correlation and multiple linear-regression analyses were conducted. Positive predictors of MPI included relationship status, own HIV status, awareness of female partner’s positive HIV status, female partner’s desire to have more children, having family planning discussions with provider, condom use to prevent HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs, and partner reasoning skills. Negative predictors included partner verbal aggression. Overall, although MPI is low, the study underlines important information that could be used to develop interventions aimed at improving maternal and infant health in PMTCT programs in South Africa.

  8. Intimate partner violence reported by female and male users of healthcare units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Claudia Renata Dos Santos; Schraiber, Lilia Blima

    2017-02-16

    To analyze nonfatal violence suffered and committed by adult men and women, in an intimate relationship. The participants in the research were women aged between 15 and 49 years and men between 18 and 60 years, interviewed by face-to-face questionnaire application. The sample selection was of consecutive type, according to the order of arrival of the users. We conducted temporarily independent investigations and covered different health services to avoid couples and relationships in which the retaliation could be overvalued. To improve the comparison, we also examined reports of men and women from the same service, i.e., a service that was common to both investigations. We compared the situations suffered by women according to their reports and cross-linked the information to what men, according to their own reports, do against intimate partners or ex-partners. We also examined the cross-linked situation in reverse: the violence committed by women against their partners, according to their reports, in comparison with the violence suffered by men, also according to their reports, even if, in this case, the exam refers only to physical violence. The variables were described using mean, standard deviation, frequencies and proportions, and the hypothesis testing used was: Fisher's exact and Pearson's Chi-square tests, adopting a significance level of 5%. Victimization was greater among women, regardless of the type of violence, when perpetrated by intimate partner. The perception of violence was low in both genders; however, women reported more episodes of multiple recurrences of any violence and sexual abuse suffered than men acknowledged to have perpetrated. The study in its entirety shows significant gender differences, whether about the prevalence of violence, whether about the perception of these situations. Analisar as violências não fatais sofridas e praticadas por homens e mulheres adultos, em situação de parceria íntima. Os sujeitos da pesquisa foram

  9. Role of spontaneous physical activity in prediction of susceptibility to activity based anorexia in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Leighton, Claudio E; Grace, Martha; Billington, Charles J; Kotz, Catherine M

    2014-08-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a chronic eating disorder affecting females and males, defined by body weight loss, higher physical activity levels and restricted food intake. Currently, the commonalities and differences between genders in etiology of AN are not well understood. Animal models of AN, such as activity-based anorexia (ABA), can be helpful in identifying factors determining individual susceptibility to AN. In ABA, rodents are given an access to a running wheel while food restricted, resulting in paradoxical increased physical activity levels and weight loss. Recent studies suggest that different behavioral traits, including voluntary exercise, can predict individual weight loss in ABA. A higher inherent drive for movement may promote development and severity of AN, but this hypothesis remains untested. In rodents and humans, drive for movement is defined as spontaneous physical activity (SPA), which is time spent in low-intensity, non-volitional movements. In this paper, we show that a profile of body weight history and behavioral traits, including SPA, can predict individual weight loss caused by ABA in male and female rats with high accuracy. Analysis of the influence of SPA on ABA susceptibility in males and females rats suggests that either high or low levels of SPA increase the probability of high weight loss in ABA, but with larger effects in males compared to females. These results suggest that the same behavioral profile can identify individuals at-risk of AN for both male and female populations and that SPA has predictive value for susceptibility to AN. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Gene by Social-Context Interactions for Number of Sexual Partners Among White Male Youths: Genetics-informed Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Guang; Tong, Yuying; Cai, Tianji

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we set out to investigate whether introducing molecular genetic measures into an analysis of sexual partner variety will yield novel sociological insights. The data source is the white male DNA sample in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Our empirical analysis has produced a robust protective effect of the 9R/9R genotype relative to the Any10R genotype in the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1). The gene-environment interaction analysis demonstrates that the protective effect of 9R/9R tends to be lost in schools in which higher proportions of students start having sex early or among those with relatively low levels of cognitive ability. Our genetics-informed sociological analysis suggests that the “one size” of a single social theory may not fit all. Explaining a human trait or behavior may require a theory that accommodates the complex interplay between social contextual and individual influences and genetic predispositions. PMID:19569400

  11. Central vasopressin V1a receptor activation is independently necessary for both partner preference formation and expression in socially monogamous male prairie voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Zoe R; Spiegel, Lauren; Young, Larry J

    2010-02-01

    The neuropeptide arginine vasopressin (AVP) modulates a variety of species-specific social behaviors. In socially monogamous male prairie voles, AVP acts centrally via vasopressin V1a receptor (V1aR) to facilitate mating induced partner preferences. The display of a partner preference requires at least 2 temporally distinct processes: social bond formation as well as its recall, or expression. Studies to date have not determined in which of these processes V1aR acts to promote partner preferences. Here, male prairie voles were administered intracerebroventricularly a V1aR antagonist (AVPA) at different time points to investigate the role of V1aR in social bond formation and expression. Animals receiving AVPA prior to cohabitation with mating or immediately prior to partner preference testing failed to display a partner preference, while animals receiving AVPA immediately after cohabitation with mating and control animals receiving vehicle at all 3 time points displayed partner preferences. These results suggest that V1aR signaling is necessary for both the formation and expression of partner preferences and that these processes are dissociable. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. [Association of ABCG2 gene C421A polymorphism and susceptibility of primary gout in Han Chinese males].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fa-gui; Chu, Yi; Meng, Dong-mei; Tong, Ya-wen

    2011-12-01

    To assess the association between a C421A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in exon 5 of ATP-binding cassette, sub-family G (WHITE), member 2 (ABCG2) gene and susceptibility of primary gout in Han Chinese males. For 200 male patients with primary gout and 235 controls, the genotype of C421A locus was analyzed by PCR and direct sequencing. Blood glucose, uric acid, total cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine and urea nitrogen was measured by an automatic biochemical analyzer. Compared with the controls, there was a higher frequency for AA genotype and A allele of the rs2231142 SNP in gout patients (22.5% vs. 8.5% by genotype; 44.9% vs. 32.3% by allele). The association with gout reached significance (chi-square =15.91, Pgout patients were significantly higher than those of controls (Pgout in Han Chinese males.

  13. Male Partners' Investment and Alternatives as Correlates of Women's Coerced First Sexual Intercourse in Chinese Dating Relationships: A Social Exchange Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shanshan; Tsang, Sandra

    2016-10-01

    Social exchange theory has great potential to help our understanding of dating partners' sexual interaction. Yet, to our knowledge, there is still no empirical study applying this theory to explain sexual coercion in the context of intimate relationships. This study examined the relationship between male partners' social exchange variables (investment and alternatives) and women's coerced first sexual intercourse in dating relationships, within both gender samples (not dyadic data). A total of 927 valid questionnaires were collected by purposive snowball sampling in five main cities in China of college students who were currently in a romantic relationship. Results showed that in the male sample, male partners' investment significantly and positively correlated with emotional manipulation coercive tactics, and their alternatives significantly and positively predicted defection threats as coercive tactics. In the female sample, there were no such observations. The research hypotheses of this study have been partially supported, and its implications and limitations are discussed.

  14. The second nationwide surveillance of the antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from male urethritis in Japan, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamasuna, Ryoichi; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Ishikawa, Kiyohito; Uehara, Shinya; Hayami, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Yamamoto, Shingo; Minamitani, Shinichi; Watanabe, Akira; Iwata, Satoshi; Kaku, Mitsuo; Kadota, Junichi; Sunakawa, Keisuke; Sato, Junko; Hanaki, Hideaki; Tsukamoto, Taiji; Kiyota, Hiroshi; Egawa, Shin; Tanaka, Kazushi; Arakawa, Soichi; Fujisawa, Masato; Kumon, Hiromi; Kobayashi, Kanao; Matsubara, Akio; Naito, Seiji; Kuroiwa, Kentaro; Hirayama, Hideo; Narita, Harunori; Hosobe, Takahide; Ito, Shin; Ito, Kenji; Kawai, Shuichi; Ito, Masayasu; Chokyu, Hirofumi; Matsumura, Masaru; Yoshioka, Masaru; Uno, Satoshi; Monden, Koichi; Takayama, Kazuo; Kaji, Shinichi; Kawahara, Motoshi; Sumii, Toru; Kadena, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Takamasa; Maeda, Shinichi; Nishi, Shohei; Nishimura, Hirofumi; Shirane, Takeshi; Yoh, Mutsumasa; Akiyama, Kikuo; Imai, Toshio; Kano, Motonori

    2015-05-01

    Worldwide, the most important concern in the treatment of sexually transmitted infections is the increase in antimicrobial resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains including resistance to cephalosporins, penicillins, fluoroquinolones or macrolides. To investigate the trends of antimicrobial susceptibility among N. gonorrhoeae strains isolated from male patients with urethritis, a Japanese surveillance committee conducted the second nationwide surveillance study. Urethral discharge was collected from male patients with urethritis at 26 medical facilities from March 2012 to January 2013. Of the 151 specimens, 103 N. gonorrhoeae strains were tested for susceptibility to 20 antimicrobial agents. None of the strains was resistant to ceftriaxone, but the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 90% of ceftriaxone increased to 0.125 μg/ml, and 11 (10.7%) strains were considered less susceptible with an MIC of 0.125 μg/ml. There were 11 strains resistant to cefixime, and the MICs of these strains were 0.5 μg/ml. The distributions of the MICs of fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and tosufloxacin, were bimodal. Sitafloxacin, a fluoroquinolone, showed strong activity against all strains, including strains resistant to other three fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and tosufloxacin. The azithromycin MICs in 2 strains were 1 μg/ml. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Conditioned same-sex partner preference in male rats is facilitated by oxytocin and dopamine: effect on sexually dimorphic brain nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triana-Del Rio, Rodrigo; Tecamachaltzi-Silvarán, Miriam B; Díaz-Estrada, Victor X; Herrera-Covarrubias, Deissy; Corona-Morales, Aleph A; Pfaus, James G; Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2015-04-15

    Conditioned same-sex partner preference can develop in male rats that undergo cohabitation under the effects of quinpirole (QNP, D2 agonist). Herein, we assessed the development of conditioned same-sex social/sexual preference in males that received either nothing, saline, QNP, oxytocin (OT), or QNP+OT during cohabitation with another male (+) or single-caged (-). This resulted in the following groups: (1) Intact-, (2) Saline+, (3) QNP-, (4) OT-, (5) QNP+, (6) OT+ and (7) QNP/OT+. Cohabitation occurred during 24h in a clean cage with a male partner that bore almond scent on the back as conditioned stimulus. This was repeated every 4 days for a total of three trials. Social and sexual preference were assessed four days after the last conditioning trial in a drug-free test in which experimental males chose between the scented familiar male and a novel sexually receptive female. Results showed that males from groups Intact-, Saline+, QNP- and OT- displayed a clear preference for the female (opposite-sex), whereas groups QNP+, OT+ and QNP/OT+ displayed socio/sexual preference for the male partner (same-sex). In Experiment 2, the brains were processed for Nissl dye and the area size of two sexually dimorphic nuclei (SDN-POA and SON) was compared between groups. Males from groups OT-, OT+ and QNP/OT+ expressed a smaller SDN-POA and groups QNP+ and QNP/OT+ expressed a larger SON. Accordingly, conditioned same-sex social/sexual partner preference can develop during cohabitation under enhanced D2 or OT activity but such preference does not depend on the area size of those sexually dimorphic nuclei. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. HIV testing among male partners of pregnant women in Nigeria: a missing link in the elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olakunde, Babayemi O; Adeyinka, Daniel A; Oladele, Tolulope; Ozigbu, Chamberline E

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we assessed male partner testing and the serodiscordance rate among pregnant women and their partners in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programme in Nigeria. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the consolidated national health sector PMTCT data over a five-year period (2012-2016). Over the period, a total of 11,833,062 pregnant women were tested for HIV with a positivity rate of 2.2%. About 266,188 (2.2%) of sexual partners of pregnant women who presented at PMTCT clinics had an HIV test within the period. The uptake of male partner testing varied across the years, ranging from 22,269 (1.7%) in 2012 to 90,603 (2.9%) in 2014 (χ 2 for trend = 1320; p HIV-negative pregnant women who tested was higher than the proportion of partners of HIV-positive pregnant women (81% versus 19%, respectively). The serodiscordance rate among partners who tested over the five-year period was 18%. The serodiscordance rate declined from 24% in 2012 to 13% in 2016 (χ 2 for trend = 1202; p HIV combination prevention approach in the HIV response.

  17. Acceptability of vaginal microbicides among female sex workers and their intimate male partners in two Mexico-US border cities: a mixed methods analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Angela M; Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Martinez, Gustavo; Rangel, M Gudelia; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Stockman, Jamila K; Ulibarri, Monica D; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2013-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) may benefit from pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) including microbicides for HIV prevention. Since adherence is a key factor in PrEP efficacy, we explored microbicide acceptability and potential barriers to use within FSWs' intimate relationships in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, where HIV prevalence is increasing. FSWs and their verified intimate (non-commercial) male partners completed quantitative and qualitative interviews from 2010 to 2012. Our complementary mixed methods design followed an iterative process to assess microbicide acceptability, explore related relationship dynamics and identify factors associated with concern about male partners' anger regarding microbicide use. Among 185 couples (n=370 individuals), interest in microbicides was high. In qualitative interviews with 28 couples, most participants were enthusiastic about microbicides for sex work contexts but some explained that microbicides could imply mistrust/infidelity within their intimate relationships. In the overall sample, nearly one in six participants (16%) worried that male partners would become angry about microbicides, which was associated with higher self-esteem among FSWs and lower self-esteem and past year conflicts causing injury within relationships among men. HIV prevention interventions should consider intimate relationship dynamics posing potential barriers to PrEP acceptability and adherence, involve male partners and promote risk communication skills.

  18. An economic evaluation of conception strategies for heterosexual serodiscordant couples where the male partner is HIV-positive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letchumanan, Michelle; Coyte, Peter C; Loutfy, Mona

    2015-01-01

    To conduct an economic evaluation of the three commonly used interventions that reduce sexual HIV transmission when an HIV-negative female aims to conceive with an HIV-positive male on combination antiretroviral therapy (condomless sex restricted to timed ovulation [CS], sperm washing with intrauterine insemination [SW] and condomless sex restricted to timed ovulation with pre-exposure prophylaxis [CS-PrEP]). As SW and CS-PrEP are only privately available for pregnancy planning for this population in Canada, this study was conducted to inform policy decisions concerning potential public health insurance coverage, as well as to inform fertility counselling in settings with adequate combination antiretroviral therapy access globally. We developed a cohort Markov model with a lifetime horizon and used the perspective of Ontario's Ministry of Health (MOH). Input parameters were drawn from literature, the MOH's Schedule of Benefits and a time trade-off questionnaire designed for this study. Outcome measures included quality-adjusted life-years and incremental cost-effectiveness. Costs and benefits were discounted at annual rates of 3%. Costs were reported in Canadian 2013 dollars and an exchange rate of 1 USD to 1.066 CND was applied where necessary. Sensitivity analysis assessed the uncertainty of model parameters. The base case analysis found that CS-PrEP and SW were each more costly and less effective at conception than CS. The results were robust in the sensitivity analysis and suggest that CS is the dominant conception strategy in this population. Neither CS-PrEP nor SW represent better value for money relative to CS as a conception option for HIV-discordant couples with positive male partners. Based on these findings, CS-PrEP and SW cannot be recommended for public-funding in developed countries.

  19. Intimate Partner Violence and Controlling Behavior Among Male Same-Sex Relationships in China: Relationship With Ambivalent Sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Diandian; Zheng, Lijun

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we examined intimate partner violence (IPV), cold violence, and controlling behaviors in male same-sex relationships in China, with a focus on the characteristics of IPV and controlling behaviors, and their relationships with ambivalent sexism. IPV was categorized as psychological aggression, physical injury, physical assault, and sexual coercion and was measured using the revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2), an eight-item scale measuring cold violence that was designed specifically for this study. Controlling behaviors were measured using a 34-item scale that was designed for this study, and sexist attitudes toward women and men were assessed using the short forms of the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI) and the Ambivalence toward Men Inventory (AMI), respectively. Participants ( N = 272) reported instances of perpetration of or victimization by IPV and controlling behaviors within the past 6 months and indicated ambivalent sexism (hostile attitude toward men and women and benevolent attitude toward men and women [HM, HS, BM, and BS, respectively]). Almost 47.1% of the participants reported an experience of IPV, and the prevalence of cold violence and controlling behaviors was found to be 65.1% and 80.5%, respectively. Psychological aggression was the most common, followed sequentially by sexual coercion, physical assault, and injury in present study. We found a strong association between perpetration and victimization and that different forms of violence tend to co-occur in both IPV and controlling behaviors. As predicted, ambivalent sexism was positively correlated with IPV and controlling behaviors, specifically HS and HM. The results indicated the high prevalence of IPV and controlling behaviors among male same-sex relationships, and sexism contributing to this high prevalence.

  20. Multimethod prediction of child abuse risk in an at-risk sample of male intimate partner violence offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina M; Gracia, Enrique; Lila, Marisol

    2016-10-01

    The vast majority of research on child abuse potential has concentrated on women demonstrating varying levels of risk of perpetrating physical child abuse. In contrast, the current study considered factors predictive of physical child abuse potential in a group of 70 male intimate partner violence offenders, a group that would represent a likely high risk group. Elements of Social Information Processing theory were evaluated, including pre-existing schemas of empathy, anger, and attitudes approving of parent-child aggression considered as potential moderators of negative attributions of child behavior. To lend methodological rigor, the study also utilized multiple measures and multiple methods, including analog tasks, to predict child abuse risk. Contrary to expectations, findings did not support the role of anger independently predicting child abuse risk in this sample of men. However, preexisting beliefs approving of parent-child aggression, lower empathy, and more negative child behavior attributions independently predicted abuse potential; in addition, greater anger, poorer empathy, and more favorable attitudes toward parent-child aggression also exacerbated men's negative child attributions to further elevate their child abuse risk. Future work is encouraged to consider how factors commonly considered in women parallel or diverge from those observed to elevate child abuse risk in men of varying levels of risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Combined oral and topical antimicrobial therapy for male partners of women with bacterial vaginosis: Acceptability, tolerability and impact on the genital microbiota of couples - A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Erica L; Vodstrcil, Lenka A; Danielewski, Jennifer A; Murray, Gerald L; Fairley, Christopher K; Garland, Suzanne M; Hocking, Jane S; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Bradshaw, Catriona S

    2018-01-01

    Recurrence following recommended treatment for bacterial vaginosis is unacceptably high. While the pathogenesis of recurrence is not well understood, recent evidence indicates re-infection from sexual partners is likely to play a role. The aim of this study was to assess the acceptability and tolerability of topical and oral antimicrobial therapy in male partners of women with bacterial vaginosis (BV), and to investigate the impact of dual-partner treatment on the vaginal and penile microbiota. Women with symptomatic BV (Nugent Score of 4-10 and ≥3 Amsel criteria) and their regular male sexual partner were recruited from Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Melbourne, Australia. Women received oral metronidazole 400mg twice daily (or intra-vaginal 2% clindamycin cream, if contraindicated) for 7-days. Male partners received oral metronidazole 400mg twice daily and 2% clindamycin cream topically to the penile skin twice daily for 7-days. Couples provided self-collected genital specimens and completed questionnaires at enrolment and then weekly for 4-weeks. Genital microbiota composition was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Changes in genital microbiota composition were assessed by Bray-Curtis index. Bacterial diversity was measured by the Shannon Diversity Index. Twenty-two couples were recruited. Sixteen couples (76%) completed all study procedures. Adherence was high; most participants took >90% of prescribed medication. Medication, and particularly topical clindamycin in males, was well tolerated. Dual-partner treatment had an immediate and sustained effect on the composition of vaginal microbiota (median Bray-Curtis score day 0 versus day 8 = 0.03 [IQR 0-0.15], day 0 vs day 28 = 0.03 [0.02-0.11]). We observed a reduction in bacterial diversity of the vaginal microbiota and a decrease in the prevalence and abundance of BV-associated bacteria following treatment. Treatment had an immediate effect on the composition of the cutaneous penile microbiota (median

  2. Combined oral and topical antimicrobial therapy for male partners of women with bacterial vaginosis: Acceptability, tolerability and impact on the genital microbiota of couples - A pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica L Plummer

    Full Text Available Recurrence following recommended treatment for bacterial vaginosis is unacceptably high. While the pathogenesis of recurrence is not well understood, recent evidence indicates re-infection from sexual partners is likely to play a role. The aim of this study was to assess the acceptability and tolerability of topical and oral antimicrobial therapy in male partners of women with bacterial vaginosis (BV, and to investigate the impact of dual-partner treatment on the vaginal and penile microbiota.Women with symptomatic BV (Nugent Score of 4-10 and ≥3 Amsel criteria and their regular male sexual partner were recruited from Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Melbourne, Australia. Women received oral metronidazole 400mg twice daily (or intra-vaginal 2% clindamycin cream, if contraindicated for 7-days. Male partners received oral metronidazole 400mg twice daily and 2% clindamycin cream topically to the penile skin twice daily for 7-days. Couples provided self-collected genital specimens and completed questionnaires at enrolment and then weekly for 4-weeks. Genital microbiota composition was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Changes in genital microbiota composition were assessed by Bray-Curtis index. Bacterial diversity was measured by the Shannon Diversity Index.Twenty-two couples were recruited. Sixteen couples (76% completed all study procedures. Adherence was high; most participants took >90% of prescribed medication. Medication, and particularly topical clindamycin in males, was well tolerated. Dual-partner treatment had an immediate and sustained effect on the composition of vaginal microbiota (median Bray-Curtis score day 0 versus day 8 = 0.03 [IQR 0-0.15], day 0 vs day 28 = 0.03 [0.02-0.11]. We observed a reduction in bacterial diversity of the vaginal microbiota and a decrease in the prevalence and abundance of BV-associated bacteria following treatment. Treatment had an immediate effect on the composition of the cutaneous penile

  3. GWAS for male-pattern baldness identifies 71 susceptibility loci explaining 38% of the risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pirastu, Nicola; Joshi, Peter K.; de Vries, Paul S.; Cornelis, Marilyn C.; McKeigue, Paul M.; Keum, NaNa; Franceschini, Nora; Colombo, Marco; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Spiliopoulou, Athina; Franke, Lude; North, Kari E.; Kraft, Peter; Morrison, Alanna C.; Esko, Tonu; Wilson, James F.

    2017-01-01

    Male pattern baldness (MPB) or androgenetic alopecia is one of the most common conditions affecting men, reaching a prevalence of similar to 50% by the age of 50; however, the known genes explain little of the heritability. Here, we present the results of a genome-wide association study including

  4. Male self-disclosure of HIV-positive serostatus to sex partners: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kathleen M

    2005-01-01

    HIV-positive men face multiple challenges when deciding whether to disclose their serostatus to sex partners. The purpose of this literature review (1996-2004) is to identify valid and reliable research results that identify factors influencing serostatus disclosure to sex partners by men who are HIV-positive. Articles included in the review were identified through an electronic search using pertinent terms related to disclosure to sex partners, followed by a search of references for additional articles. A compilation of research results for 17 articles is presented under the headings of background, contextual, and psychosocial factors influencing disclosure. An analysis of the data suggests that differences in disclosure rates vary based on sex partner factors including serostatus, relationship status, and number of sex partners. Rates of disclosure to primary sex partners ranged from 67% to 88%, suggesting that nearly one third of main sex partners were not disclosed to and were at risk of contracting HIV, whereas a pattern of lower disclosure among casual partners was evident. As the number of sex partners increased, the likelihood of disclosure to all sex partners decreased, ranging from one quarter (25%) to slightly over half (58%). In addition, perceived efficaciousness and positive outcome expectations were the most frequent theoretical constructs embedded in the research associated with disclosure, suggesting that these factors play an important role in the process of disclosure to sex partners. Interpersonal factors that positively influenced self-disclosure included spousal support, emotional investment, and communication about safe sex, including asking about a partner's serostatus. Self-disclosure was not consistently associated with safer sex. Recommendations for future research are presented, based on the results included in this review.

  5. Oxytocin in the nucleus accumbens shell reverses CRFR2-evoked passive stress-coping after partner loss in monogamous male prairie voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Oliver J; Dabrowska, Joanna; Modi, Meera E; Johnson, Zachary V; Keebaugh, Alaine C; Barrett, Catherine E; Ahern, Todd H; Guo, JiDong; Grinevich, Valery; Rainnie, Donald G; Neumann, Inga D; Young, Larry J

    2016-02-01

    Loss of a partner can have severe effects on mental health. Here we explore the neural mechanisms underlying increased passive stress-coping, indicative of depressive-like behavior, following the loss of the female partner in the monogamous male prairie vole. We demonstrate that corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 2 (CRFR2) in the nucleus accumbens shell mediates social loss-induced passive coping. Further, we show that partner loss compromises the oxytocin system through multiple mechanisms. Finally, we provide evidence for an interaction of the CRFR2 and oxytocin systems in mediating the emotional consequences of partner loss. Our results suggest that chronic activation of CRFR2 and suppression of striatal oxytocin signaling following partner loss result in an aversive emotional state that may share underlying mechanisms with bereavement. We propose that the suppression of oxytocin signaling is likely adaptive during short separations to encourage reunion with the partner and may have evolved to maintain long-term partnerships. Additionally, therapeutic strategies targeting these systems should be considered for treatment of social loss-mediated depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Oxytocin in the nucleus accumbens shell reverses CRFR2-evoked passive stress-coping after partner loss in monogamous male prairie voles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Oliver J.; Dabrowska, Joanna; Modi, Meera E.; Johnson, Zachary V.; Keebaugh, Alaine C.; Barrett, Catherine E.; Ahern, Todd H.; Guo, JiDong; Grinevich, Valery; Rainnie, Donald G.; Neumann, Inga D.; Young, Larry J.

    2015-01-01

    Loss of a partner can have severe effects on mental health. Here we explore the neural mechanisms underlying increased passive stress-coping, indicative of depressive-like behavior, following the loss of the female partner in the monogamous male prairie vole. We demonstrate that corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 2 (CRFR2) in the nucleus accumbens shell mediates social loss-induced passive coping. Further, we show that partner loss compromises the oxytocin system through multiple mechanisms. Finally, we provide evidence for an interaction of the CRFR2 and oxytocin systems in mediating the emotional consequences of partner loss. Our results suggest that chronic activation of CRFR2 and suppression of striatal oxytocin signaling following partner loss result in an aversive emotional state that may share underlying mechanisms with bereavement. We propose that the suppression of oxytocin signaling is likely adaptive during short separations to encourage reunion with the partner and may have evolved to maintain long-term partnerships. Additionally, therapeutic strategies targeting these systems should be considered for treatment of social loss-mediated depression. PMID:26615473

  7. The CLOSER (CLarifying Vaginal Atrophy's Impact On SEx and Relationships) survey: implications of vaginal discomfort in postmenopausal women and in male partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappi, Rossella E; Kingsberg, Sheryl; Maamari, Ricardo; Simon, James

    2013-09-01

    Postmenopausal vaginal atrophy (VA) is a chronic condition with symptoms that include vaginal dryness, soreness, itching, burning, and dyspareunia. The CLarifying Vaginal Atrophy's Impact On SEx and Relationships survey evaluated the impact of VA on the physical and emotional aspects of sexual relationships between postmenopausal women and their male partners. Four thousand one hundred females and 4,100 males representing the United Kingdom, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Italy, France, Canada, and the United States were surveyed. Assessments included: (i) talking about VA and its symptoms; (ii) the impact of VA on intimacy, relationships, and women's self-esteem; (iii) talking about VA and erectile dysfunction (ED); and (iv) the impact of local estrogen therapy (LET) on intimacy and relationships. Descriptive data on the impact of VA. Twenty-eight percent of women did not tell their partners when they first encountered vaginal discomfort, mainly because they felt "it was just a natural part of growing older" (52%) or because of "embarrassment" (21%). Eighty-two percent of males wanted their partner to share their experiences with VA; males were also more comfortable discussing VA than females (68% vs. 58%, respectively). Having sex less often (women: 58%, men: 61%), less satisfying sex (women: 49%, men: 28%), and putting off having sex (women: 35%, men: 14%) were the main effects of VA. Intimacy avoidance was attributed to painful sex (women: 55%, men: 61%) and women's reduced sexual desire (women: 46%, men: 43%). Discussions about vaginal discomfort and ED were generally limited to partners and healthcare providers (HCPs). LET use resulted in less painful sex (women: 62%, men: 59%) and more satisfying sex (women: 47%, men: 49%). VA has an adverse emotional and physical impact on postmenopausal women and their partners. These findings may encourage more open communication about VA between couples and their HCPs. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  8. Hepatitis B virus, syphilis, and HIV seroprevalence in pregnant women and their male partners from six indigenous populations of the Peruvian Amazon Basin, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormaeche, Melvy; Whittembury, Alvaro; Pun, Mónica; Suárez-Ognio, Luis

    2012-10-01

    To assess the seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV), syphilis, and HIV and associated risk factors in pregnant women and their male partners from six indigenous populations of the Peruvian Amazon Basin. A cross-sectional study was performed in six indigenous populations from the Peruvian Amazon Basin. Blood samples were obtained and tested for HBV (antibodies to the hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)), for syphilis (rapid plasma reagin and microhemagglutination assay for Treponema pallidum antibodies), and for HIV (ELISA and indirect immunofluorescence test). A survey was also performed to identify associated risk factors. One thousand two hundred and fifty-one pregnant women and 778 male partners were enrolled in the study. The seroprevalence of anti-HBc in pregnant women was 42.06% (95% confidence interval (CI) 39.28-44.85%) and in their male partners was 54.09% (95% CI 50.32-57.86%). The seroprevalence of HBsAg in pregnant women was 2.11% (95% CI 0.78-3.44%) and in their male partners was 3.98% (95% CI 1.87-6.08%). The seroprevalence of syphilis in pregnant women was 1.60% (95% CI 0.86-2.33%) and in their male partners was 2.44% (95% CI 1.22-3.66%). HIV seroprevalence in pregnant women was 0.16% (95% CI 0.02-0.58%) and in their male partners was 0.29% (95% CI 0.04-1.03%). Sexual risk factors were strongly related to blood markers of syphilis and HBV. Hepatitis B was found to be hyperendemic and strongly related to sexual factors, suggesting an important sexual component in the transmission of the disease in the populations studied. Syphilis was found to have an endemicity in pregnant women above the national level and this may be indicative of high mother-to-child transmission. HIV has started to show its presence in indigenous populations of the Amazon Basin and the results suggest the epidemic is concentrated. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  9. Acceptability of vaginal microbicides among female sex workers and their intimate male partners in two Mexico-U.S. border cities: a mixed methods analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Angela M.; Syvertsen, Jennifer L.; Martinez, Gustavo; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Stockman, Jamila K.; Ulibarri, Monica D.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Female sex workers (FSWs) may benefit from pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) including microbicides for HIV prevention. Since adherence is a key factor in PrEP efficacy, we explored microbicide acceptability and potential barriers to use within FSWs’ intimate relationships in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, where HIV prevalence is increasing. Methods FSWs and their verified intimate (non-commercial) male partners completed quantitative and qualitative interviews from 2010–2012. Our complementary mixed methods design followed an iterative process to assess microbicide acceptability, explore related relationship dynamics, and identify factors associated with concern about male partners’ anger regarding microbicide use. Results Among 185 couples (n=370 individuals), interest in microbicides was high. In qualitative interviews with 28 couples, most participants were enthusiastic about microbicides for sex work contexts but some explained that microbicides could imply mistrust/infidelity within their intimate relationships. In the overall sample, nearly 1 in 6 participants (16%) worried that male partners would become angry about microbicides, which was associated with higher self-esteem among FSWs and lower self-esteem and past year conflict causing injury within relationships among men. Conclusions HIV prevention interventions should consider intimate relationship dynamics posing potential barriers to PrEP acceptability and adherence, involve male partners, and promote risk communication skills. PMID:23398385

  10. 'He's not my pimp': toward an understanding of intimate male partner involvement in female sex work at the Mexico-US border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, María Luisa; Bazzi, Angela Robertson; Rangel, María Gudelia; Staines, Hugo; Yotebieng, Kelly; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Syvertsen, Jennifer L

    2017-11-24

    Female sex work is often perceived as women being controlled by men. We used surveys and qualitative interviews with female sex workers and their intimate partners in two Northern Mexico cities to examine couples' own perceptions of their relationships and male partners' involvement in sex work. Among 214 couples, the median age was 34 and relationship duration was approximately 3 years. Only 10 women in the survey reported having a pimp, and the majority reported sole control over sex work decisions. Qualitative analyses revealed that while most men avoided direct involvement in sex work, they offered advice that was largely driven by concern for their partner's well-being. Our discussion of these results considers the broader socio-political context surrounding these relationships and how changing gender roles, economic insecurity and stigma shape couples' everyday social interactions. Assumptions that all sex workers' relationships are coercive and commercial marginalises these couples while leaving their health concerns unaddressed.

  11. Male Reproductive Disorders and Fertility Trends: Influences of Environment and Genetic Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skakkebaek, Niels E.; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Buck Louis, Germaine M.; Toppari, Jorma; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Eisenberg, Michael L.; Jensen, Tina Kold; Jørgensen, Niels; Swan, Shanna H.; Sapra, Katherine J.; Ziebe, Søren; Priskorn, Lærke; Juul, Anders

    2015-01-01

    It is predicted that Japan and European Union will soon experience appreciable decreases in their populations due to persistently low total fertility rates (TFR) below replacement level (2.1 child per woman). In the United States, where TFR has also declined, there are ethnic differences. Caucasians have rates below replacement, while TFRs among African-Americans and Hispanics are higher. We review possible links between TFR and trends in a range of male reproductive problems, including testicular cancer, disorders of sex development, cryptorchidism, hypospadias, low testosterone levels, poor semen quality, childlessness, changed sex ratio, and increasing demand for assisted reproductive techniques. We present evidence that several adult male reproductive problems arise in utero and are signs of testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). Although TDS might result from genetic mutations, recent evidence suggests that it most often is related to environmental exposures of the fetal testis. However, environmental factors can also affect the adult endocrine system. Based on our review of genetic and environmental factors, we conclude that environmental exposures arising from modern lifestyle, rather than genetics, are the most important factors in the observed trends. These environmental factors might act either directly or via epigenetic mechanisms. In the latter case, the effects of exposures might have an impact for several generations post-exposure. In conclusion, there is an urgent need to prioritize research in reproductive physiology and pathophysiology, particularly in highly industrialized countries facing decreasing populations. We highlight a number of topics that need attention by researchers in human physiology, pathophysiology, environmental health sciences, and demography. PMID:26582516

  12. Involvement in Child Rearing and Firm Control Parenting by Male Cohabiting Partners in Black Low-Income Stepfamilies: Forecasting Adolescent Problem Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forehand, Rex; Parent, Justin; Golub, Andrew; Reid, Megan; Lafko, Nicole

    2015-09-01

    Cohabitation is a family structure that is rapidly increasing in the United States. The current longitudinal study examined the interplay of involvement in a youth's daily activities and firm control parenting by male cohabiting partners (MCPs) on change in adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problems. In a sample of 111 inner-city African American families, adolescents reported on involvement and parenting by MCPs at Wave 1 and biological mothers reported on adolescent problem behaviors at Waves 1 and 2. A significant interaction indicated that low involvement and low firm control by MCPs at Wave 1 were associated with the highest level of internalizing problems at Wave 2. An interaction did not emerge when externalizing problems served as the outcome. The findings indicate that male partners play an important role in parenting adolescents in cohabiting families and should be considered potential participants in prevention and intervention programs. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Mucin 5B promoter polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to interstitial lung diseases in Chinese males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunli Wang

    Full Text Available The variation of G>T in the MUC5B promoter (rs35705950 has been associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF and familial interstitial pneumonia (FIP in Caucasians, but no information is available regarding this variant in the Chinese population. We recruited 405 patients with interstitial lung diseases (ILD, including 165 IPF patients and 2043 healthy controls, for genotyping the MUC5B gene in the Chinese population. One hundred three patients with pneumonia and 360 patients with autoimmune diseases (ADs were recruited as disease controls. Our results indicated that the prevalence of the minor allele (T of the polymorphism rs35705950 in healthy Chinese subjects was approximately 0.66%, which was lower than that described in the Caucasian population. The frequencies of the T allele were 3.33% and 2.22% in IPF and ILD patients, respectively, and these values were significantly higher than those of healthy controls (P = 0.001, OR = 4.332 for IPF, and P = 0.002, OR = 2.855 for ILD. A stratified analysis showed that this variant in MUC5B associated with the risk for ILD mainly in older male Chinese subjects. No difference was observed between patients with pneumonia, AD patients, and healthy controls.

  14. Consequences of missed opportunities for HIV testing during pregnancy and delayed diagnosis for Mexican women, children and male partners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamil Kendall

    Full Text Available HIV testing during pregnancy permits prevention of vertical (mother-to-child transmission and provides an opportunity for women living with HIV to access treatment for their own health. In 2001, Mexico's National HIV Action Plan committed to universal offer of HIV testing to pregnant women, but in 2011, only 45.6% of women who attended antenatal care (ANC were tested for HIV. The study objective was to document the consequences of missed opportunities for HIV testing and counseling during pregnancy and late HIV diagnosis for Mexican women living with HIV and their families.Semi-structured-interviews with 55 women living with HIV who had had a pregnancy since 2001 were completed between 2009 and 2011. Interviews were analyzed thematically using a priori and inductive codes.Consistent with national statistics, less than half of the women living with HIV (42% were offered HIV testing and counseling during ANC. When not diagnosed during ANC, women had multiple contacts with the health-care system due to their own and other family members' AIDS-related complications before being diagnosed. Missed opportunities for HIV testing and counseling during antenatal care and health-care providers failure to recognize AIDS-related complications resulted in pediatric HIV infections, AIDS-related deaths of children and male partners, and HIV disease progression among women and other family members. In contrast, HIV diagnosis permitted timely access to interventions to prevent vertical HIV transmission and long-term care and treatment for women living with HIV.Omissions of the offer of HIV testing and counseling in ANC and health-care providers' failure to recognize AIDS-related complications had negative health, economic and emotional consequences. Scaling-up provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling within and beyond antenatal care and pre-service and in-service trainings on HIV and AIDS for health-care providers can hasten timely HIV diagnosis and

  15. Nationwide surveillance of the antimicrobial susceptibility of Chlamydia trachomatis from male urethritis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Satoshi; Hamasuna, Ryoichi; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Ishikawa, Kiyohito; Hayami, Hiroshi; Uehara, Shinya; Yamamoto, Shingo; Minamitani, Shinichi; Kadota, Junichi; Iwata, Satoshi; Kaku, Mitsuo; Watanabe, Akira; Sato, Junko; Hanaki, Hideaki; Masumori, Naoya; Kiyota, Hiroshi; Egawa, Shin; Tanaka, Kazushi; Arakawa, Soichi; Fujisawa, Masato; Kumon, Hiromi; Wada, Koichiro; Kobayashi, Kanao; Matsubara, Akio; Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Eto, Masatoshi; Tatsugami, Katsunori; Kuroiwa, Kentaro; Ito, Kenji; Hosobe, Takahide; Hirayama, Hideo; Narita, Harunori; Yamaguchi, Takamasa; Ito, Shin; Sumii, Toru; Kawai, Shuichi; Kanokogi, Mototsugu; Kawano, Hiromi; Chokyu, Hirofumi; Uno, Satoshi; Monden, Koichi; Kaji, Shinichi; Kawahara, Motoshi; Takayama, Kazuo; Ito, Masayasu; Yoshioka, Masaru; Kano, Motonori; Konishi, Takatoshi; Kadena, Hitoshi; Nishi, Shohei; Nishimura, Hirofumi; Yamauchi, Takamine; Maeda, Shinichi; Horie, Masanobu; Ihara, Hideari; Matsumura, Masaru; Shirane, Takeshi; Takeyama, Koh; Akiyama, Kikuo; Takahashi, Koichi; Ikuyama, Toshihiro; Inatomi, Hisato; Yoh, Mutsumasa

    2016-09-01

    Genital chlamydial infection is a principal sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Chlamydia trachomatis can cause male urethritis, acute epididymitis, cervicitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease as sexually transmitted infections. Fortunately, homotypic resistant C. trachomatis strains have not been isolated to date; however, several studies have reported the isolation of heterotypic resistant strains from patients. In this surveillance study, clinical urethral discharge specimens were collected from patients with urethritis in 51 hospitals and clinics in 2009 and 38 in 2012. Based on serial cultures, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) could be determined for 19 isolates in 2009 and 39 in 2012. In 2009 and 2012, the MICs (MIC90) of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, tosufloxacin, sitafloxacin, doxycycline, minocycline, erythromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin were 2 μg/ml and 1 μg/ml, 0.5 μg/ml and 0.5 μg/ml, 0.125 μg/ml and 0.125 μg/ml, 0.063 μg/ml and 0.063 μg/ml, 0.125 μg/ml and 0.125 μg/ml, 0.125 μg/ml and 0.125 μg/ml, 0.016 μg/ml and 0.016 μg/ml, and 0.063 μg/ml and 0.063 μg/ml, respectively. In summary, this surveillance project did not identify any resistant strain against fluoroquinolone, tetracycline, or macrolide agents in Japan. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. High rates of HIV seroconversion in pregnant women and low reported levels of HIV testing among male partners in Southern Mozambique: results from a mixed methods study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline De Schacht

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Prevention of acute HIV infections in pregnancy is required to achieve elimination of pediatric HIV. Identification and support for HIV negative pregnant women and their partners, particularly serodiscordant couples, are critical. A mixed method study done in Southern Mozambique estimated HIV incidence during pregnancy, associated risk factors and factors influencing partner's HIV testing. METHODS: Between April 2008 and November 2011, a prospective cohort of 1230 HIV negative pregnant women was followed during pregnancy. A structured questionnaire, HIV testing, and collection of dried blood spots were done at 2-3 scheduled visits. HIV incidence rates were calculated by repeat HIV testing and risk factors assessed by Poisson regression. A qualitative study including 37 individual interviews with men, women, and nurses and 11 focus group discussions (n = 94 with men, women and grandmothers explored motivators and barriers to uptake of male HIV testing. RESULTS: HIV incidence rate was estimated at 4.28/100 women-years (95%CI: 2.33-7.16. Significant risk factors for HIV acquisition were early sexual debut (RR 3.79, 95%CI: 1.04-13.78, p = 0.04 and living in Maputo Province (RR 4.35, 95%CI: 0.97-19.45, p = 0.05. Nineteen percent of women reported that their partner had tested for HIV (93% knew the result with 8/213 indicating an HIV positive partner, 56% said their partner had not tested and 19% did not know their partner test status. Of the 14 seroconversions, only one reported being in a serodiscordant relationship. Fear of discrimination or stigma was reported as a key barrier to male HIV testing, while knowing the importance of getting tested and receiving care was the main motivator. CONCLUSIONS: HIV incidence during pregnancy is high in Southern Mozambique, but knowledge of partners' HIV status remains low. Knowledge of both partners' HIV status is critical for maximal effectiveness of prevention and treatment services to reach

  17. The Influence of Husbands' or Male Partners' Support on Women's Psychosocial Adjustment to Having an Ostomy Resulting from Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschuler, Andrea; Ramirez, Michelle; Grant, Marcia; Wendel, Christopher; Hornbrook, Mark C.; Herrinton, Lisa; Krouse, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Some patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) require a permanent ostomy, which changes bodily function and can create psychosocial distress. However, little is known about the influence of men's support on women's psychosocial adjustment to having an ostomy as a result of CRC. Methods Participants initially completed the City of Hope-CRC Quality of Life questionnaire. We then conducted in-depth interviews with 30 female participants. Interview questions focused on body image, gender, and sexuality. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. We used qualitative methods to analyze the interview data and compared global HRQOL quartile scores to the overall ways that women discussed husbands' or partners' support regarding psychosocial adjustments to having ostomies. Results Of 30 participants, 22 were married or partnered at the time of surgery and 8 were single. The non-partnered respondents are not included in this analysis. Of the 22 married/partnered women, 17 described positive support from husbands being central to their psychosocial adjustment, 3 described a lack or withdrawal of support negatively affecting adjustment, and 2 described support as neither positive nor negative. In 17 cases, women's high or low quantitative HRQOL scores matched the positive or negative qualitative findings. There were 3 cases in which there were positive qualitative data and low HRQOL scores, but each of these cases, women reported serious current co-morbidities. Conclusions These findings suggest that the provision or withdrawal of husbands' or partners' support can have a considerable impact on the psychosocial adjustment of female CRC patients with ostomies. These findings appear to be both short- and long-term. Survivorship assessments should include appraisals of women's relationships to spouses/partners. PMID:19448512

  18. Acceptability of woman-delivered HIV self-testing to the male partner, and additional interventions: a qualitative study of antenatal care participants in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choko, Augustine Talumba; Kumwenda, Moses Kelly; Johnson, Cheryl Case; Sakala, Doreen Wongera; Chikalipo, Maria Chifuniro; Fielding, Katherine; Chikovore, Jeremiah; Desmond, Nicola; Corbett, Elizabeth Lucy

    2017-06-26

    In the era of ambitious HIV targets, novel HIV testing models are required for hard-to-reach groups such as men, who remain underserved by existing services. Pregnancy presents a unique opportunity for partners to test for HIV, as many pregnant women will attend antenatal care (ANC). We describe the views of pregnant women and their male partners on HIV self-test kits that are woman-delivered, alone or with an additional intervention. A formative qualitative study to inform the design of a multi-arm multi-stage cluster-randomized trial, comprised of six focus group discussions and 20 in-depth interviews, was conducted. ANC attendees were purposively sampled on the day of initial clinic visit, while men were recruited after obtaining their contact information from their female partners. Data were analysed using content analysis, and our interpretation is hypothetical as participants were not offered self-test kits. Providing HIV self-test kits to pregnant women to deliver to their male partners was highly acceptable to both women and men. Men preferred this approach compared with standard facility-based testing, as self-testing fits into their lifestyles which were characterized by extreme day-to-day economic pressures, including the need to raise money for food for their household daily. Men and women emphasized the need for careful communication before and after collection of the self-test kits in order to minimize the potential for intimate partner violence although physical violence was perceived as less likely to occur. Most men stated a preference to first self-test alone, followed by testing as a couple. Regarding interventions for optimizing linkage following self-testing, both men and women felt that a fixed financial incentive of approximately USD$2 would increase linkage. However, there were concerns that financial incentives of greater value may lead to multiple pregnancies and lack of child spacing. In this low-income setting, a lottery incentive was

  19. Disparities in HIV and syphilis prevalence and risk factors between older male clients with and without steady sex partners in southwestern rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; His, Jenny H; Wu, Xinghua; Shen, Zhiyong; Lu, Huaxiang; Chen, Huanhuan; Huang, Hui; Zhang, Heng; Ruan, Yuhua; Shao, Yiming; Tang, Zhenzhu

    2017-04-12

    Heterosexual intercourse accounted for 93% of reported HIV cases in Guangxi, and Guangxi had 10% of China's total number of reported HIV cases. Older men are particularly vulnerable to STIs, for example, 46% of Guangxi's HIV cases were men over 50 years of age. As this is an under-studied population in China, effective prevention and control policies have yet to be developed. Thus, the aim of this study was to use a large-scale cross-sectional survey to understand the demographic and behavior factors associated with HIV and syphilis infections among older male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) in a high epidemic area of rural Guangxi, China. A large-scale cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2012 among older male clients of FSWs in low-cost commercial sex venues. Questionnaire interviews were administered to collect sociodemographic and sexual behavior information. Blood samples were collected for HIV and syphilis infection tests. Of the 3485 participants, 2509 (72.0%) clients had a steady sex partner and 976 (28.0%) clients had no steady sex partner. The overall prevalence of HIV and syphilis infection were 3.0% and 3.2%, respectively. Compared to those with a steady sex partner, clients with no steady partner had higher odds of HIV infection (AOR: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.27-2.86), syphilis infection (AOR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.02-2.30), and having factors associated with HIV or syphilis infection, including non-commercial casual sex encounters in last month (AOR: 3.29, 95% CI: 2.42-4.46), >10 years of commercial sex history (AOR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.12-1.53), >2 incidents of commercial sex in last month (AOR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.19-1.96), and aphrodisiac use in last month (AOR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.16-1.70). Clients with no steady partner had lower odds of having heterosexual intercourse (AOR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.56-0.79), awareness and knowledge of HIV/AIDS (AOR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.64-0.88), and having had HIV tests (AOR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.44-0.98). Older male clients of low

  20. Prevalence and concordance of high-risk papillomavirus infection in male sexual partners of women diagnosed with high grade cervical lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Diez, Elena; Pérez, Sonia; Iñarrea, Amparo; de la Orden, Angel; Castro, Máximo; Almuster, Sheila; Tortolero, Leonardo; Rodríguez, Moises; Montero, Ruben; Ojea, Antonio

    2017-05-01

    Little is known about the characteristics of high-risk papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection in men. The aims of this cross-sectional study were: (a) to investigate HR-HPV prevalence and genotype distribution in men, sexual partners of women presenting with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-CIN), according to epidemiological characteristics, and (b) to assess type-specific concordance between partners. A total of 125 men were recruited within the first 6 months after HG-CIN diagnosis of their partner. Samples from the coronal sulcus, glans penis shaft, and scrotum were tested with linear array HPV genotyping assay (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany). Type-specific concordance within 120 couples was studied. Epidemiological factors were evaluated by multivariate logistic regression analysis. SPSS 19 (IBM, Chicago, USA). The prevalence of HR-HPV infection in males was 50.4% (63/125). HPV16/53/52/51/66/31 were the most frequent genotypes (24/10.4/9.6/8.8/8/7.2%, respectively). Current smoking was associated with an increased risk for HR-HPV infection in men (38.2% (21/55) vs 60% (42/70), OR 2.4, p=0.025). Among 60 infected couples, 62% shared at least one genotype: 41.7% couples were concordantly HPV16 positive and 18.3% were HPV16 negative (kappa value: 0.21). The proportion of women with the same genotype as their male partner was higher than the proportion of men sharing the same genotype as their female partner: 58.7% (37/63) vs 30.8% (37/120), p<0.0001. Sexual partners of women with HG-CIN are a significant reservoir and vector of HPV infection, a fact that could contribute to making viral clearance more difficult to achieve in their partners after treatment of their HG-CIN lesions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  1. Differential response by males and females to manipulation of partner contribution in the great tit (Parus major)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanz, JJ; Kranenbarg, S; Tinbergen, JM

    1. In birds with bi-parental care, handicapping is often assumed to decrease the amount of parental care of the handicapped partner. We discuss how handicapping could alter the shape of the handicapped bird's survival-effort curve (theoretical curve relating the survival of a parent to its effort)

  2. Differential response by males and females to manipulation of partner contribution in the great tit (Parus major)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanz, J.J.; Kranenbarg, S.; Tinbergen, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    1. In birds with bi-parental care, handicapping is often assumed to decrease the amount of parental care of the handicapped partner. We discuss how handicapping could alter the shape of the handicapped bird's survival-effort curve (theoretical curve relating the survival of a parent to its effort)

  3. Mutual Partner Violence: Mental Health Symptoms among Female and Male Victims in Four Racial/Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prospero, Moises; Kim, Miseong

    2009-01-01

    This study examines racial/ethnic and sex differences in the prevalence of mutual intimate partner violence (IPV) and mental health symptoms. The authors asked 676 university students in heterosexual relationships if they had experienced IPV, coercive victimization, and/or perpetration as well as symptoms of depression, anxiety, hostility, and…

  4. A community-based qualitative study on the experience and understandings of intimate partner violence and HIV vulnerability from the perspectives of female sex workers and male intimate partners in North Karnataka state, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Andrea K; Nair, Sapna G; Bruce, Sharon G; Ramanaik, Satyanarayana; Thalinja, Raghavendra; Murthy, Srikanta; Javalkar, Prakash; Pillai, Priya; Collumbien, Martine; Heise, Lori; Isac, Shajy; Bhattacharjee, Parinita

    2018-05-11

    Research has increasingly documented the important role that violence by clients and the police play in exacerbating HIV vulnerability for women in sex work. However few studies have examined violence in the intimate relationships of women in sex work, or drawn on community partnerships to explore the social dynamics involved. A community-based participatory research study was undertaken by community and academic partners leading intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV prevention programs in Bagalkot district, Karnataka state, India. The purpose was to explore the experience and understandings of intimate partner violence and HIV/AIDS among women in sex work and their intimate partners in Bagalkot that would inform both theory and practice. A community-based, interpretive qualitative methodology was used. Data was collected between July and October 2014 through in-depth interviews with 38 participants, including 10 couples, 13 individual female sex workers, and 5 individual male intimate partners. Purposive sampling was done to maximize variation on socio-demographic characteristics. Thematic content analysis was conducted through coding and categorization for each interview question in NVivo 10.0, followed by collaborative analysis to answer the research questions. The results showed that an array of interrelated, multi-level factors underlay the widespread acceptance and perpetuation of violence and lack of condom use in participants' intimate relationships. These included individual expectations that justified violence and reflected societal gender norms, compounded by stigma, legal and economic constraints relating to sex work. The results demonstrate that structural vulnerability to IPV and HIV must be addressed not only on the individual and relationship levels to resolve relevant triggers of violence and lack of condom use, but also the societal-level to address gender norms and socio-economic constraints among women in sex work and their partners. The study

  5. The influence of husbands' or male partners' support on women's psychosocial adjustment to having an ostomy resulting from colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschuler, Andrea; Ramirez, Michelle; Grant, Marcia; Wendel, Christopher; Hornbrook, Mark C; Herrinton, Lisa; Krouse, Robert S

    2009-01-01

    Some patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) require a permanent ostomy, which changes bodily function and can create psychosocial distress. However, little is known about the influence of men's support on women's psychosocial adjustment to having an ostomy as a result of CRC. Participants initially completed the City of Hope-CRC Quality of Life questionnaire. We then conducted in-depth interviews with 30 female participants. Interview questions focused on body image, gender, and sexuality. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. We used qualitative methods to analyze the interview data and compared global health-related quality of life (HRQOL) quartile scores to the overall ways that women discussed husbands' or partners' support regarding psychosocial adjustments to having ostomies. Of 30 participants, 22 were married or partnered at the time of surgery and 8 were single. The nonpartnered respondents are not included in this analysis. Of the 22 married/partnered women, 17 described positive support from husbands being central to their psychosocial adjustment, 3 described a lack or withdrawal of support negatively affecting adjustment, and 2 described support as neither positive nor negative. In 17 cases, women's high or low quantitative HRQOL scores matched the positive or negative qualitative findings. There were 3 cases in which there were positive qualitative data and low HRQOL scores, but in each of these cases, women reported serious current comorbidities. These findings suggest that the provision or withdrawal of husbands' or partners' support can have a considerable impact on the psychosocial adjustment of female CRC patients with ostomies. These findings appear to be both short term and long term. Survivorship assessments should include appraisals of women's relationships to their spouses/partners.

  6. Identification of treatment strategies for Mycoplasma genitalium-related urethritis in male patients by culturing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamasuna, Ryoichi

    2013-02-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium was first isolated from urethral swab specimens of male patients with non-gonococcal urethritis. However, the isolation of M. genitalium strains from clinical specimens has been difficult. Co-cultivation with Vero cells is one available technique for the isolation of M. genitalium. The strains that can be used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing by broth dilution or agar dilution methods are limited. Macrolides, such as azithromycin (AZM), have the strongest activity against M. genitalium. However, AZM-resistant strains have emerged and spread. Mutations in the 23S rRNA gene contribute to the organism's macrolide resistance, which is similar to the effects of the mutations in macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Of the fluoroquinolones, moxifloxacin (MFLX) and sitafloxacin have the strongest activities against M. genitalium, while levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin are not as effective. Some clinical trials on the treatment of M. genitalium-related urethritis are available in the literature. A doxycycline regimen was microbiologically inferior to an AZM regimen. For cases of treatment failure with AZM regimens, MFLX regimens were effective.

  7. Male-Partnered Bisexual Women's Perceptions of Disclosing Sexual Orientation to Family Across the Transition to Parenthood: Intensifying Heteronormativity or Queering Family?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Allen, Katherine R; Ellawala, Themal; Ross, Lori E

    2018-01-01

    Drawing from queer and communication privacy management frameworks, this study examines the narratives of 22 bisexual, male-partnered women who were interviewed during the perinatal period and one year postnatally about their disclosures of sexual identity to family of origin. Most women rarely discussed their sexual identity with family; participants who had disclosed described such disclosures as provoking discomfort. Some women stated that their parental status seemed to invalidate the need to talk about their sexual history or identity with family, due its declining salience and increased concerns about judgment. This study reveals how partnership and parenthood statuses contribute to the intensification of heteronormative pressures in relation to family. Therapists should attend to the role of heteronormative values regarding partnering, family-building, and parenting. © 2017 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  8. "Come on Baby. You Know I Love You": African American Women's Experiences of Communication with Male Partners and Disclosure in the Context of Unwanted Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzmer, Kyle; Ludwig-Barron, Natasha T; Wyatt, Gail E; Hamilton, Alison B; Stockman, Jamila K

    2016-05-01

    We examined African American women's experiences of communication with their male intimate partners a couple of hours before and after an incident of unwanted sex. We also examined women's experiences of disclosure following an incident of unwanted sex. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with a community-based sample of sexually active African American women (n = 19) reporting at least one incident of sexual coercion (i.e., being pressured into unwanted sex without consent) by an intimate male partner since the age of 18. Our analysis was guided by "the sexual division of power" from Connell's (1987) theory of gender and power. Data were analyzed inductively by examining the interviews for common themes in the following domains: communication before the unwanted sex, communication after the unwanted sex, and disclosure to others. Men pressured partners for unwanted sex through verbal and non-verbal tactics, ranging from pestering and blunt requests for sex to verbal bullying and violence. Many women responded by clearly saying no. However, many women also described eventually ceasing to resist their partners and engaging in unwanted sex. After the unwanted sex, men actively and passively avoided discussing the incident. Although many women discussed the unwanted sex with family and friends, less women disclosed to trained professionals. In some cases, women did not discuss the incident with anyone at all. These findings indicate that, when addressing sexual violence against women, there is a need to target men as well as the norms of masculinity that underpin physical and sexual violence against women.

  9. Lack of association of -607 C/A and -137 G/C polymorphisms in interleukin 18 gene with susceptibility to gout disease in Chinese Han male population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changgui; Yuan, Ying; Wang, Xinfeng; Han, Lin; Chu, Nan; Wang, Hui; Liu, Shiguo

    2012-06-01

    To identify association of IL18-607 C/A and -137 G/C polymorphism with susceptibility to gout in Chinese Han male population, We evaluate the genetic contribution of the IL18-607 C/A and -137 G/C polymorphism in 202 gout male patients and 493 gout-free control of Chinese Han population by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction assay. Our results reveal no significant association between the polymorphisms -607C/A and -137G/C in IL18 with gout. Our study might suggest that -607 C/A and -137 G/C polymorphisms in the promoter of IL18 are not associated with susceptibility to gout and thus do not play a major role in the development of gout in the Chinese Han male population.

  10. Accounting for intimate partner violence perpetration. A cross-cultural comparison of English and Brazilian male substance users' explanations

    OpenAIRE

    Radcliffe, Polly; Flávia Pires Lucas d'Oliveira, Ana; Lea, Susan; dos Santos Figueiredo, Wagner; Gilchrist, Gail

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction and Aims This paper describes how substance use features in the accounts of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators in treatment in England and Brazil. The aim of the research was to better understand cross cultural constructions of IPV perpetration amongst men in treatment for substance use. Design and Methods Semi?structured interviews were conducted with 40 men in community substance use treatment in Sao Paolo, Brazil and London and the South East of England who ...

  11. Factors predictive of abnormal semen parameters in male partners of couples attending the infertility clinic of a tertiary hospital in south-western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Olusola Aduloju

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility is a common gynaecological problem and male factor contributes significantly in the aetiology of infertility. Semen analysis has remained a useful investigation in the search for male factor infertility. Aim: This study assessed the pattern of semen parameters and predictive factors associated with abnormal parameters in male partners of infertile couples attending a Nigerian tertiary hospital. Methods: A descriptive study of infertile couples presenting at the clinic between January 2012and December 2015 was done at Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti. Seminal fluid from the male partners were analysed in the laboratory using the WHO 2010 criteria for human semen characteristics. Data was analysed using SPSS 17 and logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictive factors associated with abnormal semen parameters. Results: A total of 443 men participated in the study and 38.2% had abnormal sperm parameters. Oligozoospermia (34.8% and asthenozoospermia (26.9% are leading single factor abnormality found, astheno-oligozoospermia occurred in 14.2% and oligo-astheno-teratozoospermia in 3.6% of cases. The prevalence of azoospermia was 3.4%. Smoking habit, past infection with mumps and previous groin surgery significantly predicted abnormal semen parameters with p values of 0.025, 0.040 and 0.017 respectively. Positive cultures were recorded in 36.2% of cases and staph aureus was the commonest organism. Conclusion: Male factor abnormalities remain significant contributors to infertility and men should be encouraged through advocacy to participate in investigation of infertility to reduce the level of stigmatization and ostracizing of women with infertility especially in sub-Saharan Africa.

  12. Factors predictive of abnormal semen parameters in male partners of couples attending the infertility clinic of a tertiary hospital in southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Aduloju

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility is a common gynaecological problem and male factor contributes significantly in the aetiology of infertility. Semen analysis has remained a useful investigation in the search for male factor infertility.Aim: This study assessed the pattern of semen parameters and predictive factors associated with abnormal parameters in male partners of infertile couples attending a Nigerian tertiary hospital.Methods: A descriptive study of infertile couples presenting at the clinic between January 2012and December 2015 was done at Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti.  Seminal fluid from the male partners were analysed in the laboratory using the WHO 2010 criteria for human semen characteristics. Data was analysed using SPSS 17 and logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictive factors associated with abnormal semen parameters.Results: A total of 443 men participated in the study and 38.2% had abnormal sperm parameters. Oligozoospermia (34.8% and asthenozoospermia (26.9% are leading single factor abnormality found, astheno-oligozoospermia occurred in 14.2% and oligo-astheno-teratozoospermia in 3.6% of cases. The prevalence of azoospermia was 3.4%. Smoking habit, past infection with mumps and previous groin surgery significantly predicted abnormal semen parameters with p values of 0.025, 0.040 and 0.017 respectively. Positive cultures were recorded in 36.2% of cases and staph aureus was the commonest organism.Conclusion: Male factor abnormalities remain significant contributors to infertility and men should be encouraged through advocacy to participate in investigation of infertility to reduce the level of stigmatization and ostracizing of women with infertility especially in sub-Saharan Africa.

  13. Receptivity to tobacco marketing and susceptibility to smoking among non-smoking male students in an urban setting in Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Junko; Yasuoka, Junko; Poudel, Krishna C; Foung, Ly; Vilaysom, Somphone; Jimba, Masamine

    2013-11-01

    Tobacco marketing is a contributing factor to adolescent smoking, and now targeting adolescents in low- and middle-income countries. Especially, promotional items with tobacco brand logos have a great impact on adolescent smoking. The authors evaluated whether receptivity to tobacco marketing is associated with susceptibility to smoking among non-smoking male students in Lao PDR. The authors conducted a cross-sectional study with self-administered questionnaires among 526 non-smoking male students in grades 8th and 11th (aged 12-19 years) in Vientiane Capital, Lao PDR. The authors investigated receptivity to tobacco marketing by three measurements: awareness of tobacco marketing, recognition of tobacco marketing messages and owning/being willing to use promotional items. The authors then conducted multiple logistic regression analysis to determine whether marketing receptivity had an independent association with smoking susceptibility, which is defined as the absence of a firm decision not to smoke. About 20% of the participants were susceptible to smoking. Recognition of marketing messages was significantly associated with susceptibility to smoking (OR=1.76, 95% CI 1.01 to 3.08), as was any owning/being willing to use promotional items with recognition of marketing messages (OR=2.39, 95% CI 1.34 to 4.24). In contrast, any owning/being willing to use promotional items without any recognition of marketing messages was not significantly associated with susceptibility. A significant association was detected between smoking susceptibility and marketing receptivity, which has been little explored in previous research in low-income countries. Owning/being willing to use promotional items was associated with smoking susceptibility only when there is also recognition of marketing messages.

  14. Different effect of l-NAME treatment on susceptibility to decompression sickness in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Aleksandra; Buzzacott, Peter; Lambrechts, Kate; Wang, Qiong; Belhomme, Marc; Theron, Michael; Popov, Georgi; Distefano, Giovanni; Guerrero, Francois

    2014-11-01

    Vascular bubble formation results from supersaturation during inadequate decompression contributes to endothelial injuries, which form the basis for the development of decompression sickness (DCS). Risk factors for DCS include increased age, weight-fat mass, decreased maximal oxygen uptake, chronic diseases, dehydration, and nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Production of NO is often affected by diving and its expression-activity varies between the genders. Little is known about the influence of sex on the risk of DCS. To study this relationship we used an animal model of Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) to induce decreased NO production. Male and female rats with diverse ages and weights were divided into 2 groups: treated with l-NAME (in tap water; 0.05 mg·mL(-1) for 7 days) and a control group. To control the distribution of nitrogen among tissues, 2 different compression-decompression protocols were used. Results showed that l-NAME was significantly associated with increased DCS in female rats (p = 0.039) only. Weight was significant for both sexes (p = 0.01). The protocol with the highest estimated tissue pressures in the slower compartments was 2.6 times more likely to produce DCS than the protocol with the highest estimated tissue pressures in faster compartments. The outcome of this study had significantly different susceptibility to DCS after l-NAME treatment between the sexes, while l-NAME per se had no effect on the likelihood of DCS. The analysis also showed that for the appearance of DCS, the most significant factors were type of protocol and weight.

  15. Higher variability in the number of sexual partners in males can contribute to a higher prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Rodrigo Gouveia; Pedersen, Anders Gorm

    2009-01-01

    , and on the probability of disease transmission. We note that in addition to humans, the variance phenomenon described here is likely to play a role for sexually transmitted diseases in other species also. We also show, again by examining published, empirical data, that the female to male prevalence ratio increases...... of sexually transmitted diseases: compared to the situation where the genders have identical sex partner distributions, men will reach a lower equilibrium value, while women will stay at the same level (meaning that female prevalence becomes higher than male). We carefully analyse model behaviour and derive...... with the overall prevalence of a sexually transmitted disease (i.e., the more widespread the disease, the more women are affected). We suggest that this pattern may be caused by the effect described above in highly prevalent sexually transmitted diseases, while its impact in low-prevalence epidemics is surpassed...

  16. Violence against women by male partners and against children within the family: prevalence, associated factors, and intergenerational transmission in Romania, a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada, Cornelia

    2014-02-07

    Domestic violence is a public health problem with negative consequences. We aimed to determine the prevalence of violence between parents and by parents against children, types of intimate partner violence against women, the intergenerational transmission of violence, and to identify a profile of beliefs and judgements regarding violent behaviour. The data used for this article were sourced from three cross-sectional studies performed in Romania in 2009-2011. We sampled 869 respondents (male and female) with a homogenous distribution between environment, gender, educational level, and age group (18 to 75). From a 96-item questionnaire regarding family and reproductive health, this article refers to four items: (1) feelings relating to the family in which they were raised; (2) whether they witnessed violence between parents or were victims of violence by parents or other family members during childhood or the teenage years; (3) opinions relating to 10 statements on violence from Maudsley Violence Questionnaire; (4) the manifestation of psychological, emotional, and sexual abuse from the partner in the family of procreation (FOP). The data were analysed by Pearson chi-square tests and latent class analysis. During childhood, 35% of respondents witnessed parental violence and 53.7% were victims of family violence. Psychological abuse by men against women was the most common type of violence reported in the FOP (45.1%). Violence in childhood and adolescence correlated with the perception of the family of origin as a hostile environment and of violence against women as a corrective measure, and that insults, swearing, and humiliation by their partner within the FOP is acceptable (p violence or were victims of violence during childhood (p violence as a form of discipline or instruction of children and women remains a significant problem, with a higher rate of intimate partner violence than in other developed countries. Furthermore, implementing intervention

  17. Violence against women by male partners and against children within the family: prevalence, associated factors, and intergenerational transmission in Romania, a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Domestic violence is a public health problem with negative consequences. We aimed to determine the prevalence of violence between parents and by parents against children, types of intimate partner violence against women, the intergenerational transmission of violence, and to identify a profile of beliefs and judgements regarding violent behaviour. Methods The data used for this article were sourced from three cross-sectional studies performed in Romania in 2009–2011. We sampled 869 respondents (male and female) with a homogenous distribution between environment, gender, educational level, and age group (18 to 75). From a 96-item questionnaire regarding family and reproductive health, this article refers to four items: (1) feelings relating to the family in which they were raised; (2) whether they witnessed violence between parents or were victims of violence by parents or other family members during childhood or the teenage years; (3) opinions relating to 10 statements on violence from Maudsley Violence Questionnaire; (4) the manifestation of psychological, emotional, and sexual abuse from the partner in the family of procreation (FOP). The data were analysed by Pearson chi-square tests and latent class analysis. Results During childhood, 35% of respondents witnessed parental violence and 53.7% were victims of family violence. Psychological abuse by men against women was the most common type of violence reported in the FOP (45.1%). Violence in childhood and adolescence correlated with the perception of the family of origin as a hostile environment and of violence against women as a corrective measure, and that insults, swearing, and humiliation by their partner within the FOP is acceptable (p violence or were victims of violence during childhood (p violence as a form of discipline or instruction of children and women remains a significant problem, with a higher rate of intimate partner violence than in other developed countries. Furthermore

  18. Assessment of the efficacy of a psychological treatment for women victims of violence by their intimate male partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, María; Arinero, María

    2010-11-01

    This study evaluates the long-term efficacy of a brief psychotherapeutic cognitive-behavioral program in group format for female victims of violence by their intimate partner. 53 battered women were randomized into one of two intervention programs: one including among others exposure technique (n = 28) and another one in which exposure procedures were substituted by communication skills training (n = 25). Additionally, both programs included: psycho-education, breath control, training to improve self-esteem, cognitive restructuring, problem-solving, planning pleasant activities, and relapse prevention. The treatment was carried out in 8 weekly sessions. Measures of posttraumatic symptoms, anxiety, depression, self-esteem and anger expression were analyzed at pre- and post-treatment, and at 1-, 3-, 6- and 12-months follow-ups. Results show a pronounced decrease of posttraumatic, depressive and anxiety symptoms, which maintained in the different measure moments, with scarce difference between the two programs. The results and their clinical implications are discussed.

  19. A functional 12T-insertion polymorphism in the ATP1A1 promoter confers decreased susceptibility to hypertension in a male Sardinian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Victoria L; Pasion, Khristine A; Moran, Ann Marie; Zaninello, Roberta; Ortu, Maria Francesca; Fresu, Giovanni; Piras, Daniela Antonella; Argiolas, Giuseppe; Troffa, Chiara; Glorioso, Valeria; Masala, Wanda; Glorioso, Nicola; Ruiz-Opazo, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    Identification of susceptibility genes for essential hypertension in humans has been a challenge due to its multifactorial pathogenesis complicated by gene-gene and gene-environment interactions, developmental programing and sex specific differences. These concurrent features make identification of causal hypertension susceptibility genes with a single approach difficult, thus requiring multiple lines of evidence involving genetic, biochemical and biological experimentation to establish causal functional mutations. Here we report experimental evidence encompassing genetic, biochemical and in vivo modeling that altogether support ATP1A1 as a hypertension susceptibility gene in males in Sardinia, Italy. ATP1A1 encodes the α1Na,K-ATPase isoform, the sole sodium pump in vascular endothelial and renal tubular epithelial cells. DNA-sequencing detected a 12-nucleotide long thymidine (12T) insertion(ins)/deletion(del) polymorphism within a poly-T sequence (38T vs 26T) in the ATP1A1 5'-regulatory region associated with hypertension in a male Sardinian population. The 12T-insertion allele confers decreased susceptibility to hypertension (P = 0.035; OR = 0.50 [0.28-0.93]) accounting for 12.1 mmHg decrease in systolic BP (P = 0.02) and 6.6 mmHg in diastolic BP (P = 0.046). The ATP1A1 promoter containing the 12T-insertion exhibited decreased transcriptional activity in in vitro reporter-assay systems, indicating decreased α1Na,K-ATPase expression with the 12T-insertion, compared with the 12T-deletion ATP1A1 promoter. To test the effects of decreased α1Na,K-ATPase expression on blood pressure, we measured blood pressure by radiotelemetry in three month-old, highly inbred heterozygous knockout ATP1A1+/- male mice with resultant 58% reduction in ATP1A1 protein levels. Male ATP1A1+/- mice showed significantly lower blood pressure (P < 0.03) than age-matched male wild-type littermate controls. Concordantly, lower ATP1A1 expression is expected to lower Na-reabsorption in the

  20. A functional 12T-insertion polymorphism in the ATP1A1 promoter confers decreased susceptibility to hypertension in a male Sardinian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria L Herrera

    Full Text Available Identification of susceptibility genes for essential hypertension in humans has been a challenge due to its multifactorial pathogenesis complicated by gene-gene and gene-environment interactions, developmental programing and sex specific differences. These concurrent features make identification of causal hypertension susceptibility genes with a single approach difficult, thus requiring multiple lines of evidence involving genetic, biochemical and biological experimentation to establish causal functional mutations. Here we report experimental evidence encompassing genetic, biochemical and in vivo modeling that altogether support ATP1A1 as a hypertension susceptibility gene in males in Sardinia, Italy. ATP1A1 encodes the α1Na,K-ATPase isoform, the sole sodium pump in vascular endothelial and renal tubular epithelial cells. DNA-sequencing detected a 12-nucleotide long thymidine (12T insertion(ins/deletion(del polymorphism within a poly-T sequence (38T vs 26T in the ATP1A1 5'-regulatory region associated with hypertension in a male Sardinian population. The 12T-insertion allele confers decreased susceptibility to hypertension (P = 0.035; OR = 0.50 [0.28-0.93] accounting for 12.1 mmHg decrease in systolic BP (P = 0.02 and 6.6 mmHg in diastolic BP (P = 0.046. The ATP1A1 promoter containing the 12T-insertion exhibited decreased transcriptional activity in in vitro reporter-assay systems, indicating decreased α1Na,K-ATPase expression with the 12T-insertion, compared with the 12T-deletion ATP1A1 promoter. To test the effects of decreased α1Na,K-ATPase expression on blood pressure, we measured blood pressure by radiotelemetry in three month-old, highly inbred heterozygous knockout ATP1A1+/- male mice with resultant 58% reduction in ATP1A1 protein levels. Male ATP1A1+/- mice showed significantly lower blood pressure (P < 0.03 than age-matched male wild-type littermate controls. Concordantly, lower ATP1A1 expression is expected to lower Na

  1. Evidence of increased STI/HIV-related risk behavior among male perpetrators of intimate partner violence in Guatemala: results from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hembling, John; Andrinopoulos, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem with a demonstrated link to increased sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV-related risk and vulnerability. While IPV is an important issue in Central America, the link to STI/HIV risk has not been explored in this region. In this study, the relationship between emotional and physical/sexual IPV and the STI/HIV-related risk behaviors of sex worker patronage and infidelity is assessed among male IPV perpetrators using data from a national survey conducted in 2009 in Guatemala (n = 4773 married/partnered men). Bivariate associations between background characteristics and emotional and physical IPV perpetration were explored. Logistic regression models were run to test associations between IPV for each sexual risk behavior. Perpetration of emotional and physical/sexual IPV was more common among married/partnered men who were older than 24, had more education, lived in urban areas, or were in common law versus married unions. Reports of past-year emotional IPV perpetration increased as wealth quintile increased. After adjusting for demographics and other characteristics, physical/sexual IPV perpetration was associated with past-year infidelity (AOR 1.9, 95% CI: 1.1-3.6). Lifetime emotional IPV (AOR 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.7) and physical/sexual IPV 1.6 (95% CI 1.2-2.0) were positively associated with a history of sex worker patronage. Endorsement of traditional gender role norms showed a marginally positive association with past-year infidelity in the adjusted model (AOR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.8). The study findings from Guatemala reinforce the growing evidence globally that male IPV perpetrators are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior, including sex worker patronage and main partner infidelity. The concurrency of violence and increased STI/HIV risk may compound the health risks for female victims of IPV who also face injury and psychological trauma. Integration of prevention and screening of

  2. [Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms of susceptibility genes of type 2 diabetes mellitus with liability to gout among ethnic Han Chinese males from coastal region of Shandong].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lin; Xin, Ruosai; Sun, Jian; Hou, Feng; Li, Changgui; Hu, Xinlin; Liu, Zhen; Wang, Yao; Li, Xinde; Ren, Wei; Wang, Xuefeng; Jia, Zhaotong

    2015-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of susceptibility genes of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with liability to gout among ethnic Han Chinese males from coastal region of Shandong province. METHODS Seven SNPs within the susceptibility genes of T2DM, including rs10773971(G/C) and rs4766398(G/C) of WNT5B gene, rs10225163(G/C) of JAZF1 gene, rs2069590(T/A) of BDKRB2 gene, rs5745709(G/A) of HGF gene, rs1991914(C/A) of OTOP1 gene and rs2236479(G/A) of COL18A1 gene, were typed with a custom-made Illumina GoldenGate Genotyping assay in 480 male patients with gout and 480 male controls. Potential association was assessed with the chi-square test. RESULTS No significant difference was detected for the 7 selected SNPs in terms of genotypic and allelic frequencies (P > 0.05). When age and body mass index (BMI) were adjusted, the 7 genetic variants still showed no significant association with gout. CONCLUSION The genotypes of the 7 selected SNPs are not associated with gout in ethnic Han Chinese male patients from the coastal region of Shandong province. However, the results need to be replicated in larger sets of patients collected from other regions and populations.

  3. Intraflagellar transporter protein (IFT27), an IFT25 binding partner, is essential for male fertility and spermiogenesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Liu, Hong; Li, Wei; Zhang, Zhengang; Shang, Xuejun; Zhang, David; Li, Yuhong; Zhang, Shiyang; Liu, Junpin; Hess, Rex A; Pazour, Gregory J; Zhang, Zhibing

    2017-12-01

    Intraflagellar transport (IFT) is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism essential for the assembly and maintenance of most eukaryotic cilia and flagella. In mice, mutations in IFT proteins have been shown to cause several ciliopathies including retinal degeneration, polycystic kidney disease, and hearing loss. However, little is known about its role in the formation of the sperm tail, which has the longest flagella of mammalian cells. IFT27 is a component of IFT-B complex and binds to IFT25 directly. In mice, IFT27 is highly expressed in the testis. To investigate the role of IFT27 in male germ cells, the floxed Ift27 mice were bred with Stra8-iCre mice so that the Ift27 gene was disrupted in spermatocytes/spermatids. The Ift27: Stra8-iCre mutant mice did not show any gross abnormalities, and all of the mutant mice survived to adulthood. There was no difference between testis weight/body weight between controls and mutant mice. All adult homozygous mutant males examined were completely infertile. Histological examination of the testes revealed abnormally developed germ cells during the spermiogenesis phase. The epididymides contained round bodies of cytoplasm. Sperm number was significantly reduced compared to the controls and only about 2% of them remained significantly reduced motility. Examination of epididymal sperm by light microscopy and SEM revealed multiple morphological abnormalities including round heads, short and bent tails, abnormal thickness of sperm tails in some areas, and swollen tail tips in some sperm. TEM examination of epididymal sperm showed that most sperm lost the "9+2″ axoneme structure, and the mitochondria sheath, fibrous sheath, and outer dense fibers were also disorganized. Some sperm flagella also lost cell membrane. Levels of IFT25 and IFT81 were significantly reduced in the testis of the conditional Ift27 knockout mice, and levels of IFT20, IFT74, and IFT140 were not changed. Sperm lipid rafts, which were disrupted in the

  4. Intraflagellar Transporter Protein (IFT27), an IFT25 binding partner, Is Essential For Male Fertility and Spermiogenesis In Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Liu, Hong; Li, Wei; Zhang, Zhengang; Shang, Xuejun; Zhang, David; Li, Yuhong; Zhang, Shiyang; Liu, Junpin; Hess, Rex A; Pazour, Gregory J; Zhang, Zhibing

    2017-01-01

    Intraflagellar transport (IFT) is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism essential for the assembly and maintenance of most eukaryotic cilia and flagella. In mice, mutations in IFT proteins have been shown to cause several ciliopathies including retinal degeneration, polycystic kidney disease, and hearing loss. However, little is known about its role in the formation of the sperm tail, which has the longest flagella of mammalian cells. IFT27 is a component of IFT-B complex and binds to IFT25 directly. In mice, IFT27 is highly expressed in the testis. To investigate the role of IFT27 in male germ cells, the floxed Ift27 mice were bred with Stra8-iCre mice so that the Ift27 gene was disrupted in spermatocytes/spermatids. The Ift27:Stra8-iCre mutant mice did not show any gross abnormalities, and all of the mutant mice survive to adulthood. There was no difference between testis weight/body weight between controls and mutant mice. All adult homozygous mutant males examined were completely infertile. Histological examination of the testes revealed abnormally developed germ cells during the spermiogenesis phase. The epididymis contained round bodies of cytoplasm. Sperm number was significantly reduced compared to the controls and only about 2% of them remained significantly reduced motility. Examination of epididymal sperm by light microscopy and SEM revealed multiple morphological abnormalities including round heads, short and bent tails, abnormal thickness of sperm tails in some areas, and swollen tail tips in some sperm. TEM examination of epididymal sperm showed that most sperm lost the “9+2” axoneme structure, and the mitochondria sheath, fibrous sheath, and outer dense fibers were also disorganized. Some sperm flagella also lost cell membrane. Levels of IFT25 and IFT81 were significantly reduced in the testis of the conditional Ift27 knockout mice, and levels of IFT20, IFT74, and IFT140 were not changed. Sperm lipid rafts, which were disrupted in the conditional

  5. Susceptibility or resilience? Prenatal stress predisposes male rats to social subordination, but facilitates adaptation to subordinate status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Karen A; de Kloet, Annette D; Smeltzer, Michael D; Krause, Eric G; Flak, Jonathan N; Melhorn, Susan J; Foster, Michelle T; Tamashiro, Kellie L K; Sakai, Randall R

    2017-09-01

    Mood disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD) affect a significant proportion of the population. Although progress has been made in the development of therapeutics, a large number of individuals do not attain full remission of symptoms and adverse side effects affect treatment compliance for some. In order to develop new therapies, there is a push for new models that better reflect the multiple risk factors that likely contribute to the development of depressive illness. We hypothesized that early life stress would exacerbate the depressive-like phenotype that we have previously observed in socially subordinate (SUB) adult male rats in the visible burrow system (VBS), a semi-natural, ethologically relevant environment in which males in a colony form a dominance hierarchy. Dams were exposed to chronic variable stress (CVS) during the last week of gestation, resulting in a robust and non-habituating glucocorticoid response that did not alter maternal food intake, body weight or litter size and weight. As adults, one prenatal CVS (PCVS) and one non-stressed (NS) male were housed in the VBS with adult females. Although there were no overt differences between PCVS and NS male offspring prior to VBS housing, a greater percentage of PCVS males became SUB. However, the depressive-like phenotype of SUB males was not exacerbated in PCVS males; rather, they appeared to better cope with SUB status than NS SUB males. They had lower basal plasma corticosterone than NS SUB males at the end of VBS housing. In situ hybridization for CRH in the PVN and CeA did not reveal any prenatal treatment or status effects, while NPY expression was higher within the MeA of dominant and subordinate males exposed to the VBS in comparison with controls, but with no effect of prenatal treatment. These data suggest that prenatal chronic variable stress may confer resilience to offspring when exposed to social stress in adulthood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Polymorphisms -1082 G/A and -819 C/T in the interleukin-10 gene are not associated with gout susceptibility in the Chinese Han male population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiguo; Zhang, Kun; Yin, Congcong; Han, Lin; Sun, Yuping; Ren, Wei; Chu, Nan; Li, Changgui

    2012-08-01

    Gout is caused by monosodium urate crystal-induced inflammation of the joints and periarticular tissues. Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is an important immunoregulatory cytokine, levels of which can be influenced by functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the promoter. To investigate the association of -1082 G/A and -819 C/T polymorphisms in the IL-10 promoter with gout susceptibility in the Chinese Han male population. A case-control study was performed in 302 patients and 284 controls. Genotyping of IL-10 -1082 G/A and -819 C/T polymorphisms was performed by DNA sequencing techniques. An association analysis was analyzed by the χ(2) test. No significant differences were found in -819T/C and -1082 A/G genotypic and allelic frequencies between gout cases and controls (for -819T/C, χ(2)=0.212, df=1, p=0.645 by genotype; χ(2)=0.079, df=1, p=0.779 by allele; for -1082 A/G, χ(2)=2.116, df=1, p=0.146 by genotype; χ(2)=1.854, df=1, p=0.173 by allele). IL-10 -1082 G/A and -819 C/T polymorphisms may not be associated with susceptibility to gout and thus do not play a major role in the development of gout in the Chinese Han male population.

  7. Dead end1 is an essential partner of NANOS2 for selective binding of target RNAs in male germ cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Atsushi; Niimi, Yuki; Shinmyozu, Kaori; Zhou, Zhi; Kiso, Makoto; Saga, Yumiko

    2016-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play important roles for generating various cell types in many developmental processes, including eggs and sperms. Nanos is widely known as an evolutionarily conserved RNA-binding protein implicated in germ cell development. Mouse NANOS2 interacts directly with the CCR4-NOT (CNOT) deadenylase complex, resulting in the suppression of specific RNAs. However, the mechanisms involved in target specificity remain elusive. We show that another RBP, Dead end1 (DND1), directly interacts with NANOS2 to load unique RNAs into the CNOT complex. This interaction is mediated by the zinc finger domain of NANOS2, which is essential for its association with target RNAs. In addition, the conditional deletion of DND1 causes the disruption of male germ cell differentiation similar to that observed in Nanos2-KO mice. Thus, DND1 is an essential partner for NANOS2 that leads to the degradation of specific RNAs. We also present the first evidence that the zinc finger domain of Nanos acts as a protein-interacting domain for another RBP, providing a novel insight into Nanos-mediated germ cell development. © 2015 The Authors.

  8. Male Partner Risk Behaviors Are Associated With Reactive Rapid HIV Antibody Tests Among Pregnant Mexican Women: Implications for Prevention of Vertical and Sexual HIV Transmission in Concentrated HIV Epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Estela; Kendall, Tamil

    2015-01-01

    Mexico's policies on antenatal HIV testing are contradictory, and little is known about social and behavioral characteristics that increase pregnant Mexican women's risks of acquiring HIV. We analyzed the association between risk behaviors reported by pregnant women for themselves and their male partners, and women's rapid HIV antibody test results from a large national sample. Three quarters of pregnant women with a reactive test did not report risk behaviors for themselves and one third did not report risk behaviors for themselves or their male partners. In the retrospective case-control analysis, other than reporting multiple sexual partners, reactive pregnant women reported risk behaviors did not differ from nonreactive women's behaviors. However, reactive pregnant women were significantly more likely to have reported risk behaviors for male partners. Our findings support universal offer of antenatal HIV testing and suggest that HIV prevention for women should focus on reducing risk of HIV acquisition within stable relationships. Copyright © 2015 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Invitation cards during pregnancy enhance male partner involvement in prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV in Blantyre, Malawi: a randomized controlled open label trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alinane Linda Nyondo

    Full Text Available Male involvement (MI is vital for the uptake of Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV interventions. Partner notification (PN is among the strategies identified for MI in PMTCT services. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the efficacy of an invitation card to the male partners as a strategy for MI in PMTCT services by comparing the proportion of pregnant women that were accompanied by their partners between the intervention and the non-intervention study groups.Pregnant women attending antenatal care without a male partner at South Lunzu and Mpemba health centres in Blantyre, Malawi, were enrolled in the study from June to December 2013. In an intention-to-treat analysis, we compared all participants that were randomized in the invitation card group with the standard of care (SoC group. Risk ratios (RR with 95% confidence intervals (CI were computed to assess the efficacy of the invitation card.Of the 462 randomized women, 65/230 (28.26% of the women in the invitation card group reported to the antenatal care clinic with their partners compared to 44/232 (18.97% women in the SoC group. In an unadjusted intention-to-treat analysis women in the invitation card group were 50% more likely to be accompanied by their male partners than those in the SoC group RR: 1.49 (95% CI: 1.06-2.09; p = 0.02. Our random effects analysis showed that there was no clustering by site of recruitment with an inter cluster correlation coefficient (ICC of 1.98 x 10(-3, (95% CI: 1.78 x10(-7 - 0.96 x 10(-1; p =0.403.An invitation card significantly increased the proportion of women who were accompanied by their male partners for the PMTCT services. An invitation card is a feasible strategy for MI in PMTCT.

  10. Investigation into the association between P2RX7 gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to primary gout and hyperuricemia in a Chinese Han male population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Ying; Chen, Yong; Li, Zhen; Huang, Haiyan; Gong, Qiongyao

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between P2RX7 gene single nucleotide polymorphisms and primary gout and hyperuricemia in a Chinese Han male population. The genetic distributions of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs2230911, rs208294, rs435309, rs28360447, rs1718119, rs28360457, and rs3751143 in P2RX7 were detected in 293 primary gout patients, 187 hyperuricemia patients and 269 controls using SNaPshot technology. Statistical analyses were implemented using SPSS version 20.0. The genetic distributions of each group were tested for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). T test, analysis of variance, rank sum test and Chi-square test were measured to assess differences in clinical data and polymorphisms among groups. Logistic regression was used to assess susceptibility to disease with odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). SHEsis software was used to calculate linkage disequilibrium blocks and haplotype association risk. P  .05). In the comparison between primary gout and control, the frequencies of rs2230911 genotypes were significantly different (P = .002), and allele G was associated with a higher risk of primary gout than allele C [OR (95% CI) = 1.755 (1.278, 2.410), P gout in genotype (CG + GG) compared with genotype CC [OR (95% CI) = 1.876 (1.303, 2.701), P = .001]. However, no significant difference in allelic or genotypic frequency was observed between primary gout patients and hyperuricemia patients (P > .0167). Similarly, there were no obvious differences in the other two polymorphisms among the three groups (P > .05). Our results reveal that P2RX7 rs2230911 may be associated with primary gout risk in a Chinese Han male population and allele G may be a susceptibility factor for primary gout.

  11. Male involvement in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in the context of partner testing in Goba town, Ethiopia: A facility-based cross-sectional study

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    M T Alemayehu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Antenatal care (ANC is an entry point for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT, particularly when a man accompanies his spouse for voluntary counselling and testing (VCT, even though this seldom happens in Ethiopia. Objective. To study the role of male partners in improving PMTCT/ANC, which is essential to prevent HIV/AIDS transmission in this country. Our study focused on identifying barriers for the low involvement in PMTCT/ANC among male partners whose spouses received ANC. Methods. A total of 422 male partners in Goba town, Oromia regional state, Ethiopia, were recruited in September - October 2014 and enrolled by a systematic sampling method. A facility-based cross-sectional study and two focus group discussions (FGDs were conducted. Binary logistic regression and odds ratios were calculated to ascertain sociodemographic and other important information compared with the outcome variable and PMTCT/ANC, while the findings of the FGDs were grouped according to the emerging themes and analysed manually by means of a thematic approach. Results. The percentage of male partners (22.7% accompanying their spouses for HIV testing and counselling at antenatal clinics improved three-fold when an invitation letter was introduced as a new initiative to increase male participation. Individuals in the age group 15 - 29 years (adjusted odds ratio (AOR 5.4, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.66 - 17.85, and whose duration of marriage was ˂5 years (AOR 5.6, 95% CI 1.83 - 17.30, were more likely to be tested than their referent groups. Men without a higher education (AOR 0.1, 95% CI 0.02 - 0.50, who disagreed with legal enforcement (AOR 0.1, 95% CI 0.07 - 0.32, were less likely to be tested, while those who did not notify their partners (AOR 8.4, 95% CI 1.92 - 37.12 were more likely to use the service. Being busy, proxy testing, fears of testing HIV-positive, neglecting the importance of VCT, and inadequate knowledge about the PMTCT

  12. Male involvement in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in the context of partner testing in Goba town, Ethiopia: A facility-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemayehu, M T; Haidar, J

    2017-09-22

    Antenatal care (ANC) is an entry point for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT), particularly when a man accompanies his spouse for voluntary counselling and testing (VCT), even though this seldom happens in Ethiopia. To study the role of male partners in improving PMTCT/ANC, which is essential to prevent HIV/AIDS transmission in this country. Our study focused on identifying barriers for the low involvement in PMTCT/ANC among male partners whose spouses received ANC. A total of 422 male partners in Goba town, Oromia regional state, Ethiopia, were recruited in September - October 2014 and enrolled by a systematic sampling method. A facility-based cross-sectional study and two focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted. Binary logistic regression and odds ratios were calculated to ascertain sociodemographic and other important information compared with the outcome variable and PMTCT/ANC, while the findings of the FGDs were grouped according to the emerging themes and analysed manually by means of a thematic approach. The percentage of male partners (22.7%) accompanying their spouses for HIV testing and counselling at antenatal clinics improved three-fold when an invitation letter was introduced as a new initiative to increase male participation. Individuals in the age group 15 - 29 years (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 5.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.66 - 17.85), and whose duration of marriage was ˂5 years (AOR 5.6, 95% CI 1.83 - 17.30), were more likely to be tested than their referent groups. Men without a higher education (AOR 0.1, 95% CI 0.02 - 0.50), who disagreed with legal enforcement (AOR 0.1, 95% CI 0.07 - 0.32), were less likely to be tested, while those who did not notify their partners (AOR 8.4, 95% CI 1.92 - 37.12) were more likely to use the service. Being busy, proxy testing, fears of testing HIV-positive, neglecting the importance of VCT, and inadequate knowledge about the PMTCT/ANC programme were other barriers that came to the

  13. Prevalence and correlates of knowledge of male partner HIV testing and serostatus among African-American women living in high poverty, high HIV prevalence communities (HPTN 064)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Larissa; Rompalo, Anne M.; Wang, Jing; Hughes, James; Adimora, Adaora A.; Hodder, Sally; Soto-Torres, Lydia E.; Frew, Paula M.; Haley, Danielle F.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of sexual partners' HIV infection can reduce risky sexual behaviors. Yet, there are no published studies to-date examining prevalence and characteristics associated with knowledge among African-American women living in high poverty communities disproportionately affected by HIV. Using the HIV Prevention Trial Network's (HPTN) 064 Study data, multivariable logistic regression was used to examine individual, partner, and partnership-level determinants of women's knowledge (n=1,768 women). Results showed that women's demographic characteristics alone did not account for the variation in serostatus awareness. Rather, lower knowledge of partner serostatus was associated with having two or more sex partners (OR=0.49, 95%CI: 0.37-0.65), food insecurity (OR=0.68, 95%CI: 0.49-0.94), partner age>35 (OR=0.68, 95%CI: 0.49-0.94), and partner concurrency (OR=0.63, 95%CI: 0.49-0.83). Access to financial support (OR=1.42, 95%CI: 1.05-1.92) and coresidence (OR=1.43, 95%CI: 1.05-1.95) were associated with higher knowledge of partner serostatus. HIV prevention efforts addressing African-American women's vulnerabilities should employ integrated behavioral, economic, and empowerment approaches. PMID:25160901

  14. Remarkable increase of Neisseria gonorrhoeae with decreased susceptibility of azithromycin and increase in the failure of azithromycin therapy in male gonococcal urethritis in Sendai in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Mitsuru; Ito, Shin; Hatazaki, Kyoko; Deguchi, Takashi

    2016-12-01

    The antimicrobial resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a serious problem worldwide. In this study, we examined the susceptibility of N. gonorrhoeae isolated from male gonococcal urethritis in Sendai in 2014 and 2015. Furthermore, of all cases, we investigated the clinical efficacy of a single 2-g dose of extended-release azithromycin (AZM-SR) in the treatment of male gonococcal urethritis retrospectively. Sixty N. gonorrhoeae strains in 2014 and 54 strains in 2015 were isolated from male gonococcal urethritis and stored each year. The MIC of AZM was ≥1 mg/L in 4 strains (6.7%) in 2014 and in 13 strains (24.1%) in 2015 and the number of strains having ≥1 mg/L MIC increased significantly (P = 0.016). Microbiological efficacy was evaluated in 32 and 29 of these patients, and the rates of treatment success were 93.8% and 79.3%, respectively. All of the treatment failures were caused by strains having a MIC of AZM of ≥0.5 mg/L. In particular, the increase in the isolates having a MIC of AZM of ≥1 mg/L was remarkable. Therefore, it was thought that the increase in these strains was the reason for the increase in treatment failures in 2015. Because no other drug is effective, it is currently necessary to use AZM-SR to treat gonococcal infections caused by ceftriaxone-resistant strains or patients allergic to ceftriaxone. To prevent a further increase in resistance to AZM, we should not use AZM-SR to treat normal cases of gonococcal infection. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence and determinants of male partner violence against Mexican women: a population-based study Prevalencia y determinantes de violencia de pareja masculina en contra de mujeres mexicanas: un estudio con base poblacional

    OpenAIRE

    Leonor Rivera-Rivera; Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce; Jorge Salmerón-Castro; Eduardo Salazar-Martínez; Roberto Castro; Mauricio Hernández-Avila

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of and risk factors for violence against women, inflicted by their male partners, in a representative sample of women residing in the metropolitan area of Cuernavaca Morelos, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A population-based study was conducted from June to September 1998, among 1 535 women aged 15 to 49 years. Principal components analysis was used to determine the domains of violence that served as the dependent variable. Polynomial logistic regression ...

  16. Prevalence and Correlates of Non-Disclosure of HIV Serostatus to Sex partners among HIV-Infected Female Sex Workers and HIV-infected Male Clients of Female Sex Workers in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Anita; Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Cheng, Debbie M.; Coleman, Sharon; Bridden, Carly; Battala, Madhusudana; Silverman, Jay G.; Pardeshi, Manoj H.; Samet, Jeffrey H.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines non-disclosure of HIV serostatus to sex partners among HIV-infected adults involved with transactional sex in Mumbai, India. Surveys were conducted with HIV-infected female sex workers (n = 211) and infected male clients (n = 205) regarding HIV knowledge, awareness of sex partners’ HIV serostatus, alcohol use, transactional sex involvement post-HIV diagnosis and non-disclosure of HIV serostatus. Gender-stratified multiple logistic regression models were used for analysis. Non-disclosure of one’s serostatus to all sex partners was reported by almost three-fifths of females and two-fifths of males. Predictors of non-disclosure included lack of correct knowledge about HIV and no knowledge of sex partners’ HIV serostatus. Among females, recent alcohol consumption also predicted non-disclosure. Among males, 10 + paid sexual partners in the year following HIV diagnosis predicted non-disclosure. Secondary HIV prevention efforts in India require greater focus on HIV disclosure communication and integrated alcohol and sexual risk reduction. PMID:22810892

  17. Male and female physical intimate partner violence and socio-economic position: a cross-sectional international multicentre study in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, D; Hatzidimitriadou, E; Ioannidi-Kapolou, E; Lindert, J; Soares, J J F; Sundin, Ö; Toth, O; Barros, H

    2016-10-01

    This work explores the association between socio-economic position (SEP) and intimate partner violence (IPV) considering the perspectives of men and women as victims, perpetrators and as both (bidirectional). Cross-sectional international multicentre study. A sample of 3496 men and women, (aged 18-64 years), randomly selected from the general population of residents from six European cities was assessed: Athens; Budapest; London; Östersund; Porto; and Stuttgart. Their education (primary, secondary and university), occupation (upper white collar, lower white collar and blue collar) and unemployment duration (never, ≤12 months and >12 months) were considered as SEP indicators and physical IPV was measured with the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales. Past year physical IPV was declared by 17.7% of women (3.5% victims, 4.2% perpetrators and 10.0% bidirectional) and 19.8% of men (4.1% victims, 3.8% perpetrators and 11.9% bidirectional). Low educational level (primary vs university) was associated with female victimisation (adjusted odds ratio, 95% confidence interval: 3.2; 1.3-8.0) and with female bidirectional IPV (4.1, 2.4-7.1). Blue collar occupation (vs upper white) was associated with female victimisation (2.1, 1.1-4.0), female perpetration (3.0, 1.3-6.8) and female bidirectional IPV (4.0, 2.3-7.0). Unemployment duration was associated with male perpetration (>12 months of unemployment vs never unemployed: 3.8; 1.7-8.7) and with bidirectional IPV in both sex (women: 1.8, 1.2-2.7; men: 1.7, 1.0-2.8). In these European centres, physical IPV was associated with a disadvantaged SEP. A consistent socio-economic gradient was observed in female bidirectional involvement, but victims or perpetrators-only presented gender specificities according to levels of education, occupation differentiation and unemployment duration potentially useful for designing interventions. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Collateral Intimate Partner Homicide

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    Emily Meyer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Collateral intimate partner homicide (CIPH is an underinvestigated genre of intimate partner violence (IPV where an individual(s connected to the IPV victim is murdered. We conducted a content analysis of a statewide database of CIPH newspaper articles (1990-2007. Out of 111 collateral murder victims, there were 84 IPV female focal victims and 84 male perpetrators. The most frequently reported CIPH decedent was the focal victim’s new partner (30%; 45% of focal victims were themselves killed. News reports framed CIPH as the unexpected result of interpersonal conflict, despite evidence of a systematic pattern of coercion and violence that capitulated in murder.

  19. Molecular detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and other sexually transmitted bacteria in semen of male partners of infertile couples in Tunisia: the effect on semen parameters and spermatozoa apoptosis markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanen Sellami

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasmas, and Ureaplasmas in semen samples of the male partners of infertile couples and to investigate whether Chlamydia trachomatis could initiate apoptosis in human spermatozoa. A total of 85 males partners of infertile couples undergoing routine semen analysis according to World Health Organization guidelines were included. Specimens were examined for the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum by Real time PCR (qPCR. Semen specimens were analysed for the appearance of apoptotic markers (sperm DNA fragmentation, activated caspase 3 levels, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm using flow cytometry. C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, U. urealyticum, M genitalium were detected in semen samples of 13 (15.2%, 5 (5.8%, 5 (5.8% and 3 (3.5% male partners of infertile couples, respectively. M. hominis and U. parvum were detected in semen sample of only one patient (1.1%. The semen of infertile men positive for C. trachomatis showed lower mean of semen count and lower rapid progressive motility (category [a] of spermatozoa compared to uninfected men with statistically significances (p = 0.02 and p = 0.04, respectively. Flow cytometry analyses demonstrated a significant increase of the mean rate of semen with low ΔΨm and caspase 3 activation of infertile men positive for C. trachomatis compared to uninfected men (p = 0.006 and p = 0.001, respectively. DNA fragmentation was also increased in sperm of infertile men positive for C. trachomatis compared to uninfected men but without statistical significances (p = 0.62. Chlamydial infection was associated to loss of ΔΨm and caspase 3activation. Thus, C. trachomatis infection could be incriminated in apoptosis induction of spermatozoa. These effects may explain the negative direct impact of C

  20. Renegotiating sexual intimacy in the context of altered embodiment: the experiences of women with breast cancer and their male partners following mastectomy and reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loaring, Jessica M; Larkin, Michael; Shaw, Rachel; Flowers, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Breast cancer diagnosis and treatments can have a profound impact upon women's well-being, body image, and sexual functioning, but less is known about the relational context of their coping and the impact upon their intimate partners. Our study focuses upon couples' experiences of breast cancer surgery, and its impact on body image and sexual intimacy. Utilizing a dyadic design, we conducted 8 semistructured individual interviews, with 4 long-term heterosexual couples, after the women had undergone mastectomy with reconstruction. Interviews explored both partners' experiences of diagnosis, decision-making, and experiences of body image and sexual intimacy. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was adopted; this is a qualitative research approach characterized by in-depth analysis of the personal meaning of experiences. Findings illustrate the positive acceptance that partners may express toward their wives' postsurgical bodies. They illuminate ways in which gendered coping styles and normative sexual scripts may shape couples' negotiations of intimacy around "altered embodiment." Reciprocal communication styles were important for couples' coping. The management of expectations regarding breast reconstruction may also be helpful. The insights from the dyadic, multiple perspective design suggest that psychologists must situate the meaning of supportive relationships and other protective factors in the context of complex life events and histories, in order to understand and support people's developing responses to distress. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Dietary flaxseed modulates the colonic microenvironment in healthy C57Bl/6 male mice which may alter susceptibility to gut-associated diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Krista A; Lepp, Dion; Zarepoor, Leila; Monk, Jennifer M; Wu, Wenqing; Tsao, Rong; Liu, Ronghua

    2016-02-01

    Understanding how dietary components alter the healthy baseline colonic microenvironment is important in determining their roles in influencing gut health and gut-associated diseases. Dietary flaxseed (FS) has demonstrated anti-colon cancer effects in numerous rodent models, however, exacerbated acute colonic mucosal injury and inflammation in a colitis model. This study investigates whether FS alters critical aspects of gut health in healthy unchallenged mice, which may help explain some of the divergent effects observed following different gut-associated disease challenges. Four-week-old C57Bl/6 male mice were fed an AIN-93G basal diet (BD) or an isocaloric BD+10% ground FS diet for 3 weeks. FS enhanced colon goblet cell density, mucus production, MUC2 mRNA expression, and cecal short chain fatty acid levels, indicative of beneficial intestinal barrier integrity responses. Additionally, FS enhanced colonic regenerating islet-derived protein 3 gamma (RegIIIγ) and reduced MUC1 and resistin-like molecule beta (RELMβ) mRNA expression which may indicate altered responses in regulating microbial defense and injury repair responses. FS diet altered the fecal microbial community structure (16S rRNA gene profiling), including a 20-fold increase in Prevotella spp. and a 30-fold reduction in Akkermansia muciniphila abundance. A 10-fold reduction in A. muciniphila abundance by FS was also demonstrated in the colon tissue-associated microbiota (quantitative PCR). Furthermore, fecal branched chain fatty acids were increased by FS, indicative of increased microbial-derived putrefactive compounds. In conclusion, consumption of a FS-supplemented diet alters the baseline colonic microenvironment of healthy mice which may modify subsequent mucosal microbial defense and injury-repair responses leading to altered susceptibility to different gut-associated diseases. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Polymorphisms of TLR7 rs3853839 and rs179010 are associated with susceptibility to and severity of hand, foot and mouth disease caused by enterovirus 71 in male children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaping; Zhai, Song; Li, Mei; Wang, Yuan; Lu, Tong; Deng, Huiling; Zhang, Xin; Dang, Shuangsuo

    2017-07-01

    Objective To investigate whether the polymorphisms of TLR7/MyD88 signaling pathway is associated with the susceptibility to and severity of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) in children. Methods We collected 180 EV71 HFMD cases and 201 healthy controls from both the Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University and Xi'an Children's Hospital. The genotypes including rs3853839, rs179010 of TLR7, and rs7744 of MyD88 were detected in the 381 samples by SNPscan kit. Results The susceptibility risk (OR=2.343, 95%CI:1.516-3.621) and severity risk (OR=1.939, 95%CI: 1.064-3.521) of TLR7 rs3853839 allele C significantly increased in the male children with EV71 HFMD. Also, the susceptibility risk (OR=1.701, 95%CI: 1.142-2.535) and severity risk (OR=1.852, 95%CI: 1.038-3.305) of TLR7 rs179010 allele T significantly increased in the male children with EV71 HFMD. But there was no significant difference in the distribution of TLR7 rs179010 and rs3853839 genes between female children with EV71 HFMD and female controls. There was no correlation between the genetic polymorphisms of MyD88 rs7744 and the susceptibility to and severity of EV71 HFMD in the children. Conclusion Polymorphisms of TLR7 rs3853839 and rs179010 are correlated to the susceptibility to and severity of EV71 HFMD in male children.

  3. Adherence to treatment in male batterers against their intimate partners in a community setting: State of the art and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Echeburúa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the difficulties inherent in providing mental health treatment for men who commit acts of violence against their intimate partners. The effectiveness of available treatment programs for men who batter, both in the international literature and in Spain, is analyzed. In all studies the dropout rates in the treatment of men involved in intimate partner violence are very high. Different studies have pointed to multiple psychological and social causes to explain the poor adherence to treatment in men who batter. The main predictors of poor adherence to therapy are described. Therefore, motivational enhancement strategies are being developed to strengthen subjects' commitment to change by helping them to identify their goals for recovery and to determine ways to reach these goals. Finally, some suggestions are discussed about how to successfully deal with these issues. It is necessary to implement strategies to improve motivation for treatment. Implications of this study for clinical practice, policy decisions, and future research in this field are commented upon.

  4. Social Partners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tikkanen, Tarja; Hansen, Leif Emil; Guðmundsson, Bernharður

    2012-01-01

    based on a survey carried out in the Nordic countries in the regie of Nordic Council of Ministries the article deals with the role of social partners in senior and older workers policies and practises......based on a survey carried out in the Nordic countries in the regie of Nordic Council of Ministries the article deals with the role of social partners in senior and older workers policies and practises...

  5. Dumpy-30 family members as determinants of male fertility and interaction partners of metal-responsive transcription factor 1 (MTF-1 in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renkawitz-Pohl Renate

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metal-responsive transcription factor 1 (MTF-1, which binds to metal response elements (MREs, plays a central role in transition metal detoxification and homeostasis. A Drosophila interactome analysis revealed two candidate dMTF-1 interactors, both of which are related to the small regulatory protein Dumpy-30 (Dpy-30 of the worm C. elegans. Dpy-30 is the founding member of a protein family involved in chromatin modifications, notably histone methylation. Mutants affect mating type in yeast and male mating in C. elegans. Results Constitutive expression of the stronger interactor, Dpy-30L1 (CG6444, in transgenic flies inhibits MTF-1 activity and results in elevated sensitivity to Cd(II and Zn(II, an effect that could be rescued by co-overexpression of dMTF-1. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA suggest that Dpy-30L1 interferes with the binding of MTF-1 to its cognate MRE binding site. Dpy-30L1 is expressed in the larval brain, gonads, imaginal discs, salivary glands and in the brain, testes, ovaries and salivary glands of adult flies. Expression of the second interactor, Dpy-30L2 (CG11591, is restricted to larval male gonads, and to the testes of adult males. Consistent with these findings, dpy-30-like transcripts are also prominently expressed in mouse testes. Targeted gene disruption by homologous recombination revealed that dpy-30L1 knockout flies are viable and show no overt disruption of metal homeostasis. In contrast, the knockout of the male-specific dpy-30L2 gene results in male sterility, as does the double knockout of dpy-30L1 and dpy-30L2. A closer inspection showed that Dpy-30L2 is expressed in elongated spermatids but not in early or mature sperm. Mutant sperm had impaired motility and failed to accumulate in sperm storage organs of females. Conclusion Our studies help to elucidate the physiological roles of the Dumpy-30 proteins, which are conserved from yeast to humans and typically act in concert with

  6. PARTNER Project

    CERN Multimedia

    Ballantine, A; Dixon-Altaber, H; Dosanjh, M; Kuchina, L

    2011-01-01

    Hadrontherapy uses particle beams to treat tumours located near critical organs and tumours that respond poorly to conventional radiation therapy. It has become evident that there is an emerging need for reinforcing research in hadrontherapy and it is essential to train professionals in this rapidly developing field. PARTNER is a 4-year Marie Curie Training project funded by the European Commission with 5.6 million Euros aimed at the creation of the next generation of experts. Ten academic institutes and research centres and two leading companies are participating in PARTNER, that is coordinated by CERN, forming a unique multidisciplinary and multinational European network. The project offers research and training opportunities to 25 young biologists, engineers, physicians and physicists and is allowing them to actively develop modern techniques for treating cancer in close collaboration with leading European Institutions. For this purpose PARTNER relies on cutting edge research and technology development, ef...

  7. Emotional and cognitive experiences during the time of diagnosis and decision-making following a prenatal diagnosis: a qualitative study of males presented with congenital heart defect in the fetus carried by their pregnant partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Tommy; Mattsson, Elisabet

    2018-01-12

    Expectant fathers consider the second-trimester obstetric ultrasound examination as an important step towards parenthood, but are ill prepared for a detection of a fetal anomaly. Inductive research is scarce concerning their experiences and needs for support. Consequently, the aim of this study was to explore the emotional and cognitive experiences, during the time of diagnosis and decision-making, among males presented with congenital heart defect in the fetus carried by their pregnant partner. Twelve expectant fathers were consecutively recruited through two tertiary referral centers for fetal cardiology in Sweden, after they had been presented with a prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart defect in the fetus carried by their pregnant partner. The respondents were interviewed via telephone, and the interviews were analyzed using inductive qualitative content analysis. The respondents experienced an intense emotional shock in connection with detection. However, they set their own needs aside to attend to the supportive needs of their pregnant partner, and stressed the importance of an informed joint decision regarding whether to continue or terminate the pregnancy. When terminating the pregnancy, they experienced a loss of a wanted child, an emotionally intense termination procedure, needs of support neglected by professionals, and worries about the risk of recurrence in future pregnancies. When continuing the pregnancy, they tried to keep a positive attitude about the coming birth, but were simultaneously worried about the postnatal situation. The findings illustrate the importance of inclusive care and adequate follow-up routines for both expectant parents following a prenatal diagnosis. This includes the initial emotional shock, the decisional process, and depending on decision reached, the termination or continuation of the pregnancy. Expectant fathers presented with a fetal anomaly need adequate follow-up routines to address worries about risk of recurrence

  8. The Impact of Couple HIV Testing and Counseling on Consistent Condom Use Among Pregnant Women and Their Male Partners: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Nora E; Graybill, Lauren A; Wesevich, Austin; McGrath, Nuala; Golin, Carol E; Maman, Suzanne; Bhushan, Nivedita; Tsidya, Mercy; Chimndozi, Limbikani; Hoffman, Irving F; Hosseinipour, Mina C; Miller, William C

    2017-08-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa couple HIV testing and counseling (CHTC) has been associated with substantial increases in safe sex, especially when at least one partner is HIV infected. However, this relationship has not been characterized in an Option B+ context. The study was conducted at the antenatal clinic at Bwaila District Hospital in Lilongwe, Malawi in 2016 under an Option B+ program. Ninety heterosexual couples with an HIV-infected pregnant woman (female-positive couples) and 47 couples with an HIV-uninfected pregnant woman (female-negative couples) were enrolled in an observational study. Each couple member was assessed immediately before and 1 month after CHTC for safe sex (abstinence or consistent condom use in the last month). Generalized estimating equations were used to model change in safe sex before and after CHTC and to compare safe sex between female-positive and female-negative couples. Mean age was 26 years among women and 32 years among men. Before CHTC, safe sex was comparable among female-positive couples (8%) and female-negative couples (2%) [risk ratio (RR): 3.7, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.5 to 29.8]. One month after CHTC, safe sex was higher among female-positive couples (75%) than among female-negative couples (3%) (RR: 30.0, 95% CI: 4.3 to 207.7). Safe sex increased substantially after CTHC for female-positive couples (RR 9.6, 95% CI: 4.6 to 20.0), but not for female-negative couples (RR: 1.2, 95% CI: 0.1 to 18.7). Engaging pregnant couples in CHTC can have prevention benefits for couples with an HIV-infected pregnant woman, but additional prevention approaches may be needed for couples with an HIV-uninfected pregnant woman.

  9. Susceptibility to Peer Influence: Using a Performance-Based Measure to Identify Adolescent Males at Heightened Risk for Deviant Peer Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Brechwald, Whitney A.; Cohen, Geoffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    A substantial amount of research has suggested that adolescents' attitudes and behaviors are influenced by peers; however, little is known regarding adolescents' individual variability, or susceptibility, to peer influence. In this study, a performance-based index from an experimental paradigm was used to directly measure adolescents'…

  10. prevalence of serostatus disclosure to sexual partners among hiv

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-03-03

    Mar 3, 2011 ... reported no intention of disclosing to the partners highlighting various fears. This was found to be premised on negative ... months after diagnosis and 76% had no intention of doing so. Low literacy level and lack of employment ... A sexual partner was defined as the present female's male partner(s) whether.

  11. Prevalence and determinants of male partner violence against Mexican women: a population-based study Prevalencia y determinantes de violencia de pareja masculina en contra de mujeres mexicanas: un estudio con base poblacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Rivera-Rivera

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of and risk factors for violence against women, inflicted by their male partners, in a representative sample of women residing in the metropolitan area of Cuernavaca Morelos, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A population-based study was conducted from June to September 1998, among 1 535 women aged 15 to 49 years. Principal components analysis was used to determine the domains of violence that served as the dependent variable. Polynomial logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR, with 95% confidence intervals (CI. RESULTS: Prevalence of low-moderate level violence was 35.8%, while prevalence of severe violence was 9.5%. The lifetime prevalence of reported rape was 5.9%. The main factors associated with violence were socio-economic status (OR=0.57; 95% CI=0.34-0.95; education level, both of the women studied (test for trend p=0.01 and of the male partner (test for trend p=0.002; number of years living with partner (OR=2.63; 95% CI=1.55-4.45, alcohol use (OR=2.56; 95% CI=2.02-3.25, illegal drug use by partner (OR=6.17; 95% CI=2.37-16.03; violence during childhood (OR=3.40; 95% CI=2.23-5.18, and a history of rape (OR=5.89; 95% CI=2.78-12.5. CONCLUSIONS: Study findings confirm that violence against women is a prevalent phenomenon in Mexico. Awareness-raising campaigns about male partner violence should bring this important issue to the front of public discussion. Such efforts will help assure that future generations do not experience partner violence to the extent that contemporary Mexican women do.OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia y los factores de riesgo en violencia contra mujeres por parte de sus parejas, en una muestra representativa de aquéllas residentes en el área metropolitana de Cuernavaca, Morelos, México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: De junio a septiembre de 1998 se realizó un estudio con base poblacional en 1 535 mujeres, de 15 a 49 años de edad. Para construir la variable

  12. Varicocele and male infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Fuglesang S.; Østergren, Peter; Dupree, James M.

    2017-01-01

    The link between varicoceles and male infertility has been a matter of debate for more than half a century. Varicocele is considered the most common correctable cause of male infertility, but some men with varicoceles are able to father children, even without intervention. In addition, improvements...... if the male partner has a clinically palpable varicocele and affected semen parameters....

  13. Social Partners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Leif Emil

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to present findings from a new Nordic survey on social partners’ policy and practice in regards older workers. The goal of the survey was to find out to what extent the social partners have developed policies and outlined strategies, which explicitly address the demogr...... lifelong learning and career development to their senior members during their last 15-20 years in working life. In this issue the social partners can and should play an active role – indeed, a leading role if needed – among the other key actors in society....... the demographic change and promote opportunities for lifelong learning and career development among their senior members (45+). Workforce in the Nordic countries tend to be highly organised – especially the older workers. The social partners’ involvement in the discussion of sustainable society...... and the contribution of lifelong learning to the needs and potential of older workers is crucial, as the demographic situation already today, and in particular the one to be expected within the next about 40 years, is historically without a precedent. The idea of continuous learning and the need for a meaningful work...

  14. Sex differences in the predictors of juvenile delinquency: females are more susceptible to poor environments; males are influenced more by low self-control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steketee, M.; Junger, Marianne; Junger-Tas, J.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the article is to investigate whether well-established risk factors for delinquency among adolescents are equally important for males and females. The risk factors discussed here are derived from four theoretical approaches: social bonding/social control theory, self-control theory,

  15. Y Chromosome DNA in Women's Vaginal Samples as a Biomarker of Recent Vaginal Sex and Condom Use With Male Partners in the HPV Infection and Transmission Among Couples Through Heterosexual Activity Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagón, Talía; Burchell, Ann; El-Zein, Mariam; Guénoun, Julie; Tellier, Pierre-Paul; Coutlée, François; Franco, Eduardo L

    2018-01-01

    Y chromosome DNA from male epithelial and sperm cells was detected in vaginal samples after unprotected sex in experimental studies. We assessed the strength of this association in an observational setting to examine the utility of Y chromosome DNA as a biomarker of recent sexual behaviors in epidemiological studies. The HPV (human papillomavirus) Infection and Transmission Among Couples Through Heterosexual Activity cohort study enrolled 502 women attending a university or college in Montréal, Canada, and their male partners from 2005 to 2010. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires. We used real-time polymerase chain reaction to test women's baseline vaginal samples for Y chromosome DNA and assessed which sexual behaviors were independent predictors of Y chromosome DNA positivity and quantity with logistic and negative binomial regression. Y chromosome DNA positivity decreased from 77% in women in partnerships reporting vaginal sex 0 to 1 day ago to 13% in women in partnerships reporting last vaginal sex of 15 or more days ago (adjusted odds ratio, 0.09; 95% confidence interval, 0.02-0.36). The mean proportion of exfoliated vaginal sample cells with Y chromosome DNA was much lower for women who reported always using condoms (0.01%) than for women who reported never using condoms (2.07%) (adjusted ratio, 26.8; 95% confidence interval, 8.9-80.5). No association was found with reported oral/digital sex frequency or concurrency of partnerships. Y chromosome DNA quantity is strongly associated with days since last vaginal sex and lack of condom use in observational settings. Y chromosome DNA quantity may prove useful as a correlate of recent vaginal sex in observational studies lacking data on sexual behavior, such as surveillance studies of human papillomavirus infection prevalence.

  16. Perceived medical benefit, peer/partner influence and safety and cost to access the service: client motivators for voluntary seeking of medical male circumcision in Iganga district eastern Uganda, a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamadi, Lubega; Ibrahim, Musenze; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Peterson, Stefan; Reynolds, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Although voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) in Iganga district was launched in 2010 as part of the Uganda national strategy to prevent new HIV infections with a target of having 129,896 eligible males circumcised by 2012, only 35,000 (27%) of the anticipated target had been circumcised by mid 2012. There was paucity of information on why uptake of VMMC was low in this setting where HIV awareness is presumably high. This study sought to understand motivators for uptake of VMMC from the perspective of the clients themselves in order to advocate for feasible approaches to expanding uptake of VMMC in Iganga district and similar settings. In Iganga district, we conducted seven key informant interviews with staff who work in the VMMC clinics and twenty in-depth interviews with clients who had accepted and undergone VMMC. Ten focus-group discussions including a total of 112 participants were also conducted with clients who had undergone VMMC. Motivators for uptake of VMMC in the perspective of the circumcised clients and the health care staff included: perceived medical benefit to those circumcised such as protection against acquiring HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases, peer/partner influence, sexual satisfaction and safety and cost to access the service. Since perceived medical benefit was a motivator for seeking VMMC, it can be used to strengthen campaigns for increasing uptake of VMMC. Peer influence could also be used in advocacy campaigns for VMMC expansion, especially using peers who have already undergone VMMC. There is need to ensure that safety and cost to access the service is affordable especially to rural poor as it was mentioned as a motivator for seeking VMMC.

  17. Susceptibility and morbidity between male and female Swiss mice infected with Angiostrongylus costaricensis: Susceptibilidade e morbidade entre camundongos Swiss machos e fêmeas infectados com Angiostrongylus costaricensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia B. Mentz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The gender of vertebrate hosts may affect the outcome of parasitic infections. An experimental murine infection with Angiostrongylus costaricensis was followed with determinations of body weight, fecal larval elimination, number and length of adult worms, number of macroscopic intestinal lesions, and mortality. Groups of male and female Swiss mice were infected with 10 3rd-stage A. costaricensis larvae per animal. The results indicate there are no significant differences related to gender of the host, except for higher length of worms developed in male mice.O sexo dos hospedeiros vertebrados pode influenciar no resultado de infecções parasitárias. A infecção experimental de camundongos com Angiostrongylus costaricensis foi acompanhada com observação do peso corporal, eliminação de larvas nas fezes, número e comprimento dos vermes adultos, número de lesões macroscópicas nos intestinos e mortalidade. Grupos de camundongos Swiss machos e fêmeas foram infectados cada um com 10 larvas de terceiro estágio de A. costaricensis. Os resultados indicam que não há diferenças significativas relacionados ao sexo dos hospedeiros, exceto pelo maior comprimento dos vermes nos hospedeiros machos.

  18. Prevalence and associated factors of unprotected anal intercourse with regular male sex partners among HIV negative men who have sex with men in China: a cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongliang Li

    Full Text Available The HIV prevalence and incidence among men who have sex with men (MSM in China are high. Unprotected anal intercourse (UAI with a regular male sex partner (RP, a significant predictor of HIV sero-conversion, was high yet under-emphasized among MSM having RP (MSMRP. The present cross-sectional survey interviewed 307 HIV negative MSMRP recruited through convenient sampling from multiple sources, including venue-based outreaching, online recruitment, and referrals made by peers, in Beijing and Chengdu, China. Among MSMRP, the prevalence of UAI with RP in the last three months was 52.4%. The results of the multivariate analysis showed that trust and intimacy within the relationship with RP and presence of clinical depression symptoms were positively associated with UAI with RP in the last three months. Other associated scalar factors derived from the Theory of Planned Behavior were related to perceptions on condom use, including positive attitudes toward condom use (a negative association, subjective norm of the perception that MSM do not usually use condoms during anal intercourse with RP (a positive association, perceived behavioral control over condom use with RP (a negative association, and behavioral intention to use condoms with RP in the coming three months (a negative association. It is seen that MSMRP were at high risk of HIV/STD transmission. The associated factors hence involved those related to perceptions about condom use, mental health, and interpersonal relationship. Future interventions should take these multi-dimensional factors into account. In particular, future research to test the efficacy of couple-based interventions that include mental health elements needs to be conducted, as trust and intimacy within the relationship were associated with UAI among MSMRP, and mental health problems may exist for both the MSMRP and their RP.

  19. Susceptibility Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marker Bicarbonate (Total CO2) Bilirubin Blood Culture Blood Gases Blood Ketones Blood Smear Blood Typing Blood Urea ... hours depending on the method used. There are commercial tests available that offer rapid susceptibility testing and ...

  20. Gender symmetry, sexism, and intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Christopher T; Swan, Suzanne C; Raghavan, Chitra

    2009-11-01

    This study of a predominantly Hispanic sample of 92 male and 140 female college students examines both gender symmetry in intimate partner violence (IPV) and inconsistent relationships found in previous studies between sexist attitudes and IPV. Results indicate that although comparable numbers of men and women perpetrate and are victimized in their relationships with intimate partners, the path models suggest that women's violence tends to be in reaction to male violence, whereas men tend to initiate violence and then their partners respond with violence. Benevolent sexism was shown to have a protective effect against men's violence toward partners. Findings highlight the importance of studying women's violence not only in the context of men's violence but also within a broader sociocultural context.

  1. Prevalence of and factors associated with male perpetration of intimate partner violence: findings from the UN Multi-country Cross-sectional Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Emma Fulu, PhD

    2013-10-01

    Funding: Partners for Prevention—a UN Development Programme, UN Population Fund, UN Women, and UN Volunteers regional joint programme for gender-based violence prevention in Asia and the Pacific; UN Population Fund Bangladesh and China; UN Women Cambodia and Indonesia; UN Development Programme in Papua New Guinea and Pacific Centre; and the Governments of Australia, the UK, Norway, and Sweden.

  2. New Partner Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EPA presentation provides information on the SmartWay Transport Partnership Program, including key information about EPA, Partners' roles, benefits, tools, partner recognition, awards, and brand value. Transcript available.

  3. Green Power Partner Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Green Power Partners can access tools and resources to help promote their green power commitments. Partners use these tools to communicate the benefits of their green power use to their customers, stakeholders, and the general public.

  4. Partnering and contracting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohnstedt, Kristian Ditlev

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - Partnering is often, by economists, and construction managerial literature related to more incomplete contracts. This can be explained by seeing partnering as something that neutralizes opportunism. The aim is to uncover whether partnering neutralizes opportunism when there is an incomp...

  5. Promoting male partner HIV testing and safer sexual decision making through secondary distribution of self-tests by HIV-negative female sex workers and women receiving antenatal and post-partum care in Kenya: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumurthy, Harsha; Masters, Samuel H; Mavedzenge, Sue Napierala; Maman, Suzanne; Omanga, Eunice; Agot, Kawango

    2016-06-01

    Increased uptake of HIV testing by men in sub-Saharan Africa is essential for the success of combination prevention. Self-testing is an emerging approach with high acceptability, but little evidence exists on the best strategies for test distribution. We assessed an approach of providing multiple self-tests to women at high risk of HIV acquisition to promote partner HIV testing and to facilitate safer sexual decision making. In this cohort study, HIV-negative women aged 18-39 years were recruited at two sites in Kisumu, Kenya: a health facility with antenatal and post-partum clinics and a drop-in centre for female sex workers. Participants gave informed consent and were instructed on use of oral fluid based rapid HIV tests. Participants enrolled at the health facility received three self-tests and those at the drop-in centre received five self-tests. Structured interviews were conducted with participants at enrolment and over 3 months to determine how self-tests were used. Outcomes included the number of self-tests distributed by participants, the proportion of participants whose sexual partners used a self-test, couples testing, and sexual behaviour after self-testing. Between Jan 14, 2015, and March 13, 2015, 280 participants were enrolled (61 in antenatal care, 117 in post-partum care, and 102 female sex workers); follow-up interviews were completed for 265 (96%). Most participants with primary sexual partners distributed self-tests to partners: 53 (91%) of 58 participants in antenatal care, 91 (86%) of 106 in post-partum care, and 64 (75%) of 85 female sex workers. 82 (81%) of 101 female sex workers distributed more than one self-test to commercial sex clients. Among self-tests distributed to and used by primary sexual partners of participants, couples testing occurred in 27 (51%) of 53 in antenatal care, 62 (68%) of 91 from post-partum care, and 53 (83%) of 64 female sex workers. Among tests received by primary and non-primary sexual partners, two (4%) of 53

  6. Fertility among descendants of immigrants in Belgium: The role of the partner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Landschoot, L.; de Valk, H.A.G.; Van Bavel, J.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Research on the fertility behavior of descendants of immigrants has focused on female characteristics and has largely neglected those of the male partner. One key aspect is whether the partner is of same (endogamous) or of different (exogamous) ethnic origin. Moreover, the male partner

  7. Is My Exercise Partner Similar Enough? Partner Characteristics as a Moderator of the Köhler Effect in Exergames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forlenza, Samuel T; Kerr, Norbert L; Irwin, Brandon C; Feltz, Deborah L

    2012-12-01

    Recent research has shown the Köhler motivation gain effect (working at a task with a more capable partner where one's performance is indispensable to the group) leads to greater effort in partnered exercise videogame play. The purpose of this article was to examine potential moderators of the Köhler effect by exploring dissimilarities in one's partner's appearance, namely, having an older partner (compared with a same-age partner) and having a heavier-weight partner (compared with a same-weight partner). One hundred fifty-three male and female college students completed a series of plank exercises using the "EyeToy: Kinetic™" for the PlayStation(®) 2 (Sony, Tokyo, Japan). Participants first completed the exercises individually and, after a rest, completed the same exercises with a virtually present partner. Exercise persistence, subjective effort, self-efficacy beliefs, enjoyment, and intentions to exercise were recorded and analyzed. A significant Köhler motivation gain was observed in all partner conditions (compared with individual controls) such that participants with a partner held the plank exercises longer (P<0.001) and reported higher subjective effort (P<0.01). These results were unmoderated by partner's age and weight, with one exception: Males tended to persist longer when paired with an obese partner (P=0.08). These results suggest that differences in age and weight do not attenuate the Köhler effect in exergames and may even strengthen it.

  8. Intimate Partner Violence: The Lived Experience of Single Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Laura; Scott-Tilley, Donna

    2017-03-01

    Research in intimate partner violence has focused on married, cohabiting, adolescents, or college aged women. The experience of intimate partner violence by single women has not been studied separately from other groups of women. An interpretive phenomenological approach was used with feminist inquiry to gain insight into the experience of intimate partner violence by single women. The overarching theme was control and manipulation by the abuser. Subthemes included not feeling safe, poor communication skills, and caretaking. Nurses need to be aware of the occurrence of intimate partner violence in male and female partnered relationships to provide comprehensive and nonjudgmental care.

  9. No preference for novel mating partners in the polyandrous nuptial-feeding spider Pisaura mirabilis (Araneae: Pisauridae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuni, Cristina; Bilde, T.

    2010-01-01

    for novel partners is also expected to maximize male lifetime reproductive success by allowing males to increase the number of mates. We investigated male and female preference for novel or former mating partners in the spider Pisaura mirabilis by offering females novel males (polyandry) or the same male...

  10. Physical Health Effects of Intimate Partner Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillito, Carrie LeFevre

    2012-01-01

    Although intimate partner violence has been recognized as both a social problem and health issue, the extent to which it is a health issue for both males and females in the general population is largely unknown. This longitudinal research uses data from the National Survey of Family and Households (1987-2003). Random effects logistic regression…

  11. Female Intimate Partner Violence Survivors' Experiences with Accessing Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Amy L.; Hays, Danica G.; Chang, Catherine Y.

    2010-01-01

    This phenomenological study investigates the types of personal and community resources that female intimate partner violence (IPV) survivors used when leaving an abusive male partner. Three African American and 2 European American IPV survivors, ages 24 to 38 years, described positive and negative experiences with social support, personal…

  12. Perceived medical benefit, peer/partner influence and safety and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceived medical benefit, peer/partner influence and safety and cost to access the service: client motivators for voluntary seeking of medical male circumcision in Iganga District Eastern Uganda, a qualitative study.

  13. Avaliação do Parceiro Sexual e Risco de Recidivas em Mulheres Tratadas por Lesões Genitais Induzidas por Papilomavírus Humano (HPV Male Sexual Partner Evaluation and Relapse Risk in Women Treated for Genital Human Papillomavirus (HPV Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Teixeira

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: estudar a associação entre a avaliação ou não do parceiro e recidivas em mulheres tratadas por lesões por HPV. Métodos: estudo de coorte reconstituído com 144 mulheres com lesões por HPV e cujos parceiros foram avaliados, comparadas com 288 mulheres cujos parceiros não foram examinados, controladas por data do atendimento, idade, grau das lesões e tratamento, todos atendidos entre julho/1993 e março/2000. Avaliaram-se a semelhança entre os grupos, a associação entre a avaliação ou não dos parceiros ou o diagnóstico de lesões com a ocorrência e grau das recidivas nas mulheres e o tempo livre de doença (TLD. Resultados: os grupos foram semelhantes com relação às variáveis de controle. Encontrou-se 9,0% de recidivas nas mulheres cujos parceiros foram avaliados e 5,9% quando os parceiros não foram (p=0,23. Quando se diagnosticaram lesões nos homens, 12,5% das suas parceiras apresentaram recidivas contra 7,3% das parceiras de homens sem lesões (p=0,23, mas sem correlação com o grau da lesão recidivada e TLD. Quando o homem referiu relação conjugal monogâmica de até 12 meses, observou-se 14,9% de recidivas nas mulheres, contra 6,2% para as mulheres cujo parceiro relatou tempo maior (p=0,08. Conclusões: a avaliação do homem não diminuiu o risco de recidivas de lesões por HPV na parceira. A presença de lesões nos parceiros não se correlacionou com a ocorrência e grau das recidivas nas mulheres e TLD. Estas observações não suportam a hipótese de que os homens não avaliados seriam importante causa de recidivas nas parceiras.Purpose: to study the association between the evaluation or not of the male partner and relapses in women treated for HPV lesions. Methods: a reconstituted cohort study with 144 women with HPV lesions and whose partners had been evaluated, compared with 288 women whose partners had not been examined, controlled regarding date of attendance, age, lesion degree and treatment

  14. Cluster of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates With High-level Azithromycin Resistance and Decreased Ceftriaxone Susceptibility, Hawaii, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Alan R; Komeya, Alan Y; Kirkcaldy, Robert D; Whelen, A Christian; Soge, Olusegun O; Papp, John R; Kersh, Ellen N; Wasserman, Glenn M; O'Connor, Norman P; O'Brien, Pamela S; Sato, Douglas T; Maningas, Eloisa V; Kunimoto, Gail Y; Tomas, Juval E

    2017-09-15

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) currently recommends dual therapy with ceftriaxone and azithromycin for gonorrhea to ensure effective treatment and slow emergence of antimicrobial resistance. Since 2013, the prevalence of reduced azithromycin susceptibility increased in the United States; however, these strains were highly susceptible to cephalosporins. We identified a cluster of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates with high-level azithromycin resistance, several of which also demonstrated decreased ceftriaxone susceptibility. Eight N. gonorrhoeae isolates collected from 7 patients on Oahu, Hawaii, seen 21 April 2016 through 10 May 2016 underwent routine Etest antimicrobial susceptibility testing by the Hawaii Department of Health. All demonstrated elevated azithromycin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) >256 μg/mL and elevated ceftriaxone MICs (≥0.125 μg/mL). Isolates were sent to the University of Washington and CDC for confirmatory agar dilution testing; sequence data were sent to CDC for analysis. All patients were interviewed and treated, and when possible, partners were interviewed, tested, and treated. All isolates had azithromycin MICs >16 µg/mL and 5 had ceftriaxone MICs = 0.125 µg/mL by agar dilution. All isolates were β-lactamase positive and were resistant to penicillin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin. Genomic analysis revealed genetic relatedness. No patients reported recent travel or antibiotic use, and no male patients reported male sex partners. All patients were successfully treated. This cluster of genetically related gonococcal isolates with decreased ceftriaxone susceptibility and high-level azithromycin resistance may bring the threat of treatment failure in the United States with the current recommended dual therapy one step closer. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Contributions of work stressors, alcohol, and normative beliefs to partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Genevieve M; Cunradi, Carol B; Duke, Michael; Todd, Michael; Chen, Meng-Jinn

    2013-03-01

    A body of research has established that lower socioeconomic populations, including blue-collar workers, are at higher risk for problem drinking and intimate partner violence. This study of married/cohabiting construction workers and their spouses/partners describes how work stressors, hazardous drinking, and couple characteristics interact to influence normative beliefs around partner violence and, thereafter, its occurrence. Our survey respondents from a sample of 502 dual-earner couples were asked about drinking patterns, past-year partner violence, normative beliefs about partner violence, work-related stressors, impulsivity, and childhood exposure to violence and other adverse events. We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with 81 workers on context of work stress, partner violence, and drinking. Analyses of data revealed that men's and women's normative beliefs about partner violence were positively related to maleto- female partner violence; female partner violence normative beliefs were associated with female-to-male partner violence. Both partners' levels of impulsivity were directly associated with male-to-female and female-to-male partner violence, and male partner's frequency of intoxication mediated the association between level of impulsivity and male-to-female partner violence. Female partner's adverse childhood experience was directly associated with male-to-female partner violence. Both survey and qualitative interviews identified individual and workrelated factors that influence the occurrence of violence between men and women. These findings provide guidelines for prevention of partner violence that can be implemented in the workplace with attention to hazardous drinking, job stress, treatment, education, and work culture.

  16. Emotional and cognitive experiences during the time of diagnosis and decision-making following a prenatal diagnosis : a qualitative study of males presented with congenital heart defect in the fetus carried by their pregnant partner

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsson, Tommy; Mattsson, Elisabet

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Expectant fathers consider the second-trimester obstetric ultrasound examination as an important step towards parenthood, but are ill prepared for a detection of a fetal anomaly. Inductive research is scarce concerning their experiences and needs for support. Consequently, the aim of this study was to explore the emotional and cognitive experiences, during the time of diagnosis and decision-making, among males presented with congenital heart defect in the fetus carried by their pr...

  17. La violencia de varones contra sus parejas heterosexuales: realidades y desafíos. Un recuento de la producción mexicana Male violence against heterosexual partners: facts and challenges. Review of Mexican literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Ramírez-Rodríguez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La violencia doméstica masculina contra la pareja heterosexual (VDMCPH es un tema que se ha investigado de manera sistemática en México en los últimos 15 años. El propósito de este trabajo es reflexionar sobre los aportes hechos sobre el tema en el país. La discusión está centrada en tres grandes ámbitos temáticos: la magnitud del fenómeno considerando sus implicaciones teóricas, metodológicas y técnicas; la relación de la violencia con diversos factores; y las consecuencias del ejercicio de la VDMCPH en la propia mujer. La exposición está guiada por los aportes hechos en estudios cuantitativos y complementada con la visión cualitativa.Violence against women by partners (VAWP has been systematically studied in Mexico in the past 15 years. The aim of this paper is to reflect on the contributions on this topic in Mexico. The discussion focuses on the magnitude of this phenomenon, stressing its theoretical, methodological, and technical implications; the relationship between violence and a variety of factors; and the outcomes of VAWP on women themselves. The manuscript features the main contributions from quantitative and qualitative studies.

  18. A Virtual Research Partner

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cowie, Jim; Guerrero, Felicia

    2006-01-01

    .... The goal was to investigate the feasibility of creating a software agent that would be able to interact with researchers and provide them with support at a level equivalent to a human research partner...

  19. Green Power Partner List

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. There are thousands of Green Power Partners, all listed on this page.

  20. CHP Partnership Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partners of EPA's Combined Heat and Power Partnership include federal, state, and local government agencies and private organizations such as energy users, energy service companies, CHP project developers and consultants, and equipment manufacturers.

  1. Multiple sex partner

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    intercourse, about 60% reported having a single sexual partner and 40% reported having multiple ... masturbation, start having sex at a younger age, have sex with married people and/or .... sex were considered unacceptable by 89 vs.

  2. The lonely female partner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Poul; Pedersen, Birthe D; Osther, Palle J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate the experiences of female partners to men with prostate cancer. The women found the capacity to manage their lives through mutual love in the family and through their faith.......The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate the experiences of female partners to men with prostate cancer. The women found the capacity to manage their lives through mutual love in the family and through their faith....

  3. Intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronholm, Peter F; Fogarty, Colleen T; Ambuel, Bruce; Harrison, Suzanne Leonard

    2011-05-15

    Intimate partner violence is a common source of physical, psychological, and emotional morbidity. In the United States, approximately 1.5 million women and 834,700 men annually are raped and/or physically assaulted by an intimate partner. Women are more likely than men to be injured, sexually assaulted, or murdered by an intimate partner. Studies suggest that one in four women is at lifetime risk. Physicians can use therapeutic relationships with patients to identify intimate partner violence, make brief office interventions, offer continuity of care, and refer them for subspecialty and community-based evaluation, treatment, and advocacy. Primary care physicians are ideally positioned to work from a preventive framework and address at-risk behaviors. Strategies for identifying intimate partner violence include asking relevant questions in patient histories, screening during periodic health examinations, and case finding in patients with suggestive signs or symptoms. Discussion needs to occur confidentially. Physicians should be aware of increased child abuse risk and negative effects on children's health observed in families with intimate partner violence. Physicians also should be familiar with local and national resources available to these patients.

  4. Heteronormativity and sexual partnering among bisexual Latino men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Garcia, Jonathan; Wilson, Patrick A; Parker, Richard G; Severson, Nicolette

    2015-05-01

    Our analyses address the question of how bisexual Latino men organize their sexual partnerships. Heteronormativity can be understood as the set of social norms and normative structures that guide sexual partnering among men and women. We provide descriptive statistics to describe bisexual Latino men's sexual partnerships. Logistic and linear regression modeling were used to explore bivariate and multivariate relationships. Of our total sample (N = 142), 41.6 % had unprotected vaginal intercourse 2 months prior to the interview; 21.8 % had unprotected anal intercourse with female partners; 37.5 % had unprotected insertive anal intercourse with male partners; and 22.5 % had unprotected receptive anal intercourse with male partners. In our multivariate model, machismo was directly associated with meeting female partners through formal spaces (workplace, school, and/or church), but inversely associated with meeting male partners in formal spaces. Machismo was positively associated with meeting male sex partners through social networks (i.e., friendship and kinship networks). The more comfortable men were with homosexuality the less likely they were to meet men online and the more likely they were to meet men through social networks of friends and kinship. Interventions to reduce sexually transmitted diseases that target bisexual behavior as an epidemiological "bridge" of transmission from homosexual to heterosexual networks might very well benefit from a more complex understanding of how Latino bisexuality is patterned. Thus, this exploratory analysis might lead to a rethinking of how to address risk and vulnerability among Latino bisexual men and their sexual networks.

  5. Seeing the Partner: A Video Recall Study of Emotional Behavior in Same- and Mixed-Sex Late Adolescent Romantic Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Nancy; Clarke, Sara A.

    2009-01-01

    Fifty-three college-aged same- and mixed-sex romantic couples (83% White, 63% female, mean age, 20.8) engaged in a video recall task in which they rated their own and their partners' behaviors and emotions. Females reported feeling more connected to partners and reported fewer negative behaviors than males. Females with male partners reported the…

  6. Associations between dysfunctional personality traits and intimate partner violence in perpetrators and victims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, J.J.; Baan, L.; Bogaerts, S.

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, the role of borderline and antisocial personality traits and psychological and physical forms of intimate partner violence were examined. Using self- and partner-reports, 30 perpetrators (28 males) and 30 victims (29 females) of partner violence, including 23 (former) couples,

  7. Pennsylvania's partnering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latham, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    Pennsylvania is committed to finding a site for a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facility through an innovative voluntary process. The Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) and Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc. (CNSI) developed the Community Partnering Plan with extensive public participation. The Community Partnering Plan outlines a voluntary process that empowers municipalities to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of hosting the facility. DEP and CNSI began developing the Community Partnering Plan in July 1995. Before then, CNSI was using a screening process prescribed by state law and regulations to find a location for the facility. So far, approximately 78 percent of the Commonwealth has been identified as disqualified as a site for the LLRW disposal facility. The siting effort will now focus on identifying volunteer host municipalities in the remaining 22 percent of the state. This combination of technical screening and voluntary consideration makes Pennsylvania's process unique. A volunteered site will have to meet the same tough requirements for protecting people and the environment as a site chosen through the screening process. Protection of public health and safety continues to be the foundation of the state's siting efforts. The Community Partnering Plan offers a window of opportunity. If Pennsylvania does not find volunteer municipalities with suitable sites by the end of 1997, it probably will return to a technical screening process

  8. Intimate partner violence (IPV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke; Van, Toan Ngo; Nguyen, Hanh Thi Thuy

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global problem that affects one-third of all women. The present study aims to develop and determine the validity of a screening instrument for the detection of IPV in pregnant women in Tanzania and Vietnam and to determine the minimum number...

  9. The neurobiology of sexual partner preferences in rams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselli, Charles E; Stormshak, Fred

    2009-05-01

    The question of what causes a male animal to seek out and choose a female as opposed to another male mating partner is unresolved and remains an issue of considerable debate. The most developed biologic theory is the perinatal organizational hypothesis, which states that perinatal hormone exposure mediates sexual differentiation of the brain. Numerous animal experiments have assessed the contribution of perinatal testosterone and/or estradiol exposure to the development of a male-typical mate preference, but almost all have used hormonally manipulated animals. In contrast, variations in sexual partner preferences occur spontaneously in domestic rams, with as many as 8% of the population exhibiting a preference for same-sex mating partners (male-oriented rams). Thus, the domestic ram is an excellent experimental model to study possible links between fetal neuroendocrine programming of neural mechanisms and adult sexual partner preferences. In this review, we present an overview of sexual differentiation in relation to sexual partner preferences. We then summarize results that test the relevance of the organizational hypothesis to expression of same-sex sexual partner preferences in rams. Finally, we demonstrate that the sexual differentiation of brain and behavior in sheep does not depend critically on aromatization of testosterone to estradiol.

  10. The Neurobiology of Sexual Partner Preferences in Rams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselli, Charles E.; Stormshak, Fred

    2009-01-01

    The question of what causes a male animal to seek out and choose a female as opposed to another male mating partner is unresolved and remains an issue of considerable debate. The most developed biologic theory is the perinatal organizational hypothesis, which states that perinatal hormone exposure mediates sexual differentiation of the brain. Numerous animal experiments have assessed the contribution of perinatal testosterone and/or estradiol exposure to the development of a male-typical mate preference, but almost all have used hormonally manipulated animals. In contrast, variations in sexual partner preferences occur spontaneously in domestic rams, with as many as 8% of the population exhibiting a preference for same-sex mating partners (male-oriented rams). Thus, the domestic ram is an excellent experimental model to study possible links between fetal neuroendocrine programming of neural mechanisms and adult sexual partner preferences. In this review, we present an overview of sexual differentiation in relation to sexual partner preferences. We then summarize results that test the relevance of the organizational hypothesis to expression of same-sex sexual partner preferences in rams. Finally, we demonstrate that the sexual differentiation of brain and behavior in sheep do not depend critically on aromatization of testosterone to estradiol. PMID:19446078

  11. The Masculinity of Mr. Right: Feminist Identity and Heterosexual Women's Ideal Romantic Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, Faedra R.; Mahalik, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Our study explored the relationship between feminist identity and women's report of an ideal male partner's conformity to masculine gender role norms. Heterosexual, mostly White, college women (N = 183) completed measures assessing feminist beliefs and the masculinity characteristics of an ideal male partner. Results indicated that feminist…

  12. Predictability of Conversation Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaguchi, Taro; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Nobuo; Yano, Kazuo; Masuda, Naoki

    2011-08-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies have enabled us to examine the nature of human social behavior in greater detail. By applying an information-theoretic method to the spatiotemporal data of cell-phone locations, [C. Song , ScienceSCIEAS0036-8075 327, 1018 (2010)] found that human mobility patterns are remarkably predictable. Inspired by their work, we address a similar predictability question in a different kind of human social activity: conversation events. The predictability in the sequence of one’s conversation partners is defined as the degree to which one’s next conversation partner can be predicted given the current partner. We quantify this predictability by using the mutual information. We examine the predictability of conversation events for each individual using the longitudinal data of face-to-face interactions collected from two company offices in Japan. Each subject wears a name tag equipped with an infrared sensor node, and conversation events are marked when signals are exchanged between sensor nodes in close proximity. We find that the conversation events are predictable to a certain extent; knowing the current partner decreases the uncertainty about the next partner by 28.4% on average. Much of the predictability is explained by long-tailed distributions of interevent intervals. However, a predictability also exists in the data, apart from the contribution of their long-tailed nature. In addition, an individual’s predictability is correlated with the position of the individual in the static social network derived from the data. Individuals confined in a community—in the sense of an abundance of surrounding triangles—tend to have low predictability, and those bridging different communities tend to have high predictability.

  13. Predictability of Conversation Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Takaguchi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in sensing technologies have enabled us to examine the nature of human social behavior in greater detail. By applying an information-theoretic method to the spatiotemporal data of cell-phone locations, [C. Song et al., Science 327, 1018 (2010SCIEAS0036-8075] found that human mobility patterns are remarkably predictable. Inspired by their work, we address a similar predictability question in a different kind of human social activity: conversation events. The predictability in the sequence of one’s conversation partners is defined as the degree to which one’s next conversation partner can be predicted given the current partner. We quantify this predictability by using the mutual information. We examine the predictability of conversation events for each individual using the longitudinal data of face-to-face interactions collected from two company offices in Japan. Each subject wears a name tag equipped with an infrared sensor node, and conversation events are marked when signals are exchanged between sensor nodes in close proximity. We find that the conversation events are predictable to a certain extent; knowing the current partner decreases the uncertainty about the next partner by 28.4% on average. Much of the predictability is explained by long-tailed distributions of interevent intervals. However, a predictability also exists in the data, apart from the contribution of their long-tailed nature. In addition, an individual’s predictability is correlated with the position of the individual in the static social network derived from the data. Individuals confined in a community—in the sense of an abundance of surrounding triangles—tend to have low predictability, and those bridging different communities tend to have high predictability.

  14. Cooperative Decision-Making and Intimate Partner Violence in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svec, Joseph; Andic, Tanja

    2018-03-01

    Using the continuous Demographic and Health Surveys (2005-2012) for Peru, we employ multinomial logistic regression estimates to assess risk for intimate partner violence (IPV). Using empowerment and gender frameworks for IPV, we find that women making more household decisions jointly are less likely to experience physical violence. We also find that education is negatively associated with IPV, unless a woman's attainment exceeds her partner's. Although women earning more than their partners are more likely to experience violence, joint decision-makers have a lower risk of moderate physical violence even when their status exceeds that of a male partner. By adding measures for relationship dynamics, we highlight the ways decision-making within the household contributes to violence risk for women. While deviating from male-breadwinning norms can result in violence, risk factors are conditioned on the nature of cooperation within a partnership. Our findings suggest that shared power within the household reduces IPV risk.

  15. Pacific Partners Wargame Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    such as medical qualifications and malpractice considerations, can be explored as part of interoperability. Partner nations are motivated to...prefers a medical research focus. Subsuming medical under HA/DR attempts to minimize those differences. There were dissenting views on the proposed...positive view of USARPAC engagement activities, they were still able to develop ideas for ways to improve engagement activities by modifying or

  16. Women as Partners of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajeesh Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Developing Partnership with the stakeholders and giving space for planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluating the project for their own development is an ideal situation of participatory development. It is the popular as well as effective way of development and leads to sustainable progress. When this partnership involves strong participation from the part of women folk, the dynamism of the developmental changes takes in a drastic form. SPED III (sustainability through participation, empowerment and decentralization is a five-year project funded by CIDA and implemented by Save A Family Plan Trust India through their 28 partner NGOs and in 520 villages across India. The methodology of the SPED III is based on the decentralized planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. In this process, women are taking important stand and new partnership brings about fundamental changes when it is analyzed from the point of view of stakeholders. The researcher analyses and seeks to find out the comprehensive, multilevel process by which the stakeholders or partners in the development especially women develop, leverage and manage the partnership. The researcher has taken five cases of exemplary changes occurred as part of a participatory development programme. Descriptive design using case study method is applied to do in depth analysis of the cases. The primary data has collected through interview schedule and FGD with shortlisted cases and secondary through sources such as case studies and annual and bi-annual reports of the CIDA programme. The researcher observed the development of perceived need into felt need where the people especially women get involved into the village issue and the spirit that takes them into transformative leadership and partners in development. It was also observed that the when women gets resources to overcome the binding chains, they came out of the culture of silence and they move far ahead in achieving the hierarchy

  17. Interaction Quality during Partner Reading

    OpenAIRE

    Meisinger, Elizabeth B.; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Bradley, Barbara A.; Stahl, Steven A.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of social relationships, positive interdependence, and teacher structure on the quality of partner reading interactions was examined. Partner reading, a scripted cooperative learning strategy, is often used in classrooms to promote the development of fluent and automatic reading skills. Forty-three pairs of second grade children were observed during partner reading sessions taking place in 12 classrooms. The degree to which the partners displayed social cooperation (instrumental...

  18. Distribution of PON1 polymorphisms PON1Q192R and PON1L55M among Chinese, Malay and Indian males in Singapore and possible susceptibility to organophosphate exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Sin Eng; Mohamed Ali, Safiyya; Yap, Peng Huat Eric; Gan, Linda; Ong, Yeong Bing; Chia, Kee Seng

    2009-03-01

    Organophosphate (OP)-containing pesticides are widely used worldwide for domestic and industrial purposes. Studies on acute and chronic exposure to OPs have revealed numerous health effects attributed mainly to acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition. The enzyme human serum paraoxonase (PON1) is involved in the detoxification of OP compounds. PON1 polymorphisms have been shown to affect susceptibility to OP exposure. We studied the effect of OP exposure on pest control workers and assessed the distribution of two common PON1 polymorphisms in our local population. The exposed group consisted of 103 workers from various pest control companies under the Singapore Pest Management Association while the 91 unexposed workers were from a lead stabilizer factory. For all workers, the mean age was 36.9 (20-70) years and the ethnic distribution was 38.1% Chinese, 44.3% Malay and 17.5% Indian. The mean+/-S.D. exposure duration among the pesticide workers was 10.4+/-8.4 years. The mean+/-S.D. RBC cholinesterase level was 18436.2+/-2078U/L and 18079.6+/-1576U/L for the exposed and unexposed groups, respectively (p=0.216). The mean+/-S.D. serum pseudocholinesterase was 11028.4+/-2867.4U/L and 9433.6+/-2022.6U/L in the exposed and unexposed groups, respectively (pChinese and Malays (266.5 and 266.3U/L, respectively) whereas that of the Indians was significantly lower (165.6U/L). Our study showed that cholinesterase levels among the exposed were not lower than those in the unexposed group. PON1 polymorphisms differed among ethnic groups, implying that ethnicity could be an important surrogate for identifying susceptible groups in case of OP exposure. Although OP poisoning is rare among occupationally exposed workers in Singapore, this information is useful for other developing countries that have large populations of Chinese, Malays and Indians where OP exposure could be very high especially in agricultural settings.

  19. Partner personality in distressed relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds, D.P.H.; Barelds-Dijkstra, P.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examines the personality characteristics of partners receiving marital therapy. On the basis of previous research, we expected partners in distressed relationships to be more neurotic and more introverted and to have lower self-esteem than partners in non-distressed relationships.

  20. Associations of Partner Age Gap at Sexual Debut with Teenage Parenthood and Lifetime Number of Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masho, Saba W; Chambers, Gregory J; Wallenborn, Jordyn T; Ferrance, Jacquelyn L

    2017-06-01

    Age at sexual debut and age gap between partners at debut are modifiable characteristics that may be related to risky sexual behaviors. Understanding any such relationships is a necessary first step toward strengthening risk interventions. Age at sexual debut and partner age gap were examined for 3,154 female and 2,713 male respondents to the 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth who first had intercourse before age 18. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess associations between these measures and teenage parenthood and reporting a high lifetime number of partners (i.e., a number above the sample median). Females' odds of teenage parenthood were elevated if sexual debut occurred at ages 15-17 and involved a partner age gap of 3-4 years (odds ratio, 1.8) or more (2.0); they were reduced if debut occurred before age 15 and the gap was 3-4 years (0.8). Females' likelihood of reporting a high lifetime number of partners was negatively associated with age gap (0.4-0.7, depending on age at debut and length of age gap). Males' likelihood of reporting a large number of partners was positively associated with age gap if sexual debut was before age 15 and the gap was five or more years (1.7) or if debut was at ages 15-17 and involved a 3-4-year gap (2.0). Identifying the mechanisms underlying these associations could inform program design and implementation. Copyright © 2017 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  1. Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Sexual Violence: Are There Unique Characteristics Associated With Making Partners Have Sex Without a Condom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdie, Michele Parkhill; Abbey, Antonia; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined correlates of making an intimate partner engage in unprotected sex among perpetrators of sexual violence. Based on the Confluence Model, we hypothesized that power and impersonal sex motives would be higher among perpetrators who made a dating partner have unprotected sex. Among a subsample of 78 male college students, significant differences were found for acceptance of verbal pressure, positive attitudes about casual sex, frequency of sexual intercourse, and physical injuries to dating partners. These findings highlight the importance of integrating theories and interventions directed at sexual assault and sexual risk reduction. PMID:20980229

  2. Attendance of male partners to different reproductive health services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dickson K.

    values and capacity for change as well as self-determination (Ryan & Deci, 2000b). ... internally driven and leads to a sustained performance (Ryan & Deci, 2000a). ..... Ryan, R. M. & Deci, E. L. (2000b) Self-determination theory and the ...

  3. Revisit Of Current Patterns Of Semen Quality Among Male Partners ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    About 61% of the patients produced semen by coitus interruptus while, 34.3% obtained their samples by masturbation. Majority of the patients (70.1%) produced semen volume of greater than 2mls, while 29.9% produced semen of less than 2mls. Of the total number, 34.7% were normozoospermia while, 65.3% had one ...

  4. Factors predictive of abnormal semen parameters in male partners ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    analysis was used to determine the predictive factors associated with abnormal semen parameters. .... for frequency, mean and χ2 with the level of significance set at p<0.05. ... was obtained from each couple participating in the study, following.

  5. Relationship dynamics and sexual risk behaviour of male partners of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A few men also admitted to being motivated by material and financial benefits from sex workers who they perceived as being rich and this was one factor that helped them sustain the relationships. These findings offer insights into the complex relationship dynamics within high risk sexual partnerships. However, the findings ...

  6. Romantic partners in a market perspective: expectations about what ensures a highly desirable partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Felipe N; Hattori, Wallisen T; Yamamoto, Maria Emília; Lopes, Fívia A

    2013-10-01

    This study used the biological market perspective and influential statistical models from the marketing field to investigate males' and females' expectations regarding which combination of characteristics are most relevant in ensuring desirable partnerships for same-sex individuals. Thus, 358 Brazilian undergraduates assessed eight descriptions of same-gender stimulus targets (formulated with different levels of physical attractiveness, social skills, and current or prospective social status) and evaluated the overall desirability of the targets' expected or probable partners. From the possible combinations, three groups emerged: for one group, mainly composed of men, status characteristics were the most important attributes; for the others, mostly composed of women, social skills or physical characteristics were identified as most important in appealing to a desirable partner. This work expands the understanding of variability in male and female romantic expectations, and its implications are discussed from an evolutionary perspective.

  7. Endocrine control of epigenetic mechanisms in male reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankolkar, Mandar; Balasinor, N H

    2016-01-01

    Endocrine control of reproduction is very well known and has been echoed by many research groups. However, recent developments point to the ability of toxic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) to alter epigenetic information of the gametes which gets transferred to the developing embryo and affects the immediate reproductive outcome or even persists transgenerationally. These epigenetic aberrations contribute to the ensuing pathophysiology of reproductive disorders. Investigations of the female in cases of poor reproductive outcome have been the main strategy towards diagnosis. However, despite the male partner contributing half of his genome to the progeny, thorough investigations in the male have been ignored. Environmental pollutants are all pervading and are encountered in our day-to-day life. Many of these pollutants have potential to disrupt the endocrine system. Here, we discuss how the male gametes (spermatozoa) are susceptible to a myriad of epigenetic insults inflicted by exposure to endocrine disruptors and how important is the contribution of the epigenetic marks of the spermatozoa in healthy reproduction. We advocate that sperm epigenetics should be considered as a significant contributor to reproductive health and should be researched further and be subsequently included in routine diagnostic workup in cases of poor reproductive outcome.

  8. Care partner: A concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Paul N; Wang, Wei; Moore, Mel; Nagle, Cate

    The use of the term care partner has increased, particularly in the chronic disease literature; however, the concept has not been well defined. The purpose of this concept analysis was to define and assist nurses to better understand the concept of care partner. The method by Walker and Avant was used for this literature-based concept analysis. Care partnering includes providing assistance to an individual with a health condition to meet their self-care deficits, the commitment to a care partner relationship, and the recognition that people with self-care deficits are care partners contributing to their own care. Emphasizing the care partner dyad in nursing may contribute to improved patient care outcomes both in the acute and chronic settings. It is recommended that nurses view the person with the condition as a contributor and partner in their own care in the context of a larger care partnership. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. New partner - Forestland

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      New partner   Do you need a moment of relaxation and adventure?  Come to Divonne-les-bains and benefit of an immediate discount of 20% on all ropes courses of Forestland http://www.forestland.fr/ upon presentation of your Staff Association membership card. The park is open from 10h00 to 19h00 on Wednesday, Saturday, Sunday during the school period and public holidays (France and Switzerland) or every day during school holidays (France and Switzerland). Different levels of difficulty are available: children, juniors, adults, athletes.

  10. Benefiting through partnering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, T.J.

    2000-01-01

    As a consequence of dramatic changes in the world market in nuclear services over the last decade, BNFL has embarked on a comprehensive strategic review of its business. Central to this review has been the need for the company to achieve cost reduction and improved efficiency in all aspects of its business. An area where substantial benefits can be gained is in improved efficiency in the discharge of the capital expenditure programme. This paper focuses on the opportunity of profiting through partnering in capital project delivery. (author)

  11. Discrepant Patterns of Heavy Drinking, Marijuana Use, and Smoking and Intimate Partner Violence: Results from the California Community Health Study of Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunradi, Carol B.; Todd, Michael; Mair, Christina

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed whether discrepant (husband or wife use only) or concordant (both partners use) patterns of heavy drinking, marijuana use, and smoking are associated with increased risk for male-to-female partner violence and female-to-male partner violence among adult couples. Based on a geographic sample of married or cohabiting couples…

  12. Early-life environment influencing susceptibility to cytomegalovirus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Maier, A B; Slagbom, P E

    2012-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a common herpesvirus establishing lifelong persisting infection, which has been implicated in immunosenescence and mortality in the elderly. Little is known about how and when susceptibility to CMV infection is determined. We measured CMV seroprevalence in two...... number for partners was 71% (Psusceptibility to CMV infection...

  13. Sexual relationships, intimate partner violence and STI partner notification in Cape Town, South Africa: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Catherine; Kalichman, Moira O; Laubscher, Ria; Hutchison, Cameron; Nkoko, Koena; Lurie, Mark; Kalichman, Seth C

    2018-03-01

    We aimed to identify individual and sexual partnership characteristics associated with partner notification (PN) among people with STI. We hypothesised that PN would be less likely in more casual sexual partnerships and in partnerships with intimate partner violence (IPV). We conducted an observational study among the first 330 patients with STI enrolled in a trial of a behavioural intervention to reduce STI incidence, at a clinic in a poor, Cape Town community. We included 195 index patients (those reporting STI symptoms), and conducted longitudinal analyses using participant-completed questionnaires on the day of diagnosis and 2 weeks later. Using partnership data for five recent sexual partners, we assessed factors associated with reported PN with logistic regressions, adjusting for repeated measurements on the same participant for each partner. The sample included 99 males with 303 partners and 96 females with 158 partners. Males reported perpetrating IPV in 46.2% of partnerships. Females reported being IPV victims in 53.2% of partnerships. Males notified 58.1%, females 75.4% of partners during the 2 weeks following diagnosis. Type of partner was an independent correlate of PN for males and females, with the odds of PN lower in more casual partnerships. For males, reporting physical IPV perpetration in the partnership was an independent correlate of PN. For females, there was no association between IPV victimisation in a partnership and PN. Efforts to decrease the pool of infectious partners need to have a strong focus on the promotion of PN in casual relationships and one-night stands. IPV was not identified as a barrier to PN. In future, we need to investigate the association between IPV with an objective measure of PN success such as partner testing or treatment, or index patient reinfection. PACTR201606001682364; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No

  14. Domestic violence shapes Colombian women's partner choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borras-Guevara, Martha Lucia; Batres, Carlota; Perrett, David I

    2017-01-01

    Potential protection from violence has been suggested as an explanation for women's preferences for more masculine partners. Previous studies, however, have not considered that violence may be multi-modal, and hence come from different sources. Therefore, we tested the effect of different fears of violence (i.e. vulnerability to public crime, likelihood of within-partnership violence) on masculinity preferences of women from Colombia, a country known for its high rates of violence. Eighty-three adult heterosexual women (mean age ± SD = 26.7 ± 6.01) answered a survey that included questions about health (e.g. frequency of illnesses during the last year and during childhood), access to media (e.g. time spent watching television, frequency of internet use), education (i.e. highest level achieved) and violence perceptions. Participants' masculinity preferences for Salvadoran, European and Colombian male faces were recorded. Factor analysis revealed two different factors for the answers to questions related to violence. One factor loaded mostly on questions related to public violence and the second factor related to domestic violence. We found that women with higher scores on the domestic violence factor preferred significantly less masculine Colombian male faces. Even after controlling for participant age, education, access to media (TV and internet) and health-related factors, the domestic violence factor contributed significantly to explaining masculinity preferences. The results presented here suggest that women's preferences for masculinity may be a strategy to avoid aggressive partners and that the source of violence matters in mate choice. Women who perceive higher risks of domestic violence prefer less masculine looking partners. Using an experimental approach, we show that Colombian women who feel more in danger of violence within partnership prefer the faces of less masculine males. This was true even after controlling for women's education level

  15. The cost and cost-effectiveness of expedited partner therapy compared with standard partner referral for the treatment of chlamydia or gonorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gift, Thomas L; Kissinger, Patricia; Mohammed, Hamish; Leichliter, Jami S; Hogben, Matthew; Golden, Matthew R

    2011-11-01

    Partner treatment is an important component of sexually transmitted disease control. Several randomized controlled trials have compared expedited partner treatment (EPT) to unassisted standard partner referral (SR). All of these trials found that EPT significantly increased partner treatment over SR, whereas some found that EPT significantly lowered reinfection rates in index patients. We collected cost data to assess the payer-specific, health care system, and societal-level cost of EPT and SR. We used data on partner treatment and index patient reinfection rates from 2 randomized controlled trials examining EPT and SR for patients diagnosed with chlamydia or gonorrhea. Additional elements were estimated or drawn from the literature. We used a Monte Carlo simulation to assess the impact on cost and effectiveness of varying several variables simultaneously, and calculated threshold values for selected variables at which EPT and SR costs per patient were equal. From a health care system or societal perspective, EPT was less costly and it treated more partners than SR. From the perspective of an individual payer, EPT was less costly than SR if ≥32% to 37% of male index patients' female partners or ≥29% of female index patients' male partners received care from the same payer. EPT has a lower cost from a societal or health care system perspective than SR and treats more partners. Individual payers may find EPT to be more costly than SR, depending on how many of their patients' partners receive care from the same payer.

  16. Sexual dysfunction among diabetics and its impact on the SQoL of their partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owiredu, W K B A; Alidu, H; Amidu, N; Obirikorang, C; Gyasi-Sarpong, C K; Bawah, A T; Dapare, P P M; Luuse, A T

    2017-11-01

    Sexual dysfunction (SD) has long been known to affect a significant number of people worldwide with serious implications and limitations on sexual expression and fulfillment. This may affect the sexual quality of life (SQoL) of individuals and their partners. A cross-sectional study was conducted among diabetic patients and their partners who visited the Tema General Hospital. A total of 130 and 116 diabetic males and females and their partners were interviewed. Male and female diabetic participants and partners were evaluated using the Golombuk Rust Inventory for Sexual Satisfaction-Male (GRISS-M)/SQoL-M and GRISS-Female/SQoL-F, respectively. For the diabetic males, the mean age and duration of diabetes (DOD) was 63.04±10.85 and 8.38±6.53 years, respectively, and that of the diabetic females was 56.98±9.42 and 6.11±5.31 years, respectively. Diabetic male participants with SD were significantly older and had a longer duration of diabetes. The mean SQoL and SQoL-Partner (SQoL-P) recorded for the diabetic males and their partners was 42.29±30.88 and 52.86±15.26, respectively. The mean SQoL and SQoL-P recorded for the diabetic females and their partners was 57.73±14.91 and 64.97±19.68, respectively. Diabetic males who had impotence had female partners with significantly lower SQoL-P scores, and similar results were recorded for those who had premature ejaculation, nonsensuality, avoidance and dissatisfaction problems. Female diabetics who had nonsensuality, avoidance and infrequency had male partners who recorded significantly lower SQoL-P scores. Female diabetics with higher perceptions of what an adequate intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) should be had male partners with significantly lower SQoL-P scores. Ageing and DOD are more likely to affect the sexual functioning of diabetic males than females. SD in diabetics with problems of impotence/vaginismus, premature ejaculation/anorgasmia, nonsensuality and avoidance has an adverse effect on the SQo

  17. Mixed Partnering and Parenting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    relationship is formed across two socially significant groups: ethnic, religious, region/caste, thus the present study has broad relevance. This proposal delineates the demographic details, intervention process of two ethnically mixed- marriage cases. Cases’ analyses are combined with relevant results from...... an empirical study (Singla, 2015) about intermarried couples to present lessons for counselling and psychotherapy good practices. The couples in the two cases and ten in-depth interviews based empirical study are formed across ethnic/religious borders - one partner is native Danish and the other originates...... from South Asia (India, Pakistan). Cultural historical psychology forms the background of the theoretical framework of the study, while a combination of intersectionality (Moodley, 2011), everyday life perspective and transnationalism forms the foreground. The lessons learnt for counselling...

  18. KNOWLEDGE SHARING IN PARTNERING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Thuesen, Christian Langhoff

    . The diversity and disjunct feature of the practices is a condition of possibility of knowledge handling as it is a prerequisite for the synthesis of various forms of knowledge in the building construct. Here an orchestrated combination of relationbased interaction with boundary objects and brokers, requisite......This paper adopts practicebased theory for understanding interorganisational knowledge work and extents it with a discussion of the role of redundancy. The paper presents a case study of a project partnership in construction using the partnering concept. The project group responsible...... for the building design counts members from different companies like architects, engineers, and contractors. The paper discusses three central mechanisms for coordinating knowledge in a complex construction project, redundancy, relations, and governance. The knowledge relations is conceptualised through focusing...

  19. Male Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid and adrenal glands. Low testosterone (male hypogonadism) and other hormonal problems have a number of possible underlying causes. Defects of tubules that transport sperm. Many ... syndrome — in which a male is born with two X chromosomes and one ...

  20. Sexy faces in a male paper wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, André Rodrigues; Alberto Mourão Júnior, Carlos; do Nascimento, Fabio Santos; Lino-Neto, José

    2014-01-01

    Sexually selected signals are common in many animals, though little reported in social insects. We investigated the occurrence of male visual signals mediating the dominance relationships among males and female choice of sexual partner in the paper wasp Polistes simillimus. Males have three conspicuous, variable and sexually dimorphic traits: black pigmentation on the head, a pair of yellow abdominal spots and body size differences. By conducting behavioral assays, we found that none of the three visual traits are associated with male-male dominance relationship. However, males with higher proportion of black facial pigmentation and bigger yellow abdominal spots are more likely chosen as sexual partners. Also, after experimentally manipulating the proportion of black pigment on males' face, we found that females may evaluate male facial coloration during the choice of a sexual partner. Thus, the black pigmentation on P. simillimus male's head appears to play a role as a sexually selected visual signal. We suggest that sexual selection is a common force in Polistes and we highlight the importance of this group as a model for the study of visual communication in insects.

  1. Sexy faces in a male paper wasp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Rodrigues de Souza

    Full Text Available Sexually selected signals are common in many animals, though little reported in social insects. We investigated the occurrence of male visual signals mediating the dominance relationships among males and female choice of sexual partner in the paper wasp Polistes simillimus. Males have three conspicuous, variable and sexually dimorphic traits: black pigmentation on the head, a pair of yellow abdominal spots and body size differences. By conducting behavioral assays, we found that none of the three visual traits are associated with male-male dominance relationship. However, males with higher proportion of black facial pigmentation and bigger yellow abdominal spots are more likely chosen as sexual partners. Also, after experimentally manipulating the proportion of black pigment on males' face, we found that females may evaluate male facial coloration during the choice of a sexual partner. Thus, the black pigmentation on P. simillimus male's head appears to play a role as a sexually selected visual signal. We suggest that sexual selection is a common force in Polistes and we highlight the importance of this group as a model for the study of visual communication in insects.

  2. prevalence of trichomonas vaginalis among the sexual partners

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis among the sexual partners of women with Trichomoniasis. While 103 female patients were found to have T. vaginalis using both direct wet mount microscopy and culture, only 44(42.7%) male contacts reported for screening. Trichomonas ...

  3. Leave or Stay? Battered Women's Decision after Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinseok; Gray, Karen A.

    2008-01-01

    Battered women's reasons for staying with or leaving their male partners are varied and complex. Using data from the Domestic Violence Experience in Omaha, Nebraska, a discrete-time hazard model was employed to examine a woman's decision based on four factors: financial independence, witness of parental violence, psychological factors, and the…

  4. A Proximal Change Experiment Testing Two Communication Exercises With Intimate Partner Violent Men

    OpenAIRE

    Babcock, Julia C.; Graham, Katherine; Canady, Brittany; Ross, Jody M.

    2011-01-01

    This study tests the immediate impact of two interventions for intimate partner violent (IPV) men in affecting behavioral and emotional change during arguments with their partners. Couples with an abusive male partner (N=100) discussed an area of conflict twice, interrupted by a brief intervention. Men were randomly assigned to receive (a) an editing-out-the-negative skills training, (b) an accepting influence skills training, or (c) a time-out. IPV men in both skills-training conditions show...

  5. Male Hypogonadism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the hormone that plays a key role in masculine growth and development during puberty — or has an ... Adulthood In adult males, hypogonadism may alter certain masculine physical characteristics and impair normal reproductive function. Signs ...

  6. Male Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to have a baby? If treatment doesn’t work, what are our other options? Resources National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, What Causes Male Infertility? Last Updated: May 30, 2017 This ...

  7. Male contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amory, John K

    2016-11-01

    Although female contraceptives are very effective at preventing unintended pregnancy, some women can not use them because of health conditions or side-effects, leaving some couples without effective contraceptive options. In addition, many men wish to take active responsibility for family planning. Thus, there is a great need for male contraceptives to prevent unintended pregnancies, of which 80-90 million occur annually. At present, effective male contraceptive options are condoms and vasectomy, which are not ideal for all men. Therefore, efforts are under way to develop novel male contraceptives. This paper briefly reviews the advantages and disadvantages of condoms and vasectomies and then discusses the research directed toward development of novel methods of male contraception. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Condoms - male

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prophylactics; Rubbers; Male condoms; Contraceptive - condom; Contraception - condom; Barrier method - condom ... your health care provider or pharmacy about emergency contraception ("morning-after pills"). PROBLEMS WITH CONDOM USE Some ...

  9. Intimate Partner Violence. Prevention Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines intimate partner violence (IPV) as violence between two people in a close relationship, including current and former spouses and dating partners. IPV occurs on a continuum from a single episode to ongoing battering and can include physical violence, sexual violence, threats, emotional…

  10. Partnering with the NCPV (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-06-01

    Brochure that explains the basic partnering opportunities that exist within the National Center for Photovoltaics for industry and university groups: non-proprietary partnering opportunities, competitive solicitations, Technology Partnership Agreements, seed fund to develop Technology Partnership Agreements, Hands-On PV Experience Workshop, and NCPV Fellowship Program.

  11. Partner selection and Hollywood Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh; Kramer, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Based on cognitive, neurological and evolutionary based film theory the article describes the representation of partner selection in Hollywood films. It analyses paradigm scenarios of partner selection and love, It further describes some of those mechanisms that regulate the relation between...

  12. Male contraception

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, Vivek; Bantwal, Ganapathi

    2012-01-01

    Contraception is an accepted route for the control of population explosion in the world. Traditionally hormonal contraceptive methods have focused on women. Male contraception by means of hormonal and non hormonal methods is an attractive alternative. Hormonal methods of contraception using testosterone have shown good results. Non hormonal reversible methods of male contraception like reversible inhibition of sperm under guidanceare very promising. In this article we have reviewed the curren...

  13. Male sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Terrie B

    2010-05-01

    It should be recognized that sexuality in the aging male is of such import that a complete sexual history must be performed. By taking a complete sexual history, facts can be obtained that will allow for appropriate focus relating to a holistic evaluation and will enable us to dispel antiquated sexual myths pertaining to the aging male. If initiated by the history taker, questions concerning sexuality may be discussed more comfortably by the patient. Erectile dysfunction, male sexual response cycle, testosterone, sexually transmitted diseases, human immunodeficiency virus, long-term illness, along with religion and culture are explored in this article with the aim of improving one's knowledge base, self reflection, and awareness of the importance of male sexuality. A complete understanding and appreciation of the aging male's medical history, surgical history, social history, and emotional history as well as his sexual, cultural, and religious concepts will allow the health care provider to better analyze information, and to recommend and provide appropriate advice and treatment to the aging male patient. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. What makes a nest-building male successful? Male behavior and female care in penduline tits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szentirmai, [No Value; Komdeur, J; Szekely, T; Szentirmai, István

    Why do females increase parental effort when caring for the offspring of attractive males? First, attractive males may be poor fathers so that their females are compelled to increase their own contribution in order to fledge some young (the partner-compensation hypothesis). Second, females mated to

  15. Patient preferences for partner notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apoola, A; Radcliffe, K W; Das, S; Robshaw, V; Gilleran, G; Kumari, B S; Boothby, M; Rajakumar, R

    2006-08-01

    To identify patient preferences for notification of sexual contacts when a sexually transmitted infection (STI) is diagnosed. A questionnaire survey of 2544 patients attending three large genitourinary clinics at Derby, Birmingham, and Coventry in the United Kingdom. The median age of the respondents was 24 with 1474 (57.9%) women, 1835 (72.1%) white, 1826 (71.8%) single. The most favoured method of partner notification was patient referral, which was rated a "good" method by 65.8% when they had to be contacted because a sexual partner has an STI. Notifying contacts by letter as a method of provider partner notification is more acceptable than phoning, text messaging, or email. Respondents with access to mobile telephones, private emails, and private letters were more likely to rate a method of partner notification using that mode of communication as "good" compared to those without. With provider referral methods of partner notification respondents preferred to receive a letter, email, or text message asking them to contact the clinic rather than a letter, email or text message informing them that they may have an STI. Most respondents think that being informed directly by a partner is the best method of being notified of the risk of an STI. Some of the newer methods may not be acceptable to all but a significant minority of respondents prefer these methods of partner notification. The wording of letters, emails, or text messages when used for partner notification has an influence on the acceptability of the method and may influence success of the partner notification method. Services should be flexible enough to utilise the patients' preferred method of partner notification.

  16. [Male sexuality in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinnab, L; Schrader, A J; Schrader, M; Zengerling, F

    2012-10-01

    Male sexuality in the elderly is an important issue with a growing relevance. In contrast to the assumption of an asexual state when becoming older, recent representative surveys show that the majority of men maintain sexual desires and fantasies into old age. Sexual activity primarily depends on the availability of a partner and on maintaining intimacy and sexuality in the face of changes in the sexual response cycle and increasing comorbidity. This review aims to clarify the normal aging process, the sexual behavior of aging males and the prevalence of sexual dysfunction.

  17. "Are we Facebook official?" Implications of dating partners' Facebook use and profiles for intimate relationship satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Lauren M; Danielewicz, Jennifer; Cayemberg, Crystal

    2012-02-01

    Extending previous research on positive and negative correlates of Facebook use for individuals' outcomes, this study examined male and female dating partners' (n=58 couples) Facebook use and portrayals of their intimate relationship on the Facebook profile. Confirming hypotheses from compatibility theories of mate selection, partners demonstrated similar Facebook intensity (e.g., usage, connection to Facebook), and were highly likely to portray their relationship on their Facebook profiles in similar ways (i.e., display partnered status and show their partner in profile picture). These Facebook profile choices played a role in the overall functioning of the relationship, with males' indications of a partnered status linked with higher levels of their own and their partners' (marginal) relationship satisfaction, and females' displays of their partner in their profile picture linked with higher levels of their own and their partners' relationship satisfaction. Finally, male and female reports of having had disagreements over the Facebook relationship status was associated with lower level of females' but not males' relationship satisfaction, after accounting for global verbal conflict. Thus, the findings point to the unique contribution of Facebook disagreements to intimate relationship functioning. Results from this study encourage continued examination of technology use and behaviors in contexts of intimate relationships.

  18. Partnered Decisions? U.S. Couples and Medical Help-Seeking for Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Katherine M.; Johnson, David R.

    2009-01-01

    We examined male partners' influence on the decision to seek medical help for infertility using the National Study of Fertility Barriers. Building upon an existing help-seeking framework, we incorporated characteristics of both partners from 219 heterosexual couples who had ever perceived a fertility problem. In logistic regression analyses, we…

  19. The global prevalence of intimate partner homicide: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckl, Heidi; Devries, Karen; Rotstein, Alexandra; Abrahams, Naeemah; Campbell, Jacquelyn; Watts, Charlotte; Moreno, Claudia Garcia

    2013-09-07

    Homicide is an important cause of premature mortality globally, but evidence for the magnitude of homicides by intimate partners is scarce and hampered by the large amount of missing information about the victim-offender relationship. The objective of the study was to estimate global and regional prevalence of intimate partner homicide. A systematic search of five databases (Medline, Global Health, Embase, Social Policy, and Web of Science) yielded 2167 abstracts, and resulted in the inclusion of 118 full-text articles with 1122 estimates of the prevalence of intimate partner homicide after double-blind screening. All studies were included that reported the number or proportion of women or men who were murdered by an intimate partner in a country, province, or town, using an inclusive definition of an intimate partner. Additionally, a survey of official sources of 169 countries provided a further 53 estimates. We selected one estimate per country-year using a quality assessment decision algorithm. The median prevalence of intimate partner homicide was calculated by country and region overall, and for women and men separately. Data were obtained for 66 countries. Overall 13·5% (IQR 9·2-18·2) of homicides were committed by an intimate partner, and this proportion was six times higher for female homicides than for male homicides (38·6%, 30·8-45·3, vs 6·3%, 3·1-6·3). Median percentages for all (male and female) and female intimate partner homicide were highest in high-income countries (all, 14·9%, 9·2-18·2; female homicide, 41·2%, 30·8-44·5) and in southeast Asia (18·8%, 11·3-18·8; 58·8%, 58·8-58·8). Adjustments to account for unknown victim-offender relationships generally increased the prevalence, suggesting that results presented are conservative. At least one in seven homicides globally and more than a third of female homicides are perpetrated by an intimate partner. Such violence commonly represents the culmination of a long history of abuse

  20. Sexual Orientation Disparities in Human Papillomavirus Vaccination in a Longitudinal Cohort of U.S. Males and Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Brittany M; Reisner, Sari L; Agénor, Madina; Gordon, Allegra R; Sarda, Vishnudas; Austin, S Bryn

    2017-06-01

    This study sought to examine how human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination may differ across sexual orientation groups (e.g., bisexuals compared to heterosexuals)-particularly in boys and men, about whom little is known. Data were from a prospective cohort of 10,663 U.S. females and males enrolled in the Growing Up Today Study followed from 1996 to 2014. Participants were aged 11-24 years when the vaccine was approved for females in 2006 and 14-27 years when approved for males in 2009. In addition to reporting sexual orientation identity/attractions, participants reported sex of lifetime sexual partners. Log-binominal models were used to examine HPV vaccination across sexual orientation groups. Among females, 56% received ≥1 dose. In contrast, 8% of males obtained ≥1 dose; HPV vaccination initiation was especially low among completely heterosexual males. After adjusting for potential confounders, completely heterosexual (risk ratio [RR]; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.45 [0.30-0.68]) and mostly heterosexual (RR; 95% CI: 0.44 [0.25-0.78]) males were half as likely to have received even a single dose compared to gay males. Compared to lesbians, no differences were observed for completely heterosexual or bisexual females, but mostly heterosexual females were 20% more likely to have received at least one dose. HPV vaccination rates in the U.S. are strikingly low and special attention is needed for boys and men, especially those who do not identify as gay. Vaccinating everyone, regardless of sex/gender and/or sexual orientation, will not only lower that individual's susceptibility but also decrease transmission to partners, females and/or males, to help eradicate HPV through herd immunity.

  1. Adolescent patient preferences surrounding partner notification and treatment for sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Jennifer L; Huppert, Jill S; Gillespie, Gordon L; Taylor, Regina G; Holland, Carolyn K; Alessandrini, Evaline A; Kahn, Jessica A

    2015-01-01

    Important barriers to addressing the sexually transmitted infection (STI) epidemic among adolescents are the inadequate partner notification of positive STI results and insufficient rates of partner testing and treatment. However, adolescent attitudes regarding partner notification and treatment are not well understood. The aim was to qualitatively explore the barriers to and preferences for partner notification and treatment among adolescent males and females tested for STIs in an emergency department (ED) setting and to explore the acceptability of ED personnel notifying their sexual partners. This was a descriptive, qualitative study in which a convenience sample of 40 adolescents (18 females, 22 males) 14 to 21 years of age who presented to either adult or pediatric EDs with STI-related complaints participated. Individualized, semistructured, confidential interviews were administered to each participant. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim by an independent transcriptionist. Data were analyzed using framework analysis. Barriers to partner notification included fear of retaliation or loss of the relationship, lack of understanding of or concern for the consequences associated with an STI, and social stigma and embarrassment. Participants reported two primary barriers to their partners obtaining STI testing and treatment: lack of transportation to the health care site and the partner's fear of STI positive test results. Most participants preferred to notify their main sexual partners of an STI exposure via a face-to-face interaction or a phone call. Most participants were agreeable with a health care provider (HCP) notifying their main sexual partners of STI exposure and preferred that the HCP notify the partner by phone call. There are several adolescent preferences and barriers for partner notification and treatment. To be most effective, future interventions to prevent adolescent STIs should incorporate these preferences and address the

  2. Reverse correlating love: highly passionate women idealize their partner's facial appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaydin, Gul; DeLong, Jordan E

    2015-01-01

    A defining feature of passionate love is idealization--evaluating romantic partners in an overly favorable light. Although passionate love can be expected to color how favorably individuals represent their partner in their mind, little is known about how passionate love is linked with visual representations of the partner. Using reverse correlation techniques for the first time to study partner representations, the present study investigated whether women who are passionately in love represent their partner's facial appearance more favorably than individuals who are less passionately in love. In a within-participants design, heterosexual women completed two forced-choice classification tasks, one for their romantic partner and one for a male acquaintance, and a measure of passionate love. In each classification task, participants saw two faces superimposed with noise and selected the face that most resembled their partner (or an acquaintance). Classification images for each of high passion and low passion groups were calculated by averaging across noise patterns selected as resembling the partner or the acquaintance and superimposing the averaged noise on an average male face. A separate group of women evaluated the classification images on attractiveness, trustworthiness, and competence. Results showed that women who feel high (vs. low) passionate love toward their partner tend to represent his face as more attractive and trustworthy, even when controlling for familiarity effects using the acquaintance representation. Using an innovative method to study partner representations, these findings extend our understanding of cognitive processes in romantic relationships.

  3. Prevalence and acceptability of male circumcision in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... groups and having heard of the HIV protective effect of male circumcision were significant predictors for male circumcision acceptability, and among women with a non-circumcised sexual partner, Black African and Coloured population groups and higher education were predictors for male circumcision acceptability.

  4. Male baldness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Male baldness is very common. Its effect on individuals is extremely variable, and in some people it will have a significant adverse effect on their quality of life. The objectives of this article are to help general practitioners (GPs) be aware of potential health problems related to male baldness, to have an approach to assessing hair loss and to be aware of treatment options. Male baldness is, most often, a normal occurrence, but it may have significant effects on a man's health. It may also be a pointer to other potential health issues. The GP is in the ideal position to conduct an initial evaluation, consider other health issues and advise on treatment options.

  5. Partnering for Success (OIT Customer Day Partner Recognition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-04-01

    Office of Industrial Technologies document produced for 2002 Customer Day event, which features industry partners who have worked with OIT to achieve outstanding energy efficiency achievements from January 2001 to the present.

  6. "Amar te Duele" ("love hurts"): sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence, depression symptoms and HIV risk among female sex workers who use drugs and their non-commercial, steady partners in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulibarri, Monica D; Roesch, Scott; Rangel, M Gudelia; Staines, Hugo; Amaro, Hortensia; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2015-01-01

    A significant body of research among female sex workers (FSWs) has focused on individual-level HIV risk factors. Comparatively little is known about their non-commercial, steady partners who may heavily influence their behavior and HIV risk. This cross-sectional study of 214 FSWs who use drugs and their male steady partners aged ≥18 in two Mexico-U.S. border cities utilized a path-analytic model for dyadic data based upon the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model to examine relationships between sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence (IPV), depression symptoms, and unprotected sex. FSWs' relationship power, IPV perpetration and victimization were significantly associated with unprotected sex within the relationship. Male partners' depression symptoms were significantly associated with unprotected sex within the relationship. Future HIV prevention interventions for FSWs and their male partners should address issues of sexual relationship power, IPV, and mental health both individually and in the context of their relationship.

  7. Sex of Sexual Partners and Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Among U.S. Girls and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agénor, Madina; McCauley, Heather L; Peitzmeier, Sarah M; Haneuse, Sebastien; Gordon, Allegra R; Potter, Jennifer; Austin, S Bryn

    2016-03-01

    Girls and women are at risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical cancer from male and female sexual partners throughout the life course. However, no study has assessed how sex of sexual partners, a dimension of sexual orientation, may relate to HPV vaccination among girls and women. In 2014, data from the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth were used to conduct logistic regression analyses estimating the relationship between sex of lifetime and past-year sexual partners and HPV vaccine awareness and initiation among U.S. girls and women aged 15-25 years (N=3,253). Among U.S. girls and women aged 15-25 years, the prevalence of HPV vaccine awareness and HPV vaccine initiation was 84.4% and 28.5%, respectively. Adjusting for sociodemographic factors, participants with only female past-year sexual partners had significantly lower odds of initiating HPV vaccination relative to those with only male past-year sexual partners (OR=0.16, 95% CI=0.05, 0.55). Similarly, respondents with no lifetime (OR=0.65, 95% CI=0.46, 0.92) or past-year (OR=0.69, 95% CI=0.50, 0.94) sexual partners had significantly lower adjusted odds of HPV vaccine initiation compared with those with only male sexual partners. No difference was apparent in the odds of initiating HPV vaccination between participants with male and female sexual partners and those with only male sexual partners. Medical and public health professionals should ensure that girls and women with only female or no sexual partners are included in HPV vaccine education and promotion efforts. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The impact of adolescent risk behavior on partner relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberry, Terence P; Krohn, Marvin D; Augustyn, Megan Bears; Buchanan, Molly; Greenman, Sarah J

    2016-06-01

    Prior literature suggests that involvement in adolescent risk behaviors will have short- and long-term consequences that disrupt the orderly flow of later development, including impacts on patterns of partner relationships. In this study, we explore how adolescent involvement in delinquency, drug use, and sexual behavior at an early age affects the likelihood and timing of both marriage and cohabitation using a sample from the Rochester Youth Development Study. We also examine the direct effects of dropping out of high school, teenage parenthood, and financial stress during emerging adulthood as well as their potential role as mediators of the relationships between adolescent risk behaviors and partnering for both males and females. Overall, there is not very strong support for a direct relationship between adolescent delinquency, drug use, or early sexual behavior and patterns of partner formation. In contrast, the more proximal relationships, indicated by precocious transitions to adulthood and financial instability, are more consistently related to partner formation. These findings support models of cumulative disadvantage: early adolescent problem behaviors are weakly related to partner formation, but appear to set in motion cascading consequences that influence the transition to adulthood and, in turn, these more proximal variables are more consistently related to partner formation.

  9. The impact of adolescent risk behavior on partner relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberry, Terence P.; Krohn, Marvin D.; Augustyn, Megan Bears; Buchanan, Molly; Greenman, Sarah J.

    2015-01-01

    Prior literature suggests that involvement in adolescent risk behaviors will have short- and long-term consequences that disrupt the orderly flow of later development, including impacts on patterns of partner relationships. In this study, we explore how adolescent involvement in delinquency, drug use, and sexual behavior at an early age affects the likelihood and timing of both marriage and cohabitation using a sample from the Rochester Youth Development Study. We also examine the direct effects of dropping out of high school, teenage parenthood, and financial stress during emerging adulthood as well as their potential role as mediators of the relationships between adolescent risk behaviors and partnering for both males and females. Overall, there is not very strong support for a direct relationship between adolescent delinquency, drug use, or early sexual behavior and patterns of partner formation. In contrast, the more proximal relationships, indicated by precocious transitions to adulthood and financial instability, are more consistently related to partner formation. These findings support models of cumulative disadvantage: early adolescent problem behaviors are weakly related to partner formation, but appear to set in motion cascading consequences that influence the transition to adulthood and, in turn, these more proximal variables are more consistently related to partner formation. PMID:27429604

  10. Male-pattern baldness susceptibility locus at 20p11.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, J.B.; Yuan, X.; Geller, F.; Waterworth, D.; Bataille, V.; Glass, D.; Song, K.; Waeber, G.; Vollenweider, P.; Aben, K.K.H.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Walters, B.; Soranzo, N.; Thorsteinsdottir, U.; Kong, A.; Rafnar, T.; Deloukas, P.; Sulem, P.; Stefansson, H.; Stefansson, K.; Spector, T.D.; Mooser, V.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a genome-wide association study for androgenic alopecia in 1,125 men and identified a newly associated locus at chromosome 20p11.22, confirmed in three independent cohorts (n = 1,650; OR = 1.60, P = 1.1 x 10(-14) for rs1160312). The one man in seven who harbors risk alleles at both

  11. Psychological aspects of male fertility treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Alice Toft; Madsen, Svend Aage; Humaidan, Peter

    2013-09-01

    To explore and to identify the possible need for psychological communicative support in men undergoing fertility treatment. Male infertility affects many aspects of a man's life and may cause a life crisis. Although infertility treatment is now commonplace in men, they often feel remote and disconnected from the treatment process. A descriptive survey. A questionnaire with structured and open-ended questions was completed by 210 Danish men undergoing fertility treatment. The questionnaire covered three issues: individual perception of male infertility, gender equality issues, and communication with health professionals in the clinic. Data were collected during 2008. Of the participants, 28% believed that their reduced sperm quality affected their perception of masculinity. 46% stated that equal involvement between partners was a very important element of the treatment; however, 63% said that the health professionals communicated primarily with their female partner. Finally, 62% found that there was a need for a deeper dialogue with the nurses concerning male infertility and 72% lacked information about the psychological consequences of male infertility. In general, participants wanted a more open and balanced dialogue about infertility treatment and the role of the male partner during this process. Infertile men want health professionals to view them on equal terms with their partner. When treating the infertile man, there is a further need to develop more inclusive communication skills. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Managing Your China JV Partner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHRIS; DEVONSHIRE-ELLIS

    2008-01-01

    Having critical management tools gives foreign investors the chance to maximize their investment, minimize their risk and develop a mutually profitable business with a Chinese partner. This concludes our series on this topic.

  13. Partners Against Crime (PAC) Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The Partners Against Crime (PAC) program promotes collaboration among police officers, Durham residents, and city and county government officials to find...

  14. Male-Male Mounting Behaviour in Free-Ranging Golden Snub-Nosed Monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Gu; Dixson, Alan F; Qi, Xiao-Guang; Li, Bao-Guo

    2018-01-01

    An all-male band of golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) was observed for 3 months in the Qinling Mountains of China, in order to collect data on the frequencies and contextual significance of male-male mounting behaviour. Mounts occurred in a variety of affiliative, dominance-related and sexual contexts, which differed depending upon the ages of the males involved. Mounting behaviour in this group was mainly initiated by adults. Juveniles mounted each other in affiliative contexts (during play and prior to grooming). Adult males mounted subadult and juvenile partners in a greater variety of sociosexual contexts (dominance/rank-related interactions; reconciliation following agonistic encounters, and sometimes as a prelude to receiving grooming). However, subadults and juveniles were never observed to mount adults. In one dyad, involving an adult male and a subadult partner, mounting was more frequent and prolonged, and included bouts of deep pelvic thrusting. Two mounts resulted in anal intromissions and, in 1 case, the subadult partner exhibited seminal emission. Given that the study took place during the annual mating peak period of R. roxellana, it is possible that this unusual male-male sexual activity was related to the absence of mating opportunities for those adults that were excluded from 1-male units. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. A web in the patriarchal clan system: tactics of intimate partners in the Japanese sociocultural context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihama, Mieko

    2005-10-01

    Only recently has Japanese society come to realize the magnitude of domestic violence as a serious social problem. Using focus group methodology, this study investigated the function and the sociocultural reinforcements of male partner violence. The analysis of the participants' accounts of various types of violence their partners perpetrated, which were accompanied by an elaborate collection of tactics to reinforce the effects of the violence, has led to the conceptualization of partners' violence as a spider web. The Japanese patriarchal clan system and underlying ideology of male superiority fosters the maintenance of this web.

  16. Three Co-Existing Sexually Transmitted Diseases in a Heterosexual Male Youth: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theetat M. Surawan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Most sexually transmitted diseases (STDs are asymptomatic, leading to widespread underdiagnoses estimated at 50% or higher. The presence of one STD significantly indicates an individual’s sexual health risk since an STD contributes to the transmission and acquisition of other STDs, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Multiple co-existing STDs, thus, further increase the susceptibility of acquiring and transmitting HIV by twofold or more. Therefore, the comprehensive STD prevention strategies play a major role in reducing the transmission of HIV infection. We report an interesting case of a heterosexual male youth who presented at dermatology clinic with three concurrent sexually transmitted diseases: gonococcal urethritis, genital wart, and late latent syphilis. The case demonstrated significant issues for appropriate approaches and management of multiple co-existing STDs. Also, it reinforced the necessity for STD counselling for the patient, his partners, and family.

  17. Advances in Male Contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Stephanie T.; Amory, John K.; Bremner, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite significant advances in contraceptive options for women over the last 50 yr, world population continues to grow rapidly. Scientists and activists alike point to the devastating environmental impacts that population pressures have caused, including global warming from the developed world and hunger and disease in less developed areas. Moreover, almost half of all pregnancies are still unwanted or unplanned. Clearly, there is a need for expanded, reversible, contraceptive options. Multicultural surveys demonstrate the willingness of men to participate in contraception and their female partners to trust them to do so. Notwithstanding their paucity of options, male methods including vasectomy and condoms account for almost one third of contraceptive use in the United States and other countries. Recent international clinical research efforts have demonstrated high efficacy rates (90–95%) for hormonally based male contraceptives. Current barriers to expanded use include limited delivery methods and perceived regulatory obstacles, which stymie introduction to the marketplace. However, advances in oral and injectable androgen delivery are cause for optimism that these hurdles may be overcome. Nonhormonal methods, such as compounds that target sperm motility, are attractive in their theoretical promise of specificity for the reproductive tract. Gene and protein array technologies continue to identify potential targets for this approach. Such nonhormonal agents will likely reach clinical trials in the near future. Great strides have been made in understanding male reproductive physiology; the combined efforts of scientists, clinicians, industry and governmental funding agencies could make an effective, reversible, male contraceptive an option for family planning over the next decade. PMID:18436704

  18. Ovulatory shifts in women's attractions to primary partners and other men: further evidence of the importance of primary partner sexual attractiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M Larson

    Full Text Available Previous research has documented shifts in women's attractions to their romantic partner and to men other than their partner across the ovulation cycle, contingent on the degree to which her partner displays hypothesized indicators of high-fitness genes. The current study set out to replicate and extend this finding. Forty-one couples in which the woman was naturally cycling participated. Female partners reported their feelings of in-pair attraction and extra-pair attraction on two occasions, once on a low-fertility day of the cycle and once on a high-fertility day of the cycle just prior to ovulation. Ovulation was confirmed using luteinizing hormone tests. We collected two measures of male partner sexual attractiveness. First, the women in the study rated their partner's sexual attractiveness. Second, we photographed the partners and had the photos independently rated for attractiveness. Shifts in women's in-pair attractions across the cycle were significantly moderated by women's ratings of partner sexual attractiveness, such that the less sexually attractive women rated their partner, the less in-pair attraction they reported at high fertility compared with low fertility (partial r = .37, p(dir = .01. Shifts in women's extra-pair attractions across the cycle were significantly moderated by third-party ratings of partner attractiveness, such that the less attractive the partner was, the more extra-pair attraction women reported at high relative to low fertility (partial r = -.33, p(dir = .03. In line with previous findings, we found support for the hypothesis that the degree to which a woman's romantic partner displays indicators of high-fitness genes affects women's attractions to their own partner and other men at high fertility.

  19. [Sexual orientation and partner-choice of transsexual women and men before gender-confirming interventions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerwenka, Susanne; Nieder, Timo Ole; Richter-Appelt, Hertha

    2012-06-01

    Diverse partner relationship constellations of gender dysphoric women and men with different sexual orientations are explored in a sample of 93 persons before gender-confirming interventions in persons with female gender identity and male body characteristics (MF) and persons with male gender identity and female body characteristics (FM). While in both gender groups the majority is single, relationship patterns show differences. Apart from working life, FM already live predominantly in the new, male gender role and have partners by whom they are desired as males. In contrast, only a small proportion of MF already conduct their private lives in the new, female gender role, and they often have relationships with partners sexually attracted to males and not to their female gender identity. The findings indicate a need for differing resources for gender dysphoric women and men in the process of a transsexual course of development. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Partner approval and intention to use contraception among Zanzibari women presenting for post-abortion care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esber, Allahna; Foraker, Randi E; Hemed, Maryam; Norris, Alison

    2014-07-01

    We examined the effect of partner approval of contraception on intention to use contraception among women obtaining post-abortion care in Zanzibar. Our data source was a 2010 survey of 193 women obtaining post-abortion care at a large public hospital in Zanzibar. We used multivariable logistic regression analysis to assess associations between partner approval and intention to use contraception. Overall, 23% of participants had used a contraceptive method in the past, and 66% reported intending to use contraception in the future. We found that partner approval of contraception and ever having used contraception in the past were each associated with intending to use contraception in the future. In the multivariable model, adjusting for past contraception use, partner approval of contraception was associated with 20 times the odds of intending to use contraception (odds ratio, 20.25; 95% confidence interval, 8.45-48.56). We found a strong association between partner approval and intention to use contraception. Efforts to support contraceptive use must include both male and female partners. Public health and educational efforts to increase contraceptive use must include men and be targeted to both male and female partners. Given that male partners are often not present when women obtain health care, creative efforts will be required to meet men in community settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Development of Male-Oriented Behavior in Rams

    OpenAIRE

    Roselli, Charles E.; Reddy, Radhika; Kaufman, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    The sheep offers a unique mammalian model in which to study paradoxical same-sex sexual partner preferences. Variations in sexual partner preferences occur spontaneously with as many as 8% of rams in a population exhibiting a sexual preference for other rams (male-oriented). The current review presents an overview and update of the male-oriented ram model and discusses several theories that have been invoked to explain same sex preferences in this species. Although our understanding of the bi...

  2. Genetic susceptibility of periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laine, M.L.; Crielaard, W.; Loos, B.G.

    2012-01-01

    In this systematic review, we explore and summarize the peer-reviewed literature on putative genetic risk factors for susceptibility to aggressive and chronic periodontitis. A comprehensive literature search on the PubMed database was performed using the keywords ‘periodontitis’ or ‘periodontal

  3. Forgiveness and Conflict Resolution in Close Relationships: Within and Cross Partner Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANK D. FINCHAM

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Do forgiveness and conflict tactics (compromise, aggression, and avoidancein response to conflicts instigated by a romantic partner's offence uniquely predict effective arguing and relationship quality? Using 92 Italian couples we tested a mediational model in which each partner's responses to conflict predicted bothe partners' perceived effective arguing that, in turn, predict their own relationship quality. For both men and women, negative responses to conflict (unforgiveness, aggression, and avoidance overlapped and jointly predicted self-reported and partner-reported relationship quality, directly and indirectly via effective arguing. Positive responses investigated (benevolence and compromise did not overlap for either men or women. Men's positive positive responses to conflict uniquely predicted self-reported and partner-reported relationship quality via effective arguing, whereas women's positive responses did not predict them independently of their male partner's tactics.

  4. Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration by Court-Ordered Men: Distinctions and Intersections among Physical Violence, Sexual Violence, Psychological Abuse, and Stalking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Kathleen C.; Hall, Jeffrey E.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the construct validity of two different measurement models of male partners' perpetration of physical violence, sexual violence, psychological abuse, and stalking against intimate partners. Data were obtained from a sample of 340 men arrested for physical assault of a female spouse or partner and court ordered into batterer…

  5. Pharma partnering: other people's science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Partnering is an ideal field if someone is seeking to move from a scientific to a more business-oriented discipline. Partnering's goal is to identify and acquire external innovation. These discoveries are then included in a company's pipeline and help bring novel treatments to patients. Advanced scientific training is essential in the identification and evaluation of these external assets. Here I describe how partnering works in a pharmaceutical company and offer advice on how to make a successful transition from a PhD program to a business career. © 2017 Hofmann. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  6. Partnering models in Nordic construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    of local research and industry partners including major building clients. Data were collected by means of national reviews of partnering policies and practices, thematic analyses, and case studies. The concept partnering was introduced in a Nordic context in the 1990s and has since then been implemented...... in a large number of projects. Clients sought to establish a culture of openness and trust within the project and tried promoting this with various kinds of incentives. In some countries the move towards voluntary collaboration was, paradoxically, strongly advocated by public authorities. Generally, however......Traditionally, procurement and contractual policies adopted by building and construction clients produce a system in which clients procure design services separately from construction services, while operation and maintenance have been subject to further, separate procurement actions...

  7. Partnering and integrated supply management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnø, Ole-Christian; Olsen, Anders; Thyssen, Mikael

    2003-01-01

    for strategic management of collaborative relationships on a line with the purchasing perspectives offered by Supply Chain Management. Based on a study of the literature and an in-depth case study carried out within a large Scandinavian contractor, this article gives a proposal for how Partnering can...... be supported by strategic purchasing, with the aim of achieving strategic Partnering. The contribution of this article is thus the development of a new purchasing perspective within Construction Supply Chain Management.......Developments in the construction industry, with a lack of productivity increases compared to manufacturing industry in general, have amongst other things led to the use of Partnering, which is a form of collaboration which attempts to counteract the distrust and the sub-optimisation which...

  8. Social Norms for Intimate Partner Violence in Situations Involving Victim Infidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Tricia H.; Mulla, Mazheruddin M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated perceived descriptive norms (i.e., perceived prevalence) for male-to-female intimate partner violence (IPV) following victim infidelity (i.e., girlfriend had sex with another man). While watching a video-taped vignette of a young, dating couple in an argument that escalated to male-to-female violence, male…

  9. Adolescents' Age Preferences for Dating Partners: Support for an Evolutionary Model of Life-History Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenrick, Douglas T.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Explored sex differences in adolescent preference for older versus younger mates. Found that teenage males were willing to date females of a wide age range, whereas teenage females prefer dating males from their own age to several years older. Data suggested viewing development of sex differences in dating partner preference from the perspective…

  10. Attitudes, Knowledge, and Behavior Regarding Condom Use in Urban Black Adolescent Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michele D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined male adolescent behavior, attitudes, and knowledge concerning condom use. Findings from 241 sexually active black adolescent males revealed that factors associated with condom use included higher grade level, having 2 or more sexual partners in past 6 months, communication about contraception with sexual partner, desire for sexually…

  11. Partnering for Canada's nuclear future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenderman, P.P.

    1997-01-01

    ''Partnering'' is an evolving relationship that could lead to a partnership or joint ownership. Babcock and Wilcox (BW) has used a variety of forms of contracting and partnering to develop global strategy for the supply of its products, both fossil and nuclear steam generating equipment. A strategic mix of consortia, strategic alliances and joint ventures has provided the impetus for BW to lead in worldwide market share in many categories, including the supply of nuclear replacement steam generators to the USA since 1992. The implication is that continuing cooperation with BW will benefit the Canadian nuclear industry. 6 refs., 12 figs

  12. Hormones of choice: the neuroendocrinology of partner preference in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, C L; Nunez, A A; Clemens, L G

    2011-04-01

    Partner preference behavior can be viewed as the outcome of a set of hierarchical choices made by an individual in anticipation of mating. The first choice involves approaching a conspecific verses an individual of another species. As a rule, a conspecific is picked as a mating partner, but early life experiences can alter that outcome. Within a species, an animal then has the choice between a member of the same sex or the opposite sex. The final choice is for a specific individual. This review will focus on the middle choice, the decision to mate with either a male or a female. Available data from rats, mice, and ferrets point to the importance of perinatal exposure to steroid hormones in the development of partner preferences, as well as the importance of activational effects in adulthood. However, the particular effects of this hormone exposure show species differences in both the specific steroid hormone responsible for the organization of behavior and the developmental period when it has its effect. Where these hormones have an effect in the brain is mostly unknown, but regions involved in olfaction and sexual behavior, as well as sexually dimorphic regions, seem to play a role. One limitation of the literature base is that many mate or 'partner preference studies' rely on preference for a specific stimulus (usually olfaction) but do not include an analysis of the relation, if any, that stimulus has to the choice of a particular sexual partner. A second limitation has been the almost total lack of attention to the type of behavior that is shown by the choosing animal once a 'partner' has been chosen, specifically, if the individual plays a mating role typical of its own sex or the opposite sex. Additional paradigms that address these questions are needed for better understanding of partner preferences in rodents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Intimate partner violence and pregnancy intentions: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Kathleen; Creedy, Debra; Mitchell, Theresa

    2017-08-01

    In this qualitative study, we explored women's pregnancy intentions and experiences of intimate partner violence before, during and after pregnancy. Unintended pregnancies in the context of intimate partner violence can have serious health, social and economic consequences for women and their children. Feminist and phenomenological philosophies underpinned the study to gain a richer understanding of women's experiences. Eleven women who had been pregnant in the previous two years were recruited from community-based women's refuges in one region of the UK. Of the 11 women, eight had unplanned pregnancies, two reported being coerced into early motherhood, and only one woman had purposively planned her pregnancy. Multiple in-depth interviews focused on participants' accounts of living with intimate partner violence. Experiential data analysis was used to identify, analyse and highlight themes. Three major themes were identified: men's control of contraception, partner's indiscriminate response to the pregnancy and women's mixed feelings about the pregnancy. Participants reported limited influence over their sexual relationship and birth control. Feelings of vulnerability about themselves and fear for their unborn babies' safety were intensified by their partners' continued violence during pregnancy. Women experiencing intimate partner violence were more likely to have an unintended pregnancy. This could be attributed to male dominance and fear, which impacts on a woman's ability to manage her birth control options. The women's initial excitement about their pregnancy diminished in the face of uncertainty and ongoing violence within their relationship. Women experiencing violence lack choice in relation to birth control options leading to unintended pregnancies. Interpreting the findings from the victim-perpetrator interactive spin theory of intimate partner violence provides a possible framework for midwives and nurses to better understand and respond to women

  14. Social Perception through Gender Stereotypes of Partner Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Leonor M. Cantera; Josep M. Blanch

    2010-01-01

    The overall goal of this research was to assess the degree of social attachment of certain stereotypes about gender (male provider; female caregiver) and violence (violent, peaceful woman) and is framed in the context of a debate about the extent and limits of a gender approach when it comes to understanding and preventing violence in different types of partner. 741 people were involved in the research, two thirds of them women, living in Spain, Mexico, Puerto Rico and El Salvador. In each co...

  15. Gender Stereotype Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Marina A.; Weber, Susanna; Simoes, Elisabeth; Sokolov, Alexander N.

    2014-01-01

    Gender affects performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, and this impact may stem from socio-cultural factors such as gender stereotyping. Here we systematically manipulated gender stereotype messages on a social cognition task on which no initial gender gap has been documented. The outcome reveals: (i) Stereotyping affects both females and males, with a more pronounced impact on females. Yet an explicit negative message for males elicits a striking paradoxical deterioration in performance of females. (ii) Irrespective of gender and directness of message, valence of stereotype message affects performance: negative messages have stronger influence than positive ones. (iii) Directness of stereotype message differentially impacts performance of females and males: females tend to be stronger affected by implicit than explicit negative messages, whereas in males this relationship is opposite. The data are discussed in the light of neural networks underlying gender stereotyping. The findings provide novel insights into the sources of gender related fluctuations in cognition and behavior. PMID:25517903

  16. Gender stereotype susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Marina A; Weber, Susanna; Simoes, Elisabeth; Sokolov, Alexander N

    2014-01-01

    Gender affects performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, and this impact may stem from socio-cultural factors such as gender stereotyping. Here we systematically manipulated gender stereotype messages on a social cognition task on which no initial gender gap has been documented. The outcome reveals: (i) Stereotyping affects both females and males, with a more pronounced impact on females. Yet an explicit negative message for males elicits a striking paradoxical deterioration in performance of females. (ii) Irrespective of gender and directness of message, valence of stereotype message affects performance: negative messages have stronger influence than positive ones. (iii) Directness of stereotype message differentially impacts performance of females and males: females tend to be stronger affected by implicit than explicit negative messages, whereas in males this relationship is opposite. The data are discussed in the light of neural networks underlying gender stereotyping. The findings provide novel insights into the sources of gender related fluctuations in cognition and behavior.

  17. “Amar te Duele” (“Love Hurts”): Sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence, depression symptoms and HIV risk among female sex workers who use drugs and their non-commercial, steady partners in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulibarri, Monica D.; Roesch, Scott; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Staines, Hugo; Amaro, Hortensia; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2014-01-01

    A significant body of research among female sex workers (FSWs) has focused on individual-level HIV risk factors. Comparatively little is known about their non-commercial, steady partners who may heavily influence their behavior and HIV risk. This cross-sectional study of 214 FSWs who use drugs and their male steady partners aged ≥18 in two Mexico-U.S. border cities utilized a path-analytic model for dyadic data based upon the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model to examine relationships between sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence (IPV), depression symptoms, and unprotected sex. FSWs’ relationship power, IPV perpetration and victimization were significantly associated with unprotected sex within the relationship. Male partners’ depression symptoms were significantly associated with unprotected sex within the relationship. Future HIV prevention interventions for FSWs and their male partners should address issues of sexual relationship power, IPV, and mental health both individually and in the context of their relationship. PMID:24743959

  18. Female partner preferences enhance offspring ability to survive an infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveh, Shirley; Sutalo, Sanja; Thonhauser, Kerstin E; Thoß, Michaela; Hettyey, Attila; Winkelser, Friederike; Penn, Dustin J

    2014-01-23

    It is often suggested that mate choice enhances offspring immune resistance to infectious diseases. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a study with wild-derived house mice (Mus musculus musculus) in which females were experimentally mated either with their preferred or non-preferred male, and their offspring were infected with a mouse pathogen, Salmonella enterica (serovar Typhimurium). We found that offspring sired by preferred males were significantly more likely to survive the experimental infection compared to those sired by non-preferred males. We found no significant differences in the pathogen clearance or infection dynamics between the infected mice, suggesting that offspring from preferred males were better able to cope with infection and had improved tolerance rather than immune resistance. Our results provide the first direct experimental evidence within a single study that partner preferences enhance offspring resistance to infectious diseases.

  19. OLC Partners with the People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellinger, Laura M.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses ways in which Oglala Lakota College (South Dakota) helps to strengthen the cultural fabric of the Lakota community and how it has partnered with other institutions of higher learning throughout the state. Reports that the college has a number of community-based initiatives that emphasize the relationship between academics and ancestral…

  20. Partnering in the Construction Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlev Bohnstedt, Kristian; Bejder, Erik; Haugbølle, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Huge efforts have been made in order to stimulate thorough improvements in the construction industry in terms of value for money, feasibility and consistency when facilitating a partnering approach. Despite this attention there is limited documentation on the development of research trends, thus...

  1. Beijing 2008 Olympic Games Partners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ At Olympic times, many business giants try to expand their influence by sponsoring the Games. The Games is an opportunity for them to turn from a national to an international brand. Here are brief introductions to some of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games partners.

  2. Intimate partner violence among pregnant women in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siziya Seter

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV, defined as actual or threatened physical, sexual, psychological, and emotional abuse by current or former partners is a global public health concern. The prevalence and determinants of intimate partner violence (IPV against pregnant women has not been described in Rwanda. A study was conducted to identify variables associated with IPV among Rwandan pregnant women. Methods A convenient sample of 600 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were administered a questionnaire which included items on demographics, HIV status, IPV, and alcohol use by the male partner. Mean age and proportions of IPV in different groups were assessed. Odds of IPV were estimated using logistic regression analysis. Results Of the 600 respondents, 35.1% reported IPV in the last 12 months. HIV+ pregnant women had higher rates of all forms of IVP violence than HIV- pregnant women: pulling hair (44.3% vs. 20.3%, slapping (32.0% vs. 15.3%, kicking with fists (36.3% vs. 19.7%, throwing to the ground and kicking with feet (23.3% vs. 12.7%, and burning with hot liquid (4.1% vs. 3.5%. HIV positive participants were more than twice likely to report physical IPV than those who were HIV negative (OR = 2.38; 95% CI [1.59, 3.57]. Other factors positively associated with physical IPV included sexual abuse before the age of 14 years (OR = 2.69; 95% CI [1.69, 4.29], having an alcohol drinking male partner (OR = 4.10; 95% CI [2.48, 6.77] for occasional drinkers and OR = 3.37; 95% CI [2.05, 5.54] for heavy drinkers, and having a male partner with other sexual partners (OR = 1.53; 95% CI [1.15, 2.20]. Education was negatively associated with lifetime IPV. Conclusion We have reported on prevalence of IPV violence among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Rwanda, Central Africa. We advocate that screening for IPV be an integral part of HIV and AIDS care, as well as routine antenatal care. Services for battered women should also be

  3. The Effects of Neighborhood Proportion of Single-Parent Families and Mother-Adolescent Relationships on Adolescents' Number of Sexual Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, H. Harrington; Gilson, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Using both individual-level and census-level data, this study predicts the number of sexual partners reported by male and female adolescents from the quality of their mother relationship and neighborhood proportion of single-parent families. Both predictors were associated with number of sexual partners for both males and females in OLS analyses.…

  4. Men as partners: happenings around the globe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A number of activities are underway in conjunction with AVSC's Men As Partners initiative to increase men's participation in reproductive health. On March 31 and April 1, 10 reproductive health experts from across the US met at AVSC's headquarters in New York to draft a reproductive health model for men. The first model of comprehensive clinical and psychosocial services for men's reproductive health care in the country emerged from the meeting. The model includes screening services; information, education, and counseling services; and clinical diagnosis and treatment. Next steps include developing a training curriculum based upon the model and working with service providers at pilot sites throughout the US to implement the model. Elsewhere, AVSC and the International Planned Parenthood Federation have formed a partnership to work on gender and male involvement activities in Latin America. The Nippon Foundation recently awarded AVSC a grant to work in Pakistan to create, implement, and deliver high-quality men's reproductive health services in 50-60 health centers. Furthermore, AVSC has produced a short video on why clients believe male involvement in reproductive health is important; AVSC is conducting research in three districts in Kenya to identify factors which change men's reproductive health attitudes and behaviors; and AVSC and the Futures Group International are working on a pilot project to market health services to Spanish-speaking men in El Paso, Texas and Juarez, Mexico.

  5. Women's beliefs about male circumcision, HIV prevention, and sexual behaviors in Kisumu, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H Riess

    Full Text Available It is important to understand how women's sexual practices may be influenced by male circumcision (MC as an HIV prevention effort. Women's beliefs about MC and sexual behaviour will likely influence the scale-up and uptake of medical MC. We conducted qualitative interviews with 30 sexually active women in Kisumu, Kenya. Women discussed MC related to perceived health benefits, condom use, sexual behaviour, knowledge of susceptibility to HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs, circumcision preference, and influence on circumcision uptake. Respondents had a good understanding of the partial protection of MC for acquisition of HIV for men. Women perceived circumcised men as cleaner, carrying fewer diseases, and taking more time to reach ejaculation. Male's circumcision status is a salient factor for women's sexual decision making, including partner choice, and condom use. It will be important that educational information affirms that MC provides only partial protection against female to male transmission of HIV and some STIs; that other HIV and STI prevention methods such as condoms need to be used in conjunction with MC; that MC does not preclude a man from having HIV; and that couples should develop plans for not having sex while the man is healing.

  6. The male role in cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castellsagué Xavier

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental, clinical, and epidemiological evidence strongly suggests that genital Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs are predominantly sexually transmitted. Epidemiological studies in virginal and HPV-negative women clearly indicate that sexual intercourse is virtually a necessary step for acquiring HPV. As with any other sexually transmitted disease (STD men are implicated in the epidemiological chain of the infection. Penile HPVs are predominantly acquired through sexual contacts. Sexual contacts with women who are prostitutes play an important role in HPV transmission and in some populations sex workers may become an important reservoir of high-risk HPVs. Acting both as "carriers" and "vectors" of oncogenic HPVs male partners may markedly contribute to the risk of developing cervical cancer in their female partners. Thus, in the absence of screening programs, a woman's risk of cervical cancer may depend less on her own sexual behavior than on that of her husband or other male partners. Although more rarely than women, men may also become the "victims" of their own HPV infections as a fraction of infected men are at an increased risk of developing penile and anal cancers. Male circumcision status has been shown to reduce the risk not only of acquiring and transmitting genital HPVs but also of cervical cancer in their female partners. More research is needed to better understand the natural history and epidemiology of HPV infections in men.

  7. Gender differences in partners of patients with COPD and their perceptions about the patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakken N

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nienke Nakken,1 Daisy JA Janssen,1,2 Monique van Vliet,3 Geeuwke J de Vries,4 Giny AL Clappers-Gielen,5 Arent Jan Michels,6 Jean WM Muris,7 Jan H Vercoulen,8 Emiel FM Wouters,1,9 Martijn A Spruit1 1Department of Research and Education, CIRO, Horn, 2Centre of Expertise for Palliative Care, Maastricht University Medical Centre+ (MUMC+, Maastricht, 3Department of Respiratory Medicine, Zuyderland, Heerlen, 4Department of Respiratory Medicine, Zuyderland, Sittard-Geleen, 5Department of Respiratory Medicine, Elkerliek Hospital, Helmond, 6Department of Respiratory Medicine, St Anna Hospital, Geldrop, 7Department of Family Medicine, CAPHRI School of Public Health and Primary Care, Maastricht University, Maastricht, 8Department of Medical Psychology and Department of Pulmonary Diseases, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, 9Department of Respiratory Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Centre+ (MUMC+, Maastricht, the Netherlands Background/objectives: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD not only affects patients but also their partners. Gender-related differences in patients with COPD are known, for instance regarding symptoms and quality of life. Yet, research regarding gender differences in partners of patients with COPD has been conducted to a lesser extent, and most research focused on female partners. We aimed to investigate differences between male and female partners of patients with COPD regarding their own characteristics and their perceptions of patients’ characteristics.Design: Cross-sectional study.Setting: Four hospitals in the Netherlands.Participants: One hundred and eighty-eight patient–partner couples were included in this cross-sectional study.Measurements: General and clinical characteristics, health status, care dependency, symptoms of anxiety and depression, social support, caregiver burden, and coping styles were assessed during a home visit.Results: Female partners had more symptoms of anxiety and a

  8. Generational differences in male sexuality that may affect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine generational differences in male sexuality, which could predispose men's female sexual partners to STDs/HlV. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Harare, Zimbabwe. Subjects: Three hundred and ninety seven male adults aged eighteen years and above. Main outcome measures: Number of ...

  9. How do physicians and their partners coordinate their careers and private lives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Martina; Buddeberg-Fischer, Barbara

    2011-03-25

    Over the past few years, there has been increasing interest in the question of how couples coordinate their careers and private lives. The aim of this study was to investigate the career arrangements of physicians and their partners according to gender and parenthood status, and to compare dual-physician couples with other types of couples. Data pertaining to 414 physicians (214 females, 51.7%; 200 males, 48.3%) from a cohort of medical school graduates participating in the SwissMedCareer Study was analysed according to socio-demographic variables, employment status and career prioritisation of the physicians and their partners. Differences in terms of gender, parenthood status and type of couple were investigated with Chi-square tests. The most prevalent career arrangement for a male physician with young children was that of full-time employment for the physician himself with a partner not in employment or working less than 50%-time. By contrast, the most common arrangement for a female physician with young children was that of 50-69% part-time employment with a partner working full-time. For couples without children, the most common arrangement was full-time employment for both partners. Dual-physician couples differed significantly from other types of couples in terms of how they rated career priority, with male physicians with physician partners more likely than male physicians with partners holding another academic degree or with non-academic partners to regard both careers as equally important (p ≤0.001). Female physicians with physician partners were more likely to consider their partners' careers as of prime importance than those with academic or non-academic partners (p ≤0.001). The priority given by couples to the man's career reflects traditional gender-role attitudes in male and female physicians. Starting a family slows down the career progress of female physicians but not of male physicians. Providing more childcare facilities in hospitals and

  10. Sex in a lifetime: Sexual behaviors in the United States by lifetime number of sex partners, 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haderxhanaj, Laura T; Leichliter, Jami S; Aral, Sevgi O; Chesson, Harrell W

    2014-06-01

    Using data from the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth, we found that lifetime number of vaginal sex partners is positively associated with the number of sex partners in the past 12 months and negatively associated with age at first vaginal intercourse among 15- to 44-year-old male and female respondents.

  11. Limited results of group self-management education for rheumatoid arthritis patients and their partners: explanations from the patient perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bode, C.; Taal, E.; Emons, P.A.A.; Galetzka, M.; Rasker, J.J.; Laar, M.A.F.J. van de

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the reasons for limited results of group self-management for RA patients and their partners from the patient perspective. Semi-structured interviews with ten male and ten female patients who had participated in group self-management with or without their partner were

  12. Limited results of group self-management education for rheumatoid arthritis patients and their partners: Explanations from the patient perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bode, Christina; Taal, Erik; Emons, P.A.A.; Galetzka, Mirjam; Rasker, Johannes J.; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the reasons for limited results of group self-management for RA patients and their partners from the patient perspective. Semi-structured interviews with ten male and ten female patients who had participated in group self-management with or without their partner were

  13. Posttraumatic growth in cancer patients and partners--effects of role, gender and the dyad on couples' posttraumatic growth experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwahlen, Diana; Hagenbuch, Niels; Carley, Margaret I; Jenewein, Josef; Buchi, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about factors influencing positive effects in couples facing a cancer diagnosis. A heterogeneous sample of 224 couples from a multi-site study (four oncology units) completed questionnaire surveys including the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) as a measure of positive psychological effects. The data demonstrated that all three investigated factors--gender, role (patient vs partner) and the dyad (belonging to any of the 224 couples)--significantly contributed to variation in PTGI total scores and subscales. Variability between couples (factor dyad) appeared stronger than variability between patient and partner participants (factor role) and between male and female participants (factor gender). Role and gender analysis showed that patients demonstrated higher levels of posttraumatic growth than partners; and female participants scored higher on PTGI than males. Male patient-female partner pairs show greater association in their experience of posttraumatic growth than female patient-male partner pairs. Correlations also suggested that, regardless of the gender and role composition, patients and partners may experience parallel growth. Our findings indicate that positive psychological experiences may be shared by partners affected by cancer in similar ways as have been shown for negative psychological effects. Intra-couple similarities or processes may have a more important function in experiencing benefits than factors like gender or being the patient or the partner. These results underline the importance of a family approach to understanding negative and positive psychological effects of cancer. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Sanctions as a tactic used in partner conflicts: theoretical, operational, and preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstok, Zeev; Smadar-Dror, Ronit

    2015-07-01

    Partner sanction in this study is a form/tactic of violence, much like verbal and physical violence, which partners use toward each other during their conflicts. The partner sanction embodies a temporary deprivation of a mutually agreed-on right. The purpose of this study is to develop a theoretical and operational framework of sanctions partners use. The study sampled 74 heterosexual couples from the general population (148 male and female participants). The findings support the validity and reliability of the sanction measurement. Furthermore, findings indicate that the use of sanctions between partners is highly prevalent among men and women in the general population; that the more one partner uses sanctions, the more the other partner uses it; and that sanctions are strongly associated with other violent tactics partners use in their conflict (i.e., verbal and physical). Theoretical and empirical implications of the theoretical framework and the findings are discussed, including the role of sanctions in partner conflicts that escalate to severe forms of violence. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Does alcohol involvement increase the severity of intimate partner violence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Christy M; Caetano, Raul; Rodriguez, Lori A; Okoro, Ngozi

    2010-04-01

    Most studies that have examined alcohol use immediately prior to intimate partner violence (IPV) have been limited to male-to-female partner violence (MFPV) and are subject to a number of methodological limitations. We add new information concerning the relationship between alcohol involvement and severity of IPV, MFPV, and female-to-male partner violence (FMPV). We analyzed data from a 1995 U.S. national population-based survey of couples > or = 18 years old. We examined 436 couples who reported IPV and had information on alcohol involvement with IPV. We measured IPV using a revised Conflict Tactics Scale, Form R that asked respondents about 11 violent behaviors in the past year. Respondents were classified into mutually exclusive categories as having experienced mild only or mild + severe ("severe") IPV, MFPV or FMPV. Respondents were also asked if they or their partner were drinking at the time the violent behavior occurred and were classified as exposed to IPV with or without alcohol involvement. We estimated proportions, odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals, and p-values of the proposed associations, accounting for the complex survey design. Overall, 30.2% of couples who reported IPV reported alcohol involved IPV; 69.8% reported no alcohol involvement. In adjusted analyses, those reporting severe (vs. mild only) IPV were more than twice as likely to report alcohol involvement. In adjusted analyses, those reporting severe (vs. mild) MFPV or FMPV were more likely to report female but not male alcohol involvement. Though estimates were positive and strong, most confidence intervals were compatible with a wide range of estimates including no association. Our findings suggest alcohol involvement of either or both in the couple increases the risk of severe IPV. Our findings also suggest female alcohol use may play an important role in determining the severity of IPV, MFPV or FMPV.

  16. Chalmydia trachomatis infection among asymptomatic males in an infertility clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mania - Pramanik J

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis can lead to a variety of complications including tubal infertility. Similarly asymptomatic infection in male partner can also hinder conception. The prevalence of this infection among the infertile female in the Institute′s Infertility Clinic was observed to be 34%. Hence the present study was undertaken to find out these infection among the asymptomatic male partners of these infected women. Fifteen asymptomatic males who were not treated with any antibiotics in recent past were enrolled. First voided urine, semen and blood were collected from each individual for diagnosis of this infection. Chlamydia antigen was detected in 33.3% while Chlamydia antibody was detected in seven (46.7% of these cases. Of these seven, three cases were positive for antigen. This preliminary observation suggests that amongst the infertile couple a sizable percentage (60% of asymptomatic male partners remain infected with Chlamydia trachomatis.

  17. An exploratory study of HIV risk behaviours and testing among male sex workers in Beirut, Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunon, Frances M.; Wagner, Glenn J.; Maher, Rabih; Khouri, Danielle; Kaplan, Rachel L.; Mokhbat, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Male sex workers (MSW) are a particularly high-risk subset of men who have sex with men in Lebanon and report higher numbers of sex partners and lower rates of condom use. The purpose was to explore the factors influencing sexual risk behaviors and HIV testing among MSW. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 16 MSW living in Beirut and working in bathhouses (hammam) or as escorts; content analysis identified emergent themes. Escorts reported more consistent condom use with clients and HIV testing than hammam MSW, with influential factors including HIV risk knowledge and perceived risk susceptibility, job security, and internalized stigma and related feelings of self-worth and fatalism regarding health and HIV risk. In contrast, both groups of MSW typically opted not to condoms with nonclient sex partners, in an effort to differentiate sex for work versus pleasure. The uptake of HIV testing was limited by concerns about the confidentiality of the test results and fear of repercussions of a positive test result for their health and employment. The respondents described an insular existence within the sex work culture, in part to limit exposure to stigma, which has implications for access to support as well as the influence of peer norms regarding sexual risk behavior and health seeking behaviors such as HIV testing. Further research is needed to tailor prevention and HIV testing efforts to reflect the distinct sexual health “cultures” that distinguish these two populations of MSW in Lebanon. PMID:25950906

  18. Gender, mature appearance, alcohol use, and dating as correlates of sexual partner accumulation from ages 16-26 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Collins, W Andrew

    2008-06-01

    To determine growth in sexual partnering from age 16-26 years, and to test whether biological and social factors launched these growth patterns. A prospective design was used. Participants were 176 young people (47% female) followed from birth to age 26 years. Sexual partnering was measured as the accumulated number of different sexual intercourse partners at ages 16, 19, 23, and 26 years. Physical appearance of maturity, alcohol use, and dating were measured at ages 13-16 via observations, interviews, and questionnaires. Mature appearance at age 13 years, use of alcohol more than monthly at age 16, and a history of a steady romantic partner before age 16 were each associated with a greater number of sexual intercourse partners by age 16. However a more mature appearance, more frequent alcohol use, and greater dating involvement did not foreshadow a steeper accumulation of sexual partners between ages 16 and 26. Only gender had such a "growth" influence, with males accruing sexual partners more rapidly from the ages of 16-26 years when compared with females. Adolescents had accumulated a higher number of sexual partners by age 16 years when they looked older, drank alcohol more frequently, and were more involved with dating in early to middle adolescence. Also male gender was associated with accumulation of sexual partners more rapidly between ages 16 and 26 years, and there was little indication that the accumulation of different sexual partners had begun to slow by age 26 for the average participant.

  19. Genital Herpes in Marital Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jacob

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available During 1983-86, 225 patients were clinically diagnosed to have genital herpes (GH at our clinic. Of these, 90 men and 55 women were currently married. All the spouses were screened clinically and through standardized techniques for isolation and typing of herpes simplex virus, serological testing and Papanicolaou smear. There were 90 couples in whom at least one spouse had GH and in 38 (42% couples both partners had GH. Clinically, 49% of wives and 75% of husbands of GH patients were diagnosed to have the disease. The spouses of recurrent GH patients had a higher frequency of the disease than spouses of primary GH patients. Among spouses who were clinically asymptomatic, 40% had high serological titres suggestive of GH. Wives generally experienced more severe symptoms, especially pain in the lesions. Majority of lesions in both the partners were vesicles and ulcers. Prodromata were more among recurrent GH patients in both the partners. The frequency of recurrences wasalso similar in spouses. Seventy percent of wives and 40% of husbands could not identify any precipitating factor. Intercourse, physical stress and rich food were cited as possible factors in the remaining. All the wives had acquired the diseases through their husbands who were promiscuous. Fifty percent of husbands had been infected before marriage. Given the fact that asymptomatic carriers exist, it is better to consider all marital partners of GH as infected. Repeated and long-term follow, - up examination, particularly of wives of GH patients is therefore essential as an important socio-preventive aspect of this disease.

  20. Does patient-delivered partner treatment improve disclosure for treatable sexually transmitted diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Hamish; Leichliter, Jami S; Schmidt, Norine; Farley, Thomas A; Kissinger, Patricia

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the factors associated with disclosure of three treatable sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Data were obtained from two intervention trials to determine the ideal means of partner referral. Men diagnosed with urethritis and women diagnosed with trichomoniasis at public clinics in New Orleans, Louisiana were randomly assigned to partner referral (PR), booklet-enhanced partner referral (BEPR), or patient-delivered partner treatment (PDPT). Participants were asked about sex partners at baseline, then whether they disclosed to them at follow-up. The male trial was conducted from December 2001 to March 2004 and the female trial from December 2001 to August 2004. Data on men and women were analyzed separately. Nine hundred seventy-seven men and 463 women-reporting information on 1991 and 521 sex partners-were respectively enrolled in each trial. Disclosure occurred to 57.8% and 87.3% of their partners, respectively. Most men (68.3%) reported having two or more partners and disclosure was more likely to occur in: those who reported only one sex partner (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.54 [1.10, 2.16]); those in steady relationships (OR [95% CI]: 1.37 [1.08,1.74]); and those assigned PDPT [OR [95% CI]: 2.71 [1.93,3.82]). Most women reported having only one partner (86.8%) and disclosure was more likely to occur in steady relationships (OR [95% CI]: 2.65 [1.24,5.66]), and when sex was reinitiated with partners during the follow-up period (OR [95% CI]: 3.30 [1.54,7.09]). The provision of PDPT was associated with increased STD disclosure among men but not among women. Both men and women were less likely to disclose to casual partners. Women had high rates of disclosure irrespective of intervention arm.

  1. Psychological and Relational Correlates of Intimate Partner Violence Profiles Among Pregnant Adolescent Couples

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Jessica B.; Sullivan, Tami P.; Angley, Meghan; Callands, Tamora; Divney, Anna A.; Magriples, Urania; Gordon, Derrick M.; Kershaw, Trace S.

    2016-01-01

    We sought to identify relationship and individual psychological factors that related to four profiles of intimate partner violence (IPV) among pregnant adolescent couples: no IPV, male IPV victim only, female IPV victim only, mutual IPV, and how associations differ by sex. Using data from a longitudinal study of pregnant adolescents and partners (n = 291 couples), we used a multivariate profile analysis using multivariate analysis of covariance with between and within-subjects effects to comp...

  2. Fertility among descendants of immigrants in Belgium: The role of the partner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Van Landschoot

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research on the fertility behavior of descendants of immigrants has focused on female characteristics and has largely neglected those of the male partner. One key aspect is whether the partner is of same (endogamous or of different (exogamous ethnic origin. Moreover, the male partner may be born in the same country as the female partner, or he may have migrated to that country later in the life course. Consequently, both his ethnic origin and migration history may affect the fertility behavior of second-generation women. Objective: This study analyzes to what extent second and higher order births of second-generation women of Southern European, Turkish, or Moroccan origin in Belgium differ by the ethnic origin and migration history of the male partner. Methods: We apply event history methods using the 2001 Belgian Census, linked with the 2006 Belgian National Population Register. Results: Women of Turkish and Moroccan origin in an endogamous union experience higher second and subsequent birth rates than their counterparts in an exogamous union. However, no variation is found within the endogamous unions: Whether or not the endogamous partner has been born in the country of origin does not seem to affect second and higher order birth rates. For women of Southern European origin, second and higher order birth rates do not differ by origin and generation of their partner. Contribution: This study extends the literature on the fertility behavior of the descendants of immigrants by demonstrating the importance of male partner characteristics in explaining the transition to a second or a higher order birth.

  3. Trichomoniasis as sexually transmitted disease in sex partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvathi C

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of 30 male consorts of 30 cases of vaginal trichomoniasis with high levels of parasitic infection was undertaken to evaluate the sexually transmitted role of trichomoniasis in sex partners. There were 20 symptomatic and 10 asymptomatic male partners, who revealed T. vaginalis in 80.0% and 60.0 of the cases respectively and the overall prevalence was 73.3% (22 Of 30. T. vaginalis was detected in 83.3% male with urethritis and 50.0% males with prostatitis. Detection of trichomonas in urethral discharge, morning drop secretion, urine deposit and prostatic fluid was 80.0%, 50.0% 35.7% and 21.4% in that order. It is evident from these results that the sex consorts of all cases of trichomoniasis should be considered as harbouring T. vaginalis in their genito-urinary tract as carriers and be treated to break the chain of transmission. Fontanna smear was superior to culture and wet mount in the detection of T. vaginalis, the success rates being 73.3%, 63.3% and 53.3%. A good correlation was observed between smear and culture at high levels of parasitic infection.

  4. Tips for Postpartum Dads and Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blues: Partners Interview with Wade Bowen Coping with Suicide & Loss Tips for Postpartum Dads and Partners Pregnancy and postpartum mood and anxiety disorders affect the whole family. Here are some tips ...

  5. Intimate Partner Violence, 1993-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2015 Special Report NCJ 2392 03 Intimate Partner Violence, 1993–2010 Shannan Catalano, Ph.D., BJS Statistician ... to 2010, the overall rate of intimate partner violence in the United States declined by 64%, from ...

  6. Male infertility and its causes in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Toshinobu; Tsujimura, Akira; Miyagawa, Yasushi; Koh, Eitetsu; Namiki, Mikio; Sengoku, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Infertility is one of the most serious social problems facing advanced nations. In general, approximate half of all cases of infertility are caused by factors related to the male partner. To date, various treatments have been developed for male infertility and are steadily producing results. However, there is no effective treatment for patients with nonobstructive azoospermia, in which there is an absence of mature sperm in the testes. Although evidence suggests that many patients with male infertility have a genetic predisposition to the condition, the cause has not been elucidated in the vast majority of cases. This paper discusses the environmental factors considered likely to be involved in male infertility and the genes that have been clearly shown to be involved in male infertility in humans, including our recent findings.

  7. Male Infertility and Its Causes in Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshinobu Miyamoto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infertility is one of the most serious social problems facing advanced nations. In general, approximate half of all cases of infertility are caused by factors related to the male partner. To date, various treatments have been developed for male infertility and are steadily producing results. However, there is no effective treatment for patients with nonobstructive azoospermia, in which there is an absence of mature sperm in the testes. Although evidence suggests that many patients with male infertility have a genetic predisposition to the condition, the cause has not been elucidated in the vast majority of cases. This paper discusses the environmental factors considered likely to be involved in male infertility and the genes that have been clearly shown to be involved in male infertility in humans, including our recent findings.

  8. Prenatal programming of sexual partner preference: the ram model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselli, C E; Stormshak, F

    2009-03-01

    In our laboratory, the domestic ram is used as an experimental model to study the early programming of neural mechanisms underlying same-sex partner preference. This interest developed from the observation that approximately 8% of domestic rams are sexually attracted to other rams (male-oriented) in contrast to the majority of rams that are attracted to oestrous ewes (female-oriented). One prominent feature of sexual differentiation in many species is the presence of a sexually dimorphic nucleus (SDN) in the preoptic/anterior hypothalamus that is larger in males than in females. Lesion studies in rats and ferrets implicate the SDN in the expression of sexual preferences. We discovered an ovine SDN (oSDN) in the preoptic/anterior hypothalamus that is smaller in male- than in female-oriented rams and similar in size to the oSDN of ewes. Neurones of the oSDN show abundant aromatase expression that is also reduced in male-oriented compared to female-oriented rams. This observation suggests that sexual partner preferences are neurologically hard-wired and could be influenced by hormones. Aromatase-containing neurones constitute a nascent oSDN as early as day 60 of gestation, which becomes sexually dimorphic by day 135 of gestation when it is two-fold larger in males than in females. Exposure of fetal female lambs to exogenous testosterone from days 30-90 of gestation resulted in a masculinised oSDN. These data demonstrate that the oSDN develops prenatally and may influence adult sexual preferences. Surprisingly, inhibition of aromatase activity in the brain of ram foetuses during the critical period did not interfere with defeminisation of adult sexual partner preference or oSDN volume. These results fail to support an essential role for neural aromatase in the sexual differentiation of sheep brain and behaviour. Thus, we propose that oSDN morphology and male-typical partner preferences may instead be programmed through an androgen receptor mechanism not involving

  9. Grooming reciprocity in male Tibetan macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dong-Po; Li, Jin-Hua; Garber, Paul A; Matheson, Megan D; Sun, Bing-Hua; Zhu, Yong

    2013-10-01

    In several primate species, adult males are reported to compete for access to reproductive partners as well as forming affiliative and cohesive social bonds based on the exchange of goods or services. We hypothesized that among a broad set of fitness-maximizing strategies, grooming can be used by individual adult males to enhance social relationships through reciprocity and/or through the interchange of grooming for a different but equivalent good or service. We used focal animal sampling and continuously recorded dyadic grooming and agonistic interactions to test a series of predictions regarding male social interactions in a free-ranging group of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Huangshan, China. During the non-mating season or between males of similar rank throughout the year, grooming effort given was matched by grooming effort received. However, lower ranking males groomed higher ranking males at a greater rate and/or for a longer duration during both the mating and non-mating periods. We found that higher ranking males directed less aggression towards males with whom they formed a frequent grooming partnership, indicating that grooming received was interchanged for increased social tolerance. These data suggest that individual male Tibetan macaques employ alternative social strategies associated with grooming reciprocity or interchange depending on dominance rank and rates of aggression, and highlight the importance of both biological markets and grooming reciprocity as behavioral mechanisms used by resident adult males to form and maintain affiliative social bonds. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Sexual agreements and perception of HIV prevalence among an online sample of partnered men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Rob; White, Darcy; Mitchell, Jason W

    2015-10-01

    Stemming from recent evidence that between one- and two-thirds of new HIV transmissions among men who have sex with men (MSM) occur within main partnerships, research and programmatic efforts have begun to recognize the role of the male-male dyad in shaping HIV risk. Central to this new focus has been studies detailing the presence of sexual agreements, which provide guidelines governing permissions around sex with partners outside of the relationship. Using a Facebook-recruited sample of US-partnered MSM (n = 454), this study examines the associations between reporting of sexual agreements and perceptions of HIV prevalence among male sex partners, friends, and local and national MSM populations. Men who perceived that 10-20 % (OR 6.18, 95 % CI 1.28-29.77) and >20 % of their male sex partners were HIV positive (OR 2.68, 95 % CI 1.02-7.08) had significantly higher odds of reporting having an open agreement with their current main partner than men who perceived that less than 10 % of their male sex partners were HIV positive. Partnered men with open sexual agreements may have more sexual partners than those who report monogamy, possibly leading to heightened perceptions of HIV risk, which may result in reporting of perceptions of greater local HIV prevalence. Additionally, men who have made agreements with their partners may have done so due to concerns about HIV risks, and may also be more aware of increased risks of HIV infection, or may have greater knowledge of HIV prevalence through discussions of serostatus with sex partners. Attention is needed to develop prevention efforts, such as toolkits and resources that enable men to form sexual agreements that are based on comprehensive knowledge of the potential risks for acquisition of HIV.

  11. Differential processing of social chemosignals obtained from potential partners in regards to gender and sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübke, Katrin T; Hoenen, Matthias; Pause, Bettina M

    2012-03-17

    On an individual level, human body odors carry information about whether a person is an eligible mate. The current studies investigate if body odors also transmit information about individuals being potential partners in more general terms, namely in regards to gender and sexual orientation. In study 1, 14 gay and 14 heterosexual men were presented with body odors obtained from potential partners (gay male and heterosexual female body odors, respectively) and heterosexual male body odor as a control. In study 2, 14 lesbian and 14 heterosexual women were presented with lesbian female and heterosexual male body odors representing body odors of potential partners, and heterosexual female body odor as a control. Central nervous processing was analyzed using chemosensory event-related potentials and current source density analysis (64-channel EEG recording). Gay and heterosexual men responded with shorter P2 latencies to the body odors of their preferred sexual partners, and lesbian women responded with shorter P2 latencies to body odors of their preferred gender. In response to heterosexual male body odors, lesbian women displayed the most pronounced P3 amplitude, and distinct neuronal activation in medial frontal and parietal neocortical areas. A similar pattern of neuronal activation was observed in gay men when presented with heterosexual male body odor. Both the early processing advantage (P2) for desirable partners' body odors as well as the enhanced evaluative processing (P3, CSD) of undesirable partners' body odors suggest that human body odors indeed carry information about individuals being potential partners in terms of gender and sexual orientation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of potential partners' physical attractiveness and socioeconomic status on sexuality and partner selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, J M; Levy, G D

    1990-04-01

    Male (n = 170) and female (n = 212) college students viewed photographs, which had been prerated for physical attractiveness, of three opposite-sex individuals. These photographs were paired with three levels of occupational status and income. Subjects indicated their willingness to engage in relationships of varying levels of sexual intimacy and marital potential with the portrayed individuals. Analyses of variance, correlations, and trend analyses supported the hypotheses. Compared to men, women are more likely to prefer or insist that sexual intercourse occur in relationships that involve affection and marital potential, and women place more emphasis than men do on partners' SES in such relationships. Consequently, men's SES and their willingness and ability to invest affection and resources in relationships may often outweigh the effects of their physical attractiveness in women's actual selection of partners. These results and the literature reviewed are more consistent with parental investment theory than with the view that these sex differences are solely the result of differential access to resources and differential socialization.

  13. The Long-Term Effects of Stress on Partner Weight Characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M Fletcher

    Full Text Available Recent experimental evidence suggests that stressed males find heavier women more attractive than non-stressed males. The aim of this study is to examine whether these results also appear in actual mating patterns of adults from a national sample.Regression analysis linking partner weight measures to own measures of childhood stress, as measured by mistreatment. Cross-sectional data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, Romantic Partners Sample is used to measure partner weight, childhood stressful events, and socio-demographic characteristics. Childhood experiences of adult mistreatment are retrospectively collected.Men who experienced childhood mistreatment are more likely to have obese female partners during young adulthood. The results are strongest for interactions with social services, adult neglect and physical abuse. We also present novel evidence of the opposite association in similarly stressed women whose male partners are more likely to be thin.These results suggest that preferences for partner characteristics are sensitive to histories of stress and that previously hypothesized patterns occur outside the experimental setting.

  14. Barriers to Screening for Intimate Partner Violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprague, Sheila; Madden, Kim; Simunovic, Nicole; Godin, Katelyn; Pham, Ngan K.; Bhandari, Mohit; Goslings, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Health care providers play a vital role in the detection of intimate partner violence among their patients. Despite the recommendations for routine intimate partner violence screening in various medical settings, health care providers do not routinely screen for intimate partner

  15. Positive illusions about one's partner's physical attractiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds-Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P. H.

    This study examined couples' ratings of self and partner physical attractiveness. On the basis of the theory of positive illusions, it was expected that individuals would rate their partners as more attractive than their partners would rate themselves. Both members of 93 heterosexual couples, with a

  16. Quality of life of victims of intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, T W; Leung, W C; Ng, E H Y; Ho, P C

    2005-09-01

    To evaluate the impact of intimate partner violence on the quality of life in Obstetric/Gynecological (OBGYN) patients. A total of 1614 OBGYN patients were classified into four groups (Group 1: requesting termination of pregnancy, n=300; Group 2: infertility patients, n=500; Group 3: other general gynecological patients, n=300; Group 4: obstetric patients, n=514) were successfully interviewed in the absence of their male partners, using a structured questionnaire modified from the Abuse Assessment Screen Questionnaire. Those who reported ever having been abused, together with an equal number of non-abused women as controls, were asked to complete the World Health Organization Quality of Life Measure - Abbreviated version (Hong Kong) Questionnaire. The overall lifetime prevalence of intimate partner violence was 7.2%, with the lifetime prevalence being 12.7%, 1.8%, 4.7%, and 10.9% respectively in Groups 1-4. The mean quality of life domain scores among the abused victims were significantly lower in the physical health domain, social relationship domain, environment domain and psychological health domain. The baseline quality of life of the victims of intimate partner violence is significantly impaired compared with the non-abused controls.

  17. Depressive Symptoms, Friend and Partner Relationship Quality, and Posttreatment Abstinence*

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Laura G.; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study employed a prospective design to examine the role of friend and partner relationship quality 1 year following substance use disorder treatment in the association between depressive symptoms at discharge from treatment and abstinence from substance use 2 years after treatment. Method: The sample consisted of 1,453 male veterans who used alcohol and at least one other substance in the 3 months before treatment admission, who completed treatment, and who were abstinent from substances during the 2 weeks before discharge. Results: Fewer depressive symptoms at treatment discharge predicted better relationship quality with friends and a partner at 1 -year follow-up, as well as abstinence from substance use at 2-year follow-up. Furthermore, friend and partner relationship quality at 1 year predicted abstinence from substance use at 2 years. Friend relationship quality at 1 year mediated part of the association between fewer depressive symptoms at treatment discharge and abstinence at 2-year follow-up. Conclusions: A stronger focus in treatment on reducing depressive symptoms and enhancing the quality of patients' relationships with their friends and partner may increase the likelihood of long-term abstinence. PMID:21138721

  18. Local quantum thermal susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pasquale, Antonella; Rossini, Davide; Fazio, Rosario; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2016-09-01

    Thermodynamics relies on the possibility to describe systems composed of a large number of constituents in terms of few macroscopic variables. Its foundations are rooted into the paradigm of statistical mechanics, where thermal properties originate from averaging procedures which smoothen out local details. While undoubtedly successful, elegant and formally correct, this approach carries over an operational problem, namely determining the precision at which such variables are inferred, when technical/practical limitations restrict our capabilities to local probing. Here we introduce the local quantum thermal susceptibility, a quantifier for the best achievable accuracy for temperature estimation via local measurements. Our method relies on basic concepts of quantum estimation theory, providing an operative strategy to address the local thermal response of arbitrary quantum systems at equilibrium. At low temperatures, it highlights the local distinguishability of the ground state from the excited sub-manifolds, thus providing a method to locate quantum phase transitions.

  19. Topological Susceptibility from Slabs

    CERN Document Server

    Bietenholz, Wolfgang; Gerber, Urs

    2015-01-01

    In quantum field theories with topological sectors, a non-perturbative quantity of interest is the topological susceptibility chi_t. In principle it seems straightforward to measure chi_t by means of Monte Carlo simulations. However, for local update algorithms and fine lattice spacings, this tends to be difficult, since the Monte Carlo history rarely changes the topological sector. Here we test a method to measure chi_t even if data from only one sector are available. It is based on the topological charges in sub-volumes, which we denote as slabs. Assuming a Gaussian distribution of these charges, this method enables the evaluation of chi_t, as we demonstrate with numerical results for non-linear sigma-models.

  20. Topological susceptibility from slabs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bietenholz, Wolfgang [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-543, Distrito Federal, C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Forcrand, Philippe de [Institute for Theoretical Physics, ETH Zürich,CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); CERN, Physics Department, TH Unit, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Gerber, Urs [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-543, Distrito Federal, C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo,Edificio C-3, Apdo. Postal 2-82, Morelia, Michoacán, C.P. 58040 (Mexico)

    2015-12-14

    In quantum field theories with topological sectors, a non-perturbative quantity of interest is the topological susceptibility χ{sub t}. In principle it seems straightforward to measure χ{sub t} by means of Monte Carlo simulations. However, for local update algorithms and fine lattice spacings, this tends to be difficult, since the Monte Carlo history rarely changes the topological sector. Here we test a method to measure χ{sub t} even if data from only one sector are available. It is based on the topological charges in sub-volumes, which we denote as slabs. Assuming a Gaussian distribution of these charges, this method enables the evaluation of χ{sub t}, as we demonstrate with numerical results for non-linear σ-models.

  1. Local quantum thermal susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pasquale, Antonella; Rossini, Davide; Fazio, Rosario; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    Thermodynamics relies on the possibility to describe systems composed of a large number of constituents in terms of few macroscopic variables. Its foundations are rooted into the paradigm of statistical mechanics, where thermal properties originate from averaging procedures which smoothen out local details. While undoubtedly successful, elegant and formally correct, this approach carries over an operational problem, namely determining the precision at which such variables are inferred, when technical/practical limitations restrict our capabilities to local probing. Here we introduce the local quantum thermal susceptibility, a quantifier for the best achievable accuracy for temperature estimation via local measurements. Our method relies on basic concepts of quantum estimation theory, providing an operative strategy to address the local thermal response of arbitrary quantum systems at equilibrium. At low temperatures, it highlights the local distinguishability of the ground state from the excited sub-manifolds, thus providing a method to locate quantum phase transitions. PMID:27681458

  2. Susceptibility to anchoring effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd McElroy

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous research on anchoring has shown this heuristic to be a very robust psychological phenomenon ubiquitous across many domains of human judgment and decision-making. Despite the prevalence of anchoring effects, researchers have only recently begun to investigate the underlying factors responsible for how and in what ways a person is susceptible to them. This paper examines how one such factor, the Big-Five personality trait of openness-to-experience, influences the effect of previously presented anchors on participants' judgments. Our findings indicate that participants high in openness-to-experience were significantly more influenced by anchoring cues relative to participants low in this trait. These findings were consistent across two different types of anchoring tasks providing convergent evidence for our hypothesis.

  3. Prevalence, frequency, and associations of masturbation with partnered sexual behaviors among US adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Cynthia L; Schick, Vanessa; Reece, Michael; Herbenick, Debra; Sanders, Stephanie A; Dodge, Brian; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2011-12-01

    To assess masturbation prevalence, frequency, and associations with partnered sexual behaviors. Cross-sectional survey. The United States of America. Nationally representative samples of adolescents aged 14 to 17 years. Solo masturbation, partnered sexual behaviors, and condom use. Across age groups, more males (73.8%) reported masturbation than females (48.1%). Among males, masturbation occurrence increased with age: at age 14 years, 62.6% of males reported at least 1 prior occurrence, whereas 80% of 17-year-old males reported ever having masturbated. Recent masturbation also increased with age in males: 67.6% of 17-year-olds reported masturbation in the past month, compared with 42.9% of 14-year-olds. In females, prior masturbation increased with age (58% at age 17 years compared with 43.3% at age 14 years), but recent masturbation did not. Masturbation was associated with numerous partnered sexual behaviors in both males and females. In males, masturbation was associated with condom use, but in females it was not. Sexual development is a dynamic process during adolescence, and masturbation is an enduring component of sexuality. Fundamental differences appear to exist between male and female sexual expression. Health care providers should recognize that many teens masturbate and discuss masturbation with patients because masturbation is integral to normal sexual development.

  4. Experimentally Measured Susceptibility to Peer Influence and Adolescent Sexual Behavior Trajectories: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Giletta, Matteo; Widman, Laura; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2014-01-01

    A performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility was examined as a moderator of the longitudinal association between peer norms and trajectories of adolescents' number of sexual intercourse partners. Seventy-one 9th grade adolescents (52% female) participated in an experimental "chat room" paradigm involving…

  5. Experimentally measured susceptibility to peer influence and adolescent sexual behavior trajectories : A preliminary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choukas-Bradley, S.; Giletta, M.; Widman, L.; Cohen, G.L.; Prinstein, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    A performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility was examined as a moderator of the longitudinal association between peer norms and trajectories of adolescents' number of sexual intercourse partners. Seventy-one 9th grade adolescents (52% female) participated in an experimental "chat

  6. Psychological Predictors of Sexual Intimate Partner Violence against Black and Hispanic Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preiser, Brianna; Assari, Shervin

    2017-12-27

    Background: Although various types of intimate partner violence (IPV) tend to co-occur, risk factors of each type of IPV may differ. At the same time, most of the existing literature on risk factors of IPV among minorities has used a cross-sectional design and has focused on physical rather than sexual IPV. We conducted the current study to compare Black and Hispanic women for psychological predators of change in sexual IPV over time. Methods: Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS), this study followed 561 Black and 475 Hispanic women with their male partners for four years. Independent variables included male partners' depression, anxiety, problem alcohol use, and male-to-female physical and psychological IPV perpetration. The dependent variable was sexual IPV reported by female partners, measured at baseline, two years, and four years later. Covariates included age, income, marital status and educational level. We used a multi-group latent growth curve model (LGCM) to explain intercept, linear, and quadratic slopes, which represent the baseline, and linear and curvilinear trajectories of male-to-female sexual IPV, where groups were defined based on ethnicity. Results: Psychological IPV was associated with sexual IPV at baseline among both ethnic groups. The male partner's depression was a risk factor for an increase in sexual IPV over time among Black but not Hispanic women. Anxiety, problem alcohol use and physical IPV did not have an effect on the baseline or change in sexual IPV over time. Psychological IPV was not associated with an increase in sexual IPV over time in either ethnic groups. Conclusions: There is a need for screening of sexual IPV in the presence of psychological IPV among minority women. There is also a need for screening and treatment of male partners' depression as a strategy to reduce sexual IPV among Black women.

  7. Increasing Partner Attendance in Antenatal Care and HIV Testing Services: Comparable Outcomes Using Written versus Verbal Invitations in an Urban Facility-Based Controlled Intervention Trial in Mbeya, Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Theuring

    Full Text Available In many Sub-Saharan African settings male partner involvement in antenatal care (ANC remains low, although great benefits for maternal and infant health outcomes have been long recognised, in particular regarding the prevention of HIV transmission. Yet there is paucity on evidence regarding the effectiveness of strategies to increase male partner involvement. This controlled intervention trial in Ruanda Health Centre in Mbeya, Tanzania, assessed the effectiveness of invitation letters for male involvement in ANC. Pregnant women approaching ANC without partners received official letters inviting the partner to attend ANC. A control group was instructed to verbally invite partners. Partner attendance was recorded at two subsequent ANC visits. Rates for male partner return, couple voluntary counselling and testing (CVCT, and influencing factors were analysed. From 199 ANC clients in total, 97 were assigned to the invitation letter group; 30 of these (30.9% returned with their male partners for ANC. In the control group of 102 women, 28 (27.5% returned with their partner. In both groups CVCT rates among jointly returning couples were 100%. Partner return/CVCT rate was not statistically different in intervention and control group (OR 1.2, p = 0.59. Former partner attendance at ANC during a previous pregnancy was the only factor found to be significantly linked with partner return (p = 0.03. Our study demonstrates that rather simple measures to increase male partner attendance in ANC and CVCT can be effective, with written and verbal invitations having comparable outcomes. In terms of practicability in Sub-Saharan African settings, we recommend systematic coaching of ANC clients on how to verbally invite male partners in the first instance, followed by written invitation letters for partners in case of their non-attendance. Further studies covering both urban and rural settings will be more informative for effective translation into policy.

  8. Accounting for Intimate Partner Violence: A Biographical Analysis of Narrative Strategies Used by Men Experiencing IPV From Their Female Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbally, Melissa

    2015-10-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious social issue which affects the medium- and long-term health outcomes of many individuals worldwide. The cost of IPV on the physical and psychological well-being of individuals, in addition to its wider economic costs in responding to abused persons, is significant. Presently, there is a lack of understanding about the nature of female-initiated IPV and how men account for their experiences of it. This study examined male victims' life stories of their IPV experiences from their intimate partners. Using the biographical narrative interpretive method, three cases were analyzed from a social constructionist perspective to examine what narrative strategies men used to account for their experiences of being abused by their female partners. Three dominant narrative strategies were used by respondents: the fatherhood narrative, the good husband narrative, and the abuse narrative. The abuse narrative had a unique narrative form, which reflected respondents' disassociation between their identities as men and also as abused persons. Dominant conflicting discourses of masculinity and intimate partner abuse disadvantaged men in identifying IPV and secondly in responding appropriately. This study found that men prefer to use dominant discursive identities as legitimate means from which to disclose IPV experiences. The findings from this study illustrate that broad questioning by professionals regarding fatherhood may be most helpful in promoting disclosures of IPV if this is suspected. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Positive illusions about one's partner's physical attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barelds-Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P H

    2008-03-01

    This study examined couples' ratings of self and partner physical attractiveness. On the basis of the theory of positive illusions, it was expected that individuals would rate their partners as more attractive than their partners would rate themselves. Both members of 93 heterosexual couples, with a mean relationship length of about 14 years, provided ratings of both their own and their partner's physical attractiveness. Results support the theory that individuals hold positive illusions about their partner's physical attractiveness. Implications of these results in terms of relationship-enhancing biases are discussed.

  10. Endorsement of Social and Personal Values Predicts the Desirability of Men and Women as Long-Term Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Guilherme S; Barbaro, Nicole; Sela, Yael; Jeffery, Austin J; Pham, Michael N; Shackelford, Todd K; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil

    2017-01-01

    A prospective romantic partner's desirability as a long-term partner may be affected by the values that he or she endorses. However, few studies have examined the effects of "values" on a person's desirability as a long-term partner. We hypothesized that individuals who endorse social values (vs. personal values) will be perceived as more desirable long-term partners (Hypothesis 1) and that the endorsement of social values will be especially desirable in a male (vs. female) long-term partner (Hypothesis 2). The current study employed a 2 (sex of prospective partner: male vs. female) × 2 (values of prospective partner: personal vs. social) × 2 (physical attractiveness of prospective partner: unattractive vs. highly attractive) mixed-model design. Participants were 339 undergraduates (174 men, 165 women), with ages varying between 18 and 33 years ( M = 19.9, SD = 3.6), and mostly in a romantic relationship (53.7%). Participants reported interest in a long-term relationship with prospective partners depicted in four scenarios (within subjects), each varying along the dimensions of values (personal vs. social) and physical attractiveness (unattractive vs. highly attractive). Individuals endorsing personal values (vs. social values) and men (vs. women) endorsing personal values were rated as less desirable as long-term partners. The current research adds to the partner preferences literature by demonstrating that an individual's ascribed values influence others' perceptions of desirability as a long-term partner and that these effects are consistently sex differentiated, as predicted by an evolutionary perspective on romantic partner preferences.

  11. Quantitative genetic models of sexual selection by male choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahashi, Wataru

    2008-09-01

    There are many examples of male mate choice for female traits that tend to be associated with high fertility. I develop quantitative genetic models of a female trait and a male preference to show when such a male preference can evolve. I find that a disagreement between the fertility maximum and the viability maximum of the female trait is necessary for directional male preference (preference for extreme female trait values) to evolve. Moreover, when there is a shortage of available male partners or variance in male nongenetic quality, strong male preference can evolve. Furthermore, I also show that males evolve to exhibit a stronger preference for females that are more feminine (less resemblance to males) than the average female when there is a sexual dimorphism caused by fertility selection which acts only on females.

  12. Maternal Re-Partnering and New-Partner Fertility: Associations with Nonresident Father Investments in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Lawrence M.; Cancian, Maria; Meyer, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that paternal re-partnering and new-partner fertility are associated with decreased nonresident father investments in children. Few studies, however, have examined the influence of maternal re-partnering and new-partner births on nonresident father investments. We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine associations of maternal re-partnering (through cohabitation or marriage with a new partner) and new-partner births with nonresident father visitation and child support payments. Results suggest that maternal re-partnering is associated with a decrease in both yearly father-child contact and child support received by the mother. New-partner fertility for mothers who are co-residing with a partner is associated with an additional decrease in monthly father-child contact, but does not have an additional influence on yearly father-child contact or child support receipt. PMID:22581998

  13. Gonococcal Conjunctivitis Despite Successful Treatment of Male Urethritis Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Remco P H; Verweij, Stephan P; McIntyre, James A; Schaftenaar, Erik

    2016-02-01

    We report a case of progressive, cephalosporin-susceptible, Neisseria gonorrhoeae conjunctivitis despite successful treatment of male urethritis syndrome. We hypothesize that conjunctival infection progressed due to insufficient penetration of cefixime and azithromycin and point out that extragenital infection and male urethritis may not be cured simultaneously in settings where the syndromic approach is used.

  14. Preferred partner characteristics in homosexual men in relation to speculated patterns of brain differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscarella, Frank

    2002-08-01

    The current study was designed to test a neurohormonally based theory of sexual orientation and preferred partner characteristics in homosexual men. The theory holds that the brains of homosexual men are masculinized and feminized directing attraction to targets younger and more masculine than self, and the brains of homosexual adolescents are incompletely masculinized and feminized directing attraction to targets older and more masculine than self. Ninety-six homosexual men completed questionnaires that asked them to rate morphological and behavioral characteristics associated with ethologically relevant indicators of masculinity. The participants made ratings for themselves as adolescents and adults, their current partners and idealized partners as adults, and their idealized partners as adolescents. Results of within-subjects multivariate analyses of variance supported most of the hypotheses. Participants as adults rated their idealized partners as more masculine than themselves and their real partners on five measures: height, weight, muscle development, facial hair, and sexuality. As adolescents they indicated a preference for males older and more masculine than self. The participants in adulthood did not show the predicted preference for partners younger than themselves. The increased ratings of sexuality for self from adolescence to adulthood support the contention that some additional masculinization of the brain may occur with aging. The increased ratings of body size for the idealized target from adolescence to adulthood keeps the target more masculine then self across developmental periods. This phenomenon is consistent with the speculated feminization of the brain at both periods and its effects on partner preferences.

  15. Understanding sex partner selection from the perspective of inner-city black adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Kerrigan, Deanna; Ellen, Jonathan M

    2006-09-01

    Black adolescents in inner-city settings are at increased risk for HIV and other STDs. Sex partner characteristics, as well as individual behavior, influence individuals' STD risk, yet little is known about the process of sex partner selection for adolescents in this setting. Semistructured in-depth interviews were conducted during the summer and fall of 2002 with 50 inner-city black adolescents (26 females and 24 males) who had been purposively recruited from an STD clinic. Content analysis was used to study interview texts. Young women desire a monogamous romantic partner, rather than a casual sex partner; however, to fulfill their desire for emotional intimacy, they often accept a relationship with a nonmonogamous partner. Young men seek both physical and emotional benefits from being in a relationship; having a partner helps them to feel wanted, and they gain social status among their peers when they have multiple partners. For men, these benefits may help compensate for an inability to obtain jobs that would improve their financial and, as a result, social status. Both women and men assess partners' STD risk on the basis of appearance. HIV and other STD prevention initiatives must go beyond the scope of traditional messages aimed at behavior change and address the need for social support and socioeconomic opportunities among at-risk, inner-city adolescents.

  16. Pupil-mimicry conditions trust in partners: moderation by oxytocin and group membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kret, Mariska E; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    2017-03-15

    Across species, oxytocin, an evolutionarily ancient neuropeptide, facilitates social communication by attuning individuals to conspecifics' social signals, fostering trust and bonding. The eyes have an important signalling function; and humans use their salient and communicative eyes to intentionally and unintentionally send social signals to others, by contracting the muscles around their eyes and pupils. In our earlier research, we observed that interaction partners with dilating pupils are trusted more than partners with constricting pupils. But over and beyond this effect, we found that the pupil sizes of partners synchronize and that when pupils synchronously dilate, trust is further boosted. Critically, this linkage between mimicry and trust was bound to interactions between ingroup members. The current study investigates whether these findings are modulated by oxytocin and sex of participant and partner. Using incentivized trust games with partners from ingroup and outgroup whose pupils dilated, remained static or constricted, this study replicates our earlier findings. It further reveals that (i) male participants withhold trust from partners with constricting pupils and extend trust to partners with dilating pupils, especially when given oxytocin rather than placebo; (ii) female participants trust partners with dilating pupils most, but this effect is blunted under oxytocin; (iii) under oxytocin rather than placebo, pupil dilation mimicry is weaker and pupil constriction mimicry stronger; and (iv) the link between pupil constriction mimicry and distrust observed under placebo disappears under oxytocin. We suggest that pupil-contingent trust is parochial and evolved in social species in and because of group life. © 2017 The Authors.

  17. Targeted disruption of the mouse Lipoma Preferred Partner gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vervenne, Hilke B.V.K.; Crombez, Koen R.M.O.; Delvaux, Els L.; Janssens, Veerle; Ven, Wim J.M. van de; Petit, Marleen M.R.

    2009-01-01

    LPP (Lipoma Preferred Partner) is a zyxin-related cell adhesion protein that is involved in the regulation of cell migration. We generated mice with a targeted disruption of the Lpp gene and analysed the importance of Lpp for embryonic development and adult functions. Aberrant Mendelian inheritance in heterozygous crosses suggested partial embryonic lethality of Lpp -/- females. Fertility of Lpp -/- males was proven to be normal, however, females from Lpp -/- x Lpp -/- crosses produced a strongly reduced number of offspring, probably due to a combination of female embryonic lethality and aberrant pregnancies. Apart from these developmental and reproductive abnormalities, Lpp -/- mice that were born reached adulthood without displaying any additional macroscopic defects. On the other hand, Lpp -/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts exhibited reduced migration capacity, reduced viability, and reduced expression of some Lpp interaction partners. Finally, we discovered a short nuclear form of Lpp, expressed mainly in testis via an alternative promoter.

  18. Condom use with "casual" and "main" partners: what's in a name?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescano, Celia M; Vazquez, Elizabeth A; Brown, Larry K; Litvin, Erika B; Pugatch, David

    2006-09-01

    This study examined adolescents' attitudes about and behaviors toward condom use with "casual" vs. "main" sexual partners. Participants were sexually active adolescents aged 15-21 years (n = 1316) recruited from primary care clinics and through outreach activities in three major cities in the United States. Assessment of condom use within the past 90 days, relevant attitudes, substance use, and demographic data were obtained via audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI). Participants were divided into two groups: the 65% who reported main partners only (MP group) and the 35% who had at least one casual partner (CP group). Adolescents in the MP group were more likely to be female, whereas males were significantly more likely to report casual partners. Race/ethnicity, age, education level, household income, and sexually transmitted infection (STI) history were unrelated to group status (i.e., sexual partner type). Greater substance use and riskier attitudes were reported by teens in the CP group. The number of unprotected sex acts in the past 90 days was substantial and equivalent between the main and casual partner groups (19.2 vs. 21.5, respectively). Regression analyses revealed that perceptions of main partner attitudes toward condom use and condom use expectations were significantly related to condom use with MPs, but that attitudes were not related to condom use with CPs. Adolescents with either casual or main partners may be at continued risk for contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and STIs, given high rates of unprotected sex. Interventions that do not target attitudes and practices related to casual partners as compared with main partners may miss an opportunity to change risk behaviors. This study demonstrates the importance of understanding an adolescent's perception of partner types in order to design effective interventions.

  19. Characterization of juvenile play in rats: importance of sex of self and sex of partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argue, Kathryn J; McCarthy, Margaret M

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile social play is observed in many mammalian species, and its disruption in several neuropsychiatric disorders has greatly increased interest in understanding the origins and sources of variability in this behavior. We quantified social play behavior in juvenile rats and investigated the impact of sex and familiarity of the play partner. Sex differences in play behavior were investigated by comparing males and females from either same- or mixed-sex pairs with data pooled over 12 days of analysis. Whether play was altered based on the sex of the play partner was assessed using a paired analysis to compare play with a same- or opposite-sex play partner for both males and females. Additionally, a repeated measures design was utilized to determine whether play changed with increasing age. On postnatal day 33, a novel play partner was introduced. We used a repeated measures analysis to compare postnatal day 33 with the previous day. These approaches were used to assess the effects of age, sex, sex of partner, and familiarity of partner on total social play behavior as well as how play was broken down into components, such as pouncing, pinning, chasing, and boxing. There were sex differences in total frequency of play, and specific parameters of play behavior, such as chasing, pouncing, pinning, and boxing. Additionally, males significantly altered their play behavior in response to the sex of their play partner, whereas females were more sensitive to the familiarity of the play partner. This study provides critical groundwork for uncovering factors that regulate social play behavior and can be used to guide future mechanistic based work.

  20. Collaborative vaccine development: partnering pays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, Rangappa

    2008-01-01

    Vaccine development, supported by infusions of public and private venture capital, is re-entering a golden age as one of the fastest growing sectors in the life-sciences industry. Demand is driven by great unmet need in underdeveloped countries, increased resistance to current treatments, bioterrorism, and for prevention indications in travelers, pediatric, and adult diseases. Production systems are becoming less reliant on processes such as egg-based manufacturing, while new processes can help to optimize vaccines. Expeditious development hinges on efficient study conduct, which is greatly enhanced through research partnerships with specialized contract research organizations (CROs) that are licensed and knowledgeable in the intricacies of immunology and with the technologic and scientific foundation to support changing timelines and strategies inherent to vaccine development. The CRO often brings a more objective assessment for probability of success and may offer alternative development pathways. Vaccine developers are afforded more flexibility and are free to focus on innovation and internal core competencies. Functions readily outsourced to a competent partner include animal model development, safety and efficacy studies, immunotoxicity and immunogenicity, dose response studies, and stability and potency testing. These functions capitalize on the CRO partner's regulatory and scientific talent and expertise, and reduce infrastructure expenses for the vaccine developer. Successful partnerships result in development efficiencies, elimination or reduced redundancies, and improved time to market. Keys to success include honest communications, transparency, and flexibility.

  1. Intimate Partner Violence, Sexual Autonomy and Postpartum STD Prevention Among Young Couples: A Mediation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willie, Tiara C; Callands, Tamora A; Kershaw, Trace S

    2018-03-01

    The transition to parenthood is a stressful time for young couples and can put them at risk for acquiring STDs. Mechanisms underlying this risk-particularly, intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexual autonomy-have not been well studied. Between 2007 and 2011, a prospective cohort study of the relationships and health of pregnant adolescents and their male partners recruited 296 couples at four hospital-based obstetrics and gynecology clinics in the U.S. Northeast; participants were followed up six and 12 months after the birth. Structural equation modeling identified associations among IPV at baseline and six months, sexual autonomy at six months and STD acquisition at 12 months. Mediating effects of sexual autonomy were tested via bootstrapping. Females were aged 14-21, and male partners were 14 or older. For females, IPV victimization at baseline was positively associated with the likelihood of acquiring a postpartum STD (coefficient, 0.4); level of sexual autonomy was inversely associated with the likelihood of acquiring an STD and of having a male partner who acquired one by the 12-month follow-up (-0.4 for each). For males, IPV victimization at baseline was negatively correlated with a female partner's sexual autonomy (-0.3) and likelihood of acquiring an STD (-0.7); victimization at six months was positively related to a partner's sexual autonomy (0.2). Sexual autonomy did not mediate these relationships. Females' sexual autonomy appears to protect against postpartum STDs for both partners. Future research should explore the efficacy of IPV-informed approaches to improving women's sexual and reproductive health. Copyright © 2018 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  2. The prevalence of couple infertility in the United States from a male perspective: evidence from a nationally representative sample

    OpenAIRE

    Louis, Jean Fredo; Thoma, Marie E.; Sørensen, Ditte Nørbo; McLain, Alexander C.; King, Rosalind B.; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Keiding, Niels; Buck Louis, Germaine M.

    2013-01-01

    Infertility is a couple based fecundity impairment, though population level research is largely based upon information reported by female partners. Of the few studies focusing on male partners, most focus on the utilization of infertility services rather than efforts to estimate the prevalence and determinants of infertility as reported by male partners. Data from a nationally-representative sample of men aged 15–44 years who participated in the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) we...

  3. Developing and testing accelerated partner therapy for partner notification for people with genital Chlamydia trachomatis diagnosed in primary care: a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estcourt, Claudia S; Sutcliffe, Lorna J; Copas, Andrew; Mercer, Catherine H; Roberts, Tracy E; Jackson, Louise J; Symonds, Merle; Tickle, Laura; Muniina, Pamela; Rait, Greta; Johnson, Anne M; Aderogba, Kazeem; Creighton, Sarah; Cassell, Jackie A

    2015-12-01

    Accelerated partner therapy (APT) is a promising partner notification (PN) intervention in specialist sexual health clinic attenders. To address its applicability in primary care, we undertook a pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) of two APT models in community settings. Three-arm pilot RCT of two adjunct APT interventions: APTHotline (telephone assessment of partner(s) plus standard PN) and APTPharmacy (community pharmacist assessment of partner(s) plus routine PN), versus standard PN alone (patient referral). Index patients were women diagnosed with genital chlamydia in 12 general practices and three community contraception and sexual health (CASH) services in London and south coast of England, randomised between 1 September 2011 and 31 July 2013. 199 women described 339 male partners, of whom 313 were reported by the index as contactable. The proportions of contactable partners considered treated within 6 weeks of index diagnosis were APTHotline 39/111 (35%), APTPharmacy 46/100 (46%), standard patient referral 46/102 (45%). Among treated partners, 8/39 (21%) in APTHotline arm were treated via hotline and 14/46 (30%) in APTPharmacy arm were treated via pharmacy. The two novel primary care APT models were acceptable, feasible, compliant with regulations and capable of achieving acceptable outcomes within a pilot RCT but intervention uptake was low. Although addition of these interventions to standard PN did not result in a difference between arms, overall PN uptake was higher than previously reported in similar settings, probably as a result of introducing a formal evaluation. Recruitment to an individually randomised trial proved challenging and full evaluation will likely require service-level randomisation. Registered UK Clinical Research Network Study Portfolio id number 10123. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Primary care management of sexually transmitted urethritis in adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Claire E

    2003-04-01

    To describe current knowledge about diagnosis, screening, and treatment of sexually transmitted urethritis among adolescent and young adult males. Current research, systematic reviews, consensus guidelines and the author's clinical experience. Urethritis, the most common sexually transmitted syndrome in young males, is most frequently caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and/or Neisseria gonorrhea. Symptoms include dysuria and penile discharge, although up to 50% of males are asymptomatic. Risky sexual behaviors and lack of access to healthcare increase incidence of this infection. Transmission to female partners can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and neonatal infection. Young males with urethritis must be treated as soon as diagnosis is established. Consensus guidelines exist for diagnosis and treatment of gonococcal and non-gonococcal urethritis. Careful patient education is necessary to ensure successful treatment. Prevention of repeat infections requires partner treatment and detailed education about safer sexual practices. Improved access to preventive services for young males should be a healthcare priority.

  5. Male Cross-Dressers in Therapy: A Solution-Focused Perspective for Marriage and Family Therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzelme, Kristina; Jones, Rene A.

    2001-01-01

    Offers techniques on how to work with male cross-dressers using solution focused therapy. Solution focused therapy is discussed as a way to work with male cross dressers and their partners. A case study of a male cross dresser and his wife is presented and possible directions are suggested for marriage and family therapists. (BF)

  6. Women's finger sensitivity correlates with partnered sexual behavior but not solitary masturbation frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart; Fischer, Agneta H; Hess, Ursula

    2008-01-01

    In a sample of 97 healthy Dutch female university students, women with greater finger tactile sensitivity (von Frey-type filaments) engaged more in partnered (but not solitary masturbation) sexual behavior. Orgasmic responses in the past 30 days were not correlated with finger sensitivity. Results are discussed in terms of differences between different sexual behaviors, as well as susceptibility to reinforcement, and psychoanalytic views of conversion hysteria.

  7. Testing the Cuckoldry Risk Hypothesis of Partner Sexual Coercion in Community and Forensic Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph A. Camilleri

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary theory has informed the investigation of male sexual coercion but has seldom been applied to the analysis of sexual coercion within established couples. The cuckoldry risk hypothesis, that sexual coercion is a male tactic used to reduce the risk of extrapair paternity, was tested in two studies. In a community sample, indirect cues of infidelity predicted male propensity for sexual coaxing in the relationship, and direct cues predicted propensity for sexual coercion. In the forensic sample, we found that most partner rapists experienced cuckoldry risk prior to committing their offence and experienced more types of cuckoldry risk events than non-sexual partner assaulters. These findings suggest that cuckoldry risk influences male sexual coercion in established sexual relationships.

  8. Infrequent condom use with casual partners among New Zealand gay and bisexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxton, Peter J; Dickson, Nigel P; Hughes, Anthony J; Ludlam, Adrian H

    2015-12-04

    To identify predictors of non-condom use among gay and bisexual men (GBM) in New Zealand with casual male partners. We analysed anonymous self-completed data from GBM who participated in the communitybased Gay Auckland Periodic Sex Survey (GAPSS) and Internet-based Gay Online Sex Survey (GOSS), undertaken in 2014. Infrequent condom use was defined as not using condoms "always" or "almost always" during anal intercourse in the prior six months. Of the 1,912 GBM reporting anal intercourse with a casual partner, 27.2% reported infrequent condom use. Being recruited from Internet dating sites, Pacific ethnicity, having over 20 recent male partners, infrequent condom use with a current regular partner, or being HIV-positive were independently predictive of infrequent condom use. Conversely, being older, having a tertiary degree, using a condom at first anal intercourse, being exclusively receptive with a casual partner/s, and seeing condoms promoted through multiple channels predicted frequent condom use. Attitudes to condoms and safe sex were strongly predictive of actual condom use. Social marketing should target the modifiable predictors of condom use, such as attitudes to safe sex. Interventions also need to engage successfully with GBM reporting non-modifiable traits such as HIV-positive GBM.

  9. Male authority vs. female authority in traditional rural society

    OpenAIRE

    Brie, Mircea

    2009-01-01

    In traditional rural societies, the relationships between the two partners are genuine community patterns. It is not good to mingle male authority with thefe male’s, just like it is not possible to reverse the roles. Each of them has clear-cutt asks on both inter-relational level and on the level of socio-economic activities within or outside the household. The (male or female) authority in point is brought to the foreground as early as the first contacts between the partners. The whole “...

  10. [Antimicrobial susceptibility in Chile 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes-D, Marcela; Silva, Francisco; García, Patricia; Bello, Helia; Briceño, Isabel; Calvo-A, Mario; Labarca, Jaime

    2014-04-01

    Bacteria antimicrobial resistance is an uncontrolled public health problem that progressively increases its magnitude and complexity. The Grupo Colaborativo de Resistencia, formed by a join of experts that represent 39 Chilean health institutions has been concerned with bacteria antimicrobial susceptibility in our country since 2008. In this document we present in vitro bacterial susceptibility accumulated during year 2012 belonging to 28 national health institutions that represent about 36% of hospital discharges in Chile. We consider of major importance to report periodically bacteria susceptibility so to keep the medical community updated to achieve target the empirical antimicrobial therapies and the control measures and prevention of the dissemination of multiresistant strains.

  11. Men's sexual response to female partner's intranasal oxytocin administration for hypoactive sexual desire disorder: an open prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muin, Dana A; Sheikh Rezaei, Safoura; Tremmel-Scheinost, Max; Salama, Mohamed; Luger, Anton; Wolzt, Michael; Husslein, Peter W; Bayerle-Eder, Michaela

    2017-03-01

    To study sexual function, quality of life, and depression in men, whose female partners are undergoing double-blind placebo-controlled randomized treatment for hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). Open prospective cohort study of 22 weeks. Academic medical center. Male partners of 30 premenopausal and postmenopausal women with HSDD. Baseline, 3-month, and 5-month assessment (for 8 weeks each) of male response to female partner's use of oxytocin nasal spray (32 IE) and placebo within 50 minutes before sexual intercourse. Primary outcome parameters were Sexual Life Quality Questionnaire-Male, Sexual Activity Record, Partner Performance Questionnaire, and Hamilton Depression Scale. Male Sexual Life Quality questionnaire improved significantly from -7.4 ± 9.9 at baseline to 8.2 ± 12 with female partners' treatment with oxytocin nasal spray and to 10.8 ± 13.8 with placebo. Frequency of intercourse improved slightly but not significantly from 6.3 ± 3.9 at baseline to 7.3 ± 4 with female oxytocin therapy, but not with placebo. Male desire and arousal remained stable throughout the study period. Evaluation of female partners' performance by men improved significantly from 8.9 ± 2.8 at baseline to 10.6 ± 2.2 with oxytocin and to 11.2 ± 2.6 with placebo. Female treatment with either oxytocin or placebo for HSDD significantly improves male sexual quality of life and evaluation of female partner's sexual performance with no difference between oxytocin and placebo on any outcome parameters. A nonsignificant improvement was seen in the frequency of intercourse, male arousal, desire, satisfaction, and Hamilton depression scale. NCT02229721. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cell phone internet access, online sexual solicitation, partner seeking, and sexual risk behavior among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Eric; Winetrobe, Hailey; Holloway, Ian W; Montoya, Jorge; Plant, Aaron; Kordic, Timothy

    2015-04-01

    Online partner seeking is associated with sexual risk behavior among young adults (specifically men who have sex with men), but this association has yet to be explored among a probability sample of adolescents. Moreover, cell phone internet access and sexual risk taking online and offline have not been explored. A probability sample (N = 1,831) of Los Angeles Unified School District high school students was collected in 2011. Logistic regression models assessed relationships between specific sexual risk behaviors (online sexual solicitation, seeking partners online, sex with internet-met partners, condom use) and frequency of internet use, internet access points, and demographics. Students with cell phone internet access were more likely to report being solicited online for sex, being sexually active, and having sex with an internet-met partner. Bisexual-identifying students reported higher rates of being approached online for sex, being sexually active, and not using condoms at last sex. Gay, lesbian, and questioning (GLQ) students were more likely to report online partner seeking and unprotected sex at last sex with an internet-met partner. Additionally, having sex with an internet-met partner was associated with being male, online sexual solicitation, and online partner seeking. Internet- and school-based sexual health programs should incorporate safety messages regarding online sexual solicitation, seeking sex partners online, and engaging in safer sex practices with all partners. Programs must target adolescents of all sexual identities, as adolescents may not yet be "out," and bisexual and GLQ adolescents are more likely to engage in risky sex behaviors.

  13. Sexual risk behavior and type of sexual partners in transnational indigenous migrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Hoyos, Ramiro; Villaseñor-Sierra, Alberto; Millán-Guerrero, Rebeca; Trujillo-Hernández, Benjamín; Monárrez-Espino, Joel

    2013-06-01

    Indigenous migrant workers (IMWs) have a high vulnerability to HIV and STDs due to poverty and marginalization. This study examined factors associated with sexual risk behavior (SRB) according to type of partner in transnational young male IMWs at a sugar cane agro-industrial complex in western Mexico. A total of 192 sexually active IMWs were recruited from four laborer shelters to participate in a sexual partner survey. The IMWs were interviewed about their sexual partners and practices over the last 12 months during which it emerged that they had had a total of 360 sexual partners. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to identify factors related to SRB in 222 main (spouse, mistress and girlfriend) and 138 casual partners (colleague, friend, casual encounter and sex worker). Results showed a significantly higher SRB score with casual partners. For the main partner regression model, prior exposure to HIV- and STD-preventive information and sexual intercourse with higher employment status partners (formal workers vs. self-employed in informal activities and unemployed) were associated with lower SRB scores, but if the sexual relations occurred in Mexico (vs. the U.S.), the SRB scores increased. For the casual partner model, the practice of survival sex (sex in exchange for basic needs), sexual relations in Mexico (vs. the U.S.), and being a circular migrant (person traveling for temporary work to return home when the contract is over) were related to higher SRB scores. Findings support the implementation of preventive interventions using different messages depending on the type of partners, main or casual, within the labor migrant context.

  14. Male pattern baldness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alopecia in men; Baldness - male; Hair loss in men; Androgenetic alopecia ... Male pattern baldness is related to your genes and male sex hormones. It usually follows a pattern of receding hairline and ...

  15. Genital sores - male

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sores - male genitals; Ulcers - male genitals ... A common cause of male genital sores are infections that are spread through sexual contact, such as: Genital herpes (small, painful blisters filled with clear ...

  16. Sexual experience of female partners of men with erectile dysfunction: the female experience of men's attitudes to life events and sexuality (FEMALES) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, William A; Rosen, Raymond C; Eardley, Ian; Sand, Michael; Goldstein, Irwin

    2005-09-01

    Much research has explored the experience of erectile dysfunction (ED) among men with ED, but far less attention has been paid to the perceptions and sexual experiences of the female partners of men with ED. The objective of this study was to characterize the attitudes, beliefs, and sexual experience of female partners of men with erectile difficulties. Female partners of men with ED who had participated in the Men's Attitudes to Life Events and Sexuality (MALES) study were recruited for this research via mail or Internet, after their male partners consented to this contact. Female partners of men with ED (N = 293) responded to questionnaire measures assessing their frequency of sexual activity and the nature of their sexual experience, both before and after the development of their partner's ED, and in relation to their partner's use of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors. Women reported engaging in sexual activity significantly less frequently after their partner developed ED in comparison with before (P effects on the female partner's sexual experience. Women with partners who were currently using PDE5 inhibitors had a more satisfying sexual experience than those whose partners did not use a PDE5 inhibitor.

  17. Contempt and defensiveness in couple relationships related to childhood sexual abuse histories for self and partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Eric C; Sheffield, Rachel; Larson, Jeffry H; Holman, Thomas B

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) for one or both members of a romantic couple and perceptions of contempt and defensiveness for self and partner. Data from the Relationship Evaluation (RELATE) were analyzed for 10,061 couples. The findings suggest that when either or both partner(s) has a history of CSA, contempt and defensiveness in the couple relationship are greater than when neither reports a history of CSA. Furthermore, the males' experience of CSA had a greater impact on their perceptions of self and partner's contempt and defensiveness than females' experience of CSA. Explanations of gender differences are offered and implications for future research and practice are suggested. © 2011 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  18. The role of overprotection by the partner in coping with diabetes: a moderated mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schokker, Marike C; Links, Thera P; Bouma, Jelte; Keers, Joost C; Sanderman, Robbert; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Hagedoorn, Mariët

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether diabetes-specific self-efficacy mediates the association between overprotection and distress and whether this mediation depends on glycemic control and gender. The research sample of 215 individuals with diabetes and their partners completed a measure of partners' overprotective behaviours towards the patient. Patients also completed measures of diabetes-specific self-efficacy and diabetes-related distress. Further, HbA1c values were obtained as an indication of glycemic control. Diabetes-specific self-efficacy mediated the association between overprotection by the partner and diabetes-related distress especially when glycemic control was relatively poor. Furthermore, diabetes-specific self-efficacy mediated the association between overprotection and diabetes-related distress more strongly in female than in male patients. The findings underscore the importance of studying both moderators and mediators in the association between partner behaviour and distress in patients.

  19. Engaged patients, engaged partnerships: singles and partners dealing with an acute cardiac event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoni, Anna; Donato, Silvia; Graffigna, Guendalina; Barello, Serena; Parise, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    A few studies examine patients' (and partners') individual and relational functioning after an acute cardiac event and no research focuses on the individual and relational factors associated with the patient's engagement in his/her disease management. The present study aimed at exploring these variables in male and female patients as well as their partners. We pursued our objectives by taking advantage of a dyadic research design that involved both partners in the data collection, when present, and by including women patients in the sample. Findings showed that patients in a couple, compared to single patients, perceive that their illness had less serious consequences for their life and they were more engaged in their health care; that patients and partners showed comparable levels of distress; and that less depressed, more confident, and better informed patients were more likely to actively engage in their treatment. Findings are discussed in light of their implications for clinical practice.

  20. The presence of the sexual partner and nutritional condition alter the Anastrepha obliqua MacQuart (Diptera: Tephritidae) protein discrimination threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cresoni-Pereira, Carla; Zucoloto, Fernando S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Biologia

    2005-11-15

    The minimum protein amount that Anastrepha obliqua MacQuart can detect in its alimentary source is variable, though the causes of such variation are not very well known. In this study, the authors tested whether the sexual partners nutritional condition and presence devoid of direct contact alter the A. obliqua protein discrimination threshold. Male and female insects were assigned to groups as follows: (1) newly emerged, (2) deprived of protein source (yeast) during 18 days, (3) non-yeast-deprived during 18 days, (4) yeast-deprived in the presence of equally yeast-deprived sexual partners, (5) yeast-deprived in the presence of non-yeast-deprived partners, (6) non-yeast-deprived with yeast-deprived partners and (7) non-yeast-deprived with non-yeast-deprived partners. The sexual partners were maintained apart by a transparent plastic screen with small holes. Not only the males presence but also their nutritional condition have altered the females discrimination threshold, particularly when the females were deprived and when non- deprived females cohabited with deprived males. Therefore, the females threshold was determined by their own nutritional condition in addition to recognition of the males nutritional condition. The males discrimination threshold was higher for non-deprived subjects than for the deprived ones. The occurrence of responses in the absence of direct contact between males and females has shown that they may use a chemical mechanism for mutual recognition of the sexual partner nutritional condition. (author)

  1. The presence of the sexual partner and nutritional condition alter the Anastrepha obliqua MacQuart (Diptera: Tephritidae) protein discrimination threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cresoni-Pereira, Carla; Zucoloto, Fernando S.

    2005-01-01

    The minimum protein amount that Anastrepha obliqua MacQuart can detect in its alimentary source is variable, though the causes of such variation are not very well known. In this study, the authors tested whether the sexual partners nutritional condition and presence devoid of direct contact alter the A. obliqua protein discrimination threshold. Male and female insects were assigned to groups as follows: (1) newly emerged, (2) deprived of protein source (yeast) during 18 days, (3) non-yeast-deprived during 18 days, (4) yeast-deprived in the presence of equally yeast-deprived sexual partners, (5) yeast-deprived in the presence of non-yeast-deprived partners, (6) non-yeast-deprived with yeast-deprived partners and (7) non-yeast-deprived with non-yeast-deprived partners. The sexual partners were maintained apart by a transparent plastic screen with small holes. Not only the males presence but also their nutritional condition have altered the females discrimination threshold, particularly when the females were deprived and when non- deprived females cohabited with deprived males. Therefore, the females threshold was determined by their own nutritional condition in addition to recognition of the males nutritional condition. The males discrimination threshold was higher for non-deprived subjects than for the deprived ones. The occurrence of responses in the absence of direct contact between males and females has shown that they may use a chemical mechanism for mutual recognition of the sexual partner nutritional condition. (author)

  2. Working, sex partner age differences, and sexual behavior among African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermeister, José A; Zimmerman, Marc; Xue, Yange; Gee, Gilbert C; Caldwell, Cleopatra H

    2009-10-01

    Participation in the workplace has been proposed as a potential structural-level HIV/STI prevention strategy for youth. Only a few cross-sectional studies have explored the effect of work during adolescence and young adulthood on sexual behavior and their results have been mixed. This study builds on this literature by exploring whether work influences youths' sexual behavior in a cohort of African American youth (N = 562; 45% males; M = 14.5 years, SD = 0.6) followed from adolescence to young adulthood (ages 13-25 years). Using growth curve modeling, we tested whether working was associated with older sex partners. Then, we explored the association between sex partner age differences and sexual behaviors (i.e., number of sex partners, condom use, and frequency of sexual intercourse). Finally, we tested whether the relationship between sex partner age differences and sexual behaviors was confounded by working. Working greater number of hours was not significantly associated with having older sex partners. Sex partner age differences was associated with number of partners, condom use, and higher sex frequency. These associations were larger for females. Working was associated with higher sex frequency, after accounting for age differences. We discuss the implications of these findings for future research and program planning, particularly in the context of youth development programs.

  3. Perceiving Partners to Endorse Benevolent Sexism Attenuates Highly Anxious Women's Negative Reactions to Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Emily J; Overall, Nickola C; Hammond, Matthew D

    2016-07-01

    Benevolent sexism prescribes that men are dependent on women in relationships and should cherish their partners. The current research examined whether perceiving male partners to endorse benevolent sexism attenuates highly anxious women's negative reactions to relationship conflict. Greater attachment anxiety was associated with greater distress and insecurity during couples' conflict discussions (Study 1), during daily conflict with intimate partners (Study 2), and when recalling experiences of relationship conflict (Study 3). However, this heightened distress and insecurity was attenuated when women (but not men) perceived their partner to strongly endorse benevolent sexism (Studies 1-3) and thus believed their partner could be relied upon to remain invested (Study 3B). These novel results illustrate that perceiving partners to endorse benevolent sexism alleviates anxious women's insecure reactions to relationship threat by conveying partner's continued reliability. Implications of these security-enhancing effects are considered in light of the role benevolent sexism plays in sustaining gender inequality. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  4. Partner Support for Family Planning and Modern Contraceptive Use in Luanda, Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata, Ndola; Bell, Suzanne; Fraser, Ashley; Carvalho, Adelaide; Neves, Isilda; Nieto-Andrade, Benjamin

    2017-06-01

    Husband's/partner's support for family planning may influence a women's modern contraceptive use. Socio-demographic factors, couple communication about family planning, and fertility preferences are known to play a role in contraceptive use. We conducted logistic regression analysis to investigate the relationship between perceived husband's/partner's approval and husband's/partner's encouragement of modern contraceptive use, adjusting for socio-demographic factors and recent couple communication about family planning. We also examined mediating roles potentially played by perceived contraceptive accessibility and contraceptive self-efficacy (using index created by principal component analysis). Perceived husband's/partner's approval was associated with triple the odds of women's modern contraceptive use and remained significantly associated with 1.6 times the odds, after controlling for contraceptive accessibility and contraceptive self-efficacy. Husband's/partner's encouragement, while initially significantly associated with contraceptive use, became non-significant after adjustments for socio-demographic factors and couple communication. Perceived husband's/partner's approval, separate from a woman's sense of self-efficacy and perceived accessibility of contraceptives, appears strongly and positively associated with current modern contraceptive use. Increased couple communication may help women identify their husband's/partner's approval. Difference between the meaning of approval and encouragement should be explored. Interventions involving information education and communication campaigns geared to men and promoting male involvement in family planning could increase contraceptive prevalence.

  5. Ancestral susceptibility to colorectal cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Huhn, S.; Pardini, Barbara; Naccarati, Alessio; Vodička, Pavel (ed.); Hemminki, K.; Försti, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2012), s. 197-204 ISSN 0267-8357 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/07/1430; GA ČR GAP304/10/1286 Grant - others:EU FP7(XE) HEALTH-F4-2007-200767 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : cancer susceptibility * molecular epidemiology * genetic susceptibility Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.500, year: 2012

  6. Men perceive their female partners, and themselves, as more attractive around ovulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobey, Kelly D.; Buunk, Abraham P.; Pollet, Thomas V.; Klipping, Christine; Roberts, S. Craig

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether men perceive changes in their female partner's attractiveness as a function of her fertility status. We further tested how both male and female self-perception varies in relation to female fertility status. This study benefits from the use of

  7. Influence of Parents, Peers, and Partners on the Contraceptive Use of College Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Linda; Spanier, Graham B.

    1978-01-01

    This study investigates the relative influences of parents, peers, and partners on the contraceptive use of college men and women. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by a nonprobability, purposive sample of 434 never-married, sexually active males and females between the ages of 17 and 22 years. (Author)

  8. Parents, Friends, and Romantic Partners: Enmeshment in Deviant Networks and Adolescent Delinquency Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonardo, Robert A.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Longmore, Monica A.; Manning, Wendy D.

    2009-01-01

    Adolescent networks include parents, friends, and romantic partners, but research on the social learning mechanisms related to delinquency has not typically examined the characteristics of all three domains simultaneously. Analyses draw on data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (n = 957), and our analytic sample contains 51% male and…

  9. Finding Sex Partners Through Social Media Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Aparna; Nguyen, Minh; Giang, Le Minh; Ha, Tran Viet; Bhadra, Madhura; Nguyen, Sang Minh; Vu, Viet Duc; Nguyen, Quynh T; Miller, William C; Go, Vivian F

    2018-02-01

    Many men who have sex with men (MSM) in low and middle income countries search for male sexual partners via social media in part due to societal stigma and discrimination, yet little is known about the sexual risk profiles of MSM social media users. This cross-sectional study investigates the prevalence of social media use to find male sex partners in Hanoi, Vietnam and examines associations between social media use and sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics, including levels of internalized, perceived and enacted stigma, high-risk sexual behaviors, and HIV testing. 205 MSM were recruited from public venues where MSM congregate as well as through snowball sampling and completed an anonymous survey. MSM who found their male sexual partners using social media in the last year were more likely to have completed a university or higher degree (aOR 2.6; 95% CI 1.2-5.7), experience high levels of MSM-related perceived stigma (aOR 3.0; 95% CI 1.1-8.0), and have more than ten lifetime male sexual partners (aOR 3.2; 95% CI 1.3-7.6) compared to those who did not use social media. A niche for social media-based interventions integrating health and stigma-reduction strategies exists in HIV prevention programs for MSM.

  10. Gender-Specific Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Homicide: A Nationwide Register-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Gronroos, Matti; Putkonen, Hanna; Eronen, Markku; Lindberg, Nina; Hakkanen-Nyholm, Helina

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined gender differences in intimate partner homicide (IPH) and offender characteristics with the focus on putative gender-specific risk factors in a nationwide consecutive sample of homicide offenders. Data on all offenders (N = 642; 91 females, 551 males) convicted of homicide and subjected to a forensic psychiatric…

  11. Cost-effectiveness of partner pharmacotherapy in screening women for asymptomatic infection with Chlamydia Trachomatis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Maarten; Welte, R; van den Hoek, J A; van Doornum, G J; Jager, H C; Coutinho, R A

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the cost-effectiveness of pharmacotherapy for male partners in screening women for asymptomatic infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT). METHODS AND DATA: A pharmacoeconomic decision analysis model was constructed for the health outcomes of a CT screening program, such as

  12. The effect of partners' education on women's reproductive and maternal health in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjiwanou, Vissého; Bougma, Moussa; LeGrand, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    The effect of partners' education on women's and children's health in developing countries has received relatively little attention to date. This study uses couple data from 37 recent Demographic and Health Surveys fielded in sub-Saharan African and Asian countries to assess the effect of partners' schooling on women's modern contraceptive use, frequency of antenatal care visits, and skilled birth attendance. Using multilevel logistic regressions, the study shows that partners' schooling has strong effects on their spouses' maternal healthcare utilization; especially when partners had secondary or higher levels of schooling. Overall, women whose partners had an above secondary level of education were 32% more likely to use modern contraceptives, 43% more likely to attend at least four antenatal care visits, and 55% more likely to deliver their most recent baby with a health professional, compared to women whose partner had no education, after controlling for individual and community-level covariates. Finally, interacting the partners' years of schooling, we found that an additional year of partners' schooling was 1) positively associated with modern contraceptive use when the women had low educational attainment (substitution effect), but negatively associated when women were better educated, 2) positively and increasingly associated with the frequency of antenatal care visits as women's education increased (multiplicative effect), and 3) positively and significantly associated with skilled birth attendance for less educated women (substitution effect). This study highlights the importance of male education in shaping their wife's health behaviours in developing countries and provides strong impetus for male education beyond primary level (as well as for women), something that has been neglected in past policy discourse. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Daily associations between partner responses and sexual and relationship satisfaction in couples coping with provoked vestibulodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Natalie O; Muise, Amy; Bergeron, Sophie; Delisle, Isabelle; Baxter, Mary Lou

    2015-04-01

    Women with provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) experience a recurrent vulvo-vaginal pain triggered primarily during sexual intercourse. Although affected couples report adverse effects on their sexual and global romantic relationships, few studies have examined interpersonal factors that may influence their sexual and relationship satisfaction. Cross-sectional studies have shown that greater partner solicitous and negative responses and lower facilitative responses are associated with poorer sexual and relationship satisfaction in women with PVD. The aim of this study was to investigate the within-person associations between partner responses to painful intercourse and the sexual and relationship satisfaction of affected couples. In a dyadic daily experience study, 69 women (M(age) = 28.46, SD = 6.66) diagnosed with PVD and their cohabitating male partners (M(age) = 30.29, SD = 8.13) reported on male partner responses, as well as sexual and relationship satisfaction on sexual intercourse days (M = 6.81; SD = 5.40) over 8 weeks. Dependent measures were the (i) Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale and (ii) Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction Scale. On sexual intercourse days when women perceived more facilitative partner responses than usual and on days when they perceived lower negative partner responses than usual, they reported higher sexual and relationship satisfaction. On sexual intercourse days when men reported more solicitous responses than usual, both they and their female partners reported lower sexual satisfaction. Interventions aimed at improving the day-to-day sexual and relationship satisfaction of couples with PVD should target increasing facilitative and decreasing negative and solicitous partner responses. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  14. Genetic changes associated with testicular cancer susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, Louise C; Nathanson, Katherine L

    2016-10-01

    Testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) is a highly heritable cancer primarily affecting young white men. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been particularly effective in identifying multiple common variants with strong contribution to TGCT risk. These loci identified through association studies have implicated multiple genes as associated with TGCT predisposition, many of which are unique among cancer types, and regulate processes such as pluripotency, sex specification, and microtubule assembly. Together these biologically plausible genes converge on pathways involved in male germ cell development and maturation, and suggest that perturbation of them confers susceptibility to TGCT, as a developmental defect of germ cell differentiation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Adaptive Evolution of Signaling Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urano, Daisuke; Dong, Taoran; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L.; Jones, Alan M.

    2015-01-01

    Proteins that interact coevolve their structures. When mutation disrupts the interaction, compensation by the partner occurs to restore interaction otherwise counterselection occurs. We show in this study how a destabilizing mutation in one protein is compensated by a stabilizing mutation in its protein partner and their coevolving path. The pathway in this case and likely a general principle of coevolution is that the compensatory change must tolerate both the original and derived structures with equivalence in function and activity. Evolution of the structure of signaling elements in a network is constrained by specific protein pair interactions, by requisite conformational changes, and by catalytic activity. The heterotrimeric G protein-coupled signaling is a paragon of this protein interaction/function complexity and our deep understanding of this pathway in diverse organisms lends itself to evolutionary study. Regulators of G protein Signaling (RGS) proteins accelerate the intrinsic GTP hydrolysis rate of the Gα subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein complex. An important RGS-contact site is a hydroxyl-bearing residue on the switch I region of Gα subunits in animals and most plants, such as Arabidopsis. The exception is the grasses (e.g., rice, maize, sugarcane, millets); these plants have Gα subunits that replaced the critical hydroxyl-bearing threonine with a destabilizing asparagine shown to disrupt interaction between Arabidopsis RGS protein (AtRGS1) and the grass Gα subunit. With one known exception (Setaria italica), grasses do not encode RGS genes. One parsimonious deduction is that the RGS gene was lost in the ancestor to the grasses and then recently acquired horizontally in the lineage S. italica from a nongrass monocot. Like all investigated grasses, S. italica has the Gα subunit with the destabilizing asparagine residue in the protein interface but, unlike other known grass genomes, still encodes an expressed RGS gene, SiRGS1. SiRGS1

  16. Child abuse in the context of intimate partner violence against women: the impact of women's depressive and posttraumatic stress symptoms on maternal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckel, Mariana G; Blasco-Ros, Concepción; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Martínez, Manuela

    2014-05-01

    Intimate male partner violence against women has been recognized as an important public health problem, with a high impact on women's mental health, including depressive and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. However, fathers who have been involved in intimate partner violence (IPV) have an increased probability of being violent toward their children. The aim of this study was to assess the relation between the mental health status of abused women, their partner's violence toward the children, and their maternal behavior.

  17. Prevalência da violência praticada por parceiro masculino entre mulheres usuárias da rede primária de saúde do Estado de São Paulo Prevalence of violence by intimate male partner among women in primary health units in São Paulo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Karina Rios de Araujo Mathias

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a prevalência e fatores associados à violência praticada por parceiro íntimo (VPI, entre mulheres usuárias das Unidades Básicas de Saúde (UBS do Estado de São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo descritivo de corte transversal, a partir da análise secundária de dados de entrevista a mulheres usuárias de 75 UBS de 15 Departamentos Regionais do Estado de São Paulo, no período de Agosto/2008 a Maio/2009. Foi utilizado questionário baseado no Abuse Assessment Screen e o Conflict Tactics Scales modificado pelo Violence Against Women Study (VAW, estruturado e pré-testado. As variáveis estudadas foram os tipos de VPI (psicológica, física e sexual e variáveis sociodemográficas (idade, escolaridade, cor da pele, trabalho remunerado, religião, estado marital e classe econômica. Foram entrevistadas 2.379 mulheres de 18 a 60 anos. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de VPI durante a vida foi de 55,7%, sendo a psicológica, física e sexual de 53,8, 32,2 e 12,4%, respectivamente. As mulheres sem companheiro, mas com casamento anterior, com escolaridade PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with intimate partner violence (IPV among women users of Basic Health Units (BHU in the State of São Paulo. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study based on secondary data analysis of women users' interviews at 75 BHU in the State of São Paulo, from August/2008 to May/2009. We used a questionnaire based on the Abuse Assessment Screen and the Conflict Tactics Scales modified by the Violence Against Women Study (VAW, structured and pre-tested. The variables studied were the types of IPV (psychological, physical and sexual and sociodemographic variables (age, education, race, paid work, religion, marital status and economic class. We interviewed 2,379 women aged 18 to 60 years. RESULTS: The prevalence of lifetime IPV was 55.7%, and the prevalences of psychological, physical and sexual IPV were 53.8, 32

  18. 76 FR 66012 - Partner's Distributive Share

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ...-level tax. To achieve this goal of a flexible economic arrangement, partners are generally permitted to... has substantial economic effect involves a two-part analysis that is made as of the end of the... be consistent with the underlying economic arrangement of the partners. This means that, in the event...

  19. The partner selection process : Steps, effectiveness, governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duisters, D.; Duijsters, G.M.; de Man, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    Selecting the right partner is important for creating value in alliances. Even though prior research suggests that a structured partner selection process increases alliance success, empirical research remains scarce. This paper presents an explorative empirical study that shows that some steps in

  20. The partner selection process : steps, effectiveness, governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duisters, D.; Duysters, G.M.; Man, de A.P.

    2011-01-01

    Selecting the right partner is important for creating value in alliances. Even though prior research suggests that a structured partner selection process increases alliance success, empirical research remains scarce. This paper presents an explorative empirical study that shows that some steps in

  1. Partner selection in the mycorrhizal mutualism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, G.D.A.; Kiers, E.T.

    2015-01-01

    Partner selection in the mycorrhizal symbiosis is thought to be a key factor stabilising the mutualism. Both plant hosts and mycorrhizal fungi have been shown to preferentially allocate resources to higher quality partners. This can help maintain underground cooperation, although it is likely that

  2. Early Resumption of Sex following Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision amongst School-Going Males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin George

    Full Text Available Voluntary medical male circumcision is an integral part of the South African government's response to the HIV and AIDS epidemic. Following circumcision, it is recommended that patients abstain from sexual activity for six weeks, as sex may increase the risk of female-to-male HIV transmission and prolong the healing period. This paper investigates the resumption of sexual activity during the healing period among a cohort of school-going males in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. The analysis for this paper compares two groups of sexually active school-going males: the first group reported having sex during the healing period (n = 40 and the second group (n = 98 reported no sex during the healing period (mean age: 17.7, SD: 1.7.The results show that 29% (n = 40 of young males (mean age: 17.9, SD: 1.8 who were previously sexually active, resumed sexual activity during the healing period, had on average two partners and used condoms inconsistently. In addition, those males that engage in sexual activity during the healing period were less inclined to practice safe sex in the future (AOR = 0.055, p = 0.002 than the group of males who reported no sex during the healing period. These findings suggest that a significant proportion of young males may currently and in the future, subject themselves to high levels of risk for contracting HIV post circumcision. Education, as part of a VMMC campaign, must emphasize the high risk of HIV transmission for both the males their partners during the healing period.

  3. Teleportation with Multiple Accelerated Partners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagheer, A.; Hamdoun, H.; Metwally, N.

    2015-01-01

    As the current revolution in communication is underway, quantum teleportation can increase the level of security in quantum communication applications. In this paper, we present a quantum teleportation procedure that capable to teleport either accelerated or non-accelerated information through different quantum channels. These quantum channels are based on accelerated multi-qubit states, where each qubit of each of these channels represents a partner. Namely, these states are the W state, Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger (GHZ) state, and the GHZ-like state. Here, we show that the fidelity of teleporting accelerated information is higher than the fidelity of teleporting non-accelerated information, both through a quantum channel that is based on accelerated state. Also, the comparison among the performance of these three channels shows that the degree of fidelity depends on type of the used channel, type of the measurement, and value of the acceleration. The result of comparison concludes that teleporting information through channel that is based on the GHZ state is more robust than teleporting information through channels that are based on the other two states. For future work, the proposed procedure can be generalized later to achieve communication through a wider quantum network. (paper)

  4. Gay men and intimate partner violence: a gender analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliffe, John L; Han, Christina; Maria, Estephanie Sta; Lohan, Maria; Howard, Terry; Stewart, Donna E; MacMillan, Harriet

    2014-05-01

    Though intimate partner violence (IPV) is predominately understood as a women's health issue most often emerging within heterosexual relationships, there is increasing recognition of the existence of male victims of IPV. In this qualitative study we explored connections between masculinities and IPV among gay men. The findings show how recognising IPV was based on an array of participant experiences, including the emotional, physical and sexual abuse inflicted by their partner, which in turn led to three processes. Normalising and concealing violence referred to the participants' complicity in accepting violence as part of their relationship and their reluctance to disclose that they were victims of IPV. Realising a way out included the participants' understandings that the triggers for, and patterns of, IPV would best be quelled by leaving the relationship. Nurturing recovery detailed the strategies employed by participants to mend and sustain their wellbeing in the aftermath of leaving an abusive relationship. In terms of masculinities and men's health research, the findings reveal the limits of idealising hegemonic masculinities and gender relations as heterosexual, while highlighting a plurality of gay masculinities and the need for IPV support services that bridge the divide between male and female as well as between homosexual and heterosexual. © 2014 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2014 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Advice from working women with retired partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Eileen L; Adorno, Gail

    2016-01-01

    in the 21st century, as more women are employed full-time and couples increasingly share egalitarian values, more women continue employment after their partners have voluntarily retired. However, we know very little about the experiences of this growing population of women. We asked working women with retired partners to share their advice for other women who may face this developmental transition. Open-ended responses from 97 women were analyzed to identify pertinent issues and themes. Four primary content areas were identified: time management, division of household labor, financial planning, and communication. Communication between partners was both a topic of concern as well as the solution suggested to resolve conflicts or differences that may arise when women live with a retired partner. It is expected that future changes in the workforce and improvements in the gender balance within relationships will continue to impact experiences for working women with retired partners.

  6. Sex Differences in Attitudes toward Partner Infidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Tagler

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences in reactions to partner infidelity have often been studied by comparing emotional reactions to scenarios of sexual versus emotional infidelity. Men, relative to women, tend to react with more distress to partner sexual infidelity than to emotional infidelity. Evolutionary theorists interpret this difference as evidence of sexually dimorphic selection pressures. In contrast, focusing only on the simple effects within each sex, social-cognitive theorists suggest that men and women do not differ in their reactions to partner infidelity. As evidenced by recent rival meta-analytic reports, these diverging perspectives remain largely unresolved and contentious. The present study was designed to take a new approach by measuring attitudes toward partner infidelity. Results were consistent with the evolutionary perspective: Men, to a significantly larger degree than women, evaluated partner sexual infidelity more negatively than emotional infidelity.

  7. Sex differences in attitudes toward partner infidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagler, Michael J; Jeffers, Heather M

    2013-08-06

    Sex differences in reactions to partner infidelity have often been studied by comparing emotional reactions to scenarios of sexual versus emotional infidelity. Men, relative to women, tend to react with more distress to partner sexual infidelity than to emotional infidelity. Evolutionary theorists interpret this difference as evidence of sexually dimorphic selection pressures. In contrast, focusing only on the simple effects within each sex, social-cognitive theorists suggest that men and women do not differ in their reactions to partner infidelity. As evidenced by recent rival meta-analytic reports, these diverging perspectives remain largely unresolved and contentious. The present study was designed to take a new approach by measuring attitudes toward partner infidelity. Results were consistent with the evolutionary perspective: Men, to a significantly larger degree than women, evaluated partner sexual infidelity more negatively than emotional infidelity.

  8. From never partnered to serial cohabitors: Union trajectories to childlessness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika Jalovaara

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childlessness has increased in many European countries. Partnerships and parenthood are obviously closely related, but there is relatively little knowledge on how childlessness is linked to contemporary union dynamics that involve high rates of separation and unmarried cohabitation. Objective: To situate (biological childlessness in longitudinal dynamics of union formation and stability, we take a life-course approach to union trajectories that consist of states entered via the formation and dissolution of cohabitations and marriages. Concretely, we identify groups of similar union trajectories of individuals between the ages of 18 and 39 who are childless at age 42. Methods: We analyse register data on Finnish men and women born in 1969 and 1970 (childless N=3,241 with sequence, cluster, and multinomial logistic regression methods. Results: Four clusters of typical union trajectories were identified among the childless and assigned these labels: 1 Never Partnered (45Š, characterized by never having entered a coresidential partnership, or just having entered a cohabitation near age 40; 2 Briefly Cohabited (25Š, characterized by mostly living single after a brief cohabitation spell; 3 Cohabitors, Often Serial (19Š, marked by typically discontinuous cohabitation; and 4 Married (11Š. The Never-Partnered cluster is male-dominated. Men with a rural background and less-educated men and women are overrepresented among the Never-Partnered childless. Conclusions: For the great majority of the childless in our study cohorts, union trajectories are marked by either the (almost complete absence of coresidential unions or fragmentary cohabitation histories. Contribution: The study contributes to the literature by showing that union histories, including never partnering as well as cohabitation instability, are key for understanding contemporary childlessness. Comments: We recommend that you read the paper on screen or print a color version.

  9. [Status on sexual partners among men who have sex with men among college students in Qingdao, 2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X F; Lyu, C X; Zheng, J T; Dong, L; Jiang, Z X; Fu, J H

    2017-12-10

    Objective: To investigate the situation of sexual partners and related factors among men who have sex with men (MSM) in college students. Methods: Snowball sampling and Convenience sampling were both used to recruit MSM from colleges in Tsingtao in 2016. Questionnaire-based interviews were conducted to collect data of socio-demographic and situation of sexual partners. Sample Size was estimated based on cross-sectional study, and theoretical 267. SPSS 17.0 software was used for statistical analysis. Results: A total of 300 MSM, average aged 20.7, were analyzed. Both first sex partner and the last same-sex sexual partner were met instantly, with proportions as 58.7% (176/300) and 62.3% (187/300) respectively. Among all the MSM, 88.3% (265/300) preferred selecting men as sex partners and 42.7% (128/300) enjoyed finding sex partners in college, while 86.0% (258/300) preferred finding their sex partners through internet. Conclusions: Internet had been the major way of looking for sex partner among MSM in college students, the male sexual partner were met instantly. We should focus on men who have sex with men and their sexual health among college students to prevent and control HIV/AIDS.

  10. Nurses' roles in screening for intimate partner violence: a phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Natour, A; Qandil, A; Gillespie, G L

    2016-09-01

    To describe Jordanian nurses' roles and practices in screening for intimate partner violence. Intimate partner violence is a recognized global health problem with a prevalence of 37% for the Eastern Mediterranean region. Jordanian nurses screening for intimate partner violence is as low as 10.8%. Nurses have encountered institutional and personal barriers hindering their screening practice. A descriptive phenomenological design was used for this study. A purposive sample of 12 male and female Jordanian nurses working at a university hospital in Jordan participated. Participants were interviewed in 2014 using a semi-structured, face-to-face interview. Steps of Colaizzi's phenomenological method were used to analyse the qualitative data. Four themes were derived from the data: (1) screening practices and roles for suspected IPV cases, (2) advantages for screening and disadvantages for not screening for intimate partner violence, (3) factors hindering screening practice and (4) feelings towards screening and not screening for intimate partner violence. Increasing Jordanian nurses' awareness of the need for intimate partner violence screening in this sample was needed. Professional education and training may facilitate the adoption of intimate partner violence screening practices. A key barrier to intimate partner violence screening is Jordanian nurses' personal beliefs. Overcoming these personal beliefs will necessitate a multi-faceted approach starting with schools of nursing and bridging into healthcare settings. Healthcare professionals including nursing and policy makers at health institutions should enforce screening policies and protocols for all receipt of care at first contact. In addition, an emphasis on modelling culturally congruent approaches to develop the trusting nurse-patient relationships and process for screening patients for intimate partner violence. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  11. The quality of life of male spouses of women with breast cancer: hope, self-efficacy, and perceptions of guilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggleby, Wendy; Doell, Heather; Cooper, Dan; Thomas, Roanne; Ghosh, Sunita

    2014-01-01

    The quality of life of male spouses of partners with breast cancer may determine the support they are able to give their wives. Little is known about the factors associated with their quality of life. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of the quality of life of male spouses of partners with breast cancer with the following factors: (a) demographic variables of male spouses and their partners, (b) levels of hope of male spouses and their partners, (c) self-efficacy and loss and grief of male spouses, and (d) quality of life of partners with breast cancer. Six hundred surveys were mailed to women with breast cancer (stage 1-3) and their male spouses. A total of 110 surveys were completed. With the use of generalized linear modeling, participating male spouses with higher quality of life scores: (a) were older (P = .01), (b) had higher hope scores (P = .01), (c) had lower feelings of guilt scores (P life scores (P Hope, self-efficacy, feelings of guilt, age, and their partners' quality of life were significantly related to quality of life of the male spouses of women with breast cancer. The findings underscore the importance of assessing for and fostering hope and self-efficacy as well as decreasing guilt in male spouses of women with breast cancer to improve their quality of life.

  12. Susceptibility Genes in Thyroid Autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Ban

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD are complex diseases which are caused by an interaction between susceptibility genes and environmental triggers. Genetic susceptibility in combination with external factors (e.g. dietary iodine is believed to initiate the autoimmune response to thyroid antigens. Abundant epidemiological data, including family and twin studies, point to a strong genetic influence on the development of AITD. Various techniques have been employed to identify the genes contributing to the etiology of AITD, including candidate gene analysis and whole genome screening. These studies have enabled the identification of several loci (genetic regions that are linked with AITD, and in some of these loci, putative AITD susceptibility genes have been identified. Some of these genes/loci are unique to Graves' disease (GD and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT and some are common to both the diseases, indicating that there is a shared genetic susceptibility to GD and HT. The putative GD and HT susceptibility genes include both immune modifying genes (e.g. HLA, CTLA-4 and thyroid specific genes (e.g. TSHR, Tg. Most likely, these loci interact and their interactions may influence disease phenotype and severity.

  13. Partners in health? Exploring resemblance in health between partners in married and cohabiting couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monden, Christiaan

    2007-04-01

    Sociological theories on family formation and families and health suggest that married and cohabiting partners will resemble each other in health status, positively or negatively. The family is often seen as a health-enhancing agent for individuals. However, there are large health differences among families. This study aims to answer the question whether it is the case that the healthy live with the healthy and individuals with poor health have partners who are also in poor health. Moreover, it examines whether resemblance in health is a consequence of partner choice--educational homogamy in particular--behaviour or shared circumstances. Younger and older couples are compared to investigate whether health resemblance increases over the lifecourse. Analyses of a nationally representative sample of almost 12,000 Dutch couples show that partners are indeed significantly alike with regard to several health indicators. Respondents whose partner reports poor health are almost three times more likely to report poor health than respondents whose partner is in good health. There is a strong accumulation of health problems within households. Partner selection with regard to education causes part of the partner resemblance in health. Less support is found for the hypotheses that risk behaviour, mutual influence or the effects of shared circumstances cause similarity between partners' health status. Surprisingly, partners in older couples, who have been together for a longer time, do not resemble each other significantly more than partners in younger couples. The implications of these findings for sociological theory and social inequalities in health are discussed.

  14. Witnessing Partner Violence: Exploring the Role of Partner Preferences on Dating Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Mendez, Rosaura; Yanes, José M; Ramírez-Santana, Gustavo

    2015-06-02

    Research has shown that witnessing partner violence (WPV) increases the likelihood of experiencing or perpetrating violence in later romantic relationships, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying this process. This study examines the relationships between preference for unsuitable partners and teen dating violence (TDV) among adolescents who have witnessed parental violence or not. Attachment was also considered. Participants were 356 adolescents, both witnesses and non-witnesses of partner violence. Results showed no difference in preferences (for good, risky, or loving partners) between the two groups. However, preference for unsuitable partners did significantly predict TDV perpetration and victimization, but only among witnesses. Also, loving-partner preference moderates the relationship between WPV and TDV perpetration among highly avoidant witnesses. Findings indicate a new avenue for prevention through targeting partner preferences. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Reciprocity in group-living animals: partner control versus partner choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schino, Gabriele; Aureli, Filippo

    2017-05-01

    Reciprocity is probably the most debated of the evolutionary explanations for cooperation. Part of the confusion surrounding this debate stems from a failure to note that two different processes can result in reciprocity: partner control and partner choice. We suggest that the common observation that group-living animals direct their cooperative behaviours preferentially to those individuals from which they receive most cooperation is to be interpreted as the result of the sum of the two separate processes of partner control and partner choice. We review evidence that partner choice is the prevalent process in primates and propose explanations for this pattern. We make predictions that highlight the need for studies that separate the effects of partner control and partner choice in a broader variety of group-living taxa. © 2016 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  16. Job strain and male fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjollund, Niels Henrik I; Bonde, Jens Peter E; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Giwercman, Aleksander; Olsen, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    Job strain, defined as high job demands and low job control, has not previously been explored as a possible determinant of male fertility. We collected prospective data on job strain among men, and describe the associations with semen quality and probability of conceiving a clinical pregnancy during a menstrual cycle. Danish couples (N = 399) who were trying to become pregnant for the first time were followed for up to 6 menstrual periods. All men collected semen samples, and a blood sample was drawn from both partners. Job demand and job control were measured by a self-administered questionnaire at entry, and in each cycle the participants recorded changes in job control or job demand during the previous 30 days. In adjusted analyses, no associations were found between any semen characteristic or sexual hormones and any job strain variable. The odds for pregnancy were not associated with job strain. Psychologic job strain encountered in normal jobs in Denmark does not seem to affect male reproductive function.

  17. HIV Partner Notification Values and Preferences Among Sex Workers, Fishermen, and Mainland Community Members in Rakai, Uganda: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Caitlin; Nakyanjo, Neema; Ddaaki, William; Burke, Virginia M; Hutchinson, Naadiya; Kagaayi, Joseph; Wawer, Maria J; Nalugoda, Fred; Kennedy, Caitlin E

    2018-01-25

    HIV partner notification involves contacting sexual partners of people who test HIV positive and referring them to HIV testing, treatment, and prevention services. To understand values and preferences of key and general populations in Rakai, Uganda, we conducted 6 focus group discussions and 63 in-depth interviews in high prevalence fishing communities and low prevalence mainland communities. Participants included fishermen and sex workers in fishing communities, male and female mainland community members, and healthcare providers. Questions explored three approaches: passive referral, provider referral, and contract referral. Qualitative data were coded and analyzed using a team-based matrix approach. Participants agreed that passive referral was most suitable for primary partners. Provider referral was acceptable in fishing communities for notifying multiple, casual partners. Healthcare providers voiced concerns about limited time, resources, and training for provider-assisted approaches. Options for partner notification may help people overcome barriers to HIV serostatus disclosure and help reach key populations.

  18. Prevalence, Mutation Patterns, and Effects on Protease Inhibitor Susceptibility of the L76V Mutation in HIV-1 Protease▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Thomas P.; Parkin, Neil T.; Stawiski, Eric; Pilot-Matias, Tami; Trinh, Roger; Kempf, Dale J.; Norton, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Patterns of HIV-1 protease inhibitor (PI) resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) and effects on PI susceptibility associated with the L76V mutation were studied in a large database. Of 20,501 sequences with ≥1 PI RAM, 3.2% contained L76V; L76V was alone in 0.04%. Common partner mutations included M46I, I54V, V82A, I84V, and L90M. L76V was associated with a 2- to 6-fold decrease in susceptibility to lopinavir, darunavir, amprenavir, and indinavir and a 7- to 8-fold increase in susceptibility to atazanavir and saquinavir. PMID:20805393

  19. Wo(men) at work? The impact of cohabiting and married partners' earning on women's work hours

    OpenAIRE

    Triebe, Doreen

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the determinants of women's labor supply in the household context. The main focus is on the effect of a change in male partner's wages on women's work hours. This is linked to the broader question of whether married and cohabiting women make different economic decisions and respond differently to changes in their partners' wages. In addition, this study seeks to connect the working behavior of married and cohabiting individuals to the "tax-splitting" benefit for marrie...

  20. The Acceptance and the Perception of Mastectomy by Males whose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Majority of male spouses of females with breast cancers would not readily accept mastectomy for their female spouses and would have negative perception of their partners after mastectomy. We thus recommend that health care workers should involve men in breast cancer related education. Keywords: Acceptance ...

  1. A survey on the knowledge, attitude and acceptance of male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Traditionally, majority of the family planning services and campaigns focus on women without much consideration given to their male partners. In our society, there is bias, myth and misconception about vasectomy, this has resulted in a significant reduction in the willingness of men to seek vasectomy as a ...

  2. Inequity between male and female coverage in state infertility laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupree, James M; Dickey, Ryan M; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2016-06-01

    To analyze state insurance laws mandating coverage for male factor infertility and identify possible inequities between male and female coverage in state insurance laws. We identified states with laws or codes related to infertility insurance coverage using the National Conference of States Legislatures' and the National Infertility Association's websites. We performed a primary, systematic analysis of the laws or codes to specifically identify coverage for male factor infertility services. Not applicable. Not applicable. Not applicable. The presence or absence of language in state insurance laws mandating coverage for male factor infertility care. There are 15 states with laws mandating insurance coverage for female factor infertility. Only eight of those states (California, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Montana, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, and West Virginia) have mandates for male factor infertility evaluation or treatment. Insurance coverage for male factor infertility is most specific in Massachusetts, New Jersey, and New York, yet significant differences exist in the male factor policies in all eight states. Three states (Massachusetts, New Jersey, and New York) exempt coverage for vasectomy reversal. Despite national recommendations that male and female partners begin infertility evaluations together, only 8 of 15 states with laws mandating infertility coverage include coverage for the male partner. Excluding men from infertility coverage places an undue burden on female partners and risks missing opportunities to diagnose serious male health conditions, correct reversible causes of infertility, and provide cost-effective treatments that can downgrade the intensity of intervention required to achieve a pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The use of simple indicators for detecting potential coronary heart disease susceptibility in the air traffic controller population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-05-01

    An analysis was made of an eight-year interval change in several indicators of coronary heart disease (CHD) susceptibility as measured on 475 male air traffic control (ATC) personnel. The initial measurements were obtained from these personnel as ATC...

  4. The use of simple indicators for detecting potential coronary heart disease susceptibility in the third-class airman population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-07-01

    An analysis was made of an eight-year interval change in several Framingham Heart Study (FHS) indicators of coronary heart disease (CHD) susceptibility as measured on 475 male air traffic control (ATC) personnel. The initial measurements were obtaine...

  5. Partners in Leadership for Pearl River

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Members of the 2007 class of Partners in Leadership toured NASA Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., on Jan. 11. They visited the center's B Test Stand, part of the center's rocket engine test complex. The Partners in Leadership training program is designed to teach Pearl River County leaders about their county's government, economic development, health and human services, history and arts, environment and education during a 10-month period. The program, sponsored by the Partners for Pearl River County, helps fulfill the mission of the economic and community development agency.

  6. Cerebral malaria: susceptibility weighted MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinit Baliyan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral malaria is one of the fatal complications of Plasmodium falciparum infection. Pathogenesis involves cerebral microangiopathy related to microvascular plugging by infected red blood cells. Conventional imaging with MRI and CT do not reveal anything specific in case of cerebral malaria. Susceptibility weighted imaging, a recent advance in the MRI, is very sensitive to microbleeds related to microangiopathy. Histopathological studies in cerebral malaria have revealed microbleeds in brain parenchyma secondary to microangiopathy. Susceptibility weighted imaging, being exquisitely sensitive to microbleeds may provide additional information and improve the diagnostic accuracy of MRI in cerebral malaria.

  7. Topological susceptibility from the overlap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Debbio, Luigi; Pica, Claudio

    2003-01-01

    The chiral symmetry at finite lattice spacing of Ginsparg-Wilson fermionic actions constrains the renormalization of the lattice operators; in particular, the topological susceptibility does not require any renormalization, when using a fermionic estimator to define the topological charge....... Therefore, the overlap formalism appears as an appealing candidate to study the continuum limit of the topological susceptibility while keeping the systematic errors under theoretical control. We present results for the SU(3) pure gauge theory using the index of the overlap Dirac operator to study...

  8. Facilitating HIV status disclosure for pregnant women and partners in rural Kenya: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, Melonie M; Hatcher, Abigail M; Kwena, Zachary; Turan, Janet M

    2013-12-02

    Women's ability to safely disclose their HIV-positive status to male partners is essential for uptake and continued use of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services. However, little is known about the acceptability of potential approaches for facilitating partner disclosure. To lay the groundwork for developing an intervention, we conducted formative qualitative research to elicit feedback on three approaches for safe HIV disclosure for pregnant women and male partners in rural Kenya. This qualitative acceptability research included in-depth interviews with HIV-infected pregnant women (n = 20) and male partners of HIV-infected women (n = 20) as well as two focus groups with service providers (n = 16). The participants were recruited at health care facilities in two communities in rural Nyanza Province, Kenya, during the period June to November 2011. Data were managed in NVivo 9 and analyzed using a framework approach, drawing on grounded theory. We found that facilitating HIV disclosure is acceptable in this context, but that individual participants have varying expectations depending on their personal situation. Many participants displayed a strong preference for couples HIV counseling and testing (CHCT) with mutual disclosure facilitated by a trained health worker. Home-based approaches and programs in which pregnant women are asked to bring their partners to the healthcare facility were equally favored. Participants felt that home-based CHCT would be acceptable for this rural setting, but special attention must be paid to how this service is introduced in the community, training of the health workers who will conduct the home visits, and confidentiality. Pregnant couples should be given different options for assistance with HIV disclosure. Home-based CHCT could serve as an acceptable method to assist women and men with safe disclosure of HIV status. These findings can inform the design and implementation of programs geared at promoting HIV

  9. Gender, power, and intimate partner violence: a study on couples from rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Amy A

    2014-03-01

    Gender-based power imbalances are perhaps the most compelling underlying explanation for intimate partner violence (IPV) among women in sub-Saharan Africa. However, an overemphasis on female victimization results in an incomplete understanding of men's experiences as victims and the broader dyadic context in which violence occurs. This study examines the role of three domains of relationship power (power resources, processes, and outcomes) on sexual and physical IPV victimization in a unique sample of 466 young couples from Malawi. Two power resources were studied, namely, income and education level. Power processes were captured with a measure of couple communication and collaboration called unity. Power outcomes included a measure of relationship dominance (male dominated or female-dominated/egalitarian). Multilevel logistic regression using the Actor Partner Interpersonal Model framework was used to test whether respondent and partner data were predictive of IPV. The findings show that unity and male dominance were salient power factors that influenced young people's risk for sexual IPV. Unity had a stronger protective effect on sexual IPV for women than for men. Involvement in a male-dominated relationship increased the risk of sexual IPV for women, but decreased the risk for men. The findings also showed that education level and unity were protective against physical IPV for both men and women. Contrary to what was expected, partner data did not play a role in the respondent's experience of IPV. The consistency of these findings with the literature, theory, and study limitations are discussed.

  10. It takes two: the influence of dance partners on the perceived enjoyment and benefits during participation in partnered ballroom dance classes for people with Parkinson's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Dorit; Robison, Judy; Fitton, Carolyn; Hulbert, Sophia; Roberts, Lisa; Wiles, Rose; Pickering, Ruth; Roberts, Helen; Ashburn, Ann

    2018-08-01

    To explore the views of people with Parkinson's and their dance partners on the influence and issues surrounding dancing with an able-bodied dance partner during partnered ball room dance classes. In depth, semi-structured interviews explored purposively selected participants' experiences and views about dance classes. Fourteen people with Parkinson's and their dance partners (six spouses, two friends/relatives, five volunteers) were interviewed within a month of completing the 10-week dance class program. Data were analyzed thematically. Generally, those partnered with a spouse or an experienced dancer, or when dance couples were able to develop good rapport, gained greater enjoyment and sense of achievement from dance classes in comparison to couples who did not enjoy dancing together or had clashing approaches to dance. Managing and negotiating who would "lead" in a dance was challenging for dance couples particularly among male people with Parkinson's. People with Parkinson's experience of the dance classes were influenced by the relationship and compatibility with their dance partner. Dance partnerships may impact on recruitment, enjoyment, outcome and continued participation in dance classes. Potential effects of partnerships should be analyzed and reported in studies evaluating the outcomes of dance classes. Implications for rehabilitation We recommend that health professionals consider involving spouses in Parkinson's dance classes as this may improve recruitment, adherence, enjoyment and overall outcome of the dance classes. If volunteers are needed, aim to recruit those who already have good dancing ability, convey a love of dancing and have the sensitivity and social skills to interact positively with the person with Parkinson's. Consider dance partnership issues when advertising and promoting dance classes. Address partnership issues through open communication and by changing partners if the dance partnership is not working well.

  11. Exploring Partners' Experiences in Living with Patients Who Undergo Bariatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallwork, Anna; Tremblay, Lynn; Chi, Monica; Sockalingam, Sanjeev

    2017-08-01

    Bariatric surgery is effective in assisting persons with severe obesity in achieving significant weight loss and improved health; however, success depends on one's lifelong commitment to lifestyle modifications post-operatively. Life partners can be essential to the success of bariatric patients as they can serve as a primary resource to patients and healthcare teams. This study aimed to explore bariatric patients' partner's experiences in order to help inform clinical practice in bariatric care to better address patient and partner needs. This study utilized a grounded theory analysis of ten semi-structured interviews of male partners of bariatric surgery patients to form a general explanatory framework of the partner experience. Participants described three interconnected processes of change that followed after their spouses surgeries: (1) effort put forth to engage in the surgical process with their spouses, (2) adoption of the behavioural changes made by their spouses and (3) adjustment to a "new normal". For those who engaged in all three processes, optimism for the future and an enriching and synergistic harmonized lifestyle with their spouse was reached. Bariatric surgery in one partner can impact couples' dietary behaviours, physical and leisure activities, physical and emotional intimacy and relationship quality as a whole. Pursuing bariatric surgery as a couple is a unique process. This study highlights the necessity to approach bariatric care in a way that targets the whole spousal unit as engaging both members in lifestyle modification may improve the quality of both their health and relationship overall.

  12. Drug abuse and aggression between intimate partners: a meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Todd M; Stuart, Gregory L; Meehan, Jeffrey C; Rhatigan, Deborah L; Hellmuth, Julianne C; Keen, Stefanie M

    2008-02-01

    The present investigation employed meta-analytic procedures to quantitatively evaluate the empirical evidence on the relationship between drug abuse and aggression between intimate partners. Data from 96 studies yielding 547 effect sizes indicated that increases in drug use and drug-related problems were significantly associated with increases in aggression between intimate partners (d= .27). Cocaine emerged as the illicit substance with the strongest relationship to psychological, physical, and sexual aggression (ds= .39 to .62). Marijuana was also identified as having a significant association with partner aggression. Results showed comparable effect sizes for men and women, regardless of the sex of the drug user and/or perpetrator of partner aggression, with female reports of aggression having yielded larger effect sizes than male reports. Moderator analyses revealed that relative to other groups, married or cohabiting couples and Black participants evidenced significantly stronger effect sizes. The findings are discussed in relation to possible mechanisms linking drugs to partner aggression, and implications for future research are discussed in terms of focusing on conducting studies that assess the interaction of context and temporal sequencing of drugs and partner aggression.

  13. Condom Use and Number of Sexual Partners among Secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sexual partners without using condoms are at risk of HIV transmission. ... Key words: Cameroon, condom use, HIV/AIDS, multiple sexual partners, secondary school female students .... The number of sexual partners is an important indicator of.

  14. Male pattern baldness (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male pattern baldness is a sex-linked characteristic that is passed from mother to child. A man can more accurately predict his chances of developing male pattern baldness by observing his mother's father than by looking ...

  15. [Male urinary incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, T.A. de; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.

    2008-01-01

    *Urinary incontinence in males is gaining increasingly more attention. *Male urinary incontinence can be classified as storage incontinence due to overactive bladder syndrome or stress incontinence due to urethral sphincter dysfunction. *Most patients benefit from the currently available treatment

  16. Self catheterization - male

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... male; CIC - male Images Catheterization References Davis JE, Silverman MA. Urologic procedures. In: Roberts JR, ed. Roberts ... provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial ...

  17. Pesticide Advisory Committees and Regulatory Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    This site will provide all stakeholders, including the general public, with access to information about meetings of advisory committees, and how we work with state, territory, and tribal government partners.

  18. Featured Partner: Saddle Creek Logistics Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EPA fact sheet spotlights Saddle Creek Logistics as a SmartWay partner committed to sustainability in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution caused by freight transportation, partly by growing its compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles for

  19. Intimate Partner Violence Victimization and Associated Factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Abstract. The study aimed at investigating the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) and its ... in Chile 31% of women and 21 % of men reported ... Protective factors may include lack of ... developed in English, then translated and back-.

  20. Climate Ready Estuaries Partner Projects Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    CRE partners with the National Estuary Program to develop climate change projects in coastal U.S. areas, such as bays and harbors; to develop adaptation action plans, identify climate impacts and indicators, and more. This map shows project locations.

  1. Be a Partner in Clinical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2015 Print this issue Be a Partner in Clinical Research Help Others, Help Yourself En español Send us ... Did you know that you can participate in clinical research? Whether you’re healthy or sick, young or ...

  2. Associations between Intimate Partner Violence, Depression, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    intimate partner violence, depression, and suicidal behavior among women attending ... sample of women attending antenatal care or general outpatient hospital services in. Thailand. .... participant was referred to the nurse counsellor from.

  3. Indoor Air Quality Tribal Partners Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    IAQ Tribal Partners Program. Empowering champions of healthy IAQ in tribal communities with tools for networking, sharing innovative and promising programs and practices and a reservoir of the best available tribal-specific IAQ information and materials.

  4. SmartWay Featured Partner: Walmart

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EPA fact sheet spotlights Walmart as a SmartWay partner and their commitment to increase its’ transportation efficiency and safety; thereby reducing fuel and emissions, minimizing its environmental impact. (EPA publication # EPA-420-F-16-042)

  5. Partners and initiatives | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 1 - 10 of 20 ... A longstanding partner, Global Affairs Canada collaborates with us on maternal and ... Collaborative Adaptation Research Initiative in Africa and Asia ... These investments in scientific breakthroughs will improve the health.

  6. Prostatitis and male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshahrani, Saad; McGill, John; Agarwal, Ashok

    2013-11-01

    The prostate gland plays an important role in male reproduction. Inflammation of the prostate gland (prostatitis) is a common health problem affecting many young and middle aged men. Prostatitis is considered a correctable cause of male infertility, but the pathophysiology and appropriate treatment options of prostatitis in male infertility remain unclear. This literature review will focus on current data regarding prostatitis and its impact on male infertility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Prion protein and scrapie susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M.A.; Bossers, A.; Schreuder, B.E.C.

    1997-01-01

    This article presents briefly current views on the role of prion protein (PrP) in Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies or prion diseases and the effect of PrP polymoryhisms on the susceptibility to these diseases, with special emphasis on sheep scrapie. The PrP genotype of sheep apears to be a

  8. Antifungal susceptibilities of Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Lennox K; Tuohy, Marion J; Wilson, Deborah A; Nwanyanwu, Okey; Kazembe, Peter N; Tansuphasawadikul, Somsit; Eampokalap, Boonchuay; Chaovavanich, Achara; Reller, L Barth; Jarvis, William R; Hall, Gerri S; Procop, Gary W

    2004-01-01

    Susceptibility profiles of medically important fungi in less-developed countries remain uncharacterized. We measured the MICs of amphotericin B, 5-flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, and ketoconazole for Cryptococcus neoformans clinical isolates from Thailand, Malawi, and the United States and found no evidence of resistance or MIC profile differences among the countries.

  9. India, Genomic diversity & Disease susceptibility

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. India, Genomic diversity & Disease susceptibility · India, a paradise for Genetic Studies · Involved in earlier stages of Immune response protecting us from Diseases, Responsible for kidney and other transplant rejections Inherited from our parents · PowerPoint Presentation · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Slide 7.

  10. Exploring the impact of endometriosis on partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameratunga, Devini; Flemming, Tina; Angstetra, Donald; Ng, Shu-Kay; Sneddon, Anne

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to determine how endometriosis affects the quality of life of partners of women who suffer from this disease and how it impacts their relationships, finances, mental states, and daily living. This was a questionnaire-based cohort study that took place at a large tertiary hospital gynecology unit, which covered two sites. Fifty-one partners of women who had surgically diagnosed endometriosis agreed to participate in the study and returned completed surveys. Ninety-two percent (n = 46) of partners reported negative feelings about the diagnosis of endometriosis. Seventy percent (n = 35) reported that endometriosis affected their day-to-day life either moderately or severely. Over half (52%) also felt that their finances were affected. Only 34% (n = 17) of partners felt that health professionals had engaged them in decision-making processes and had been supportive of them. Eighty percent (n = 40) of partners reported that they had received no information about the impact of endometriosis on couples. Partners reported a significant affect on their sex life (74%) and their relationship as a whole (56%). Participants whose relationships had been affected by endometriosis had also more likely had their day-to-day life (P = 0.027), sex life (P = 0.001), and finances (P = 0.002) affected. Overall, our findings suggest that endometriosis can have a significant impact on partners with respect to day-to-day living, finances, sex lives, and relationships. Improvements can be made to engage partners in the treatment process, and to provide better education, support, and holistic management to women and families who suffer with endometriosis. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  11. Defining the private partners in PPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Vleuten-Balkema, F.; Stam, N.

    2004-01-01

    Now that the public private partnerships are seen to be the way forward in solar electrification in developing countries, it is important to question who will be the private partner in the partnership? For decentralized energy technologies such as solar home systems, that are being disseminated to vast numbers of highly dispersed end-users, the private partners of today are the hundreds or thousands of often non specialized local entrepreneurs. The public private partnerships of tomorrow should be reoriented accordingly. (authors)

  12. Sex Differences in Attitudes toward Partner Infidelity

    OpenAIRE

    Michael J. Tagler; Heather M. Jeffers

    2013-01-01

    Sex differences in reactions to partner infidelity have often been studied by comparing emotional reactions to scenarios of sexual versus emotional infidelity. Men, relative to women, tend to react with more distress to partner sexual infidelity than to emotional infidelity. Evolutionary theorists interpret this difference as evidence of sexually dimorphic selection pressures. In contrast, focusing only on the simple effects within each sex, social-cognitive theorists suggest that men and wom...

  13. Partner Choice in Raven (Corvus corax) Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa-Haas, Kenji; Schiestl, Martina; Bugnyar, Thomas; Massen, Jorg J M

    2016-01-01

    Although social animals frequently make decisions about when or with whom to cooperate, little is known about the underlying mechanisms of partner choice. Most previous studies compared different dyads' performances, though did not allow an actual choice among partners. We tested eleven ravens, Corvus corax, in triads, giving them first the choice to cooperate with either a highly familiar or a rather unfamiliar partner and, second, with either a friend or a non-friend using a cooperative string-pulling task. In either test, the ravens had a second choice and could cooperate with the other partner, given that this one had not pulled the string in the meantime. We show that during the experiments, these partner ravens indeed learn to wait and inhibit pulling, respectively. Moreover, the results of these two experiments show that ravens' preferences for a specific cooperation partner are not based on familiarity. In contrast, the ravens did show a preference based on relationship quality, as they did choose to cooperate significantly more with friends than with non-friends and they were also more proficient when cooperating with a friend. In order to further identify the proximate mechanism of this preference, we designed an open-choice experiment for the whole group where all birds were free to cooperate on two separate apparatuses. This set-up allowed us to distinguish between preferences for close proximity and preferences to cooperate. The results revealed that friends preferred staying close to each other, but did not necessarily cooperate with one another, suggesting that tolerance of proximity and not relationship quality as a whole may be the driving force behind partner choice in raven cooperation. Consequently, we stress the importance of experiments that allow such titrations and, suggest that these results have important implications for the interpretations of cooperation studies that did not include open partner choice.

  14. Whom to Choose as License Partner?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Keld; Reichstein, Toke; Trombini, Giulia

    2013-01-01

    benefits and obviate issues related to technology transfer and knowledge recombination. At the same time, firms wish to select a partner operating in a different product market to minimize competitive downside issues and to access other product markets, skills and resources. We contend interdependence...... between technology and market forces: if partners are market distant, the likelihood of technology license contractual partnership decreases with partners’ technological distance. Using data on the formation of license partnerships in the global biopharmaceutical industry over the period 1994...

  15. Female partners of opioid-injecting men in the Republic of Georgia: an initial characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lund Ingunn O

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV and Hepatitis C virus (HCV infections are strongly related to injection drug use in the Republic of Georgia. Little information is available about HIV and HCV status, sexual risk, support for their partner, and risk for physical violence among the female partners of opioid-injecting men in the Republic of Georgia, many of whom may not be using drugs, yet may be at high risk of being infected with HIV and HCV from their drug-using partners. Methods In order to better understand the risks for females whose partners are injecting drugs, the present study conducted an initial investigation of the non-substance-using female partners of 40 opioid-injecting men who were participating in a clinical trial examining the feasibility and efficacy of a 22-week comprehensive intervention that paired behavioral treatment with naltrexone. The 40 female partners were assessed at their male partners’ study intake. Results The female sample was 32.3 years old (SD=6.7, 37 (93% were married, with 15.5 years of education. A majority reported at least partial employment the majority of the time during the past 3 years, with only one woman reported being unemployed most of the time during the past 3 years. They self-reported they were 3% HIV-positive and 8% HCV-positive. Their HIV sex risk scores indicated a relatively low risk. However, only 4 (10% women reported using a condom most of the time while having sex and 15 (38% report not having had sex during the last 30 days. Experiences of interpersonal violence were common, with 42% reporting physical abuse by their partner during the last year and 48% reporting feeling unsafe in their current relationship. Conclusions The alarmingly high rate of failure to use barrier protection methods, together with the high percentage who did not know their HIV and HCV status, suggest that it may be beneficial to include non-substance-using female partners in prevention programs along with their partners

  16. Partner choice creates fairness in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debove, Stéphane; André, Jean-Baptiste; Baumard, Nicolas

    2015-06-07

    Many studies demonstrate that partner choice has played an important role in the evolution of human cooperation, but little work has tested its impact on the evolution of human fairness. In experiments involving divisions of money, people become either over-generous or over-selfish when they are in competition to be chosen as cooperative partners. Hence, it is difficult to see how partner choice could result in the evolution of fair, equal divisions. Here, we show that this puzzle can be solved if we consider the outside options on which partner choice operates. We conduct a behavioural experiment, run agent-based simulations and analyse a game-theoretic model to understand how outside options affect partner choice and fairness. All support the conclusion that partner choice leads to fairness only when individuals have equal outside options. We discuss how this condition has been met in our evolutionary history, and the implications of these findings for our understanding of other aspects of fairness less specific than preferences for equal divisions of resources. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Perceptions of the physical attractiveness of the self, current romantic partners, and former partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Allum, Lucy

    2012-02-01

    This study examined ratings of physical attractiveness of the self and former and current partners. A total of 304 participants completed measures of attractiveness, relationship satisfaction, love dimensions, self-esteem and sociosexual orientation. Consistent with previous work, results showed that participants rated their current partners as more attractive than themselves and their former partners. However, results also showed that former partners were rated as more attractive than the self on a number of bodily characteristics. Finally, results showed that ratings of former partner physical attractiveness were associated with passion for the former partner, self-esteem, sociosexual orientation, and attributions of relationship termination. These results are discussed in relation to the available literature on positive illusions in intimate relationships. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2011 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  18. An Evaluation of Male Partners’ Perceptions of Antenatal Classes in a National Health Service Hospital: Implications for Service Provision in London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shia, Nessie; Alabi, Oluseyi

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have considered whether the gender of educator or same-gender classes have any influence on the participation of male partners, and even fewer studies have examined any factors that limit attendance from ethnic minority groups. The objective of this study was to investigate male partners’ initial experience and associated factors that limit attendance. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire given to 69 male partners in North London. In total, 49 male partners preferred to attend the same class with their partners even if all male forums were offered. The gender of the educator had no influence on their participation. Comments from 23 participants from three different ethnic minority groups indicated that they preferred to have a separate class from their partners. PMID:24381476

  19. Burden of intimate partner violence in The Gambia - a cross sectional study of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idoko, Patrick; Ogbe, Emmanuel; Jallow, Oley; Ocheke, Amaka

    2015-04-21

    Intimate partner violence is an important public health problem that cuts across geographic and cultural barriers. Intimate partner violence refers to the range of sexually, psychologically and physically coercive acts used against women by current or former male intimate partners. The frequency and severity of violence varies greatly but the main goal is usually to control the victims through fear and intimidation. About 80% of Gambian women believe it is acceptable for a man to beat his wife thus encouraging the perpetuation of violence against women. The objective was to ascertain the burden of intimate partner violence amongst pregnant women in Gambia. A cross sectional survey was carried out at Edward Francis Small Teaching Hospital, Banjul, The Gambia, on antenatal clinic attendees between October and December 2012, using a pre-tested structured interviewer administered questionnaire. All pregnant women were informed about the study at the antenatal booking clinic. Of the 161 pregnant women informed, 136 (84.5%) consented to take part and were recruited in the study. Descriptive analysis was done using the Epi info statistical software. Any pregnant woman booking for the first time during the period of the study was eligible to be recruited into the study. Majority of enrolled participants (61.8%) reported intimate partner violence. Verbal forms of intimate partner violence were the commonest forms, with 12% requiring medical care on account of intimate partner violence and 3% prevented from seeking healthcare as a result of such violence. Intimate partner violence is common in The Gambia, West Africa and is a threat to women's health.

  20. Partner verification: restoring shattered images of our intimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Ronde, C; Swann, W B

    1998-08-01

    When spouses received feedback that disconfirmed their impressions of their partners, they attempted to undermine that feedback during subsequent interactions with these partners. Such partner verification activities occurred whether partners construed the feedback as overly favorable or overly unfavorable. Furthermore, because spouses tended to see their partners as their partners saw themselves, their efforts to restore their impressions of partners often worked hand-in-hand with partners' efforts to verify their own views. Finally, support for self-verification theory emerged in that participants were more intimate with spouses who verified their self-views, whether their self-views happened to be positive or negative.