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Sample records for susceptible interferon ifn

  1. Interferons and interferon (IFN)-inducible protein 10 during highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART)-possible immunosuppressive role of IFN-alpha in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stylianou, E; Aukrust, P; Bendtzen, K

    2000-01-01

    Interferons play an important, but incompletely understood role in HIV-related disease. We investigated the effect of HAART on plasma levels of IFN-alpha, IFN-gamma, neopterin and interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) in 41 HIV-infected patients during 78 weeks of therapy. At baseline HIV...

  2. Interferon-γ (IFNG) microsatellite repeat and single nucleotide polymorphism haplotypes of IFN-α receptor (IFNAR1) associated with enhanced malaria susceptibility in Indian populations.

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    Kanchan, Kanika; Jha, Pankaj; Pati, Sudhanshu S; Mohanty, Sanjib; Mishra, Saroj K; Sharma, Surya K; Awasthi, Shally; Venkatesh, Vimala; Habib, Saman

    2015-01-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines IFNγ and IFNα function through their cellular receptors IFNγR1 and IFNαR1, respectively to mediate immune processes during malaria infection. A total of 21 SNPs, 2 ins/del polymorphisms and a microsatellite repeat, selected on the basis of their reported association with infectious diseases including malaria in world populations, were analysed for association with Plasmodium falciparum malaria susceptibility in a case-control study with adult patients and ethnically-matched controls drawn from a disease meso- to hyperendemic and a nonendemic region of India. Among the five IFNG SNPs tested, an intron 3 and a 3'UTR SNP associated with disease in the endemic region. In addition, large (CA)n repeats of IFNG intron 1 associated with protection from severe malaria in the endemic region (severe vs. control, odds ratio=0.21, 95% CI=0.08-0.52, P=1.3 × 10(-4)). The TA11CAG haplotype (rs2069705 T/C, rs2430561 A/T, rs3138557 (CA)n, rs2069718 T/C, rs2069727 A/G, rs2069728 G/A) carrying a short CA11 repeat also exhibited very strong association with severe malaria, particularly in the endemic region (severe vs. control, OR=14.56, 95% CI=3.39-85.81, P=3 × 10(-5)). One SNP each from the IFNA8 and IFNA17 of IFNA gene cluster had a protective effect in the non-endemic region but not in the endemic region. A promoter and an intron 2 SNP of IFNAR1 were risk factors for disease and the IFNAR1 haplotype GCCAGG (rs2843710 C/G, rs2850015 C/T, +6993 C/T, rs2243594 A/G, rs1012335 G/C, rs2257167 G/C) carrying both the risk alleles strikingly associated with disease manifestation in the endemic region (severe vs. control, OR=27.14, 95% CI=3.12-1254, P=2 × 10(-5); non-severe vs. control, OR=61.87, 95% CI=10.08-2521, P=1 × 10(-8)). The data indicates dissimilar contribution of cytokine and cytokine receptor variants to disease in populations residing in areas of differential malaria endemicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Hemagglutinin of Influenza A Virus Antagonizes Type I Interferon (IFN) Responses by Inducing Degradation of Type I IFN Receptor 1

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, Chuan; Vijayan, Madhuvanthi; Pritzl, Curtis J.; Fuchs, Serge Y.; McDermott, Adrian B.; Hahm, Bumsuk

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) employs diverse strategies to circumvent type I interferon (IFN) responses, particularly by inhibiting the synthesis of type I IFNs. However, it is poorly understood if and how IAV regulates the type I IFN receptor (IFNAR)-mediated signaling mode. In this study, we demonstrate that IAV induces the degradation of IFNAR subunit 1 (IFNAR1) to attenuate the type I IFN-induced antiviral signaling pathway. Following infection, the level of IFNAR1 protein, but not mRNA, decre...

  4. Interferons and interferon (IFN)-inducible protein 10 during highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART)-possible immunosuppressive role of IFN-alpha in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stylianou, E; Aukrust, P; Bendtzen, K

    2000-01-01

    Interferons play an important, but incompletely understood role in HIV-related disease. We investigated the effect of HAART on plasma levels of IFN-alpha, IFN-gamma, neopterin and interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) in 41 HIV-infected patients during 78 weeks of therapy. At baseline HIV...... seemed not to involve enhanced lymphocyte apoptosis. Our findings suggest a pathogenic role of IFN-alpha in HIV infection, which may be a potential target for immunomodulating therapy in combination with HAART....

  5. Inquiring into the differential action of interferons (IFNs): an IFN-alpha2 mutant with enhanced affinity to IFNAR1 is functionally similar to IFN-beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaitin, Diego A; Roisman, Laila C; Jaks, Eva; Gavutis, Martynas; Piehler, Jacob; Van der Heyden, Jose; Uze, Gilles; Schreiber, Gideon

    2006-03-01

    Alpha and beta interferons (IFN-alpha and IFN-beta) are multifunctional cytokines that exhibit differential activities through a common receptor composed of the subunits IFNAR1 and IFNAR2. Here we combined biophysical and functional studies to explore the mechanism that allows the alpha and beta IFNs to act differentially. For this purpose, we have engineered an IFN-alpha2 triple mutant termed the HEQ mutant that mimics the biological properties of IFN-beta. Compared to wild-type (wt) IFN-alpha2, the HEQ mutant confers a 30-fold higher binding affinity towards IFNAR1, comparable to that measured for IFN-beta, resulting in a much higher stability of the ternary complex as measured on model membranes. The HEQ mutant, like IFN-beta, promotes a differentially higher antiproliferative effect than antiviral activity. Both bring on a down-regulation of the IFNAR2 receptor upon induction, confirming an increased ternary complex stability of the plasma membrane. Oligonucleotide microarray experiments showed similar gene transcription profiles induced by the HEQ mutant and IFN-beta and higher levels of gene induction or repression than those for wt IFN-alpha2. Thus, we show that the differential activities of IFN-beta are directly related to the binding affinity for IFNAR1. Conservation of the residues mutated in the HEQ mutant within IFN-alpha subtypes suggests that IFN-alpha has evolved to bind IFNAR1 weakly, apparently to sustain differential levels of biological activities compared to those induced by IFN-beta.

  6. Neutralizing antibodies to interferon (IFN) alpha-2a and IFN beta-1a or IFN beta-1b in MS are not cross-reactive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myhr, K M; Ross, C; Nyland, H I

    2000-01-01

    Sera from patients with MS treated with recombinant interferon (rIFN) alpha-2a, rIFNbeta-1a, or rIFNbeta-1b were analyzed for cross-reacting neutralizing antibodies (NAB). Because cross-reactivity was not found, switching treatment from rIFNbeta-1a or rIFNbeta-1b to rIFNalpha-2a might provide...

  7. Hemagglutinin of Influenza A Virus Antagonizes Type I Interferon (IFN) Responses by Inducing Degradation of Type I IFN Receptor 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Chuan; Vijayan, Madhuvanthi; Pritzl, Curtis J; Fuchs, Serge Y; McDermott, Adrian B; Hahm, Bumsuk

    2015-12-16

    Influenza A virus (IAV) employs diverse strategies to circumvent type I interferon (IFN) responses, particularly by inhibiting the synthesis of type I IFNs. However, it is poorly understood if and how IAV regulates the type I IFN receptor (IFNAR)-mediated signaling mode. In this study, we demonstrate that IAV induces the degradation of IFNAR subunit 1 (IFNAR1) to attenuate the type I IFN-induced antiviral signaling pathway. Following infection, the level of IFNAR1 protein, but not mRNA, decreased. Indeed, IFNAR1 was phosphorylated and ubiquitinated by IAV infection, which resulted in IFNAR1 elimination. The transiently overexpressed IFNAR1 displayed antiviral activity by inhibiting virus replication. Importantly, the hemagglutinin (HA) protein of IAV was proved to trigger the ubiquitination of IFNAR1, diminishing the levels of IFNAR1. Further, influenza A viral HA1 subunit, but not HA2 subunit, downregulated IFNAR1. However, viral HA-mediated degradation of IFNAR1 was not caused by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. IAV HA robustly reduced cellular sensitivity to type I IFNs, suppressing the activation of STAT1/STAT2 and induction of IFN-stimulated antiviral proteins. Taken together, our findings suggest that IAV HA causes IFNAR1 degradation, which in turn helps the virus escape the powerful innate immune system. Thus, the research elucidated an influenza viral mechanism for eluding the IFNAR signaling pathway, which could provide new insights into the interplay between influenza virus and host innate immunity. Influenza A virus (IAV) infection causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide and remains a major health concern. When triggered by influenza viral infection, host cells produce type I interferon (IFN) to block viral replication. Although IAV was shown to have diverse strategies to evade this powerful, IFN-mediated antiviral response, it is not well-defined if IAV manipulates the IFN receptor-mediated signaling pathway. Here, we

  8. Differential Type I Interferon Signaling Is a Master Regulator of Susceptibility to Postinfluenza Bacterial Superinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly M. Shepardson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial superinfections are a primary cause of death during influenza pandemics and epidemics. Type I interferon (IFN signaling contributes to increased susceptibility of mice to bacterial superinfection around day 7 post-influenza A virus (IAV infection. Here we demonstrate that the reduced susceptibility to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA at day 3 post-IAV infection, which we previously reported was due to interleukin-13 (IL-13/IFN-γ responses, is also dependent on type I IFN signaling and its subsequent requirement for protective IL-13 production. We found, through utilization of blocking antibodies, that reduced susceptibility to MRSA at day 3 post-IAV infection was IFN-β dependent, whereas the increased susceptibility at day 7 was IFN-α dependent. IFN-β signaling early in IAV infection was required for MRSA clearance, whereas IFN-α signaling late in infection was not, though it did mediate increased susceptibility to MRSA at that time. Type I IFN receptor (IFNAR signaling in CD11c+ and Ly6G+ cells was required for the observed reduced susceptibility at day 3 post-IAV infection. Depletion of Ly6G+ cells in mice in which IFNAR signaling was either blocked or deleted indicated that Ly6G+ cells were responsible for the IFNAR signaling-dependent susceptibility to MRSA superinfection at day 7 post-IAV infection. Thus, during IAV infection, the temporal differences in type I IFN signaling increased bactericidal activity of both CD11c+ and Ly6G+ cells at day 3 and reduced effector function of Ly6G+ cells at day 7. The temporal differential outcomes induced by IFN-β (day 3 and IFN-α (day 7 signaling through the same IFNAR resulted in differential susceptibility to MRSA at 3 and 7 days post-IAV infection.

  9. Gamma interferon (IFN-γ) receptor restricts systemic dengue virus replication and prevents paralysis in IFN-α/β receptor-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestwood, Tyler R; Morar, Malika M; Zellweger, Raphaël M; Miller, Robyn; May, Monica M; Yauch, Lauren E; Lada, Steven M; Shresta, Sujan

    2012-12-01

    We previously reported that mice lacking alpha/beta and gamma interferon receptors (IFN-α/βR and -γR) uniformly exhibit paralysis following infection with the dengue virus (DENV) clinical isolate PL046, while only a subset of mice lacking the IFN-γR alone and virtually no mice lacking the IFN-α/βR alone develop paralysis. Here, using a mouse-passaged variant of PL046, strain S221, we show that in the absence of the IFN-α/βR, signaling through the IFN-γR confers approximately 140-fold greater resistance against systemic vascular leakage-associated dengue disease and virtually complete protection from dengue-induced paralysis. Viral replication in the spleen was assessed by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry, which revealed a reduction in the number of infected cells due to IFN-γR signaling by 2 days after infection, coincident with elevated levels of IFN-γ in the spleen and serum. By 4 days after infection, IFN-γR signaling was found to restrict DENV replication systemically. Clearance of DENV, on the other hand, occurred in the absence of IFN-γR, except in the central nervous system (CNS) (brain and spinal cord), where clearance relied on IFN-γ from CD8(+) T cells. These results demonstrate the roles of IFN-γR signaling in protection from initial systemic and subsequent CNS disease following DENV infection and demonstrate the importance of CD8(+) T cells in preventing DENV-induced CNS disease.

  10. Incubation of whole blood at 39°C augments gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-induced protein 10 and IFN-γ responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabye, Martine G; Ravn, Pernille; Johansen, Isik S

    2011-01-01

    compared CMI responses following incubation of whole blood at 37°C and 39°C. Whole blood was obtained from (i) 34 healthy subjects whose blood was incubated with TB10.4 antigen, present in the Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine and many environmental mycobacteria; (ii) 8 TB patients and 8...... controls incubated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific antigens in the QuantiFERON-TB Gold test (QFT-IT); and (iii) from both groups incubated with a T cell mitogen. T cell responses (gamma interferon [IFN-γ]) and responses from antigen-presenting cells (IFN-γ-induced protein 10 [IP-10]) were...

  11. Palmitoylation of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) receptor subunit IFNAR1 is required for the activation of Stat1 and Stat2 by IFN-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudinon, Julie; Gonnord, Pauline; Beslard, Emilie; Marchetti, Marta; Mitchell, Keith; Boularan, Cédric; Johannes, Ludger; Eid, Pierre; Lamaze, Christophe

    2009-09-04

    Type I interferons (IFNs) bind IFNAR receptors and activate Jak kinases and Stat transcription factors to stimulate the transcription of genes downstream from IFN-stimulated response elements. In this study, we analyze the role of protein palmitoylation, a reversible post-translational lipid modification, in the functional properties of IFNAR. We report that pharmacological inhibition of protein palmitoylation results in severe defects of IFN receptor endocytosis and signaling. We generated mutants of the IFNAR1 subunit of the type I IFN receptor, in which each or both of the two cysteines present in the cytoplasmic domain are replaced by alanines. We show that cysteine 463 of IFNAR1, the more proximal of the two cytoplasmic cysteines, is palmitoylated. A thorough microscopic and biochemical analysis of the palmitoylation-deficient IFNAR1 mutant revealed that IFNAR1 palmitoylation is not required for receptor endocytosis, intracellular distribution, or stability at the cell surface. However, the lack of IFNAR1 palmitoylation affects selectively the activation of Stat2, which results in a lack of efficient Stat1 activation and nuclear translocation and IFN-alpha-activated gene transcription. Thus, receptor palmitoylation is a previously undescribed mechanism of regulating signaling activity by type I IFNs in the Jak/Stat pathway.

  12. Toxoplasma gondii Inhibits Gamma Interferon (IFN-γ)- and IFN-β-Induced Host Cell STAT1 Transcriptional Activity by Increasing the Association of STAT1 with DNA

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    Rosowski, Emily E.; Nguyen, Quynh P.; Camejo, Ana; Spooner, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The gamma interferon (IFN-γ) response, mediated by the STAT1 transcription factor, is crucial for host defense against the intracellular pathogen Toxoplasma gondii, but prior infection with Toxoplasma can inhibit this response. Recently, it was reported that the Toxoplasma type II NTE strain prevents the recruitment of chromatin remodeling complexes containing Brahma-related gene 1 (BRG-1) to promoters of IFN-γ-induced secondary response genes such as Ciita and major histocompatibility complex class II genes in murine macrophages, thereby inhibiting their expression. We report here that a type I strain of Toxoplasma inhibits the expression of primary IFN-γ response genes such as IRF1 through a distinct mechanism not dependent on the activity of histone deacetylases. Instead, infection with a type I, II, or III strain of Toxoplasma inhibits the dissociation of STAT1 from DNA, preventing its recycling and further rounds of STAT1-mediated transcriptional activation. This leads to increased IFN-γ-induced binding of STAT1 at the IRF1 promoter in host cells and increased global IFN-γ-induced association of STAT1 with chromatin. Toxoplasma type I infection also inhibits IFN-β-induced interferon-stimulated gene factor 3-mediated gene expression, and this inhibition is also linked to increased association of STAT1 with chromatin. The secretion of proteins into the host cell by a type I strain of Toxoplasma without complete parasite invasion is not sufficient to block STAT1-mediated expression, suggesting that the effector protein responsible for this inhibition is not derived from the rhoptries. PMID:24478085

  13. Benefit of adjuvant interferon alfa-2b (IFN-α) therapy in melanoma patients with high serum MMP-8 levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vihinen, Pia; Tervahartiala, Taina; Sorsa, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are important enzymes in tissue turnover and various inflammatory processes. In this study, it was evaluated whether serum MMP-8 can predict the response to adjuvant interferon alfa-2b (IFN-α) therapy in patients with operated high-risk cutaneous melanoma. Pre...

  14. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 Facilitates Hepatitis B Virus Replication through Binding with Type I Interferon (IFN) Receptor 1 To Repress IFN/JAK/STAT Signaling.

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    Chen, Junbo; Xu, Wei; Chen, Yanni; Xie, Xueping; Zhang, Yecheng; Ma, Chunqiang; Yang, Qingyu; Han, Yang; Zhu, Chengliang; Xiong, Ying; Wu, Kailang; Liu, Fang; Liu, Yingle; Wu, Jianguo

    2017-04-15

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection may cause acute hepatitis B, chronic hepatitis B (CHB), liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the mechanisms by which HBV evades host immunity and maintains chronic infection are largely unknown. Here, we revealed that matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) is activated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of HBV-infected patients, and HBV stimulates MMP-9 expression in macrophages and PBMCs isolated from healthy individuals. MMP-9 plays important roles in the breakdown of the extracellular matrix and in the facilitation of tumor progression, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. MMP-9 also regulates respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) replication, but the mechanism underlying such regulation is unknown. We further demonstrated that MMP-9 facilitates HBV replication by repressing the interferon (IFN)/Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway, IFN action, STAT1/2 phosphorylation, and IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) expression. Moreover, MMP-9 binds to type I IFN receptor 1 (IFNAR1) and facilitates IFNAR1 phosphorylation, ubiquitination, subcellular distribution, and degradation to interfere with the binding of IFANR1 to IFN-α. Thus, we identified a novel positive-feedback regulation loop between HBV replication and MMP-9 production. On one hand, HBV activates MMP-9 in infected patients and leukocytes. On the other hand, MMP-9 facilitates HBV replication through repressing IFN/JAK/STAT signaling, IFNAR1 function, and IFN-α action. Therefore, HBV may take the advantage of MMP-9 function to establish or maintain chronic infection.IMPORTANCE Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection may cause chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the mechanisms by which HBV maintains chronic infection are largely unknown. Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) plays important roles in the facilitation of tumor progression, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis

  15. Double-stranded RNA induces biphasic STAT1 phosphorylation by both type I interferon (IFN)-dependent and type I IFN-independent pathways.

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    Dempoya, Junichi; Matsumiya, Tomoh; Imaizumi, Tadaatsu; Hayakari, Ryo; Xing, Fei; Yoshida, Hidemi; Okumura, Ken; Satoh, Kei

    2012-12-01

    Upon viral infection, pattern recognition receptors sense viral nucleic acids, leading to the production of type I interferons (IFNs), which initiate antiviral activities. Type I IFNs bind to their cognate receptor, IFNAR, resulting in the activation of signal-transducing activators of transcription 1 (STAT1). Thus, it has long been thought that double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-induced STAT1 phosphorylation is mediated by the transactivation of type I IFN signaling. Foreign RNA, such as viral RNA, in cells is sensed by the cytoplasmic sensors retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA-5). In this study, we explored the molecular mechanism responsible for STAT1 phosphorylation in response to the sensing of dsRNA by cytosolic RNA sensors. Polyinosinic-poly(C) [poly(I:C)], a synthetic dsRNA that is sensed by both RIG-I and MDA-5, induces STAT1 phosphorylation. We found that the poly(I:C)-induced initial phosphorylation of STAT1 is dependent on the RIG-I pathway and that MDA-5 is not involved in STAT1 phosphorylation. Furthermore, pretreatment of the cells with neutralizing antibody targeting the IFN receptor suppressed the initial STAT1 phosphorylation in response to poly(I:C), suggesting that this initial phosphorylation event is predominantly type I IFN dependent. In contrast, neither the known RIG-I pathway nor type I IFN is involved in the late phosphorylation of STAT1. In addition, poly(I:C) stimulated STAT1 phosphorylation in type I IFN receptor-deficient U5A cells with delayed kinetics. Collectively, our study provides evidence of a comprehensive regulatory mechanism in which dsRNA induces STAT1 phosphorylation, indicating the importance of STAT1 in maintaining very tight regulation of the innate immune system.

  16. Immunostimulatory effects of natural human interferon-alpha (huIFN-alpha) on carps Cyprinus carpio L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanuki, Hironobu; Chakraborty, Gunimala; Korenaga, Hiroki; Kono, Tomoya; Shivappa, R B; Sakai, Masahiro

    2009-10-15

    Human interferon-alpha (huIFN-alpha) is an important immunomodulatory substance used in the treatment and prevention of numerous infectious and immune-related diseases in animals. However, the immunostimulatory effects of huIFN-alpha in fish remain to be investigated. In the current study, the immune responses of the carp species Cyprinus carpio L. to treatment with huIFN-alpha were analyzed via measurement of superoxide anion production, phagocytic activity and the expression of cytokine genes including interleukin-1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin 10. Low doses of huIFN-alpha were administered orally once a day for 3 days, and sampling was carried out at 1, 3 and 5 days post-treatment. Our results indicate that a low dose of huIFN-alpha significantly increased phagocytic activity and superoxide anion production in the carp kidney. The huIFN-alpha-treated fish also displayed a significant upregulation in cytokine gene expression. The current study demonstrates the stimulatory effects of huIFN-alpha on the carp immune system and highlights the immunomodulatory role of huIFN-alpha in fish.

  17. The interferon regulatory factor 5 gene confers susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis and influences its erosive phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dawidowicz, K.; Allanore, Y.; Guedj, M.; Pierlot, C.; Bombardieri, S.; Balsa, A.; Westhovens, R.; Barrera, P.; Alves, H.; Teixeira, V.H.; Petit-Teixeira, E.; Putte, L.B.A. van de; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Prum, B.; Bardin, T.; Meyer, O.; Cornelis, F.; Dieude, P.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased expression of type I IFN genes, also referred to as an IFN signature, has been detected in various autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Interferon regulatory factors, such as IRF5, coordinate type I IFN expression. Multiple IRF5 variants were suggested as

  18. Type I IFN signaling triggers immunopathology in tuberculosis-susceptible mice by modulating lung phagocyte dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorhoi, Anca; Yeremeev, Vladimir; Nouailles, Geraldine; Weiner, January; Jörg, Sabine; Heinemann, Ellen; Oberbeck-Müller, Dagmar; Knaul, Julia K; Vogelzang, Alexis; Reece, Stephen T; Hahnke, Karin; Mollenkopf, Hans-Joachim; Brinkmann, Volker; Kaufmann, Stefan H E

    2014-08-01

    General interest in the biological functions of IFN type I in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection increased after the recent identification of a distinct IFN gene expression signature in tuberculosis (TB) patients. Here, we demonstrate that TB-susceptible mice lacking the receptor for IFN I (IFNAR1) were protected from death upon aerogenic infection with Mtb. Using this experimental model to mimic primary progressive pulmonary TB, we dissected the immune processes affected by IFN I. IFNAR1 signaling did not affect T-cell responses, but markedly altered migration of inflammatory monocytes and neutrophils to the lung. This process was orchestrated by IFNAR1 expressed on both immune and tissue-resident radioresistant cells. IFNAR1-driven TB susceptibility was initiated by augmented Mtb replication and in situ death events, along with CXCL5/CXCL1-driven accumulation of neutrophils in alveoli, followed by the discrete compartmentalization of Mtb in lung phagocytes. Early depletion of neutrophils rescued TB-susceptible mice to levels observed in mice lacking IFNAR1. We conclude that IFN I alters early innate events at the site of Mtb invasion leading to fatal immunopathology. These data furnish a mechanistic explanation for the detrimental role of IFN I in pulmonary TB and form a basis for understanding the complex roles of IFN I in chronic inflammation. © 2014 The Authors. European Journal of Immunology published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Is there an association between IFN-γ +874A/T polymorphism and periodontitis susceptibility?: A meta-analysis.

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    Shi, Quan; Cai, Chuan; Xu, Juan; Liu, Jinglong; Liu, Hongchen; Huo, Na

    2017-06-01

    Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) is a key proinflammatory cytokine which plays a critical role in the pathogenesis and progression of periodontitis. The single nucleotide polymorphism of +874A/T in human IFN-γ gene can influence the secretion of IFN-γ and affect periodontitis susceptibility. However, the findings of published studies are inconsistent. Therefore, the goal of this meta-analysis is to investigate whether there is an association between IFN-γ +874A/T polymorphism and periodontitis susceptibility. PubMed and the Cochrane Library were searched for eligible clinical studies. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of each study were pooled to estimate the strength of association between +874A/T and periodontitis. Subgroup analyses were performed to explore whether particular characteristics of studies were related to the overall results. Seven studies and a total of 1252 periodontitis patients and 1622 periodontitis-free control subjects were included. No difference was observed in genotype distribution and allele frequency between periodontitis patients and control (T vs A: OR  =  1.01, 95% CI: 0.90-1.13, P  =  .878; TT vs AA: OR  =  1.07, 95% CI: 0.87-1.32, P  =  .537; AT vs AA: OR  =  1.00, 95% CI: 0.81-1.23, P  =  .996; TT+AT vs AA: OR  =  1.00, 95% CI: 0.84-1.19, P  =  .990; TT vs AA+AT: OR  =  1.03, 95% CI: 0.86-1.23, P  =  .733). Besides, the subgroup analysis based on ethnicity, type of periodontitis, and smoking status failed to identify significant differences in each model, either. The results of this meta-analysis suggest that IFN-γ +874 A/T polymorphism may not contribute to periodontitis susceptibility. High quality and well-designed studies which combine genetic and other environmental risk factors are needed to validate this conclusion in the future.

  20. Interferon (IFN and Cellular Immune Response Evoked in RNA-Pattern Sensing During Infection with Hepatitis C Virus (HCV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Nakai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infects hepatocytes but not dendritic cells (DCs, but DCs effectively mature in response to HCV-infected hepatocytes. Using gene-disrupted mice and hydrodynamic injection strategy, we found the MAVS pathway to be crucial for induction of type III interferons (IFNs in response to HCV in mouse. Human hepatocytes barely express TLR3 under non-infectious states, but frequently express it in HCV infection. Type I and III IFNs are induced upon stimulation with polyI:C, an analog of double-stranded (dsRNA. Activation of TLR3 and the TICAM-1 pathway, followed by DC-mediated activation of cellular immunity, is augmented during exposure to viral RNA. Although type III IFNs are released from replication-competent human hepatocytes, DC-mediated CTL proliferation and NK cell activation hardly occur in response to the released type III IFNs. Yet, type I IFNs and HCV-infected hepatocytes can induce maturation of DCs in either human or mouse origin. In addition, mouse CD8+ DCs mature in response to HCV-infected hepatocytes unless the TLR3/TICAM-1 pathway is blocked. We found the exosomes containing HCV RNA in the supernatant of the HCV-infected hepatocytes act as a source of TLR3-mediated DC maturation. Here we summarize our view on the mechanism by which DCs mature to induce NK and CTL in a status of HCV infection.

  1. IFNG +874T/A polymorphism is not associated with American tegumentary leishmaniasis susceptibility but can influence Leishmania induced IFN-γ production

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    Sampaio Elizabeth P

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interferon-gamma is a key cytokine in the protective responses against intracellular pathogens. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP located in the first intron of the human IFN-γ gene can putatively influence the secretion of cytokine with an impact on infection outcome as demonstrated for tuberculosis and other complex diseases. Our aim was to investigate the putative association of IFNG+874T/A SNP with American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL and also the influence of this SNP in the secretion of IFN-γ in vitro. Methods Brazilian ATL patients (78 cutaneous, CL, and 58 mucosal leishmaniasis, ML and 609 healthy volunteers were evaluated. The genotype of +874 region in the IFN-γ gene was carried out by Amplification Refractory Mutational System (ARMS-PCR. Leishmania-induced IFN-γ production on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC culture supernatants was assessed by ELISA. Results There are no differences between +874T/A SNP frequency in cases and controls or in ML versus CL patients. Cutaneous leishmaniasis cases exhibiting AA genotype produced lower levels of IFN-γ than TA/TT genotypes. In mucosal cases, high and low IFN-γ producers were clearly demonstrated but no differences in the cytokine production was observed among the IFNG +874T or A carriers. Conclusion Our results suggest that +874T/A polymorphism was not associated with either susceptibility or severity to leishmaniasis. Despite this, IFNG +874T/A SNP could be involved in the pathogenesis of leishmaniasis by influencing the amount of cytokine released by CL patients, although it could not prevent disease development. On the other hand, it is possible that in ML cases, other potential polymorphic regulatory genes such as TNF-α and IL-10 are also involved thus interfering with IFN-γ secretion.

  2. Mood, cognition and EEG changes during interferon alpha (alpha-IFN) treatment for chronic hepatitis C.

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    Amodio, Piero; De Toni, Enrico N; Cavalletto, Luisa; Mapelli, Daniela; Bernardinello, Elisabetta; Del Piccolo, Franco; Bergamelli, Cristina; Costanzo, Raffaella; Bergamaschi, Federica; Poma, Stefano Zanone; Chemello, Liliana; Gatta, Angelo; Perini, Giulia

    2005-01-01

    This study is aim to investigate concurrent long-term psychiatric, cognitive and neurophysiological measures of alpha-IFN neurotoxicity in the treatment of chronic viral hepatitis. Twenty patients with HCV hepatitis were enrolled while treated with alpha-IFN (3-6 MU t.i.w. for 6-12 months). Neurotoxicity was evaluated by psychiatric [Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), Hamilton Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-Y)], complete cognitive and neurophysiological assessments (EEG spectral analysis, P300). Patients were assessed at baseline (t0), 2 (t1) and 6 months (t2) since the beginning of therapy. Depression scores significantly increased (HAM-D: t0=4.4+/-2.6; t1=8.9+/-3.9, pcognitive changes occurred. The study was performed on a relative small sample of patients mainly with observational intentions. Biological data (e.g. blood cytokines samples) are not available: they could have given useful information about biological mechanisms related to the alterations observed. Alpha-IFN treatment caused a time-dependent induction of symptoms of mild depression, concurrent anxiety and EEG changes. These psychiatric and neurophysiological changes can better explain the pharmacological profile of alpha-IFN and could help to address research on at risk population and, particularly, during pegylated-IFN therapy.

  3. Evaluation of Cell Proliferation and Interferon Gamma (IFN- Expression in Patients with Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Rafiei

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available T cell proliferation is a standard method to evaluate cellular immune responses against intracellular infectious agents. Recently, intracellular cytokine assay is a valuable procedure for studying of the immune response to various stimuli such as intracellular microbes. The present study was undertaken to assess cell-mediated immune responses in patients with acute and chronic brucellosis. Diluted whole blood samples of patients with acute (n=14 and chronic brucellosis (n=13 with age 35.33 21 years, and sex and age-matched healthy volunteers(n=22 were cultured in the presence of either mitogen; heat inactivated bacteria or medium alone. Intracellular IFN-γ expression in CD3+ cells was detected by flow cytometry. Lymphoproliferation was determined by titiated thymidine incorporation using scintillation counter, to evaluate DNA synthesis. In all groups, incubation with mitogen induced proliferation of lymphocytes and intracellular IFN-γ expression of CD3+ cells. In contrast, only brucellosis patients responded with cell proliferation and IFN-γ production against heat killed Brucella melitensis. However, blastogenic responses and IFN-γ-producing CD3+ cells were significantly decreased in response to antigen in chronic group compared to patients with acute brucellosis of patients (P<0.001. There was a close correlation between the number IFN-- producing CD3+ cells only in acute group which shown polarization of immune responses to Th1 type. Methods used in this study were useful to evaluate immune responses against specific antigen or polyclonal stimulation. Our data was shown patients with acute infection responded to Brucella antigens by IFN- expression and proliferation and induced production of T helper 1 (Th1 cytokines, whereas chronically infected patients do not.

  4. Inducible Interleukin 32 (IL-32) Exerts Extensive Antiviral Function via Selective Stimulation of Interferon λ1 (IFN-λ1)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongkui; Xie, Jiajia; Xu, Xiupeng; Liu, Li; Wan, Yushun; Liu, Yingle; Zhu, Chengliang; Zhu, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-32 has been recognized as a proinflammatory cytokine that participates in responses to viral infection. However, little is known about how IL-32 is induced in response to viral infection and the mechanisms of IL-32-mediated antiviral activities. We discovered that IL-32 is elevated by hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection both in vitro and in vivo and that HBV induced IL-32 expression at the level of both transcription and post-transcription. Furthermore, microRNA-29b was found to be a key factor in HBV-regulated IL-32 expression by directly targeting the mRNA 3′-untranslated region of IL-32. Antiviral analysis showed that IL-32 was not sufficient to alter HBV replication in HepG2.2.15 cells. To mimic the viremic phase of viral infection, freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells were treated with IL-32γ, the secretory isoform, and the supernatants were used for antiviral assays. Surprisingly, these supernatants exhibited extensive antiviral activity against multiplex viruses besides HBV. Thus, we speculated that the IL-32γ-treated peripheral blood mononuclear cells produced and secreted an unknown antiviral factor. Using antibody neutralization assays, we identified the factor as interferon (IFN)-λ1 and not IFN-α. Further studies indicated that IL-32γ effectively inhibited HBV replication in a hydrodynamic injection mouse model. Clinical data showed that elevated levels of IFN-λ1 both in serum and liver tissue of HBV patients were positively correlated to the increased levels of IL-32. Our results demonstrate that elevated IL-32 levels during viral infection mediate antiviral effects by stimulating the expression of IFN-λ1. PMID:23729669

  5. Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and Interferon-Gamma (IFN-gamma) in pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objective:- To assess if gestational factors affect the resistance of C57BL/6 mice to L. major infection, this study determined the levels of IL-4 and IFN-gamma in popliteal lymph node cells of pregnant C57BL/6 mice infected with L. major at 16 hours, 5 days-, 10 days- and 15 days- post plug by PCR, ELISA ...

  6. Loss of the interferon-γ-inducible regulatory immunity-related GTPase (IRG), Irgm1, causes activation of effector IRG proteins on lysosomes, damaging lysosomal function and predicting the dramatic susceptibility of Irgm1-deficient mice to infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maric-Biresev, Jelena; Hunn, Julia P; Krut, Oleg; Helms, J Bernd; Martens, Sascha; Howard, Jonathan C

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-inducible immunity-related GTPase (IRG), Irgm1, plays an essential role in restraining activation of the IRG pathogen resistance system. However, the loss of Irgm1 in mice also causes a dramatic but unexplained susceptibility phenotype upon infection with a

  7. Neuropathogenesis of Zika Virus in a Highly Susceptible Immunocompetent Mouse Model after Antibody Blockade of Type I Interferon.

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    Darci R Smith

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal models are needed to better understand the pathogenic mechanisms of Zika virus (ZIKV and to evaluate candidate medical countermeasures. Adult mice infected with ZIKV develop a transient viremia, but do not demonstrate signs of morbidity or mortality. Mice deficient in type I or a combination of type I and type II interferon (IFN responses are highly susceptible to ZIKV infection; however, the absence of a competent immune system limits their usefulness for studying medical countermeasures. Here we employ a murine model for ZIKV using wild-type C57BL/6 mice treated with an antibody to disrupt type I IFN signaling to study ZIKV pathogenesis. We observed 40% mortality in antibody treated mice exposed to ZIKV subcutaneously whereas mice exposed by intraperitoneal inoculation were highly susceptible incurring 100% mortality. Mice infected by both exposure routes experienced weight loss, high viremia, and severe neuropathologic changes. The most significant histopathological findings occurred in the central nervous system where lesions represent an acute to subacute encephalitis/encephalomyelitis that is characterized by neuronal death, astrogliosis, microgliosis, scattered necrotic cellular debris, and inflammatory cell infiltrates. This model of ZIKV pathogenesis will be valuable for evaluating medical countermeasures and the pathogenic mechanisms of ZIKV because it allows immune responses to be elicited in immunologically competent mice with IFN I blockade only induced at the time of infection.

  8. The IFN-gamma +874T/A gene polymorphism is associated with retinochoroiditis toxoplasmosis susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Maíra Cavalcanti de; Aleixo, Ana Luisa Quintella do Couto; Benchimol, Eliezer Israel; Leandro, Ana Cristina Câmara S; das Neves, Leandro Batista; Vicente, Regiane Trigueiro; Bonecini-Almeida, Maria da Glória; Amendoeira, Maria Regina Reis

    2009-05-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis that generally produces an asymptomatic infection. In some cases, however, toxoplasmosis infection can lead to ocular damage. The immune system has a crucial role in both the course of the infection and in the evolution of toxoplasmosis disease. In particular, IFN-gamma plays an important role in resistance to toxoplasmosis. Polymorphisms in genes encoding cytokines have been shown to have an association with susceptibility to parasitic diseases. The aim of this work was to analyse the occurrence of polymorphisms in the gene encoding IFN-gamma (+874T/A) among Toxoplasma gondii seropositive individuals, including those with ocular lesions caused by the parasite, from a rural population of Santa Rita de Cássia, Barra Mansa, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Further, we verified which of these polymorphisms could be related to susceptibility to the development of ocular toxoplasmosis. This study included 34 individuals with ocular toxoplasmosis (ocular group) and 134 without ocular lesions (control group). The differences between A and T allele distributions were not statistically significant between the two groups. However, we observed that a higher frequency of individuals from the ocular group possessed the A/A genotype, when compared with the control group, suggesting that homozygocity for the A allele could enhance susceptibility to ocular toxoplasmosis in T. gondii infection.

  9. The IFN-³+874T/A gene polymorphism is associated with retinochoroiditis toxoplasmosis susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Cavalcanti de Albuquerque

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis that generally produces an asymptomatic infection. In some cases, however, toxoplasmosis infection can lead to ocular damage. The immune system has a crucial role in both the course of the infection and in the evolution of toxoplasmosis disease. In particular, IFN-³ plays an important role in resistance to toxoplasmosis. Polymorphisms in genes encoding cytokines have been shown to have an association with susceptibility to parasitic diseases. The aim of this work was to analyse the occurrence of polymorphisms in the gene encoding IFN-³ (+874T/A among Toxoplasma gondii seropositive individuals, including those with ocular lesions caused by the parasite, from a rural population of Santa Rita de Cássia, Barra Mansa, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Further, we verified which of these polymorphisms could be related to susceptibility to the development of ocular toxoplasmosis. This study included 34 individuals with ocular toxoplasmosis (ocular group and 134 without ocular lesions (control group. The differences between A and T allele distributions were not statistically significant between the two groups. However, we observed that a higher frequency of individuals from the ocular group possessed the A/A genotype, when compared with the control group, suggesting that homozygocity for the A allele could enhance susceptibility to ocular toxoplasmosis in T. gondii infection.

  10. Polymorphisms in an interferon-gamma receptor-1 gene marker and susceptibility to periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraser, DA; Loos, BG; Boman, U; van Winkelhoff, AJ; van der Velden, U; Schenck, K; Dembic, Z

    2003-01-01

    Chronic marginal periodontitis is an inflammatory condition in which the supporting tissues of the teeth are destroyed. Interferon (IFN)-gamma is a cytokine that plays a pivotal role in the defense against infection, and mutations in the gene coding for the ligand binding chain (alpha, RI) of the

  11. Interferon-α is the primary plasma type-I IFN in HIV-1 infection and correlates with immune activation and disease markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth A D Hardy

    Full Text Available Type-I interferon (IFN-I has been increasingly implicated in HIV-1 pathogenesis. Various studies have shown elevated IFN-I and an IFN-I-induced gene and protein expression signature in HIV-1 infection, yet the elevated IFN-I species has not been conclusively identified, its source remains obscure and its role in driving HIV-1 pathogenesis is controversial. We assessed IFN-I species in plasma by ELISAs and bioassay, and we investigated potential sources of IFN-I in blood and lymph node tissue by qRT-PCR. Furthermore, we measured the effect of therapeutic administration of IFNα in HCV-infected subjects to model the effect of IFNα on chronic immune activation. IFN-I bioactivity was significantly increased in plasma of untreated HIV-1-infected subjects relative to uninfected subjects (p = 0.012, and IFNα was the predominant IFN-I subtype correlating with IFN-I bioactivity (r = 0.658, p<0.001. IFNα was not detectable in plasma of subjects receiving anti-retroviral therapy. Elevated expression of IFNα mRNA was limited to lymph node tissue cells, suggesting that peripheral blood leukocytes are not a major source of IFNα in untreated chronic HIV-1 infection. Plasma IFN-I levels correlated inversely with CD4 T cell count (p = 0.003 and positively with levels of plasma HIV-1 RNA and CD38 expression on CD8 T cells (p = 0.009. In hepatitis C virus-infected subjects, treatment with IFN-I and ribavirin increased expression of CD38 on CD8 T cells (p = 0.003. These studies identify IFNα derived from lymph nodes, rather than blood leukocytes, as a possible source of the IFN-I signature that contributes to immune activation in HIV-1 infection.

  12. Association between interferon-γ +874 T/A polymorphism and susceptibility to autoimmune diseases: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y H; Bae, S-C

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore whether the interferon (IFN)-γ +874 T/A polymorphism plays a role in modifying the risk of autoimmune diseases. A meta-analysis was conducted on the association between the IFN-γ +874 T/A polymorphism and autoimmune diseases. Eighteen studies with a total of 2952 patients and 3832 controls were included in the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis revealed no association between autoimmune diseases and the IFN-γ +874 T allele in all study subjects (odds ratio (OR)=1.023, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.894-1.171, p = 0.738), but stratification by ethnicity indicated an association between the IFN-γ +874 T allele and autoimmune diseases in Latin American subjects (OR = 0.780, 95% CI = 0.629-0.953, p = 0.015). Meta-analysis also revealed an association between autoimmune diseases and the IFN-γ +874 T/A polymorphism in Caucasian and Middle Eastern subjects under a dominant inheritance model (OR = 0.686, 95% CI = 0.489-0.964, p = 0.003; OR = 1.414, 95% CI = 1.102-1.813, p = 0.006). Meta-analysis by autoimmune disease type indicated an association between ITP and the IFN-γ +874 T allele (OR = 1.753, 95% CI = 1.228-2.503, p = 0.002), but not for vasculitis, vitiligo, and auto-immune thyroid disease. Meta-analysis also showed a significant association between the IFN-γ +874 T/A polymorphism and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) under the dominant model (OR = 1.668, 95% CI = 1.114-2.497, p = 0.013). This meta-analysis indicates that the IFN-γ +874 T/A polymorphism may play a significant role in modifying the risk of autoimmune diseases in Caucasian, Latin American, and Middle Eastern subjects, and in particular shows that the IFN-γ +874 T/A polymorphism is associated with increased genetic susceptibility to idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and SLE. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Monokine induced by interferon gamma and IFN-gamma response to a fusion protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ESAT-6 and CFP-10 in Brazilian tuberculosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramo, Clarice; Meijgaarden, Krista E; Garcia, Daniely; Franken, Kees L M C; Klein, Michèl R; Kolk, Arend J; Oliveira, Sérgio C; Ottenhoff, Tom H M; Teixeira, Henrique C

    2006-01-01

    IFN-gamma responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens ESAT-6 and CFP-10 have been proposed as specific markers of M. tuberculosis infection. Monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG/CXCL9) has been shown to be expressed by IFN-gamma stimulated mononuclear cells and to attract activated T-cells through the chemokine receptor CXCR3. Since MIG is induced early in the response to IFN-gamma, measuring MIG may provide an interesting marker to assess downstream IFN-gamma induced responses, in contrast to assays that mainly focus on quantifying production of IFN-gamma per se. We, therefore, investigated MIG and IFN-gamma responses to a fusion protein of ESAT-6 and CFP-10, and compared responses to the conserved mycobacterial antigen 85B (Ag85B) and purified protein derivative (PPD) of M. tuberculosis, in 29 BCG vaccine controls and 24 TB patients. IFN-gamma secreting cells were determined by ELISPOT, and MIG production was measured by ELISA and flow cytometry. Production of MIG in response to ESAT-6/CFP-10, Ag85B and PPD correlated overall with increased numbers of IFN-gamma secreting cells (r=0.55, PCFP-10 or PPD (PCFP-10 or PPD. We conclude that MIG production correlates significantly with enhanced T-cell IFN-gamma production induced by M. tuberculosis-specific antigens ESAT-6/CFP-10. These results point to MIG as a potential novel biomarker that may be helpful in assessing downstream responses induced by IFN-gamma in TB.

  14. The interferon gamma gene in celiac disease: augmented expression correlates with tissue damage but no evidence for genetic susceptibility.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wapenaar, M.C.; Belzen, M.J van; Fransen, J.H.; Sarasqueta, A.F.; Houwen, R.H.J.; Meijer, J.W.; Mulder, C.J.J.; Wijmenga, C.

    2004-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a complex genetic disorder characterized by gluten intolerance. The Th1 immune response, with a key position for interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), is an important determinant of intestinal remodeling in CD. We aimed at further ascertaining the role of IFN-gamma, either as a

  15. Type 1 IFN-independent activation of a subset of interferon stimulated genes in West Nile virus Eg101-infected mouse cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulit-Penaloza, Joanna A.; Scherbik, Svetlana V.; Brinton, Margo A., E-mail: mbrinton@gsu.edu

    2012-04-10

    Although infection of mouse embryofibroblasts (MEFs) with WNV Eg101 induced interferon (IFN) beta production and STAT1 and STAT2 phosphorylation, these transcription factors (TFs) were not detected in the nucleus or on the promoters of four IRF-3-independent interferon stimulated genes (ISGs): Oas1a and Irf7 (previously characterized as IFN/ISGF3-dependent), Oas1b and Irf1. These ISGs were upregulated in WNV Eg101-infected STAT1-/-, STAT2-/-, and IFN alpha/beta receptor -/- MEFs. Although either IRF-3 or IRF-7 could amplify/sustain Oas1a and Oas1b upregulation at later times after infection, these factors were not required for the initial gene activation. The lack of upregulation of these ISGs in WNV Eg101-infected IRF-3/9-/- MEFs suggested the involvement of IRF-9. Activation of Irf1 in infected MEFs did not depend on any of these IRFs. The data indicate that additional alternative activation mechanisms exist for subsets of ISGs when a virus infection has blocked ISG activation by the canonical IFN-mediated pathway.

  16. Bi-phasic effect of interferon (IFN)-alpha: IFN-alpha up- and down-regulates interleukin-4 signaling in human T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Karsten Wessel; Sommer, Viveca Horst; Woetmann, Anders

    2003-01-01

    is not enhanced or prolonged by simultaneous stimulation with IFN-alpha and IL-4. Moreover, co-stimulation results in a selective increased STAT6/STAT2 association and an association between IFNAR/IL-4R components, suggesting that the IFNAR provides an additional STAT6 docking site via STAT2, leading to a more...

  17. Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling (SOCS) 1 Inhibits Type I Interferon (IFN) Signaling via the Interferon α Receptor (IFNAR1)-associated Tyrosine Kinase Tyk2*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piganis, Rebecca A. R.; De Weerd, Nicole A.; Gould, Jodee A.; Schindler, Christian W.; Mansell, Ashley; Nicholson, Sandra E.; Hertzog, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Type I IFNs are critical players in host innate and adaptive immunity. IFN signaling is tightly controlled to ensure appropriate immune responses as imbalance could result in uncontrolled inflammation or inadequate responses to infection. It is therefore important to understand how type I IFN signaling is regulated. Here we have investigated the mechanism by which suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) inhibits type I IFN signaling. We have found that SOCS1 inhibits type I IFN signaling not via a direct interaction with the IFN α receptor 1 (IFNAR1) receptor component but through an interaction with the IFNAR1-associated kinase Tyk2. We have characterized the residues/regions involved in the interaction between SOCS1 and Tyk2 and found that SOCS1 associates via its SH2 domain with conserved phosphotyrosines 1054 and 1055 of Tyk2. The kinase inhibitory region of SOCS1 is also essential for its interaction with Tyk2 and inhibition of IFN signaling. We also found that Tyk2 is preferentially Lys-63 polyubiquitinated and that this activation reaction is inhibited by SOCS1. The consequent effect of SOCS1 inhibition of Tyk2 not only results in a reduced IFN response because of inhibition of Tyk2 kinase-mediated STAT signaling but also negatively impacts IFNAR1 surface expression, which is stabilized by Tyk2. PMID:21757742

  18. Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) 1 inhibits type I interferon (IFN) signaling via the interferon alpha receptor (IFNAR1)-associated tyrosine kinase Tyk2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piganis, Rebecca A R; De Weerd, Nicole A; Gould, Jodee A; Schindler, Christian W; Mansell, Ashley; Nicholson, Sandra E; Hertzog, Paul J

    2011-09-30

    Type I IFNs are critical players in host innate and adaptive immunity. IFN signaling is tightly controlled to ensure appropriate immune responses as imbalance could result in uncontrolled inflammation or inadequate responses to infection. It is therefore important to understand how type I IFN signaling is regulated. Here we have investigated the mechanism by which suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) inhibits type I IFN signaling. We have found that SOCS1 inhibits type I IFN signaling not via a direct interaction with the IFN α receptor 1 (IFNAR1) receptor component but through an interaction with the IFNAR1-associated kinase Tyk2. We have characterized the residues/regions involved in the interaction between SOCS1 and Tyk2 and found that SOCS1 associates via its SH2 domain with conserved phosphotyrosines 1054 and 1055 of Tyk2. The kinase inhibitory region of SOCS1 is also essential for its interaction with Tyk2 and inhibition of IFN signaling. We also found that Tyk2 is preferentially Lys-63 polyubiquitinated and that this activation reaction is inhibited by SOCS1. The consequent effect of SOCS1 inhibition of Tyk2 not only results in a reduced IFN response because of inhibition of Tyk2 kinase-mediated STAT signaling but also negatively impacts IFNAR1 surface expression, which is stabilized by Tyk2.

  19. Identification of a Sjögren's syndrome susceptibility locus at OAS1 that influences isoform switching, protein expression, and responsiveness to type I interferons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sjögren's syndrome (SS is a common, autoimmune exocrinopathy distinguished by keratoconjunctivitis sicca and xerostomia. Patients frequently develop serious complications including lymphoma, pulmonary dysfunction, neuropathy, vasculitis, and debilitating fatigue. Dysregulation of type I interferon (IFN pathway is a prominent feature of SS and is correlated with increased autoantibody titers and disease severity. To identify genetic determinants of IFN pathway dysregulation in SS, we performed cis-expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL analyses focusing on differentially expressed type I IFN-inducible transcripts identified through a transcriptome profiling study. Multiple cis-eQTLs were associated with transcript levels of 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1 peaking at rs10774671 (PeQTL = 6.05 × 10-14. Association of rs10774671 with SS susceptibility was identified and confirmed through meta-analysis of two independent cohorts (Pmeta = 2.59 × 10-9; odds ratio = 0.75; 95% confidence interval = 0.66-0.86. The risk allele of rs10774671 shifts splicing of OAS1 from production of the p46 isoform to multiple alternative transcripts, including p42, p48, and p44. We found that the isoforms were differentially expressed within each genotype in controls and patients with and without autoantibodies. Furthermore, our results showed that the three alternatively spliced isoforms lacked translational response to type I IFN stimulation. The p48 and p44 isoforms also had impaired protein expression governed by the 3' end of the transcripts. The SS risk allele of rs10774671 has been shown by others to be associated with reduced OAS1 enzymatic activity and ability to clear viral infections, as well as reduced responsiveness to IFN treatment. Our results establish OAS1 as a risk locus for SS and support a potential role for defective viral clearance due to altered IFN response as a genetic pathophysiological basis of this complex autoimmune disease.

  20. Single nucleotide polymorphisms within interferon signaling pathway genes are associated with colorectal cancer susceptibility and survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun Lu

    Full Text Available Interferon (IFN signaling has been suggested to play an important role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Our study aimed to examine potentially functional genetic variants in interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3, IRF5, IRF7, type I and type II IFN and their receptor genes with respect to colorectal cancer (CRC risk and clinical outcome. Altogether 74 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were covered by the 34 SNPs genotyped in a hospital-based case-control study of 1327 CRC cases and 758 healthy controls from the Czech Republic. We also analyzed these SNPs in relation to overall survival and event-free survival in a subgroup of 483 patients. Seven SNPs in IFNA1, IFNA13, IFNA21, IFNK, IFNAR1 and IFNGR1 were associated with CRC risk. After multiple testing correction, the associations with the SNPs rs2856968 (IFNAR1 and rs2234711 (IFNGR1 remained formally significant (P = 0.0015 and P<0.0001, respectively. Multivariable survival analyses showed that the SNP rs6475526 (IFNA7/IFNA14 was associated with overall survival of the patients (P = 0.041 and event-free survival among patients without distant metastasis at the time of diagnosis, P = 0.034. The hazard ratios (HRs for rs6475526 remained statistically significant even after adjustment for age, gender, grade and stage (P = 0.029 and P = 0.036, respectively, suggesting that rs6475526 is an independent prognostic marker for CRC. Our data suggest that genetic variation in the IFN signaling pathway genes may play a role in the etiology and survival of CRC and further studies are warranted.

  1. Single nucleotide polymorphisms within interferon signaling pathway genes are associated with colorectal cancer susceptibility and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shun; Pardini, Barbara; Cheng, Bowang; Naccarati, Alessio; Huhn, Stefanie; Vymetalkova, Veronika; Vodickova, Ludmila; Buchler, Thomas; Hemminki, Kari; Vodicka, Pavel; Försti, Asta

    2014-01-01

    Interferon (IFN) signaling has been suggested to play an important role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Our study aimed to examine potentially functional genetic variants in interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), IRF5, IRF7, type I and type II IFN and their receptor genes with respect to colorectal cancer (CRC) risk and clinical outcome. Altogether 74 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were covered by the 34 SNPs genotyped in a hospital-based case-control study of 1327 CRC cases and 758 healthy controls from the Czech Republic. We also analyzed these SNPs in relation to overall survival and event-free survival in a subgroup of 483 patients. Seven SNPs in IFNA1, IFNA13, IFNA21, IFNK, IFNAR1 and IFNGR1 were associated with CRC risk. After multiple testing correction, the associations with the SNPs rs2856968 (IFNAR1) and rs2234711 (IFNGR1) remained formally significant (P = 0.0015 and P<0.0001, respectively). Multivariable survival analyses showed that the SNP rs6475526 (IFNA7/IFNA14) was associated with overall survival of the patients (P = 0.041 and event-free survival among patients without distant metastasis at the time of diagnosis, P = 0.034). The hazard ratios (HRs) for rs6475526 remained statistically significant even after adjustment for age, gender, grade and stage (P = 0.029 and P = 0.036, respectively), suggesting that rs6475526 is an independent prognostic marker for CRC. Our data suggest that genetic variation in the IFN signaling pathway genes may play a role in the etiology and survival of CRC and further studies are warranted.

  2. The Type I Interferon Response and Age-Dependent Susceptibility to Herpes Simplex Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Daniel; Wilcox, Douglas R; Longnecker, Richard

    2017-05-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a highly prevalent human neurotropic pathogen. HSV-1 infection is associated with a variety of diseases ranging from benign orolabial lesions to more serious and even life-threatening conditions such as herpes simplex keratitis and herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). HSE is a rare occurrence among healthy adult individuals, but newborns are a particularly susceptible population. Type I IFN signaling has been identified as a crucial component of the innate immune response to the control of HSV-1 infection. In this study, we review the contribution of the type I IFN response to controlling HSV-1 infection, and differences in the early host response between adults and newborns that may contribute to the increased susceptibility to infection and central nervous system disease in newborns.

  3. Host Susceptibility to Brucella abortus Infection Is More Pronounced in IFN-γ knockout than IL-12/β2-Microglobulin Double-Deficient Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula M. S. Brandão

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucella abortus is a facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes abortion in domestic animals and undulant fever in humans. IFN-γ, IL-12, and CD8+ T lymphocytes are important components of host immune responses against B. abortus. Herein, IFN-γ and IL-12/β2-microglobulin (β2-m knockout mice were used to determine whether CD8+ T cells and IL-12-dependent IFN-γ deficiency would be more critical to control B. abortus infection compared to the lack of endogenous IFN-γ. At 1 week after infection, IFN-γ KO and IL-12/β2-m KO mice showed increased numbers of bacterial load in spleens; however, at 3 weeks postinfection (p.i., only IFN-γ KO succumbed to Brucella. All IFN-γ KO had died at 16 days p.i. whereas death within the IL-12/β2-m KO group was delayed and occurred at 32 days until 47 days postinfection. Susceptibility of IL-12/β2-m KO animals to Brucella was associated to undetectable levels of IFN-γ in mouse splenocytes and inability of these cells to lyse Brucella-infected macrophages. However, the lack of endogenous IFN-γ was found to be more important to control brucellosis than CD8+ T cells and IL-12-dependent IFN-γ deficiencies.

  4. IFNγ influences type I interferon response and susceptibility to Theiler's virus-induced demyelinating disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Jenna L; Olson, Julie K

    2013-08-01

    Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) induces a demyelinating disease in susceptible SJL mice that has similarities to multiple sclerosis in humans. TMEV infection of susceptible mice leads to a persistent virus infection of the central nervous system (CNS), which promotes the development of demyelinating disease associated with an inflammatory immune response in the CNS. TMEV infection of resistant C57BL6 mice results in viral clearance without development of demyelinating disease. Interestingly, TMEV infection of resistant mice deficient in IFNγ leads to a persistent virus infection in the CNS and development of demyelinating disease. We have previously shown that the innate immune response affects development of TMEV- induced demyelinating disease, thus we wanted to determine the role of IFNγ during the innate immune response. TMEV-infected IFNγ-deficient mice had an altered innate immune response, including reduced expression of innate immune cytokines, especially type I interferons. Administration of type I interferons, IFNα and IFNß, to TMEV-infected IFNγ-deficient mice during the innate immune response restored the expression of innate immune cytokines. Most importantly, administration of type I interferons to IFNγ-deficient mice during the innate immune response decreased the virus load in the CNS and decreased development of demyelinating disease. Microglia are the CNS resident immune cells that express innate immune receptors. In TMEV-infected IFNγ-deficient mice, microglia had reduced expression of innate immune cytokines, and administration of type I interferons to these mice restored the innate immune response by microglia. In the absence of IFNγ, microglia from TMEV-infected mice had reduced expression of some innate immune receptors and signaling molecules, especially IRF1. These results suggest that IFNγ plays an important role in the innate immune response to TMEV by enhancing the expression of innate immune cytokines

  5. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ-mediated retinal ganglion cell death in human tyrosinase T cell receptor transgenic mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Husain

    Full Text Available We have recently demonstrated the characterization of human tyrosinase TCR bearing h3T-A2 transgenic mouse model, which exhibits spontaneous autoimmune vitiligo and retinal dysfunction. The purpose of current study was to determine the role of T cells and IFN-γ in retina dysfunction and retinal ganglion cell (RGC death using this model. RGC function was measured by pattern electroretinograms (ERGs in response to contrast reversal of patterned visual stimuli. RGCs were visualized by fluorogold retrograde-labeling. Expression of CD3, IFN-γ, GFAP, and caspases was measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. All functional and structural changes were measured in 12-month-old h3T-A2 mice and compared with age-matched HLA-A2 wild-type mice. Both pattern-ERGs (42%, p = 0.03 and RGC numbers (37%, p = 0.0001 were reduced in h3T-A2 mice when compared with wild-type mice. The level of CD3 expression was increased in h3T-A2 mice (h3T-A2: 174 ± 27% vs. HLA-A2: 100%; p = 0.04. The levels of effector cytokine IFN-γ were also increased significantly in h3T-A2 mice (h3T-A2: 189 ± 11% vs. HLA-A2: 100%; p = 0.023. Both CD3 and IFN-γ immunostaining were increased in nerve fiber (NF and RGC layers of h3T-A2 mice. In addition, we have seen a robust increase in GFAP staining in h3T-A2 mice (mainly localized to NF layer, which was substantially reduced in IFN-γ ((-/- knockout h3T-A2 mice. We also have seen an up-regulation of caspase-3 and -9 in h3T-A2 mice. Based on our data we conclude that h3T-A2 transgenic mice exhibit visual defects that are mostly associated with the inner retinal layers and RGC function. This novel h3T-A2 transgenic mouse model provides opportunity to understand RGC pathology and test neuroprotective strategies to rescue RGCs.

  6. Influenza virus vaccination induces interleukin-12/23 receptor β1 (IL-12/23Rβ1)-independent production of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and humoral immunity in patients with genetic deficiencies in IL-12/23Rβ1 or IFN-γ receptor I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. de Boer (Tjitske); J.T. van Dissel (Jaap); T.W. Kuijpers (Taco W.); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); F.P. Kroon; T.H.M. Ottenhoff (Tom)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractTo investigate whether protective immune responses can be induced in the absence of normal interleukin-12/23/gamma interferon (IL-12/23/IFN-γ) axis signaling, we vaccinated with the seasonal influenza virus subunit vaccine two patients with 3complete IL-12/23 receptor β1 (IL-12/23Rβ1)

  7. Influenza virus vaccination induces interleukin-12/23 receptor beta 1 (IL-12/23R beta 1)-independent production of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and humoral immunity in patients with genetic deficiencies in IL-12/23R beta 1 or IFN-gamma receptor I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Tjitske; van Dissel, Jaap T.; Kuijpers, Taco W. J.; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.; Kroon, Frank P.; Ottenhoff, Tom H. M.

    2008-01-01

    To investigate whether protective immune responses can be induced in the absence of normal interleukin12/23/gamma interferon (IL-12/23/IFN-gamma) axis signaling, we vaccinated with the seasonal influenza virus subunit vaccine two patients with complete IL-12/23 receptor beta 1 (IL-12/23R beta 1)

  8. Influenza virus vaccination induces interleukin-12/23 receptor beta 1 (IL-12/23R beta 1)-independent production of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and humoral immunity in patients with genetic deficiencies in IL-12/23R beta 1 or IFN-gamma receptor I.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, T. de; Dissel, J.T. van; Kuijpers, T.W.; Rimmelzwaan, G.F.; Kroon, F.P.; Ottenhoff, T.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    To investigate whether protective immune responses can be induced in the absence of normal interleukin-12/23/gamma interferon (IL-12/23/IFN-gamma) axis signaling, we vaccinated with the seasonal influenza virus subunit vaccine two patients with complete IL-12/23 receptor beta1 (IL-12/23R beta 1)

  9. Type I IFN Response to Papiine herpesvirus 2 (Herpesvirus papio 2; HVP2) Determines Neuropathogenicity in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, K. M.; Deatheridge, M.; Breshears, M.A.; Chapman, S; Black, D; Ritchey, J W; Payton, M.; Eberle, R

    2009-01-01

    Isolates of baboon α-herpesvirus Papiine herpesvirus 2 (HVP2) exhibit one of two distinct phenotypes in mice: extremely neurovirulent or apathogenic. Previous studies implicated the type I interferon (IFN) response as being a major factor in controlling infection by apathogenic isolates. To further investigate the possibility that the host IFN-β response underlies the pathogenicity of the two HVP2 subtypes, the susceptibility of mice lacking the IFN-β receptor (IFNAR−/−) to infection was exam...

  10. Interleukin-17A-Deficient Mice Are Highly Susceptible to Toxoplasma gondii Infection Due to Excessively Induced T. gondii HSP70 and Interferon Gamma Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroda, Masataka; Takamoto, Masaya; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Nakayama, Jun; Aosai, Fumie

    2017-12-01

    Interleukin17A (IL-17A) is known to be involved in the host defense against pathogens and the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Previously, we showed that excessive amounts of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) play an important role in the pathogenesis of the lethal effects of Toxoplasma gondii by inducing anaphylactic responses. In the study described in this report, we examined the effects of IL-17A deficiency on murine host defense against oral T. gondii infection. IL-17A-deficient C57BL/6 (B6) mice exhibited higher rates of mortality than wild-type (WT) mice during the acute phase of T. gondii infection. CD4+ T cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes (mLNs) and ileum of T. gondii-infected IL-17A-deficient mice produced higher levels of IFN-γ than did those of WT mice. In addition, the level of T. gondii HSP70 (T.gHSP70) expression was also significantly increased in the ileum, mLNs, liver, and spleen of infected IL-17A-deficient mice compared with that in WT mice. These elevated levels of expression of T.gHSP70 and IFN-γ in infected IL-17A-deficient mice were presumably linked to the IL-17A defect since they decreased to WT levels after treatment with recombinant IL-17A. Furthermore, IL-17A-deficient mice were highly susceptible to the anaphylactic effect of T.gHSP70, and the survival of IL-17A-deficient mice during the acute phase was improved by treatment with an anti-T.gHSP70 monoclonal antibody. These results suggest that IL-17A plays an important role in host survival against T. gondii infection by protecting the host from an anaphylactic reaction via the downregulation of T.gHSP70 and IFN-γ production. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  11. IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 polymorphisms confer susceptibility to multiple sclerosis but not to interferon-beta treatment response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva, Laura; Fernández, Oscar; Fedetz, Maria; Blanco, Eva; Fernández, Victoria E; Oliver, Begoña; León, Antonio; Pinto-Medel, Maria-Jesus; Mayorga, Cristobalina; Guerrero, Miguel; Luque, Gloria; Alcina, Antonio; Matesanz, Fuencisla

    2005-06-01

    We investigated the role of three polymorphisms in the IFNAR1 (SNPs 18417 and -408) and IFNAR2 (SNP 11876) genes in multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility and in the IFNbeta treatment response in a group of 147 patients and 210 controls undergoing interferon therapy during the last 2 years. Only the 18417 and the 11876 SNPs showed an association with disease susceptibility (p=0.001 and 0.035, respectively) although no differential genotype distribution were observed between interferon responders and non-responder MS patients. No alteration of the expression level of IFNAR-1 was observed with respect to the -408 genotypes or to interferon treatment response. These data suggest a role for the IFNAR pathway in susceptibility to MS.

  12. The differential interferon responses of two strains of Stat1-deficient mice do not alter susceptibility to HSV-1 and VSV in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzenell, Sarah; Chen, Yufei; Parker, Zachary M; Leib, David A

    2014-02-01

    Stat1 is a pivotal transcription factor for generation of the interferon (IFN)-dependent antiviral response. Two Stat1 knockout mouse lines have been previously generated, one deleted the N-terminal domain (ΔNTD) and one in the DNA-binding domain (ΔDBD). These widely-used strains are assumed interchangeable, and both are highly susceptible to various pathogens. In this study, primary cells derived from ΔNTD mice were shown to be significantly more responsive to IFN, and established an antiviral state with greater efficiency than cells derived from ΔDBD mice, following infection with vesicular stomatitis virus and herpes simplex virus type-1. Also, while mice from both strains succumbed rapidly and equally to virus infection, ΔDBD mice supported significantly higher replication in brains and livers than ΔNTD mice. Endpoint-type experimental comparisons of these mouse strains are therefore misleading in failing to indicate important differences in virus replication and innate response. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Immune responses to live and inactivated Nocardia seriolae and protective effect of recombinant interferon gamma (rIFN γ) against nocardiosis in ginbuna crucian carp, Carassius auratus langsdorfii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Sukanta Kumar; Shibasaki, Yasuhiro; Nakanishi, Teruyuki

    2014-08-01

    Looking into the fact that substantial mortality and morbidity is associated with intracellular Gram +ve bacterium, Nocardia seriolae infection, an effective vaccine against this pathogen is necessary to control the significant losses in aquaculture practices. Therefore, an attempt was made to evaluate the effect of live (sub-lethal) and inactivated (antigenic form) N. seriolae on cellular and humoral immunity in ginbuna crucian carp, Carassius auratus langsdorfii as well as the therapeutic potency of recombinant interferon gamma (rIFN γ) against N. seriolae infection. Effect of live and inactivated N. seriolae immunisation on the proliferation of CD4(+) T cells, CD8α(+) T cells and surface Ig M(+) cells in peripheral blood leucocytes, spleen, head kidney and trunk kidney of ginbuna was studied after 1st, 3rd, 7th, 15th and 30th day post immunisation. The percentage of CD8α(+) T cells in spleen and head kidney of ginbuna was significantly higher at 3rd day post immunisation. Similarly, surface Ig M(+) cells level was found to increase in both live and inactivated N. seriolae immunised groups. On the contrary, high percentage of CD4(+) T cells was observed in live N. seriolae immunised group in both the head and trunk kidneys at 30th day post immunisation. The humoral immune response to live and inactivated N. seriolae immunised ginbuna showed high antibody titre at 15th day post immunisation but the level declined subsequently in both the immunised groups. On challenge with virulent N. seriolae (1.2 × 10(8) CFU/ml), the relative percent survival was 62.5 and 75 in live and inactivated N. seriolae immunised groups, respectively. Furthermore, we have also studied the therapeutic potency of rIFN γ and found the possible involvement of IFN γ in resistance mechanism in fish. Administration of rIFN γ into ginbuna (at 10 μg/fish) one day before challenge study was found to protect ginbuna. The relative percent survival of ginbuna was 43.75 and 60 when

  14. Exhaustive genotyping of the interferon alpha receptor 1 (IFNAR1) gene and association of an IFNAR1 protein variant with AIDS progression or susceptibility to HIV-1 infection in a French AIDS cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diop, G; Hirtzig, T; Do, H; Coulonges, C; Vasilescu, A; Labib, T; Spadoni, J-L; Therwath, A; Lathrop, M; Matsuda, F; Zagury, J-F

    2006-11-01

    We have undertaken a systematic genomic approach in order to explore the role of the interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) pathway in AIDS disease development. As it is very difficult to genotype the IFN-alpha gene itself since it has many pseudo-genes, we have focused our interest on the genetic polymorphisms of the IFN-alpha receptor 1 (IFNAR1). We genotyped the Genetics of Resistance to Immunodeficiency Virus (GRIV) cohort composed of patients with extreme profiles of progression to AIDS, slow progressors (SP) and rapid progressors (RP), as well as seronegative controls (CTR). We identified 19 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with a minor allele frequency (MAF) greater than 1% among which two were newly characterized by our study. We found putative associations with AIDS disease development for four SNP alleles and for three haplotypes. The most interesting signals were found for two SNPs in linkage disequilibrium, the SNP IFNAR1_18339 corresponding to a Val168Leu mutation in the extracellular domain of the protein and the intronic SNP, IFNAR1_30127. The intronic SNP IFNAR1_30127 yielded a strong signal both when comparing SP with CTR (P=0.002) and RP with CTR (P=0.005) while IFNAR1_18339 yielded a smaller signal because less patients were analyzed; these SNPs could thus be involved in AIDS progression or in susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection. Interestingly, two independent studies have previously pointed out the SNP IFNAR1_18339 in susceptibility to multiple sclerosis and to malaria. This is the first work investigating the polymorphisms of the IFNAR1 gene in AIDS. Our results which point out a possible role for the IFN-alpha pathway in susceptibility to HIV-1 infection or progression to AIDS need a necessary confirmation by genomic studies in other AIDS cohorts.

  15. Interferon Beta and Interferon Alpha 2a Differentially Protect Head and Neck Cancer Cells from Vesicular Stomatitis Virus-Induced Oncolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westcott, Marlena M; Liu, Jingfang; Rajani, Karishma; D'Agostino, Ralph; Lyles, Douglas S; Porosnicu, Mercedes

    2015-08-01

    Oncolytic viruses (OV) preferentially kill cancer cells due in part to defects in their antiviral responses upon exposure to type I interferons (IFNs). However, IFN responsiveness of some tumor cells confers resistance to OV treatment. The human type I IFNs include one IFN-β and multiple IFN-α subtypes that share the same receptor but are capable of differentially inducing biological responses. The role of individual IFN subtypes in promoting tumor cell resistance to OV is addressed here. Two human IFNs which have been produced for clinical use, IFN-α2a and IFN-β, were compared for activity in protecting human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) lines from oncolysis by vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Susceptibility of HNSCC lines to killing by VSV varied. VSV infection induced increased production of IFN-β in resistant HNSCC cells. When added exogenously, IFN-β was significantly more effective at protecting HNSCC cells from VSV oncolysis than was IFN-α2a. In contrast, normal keratinocytes and endothelial cells were protected equivalently by both IFN subtypes. Differential responsiveness of tumor cells to IFN-α and -β was further supported by the finding that autocrine IFN-β but not IFN-α promoted survival of HNSCC cells during persistent VSV infection. Therefore, IFN-α and -β differentially affect VSV oncolysis, justifying the evaluation and comparison of IFN subtypes for use in combination with VSV therapy. Pairing VSV with IFN-α2a may enhance selectivity of oncolytic VSV therapy for HNSCC by inhibiting VSV replication in normal cells without a corresponding inhibition in cancer cells. There has been a great deal of progress in the development of oncolytic viruses. However, a major problem is that individual cancers vary in their sensitivity to oncolytic viruses. In many cases this is due to differences in their production and response to interferons (IFNs). The experiments described here compared the responses of head and neck squamous

  16. Diversity of interferon inducible Mx gene in horses and association of variations with susceptibility vis-à-vis resistance against equine influenza infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuja, Balvinder K; Manuja, Anju; Dahiya, Rajni; Singh, Sandeep; Sharma, R C; Gahlot, S K

    2014-10-01

    Equine influenza (EI) is primarily an infection of the upper respiratory tract and is one of the major infectious respiratory diseases of economic importance in equines. Re-emergence of the disease, species jumping by H3N8 virus in canines and possible threat of human pandemic due to the unpredictable nature of the virus have necessitated research on devising strategies for preventing the disease. The myxovirus resistance protein (Mx) has been reported to confer resistance to Orthomyxo virus infection by modifying cellular functions needed along the viral replication pathway. Polymorphisms and differential antiviral activities of Mx gene have been reported in pigs and chicken. Here we report the diversity of Mx gene, its expression in response to stimulation with interferon (IFN) α/β and their association with EI resistance and susceptibility in Marwari horses. Blood samples were collected from horses declared positive for equine influenza and in contact animals with a history of no clinical signs. Mx gene was amplified by reverse transcription from total RNA isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated with IFN α/β using gene specific primers. The amplified gene products from representative samples were cloned and sequenced. Nucleotide sequences and deduced amino acid sequences were analyzed. Out of a total 24 amino acids substitutions sorting intolerant from tolerant (SIFT) analysis predicted 13 substitutions with functional consequences. Five substitutions (V67A, W123L, E346Y, N347Y, S689N) were observed only in resistant animals. Evolutionary distances based on nucleotide sequences with in equines ranged between 0.3-2.0% and 20-24% with other species. On phylogenetic analysis all equine sequences clustered together while other species formed separate clades. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Inhibition of IFN-γ-dependent antiviral airway epithelial defense by cigarette smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Mahdy Sherif

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although individuals exposed to cigarette smoke are more susceptible to respiratory infection, the effects of cigarette smoke on lung defense are incompletely understood. Because airway epithelial cell responses to type II interferon (IFN are critical in regulation of defense against many respiratory viral infections, we hypothesized that cigarette smoke has inhibitory effects on IFN-γ-dependent antiviral mechanisms in epithelial cells in the airway. Methods Primary human tracheobronchial epithelial cells were first treated with cigarette smoke extract (CSE followed by exposure to both CSE and IFN-γ. Epithelial cell cytotoxicity and IFN-γ-induced signaling, gene expression, and antiviral effects against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV were tested without and with CSE exposure. Results CSE inhibited IFN-γ-dependent gene expression in airway epithelial cells, and these effects were not due to cell loss or cytotoxicity. CSE markedly inhibited IFN-γ-induced Stat1 phosphorylation, indicating that CSE altered type II interferon signal transduction and providing a mechanism for CSE effects. A period of CSE exposure combined with an interval of epithelial cell exposure to both CSE and IFN-γ was required to inhibit IFN-γ-induced cell signaling. CSE also decreased the inhibitory effect of IFN-γ on RSV mRNA and protein expression, confirming effects on viral infection. CSE effects on IFN-γ-induced Stat1 activation, antiviral protein expression, and inhibition of RSV infection were decreased by glutathione augmentation of epithelial cells using N-acetylcysteine or glutathione monoethyl ester, providing one strategy to alter cigarette smoke effects. Conclusions The results indicate that CSE inhibits the antiviral effects of IFN-γ, thereby presenting one explanation for increased susceptibility to respiratory viral infection in individuals exposed to cigarette smoke.

  18. A Comprehensive Evaluation of Nasal and Bronchial Cytokines and Chemokines Following Experimental Rhinovirus Infection in Allergic Asthma: Increased Interferons (IFN-γ and IFN-λ and Type 2 Inflammation (IL-5 and IL-13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor T. Hansel

    2017-05-01

    Conclusions: Precision sampling of mucosal lining fluid identifies robust interferon and type 2 responses in the upper and lower airways of asthmatics during an asthma exacerbation. Nasosorption and bronchosorption have potential to define asthma endotypes in stable disease and at exacerbation.

  19. In vitro activated CD4+ T cells from interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-deficient mice induce intestinal inflammation in immunodeficient hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregenholt, S; Brimnes, J; Nissen, Mogens Holst

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the role of IFN-gamma in the immunopathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice were transplanted with in vitro activated CD4+ T cells from either wild-type (WT) or IFN-gamma-deficient (IFN-gammaKO) BALB/c mice. In vitro, the two types...... of T cells displayed comparable proliferation rates and production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 after concanavalin A (Con A) stimulation. When transplanted into SCID mice, WT CD4+ blasts induced a lethal IBD, whereas IFN-gammaKO blasts induced a less severe...... intestinal inflammation with moderate weight loss. Intracellular cytokine staining of lamina propria lymphocytes (LPL) revealed comparable fractions of CD4+ T cells positive for TNF-alpha, IL-2 and IL-10 in the two groups of transplanted SCID mice, whereas a two-to-three-fold increase in the fraction of IL-4...

  20. Relevance of Gamma Interferon, Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha, and Interleukin-10 Gene Polymorphisms to Susceptibility to Mediterranean Spotted Fever ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Giusi Irma; Scola, Letizia; Misiano, Gabriella; Milano, Salvatore; Mansueto, Pasquale; Vitale, Giustina; Bellanca, Fiamma; Sanacore, Maria; Vaccarino, Loredana; Rini, Giovan Battista; Caruso, Calogero; Cillari, Enrico; Lio, Domenico; Mansueto, Serafino

    2009-01-01

    The acute phase of Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) is characterized by dramatic changes in cytokine production patterns, clearly indicating their role in the immunomodulation of the response against the microorganism, and the differences in cytokine production seem to influence the extent and severity of the disease. In this study, the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) −308G/A (rs1800629) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) −1087G/A (rs1800896), −824C/T (rs1800871), and −597C/A (rs1800872) and the gamma interferon (IFN-γ) T/A SNP at position +874 (rs2430561) were typed in 80 Sicilian patients affected by MSF and in 288 control subjects matched for age, gender, and geographic origin. No significant differences in TNF-α −308G/A genotype frequencies were observed. The +874TT genotype, associated with an increased production of IFN-γ, was found to be significantly less frequent in MSF patients than in the control group (odds ratio [OR], 0.18; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.06 to 0.51; P corrected for the number of genotypes [Pc], 0.0021). In addition, when evaluating the IFN-γ and IL-10 genotype interaction, a significant increase of +874AA/−597CA (OR, 5.31; 95% CI, 2.37 to 11.88; Pc, 0.0027) combined genotypes was observed. In conclusion, our data strongly suggest that finely genetically tuned cytokine production may play a crucial role in the regulation of the immune response against rickettsial infection, therefore influencing the disease outcomes, ranging from nonapparent or subclinical condition to overt or fatal disease. PMID:19386798

  1. The effect of interleukin-13 (IL-13 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ on expression of surfactant proteins in adult human alveolar type II cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mason Robert J

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surfactant proteins are produced predominantly by alveolar type II (ATII cells, and the expression of these proteins can be altered by cytokines and growth factors. Th1/Th2 cytokine imbalance is suggested to be important in the pathogenesis of several adult lung diseases. Recently, we developed a culture system for maintaining differentiated adult human ATII cells. Therefore, we sought to determine the effects of IL-13 and IFN-γ on the expression of surfactant proteins in adult human ATII cells in vitro. Additional studies were done with rat ATII cells. Methods Adult human ATII cells were isolated from deidentified organ donors whose lungs were not suitable for transplantation and donated for medical research. The cells were cultured on a mixture of Matrigel and rat-tail collagen for 8 d with differentiation factors and human recombinant IL-13 or IFN-γ. Results IL-13 reduced the mRNA and protein levels of surfactant protein (SP-C, whereas IFN-γ increased the mRNA level of SP-C and proSP-C protein but not mature SP-C. Neither cytokine changed the mRNA level of SP-B but IFN-γ slightly decreased mature SP-B. IFN-γ reduced the level of the active form of cathepsin H. IL-13 also reduced the mRNA and protein levels of SP-D, whereas IFN-γ increased both mRNA and protein levels of SP-D. IL-13 did not alter SP-A, but IFN-γ slightly increased the mRNA levels of SP-A. Conclusions We demonstrated that IL-13 and IFN-γ altered the expression of surfactant proteins in human adult ATII cells in vitro. IL-13 decreased SP-C and SP-D in human ATII cells, whereas IFN-γ had the opposite effect. The protein levels of mature SP-B were decreased by IFN-γ treatment, likely due to the reduction in active form cathpesin H. Similarly, the active form of cathepsin H was relatively insufficient to fully process proSP-C as IFN-γ increased the mRNA levels for SP-C and proSP-C protein, but there was no increase in mature SP-C. These observations

  2. Type I Interferon in the Pathogenesis of Lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Mary K.

    2014-01-01

    Investigations of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have applied insights from studies of the innate immune response to define type I interferon (IFN-I), with IFN-α the dominant mediator, as central to the pathogenesis of this prototype systemic autoimmune disease. Genetic association data identify regulators of nucleic acid degradation and components of TLR-independent, endosomal TLR-dependent, and IFN-I signaling pathways as contributors to lupus disease susceptibility. Together with a gene expression signature characterized by IFNI-induced gene transcripts in lupus blood and tissue, those data support the conclusion that many of the immunologic and pathologic features of this disease are a consequence of a persistent self-directed immune reaction driven by IFN-I and mimicking a sustained anti-virus response. This expanding knowledge of the role of IFN-I and the innate immune response suggests candidate therapeutic targets that are being tested in lupus patients. PMID:24907379

  3. Novel mutation in the interferon-gamma-receptor gene and susceptibility to mycobacterial infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, M; Varming, K; Herlin, T

    2006-01-01

    In 1981 we presented a patient with Mycobacterium intracellulare osteomyelitis and depressed monocyte cytotoxicity. It is now demonstrated that the molecular defect was a never-before-described nucleotide deletion at position 794 (794delT) in the interferon-gamma-receptor alpha-1 gene. The geneti...

  4. Leishmania-specific T cells expressing interferon-¿(IFN-¿) and IL-10 upon activation are expanded in individuals cured of visceral leishmaniasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K; Kemp, M; Kharazmi, A

    1999-01-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients who have recovered from visceral leishmaniasis often respond to Leishmania antigens in vitro by production of both IL-4, IFN-gamma and IL-10. In order to establish the cellular sources of these cytokines, we activated cells from individuals...... with a history of visceral leishmaniasis with Leishmania antigen for 6 days in culture, and identified cytokine production at the single-cell level by flow cytometry. The cytokines were only found in CD3+ cells and among these mainly within the CD4+ subset. The percentage of cytokine-producing cells was compared...... in Leishmania-activated PBMC cultures from the previous patients and from individuals living in a village where leishmaniasis does not occur. The percentage of IL-10- and IFN-gamma-containing cells was significantly higher in the previous patients than in the controls, indicating that Leishmania-specific T...

  5. PREDICTORS OF SUSTAINED VIROLOGICAL RESPONSE (SVR TO PEGYLATED INTERFERON ALPHA (PEG-IFN α AND RIBAVIRIN (RBV IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEPATITIS C INFECTED WITH GENOTYPE 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasimir Antonov

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The combined PEG-IFN alpha and RBV therapy achieved SVR in 40 - 50% of patients infected with HCV genotype 1. Identification of virological and host paramemeters predicting SVR will be useful to tailor therapy. Methods: 71 patients with chronic HCV genotype 1 infection were treated with PEG-IFN alpha2a and RBV for 12 months. Predictors of SVR were analyzed by using nonparametric correlation test. Results: SVR was found in 57 / 71 of subjects (80,3%. The significant differences in baseline level of HCV RNA, sex, age, baseline ALT and present of liver cirrhosis between the patients with or without SVR were not found. Correlation was not proved between SVR and all these factors when they were analyzed separately. High correlation was found between serum levels of HCV RNA at the end of 3-th month therapy (Early Virological Response and SVR (r=0,759; p=0,011.Conclusion: The viral response during the first 3 months of PEG-IFN alpha and RBV therapy is the strongest independent predictor among the all baseline viral and host predictive factors for achieving of SVR.

  6. Epigenetic reprogramming of the type III interferon response potentiates antiviral activity and suppresses tumor growth.

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    Siyuan Ding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Type III interferon (IFN-λ exhibits potent antiviral activity similar to IFN-α/β, but in contrast to the ubiquitous expression of the IFN-α/β receptor, the IFN-λ receptor is restricted to cells of epithelial origin. Despite the importance of IFN-λ in tissue-specific antiviral immunity, the molecular mechanisms responsible for this confined receptor expression remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the histone deacetylase (HDAC repression machinery mediates transcriptional silencing of the unique IFN-λ receptor subunit (IFNLR1 in a cell-type-specific manner. Importantly, HDAC inhibitors elevate receptor expression and restore sensitivity to IFN-λ in previously nonresponsive cells, thereby enhancing protection against viral pathogens. In addition, blocking HDAC activity renders nonresponsive cell types susceptible to the pro-apoptotic activity of IFN-λ, revealing the combination of HDAC inhibitors and IFN-λ to be a potential antitumor strategy. These results demonstrate that the type III IFN response may be therapeutically harnessed by epigenetic rewiring of the IFN-λ receptor expression program.

  7. Interferon-lambda contributes to innate immunity of mice against influenza A virus but not against hepatotropic viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Mordstein

    Full Text Available Virus-infected cells secrete a broad range of interferon (IFN subtypes which in turn trigger the synthesis of antiviral factors that confer host resistance. IFN-alpha, IFN-beta and other type I IFNs signal through a common universally expressed cell surface receptor, whereas IFN-lambda uses a distinct receptor complex for signaling that is not present on all cell types. Since type I IFN receptor-deficient mice (IFNAR1(0/0 exhibit greatly increased susceptibility to various viral diseases, it remained unclear to which degree IFN-lambda might contribute to innate immunity. To address this issue we performed influenza A virus infections of mice which carry functional alleles of the influenza virus resistance gene Mx1 and which, therefore, develop a more complete innate immune response to influenza viruses than standard laboratory mice. We demonstrate that intranasal administration of IFN-lambda readily induced the antiviral factor Mx1 in mouse lungs and efficiently protected IFNAR1(0/0 mice from lethal influenza virus infection. By contrast, intraperitoneal application of IFN-lambda failed to induce Mx1 in the liver of IFNAR1(0/0 mice and did not protect against hepatotropic virus infections. Mice lacking functional IFN-lambda receptors were only slightly more susceptible to influenza virus than wild-type mice. However, mice lacking functional receptors for both IFN-alpha/beta and IFN-lambda were hypersensitive and even failed to restrict usually non-pathogenic influenza virus mutants lacking the IFN-antagonistic factor NS1. Interestingly, the double-knockout mice were not more susceptible against hepatotropic viruses than IFNAR1(0/0 mice. From these results we conclude that IFN-lambda contributes to inborn resistance against viral pathogens infecting the lung but not the liver.

  8. Expansion of amphibian intronless interferons revises the paradigm for interferon evolution and functional diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferons (IFNs) are key cytokines identified in vertebrates, and evolutionary dominance of intronless IFN genes in amniotes is a signature event in IFN evolution. For the first time, we show that the emergence and expansion of intronless IFN genes is evident in amphibians, shown by 24-37 intronle...

  9. Antiviral Type I and Type III Interferon Responses in the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Michiels

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The central nervous system (CNS harbors highly differentiated cells, such as neurons that are essential to coordinate the functions of complex organisms. This organ is partly protected by the blood-brain barrier (BBB from toxic substances and pathogens carried in the bloodstream. Yet, neurotropic viruses can reach the CNS either by crossing the BBB after viremia, or by exploiting motile infected cells as Trojan horses, or by using axonal transport. Type I and type III interferons (IFNs are cytokines that are critical to control early steps of viral infections. Deficiencies in the IFN pathway have been associated with fatal viral encephalitis both in humans and mice. Therefore, the IFN system provides an essential protection of the CNS against viral infections. Yet, basal activity of the IFN system appears to be low within the CNS, likely owing to the toxicity of IFN to this organ. Moreover, after viral infection, neurons and oligodendrocytes were reported to be relatively poor IFN producers and appear to keep some susceptibility to neurotropic viruses, even in the presence of IFN. This review addresses some trends and recent developments concerning the role of type I and type III IFNs in: i preventing neuroinvasion and infection of CNS cells; ii the identity of IFN-producing cells in the CNS; iii the antiviral activity of ISGs; and iv the activity of viral proteins of neurotropic viruses that target the IFN pathway.

  10. Antiviral type I and type III interferon responses in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorgeloos, Frédéric; Kreit, Marguerite; Hermant, Pascale; Lardinois, Cécile; Michiels, Thomas

    2013-03-15

    The central nervous system (CNS) harbors highly differentiated cells, such as neurons that are essential to coordinate the functions of complex organisms. This organ is partly protected by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) from toxic substances and pathogens carried in the bloodstream. Yet, neurotropic viruses can reach the CNS either by crossing the BBB after viremia, or by exploiting motile infected cells as Trojan horses, or by using axonal transport. Type I and type III interferons (IFNs) are cytokines that are critical to control early steps of viral infections. Deficiencies in the IFN pathway have been associated with fatal viral encephalitis both in humans and mice. Therefore, the IFN system provides an essential protection of the CNS against viral infections. Yet, basal activity of the IFN system appears to be low within the CNS, likely owing to the toxicity of IFN to this organ. Moreover, after viral infection, neurons and oligodendrocytes were reported to be relatively poor IFN producers and appear to keep some susceptibility to neurotropic viruses, even in the presence of IFN. This review addresses some trends and recent developments concerning the role of type I and type III IFNs in: i) preventing neuroinvasion and infection of CNS cells; ii) the identity of IFN-producing cells in the CNS; iii) the antiviral activity of ISGs; and iv) the activity of viral proteins of neurotropic viruses that target the IFN pathway.

  11. Conditional IFNAR1 ablation reveals distinct requirements of Type I IFN signaling for NK cell maturation and tumor surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Mizutani, Tatsuaki; Neugebauer, Nina; Putz, Eva M.; Moritz, Nadine; Simma, Olivia; Zebedin-Brandl, Eva; Gotthardt, Dagmar; Warsch, Wolfgang; Eckelhart, Eva; Kantner, Hans-Peter; Kalinke, Ulrich; Lienenklaus, Stefan; Weiss, Siegfried; Strobl, Birgit; Müller, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    Mice with an impaired Type I interferon (IFN) signaling (IFNAR1- and IFNβ-deficient mice) display an increased susceptibility toward v-ABL-induced B-cell leukemia/lymphoma. The enhanced leukemogenesis in the absence of an intact Type I IFN signaling is caused by alterations within the tumor environment. Deletion of Ifnar1 in tumor cells (as obtained in Ifnar1f/f CD19-Cre mice) failed to impact on disease latency or type. In line with this observation, the initial transformation and proliferat...

  12. Multiparity activates interferon pathways in peritoneal adipose tissue and decreases susceptibility to ovarian cancer metastasis in a murine allograft model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughran, Elizabeth A; Phan, Ryan C; Leonard, Annemarie K; Tarwater, Laura; Asem, Marwa; Liu, Yueying; Yang, Jing; Klymenko, Yuliya; Johnson, Jeff; Shi, Zonggao; Hilliard, Tyvette S; Blumenthaler, Marielle; Leevy, Matthew; Ravosa, Matthew J; Stack, M Sharon

    2017-12-28

    Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer deaths in U.S. women and the deadliest gynecologic malignancy. This lethality is largely due to the fact that most cases are diagnosed at metastatic stages of the disease when the prognosis is poor. Epidemiologic studies consistently demonstrate that parous women have a reduced risk of developing ovarian cancer, with a greater number of births affording greater protection; however little is known about the impact of parity on ovarian cancer metastasis. Here we report that multiparous mice are less susceptible to ovarian cancer metastasis in an age-matched syngeneic murine allograft model. Interferon pathways were found to be upregulated in healthy adipose tissue of multiparous mice, suggesting a possible mechanism for the multiparous-related protective effect against metastasis. This protective effect was found to be lost with age. Based on this work, future studies exploring therapeutic strategies which harness the multiparity-associated protective effect demonstrated here are warranted. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. A proline deletion in IFNAR1 impairs IFN-signaling and underlies increased resistance to tuberculosis in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoliang; deWeerd, Nicole A; Stifter, Sebastian A; Liu, Lei; Zhou, Boping; Wang, Wenfei; Zhou, Yiping; Ying, Binwu; Hu, Xuejiao; Matthews, Antony Y; Ellis, Magda; Triccas, James A; Hertzog, Paul J; Britton, Warwick J; Chen, Xinchun; Feng, Carl G

    2018-01-08

    Type I interferons (IFN), best known for their anti-viral functions, have been shown to impair host resistance to intracellular bacteria in mice. However, the precise role of type I IFN signaling in bacterial infection in humans is unclear. Here, we show that genetic variation in the human IFNAR1 gene is associated with decreased susceptibility to tuberculosis and an increased risk of viral hepatitis in Chinese populations. Receptor mutagenesis and cell signaling studies establish that the IFNAR1 mutation corresponding to a proline deletion in the hinge region of the membrane-proximal domain of IFNAR1 decreases the binding affinity of IFNAR1 to IFN-β, impeding type I IFN signaling. Our findings suggest that IFNAR1 signaling underlies an increased risk of tuberculosis in humans and reveals a function for the IFNAR1 inter-domain region in cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and signal transduction.

  14. The interferon-induced gene Ifi27l2a is active in lung macrophages and lymphocytes after influenza A infection but deletion of Ifi27l2a in mice does not increase susceptibility to infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantawy, Mohamed A; Hatesuer, Bastian; Wilk, Esther; Dengler, Leonie; Kasnitz, Nadine; Weiß, Siegfried; Schughart, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Interferons represent one of the first and essential host defense mechanisms after infection, and the activation of the IFN-pathway results in the transcriptional activation of hundreds of interferon-stimulated genes. The alpha-inducible protein 27 like 2A (Ifi27l2a) gene (human synonym: ISG12) is strongly up-regulated in the lung after influenza A infection in mice and has been shown in gene expression studies to be highly correlated to other activated genes. Therefore, we investigated the role of Ifi27l2a for the host defense to influenza A infections in more detail. RT-PCR analyses in non-infected mice demonstrated that Ifi27l2a was expressed in several tissues, including the lung. Detailed analyses of reporter gene expression in lungs from Ifi27l2a-LacZ mice revealed that Ifi27l2a was expressed in macrophages and lymphocytes but not in alveolar cells or bronchiolar epithelium cells. The number of macrophages and lymphocyte strongly increased in the lung after infection, but no significant increase in expression levels of the LacZ reporter gene was found within individual immune cells. Also, no reporter gene expression was found in bronchiolar epithelial cells, alveolar cells or infiltrating neutrophils after infection. Thus, up-regulation of Ifi27l2a in infected lungs is mainly due to the infiltration of macrophages and lymphocytes. Most surprisingly, deletion of Ifi27l2a in mouse knock-out lines did not result in increased susceptibility to infections with H1N1 or H7N7 influenza A virus compared to wild type C57BL/6N mice, suggesting a less important role of the gene for the host response to influenza infections than for bacterial infections.

  15. Loci controlling lymphocyte production of interferon gamma after alloantigen stimulation in vitro and their co-localization with genes controlling lymphocyte infiltration of tumors and tumor susceptibility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lipoldová, Marie; Havelková, Helena; Badalová, Jana; Vojtíšková, Jarmila; Quan, L.; Krulová, Magdalena; Sohrabi, Yahya; Stassen, A. P. M.; Demant, P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 2 (2010), s. 203-213 ISSN 0340-7004 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009; GA AV ČR IAA500520606; GA ČR GD310/08/H077 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : Tumor susceptibility * Genetic control of interferon gamma production * Lymphocyte infiltration of tumors Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.293, year: 2010

  16. The circadian gene mPer2 regulates the daily rhythm of IFN-gamma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjona, Alvaro; Sarkar, Dipak K

    2006-09-01

    Circadian and daily rhythms regulate many aspects of physiology and behavior. Although a growing number of studies suggest that circadian disruptions may render organisms more susceptible to infection and cancer, the molecular links between the circadian system and the immune system are largely unknown. Here we report that mice carrying a loss-of-function mutation in the Per2 gene, a key component of the molecular circadian clock, lacked the physiologic daily rhythm of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) mRNA and protein expression in the spleen. These observations were associated with a significant alteration in the expression of canonical clock genes. In addition, Per2 mutant mice failed to show a daily rhythm in IFN-gamma serum levels, which were significantly lower than those determined in wild-type mice during the early light period. These findings provide novel evidence for a direct circadian regulation of IFN-gamma, a critical cytokine modulating the immune response.

  17. Association between IFN-γ +874A/T and IFN-γR1 (-611A/G, +189T/G, and +95C/T Gene Polymorphisms and Chronic Periodontitis in a Sample of Iranian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Heidari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ is an immune regulatory cytokine that acts through its receptor and plays important role in progression of inflammatory disease such as chronic periodontitis (CP. The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in the distribution of IFN-γ (+874A/T and IFN-γR1 (-611A/G, +189T/G, and +95C/T gene polymorphisms among CP and healthy individuals and to investigate relationships between these polymorphisms and susceptibility to CP. Materials and Methods. 310 individuals were enrolled in the study including 210 CP patients and 100 healthy controls. Single nucleotide polymorphisms at IFN-γ (+874A/T and IFN-γR1 (-611A/G, +189T/G, and +95C/T were analyzed by ARMS-PCR and PCR-RFLP methods. Results. The significant difference was found in genotype and allele frequency of IFN-γ (+874A/T gene polymorphism in chronic periodontitis patients and healthy controls. The distribution of genotypes and allele frequencies for IFN-γR1 (-611A/G, +189T/G, and +95C/T were similar among the groups and no differences in the frequencies of alleles or genotypes of IFN-γR1 genetic polymorphisms variants between case and control groups were detected. Conclusion. The finding of this study showed that IFN-γ +874A/T gene polymorphism may affect susceptibility to CP, whereas IFN-γR1 genetic polymorphisms at -611A/G, +189T/G, and +95C/T were not associated with this disease.

  18. Mechanism of HCV's resistance to IFN-α in cell culture involves expression of functional IFN-α receptor 1.

    OpenAIRE

    Lamaze Christophe; Koster Mario; Hauser Hansjorg; Wimley William C; Gunduz Feyza; Poat Bret; Samara¹ Maria; Chandra Partha K; Hazari Sidhartha; Datta Sibnarayan; Balart Luis A; Garry Robert F; Dash Srikanta

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The mechanisms underlying the Hepatitis C virus (HCV) resistance to interferon alpha (IFN-α) are not fully understood. We used IFN-α resistant HCV replicon cell lines and an infectious HCV cell culture system to elucidate the mechanisms of IFN-α resistance in cell culture. The IFN-α resistance mechanism of the replicon cells were addressed by a complementation study that utilized the full-length plasmid clones of IFN-α receptor 1 (IFNAR1), IFN-α receptor 2 (IFNAR2), Jak1, Tyk2, Stat1...

  19. ATM supports gammaherpesvirus replication by attenuating type I interferon pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrah, Eric J; Stoltz, Kyle P; Ledwith, Mitchell; Tarakanova, Vera L

    2017-10-01

    Ataxia-Telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase participates in multiple networks, including DNA damage response, oxidative stress, and mitophagy. ATM also supports replication of diverse DNA and RNA viruses. Gammaherpesviruses are prevalent cancer-associated viruses that benefit from ATM expression during replication. This proviral role of ATM had been ascribed to its signaling within the DNA damage response network; other functions of ATM have not been considered. In this study increased type I interferon (IFN) responses were observed in ATM deficient gammaherpesvirus-infected macrophages. Using a mouse model that combines ATM and type I IFN receptor deficiencies we show that increased type I IFN response in the absence of ATM fully accounts for the proviral role of ATM during gammaherpesvirus replication. Further, increased type I IFN response rendered ATM deficient macrophages more susceptible to antiviral effects of type II IFN. This study identifies attenuation of type I IFN responses as the primary mechanism underlying proviral function of ATM during gammaherpesvirus infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Interferon gamma and interleukin 10 polymorphisms in Chinese children with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Qi; Hu, Shao-Yan; Xuan, Cheng-Min; Jin, Ming-Wei; Ji, Qiang; Wang, Yi

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the association of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) gene single nucleotide polymorphisms with the susceptibility of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) in Chinese children without known family history of HLH. Forty children with HLH and 160 age- and gender-matched healthy controls from Xuzhou Children's Hospital were enrolled in the study. Serum IFN-γ and IL-10 levels were measured by enzyme linked-immunosorbent assay. Polymorphisms of the IFN-γ gene at position +874 and +2109, and IL-10 at position -1082 were analyzed by allele-specific PCR. Median serum concentrations of IFN -γ and IL-10 were significantly higher in children with HLH compared to healthy controls. The frequencies of IFN-γ +874 T/A and T/T genotypes, as well as T allele, were significantly higher in the HLH group compared with those in the control group. The frequencies of IL-10 -1082 G/A genotype and G allele were significantly increased in HLH patients compared with healthy controls. No significant difference was found in the distribution of IFN-γ +2109G/A genotypes between children with HLH and controls. This study presents preliminary evidence for the association between IFN +874 T/A, T/T, IL-10 -1082 A/G genotypes, and HLH susceptibility in Chinese children with HLH. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. IFN-alpha antibodies in patients with age-related macular degeneration treated with recombinant human IFN-alpha2a

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Christian; Engler, Claus Bødker; Sander, Birgit

    2002-01-01

    We tested for development of binding and neutralizing antibodies to interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) during IFN-alpha2a therapy of patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) of the eyes. Antibodies were investigated retrospectively in sera of 34 patients treated with 3 x 10(6) IU IFN-alpha2a...

  2. IFN-alpha antibodies in patients with age-related macular degeneration treated with recombinant human IFN-alpha2a

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Christian; Engler, Claus Bødker; Sander, Birgit

    2002-01-01

    We tested for development of binding and neutralizing antibodies to interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) during IFN-alpha2a therapy of patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) of the eyes. Antibodies were investigated retrospectively in sera of 34 patients treated with 3 x 10(6) IU IFN-alpha2...

  3. Down-regulation of interferon-gamma-induced class II expression on human glioma cells by recombinant interferon-beta: effects of dosage treatment schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, J; Knobler, R L; D'Imperio, C; Lublin, F D

    1988-11-01

    We have examined the influence of human recombinant interferon-beta (IFN-beta) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) on class II antigen expression on cultured glioblastoma multiforme cells by flow cytometry. Class II molecules were not constitutively expressed on these cells, nor induced by IFN-beta. IFN-gamma increased class II expression in a dose-dependent fashion. We demonstrate that IFN-beta is either antagonistic or synergistic with IFN-gamma in class II induction depending upon dose and schedule of administration. Both interferons at 100 IU/ml reduce class II expression by 18%, compared to IFN-gamma alone. Pretreatment with IFN-beta for 72 h, followed by both interferons yielded a 90% reduction. In contrast, lower concentrations (10 IU/ml) of both interferons were synergistic.

  4. Adipose type I interferon signalling protects against metabolic dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Verena; Adolph, Timon Erik; Grander, Christoph; Grabherr, Felix; Enrich, Barbara; Moser, Patrizia; Moschen, Alexander Rupert; Kaser, Susanne; Tilg, Herbert

    2018-01-01

    Low-grade chronic inflammation emerges as a potent driver of insulin resistance and glucose dysregulation in obesity and associated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The liver, subcutaneous fat and the immune system participate in disturbances of metabolism. Type I interferon (IFN) signalling initiated by innate and adaptive immunity modulates inflammatory responses consequent to infection. However, little is known about the role of type I IFN signalling in metabolic diseases and the development of NAFLD. We determined the impact of type I IFN signalling by tissue-specific deletion of interferon (α and β) receptor 1 (Ifnar1) in hepatocytes (Ifnar1Δhep ), adipocytes (Ifnar1Δat ), intestinal epithelial cells (Ifnar1ΔIEC ) or myelocytes (Ifnar1Δmyel ) on glucose metabolism, obesity and hepatic disease in mice exposed to a high-fat or methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) diet. Furthermore, we investigated the expression of type I IFN-regulated genes in patients with obesity undergoing laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). Long chain fatty acids induce type I IFN responses in murine hepatocytes and macrophages and exposure to a high-fat diet elicited type I IFN-regulated gene expression in the liver of wild-type mice. Hepatocyte-specific, but not adipose tissue-specific deletion of Ifnar1 worsened steatosis and inflammation induced by the MCD diet. In contrast, adipose-specific, but not hepatocyte-specific deletion of Ifnar1 deteriorated metabolic dysregulation induced by a high-fat diet, indicated by increased weight gain, insulin resistance and an impaired glucose tolerance. Abrogated type I IFN signalling in myeloid or intestinal epithelial cells did not modulate susceptibility to metabolic or hepatic disease. Improved metabolic control in patients with obesity after LAGB was associated with increased expression of type I IFN-regulated genes in subcutaneous adipose tissue and liver. Our study implicates a role for adipose and hepatocyte type I

  5. Type I and type III interferons drive redundant amplification loops to induce a transcriptional signature in influenza-infected airway epithelia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Crotta

    Full Text Available Interferons (IFNs are a group of cytokines with a well-established antiviral function. They can be induced by viral infection, are secreted and bind to specific receptors on the same or neighbouring cells to activate the expression of hundreds of IFN stimulated genes (ISGs with antiviral function. Type I IFN has been known for more than half a century. However, more recently, type III IFN (IFNλ, IL-28/29 was shown to play a similar role and to be particularly important at epithelial surfaces. Here we show that airway epithelia, the primary target of influenza A virus, produce both IFN I and III upon infection, and that induction of both depends on the RIG-I/MAVS pathway. While IRF3 is generally regarded as the transcription factor required for initiation of IFN transcription and the so-called "priming loop", we find that IRF3 deficiency has little impact on IFN expression. In contrast, lack of IRF7 reduced IFN production significantly, and only IRF3(-/-IRF7(-/- double deficiency completely abolished it. The transcriptional response to influenza infection was largely dependent on IFNs, as it was reduced to a few upregulated genes in epithelia lacking receptors for both type I and III IFN (IFNAR1(-/-IL-28Rα(-/-. Wild-type epithelia and epithelia deficient in either the type I IFN receptor or the type III IFN receptor exhibit similar transcriptional profiles in response to virus, indicating that none of the induced genes depends selectively on only one IFN system. In chimeric mice, the lack of both IFN I and III signalling in the stromal compartment alone significantly increased the susceptibility to influenza infection. In conclusion, virus infection of airway epithelia induces, via a RIG-I/MAVS/IRF7 dependent pathway, both type I and III IFNs which drive two completely overlapping and redundant amplification loops to upregulate ISGs and protect from influenza infection.

  6. Type I interferons instigate fetal demise after Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yockey, Laura J; Jurado, Kellie A; Arora, Nitin; Millet, Alon; Rakib, Tasfia; Milano, Kristin M; Hastings, Andrew K; Fikrig, Erol; Kong, Yong; Horvath, Tamas L; Weatherbee, Scott; Kliman, Harvey J; Coyne, Carolyn B; Iwasaki, Akiko

    2018-01-05

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy is associated with adverse fetal outcomes, including microcephaly, growth restriction, and fetal demise. Type I interferons (IFNs) are essential for host resistance against ZIKV, and IFN-α/β receptor (IFNAR)-deficient mice are highly susceptible to ZIKV infection. Severe fetal growth restriction with placental damage and fetal resorption is observed after ZIKV infection of type I IFN receptor knockout (Ifnar1-/-) dams mated with wild-type sires, resulting in fetuses with functional type I IFN signaling. The role of type I IFNs in limiting or mediating ZIKV disease within this congenital infection model remains unknown. In this study, we challenged Ifnar1-/- dams mated with Ifnar1+/- sires with ZIKV. This breeding scheme enabled us to examine pregnant dams that carry a mixture of fetuses that express (Ifnar1+/-) or do not express IFNAR (Ifnar1-/-) within the same uterus. Virus replicated to a higher titer in the placenta of Ifnar1-/- than within the Ifnar1+/- concepti. Yet, rather unexpectedly, we found that only Ifnar1+/- fetuses were resorbed after ZIKV infection during early pregnancy, whereas their Ifnar1-/- littermates continue to develop. Analyses of the fetus and placenta revealed that, after ZIKV infection, IFNAR signaling in the conceptus inhibits development of the placental labyrinth, resulting in abnormal architecture of the maternal-fetal barrier. Exposure of midgestation human chorionic villous explants to type I IFN, but not type III IFNs, altered placental morphology and induced cytoskeletal rearrangements within the villous core. Our results implicate type I IFNs as a possible mediator of pregnancy complications, including spontaneous abortions and growth restriction, in the context of congenital viral infections. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  7. Two different durations of adjuvant therapy with intermediate-dose interferon alfa-2b in patients with high-risk melanoma (Nordic IFN trial): a randomised phase 3 trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Johan; Aamdal, Steinar; Bastholt, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Adjuvant high-dose interferon alfa-2b improves relapse-free survival (RFS) in patients with high-risk melanoma, although benefits in overall survival are uncertain. Because of the toxic effects of high-dose regimens, intermediate doses are being explored. We investigated whether adjuvant therapy...... with intermediate-dose interferon alfa-2b for 1 or 2 years would improve outcomes in patients with stage IIB-IIC or III resected cutaneous melanoma....

  8. Thioredoxin Reductase Mediates Cell Death Effects of the Combination of Beta Interferon and Retinoic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Edward R.; Boyanapalli, Madanamohan; Lindner, Daniel J.; Weihua, Xiao; Hassel, Bret A.; Jagus, Rosemary; Gutierrez, Peter L.; Kalvakolanu, Dhananjaya V.

    1998-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) and retinoids are potent biological response modifiers. By using JAK-STAT pathways, IFNs regulate the expression of genes involved in antiviral, antitumor, and immunomodulatory actions. Retinoids exert their cell growth-regulatory effects via nuclear receptors, which also function as transcription factors. Although these ligands act through distinct mechanisms, several studies have shown that the combination of IFNs and retinoids synergistically inhibits cell growth. We have previously reported that IFN-β–all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) combination is a more potent growth suppressor of human tumor xenografts in vivo than either agent alone. Furthermore, the IFN-RA combination causes cell death in several tumor cell lines in vitro. However, the molecular basis for these growth-suppressive actions is unknown. It has been suggested that certain gene products, which mediate the antiviral actions of IFNs, are also responsible for the antitumor actions of the IFN-RA combination. However, we did not find a correlation between their activities and cell death. Therefore, we have used an antisense knockout approach to directly identify the gene products that mediate cell death and have isolated several genes associated with retinoid-IFN-induced mortality (GRIM). In this investigation, we characterized one of the GRIM cDNAs, GRIM-12. Sequence analysis suggests that the GRIM-12 product is identical to human thioredoxin reductase (TR). TR is posttranscriptionally induced by the IFN-RA combination in human breast carcinoma cells. Overexpression of GRIM-12 causes a small amount of cell death and further enhances the susceptibility of cells to IFN-RA-induced death. Dominant negative inhibitors directed against TR inhibit its cell death-inducing functions. Interference with TR enzymatic activity led to growth promotion in the presence of the IFN-RA combination. Thus, these studies identify a novel function for TR in cell growth regulation. PMID:9774665

  9. Chemokine receptor CCR5 in interferon-treated multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sellebjerg, F; Kristiansen, T B; Wittenhagen, P

    2007-01-01

    To study the relationship between CC chemokine receptor CCR5 expression and disease activity in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients treated with beta-interferon (IFN-beta).......To study the relationship between CC chemokine receptor CCR5 expression and disease activity in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients treated with beta-interferon (IFN-beta)....

  10. Induction of IFN-α subtypes and their antiviral activity in mumps virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markušić, Maja; Šantak, Maja; Košutić-Gulija, Tanja; Jergović, Mladen; Jug, Renata; Forčić, Dubravko

    2014-12-01

    Human type I interferons (IFNs) comprise one IFN-β, -ω, -κ, and -ɛ and 12 different IFN-α subtypes, which play an important role in early host antiviral response. Despite their high structural homology and signaling through the same receptor, IFN-α subtypes exhibit different antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory activities. Differences in the production of IFN-α subtypes therefore determine the quality of an antiviral response. In this study, we investigated the pattern of IFN-α subtypes induced in infection with different mumps virus (MuV) strains and examined the MuV sensitivity to the action of IFN-α subtypes. We found that all IFN-α subtypes are being expressed in response to MuV infection with a highly similar IFN-α subtype pattern between the virus strains. We assessed an antiviral activity of several IFN-α subtypes: IFN-α1, IFN-α2, IFN-α4, IFN-α6, IFN-α8, IFN-α14, IFN-α17, and IFN-α21. Although they were all effective in suppressing MuV replication, the intensity and pattern of their action varied between MuV strains. Our results indicate that the overall IFN antiviral activity as well as the activity of specific IFN-α subtypes against MuV depend on a virus strain.

  11. Salmonella Suppresses the TRIF-Dependent Type I Interferon Response in Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Katherine A.; Anderson, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Salmonella enterica is an intracellular pathogen that causes diseases ranging from gastroenteritis to typhoid fever. Salmonella bacteria trigger an autophagic response in host cells upon infection but have evolved mechanisms for suppressing this response, thereby enhancing intracellular survival. We recently reported that S. enterica serovar Typhimurium actively recruits the host tyrosine kinase focal adhesion kinase (FAK) to the surface of the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV) (K. A. Owen et al., PLoS Pathog 10:e1004159, 2014). FAK then suppresses autophagy through activation of the Akt/mTORC1 signaling pathway. In FAK−/− macrophages, bacteria are captured in autophagosomes and intracellular survival is attenuated. Here we show that the cell-autonomous bacterial suppression of autophagy also suppresses the broader innate immune response by inhibiting production of beta interferon (IFN-β). Induction of bacterial autophagy (xenophagy), but not autophagy alone, triggers IFN-β production through a pathway involving the adapter TRIF and endosomal Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and TLR4. Selective FAK knockout in macrophages resulted in rapid bacterial clearance from mucosal tissues after oral infection. Clearance correlated with increased IFN-β production by intestinal macrophages and with IFN-β-dependent induction of IFN-γ by intestinal NK cells. Blockade of either IFN-β or IFN-γ increased host susceptibility to infection, whereas experimental induction of IFN-β was protective. Thus, bacterial suppression of autophagy not only enhances cell-autonomous survival but also suppresses more-systemic innate immune responses by limiting type I and type II interferons. PMID:26884434

  12. Inhibition of lymphocyte recirculation by murine interferon: effects of various interferon preparations and timing of administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, E A; Markovic, S N; Murasko, D M

    1989-02-01

    The effects of highly purified and/or recombinant interferon (IFN)-alpha/beta, IFN-alpha, IFN-beta, IFN-gamma, and the IFN-inducer, poly(I):poly(C), on the circulation of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and thoracic duct lymphocytes (TDL) of (BALB/cJ x C57Bl/6J)F1 mice were examined. Although all IFN classes could depress significantly the number of circulating PBL and TDL when given at sufficient doses, IFN-alpha appeared to be the most potent. Phenotypic analysis of lymphocytes in the blood and lymph during the decrease induced by IFN suggests that IFN-alpha/beta and IFN-alpha preferentially decrease the Lyt-2+, or suppressor/cytotoxic, subset. Timing of IFN administration was found to be an important factor. Repeated administration of IFN-alpha/beta once a day for 3 days produced continuous suppression of the number of circulating PBL. Administration of either IFN-alpha/beta or IFN-gamma in the evening resulted in a longer and more extensive inhibition of PBL circulation than when IFN was administered in the morning. Our results suggest that the leukopenia observed in many patients undergoing IFN therapy may, in part, be attributed to decreased lymphocyte recirculation, and that the timing of IFN administration may be important in maximizing its therapeutic index.

  13. Multifocal Recurrent Osteomyelitis and Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis in a Boy with Partial Dominant IFN-γR1 Deficiency: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidé Tamara Staines-Boone

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the genes coding for cytokines, receptors, second messengers, and transcription factors of interferon gamma (IFN-γ immunity cause Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD. We report the case of a 7-year-old male patient with partial dominant (PD IFN-γ receptor 1 deficiency who had suffered from multifocal osteomyelitis attributable to bacille Calmette–Guérin vaccination since the age of 18 months. He developed hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH, a hyper-inflammatory complication, and died with multiorgan dysfunction, despite having been diagnosed and treated relatively early. Patients with PD IFN-γR1 deficiency usually have good prognosis and might respond to human recombinant subcutaneous IFN-γ. Several monogenic congenital defects have been linked to HLH, a catastrophic “cytokine storm” that is usually ascribed to lymphocyte dysfunction and thought to be triggered by interferon gamma. This is the sixth patient with both MSMD and HLH of whom we are aware. The fact that patients with macrophages that cannot respond to IFN-γ still develop HLH, bring these assumptions into question.

  14. Inhibitory effect of human recombinant interferon gamma on synthesis of acute phase proteins in human hepatoma Hep G2 cells stimulated by leukocyte cytokines, TNF alpha and IFN-beta 2/BSF-2/IL-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magielska-Zero, D; Bereta, J; Czuba-Pelech, B; Pajdak, W; Gauldie, J; Koj, A

    1988-07-01

    Supernatants from endotoxin-stimulated human leukemic cells and human recombinant interferon-beta 2 similarly enhance synthesis of alpha 1-antichymotrypsin and haptoglobin but suppress synthesis of albumin in cultured Hep G2 cells. Human recombinant tumor necrosis factor only slightly affects production of alpha 1-antichymotrypsin and albumin in a similar manner as leukocyte cytokines. In distinction, recombinant human interferon-gamma profoundly inhibits synthesis of alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, and especially of haptoglobin, but stimulates production of alpha 2-macroglobulin thus modulating the acute phase response of these cells.

  15. Interferon β (IFN-β) Production during the Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) Response in Hepatocytes Involves Coordinated and Feedforward Signaling through Toll-like Receptor 3 (TLR3), RNA-dependent Protein Kinase (PKR), Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS), and Src Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liyong; Xiang, Wenpei; Wang, Guoliang; Yan, Zhengzheng; Zhu, Zhaowei; Guo, Zhong; Sengupta, Rajib; Chen, Alex F; Loughran, Patricia A; Lu, Ben; Wang, Qingde; Billiar, Timothy R

    2016-07-15

    The sensing of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) in the liver is important for antiviral defenses but can also contribute to sterile inflammation during liver injury. Hepatocytes are often the target of viral infection and are easily injured by inflammatory insults. Here we sought to establish the pathways involved in the production of type I interferons (IFN-I) in response to extracellular poly(I:C), a dsRNA mimetic, in hepatocytes. This was of interest because hepatocytes are long-lived and, unlike most immune cells that readily die after activation with dsRNA, are not viewed as cells with robust antimicrobial capacity. We found that poly(I:C) leads to rapid up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR), and Src. The production of IFN-β was dependent on iNOS, PKR, and Src and partially dependent on TLR3/Trif. iNOS and Src up-regulation was partially dependent on TLR3/Trif but entirely dependent on PKR. The phosphorylation of TLR3 on tyrosine 759 was shown to increase in parallel to IFN-β production in an iNOS- and Src-dependent manner, and Src was found to directly interact with TLR3 in the endosomal compartment of poly(I:C)-treated cells. Furthermore, we identified a robust NO/cGMP/PKG-dependent feedforward pathway for the amplification of iNOS expression. These data identify iNOS/NO as an integral component of IFN-β production in response to dsRNA in hepatocytes in a pathway that involves the coordinated activities of TLR3/Trif and PKR. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Synergistic inhibition of human cytomegalovirus replication by interferon-alpha/beta and interferon-gamma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris Cindy A

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have shown that gamma interferon (IFN-γ synergizes with the innate IFNs (IFN-α and IFN-β to inhibit herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 replication in vitro. To determine whether this phenomenon is shared by other herpesviruses, we investigated the effects of IFNs on human cytomegalovirus (HCMV replication. Results We have found that as with HSV-1, IFN-γ synergizes with the innate IFNs (IFN-α/β to potently inhibit HCMV replication in vitro. While pre-treatment of human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs with IFN-α, IFN-β or IFN-γ alone inhibited HCMV plaque formation by ~30 to 40-fold, treatment with IFN-α and IFN-γ or IFN-β and IFN-γ inhibited HCMV plaque formation by 163- and 662-fold, respectively. The generation of isobole plots verified that the observed inhibition of HCMV plaque formation and replication in HFFs by IFN-α/β and IFN-γ was a synergistic interaction. Additionally, real-time PCR analyses of the HCMV immediate early (IE genes (IE1 and IE2 revealed that IE mRNA expression was profoundly decreased in cells stimulated with IFN-α/β and IFN-γ (~5-11-fold as compared to vehicle-treated cells. Furthermore, decreased IE mRNA expression was accompanied by a decrease in IE protein expression, as demonstrated by western blotting and immunofluorescence. Conclusion These findings suggest that IFN-α/β and IFN-γ synergistically inhibit HCMV replication through a mechanism that may involve the regulation of IE gene expression. We hypothesize that IFN-γ produced by activated cells of the adaptive immune response may potentially synergize with endogenous type I IFNs to inhibit HCMV dissemination in vivo.

  17. Interferons in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, Trevor; Khorooshi, Reza M. H.; Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are implicated as an important component of the innate immune system influencing viral infections, inflammation, and immune surveillance. We review here the complex biological activity of IFNs in the central nervous system (CNS) and associated glial–immune interactions...

  18. Quantification of interferon signaling in avian cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kint, Joeri; Forlenza, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Activation of the type I interferon (IFN) response is an essential defense mechanism against invading pathogens such as viruses. This chapter describes two protocols to quantify activation of the chicken IFN response through analysis of gene expression by real-time quantitative PCR and by

  19. Lauric acid abolishes interferon-gamma (IFN-γ-induction of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 expression in human macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Siong Lim

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: This study successfully proved that lauric acid was able to antagonize the up-regulatory effect of IFN-γ on ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expressions in THP-1 macrophages. This indicates that lauric acid may be an anti-inflammatory therapeutic and prophylaxis agent for atherosclerosis.

  20. Ubiquilin 1 Promotes IFN-γ-Induced Xenophagy of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakowski, Erik T.; Shrestha, Elina; Hetzenecker, Stefanie E.; Maurer, Katie; Cadwell, Ken; Philips, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    The success of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) as a pathogen rests upon its ability to grow intracellularly in macrophages. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is critical in host defense against Mtb and stimulates macrophage clearance of Mtb through an autophagy pathway. Here we show that the host protein ubiquilin 1 (UBQLN1) promotes IFN-γ-mediated autophagic clearance of Mtb. Ubiquilin family members have previously been shown to recognize proteins that aggregate in neurodegenerative disorders. We find that UBQLN1 can interact with Mtb surface proteins and associates with the bacilli in vitro. In IFN-γ activated macrophages, UBQLN1 co-localizes with Mtb and promotes the anti-mycobacterial activity of IFN-γ. The association of UBQLN1 with Mtb depends upon the secreted bacterial protein, EsxA, which is involved in permeabilizing host phagosomes. In autophagy-deficient macrophages, UBQLN1 accumulates around Mtb, consistent with the idea that it marks bacilli that traffic through the autophagy pathway. Moreover, UBQLN1 promotes ubiquitin, p62, and LC3 accumulation around Mtb, acting independently of the E3 ligase parkin. In summary, we propose a model in which UBQLN1 recognizes Mtb and in turn recruits the autophagy machinery thereby promoting intracellular control of Mtb. Thus, polymorphisms in ubiquilins, which are known to influence susceptibility to neurodegenerative illnesses, might also play a role in host defense against Mtb. PMID:26225865

  1. Two different durations of adjuvant therapy with intermediate-dose interferon alfa-2b in patients with high-risk melanoma (Nordic IFN trial): a randomised phase 3 trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Johan; Aamdal, Steinar; Bastholt, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Adjuvant high-dose interferon alfa-2b improves relapse-free survival (RFS) in patients with high-risk melanoma, although benefits in overall survival are uncertain. Because of the toxic effects of high-dose regimens, intermediate doses are being explored. We investigated whether adjuvant therapy...

  2. Interferon alpha association with neuromyelitis optica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgari, Nasrin; Voss, Anne; Steenstrup, Troels

    2013-01-01

    - α were significantly associated with EDSS (P = 0.0062). It may be concluded that IFN- α was detectable in a subgroup of NMO patients. Association of IFN- α levels with clinical disease activity and severity suggests a role for IFN- α in disease perpetuation and may provide a plausible explanation......Interferon-alpha (IFN- α ) has immunoregulatory functions in autoimmune inflammatory diseases. The goal of this study was to determine occurrence and clinical consequences of IFN- α in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) patients. Thirty-six NMO and 41 multiple sclerosis (MS) patients from a population......-based retrospective case series were included. Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score and MRI findings determined disease activity. Linear regression was used to assess the effects of the level of IFN- α on disability (EDSS). IFN- α was determined by sensitive ELISA assays. IFN- α was detectable in sera from 9...

  3. Interferon Gamma in Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kima, Peter E.; Soong, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a complex disease that is caused by parasites of the Leishmania genus. Leishmania are further classified into several complexes, each of which can engage in distinct interactions with mammalian hosts resulting in differing disease presentations. It is therefore not unexpected that host immune responses to Leishmania are variable. The induction of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and response to it in these infections has received considerable attention. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of some of the host responses during Leishmania infections that are regulated by IFN-γ. In addition, studies that explore the nature of parasite-derived molecular mediators that might affect the host response to IFN-γ are also discussed. PMID:23801993

  4. Bluetongue Virus NS4 Protein Is an Interferon Antagonist and a Determinant of Virus Virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratinier, Maxime; Shaw, Andrew E; Barry, Gerald; Gu, Quan; Di Gialleonardo, Luigina; Janowicz, Anna; Varela, Mariana; Randall, Richard E; Caporale, Marco; Palmarini, Massimo

    2016-06-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is the causative agent of bluetongue, a major infectious disease of ruminants with serious consequences to both animal health and the economy. The clinical outcome of BTV infection is highly variable and dependent on a variety of factors related to both the virus and the host. In this study, we show that the BTV nonstructural protein NS4 favors viral replication in sheep, the animal species most affected by bluetongue. In addition, NS4 confers a replication advantage on the virus in interferon (IFN)-competent primary sheep endothelial cells and immortalized cell lines. We determined that in cells infected with an NS4 deletion mutant (BTV8ΔNS4), there is increased synthesis of type I IFN compared to cells infected with wild-type BTV-8. In addition, using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), we show that NS4 modulates the host IFN response and downregulates mRNA levels of type I IFN and interferon-stimulated genes. Moreover, using reporter assays and protein synthesis assays, we show that NS4 downregulates the activities of a variety of promoters, such as the cytomegalovirus immediate-early promoter, the IFN-β promoter, and a promoter containing interferon-stimulated response elements (ISRE). We also show that the NS4 inhibitory activity on gene expression is related to its nucleolar localization. Furthermore, NS4 does not affect mRNA splicing or cellular translation. The data obtained in this study strongly suggest that BTV NS4 is an IFN antagonist and a key determinant of viral virulence. Bluetongue is one of the main infectious diseases of ruminants and is caused by bluetongue virus (BTV), an arthropod-borne virus transmitted from infected to susceptible animals by Culicoides biting midges. Bluetongue has a variable clinical outcome that can be related to both virus and host factors. It is therefore critical to understand the interplay between BTV and the host immune responses. In this study, we show that a nonstructural protein of BTV (NS4) is

  5. A vesicular stomatitis virus replicon-based bioassay for the rapid and sensitive determination of multi-species type I interferon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Berger Rentsch

    Full Text Available Type I interferons (IFN comprise a family of cytokines that signal through a common cellular receptor to induce a plethora of genes with antiviral and other activities. Recombinant IFNs are used for the treatment of hepatitis C virus infection, multiple sclerosis, and certain malignancies. The capability of type I IFN to suppress virus replication and resultant cytopathic effects is frequently used to measure their bioactivity. However, these assays are time-consuming and require appropriate biosafety containment. In this study, an improved IFN assay is presented which is based on a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV replicon encoding two reporter proteins, firefly luciferase and green fluorescent protein. The vector lacks the essential envelope glycoprotein (G gene of VSV and is propagated on a G protein-expressing transgenic cell line. Several mammalian and avian cells turned out to be susceptible to infection with the complemented replicon particles. Infected cells readily expressed the reporter proteins at high levels five hours post infection. When human fibroblasts were treated with serial dilutions of human IFN-β prior to infection, reporter expression was accordingly suppressed. This method was more sensitive and faster than a classical IFN bioassay based on VSV cytopathic effects. In addition, the antiviral activity of human IFN-λ (interleukin-29, a type III IFN, was determined on Calu-3 cells. Both IFN-β and IFN-λ were acid-stable, but only IFN-β was resistant to alkaline treatment. The antiviral activities of canine, porcine, and avian type I IFN were analysed with cell lines derived from the corresponding species. This safe bioassay will be useful for the rapid and sensitive quantification of multi-species type I IFN and potentially other antiviral cytokines.

  6. Role of Interferon-Gamma (Ifn-γ) in Immune Response Regulation in Hiv-1 and Hiv-1 + Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (Tb) Infected Patients / Interferona-gamma (Ifn-γ) Loma Imūnās Atbildes Regulēšanā Pacientiem Ar HIV-1 un HIV-1 + mycobacterium Tuberculosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Inga Januškevica; Baiba Rozentāle; Elvīra Hagina; Jeīena Eglīte; Tatjana Kolupajeva; Jeīena Storozenko; Ludmila Guseva; Aivars Lejnieks

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the role of IFN-γ in interaction between IL-10, IL-18, IL-1b, CD4 cell counts and HIV-1 RNA viral load in the development of HIV-1 in patients co-infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB...

  7. A PILOT AND FEASIBILITY CLINICAL TRIAL EVALUATING IMMUNO-GENE THERAPY OF MALIGNANT PLEURAL MESOTHELIOMA (MPM) USING INTRAPLEURAL DELIVERY OF ADENOVIRUS- INTERFERON-ALPHA (Ad.hIFN-α2b) IN COMBINATION WITH HIGH-DOSE CELECOXIB AND SYSTEMIC CHEMOTHERAPY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterman, Daniel H; Alley, Evan; Stevenson, James; Friedberg, Joseph; Metzger, Susan; Recio, Adri; Moon, Edmund; Haas, Andrew R; Vachani, Anil; Katz, Sharyn I; Sun, Jing; Heitjan, Daniel F; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Litzky, Leslie; Yearley, Jennifer H; Tan, Kay See; Papasavvas, Emmanouil; Kennedy, Paul; Montaner, Luis J.; Cengel, Keith; Simone, Charles B; Culligan, Melissa; Langer, Corey J; Albelda, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose “In situ vaccination” using immuno-gene therapy has the ability to induce polyclonal anti-tumor responses directed by the patient’s immune system. Experimental Design Patients with unresectable MPM received two intrapleural doses of a replication-defective adenoviral vector containing the human interferon-alpha2b gene (Ad.IFN) concomitant with a 14-day course of celecoxib followed by chemotherapy. Primary outcomes were safety, toxicity, and objective response rate; secondary outcomes included progression-free and overall survival. Bio-correlates on blood and tumor were measured. Results Forty subjects were treated: 18 received first-line pemetrexed-based chemotherapy, 22 received second-line chemotherapy with pemetrexed (n=7) or gemcitabine (n=15). Treatment was generally well tolerated. The overall response rate was 25% and the disease control rate was 88%. Median overall survival (MOS) for all patients with epithelial histology was 21 months versus 7 months for patients with non-epithelial histology. MOS in the first-line cohort was 12.5 months, while MOS for the second-line cohort was 21.5 months, with 32% of patients alive at 2 years. No biologic parameters were found to correlate with response, including numbers of activated blood T cells or NK cells, regulatory T cells in blood, peak levels of interferon-α in blood or pleural fluid, induction of anti-tumor antibodies, nor an immune-gene signature in pretreatment biopsies. Conclusions The combination of intrapleural Ad.IFN, celecoxib, and chemotherapy proved safe in patients with MPM. Overall survival rate was significantly higher than historical controls in the second-line group. Results of this study support proceeding with a multi-center randomized clinical trial of chemo-immunogene therapy versus standard chemotherapy alone. PMID:26968202

  8. A defect in the synthesis of Interferon-γ by the T cells of Complement-C5 deficient mice leads to enhanced susceptibility for tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashruwala, Mary Anne; Smith, Amanda K.; Lindsey, Devin R.; Moczygemba, Margaret; Wetsel, Rick A.; Klein, John R.; Actor, Jeffrey K.; Jagannath, Chinnaswamy

    2012-01-01

    Interferon-γ (IFNγ) plays a major role during host defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). T cells produce IFNγ in response to IL-12 and IL-18 secreted from Mtb infected macrophages. IFNγ in turn, induces nitric oxide secretion in macrophages that kills Mtb. IFNγ knock-out mice are thus hyper-susceptible to tuberculosis. We reported earlier that Complement C5 deficient (C5-/-) congenic mice are more susceptible to tuberculosis and showed reduced IL-12 synthesis in their macrophages. Using C5-/- congenic mice that carry a deletion in the C5 gene and the wild type C5+/+ mice, we demonstrate here that, the C5-/-derived CD3+ T cells, have an additional defect in the synthesis of IFNγ. C5-/- T cells produced lower levels of IFNγ upon stimulation by antigen presenting cells (APCs) infected with Mtb or when stimulated directly with a combination of IL-12 and IL-18. The latter was in part due to a reduced phosphorylation of STAT-4 following IL-12/IL-18 stimulation. Addition of C5a peptide to IL-12/IL-18 partially restored STAT4 phosphorylation and IFNγ synthesis in C5-/- T cells indicating that IL-12/IL-18 mediated signaling within CD3+ T cells involves C5a peptide. Finally, C5-/- T cells derived from M.bovis BCG or Mtb infected mice showed a reduced expression of T-bet (T-box expressed in T cells) transcription factor, which correlated well with a reduced T cell secretion of IFNγ. Since T-bet mediated IFNγ synthesis facilitates Th1 expansion, C5-/- mouse derived T cells appear to have an intrinsic defect in the production of IFNγ, which is related to C5 deficiency and this may explain their increased susceptibility to infection with Mtb and BCG. PMID:22154007

  9. Appearance and disappearance of neutralizing antibodies during interferon-beta therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, P Soelberg; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Ross, C

    2005-01-01

    Neutralizing antibodies (NABs) occur frequently in patients receiving interferon (IFN)-beta for multiple sclerosis (MS), but it is unclear whether occurrence of NABs is predictive for the persistence of NABs during continued IFN-beta therapy....

  10. Interleukin-10 and Interferon Gamma Gene Polymorphisms and Hepatitis C Virus-Related Liver Cirrhosis Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheneef, Abeer; Esmat, Mamdouh M; Mohammad, Asmaa N; Mahmoud, Aida A; Moghazy, Hoda M; Noureldin, Amal K

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between the gene polymorphisms in interleukin-10 (IL-10) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) genes with susceptibility and severity of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among Egyptian patients. Interleukin-10 -592 A/C, -1082 G/A and IFN-γ +874 T/A genotypes were determined in 100 chronic HCV patients and 50 healthy controls using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and the amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR) respectively. IL-10 -592 A/C polymorphism genotyping revealed that the frequency of CC genotype was significantly higher in chronic HCV patients than in controls (58% versus 30%, P IL-10 -1082 G/A polymorphism genotyping, a higher frequency of GG genotype was found in chronic HCV patients compared to controls (31% versus 10%, P IL-10 -592 A/C, -1082 G/A, and IFN-γ +874 T/A polymorphisms had a strong association with susceptibility to HCV infection. However, no significant association was observed between the cytokines (IL-10 and IFN-γ) genotypes profile and HCV-liver cirrhosis risk in the studied population, except for the high frequency of IFN-γ +874 T allele in cirrhotic patients.

  11. The Role of Genetic Variation Near Interferon-Kappa in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac T. W. Harley

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by increased type I interferons (IFNs and multiorgan inflammation frequently targeting the skin. IFN-kappa is a type I IFN expressed in skin. A pooled genome-wide scan implicated the IFNK locus in SLE susceptibility. We studied IFNK single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 3982 SLE cases and 4275 controls, composed of European (EA, African-American (AA, and Asian ancestry. rs12553951C was associated with SLE in EA males (odds ratio=1.93, P=2.5×10−4, but not females. Suggestive associations with skin phenotypes in EA and AA females were found, and these were also sex-specific. IFNK SNPs were associated with increased serum type I IFN in EA and AA SLE patients. Our data suggest a sex-dependent association between IFNK SNPs and SLE and skin phenotypes. The serum IFN association suggests that IFNK variants could influence type I IFN producing plasmacytoid dendritic cells in affected skin.

  12. Appearance and disappearance of neutralizing antibodies during interferon-beta therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, P Soelberg; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Ross, C

    2005-01-01

    Neutralizing antibodies (NABs) occur frequently in patients receiving interferon (IFN)-beta for multiple sclerosis (MS), but it is unclear whether occurrence of NABs is predictive for the persistence of NABs during continued IFN-beta therapy.......Neutralizing antibodies (NABs) occur frequently in patients receiving interferon (IFN)-beta for multiple sclerosis (MS), but it is unclear whether occurrence of NABs is predictive for the persistence of NABs during continued IFN-beta therapy....

  13. Role of interferon-gamma gene polymorphisms in susceptibility to IgA nephropathy: a family-based association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schena, Francesco Paolo; Cerullo, Giuseppina; Torres, Diletta Domenica; Scolari, Francesco; Foramitti, Marina; Amoroso, Antonio; Pirulli, Doroti; Floege, Jürgen; Mertens, Peter Rene; Zerres, Klaus; Alexopoulos, Efstathios; Kirmizis, Dimitrios; Zelante, Leopoldo; Bisceglia, Luigi

    2006-04-01

    T helper (h) lymphocytes in pathogenic immune response at mucosal effector site play a key role in IgA nephropathy (IgAN). We evaluated the impact of some Th1/Th2/Th3/T(R)-type, and of monocyte/macrophage cytokines on IgAN susceptibility with a family-based association study including 53 patients, 45 complete trios, 4 incomplete trios and 36 discordant siblings. Cytokine gene polymorphisms with a potential regulatory role on their production were investigated using the family-based association test (FBAT): IFNgamma intron-1 CA repeat at position 1349-1373; IL-13 -1055C/T; TGFbeta +915G/C; IL-10 5'-proximal and distal microsatellites; TNFalpha -308G/A, -238G/A. The FBAT multi-allelic analysis showed an association between IFNgamma polymorphism and susceptibility to IgAN (P=0.03). The bi-allelic analysis evidenced that the 13-CA repeat allele was preferentially transmitted to the affected individuals (P=0.006; Bonferroni P-value=0.04). The direct sequencing of IFNgamma amplicons showed a strict association between the 13-CA repeat allele and the A variant of the +874T/A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs2430561) directly adjacent to the 5' end of the microsatellite. The in vitro production of IFNgamma evaluated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 10 genotyped patients demonstrated a correlation between the +874A allele and a lower production of IFNgamma (P=0.028 Mann-Whitney test). This SNP affects IFNgamma production lying within a binding site for the transcription factor NF-kappaB. No significant difference was observed in the 15 years renal survival between IgAN patients carrying different IFNgamma gene polymorphisms. This first family-based association study demonstrates that the +874A allele, strictly associated with IFNgamma 13-CA repeat allele, confers susceptibility to IgAN, without influencing renal survival.

  14. Raised interferon-β, type 3 interferon and interferon-stimulated genes - evidence of innate immune activation in neutrophilic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, J; Hilzendeger, C; Moermans, C; Schleich, F; Henket, M; Kebadze, T; Mallia, P; Edwards, M R; Johnston, S L; Louis, R

    2017-03-01

    Interferons play an important role in innate immunity. Previous studies report deficiency in virus induction of interferon (IFN)-α, IFN-β and IFN-λ in bronchial epithelial and bronchial lavage cells in atopic asthmatics. It is now recognized that asthma is a heterogeneous disease comprising different inflammatory phenotypes, some of which may involve innate immune activation in the absence of overt infection. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the severity of asthma or a specific cellular sputum pattern may be linked to evidence of innate immune activation. Here we investigate the expression of IFN-β, IFN-λ1 (IL-29), IFN-λ2/3 (IL-28A/B) and the interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) such as myxovirus resistance 1 (Mx1), oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) and viperin in unstimulated sputum cells in 57 asthmatics (including 16 mild, 19 moderate and 22 severe asthma patients) and compared them with 19 healthy subjects. We observed increased expression of IFN-β, IFN-λ1/IL-29, OAS and viperin in asthmatics compared with healthy subjects, while IL-28 was not expressed in any group. The overexpression was restricted to neutrophilic asthmatics (sputum neutrophils ≥ 76%), while eosinophilic asthmatics (sputum eosinophils ≥ 3%) did not differ from healthy subjects or even showed a lower expression of Mx1. No difference in interferon or ISG expression was observed according to clinical asthma severity. Neutrophilic, but not eosinophilic, asthmatics display overexpression of IFN-β, IFN-λ1/IL-29 and ISGs in their sputum cells that may reflect ongoing innate immune activation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Two different durations of adjuvant therapy with intermediate-dose interferon alfa-2b in patients with high-risk melanoma (Nordic IFN trial): a randomised phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Johan; Aamdal, Steinar; Bastholt, Lars; Brandberg, Yvonne; Hernberg, Micaela; Nilsson, Bo; Stierner, Ulrika; von der Maase, Hans

    2011-02-01

    Adjuvant high-dose interferon alfa-2b improves relapse-free survival (RFS) in patients with high-risk melanoma, although benefits in overall survival are uncertain. Because of the toxic effects of high-dose regimens, intermediate doses are being explored. We investigated whether adjuvant therapy with intermediate-dose interferon alfa-2b for 1 or 2 years would improve outcomes in patients with stage IIB-IIC or III resected cutaneous melanoma. This randomised, open-label, phase 3, parallel-group trial was undertaken between 1996 and 2004. 855 patients were randomly assigned at 35 centres in the Nordic countries by block randomisation to three groups: observation only (group A); 4 weeks of induction (interferon alfa-2b 10 million units flat dose subcutaneously 5 days per week) followed by 12 months of maintenance therapy (interferon alfa-2b 10 million units flat dose subcutaneously 3 days per week; group B); or 1 month of induction and 24 months of maintenance (group C). Neither investigators nor patients were masked to treatment assignment. Patients were stratified for country and tumour stage; patients with stage III disease were further stratified for presence of metastatic lymph nodes at primary diagnosis versus at relapse, palpable versus non-palpable lymph-node metastases, and number of metastatic lymph nodes. The primary endpoint was overall survival in the two interferon alfa-2b groups combined. Analyses were by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01259934. 284 patients were assigned to group A, 285 to group B, and 286 to group C; all patients were analysed. The median follow-up time was 72·4 months (IQR 46·9-98·0). We recorded no significant improvement in overall survival in patients given interferon alfa-2b compared with observation: median overall survival was 56·1 months (IQR 22·3 to >120·0) in group A, 72·1 months (25·8 to >120) in group B, and 64·3 months (24·7 to >120) in group C (p=0·600). Hazard

  16. Cycloheximide induces expression of the human interferon beta 1 gene in mouse cells transformed by bovine papillomavirus-interferon beta 1 recombinants.

    OpenAIRE

    Maroteaux, L; Chen, L.; Mitrani-Rosenbaum, S; Howley, P M; Revel, M

    1983-01-01

    Mouse cells transformed by a bovine papillomavirus recombinant vector containing the human interferon (IFN) beta 1 (IFN-beta 1) gene could be induced to produce human as well as mouse IFNs. The optimal conditions for induction of human IFN and of its mRNA in these transformants resembled those needed for mouse IFN: high concentrations of DEAE-dextran and low concentrations of polyriboinosinic acid-polyribocytidylic acid. Superinduction by inhibitors of protein synthesis which strongly stimula...

  17. [Gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukins 2, 4 and 6 (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6) in cervical-uterine cells of intraepithelial neoplasia: a preliminary report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Govea, Tatiana; Callejas, Diana; Núñez-Troconis, José; Araujo, Mary; Costa, Luciana; Pons, Héctor; Delgado, Mariela; Monsalve, Francisca

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the expression of type Th1 cytokines: IL-2 and IFNgamma, and Th2: IL-4 and IL-6, as well as TNF-alpha in patients with precancerous lesions of the uterine cervix and their relationship with the human papiloma virus (HPV). 30 patients with precancerous lesions (NIC 1: 70%, NIC 2: 16.7% and NIC 3: 1.3%) and 9 normal controls were studied. A clinical history, gynecological evaluation, cytology and an uterine biopsy were carried out in each patient and control. PCR was used for the diagnosis of HPV. IFN-gamma expression (positive cells/field) was increased in patients with NIC (5.06 +/- 4.7 vs 0 in the control group; p < 0.05). TNFa was a little higher in pathologycal tissues than in the controls (5.23 +/- 3.63 vs 1.55 +/- 2.65; p < 0.05). IL-2 was higher in pathologycal cases than in the controls (8.73 +/- 5.23 vs 0.33 +/- 1, p < 0.05). IL-4 were expressed in both, patients and controls (6.53 +/- 5.23 vs 5.77 +/- 7.32). IL-6 was also higher in patients (4.63 +/- 3.34 vs 0.77 +/- 2.33; p < 0.05). When the HPV status was considered, only IFN-gamma (p < 0.05) and IL-2 (p < 0.05) were significantly higher in HPV positive patients (n = 4) compared to controls. When HPV+ patients were compared with HPV- patients, only IFNgamma was significant (11.5 +/- 5 vs 4.07 +/- 3.8; p < 0.05). In conclusion, Type Th1 immune response prevails in patients with precancerous lesions, whether they are HPV positive or not.

  18. Interferon Alpha Association with Neuromyelitis Optica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Asgari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interferon-alpha (IFN-α has immunoregulatory functions in autoimmune inflammatory diseases. The goal of this study was to determine occurrence and clinical consequences of IFN-α in neuromyelitis optica (NMO patients. Thirty-six NMO and 41 multiple sclerosis (MS patients from a population-based retrospective case series were included. Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS score and MRI findings determined disease activity. Linear regression was used to assess the effects of the level of IFN-α on disability (EDSS. IFN-α was determined by sensitive ELISA assays. IFN-α was detectable in sera from 9/36 NMO patients, significantly more often than in the MS group (2/41 (P=0.0197. A higher frequency of IFN-α was observed in NMO patients with acute relapse compared to NMO patients in remission (P<0.001 and compared to the MS patients with relapse (P=0.010. In NMO patients, the levels of IFN-α were significantly associated with EDSS (P=0.0062. It may be concluded that IFN-α was detectable in a subgroup of NMO patients. Association of IFN-α levels with clinical disease activity and severity suggests a role for IFN-α in disease perpetuation and may provide a plausible explanation for a negative effect of IFN-1 treatment in NMO patients.

  19. Interferon-Gamma Improves Macrophages Function against M. tuberculosis in Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taj Ali Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis that causes tuberculosis (TB kills millions of infected people annually especially multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB. On infection, macrophages recognize the mycobacteria by toll-like receptor (TLR followed by phagocytosis and control of mycobacteria. In addition, macrophages also secrete IL-12 to induce IFN-γ production by T, which, in turn, increases the phagocytosis and oxidative burst. Individuals with defects in innate or adaptive immunity exhibit increased susceptibility to M. tuberculosis. Understanding these immunologic mechanisms will help in TB control. We aimed to investigate the immunopathologic mechanisms in MDR-TB and role of recombinant human interferon-gamma (rhIFN-γ. Study Design and Methods. Monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs were generated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of MDR-TB patients and healthy subjects and were investigated for immunologic response by ELISA and flow cytometry. Results. Different functional and molecular anomalies were observed in macrophages. In addition, a defective immune response to M. tuberculosis from the patient’s MDMs was characterized, which in turn improved by pretreatment with rhIFN-γ. Conclusion. This work highlights the fact that rhIFN-γ improves macrophages function against M. tuberculosis and treatment of patients with poor responsiveness to TB therapy may be needed in future to include IFN-γ as adjuvant therapy after the full characterization of pathological and molecular mechanisms in these and in other more multidrug-resistant TB patients.

  20. Type I interferon is selectively required by dendritic cells for immune rejection of tumors.

    OpenAIRE

    Diamond, Mark S.; Kinder, Michelle; Matsushita, Hirokazu; Mashayekhi, Mona; Dunn, Gavin P.; Archambault, Jessica M.; Lee, Hsiaoju; Arthur, Cora D.; White, J. Michael; Kalinke, Ulrich; Murphy, Kenneth M.; Schreiber, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    Cancer immunoediting is the process whereby the immune system suppresses neoplastic growth and shapes tumor immunogenicity. We previously reported that type I interferon (IFN-α/β) plays a central role in this process and that hematopoietic cells represent critical targets of type I IFN's actions. However, the specific cells affected by IFN-α/β and the functional processes that type I IFN induces remain undefined. Herein, we show that type I IFN is required to initiate the antitumor response a...

  1. The effect of types I and III interferons on adrenocortical cells and its possible implications for autoimmune Addison's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellesen, A; Edvardsen, K; Breivik, L; Husebye, E S; Bratland, E

    2014-06-01

    Autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) is caused by selective destruction of the hormone-producing cells of the adrenal cortex. As yet, little is known about the potential role played by environmental factors in this process. Type I and/or type III interferons (IFNs) are signature responses to virus infections, and have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune endocrine disorders such as type 1 diabetes and autoimmune thyroiditis. Transient development of AAD and exacerbation of established or subclinical disease, as well as the induction of autoantibodies associated with AAD, have been reported following therapeutic administration of type I IFNs. We therefore hypothesize that exposure to such IFNs could render the adrenal cortex susceptible to autoimmune attack in genetically predisposed individuals. In this study, we investigated possible immunopathological effects of type I and type III IFNs on adrenocortical cells in relation to AAD. Both types I and III IFNs exerted significant cytotoxicity on NCI-H295R adrenocortical carcinoma cells and potentiated IFN-γ- and polyinosine-polycytidylic acid [poly (I : C)]-induced chemokine secretion. Furthermore, we observed increased expression of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules and up-regulation of 21-hydroxylase, the primary antigenic target in AAD. We propose that these combined effects could serve to initiate or aggravate an ongoing autoimmune response against the adrenal cortex in AAD. © 2014 British Society for Immunology.

  2. IFN-λ1 with Th17 axis cytokines and IFN-α define different subsets in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oke, Vilija; Brauner, Susanna; Larsson, Anders; Gustafsson, Johanna; Zickert, Agneta; Gunnarsson, Iva; Svenungsson, Elisabet

    2017-06-15

    Interferon (IFN)-α is thought to have a pivotal role in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and type III IFNs (IFN-λ) were recently also associated with SLE. In this study, we measured levels of IFN-α, IFN-λ1, and related cytokines, such as IL-17A, IL-23, and interferon-γ-induced protein 10 (IP-10), in a Karolinska University Hospital cohort of patients with SLE and control subjects. The objective of the study was to investigate if cytokine measurements could identify different subsets of patients with active SLE and higher disease damage. We included 261 patients with SLE and 261 population control subjects. All participants underwent a standardized clinical examination. Medical files were reviewed. Patients with SLE were assessed for current organ manifestations, disease activity, and damage. Routine blood parameters, complement levels, and serology were analyzed at the time of inclusion. Levels of IFN-λ1, IFN-α, IL-17A, IL-23, and IP-10 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. IFN-λ1 and IFN-α were detected in 29% and 44% of patients, respectively, but their levels did not correlate. High serum levels of IFN-λ1 were positively associated with antinucleosome antibodies and lymphopenia but negatively with musculoskeletal damage. Positive correlations between levels of IFN-λ1, IL-17A, and IL-23 were observed. Patients with high levels of these three cytokines had more disease damage, especially renal impairment. High levels of IFN-α were associated with mucocutaneous disease; leukopenia; and low complement, Ro/SSA, and La/SSB. Vascular events and antiphospholipid antibodies were uncommon. We identified two subgroups with high disease activity: one with double-high IFN-λ1 and IFN-α and another with IP-10(high). The former had more neuropsychiatric manifestations, and the latter had more arthritis. Increased levels of both types I and III IFNs were found in a proportion of population control subjects. Therefore, high IFN levels do not seem to

  3. Efficacy of interferon alpha in the treatment of refractory and sight threatening uveitis: a retrospective monocentric study of 45 patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bodaghi, Bahram; Gendron, Gael; Wechsler, Bertrand; Terrada, Céline; Cassoux, Nathalie; Huong, Du Le Thi; Lemaitre, Claire; Fradeau, Christine; LeHoang, Phuc; Piette, Jean-Charles

    2007-01-01

    .... Therapeutic strategies remain controversial. The efficacy of interferon alpha-2a (IFN-alpha2a) in severe uveitis, refractory to steroids and conventional immunosuppressive agents, was evaluated...

  4. Administration of interferon-gamma in healthy subjects does not modulate thyroid hormone metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Metz, J.; Romijn, J. A.; Endert, E.; Corssmit, E. P.; Sauerwein, H. P.

    2000-01-01

    Cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL-2), IL-6, and interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha), alter human thyroid hormone metabolism and may be involved in the pathogenesis the euthyroid sick syndrome. Experimental data suggest that interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) could be

  5. Rhinovirus stimulated IFN-? production: how important are plasmacytoid DCs, monocytes and endosomal pH?

    OpenAIRE

    Xi, Yang; Finlayson, Arvid; White, Oliva J; Carroll, Melanie L.; Upham, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Human rhinovirus (HRV) infection is a major cause of asthma exacerbations, which appears to be linked to a defective innate immune response to infection. Although the type I interferons (IFN-? and IFN-?) have a critical role in protecting against most viral infections, the cells responsible for IFN production in response to HRV and the relative importance of pattern recognition receptors located in endosomes has not been fully elucidated. In the current study we demonstrate that, using intrac...

  6. We Can Still Be Friends: IFN-γ Breaks Up Macrophage Enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, Boris; Wang, Cheng; Logie, Colin

    2017-08-15

    Interferon (IFN)-γ can prime macrophages for inflammatory responses by several mechanisms, including enhancer establishment and gene activation. In this issue of Immunity, Kang et al. (2017) provide insight into the mechanisms of IFN-γ-mediated gene repression as they show that IFN-γ promotes the disassembly of select active enhancers by interfering with enhancer-binding transcription factor MAF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Phase II study of radiation- plus immuno-therapy with subcutaneous (s. c.) Interleukin 2 (IL2) and Interferon alpha 2b (IFN) for treatment of lung metastases from different primary sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantovani, G.; Bianchi, A.; Contini, L.; Curreli, L.; Esu, S.; Ghiani, M. [Cagliari Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Medical Oncology; Cossu, F.; Mura, V. [Cagliari Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Radiation Therapy; Del Giacco, G.S. [Cagliari Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Internal Medicine

    1994-12-31

    Since June 1991, 16 patients with lung metastases from different primary sites (6 colorectal ca., 6 head and neck ca., 2 endometrial ca., 1 ovarian ca., and 1 cervical ca.) have been included in trial. The treatment schedule consisted of radiation therapy (RT) of the most prominent lesion(s): 2 fractions of 250 cGy on days 1 and 2 (a total of 1000 cGy), the administration of IL 2 (Proleukin) at (4.8) by (10{sup 6}) IU/sqm s. c. every 12 hours on days 3 and 4, followed by 2.(4) (10{sup 6}) I U/sqm every 12 hours on days 5,6,7,8-12, 15-19 and alfa 2b IFN (3) (10{sup 6}) IU/sqm on days 5,7,8, 10,12,15,17,19. This schedule was repeated after a rest period of 2 weeks in patients achieving PR or SD. Out of the 16 patients, 10 completed 1 cycle of treatment, 5 patients 2 cycles and 1 pt 3 cycles. Out of the 16 patients, 10 were treated with RT in only 1 area, whereas 6 patients were treated in different areas. The responses to treatment could be evaluated in all 16 patients and the follow-up was carried out monthly for a maximum of 17 months. Seven patients achieved CR on the treated (RT) area (mean duration: 1. 3 months; range 1-2), 4 patients achieved PR (mean duration 1.8 months; range 1-3), 2 patients achieved SD (mean duration 1.5 months; range 1-2), 3 patients had PD. Altogether 23 metastatic sites were treated with RT, reaching a maximum of 4 sites. 3/16 patients are still alive at november `93.

  8. Opposing roles for interferon regulatory factor-3 (IRF-3 and type I interferon signaling during plague.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ami A Patel

    Full Text Available Type I interferons (IFN-I broadly control innate immunity and are typically transcriptionally induced by Interferon Regulatory Factors (IRFs following stimulation of pattern recognition receptors within the cytosol of host cells. For bacterial infection, IFN-I signaling can result in widely variant responses, in some cases contributing to the pathogenesis of disease while in others contributing to host defense. In this work, we addressed the role of type I IFN during Yersinia pestis infection in a murine model of septicemic plague. Transcription of IFN-β was induced in vitro and in vivo and contributed to pathogenesis. Mice lacking the IFN-I receptor, Ifnar, were less sensitive to disease and harbored more neutrophils in the later stage of infection which correlated with protection from lethality. In contrast, IRF-3, a transcription factor commonly involved in inducing IFN-β following bacterial infection, was not necessary for IFN production but instead contributed to host defense. In vitro, phagocytosis of Y. pestis by macrophages and neutrophils was more effective in the presence of IRF-3 and was not affected by IFN-β signaling. This activity correlated with limited bacterial growth in vivo in the presence of IRF-3. Together the data demonstrate that IRF-3 is able to activate pathways of innate immunity against bacterial infection that extend beyond regulation of IFN-β production.

  9. Hepatitis B virus X protein inhibits extracellular IFN-α-mediated signal transduction by downregulation of type I IFN receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Il-Rae; Oh, Myungju; Koh, Sang Seok; Malilas, Waraporn; Srisuttee, Ratakorn; Jhun, Byung Hak; Pellegrini, Sandra; Fuchs, Serge Y; Chung, Young-Hwa

    2012-04-01

    We have previously shown that hepatitis B virus (HBV) protein X (HBX), a regulatory protein of HBV, activates Stat1, leading to type I interferon (IFN) production. Type I IFN secreted from HBX-expressing hepatic cells enforces antiviral signals through its binding to the cognate type I IFN receptor. We therefore investigated how cells handle this detrimental situation. Interestingly, compared to Chang cells stably expressing an empty vector (Chang-Vec), Chang cells stably expressing HBX (Chang-HBX) showed lower levels of IFN-α receptor 1 (IFNAR1) protein, a subunit of type I IFN receptor. The levels of IFNAR1 transcripts detected in Chang-HBX cells were lower than the levels in Chang-Vec cells, indicating that HBX regulates IFNAR1 at the transcriptional level. Moreover, we observed that HBX induced the translocation of IFNAR1 to the cytoplasm. Consistent with these observations, HBX also downregulated Tyk2, which is required for the stable expression of IFNAR1 on the cell surface. Eventually, Chang-HBX cells consistently maintained a lower level of IFNAR1 expression and displayed no proper response to IFN-α, while Chang-Vec cells exhibited a proper response to IFN-α treatment. Taken together, we propose that HBX downregulates IFNAR1, leading to the avoidance of extracellular IFN-α signal transduction.

  10. Antiproliferative activity of recombinant human interferon-λ2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-20

    Jul 20, 2011 ... This study aimed at the generation of a stable transformed silkworm BmN cell line which can continuously express human interferon-λ2 (IFN-λ2) gene, and investigated the antiproliferative activity of this recombinant human IFN-λ2. Silkworm BmN cells were transfected with the recombinant vector.

  11. Interferon alpha for treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsson, Bengt; Hjorth-Hansen, Henrik; Bjerrum, Ole Weis

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) with interferon-alpha (IFN-α) was introduced in the early 1980s. Several clinical trials showed a survival advantage for patients treated with IFN-α compared to conventional chemotherapy. Some patients achieved longstanding complete cytogenetic remissions...

  12. Interferon alpha for treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsson, Bengt; Hjorth-Hansen, Henrik; Bjerrum, Ole Weis

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) with interferon-alpha (IFN-a) was introduced in the early 1980s. Several clinical trials showed a survival advantage for patients treated with IFN-a compared to conventional chemotherapy. Some patients achieved longstanding complete cytogenetic remissions...

  13. Expression of human interferon gamma in Brassica napus seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, we used seed specific promoter (Napin) and C-terminal KDEL sequence to express human therapeutic protein, interferon gamma (IFN_y) in Brassica napus seeds. Kozak sequence was linked to the 5' end of the IFN_y gene to increase the level of expression. The constructed cassette was transformed into ...

  14. Antiproliferative activity of recombinant human interferon-λ2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at the generation of a stable transformed silkworm BmN cell line which can continuously express human interferon-λ2 (IFN-λ2) gene, and investigated the antiproliferative activity of this recombinant human IFN-λ2. Silkworm BmN cells were transfected with the recombinant vector pIZT/V5-His harboring the ...

  15. Recent advances in the anti-HCV mechanisms of interferon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menghao Huang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Interferon (IFN in combination with ribavirin has been the standard of care (SOC for chronic hepatitis C for the past few decades. Although the current SOC lacks the desired efficacy, and 4 new direct-acting antiviral agents have been recently approved, interferons are still likely to remain the cornerstone of therapy for some time. Moreover, as an important cytokine system of innate immunity, host interferon signaling provides a powerful antiviral response. Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which HCV infection controls interferon production, and how interferons, in turn, trigger anti-HCV activities as well as control the outcome of HCV infection remain to be clarified. In this report, we review current progress in understanding the mechanisms of IFN against HCV, and also summarize the knowledge of induction of interferon signaling by HCV infection.

  16. Innate Immune Defense Defines Susceptibility of Sarcoma Cells to Measles Vaccine Virus-Based Oncolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Berchtold, Susanne; Lampe, Johanna; Weiland, Timo; Smirnow, Irina; Schleicher, Sabine; Handgretinger, Rupert; Kopp, Hans-Georg; Reiser, Jeanette; Stubenrauch, Frank; Mayer, Nora; Malek, Nisar P.; Bitzer, Michael; Lauer, Ulrich M

    2013-01-01

    The oncolytic potential of measles vaccine virus (MeV) has been demonstrated in several tumor entities. Here, we investigated the susceptibility of eight sarcoma cell lines to MeV-mediated oncolysis and found five to be susceptible, whereas three proved to be resistant. In the MeV-resistant cell lines, we often observed an inhibition of viral replication along with a strong upregulation of the intracellular virus-sensing molecule RIG-I and of the interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene IFIT1. Not on...

  17. Lambda Interferon Inhibits Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection of Macrophages ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Wei; Wang,Xu; Ye, Li; Zhou, Lin; Yang, Zhan-Qiu; Riedel, Eric; Ho, Wen-Zhe

    2009-01-01

    The newly identified type III interferon (IFN-λ) has antiviral activity against a broad spectrum of viruses. We thus examined whether IFN-λ has the ability to inhibit human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of blood monocyte-derived macrophages that expressed IFN-λ receptors. Both IFN-λ1 and IFN-λ2, when added to macrophage cultures, inhibited HIV-1 infection and replication. This IFN-λ-mediated anti-HIV-1 activity is broad, as IFN-λ could inhibit infection by both laboratory-ad...

  18. In vitro IFN-α release from IFN-α- and pegylated IFN-α-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) and pegylated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feczkó, Tivadar; Fodor-Kardos, Andrea; Sivakumaran, Muttuswamy; Haque Shubhra, Quazi Tanminul

    2016-08-01

    Interferon alpha (IFN-α) controlled release of nanoparticles was investigated under in vitro conditions. IFN-α and pegylated IFN-α (PEG-IFN-α) were encapsulated by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and pegylated PLGA (PEG-PLGA) copolymers using double emulsion solvent evaporation method. The size of resulting four nanoparticles (IFN-α in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acids), IFN-α in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-polyethylene glycol, PEG-IFN-α in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acids) and PEG-IFN-α in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-polyethylene glycol) was below 130 nm diameter. IFN-α encapsulation efficiency of the nanoparticles was between 78 and 91%. The in vitro drug release studies conducted in phosphate-buffered saline and human plasma highlighted the role of incubation medium on the IFN release from the nanoparticles. The PEG-IFN-α in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-polyethylene glycol was the most promising nanoparticle among the four formulations because of its remarkably constant release in both phosphate-buffered saline and plasma.

  19. Transient expression of chicken alpha interferon gene in lettuce*

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Li; Zhao, De-Gang; Wu, Yong-Jun; Li, Yi

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the possibility of producing chicken alpha interferon (ChIFN-α) in transgenic plants. The cDNA encoding ChIFN-α was introduced into lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) plants by using an agro-infiltration transient expression system. The ChIFN-α gene was correctly transcribed and translated in the lettuce plants according to RT-PCR and ELISA assays. Recombinant protein exhibited antiviral activity in vitro by inhibition of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) replication on chicken embryo...

  20. Interleukin 12 in part regulates gamma interferon release in human whole blood stimulated with Leptospira interrogans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Fost, Maaike; Hartskeerl, Rudy A.; Groenendijk, Martijn R.; van der Poll, Tom

    2003-01-01

    Heat-killed pathogenic Leptospira interrogans serovar rachmati induced the production of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and the IFN-gamma-inducing cytokines interleukin-12p40 (IL-12p40) and tumor necrosis factor alpha in human whole blood in vitro. The production of IFN-gamma was largely dependent on

  1. Interferon alfa for chronic hepatitis B infection: Increased efficacy of prolonged treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.L.A. Janssen (Harry); G. Gerken (Guido); V. Carreño (Vicente); P. Marcellin (Patrick); N.V. Naoumov (Nikolai); A. Craxi (Antonio); H. Ring-Larsen (Helmer); G. Kitis; J. van Hattum (Jan); R.A. de Vries (Richard); P.P. Michielsen (Peter); F.J.W. ten Kate (Fiebo); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); R.A. Heijtink; P. Honkoop (Pieter); S.W. Schalm (Solko)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractInterferon alfa (IFN-a) is the primary treatment for chronic hepatitis B. The standard duration of IFN-a therapy is considered 16 weeks; however, the optimal treatment length is still poorly defined. We evaluated the efficacy and acceptability of prolonged IFN-a treatment in patients

  2. Severe depression following á-interferon usage in a patient with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... but neuro- psychiatric complications of á -interferon (á-IFN) usage were not reported in Nigeria. Objective: To report a case of deliberate self-harm in University Lecturer as a side effect of á-IFN in the treatment of CML Method: Clinical and laboratory follow up of a patient receiving á-IFN in the management of CML from the ...

  3. Hossny IFN-paper

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ihab elhakim

    children at 2 years. It seems that the role of IFN-γ in progression from high risk status to active disease is less clear. The increasing prevalence of allergy has focused attention on primary ..... In a population based prospective study conducted on 1111 ... allergen specific T-cell memory is initiated in utero and it was previously ...

  4. Chronic hepatitis C patients with a post-treatment virological relapse re-treated with an induction dose of 18 MU interferon-alpha in combination with ribavirin and amantadine: a two-arm randomized pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weegink, C. J.; Sentjens, R. E.; Beld, M. G.; Dijkgraaf, M. G. W.; Reesink, H. W.

    2003-01-01

    Thirty-seven chronic hepatitis C patients with virological relapse (VR) after previous interferon-alpha (IFN) or IFN/ribavirin (Riba) therapy, were re-treated. Patients were randomized for either IFN/Riba and amantadine (Ama) including a 2-week initial high IFN induction course (18 MU IFN daily)

  5. Inhibition of type III interferon activity by orthopoxvirus immunomodulatory proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandi, Prasanthi; Pagliaccetti, Nicole E; Robek, Michael D

    2010-03-01

    The type III interferon (IFN) family elicits an antiviral response that is nearly identical to that evoked by IFN-alpha/beta. However, these cytokines (known as IFN-lambda1, 2, and 3) signal through a distinct receptor, and thus may be resistant to the evasion strategies used by some viruses to avoid the IFN-alpha/beta response. Orthopoxviruses are highly resistant to IFN-alpha/beta because they encode well-characterized immunomodulatory proteins that inhibit IFN activity. These include a secreted receptor (B18R) that neutralizes IFN-alpha/beta, and a cytoplasmic protein (E3L) that blocks IFN-alpha/beta effector functions in infected cells. We therefore determined the ability of these immunomodulators to abrogate the IFN-lambda-induced antiviral response. We found that (i) vaccinia virus (VACV) replication is resistant to IFN-lambda antiviral activity; (ii) neither VACV B18R nor the variola virus homolog B20R neutralizes IFN-lambda; (iii) VACV E3L inhibits the IFN-lambda-mediated antiviral response through a PKR-dependent pathway; (iv) VACV infection inhibits IFN-lambdaR-mediated signal transduction and gene expression. These results demonstrate differential sensitivity of IFN-lambda to multiple distinct evasion mechanisms employed by a single virus.

  6. Mechanism of HCV's resistance to IFN-α in cell culture involves expression of functional IFN-α receptor 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamaze Christophe

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The mechanisms underlying the Hepatitis C virus (HCV resistance to interferon alpha (IFN-α are not fully understood. We used IFN-α resistant HCV replicon cell lines and an infectious HCV cell culture system to elucidate the mechanisms of IFN-α resistance in cell culture. The IFN-α resistance mechanism of the replicon cells were addressed by a complementation study that utilized the full-length plasmid clones of IFN-α receptor 1 (IFNAR1, IFN-α receptor 2 (IFNAR2, Jak1, Tyk2, Stat1, Stat2 and the ISRE- luciferase reporter plasmid. We demonstrated that the expression of the full-length IFNAR1 clone alone restored the defective Jak-Stat signaling as well as Stat1, Stat2 and Stat3 phosphorylation, nuclear translocation and antiviral response against HCV in all IFN-α resistant cell lines (R-15, R-17 and R-24 used in this study. Moreover RT-PCR, Southern blotting and DNA sequence analysis revealed that the cells from both R-15 and R-24 series of IFN-α resistant cells have 58 amino acid deletions in the extracellular sub domain 1 (SD1 of IFNAR1. In addition, cells from the R-17 series have 50 amino acids deletion in the sub domain 4 (SD4 of IFNAR1 protein leading to impaired activation of Tyk2 kinase. Using an infectious HCV cell culture model we show here that viral replication in the infected Huh-7 cells is relatively resistant to exogenous IFN-α. HCV infection itself induces defective Jak-Stat signaling and impairs Stat1 and Stat2 phosphorylation by down regulation of the cell surface expression of IFNAR1 through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress mechanisms. The results of this study suggest that expression of cell surface IFNAR1 is critical for the response of HCV to exogenous IFN-α.

  7. Mechanism of HCV's resistance to IFN-α in cell culture involves expression of functional IFN-α receptor 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Sibnarayan; Hazari, Sidhartha; Chandra, Partha K; Samara, Maria; Poat, Bret; Gunduz, Feyza; Wimley, William C; Hauser, Hansjorg; Koster, Mario; Lamaze, Christophe; Balart, Luis A; Garry, Robert F; Dash, Srikanta

    2011-07-14

    The mechanisms underlying the Hepatitis C virus (HCV) resistance to interferon alpha (IFN-α) are not fully understood. We used IFN-α resistant HCV replicon cell lines and an infectious HCV cell culture system to elucidate the mechanisms of IFN-α resistance in cell culture. The IFN-α resistance mechanism of the replicon cells were addressed by a complementation study that utilized the full-length plasmid clones of IFN-α receptor 1 (IFNAR1), IFN-α receptor 2 (IFNAR2), Jak1, Tyk2, Stat1, Stat2 and the ISRE-luciferase reporter plasmid. We demonstrated that the expression of the full-length IFNAR1 clone alone restored the defective Jak-Stat signaling as well as Stat1, Stat2 and Stat3 phosphorylation, nuclear translocation and antiviral response against HCV in all IFN-α resistant cell lines (R-15, R-17 and R-24) used in this study. Moreover RT-PCR, Southern blotting and DNA sequence analysis revealed that the cells from both R-15 and R-24 series of IFN-α resistant cells have 58 amino acid deletions in the extracellular sub domain 1 (SD1) of IFNAR1. In addition, cells from the R-17 series have 50 amino acids deletion in the sub domain 4 (SD4) of IFNAR1 protein leading to impaired activation of Tyk2 kinase. Using an infectious HCV cell culture model we show here that viral replication in the infected Huh-7 cells is relatively resistant to exogenous IFN-α. HCV infection itself induces defective Jak-Stat signaling and impairs Stat1 and Stat2 phosphorylation by down regulation of the cell surface expression of IFNAR1 through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress mechanisms. The results of this study suggest that expression of cell surface IFNAR1 is critical for the response of HCV to exogenous IFN-α.

  8. Beryllium, an adjuvant that promotes gamma interferon production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J Y; Atochina, O; King, B; Taylor, L; Elloso, M; Scott, P; Rossman, M D

    2000-07-01

    Beryllium is associated with a human pulmonary granulomatosis characterized by an accumulation of CD4(+) T cells in the lungs and a heightened specific lymphocyte proliferative response to beryllium (Be) with gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) release (i.e., a T helper 1 [Th1] response). While an animal model of Be sensitization is not currently available, Be has exhibited adjuvant effects in animals. The effects of Be on BALB/c mice immunized with soluble leishmanial antigens (SLA) were investigated to determine if Be had adjuvant activity for IFN-gamma production, an indicator of the Th1 response. In this strain of Leishmania-susceptible BALB/c mice, a Th2 response is normally observed after in vivo SLA sensitization and in vitro restimulation with SLA. If interleukin-12 (IL-12) is given during in vivo sensitization with SLA, markedly increased IFN-gamma production and decreased IL-4 production are detected. We show here that when beryllium sulfate (BeSO(4)) was added during in vivo sensitization of BALB/c mice with SLA and IL-12, significantly increased IFN-gamma production and decreased IL-4 production from lymph node and spleen cells were detected upon in vitro SLA restimulation. No specific responses were observed to Be alone. Lymph node and spleen cells from all mice proliferated strongly and comparably upon in vitro restimulation with SLA and with SLA plus Be; no differences were noted among groups of mice that received different immunization regimens. In vivo, when Be was added to SLA and IL-12 for sensitization of BALB/c mice, more effective control of Leishmania infection was achieved. This finding has implications for understanding not only the development of granulomatous reactions but also the potential for developing Be as a vaccine adjuvant.

  9. [Designing of hybrid human interferon alfa-2 strain-producers and the use of enteropeptidase for obtaining N-terminal methionine-free interferons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirokov, D A; Riabichenko, V V; Akishina, R I; Ospel'nikova, T P; Glazunov, A V; Chestukhina, G G; Veĭko, V P

    2011-01-01

    A system for production of human interferon-alpha2a (IFN-alpha2a) and IFN-alpha2b lacking N-terminal methionine has been developed. Plasmids containing genes of hybrid IFN-alpha2 under the control of different promoters were constructed; a sequence encoding the enteropeptidase hydrolysis site being introduced in proximal part of the genes. As the result, 4 strains of Escherichia coli producing hybrid IFN-alpha2 have been obtained. The methodology for IFN-alpha2 renaturation, hydrolysis of its N-terminal part, chromatographic purification of N-terminal methionine-free IFN-alpha2 has been developed.

  10. A Critical Role for the Type I Interferon Receptor in Virus-Induced Autoimmune Diabetes in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaisar, Natasha; Lin, Suvana; Ryan, Glennice; Yang, Chaoxing; Oikemus, Sarah R.; Brodsky, Michael H.; Bortell, Rita; Mordes, John P.

    2017-01-01

    The pathogenesis of human type 1 diabetes, characterized by immune-mediated damage of insulin-producing β-cells of pancreatic islets, may involve viral infection. Essential components of the innate immune antiviral response, including type I interferon (IFN) and IFN receptor–mediated signaling pathways, are candidates for determining susceptibility to human type 1 diabetes. Numerous aspects of human type 1 diabetes pathogenesis are recapitulated in the LEW.1WR1 rat model. Diabetes can be induced in LEW.1WR1 weanling rats challenged with virus or with the viral mimetic polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C). We hypothesized that disrupting the cognate type I IFN receptor (type I IFN α/β receptor [IFNAR]) to interrupt IFN signaling would prevent or delay the development of virus-induced diabetes. We generated IFNAR1 subunit–deficient LEW.1WR1 rats using CRISPR-Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats–associated protein 9) genome editing and confirmed functional disruption of the Ifnar1 gene. IFNAR1 deficiency significantly delayed the onset and frequency of diabetes and greatly reduced the intensity of insulitis after poly I:C treatment. The occurrence of Kilham rat virus–induced diabetes was also diminished in IFNAR1-deficient animals. These findings firmly establish that alterations in innate immunity influence the course of autoimmune diabetes and support the use of targeted strategies to limit or prevent the development of type 1 diabetes. PMID:27999109

  11. Innate immune defense defines susceptibility of sarcoma cells to measles vaccine virus-based oncolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchtold, Susanne; Lampe, Johanna; Weiland, Timo; Smirnow, Irina; Schleicher, Sabine; Handgretinger, Rupert; Kopp, Hans-Georg; Reiser, Jeanette; Stubenrauch, Frank; Mayer, Nora; Malek, Nisar P; Bitzer, Michael; Lauer, Ulrich M

    2013-03-01

    The oncolytic potential of measles vaccine virus (MeV) has been demonstrated in several tumor entities. Here, we investigated the susceptibility of eight sarcoma cell lines to MeV-mediated oncolysis and found five to be susceptible, whereas three proved to be resistant. In the MeV-resistant cell lines, we often observed an inhibition of viral replication along with a strong upregulation of the intracellular virus-sensing molecule RIG-I and of the interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene IFIT1. Not only expression of IFIT1 but also phosphorylation of IFN-stimulated Stat1 took place rapidly and were found to be persistent over time. In contrast, susceptible cell lines showed a much weaker, delayed, or completely missing expression of IFIT1 as well as a delayed or only transient phosphorylation of Stat1, whereas exogenic stimulation with beta interferon (IFN-β) resulted in a comparable profound activation of Stat1 and expression of IFIT1 in all cell lines. Pretreatment with IFN-β rendered three of the susceptible cell lines more resistant to MeV-mediated oncolysis. These data suggest that differences in the innate immune defense often account for different degrees of susceptibility of sarcoma cell lines to MeV-mediated oncolysis. From a therapeutic perspective, we were able to overcome resistance to MeV by increasing the multiplicity of infection (MOI) and by addition of the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (FC), thereby exploiting the suicide gene function of virotherapeutic vector MeV-SCD armed with the SCD fusion protein, which consists of yeast cytosine deaminase and yeast uracil phosphoribosyltransferase.

  12. Prenatal Dexamethasone and Postnatal High-Fat Diet Decrease Interferon Gamma Production through an Age-Dependent Histone Modification in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

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    Hong-Ren Yu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Overexposure to prenatal glucocorticoid (GC disturbs hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolism and susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. A high-fat (HF diet is a major environmental factor that can cause metabolic syndrome. We aimed to investigate whether prenatal GC plus a postnatal HF diet could alter immune programming in rat offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given intraperitoneal injections of dexamethasone or saline at 14–21 days of gestation. Male offspring were then divided into four groups: vehicle, prenatal dexamethasone exposure, postnatal HF diet (VHF, and prenatal dexamethasone exposure plus a postnatal HF diet (DHF. The rats were sacrificed and adaptive immune function was evaluated. Compared to the vehicle, the DHF group had lower interferon gamma (IFN-γ production by splenocytes at postnatal day 120. Decreases in H3K9 acetylation and H3K36me3 levels at the IFN-γ promoter correlated with decreased IFN-γ production. The impaired IFN-γ production and aberrant site-specific histone modification at the IFN-γ promoter by prenatal dexamethasone treatment plus a postnatal HF diet resulted in resilience at postnatal day 180. Prenatal dexamethasone and a postnatal HF diet decreased IFN-γ production through a site-specific and an age-dependent histone modification. These findings suggest a mechanism by which prenatal exposure to GC and a postnatal environment exert effects on fetal immunity programming.

  13. Immune- and Nonimmune-Compartment-Specific Interferon Responses Are Critical Determinants of Herpes Simplex Virus-Induced Generalized Infections and Acute Liver Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Zachary M; Pasieka, Tracy Jo; Parker, George A; Leib, David A

    2016-12-01

    The interferon (IFN) response to viral pathogens is critical for host survival. In humans and mouse models, defects in IFN responses can result in lethal herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infections, usually from encephalitis. Although rare, HSV-1 can also cause fulminant hepatic failure, which is often fatal. Although herpes simplex encephalitis has been extensively studied, HSV-1 generalized infections and subsequent acute liver failure are less well understood. We previously demonstrated that IFN-αβγR(-/-) mice are exquisitely susceptible to liver infection following corneal infection with HSV-1. In this study, we used bone marrow chimeras of IFN-αβγR(-/-) (AG129) and wild-type (WT; 129SvEv) mice to probe the underlying IFN-dependent mechanisms that control HSV-1 pathogenesis. After infection, WT mice with either IFN-αβγR(-/-) or WT marrow exhibited comparable survival, while IFN-αβγR(-/-) mice with WT marrow had a significant survival advantage over their counterparts with IFN-αβγR(-/-) marrow. Furthermore, using bioluminescent imaging to maximize data acquisition, we showed that the transfer of IFN-competent hematopoietic cells controlled HSV-1 replication and damage in the livers of IFN-αβγR(-/-) mice. Consistent with this, the inability of IFN-αβγR(-/-) immune cells to control liver infection in IFN-αβγR(-/-) mice manifested as profoundly elevated aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels, indicative of severe liver damage. In contrast, IFN-αβγR(-/-) mice receiving WT marrow exhibited only modest elevations of AST and ALT levels. These studies indicate that IFN responsiveness of the immune system is a major determinant of viral tropism and damage during visceral HSV infections. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection is an incurable viral infection with the most significant morbidity and mortality occurring in neonates and patients with compromised immune systems. Severe pathologies from HSV include the

  14. Impaired type I and III interferon response to rhinovirus infection during pregnancy and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Rebecca Louise; Gibson, Peter G; Murphy, Vanessa E; Wark, Peter A B

    2012-03-01

    Acute respiratory tract infections are common ailments to all individuals and the human rhinoviruses (HRVs) cause most of these infections. Pregnant women have increased susceptibility and disease severity to viral infections like influenza and HRVs, as do asthmatics. Successful pregnancy requires immunological modulation to permit fetal tolerance. To determine whether pregnant women have reduced innate antiviral interferon (IFN) responses to HRV infection compared with non-pregnant women. An in vitro culture system was used, where peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from whole blood of 54 women, including 10 stable asthmatics who were pregnant and 10 who were not pregnant, 10 non-asthmatic women who were pregnant, 10 who were ≥6 months post partum and 10 who were not pregnant. Samples were also collected from four exacerbating pregnant asthmatics. PBMCs were cultured with HRV43 and HRV1B. The antiviral proteins IFNα and IFNλ were measured from culture supernatants by ELISA. Compared with healthy non-pregnant women, pregnant women had significantly reduced innate IFN responses to HRV infection (ppregnancy as observed when HRV was the inducing agent. Reduced antiviral IFNs during pregnancy and asthma provide an important mechanism for increased susceptibility, morbidity and mortality in pregnant women with respiratory viral infection.

  15. Interferon signaling in Peromyscus leucopus confers a potent and specific restriction to vector-borne flaviviruses.

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    Adaeze O Izuogu

    Full Text Available Tick-borne flaviviruses (TBFVs, including Powassan virus and tick-borne encephalitis virus cause encephalitis or hemorrhagic fevers in humans with case-fatality rates ranging from 1-30%. Despite severe disease in humans, TBFV infection of natural rodent hosts has little noticeable effect. Currently, the basis for resistance to disease is not known. We hypothesize that the coevolution of flaviviruses with their respective hosts has shaped the evolution of potent antiviral factors that suppress virus replication and protect the host from lethal infection. In the current study, we compared virus infection between reservoir host cells and related susceptible species. Infection of primary fibroblasts from the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus, a representative host with a panel of vector-borne flaviviruses showed up to a 10,000-fold reduction in virus titer compared to control Mus musculus cells. Replication of vesicular stomatitis virus was equivalent in P. leucopus and M. musculus cells suggesting that restriction was flavivirus-specific. Step-wise comparison of the virus infection cycle revealed a significant block to viral RNA replication, but not virus entry, in P. leucopus cells. To understand the role of the type I interferon (IFN response in virus restriction, we knocked down signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1 or the type I IFN receptor (IFNAR1 by RNA interference. Loss of IFNAR1 or STAT1 significantly relieved the block in virus replication in P. leucopus cells. The major IFN antagonist encoded by TBFV, nonstructural protein 5, was functional in P. leucopus cells, thus ruling out ineffective viral antagonism of the host IFN response. Collectively, this work demonstrates that the IFN response of P. leucopus imparts a strong and virus-specific barrier to flavivirus replication. Future identification of the IFN-stimulated genes responsible for virus restriction specifically in P. leucopus will yield mechanistic

  16. Interferon-γ +874A/T polymorphism associated with Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity in HIV patients

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    Sri Haryati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the association of polymorphisms in genes that code for interferon-γ (IFN-γ and interleukin-10 (IL-10, which play important roles in Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii infection, with the occurrence of T. gondii co-infection in HIV patients. Methods: The IFN-γ +874A/T and IL-10 -1082A/G polymorphism statuses of 306 HIV seropositive samples were characterized using PCR. The polymorphism statuses were analyzed together with the clinical data for each patient. Results: Immunoglobulin M anti-T. gondii seropositivity was associated with high IL-10 levels [adjusted odds ratio (OR: 0.4, 95% confidence intervals (CI: 0.181–0.825; P = 0.014], but not with either the IL-10 -1082A/G or IFN-γ +874A/T polymorphism. In addition, the IFN-γ +874A allele was associated with immunoglobulin G (IgG anti-T. gondii seropositivity (OR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.043–2.193; P = 0.029. In patients with CD4+ T cell levels ≥ 200 cells/µL, the IFN-γ +874 AA genotype was associated with IgG anti-T. gondii seropositivity (adjusted OR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.278–4.950; P = 0.008. Conclusions: The IFN-γ +874A/T polymorphism is associated with IgG anti-T. gondii seropositivity. This polymorphism might be useful to predict the susceptibility of HIV patients to toxoplasmosis.

  17. Critical review: assessment of interferon-β immunogenicity in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtzen, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    This review discusses type I interferon (IFN) immunogenicity with focus on methods of detection of anti-IFN antibodies in patients treated with human recombinant IFN-β. Pitfalls involved in the clinical use of various types of assays for binding antibodies and neutralizing antibodies against IFN-...... for individualized or personalized medicine, ie, optimizing therapies according to individual needs rather than using standardized trial-and-error regimens to all patients, is highlighted....

  18. Critical review: assessment of interferon-ß immunogenicity in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtzen, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    This review discusses type I interferon (IFN) immunogenicity with focus on methods of detection of anti-IFN antibodies in patients treated with human recombinant IFN-ß. Pitfalls involved in the clinical use of various types of assays for binding antibodies and neutralizing antibodies against IFN-...... for individualized or personalized medicine, ie, optimizing therapies according to individual needs rather than using standardized trial-and-error regimens to all patients, is highlighted....

  19. USP18-based negative feedback control is induced by type I and type III interferons and specifically inactivates interferon α response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique François-Newton

    Full Text Available Type I interferons (IFN are cytokines that are rapidly secreted upon microbial infections and regulate all aspects of the immune response. In humans 15 type I IFN subtypes exist, of which IFN α2 and IFN β are used in the clinic for treatment of different pathologies. IFN α2 and IFN β are non redundant in their expression and in their potency to exert specific bioactivities. The more recently identified type III IFNs (3 IFN λ or IL-28/IL-29 bind an unrelated cell-type restricted receptor. Downstream of these two receptor complexes is a shared Jak/Stat pathway. Several mechanisms that contribute to the shut down of the IFN-induced signaling have been described at the molecular level. In particular, it has long been known that type I IFN induces the establishment of a desensitized state. In this work we asked how the IFN-induced desensitization integrates into the network built by the multiple type I IFN subtypes and type III IFNs. We show that priming of cells with either type I IFN or type III IFN interferes with the cell's ability to further respond to all IFN α subtypes. Importantly, primed cells are differentially desensitized in that they retain sensitivity to IFN β. We show that USP18 is necessary and sufficient to induce differential desensitization, by impairing the formation of functional binding sites for IFN α2. Our data highlight a new type of differential between IFNs α and IFN β and underline a cross-talk between type I and type III IFN. This cross-talk could shed light on the reported genetic variation in the IFN λ loci, which has been associated with persistence of hepatitis C virus and patient's response to IFN α2 therapy.

  20. The essential role of the sialic acid residues for IFN-β1a activity determined in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Lasse Dissing; Andersen, Morten Thaysen

      Recombinant human interferon-beta (rhIFN-β) is the leading therapeutic intervention shown to change the cause of relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis and both a non-glycosylated and a significantly more active glycosylated variant of rhIFN-β are used in treatment. This study investigates...

  1. Leukocyte-derived IFN-α/β and epithelial IFN-λ constitute a compartmentalized mucosal defense system that restricts enteric virus infections.

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    Tanel Mahlakõiv

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial cells are a major port of entry for many viruses, but the molecular networks which protect barrier surfaces against viral infections are incompletely understood. Viral infections induce simultaneous production of type I (IFN-α/β and type III (IFNinterferons. All nucleated cells are believed to respond to IFN-α/β, whereas IFN-λ responses are largely confined to epithelial cells. We observed that intestinal epithelial cells, unlike hematopoietic cells of this organ, express only very low levels of functional IFN-α/β receptors. Accordingly, after oral infection of IFN-α/β receptor-deficient mice, human reovirus type 3 specifically infected cells in the lamina propria but, strikingly, did not productively replicate in gut epithelial cells. By contrast, reovirus replicated almost exclusively in gut epithelial cells of IFN-λ receptor-deficient mice, suggesting that the gut mucosa is equipped with a compartmentalized IFN system in which epithelial cells mainly respond to IFN-λ that they produce after viral infection, whereas other cells of the gut mostly rely on IFN-α/β for antiviral defense. In suckling mice with IFN-λ receptor deficiency, reovirus replicated in the gut epithelium and additionally infected epithelial cells lining the bile ducts, indicating that infants may use IFN-λ for the control of virus infections in various epithelia-rich tissues. Thus, IFN-λ should be regarded as an autonomous virus defense system of the gut mucosa and other epithelial barriers that may have evolved to avoid unnecessarily frequent triggering of the IFN-α/β system which would induce exacerbated inflammation.

  2. Leukocyte-derived IFN-α/β and epithelial IFN-λ constitute a compartmentalized mucosal defense system that restricts enteric virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlakõiv, Tanel; Hernandez, Pedro; Gronke, Konrad; Diefenbach, Andreas; Staeheli, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Epithelial cells are a major port of entry for many viruses, but the molecular networks which protect barrier surfaces against viral infections are incompletely understood. Viral infections induce simultaneous production of type I (IFN-α/β) and type III (IFN-λ) interferons. All nucleated cells are believed to respond to IFN-α/β, whereas IFN-λ responses are largely confined to epithelial cells. We observed that intestinal epithelial cells, unlike hematopoietic cells of this organ, express only very low levels of functional IFN-α/β receptors. Accordingly, after oral infection of IFN-α/β receptor-deficient mice, human reovirus type 3 specifically infected cells in the lamina propria but, strikingly, did not productively replicate in gut epithelial cells. By contrast, reovirus replicated almost exclusively in gut epithelial cells of IFN-λ receptor-deficient mice, suggesting that the gut mucosa is equipped with a compartmentalized IFN system in which epithelial cells mainly respond to IFN-λ that they produce after viral infection, whereas other cells of the gut mostly rely on IFN-α/β for antiviral defense. In suckling mice with IFN-λ receptor deficiency, reovirus replicated in the gut epithelium and additionally infected epithelial cells lining the bile ducts, indicating that infants may use IFN-λ for the control of virus infections in various epithelia-rich tissues. Thus, IFN-λ should be regarded as an autonomous virus defense system of the gut mucosa and other epithelial barriers that may have evolved to avoid unnecessarily frequent triggering of the IFN-α/β system which would induce exacerbated inflammation.

  3. Structural basis of a unique interferon-β signaling axis mediated via the receptor IFNAR1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Weerd, Nicole A; Vivian, Julian P; Nguyen, Thao K; Mangan, Niamh E; Gould, Jodee A; Braniff, Susie-Jane; Zaker-Tabrizi, Leyla; Fung, Ka Yee; Forster, Samuel C; Beddoe, Travis; Reid, Hugh H; Rossjohn, Jamie; Hertzog, Paul J

    2013-09-01

    Type I interferons are important in regulating immune responses to pathogens and tumors. All interferons are considered to signal via the heterodimeric IFNAR1-IFNAR2 complex, yet some subtypes such as interferon-β (IFN-β) can exhibit distinct functional properties, although the molecular basis of this is unclear. Here we demonstrate IFN-β can uniquely and specifically ligate to IFNAR1 in an IFNAR2-independent manner, and we provide the structural basis of the IFNAR1-IFN-β interaction. The IFNAR1-IFN-β complex transduced signals that modulated expression of a distinct set of genes independently of Jak-STAT pathways. Lipopolysaccharide-induced sepsis was ameliorated in Ifnar1(-/-) mice but not Ifnar2(-/-) mice, suggesting that IFNAR1-IFN-β signaling is pathologically relevant. Thus, we provide a molecular basis for understanding specific functions of IFN-β.

  4. Association Study of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms of STAT2/STAT3/IFN-γ Genes in Cervical Cancer in Southern Chinese Han Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuan; Fan, Jie-Lin; Yao, Fang-Ling; Wang, Kang-Tao; Yu, Ying; Carlson, Jennifer; Li, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) each play an important role in carcinogenesis associated with viral infection. Cervical cancer is almost invariably associated with infection by human papillomavirus (HPV), and previous studies suggested that dysregulation of the signal pathway involved in IFN-γ and STATs is associated. Our objective was to evaluate the association of SNPs in STAT2, STAT3, and IFN-γ with cervical cancer susceptibility in Chinese Han women in Hunan province. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples of 234 cervical cancer patients and 216 healthy female controls. STAT2 and STAT3 genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction enzyme (PCR-RE) analysis. IFN-γ genotyping was detected by PCR-amplification of specific allele (PASA). For STAT2 rs2066807 polymorphisms, there was no significant difference of genotype distribution (P=0.827) and allele frequencies (P=0.830, OR=1.09, 95% CI: 0.51-2.31) between cases and controls. For STAT3 rs957970 polymorphisms, there was no significant difference of genotype distribution (P=0.455) and allele frequencies (P=0.560, OR=0.92, 95% CI: 0.71-1.20) between cases and controls. For IFN-γ +874A/T polymorphisms, there was no significant difference of genotype distribution (P=0.652) and allele frequencies (P=0.527, OR=1.12, 95% CI: 0.79-1.59) between cases and controls. These results suggest that polymorphisms in STAT2, STAT3 and IFN-γ genes are not likely to be strong predictors of cervical cancer in Han women in southern China.

  5. Paternal uniparental isodisomy of chromosome 6 causing a complex syndrome including complete IFN-gamma receptor 1 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prando, Carolina; Boisson-Dupuis, Stéphanie; Grant, Audrey V; Kong, Xiao-Fei; Bustamante, Jacinta; Feinberg, Jacqueline; Chapgier, Ariane; Rose, Yoann; Jannière, Lucile; Rizzardi, Elena; Zhang, Qiuping; Shanahan, Catherine M; Viollet, Louis; Lyonnet, Stanislas; Abel, Laurent; Ruga, Ezia Maria; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2010-03-01

    Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD) is a rare primary immunodeficiency associated with clinical disease caused by weakly virulent mycobacterial species. Interferon gamma receptor 1 (IFN-gammaR1) deficiency is a genetic etiology of MSMD. We describe the clinical and genetic features of a 7-year-old Italian boy suffering from MSMD associated with a complex phenotype, including neonatal hyperglycemia, neuromuscular disease, and dysmorphic features. The child also developed necrotizing pneumonia caused by Rhodococcus equi. The child is homozygous for a nonsense mutation in exon 3 of IFNGR1 as a result of paternal uniparental disomy (UPD) of the entire chromosome 6. This is the first reported case of uniparental disomy resulting in a complex phenotype including MSMD. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Experimental Evaluation of the Transport Mechanisms of PoIFN-α in Caco-2 Cells

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    Xin Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available For the development of an efficient intestinal delivery system for Porcine interferon-α (PoIFN-α, the understanding of transport mechanisms of which in the intestinal cell is essential. In this study, we investigated the absorption mechanisms of PoIFN-α in intestine cells. Caco-2 cells and fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled (FITC-PoIFN-α were used to explore the whole transport process, including endocytosis, intracellular trafficking, exocytosis, and transcytosis. Via various techniques, the transport pathways of PoIFN-α in Caco-2 cells and the mechanisms were clarified. Firstly, the endocytosis of PoIFN-α by Caco-2 cells was time, concentration and temperature dependence. And the lipid raft/caveolae endocytosis was the most likely endocytic pathway for PoIFN-α. Secondly, both Golgi apparatus and lysosome were involved in the intracellular trafficking of PoIFN-α. Thirdly, the treatment of indomethacin resulted in a significant decrease of exocytosis of PoIFN-α, indicating the participation of cyclooxygenase. Finally, to evaluate the efficiency of PoIFN-α transport, the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER value was measured to investigate the tight junctional integrity of the cell monolayers. The fluorescence microscope results revealed that the transport of PoIFN-α across the Caco-2 cell monolayers was restricted. In conclusion, this study depicts a probable picture of PoIFN-α transport in Caco-2 cells characterized by non-specificity, partial energy-dependency and low transcytosis.

  7. Natural killer cell-intrinsic type I IFN signaling controls Klebsiella pneumoniae growth during lung infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroni, Martina; Kavirayani, Anoop; Przybyszewska, Kornelia N.; Ingram, Rebecca J.; Lienenklaus, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a significant cause of nosocomial pneumonia and an alarming pathogen owing to the recent isolation of multidrug resistant strains. Understanding of immune responses orchestrating K. pneumoniae clearance by the host is of utmost importance. Here we show that type I interferon (IFN) signaling protects against lung infection with K. pneumoniae by launching bacterial growth-controlling interactions between alveolar macrophages and natural killer (NK) cells. Type I IFNs are important but disparate and incompletely understood regulators of defense against bacterial infections. Type I IFN receptor 1 (Ifnar1)-deficient mice infected with K. pneumoniae failed to activate NK cell-derived IFN-γ production. IFN-γ was required for bactericidal action and the production of the NK cell response-amplifying IL-12 and CXCL10 by alveolar macrophages. Bacterial clearance and NK cell IFN-γ were rescued in Ifnar1-deficient hosts by Ifnar1-proficient NK cells. Consistently, type I IFN signaling in myeloid cells including alveolar macrophages, monocytes and neutrophils was dispensable for host defense and IFN-γ activation. The failure of Ifnar1-deficient hosts to initiate a defense-promoting crosstalk between alveolar macrophages and NK cell was circumvented by administration of exogenous IFN-γ which restored endogenous IFN-γ production and restricted bacterial growth. These data identify NK cell-intrinsic type I IFN signaling as essential driver of K. pneumoniae clearance, and reveal specific targets for future therapeutic exploitations. PMID:29112952

  8. Natural killer cell-intrinsic type I IFN signaling controls Klebsiella pneumoniae growth during lung infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masa Ivin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae is a significant cause of nosocomial pneumonia and an alarming pathogen owing to the recent isolation of multidrug resistant strains. Understanding of immune responses orchestrating K. pneumoniae clearance by the host is of utmost importance. Here we show that type I interferon (IFN signaling protects against lung infection with K. pneumoniae by launching bacterial growth-controlling interactions between alveolar macrophages and natural killer (NK cells. Type I IFNs are important but disparate and incompletely understood regulators of defense against bacterial infections. Type I IFN receptor 1 (Ifnar1-deficient mice infected with K. pneumoniae failed to activate NK cell-derived IFN-γ production. IFN-γ was required for bactericidal action and the production of the NK cell response-amplifying IL-12 and CXCL10 by alveolar macrophages. Bacterial clearance and NK cell IFN-γ were rescued in Ifnar1-deficient hosts by Ifnar1-proficient NK cells. Consistently, type I IFN signaling in myeloid cells including alveolar macrophages, monocytes and neutrophils was dispensable for host defense and IFN-γ activation. The failure of Ifnar1-deficient hosts to initiate a defense-promoting crosstalk between alveolar macrophages and NK cell was circumvented by administration of exogenous IFN-γ which restored endogenous IFN-γ production and restricted bacterial growth. These data identify NK cell-intrinsic type I IFN signaling as essential driver of K. pneumoniae clearance, and reveal specific targets for future therapeutic exploitations.

  9. IFN-λ3 inhibits HIV infection of macrophages through the JAK-STAT pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man-Qing Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interferon lambda 3 (IFN-λ3 is a newly identified cytokine with antiviral activity, and its single nucleotide polymorphisms are strongly associated with the treatment effectiveness and development of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. We thus examined the potential of IFN-λ3 to inhibit HIV replication and the possible mechanisms of the anti-HIV action by IFN-λ3 in human macrophages. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Under different conditions (before, during, and after HIV infection, IFN-λ3 significantly inhibited viral replication in macrophages, which was associated with the induction of multiple antiviral cellular factors (ISG56, MxA, OAS-1, A3G/F and tetherin and IFN regulatory factors (IRF-1, 3, 5, 7 and 9. This anti-HIV action of IFN-λ3 could be compromised by the JAK-STAT inhibitor. In addition, IFN-λ3 treatment of macrophages induced the expression of toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3 and two key adaptors (MyD88 and TRIF in type I IFN pathway activation. However, HIV infection compromised IFN-λ3-mediated induction of the key elements in JAK-STAT signaling pathway. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that IFN-λ3 exerts its anti-HIV function by activating JAK-STAT pathway-mediated innate immunity in macrophages. Future in vivo studies are necessary in order to explore the potential for developing IFN-λ3-based therapy for HIV disease.

  10. Experimental Evaluation of the Transport Mechanisms of PoIFN-α in Caco-2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Zheng, Sidi; Qin, Yue; Ding, Wenya; Tu, Yabin; Chen, Xingru; Wu, Yunzhou; Yanhua, Li; Cai, Xuehui

    2017-01-01

    For the development of an efficient intestinal delivery system for Porcine interferon-α (PoIFN-α), the understanding of transport mechanisms of which in the intestinal cell is essential. In this study, we investigated the absorption mechanisms of PoIFN-α in intestine cells. Caco-2 cells and fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled (FITC)-PoIFN-α were used to explore the whole transport process, including endocytosis, intracellular trafficking, exocytosis, and transcytosis. Via various techniques, the transport pathways of PoIFN-α in Caco-2 cells and the mechanisms were clarified. Firstly, the endocytosis of PoIFN-α by Caco-2 cells was time, concentration and temperature dependence. And the lipid raft/caveolae endocytosis was the most likely endocytic pathway for PoIFN-α. Secondly, both Golgi apparatus and lysosome were involved in the intracellular trafficking of PoIFN-α. Thirdly, the treatment of indomethacin resulted in a significant decrease of exocytosis of PoIFN-α, indicating the participation of cyclooxygenase. Finally, to evaluate the efficiency of PoIFN-α transport, the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) value was measured to investigate the tight junctional integrity of the cell monolayers. The fluorescence microscope results revealed that the transport of PoIFN-α across the Caco-2 cell monolayers was restricted. In conclusion, this study depicts a probable picture of PoIFN-α transport in Caco-2 cells characterized by non-specificity, partial energy-dependency and low transcytosis.

  11. Therapeutic effectiveness of biosimilar standard interferon versus pegylated interferon for chronic hepatitis C genotypes 2 or 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Gonzalez Vigani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN and standard interferon (IFN play a significant role in the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. Biosimilar standard IFN is widely available in Brazil for the treatment of HCV infection genotypes 2 or 3, but its efficacy compared to Peg-IFN is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To compare the sustained virological response (SVR rates following treatment with biosimilar standard IFN plus ribavirin (RBV versus Peg-IFN plus RBV in patients with HCV genotypes 2 or 3 infection. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in patients with HCV genotypes 2 or 3 infection treated with biosimilar standard IFN plus RBV or with Peg-IFN plus RBV. SVR rates of the two treatments were compared. RESULTS: From January 2005 to December 2010, 172 patients with a mean age of 44 +/- 9.3 years were included. There were eight (4.7% patients with HCV genotype 2 infections. One hundred fourteen (66.3% were treated with biosimilar standard IFN plus RBV, whist 58 (33.7% patients were treated with Peg-IFN plus RBV. Between the two groups, there were no significant differences regarding age, gender, glucose level, platelet count, hepatic necroinflammatory grade, and hepatic fibrosis stage. Overall, 59.3% (102/172 patients had SVR. In patients treated with Peg-IFN plus RBV, 79.3% (46/58 had SVR compared to 49.1% (56/114 among those treated with biosimilar standard IFN plus RBV (p = 0.0001. CONCLUSION: In patients with HCV genotypes 2 or 3 infection, a higher SVR was observed in patients receiving Peg-IFN plus RBV related to patients treated with biosimilar standard IFN plus RBV.

  12. SH2 modified STAT1 induces HLA-I expression and improves IFN-γ signaling in IFN-α resistant HCV replicon cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bret Poat

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We have developed multiple stable cell lines containing subgenomic HCV RNA that are resistant to treatment with interferon alpha (IFN-α. Characterization of these IFN-α resistant replicon cells showed defects in the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of STAT1 and STAT2 proteins due to a defective Jak-STAT pathway.In this study, we have developed an alternative strategy to overcome interferon resistance in a cell culture model by improving intracellular STAT1 signaling. An engineered STAT1-CC molecule with double cysteine substitutions in the Src-homology 2 (SH2 domains of STAT1 (at Ala-656 and Asn-658 efficiently phosphorylates and translocates to the nucleus of IFN-resistant cells in an IFN-γ dependent manner. Transfection of a plasmid clone containing STAT1-CC significantly activated the GAS promoter compared to wild type STAT1 and STAT3. The activity of the engineered STAT1-CC is dependent upon the phosphorylation of tyrosine residue 701, since the construct with a substituted phenylalanine residue at position 701 (STAT1-CC-Y701F failed to activate GAS promoter in the replicon cells. Intracellular expression of STAT1-CC protein showed phosphorylation and nuclear translocation in the resistant cell line after IFN-γ treatment. Transient transfection of STAT1-CC plasmid clone into an interferon resistant cell line resulted in inhibition of viral replication and viral clearance in an IFN-γ dependent manner. Furthermore, the resistant replicon cells transfected with STAT1-CC constructs significantly up regulated surface HLA-1 expression when compared to the wild type and Y to F mutant controls.These results suggest that modification of the SH2 domain of the STAT1 molecule allows for improved IFN-γ signaling through increased STAT1 phosphorylation, nuclear translocation, HLA-1 surface expression, and prolonged interferon antiviral gene activation.

  13. Ambiguous Role of Interleukin-12 in Yersinia enterocolitica Infection in Susceptible and Resistant Mouse Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Erwin; Schmitt, Edgar; Bielfeldt, Claudia; Noll, Annette; Schulte, Ralf; Autenrieth, Ingo B.

    1998-01-01

    Endogenous interleukin-12 (IL-12) mediates protection against Yersinia enterocolitica in C57BL/6 mice by triggering gamma interferon (IFN-γ) production in NK and CD4+ T cells. Administration of exogenous IL-12 confers protection against yersiniae in Yersinia-susceptible BALB/c mice but exacerbates yersiniosis in resistant C57BL/6 mice. Therefore, we wanted to dissect the different mechanisms exerted by IL-12 during Yersinia infections by using different models of Yersinia-resistant and -susceptible mice, including resistant C57BL/6 mice, susceptible BALB/c mice, intermediate-susceptible wild-type 129/Sv mice, 129/Sv IFN-γ-receptor-deficient (IFN-γR−/−) mice and C57BL/6 tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor p55 chain-deficient (TNFR p55−/−) mice. IFN-γR−/− mice turned out to be highly susceptible to infection by Y. enterocolitica compared with IFN-γR+/+ mice. Administration of IL-12 was protective in IFN-γR+/+ mice but not in IFN-γR−/− mice, suggesting that IFN-γR-induced mechanisms are essential for IL-12-induced resistance against yersiniae. BALB/c mice could be rendered Yersinia resistant by administration of anti-CD4 antibodies or by administration of IL-12. In contrast, C57BL/6 mice could be rendered more resistant by administration of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β). Furthermore, IL-12-triggered toxic effects in C57BL/6 mice were abrogated by coadministration of TGF-β. While administration of IL-12 alone increased TNF-α levels, administration of TGF-β or TGF-β plus IL-12 decreased both TNF-α and IFN-γ levels in Yersinia-infected C57BL/6 mice. Moreover, IL-12 did not induce toxicity in Yersinia-infected TNFR p55−/− mice, suggesting that TNF-α accounts for IL-12-induced toxicity. Taken together, IL-12 may induce different effector mechanisms in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice resulting either in protection or exacerbation. These results are important for understanding the critical balance of proinflammatory and regulatory

  14. Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity of Interferons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Tovey

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Interferons (IFNs are class II cytokines that are key components of the innate immune response to virus infection. Three IFN sub-families, type I, II, and III IFNs have been identified in man, Recombinant analogues of type I IFNs, in particular IFNα2 and IFNβ1, have found wide application for the treatment of chronic viral hepatitis and remitting relapsing multiple sclerosis respectively. Type II IFN, or IFN gamma, is used principally for the treatment of chronic granulomatous disease, while the recently discovered type III IFNs, also known as IFN lambda or IL-28/29, are currently being evaluated for the treatment of chronic viral hepatitis. IFNs are in general well tolerated and the most common adverse events observed with IFNα or IFNβ therapy are “flu-like” symptoms such as fever, headache, chills, and myalgia. Prolonged treatment is associated with more serious adverse events including leucopenia, thrombocytopenia, increased hepatic transaminases, and neuropsychiatric effects. Type I IFNs bind to high-affinity cell surface receptors, composed of two transmembrane polypeptides IFNAR1 and IFNAR2, resulting in activation of the Janus kinases Jak1 and Tyk2, phosphorylation and activation of the latent cytoplasmic signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT1 and STAT2, formation of a transcription complex together with IRF9, and activation of a specific set of genes that encode the effector molecules responsible for mediating the biological activities of type I IFNs. Systemic administration of type I IFN results in activation of IFN receptors present on essentially all types of nucleated cells, including neurons and hematopoietic stem cells, in addition to target cells. This may well explain the wide spectrum of IFN associated toxicities. Recent reports suggest that certain polymorphisms in type I IFN signaling molecules are associated with IFN-induced neutropenia and thrombocytopenia in patients with chronic hepatitis C. IFN

  15. A potent in vivo anti-tumor efficacy of novel recombinant type I interferon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kang-Jian; Yin, Xiao-Fei; Yang, Yuan-Qin; Li, Hui-Ling; Xu, Yan-Ni; Chen, Lie-Yang; Liu, Xi-Jun; Yuan, Su-Jing; Fang, Xian-Long; Xiao, Jing; Wu, Shuai; Xu, Hai-Neng; Chu, Liang; Katlinski, Kanstantsin V.; Katlinskaya, Yuliya V.; Guo, Rong-Bing; Wei, Guang-Wen; Wang, Da-Cheng; Liu, Xin-Yuan; Fuchs, Serge Y.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Anti-proliferative, antiviral, and immunomodulatory activities of endogenous type I interferons (IFN1) prompt the design of recombinant IFN1 for therapeutic purposes. However, most of designed interferons exhibited suboptimal therapeutic efficacies against solid tumors. Here we report evaluation of the in vitro and in vivo anti-tumorigenic activities of a novel recombinant interferon termed sIFN-I. Experimental Design We compared primary and tertiary structures of sIFN-I with its parental human IFNα-2b, as well as affinities of these ligands for IFN1 receptor chains and pharmacokinetics. These IFN1 species were also compared for their ability to induce JAK-STAT signaling and expression of the IFN1-stimulated genes and to elicit anti-tumorigenic effects. Effects of sIFN-I on tumor angiogenesis and immune infiltration were also tested in transplanted and genetically engineered immunocompetent mouse models. Results sIFN-I displayed greater affinity for IFNAR1 (over IFNAR2) chain of the IFN1 receptor and elicited a greater extent of IFN1 signaling and expression of IFN-inducible genes in human cells. Unlike IFNα-2b, sIFN-I induced JAK-STAT signaling in mouse cells and exhibited an extended half-life in mice. Treatment with sIFN-I inhibited intratumoral angiogenesis, increased CD8+ T cell infiltration, and robustly suppressed growth of transplantable and genetically engineered tumors in immune-deficient and immune-competent mice. Conclusions These findings define sIFN-I as a novel recombinant IFN1 with potent preclinical anti-tumorigenic effects against solid tumor thereby prompting the assessment of sIFN-I clinical efficacy in humans. PMID:27683179

  16. Interleukin 1 receptor antagonist mediates the beneficial effects of systemic interferon beta in mice: implications for rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corr, M.; Boyle, D.L.; Ronacher, L.M.; Lew, B.R.; van Baarsen, L.G.; Tak, P.P.; Firestein, G.S.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Interferon beta (IFN beta) therapy is effective in multiple sclerosis and murine models of arthritis. Surprisingly, systemic IFN beta treatment induces only minimal improvement in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To explain this paradox, the authors evaluated the mechanism of IFN beta benefit

  17. Interferon alfa for chronic hepatitis B infection: increased efficacy of prolonged treatment. The European Concerted Action on Viral Hepatitis (EUROHEP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, H. L.; Gerken, G.; Carreño, V.; Marcellin, P.; Naoumov, N. V.; Craxi, A.; Ring-Larsen, H.; Kitis, G.; van Hattum, J.; de Vries, R. A.; Michielsen, P. P.; ten Kate, F. J.; Hop, W. C.; Heijtink, R. A.; Honkoop, P.; Schalm, S. W.

    1999-01-01

    Interferon alfa (IFN-alpha) is the primary treatment for chronic hepatitis B. The standard duration of IFN-alpha therapy is considered 16 weeks; however, the optimal treatment length is still poorly defined. We evaluated the efficacy and acceptability of prolonged IFN-alpha treatment in patients

  18. Induction of alpha interferon by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in human monocyte-macrophage cultures.

    OpenAIRE

    Szebeni, J; Dieffenbach, C; Wahl, S M; Venkateshan, C N; Yeh, A; Popovic, M.; Gartner, S; Wahl, L M; Peterfy, M; Friedman, R. M.

    1991-01-01

    The induction of interferon (IFN) by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in primary, nonstimulated monocyte-macrophage cultures was studied. HIV-1 infection, as confirmed by p24 antigen levels in the cell supernatant, led to the production of alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) over 7 to 21 days following infection. In two of seven experiments, the IFN detected was acid labile. Coupled reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed the induction of IFN-alpha mRNA in cells...

  19. Lung function and IFN-gamma levels in the sera of silica-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polatli, Mehmet; Tuna, Handan T; Yenisey, Cigdem; Serter, Mukadder; Cildag, Orhan

    2008-05-01

    Excessive exposure to respirable particles of crystalline silica is an occupational health problem in developing countries and can cause a variety of pulmonary diseases, such as silicosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and malignancy, in susceptible hosts. In addition to the well-documented role of pulmonary macrophages, lymphocytes occasionally have been suggested to influence the pneumoconiotic process, but their potential role is not clearly understood. Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), a lymphocyte cytokine, is recognized as the most important cytokine in converting macrophages from a resting to an activated state. The aim of the present study was to investigate serum IFN-gamma levels and pulmonary function changes in silica-exposed workers and in silicosis. Twenty-seven silica workers (aged 35.6 +/- 8.2 years with 5.11 +/- 2.98 years exposure duration) and 18 unexposed office workers (aged 33.8 +/- 12 years) were included in the study. Mean spirometry parameters and smoking history were comparable to the values of the office workers, but COPD prevalence was higher in the silica-exposed group, and the age-adjusted ratio was more sensitive than fixed quotient criteria for airway obstruction. We found silicosis in 4 silica workers. The mean serum IFN-gamma level was increased in silica-exposed workers (10.22 +/- 22.68 pg/mL) although it was undetectable in all office workers and even in the workers with silicosis. Evaluating pulmonary function tests (PFT) using an age-adjusted quotient may prevent underestimation of airflow limitation, especially in the young population with risk factors. Although serum IFN-gamma may increase initially in response to silica, low levels of IFN-gamma in later stages may be considered a risk factor for silicosis because this cytokine downregulates the fibroblast responses to transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and decreases collagen production. Additional research to determine the exact role of this potent

  20. Type III Interferons in Hepatitis C Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisvert, Maude; Shoukry, Naglaa H

    2016-01-01

    The interferon (IFN)-λ family of type III cytokines includes the closely related interleukin (IL)-28A (IFN-λ2), IL-28B (IFN-λ3), and IL-29 (IFN-λ1). They signal through the Janus kinases (JAK)-signal transducers and activators of transcription pathway and promote an antiviral state by the induction of expression of several interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). Contrary to type I IFNs, the effect of IFN-λ cytokines is largely limited to epithelial cells due to the restricted pattern of expression of their specific receptor. Several genome-wide association studies have established a strong correlation between polymorphism in the region of IL-28B gene (encoding for IFN-λ3) and both spontaneous and therapeutic IFN-mediated clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, but the mechanism(s) underlying this enhanced viral clearance are not fully understood. IFN-λ3 directly inhibits HCV replication, and in vitro studies suggest that polymorphism in the IFN-λ3 and its recently identified overlapping IFN-λ4 govern the pattern of ISGs induced upon HCV infection of hepatocytes. IFN-λ can also be produced by dendritic cells, and apart from its antiviral action on hepatocytes, it can regulate the inflammatory response of monocytes/macrophages, thus acting at the interface between innate and adaptive immunity. Here, we review the current state of knowledge about the role of IFN-λ cytokines in mediating and regulating the immune response during acute and chronic HCV infections.

  1. Cognitive Consequences of a Sustained Monocyte Type 1 IFN Response in HIV-1 Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Pulliam, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    With successful antiretroviral therapy, HIV-1-infected subjects can achieve undetectable peripheral viral loads and immune homeostasis. However, in a subset of individuals on therapy, peripheral monocytes have a gene expression profile characteristic of a type 1 interferon α (IFN) response. This type 1 IFN response correlates with a number of pathogenic conditions including neural cell injury and in combination with HCV infection, cognitive impairment. Lessons from the non-human primate model...

  2. Low concentration of PDGF-AB shows synergism with IFN-α in induction of IFN-β and -γ in MRC5 fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šantak, G; Šantak, M; Forčić, D

    2013-11-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a potent mediator of fibroblast proliferation and chemotaxis. Also it has been reported as a strong suppressor of interferon (IFN) expression. IFN-α has opposite effect on fibroblast function and IFN induction. Here is our early report on the effect of low concentration of PDGF-AB alone or in combination with IFN-α on IFN mRNA production in MRC5 fibroblasts. MRC5 cells incubated with IFN-α or PDGF-AB, alone or in combination, produced significant induction of IFN-α, -β and -γ mRNA in comparison with untreated cells. The induction was dose-dependent, with higher effect in cells treated with lower concentrations of PDGF-AB. Also, low concentration of PDGF-AB showed synergism with IFN-α in IFN-β and -γ induction. Results presented here open new possibilities in multi-cytokine therapy and expand previous results on PDGF activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Targeted Recombinant Fusion Proteins of IFN gamma and Mimetic IFN gamma with PDGF beta R Bicyclic Peptide Inhibits Liver Fibrogenesis In Vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bansal, Ruchi; Prakash, Jai; De Ruiter, Marieke; Poelstra, Klaas

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), following transdifferentiation to myofibroblasts plays a key role in liver fibrosis. Therefore, attempts to attenuate this myofibroblastic phenotype would be a promising therapeutic approach. Interferon gamma (IFN gamma) is a potent anti-fibrotic cytokine, but its

  4. Neutrophil mediated IFN activation in the bone marrow alters B cell development in human and murine SLE1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanichamy, Arumugam; Bauer, Jason W; Yalavarthi, Srilakshmi; Meednu, Nida; Barnard, Jennifer; Owen, Teresa; Cistrone, Christopher; Bird, Anna; Rabinovich, Alfred; Nevarez, Sarah; Knight, Jason S.; Dedrick, Russell; Rosenberg, Alexander; Wei, Chungwen; Rangel-Moreno, Javier; Liesveld, Jane; Sanz, Inaki; Baechler, Emily; Kaplan, Mariana J.; Anolik, Jennifer H

    2014-01-01

    Inappropriate activation of type I interferon (IFN) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Here we report the presence of IFN activation in SLE bone marrow (BM), as measured by an IFN gene signature, increased IFN regulated chemokines, and direct production of IFN by BM resident cells, associated with profound changes in B cell development. The majority of SLE patients had an IFN signature in the BM that was more pronounced than the paired peripheral blood (PB) and correlated with both higher autoantibodies and disease activity. Pronounced alterations in B cell development were noted in SLE in the presence of an IFN signature with a reduction in the fraction of pro/pre B cells suggesting an inhibition in early B cell development and an expansion of B cells at the transitional (T2) stage. These B cell changes strongly correlated with an increase in BAFF and APRIL expression in the IFN high BM. Furthermore, we found that BM neutrophils in SLE were prime producers of IFN-α and B cell factors. In NZM lupus-prone mice similar changes in B cell development were observed and mediated by IFN, given abrogation in NZM mice lacking type I IFN receptor. BM neutrophils were abundant, responsive to and producers of IFN, in close proximity to B cells. These results indicate that the BM is an important but previously unrecognized target organ in SLE with neutrophil mediated IFN activation and alterations in B cell ontogeny and selection. PMID:24379124

  5. Potential role of type I interferon in the pathogenic process leading to type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaisar, Natasha; Jurczyk, Agata; Wang, Jennifer P

    2018-01-24

    Understanding the relationship between viral infections and the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is essential for T1D prevention. Virus-induced innate immune responses, specifically type I interferon (IFN-I) and the IFN gene signature, orchestrate early events of β-cell dysfunction preceding islet autoimmunity. We summarize recent advances in how IFN-I and the IFN gene signature can drive T1D development. IFN-I, particularly IFN-α, and the IFN gene signature have been detected in islets and peripheral blood of T1D patients. T1D risk genes in the IFN-I signaling pathway regulate antiviral responses in β cells driven by IFN-I and proinflammatory cytokines. Polymorphisms in these genes may cause chronic dysregulated IFN signaling in islets, characterized by hyperexpression of IFN-I, the IFN gene signature, and major histocompatibility complex class I during viral infection. Islet-cell inflammation mediated by aberrant IFN signaling drives β-cell apoptosis by initiating autoreactivity against β-cell antigens. The profound elevation in IFN-I and the IFN gene signature observed in some forms of T1D are also seen in a novel group of human autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases called interferonopathies. Despite significant advances, further studies are required to functionally dissect the mechanisms by which excessive IFN-I contributes to the evolution of autoimmunity that destroys β cells.

  6. Intracellular interferons in fish: a unique means to combat viral infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Xian Chang

    Full Text Available We demonstrate for the first time in vertebrates, that alternative splicing of interferon (IFN genes can lead to a functional intracellular IFN (iIFN. Fish IFN genes possess introns and in rainbow trout three alternatively spliced transcripts of the IFN1 gene exist. Two of the encoded IFNs are predicted to lack a signal peptide. When overexpressed these iIFNs induce antiviral responses. Variants of the two IFNR receptor chains (IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 lacking a signal peptide are also present in trout. Transfection of HEK 293T cells with the iIFN and iIFNR molecules results in STAT phosphorylation and induction of antiviral genes. These results show that fish possess a functioning iIFN system that may act as a novel defence to combat viral infection.

  7. Viral Inhibition of the IFN-Induced JAK/STAT Signalling Pathway: Development of Live Attenuated Vaccines by Mutation of Viral-Encoded IFN-Antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Stephen B

    2016-06-29

    The interferon (IFN) induced anti-viral response is amongst the earliest and most potent of the innate responses to fight viral infection. The induction of the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activation of transcription (JAK/STAT) signalling pathway by IFNs leads to the upregulation of hundreds of interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) for which, many have the ability to rapidly kill viruses within infected cells. During the long course of evolution, viruses have evolved an extraordinary range of strategies to counteract the host immune responses in particular by targeting the JAK/STAT signalling pathway. Understanding how the IFN system is inhibited has provided critical insights into viral virulence and pathogenesis. Moreover, identification of factors encoded by viruses that modulate the JAK/STAT pathway has opened up opportunities to create new anti-viral drugs and rationally attenuated new generation vaccines, particularly for RNA viruses, by reverse genetics.

  8. Increased sensitivity to interferon-alpha in psoriatic T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Karsten Wessel; Lovato, Paola; Skov, Lone

    2005-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by abnormal epidermal proliferation. Several studies have shown that skin-infiltrating activated T cells and cytokines play a pivotal role during the initiation and maintenance of the disease. Interferon (IFN)-alpha plays an important...... disease characterized by CD8(+)-infiltrating T cells. In this study, we therefore investigate IFN-alpha signaling in T cells isolated from involved skin of psoriatic patients. We show that psoriatic T cells have increased and prolonged responses to IFN-alpha, on the level of signal transducers...... and activators of transcription (STAT) activation, compared with infiltrating T cells from skin of non-psoriatic donors. Functionally, the increased IFN-alpha signaling leads to an increased binding of STAT4 to the IFN-gamma promotor, IFN-gamma production, and inhibition of T cell growth. In contrast, to STAT...

  9. Type 1 interferons contribute to the clearance of senescent cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katlinskaya, Yuliya V; Carbone, Christopher J; Yu, Qiujing; Fuchs, Serge Y

    2015-01-01

    The major known function of cytokines that belong to type I interferons (IFN, including IFNα and IFNβ) is to mount the defense against viruses. This function also protects the genetic information of host cells from alterations in the genome elicited by some of these viruses. Furthermore, recent studies demonstrated that IFN also restrict proliferation of damaged cells by inducing cell senescence. Here we investigated the subsequent role of IFN in elimination of the senescent cells. Our studies demonstrate that endogenous IFN produced by already senescent cells contribute to increased expression of the natural killer (NK) receptor ligands, including MIC-A and ULBP2. Furthermore, neutralization of endogenous IFN or genetic ablation of its receptor chain IFNAR1 compromises the recognition of senescent cells and their clearance in vitro and in vivo. We discuss the role of IFN in protecting the multi-cellular host from accumulation of damaged senescent cells and potential significance of this mechanism in human cancers.

  10. Interferon-γ and Interleukin-10 Gene Polymorphisms are not Predictors of Chronic Hepatitis C (Genotype-4) Disease Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahgat, Nermine Ahmed; Kamal, Manal Mohamed; Abdelaziz, Ashraf Omar; Mohye, Mohamed Ahmed; Shousha, Hend Ibrahim; ahmed, Mae Mohamed; Elbaz, Tamer Mahmoud; Nabil, Mohamed Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Immunoregulatory cytokines have an influence on hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection outcome. This study aimed to determine whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in IFN- γ and IL-10 genes are associated with susceptibility and/or are markers of prognosis regarding chronic hepatitis C outcomes. IFN γ (+874T/A) and IL-10 (-1082G/A) genotypes were determined in 75 HCV genotype 4 patients with different disease severities (chronic hepatitis, n=25, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) on top of liver cirrhosis, n=50) and 25 healthy participants using allele-specific polymerase chain reaction. No statistical differences in allele or genotype distributions of IFN γ and IL-10 genes were detected between patients and controls or between patientgroups. No significant difference in the frequency of IL-10 SNP at position -1082 or IFN-γ at position +874T/A was found between chronic HCV genotype 4 and with progression of disease severity in liver cirrhosis or HCC. In conclusion; interferon-γ and interleukin-10 gene polymorphisms are not predictors of disease progression in patients with chronic hepatitis C (Genotype-4).

  11. Gene transfer of CD40-ligand to dendritic cells stimulates interferon-gamma production to induce growth arrest and apoptosis of tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomihara, K; Kato, K; Masuta, Y; Nakamura, K; Uchida, H; Sasaki, K; Tanaka, T; Huang, J; Hiratsuka, H; Hamada, H

    2008-02-01

    In this study, we present evidence that gene transfer of the CD40-ligand (CD154) into human immature dendritic cells (DC) imparts direct antitumor effects on tumor cells. DC infected with adenovirus directed to express human CD154 on the cell surface (CD154-DC) elicited significantly higher levels of immune accessory molecules commonly found on mature DC. We found that co-cultivation with a human squamous cell carcinoma cell line (OSC-70) with CD154-DC significantly inhibited cell growth. We further demonstrate that OSC-70 cells stimulated with CD154-DC were more susceptible to apoptosis via TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL). Importantly, tumor cells co-cultured with CD154-DC in transwell plates expressed upregulated cell surface TRAIL-R2. CD154-DC produced higher levels of interferon (IFN)-gamma, IL-12p70 and soluble CD154, but the ability of CD154-DC to inhibit tumor cell growth was significantly abrogated by a neutralizing antibody to IFN-gamma, indicating that this was mainly mediated by IFN-gamma. Furthermore, intratumoral injection of CD154-DC significantly suppressed OSC-70 tumor growth in a xenograft model. Overall, these results reveal that CD154-DC have potential as an anti-cancer therapy by producing IFN-gamma to arrest adjacent tumor cell growth and increase the susceptibility of apoptosis via TRAIL.

  12. Borna disease virus nucleoprotein inhibits type I interferon induction through the interferon regulatory factor 7 pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Wuqi [The Heilongjiang Key Laboratory of Immunity and Infection, Heilongjiang (China); Department of Microbiology, Harbin Medical University (China); Kao, Wenping [The Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Biology, Heilongjiang Higher Education Institutions (China); Department of Microbiology, Harbin Medical University (China); Zhai, Aixia [The Heilongjiang Key Laboratory of Immunity and Infection, Heilongjiang (China); Qian, Jun; Li, Yujun [The Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Biology, Heilongjiang Higher Education Institutions (China); Zhang, Qingmeng [The Heilongjiang Key Laboratory of Immunity and Infection, Heilongjiang (China); Zhao, Hong; Hu, Yunlong; Li, Hui [Department of Microbiology, Harbin Medical University (China); Zhang, Fengmin, E-mail: fengminzhang@ems.hrbmu.edu.cn [The Heilongjiang Key Laboratory of Immunity and Infection, Heilongjiang (China); The Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Biology, Heilongjiang Higher Education Institutions (China); Department of Microbiology, Harbin Medical University (China)

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •IRF7 nuclear localisation was inhibited by BDV persistently infected. •BDV N protein resistant to IFN induction both in BDV infected OL cell and N protein plasmid transfected OL cell. •BDV N protein is related to the inhibition of IRF7 nuclear localisation. -- Abstract: The expression of type I interferon (IFN) is one of the most potent innate defences against viral infection in higher vertebrates. Borna disease virus (BDV) establishes persistent, noncytolytic infections in animals and in cultured cells. Early studies have shown that the BDV phosphoprotein can inhibit the activation of type I IFN through the TBK1–IRF3 pathway. The function of the BDV nucleoprotein in the inhibition of IFN activity is not yet clear. In this study, we demonstrated IRF7 activation and increased IFN-α/β expression in a BDV-persistently infected human oligodendroglia cell line following RNA interference-mediated BDV nucleoprotein silencing. Furthermore, we showed that BDV nucleoprotein prevented the nuclear localisation of IRF7 and inhibited endogenous IFN induction by poly(I:C), coxsackie virus B3 and IFN-β. Our findings provide evidence for a previously undescribed mechanism by which the BDV nucleoprotein inhibits type I IFN expression by interfering with the IRF7 pathway.

  13. Long-Distance Interferon Signaling within the Brain Blocks Virus Spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Siyuan

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Serious permanent neurological or psychiatric dysfunction may result from virus infections in the central nervous system (CNS). Olfactory sensory neurons are in direct contact with the external environment, making them susceptible to infection by viruses that can enter the brain via the olfactory nerve. The rarity of full brain viral infections raises the important question of whether unique immune defense mechanisms protect the brain. Here we show that both RNA (vesicular stomatitis virus [VSV]) and DNA (cytomegalovirus [CMV]) virus inoculations of the nasal mucosa leading to olfactory bulb (OB) infection activate long-distance signaling that upregulates antiviral interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene (ISG) expression in uninfected remote regions of the brain. This signaling mechanism is dependent on IFN-α/β receptors deep within the brain, leading to the activation of a distant antiviral state that prevents infection of the caudal brain. In normal mice, VSV replication is limited to the OB, and these animals typically survive the infection. In contrast, mice lacking the IFN-α/β receptor succumbed to the infection, with VSV spreading throughout the brain. Chemical destruction of the olfactory sensory neurons blocked both virus trafficking into the OB and the IFN response in the caudal brain, indicating a direct signaling within the brain after intranasal infection. Most signaling within the brain occurs across the 20-nm synaptic cleft. The unique long-distance IFN signaling described here occurs across many millimeters within the brain and is critical for survival and normal brain function. IMPORTANCE The olfactory mucosa can serve as a conduit for a number of viruses to enter the brain. Yet infections in the CNS rarely occur. The mechanism responsible for protecting the brain from viruses that successfully invade the OB, the first site of infection subsequent to infection of the nasal mucosa, remains elusive. Here we demonstrate that the protection is

  14. Thermostability of IFN-γ and IP-10 release assays for latent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blauenfeldt, Thomas; Wagner, Dirk; Aabye, Martine Grosos

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) inducible protein 10kD (IP-10) and IFN-γ release assays (IGRAs) are immunodiagnostic tests aiming to identify the presence of specific cellular immune responses, interpreted as markers for latent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Incubation at higher...... accuracy of IP-10 release assay and IGRAs. RESULTS: We included 65 patients with confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis and 160 healthy controls from 6 European centres collaborating in the TBnet. In patients, IP-10 responses increased 1.07 (IQR 0.90-1.36) fold and IFN-γ responses decreased 0.88 (IQR 0...

  15. Type I IFN Signaling Is Dispensable during Secondary Viral Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin P Hosking

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Innate immune responses in general, and type I interferons (T1IFNs in particular, play an important and often essential role during primary viral infections, by directly combatting the virus and by maximizing the primary adaptive immune response. Several studies have suggested that T1IFNs also contribute very substantially to the secondary (recall response; they are thought (i to be required to drive the early attrition of memory T cells, (ii to support the subsequent expansion of surviving virus-specific memory cells, and (iii to assist in the suppression and clearance of the infectious agent. However, many of these observations were predicated upon models in which T1IFN signaling was interrupted prior to a primary immune response, raising the possibility that the resulting memory cells might be intrinsically abnormal. We have directly addressed this by using an inducible-Cre model system in which the host remains genetically-intact during the primary response to infection, and in which T1IFN signaling can be effectively ablated prior to secondary viral challenge. We report that, in stark contrast to primary infection, T1IFN signaling is not required during the recall response. IFNαβR-deficient memory CD8+ and CD4+ memory T cells undergo attrition and expansion with kinetics that are indistinguishable from those of receptor-sufficient cells. Moreover, even in the absence of functional T1IFN signaling, the host's immune capacity to rapidly suppress, and then to eradicate, a secondary infection remains intact. Thus, this study shows that T1IFN signaling is dispensable during the recall response to a virus infection. Moreover, two broader implications may be drawn. First, a T cell's requirement for a cytokine is highly dependent on the cell's maturation / differentiation status. Consequently, second, these data underscore the importance of evaluating a gene's impact by modulating its expression or function in a temporally-controllable manner.

  16. Response to interferon-beta treatment in multiple sclerosis patients: a genome-wide association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahurkar, S; Moldovan, M; Suppiah, V; Sorosina, M; Clarelli, F; Liberatore, G; Malhotra, S; Montalban, X; Antigüedad, A; Krupa, M; Jokubaitis, V G; McKay, F C; Gatt, P N; Fabis-Pedrini, M J; Martinelli, V; Comi, G; Lechner-Scott, J; Kermode, A G; Slee, M; Taylor, B V; Vandenbroeck, K; Comabella, M; Boneschi, F M; King, C

    2017-07-01

    Up to 50% of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients do not respond to interferon-beta (IFN-β) treatment and determination of response requires lengthy clinical follow-up of up to 2 years. Response predictive genetic markers would significantly improve disease management. We aimed to identify IFN-β treatment response genetic marker(s) by performing a two-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS). The GWAS was carried out using data from 151 Australian MS patients from the ANZgene/WTCCC2 MS susceptibility GWAS (responder (R)=51, intermediate responders=24 and non-responders (NR)=76). Of the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) that were validated in an independent group of 479 IFN-β-treated MS patients from Australia, Spain and Italy (R=273 and NR=206), eight showed evidence of association with treatment response. Among the replicated associations, the strongest was observed for FHIT (Fragile Histidine Triad; combined P-value 6.74 × 10-6) and followed by variants in GAPVD1 (GTPase activating protein and VPS9 domains 1; combined P-value 5.83 × 10-5) and near ZNF697 (combined P-value 8.15 × 10-5).

  17. Type 1 Interferons and NK Cells Limit Murine Cytomegalovirus Escape from the Lymph Node Subcapsular Sinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Kimberley; Lawler, Clara; Cardin, Rhonda D.

    2016-01-01

    Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) establish chronic, systemic infections. Peripheral infection spreads via lymph nodes, which are also a focus of host defence. Thus, this is a point at which systemic infection spread might be restricted. Subcapsular sinus macrophages (SSM) captured murine CMV (MCMV) from the afferent lymph and poorly supported its replication. Blocking the type I interferon (IFN-I) receptor (IFNAR) increased MCMV infection of SSM and of the fibroblastic reticular cells (FRC) lining the subcapsular sinus, and accelerated viral spread to the spleen. Little splenic virus derived from SSM, arguing that they mainly induce an anti-viral state in the otherwise susceptible FRC. NK cells also limited infection, killing infected FRC and causing tissue damage. They acted independently of IFN-I, as IFNAR blockade increased NK cell recruitment, and NK cell depletion increased infection in IFNAR-blocked mice. Thus SSM restricted MCMV infection primarily though IFN-I, with NK cells providing a second line of defence. The capacity of innate immunity to restrict MCMV escape from the subcapsular sinus suggested that enhancing its recruitment might improve infection control. PMID:27926941

  18. Passive exposure to smoke results in defective interferon-gamma production by adenoids in children with recurrent respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marseglia, Gian Luigi; Avanzini, Maria Antonietta; Caimmi, Silvia; Caimmi, Davide; Marseglia, Alessia; Valsecchi, Chiara; Poddighe, Dimitri; Ciprandi, Giorgio; Pagella, Fabio; Klersy, Catherine; Castellazzi, Anna Maria

    2009-08-01

    There is evidence that exposure to passive smoke is associated with an increased susceptibility to respiratory infections. Indeed, cigarette smoke extracts may interfere with the immune system, even though the precise mechanism has not been fully understood yet. Recurrent respiratory infections may be sustained by a defective immune response. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether, in a cohort of children presenting both with recurrent respiratory infections and with a history of exposure to tobacco smoke, these factors were related to a lower local production of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) when compared to a similar non-exposed population. The study group included 128 children undergoing adenoidectomy, presenting with more than three respiratory infections per year, independently of exposure to passive smoke at home. The intracellular cytokine profile of lymphocyte subsets in adenoids was evaluated by flow cytometry analysis. Children exposed to tobacco smoke suffered from a significantly greater number of respiratory infections and had a lower percentage of IFN-gamma-producing CD8+ cells in adenoids than non-exposed children, while other T-cell subsets were not affected. The effect of smoke exposure seems to be specific to the IFN-gamma-producing CD8+ cells in adenoids and may contribute to the increased susceptibility to the recurrence of respiratory infections.

  19. Prediction of response to interferon therapy in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sellebjerg, F; Søndergaard, Helle Bach; Koch-Henriksen, N

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes encoding interferon response factor (IRF)-5, IRF-8 and glypican-5 (GPC5) have been associated with disease activity in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients treated with interferon (IFN)-β. We analysed whether SNPs in the IRF5, IRF8 and GPC5...... prospectively after the initiation of their first treatment with IFN-β. RESULTS: 62% of patients experienced relapses during the first 2 years of treatment, and 32% had disability progression during the first 5 years of treatment. Patients with a pretreatment annualized relapse rate >1 had an increased risk...

  20. Fine Tuning of a Type 1 Interferon Antagonist.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Urin

    Full Text Available Type I interferons are multi-potent cytokines that serve as first line of defense against viruses and other pathogens, posses immunomudolatory functions and elicit a growth inhibitory response. In recent years it has been shown that interferons are also detrimental, for example in lupus, AIDS, tuberculosis and cognitive decline, highlighted the need to develop interferon antagonists. We have previously developed the antagonist IFN-1ant, with much reduced binding to the IFNAR1 receptor and enhanced binding to IFNAR2. Here, we further tune the IFN-1ant by producing three additional antagonists based on IFN-1ant but with altered activity profiles. We show that in all three cases the antiproliferative activity of interferons is blocked and the induction of gene transcription of immunomudolatory and antiproliferative associated genes are substantially decreased. Conversely, each of the new antagonists elicits a different degree of antiviral response, STAT phosphorylation and related gene induction. Two of the new antagonists promote decreased activity in relation to the original IFN-1ant, while one of them promotes increased activity. As we do not know the exact causes of the detrimental effects of IFNs, the four antagonists that were produced and analyzed provide the opportunity to investigate the extent of antagonistic and agonistic activity optimal for a given condition.

  1. Type I interferon signaling restrains IL-10R+ colonic macrophages and dendritic cells and leads to more severe Salmonella colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailyn L Stefan

    Full Text Available Type I interferons (IFNα, IFNβ are key regulators of innate and adaptive immunity, modulating the severity of both viral and bacterial infections. While type I IFN signaling leads to improved outcomes in viral infections, its role in bacterial infections is more contextual and depends on the specific pathogen and route of infection. Given the limited evidence on whether type I IFN signaling affects enteric bacterial pathogens, we investigated the role of this signaling pathway in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium-induced colitis. Comparing mice deficient in IFNAR1- the common receptor for IFNα and IFNβ- with wild-type mice, we found that type I IFN signaling leads to more rapid death, more severe colonic inflammation, higher serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and greater bacterial dissemination. Specific ablation of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs, which are prominent producers of type I IFNs in antiviral responses, did not alter survival after infection. This result established that pDCs do not play a major role in the pathogenesis of S. typhimurium colitis. Flow cytometric analysis of macrophages and conventional dendritic cells (cDCs during active colitis demonstrated an increase in CD11c- macrophages and CD103+ cDCs in the colon of Ifnar1-/- animals. Interestingly, cells expressing the anti-inflammatory cytokine receptor IL-10R are more abundant within these subsets in Ifnar1-/- than in wild-type mice. Moreover, blockade of IL-10R in Ifnar1-/- mice increased their susceptibility to S. typhimurium colitis, suggesting that altered numbers of these immunoregulatory cells may underlie the difference in disease severity. This cross-talk between type I IFN and IL-10R signaling pathways may represent a key host cellular mechanism to investigate further in order to unravel the balance between pathogenic inflammation and homeostasis of the colon. Taken together, our data clearly demonstrate that type I IFN

  2. Effects of bacteria-produced human alpha, beta, and gamma interferons on in vitro immune functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, M R; Weck, P K; Rinderknecht, E; Harkins, R N; Frane, J W; Ross, M J

    1984-04-01

    The effects of bacteria-produced human interferons (HuIFN) alpha, beta, and gamma on in vitro immune functions of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were studied. Proliferative response to phytohemagglutinin was significantly inhibited by the addition of HuIFN-alpha 2 or HuIFN-beta at 10, 100, or 1000 U/ml. In contrast, HuIFN-gamma showed suppressive activities only when added at 1000 U/ml. HuIFN-alpha 2 or HuIFN-beta caused significant inhibition of human mixed-lymphocyte reaction (MLR) as measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation. Similar inhibition was caused by HuIFN-gamma when it was added only at very low concentrations (1 U/ml); 10, 100, or 1000 U/ml resulted in no or only a modest increase in MLR. All three interferons exhibited dose-related effects on PWM-induced immunoglobulin synthesis in cultures of PBMC. These data demonstrate that purified interferons produced by recombinant DNA technology can significantly alter in vitro immune functions and that HuIFN-gamma has properties which are different from those of HuIFN-alpha 2 or HuIFN-beta.

  3. IFN-gamma: Novel antiviral cytokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ank, Nina; West, Hans; Paludan, Søren Riis

    2006-01-01

    and adaptive immune responses. Recently, a novel class of cytokines was discovered and named IFN-lambda (alternatively type III IFN or interleukin-28/29 [IL- 28/29]), based on IFN-like antiviral activity and induction of typical IFN-inducible genes. Here, we review the literature on IFN-lambda and discuss...

  4. Subtypes of type I IFN differentially enhance cytokine expression by suboptimally stimulated CD4(+) T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillyer, Philippa; Raviv, Nataly; Gold, Doria M; Dougherty, Danielle; Liu, Jie; Johnson, Teresa R; Graham, Barney S; Rabin, Ronald L

    2013-12-01

    Human type I interferons (IFNs) include IFN-β and 12 subtypes of IFN-α. During viral infection, infiltrating memory CD4(+) T cells are exposed to IFNs, but their impact on memory T-cell function is poorly understood. To address this, we pretreated PBMCs with different IFNs for 16 h before stimulation with Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B and measured cytokine expression by flow cytometry. IFN-α8 and -α10 most potently enhanced expression of IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-4. Potency among the subtypes differed most at doses between 10 and 100 U/mL. While enhancement of IL-2 and IL-4 correlated with the time of preincubation with type I IFN, IFN-γ production was enhanced best when IFN-α was added immediately preceding or simultaneously with T-cell stimulation. Comparison of T-cell responses to multiple doses of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B and to peptide libraries from RSV or CMV demonstrated that IFN-α best enhanced cytokine expression when CD4(+) T cells were suboptimally stimulated. We conclude that type I IFNs enhance Th1 and Th2 function with dose dependency and subtype specificity, and best when T-cell stimulation is suboptimal. While type I IFNs may beneficially enhance CD4(+) T-cell memory responses to vaccines or viral pathogens, they may also enhance the function of resident Th2 cells and exacerbate allergic inflammation. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Loss of PTEN causes SHP2 activation, making lung cancer cells unresponsive to IFN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chia-Ling [Translational Research Center, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Chiang, Tzu-Hui; Tseng, Po-Chun [Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Wang, Yu-Chih [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chiou-Feng, E-mail: cflin2014@tmu.edu.tw [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China)

    2015-10-23

    Src homology-2 domain-containing phosphatase (SHP) 2, an oncogenic phosphatase, inhibits type II immune interferon (IFN)-γ signaling by subverting signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 tyrosine phosphorylation and activation. For cancer immunoediting, this study aimed to investigate the decrease of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), a tumor suppressor protein, leading to cellular impairment of IFN-γ signaling. In comparison with human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, the natural PTEN loss in another human lung adenocarcinoma line, PC14PE6/AS2 cells, presents reduced responsiveness in IFN-γ-induced IFN regulatory factor 1 activation and CD54 expression. Artificially silencing PTEN expression in A549 cells also caused cells to be unresponsive to IFN-γ without affecting IFN-γ receptor expression. IFN-γ-induced inhibition of cell proliferation and cytotoxicity were demonstrated in A549 cells but were defective in PC14PE6/AS2 cells and in PTEN-deficient A549 cells. Aberrant activation of SHP2 by ROS was specifically shown in PC14PE6/AS2 cells and PTEN-deficient A549 cells. Inhibiting ROS and SHP2 rescued cellular responses to IFN-γ-induced cytotoxicity and inhibition of cell proliferation in PC14PE6/AS2 cells. These results demonstrate that a decrease in PTEN facilitates ROS/SHP2 signaling, causing lung cancer cells to become unresponsive to IFN-γ. - Highlights: • This study demonstrates that PTEN decrease causes cellular unresponsive to IFN-γ. • Lung cancer cells with PTEN deficiency show unresponsive to IFN-γ signaling. • PTEN decrease inhibits IFN-γ-induced CD54, cell proliferation inhibition, and cytotoxicity. • ROS-mediated SHP2 activation makes PTEN-deficient cells unresponsive to IFN-γ.

  6. Development of Potential Pharmacodynamic and Diagnostic Markers for Anti-IFN-α Monoclonal Antibody Trials in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yihong; Higgs, Brandon W; Morehouse, Chris; de Los Reyes, Melissa; Trigona, Wendy; Brohawn, Philip; White, Wendy; Zhang, Jianliang; White, Barbara; Coyle, Anthony J; Kiener, Peter A; Jallal, Bahija

    2009-11-17

    To identify potential pharmacodynamic biomarkers to guide dose selection in clinical trials using anti-interferon-alpha (IFN-α) monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), we used an Affymetrix human genome array platform and identified 110 IFN-α/β-inducible transcripts significantly upregulated in whole blood (WB) of 41 SLE patients. The overexpression of these genes was confirmed prospectively in 54 additional SLE patients and allowed for the categorization of the SLE patients into groups of high, moderate, and weak overexpressers of IFN-α/β-inducible genes. This approach could potentially allow for an accurate assessment of drug target neutralization in early trials of anti-IFN-α mAb therapy for SLE. Furthermore, ex vivo stimulation of healthy donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells with SLE patient serum and subsequent neutralization with anti-IFN-α mAb or anti-IFN-α receptor mAb showed that anti-IFN-α mAb has comparable effects of neutralizing the overexpression of type I IFN-inducible genes as that of anti-IFNAR mAb. These results suggest that IFN-α, and not other members of type I IFN family in SLE patients, is mainly responsible for the induction of type I IFN-inducible genes in WB of SLE patients. Taken together, these data strengthen the view of IFN-α as a therapeutic target for SLE.

  7. Interferon-alpha in the treatment of Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms. Status and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Hans Carl; Larsen, Thomas Stauffer; Riley, Caroline Hasselbalch

    2011-01-01

    shown that interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) induces complete haematological remissions in a large proportion of the patients. However, its use in clinical practice has unfortunately been limited due to side effects with high drop-out rates in most studies. Recently, IFN-alpha2 has been shown to induce deep...... and the hyperproliferative phase of PMF. This paper reviews the history of IFN - in principle IFN-alpha2 - and its present status in the treatment of PV and related diseases. The role of IFN-alpha2 as immune therapy in the future treatment of CMPNs is highlighted and the rationale for the concept of minimal residual disease...

  8. Interferon and biologic signatures in dermatomyositis skin: specificity and heterogeneity across diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Wong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dermatomyositis (DM is an autoimmune disease that mainly affects the skin, muscle, and lung. The pathogenesis of skin inflammation in DM is not well understood. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: We analyzed genome-wide expression data in DM skin and compared them to those from healthy controls. We observed a robust upregulation of interferon (IFN-inducible genes in DM skin, as well as several other gene modules pertaining to inflammation, complement activation, and epidermal activation and differentiation. The interferon (IFN-inducible genes within the DM signature were present not only in DM and lupus, but also cutaneous herpes simplex-2 infection and to a lesser degree, psoriasis. This IFN signature was absent or weakly present in atopic dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, acne vulgaris, systemic sclerosis, and localized scleroderma/morphea. We observed that the IFN signature in DM skin appears to be more closely related to type I than type II IFN based on in vitro IFN stimulation expression signatures. However, quantitation of IFN mRNAs in DM skin shows that the majority of known type I IFNs, as well as IFN g, are overexpressed in DM skin. In addition, both IFN-beta and IFN-gamma (but not other type I IFN transcript levels were highly correlated with the degree of the in vivo IFN transcriptional response in DM skin. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: As in the blood and muscle, DM skin is characterized by an overwhelming presence of an IFN signature, although it is difficult to conclusively define this response as type I or type II. Understanding the significance of the IFN signature in this wide array of inflammatory diseases will be furthered by identification of the nature of the cells that both produce and respond to IFN, as well as which IFN subtype is biologically active in each diseased tissue.

  9. Type I Interferon Induced by Streptococcus suis Serotype 2 is Strain-Dependent and May Be Beneficial for Host Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Auger

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is an important porcine bacterial pathogen and emerging zoonotic agent mainly responsible for sudden death, septic shock, and meningitis, with exacerbated inflammation being a hallmark of the infection. However, serotype 2 strains are genotypically and phenotypically heterogeneous, being composed of a multitude of sequence types (STs whose virulence greatly varies: the virulent ST1 (Eurasia, highly virulent ST7 (responsible for the human outbreaks in China, and intermediate virulent ST25 (North America are the most important worldwide. Even though type I interferons (IFNs are traditionally associated with important antiviral functions, recent studies have demonstrated that they may also play an important role during infections with extracellular bacteria. Upregulation of IFN-β levels was previously observed in mice following infection with this pathogen. Consequently, the implication of IFN-β in the S. suis serotype 2 pathogenesis, which has always been considered a strict extracellular bacterium, was evaluated using strains of varying virulence. This study demonstrates that intermediate virulent strains are significantly more susceptible to phagocytosis than virulent strains. Hence, subsequent localization of these strains within the phagosome results in recognition of bacterial nucleic acids by Toll-like receptors 7 and 9, leading to activation of the interferon regulatory factors 1, 3, and 7 and production of IFN-β. Type I IFN, whose implication depends on the virulence level of the S. suis strain, is involved in host defense by participating in the modulation of systemic inflammation, which is responsible for the clearance of blood bacterial burden. As such, when induced by intermediate, and to a lesser extent, virulent S. suis strains, type I IFN plays a beneficial role in host survival. The highly virulent ST7 strain, however, hastily induces a septic shock that cannot be controlled by type I IFN, leading

  10. Recurrence of depressive disorders after interferon-induced depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, W-C; Su, Y-P; Su, K-P; Chen, P-C

    2017-02-07

    Interferon alpha (IFN-α)-treated patients commonly develop depression during the therapy period. Although most IFN-α-induced depressive disorders achieve remission after IFN-α therapy, no studies have examined the long-term mood effects of IFN-α treatment. We conducted a 12-year population-based cohort study of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients who were older than 20 years and had received IFN-α therapy. The sample was obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The cohort included patients with and without IFN-α-induced depression, matched randomly by age, sex and depression history, at a ratio of 1:10. The follow-up started after the last administration of IFN-α and was designed to determine the incidence of recurrent depressive disorder after IFN-α therapy. A total of 156 subjects were identified as having IFN-α-induced depression and achieving full remission after IFN-α therapy. The overall incidence of recurrent depressive disorders among patients with and without IFN-α-induced depression was 56.8 (95% confidence interval (CI), 42.4-76.1) and 4.1 (95% CI, 2.9-5.8) cases, respectively, per 100 000 person-years, Precurrent depressive disorder were 13.5 (95% CI, 9.9-18.3) in the IFN-α-treated cohort and 22.2 (95% CI, 11.2-44.2) in the matched cohort for IFN-α-induced depression patients after adjusting for age, sex, income, urbanization and comorbid diseases. IFN-α-induced depression was associated with a high risk of recurrent depression. It was not a transient disease and might be considered an episode of depressive disorder. Continuation therapy might be considered, and further research is needed.

  11. Recurrence of depressive disorders after interferon-induced depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, W-C; Su, Y-P; Su, K-P; Chen, P-C

    2017-01-01

    Interferon alpha (IFN-α)-treated patients commonly develop depression during the therapy period. Although most IFN-α-induced depressive disorders achieve remission after IFN-α therapy, no studies have examined the long-term mood effects of IFN-α treatment. We conducted a 12-year population-based cohort study of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients who were older than 20 years and had received IFN-α therapy. The sample was obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The cohort included patients with and without IFN-α-induced depression, matched randomly by age, sex and depression history, at a ratio of 1:10. The follow-up started after the last administration of IFN-α and was designed to determine the incidence of recurrent depressive disorder after IFN-α therapy. A total of 156 subjects were identified as having IFN-α-induced depression and achieving full remission after IFN-α therapy. The overall incidence of recurrent depressive disorders among patients with and without IFN-α-induced depression was 56.8 (95% confidence interval (CI), 42.4–76.1) and 4.1 (95% CI, 2.9–5.8) cases, respectively, per 100 000 person-years, Pdepressive disorder were 13.5 (95% CI, 9.9–18.3) in the IFN-α-treated cohort and 22.2 (95% CI, 11.2–44.2) in the matched cohort for IFN-α-induced depression patients after adjusting for age, sex, income, urbanization and comorbid diseases. IFN-α-induced depression was associated with a high risk of recurrent depression. It was not a transient disease and might be considered an episode of depressive disorder. Continuation therapy might be considered, and further research is needed. PMID:28170005

  12. Rabies virus infection induces type I interferon production in an IPS-1 dependent manner while dendritic cell activation relies on IFNAR signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J Faul

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available As with many viruses, rabies virus (RABV infection induces type I interferon (IFN production within the infected host cells. However, RABV has evolved mechanisms by which to inhibit IFN production in order to sustain infection. Here we show that RABV infection of dendritic cells (DC induces potent type I IFN production and DC activation. Although DCs are infected by RABV, the viral replication is highly suppressed in DCs, rendering the infection non-productive. We exploited this finding in bone marrow derived DCs (BMDC in order to differentiate which pattern recognition receptor(s (PRR is responsible for inducing type I IFN following infection with RABV. Our results indicate that BMDC activation and type I IFN production following a RABV infection is independent of TLR signaling. However, IPS-1 is essential for both BMDC activation and IFN production. Interestingly, we see that the BMDC activation is primarily due to signaling through the IFNAR and only marginally induced by the initial infection. To further identify the receptor recognizing RABV infection, we next analyzed BMDC from Mda-5-/- and RIG-I-/- mice. In the absence of either receptor, there is a significant decrease in BMDC activation at 12h post infection. However, only RIG-I-/- cells exhibit a delay in type I IFN production. In order to determine the role that IPS-1 plays in vivo, we infected mice with pathogenic RABV. We see that IPS-1-/- mice are more susceptible to infection than IPS-1+/+ mice and have a significantly increased incident of limb paralysis.

  13. Interferon alfa in the treatment paradigm for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamm, D.; Brausi, M.; O'Donnell, M.A.; Witjes, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In this article, we review the various options for and the potential role of interferon alfa (IFN-alpha) in the treatment of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). METHODS: PubMed was searched for journal articles on IFN-alpha use in treating bladder cancer. The references listed in

  14. The value of cord serum interferon-gamma estimation in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: It was previously assumed that interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) underexpression in newly born infants could be a risk factor for atopic diseases. Objective: We sought to investigate the value of cord serum IFN-γ in the prediction of infantile allergy and its possible correlations with other relevant markers. Methods: ...

  15. Clinical and virological studies on α-interferon treatment of chronic hepatitis type B

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.L.A. Janssen (Harry)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe positive results of a-interferon (IFN) therapy have generated an important change in the therapeutic approach of chronic hepatitis B patients. The studies presented in this thesis are directed to the question how the efficacy of a-IFN therapy for chronic hepatitis B could be improved

  16. Differential Dynamics of CALR Mutant Allele Burden in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms during Interferon Alfa Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Lasse; Cordua, Sabrina; Holmström, Morten O

    2016-01-01

    for monitoring molecular responses during therapy. Interferon-α (IFN) selectively targets the malignant clone in a subset of MPN patients and can induce both haematological and molecular remissions in CALR mutated essential thrombocythemia (ET) patients. We investigated the response to IFN in a cohort of 21 CALR...

  17. Fluorouracil continuous infusion plus alfa interferon plus oral folinic acid in advanced colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, C. J.; de Mulder, P. H.; Burghouts, J. T.; Wagener, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    Several reports on fluorouracil (5-FU) and alfa interferon (IFN-alpha) combination therapy in patients with advanced colorectal cancer have been published. In our study high-dose continuous infusion 5-FU (60 mg/kg per 48 hours), oral folinic acid (FA) (8 x 90 mg during 5-FU), and IFN-alpha three

  18. Treatment of Crohn's disease with recombinant human interleukin 10 induces the proinflammatory cytokine interferon gamma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tilg, H.; van Montfrans, C.; van den Ende, A.; Kaser, A.; van Deventer, S. J. H.; Schreiber, S.; Gregor, M.; Ludwiczek, O.; Rutgeerts, P.; Gasche, C.; Koningsberger, J. C.; Abreu, L.; Kuhn, I.; Cohard, M.; LeBeaut, A.; Grint, P.; Weiss, G.

    2002-01-01

    Interleukin 10 (IL-10) exerts anti-inflammatory actions by counteracting many biological effects of interferon gamma (IFN-gamma). To investigate this in humans, we studied the effects of human recombinant IL-10 administration on IFN-gamma production by patient leucocytes. Furthermore, we assessed

  19. Intrathecal production of interleukin-12 and gamma-interferon in patients with bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornelisse, R.F.; Hack, C.E.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Pouw-Kraan, van der T.C.T.M.; Hop, W.C.J.; Mierlo, van G.; Suur, M.H.; Neijens, H.J.; Groot, de R.

    1997-01-01

    To assess the role of interleukin-12 (IL-12) and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) in children with bacterial meningitis, bioactive IL-12 (p70) and the inactive subunit p40 and IFN-gamma were measured in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 35 children with bacterial meningitis and 10 control

  20. The function of the human interferon-beta 1a glycan determined in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing-Olesen, Lasse; Thaysen-Andersen, Morten; Meldgaard, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Recombinant human interferon-beta (rhIFN-beta) is the leading therapeutic intervention shown to change the cause of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, and both a nonglycosylated and a significantly more active glycosylated variant of rhIFN-beta are used in treatment. This study investigates...

  1. Intrahepatic expression of interferon alpha & interferon alpha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current study aimed to investigate the expression IFN-αand IFN-αReceptor genes in liver biopsies from patients with HCV and HCC. Correlation of their expression with the clinical, histopathological progress of the disease and the effectiveness of IFN therapy in HCV patients after a period of 6 months follow-up was ...

  2. Mechanism of inhibition of HSV-1 replication by tumor necrosis factor and interferon gamma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feduchi, E; Carrasco, L

    1991-02-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) synergizes with interferon (IFN gamma) in the blockade of HSV-1 replication. Antibodies against IFN beta block this synergism, implying a role of IFN beta in the antiviral activity of TNF plus IFN gamma. IFN beta 1 added exogenously to Hep-2 cells shows antiviral activity against HSV-1 only at high concentrations, whereas IFN beta 2 (also known as IL-6) alone has no effect on the replication of VSV or HSV-1 even when 1,000 U/ml are present. Our results are in accordance with the idea that TNF induces IFN beta 1 and that both cytokines must be present in the culture medium to synergize with IFN gamma in order to inhibit HSV-1 replication.

  3. Borna disease virus nucleoprotein inhibits type I interferon induction through the interferon regulatory factor 7 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wuqi; Kao, Wenping; Zhai, Aixia; Qian, Jun; Li, Yujun; Zhang, Qingmeng; Zhao, Hong; Hu, Yunlong; Li, Hui; Zhang, Fengmin

    2013-09-06

    The expression of type I interferon (IFN) is one of the most potent innate defences against viral infection in higher vertebrates. Borna disease virus (BDV) establishes persistent, noncytolytic infections in animals and in cultured cells. Early studies have shown that the BDV phosphoprotein can inhibit the activation of type I IFN through the TBK1-IRF3 pathway. The function of the BDV nucleoprotein in the inhibition of IFN activity is not yet clear. In this study, we demonstrated IRF7 activation and increased IFN-α/β expression in a BDV-persistently infected human oligodendroglia cell line following RNA interference-mediated BDV nucleoprotein silencing. Furthermore, we showed that BDV nucleoprotein prevented the nuclear localisation of IRF7 and inhibited endogenous IFN induction by poly(I:C), coxsackie virus B3 and IFN-β. Our findings provide evidence for a previously undescribed mechanism by which the BDV nucleoprotein inhibits type I IFN expression by interfering with the IRF7 pathway. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. T cell subsets and cytokines in allergic and non-allergic children. I. Analysis of IL-4, IFN-? and IL-13 mRNA expression and protein production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, H.; Neijens, H.J.; Baert, M.R.M.; Oranje, A.P.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.

    1997-01-01

    Interleukin 4 (IL-4) and IL-13 are key cytokines inducing switching to immunoglobulin E (IgE), whereas interferon (IFN-) acts inhibitory on this process. We analysed whether differences existed in IL-4, IFN- and IL-13 mRNA expression and protein production between T cells of children with allergic

  5. The interferon type I signature is present in systemic sclerosis before overt fibrosis and might contribute to its pathogenesis through high BAFF gene expression and high collagen synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brkic, Z.; Bon, L. van; Cossu, M.; Helden-Meeuwsen, C.G. van; Vonk, M.C.; Knaapen, H.; Berg, W. van den; Dalm, V.A.; Daele, P.L. van; Severino, A.; Maria, N.I.; Guillen, S.; Dik, W.A.; Beretta, L.; Versnel, M.A.; Radstake, T.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Interferon (IFN) signature has been reported in definite systemic sclerosis (SSc) but it has not been characterised in early SSc (EaSSc). We aim at characterising IFN type I signature in SSc before overt skin fibrosis develops. METHODS: The expression of 11 IFN type I inducible genes was

  6. No development of neutralizing antibodies against recombinant interferon-alpha in Ph-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms-a prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ocias, Lukas Frans; Lund Hansen, Dennis; Kielsgaard Kristensen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background Treatment of Philadelphia chromosome negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) with recombinant pegylated interferon alpha2a/b (rIFN-alpha) has proven effective. It is well known that prolonged therapy with recombinant type 1 interferons (IFN-alpha and IFN-beta) may induce n......: ET: 67% CR, 29 % PR; PV: 64% CR, 31% PR (ELN 2009 criteria); PMF: 50% had at least a minor response (EUMNET). The median serum concentration of bioactive IFN-alpha at 12 months was 12,4 (range...

  7. VSV replication in neurons is inhibited by type I IFN at multiple stages of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trottier, Mark D; Palian, Beth M; Reiss, Carol Shoshkes

    2005-03-15

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a rhabdovirus which causes acute encephalitis in mice after intranasal infection. Because type I interferon (IFN) has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of VSV, we investigated the role of type I IFN in viral replication in neurons in culture. Pre-treatment of NB41A3 neuroblastoma cells or primary neuron cultures with IFN-beta or IFN-alpha strongly inhibits virus replication, with 1000-fold inhibition of infectious virus release occurring at 7 h post-infection, and maximum inhibition of 14,000-fold occurring at 14 h. Type I IFN inhibited both viral protein and RNA synthesis, but not enough to account for the inhibition of infectious virus yield. The influenza virus protein NS1 binds dsRNA and antagonizes induction of PKR activity, an IFN-inducible antiviral protein which phosphorylates and inactivates the elongation factor eIF-2alpha, resulting in cessation of translation. In NS1-expressing neuroblastoma cells, VSV replication was inhibited by IFN-beta as well as in control NB41A3 cells, and eIF-2alpha phosphorylation was blocked, suggesting that PKR activity was not involved in inhibition of viral protein synthesis. Similarly, inhibition of VSV by IFN-beta was not affected by addition of inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase, indicating that IFN-beta activity is not mediated by nitric oxide or superoxide. This contrasts with the essential role of NOS-1 in inhibition of VSV replication when neurons are treated with IFN-gamma. Analysis of cell culture supernatants revealed suppression of release of VSV particles from both NB41A3 cells and primary neurons treated with IFN. The inhibition of virion release closely matched the overall suppression of infectious VSV particle release, suggesting that type I IFN plays a role in inhibition of VSV assembly.

  8. Type I interferons promote severe disease in a mouse model of lethal ehrlichiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yubin; Thai, Vinh; McCabe, Amanda; Jones, Maura; MacNamara, Katherine C

    2014-04-01

    Human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME) is caused by a tick-borne obligate intracellular pathogen of the order Rickettsiales. HME disease can range from mild to a fatal, toxic shock-like syndrome, yet the mechanisms regulating pathogenesis are not well understood. We define a central role for type I interferons (alpha interferon [IFN-α] and IFN-β) in severe disease in a mouse model of fatal ehrlichiosis caused by Ixodes ovatus Ehrlichia (IOE). IFN-α and IFN-β were induced by IOE infection but not in response to a less virulent strain, Ehrlichia muris. The major sources of type I IFNs during IOE infection were plasmacytoid dendritic cells and monocytes. Mice lacking the receptor for type I IFNs (Ifnar deficient) or neutralization of IFN-α and IFN-β resulted in a reduced bacterial burden. Ifnar-deficient mice exhibited significantly increased survival after IOE infection, relative to that of wild-type (WT) mice, that correlated with increased type II IFN (IFN-γ) production. Pathogen-specific antibody responses were also elevated in Ifnar-deficient mice, and this required IFN-γ. Remarkably, increased IFN-γ and IgM were not essential for protection in the absence of type I IFN signaling. The direct effect of type I IFNs on hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells was evaluated in bone marrow chimeric mice. We observed that chimeric mice containing Ifnar-deficient hematopoietic cells succumbed to infection early, whereas Ifnar-deficient mice containing WT hematopoietic cells exhibited increased survival, despite having a higher bacterial burden. These data demonstrate that IFN-α receptor signaling in nonhematopoietic cells is important for pathogenesis. Thus, type I IFNs are induced during a rickettsial infection in vivo and promote severe disease.

  9. IFN signaling: how a non-canonical model led to the development of IFN mimetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard M Johnson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The classical model of cytokine signaling dominates our view of specific gene activation by cytokines such as the interferons (IFNs. The importance of the model extends beyond cytokines and applies to hormones such as growth hormone (GH and insulin, and growth factors such as epidermal growth factor (EGF and fibroblast growth factor (FGF. According to this model, ligand activates the cell via interaction with the extracellular domain of the receptor. This results in activation of receptor or receptor-associated tyrosine kinases, primarily of the Janus kinase (JAK family, phosphorylation and dimerization of the STAT transcription factors, which dissociate from the receptor cytoplasmic domain and translocate to the nucleus. This view ascribes no further role to the ligand, JAK kinase, or receptor in either specific gene activation or the associated epigenetic events. The presence of dimeric STATs in the nucleus essentially explains it all. Our studies have resulted in the development of a non-canonical, more complex model of IFNγ signaling that is akin to that of steroid hormone/steroid receptor signaling. We have shown that ligand, receptor, activated JAKs and STATs are associated with specific gene activation, where the receptor subunit IFNGR1 functions as a co-transcription factor and the JAKs are involved in associated epigenetic events. We found that the type I IFN system functions similarly. The fact that GH receptor, insulin receptor, EGF receptor, and FGF receptor undergo nuclear translocation upon ligand binding suggests that they may also function similarly. The steroid hormone/steroid receptor nature of type I and II IFN signaling provides insight into the specificity of signaling by members of cytokine families. The non-canonical model could also provide better understanding to more complex cytokine families such as those of IL-2 and IL-12, whose members often use the same JAKs and STATs, but also have different functions and

  10. Type I Interferon in Chronic Virus Infection and Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Laura M; McGaha, Tracy L; Brooks, David G

    2017-08-01

    Type I interferons (IFN-Is) are emerging as key drivers of inflammation and immunosuppression in chronic infection. Control of these infections requires IFN-I signaling; however, prolonged IFN-I signaling can lead to immune dysfunction. IFN-Is are also emerging as double-edged swords in cancer, providing necessary inflammatory signals, while initiating feedback suppression in both immune and cancer cells. Here, we review the proinflammatory and suppressive mechanisms potentiated by IFN-Is during chronic virus infections and discuss the similar, newly emerging dichotomy in cancer. We then discuss how this understanding is leading to new therapeutic concepts and immunotherapy combinations. We propose that, by modulating the immune response at its foundation, it may be possible to widely reshape immunity to control these chronic diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. KSHV-encoded viral interferon regulatory factor 4 (vIRF4) interacts with IRF7 and inhibits interferon alpha production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sung-Woo; Kim, DongIk; Jung, Jae U; Lee, Hye-Ra

    2017-05-06

    Before an infection can be completely established, the host immediately turns on the innate immune system through activating the interferon (IFN)-mediated antiviral pathway. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) utilizes a unique antagonistic mechanism of type I IFN-mediated host antiviral immunity by incorporating four viral interferon regulatory factors (vIRF1-4). Herein, we characterized novel immune evasion strategies of vIRF4 to inhibit the IRF7-mediated IFN-α production. KSHV vIRF4 specifically interacts with IRF7, resulting in inhibition of IRF7 dimerization and ultimately suppresses IRF7-mediated activation of type I IFN. These results suggest that each of the KSHV vIRFs, including vIRF4, subvert IFN-mediated anti-viral response via different mechanisms. Therefore, it is indicated that KSHV vIRFs are indeed a crucial immunomodulatory component of their life cycles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Role of interferon-gamma in the pathogenesis of LCMV-induced meningitis: unimpaired leucocyte recruitment, but deficient macrophage activation in interferon-gamma knock-out mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nansen, A; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Röpke, C

    1998-01-01

    Generally, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) is considered a critical regulator of T cell mediated inflammation. For this reason, we investigated the pathogenesis of lymphocytic choriomeningitis in mice with a targeted defect of the gene encoding this cytokine. Our results revealed that IFN-gamma is r......Generally, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) is considered a critical regulator of T cell mediated inflammation. For this reason, we investigated the pathogenesis of lymphocytic choriomeningitis in mice with a targeted defect of the gene encoding this cytokine. Our results revealed that IFN......, a viral peptide could also elicit a T cell mediated inflammatory response in virus-primed IFN-gamma knock-out mice, indicating that redundancy of this cytokine as a proinflammatory mediator is not restricted to inflammatory reactions triggered by an active infection. Thus, T cell mediated inflammation may...

  13. Identification of Two Subgroups of Type I IFNs in Perciforme Fish Large Yellow Croaker Larimichthys crocea Provides Novel Insights into Function and Regulation of Fish Type I IFNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Ding

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Like mammals, fish possess an interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3/IRF7-dependent type I IFN responses, but the exact mechanism by which IRF3/IRF7 regulate the type I IFNs remains largely unknown. In this study, we identified two type I IFNs in the Perciforme fish large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea, one of which belongs to the fish IFNd subgroup, and the other is assigned to a novel subgroup of group I IFNs in fish, tentatively termed IFNh. The two IFN genes are constitutively expressed in all examined tissues, but with varied expression levels. Both IFN genes can be rapidly induced in head kidney and spleen tissues by polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid. The recombinant IFNh was shown to be more potent to trigger a rapid induction of the antiviral genes MxA and PKR than the IFNd, suggesting that they may play distinct roles in regulating early antiviral immunity. Strikingly, IFNd, but not IFNh, could induce the gene expression of itself and IFNh through a positive feedback loop mediated by the IFNd-dependent activation of IRF3 and IRF7. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that the induction of IFNd can be enhanced by the dimeric formation of IRF3 and IRF7, while the IFNh expression mainly involves IRF3. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the IFN responses are diverse in fish and are likely to be regulated by distinct mechanisms.

  14. Conditional IFNAR1 ablation reveals distinct requirements of Type I IFN signaling for NK cell maturation and tumor surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Tatsuaki; Neugebauer, Nina; Putz, Eva M; Moritz, Nadine; Simma, Olivia; Zebedin-Brandl, Eva; Gotthardt, Dagmar; Warsch, Wolfgang; Eckelhart, Eva; Kantner, Hans-Peter; Kalinke, Ulrich; Lienenklaus, Stefan; Weiss, Siegfried; Strobl, Birgit; Müller, Mathias; Sexl, Veronika; Stoiber, Dagmar

    2012-10-01

    Mice with an impaired Type I interferon (IFN) signaling (IFNAR1- and IFNβ-deficient mice) display an increased susceptibility toward v-ABL-induced B-cell leukemia/lymphoma. The enhanced leukemogenesis in the absence of an intact Type I IFN signaling is caused by alterations within the tumor environment. Deletion of Ifnar1 in tumor cells (as obtained in Ifnar1(f/f) CD19-Cre mice) failed to impact on disease latency or type. In line with this observation, the initial transformation and proliferative capacity of tumor cells were unaltered irrespective of whether the cells expressed IFNAR1 or not. v-ABL-induced leukemogenesis is mainly subjected to natural killer (NK) cell-mediated tumor surveillance. Thus, we concentrated on NK cell functions in IFNAR1 deficient animals. Ifnar1(-/-) NK cells displayed maturation defects as well as an impaired cytolytic activity. When we deleted Ifnar1 selectively in mature NK cells (by crossing Ncr1-iCre mice to Ifnar1(f/f) animals), maturation was not altered. However, NK cells derived from Ifnar1(f/f) Ncr1-iCre mice showed a significant cytolytic defect in vitro against the hematopoietic cell lines YAC-1 and RMA-S, but not against the melanoma cell line B16F10. Interestingly, this defect was not related to an in vivo phenotype as v-ABL-induced leukemogenesis was unaltered in Ifnar1(f/f )Ncr1-iCre compared with Ifnar1(f/f) control mice. Moreover, the ability of Ifnar1(f/f) Ncr1-iCre NK cells to kill B16F10 melanoma cells was unaltered, both in vitro and in vivo. Our data reveal that despite the necessity for Type I IFN in NK cell maturation the expression of IFNAR1 on mature murine NK cells is not required for efficient tumor surveillance.

  15. Gene Expression Profile of High IFN-γ Producers Stimulated with Leishmania braziliensis Identifies Genes Associated with Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Marcia W; Fukutani, Kiyoshi F; Andrade, Bruno B; Curvelo, Rebecca P; Cristal, Juqueline R; Carvalho, Augusto M; Barral, Aldina; Van Weyenbergh, Johan; Barral-Netto, Manoel; de Oliveira, Camila I

    2016-11-01

    The initial response to Leishmania parasites is essential in determining disease development or resistance. In vitro, a divergent response to Leishmania, characterized by high or low IFN-γ production has been described as a potential tool to predict both vaccine response and disease susceptibility in vivo. We identified uninfected and healthy individuals that were shown to be either high- or low IFN-γ producers (HPs and LPs, respectively) following stimulation of peripheral blood cells with Leishmania braziliensis. Following stimulation, RNA was processed for gene expression analysis using immune gene arrays. Both HPs and LPs were shown to upregulate the expression of CXCL10, IFI27, IL6 and LTA. Genes expressed in HPs only (CCL7, IL8, IFI44L and IL1B) were associated with pathways related to IL17 and TREM 1 signaling. In LPs, uniquely expressed genes (for example IL9, IFI44, IFIT1 and IL2RA) were associated with pathways related to pattern recognition receptors and interferon signaling. We then investigated whether the unique gene expression profiles described here could be recapitulated in vivo, in individuals with active Cutaneous Leishmaniasis or with subclinical infection. Indeed, using a set of six genes (TLR2, JAK2, IFI27, IFIT1, IRF1 and IL6) modulated in HPs and LPs, we could successfully discriminate these two clinical groups. Finally, we demonstrate that these six genes are significantly overexpressed in CL lesions. Upon interrogation of the peripheral response of naive individuals with diverging IFN-γ production to L. braziliensis, we identified differences in the innate response to the parasite that are recapitulated in vivo and that discriminate CL patients from individuals presenting a subclinical infection.

  16. Zinc mediated dimer of human interferon-alpha 2b revealed by X-ray crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, R; Walter, L J; Hruza, A; Reichert, P; Trotta, P P; Nagabhushan, T L; Walter, M R

    1996-12-15

    The human alpha-interferon (huIFN-alpha) family displays broad spectrum antiviral, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory activities on a variety of cell types. The diverse biological activities of the IFN-alpha's are conveyed to cells through specific interactions with cell-surface receptors. Despite considerable effort, no crystal structure of a member of this family has yet been reported, because the quality of the protein crystals have been unsuitable for crystallographic studies. Until now, structural models of the IFN-alpha's have been based on the structure of murine IFN-beta (muIFN-beta). These models are likely to be inaccurate, as the amino acid sequence of muIFN-beta differs significantly from the IFN-alpha's at proposed receptor-binding sites. Structural information on a huIFN-alpha subtype would provide an improved basis for modeling the structures of the entire IFN-alpha family. The crystal structure of recombinant human interferon-alpha 2b (huIFN-alpha 2b) has been determined at 2.9 A resolution. HuIFN-alpha 2b exists in the crystal as a noncovalent dimer, which associates in a novel manner. Unlike other structurally characterized cytokines, extensive interactions in the dimer interface are mediated by a zinc ion (Zn2+). The overall fold of huIFN-alpha 2b is most similar to the structure of muIFN-beta. Unique to huIFN-alpha 2b is a 3(10) helix in the AB loop which is held to the core of the molecule by a disulfide bond. The structure of huIFN-alpha 2b provides an accurate model for analysis of the > 15 related type 1 interferon molecules. HuIFN-alpha 2b displays considerable structural similarity with muIFN-beta, interleukin-10 and interferon-gamma, which also bind related class 2 cytokine receptors. From these structural comparisons and numerous studies on the effects of mutations on biological activity, we have identified protein surfaces that appear to be important in receptor activation. This study also reveals the potential biological importance

  17. Cell-specific type I IFN signatures in autoimmunity and viral infection: what makes the difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieko Kyogoku

    Full Text Available Gene expression profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs has revealed a crucial role for type I interferon (IFN in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. However, it is unclear how particular leucocyte subsets contribute to the overall type I IFN signature of PBMCs and whole blood samples.Furthermore, a detailed analysis describing the differences in the IFN signature in autoimmune diseases from that observed after viral infection has not been performed to date. Therefore, in this study, the transcriptional responses in peripheral T helper cells (CD4(+ and monocyte subsets (CD16(- inflammatory and CD16(+ resident monocytes isolated from patients with SLE, healthy donors (ND immunised with the yellow fever vaccine YFV-17Dand untreated controls were compared by global gene expression profiling.It was striking that all of the transcripts that were regulated in response to viral exposure were also found to be differentially regulated in SLE, albeit with markedly lower fold-change values. In addition to this common IFN signature, a pathogenic IFN-associated gene signature was detected in the CD4(+ T cells and monocytes from the lupus patients. IL-10, IL-9 and IL-15-mediated JAK/STAT signalling was shown to be involved in the pathological amplification of IFN responses observed in SLE. Type I IFN signatures identified were successfully applied for the monitoring of interferon responses in PBMCs of an independent cohort of SLE patients and virus-infected individuals. Moreover, these cell-type specific gene signatures allowed a correct classification of PBMCs independent from their heterogenic cellular composition. In conclusion, our data show for the first time that monocytes and CD4 cells are sensitive biosensors to monitor type I interferon response signatures in autoimmunity and viral infection and how these transriptional responses are modulated in a cell- and disease-specific manner.

  18. Long-term pegylated interferon-α and its potential in the treatment of melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Dummer

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Reinhard Dummer, Joanna ManganaDepartment of Dermatology, University Hospital, Zürich, SwitzerlandAbstract: Conventional interferons including interferon-α (IFN-α are cytokines used for years in the treatment of solid tumors and hematological malignancies. Their half-life is short. Pegylated forms of IFN-α present an improved pharmacokinetic profile that rendered them the preferred IFNs in hepatitis therapy. In the last decade, pegylated interferons (PegIFNs have been investigated in melanoma patients. We review the scientific published literature on biology, pharmacokinetics, side effects and clinical applications of PegIFN-α in the treatment of stage III and IV melanoma. In the adjuvant setting, PegIFNα-2b has significant prolonged distant metastases free survival in patients with microscopic nodal involvement (stage TxN1aM0 and therefore is a promising treatment option in this patient population. In the palliative setting, monotherapy with PegIFNα-2α can induce complete remissions in a minority of stage IV melanoma patients. The combination of monochemotherapy is feasible and may result in lasting complete remissions. Ongoing research must focus on the identification of patients who mostly benefit, so that unnecessary toxicity would be avoided. Combining PegIFNs and chemotherapy or targeted agents deserves further exploration.Keywords: interferons, pegylated interferon-α, melanoma

  19. Interferon-gamma confers resistance to experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krakowski, M; Owens, T

    1996-01-01

    In experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), T cells infiltrate the central nervous system (CNS) and induce inflammation. These CD4+ T cells secrete interferon (IFN)-gamma, levels of which correlate with disease severity, and which is proposed to play a key role in disease induction. Many...

  20. Interferon-gamma treatment kinetics among patients with active ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) is essential for defence against Mycobacterium tuberculosis; however, levels in patients with active tuberculosis (TB) and changes during treatment have not been documented in our tuberculosis patients in Nigeria, hence this study has been carried out. Objective: To determine variations, ...

  1. Chemokine receptor CCR5 in interferon-treated multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sellebjerg, F; Kristiansen, Thomas Birk; Wittenhagen, P

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between CC chemokine receptor CCR5 expression and disease activity in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients treated with beta-interferon (IFN-beta). METHODS: The CCR5 Delta32 allele and a CCR5 promoter polymorphism associated with cell surface expression of CCR5 were...

  2. Immune response genes receptors expression and polymorphisms in relation to multiple sclerosis susceptibility and response to INF-β therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Rehab A; Rezk, Noha A; Amer, Mona M; Fathy, Hala A

    2016-09-01

    Interferon (IFN)-β is one of the disease modifying drugs used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. A predictive marker that indicates good or poor response to the treatment is highly desirable. We aimed to investigate the relation between the immune response genes receptors (IFNAR1, IFNAR2, and CCR5) expression and their polymorhic variants and multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility as well as the response to IFN-β therapy. The immune response genes receptors expression and genotyping were analyzed in 80 patients with MS, treated with IFN-β and in 110 healthy controls. There was a significant decrease of IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 mRNA expression and a significant increase of CCR5 mRNA expression in MS patients compared with the control group. Also, the level of IFNAR1, IFNAR2, and CCR5 mRNA expression was found to be significantly lower in the responders than nonresponders. Carriers of IFNAR1 18417 C/C genotype and C allele had an increased risk of developing MS. There was a significant relation between CCR5 Δ32 allele and IFN-β treatment response in MS patients. Our results highlighted the significance of IFNAR and CCR5 genes in multiple sclerosis risk and the response to IFN-β therapy. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(9):727-734, 2016. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  3. HHV-6B induces IFN-lambda1 responses in cord plasmacytoid dendritic cells through TLR9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Nordström

    Full Text Available Human herpesvirus type 6B (HHV-6B is a strong inducer of IFN-alpha and has the capacity to promote Th1 responses and block Th2 responses in vitro. In this study we addressed whether inactivated HHV-6B can also induce IFN lambda responses and to what extent interferons alpha and lambda affect Th1/Th2 polarization. We show that inactivated HHV-6B induced IFN-lambda1 (IL-29 but not IFN-lambda2 (IL-28A responses in plasmacytoid DC and that this induction was mediated through TLR9. We have previously shown that HHV-6B promotes Th1 responses and blocks Th2 responses in both humans and mice. We now show that neutralization of IFN-alpha but not IFN-lambda1 blocked the HHV-6B-induced enhancement of Th1 responses in MLR, but did not affect the HHV-6-induced dampening of Th2 responses. Similarly, blockage of TLR9 counteracted HHV-6Bs effects on the Th1/Th2 balance. In addition, IFN-alpha but not IFN-lambda1 promoted IFN-gamma production and blocked IL-5 and IL-13 production in purified CD4+ T-cells. The lack of effect of IFN-lambda1 correlated with the absence of the IFN-lambda receptor IL-28Ralfa chain on the cell surface of both resting and activated CD4+ T-cells. We conclude that inactivated HHV-6B is a strong inducer of IFN-lambda1 in plasmacytoid DC and that this induction is TLR9-dependent. However, human CD4+ T-cells do not express the IFN-lambda receptor and are refractory to IFN-lambda1 treatment. The HHV-6B-induced alterations in the Th1/Th2 balance are instead mediated mainly through TLR9 and IFN-alpha.

  4. A null mutation in the gene encoding a type I interferon receptor component eliminates antiproliferative and antiviral responses to interferons alpha and beta and alters macrophage responses.

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, S.Y.; Hertzog, P J; Holland, K A; Sumarsono, S H; Tymms, M J; Hamilton, J A; Whitty, G; Bertoncello, I.; Kola, I.

    1995-01-01

    To examine the in vivo role(s) of type I interferons (IFNs) and to determine the role of a component of the type I IFN receptor (IFNAR1) in mediating responses to these IFNs, we generated mice with a null mutation (-/-) in the IFNAR1 gene. Despite compelling evidence for modulation of cell proliferation and differentiation by type I IFNs, there were no gross signs of abnormal fetal development or morphological changes in adult IFNAR1-/- mice. However, abnormalities of hemopoietic cells were d...

  5. Functional polymorphisms of interferon-gamma affect pneumonia-induced sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Wang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Sepsis is an inflammatory syndrome caused by infection, and both its incidence and mortality are high. Because interferon-gamma (IFN-γ plays an important role in inflammation, this work assessed IFN-γ single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs that may be associated with sepsis. METHODS: A total of 196 patients with pneumonia-induced sepsis and 213 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers participated in our study from July 2012 to July 2013 in Guangzhou, China. Patient clinical information was collected. Clinical pathology was assessed in subgroups defined based on clinical criteria, APACHE II (acute physiology and chronic health evaluation and SOFA (sepsis-related organ failure assessment scores and discharge rate. Four functional SNPs, -1616T/C (rs2069705, -764G/C (rs2069707, +874A/T (rs2430561 and +3234C/T (rs2069718, were genotyped by Snapshot in both sepsis patients and healthy controls. Pearson's chi-square test or Fisher's exact test were used to analyze the distribution of the SNPs, and the probability values (P values, odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated. RESULTS: No mutations in the IFN-γ -764G/C SNP were detected among the participants in our study. The +874A/T and +3234C/T SNPs were in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD (r(2 = 0.894. The -1616 TC+TT, +874 AT+AA genotype and the TAC haplotype were significantly associated with sepsis susceptibility, while the CTT haplotype was associated with protection against sepsis incidence. Genotype of -1616 TT wasn't only protective against severity of sepsis, but also against higher APACHE II and SOFA scores as +874 AA and +3234 CC. The TAC haplotype was was protective against progression to severe sepsis either. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that functional IFN-γ SNPs and their haplotypes are associated with pneumonia-induced sepsis.

  6. Antiproliferative Properties of Type I and Type II Interferon

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    Joseph Bekisz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The clinical possibilities of interferon (IFN became apparent with early studies demonstrating that it was capable of inhibiting tumor cells in culture and in vivo using animal models. IFN gained the distinction of being the first recombinant cytokine to be licensed in the USA for the treatment of a malignancy in 1986, with the approval of IFN-α2a (Hoffman-La Roche and IFN-α2b (Schering-Plough for the treatment of Hairy Cell Leukemia. In addition to this application, other approved antitumor applications for IFN-α2a are AIDS-related Kaposi’s Sarcoma and Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML and other approved antitumor applications for IFN-α2b are Malignant Melanoma, Follicular Lymphoma, and AIDS-related Kapoisi’s Sarcoma. In the ensuing years, a considerable number of studies have been conducted to establish the mechanisms of the induction and action of IFN’s anti-tumor activity. These include identifying the role of Interferon Regulatory Factor 9 (IRF9 as a key factor in eliciting the antiproliferative effects of IFN-α as well as identifying genes induced by IFN that are involved in recognition of tumor cells. Recent studies also show that IFN-activated human monocytes can be used to achieve >95% eradication of select tumor cells. The signaling pathways by which IFN induces apoptosis can vary. IFN treatment induces the tumor suppressor gene p53, which plays a role in apoptosis for some tumors, but it is not essential for the apoptotic response. IFN-α also activates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K, which is associated with cell survival. Downstream of PI3K is the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR which, in conjunction with PI3K, may act in signaling induced by growth factors after IFN treatment. This paper will explore the mechanisms by which IFN acts to elicit its antiproliferative effects and more closely examine the clinical applications for the anti-tumor potential of IFN.

  7. Interferon-γ induces expression of MHC class II on intestinal epithelial cells and protects mice from colitis.

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    Christoph Thelemann

    Full Text Available Immune responses against intestinal microbiota contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD and involve CD4(+ T cells, which are activated by major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII molecules on antigen-presenting cells (APCs. However, it is largely unexplored how inflammation-induced MHCII expression by intestinal epithelial cells (IEC affects CD4(+ T cell-mediated immunity or tolerance induction in vivo. Here, we investigated how epithelial MHCII expression is induced and how a deficiency in inducible epithelial MHCII expression alters susceptibility to colitis and the outcome of colon-specific immune responses. Colitis was induced in mice that lacked inducible expression of MHCII molecules on all nonhematopoietic cells, or specifically on IECs, by continuous infection with Helicobacter hepaticus and administration of interleukin (IL-10 receptor-blocking antibodies (anti-IL10R mAb. To assess the role of interferon (IFN-γ in inducing epithelial MHCII expression, the T cell adoptive transfer model of colitis was used. Abrogation of MHCII expression by nonhematopoietic cells or IECs induces colitis associated with increased colonic frequencies of innate immune cells and expression of proinflammatory cytokines. CD4(+ T-helper type (Th1 cells - but not group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILCs or Th17 cells - are elevated, resulting in an unfavourably altered ratio between CD4(+ T cells and forkhead box P3 (FoxP3(+ regulatory T (Treg cells. IFN-γ produced mainly by CD4(+ T cells is required to upregulate MHCII expression by IECs. These results suggest that, in addition to its proinflammatory roles, IFN-γ exerts a critical anti-inflammatory function in the intestine which protects against colitis by inducing MHCII expression on IECs. This may explain the failure of anti-IFN-γ treatment to induce remission in IBD patients, despite the association of elevated IFN-γ and IBD.

  8. Co-incubation with IL-18 potentiates antigen-specific IFN-γ response in a whole-blood stimulation assay for measurement of cell-mediated immune responses in pigs experimentally infected with Lawsonia intracellularis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Ulla; Boesen, Henriette Toft; Jakobsen, Jeanne Toft

    2011-01-01

    The whole-blood interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) assay is a quantitative in-vitro assay for a direct read out of Ag-specific cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses to infectious diseases. The IFN-γ assay is robust in severe intracellular infections like Brucella or mycobacteria, but more difficult to evalu......The whole-blood interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) assay is a quantitative in-vitro assay for a direct read out of Ag-specific cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses to infectious diseases. The IFN-γ assay is robust in severe intracellular infections like Brucella or mycobacteria, but more difficult...

  9. Inhibitors of the interferon response enhance virus replication in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire E Stewart

    Full Text Available Virus replication efficiency is influenced by two conflicting factors, kinetics of the cellular interferon (IFN response and induction of an antiviral state versus speed of virus replication and virus-induced inhibition of the IFN response. Disablement of a virus's capacity to circumvent the IFN response enables both basic research and various practical applications. However, such IFN-sensitive viruses can be difficult to grow to high-titer in cells that produce and respond to IFN. The current default option for growing IFN-sensitive viruses is restricted to a limited selection of cell-lines (e.g. Vero cells that have lost their ability to produce IFN. This study demonstrates that supplementing tissue-culture medium with an IFN inhibitor provides a simple, effective and flexible approach to increase the growth of IFN-sensitive viruses in a cell-line of choice. We report that IFN inhibitors targeting components of the IFN response (TBK1, IKK2, JAK1 significantly increased virus replication. More specifically, the JAK1/2 inhibitor Ruxolitinib enhances the growth of viruses that are sensitive to IFN due to (i loss of function of the viral IFN antagonist (due to mutation or species-specific constraints or (ii mutations/host cell constraints that slow virus spread such that it can be controlled by the IFN response. This was demonstrated for a variety of viruses, including, viruses with disabled IFN antagonists that represent live-attenuated vaccine candidates (Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV, Influenza Virus, traditionally attenuated vaccine strains (Measles, Mumps and a slow-growing wild-type virus (RSV. In conclusion, supplementing tissue culture-medium with an IFN inhibitor to increase the growth of IFN-sensitive viruses in a cell-line of choice represents an approach, which is broadly applicable to research investigating the importance of the IFN response in controlling virus infections and has utility in a number of practical applications

  10. Lethal monkeypox virus infection of CAST/EiJ mice is associated with a deficient gamma interferon response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Patricia L; Americo, Jeffrey L; Moss, Bernard

    2012-09-01

    Monkeypox virus (MPXV) is endemic in Africa, where it causes disease in humans resembling smallpox. A recent importation of MPXV-infected animals into the United States raises the possibility of global spread. Rodents comprise the major reservoir of MPXV, and a variety of such animals, even those native to North America, are susceptible. In contrast, common inbred strains of mice, including BALB/c and C57BL/6, are greatly resistant to MPXV. However, several inbred strains of mice derived from wild mice, including CAST/EiJ, exhibit morbidity and mortality at relatively low inoculums of MPXV. Elucidating the basis for the susceptibility of CAST/EiJ mice could contribute to an understanding of MPXV pathogenicity and host defense mechanisms and enhance the value of this mouse strain as a model system for evaluation of therapeutics and vaccines. Here we compared virus dissemination and induced cytokine production in CAST/EiJ mice to those in the resistant BALB/c strain. Following intranasal infection, robust virus replication occurred in the lungs of both strains, although a relatively higher inoculum was required for BALB/c. However, while spread to other internal organs was rapid and efficient in CAST/EiJ mice, the virus was largely restricted to the lungs in BALB/c mice. Gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and CCL5 were induced in lungs of BALB/c mice concomitant with virus replication but not in CAST/EiJ mice. The importance of IFN-γ in protection against MPXV disease was demonstrated by the intranasal administration of the mouse cytokine to CAST/EiJ mice and the resulting protection against MPXV. Furthermore, C57BL/6 mice with inactivation of the IFN-γ gene or the IFN-γ receptor gene exhibited enhanced sensitivity to MPXV.

  11. IFN-beta gene deletion leads to augmented and chronic demyelinating experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teige, Ingrid; Treschow, Alexandra; Teige, Anna

    2003-01-01

    Since the basic mechanisms behind the beneficial effects of IFN-beta in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients are still obscure, here we have investigated the effects of IFN-beta gene disruption on the commonly used animal model for MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We show that IFN......-beta knockout (KO) mice are more susceptible to EAE than their wild-type (wt) littermates; they develop more severe and chronic neurological symptoms with more extensive CNS inflammation and demyelination. However, there was no discrepancy observed between wt and KO mice regarding the capacity of T cells...... to proliferate or produce IFN-gamma in response to recall Ag. Consequently, we addressed the effect of IFN-beta on encephalitogenic T cell development and the disease initiation phase by passive transfer of autoreactive T cells from KO or wt littermates to both groups of mice. Interestingly, IFN-beta KO mice...

  12. Quantifying the Antiviral Effect of IFN on HIV-1 Replication in Cell Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Hiroki; Godinho-Santos, Ana; Rato, Sylvie; Vanwalscappel, Bénédicte; Clavel, François; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Iwami, Shingo; Mammano, Fabrizio

    2015-06-01

    Type-I interferons (IFNs) induce the expression of hundreds of cellular genes, some of which have direct antiviral activities. Although IFNs restrict different steps of HIV replication cycle, their dominant antiviral effect remains unclear. We first quantified the inhibition of HIV replication by IFN in tissue culture, using viruses with different tropism and growth kinetics. By combining experimental and mathematical analyses, we determined quantitative estimates for key parameters of HIV replication and inhibition, and demonstrate that IFN mainly inhibits de novo infection (33% and 47% for a X4- and a R5-strain, respectively), rather than virus production (15% and 6% for the X4 and R5 strains, respectively). This finding is in agreement with patient-derived data analyses.

  13. DEAD-Box Helicase DDX25 Is a Negative Regulator of Type I Interferon Pathway and Facilitates RNA Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Feng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease that rapidly spread in tropic and subtropic area in recent years. DEAD (Glu-Asp-Ala-Glu-box RNA helicases have been reported to play important roles in viral infection, either as cytosolic sensors of viral nucleic acids or as essential host factors for the replication of different viruses. In this study, we reported that DDX25, a DEAD-box RNA helicase, plays a proviral role in DENV infection. The expression levels of DDX25 mRNA and protein were upregulated in DENV infected cells. During DENV infection, the intracellular viral loads were significantly lower in DDX25 silenced cells and higher in DDX25 overexpressed cells. Meanwhile, the expression level of type I interferon (IFN was increased in DDX25 siRNA treated cells during viral infection. Consistent with the in vitro findings, the Ddx25-transgenic mice have an increased susceptibility to lethal vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV virus challenge. The viremia was significantly higher while the anti-viral cytokine levels were lower in Ddx25-transgenic mice. Further, DDX25 modulated RIG-I signaling pathway and blocked IFNβ production, by interrupting IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3 and NFκB activation. Thus, DDX25 is a novel negative regulator of IFN pathway and facilitates RNA virus infection.

  14. Characterization of the interferon gamma response to Lawsonia intracellularis using an equine proliferative enteropathy challenge (EPE) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, A E; Loynachan, A T; Bryant, U; Stills, H F; Adams, A A; Gebhart, C J; Pusterla, N; Horohov, D W

    2011-09-15

    Lawsonia intracellularis is the etiological agent of infectious intestinal hyperplasia for which several clinical diseases have been described including proliferative enteropathy (PE), intestinal adenomatosis, and ileitis. While initially recognized as the causative agent of PE in pigs, L. intracellularis is now viewed as an emerging cause of intestinal hyperplasia in a wide range of mammalian species, including horses. Equine proliferative enteropathy (EPE) has been reported worldwide though definitive diagnosis is difficult and the epidemiology of the disease remains poorly understood. Weanlings, in particular, appear to be most at risk for infection, though the reasons for their particular susceptibility is unknown. Using an infectious challenge model for EPE, we demonstrate that EPE, like porcine proliferative enteropathy, can exhibit three clinical forms: classical, subclinical and acute. Out of six pony weanlings, one developed signs of classic EPE, one developed acute EPE, and two developed subclinical EPE. Attempts to induce pharmacological stress through the use of dexamethasone failed to have any effect on outcome. Peripheral blood cells collected from those weanlings that developed clinical EPE exhibited decreased expression of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) following in vitro stimulation with L. intracellularis. By contrast, those weanlings that did not develop clinical disease generated a robust IFN-γ response. These results indicate IFN-γ likely plays a significant role in protection from disease caused by L. intracellularis in the equid. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A selective defect of interferon alpha production in human immunodeficiency virus-infected monocytes [published erratum appears in J Exp Med 1991 Jan 1;173(1):277

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    Interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) induces significant antiretroviral activities that affect the ability of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to infect and replicate in its principal target cells, CD4+ T cells and macrophages. A major endogenous source of IFN-alpha during any infection is the macrophage. Thus, macrophages have the potential to produce both IFN-alpha and HIV. In this study, we examined the production of IFN-alpha and other cytokines by macrophage colony- stimulating factor (M-CSF)-...

  16. Variants of genes implicated in type 1 interferon pathway and B-cell activation modulate the EULAR response to rituximab at 24 weeks in rheumatoid arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Juge, Pierre-Antoine; Gazal, Steven; Constantin, Arnaud; Mariette, Xavier; Combe, Bernard; Tebib, Jacques; Dougados, Maxime; Sibilia, Jean; Le Loet, Xavier; Dieudé, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Background The type 1 interferon (IFN) pathway has been identified to potentially affect the response to rituximab (RTX) for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), which suggests the contribution of type 1 IFN pathway genes such as IFN regulatory factor 5 and 7 (IRF5 and IRF7), tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2), signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) and osteopontin (SPP1). Our objective was to study functional variants of these IFN pathway genes as predictors of the European League Against Rh...

  17. A hot spot on interferon α/β receptor subunit 1 (IFNAR1) underpins its interaction with interferon-β and dictates signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Weerd, Nicole A; Matthews, Antony Y; Pattie, Phillip R; Bourke, Nollaig M; Lim, San S; Vivian, Julian P; Rossjohn, Jamie; Hertzog, Paul J

    2017-05-05

    The interaction of IFN-β with its receptor IFNAR1 (interferon α/β receptor subunit 1) is vital for host-protective anti-viral and anti-proliferative responses, but signaling via this interaction can be detrimental if dysregulated. Whereas it is established that IFNAR1 is an essential component of the IFNAR signaling complex, the key residues underpinning the IFN-β-IFNAR1 interaction are unknown. Guided by the crystal structure of the IFN-β-IFNAR1 complex, we used truncation variants and site-directed mutagenesis to investigate domains and residues enabling complexation of IFN-β to IFNAR1. We have identified an interface on IFNAR1-subdomain-3 that is differentially utilized by IFN-β and IFN-α for signal transduction. We used surface plasmon resonance and cell-based assays to investigate this important IFN-β binding interface that is centered on IFNAR1 residues Tyr240 and Tyr274 binding the C and N termini of the B and C helices of IFN-β, respectively. Using IFNAR1 and IFN-β variants, we show that this interface contributes significantly to the affinity of IFN-β for IFNAR1, its ability to activate STAT1, the expression of interferon stimulated genes, and ultimately to the anti-viral and anti-proliferative properties of IFN-β. These results identify a key interface created by IFNAR1 residues Tyr240 and Tyr274 interacting with IFN-β residues Phe63, Leu64, Glu77, Thr78, Val81, and Arg82 that underlie IFN-β-IFNAR1-mediated signaling and biological processes. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Outcomes of Congenital Zika Disease Depend on Timing of Infection and Maternal-Fetal Interferon Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinling; Liang, Yuejin; Yi, Panpan; Xu, Lanman; Hawkins, Hal K; Rossi, Shannan L; Soong, Lynn; Cai, Jiyang; Menon, Ramkumar; Sun, Jiaren

    2017-11-07

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy in humans results in intrauterine growth restriction, spontaneous abortion, and microcephaly. Here, we found that fetus-derived type I interferon (IFN-I) signaling can enhance anti-ZIKV responses and provide clinical benefits to the fetus. Because IFN-λ shares signaling cascades and antiviral functions with IFN-I, we investigated the in vivo effects of IFN-λ in ZIKV-infected pregnant mice. IFN-λ administration during mid-pregnancy reduced ZIKV burden in maternal and fetal organs and alleviated placental injuries and fetal demise. In addition, prophylactic and therapeutic treatment of IFN-λ1 in a human trophoblast line, as well as in primary human amniotic epithelial cells, greatly reduced the ZIKV burden. Our data highlight IFN-λ1 as a potential therapeutic useful for women at risk for congenital Zika disease. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The interferons and cell death: guardians of the cell or accomplices of apoptosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, G N

    2000-04-01

    The interferons (IFNs) play an integral role in cellular host defense against virus infection and conceivably tumorigenesis. Despite over 50 years of research, however, the molecular mechanisms underlining IFN action remain to be fully elucidated, in part because of the large number of genes, with an uncharacterized function that appears to be induced by these cytokines. Although the majority of in vitro studies indicate that IFNs antiviral properties involve inhibiting viral replication while maintaining the integrity of the cell, numerous reports have now implicated that a number of IFN-induced genes, IFN transcriptional regulatory factors and IFN signaling molecules can also mediate apoptosis. Here, we review some of what is known about IFN's ability to invoke programmed cell death as part of an intricate arsenal intended to prevent viral infection and malignant disease.

  20. Outcomes of Congenital Zika Disease Depend on Timing of Infection and Maternal-Fetal Interferon Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinling Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV infection during pregnancy in humans results in intrauterine growth restriction, spontaneous abortion, and microcephaly. Here, we found that fetus-derived type I interferon (IFN-I signaling can enhance anti-ZIKV responses and provide clinical benefits to the fetus. Because IFN-λ shares signaling cascades and antiviral functions with IFN-I, we investigated the in vivo effects of IFN-λ in ZIKV-infected pregnant mice. IFN-λ administration during mid-pregnancy reduced ZIKV burden in maternal and fetal organs and alleviated placental injuries and fetal demise. In addition, prophylactic and therapeutic treatment of IFN-λ1 in a human trophoblast line, as well as in primary human amniotic epithelial cells, greatly reduced the ZIKV burden. Our data highlight IFN-λ1 as a potential therapeutic useful for women at risk for congenital Zika disease.

  1. DNA-Damage-Induced Type I Interferon Promotes Senescence and Inhibits Stem Cell Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiujing Yu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Expression of type I interferons (IFNs can be induced by DNA-damaging agents, but the mechanisms and significance of this regulation are not completely understood. We found that the transcription factor IRF3, activated in an ATM-IKKα/β-dependent manner, stimulates cell-autonomous IFN-β expression in response to double-stranded DNA breaks. Cells and tissues with accumulating DNA damage produce endogenous IFN-β and stimulate IFN signaling in vitro and in vivo. In turn, IFN acts to amplify DNA-damage responses, activate the p53 pathway, promote senescence, and inhibit stem cell function in response to telomere shortening. Inactivation of the IFN pathway abrogates the development of diverse progeric phenotypes and extends the lifespan of Terc knockout mice. These data identify DNA-damage-response-induced IFN signaling as a critical mechanism that links accumulating DNA damage with senescence and premature aging.

  2. Down-regulation of the interferon signaling pathway in T lymphocytes from patients with metastatic melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca J Critchley-Thorne

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Dysfunction of the immune system has been documented in many types of cancers. The precise nature and molecular basis of immune dysfunction in the cancer state are not well defined.To gain insights into the molecular mechanisms of immune dysfunction in cancer, gene expression profiles of pure sorted peripheral blood lymphocytes from 12 patients with melanoma were compared to 12 healthy controls. Of 25 significantly altered genes in T cells and B cells from melanoma patients, 17 are interferon (IFN-stimulated genes. These microarray findings were further confirmed by quantitative PCR and functional responses to IFNs. The median percentage of lymphocytes that phosphorylate STAT1 in response to interferon-alpha was significantly reduced (Delta = 16.8%; 95% confidence interval, 0.98% to 33.35% in melanoma patients (n = 9 compared to healthy controls (n = 9 in Phosflow analysis. The Phosflow results also identified two subgroups of patients with melanoma: IFN-responsive (33% and low-IFN-response (66%. The defect in IFN signaling in the melanoma patient group as a whole was partially overcome at the level of expression of IFN-stimulated genes by prolonged stimulation with the high concentration of IFN-alpha that is achievable only in IFN therapy used in melanoma. The lowest responders to IFN-alpha in the Phosflow assay also showed the lowest gene expression in response to IFN-alpha. Finally, T cells from low-IFN-response patients exhibited functional abnormalities, including decreased expression of activation markers CD69, CD25, and CD71; TH1 cytokines interleukin-2, IFN-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor alpha, and reduced survival following stimulation with anti-CD3/CD28 antibodies compared to controls.Defects in interferon signaling represent novel, dominant mechanisms of immune dysfunction in cancer. These findings may be used to design therapies to counteract immune dysfunction in melanoma and to improve cancer immunotherapy.

  3. Expression of bioactive porcine interferon-alpha in Lactobacillus casei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shi-jie; Li, Kun; Li, Xin-Sheng; Guo, Xiao-Qing; Fu, Peng-Fei; Yang, Ming-Fan; Chen, Hong-Ying

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we constructed an expression cassette containing the inducible lac promoter and the secretion signal from an S-layer protein of Lactobacillus brevis for the expression of porcine interferon-alpha (IFN-α) in Lactobacillus casei (Lb. casei). Reverse-transcriptase PCR verified the presence of porcine IFN-α mRNA in the recombinant Lb. casei. The porcine IFN-α protein expressed in the recombinant Lb. casei was identified by both Western blot analysis and ELISA. We used various pH values and induction times to optimize the yield of IFN-α, and found that induction with 0.8% lactose for 16 h under anaerobic conditions produced the highest concentrations of IFN-α. Furthermore, the activity of porcine IFN-α in the cultural supernatant was evaluated on ST cells infected with pseudorabies virus. The results revealed that porcine IFN-α inhibited virus replication in vitro. The findings of our study indicate that recombinant Lb. casei producing porcine IFN-α has great potential for use as a novel oral antiviral agent in animal healthcare.

  4. The Unresolved Role of Interferon-λ in Asthma Bronchiale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Sopel

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Asthma bronchiale is a disease of the airways with increasing incidence, that often begins during infancy. So far, therapeutic options are mainly symptomatic and thus there is an increasing need for better treatment and/or prevention strategies. Human rhinoviruses (HRVs are a major cause of asthma exacerbations and might cause acute wheezing associated with local production of pro-inflammatory mediators resulting in neutrophilic inflammatory response. Viral infections induce a characteristic activation of immune response, e.g., TLR3, 4, 7, 8, 9 in the endosome and their downstream targets, especially MyD88. Moreover, other cytoplasmic pattern recognition molecules (PRMs like RIG1 and MDA5 play important roles in the activation of interferons (IFNs of all types. Depending on the stimulation of the different PRMs, the levels of the IFNs induced might differ. Recent studies focused on Type I IFNs in samples from control and asthma patients. However, the administration of type I IFN-α was accompanied by side-effects, thus this possible therapy was abandoned. Type III IFN-λ acts more specifically, as fewer cells express the IFN-λ receptor chain 1. In addition, it has been shown that asthmatic mice treated with recombinant or adenoviral expressed IFN-λ2 (IL–28A showed an amelioration of symptoms, indicating that treatment with IFN-λ might be beneficial for asthmatic patients.

  5. Aptamer-based electrochemical biosensor for interferon gamma detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Tuleouva, Nazgul; Ramanculov, Erlan; Revzin, Alexander

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, we describe the development of an electrochemical DNA aptamer-based biosensor for detection of interferon (IFN)-γ. A DNA hairpin containing IFN-γ-binding aptamer was thiolated, conjugated with methylene blue (MB) redox tag, and immobilized on a gold electrode by self-assembly. Binding of IFN-γ caused the aptamer hairpin to unfold, pushing MB redox molecules away from the electrode and decreasing electron-transfer efficiency. The change in redox current was quantified using square wave voltammetry (SWV) and was found to be highly sensitive to IFN-γ concentration. The limit of detection for optimized biosensor was 0.06 nM with linear response extending to 10 nM. This aptasensor was specific to IFN-γ in the presence of overabundant serum proteins. Importantly, the same aptasensor could be regenerated by disrupting aptamer-IFN-γ complex in urea buffer and reused multiple times. Unlike standard sandwich immunoassays, the aptasensor described here allowed one to detect IFN-γ binding directly without the need for multiple washing steps and reagents. An electrochemical biosensor for simple and sensitive detection of IFN-γ demonstrated in this paper will have future applications in immunology, cancer research, and infectious disease monitoring.

  6. Anti-Interferon Autoantibodies in Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy Syndrome Type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meager, Anthony; Visvalingam, Kumuthini; Peterson, Pärt; Möll, Kaidi; Murumägi, Astrid; Krohn, Kai; Eskelin, Petra; Perheentupa, Jaakko; Husebye, Eystein; Kadota, Yoshihisa; Willcox, Nick

    2006-01-01

    Background The autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene influences thymic self-tolerance induction. In autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome type 1 (APS1; OMIM 240300), recessive AIRE mutations lead to autoimmunity targetting endocrine and other epithelial tissues, although chronic candidiasis usually appears first. Autoimmunity and chronic candidiasis can associate with thymomas as well. Patients with these tumours frequently also have high titre immunoglobulin G autoantibodies neutralising type I interferon (IFN)–α and IFN-ω, which are secreted signalling proteins of the cytokine superfamily involved in both innate and adaptive immunity. Methods and Findings We tested for serum autoantibodies to type I IFNs and other immunoregulatory cytokines using specific binding and neutralisation assays. Unexpectedly, in 60/60 Finnish and 16/16 Norwegian APS1 patients with both AIRE alleles mutated, we found high titre neutralising immunoglobulin G autoantibodies to most IFN-α subtypes and especially IFN-ω (60% homologous to IFN-α)—mostly in the earliest samples. We found lower titres against IFN-β (30% homologous to IFN-α) in 23% of patients; two-thirds of these (from Finland only) also had low titres against the distantly related “type III IFN” (IFN-λ1; alias interleukin-29). However, autoantibodies to the unrelated type II IFN, IFN-γ, and other immunoregulatory cytokines, such as interleukin-10 and interleukin-12, were much rarer and did not neutralise. Neutralising titres against type I IFNs averaged even higher in patients with APS1 than in patients with thymomas. Anti–type I IFN autoantibodies preceded overt candidiasis (and several of the autoimmune disorders) in the informative patients, and persisted for decades thereafter. They were undetectable in unaffected heterozygous relatives of APS1 probands (except for low titres against IFN-λ1), in APS2 patients, and in isolated cases of the endocrine diseases most typical of APS1, so they appear to be APS1

  7. A Distal Locus Element Mediates IFN-γ Priming of Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated TNF Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy A. Chow

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Interferon γ (IFN-γ priming sensitizes monocytes and macrophages to lipopolysaccharide (LPS stimulation, resulting in augmented expression of a set of genes including TNF. Here, we demonstrate that IFN-γ priming of LPS-stimulated TNF transcription requires a distal TNF/LT locus element 8 kb upstream of the TNF transcription start site (hHS-8. IFN-γ stimulation leads to increased DNase I accessibility of hHS-8 and its recruitment of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1, and subsequent LPS stimulation enhances H3K27 acetylation and induces enhancer RNA synthesis at hHS-8. Ablation of IRF1 or targeting the hHS-8 IRF1 binding site in vivo with Cas9 linked to the KRAB repressive domain abolishes IFN-γ priming, but does not affect LPS induction of the gene. Thus, IFN-γ poises a distal enhancer in the TNF/LT locus by chromatin remodeling and IRF1 recruitment, which then drives enhanced TNF gene expression in response to a secondary toll-like receptor (TLR stimulus.

  8. Cognitive consequences of a sustained monocyte type 1 IFN response in HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulliam, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    With successful antiretroviral therapy, HIV-1-infected subjects can achieve undetectable peripheral viral loads and immune homeostasis. However, in a subset of individuals on therapy, peripheral monocytes have a gene expression profile characteristic of a type 1 interferon α (IFN) response. This type 1 IFN response correlates with a number of pathogenic conditions including neural cell injury and in combination with HCV infection, cognitive impairment. Lessons from the non-human primate models of pathogenic and nonpathogenic SIV suggest that returning the initial IFN spike in acute SIV infection to normal allows the immune system to control infection and return to homeostasis. An IFN "alarm" signature, defined as monocyte activation with overexpression of the type1 IFN genes IFI27 and CD169, would be useful for identifying a subset of subjects with HIV-1 infection that could progress to a number of pathologies associated with immune activation including cognitive dysfunction. This strategy is being actively pursued for autoimmune diseases that are characterized by an IFN signature. Therapies to block the IFN signature are under investigation as a means to reset the immune system and in a subset of HIV-1-infected subjects may be an adjuvant to standard antiviral therapy to return cognitive function.

  9. ISG15 Inhibits IFN-α-Resistant Liver Cancer Cell Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-xing Wan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is one of the most prevalent tumors worldwide. Interferon-α (IFN-α has been widely used in the treatment of HCC, but patients eventually develop resistance. ISG15 ubiquitin-like modifier (ISG15 is a ubiquitin-like protein transcriptionally regulated by IFN-α which shows antivirus and antitumor activities. However, the exact role of ISG15 is unknown. In the present study, we showed that IFN-α significantly induced ISG15 expression but failed to induce HepG2 cell apoptosis, whereas transient overexpression of ISG15 dramatically increased HepG2 cell apoptosis. ISG15 overexpression increased overall protein ubiquitination, which was not observed in cells with IFN-α-induced ISG15 expression, suggesting that IFN-α treatment not only induced the expression of ISG15 but also inhibited ISG15-mediated ubiquitination. The tumor suppressor p53 and p21 proteins are the key regulators of cell survival and death in response to stress signals such as DNA damage. We showed that p53 or p21 is only up regulated in HepG2 cells ectopically expressing ISG15, but not in the presence of IFN-α-induced ISG15. Our results suggest that ISG15 overexpression could be developed into a powerful gene-therapeutic tool for treating IFN-α-resistant HCC.

  10. Alpha interferon inhibits early stages of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication cycle.

    OpenAIRE

    Shirazi, Y; Pitha, P M

    1992-01-01

    In this study, we have analyzed the effect of human alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) on a single replication cycle of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in the lymphocytic cell line CEM-174, which is highly sensitive to the antiviral effects of IFN. Pretreatment of cells with 50 to 500 U of recombinant human IFN-alpha per ml resulted in a marked reduction in viral RNA and protein synthesis. The effect of IFN-alpha was dose dependent and was amplified in multiple infection cycle...

  11. Characterization of the bovine type I IFN locus: rearrangements, expansions, and novel subfamilies

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    Walker Angela M

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Type I interferons (IFN have major roles in the innate immune response to viruses, a function that is believed to have led to expansion in the number and complexity of their genes, although these genes have remained confined to single chromosomal region in all mammals so far examined. IFNB and IFNE define the limits of the locus, with all other Type I IFN genes except IFNK distributed between these boundaries, strongly suggesting that the locus has broadened as IFN genes duplicated and then evolved into a series of distinct families. Results The Type I IFN locus in Bos taurus has undergone significant rearrangement and expansion compared to mouse and human, however, with the constituent genes separated into two sub-loci separated by >700 kb. The IFNW family is greatly expanded, comprising 24 potentially functional genes and at least 8 pseudogenes. The IFNB (n = 6, represented in human and mouse by one copy, are also present as multiple copies in Bos taurus. The IFNT, which encode a non-virally inducible, ruminant-specific IFN secreted by the pre-implantation conceptus, are represented by three genes and two pseudogenes. The latter have sequences intermediate between IFNT and IFNW. A new Type I IFN family (IFNX of four members, one of which is a pseudogene, appears to have diverged from the IFNA lineage at least 83 million years ago, but is absent in all other sequenced genomes with the possible exception of the horse, a non-ruminant herbivore. Conclusion In summary, we have provided the first comprehensive annotation of the Type I IFN locus in Bos taurus, thereby providing an insight into the functional evolution of the Type I IFN in ruminants. The diversity and global spread of the ruminant species may have required an expansion of the Type I IFN locus and its constituent genes to provide broad anti-viral protection required for foraging and foregut fermentation.

  12. Relation between treatment efficacy and cumulative dose of alpha interferon in chronic hepatitis B. European Concerted Action on Viral Hepatitis (Eurohep)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard, K; Christensen, E; Bindslev, N

    1996-01-01

    Alpha interferon (IFN) is an established treatment of chronic hepatitis B. The effect has been shown to be dose related, recommended dose regimens being associated with a doubling of the spontaneous, baseline HBeAg to anti-HBe seroconversion rate. However, the efficacy of IFN treatment in relation...... to the dose of IFN actually received remains to be established. The aim of this study was to estimate the relative efficacy of IFN as a function of the cumulative IFN dose. In addition we determined if and when a patient returns to his baseline chance of seroconversion after stopping IFN therapy....

  13. Crystal Structure of Human Interferon-[lamda]1 in Complex with Its High-Affinity Receptor Interferon-[lamda]R1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miknis, Zachary; Magracheva, Eugenia; Li, Wei; Zdanov, Alexander; Kotenko, Sergei V.; Wlodawer, Alexander (NJMS); (NCI)

    2010-12-01

    Interferon (IFN)-{lambda}1 [also known as interleukin (IL)-29] belongs to the recently discovered group of type III IFNs. All type III IFNs initiate signaling processes through formation of specific heterodimeric receptor complexes consisting of IFN-{lambda}R1 and IL-10R2. We have determined the structure of human IFN-{lambda}1 complexed with human IFN-{lambda}R1, a receptor unique to type III IFNs. The overall structure of IFN-{lambda}1 is topologically similar to the structure of IL-10 and other members of the IL-10 family of cytokines. IFN-{lambda}R1 consists of two distinct domains having fibronectin type III topology. The ligand-receptor interface includes helix A, loop AB, and helix F on the IFN site, as well as loops primarily from the N-terminal domain and inter-domain hinge region of IFN-{lambda}R1. Composition and architecture of the interface that includes only a few direct hydrogen bonds support an idea that long-range ionic interactions between ligand and receptor govern the process of initial recognition of the molecules while hydrophobic interactions finalize it.

  14. [Neutralizing Monoclonal and Chimeric Antibodies to Human IFN-γ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larina, M V; Aliev, T K; Solopova, O N; Pozdnyakova, L P; Korobova, S V; Yakimov, S A; Sveshnikov, P G; Dolgikh, D A; Kirpichnikov, M P

    2015-01-01

    Autoiminune disorders are chronic diseases characterized by abnormal immune response directed against self-antigens that leads to tissue damage and violation of its normal functioning. Such diseases often result in disability or even death of patients. Nowadays a number of monoclonal antibodies to pro-inflammatory cytokines and their receptors are successfully used for the targeted treatment of autoimmune diseases. One of the perspective targets in autoimmune disease therapy is interferon gamma, a key cytokine in Th1 cells differentiation, activation of macrophages, and inflammation. In the present work, 5 monoclonal antibodies to human IFN-γ were obtained. For the development of potential therapeutic agent, we have performed neutralizing activity and affinity analysis of the antibodies. Based on the data obtained, the monoclonal antibody F1 was selected. This antibody has a dissociation constant 1.7 x 10(-9) M and IC90 = 8.9 ± 2.0 nM measured upon antibody inhibition of the IFN-γ-induced HLA-DR expression on the surface of U937 cells. We have constructed a bicistronic vector for the production of recombinant chimeric Fab fragment F1 chim in E. coli cells. The recombinant chimeric Fab fragment Fl chim neutralizes IFN-γ activity in vitro and has a dissociation constant 1.8 x 10(-9) M.

  15. IFNB1/interferon-ß-induced autophagy in MCF-7 breast cancer cells counteracts its proapoptotic function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambjørn, Malene; Ejlerskov, Patrick; Liu, Yawei

    2013-01-01

    IFNB1/interferon (IFN)-ß belongs to the type I IFNs and exerts potent antiproliferative, proapoptotic, antiangiogenic and immunemodulatory functions. Despite the beneficial effects of IFNB1 in experimental breast cancers, clinical translation has been disappointing, possibly due to induction of s...

  16. Potentiating day-old blood samples for detection of interferon-gamma responses following infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Heidi; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Jungersen, Gregers

    The interferon gamma (IFN-γ) test measuring specific cell-mediated immune responses in whole blood can be used for diagnosis at an early stage of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection. A major obstacle for the practical use of IFN-γ testing is the recommended maximum 8 hour...

  17. T-helper 17 cell cytokines and interferon type I: Partners in crime in systemic lupus erythematosus?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Brkic (Zana); O.B.J. Corneth (Odilia); C.G. van Helden-Meeuwsen; R.J.E.M. Dolhain (Radboud); M. de Maria; S.M.J. Paulissen (Sandra); N. Davelaar (Nadine); J.P. van Hamburg (Jan Piet); P.L.A. van Daele (Paul); V.A.S.H. Dalm (Virgil); P.M. van Hagen (Martin); J.M.W. Hazes (Mieke); M.A. Versnel (Marjan); E.W. Lubberts (Erik)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: A hallmark of systemic autoimmune diseases like systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is the increased expression of interferon (IFN) type I inducible genes, so-called IFN type I signature. Recently, T-helper 17 subset (Th17 cells), which produces IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, and

  18. Treatment with anti-interferon-gamma monoclonal antibodies modifies experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in interferon-gamma receptor knockout mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espejo, C; Penkowa, M; Sáez-Torres, I

    2001-01-01

    antibodies (mAb) on day 8 postimmunization. Clinical scoring and both histological and immunohistochemical studies were undertaken for all groups. We hereby show that treatment with anti-IFN-gamma mAb worsened the disease course of 129Sv wild-type mice. However, it decreased the mean daily score in IFN......-gamma R(-/-) 129Sv and the incidence of the disease down to 50% in C57Bl/6x129Sv IFN-gamma R(-/-) mice. Moreover, after anti-IFN-gamma mAb treatment, oxidative stress levels, metallothionein I and II antioxidant protein expression, and apoptoticneuronal death were increased in wild-type mice while......The role of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is still controversial. We have studied the function of IFN-gamma and its receptor in the EAE model using two different IFN-gamma receptor knockout (IFN-gamma R...

  19. Recognition of interferon-inducible sites, promoters, and enhancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondrakhin Yury V

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computational analysis of gene regulatory regions is important for prediction of functions of many uncharacterized genes. With this in mind, search of the target genes for interferon (IFN induction appears of interest. IFNs are multi-functional cytokines. Their effects are immunomodulatory, antiviral, antibacterial, and antitumor. The interaction of the IFNs with their cell surface receptors produces an activation of several transcription factors. Four regulatory factors, ISGF3, STAT1, IRF1, and NF-κB, are essential for the function of the IFN system. The aim of this work is the development of computational approaches for the recognition of DNA binding sites for these factors and computer programs for the prediction of the IFN-inducible regions. Results We developed computational approaches to the recognition of the binding sites for ISGF3, STAT1, IRF1, and NF-κB. Analysis of the distribution of these binding sites demonstrated that the regions -500 upstream of the transcription start site in IFN-inducible genes are enriched in putative binding sites for these transcription factors. Based on selected combinations of the sites whose frequencies were significantly higher than in the other functional gene groups, we developed methods for the prediction of the IFN-inducible promoters and enhancers. We analyzed 1004 sequences of the IFN-inducible genes compiled using microarray data analyses and also about 10,000 human gene sequences from the EPD and RefSeq databases; 74 of 1,664 human genes annotated in EPD were significantly IFN-inducible. Conclusion Analyses of several control datasets demonstrated that the developed methods have a high accuracy of prediction of the IFN-inducible genes. Application of these methods to several datasets suggested that the number of the IFN-inducible genes is approximately 1500–2000 in the human genome.

  20. Global gene analysis identifying genes commonly regulated by the Ras/Raf/MEK and type I IFN pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Y; Hirasawa, K; Christian, S L

    2015-06-01

    Oncolytic viruses exploit alterations in cancer cells to specifically infect cancer cells but not normal healthy cells. Previous work has shown that oncogenic Ras interferes with interferon (IFN) signaling to promote viral replication. Furthermore, inhibition of the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway at the level of Ras, MEK, or ERK was sufficient to restore IFN signaling. In order to identify genes that were commonly regulated by the inhibition of the Ras pathway and the IFN pathway, we treated NIH/3T3 cells that overexpress oncogenic Ras with the MEK inhibitor, U0126, or IFN-α for 6 h, and performed DNA microarray analysis (Gene Expression Omnibus accession number GSE49469). Here, we also provide additional information on the experimental and functional analysis of the genes responsive to U0126 and IFN.

  1. Antiviral activity of ovine interferon tau 4 against foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usharani, Jayaramaiah; Park, Sun Young; Cho, Eun-Ju; Kim, Chungsu; Ko, Young-Joon; Tark, Dongseob; Kim, Su-Mi; Park, Jong-Hyeon; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Lee, Hyang-Sim

    2017-07-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an economically important disease in most parts of the world and new therapeutic agents are needed to protect the animals before vaccination can trigger the host immune response. Although several interferons have been used for their antiviral activities against Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), ovine interferon tau 4 (OvIFN-τ4), with a broad-spectrum of action, cross-species antiviral activity, and lower incidence of toxicity in comparison to other type І interferons, has not yet been evaluated for this indication. This is the first study to evaluate the antiviral activity of OvIFN-τ4 against various strains of FMDV. The effective anti-cytopathic concentration of OvIFN-τ4 and its effectiveness pre- and post-infection with FMDV were tested in vitro in LFBK cells. In vivo activity of OvIFN-τ4 was then confirmed in a mouse model of infection. OvIFN-τ4 at a concentration of 500 ng, protected mice until 5days post-FMDV challenge and provided 90% protection for 10 days following FMDV challenge. These results suggest that OvIFN-τ4 could be used as an alternative to other interferons or antiviral agents at the time of FMD outbreak. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Endothelial dysfunction is associated with activation of the type i interferon system and platelets in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tydén, Helena; Lood, Christian; Gullstrand, Birgitta

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Endothelial dysfunction may be connected to cardiovascular disease (CVD) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Type I interferons (IFNs) are central in SLE pathogenesis and are suggested to induce both endothelial dysfunction and platelet activation. In this study, we investigated...... with activation of platelets and the type I IFN system. We suggest that an interplay between the type I IFN system, injured endothelium and activated platelets may contribute to development of CVD in SLE....

  3. Mammalian Casein Kinase 1α and Its Leishmanial Ortholog Regulate Stability of IFNAR1 and Type I Interferon Signaling▿

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jianghuai; Carvalho, Lucas P.; Bhattacharya, Sabyasachi; Carbone, Christopher J.; Kumar, K. G. Suresh; Leu, N. Adrian; Yau, Peter M.; Donald, Robert G. K.; Weiss, Mitchell J.; Baker, Darren P.; McLaughlin, K. John; Scott, Phillip; Fuchs, Serge Y.

    2009-01-01

    Phosphorylation of the degron of the IFNAR1 chain of the type I interferon (IFN) receptor triggers ubiquitination and degradation of this receptor and, therefore, plays a crucial role in negative regulation of IFN-α/β signaling. Besides the IFN-stimulated and Jak activity-dependent pathways, a basal ligand-independent phosphorylation of IFNAR1 has been described and implicated in downregulating IFNAR1 in response to virus-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Here we report purification ...

  4. Donor graft interferon regulatory factor-1 gene transfer worsens liver transplant ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kee-Hwan; Dhupar, Rajeev; Ueki, Shinya; Cardinal, Jon; Pan, Pinhua; Cao, Zongxian; Cho, Sung W; Murase, Noriko; Tsung, Allan; Geller, David A

    2009-08-01

    Liver ischemia and reperfusion (IR) injury is a phenomenon that leads to graft dysfunction after liver transplantation. Understanding the molecular mechanisms behind this process is crucial to developing strategies to prevent short- and long-term graft dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of the transcription factor interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) in a model of orthotopic rat liver transplantation. Orthotopic syngeneic LEW rat liver transplantation (OLT) was performed after 18 or 3 hours preservation in cold University of Wisconsin solution. Adenovirus-expressing IRF-1 (AdIRF-1) or control gene vector (Adnull) was delivered to the liver by donor intravenous pretreatment 4 days before graft harvesting. Uninfected grafts also served as controls. Recipients were humanely killed 1-24 hours post-transplantation. Rats that underwent OLT with long-term preserved grafts (18 hours) displayed increased hepatic nuclear expression of IRF-1 protein at 1 and 3 hours. Rats pretreated with AdIRF-1 before transplantation had elevated alanine aminotransferase levels and increased expression of interferon (IFN)-beta, IFN-gamma, interleukin-12, and inducible nitric oxide synthase in the short-term period (3 hours) when compared with donor livers pretreated with Adnull. AdIRF-1 pretreated donor livers also exhibited increased susceptibility to early apoptosis in the transplanted grafts as shown by increased terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining and expression of cleaved caspase-3. Additionally, AdIRF-1 pretreated donor livers had increased activation of the MAP kinase Jun N-terminal kinase as compared with Adnull pretreated donor livers. IRF-1 is an important regulator of IR injury after OLT in rats. Targeting of IRF-1 may be a potential strategy to ameliorate ischemic liver injury after transplantation to minimize organ dysfunction.

  5. MyD88 and STING Signaling Pathways Are Required for IRF3-Mediated IFN-β Induction in Response to Brucella abortus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Leonardo A.; Carvalho, Natalia B.; Oliveira, Fernanda S.; Lacerda, Thais L. S.; Vasconcelos, Anilton C.; Nogueira, Lucas; Bafica, Andre; Silva, Aristóbolo M.; Oliveira, Sergio C.

    2011-01-01

    Type I interferons (IFNs) are cytokines that orchestrate diverse immune responses to viral and bacterial infections. Although typically considered to be most important molecules in response to viruses, type I IFNs are also induced by most, if not all, bacterial pathogens. In this study, we addressed the role of type I IFN signaling during Brucella abortus infection, a facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes abortion in domestic animals and undulant fever in humans. Herein, we have shown that B. abortus induced IFN-β in macrophages and splenocytes. Further, IFN-β induction by Brucella was mediated by IRF3 signaling pathway and activates IFN-stimulated genes via STAT1 phosphorylation. In addition, IFN-β expression induced by Brucella is independent of TLRs and TRIF signaling but MyD88-dependent, a pathway not yet described for Gram-negative bacteria. Furthermore, we have identified Brucella DNA as the major bacterial component to induce IFN-β and our study revealed that this molecule operates through a mechanism dependent on RNA polymerase III to be sensed probably by an unknown receptor via the adaptor molecule STING. Finally, we have demonstrated that IFN-αβR KO mice are more resistant to infection suggesting that type I IFN signaling is detrimental to host control of Brucella. This resistance phenotype is accompanied by increased IFN-γ and NO production by IFN-αβR KO spleen cells and reduced apoptosis. PMID:21829705

  6. Tumor-suppressive effects of natural-type interferon-β through CXCL10 in melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Hikaru; Nobeyama, Yoshimasa, E-mail: nobederm@jikei.ac.jp; Nakagawa, Hidemi

    2015-08-21

    Introduction: Type 1 interferon is in widespread use as adjuvant therapy to inhibit melanoma progression. Considering the tumor-suppressive effects of local administration of interferon-β (IFN-β) on lymphatic metastasis, the present study was conducted to identify melanoma-suppressive molecules that are up-regulated by IFN-β treatment of lymphatic endothelial cells. Materials and methods: Lymphatic endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and melanoma cells were treated with natural-type IFN-β, and melanoma cells were treated with CXCL10. Genome-wide oligonucleotide microarray analysis was performed using lymphatic endothelial cells with or without IFN-β treatment. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were performed to examine CXCL10 expression. A proliferation assay was performed to examine the effects of IFN-β and CXCL10 in melanoma cells. Results: Genome-wide microarray analyses detected CXCL10 as a gene encoding a secretory protein that was up-regulated by IFN-β in lymphatic endothelial cells. IFN-β treatment significantly induced CXCL10 in dermal lymphatic endothelial cells and melanoma cells that are highly sensitive to IFN-β. CXCL10 reduced melanoma cell proliferation in IFN-β-sensitive cells as well as resistant cells. Melanoma cells in which CXCL10 was knocked down were sensitive to IFN-β. CXCR3-B, which encodes the CXCL10 receptor, was up-regulated in melanoma cells with high sensitivity to IFN-β and down-regulated in melanoma cells with medium to low sensitivity. Conclusions: Our data suggest that IFN-β suppresses proliferation and metastasis from the local lymphatic system and melanoma cells via CXCL10. Down-regulation of CXCR3-B by IFN-β may be associated with resistance to IFN-β. - Highlights: • We search melanoma-suppressive molecules induced by IFN-β. • IFN-β induces a high amount of CXCL10 from lymphatic endothelial cells. • CXCL10 induction level in melanoma cells is correlated

  7. Insufficient Innate Immunity Contributes to the Susceptibility of the Castaneous Mouse to Orthopoxvirus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Patricia L; Americo, Jeffrey L; Moss, Bernard

    2017-10-01

    The castaneous (CAST) mouse, a wild-derived inbred strain, is highly susceptible to orthopoxvirus infection by intranasal and systemic routes. The 50% lethal intraperitoneal dose of vaccinia virus (VACV) was 3 PFU for CAST mice, whereas BALB/c mice survived 106 PFU. At all times and in all organs analyzed, virus titers were higher in CAST than in BALB/c mice. In individual CAST mice, luciferase-expressing VACV was seen to replicate rapidly leading to death, whereas virus levels increased for a few days and then declined in BALB/c mice. Increases in gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were delayed and low in CAST mice compared to BALB/c mice following VACV infection or poly(I-C) inoculation, consistent with differences in innate immune responses. In addition, naive CAST mice had considerably lower numbers of NK and T cells than BALB/c mice. The percentage of IFN-γ-producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells increased following infection of CAST mice only after considerable virus spread, and the absolute cell numbers remained low. Administration of exogenous IFN-γ or -α to CAST mice before or during the first days of infection suppressed virus replication and prolonged survival, allowing the mice to make adaptive CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses that were necessary to clear the virus after cessation of interferon treatment. Thus, insufficient innate cytokine and cellular immune responses contribute to the unique susceptibility of CAST mice to VACV, whereas the adaptive immune response can be protective only if virus replication is suppressed during the first several days of infection.IMPORTANCE Most inbred mouse strains are relatively resistant to orthopoxviruses. The castaneous (CAST) mouse is a notable exception, exhibiting extreme vulnerability to monkeypox virus, cowpox virus, and vaccinia virus and thus providing a unique model for studying pathogenicity, immunity, vaccines, and antiviral drugs. To fully utilize the CAST mouse for such

  8. Generation of replication-proficient influenza virus NS1 point mutants with interferon-hyperinducer phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite Pérez-Cidoncha

    Full Text Available The NS1 protein of influenza A viruses is the dedicated viral interferon (IFN-antagonist. Viruses lacking NS1 protein expression cannot multiply in normal cells but are viable in cells deficient in their ability to produce or respond to IFN. Here we report an unbiased mutagenesis approach to identify positions in the influenza A NS1 protein that modulate the IFN response upon infection. A random library of virus ribonucleoproteins containing circa 40 000 point mutants in NS1 were transferred to infectious virus and amplified in MDCK cells unable to respond to interferon. Viruses that activated the interferon (IFN response were subsequently selected by their ability to induce expression of green-fluorescent protein (GFP following infection of A549 cells bearing an IFN promoter-dependent GFP gene. Using this approach we isolated individual mutant viruses that replicate to high titers in IFN-compromised cells but, compared to wild type viruses, induced higher levels of IFN in IFN-competent cells and had a reduced capacity to counteract exogenous IFN. Most of these viruses contained not previously reported NS1 mutations within either the RNA-binding domain, the effector domain or the linker region between them. These results indicate that subtle alterations in NS1 can reduce its effectiveness as an IFN antagonist without affecting the intrinsic capacity of the virus to multiply. The general approach reported here may facilitate the generation of replication-proficient, IFN-inducing virus mutants, that potentially could be developed as attenuated vaccines against a variety of viruses.

  9. Bridging the species divide: transgenic mice humanized for type-I interferon response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Harari

    Full Text Available We have generated transgenic mice that harbor humanized type I interferon receptors (IFNARs enabling the study of type I human interferons (Hu-IFN-Is in mice. These "HyBNAR" (Hybrid IFNAR mice encode transgenic variants of IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 with the human extracellular domains being fused to transmembrane and cytoplasmic segments of mouse sequence. B16F1 mouse melanoma cells harboring the HyBNAR construct specifically bound Hu-IFN-Is and were rendered sensitive to Hu-IFN-I stimulated anti-proliferation, STAT1 activation and activation of a prototypical IFN-I response gene (MX2. HyBNAR mice were crossed with a transgenic strain expressing the luciferase reporter gene under the control of the IFN-responsive MX2 promoter (MX2-Luciferase. Both the HyBNAR and HyBNAR/MX2-Luciferase mice were responsive to all Hu-IFN-Is tested, inclusive of IFNα2A, IFNβ, and a human superagonist termed YNSα8. The mice displayed dose-dependent pharmacodynamic responses to Hu-IFN-I injection, as assessed by measuring the expression of IFN-responsive genes. Our studies also demonstrated a weak activation of endogenous mouse interferon response, especially after high dose administration of Hu-IFNs. In sharp contrast to data published for humans, our pharmacodynamic readouts demonstrate a very short-lived IFN-I response in mice, which is not enhanced by sub-cutaneous (SC injections in comparison to other administration routes. With algometric differences between humans and mice taken into account, the HyBNAR mice provides a convenient non-primate pre-clinical model to advance the study of human IFN-Is.

  10. Use of oromucosally administered interferon-alpha in the prevention and treatment of animal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dec, M; Puchalski, A

    2008-01-01

    Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) is well known as a clinically effective antiviral and antineoplastic therapeutic agent. It has also been shown to have immunoregulatory properties. IFN-alpha stimulates a cell-mediated innate immune response and then participates in the transition of the initial host innate response to an effective adaptive immune response. IFN-alpha is produced in small quantities in nasal secretions during viral infections, prompting many authors to suggest that low-dose oromucosal administration of IFN-alpha effectively mimics nature. Moreover, the injectable high-dose interferon therapy currently approved for various human disorders causes numerous side effects. By contrast, oromucosal administration of IFN-alpha is not associated with toxic effects. Another distinct advantage is ease of administration: the IFN can be dissolved in drinking water or administered by nebulization to the oral or nasal cavity. This review describes the current state of knowledge concerning orally administered IFN-alpha, of both human and animal origin, as a prophylactic or therapeutic agent in veterinary medicine. We present the effects of IFN-alpha in such animals as cattle, pigs, horses, cats, dogs and chickens, and attempt to explain its mechanism of action following oromucosal administration. It is hoped that this review of the medical literature on the use of IFN-alpha in animals will give practitioners a better understanding of the challenges and benefits of using this interesting cytokine in clinical practice.

  11. Activation of type III interferon genes by pathogenic bacteria in infected epithelial cells and mouse placenta.

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    Hélène Bierne

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections trigger the expression of type I and II interferon genes but little is known about their effect on type III interferon (IFN-λ genes, whose products play important roles in epithelial innate immunity against viruses. Here, we studied the expression of IFN-λ genes in cultured human epithelial cells infected with different pathogenic bacteria and in the mouse placenta infected with Listeria monocytogenes. We first showed that in intestinal LoVo cells, induction of IFN-λ genes by L. monocytogenes required bacterial entry and increased further during the bacterial intracellular phase of infection. Other Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus faecalis, also induced IFN-λ genes when internalized by LoVo cells. In contrast, Gram-negative bacteria Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Shigella flexneri and Chlamydia trachomatis did not substantially induce IFN-λ. We also found that IFN-λ genes were up-regulated in A549 lung epithelial cells infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and in HepG2 hepatocytes and BeWo trophoblastic cells infected with L. monocytogenes. In a humanized mouse line permissive to fetoplacental listeriosis, IFN-λ2/λ3 mRNA levels were enhanced in placentas infected with L. monocytogenes. In addition, the feto-placental tissue was responsive to IFN-λ2. Together, these results suggest that IFN-λ may be an important modulator of the immune response to Gram-positive intracellular bacteria in epithelial tissues.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of interferon alpha-2b in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwanski, E; Perentesis, G; Jacobs, S; Oden, E; Affrime, M; Symchowicz, S; Zampaglione, N

    1987-01-01

    In a three-way crossover design, 12 healthy male volunteers received 5 X 10(6) IU/m2 body surface area interferon alpha-2b(IFN alpha-2b) by intravenous (IV) infusion over 30 minutes, intramuscular (IM) injections, and subcutaneous (SC) injections. Blood and urine samples were collected at specified times, and analysis of IFN alpha-2b concentrations was performed by immunoradiometric assay. "Flulike" symptoms were the most frequently reported adverse experiences and were independent of the route of administration. After a 30-minute IV infusion, IFN alpha-2b disappeared rapidly from serum, with distribution and elimination phase half-lives of 0.1 hour and 1.7 hours, respectively. Interferon alpha-2b was absorbed slowly after IM and SC administration, with similar absorption half-lives of 5.8 and 5.5 hours, respectively. The observed maximal concentrations after IM and SC administration were 42.1 IU/mL at six hours and 45.8 IU/mL at eight hours, respectively. Interferon alpha-2b was eliminated with half-lives of 2.2 hours after IM administration and 2.9 hours after SC administration. The areas under the serum concentration-time curves for the SC and IM doses were higher than those obtained for the IV infusion. Measurable amounts of IFN alpha-2b were not found in urine regardless of the route of administration.

  13. DISTINCT MECHANISMS OF INHIBITION OF VSV REPLICATION IN NEURONS MEDIATED BY TYPE I AND TYPE II IFN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Paul M; Yang, Jingjun; Reiss, Carol Shoshkes

    2009-01-01

    Acute viral infection of neurons presents a difficult problem to the host, since neurons are essential and not replaced, therefore cell-autonomous pathway(s) of suppressing viral replication are critical. We have examined the mechanisms by which neurons respond to exogenous interferons (IFNs) and observed that novel pathways inhibit acute vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) replication. For both type I (IFN-beta) and Type II (IFN-gamma) interferons, post-translational modification of viral proteins contributed to the replication blockade, diminishing the efficiency of viral assembly and budding from the host neuron. IFN-gamma treatment induces the accumulation of NOS-1 in the absence of an increase of mRNA encoding this enzyme; a NOS-1-inhibiting protein, PIN, is rapidly ubiquitinated and eliminated in the presence of IFN-gamma. NOS-1 produces NO which combines with superoxide to form peroxynitrite (ONOO-), this binds tyrosines, cysteines, and serines; antagonism of NOS-1 with either non-specific or selective inhibitors block the antiviral effect of IFN-gamma. VSV proteins are decorated with -NO(2) in IFN-gamma-treated neurons, probably resulting in their diminished ability to interact properly and mature into budding virus. For IFN-beta, protein phosphorylation of the Matrix protein (M) and Phosphoprotein (P) were altered in infected neurons, with hyperphosphorylation of M (but not hypophosphorylated P) found in released virions. Hyperphosphorylated M protein does not immunoprecipitate with the viral ribonucleoprotein complex in IFN-beta-treated neurons. Thus both types of IFN interfere with viral assembly and release of infectious particles, but by distinct pathways.

  14. The Transcription Factor T-bet Limits Amplification of Type I IFN Transcriptome and Circuitry in T Helper 1 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Shigeru; Mikami, Yohei; Sun, Hong-Wei; Brooks, Stephen R; Jankovic, Dragana; Hirahara, Kiyoshi; Onodera, Atsushi; Shih, Han-Yu; Kawabe, Takeshi; Jiang, Kan; Nakayama, Toshinori; Sher, Alan; O'Shea, John J; Davis, Fred P; Kanno, Yuka

    2017-06-20

    Host defense requires the specification of CD4 + helper T (Th) cells into distinct fates, including Th1 cells that preferentially produce interferon-γ (IFN-γ). IFN-γ, a member of a large family of anti-pathogenic and anti-tumor IFNs, induces T-bet, a lineage-defining transcription factor for Th1 cells, which in turn supports IFN-γ production in a feed-forward manner. Herein, we show that a cell-intrinsic role of T-bet influences how T cells perceive their secreted product in the environment. In the absence of T-bet, IFN-γ aberrantly induced a type I IFN transcriptomic program. T-bet preferentially repressed genes and pathways ordinarily activated by type I IFNs to ensure that its transcriptional response did not evoke an aberrant amplification of type I IFN signaling circuitry, otherwise triggered by its own product. Thus, in addition to promoting Th1 effector commitment, T-bet acts as a repressor in differentiated Th1 cells to prevent abberant autocrine type I IFN and downstream signaling. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Localized delivery of interferon-β by Lactobacillus exacerbates experimental colitis.

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    Adelle P McFarland

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available There have been conflicting reports of the role of Type I interferons (IFN in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Clinical trials have shown potent efficacy of systemic interferon-beta (IFN-β in inducing remission of ulcerative colitis. Likewise, IFNAR1(-/- mice display an increased sensitivity to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis, suggesting Type I IFN play a protective role during inflammation of the gut. Curiously, however, there have also been reports detailing the spontaneous development of IBD in patients receiving systemic IFN-β therapy for multiple sclerosis or hepatitis.To investigate the effects of local administration of IFN-β on a murine model of colitis, we developed a transgenic Lactobacillus acidophilus strain that constitutively expresses IFN-β (La-IFN-β. While pretreatment of mice with control Lactobacillus (La-EV provided slight protective benefits, La-IFN-β increased sensitivity to DSS. Analysis showed colitic mice pretreated with La-IFN-β had increased production of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-17A and IL-13 by intestinal tissues and decreased regulatory T cells (Tregs in their small intestine. Examination of CD103(+ dendritic cells (DCs in the Peyer's patches revealed that IFNAR1 expression was dramatically reduced by La-IFN-β. Similarly, bone marrow-derived DCs matured with La-IFN-β experienced a 3-fold reduction of IFNAR1 and were impaired in their ability to induce Tregs.Our IFNAR1 expression data identifies a correlation between the loss/downregulation of IFNAR1 on DCs and exacerbation of colitis. Our data show that Lactobacillus secreting IFN-β has an immunological effect that in our model results in the exacerbation of colitis. This study underscores that the selection of therapeutics delivered by a bacterial vehicle must take into consideration the simultaneous effects of the vehicle itself.

  16. Induction of endogenous Type I interferon within the central nervous system plays a protective role in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorooshi, Reza; Mørch, Marlene Thorsen; Holm, Thomas Hellesøe

    2015-01-01

    The Type I interferons (IFN), beta (IFN-β) and the alpha family (IFN-α), act through a common receptor and have anti-inflammatory effects. IFN-β is used to treat multiple sclerosis (MS) and is effective against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for MS. Mice with EAE......-endogenous Type I IFN influences EAE. Using IFN-β reporter mice, we showed that direct administration of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), a potent inducer of IFN-β, into the cerebrospinal fluid induced increased leukocyte numbers and transient upregulation of IFN-β in CD45/CD11b-positive cells located...... in the meninges and choroid plexus, as well as enhanced IFN-β expression by parenchymal microglial cells. Intrathecal injection of poly I:C to mice showing first symptoms of EAE substantially increased the normal disease-associated expression of IFN-α, IFN-β, interferon regulatory factor-7 and IL-10 in CNS...

  17. Inhibition of STAT Pathway Impairs Anti-Hepatitis C Virus Effect of Interferon Alpha

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    Lan-Juan Zhao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT pathway plays an important role in antiviral efficacy of interferon alpha (IFN-α. IFN-α is the main therapeutic against hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. We explored effects of IFN-α on HCV replication and antiviral gene expression by targeting STAT. Methods: In response to IFN-α, STAT status, HCV replication, and antiviral gene expression were analyzed in human hepatoma Huh7.5.1 cells before and after cell culture-derived HCV infection. Results: IFN-α treatment induced expression and phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT2 in Huh7.5.1 cells. Pretreatment of Huh7.5.1 cells with a mAb to IFN alpha receptor (IFNAR 2 decreased IFN-α-dependent phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT2, whereas pretreatment with an IFNAR1 mAb increased such phosphorylation, suggesting that IFNAR mediates IFN-α-triggered STAT signaling. During HCV infection, STAT1 and STAT2 phosphorylation could be rescued by IFN-α and IFN-α-induced phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT2 was impaired. Inhibition of STAT pathway by Jak inhibitor I significantly enhanced HCV RNA replication and viral protein expression. Antiviral genes coding for IFN regulatory factor 9 and IFN-stimulated gene 15 were up-regulated by IFN-α during HCV infection but such up-regulation was abrogated by Jak inhibitor I. Conclusion: These results establish that activation of STAT pathway is essential for anti-HCV efficacy of IFN-α. Impairment of IFN-α-triggered STAT signaling by HCV may account for evading IFN-α response.

  18. Reduced expression of Jak-1 and Tyk-2 proteins leads to interferon resistance in Hepatitis C virus replicon

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    Luftig Ronald

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alpha interferon in combination with ribavirin is the standard therapy for hepatitis C virus infection. Unfortunately, a significant number of patients fail to eradicate their infection with this regimen. The mechanisms of IFN-resistance are unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of host cell factors to the mechanisms of interferon resistance using replicon cell lines. Results HCV replicons with high and low activation of the IFN-promoter were cultured for a prolonged period of time in the presence of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha2b. Stable replicon cell lines with resistant phenotype were isolated and characterized by their ability to continue viral replication in the presence of IFN-alpha. Interferon resistant cell colonies developed only in replicons having lower activation of the IFN promoter and no resistant colonies arose from replicons that exhibit higher activation of the IFN promoter. Individual cell clones were isolated and nine IFN resistant cell lines were established. HCV RNA and protein levels in these cells were not altered by IFN- alpha2b. Reduced signaling and IFN-resistant phenotype was found in all Huh-7 cell lines even after eliminating HCV, suggesting that cellular factors are involved. Resistant phenotype in the replicons is not due to lack of interferon receptor expression. All the cell lines show defect in the JAK-STAT signaling and phosphorylation of STAT 1 and STAT 2 proteins were strongly inhibited due to reduced expression of Tyk2 and Jak-1 protein. Conclusion This in vitro study provides evidence that altered expression of the Jak-Stat signaling proteins can cause IFN resistance using HCV replicon cell clones.

  19. Adaptation of enterovirus 71 to adult interferon deficient mice.

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    Elizabeth A Caine

    Full Text Available Non-polio enteroviruses, including enterovirus 71 (EV71, have caused severe and fatal cases of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD in the Asia-Pacific region. The development of a vaccine or antiviral against these pathogens has been hampered by the lack of a reliable small animal model. In this study, a mouse adapted EV71 strain was produced by conducting serial passages through A129 (α/β interferon (IFN receptor deficient and AG129 (α/β, γ IFN receptor deficient mice. A B2 sub genotype of EV71 was inoculated intraperitoneally (i.p. into neonatal AG129 mice and brain-harvested virus was subsequently passaged through 12 and 15 day-old A129 mice. When tested in 10 week-old AG129 mice, this adapted strain produced 100% lethality with clinical signs including limb paralysis, eye irritation, loss of balance, and death. This virus caused only 17% mortality in same age A129 mice, confirming that in the absence of a functional IFN response, adult AG129 mice are susceptible to infection by adapted EV71 isolates. Subsequent studies in adult AG129 and young A129 mice with the adapted EV71 virus examined the efficacy of an inactivated EV71 candidate vaccine and determined the role of humoral immunity in protection. Passive transfer of rabbit immune sera raised against the EV71 vaccine provided protection in a dose dependent manner in 15 day-old A129 mice. Intramuscular injections (i.m. in five week-old AG129 mice with the alum adjuvanted vaccine also provided protection against the mouse adapted homologous strain. No clinical signs of disease or mortality were observed in vaccinated animals, which received a prime-and-boost, whereas 71% of control animals were euthanized after exhibiting systemic clinical signs (P<0.05. The development of this animal model will facilitate studies on EV71 pathogenesis, antiviral testing, the evaluation of immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccine candidates, and has the potential to establish correlates of protection

  20. Preclinical safety and activity of recombinant VSV-IFN-β in an immunocompetent model of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurisetty, Vittal V S; Heiber, Joshua; Myers, Rae; Pereira, Guilherme S; Goodwin, Jarrard W; Federspiel, Mark J; Russell, Stephen J; Peng, Kah Whye; Barber, Glen; Merchan, Jaime R

    2014-11-01

    Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus expressing interferon-β (VSV-IFN-β) has demonstrated antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo. In preparation for clinical testing in human squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the head and neck, we conducted preclinical studies of VSV-IFN-β in syngeneic SCC models. In vitro, VSV-IFN-β (expressing rat or mouse interferon [IFN]-β)-induced cytotoxicity and propagated in rat (FAT-7) or mouse (SCC-VII) SCC cells during normoxia and hypoxia. In vivo, intratumoral administration of VSV-rat-IFN-β or VSV-human-IFN-β in FAT-7 bearing or non-tumor bearing immunocompetent rats did not result in acute organ toxicity or death. VSV-r-IFN-β replicated predominantly in tumors and a dose dependent anti-VSV antibody response was observed. Intratumoral or intravenous administration of VSV-IFN-β resulted in growth delay and improved survival compared with controls. The above data confirm safety and feasibility of VSV-IFN-β administration in immunocompetent animals and support its clinical evaluation in advanced human head and neck cancer. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Interferon induction by viruses. VIII. Vesicular stomatitis virus: (+-)DI-011 particles induce interferon in the absence of standard virions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekellick, M.J.; Marcus, P.I.

    1982-02-01

    Evidence was presented that VSV (+-)DI-011 particles, which contain a genome of covalently linked totally self-complementary RNA, were excellent inducers of interferon (IFN) - by virtue of the dsRNA presumed to form within an infected cell, and that one molecule of that dsRNA per cell sufficed to induce a quantum yield of IFN. While the IFN-inducing capacity of (+-)DI-011 particle preparations has been confirmed, some researchers contend that DIP by themselves cannot induce IFN and that induction requires the presence of coinfecting (contaminating) standard VSV PFP. Consequently, we reexamined this question and now report that under five different conditions where the function of contaminating standard virus is reduced markedly, or eliminated, there was no diminution of the interferon-inducing particle (IFP) activity in preparations of (+-)DI-011 particles. Thus, inactivation of contaminating PFP by uv radiation or heat, the elimination (during induction) of cycling infection through the use of anti-serum (in the case of mouse L cells), and the reduction of PFP by four successive velocity sedimentation-gradient purifications had no adverse affect on the IFN-inducing capacity of DI-011 in either ''aged'' primary chick embryo cells or in mouse L(Y) cells. Furthermore, dilutions of DI-011 stocks which precluded the presence of even a single PFP still induced IFN in ''aged'' chick embryo cells. In concert these data demonstrate convincingly that IFN induction by DI-011 particles does not require coinfection with standard virus. It follows that DI-011 particles are intrinsically capable of inducing IFN.

  2. Type I interferon: potential therapeutic target for psoriasis?

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    Yihong Yao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is an immune-mediated disease characterized by aberrant epidermal differentiation, surface scale formation, and marked cutaneous inflammation. To better understand the pathogenesis of this disease and identify potential mediators, we used whole genome array analysis to profile paired lesional and nonlesional psoriatic skin and skin from healthy donors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We observed robust overexpression of type I interferon (IFN-inducible genes and genomic signatures that indicate T cell and dendritic cell infiltration in lesional skin. Up-regulation of mRNAs for IFN-alpha subtypes was observed in lesional skin compared with nonlesional skin. Enrichment of mature dendritic cells and 2 type I IFN-inducible proteins, STAT1 and ISG15, were observed in the majority of lesional skin biopsies. Concordant overexpression of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha-inducible gene signatures occurred at the same disease sites. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Up-regulation of TNF-alpha and elevation of the TNF-alpha-inducible gene signature in lesional skin underscore the importance of this cytokine in psoriasis; these data describe a molecular basis for the therapeutic activity of anti-TNF-alpha agents. Furthermore, these findings implicate type I IFNs in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Consistent and significant up-regulation of type I IFNs and their associated gene signatures in psoriatic skin suggest that type I IFNs may be potential therapeutic targets in psoriasis treatment.

  3. Type I interferon: potential therapeutic target for psoriasis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yihong; Richman, Laura; Morehouse, Chris; de los Reyes, Melissa; Higgs, Brandon W; Boutrin, Anmarie; White, Barbara; Coyle, Anthony; Krueger, James; Kiener, Peter A; Jallal, Bahija

    2008-07-16

    Psoriasis is an immune-mediated disease characterized by aberrant epidermal differentiation, surface scale formation, and marked cutaneous inflammation. To better understand the pathogenesis of this disease and identify potential mediators, we used whole genome array analysis to profile paired lesional and nonlesional psoriatic skin and skin from healthy donors. We observed robust overexpression of type I interferon (IFN)-inducible genes and genomic signatures that indicate T cell and dendritic cell infiltration in lesional skin. Up-regulation of mRNAs for IFN-alpha subtypes was observed in lesional skin compared with nonlesional skin. Enrichment of mature dendritic cells and 2 type I IFN-inducible proteins, STAT1 and ISG15, were observed in the majority of lesional skin biopsies. Concordant overexpression of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha-inducible gene signatures occurred at the same disease sites. Up-regulation of TNF-alpha and elevation of the TNF-alpha-inducible gene signature in lesional skin underscore the importance of this cytokine in psoriasis; these data describe a molecular basis for the therapeutic activity of anti-TNF-alpha agents. Furthermore, these findings implicate type I IFNs in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Consistent and significant up-regulation of type I IFNs and their associated gene signatures in psoriatic skin suggest that type I IFNs may be potential therapeutic targets in psoriasis treatment.

  4. Type I interferon reaction to viral infection in interferon-competent, immortalized cell lines from the African fruit bat Eidolon helvum.

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    Susanne E Biesold

    Full Text Available Bats harbor several highly pathogenic zoonotic viruses including Rabies, Marburg, and henipaviruses, without overt clinical symptoms in the animals. It has been suspected that bats might have evolved particularly effective mechanisms to suppress viral replication. Here, we investigated interferon (IFN response, -induction, -secretion and -signaling in epithelial-like cells of the relevant and abundant African fruit bat species, Eidolon helvum (E. helvum. Immortalized cell lines were generated; their potential to induce and react on IFN was confirmed, and biological assays were adapted to application in bat cell cultures, enabling comparison of landmark IFN properties with that of common mammalian cell lines. E. helvum cells were fully capable of reacting to viral and artificial IFN stimuli. E. helvum cells showed highest IFN mRNA induction, highly productive IFN protein secretion, and evidence of efficient IFN stimulated gene induction. In an Alphavirus infection model, O'nyong-nyong virus exhibited strong IFN induction but evaded the IFN response by translational rather than transcriptional shutoff, similar to other Alphavirus infections. These novel IFN-competent cell lines will allow comparative research on zoonotic, bat-borne viruses in order to model mechanisms of viral maintenance and emergence in bat reservoirs.

  5. Sustained major molecular response on interferon alpha-2b in two patients with polycythemia vera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T.S.; Pallisgaard, N.; Andersen, M.T.

    2008-01-01

    chromosome negative chronic myeloproliferative disorders. Reductions in the JAK2 V617F allele burden in patients treated with pegylated interferon alpha-2a (Peg-IFN-2a) have been demonstrated, although follow-up was relatively short. We report here the first profound and sustained molecular responses......Quantitative assessment of the JAK2 V617F allele burden during disease evolution and ongoing myelosuppressive treatment is likely to be implemented in the future clinical setting. Interferon alpha has demonstrated efficacy in treatment of both chronic myeloid leukemia and the Philadelphia...... with a JAK2 V617F allele burden below 1.0% in two patients with polycythemia vera treated with interferon alpha-2b (IFN-2b). Discontinuation of IFN-2b in one of the patients was followed by a sustained long-lasting (12 months of follow-up) major molecular response Udgivelsesdato: 2008/10...

  6. Development and evaluation of an interferon-γ release assay in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Sarad; Villanueva, Marvin A; Mikota, Susan K; Nakajima, Chie; Gairhe, Kamal P; Subedi, Suraj; Rayamajhi, Nabin; Sashika, Mariko; Shimozuru, Michito; Matsuba, Takashi; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Tsubota, Toshio

    2016-08-01

    We developed an interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) specific for Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Whole blood collected from forty captive Asian elephants was stimulated with three different mitogens i.e., phytohemagglutinin (PHA), pokweed mitogen (PWM) and phorbol myristate aceteate/ionomycin (PMA/I). A sandwich ELISA that was able to recognize the recombinant elephant interferon-γ (rEIFN-γ) as well as native interferon-γ from the Asian elephants was performed using anti-elephant IFN-γ rabbit polyclonal antibodies as capture antibodies and biotinylated anti-elephant IFN-γ rabbit polyclonal antibodies as detection antibodies. PMA/I was the best mitogen to use as a positive control for an Asian elephant IGRA. The development of an Asian elephant-specific IGRA that detects native IFN-γ in elephant whole blood provides promising results for its application as a potential diagnostic tool for diseases, such as tuberculosis (TB) in Asian elephants.

  7. Sustained major molecular response on interferon alpha-2b in two patients with polycythemia vera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Stauffer; Bjerrum, O W; Pallisgaard, N

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative assessment of the JAK2 V617F allele burden during disease evolution and ongoing myelosuppressive treatment is likely to be implemented in the future clinical setting. Interferon alpha has demonstrated efficacy in treatment of both chronic myeloid leukemia and the Philadelphia...... chromosome negative chronic myeloproliferative disorders. Reductions in the JAK2 V617F allele burden in patients treated with pegylated interferon alpha-2a (Peg-IFN-2a) have been demonstrated, although follow-up was relatively short. We report here the first profound and sustained molecular responses...... with a JAK2 V617F allele burden below 1.0% in two patients with polycythemia vera treated with interferon alpha-2b (IFN-2b). Discontinuation of IFN-2b in one of the patients was followed by a sustained long-lasting (12 months of follow-up) major molecular response....

  8. Distinct Effects of Type I and III Interferons on Enteric Viruses

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    Harshad Ingle

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Interferons (IFNs are key host cytokines in the innate immune response to viral infection, and recent work has identified unique roles for IFN subtypes in regulating different aspects of infection. Currently emerging is a common theme that type III IFNs are critical in localized control of infection at mucosal barrier sites, while type I IFNs are important for broad systemic control of infections. The intestine is a particular site of interest for exploring these effects, as in addition to being the port of entry for a multitude of pathogens, it is a complex tissue with a variety of cell types as well as the presence of the intestinal microbiota. Here we focus on the roles of type I and III IFNs in control of enteric viruses, discussing what is known about signaling downstream from these cytokines, including induction of specific IFN-stimulated genes. We review viral strategies to evade IFN responses, effects of IFNs on the intestine, interactions between IFNs and the microbiota, and briefly discuss the role of IFNs in controlling viral infections at other barrier sites. Enhanced understanding of the coordinate roles of IFNs in control of viral infections may facilitate development of antiviral therapeutic strategies; here we highlight potential avenues for future exploration.

  9. Type 1 Interferons Suppress Accelerated Osteoclastogenesis and Prevent Loss of Bone Mass During Systemic Inflammatory Responses to Pneumocystis Lung Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkison, Michelle; Gauss, Katherine; Ran, Yanchao; Searles, Steve; Taylor, David; Meissner, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    HIV infection causes loss of CD4+ T cells and type 1 interferon (IFN)–producing and IFN-responsive dendritic cells, resulting in immunodeficiencies and susceptibility to opportunistic infections, such as Pneumocystis. Osteoporosis and bone marrow failure are additional unexplained complications in HIV-positive patients and patients with AIDS, respectively. We recently demonstrated that mice that lack lymphocytes and IFN a/b receptor (IFrag−/−) develop bone marrow failure after Pneumocystis lung infection, whereas lymphocyte-deficient, IFN α/β receptor–competent mice (RAG−/−) had normal hematopoiesis. Interestingly, infected IFrag−/− mice also exhibited bone fragility, suggesting loss of bone mass. We quantified bone changes and evaluated the potential connection between progressing bone fragility and bone marrow failure after Pneumocystis lung infection in IFrag−/− mice. We found that Pneumocystis infection accelerated osteoclastogenesis as bone marrow failure progressed. This finding was consistent with induction of osteoclastogenic factors, including receptor-activated nuclear factor-κB ligand and the proapoptotic factor tumor necrosis factor–related apoptosis-inducing ligand, in conjunction with their shared decoy receptor osteoprotegerin, in the bone marrow of infected IFrag−/− mice. Deregulation of this axis has also been observed in HIV-positive individuals. Biphosphonate treatment of IFrag−/− mice prevented bone loss and protected loss of hematopoietic precursor cells that maintained activity in vitro but did not prevent loss of mature neutrophils. Together, these data show that bone loss and bone marrow failure are partially linked, which suggests that the deregulation of the receptor-activated nuclear factor-κB ligand/osteoprotegerin/tumor necrosis factor–related apoptosis-inducing ligand axis may connect the two phenotypes in our model. PMID:22626807

  10. Bioinformatics analysis of the factors controlling type I IFN gene expression in autoimmune disease and virus-induced immunity

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    Di eFeng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and Sjögren's syndrome (SS display increased levels of type I IFN-induced genes. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs are natural interferon producing cells and considered to be a primary source of IFN-α in these two diseases. Differential expression patterns of type I IFN inducible transcripts can be found in different immune cell subsets and in patients with both active and inactive autoimmune disease. A type I IFN gene signature generally consists of three groups of IFN-induced genes - those regulated in response to virus-induced type I IFN, those regulated by the IFN-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK pathway, and those by the IFN-induced phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI-3K pathway. These three groups of type I IFN-regulated genes control important cellular processes such as apoptosis, survival, adhesion, and chemotaxis, that when dysregulated, contribute to autoimmunity. With the recent generation of large datasets in the public domain from next-generation sequencing and DNA microarray experiments, one can perform detailed analyses of cell type-specific gene signatures as well as identify distinct transcription factors that differentially regulate these gene signatures. We have performed bioinformatics analysis of data in the public domain and experimental data from our lab to gain insight into the regulation of type I IFN gene expression. We have found that the genetic landscape of the IFNA and IFNB genes are occupied by transcription factors, such as insulators CTCF and cohesin, that negatively regulate transcription, as well as IRF5 and IRF7, that positively and distinctly regulate IFNA subtypes. A detailed understanding of the factors controlling type I IFN gene transcription will significantly aid in the identification and development of new therapeutic strategies targeting the IFN pathway in autoimmune disease.

  11. PDL1 Signals through Conserved Sequence Motifs to Overcome Interferon-Mediated Cytotoxicity

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    Maria Gato-Cañas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available PDL1 blockade produces remarkable clinical responses, thought to occur by T cell reactivation through prevention of PDL1-PD1 T cell inhibitory interactions. Here, we find that PDL1 cell-intrinsic signaling protects cancer cells from interferon (IFN cytotoxicity and accelerates tumor progression. PDL1 inhibited IFN signal transduction through a conserved class of sequence motifs that mediate crosstalk with IFN signaling. Abrogation of PDL1 expression or antibody-mediated PDL1 blockade strongly sensitized cancer cells to IFN cytotoxicity through a STAT3/caspase-7-dependent pathway. Moreover, somatic mutations found in human carcinomas within these PDL1 sequence motifs disrupted motif regulation, resulting in PDL1 molecules with enhanced protective activities from type I and type II IFN cytotoxicity. Overall, our results reveal a mode of action of PDL1 in cancer cells as a first line of defense against IFN cytotoxicity.

  12. Dynamic T-lymphocyte chemokine receptor expression induced by interferon-beta therapy in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krakauer, M; Sorensen, P S; Khademi, M

    2006-01-01

    Treatment with interferon (IFN)-beta reduces clinical disease activity in multiple sclerosis (MS). Using flow cytometry, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a real-time polymerase chain reaction, we studied in vivo IFN-beta-induced effects on CD4(+) T-lymphocyte chemokine receptor expression...... and immunoregulatory genes. In conclusion, IFN-beta treatment caused 'steady-state' increases of several chemokine receptors relevant for CD4(+) T-lymphocyte trafficking and function, possibly facilitating lymphocyte migration into the CNS. An important therapeutic effect of IFN-beta treatment may be the normalization...... as these influence central nervous system (CNS) transmigration and inflammation. At 'steady state' (>/=1 day after the most recent IFN-beta injection), IFN-beta treatment increased CD4(+) T-cell surface expression of CC chemokine receptor (CCR)4, CCR5 and CCR7 after 3 months of treatment, whereas that of CXC...

  13. Synergetic responses after administration of interleukin-2 and Interferon-alpha combined with gamma knife radiosurgery in a patient with multiple lung and brain metastases: a case report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Takada, Toshihiko; Yamada, Yoshiteru; Uno, Masahiro; Komeda, Hisao; Fujimoto, Yoshinori

    2005-01-01

    ...). Initially, Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) therapy was started for lung metastases. About 40 days after surgery, head magnetic resonance imaging revealed brain metastases, and therefore gamma knife radiosurgery(GKS) was performed...

  14. Differential regulation of murine Mesocestoides corti infection by bacterial lipopolysaccharide and interferon-gamma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, P; Dixon, J B; Haywood, S; Rakha, N K; Carter, S D

    1991-02-01

    Many liver-invasive parasites cause extensive liver damage which may result in an impaired ability to catabolize endotoxin. The influence of endogenous endotoxin on the progress of liver-invasive parasitic diseases has been investigated in murine Mesocestoides corti infection. Invasion of liver tissue by tetrathyridia resulted in extensive parenchymal destruction with fibrosis. In association with this, undetoxified endotoxin, in potentially biologically active concentration, was found on peritoneal macrophages, 5 months post-M, corti infection. Host susceptibility was influenced by the Lps gene for responsiveness to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The parasite burden of LPS-responsive (C3H/HeN) mice was significantly increased in the livers of these mice when compared to LPS-resistant (C3H/HeJ) mice. LPS reduced the ability of normal peritoneal macrophages to kill tetrathyridia, when co-cultured in vitro. LPS also abrogated the ability of recombinant interferon-gamma (r.IFN-gamma) to enhance macrophage larvicidal activity. These in vitro findings were confirmed in vivo. Daily intraperitoneal administration of LPS, at low concentration, caused a 4-fold increase in parasite burden in the liver, while r.IFN-gamma at optimal concentration reduced parasite burden by 57%. Post-infection macrophages have previously been shown to be refractory to cytokine-activation for larval killing. In this report, we conclude that (1) this refractoriness may be due to the presence of undetoxified endotoxin on post-infection macrophages and (2) endotoxin may reduce host resistance by abrogating effector macrophage response to IFN-gamma.

  15. Dietary apigenin potentiates the inhibitory effect of interferon-α on cancer cell viability through inhibition of 26S proteasome-mediated interferon receptor degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng; Yang, Li-Juan; Wang, Ping; He, Yu-Jiao; Huang, Jun-Mei; Liu, Han-Wei; Shen, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Type I interferons (IFN-α/β) have broad and potent immunoregulatory and antiproliferative activities. However, it is still known whether the dietary flavonoids exhibit their antiviral and anticancer properties by modulating the function of type I IFNs. This study aimed at determining the role of apigenin, a dietary plant flavonoid abundant in common fruits and vegetables, on the type I IFN-mediated inhibition of cancer cell viability. Inhibitory effect of apigenin on human 26S proteasome, a known negative regulator of type I IFN signaling, was evaluated in vitro. Molecular docking was conducted to know the interaction between apigenin and subunits of 26S proteasome. Effects of apigenin on JAK/STAT pathway, 26S proteasome-mediated interferon receptor stability, and cancer cells viability were also investigated. Apigenin was identified to be a potent inhibitor of human 26S proteasome in a cell-based assay. Apigenin inhibited the chymotrypsin-like, caspase-like, and trypsin-like activities of the human 26S proteasome and increased the ubiquitination of endogenous proteins in cells. Results from computational modeling of the potential interactions of apigenin with the chymotrypsin site (β5 subunit), caspase site (β1 subunit), and trypsin site (β2 subunit) of the proteasome were consistent with the observed proteasome inhibitory activity. Apigenin enhanced the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription proteins (STAT1 and STAT2) and promoted the endogenous IFN-α-regulated gene expression. Apigenin inhibited the IFN-α-stimulated ubiquitination and degradation of type I interferon receptor 1 (IFNAR1). Apigenin also sensitized the inhibitory effect of IFN-α on viability of cervical carcinoma HeLa cells. These results suggest that apigenin potentiates the inhibitory effect of IFN-α on cancer cell viability by activating JAK/STAT signaling pathway through inhibition of 26S proteasome-mediated IFNAR1 degradation. This may provide a novel

  16. An innate antiviral pathway acting before interferons at epithelial surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Marie B; Reinert, Line S; Thomsen, Martin K

    2015-01-01

    Mucosal surfaces are exposed to environmental substances and represent a major portal of entry for microorganisms. The innate immune system is responsible for early defense against infections and it is believed that the interferons (IFNs) constitute the first line of defense against viruses. Here...... we identify an innate antiviral pathway that works at epithelial surfaces before the IFNs. The pathway is activated independently of known innate sensors of viral infections through a mechanism dependent on viral O-linked glycans, which induce CXCR3 chemokines and stimulate antiviral activity...

  17. Epitope Mapping of Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies to Human Interferon-γ Using Human-Bovine Interferon-γ Chimeras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Bartek; Rudström, Karin; Ehrnfelt, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to identify conformational epitopes, recognized by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) made against human (h) interferon (IFN)-γ. Based on the mAbs' (n = 12) ability to simultaneously bind hIFN-γ in ELISA, 2 epitope clusters with 5 mAbs in each were defined; 2 mAbs recognized unique epitopes. Utilizing the mAbs' lack of reactivity with bovine (b) IFN-γ, epitopes were identified using 7 h/bIFN-γ chimeras where the helical regions (A-F) or the C terminus were substituted with bIFN-γ residues. Chimeras had a N-terminal peptide tag enabling the analysis of mAb recognition of chimeras in ELISA. The 2 mAb clusters mapped to region A and E, respectively; the epitopes of several mAbs also involved additional regions. MAbs in cluster A neutralized, to various degrees, IFN-γ-mediated activation of human cells, in line with the involvement of region A in the IFN-γ receptor interaction. MAbs mapping to region E displayed a stronger neutralizing capacity although this region has not been directly implicated in the receptor interaction. The results corroborate earlier studies and provide a detailed picture of the link between the epitope specificity and neutralizing capacity of mAbs. They further demonstrate the general use of peptide-tagged chimeric proteins as a powerful and straightforward method for efficient mapping of conformational epitopes. PMID:27336613

  18. Association between Gc genotype and susceptibility to TB is dependent on vitamin D status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martineau, A R; Leandro, A C C S; Anderson, S T; Newton, S M; Wilkinson, K A; Nicol, M P; Pienaar, S M; Skolimowska, K H; Rocha, M A; Rolla, V C; Levin, M; Davidson, R N; Bremner, S A; Griffiths, C J; Eley, B S; Bonecini-Almeida, M G; Wilkinson, R J

    2010-05-01

    Group-specific component (Gc) variants of vitamin D binding protein differ in their affinity for vitamin D metabolites that modulate antimycobacterial immunity. We conducted studies to determine whether Gc genotype associates with susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB). The following subjects were recruited into case-control studies: in the UK, 123 adult TB patients and 140 controls, all of Gujarati Asian ethnic origin; in Brazil, 130 adult TB patients and 78 controls; and in South Africa, 281 children with TB and 182 controls. Gc genotypes were determined and their frequency was compared between cases versus controls. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were obtained retrospectively for 139 Gujarati Asians, and case-control analysis was stratified by vitamin D status. Interferon (IFN)-gamma release assays were also performed on 36 Gujarati Asian TB contacts. The Gc2/2 genotype was strongly associated with susceptibility to active TB in Gujarati Asians, compared with Gc1/1 genotype (OR 2.81, 95% CI 1.19-6.66; p = 0.009). This association was preserved if serum 25(OH)D was or =20 nmol.L(-1) (p = 0.36). Carriage of the Gc2 allele was associated with increased PPD of tuberculin-stimulated IFN-gamma release in Gujarati Asian TB contacts (p = 0.02). No association between Gc genotype and susceptibility to TB was observed in other ethnic groups studied.

  19. Dendritic cell maturation, but not type I interferon exposure, restricts infection by HTLV-1, and viral transmission to T-cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergès Rizkallah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Human T lymphotropic Virus type 1 (HTLV-1 is the etiological agent of Adult T cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATLL and HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP. Both CD4+ T-cells and dendritic cells (DCs infected with HTLV-1 are found in peripheral blood from HTLV-1 carriers. We previously demonstrated that monocyte-derived IL-4 DCs are more susceptible to HTLV-1 infection than autologous primary T-cells, suggesting that DC infection precedes T-cell infection. However, during blood transmission, breast-feeding or sexual transmission, HTLV-1 may encounter different DC subsets present in the blood, the intestinal or genital mucosa respectively. These different contacts may impact HTLV-1 ability to infect DCs and its subsequent transfer to T-cells. Using in vitro monocyte-derived IL-4 DCs, TGF-β DCs and IFN-α DCs that mimic DCs contacting HTLV-1 in vivo, we show here that despite their increased ability to capture HTLV-1 virions, IFN-α DCs restrict HTLV-1 productive infection. Surprisingly, we then demonstrate that it is not due to the antiviral activity of type-I interferon produced by IFN-α DCs, but that it is likely to be linked to a distinct trafficking route of HTLV-1 in IL-4 DCs vs. IFN-α DCs. Finally, we demonstrate that, in contrast to IL-4 DCs, IFN-α DCs are impaired in their capacity to transfer HTLV-1 to CD4 T-cells, both after viral capture and trans-infection and after their productive infection. In conclusion, the nature of the DCs encountered by HTLV-1 upon primo-infection and the viral trafficking route through the vesicular pathway of these cells determine the efficiency of viral transmission to T-cells, which may condition the fate of infection.

  20. [Adenovirus-mediated canine interferon-gamma expression and its antiviral activity against canine parvovirus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kao; Jin, Huijun; Zhong, Fei; Li, Xiujin; Neng, Changai; Chen, Huihui; Li, Wenyan; Wen, Jiexia

    2012-11-04

    To construct recombinant adenovirus containing canine interferon-gamma (cIFN-gamma) gene and to investigate its antiviral activity against canine parvovirus in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCK). [Methods] The cIFN-gamma gene was inserted into adenovirus shuttle plasmid to construct pShuttle3-cIFN-gamma expression vector, from which the cIFN-gamma expression cassette was transferred into the adenovirus genomic plasmid pAdeno-X by specific restriction sites to generate recombinant adenovirus genomic plasmid pAd-cIFN-gamma. The pAd-cIFN-gamma plasmid was linearized by digestion and transfected into human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells to generate the replication-defective cIFN-gamma recombinant adenovirus (Ad-cIFN-gamma). To analyze its anti-canine parvovirus activity, the MDCK cells were pre-infected by Ad-cIFN-gamma recombinant adenovirus, and then infected by canine parvovirus. The antiviral activity of the Ad-cIFN-gamma recombinant adenovirus against parvovirus was analyzed. The recombinant adenovirus containing cIFN-gamma gene was constructed by the ligation method. The recombinant adenovirus could mediates recombinant cIFN-gamma secretory expression in MDCK cells. The Ad-cIFN-gamma recombinant adenovirus could significantly inhibit canine parvovirus replication in MDCK cells pre-infected with the recombinant adenovirus. These results indicate that the Ad-cIFN-gamma recombinant adenovirus has the potent antiviral activity against canine parvovirus. The Ad-cIFN-gamma recombinant adenovirus was successfully constructed by the ligation method and possessed a powerful antiviral activity against canine parvovirus.

  1. Respiratory syncytial virus infection induces a subset of types I and III interferons in human dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillyer, Philippa; Mane, Viraj P; Chen, Aaron; Dos Santos, Maria B; Schramm, Lynnsie M; Shepard, Rachel E; Luongo, Cindy; Le Nouën, Cyril; Huang, Lei; Yan, Lihan; Buchholz, Ursula J; Jubin, Ronald G; Collins, Peter L; Rabin, Ronald L

    2017-04-01

    Whether respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) induces severe infantile pulmonary disease may depend on viral strain and expression of types I and III interferons (IFNs). These IFNs impact disease severity by inducing expression of many anti-viral IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). To investigate the impact of RSV strain on IFN and ISG expression, we stimulated human monocyte-derived DCs (MDDCs) with either RSV A2 or Line 19 and measured expression of types I and III IFNs and ISGs. At 24h, A2 elicited higher ISG expression than Line 19. Both strains induced MDDCs to express genes for IFN-β, IFN-α1, IFN-α8, and IFN-λ1-3, but only A2 induced IFN-α2, -α14 and -α21. We then show that IFN-α8 and IFN-α14 most potently induced MDDCs and bronchial epithelial cells (BECs) to express ISGs. Our findings demonstrate that RSV strain may impact patterns of types I and III IFN expression and the magnitude of the ISG response by DCs and BECs. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Evaluation of quantitative IFN-gamma response for risk stratification of active tuberculosis suspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, John Z; Cattamanchi, Adithya; Vittinghoff, Eric; Ho, Christine; Grinsdale, Jennifer; Hopewell, Philip C; Kawamura, L Masae; Nahid, Payam

    2010-01-01

    The contribution of interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) to appropriate risk stratification of active tuberculosis suspects has not been studied. To determine whether the addition of quantitative IGRA results to a prediction model incorporating clinical criteria improves risk stratification of smear-negative-tuberculosis suspects. Clinical data from tuberculosis suspects evaluated by the San Francisco Department of Public Health Tuberculosis Control Clinic from March 2005 to February 2008 were reviewed. We excluded tuberculosis suspects who were acid fast-bacilli smear-positive, HIV-infected, or under 10 years of age. We developed a clinical prediction model for culture-positive disease and examined the benefit of adding quantitative interferon (IFN)-gamma results measured by QuantiFERON-TB Gold (Cellestis, Carnegie, Australia). Of 660 patients meeting eligibility criteria, 65 (10%) had culture-proven tuberculosis. The odds of active tuberculosis increased by 7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3-11%) for each doubling of IFN-gamma level. The addition of quantitative IFN-gamma results to objective clinical data significantly improved model performance (c-statistic 0.71 vs. 0.78; P added clinical value to a prediction model incorporating conventional risk factors. Although this benefit may be attenuated within highly experienced centers, the predictive accuracy of quantitative IFN-gamma levels should be evaluated in other settings.

  3. A hot spot on interferon α/β receptor subunit 1 (IFNAR1) underpins its interaction with interferon-β and dictates signaling

    OpenAIRE

    De Weerd, Nicola A.; Matthews, Anthony Y.; Pattie, Philip R.; Bourke, Nollaig M.; Lim, San S.; Vivian, Julian P; Rossjohn, Jamie; Hertzog, Paul J.

    2017-01-01

    The interaction of IFN-β with its receptor IFNAR1 (interferon α/β receptor subunit 1) is vital for host-protective anti-viral and anti-proliferative responses, but signaling via this interaction can be detrimental if dysregulated. Whereas it is established that IFNAR1 is an essential component of the IFNAR signaling complex, the key residues underpinning the IFN-β-IFNAR1 interaction are unknown. Guided by the crystal structure of the IFN-β-IFNAR1 complex, we used truncation variants and site-...

  4. A functional polymorphism in IFNAR1 gene is associated with susceptibility and severity of HFMD with EV71 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Rongrong; Zhang, Guoliang; Li, Shaoyuan; Wang, Wenfei; Yuan, Jing; Li, Jianming; Wang, Yanrong; Lin, Yimin; Deng, Yong; Zhou, Boping; Gao, George Fu; Liu, Yingxia

    2015-12-18

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71), one of the major pathogens of Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), results in millions of infections and hundreds of deaths each year in Southeast Asia. Biased infection and variable clinical manifestations of EV71 HFMD indicated that host genetic background played an important role in the occurrence and development of the disease. We identified the mRNA profiles of EV71 HFMD patients, which type I interferon (IFN) pathway related genes were down-regulated. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of type I IFN receptor 1 (IFNAR1) were chosen to analyze their relationships to EV71 infection. We found that genotype GG of promoter variant rs2843710 was associated with the susceptibility and severity to EV71 HFMD. In addition, we assessed the regulatory effects of rs2843710 to IFN stimulated genes (ISGs), and found that the expressions of IFNAR1, OAS1 and MX1 were significantly lower in patients with rs2843710 genotype GG. And rs2843710 allele G showed weaker transcriptional activity compared with allele C. Our study indicated that rs2843710 of IFNAR1 was associated with the susceptibility and severity of EV71 HFMD in Chinese Han populations, acting as a functional polymorphism by regulating ISGs expression, such as OAS1 and MX1.

  5. Mathematical analysis demonstrates that interferons-β and -γ Interact in a multiplicative manner to disrupt herpes simplex virus replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, William P.; Halford, Keith J.; Pierce, Amy T.

    2005-01-01

    Several studies suggest that the innate interferons (IFNs), IFN-α and IFN-β, can act in concert with IFN-γto synergistically inhibit the replication of cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). The significance of this observation is not yet agreed upon in large part because the nature and magnitude of the interaction between IFN-α/β and IFN-γ is not well defined. In the current study, we resolve this issue by demonstrating three points. First, the hyperbolic tangent function, tanh (x  ), can be used to describe the individual effects of IFN-β or IFN-γ on HSV-1 replication over a 320,000-fold range of IFN concentration. Second, pharmacological methods prove that IFN-β and IFN-γ interact in a greater-than-additive manner to inhibit HSV-1 replication. Finally, the potency with which combinations of IFN-β and IFN-γ inhibit HSV-1 replication is accurately predicted by multiplying the individual inhibitory effects of each cytokine. Thus, IFN-β and IFN-γ interact in a multiplicative manner. We infer that a primary antiviral function of IFN-γ lies in its capacity to multiply the potency with which IFN-α/β restricts HSV-1 replication in vivo. This hypothesis has important ramifications for understanding how T lymphocyte-secreted cytokines such as IFN-γ can force herpesviruses into a latent state without destroying the neurons or leukocytes that continue to harbor these viral infections for the lifetime of the host.

  6. Pegylated interferon-alfa plus ribavirin therapies for chronic hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Kanda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Until HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitors become available at the end of 2011, the combination pegylated-interferon (PEG-IFN-alfa and ribavirin (RBV will remain the standard treatment for chronic hepatitis C patients. In some hepatitis C virus-infected patients, PEG-IFN plus RBV treatment against HCV should continue to be used because of side effects of new drugs such as anemia. Our Japanese experiences should provide new information for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. Keywords: Direct-acting antiviral agents (DAA, HCV, pegylated interferon, ribavirin, standard of care (SOC .

  7. AIP1 prevents graft arteriosclerosis by inhibiting IFN-γ-dependent smooth muscle cell proliferation and intimal expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Luyang; Qin, Lingfeng; Zhang, Haifeng; He, Yun; Chen, Hong; Pober, Jordan S.; Tellides, George; Min, Wang

    2011-01-01

    Background ASK1-interacting protein-1 (AIP1), a Ras GTPase-activating protein family member, is highly expressed in endothelial cells (EC) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). The role of AIP1 in VSMC and VSMC-proliferative disease is not known. We employed mouse graft arteriosclerosis models characterized by VSMC accumulation and intimal expansion to determine the function of AIP1. Methods and Results In a single minor histocompatibility antigen (male to female)-dependent aorta transplantation model, AIP1 deletion in the graft augmented neointima formation, an effect reversed in AIP1/ interferon-γ receptor (IFN-γR) doubly deficient aorta donors. In a syngeneic aortic transplantation model in which WT or AIP1-KO mouse aortas were transplanted into IFN-γ receptor deficient recipient and neointima formation induced by intravenous administration of adenovirus encoding a mouse IFN-γ transgene, donor grafts from AIP1-KO enhanced IFN-γ -induced VSMC proliferation and neointima formation. Mechanistically, knockout or knockdown of AIP1 in VSMC significantly enhanced IFN-γ-induced JAK-STAT signaling and IFN-γ-dependent VSMC migration and proliferation, two critical steps in neointima formation. Furthermore, AIP1 specifically binds to JAK2 and inhibits its activity. Conclusion AIP1 functions as a negative regulator in IFN-γ-induced intimal formation, in part, by downregulating IFN-γ-JAK2-STAT1/3-dependent migratory and proliferative signaling in VSMC. PMID:21700930

  8. Increased Levels of Type 1 Interferon in a Type 1 Diabetic Mouse Model Induce the Elimination of B Cells from the Periphery by Apoptosis and Increase their Retention in the Spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badr Mohamed Badr

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The autoimmune disease type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D is associated with a defect in the immune response, which increases susceptibility to infection. We recently demonstrated that prolonged elevated levels of type 1 interferon (IFN induce lymphocyte exhaustion during T1D. Aims: In the present study, we further investigated the effect of blocking the type I IFN receptor signaling pathway on diabetic dyslipidemia, in which an abnormal lipid profile leads to the exhaustion of B cells and alteration of their distribution and functions. Methods: T1D was induced in a mouse model by an intraperitoneal injection of a single dose (60 mg/kg of streptozotocin (STZ. Three groups of mice were examined: a non-diabetic control group, a diabetic group and a diabetic group treated with an anti-IFN (alpha, beta and omega receptor 1 (IFNAR1 blocking antibody to block type I IFN signaling. Results: We observed that induction of T1D was accompanied by a marked destruction of β cells and a reduction in the insulin levels in the diabetic group. Diabetic mice exhibited many changes, including alterations in their lipid profiles, expansion of splenic B cells, increased caspase-3, -8 and -9 activity, and apoptosis in peripheral B cells. Blocking type 1 IFN signaling in diabetic mice significantly returned the insulin and lipid profiles to normal levels, subsequently restored the B cell distribution, and rescued the peripheral B cells from apoptosis. Conclusion: Our data suggest the potential role of type I IFN in mediating diabetic dyslipidemia and an exhausted state of B cells during T1D.

  9. Harnessing mechanistic knowledge on beneficial versus deleterious IFN-I effects to design innovative immunotherapies targeting cytokine activity to specific cell types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc eDALOD

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Type I interferons (IFN-I were identified over 50 years ago as cytokines critical for host defense against viral infections. IFN-I promote antiviral defense through two main mechanisms. First, IFN-I directly reinforce or induce de novo in potentially all cells the expression of effector molecules of intrinsic antiviral immunity. Second, IFN-I orchestrate innate and adaptive antiviral immunity. However, IFN-I responses can be deleterious for the host in a number of circumstances, including secondary bacterial or fungal infections, several autoimmune diseases, and, paradoxically, certain chronic viral infections. We will review the proposed nature of protective versus deleterious IFN-I responses in selected diseases. Emphasis will be put on the potentially deleterious functions of IFN-I in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection, and on the respective roles of IFN-I and IFN-III in promoting resolution of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. We will then discuss how the balance between beneficial versus deleterious IFN-I responses is modulated by several key parameters including i the subtypes and dose of IFN-I produced, ii the cell types affected by IFN-I and iii the source and timing of IFN-I production. Finally we will speculate how integration of this knowledge combined with advanced biochemical manipulation of the activity of the cytokines should allow designing innovative immunotherapeutic treatments in patients. Specifically, we will discuss how induction or blockade of specific IFN-I responses in targeted cell types could promote the beneficial functions of IFN-I and/or dampen their deleterious effects, in a manner adapted to each disease.

  10. Cross-Species Antiviral Activity of Goose Interferons against Duck Plague Virus Is Related to Its Positive Self-Feedback Regulation and Subsequent Interferon Stimulated Genes Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Interferons are a group of antiviral cytokines acting as the first line of defense in the antiviral immunity. Here, we describe the antiviral activity of goose type I interferon (IFNα and type II interferon (IFNγ against duck plague virus (DPV. Recombinant goose IFNα and IFNγ proteins of approximately 20 kDa and 18 kDa, respectively, were expressed. Following DPV-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP infection of duck embryo fibroblast cells (DEFs with IFNα and IFNγ pre-treatment, the number of viral gene copies decreased more than 100-fold, with viral titers dropping approximately 100-fold. Compared to the control, DPV-EGFP cell positivity was decreased by goose IFNα and IFNγ at 36 hpi (3.89%; 0.79% and 48 hpi (17.05%; 5.58%. In accordance with interferon-stimulated genes being the “workhorse” of IFN activity, the expression of duck myxovirus resistance (Mx and oligoadenylate synthetases-like (OASL was significantly upregulated (p < 0.001 by IFN treatment for 24 h. Interestingly, duck cells and goose cells showed a similar trend of increased ISG expression after goose IFNα and IFNγ pretreatment. Another interesting observation is that the positive feedback regulation of type I IFN and type II IFN by goose IFNα and IFNγ was confirmed in waterfowl for the first time. These results suggest that the antiviral activities of goose IFNα and IFNγ can likely be attributed to the potency with which downstream genes are induced by interferon. These findings will contribute to our understanding of the functional significance of the interferon antiviral system in aquatic birds and to the development of interferon-based prophylactic and therapeutic approaches against viral disease.

  11. Interferon-alpha Subtype 11 Activates NK Cells and Enables Control of Retroviral Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Kathrin Gibbert; Jara J Joedicke; Andreas Meryk; Mirko Trilling; Sandra Francois; Janine Duppach; Anke Kraft; Lang, Karl S.; Ulf Dittmer

    2012-01-01

    The innate immune response mediated by cells such as natural killer (NK) cells is critical for the rapid containment of virus replication and spread during acute infection. Here, we show that subtype 11 of the type I interferon (IFN) family greatly potentiates the antiviral activity of NK cells during retroviral infection. Treatment of mice with IFN-α11 during Friend retrovirus infection (FV) significantly reduced viral loads and resulted in long-term protection from virus-induced leukemia. T...

  12. Minocycline added to subcutaneous interferon β-1a in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P S; Sellebjerg, F; Lycke, J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Combining different therapies may improve disease control in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). This study assessed the efficacy and safety of minocycline added to subcutaneous (sc) interferon (IFN) β-1a therapy. METHODS: This was a double...... of adverse events with minocycline versus placebo. CONCLUSION: Minocycline showed no statistically significant beneficial effect when added to sc IFN β-1a therapy....

  13. Type I Interferons Control Proliferation and Function of the Intestinal Epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    Katlinskaya, Yuliya V.; Katlinski, Kanstantsin V.; Lasri, Audrey; Li, Ning; Beiting, Daniel P.; Durham, Amy C.; Yang, Ting; Pikarsky, Eli; Lengner, Christopher J.; Johnson, F. Brad; Ben-Neriah, Yinon; Fuchs, Serge Y.

    2016-01-01

    Wnt pathway-driven proliferation and renewal of the intestinal epithelium must be tightly controlled to prevent development of cancer and barrier dysfunction. Although type I interferons (IFN) produced in the gut under the influence of microbiota are known for their antiproliferative effects, the role of these cytokines in regulating intestinal epithelial cell renewal is largely unknown. Here we report a novel role for IFN in the context of intestinal knockout of casein kinase 1α (CK1α), whic...

  14. Construction of a Novel Liver-Targeting Fusion Interferon by Incorporation of a Plasmodium Region I-Plus Peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interferon alpha (IFN α exerts a multiplicity of biological actions including antiviral, immunomodulatory, and antiproliferative effects. Administration of IFN α is the current treatment for chronic hepatitis B; however, therapy outcome has not been completely satisfactory. The systemic effects of IFN α may account for its low in vivo biological activity and multiple adverse events. The purpose of this study was to design a novel liver-targeting fusion interferon (IFN-CSP by fusing IFN α2b with a Plasmodium region I-plus peptide, thus targeting the drug specifically to the liver. The DNA sequence encoding IFN-CSP was constructed using improved splicing by overlapping extension-PCR method, and then cloned into the pET-21b vector for protein expression in E. coli BL21 (DE3. The recombinant protein was expressed as a His-tagged protein and purified using a combination of Ni affinity and HiTrap affinity chromatography at a purity of over 95%. The final yield of biologically active IFN-CSP was up to 270 mg/L culture. The purified recombinant protein showed anti-HBV activity and liver-targeting potentiality in vitro. These data suggests that the novel fusion interferon IFN-CSP may be an excellent candidate as a liver-targeting anti-HBV agent.

  15. Expression of interferon gamma by a recombinant rabies virus strongly attenuates the pathogenicity of the virus via induction of type I interferon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkhouse, Darryll A; Garcia, Samantha A; Bongiorno, Emily K; Lebrun, Aurore; Faber, Milosz; Hooper, D Craig

    2015-01-01

    Previous animal model experiments have shown a correlation between interferon gamma (IFN-γ) expression and both survival from infection with attenuated rabies virus (RABV) and reduction of neurological sequelae. Therefore, we hypothesized that rapid production of murine IFN-γ by the rabies virus itself would induce a more robust antiviral response than would occur naturally in mice. To test this hypothesis, we used reverse engineering to clone the mouse IFN-γ gene into a pathogenic rabies virus backbone, SPBN, to produce the recombinant rabies virus designated SPBNγ. Morbidity and mortality were monitored in mice infected intranasally with SPBNγ or SPBN(-) control virus to determine the degree of attenuation caused by the expression of IFN-γ. Incorporation of IFN-γ into the rabies virus genome highly attenuated the virus. SPBNγ has a 50% lethal dose (LD50) more than 100-fold greater than SPBN(-). In vitro and in vivo mouse experiments show that SPBNγ infection enhances the production of type I interferons. Furthermore, knockout mice lacking the ability to signal through the type I interferon receptor (IFNAR(-/-)) cannot control the SPBNγ infection and rapidly die. These data suggest that IFN-γ production has antiviral effects in rabies, largely due to the induction of type I interferons. Survival from rabies is dependent upon the early control of virus replication and spread. Once the virus reaches the central nervous system (CNS), this becomes highly problematic. Studies of CNS immunity to RABV have shown that control of replication begins at the onset of T cell entry and IFN-γ production in the CNS prior to the appearance of virus-neutralizing antibodies. Moreover, antibody-deficient mice are able to control but not clear attenuated RABV from the CNS. We find here that IFN-γ triggers the early production of type I interferons with the expected antiviral effects. We also show that engineering a lethal rabies virus to express IFN-γ directly in the

  16. Regression of infancy hemangiomas with recombinant IFN-alpha 2b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmendía, G; Miranda, N; Borroso, S; Longchong, M; Martínez, E; Ferrero, J; Porrero, P; López-Saura, P

    2001-01-01

    Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) has antitumor and antiangiogenic effects. The purpose of this work was to evaluate its efficacy and safety in the treatment of infancy hemangioma and to monitor the appearance of anti-IFN antibodies in these patients. Thirty-nine children (29 girls) aged 1.5-158 months, with 19 younger than 1 year and 9 older than 5, were treated with 3 x 10(6) IU/m(2) IFN-alpha 2b, subcutaneously (s.c.) daily. Inclusion criteria were life-threatening or life-limiting hemangioma and parents' informed consent. Regression was considered if tumor size diminished by 50% or more. Of the 38 patients who completed 6 months of treatment, 27 (71.1%) had regression and 11 (28.9%) had stable disease. No patient experienced progression. Regression was more frequent (100%) among patients between 1 and 5 years old, but it was particularly important (68%) among those under 1 year old, when spontaneous regression is rare. The main side effects were the IFN-related flulike syndrome (79%), increase in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (28%), anorexia (19%), and mild inflammation at the injection site (19%). There was no effect on psychomotor or physical development. On the contrary, 1 patient with neurologic symptoms improved remarkably, including seizure disappearance. Eight patients developed anti-IFN-alpha 2 neutralizing antibodies, and 7 of them responded to IFN treatment. IFN-alpha 2b is a safe and efficacious treatment of infancy hemangioma. Further work should look for other treatment schedules and ways of administration and carefully monitor anti-IFN neutralizing antibodies, which does not seem to interfere with response.

  17. The Envelope Gene of Transmitted HIV-1 Resists a Late Interferon Gamma-Induced Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihn, Suzannah J; Foster, Toshana L; Busnadiego, Idoia; Aziz, Muhamad Afiq; Hughes, Joseph; Neil, Stuart J D; Wilson, Sam J

    2017-04-01

    Type I interferon (IFN) signaling engenders an antiviral state that likely plays an important role in constraining HIV-1 transmission and contributes to defining subsequent AIDS pathogenesis. Type II IFN (IFN-γ) also induces an antiviral state but is often primarily considered to be an immunomodulatory cytokine. We report that IFN-γ stimulation can induce an antiviral state that can be both distinct from that of type I interferon and can potently inhibit HIV-1 in primary CD4(+) T cells and a number of human cell lines. Strikingly, we find that transmitted/founder (TF) HIV-1 viruses can resist a late block that is induced by type II IFN, and the use of chimeric IFN-γ-sensitive/resistant viruses indicates that interferon resistance maps to the env gene. Simultaneously, in vitro evolution also revealed that just a single amino acid substitution in the envelope can confer substantial resistance to IFN-mediated inhibition. Thus, the env gene of transmitted HIV-1 confers resistance to a late block that is phenotypically distinct from blocks previously described to be resisted by env and is therefore mediated by unknown IFN-γ-stimulated factor(s) in human CD4(+) T cells and cell lines. This important unidentified block could play a key role in constraining HIV-1 transmission.IMPORTANCE The human immune system can hinder invading pathogens through interferon (IFN) signaling. One consequence of this signaling is that cells enter an antiviral state, increasing the levels of hundreds of defenses that can inhibit the replication and spread of viruses. The majority of HIV-1 infections result from a single virus particle (the transmitted/founder) that makes it past these defenses and colonizes the host. Thus, the founder virus is hypothesized to be a relatively interferon-resistant entity. Here, we show that certain HIV-1 envelope genes have the unanticipated ability to resist specific human defenses mediated by different types of interferons. Strikingly, the envelope gene

  18. LGP2 downregulates interferon production during infection with seasonal human influenza A viruses that activate interferon regulatory factor 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malur, Meghana; Gale, Michael; Krug, Robert M

    2012-10-01

    LGP2, a member of the RIG-I-like receptor family, lacks the amino-terminal caspase activation recruitment domains (CARDs) required for initiating the activation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and interferon (IFN) transcription. The role of LGP2 in virus infection is controversial, and the only LGP2 experiments previously carried out with mammalian influenza A viruses employed an attenuated, mouse-adapted H1N1 A/PR/8/34 (PR8) virus that does not encode the NS1 protein. Here we determine whether LGP2 has a role during infection with wild-type, nonattenuated influenza A viruses that have circulated in the human population, specifically two types of seasonal influenza A viruses: (i) H3N2 and H1N1 viruses that activate IRF3 and IFN transcription and (ii) recent H1N1 viruses that block these two activations. In human cells infected with an H3N2 virus that activates IRF3, overexpression of LGP2 or its repressor domain decreased STAT1 activation and IFN-β transcription approximately 10-fold. Overexpression of LGP2 also caused a 10-fold decrease of STAT1 activation during infection with other seasonal influenza A viruses that activate IRF3. Using LGP2(+/+) and LGP2(-/-) mouse cells, we show that endogenous LGP2 decreased IFN production during H3N2 virus infection 3- to 4-fold. In contrast, in both mouse and human cells infected with H1N1 viruses that do not activate IRF3, LGP2 had no detectable role. These results demonstrate that LGP2 downregulates IFN production during infection by seasonal influenza A viruses that activate IRF3 and IFN transcription. It is intriguing that LGP2, a host protein induced during influenza A virus infection, downregulates the host antiviral IFN response.

  19. The cost of successful antiviral therapy in hepatitis C patients: a comparison of IFN-free versus IFN-based regimens at an individual patient level in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee AS

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Allister Sebastian Lee,1 Mieke L van Driel,2 Darrell HG Crawford3,4 1Faculty of Medicine, 2Primary Care Clinical Unit, Faculty of Medicine, 3School of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Queensland, 4Gallipoli Medical Research Foundation, Greenslopes Private Hospital, Brisbane, Australia Background: Chronic hepatitis C remains a major global health burden with serious long-term consequences if left untreated. Recently the treatment standard of care has shifted to new interferon (IFN-free drug regimens, which have been shown to be safe and effective. The aim of our study was to assess and compare medical resource utilization and costs of successfully treating patients with IFN-based and IFN-free therapies in Australia. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of 30 HCV-infected patients successfully treated with IFN-based therapy between 2013 and 2015. We also generated a model for a virtual group of 100 genotype 1 (GT1 and 100 genotype 3 (GT3 patients treated with IFN-free therapy derived from national guidelines and clinical trial data. Results: In comparison to virtual patients receiving IFN-free therapy, our IFN-treated patients on average had distinctively more liver clinic visits and blood tests. However, mean total cost per patient was $19,164 and $85,300 (AUD more for GT1 and GT3 patients receiving IFN-free therapy, respectively. This difference was largely accounted for by higher antiviral drug costs. Of our 30 patients treated with IFN, total mean cost per patient during the study period was $33,595. Conclusion: Resource utilization is lower with IFN-free treatment, which reflects the reduced need for patient monitoring and improved side-effect profile of these new drugs. However, total costs are still largely dominated by antiviral drug costs, representing a huge burden on national budgets. Our insight into resource utilization and costs associated with both types of treatment can serve as a reference for

  20. Flow cytometry analysis of CD4+IFN-γ+ T-cells for the diagnosis of mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Chrysovalantis V; Anastasopoulos, Andreas; Ploussi, Maria; Leventopoulos, Michail; Karabela, Simona; Fotiadis, Kyriakos; Papavasileiou, Apostolos; Vogiatzakis, Evangelos; Ioakeimidis, Dimitrios; Gritzapis, Angelos D; Poulakis, Nikolaos

    2016-05-01

    CD4+ cells expressing Interferon-γ (IFN-γ), following stimulation with specific mycobacterial antigens, identified with flow cytometry (FCM-CD4+IFN-γ+), is a new method for the diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection. The aim of this study is to investigate the performance of FCM-CD4+IFN-γ+ in comparison with tuberculin skin test (TST) and Quantiferon TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-G-IT) in the diagnosis of latent MTB infection (LTBI), in close contacts and in patients with rheumatic diseases under treatment with anti-TNFa and other biologic agents. TST, QFT-G-IT, and FCM-CD4+IFN-γ+ were performed in 56 immunocompetent close contacts and in 65 medically immunosuppressed patients under biologic treatment. In close contacts, 63% were FCM-CD4+IFN-γ+ ESAT-6(+), 70% FCM-CD4+IFN-γ+ PPD(+), 41% QFT-G-IT(+) and 57% TST(+). FCM-CD4+IFN-γ+ ESAT-6 was the only test that was strongly correlated to the exposure time to infection. In the immunosuppressed group, 49% were FCM-CD4+IFN-γ+ ESAT-6(+), 62% FCM-CD4+IFN-γ+ PPD(+), 4.6% QFT-G-IT(+), and 18% TST(+). FCM-CD4+IFN-γ+ assays are more sensitive than QFT-G-IT and TST for the diagnosis of LTBI in close contacts and in immunosuppressed patients under anti-TNF-a treatment. FCM-CD4+IFN-γ+ is not affected by the chronic use of biologic agents. © 2015 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2015 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  1. Effects of 2-aminoanthracene and benzo(. cap alpha. )pyrene on interferon production in human foreskin fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu-Shiaw; Vaughn, J.M.; Morales, D.

    1987-11-01

    Human foreskin fibroblast cell cultures (Flow 7000, FS-35) were treated with varying concentrations of 2-aminoanthracene or benzo(..cap alpha..)pyrene for a two-day period prior to interferon (IFN) induction by either poly I . poly C, or 'Vesicular' Stomatitis virus (VSV). IFN in test cell fluids was then assayed and compared to production in untreated cultures. Both cell lines produced similar amounts of beta-interferon in response to poly I . poly C simulus. However, Flow 7000 fibroblasts were extremely sensitive to benzo(..cap alpha..)pyrene, with concentrations as low as 1 ..mu..M treatment inhibiting 93% of IFN-..beta.. productivity. Treatment of FS-35 cells with ten times this concentration was required to inhibit 85% of IFN-..beta.. productivity. Both test chemicals inhibited IFN-..beta.. productivity in FS-35 fibroblasts to the same extent. It was also noted that FS-35 produced alpha-interferon in response to VSV challenge, but this production was vulnerable to treatment with both test chemicals. In all cases, observed levels of IFN inhibition were directly proportional to the concentration of the applied chemical. 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  2. Theiler's Murine Encephalomyelitis Virus Induces Apoptosis in Gamma Interferon-Activated M1 Differentiated Myelomonocytic Cells through a Mechanism Involving Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-α) and TNF-α-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelachich, Mary Lou; Lipton, Howard L.

    2001-01-01

    Infection of susceptible mice with the low-neurovirulence Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus strain BeAn results in an inflammatory demyelinating disease similar to multiple sclerosis. While the majority of virus antigen is detected in central nervous system macrophages (Mφs), few infiltrating Mφs are infected. We used the myelomonocytic precursor M1 cell line to study BeAn virus-Mφ interactions in vitro to elucidate mechanisms for restricted virus expression. We have shown that restricted BeAn infection of M1 cells differentiated in vitro (M1-D) results in apoptosis. In this study, BeAn infection of gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-activated M1-D cells also resulted in apoptosis but with no evidence of virus replication or protein expression. RNase protection assays of M1-D cellular RNA revealed up-regulation of Fas and the p55 chain of the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) receptor transcripts with IFN-γ activation. BeAn infection of activated cells resulted in increased caspase 8 mRNA transcripts and the appearance of TNF-α-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) 4 h postinfection. Both unactivated and activated M1-D cells expressed TRAIL receptors (R1 and R2), but only activated cells were killed by soluble TRAIL. Activated cells were also susceptible to soluble FasL- and TNF-α-induced apoptosis. The data suggest that IFN-γ-activated M1-D cell death receptors become susceptible to their ligands and that the cells respond to BeAn virus infection by producing the ligands TNF-α and TRAIL to kill the susceptible cells. Unactivated cells are not susceptible to FasL or TRAIL and require virus replication to initiate apoptosis. Therefore, two mechanisms of apoptosis induction can be triggered by BeAn infection: an intrinsic pathway requiring virus replication and an extrinsic pathway signaling through the death receptors. PMID:11390594

  3. Alpha interferon-induced antiretroviral activities: restriction of viral nucleic acid synthesis and progeny virion production in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected monocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Baca-Regen, L; Heinzinger, N; Stevenson, M; Gendelman, H E

    1994-01-01

    Alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) restricts multiple steps of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) life cycle. A well-described effect of IFN-alpha is in the modulation of viral nucleic acid synthesis. We demonstrate that IFN-alpha influences HIV-1 DNA synthesis principally by reducing the production of late products of reverse transcription. The magnitude of IFN-alpha-induced downregulation of HIV-1 DNA and/or progeny virion production was dependent on the IFN-alpha concentration, the ...

  4. Antiviral activity and host gene induction by tamarin and marmoset interferon-alpha and interferon-gamma in the GBV-B primary hepatocyte culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Deborah; Guerra, Bernadette; Lanford, Robert E

    2009-08-01

    GBV-B induces hepatitis in tamarins and marmosets and is a surrogate model for HCV infections. Here, we cloned and characterized the antiviral activity of tamarin and marmoset interferon (IFN)alpha and IFN gamma. Potent antiviral activity was observed for tamarin and marmoset IFN alpha in primary hepatocyte cultures infected with GBV-B. The antiviral activity was greater in cultures exposed to IFN alpha prior to GBV-B infection, suggesting that either GBV-B was capable of inhibition of the antiviral activity of exogenous IFN alpha or that the preexisting endogenous IFN response to the virus reduced efficacy to exogenous IFN alpha. IFN gamma also exhibited antiviral activity in GBV-B infected hepatocytes. The transcriptional response to IFN alpha in marmoset hepatocytes was characterized using human genome microarrays. Since the GBV-B hepatocyte culture model possesses a functional innate immune response, it will provide opportunities to explore the nature of the antiviral response to a virus closely related to HCV.

  5. Interferon-alpha subtype 11 activates NK cells and enables control of retroviral infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Gibbert

    Full Text Available The innate immune response mediated by cells such as natural killer (NK cells is critical for the rapid containment of virus replication and spread during acute infection. Here, we show that subtype 11 of the type I interferon (IFN family greatly potentiates the antiviral activity of NK cells during retroviral infection. Treatment of mice with IFN-α11 during Friend retrovirus infection (FV significantly reduced viral loads and resulted in long-term protection from virus-induced leukemia. The effect of IFN-α11 on NK cells was direct and signaled through the type I IFN receptor. Furthermore, IFN-α11-mediated activation of NK cells enabled cytolytic killing of FV-infected target cells via the exocytosis pathway. Depletion and adoptive transfer experiments illustrated that NK cells played a major role in successful IFN-α11 therapy. Additional experiments with Mouse Cytomegalovirus infections demonstrated that the therapeutic effect of IFN-α11 is not restricted to retroviruses. The type I IFN subtypes 2 and 5, which bind the same receptor as IFN-α11, did not elicit similar antiviral effects. These results demonstrate a unique and subtype-specific activation of NK cells by IFN-α11.

  6. Bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 accessory proteins that suppress beta interferon production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Takayuki; Takeuchi, Kenji; Gotoh, Bin

    2007-07-01

    The paramyxovirus P gene encodes accessory proteins antagonistic to interferon (IFN). Viral proteins responsible for the IFN antagonism, however, are distinct among paramyxoviruses. Here we determine bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (bPIV3) IFN antagonists that suppress IFN-beta production, and investigate the underlying molecular mechanism. Of bPIV3 P gene products, C and V proteins were found to suppress double-stranded RNA-stimulated IFN-beta production. The V protein of bPIV3 and Sendai virus in the same genus Respirovirus significantly inhibits double-stranded RNA-stimulated IFN-beta production and the IFN-beta promoter activation enhanced by overexpression of MDA5 but not RIG-I, and yet does not suppress IFN-beta production induced by TRIF, TBK1, and IKKi. The V protein of both viruses specifically binds to MDA5 but not RIG-I. These results suggest that the V protein targets MDA5 for blockage of the IFN-beta gene activation signal. On the other hand, both bPIV3 and Sendai virus C proteins modestly inhibited IFN-beta production irrespective of a species of the signaling molecules used as an inducer. Interestingly, reporter gene expression driven by various promoters was also suppressed by the C proteins irrespective of the promoter species. These results demonstrate that the target of the respirovirus C protein is undoubtedly different from that of the V protein.

  7. Interferon-α abrogates tolerance induction by human tolerogenic dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Bacher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Administration of interferon-α (IFN-α represents an approved adjuvant therapy as reported for malignancies like melanoma and several viral infections. In malignant diseases, tolerance processes are critically involved in tumor progression. In this study, the effect of IFN-α on tolerance induction by human tolerogenic dendritic cells (DC was analyzed. We focussed on tolerogenic IL-10-modulated DC (IL-10 DC that are known to induce anergic regulatory T cells (iTregs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: IFN-α promoted an enhanced maturation of IL-10 DC as demonstrated by upregulation of the differentiation marker CD83 as well as costimulatory molecules. IFN-α treatment resulted in an increased capacity of DC to stimulate T cell activation compared to control tolerogenic DC. We observed a strengthened T cell proliferation and increased IFN-γ production of CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells stimulated by IFN-α-DC, demonstrating a restoration of the immunogenic capacity of tolerogenic DC in the presence of IFN-α. Notably, restimulation experiments revealed that IFN-α treatment of tolerogenic DC abolished the induction of T cell anergy and suppressor function of iTregs. In contrast, IFN-α neither affected the priming of iTregs nor converted iTregs into effector T cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: IFN-α inhibits the induction of T cell tolerance by reversing the tolerogenic function of human DC.

  8. Targeted therapeutics in SLE: emerging strategies to modulate the interferon pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oon, Shereen; Wilson, Nicholas J; Wicks, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototypic autoimmune disease characterized by impaired immune tolerance, resulting in the generation of pathogenic autoantibodies and immune complexes. Although autoreactive B lymphocytes have been the first targets for biologic therapies in SLE, the importance of the innate immune system, and in particular, pathways involved in interferon (IFN) signaling, has emerged. There are now data supporting a central role for a plasmacytoid dendritic cell-derived type I IFN pathway in SLE, with a number of biologic therapeutics and small-molecule inhibitors undergoing clinical trials. Monoclonal antibodies targeting IFN-α have completed phase II clinical trials, and an antibody against the type I IFN receptor is entering a phase III trial. However, other IFNs, such as IFN gamma, and the more recently discovered type III IFNs, are also emerging as targets in SLE; and blockade of upstream components of the IFN signaling pathway may enable inhibition of more than one IFN subtype. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of IFNs in SLE, focusing on emerging therapies. PMID:27350879

  9. Enhancement or inhibition of tumor growth by interferon: dependence on treatment protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murasko, D M; Fresa, K; Mark, R

    1983-12-15

    MSC cells are tumor cells originally induced in BALB/c mice by Moloney sarcoma virus. In these studies we demonstrated that, although these tumor cells are sensitive in vitro both to lysis by NK or NK-like cells and to the growth-inhibitory effect of murine L-cell interferon (IFN), the growth of the tumor in vivo could be either inhibited or enhanced by IFN. The outcome of in vivo IFN treatment was dependent on the timing and route of IFN administration relative to tumor challenge. IFN given systematically at the same time as tumor challenge resulted in enhancement of primary tumor formation, rate of tumor growth and subsequent progressive tumor growth. In contrast, IFN administered at the site of tumor inoculation on days 1-3 after tumor challenge inhibited tumor formation and growth. Histopathology of tissue sections obtained from the site of tumor challenge confirmed these results. Similar studies performed in mice given 450 rads of X-irradiation showed that IFN could still inhibit tumor growth when administered at the site of tumor inoculation on days 1-3 after tumor challenge. IFN administered simultaneously with tumor challenge, however, did not enhance tumor growth in irradiated mice. These results are consistent with the interpretation that 1) inhibition of MSC-induced tumor growth by IFN has a radioresistant component and 2) the enhancement of MSC-induced tumor formation by IFN is dependent on interaction with a radiosensitive population of cells, possibly lymphoid cells.

  10. Dry eye-induced conjunctival epithelial squamous metaplasia is modulated by interferon-gamma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paiva, Cintia S; Villarreal, Arturo L; Corrales, Rosa M; Rahman, Hassan T; Chang, Victor Y; Farley, William J; Stern, Michael E; Niederkorn, Jerry Y; Li, De-Quan; Pflugfelder, Stephen C

    2007-06-01

    To investigate the role of interferon (IFN)-gamma in the pathogenesis of conjunctival squamous metaplasia in dry eye. Experimental dry eye was created by subjecting C57BL/6 and IFN-gamma-knockout mice to desiccating environmental stress for 5 or 10 days. T-cell antigens and IFN-gamma were detected by immunohistochemistry. Goblet cells were counted in periodic acid Schiff (PAS)-stained sections. Expression of small, proline-rich protein (SPRR)-2 was evaluated by confocal microscopy. Tear IFN-gamma was measured by immunobead assay. Dry eye promoted migration of CD4+ T cells and IFN-gamma+ cells into goblet cell zones of the conjunctiva and increased the concentration of IFN-gamma in tears. This migration was accompanied by progressive goblet cell loss and an increase in SPRR-2 expression in the conjunctival epithelium. A significant inverse correlation was observed between the density of infiltrating CD4+ T cells and goblet cells. Dry eye had no effect on conjunctival goblet cell density in IFN-gamma-knockout mice; however, exogenous administration of IFN-gamma significantly decreased goblet cell density after 5 days. Conjunctival epithelial response to experimental dryness is related to the degree of CD4+ T-cell infiltration and the level of IFN-gamma production. These findings suggest that IFN-gamma plays a pivotal role in promoting conjunctival squamous metaplasia in dry eye, and they provide insight into the immune pathogenesis of keratoconjunctivitis sicca.

  11. Immunomodulatory and antitumor effects of type I interferons and their application in cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, Ruan F V; Hunger, Aline; Mendonça, Samir Andrade; Barbuto, José Alexandre M; Strauss, Bryan E

    2017-09-19

    During the last decades, the pleiotropic antitumor functions exerted by type I interferons (IFNs) have become universally acknowledged, especially their role in mediating interactions between the tumor and the immune system. Indeed, type I IFNs are now appreciated as a critical component of dendritic cell (DC) driven T cell responses to cancer. Here we focus on IFN-α and IFN-β, and their antitumor effects, impact on immune responses and their use as therapeutic agents. IFN-α/β share many properties, including activation of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway and induction of a variety of cellular phenotypes. For example, type I IFNs drive not only the high maturation status of DCs, but also have a direct impact in cytotoxic T lymphocytes, NK cell activation, induction of tumor cell death and inhibition of angiogenesis. A variety of stimuli, including some standard cancer treatments, promote the expression of endogenous IFN-α/β, which then participates as a fundamental component of immunogenic cell death. Systemic treatment with recombinant protein has been used for the treatment of melanoma. The induction of endogenous IFN-α/β has been tested, including stimulation through pattern recognition receptors. Gene therapies involving IFN-α/β have also been described. Thus, harnessing type I IFNs as an effective tool for cancer therapy continues to be studied.

  12. Dental problems delaying the initiation of interferon therapy for HCV-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagao Yumiko

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been little discussion about the importance of oral management and interferon (IFN therapy, although management of the side effects of therapy for chronic hepatitis C has been documented. This study determined whether dental problems delayed the initiation of IFN therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV-infected patients. Results We analyzed 570 HCV-infected patients who were admitted to our hospital from December 2003 to June 2010 for treatment consisting of pegylated IFN (Peg-IFN monotherapy or Peg-IFN/ribavirin combination therapy. The group comprised 274 men and 296 women with a mean age 57.2 years. Of the 570 patients, six could not commence Peg-IFN therapy, despite their admission, because of dental problems such as periodontitis, pupitis, and pericoronitis. The ages of six whose dental problems delayed the initiation of Peg-IFN ranged from 25 to 67 years, with a mean age of 47.3 ± 15.2 years. IFN therapy was deferred for 61.3 ± 47.7 days. Among the six subjects for whom IFN treatment was delayed, only one had a salivary flow that was lower than the normal value. Conclusions Treatment of dental infections is required before IFN therapy for HCV infection can be started. To increase the depth of understanding of oral health care, it is hoped that dentists and medical specialists in all areas will hold discussions to generate cooperation.

  13. Dental problems delaying the initiation of interferon therapy for HCV-infected patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background There has been little discussion about the importance of oral management and interferon (IFN) therapy, although management of the side effects of therapy for chronic hepatitis C has been documented. This study determined whether dental problems delayed the initiation of IFN therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. Results We analyzed 570 HCV-infected patients who were admitted to our hospital from December 2003 to June 2010 for treatment consisting of pegylated IFN (Peg-IFN) monotherapy or Peg-IFN/ribavirin combination therapy. The group comprised 274 men and 296 women with a mean age 57.2 years. Of the 570 patients, six could not commence Peg-IFN therapy, despite their admission, because of dental problems such as periodontitis, pupitis, and pericoronitis. The ages of six whose dental problems delayed the initiation of Peg-IFN ranged from 25 to 67 years, with a mean age of 47.3 ± 15.2 years. IFN therapy was deferred for 61.3 ± 47.7 days. Among the six subjects for whom IFN treatment was delayed, only one had a salivary flow that was lower than the normal value. Conclusions Treatment of dental infections is required before IFN therapy for HCV infection can be started. To increase the depth of understanding of oral health care, it is hoped that dentists and medical specialists in all areas will hold discussions to generate cooperation. PMID:20712912

  14. Metabolic Regulation of Natural Killer Cell IFN-γ Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Annelise Y; Cooper, Megan A

    2016-01-01

    Metabolism is critical for a host of cellular functions and provides a source of intracellular energy. It has been recognized recently that metabolism also regulates differentiation and effector functions of immune cells. Although initial work in this field has focused largely on T lymphocytes, recent studies have demonstrated metabolic control of innate immune cells, including natural killer (NK) cells. Here, we review what is known regarding the metabolic requirements for NK cell activation, focusing on NK cell production of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). NK cells are innate immune lymphocytes that are poised for rapid activation during the early immune response. Although their basal metabolic rates do not change with short-term activation, they exhibit specific metabolic requirements for activation depending upon the stimulus received. These metabolic requirements for NK cell activation are altered by culturing NK cells with interleukin-15, which increases NK cell metabolic rates at baseline and shifts them toward aerobic glycolysis. We discuss the metabolic pathways important for NK cell production of IFN-γ protein and potential mechanisms whereby metabolism regulates NK cell function.

  15. Effects of interferon-γ knockdown on vaccine-induced immunity against Marek’s disease in chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Haq, Kamran; Wootton, Sarah K.; Barjesteh, Neda; Golovan, Serguei; Bendall, Andrew; Sharif, Shayan

    2015-01-01

    Interferon (IFN)-γ has been shown to be associated with immunity to Marek’s disease virus (MDV). The overall objective of this study was to investigate the causal relationship between IFN-γ and vaccine-conferred immunity against MDV in chickens. To this end, 3 small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting chicken IFN-γ, which had previously been shown to reduce IFN-γ expression in vitro, and a control siRNA were selected to generate recombinant avian adeno-associated virus (rAAAV) expressing shor...

  16. Ligand-Stimulated Downregulation of the Alpha Interferon Receptor: Role of Protein Kinase D2▿ §

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Hui; Qian, Juan; Varghese, Bentley; Baker, Darren P.; Fuchs, Serge

    2010-01-01

    Alpha interferon (IFN-α) controls homeostasis of hematopoietic stem cells, regulates antiviral resistance, inhibits angiogenesis, and suppresses tumor growth. This cytokine is often used to treat cancers and chronic viral infections. The extent of cellular responses to IFN-α is limited by the IFN-induced ubiquitination and degradation of the IFN-α/β receptor chain 1 (IFNAR1) chain of the cognate receptor. IFNAR1 ubiquitination is facilitated by the βTrcp E3 ubiquitin ligase that is recruited ...

  17. Association of TRIM22 with the type 1 interferon response and viral control during primary HIV-1 infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Ravesh; Gaiha Gaurav; Werner Lise; McKim Kevin; Mlisana Koleka; Luban Jeremy; Walker Bruce D; Karim Salim S Abdool; Brass Abraham L; Ndung'u Thumbi; CAPRISA 002 Acute Infection Study Team

    2011-01-01

    Type 1 interferons (IFNs) induce the expression of the tripartite interaction motif (TRIM) family of E3 ligases but the contribution of these antiviral factors to HIV pathogenesis is not completely understood. We hypothesized that the increased expression of select type 1 IFN and TRIM isoforms is associated with a significantly lower likelihood of HIV 1 acquisition and viral control during primary HIV 1 infection. We measured IFN a IFN ß myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA) human TRIM5a (huTR...

  18. Association of TRIM22 with the Type 1 Interferon Response and Viral Control during Primary HIV-1 Infection▿

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Ravesh; Gaiha, Gaurav; Werner, Lise; McKim, Kevin; Mlisana, Koleka; Luban, Jeremy; Bruce D. Walker; Karim, Salim S. Abdool; Brass, Abraham L; Ndung'u, Thumbi

    2010-01-01

    Type 1 interferons (IFNs) induce the expression of the tripartite interaction motif (TRIM) family of E3 ligases, but the contribution of these antiviral factors to HIV pathogenesis is not completely understood. We hypothesized that the increased expression of select type 1 IFN and TRIM isoforms is associated with a significantly lower likelihood of HIV-1 acquisition and viral control during primary HIV-1 infection. We measured IFN-α, IFN-β, myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA), human TRIM5α (...

  19. Polymorphisms in the IFNAR1 gene in patients with chronic hepatitis C: outcome of combined IFN-alpha therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tena-Tomás, Cristina; Pedroso, Maria Lucia; de Messias-Reason, Iara J; Kremsner, Peter G; Kun, Jürgen F J

    2007-09-01

    Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) alone or in combination with ribavirin has been used for the last decade in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C, although the achievement of a sustained virological response (SVR) has not been very satisfactory. The treatment outcome depends on viral genotypes and host genetic polymorphisms in genes involved in the IFN-alpha signaling cascade. In this paper, we investigated the distribution of two variants of the IFNAR1 gene, G17470C and L168V, in two patient groups having received IFN-alpha alone or in combination with ribavirin. The analysis was performed using DNA sequencing of the relevant gene fragments. This study suggests that when combination therapy with high dose IFN-alpha and ribavirin is administered, HCV genotypes and age rather than the IFNAR1 polymorphisms are the predictors of a sustained response.

  20. Interferon-γ links ultraviolet radiation to melanomagenesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, M Raza; Davis, Sean; Noonan, Frances P; Graff-Cherry, Cari; Hawley, Teresa S; Walker, Robert L; Feigenbaum, Lionel; Fuchs, Elaine; Lyakh, Lyudmila; Young, Howard A; Hornyak, Thomas J; Arnheiter, Heinz; Trinchieri, Giorgio; Meltzer, Paul S; De Fabo, Edward C; Merlino, Glenn

    2011-01-27

    Cutaneous malignant melanoma is a highly aggressive and frequently chemoresistant cancer, the incidence of which continues to rise. Epidemiological studies show that the major aetiological melanoma risk factor is ultraviolet (UV) solar radiation, with the highest risk associated with intermittent burning doses, especially during childhood. We have experimentally validated these epidemiological findings using the hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor transgenic mouse model, which develops lesions in stages highly reminiscent of human melanoma with respect to biological, genetic and aetiological criteria, but only when irradiated as neonatal pups with UVB, not UVA. However, the mechanisms underlying UVB-initiated, neonatal-specific melanomagenesis remain largely unknown. Here we introduce a mouse model permitting fluorescence-aided melanocyte imaging and isolation following in vivo UV irradiation. We use expression profiling to show that activated neonatal skin melanocytes isolated following a melanomagenic UVB dose bear a distinct, persistent interferon response signature, including genes associated with immunoevasion. UVB-induced melanocyte activation, characterized by aberrant growth and migration, was abolished by antibody-mediated systemic blockade of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), but not type-I interferons. IFN-γ was produced by macrophages recruited to neonatal skin by UVB-induced ligands to the chemokine receptor Ccr2. Admixed recruited skin macrophages enhanced transplanted melanoma growth by inhibiting apoptosis; notably, IFN-γ blockade abolished macrophage-enhanced melanoma growth and survival. IFN-γ-producing macrophages were also identified in 70% of human melanomas examined. Our data reveal an unanticipated role for IFN-γ in promoting melanocytic cell survival/immunoevasion, identifying a novel candidate therapeutic target for a subset of melanoma patients.

  1. Type I Interferon Counters or Promotes Coxiella burnetii Replication Dependent on Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, Jodi F; Robison, Amanda; Kimmel, Emily; Christensen, Kelly; Lucas, Erin; Ramstead, Andrew; Jutila, Mark A

    2016-06-01

    Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular pathogen and the cause of Q fever. Gamma interferon (IFN-γ) is critical for host protection from infection, but a role for type I IFN in C. burnetii infection has not been determined. Type I IFN supports host protection from a related pathogen, Legionella pneumophila, and we hypothesized that it would be similarly protective in C. burnetii infection. In contrast to our prediction, IFN-α receptor-deficient (IFNAR(-/-)) mice were protected from C. burnetii-induced infection. Therefore, the role of type I IFN in C. burnetii infection was distinct from that in L. pneumophila Mice treated with a double-stranded-RNA mimetic were protected from C. burnetii-induced weight loss through an IFNAR-independent pathway. We next treated mice with recombinant IFN-α (rIFN-α). When rIFN-α was injected by the intraperitoneal route during infection, disease-induced weight loss was exacerbated. Mice that received rIFN-α by this route had dampened interleukin 1β (IL-1β) expression in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. However, when rIFN-α was delivered to the lung, bacterial replication was decreased in all tissues. Thus, the presence of type I IFN in the lung protected from infection, but when delivered to the periphery, type I IFN enhanced disease, potentially by dampening inflammatory cytokines. To better characterize the capacity for type I IFN induction by C. burnetii, we assessed expression of IFN-β transcripts by human macrophages following stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from C. burnetii Understanding innate responses in C. burnetii infection will support the discovery of novel therapies that may be alternative or complementary to the current antibiotic treatment. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Minocycline treatment ameliorates interferon-alpha-induced neurogenic defects and depression-like behaviors in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-Shun eZheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interferon-alpha (IFN-α is a proinflammatory cytokine that is widely used for the treatment of chronic viral hepatitis and malignancy, because of its immune-activating, antiviral, and antiproliferative properties. However, long-term IFN-α treatment frequently causes depression, which limits its clinical utility. The precise molecular and cellular mechanisms of IFN-α-induced depression are not currently understood. Neural stem cells (NSCs in the hippocampus continuously generate new neurons, and some evidence suggests that decreased neurogenesis plays a role in the neuropathology of depression. We previously reported that IFN-α treatment suppressed hippocampal neurogenesis and induced depression-like behaviors via its receptors in the brain in adult mice. However, it is unclear how systemic IFN-α administration induces IFN-α signaling in the hippocampus. In this study, we analyzed the role of microglia, immune cells in the brain, in mediating the IFN-α-induced neurogenic defects and depressive behaviors. In vitro studies demonstrated that IFN-α treatment induced the secretion of endogenous IFN-α from microglia, which suppressed NSC proliferation. In vivo treatment of adult mice with IFN-α for five weeks increased the production of proinflammatory cytokines, including IFN-α, and reduced neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Both effects were prevented by simultaneous treatment with minocycline, an inhibitor of microglial activation. Furthermore, minocycline treatment significantly suppressed IFN-α-induced depressive behaviors in mice. These results suggest that microglial activation plays a critical role in the development of IFN-α-induced depression, and that minocycline is a promising drug for the treatment of IFN-α-induced depression in patients, especially those who are low responders to conventional antidepressant treatments.

  3. Generation and characterization of interferon-lambda 1-resistant H1N1 influenza A viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugovtsev, Vladimir Y.; Samsonova, Anastasia P.; Sheikh, Faruk G.; Bovin, Nicolai V.; Donnelly, Raymond P.

    2017-01-01

    Influenza A viruses pose a constant potential threat to human health. In view of the innate antiviral activity of interferons (IFNs) and their potential use as anti-influenza agents, it is important to know whether viral resistance to these antiviral proteins can arise. To examine the likelihood of emergence of IFN-λ1-resistant H1N1 variants, we serially passaged the A/California/04/09 (H1N1) strain in a human lung epithelial cell line (Calu-3) in the presence of increasing concentrations of recombinant IFN-λ1 protein. To monitor changes associated with adaptation of this virus to growth in Calu-3 cells, we also passaged the wild-type virus in the absence of IFN-λ1. Under IFN-λ1 selective pressure, the parental virus developed two neuraminidase (NA) mutations, S79L and K331N, which significantly reduced NA enzyme activity (↓1.4-fold) and sensitivity to IFN-λ1 (↓˃20-fold), respectively. These changes were not associated with a reduction in viral replication levels. Mutants carrying either K331N alone or S79L and K331N together induced weaker phosphorylation of IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), and, as a consequence, much lower expression of the IFN genes (IFNB1, IFNL1 and IFNL2/3) and proteins (IFN-λ1 and IFN-λ2/3). The lower levels of IFN expression correlated with weaker induction of tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT1 and reduced RIG-I protein levels. Our findings demonstrate that influenza viruses can develop increased resistance to the antiviral activity of type III interferons. PMID:28750037

  4. Serum levels of the interferon-gamma-inducing cytokine interleukin-18 are increased in individuals at high risk of developing type I diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoletti, F; Conget, I; Di Marco, R

    2001-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-18 is a cytokine primarily produced by macrophages and capable of inducing T lymphocyte synthesis of interferon (IFN)-gamma. An up-regulated synthesis of IFN-gamma with consequential Type I cytokine dominance has been repeatedly shown in Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus...

  5. Interferon-gamma inducible protein 10 as a biomarker for active tuberculosis and latent tuberculosis infection in children: A case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alsleben, Neele; Ruhwald, Morten; Rüssmann, Holger

    2012-01-01

    Background: Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) release assays (IGRAs) are suboptimally sensitive to diagnose tuberculosis (TB) and latent TB infection (LTBI) in young children. In this study we compared Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen-stimulated IFN-γ inducible protein 10 (IP-10) responses in children...

  6. The type I interferon signature in leukocyte subsets from peripheral blood of patients with early arthritis: a major contribution by granulocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Tamarah D.; Lübbers, Joyce; Turk, Samina; Vosslamber, Saskia; Mantel, Elise; Bontkes, Hetty J.; van der Laken, Conny J.; Bijlsma, Johannes W.; van Schaardenburg, Dirkjan; Verweij, Cornelis L.

    2016-01-01

    The type I interferon (IFN) signature in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has shown clinical relevance in relation to disease onset and therapeutic response. Identification of the cell type(s) contributing to this IFN signature could provide insight into the signature's functional consequences. The aim of

  7. Cell Death of Gamma Interferon-Stimulated Human Fibroblasts upon Toxoplasma gondii Infection Induces Early Parasite Egress and Limits Parasite Replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niedelman, Wendy; Sprokholt, Joris K.; Clough, Barbara; Frickel, Eva-Maria; Saeij, Jeroen P. J.

    2013-01-01

    The intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is a major food-borne illness and opportunistic infection for the immunosuppressed. Resistance to Toxoplasma is dependent on gamma interferon (IFN-γ) activation of both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells. Although IFN-γ-induced innate

  8. Herpes simplex virus infection is sensed by both Toll-like receptors and retinoic acid-inducible gene- like receptors, which synergize to induce type I interferon production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Simon Brandtoft; Jensen, Søren B; Nielsen, C

    2009-01-01

    interferons (IFNs) after infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV). Our work also identified RNase L as a critical component in IFN induction. Moreover, we found that TLR9 and RLRs activate distinct, as well as overlapping, intracellular signalling pathways. Thus, RLRs are important for recognition of HSV...

  9. Production of Interferon α by Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 in Human Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Is Dependent on Induction of Autophagy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Dejiang; Kang, Kyung Hee; Spector, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The mechanisms responsible for interferon α (IFN-α) production by plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection are unknown. This research examined the roles of Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) and autophagy in IFN-α production by pDCs during HIV-1 infection.

  10. In vivo assessment of the antiproliferative properties of interferon-alpha during immunotherapy: Ki-67 (MIB-1) in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donskov, Frede; Marcussen, Niels; Hokland, M.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vivo antiproliferative effect of interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Core needle biopsies of metastatic and/or the primary kidney cancer were obtained before interleukin-2 (IL-2)- and IFN...

  11. Antibodies against interferon-beta in neuromyelitis optica patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgari, Nasrin; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Steenstrup, Troels

    2014-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an antibody-mediated autoimmune inflammatory disease of the CNS. A poor response to treatment with recombinant interferon beta (IFN-ß) in NMO patients has been suggested, although the precise mechanisms remain uncertain. We analyzed occurrence and clinical consequences...... of IFN-neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) in 15 IFN-ß treated NMO-patients from a population-based retrospective case series cohort. NMO patients not treated with IFN-ß acted as a reference group. IFN-ß antibody determinations included binding antibodies (BAbs) measured by immunoassay and NAbs measured...... by a neutralization bioassay. Antibodies were determined 6-36 months after initiation of IFN-β therapy and NAbs additionally 5-10 years post-therapy. BAbs were detected in 14/15 NMO patients; 6/15 were NAbs-positive (3 at 5-10 years post-therapy) two of those anti-AQP4 antibody-positive; seven of the nine NAbs...

  12. Fluoxetine regulates cell growth inhibition of interferon-α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Min; Yu, Bu-Chin; Chiu, Wen-Tai; Sun, Hung-Yu; Chien, Yu-Chieh; Su, Hui-Chen; Yen, Shu-Yang; Lai, Hsin-Wen; Bai, Chyi-Huey; Young, Kung-Chia; Tsao, Chiung-Wen

    2016-10-01

    Fluoxetine, a well-known anti-depression agent, may act as a chemosensitizer to assist and promote cancer therapy. However, how fluoxetine regulates cellular signaling to enhance cellular responses against tumor cell growth remains unclear. In the present study, addition of fluoxetine promoted growth inhibition of interferon-alpha (IFN-α) in human bladder carcinoma cells but not in normal uroepithelial cells through lessening the IFN-α-induced apoptosis but switching to cause G1 arrest, and maintaining the IFN-α-mediated reduction in G2/M phase. Activations and signal transducer and transactivator (STAT)-1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-α) were involved in this process. Chemical inhibitions of STAT-1 or PPAR-α partially rescued bladder carcinoma cells from IFN-α-mediated growth inhibition via blockades of G1 arrest, cyclin D1 reduction, p53 downregulation and p27 upregulation in the presence of fluoxetine. However, the functions of both proteins were not involved in the control of fluoxetine over apoptosis and maintained the declined G2/M phase of IFN-α. These results indicated that activation of PPAR-α and STAT-1 participated, at least in part, in growth inhibition of IFN-α in the presence of fluoxetine.

  13. A novel mechanism of immune regulation: interferon-γ regulates retention of CD4+ T cells during delayed type hypersensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabrook, Tim J; Borron, Paul J; Dudler, Lisbeth; Hay, John B; Young, Alan J

    2005-01-01

    The local immune response is characterized by an increase in the rate of entry of lymphocytes from the blood into regional lymph nodes and changes in the output of cells in lymph. While significant data are available regarding the role of inflammation-induced vascular adhesion processes in regulating lymphocyte entry into inflamed tissues and lymph nodes, relatively little is known about the molecular processes governing lymphocyte exit into efferent lymph. We have defined a novel role for lymphatic endothelial cells in the regulation of lymphocyte exit during a delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) response to mycobacterial purified protein derivative (PPD). Soluble, pro-adhesive factors were identified in efferent lymph concomitant with reduced lymphocyte output in lymph, which significantly increased lymphocyte binding to lymphatic endothelial cells. While all lymphocyte subsets were retained, CD4+ T cells appeared less susceptible than others. Among a panel of cytokines in inflammatory lymph plasma, interferon (IFN)-γ alone appeared responsible for this retention. In vitro adhesion assays using physiological levels of IFN-γ confirmed the interaction between recirculating lymphocytes and lymphatic endothelium. These data demonstrate a new level of immune regulation, whereby the exit of recirculating lymphocytes from lymph nodes is selectively and sequentially regulated by cytokines in a manner equally as complex as lymphocyte recruitment. PMID:16162267

  14. Interferon Lambda Inhibits Herpes Simplex Virus Type I Infection of Human Astrocytes and Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, JIELIANG; HU, SHUXIAN; ZHOU, LIN; YE, LI; WANG, XU; HO, JIE; HO, WENZHE

    2010-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1) is a neurotropic virus that is capable of infecting not only neurons, but also microglia and astrocytes and can establish latent infection in the central nervous system (CNS). We investigated whether IFN lambda (IFN-λ), a newly identified member of IFN family, has the ability to inhibit HSV-1 infection of primary human astrocytes and neurons. Both astrocytes and neurons were found to be highly susceptible to HSV-1 infection. However, upon IFN-λ treatment, HSV-1 replication in both astrocytes and neurons was significantly suppressed, which was evidenced by the reduced expression of HSV-1 DNA and proteins. This IFN-λ-mediated action on HSV-1 could be partially neutralized by antibody to IFN-λ receptor. Investigation of the mechanisms showed that IFN-λ treatment of astrocytes and neurons resulted in the upregulation of endogenous IFN-α/β and several IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). To block IFN-α/β receptor by a specific antibody could compromise the IFN-λ actions on HSV-1 inhibition and ISG induction. In addition, IFN-λ treatment induced the expression of IFN regulatory factors (IRFs) in astrocytes and neurons. Furthermore, IFN-λ treatment of astrocytes and neurons resulted in the suppression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS-1), a key negative regulator of IFN pathway. These data suggest that IFN-λ possesses the anti-HSV-1 function by promoting type I IFN-mediated innate antiviral immune response in the CNS cells. PMID:20878770

  15. [Conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma: paradoxical response to interferon eyedrops].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, E; Conesa, E; Castro, M; Martínez, L; de Pablo, C; González, M L

    2014-07-01

    A 67 year-old male seen for a longstanding corneal-conjunctival tumor. topical interferon α2b (IFN-α2b) 10 U/ml. A significant increase in lesion size was observed after 8 weeks. A surgical excision with cryotherapy was then performed. Pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma. At this time the patient was found to have a positive HIV serology. Conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is a pre-cancerous lesion of the ocular surface. Medical treatment of CIN is essentially with IFN-α2b due to its antiviral/antitumor properties. In patients with HIV, treatment response could be paradoxical. We recommend serology for HIV before treatment with topical IFN-α2b. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Combination of interferon and dexamethasone in refractory multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Miguel, J F; Moro, M; Bladé, J; Guerras, L; Hernandez, J; Jimenez-Galindo, R; Ortega, F; Gonzalez, M

    1990-01-01

    The present pilot study was designed to analyse the efficacy and toxicity of the association of interferon (IFN) and dexamethasone (Dx) in 32 resistant and relapsed myeloma patients. Among the evaluable cases, 15 (68 per cent) responded to treatment (32 per cent achieved an objective response--OR--and 36 per cent a partial response--PR--), the 'remission' status lasting for more than one year in six of them. Moreover, four out of the seven OR patients showed a reduction in B.M. plasma cells to less than 5 per cent. Five out of 11 patients that were previously refractory to VBAD, that includes high dose dexamethasone (Dx), responded to IFN-Dx. The protocol was generally well tolerated with only four patients discontinuing therapy due to adverse effects. The present results show that the combination IFN + Dx is a promising therapeutic approach for patients with refractory myeloma.

  17. [Thyroid disorders associated with interferon treatment in patients with chronic viral hepatitis or multiple sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diago, J I; del Olmo, D; Alcázar, V; Martínez de Icaya, P; Rodríguez, E; Martínez Montiel, P

    1999-06-19

    Alpha and beta interferon (IFN-alpha and beta) treatment is associated with the synthesis of thyroid autoantibodies and the development of autoimmune thyroid diseases. We have retrospectively evaluated their effect in patients with chronic viral hepatitis (CH) (n = 118) and multiple esclerosis (ME) (n = 10). Thyroid dysfunction has been detected in 7.4% of patients, and seroconversion in 4.7%. Pre-treatment antithyroid antibodies do not predispose to altered thyroid function, after IFN therapy; their presence should not contraindicate IFN treatment.

  18. CD26 + CD4 + T cell counts and attack risk in interferon-treated multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sellebjerg, F; Ross, C; Koch-Henriksen, Nils

    2005-01-01

    and CCR5 on T cells is altered in patients with active MS. We studied the expression of these molecules by flow cytometry in patients followed for six months during immunomodulatory treatment. In interferon (IFN)-beta-treated patients, we found that the hazard ratio for developing an attack was 28...... in patients with CD26 + CD4 + T cell counts above median, and this risk was independent of the risk conferred by neutralizing anti-IFN-beta antibodies. CD26 + CD4 + T cell counts may identify patients with MS at increased risk of attack during treatment with IFN-beta....

  19. The type I interferon receptor: structure, function, and evolution of a family business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogensen, K E; Lewerenz, M; Reboul, J; Lutfalla, G; Uzé, G

    1999-10-01

    Recent results indicate that coherent models of how multiple interferons (IFN) are recognized and signal selectively through a common receptor are now feasible. A proposal is made that the IFN receptor, with its subunits IFNAR-1 and IFNAR-2, presents two separate ligand binding sites, and this double structure is both necessary and sufficient to ensure that the different IFN are recognized and can act selectively. The key feature is the duplication of the extracellular domain of the IFNAR-1 subunit and the configurational geometry that this imposes on the intracellular domains of the receptor subunits and their associated tyrosine kinases.

  20. Thrombotic microangiopathy associated with alpha-interferon therapy for chronic myelocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, K; Ando, A; Endo, M; Shimizu, K; Higashihara, M; Nitta, K; Nihei, H

    1997-07-01

    A 31-year-old man diagnosed as having chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) developed renal insufficiency with nephrotic-range proteinuria during alpha-interferon (IFN) therapy for CML. A renal biopsy specimen showed remarkable thrombotic microangiopathic lesions resembling those of hemolytic-uremic syndrome. The patient had papules on both lower legs, and a cutaneous biopsy showed similar microangiopathic lesions in dermal and subcutaneous vessels. Although discontinuation of IFN and initiation of prednisolone therapy resulted in resolution of proteinuria, renal insufficiency persisted. These findings suggest that long-term IFN therapy can induce late-onset thrombotic microangiopathy in systemic microvessels.

  1. Adjuvant therapy with pegylated interferon alfa-2b versus observation in resected stage III melanoma: a phase III randomized controlled trial of health-related quality of life and symptoms by the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Melanoma Group.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottomley, A.; Coens, C.; Suciu, S.; Santinami, M.; Kruit, W.; Testori, A.; Marsden, J.; Punt, C.J.A.; Sales, F.; Gore, M.; MacKie, R.; Kusic, Z.; Dummer, R.; Patel, P.; Schadendorf, D.; Spatz, A.; Keilholz, U.; Eggermont, A.M.M.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Interferon (IFN) -based adjuvant therapy in melanoma is associated with significant side effects, which necessitates evaluation of health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Our trial examined the HRQOL effects of adjuvant pegylated IFN-alpha-2b (PEG-IFN-alpha-2b) versus observation in

  2. Interferon Induction by RNA Viruses and Antagonism by Viral Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchen Nan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Interferons are a group of small proteins that play key roles in host antiviral innate immunity. Their induction mainly relies on host pattern recognition receptors (PRR. Host PRR for RNA viruses include Toll-like receptors (TLR and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I like receptors (RLR. Activation of both TLR and RLR pathways can eventually lead to the secretion of type I IFNs, which can modulate both innate and adaptive immune responses against viral pathogens. Because of the important roles of interferons, viruses have evolved multiple strategies to evade host TLR and RLR mediated signaling. This review focuses on the mechanisms of interferon induction and antagonism of the antiviral strategy by RNA viruses.

  3. IFN-γ signaling to astrocytes protects from autoimmune mediated neurological disability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Hindinger

    Full Text Available Demyelination and axonal degeneration are determinants of progressive neurological disability in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. Cells resident within the central nervous system (CNS are active participants in development, progression and subsequent control of autoimmune disease; however, their individual contributions are not well understood. Astrocytes, the most abundant CNS cell type, are highly sensitive to environmental cues and are implicated in both detrimental and protective outcomes during autoimmune demyelination. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE was induced in transgenic mice expressing signaling defective dominant-negative interferon gamma (IFN-γ receptors on astrocytes to determine the influence of inflammation on astrocyte activity. Inhibition of IFN-γ signaling to astrocytes did not influence disease incidence, onset, initial progression of symptoms, blood brain barrier (BBB integrity or the composition of the acute CNS inflammatory response. Nevertheless, increased demyelination at peak acute disease in the absence of IFN-γ signaling to astrocytes correlated with sustained clinical symptoms. Following peak disease, diminished clinical remission, increased mortality and sustained astrocyte activation within the gray matter demonstrate a critical role of IFN-γ signaling to astrocytes in neuroprotection. Diminished disease remission was associated with escalating demyelination, axonal degeneration and sustained inflammation. The CNS infiltrating leukocyte composition was not altered; however, decreased IL-10 and IL-27 correlated with sustained disease. These data indicate that astrocytes play a critical role in limiting CNS autoimmune disease dependent upon a neuroprotective signaling pathway mediated by engagement of IFN-γ receptors.

  4. Impaired IFN-α-mediated signal in dendritic cells differentiates active from latent tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Parlato

    Full Text Available Individuals exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb may be infected and remain for the entire life in this condition defined as latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI or develop active tuberculosis (TB. Among the multiple factors governing the outcome of the infection, dendritic cells (DCs play a major role in dictating antibacterial immunity. However, current knowledge on the role of the diverse components of human DCs in shaping specific T-cell response during Mtb infection is limited. In this study, we performed a comparative evaluation of peripheral blood circulating DC subsets as well as of monocyte-derived Interferon-α DCs (IFN-DCs from patients with active TB, subjects with LTBI and healthy donors (HD. The proportion of circulating myeloid BDCA3+ DCs (mDC2 and plasmacytoid CD123+ DCs (pDCs declined significantly in active TB patients compared to HD, whereas the same subsets displayed a remarkable activation in LTBI subjects. Simultaneously, the differentiation of IFN-DCs from active TB patients resulted profoundly impaired compared to those from LTBI and HD individuals. Importantly, the altered developmental trait of IFN-DCs from active TB patients was associated with down-modulation of IFN-linked genes, marked changes in molecular signaling conveying antigen (Ag presentation and full inability to induce Ag-specific T cell response. Thus, these data reveal an important role of IFN-α in determining the induction of Mtb-specific immunity.

  5. Identification of alpha interferon-induced envelope mutations of hepatitis C virus in vitro associated with increased viral fitness and interferon resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serre, Stéphanie B N; Krarup, Henrik B; Bukh, Jens; Gottwein, Judith M

    2013-12-01

    Alpha interferon (IFN-α) is an essential component of innate antiviral immunity and of treatment regimens for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Resistance to IFN might be important for HCV persistence and failure of IFN-based therapies. Evidence for HCV genetic correlates of IFN resistance is limited. Experimental studies were hampered by lack of HCV culture systems. Using genotype (strain) 1a(H77) and 3a(S52) Core-NS2 JFH1-based recombinants, we aimed at identifying viral correlates of IFN-α resistance in vitro. Long-term culture with IFN-α2b in Huh7.5 cells resulted in viral spread with acquisition of putative escape mutations in HCV structural and nonstructural proteins. Reverse genetic studies showed that primarily amino acid changes I348T in 1a(H77) E1 and F345V/V414A in 3a(S52) E1/E2 increased viral fitness. Single-cycle assays revealed that I348T and F345V/V414A enhanced viral entry and release, respectively. In assays allowing viral spread, these mutations conferred a level of IFN-α resistance exceeding the observed fitness effect. The identified mutations acted in a subtype-specific manner but were not found in genotype 1a and 3a patients, who failed IFN-α therapy. Studies with HCV recombinants with different degrees of culture adaptation confirmed the correlation between viral fitness and IFN-α resistance. In conclusion, in vitro escape experiments led to identification of HCV envelope mutations resulting in increased viral fitness and conferring IFN-α resistance. While we established a close link between viral fitness and IFN-α resistance, identified mutations acted via different mechanisms and appeared to be relatively specific to the infecting virus, possibly explaining difficulties in identifying signature mutations for IFN resistance.

  6. Human pDCs display sex-specific differences in type I interferon subtypes and interferon α/β receptor expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Susanne M; Beisel, Claudia; Sutter, Kathrin; Griesbeck, Morgane; Hildebrandt, Heike; Hagen, Sven H; Dittmer, Ulf; Altfeld, Marcus

    2017-02-01

    The outcomes of many diseases differ between women and men, with women experiencing a higher incidence and more severe pathogenesis of autoimmune and some infectious diseases. It has been suggested that this is partially due to activation of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), the main producers of interferon (IFN)-α, in response to toll-like receptor (TLR)7 stimulation. We investigated the induction of type I IFN (IFN-I) subtypes upon TLR7 stimulation on isolated pDCs. Our data revealed a sex-specific differential expression of IFN-Is, with pDCs from females showing a significantly higher mRNA expression of all 13 IFN-α subtypes. In addition, pDCs from females had higher levels of IFN-β mRNA after stimulation, indicating that sex differences in IFN-I production by pDCs were mediated by a signaling event upstream of the first loop of IFN-I mRNA transcription. Furthermore, the surface expression levels of the common IFN-α/β receptor subunit 2 were significantly higher on pDCs from females in comparison to males. These data indicate that higher IFN-α production is already established at the mRNA level and propose a contribution of higher IFN-α/β receptor 2 expression on pDCs to the immunological differences in IFN-I production observed between females and males. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Design and evaluation of novel interferon lambda analogs with enhanced antiviral activity and improved drug attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu D

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Debin Yu,1 Mingzhi Zhao,2 Liwei Dong,1 Lu Zhao,1 Mingwei Zou,3 Hetong Sun,4 Mengying Zhang,4 Hongyu Liu,4 Zhihua Zou1 1National Engineering Laboratory for AIDS Vaccine, Key Laboratory for Molecular Enzymology and Engineering of the Ministry of Education, School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, 2State Key Laboratory of Proteomics, National Engineering Research Center for Protein Drugs, Beijing Proteome Research Center, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Psychology, College of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences, University of Houston, Houston, TX, USA; 4Prosit Sole Biotechnology, Co., Ltd., Beijing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Type III interferons (IFNs (also called IFN-λ: IFN-λ1, IFN-λ2, IFN-λ3, and IFN-λ4 are critical players in the defense against viral infection of mucosal epithelial cells, where the activity of type I IFNs is weak, and unlike type I IFNs that are associated with severe and diverse side effects, type III IFNs cause minimal side effects due to the highly restricted expression of their receptors, and thus appear to be promising agents for the treatment and prevention of respiratory and gastrointestinal viral infection. However, the antiviral potency of natural type III IFNs is weak compared to type I and, although IFN-λ3 possesses the highest bioactivity among the type III IFNs, IFN-λ1, instead of IFN-λ3, is being developed as a therapeutic drug due to the difficulty to express IFN-λ3 in the prokaryotic expression system. Here, to develop optimal IFN-λ molecules with improved drug attributes, we designed a series of IFN-λ analogs by replacing critical amino acids of IFN-λ1 with the IFN-λ3 counterparts, and vice versa. Four of the designed analogs were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli with high yield and were easily purified from inclusion bodies. Interestingly, all four analogs showed potent activity in inducing the

  8. Effects of Interferon-α/β on HBV Replication Determined by Viral Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yongjun; Chen, Wen-ling; Ou, Jing-hsiung James

    2011-01-01

    Interferons α and β (IFN-α/β) are type I interferons produced by the host to control microbial infections. However, the use of IFN-α to treat hepatitis B virus (HBV) patients generated sustained response to only a minority of patients. By using HBV transgenic mice as a model and by using hydrodynamic injection to introduce HBV DNA into the mouse liver, we studied the effect of IFN-α/β on HBV in vivo. Interestingly, our results indicated that IFN-α/β could have opposite effects on HBV: they suppressed HBV replication when viral load was high and enhanced HBV replication when viral load was low. IFN-α/β apparently suppressed HBV replication via transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulations. In contrast, IFN-α/β enhanced viral replication by inducing the transcription factor HNF3γ and activating STAT3, which together stimulated HBV gene expression and replication. Further studies revealed an important role of IFN-α/β in stimulating viral growth and prolonging viremia when viral load is low. This use of an innate immune response to enhance its replication and persistence may represent a novel strategy that HBV uses to enhance its growth and spread in the early stage of viral infection when the viral level is low. PMID:21829354

  9. Interferon γ induced compositional changes in human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Qingdong; Ezzati, Peyman; Spicer, Victor; Krokhin, Oleg; Wall, Donna; Wilkins, John A

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) display a range of immunoregulatory properties which can be enhanced by the exposure to cytokines such interferon γ (IFN-γ). However the compositional changes associated with the 'licensing' of these cells have not been clearly defined. The present study was undertaken to provide a detailed comparative proteomic analysis of the compositional changes that occur in human bone marrow derived MSC following 20 h treatment with IFN-γ. 2D LC MSMS analysis of control and IFN-γ treated cells from 5 different healthy donors provided confident identification of more than 8400 proteins. In total 210 proteins were shown to be significantly altered in their expression levels (≥|2SD|) following IFN-γ treatment. The changes for several of these proteins were confirmed by flow cytometry. STRING analysis determined that approximately 30% of the altered proteins physically interacted in described interferon mediated processes. Comparison of the list of proteins that were identified as changed in the proteomic analysis with data for the same proteins in the Interferome DB indicated that ~35% of these proteins have not been reported to be IFN-γ responsive in a range of cell types. This data provides an in depth analysis of the proteome of basal and IFN-γ treated human mesenchymal stem cells and it identifies a number of novel proteins that may contribute to the immunoregulatory capacity if IFN-γ licensed cells.

  10. Rhinovirus stimulated IFN-α production: how important are plasmacytoid DCs, monocytes and endosomal pH?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Yang; Finlayson, Arvid; White, Oliva J; Carroll, Melanie L; Upham, John W

    2015-10-01

    Human rhinovirus (HRV) infection is a major cause of asthma exacerbations, which appears to be linked to a defective innate immune response to infection. Although the type I interferons (IFN-α and IFN-β) have a critical role in protecting against most viral infections, the cells responsible for IFN production in response to HRV and the relative importance of pattern recognition receptors located in endosomes has not been fully elucidated. In the current study we demonstrate that, using intracellular flow cytometry, >90% of the IFN-α-producing cells in human blood mononuclear cells following HRV16 exposure are plasmacytoid dendritic cells, whereas monocytes and myeloid dendritic cells contribute only 10% and effectively suppressed HRV16-stimulated IFN-α and IP-10 production, whereas neither bafilomycin or chloroquine inhibited HRV16-stimulated interleukin-6 release. Attempts to block IFN-α production with commercially available TLR-specific oligonucleotides were unsuccessful due to major 'off-target' effects. These findings suggest that among circulating haemopoietic cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells and TLRs located within endosomes are critical for inducing efficient IFN-I production in response to HRVs.

  11. An IRF-3-, IRF-5-, and IRF-7-Independent Pathway of Dengue Viral Resistance Utilizes IRF-1 to Stimulate Type I and II Interferon Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron F. Carlin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Interferon-regulatory factors (IRFs are a family of transcription factors (TFs that translate viral recognition into antiviral responses, including type I interferon (IFN production. Dengue virus (DENV and other clinically important flaviviruses are suppressed by type I IFN. While mice lacking the type I IFN receptor (Ifnar1−/− succumb to DENV infection, we found that mice deficient in three transcription factors controlling type I IFN production (Irf3−/− Irf5−/− Irf7−/− triple knockout [TKO] survive DENV challenge. DENV infection of TKO mice resulted in minimal type I IFN production but a robust type II IFN (IFN-γ response. Using loss-of-function approaches for various molecules, we demonstrate that the IRF-3-, IRF-5-, IRF-7-independent pathway predominantly utilizes IFN-γ and, to a lesser degree, type I IFNs. This pathway signals via IRF-1 to stimulate interleukin-12 (IL-12 production and IFN-γ response. These results reveal a key antiviral role for IRF-1 by activating both type I and II IFN responses during DENV infection.

  12. IFN-γ and IP-10 in tracheal aspirates from premature infants: relationship with bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghai, Zubair H; Saslow, Judy G; Mody, Kartik; Eydelman, Riva; Bhat, Vishwanath; Stahl, Gary; Pyon, Kee; Bhandari, Vineet

    2013-01-01

    Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interferon-inducible protein of 10 kDa (IP-10) are potent inflammatory mediators and contribute to acute lung injury in adults. Recently, a potential role for IFN-γ and IP-10 in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) has been reported in animal models. To study the association between IFN-γ and IP-10 in tracheal aspirate (TA) and the development of BPD in premature infants. TA samples collected within 48 hr after birth from 79 mechanically ventilated premature neonates [gestational age (GA) IP-10 was determined using a commercially available ELISA kit. Total protein in TA was measured by Bradford assay to correct for sampling related dilution. BPD was defined as the need of supplemental oxygen at 36 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA). Twenty infants (GA 26.4 ± 1.9w, BW 860 ± 201 g) survived without BPD at 36 weeks PMA and 59 infants (GA 25.5 ± 1.5w, BW 751 ± 163 g) died before 36 weeks PMA or developed BPD. The mean IFN-γ level was higher in infants who died or developed BPD (9.7 ± 2.8 vs. 3.1 ± 1.1 pg/ml, P = 0.03). Similarly, the mean IP-10 level was higher in infants who died or developed BPD (63.4 ± 17.5 pg/ml) compared to those who survived without BPD (18.5 ± 7.5 pg/ml, P = 0.02). Higher IFN-γ and IP-10 levels in TA samples are associated with the development of BPD or death in premature infants. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Optimization of Naked DNA Delivery for Interferon Subtype Immunotherapy in Cytomegalovirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartlett Emmalene J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Type I interferon (IFN gene therapy modulates the immune response leading to inflammatory heart disease following cytomegalovirus (CMV infection in a murine model of post-viral myocarditis. Efficacy of different immunisation protocols for the IFN constructs was influenced by the dose of DNA, subtype choice, combination use, pre-medication, and timing of DNA administration. Optimal efficacy was found with bupivacaine treatment prior to DNA inoculation of 200mg IFN DNA 14 days prior to virus challenge. Maximal antiviral and antimyocarditic effects were achieved with this vaccination schedule. Furthermore, inoculation of synergistic IFN subtypes demonstrated enhanced efficacy when delivered either alone or with CMV gB DNA vaccination in the CMV model. Thus naked DNA delivery of IFN provides an avenue of immunotherapy for regulating herpesvirus-induced diseases.

  14. Cytokines and adhesion molecules in multiple sclerosis patients treated with interferon-beta1b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob; Krakauer, Martin; Sellebjerg, Finn

    2005-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS), an inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS), is thought to be caused by a T cell-mediated attack on CNS myelin and axons. Recombinant interferon (IFN)-beta is an established treatment of multiple sclerosis, and is known to reduce the number...... of disease relapses and the development of irreversible symptoms and signs of disease. The mechanism of action of IFN-beta treatment is, however, not completely understood. Previous studies have suggested major effects on mononuclear cell cytokine production and T cell migration, but results have been...... initiated on de novo treatment with IFN-beta1b. We found only minor associations between the different changes induced by IFN-beta1b-treatment. Our findings are consistent with changes in T cell expression of CD49d/VLA-4 and induction of sVCAM-1 as important effects of treatment with IFN-beta1b in multiple...

  15. IFN-beta-induced alteration of VSV protein phosphorylation in neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'agostino, Paul M; Amenta, Jessica J; Reiss, Carol Shoshkes

    2009-12-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) replication is highly sensitive to interferon (IFN)-induced antiviral responses. VSV infection of well-known cell lines pretreated with IFN-beta results in a 10(4)-fold reduction in the release of infectious particles, with a concomitant abrogation in viral transcript and/or protein levels. However, in cell lines of neuronal lineage only a threefold reduction in viral transcript and protein levels was observed, despite the same 10(4)-fold reduction in released infectious virions, suggesting an assembly defect. Examination of VSV matrix (M) protein ubiquitination yielded no differences between mock- and IFN-beta-treated neuronal cells. Further analysis of potential post-translational modification events, by scintillation and two-dimensional electrophoretic methods, revealed IFN-beta-induced alterations in M protein and phosphoprotein (P) phosphorylation. Hypophosphorylated P protein was demonstrated by reduced (32)P counts, normalized by (35)S-cysteine/methionine incorporation, and by a shift in isoelectric focusing. Hypophosphorylation of VSV P protein was found to occur in neuronal cell lysates, but not within budded virions from the same IFN-beta-treated cells. In contrast, hyperphosphorylation of VSV M protein was observed in both cell lysates and viral particles from IFN-beta-treated neuronal cells. Hyperphosphorylated M protein was demonstrated by increased (32)P counts relative to (35)S-cysteine/methionine normalization, and by altered isoelectric focusing in protein populations from cell and viral lysates. Hyperphosphorylated VSV M protein was found to inhibit its association with VSV nucleocapsid, suggesting a possible mechanism for type I IFN-mediated misassembly through disruption of the interactions between ribonucleoprotein cores, and hyperphosphorylated M protein bound to the plasma membrane inner leaflet.

  16. Ablation of Type-1 IFN Signaling in Hematopoietic Cells Confers Protection Following Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karve, Ila P; Zhang, Moses; Habgood, Mark; Frugier, Tony; Brody, Kate M; Sashindranath, Maithili; Ek, C Joakim; Chappaz, Stephane; Kile, Ben T; Wright, David; Wang, Hong; Johnston, Leigh; Daglas, Maria; Ates, Robert C; Medcalf, Robert L; Taylor, Juliet M; Crack, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Type-1 interferons (IFNs) are pleiotropic cytokines that signal through the type-1 IFN receptor (IFNAR1). Recent literature has implicated the type-1 IFNs in disorders of the CNS. In this study, we have investigated the role of type-1 IFNs in neuroinflammation following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Using a controlled cortical impact model, TBI was induced in 8- to 10-week-old male C57BL/6J WT and IFNAR1(-/-) mice and brains were excised to study infarct volume, inflammatory mediator release via quantitative PCR analysis and immune cell profile via immunohistochemistry. IFNAR1(-/-) mice displayed smaller infarcts compared with WT mice after TBI. IFNAR1(-/-) mice exhibited an altered anti-inflammatory environment compared with WT mice, with significantly reduced levels of the proinflammatory mediators TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6, an up-regulation of the anti-inflammatory mediator IL-10 and an increased activation of resident and peripheral immune cells after TBI. WT mice injected intravenously with an anti-IFNAR1 blocking monoclonal antibody (MAR1) 1 h before, 30 min after or 30 min and 2 d after TBI displayed significantly improved histological and behavioral outcome. Bone marrow chimeras demonstrated that the hematopoietic cells are a peripheral source of type-1 IFNs that drives neuroinflammation and a worsened TBI outcome. Type-1 IFN mRNA levels were confirmed to be significantly altered in human postmortem TBI brains. Together, these data demonstrate that type-1 IFN signaling is a critical pathway in the progression of neuroinflammation and presents a viable therapeutic target for the treatment of TBI.

  17. Ablation of Type-1 IFN Signaling in Hematopoietic Cells Confers Protection Following Traumatic Brain Injury123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karve, Ila P.; Zhang, Moses; Habgood, Mark; Frugier, Tony; Brody, Kate M.; Sashindranath, Maithili; Ek, C. Joakim; Kile, Ben T.; Wright, David; Wang, Hong; Johnston, Leigh; Daglas, Maria; Ates, Robert C.; Medcalf, Robert L.; Taylor, Juliet M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Type-1 interferons (IFNs) are pleiotropic cytokines that signal through the type-1 IFN receptor (IFNAR1). Recent literature has implicated the type-1 IFNs in disorders of the CNS. In this study, we have investigated the role of type-1 IFNs in neuroinflammation following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Using a controlled cortical impact model, TBI was induced in 8- to 10-week-old male C57BL/6J WT and IFNAR1−/− mice and brains were excised to study infarct volume, inflammatory mediator release via quantitative PCR analysis and immune cell profile via immunohistochemistry. IFNAR1−/− mice displayed smaller infarcts compared with WT mice after TBI. IFNAR1−/− mice exhibited an altered anti-inflammatory environment compared with WT mice, with significantly reduced levels of the proinflammatory mediators TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6, an up-regulation of the anti-inflammatory mediator IL-10 and an increased activation of resident and peripheral immune cells after TBI. WT mice injected intravenously with an anti-IFNAR1 blocking monoclonal antibody (MAR1) 1 h before, 30 min after or 30 min and 2 d after TBI displayed significantly improved histological and behavioral outcome. Bone marrow chimeras demonstrated that the hematopoietic cells are a peripheral source of type-1 IFNs that drives neuroinflammation and a worsened TBI outcome. Type-1 IFN mRNA levels were confirmed to be significantly altered in human postmortem TBI brains. Together, these data demonstrate that type-1 IFN signaling is a critical pathway in the progression of neuroinflammation and presents a viable therapeutic target for the treatment of TBI. PMID:27022620

  18. Role of PKR and Type I IFNs in viral control during primary and secondary infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumi Nakayama

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Type I interferons (IFNs are known to mediate viral control, and also promote survival and expansion of virus-specific CD8+ T cells. However, it is unclear whether signaling cascades involved in eliciting these diverse cellular effects are also distinct. One of the best-characterized anti-viral signaling mechanisms of Type I IFNs is mediated by the IFN-inducible dsRNA activated protein kinase, PKR. Here, we have investigated the role of PKR and Type I IFNs in regulating viral clearance and CD8+ T cell response during primary and secondary viral infections. Our studies demonstrate differential requirement for PKR, in viral control versus elicitation of CD8+ T cell responses during primary infection of mice with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV. PKR-deficient mice mounted potent CD8+ T cell responses, but failed to effectively control LCMV. The compromised LCMV control in the absence of PKR was multifactorial, and linked to less effective CD8+ T cell-mediated viral suppression, enhanced viral replication in cells, and lower steady state expression levels of IFN-responsive genes. Moreover, we show that despite normal expansion of memory CD8+ T cells and differentiation into effectors during a secondary response, effective clearance of LCMV but not vaccinia virus required PKR activity in infected cells. In the absence of Type I IFN signaling, secondary effector CD8+ T cells were ineffective in controlling both LCMV and vaccinia virus replication in vivo. These findings provide insight into cellular pathways of Type I IFN actions, and highlight the under-appreciated importance of innate immune mechanisms of viral control during secondary infections, despite the accelerated responses of memory CD8+ T cells. Additionally, the results presented here have furthered our understanding of the immune correlates of anti-viral protective immunity, which have implications in the rational design of vaccines.

  19. A non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism in IFNAR1 affects susceptibility to chronic hepatitis B virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J; Smith, D K; Lu, L; Poon, V K M; Ng, F; Chen, D-Q; Huang, J-D; Yuen, K-Y; Cao, K-Y; Zheng, B-J

    2009-01-01

    The type I interferon (IFN-alpha/beta) receptor 1 (IFNAR1) mediates the potent antiviral and immuno-regulatory effects of IFN-alpha/beta that are believed to be pivotal to eradicate hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. IFNAR1 promoter polymorphisms (at -568/-77) have been shown to be associated with susceptibility to chronic HBV infection; however, whether these markers are genetic determinants of HBV infection remains unknown. The functional significance of promoter -568/-77 polymorphisms was assessed by mutagenesis and luciferase assays. Sequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphisms in 328 chronic HBV patients, 130 spontaneous resolvers and 148 healthy blood donors identified other polymorphism at IFNAR1 open reading frame. IFNAR1 expression levels in peripheral blood cells were detected by flow cytometry. We found that the -568/-77 promoter variants were unlikely to affect transcription levels. A C/G single nucleotide polymorphism, in strong linkage disequilibrium with the promoter polymorphisms, was found in the coding sequence of IFNAR1 (nt19158). This resulted in a nonsynonymous substitution in the extracellular region of IFNAR1 protein and correlated with susceptibility to chronic HBV infection. Bioinformatic analysis suggested decreased stability of the IFNAR1 protein. Chronic HBV patients with the 19158C/C genotype (Leu141) exhibited higher IFNAR1 protein expression levels in peripheral blood monocytes than those with the 19158G/G genotype (Val141). In conclusion, IFNAR1 19158C/G polymorphism is primarily associated with susceptibility to chronic HBV infection.

  20. Intrahepatic mRNA levels of type I interferon receptor and interferon-stimulated genes in genotype 1b chronic hepatitis C. Association between IFNAR1 mRNA level and sustained response to interferon therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Hideaki; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Takahashi, Akira; Shimomura, Hiroyuki; Moriya, Akio; Yu, Piao Cheng; Umeoka, Fumi; Fujioka, Shin-ichi; Koide, Norio; Shiratori, Yasushi

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association between pretreatment intrahepatic mRNA levels of interferon receptor and interferon-stimulated genes and response to interferon therapy for genotype 1b chronic hepatitis C. Forty-four patients with genotype 1b chronic hepatitis C who underwent liver biopsy and then received interferon therapy participated in this study. Pretreatment intrahepatic mRNA levels of interferon receptor genes (IFNAR1, IFNAR2b, and IFNAR2c) and interferon-stimulated genes (OAS1 and PKR) were quantified by competitive polymerase chain reaction. In the genes examined, only IFNAR1 mRNA level was significantly higher in patients with sustained virological and biochemical response to interferon therapy versus those with nonsustained response (p IFNAR1 to IFNAR2 were also significantly higher in patients with sustained virological and biochemical response to IFN therapy (p IFNAR1 and mRNA ratio of IFNAR1 to IFNAR2 before treatment may be associated with a favorable response to interferon therapy. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Inhaled Interferon and Diffusion Capacity in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaria, S D; Yang, Jie; Condos, Rany; Smaldone, Gerald C

    2015-06-22

    Using data from a previously reported phase 2 safety trial, testing inhaled interferon gamma (IFN-γ) for IPF, we analyzed effects on full pulmonary function tests (PFTs) for efficacy before and after therapy and designed a randomized controlled trial of inhaled IFN-γ to treat IPF. Ten patients with IPF had received inhaled IFN-γ (Actimmune, InterMune) for 80 weeks. Full PFTs were available 20-50 weeks before Rx and monthly during Rx. Eighty-nine observations were used in the analysis. Linear mixed models for modeling longitudinal data were used to test if the PFT change over time was significantly different before and after IFN-γ. Autoregressive dependence structure with order one was consistently selected as the best one to model the intra-patient correlation over time. Normality assumption was confirmed. Significance level was set at 0.05. Using published literature and our data we performed a sample size calculation based on simulated data. The change over time in DLCO was significantly different before and after IFN-γ treatment. DLCO decreased over time before treatment but increased after treatment (p-value=0.03). Changes in TLC, FRC, RV and FVC were not statistically significant. With a sample size of 60, a placebo controlled, randomized trial has about 90% power to detect a significant difference in the change rate of DLCO in the groups of patients treated with IFN-γ vs placebo. DLCO was significantly improved following inhaled (IFN-γ) as treatment for IPF. Our data suggest that previous studies utilizing parenteral IFN-γ may have failed because of the mode of delivery. Future randomized, controlled, phase 3 trials, comparing the difference in PFT behavior (specifically DLCO) longitudinally may be more sensitive to drug effect and serve as a valuable clinical endpoint.

  2. Interferon-γ-induced protein 10 in Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, P; Elia, G; Bonatti, A

    2017-01-01

    Lyme disease is an infectious disease caused by bacteria of the Borrelia type, that affects about 300,000 people a year in the USA and 65,000 people a year in Europe. Borrelia infection, and Lyme disease, following occupational exposure has been frequently reported in USA, Europe and Asia. The manifestations of Lyme disease include erythema migrans (EM), arthritis, neuroborrelliosis (NB), and others. Cytokines and chemokines primarily orchestrate leukocyte recruitment to the areas of Borrelia infection, and they are critical mediators of immune and inflammatory responses, in particular of the induction of interferon (IFN)-γ and IFN-γ dependent chemokines. In EM high levels of T helper (Th) 1 cells chemoattranctants [monokine induced by IFN-γ (MIG), IFN-γ-induced protein 10 (IP- 10), and IFN-inducible T cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC)] have been shown. Synovial tissues and fluids of patients with Lyme Arthritis (LA) (overall with antibiotic-refractory LA) contained exceptionally high levels of Th1 chemoattractants and cytokines, particularly MIG and IFN-γ. In NB concentrations of IP-10 and I-TAC in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were significantly higher, suggesting that IP-10 and I-TAC create a chemokine gradient between the CSF and serum and recruite C-X-C chemokine receptor 3-expressing memory CD4+ T-cells into the CSF of these patients. A positive association between the disseminating capacity of B. burgdorferi and early type I IFN induction has also been shown. These results suggest that IFN-γ dependent chemokines are important biomarkers to monitor the progression and diffusion of the disease in patients with Borrelia infection; further larger studies are needed.

  3. Initial characterization of a spontaneous interferon secreted during growth and differentiation of Friend erythroleukemia cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revel, M.F.E.M.; Kimchi, A.

    1982-12-01

    A gradual increase in the level of 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase takes place in Friend erythroleukemia cells after a shiftdown in the rate of cell growth. The increase is about 5-fold after entry of cells into the stationary phase of growth, but much higher (25-fold) when reduction in growth accompanies cell differentiation. In the latter case, the enzyme increase is similar to that which can be induced in these cells by exogeneous interferon (IFN). The increase in 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase was shown to be due to a spontaneous secretion of IFN by the cells themselves: it is completely abolished if antiserum to murine type I IFN is added to the culture medium. In attempts to isolate some of this spontaneously secreted IFN, we show that it is stable at pH 2, not neutralized by antiserum to type II IFN, and that it also differs from the known IFN species induced by Sendai virus in Friend cells. The major component of this spontaneously secreted IFN is 20,000 M/sub r/, and differs from the corresponding virus-induced 20,000-M/sub r/ IFN by its lower affinity for antiserum to type I IFN and its antigenic characterization as BETA-murine IFN. The major component of the spontaneous IFN also exhibits a higher ratio of antigrowth to antiviral activity than the Sendai-induced IFNs. The authors suggest that Friend cells produce this specific type of IFN for the regulation of their growth and differentiation.

  4. Foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase inhibits dsRNA-induced type I interferon transcription by decreasing interferon regulatory factor 3/7 in protein levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dang; Fang, Liurong; Luo, Rui; Ye, Rui; Fang, Ying; Xie, Lilan; Chen, Huanchun [Division of Animal Infectious Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Xiao, Shaobo, E-mail: shaoboxiao@yahoo.com [Division of Animal Infectious Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2010-08-13

    Research highlights: {yields} FMDV L{sup pro} inhibits poly(I:C)-induced IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} mRNA expression. {yields} L{sup pro} inhibits MDA5-mediated activation of the IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} promoter. {yields} L{sup pro} significantly reduced the transcription of multiple IRF-responsive genes. {yields} L{sup pro} inhibits IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} promoter activation by decreasing IRF-3/7 in protein levels. {yields} The ability to process eIF-4G of L{sup pro} is not necessary to inhibit IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} activation. -- Abstract: The leader proteinase (L{sup pro}) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) has been identified as an interferon-{beta} (IFN-{beta}) antagonist that disrupts the integrity of transcription factor nuclear factor {kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B). In this study, we showed that the reduction of double stranded RNA (dsRNA)-induced IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} expression caused by L{sup pro} was also associated with a decrease of interferon regulatory factor 3/7 (IRF-3/7) in protein levels, two critical transcription factors for activation of IFN-{alpha}/{beta}. Furthermore, overexpression of L{sup pro} significantly reduced the transcription of multiple IRF-responsive genes including 2',5'-OAS, ISG54, IP-10, and RANTES. Screening L{sup pro} mutants indicated that the ability to process eIF-4G of L{sup pro} is not required for suppressing dsRNA-induced activation of the IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} promoter and decreasing IRF-3/7 expression. Taken together, our results demonstrate that, in addition to disrupting NF-{kappa}B, L{sup pro} also decreases IRF-3/7 expression to suppress dsRNA-induced type I IFN production, suggesting multiple strategies used by FMDV to counteract the immune response to viral infection.

  5. Coordinated regulation of IFITM1, 2 and 3 genes by an IFN-responsive enhancer through long-range chromatin interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Shi, Ming-Lei; Shen, Wen-Long; Zhang, Zhang; Xie, De-Jian; Zhang, Xiang-Yuan; He, Chao; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Zhi-Hu

    2017-08-01

    Interferon-induced transmembrane protein (IFITM) 1, 2 and 3 genes encode a family of interferon (IFN)-induced transmembrane proteins that block entry of a broad spectrum of pathogens. However, the transcriptional regulation of these genes, especially whether there exist any enhancers and their roles during the IFN induction process remain elusive. Here, through public data mining, episomal luciferase reporter assay and in vivo CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing, we identified an IFN-responsive enhancer located 35kb upstream of IFITM3 gene promoter upregulating the IFN-induced expression of IFITM1, 2 and 3 genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) 1 bound to the enhancer with the treatment of IFN and was indispensable for the enhancer activity. Furthermore, using chromosome conformation capture technique, we revealed that the IFITM1, 2 and 3 genes physically clustered together and constitutively looped to the distal enhancer through long-range interactions in both HEK293 and A549 cells, providing structural basis for coordinated regulation of IFITM1, 2 and 3 by the enhancer. Finally, we showed that in vivo truncation of the enhancer impaired IFN-induced resistance to influenza A virus (IAV) infection. These findings expand our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the transcriptional regulation of IFITM1, 2 and 3 expression and its ability to mediate IFN signaling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Evidence for the involvement of type I interferon in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Peter M; Oliver, Eduardo; Dorfmuller, Peter; Dubois, Olivier D; Reed, Daniel M; Kirkby, Nicholas S; Mohamed, Nura A; Perros, Frederic; Antigny, Fabrice; Fadel, Elie; Schreiber, Benjamin E; Holmes, Alan M; Southwood, Mark; Hagan, Guy; Wort, Stephen J; Bartlett, Nathan; Morrell, Nicholas W; Coghlan, John G; Humbert, Marc; Zhao, Lan; Mitchell, Jane A

    2014-02-14

    Evidence is increasing of a link between interferon (IFN) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Conditions with chronically elevated endogenous IFNs such as systemic sclerosis are strongly associated with PAH. Furthermore, therapeutic use of type I IFN is associated with PAH. This was recognized at the 2013 World Symposium on Pulmonary Hypertension where the urgent need for research into this was highlighted. To explore the role of type I IFN in PAH. Cells were cultured using standard approaches. Cytokines were measured by ELISA. Gene and protein expression were measured using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. The role of type I IFN in PAH in vivo was determined using type I IFN receptor knockout (IFNAR1(-/-)) mice. Human lung cells responded to types I and II but not III IFN correlating with relevant receptor expression. Type I, II, and III IFN levels were elevated in serum of patients with systemic sclerosis associated PAH. Serum interferon γ inducible protein 10 (IP10; CXCL10) and endothelin 1 were raised and strongly correlated together. IP10 correlated positively with pulmonary hemodynamics and serum brain natriuretic peptide and negatively with 6-minute walk test and cardiac index. Endothelial cells grown out of the blood of PAH patients were more sensitive to the effects of type I IFN than cells from healthy donors. PAH lung demonstrated increased IFNAR1 protein levels. IFNAR1(-/-) mice were protected from the effects of hypoxia on the right heart, vascular remodeling, and raised serum endothelin 1 levels. These data indicate that type I IFN, via an action of IFNAR1, mediates PAH.

  7. Evidence for the Involvement of Type I Interferon in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Peter M.; Oliver, Eduardo; Dorfmuller, Peter; Dubois, Olivier D.; Reed, Daniel M.; Kirkby, Nicholas S.; Mohamed, Nura A.; Perros, Frederic; Antigny, Fabrice; Fadel, Elie; Schreiber, Benjamin E.; Holmes, Alan M.; Southwood, Mark; Hagan, Guy; Wort, Stephen J.; Bartlett, Nathan; Morrell, Nicholas W.; Coghlan, John G.; Humbert, Marc; Zhao, Lan; Mitchell, Jane A.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Evidence is increasing of a link between interferon (IFN) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Conditions with chronically elevated endogenous IFNs such as systemic sclerosis are strongly associated with PAH. Furthermore, therapeutic use of type I IFN is associated with PAH. This was recognized at the 2013 World Symposium on Pulmonary Hypertension where the urgent need for research into this was highlighted. Objective To explore the role of type I IFN in PAH. Methods and Results Cells were cultured using standard approaches. Cytokines were measured by ELISA. Gene and protein expression were measured using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. The role of type I IFN in PAH in vivo was determined using type I IFN receptor knockout (IFNAR1−/−) mice. Human lung cells responded to types I and II but not III IFN correlating with relevant receptor expression. Type I, II, and III IFN levels were elevated in serum of patients with systemic sclerosis associated PAH. Serum interferon γ inducible protein 10 (IP10; CXCL10) and endothelin 1 were raised and strongly correlated together. IP10 correlated positively with pulmonary hemodynamics and serum brain natriuretic peptide and negatively with 6-minute walk test and cardiac index. Endothelial cells grown out of the blood of PAH patients were more sensitive to the effects of type I IFN than cells from healthy donors. PAH lung demonstrated increased IFNAR1 protein levels. IFNAR1−/− mice were protected from the effects of hypoxia on the right heart, vascular remodeling, and raised serum endothelin 1 levels. Conclusions These data indicate that type I IFN, via an action of IFNAR1, mediates PAH. PMID:24334027

  8. Mumps Virus Induces Protein-Kinase-R-Dependent Stress Granules, Partly Suppressing Type III Interferon Production.

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    Shin Hashimoto

    Full Text Available Stress granules (SGs are cytoplasmic granular aggregations that are induced by cellular stress, including viral infection. SGs have opposing antiviral and proviral roles, which depend on virus species. The exact function of SGs during viral infection is not fully understood. Here, we showed that mumps virus (MuV induced SGs depending on activation of protein kinase R (PKR. MuV infection strongly induced interferon (IFN-λ1, 2 and 3, and IFN-β through activation of IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3 via retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I and the mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS pathway. MuV-induced IFNs were strongly upregulated in PKR-knockdown cells. MuV-induced SG formation was suppressed by knockdown of PKR and SG marker proteins, Ras-GTPase-activating protein SH3-domain-binding protein 1 and T-cell-restricted intracellular antigen-1, and significantly increased the levels of MuV-induced IFN-λ1. However, viral titer was not altered by suppression of SG formation. PKR was required for induction of SGs by MuV infection and regulated type III IFN (IFN-λ1 mRNA stability. MuV-induced SGs partly suppressed type III IFN production by MuV; however, the limited suppression was not sufficient to inhibit MuV replication in cell culture. Our results provide insight into the relationship between SGs and IFN production induced by MuV infection.

  9. Dichotomous role of interferon-gamma in allogeneic bone marrow transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ying; Waller, Edmund K

    2009-11-01

    Interferon (IFN)-gamma is a pleiotropic cytokine with a central role in innate and adaptive immunity. As a potent pro-inflammatory and antitumor cytokine, IFN-gamma is conventionally thought to be responsible for driving cellular immune response. On the other hand, accumulating evidence suggests that IFN-gamma also has immunosuppressive activity. An important role for IFN-gamma in inhibiting graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) has been demonstrated in murine models, despite IFN-gamma being one of the key factors amplifying T cell activation during the process of acute GVHD (aGVHD), the major complication and cause of post-transplant mortality in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). At the same time, IFN-gamma facilitates graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) activity. Dissociation of GVL effects from GVHD has been the ultimate goal of allogeneic BMT in the treatment of hematologic malignancies. This paradoxic role of IFN-gamma makes modulating its activity a promising strategy to maximize GVL while minimizing GVHD and improve clinical outcomes in BMT. In this review, the effects of IFN-gamma on GVHD and GVL are discussed with consideration of the mechanism of IFN-gamma action.

  10. Mechanisms for Interferon-α-Induced Depression and Neural Stem Cell Dysfunction

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    Lian-Shun Zheng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available New neurons generated by the neural stem cells (NSCs in the adult hippocampus play an important role in emotional regulation and respond to the action of antidepressants. Depression is a common and serious side effect of interferon-α (IFN-α, which limits its use as an antiviral and antitumor drug. However, the mechanism(s underlying IFN-induced depression are largely unknown. Using a comprehensive battery of behavioral tests, we found that mice subjected to IFN-α treatment exhibited a depression-like phenotype. IFN-α directly suppressed NSC proliferation, resulting in the reduced generation of new neurons. Brain-specific mouse knockout of the IFN-α receptor prevented IFN-α-induced depressive behavioral phenotypes and the inhibition of neurogenesis, suggesting that IFN-α suppresses hippocampal neurogenesis and induces depression via its receptor in the brain. These findings provide insight for understanding the neuropathology underlying IFN-α-induced depression and for developing new strategies for the prevention and treatment of IFN-α-induced depressive effects.

  11. Interferons and HIV Infection: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utay, Netanya S.; Douek, Daniel C.

    2016-01-01

    Whether type I interferons (IFNs) hinder or facilitate HIV disease progression is controversial. Type I IFNs induce the production of restriction factors that protect against mucosal HIV/SIV acquisition and limit virus replication once systemic infection is established. However, type I IFNs also increase systemic immune activation, a predictor of poor CD4+ T-cell recovery and progression to AIDS, and facilitate production and recruitment of target CD4+ T cells. In addition, type I IFNs induce CD4+ T-cell apoptosis and limit antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses. The outcomes of type I IFN signaling may depend on the timing of IFN-stimulated gene upregulation relative to HIV exposure and infection, local versus systemic type I IFN-stimulated gene expression, and the subtype of type I IFN evaluated. To date, most interventional studies have evaluated IFNα2 administration largely in chronic HIV infection, and few have evaluated the effects on tissues or the HIV reservoir. Thus, whether the effect of type I IFN signaling on HIV disease is good, bad, or so complicated as to be ugly remains a topic of hot debate. PMID:27500281

  12. Interferons and HIV Infection: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netanya Sandler Utay

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Whether type I interferons (IFNs hinder or facilitate HIV disease progression is controversial. Type I IFNs induce the production of restriction factors that protect against mucosal HIV/SIV acquisition and limit virus replication once systemic infection is established. However, type I IFNs also increase systemic immune activation, a predictor of poor CD4+ T-cell recovery and progression to AIDS, and facilitate production and recruitment of target CD4+ T cells. In addition, type I IFNs induce CD4+ T-cell apoptosis and limit antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses. The outcomes of type I IFN signaling may depend on the timing of IFN-stimulated gene upregulation relative to HIV exposure and infection, local versus systemic type I IFN-stimulated gene expression, and the subtype of type I IFN evaluated. To date, most interventional studies have evaluated IFNa2 administration largely in chronic HIV infection, and few have evaluated the effects on tissues or the HIV reservoir. Thus, whether the effect of type I IFN signaling on HIV disease is good, bad, or so complicated as to be ugly remains a topic of hot debate.

  13. Interferons in Sjögren’s syndrome: genes, mechanisms, and effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He eLi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sjögren’s syndrome (SS is a common, progressive autoimmune exocrinopathy distinguished by dry eyes and mouth and affects ~0.7% of European population. Overexpression of transcripts induced by interferons (IFN, termed as an ‘IFN signature’, has been found in SS patients. Four microarray studies have been published in SS that identified dysregulated genes within type I IFN signaling in either salivary glands or peripheral blood of SS patients. The mechanism of this type I IFN activation is still obscure, but several possible explanations have been proposed, including virus infection-initiated and immune-complex-initiated type I IFN production by plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs. Genetic predisposition to increased type I IFN signaling is supported by candidate gene studies showing evidence for association of variants within IFN-related genes. Once activated, IFN signaling may contribute to numerous aspects of SS pathophysiology, including lymphocyte infiltration into exocrine glands, autoantibody production, and glandular cell apoptosis. Thus, dysregulation of IFN pathways is an important feature that can be potentially used as a serum biomarker for diagnosis and targeting of new treatments in this complex autoimmune disease.

  14. The effect of interferon-{beta} on mouse neural progenitor cell survival and differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, Marek [Neurology Department, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, VT (United States); Knight, Julia [Neuroscience Department, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, VT (United States); Tobita, Mari; Soltys, John; Panitch, Hillel [Neurology Department, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, VT (United States); Mao-Draayer, Yang, E-mail: yang.mao-draayer@vtmednet.org [Neurology Department, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, VT (United States)

    2009-10-16

    Interferon-{beta} (IFN-{beta}) is a mainstay therapy for relapse-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the direct effects of IFN-{beta} on the central nervous system (CNS) are not well understood. To determine whether IFN-{beta} has direct neuroprotective effects on CNS cells, we treated adult mouse neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in vitro with IFN-{beta} and examined the effects on proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation. We found that mouse NPCs express high levels of IFN{alpha}/{beta} receptor (IFNAR). In response to IFN-{beta} treatment, no effect was observed on differentiation or proliferation. However, IFN-{beta} treated mouse NPCs demonstrated decreased apoptosis upon growth factor withdrawal. Pathway-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) arrays demonstrated that IFN-{beta} treatment upregulated the STAT 1 and 2 signaling pathway, as well as GFRA2, NOD1, Caspases 1 and 12, and TNFSF10. These results suggest that IFN-{beta} can directly affect NPC survival, possibly playing a neuroprotective role in the CNS by modulating neurotrophic factors.

  15. Endogenous and recombinant type I interferons and disease activity in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sellebjerg, Finn; Krakauer, Martin; Limborg, Signe

    2012-01-01

    Although treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) with the type I interferon (IFN) IFN-ß lowers disease activity, the role of endogenous type I IFN in MS remains controversial. We studied CD4+ T cells and CD4+ T cell subsets, monocytes and dendritic cells by flow cytometry and analysed the relationship......, the effects of IFN-ß treatment and endogenous type I IFN activity on VLA-4 expression are similar and associated with control of disease activity. However, immune-activating effects of treatment with IFN-ß may counteract the beneficial effects of treatment and cause an insufficient response to therapy.......), and this effect was associated with less MRI disease activity. IFN-ß therapy reduced CD49d expression on CD4+CD26(high) T cells, and the percentage of CD4+CD26(high) T cells that were CD49d(high) correlated with clinical and MRI disease activity in patients treated with IFN-ß. Treatment with IFN-ß also increased...

  16. Interferon-α reduces the gefitinib sensitivity of human non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Pan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study : Many studies have shown that interferon-α(IFN-α enhances the antiproliferative effect of gefitinib in some solid tumours. We aimed to determine the effect of combining IFN-αwith gefitinib in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC cell lines (A549, H1299, HCC827 with different EGFR and K-Ras gene statuses. Material and methods : An MTT assay was used to assess cell proliferation. Apoptosis was detected by an Annexin V/propidium iodide assay using flow cytometry, and western blotting was used to determine the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor/phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/p-EGFR and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3/phosphorylated signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3/p-STAT3. Results : There was an additive interaction when gefitinib was combined with IFN-α in all cell lines; however, there was antagonism when gefitinib followed IFN-α pretreatment in three cell lines. Notably, IFN-α pretreatment significantly reduced the gefitinib sensitivity of HCC827 cells. Surprisingly, while IFN-α inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation in cell lines, gefitinib could do so. Conclusions : The results might confirm the hypothesis that IFN-α induces gefitinib sensitivity of NSCLC, and IFN-α inhibits phosphorylation of STAT3, which may be dependent on EGFR signal activation playing a role in the reduction of gefitinib sensitivity after IFN-α treatment in NSCLC cell lines.

  17. Type I interferon is selectively required by dendritic cells for immune rejection of tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Mark S; Kinder, Michelle; Matsushita, Hirokazu; Mashayekhi, Mona; Dunn, Gavin P; Archambault, Jessica M; Lee, Hsiaoju; Arthur, Cora D; White, J Michael; Kalinke, Ulrich; Murphy, Kenneth M; Schreiber, Robert D

    2011-09-26

    Cancer immunoediting is the process whereby the immune system suppresses neoplastic growth and shapes tumor immunogenicity. We previously reported that type I interferon (IFN-α/β) plays a central role in this process and that hematopoietic cells represent critical targets of type I IFN's actions. However, the specific cells affected by IFN-α/β and the functional processes that type I IFN induces remain undefined. Herein, we show that type I IFN is required to initiate the antitumor response and that its actions are temporally distinct from IFN-γ during cancer immunoediting. Using mixed bone marrow chimeric mice, we demonstrate that type I IFN sensitivity selectively within the innate immune compartment is essential for tumor-specific T cell priming and tumor elimination. We further show that mice lacking IFNAR1 (IFN-α/β receptor 1) in dendritic cells (DCs; Itgax-Cre(+)Ifnar1(f/f) mice) cannot reject highly immunogenic tumor cells and that CD8α(+) DCs from these mice display defects in antigen cross-presentation to CD8(+) T cells. In contrast, mice depleted of NK cells or mice that lack IFNAR1 in granulocytes and macrophage populations reject these tumors normally. Thus, DCs and specifically CD8α(+) DCs are functionally relevant targets of endogenous type I IFN during lymphocyte-mediated tumor rejection.

  18. Identification of a Predominantly Interferon-λ-Induced Transcriptional Profile in Murine Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharini A. Selvakumar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Type I (α and β and type III (λ interferons (IFNs induce the expression of a large set of antiviral effector molecules via their respective surface membrane receptors. Whereas most cell types respond to type I IFN, type III IFN preferentially acts on epithelial cells and protects mucosal organs such as the lung and gastrointestinal tract. Despite the engagement of different receptor molecules, the type I and type III IFN-induced signaling cascade and upregulated gene profile is thought to be largely identical. Here, we comparatively analyzed the response of gut epithelial cells to IFN-β and IFN-λ2 and identified a set of genes predominantly induced by IFN-λ2. We confirm the influence of epithelial cell polarization for enhanced type III receptor expression and demonstrate the induction of predominantly IFN-λ2-induced genes in the gut epithelium in vivo. Our results suggest that IFN-λ2 targets the epithelium and induces genes to adjust the antiviral host response to the requirements at mucosal body sites.

  19. Equine Arteritis Virus Does Not Induce Interferon Production in Equine Endothelial Cells: Identification of Nonstructural Protein 1 as a Main Interferon Antagonist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Young Go

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of equine arteritis virus (EAV on type I interferon (IFN production. Equine endothelial cells (EECs were infected with the virulent Bucyrus strain (VBS of EAV and expression of IFN-β was measured at mRNA and protein levels by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and IFN bioassay using vesicular stomatitis virus expressing the green fluorescence protein (VSV-GFP, respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR results showed that IFN-β mRNA levels in EECs infected with EAV VBS were not increased compared to those in mock-infected cells. Consistent with quantitative RT-PCR, Sendai virus- (SeV- induced type I IFN production was inhibited by EAV infection. Using an IFN-β promoter-luciferase reporter assay, we subsequently demonstrated that EAV nsps 1, 2, and 11 had the capability to inhibit type I IFN activation. Of these three nsps, nsp1 exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect. Taken together, these data demonstrate that EAV has the ability to suppress the type I IFN production in EECs and nsp1 may play a critical role to subvert the equine innate immune response.

  20. Functional characterization of duck LSm14A in IFN-β induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Kexin; Li, Huilin; Chen, Huanchun; Foda, Mohamed Frahat; Luo, Rui; Jin, Hui

    2017-11-01

    Human LSm14A is a key component of processing body (P-body) assembly that mediates interferon-β (IFN-β) production by sensing viral RNA or DNA. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to report duck LSm14A (duLSm14A) cloning from duck embryo fibroblasts (DEFs). Full-length duLSm14A encoded 461 amino acids and was highly homologous with chicken and swan goose sequences. More interestingly, the duLSm14A mRNA was extensively expressed in all the studied tissues. In DEFs, duLSm14A was localized in the cytoplasm as P-body-like dots. Expression of duLSm14A induced IFN-β through the activation of interferon regulatory factor-1 and nuclear factor-κB in DEFs. Furthermore, knockdown of duLSm14A by small interfering RNA notably decreased poly(I:C)- or duck reovirus-induced IFN-β production. The present study results indicate that the duLSm14A is an essential sensor that mediates duck innate immunity against viral infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The evolution of interferon-tau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ealy, Alan D; Wooldridge, Lydia K

    2017-11-01

    Thirty years ago, a novel type I interferon (IFN) was identified by molecular cloning of cDNA libraries constructed from RNA extracted from ovine and bovine pre-implantation embryos. This protein was eventually designated as IFN-tau (IFNT) to highlight its trophoblast-dependent expression. IFNT function is not immune related. Instead, it interacts with the maternal system to initiate the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. This activity is indispensable for the continuation of pregnancy. Our review will describe how IFNT evolved from other type I IFNs to function in this new capacity. IFNT genes have only been identified in pecoran ruminants within the Artiodactyla order (e.g. cattle, sheep, goats, deer, antelope, giraffe). The ancestral IFNT gene emerged approximately 36 million years ago most likely from rearrangement and/or insertion events that combined an ancestral IFN-omega (IFNW) gene with a trophoblast-specifying promoter/enhancer. Since then, IFNT genes have duplicated, likely through conversion events, and mutations have allowed them to adapt to their new function in concert with the emergence of different species. Multiple IFNT polymorphisms have been identified in cattle, sheep and goats. These genes and gene alleles encode proteins that do not display identical antiviral, antiproliferative and antiluteolytic activities. The need for multiple IFNT genes, numerous alleles and distinct activities remains debatable, but the consensus is that this complexity in IFNT expression and biological activity must be needed to provide the best opportunity for pregnancy to be recognized by the maternal system so that gestation may continue. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  2. Interpretation of the gamma interferon test for diagnosis of subclinical paratuberculosis in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersen, Gregers; Huda, A.; Hansen, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    interferon (IFN-gamma) release. For diagnosis of paraTB, satisfactory estimated specificities (95 to 99%) could be obtained by johnin PPD stimulation irrespective of interpretation relative to bovine PPD or no-antigen stimulation alone, but numbers of test positives in the infected herds varied from 64...

  3. Blocking Interferon beta Stimulates Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation and Arteriogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schirmer, Stephan H.; Bot, Pieter T.; Fledderus, Joost O.; van der Laan, Anja M.; Volger, Oscar L.; Laufs, Ulrich; Boehm, Michael; de Vries, Carlie J. M.; Horrevoets, Anton J. G.; Piek, Jan J.; Hoefer, Imo E.; van Royen, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Increased interferon (IFN)-beta signaling in patients with insufficient coronary collateralization and an inhibitory effect of IFNbeta on collateral artery growth in mice have been reported. The mechanisms of IFNbeta-induced inhibition of arteriogenesis are unknown. In stimulated monocytes from

  4. Regression of central giant cell granuloma by a combination of imatinib and interferon: a case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, J.; van Rijn, R.R.; van den Berg, H.; van den Akker, H.P.

    2009-01-01

    Central giant cell granuloma is a benign lesion of the jaws which is sometimes aggressive locally. The most common treatment is curettage which has a high recurrence rate. particularly, in more aggressive lesions. Other treatments Such as interferon (IFN) and calcitonin have been described. We

  5. Retreatment of chronic hepatitis B e antigen-positive patients with recombinant interferon alfa-2a

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Carreño (Vicente); P. Marcellin (Patrick); S. Hadziyannis (Stephanos); J. Salmerón (Javier); M. Diago (Moisés); G. Kitis; I. Vafiadis (Irene); S.W. Schalm (Solko); F. Zahm (Friederike); F. Manzarbeitia (Félix); F. Javier Jiménez (F.); J.A. Quiroga (Juan Antonio)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractFifty-seven patients with chronic hepatitis B, hepatitis B virus (HBV) e antigen (HBeAg) and HBV DNA positivity, and aminotransferase elevation despite a previous course of any type of adequate interferon alfa (IFN-α) therapy were included in a multicenter prospective randomized

  6. Second malignancies in hydroxyurea and interferon-treated Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Iben Onsberg; Sørensen, Anders Lindholm; Hasselbalch, Hans Carl

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In an era of controversy in regard to 'hydroxyurea-leukaemogenicity' and when interferon-alfa2 (IFN) is being revived in the treatment of Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), we aim in this single-centre observational study to describe the frequencies of second...

  7. RAIDD Mediates TLR3 and IRF7 Driven Type i Interferon Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maney, S K; Xu, H C; Huang, J

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Viral infections represent a global health problem with the need for new viral therapies and better understanding of the immune response during infection. The most immediate and potent anti-viral defense mechanism is the production of type I interferon (IFN-I) which are activated...

  8. Early detection of neutralizing antibodies to interferon-beta in multiple sclerosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegen, H; Millonig, A; Bertolotto, A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neutralizing antibodies (NAb) affect efficacy of interferon-beta (IFN-b) treatment in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. NAbs evolve in up to 44% of treated patients, usually between 6-18 months on therapy. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether early binding antibody (BAb) titers...

  9. Breakthrough disease during interferon-[beta] therapy in MS: No signs of impaired biologic response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, D; Krakauer, M; Lund, H

    2010-01-01

    Disease activity is highly variable in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), both untreated and during interferon (IFN)-beta therapy. Breakthrough disease is often regarded as treatment failure; however, apart from neutralizing antibodies (NAbs), no blood biomarkers have been established as reli...

  10. Interferon gamma peptidomimetic targeted to hepatic stellate cells ameliorates acute and chronic liver fibrosis in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bansal, Ruchi; Prakash, Jai; De Ruiter, Marieke; Poelstra, Klaas

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic stellate cells play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis. Thus, pharmacological inhibition of pro-fibrotic activities of these cells might lead to an effective therapy for this disease. Among the potent antifibrotics, interferon gamma (IFN gamma), a proinflammatory

  11. Identification, Characterization, and Developmental Expression Pattern of Type III Interferon Receptor Gene in the Chinese Goose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interferons, as the first line of defense against the viral infection, play an important role in innate immune responses. Type III interferon (IFN-λ was a newly identified member of IFN family, which plays IFN-like antiviral activity. Towards a better understanding of the type III interferon system in birds, type III interferon lambda receptor (IFNLR1 was first identified in the Chinese goose. In this paper, we had cloned 1952 bp for goose IFNLR1 (goIFNLR1, including an ORF of 1539 bp, encoding a 512-amino acid protein with a 20 aa predict signal peptide at its N terminal and a 23 aa transmembrane region. The predicted amino acid sequence of goIFNLR1 has 90%, 73%, and 34% identity with duck IFNLR1 (predicted sequence, chicken IFNLR1, and human IFNLR1, respectively. And the age-related tissue distribution of goIFNLR1 was identified by Real Time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR, we found that the goIFNLR1 has a mainly expression in epithelium-rich tissues similar to other species’, such as small intestinal, lung, liver, and stomach. Moreover, a relatively high expression of goIFNLR1 was also observed in the secondary immune tissues (harderian gland and cecal tonsil. The identification and tissue distribution of goIFNLR1 will facilitate further study of the role of IFN-λ in goose antiviral defense.

  12. Inhibition of the growth of cultured human meningioma cells by recombinant interferon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. Koper (Jan); E.C. Zwarthoff (Ellen); A. Hagemeijer (Anne); R. Braakman (Reinder); C.J.J. Avezaat (Cees); M. Bergström (Mats); S.W.J. Lamberts (Steven)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper the results of investigations on the effect of interferon-o (IFN-o) on the growth of meningioma cells in culture is reported. A consecutive series of six meningiomas and one meningioma/neurofibroma derived from a patient with neurofibromatosis type 2 was investigated and

  13. Gene expression in IFN-g-activated murine macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira C.A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages are critical for natural immunity and play a central role in specific acquired immunity. The IFN-gamma activation of macrophages derived from A/J or BALB/c mice yielded two different patterns of antiviral state in murine hepatitis virus 3 infection, which were related to a down-regulation of the main virus receptor. Using cDNA hybridization to evaluate mRNA accumulation in the cells, we were able to identify several genes that are differently up- or down-regulated by IFN-gamma in A/J (267 and 266 genes, respectively, up- and down-regulated or BALB/c (297 and 58 genes, respectively, up- and down-regulated mouse macrophages. Macrophages from mice with different genetic backgrounds behave differently at the molecular level and comparison of the patterns of non-activated and IFN-gamma-activated A/J or BALB/c mouse macrophages revealed, for instance, an up-regulation and a down-regulation of genes coding for biological functions such as enzymatic reactions, nucleic acid synthesis and transport, protein synthesis, transport and metabolism, cytoskeleton arrangement and extracellular matrix, phagocytosis, resistance and susceptibility to infection and tumors, inflammation, and cell differentiation or activation. The present data are reported in order to facilitate future correlation of proteomic/transcriptomic findings as well as of results obtained from a classical approach for the understanding of biological phenomena. The possible implication of the role of some of the gene products relevant to macrophage biology can now be further scrutinized. In this respect, a down-regulation of the main murine hepatitis virus 3 receptor gene was detected only in IFN-gamma-activated macrophages of resistant mice.

  14. An Interferon Signature in the Peripheral Blood of Dermatomyositis Patients is Associated with Disease Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baechler, Emily C; Bauer, Jason W; Slattery, Catherine A; Ortmann, Ward A; Espe, Karl J; Novitzke, Jill; Ytterberg, Steven R; Gregersen, Peter K; Behrens, Timothy W; Reed, Ann M

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have shown increased expression of interferon (IFN)-regulated genes in the peripheral blood cells of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. A similar interferon signature has been observed in affected muscle tissue from patients with dermatomyositis (DM), but it has not yet been determined if this signature extends to the peripheral blood in DM. We performed global gene expression profiling of peripheral blood cells from adult and juvenile DM patients and healthy controls. Several interesting groups of genes were differentially expressed in DM, including genes with immune function, and others that function in muscle or are involved in mitochondrial/oxidative phosphorylation. Investigation of type I IFN-regulated transcripts revealed a striking interferon signature present in most DM patients studied. Levels of type I IFN-regulated proteins were also elevated in DM serum samples. Furthermore, both the transcript and serum protein IFN signatures were associated with disease activity. These data suggest that the IFN signature may be a useful marker for DM disease activity, and that sampling peripheral blood may be a more practical alternative to muscle biopsy for measuring this signature. PMID:17515957

  15. [Incidence, pathoetiology and treatment of interferon-alpha induced neuro-psychiatric side effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, M; Schwaiger, M

    2003-09-01

    Interferon alpha (IFN-alpha), an immunomodulatory cytokine, is used for the treatment of several disorders including chronic hepatitis or malignant melanoma. During the therapy IFN-alpha may cause severe neuropsychiatric syndromes including depression with suicidal ideation, paranoid psychoses or confusional states. The reasons and management of these side effects are widely unknown. The underlying pathogenetic mechanisms include various effects on neuroendocrine, cytokine and neurotransmitter systems. This review summarizes therapeutic strategies against IFN-alpha associated psychiatric syndromes. Zolpidem or Zopiclon can be used for the treatment of sleeping disturbances. Serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors including citalopram or paroxetine were shown to be effective for acute treatment of IFN-alpha associated depression. The efficacy of prophylactic treatment for prevention of IFN-alpha induced depression has to be proven in future trials. In an interdisciplinary setting, psychiatric disorders and drug addiction should not prevent patients from interferon-alpha treatment. Furthermore, interdisciplinary care should improve quality of life, adherence and therapeutic outcome of interferon-alpha treated patients.

  16. PRECLINICAL SAFETY AND ACTIVITY OF RECOMBINANT VSV-IFN-B IN AN IMMUNOCOMPETENT MODEL OF SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA OF THE HEAD AND NECK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurisetty, Vittal VS; Heiber, Joshua; Myers, Rae; Pereira, Guilherme S.; Goodwin, Jarrard W.; Federspiel, Mark J.; Russell, Stephen J.; Peng, Kah Whye; Barber, Glen; Merchan, Jaime R.

    2013-01-01

    Background VSV-IFN-β, a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus expressing interferon-β, has demonstrated antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo. In preparation for clinical testing in human squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the head and neck, we conducted preclinical studies of VSV-IFN-β in syngeneic SCC models. Methods and Results In vitro, VSV-IFN-β (expressing rat or mouse IFN-β) induced cytotoxicity and propagated in rat (FAT-7) or mouse (SCC-VII) SCC cells during normoxia and hypoxia. In vivo, intratumoral administration of VSV-rat-IFN-β or VSV-human-IFN-β in FAT-7 bearing or non-tumor bearing immunocompetent rats did not result in acute organ toxicity or death. VSV-r-IFN-β replicated predominantly in tumors and a dose dependent anti-VSV antibody response was observed. Intratumoral or intravenous administration of VSV-IFN-β resulted in growth delay and improved survival compared to controls. Conclusions The above data confirm safety and feasibility of VSV-IFN-β administration in immunocompetent animals and support its clinical evaluation in advanced human head and neck cancer. PMID:24115092

  17. Systemic anti-IFN-gamma treatment and role of macrophage subsets in the foreign body reaction to dermal sheep collagen in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khouw, IMSL; van Wachem, PB; van der Worp, RJ; van den Berg, TK; de Leij, LFMH; van Luyn, MJA

    2000-01-01

    The application of a biomaterial induces a foreign body reaction. By controlling this reaction,biocompatibility could be improved. We previously demonstrated that impregnation of a biodegradable biomaterial with antibodies against interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) inhibits the foreign body reaction. In

  18. Temozolomide followed by combined immunotherapy with GM-CSF, low-dose IL2 and IFN alpha in patients with metastatic melanoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Gast, G. C.; Batchelor, D.; Kersten, M. J.; Vyth-Dreese, F. A.; Sein, J.; van de Kasteele, W. F.; Nooijen, W. J.; Nieweg, O. E.; de Waal, M. A.; Boogerd, W.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the toxicity and efficacy of temozolomide (TMZ) p.o. followed by subcutaneous (s.c.) low-dose interleukin-2 (IL2), granulocyte-monocyte colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interferon-alpha 2b (IFN alpha) in patients with metastatic melanoma. A total of 74

  19. A functional IFN-λ4-generating DNA polymorphism could protect older asthmatic women from aeroallergen sensitization and associate with clinical features of asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinnaswamy, Sreedhar; Wardzynska, Aleksandra; Pawelczyk, Malgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Lambda interferons (IFNLs) have immunomodulatory functions at epithelial barrier surfaces. IFN-λ4, a recent member of this family is expressed only in a subset of the population due to a frameshift-causing DNA polymorphism rs368234815. We examined the association of this polymorphism with atopy (...

  20. A new era for IFN-α in the treatment of Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, H.C.

    2011-01-01

    of being able to induce 'minimal residual disease' in a subset of patients after long-term treatment with IFN-α2, the current risk-stratification systems used for treatment decisions are being challenged. It is argued that in 2011, the bulk of evidence for the efficacy and safety of pegylated interferons...... in treating patients with these neoplasms favors the upfront use of pegylated interferons, the goal being to influence the development of the disease at the molecular level and revert patients to a stage of 'minimal residual disease/operational cure' instead of progressive clonal evolution, genomic......In recent years, several studies have shown that IFN-α2 is able to induce molecular remissions with undetectable JAK2V617F in a subset of patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET) and polycythemia vera (PV), even with normalization of the bone marrow and sustained molecular remissions after...

  1. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of eleven subtypes of interferon-α in Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongjing; Ma, Jian; Wang, Yu; Liu, Juanjuan; Shao, Yizhi; Li, Jinglun; Jiang, Guangshun; Xing, Mingwei

    2017-12-01

    Interferon has a broad-spectrum of antiviral effects and represents an ideal choice for the development of antiviral drugs. Nonetheless, information about alpha interferon (IFN-α) is vacant in Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica), an endangered species and indigenous to northeast Asia. Herein, 11 PtIFN-αs genes, which encoded proteins of 164-165 amino acids, were amplified. Afterwards, expression and purification were conducted in Escherichia coli. In physicochemical analysis, PtIFN-αs were shown to be highly sensitive to trypsin and remained stable despite changes in pH and temperature. In feline kidney cells (F81)/vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)/canine distemper virus (CDV)/avian influenza virus (AIV) systems, PtIFN-αs were demonstrated to have distinct antiviral activities, some of them (PtIFN-α and PtIFN-α9) inhibited viral transcription levels more effectively than the other subtypes including Felis catus IFN-α, an effective therapeutic agent used for viral infections clinically. Additionally, PtIFN-α and PtIFN-α9 can up-regulate the transcription and expression of p53, a tumor suppressor factor, which could promote apoptosis of virus-infected cells. In conclusion, we cloned and expressed 11 subtypes of PtIFN-α for the first time. Furthermore, PtIFN-α and PtIFN-α9 were likely to be more efficient against both chronic viral infections and neoplastic diseases that affect the Amur tiger population. It will be of significant importance for further studies to protect this endangered species. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. The antiviral action of interferon is potentiated by removal of the conserved IRTAM domain of the IFNAR1 chain of the interferon alpha/beta receptor: effects on JAK-STAT activation and receptor down-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, L; Yang, C H; Murti, A; Garcia, J V; Croze, E; Constantinescu, S N; Mullersman, J E; Pfeffer, L M

    1998-03-01

    The first cloned chain (IFNAR1) of the human interferon-alpha (IFN alpha) receptor acts as a species-specific transducer for type 1 IFN action when transfected into heterologous mouse cells. Stably transfected mouse L929 cell lines expressing truncation mutants of the intracellular domain of the human IFNAR1 chain were tested for biological responses to human IFN alpha. Deletion of the intracellular domain resulted in a complete loss of sensitivity to the biological activity of human IFN but markedly increased IFNAR1 cell surface expression, demonstrating that the intracellular domain is required for biological function and contains a domain that negatively regulates its cell surface expression. Removal of the conserved membrane distal 16-amino-acid IRTAM (Interferon Receptor Tyrosine Activation Motif) sequence: (1) increased sensitivity to IFN alpha's antiviral activity, (2) increased the rapid IFN alpha-dependent formation of STAT-containing DNA-binding complexes, (3) prolonged tyrosine phosphorylation kinetics of the JAK-STAT pathway, and (4) blocked the IFN-dependent down-regulation of the IFNAR1 chain. These results indicate that the IRTAM negatively regulates signalling events required for the induction of IFN's biological actions via regulating receptor down-regulation.

  3. Involvement of gamma interferon in antibody enhancement by adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odean, M J; Frane, C M; Van derVieren, M; Tomai, M A; Johnson, A G

    1990-02-01

    In a previous study the adjuvant action of a monophosphoryl lipid A, a nontoxic derivative of endotoxic lipopolysaccharide (LPS), was found to be negated by a monoclonal anti-gamma interferon (anti-IFN-gamma) antibody. The present investigation centered on three other adjuvants of diverse microbial origins, testing for their capacity to affect the release of IFN-gamma as an explanation for their antibody-enhancing action. The adjuvant action of each of the three, a wild-type LPS, synthetic poly(A)-poly(U) complexes, and a synthetic muramyl dipeptide, n-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-glutaminyl-n-butyl ester (murabutide), was transferable by adjuvant-stimulated T cells to normal spleen cells on coculture. Supernatant fluids from these T cells contained increased levels of IFN-gamma. Addition of a monoclonal anti-IFN-gamma antibody to adjuvant-stimulated spleen cell cultures reduced the adjuvant action by approximately one-half. Removal of natural killer cells from spleen cell populations prior to culture with antigen had no effect on the enhancement induced by LPS and monophosphoryl lipid A. It was concluded that the enhancement induced by the adjuvants LPS, poly(A)-poly(U), and murabutide is mediated in part by their action on T cells resulting in release of IFN-gamma suggesting activation of a common transmembrane signal.

  4. Differential impact of interferon regulatory factor 7 in the initiation of the type I interferon response in the LCMV infected CNS versus the periphery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jeanette Erbo; Fenger, Christina; Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh

    2012-01-01

    Interferon (IFN) regulatory factors (IRFs) are a family of transcription factors involved in regulating type I IFN genes and other genes participating in the early antiviral host response. To better understand the mechanisms involved in virus-induced central nervous system (CNS) inflammation, we...... studied the influence of IRF1, -3, -7, and -9 on the transcriptional activity of key genes encoding antiviral host factors in the CNS of mice infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). A key finding is that neither IRF3 nor IRF7 is absolutely required for induction of a type I IFN response...... in the LCMV-infected CNS, whereas concurrent elimination of both factors markedly reduces the virus-induced host response. This is unlike the situation in the periphery, where deficiency of IRF7 almost eliminates the LCMV-induced production of the type I IFNs. This difference is seemingly related to the local...

  5. Health-related quality of life in patients with high-risk melanoma randomised in the Nordic phase 3 trial with adjuvant intermediate-dose interferon alfa-2b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandberg, Y; Aamdal, S; Bastholt, Lars

    2012-01-01

    To compare health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and side-effects in patients with high-risk melanoma participating in a randomised phase III trial of adjuvant interferon alfa-2b (IFN).......To compare health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and side-effects in patients with high-risk melanoma participating in a randomised phase III trial of adjuvant interferon alfa-2b (IFN)....

  6. Intracranial AAV-IFN-β gene therapy eliminates invasive xenograft glioblastoma and improves survival in orthotopic syngeneic murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GuhaSarkar, Dwijit; Neiswender, James; Su, Qin; Gao, Guangping; Sena-Esteves, Miguel

    2017-02-01

    The highly invasive property of glioblastoma (GBM) cells and genetic heterogeneity are largely responsible for tumor recurrence after the current standard-of-care treatment and thus a direct cause of death. Previously, we have shown that intracranial interferon-beta (IFN-β) gene therapy by locally administered adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV) successfully treats noninvasive orthotopic glioblastoma models. Here, we extend these findings by testing this approach in invasive human GBM xenograft and syngeneic mouse models. First, we show that a single intracranial injection of AAV encoding human IFN-β eliminates invasive human GBM8 tumors and promotes long-term survival. Next, we screened five AAV-IFN-β vectors with different promoters to drive safe expression of mouse IFN-β in the brain in the context of syngeneic GL261 tumors. Two AAV-IFN-β vectors were excluded due to safety concerns, but therapeutic studies with the other three vectors showed extensive tumor cell death, activation of microglia surrounding the tumors, and a 56% increase in median survival of the animals treated with AAV/P2-Int-mIFN-β vector. We also assessed the therapeutic effect of combining AAV-IFN-β therapy with temozolomide (TMZ). As TMZ affects DNA replication, an event that is crucial for second-strand DNA synthesis of single-stranded AAV vectors before active transcription, we tested two TMZ treatment regimens. Treatment with TMZ prior to AAV-IFN-β abrogated any benefit from the latter, while the reverse order of treatment doubled the median survival compared to controls. These studies demonstrate the therapeutic potential of intracranial AAV-IFN-β therapy in a highly migratory GBM model as well as in a syngeneic mouse model and that combination with TMZ is likely to enhance its antitumor potency. © 2016 The Authors. Published by FEBS Press and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Nitric oxide production in murine spleen cells: role of interferons and prostaglandin E2 in the generation of cytotoxic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Vaillier

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of nitric oxide (NO was measured in cultures of spleen cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, IL-2 or LPS + IL-2. We observed that NO synthesis is increased by IFN-γ but inhibited by IFN-α/β. This is not the case when IL-2 is present in the cultures, since interferons play a minor role in the regulation of the NO production. When IL-2 and LPS were associated in the cultures, the IFN-α/β role seems more important than that of IFN-γ. PGE2 inhibits NO production in LPS supplemented cultures but has a slight effect in the presence of IL-2 and no effect with IL-2 + LPS. 3-isoButyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX, an inhibitor of phosphodiesterases, induces a decrease of IFN production. In the presence of H-7, an inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC, NO production is reduced when the cultures are supplemented by LPS or IL-2 but not when IL-2 and LPS are both added. H-7 also reduced IFN production. In the presence of NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (N-MMA, an inhibitor of NO synthesis, IFN production was increased, with no change in the cytotoxic activity. Hence, interferons regulate NO production by mouse spleen cells and, in return, NO modulates the generation of IFN.

  8. Absence of IFN-γ increases brain pathology in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis-susceptible DRB1*0301.DQ8 HLA transgenic mice through secretion of proinflammatory cytokine IL-17 and induction of pathogenic monocytes/microglia into the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalam, Ashutosh K; Luo, Ningling; Luckey, David; Papke, Louisa; Hubbard, Alyssa; Wussow, Arika; Smart, Michele; Giri, Shailendra; Rodriguez, Moses; David, Chella

    2014-11-15

    Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the CNS of presumed autoimmune origin. Of all the genetic factors linked with multiple sclerosis, MHC class II molecules have the strongest association. Generation of HLA class II transgenic (Tg) mice has helped to elucidate the role of HLA class II genes in chronic inflammatory and demyelinating diseases. We have shown that the human HLA-DRB1*0301 gene predisposes to proteolipid protein (PLP)-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), whereas HLA-DQβ1*0601 (DQ6) was resistant. We also showed that the DQ6 molecule protects from EAE in DRB1*0301.DQ6 double-Tg mice by producing anti-inflammatory IFN-γ. HLA-DQβ1*0302 (DQ8) Tg mice were also resistant to PLP(91-110)-induced EAE, but production of proinflammatory IL-17 exacerbated disease in DRB1*0301.DQ8 mice. To further confirm the role of IFN-γ in protection, we generated DRB1*0301.DQ8 mice lacking IFN-γ (DRB1*0301.DQ8.IFN-γ(-/-)). Immunization with PLP(91-110) peptide caused atypical EAE in DRB1*0301.DQ8.IFN-γ(-/-) mice characterized by ataxia, spasticity, and dystonia, hallmarks of brain-specific disease. Severe brain-specific inflammation and demyelination in DRB1*0301.DQ8.IFN-γ(-/-) mice with minimal spinal cord pathology further confirmed brain-specific pathology. Atypical EAE in DRB1*0301.DQ8.IFN-γ(-/-) mice was associated with increased encephalitogenicity of CD4 T cells and their ability to produce greater levels of IL-17 and GM-CSF compared with DRB1*0301.DQ8 mice. Further, areas with demyelination showed increased presence of CD68(+) inflammatory cells, suggesting an important role for monocytes/microglia in causing brain pathology. Thus, our study supports a protective role for IFN-γ in the demyelination of brain through downregulation of IL-17/GM-CSF and induction of neuroprotective factors in the brain by monocytes/microglial cells. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  9. Spatiotemporal control of interferon-induced JAK/STAT signalling and gene transcription by the retromer complex

    OpenAIRE

    Chmiest, Daniela; Sharma, Nanaocha; Zanin, Natacha; Viaris De Lesegno, Christine; Shafaq-Zadah, Massiullah; Sibut, Vonick; Dingli, Florent; Hup?, Philippe; Wilmes, Stephan; Piehler, Jacob; Loew, Damarys; Johannes, Ludger; Schreiber, Gideon; Lamaze, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Type-I interferons (IFNs) play a key role in the immune defences against viral and bacterial infections, and in cancer immunosurveillance. We have established that clathrin-dependent endocytosis of the type-I interferon (IFN-?/?) receptor (IFNAR) is required for JAK/STAT signalling. Here we show that the internalized IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 subunits of the IFNAR complex are differentially sorted by the retromer at the early endosome. Binding of the retromer VPS35 subunit to IFNAR2 results in IFNAR2...

  10. Human B cells fail to secrete type I interferons upon cytoplasmic DNA exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gram, Anna M; Sun, Chenglong; Landman, Sanne L; Oosenbrug, Timo; Koppejan, Hester J; Kwakkenbos, Mark J; Hoeben, Rob C; Paludan, Søren R; Ressing, Maaike E

    2017-11-01

    Most cells are believed to be capable of producing type I interferons (IFN I) as part of an innate immune response against, for instance, viral infections. In macrophages, IFN I is potently induced upon cytoplasmic exposure to foreign nucleic acids. Infection of these cells with herpesviruses leads to triggering of the DNA sensors interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) and cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS). Thereby, the stimulator of interferon genes (STING) and the downstream molecules TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) are sequentially activated culminating in IFN I secretion. Human gamma-herpesviruses, such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), exploit B cells as a reservoir for persistent infection. In this study, we investigated whether human B cells, similar to macrophages, engage the cytoplasmic DNA sensing pathway to induce an innate immune response. We found that the B cells fail to secrete IFN I upon cytoplasmic DNA exposure, although they express the DNA sensors cGAS and IFI16 and the signaling components TBK1 and IRF3. In primary human B lymphocytes and EBV-negative B cell lines, this deficiency is explained by a lack of detectable levels of the central adaptor protein STING. In contrast, EBV-transformed B cell lines did express STING, yet both these lines as well as STING-reconstituted EBV-negative B cells did not produce IFN I upon dsDNA or cGAMP stimulation. Our combined data show that the cytoplasmic DNA sensing pathway is dysfunctional in human B cells. This exemplifies that certain cell types cannot induce IFN I in response to cytoplasmic DNA exposure providing a potential niche for viral persistence. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Interferon Regulatory Factor (Irf)-1 and Irf-2 Regulate Interferon γ–Dependent Cyclooxygenase 2 Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Jorge C. G.; Contursi, Cristina; Salkowski, Cindy A.; DeWitt, David L.; Ozato, Keiko; Vogel, Stefanie N.

    2000-01-01

    Cyclooxygenases (Cox) are rate-limiting enzymes that initiate the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostanoids. Cox-2 is the inducible isoform that is upregulated by proinflammatory agents, initiating many prostanoid-mediated pathological aspects of inflammation. In this study, we demonstrate that interferon (IFN)-γ alone or in synergy with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or interleukin 1α induces Cox-2 expression in mouse peritoneal macrophages, which is paralleled by changes in Cox-2 protein levels and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release. Induction of Cox-2 was abrogated in macrophages that lack IFN regulatory factor (IRF)-1, consistent with an attenuated hepatic mRNA response in IRF-1−/− mice injected with LPS. Conversely, the absence of IRF-2 in macrophages resulted in a significant increase in both basal and inducible Cox-2 gene and protein expression as well as IFN-γ–stimulated PGE2 release, identifying IRF-2 as negative regulator of this promoter. Two IFN stimulation response elements were identified in the mouse Cox-2 promoter that were highly conserved in the human Cox-2 gene. Both bind endogenous IRF-1 and IRF-2 and regulate transcription in an IRF-1/2–dependent manner. Our data demonstrate conclusively the importance of IFN-γ as a direct activator and coactivator of the Cox-2 gene, and the central role of IRF-1/2 family members in this process. PMID:10859338

  12. Human Cytomegalovirus IE2 86 kDa Protein Induces STING Degradation and Inhibits cGAMP-Mediated IFN-β Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Eun Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Stimulator of interferon genes (STING is a critical signaling molecule in the innate immune response against DNA viruses by either directly sensing intracellular DNA or functioning as an adaptor molecule to activate the type I interferon (IFN signaling pathway. We determined the functional interaction between STING and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV. A cDNA library containing 133 HCMV ORFs was screened to identify viral genes that inhibit STING-induced IFN-β promoter activation. Among the screened ORFs, UL122, which encodes the immediate-early 2 86 kDa (IE86 protein, strongly abolished STING-induced IFN-β promoter activation. Interestingly, IE86 protein facilitated the proteasome-dependent degradation of STING and inhibited 2′3′-cGAMP-mediated induction of IFNB1 and CXCL10. Taken together, this study demonstrates the existence of a post-translational regulation of STING by HCMV IE86 protein.

  13. New World hantaviruses activate IFNlambda production in type I IFN-deficient vero E6 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Joseph; Hall, Pamela; Acuna-Retamar, Mariana; Ye, Chunyan; Wathelet, Marc G; Ebihara, Hideki; Feldmann, Heinz; Hjelle, Brian

    2010-06-17

    Hantaviruses indigenous to the New World are the etiologic agents of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS). These viruses induce a strong interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) response in human endothelial cells. African green monkey-derived Vero E6 cells are used to propagate hantaviruses as well as many other viruses. The utility of the Vero E6 cell line for virus production is thought to owe to their lack of genes encoding type I interferons (IFN), rendering them unable to mount an efficient innate immune response to virus infection. Interferon lambda, a more recently characterized type III IFN, is transcriptionally controlled much like the type I IFNs, and activates the innate immune system in a similar manner. We show that Vero E6 cells respond to hantavirus infection by secreting abundant IFNlambda. Three New World hantaviruses were similarly able to induce IFNlambda expression in this cell line. The IFNlambda contained within virus preparations generated with Vero E6 cells independently activates ISGs when used to infect several non-endothelial cell lines, whereas innate immune responses by endothelial cells are specifically due to viral infection. We show further that Sin Nombre virus replicates to high titer in human hepatoma cells (Huh7) without inducing ISGs. Herein we report that Vero E6 cells respond to viral infection with a highly active antiviral response, including secretion of abundant IFNlambda. This cytokine is biologically active, and when contained within viral preparations and presented to human epithelioid cell lines, results in the robust activation of innate immune responses. We also show that both Huh7 and A549 cell lines do not respond to hantavirus infection, confirming that the cytoplasmic RNA helicase pathways possessed by these cells are not involved in hantavirus recognition. We demonstrate that Vero E6 actively respond to virus infection and inhibiting IFNlambda production in these cells might increase their utility for virus

  14. New World hantaviruses activate IFNlambda production in type I IFN-deficient vero E6 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Prescott

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses indigenous to the New World are the etiologic agents of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS. These viruses induce a strong interferon-stimulated gene (ISG response in human endothelial cells. African green monkey-derived Vero E6 cells are used to propagate hantaviruses as well as many other viruses. The utility of the Vero E6 cell line for virus production is thought to owe to their lack of genes encoding type I interferons (IFN, rendering them unable to mount an efficient innate immune response to virus infection. Interferon lambda, a more recently characterized type III IFN, is transcriptionally controlled much like the type I IFNs, and activates the innate immune system in a similar manner.We show that Vero E6 cells respond to hantavirus infection by secreting abundant IFNlambda. Three New World hantaviruses were similarly able to induce IFNlambda expression in this cell line. The IFNlambda contained within virus preparations generated with Vero E6 cells independently activates ISGs when used to infect several non-endothelial cell lines, whereas innate immune responses by endothelial cells are specifically due to viral infection. We show further that Sin Nombre virus replicates to high titer in human hepatoma cells (Huh7 without inducing ISGs.Herein we report that Vero E6 cells respond to viral infection with a highly active antiviral response, including secretion of abundant IFNlambda. This cytokine is biologically active, and when contained within viral preparations and presented to human epithelioid cell lines, results in the robust activation of innate immune responses. We also show that both Huh7 and A549 cell lines do not respond to hantavirus infection, confirming that the cytoplasmic RNA helicase pathways possessed by these cells are not involved in hantavirus recognition. We demonstrate that Vero E6 actively respond to virus infection and inhibiting IFNlambda production in these cells might increase their utility

  15. Pressure- and temperature-induced unfolding and aggregation of recombinant human interferon-gamma: a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study.

    OpenAIRE

    Goossens, Koen; Haelewyn, Joost; Meersman, Filip; De Ley, Marc; Heremans, Karel

    2003-01-01

    The effect of hydrostatic pressure on the secondary structure of recombinant human interferon-gamma (rhIFN-gamma) and its biologically inactive truncated form rhIFN-Delta C15 has been studied using Fourier-transform IR (FTIR) spectroscopy. In situ observation of the pressure-induced changes using the diamond anvil cell shows that the alpha-helical structure is mainly transformed into disordered structure at high pressure. Increasing pressure also induces the formation of a gel. Addition of 0....

  16. Responder Interferon ? Genotypes Are Associated With Higher Risk of Liver Fibrosis in HIV?Hepatitis C Virus Coinfection

    OpenAIRE

    Moqueet, Nasheed; Cooper, Curtis; Gill, John; Hull, Mark; Platt, Robert W.; Marina B. Klein

    2016-01-01

    Background. ?Liver fibrosis progresses faster in individuals coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Interferon ?3 (IFN-?3) has both antiviral and proinflammatory properties. Genotypes at IFNL single-nucleotide proteins (SNPs; rs12979860CC and rs8099917TT) are linked to higher HCV clearance, potentially via rs8103142. We examined the relationship between IFN-? genotypes and significant liver fibrosis in HIV-HCV coinfection. Methods. ?From the prospectiv...

  17. Genotype F of hepatitis B: response to interferon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venegas, Mauricio; Poniachik, Jaime; Fuster, Francisco; Hurtado, Carmen; Villanueva, Rodrigo A; Brahm, Javier

    2015-01-01

    The relevance of HBV genotype diversity on interferon (IFN) therapy outcome in chronic hepatitis B patients has recently been highlighted. Data available for genotype F is poor. The aim of this work was to analyse the response of HBV genotype F to treatment with IFN. Additionally, response was analysed according to the role of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) near to the IL28B gene. A total of 29 HBeAg-positive patients with chronic infection were included with a median age 47 (18-68) years. Of them, 27 were male. One patient was treated with standard IFN-α for 16 weeks, 6 patients received PEG-IFN-α2a 180 μg weekly for 24 weeks and 22 patients for 48 weeks. Response to treatment was defined as loss of HBeAg, anti-HBe seroconversion and decline of HBV DNA level to below 3 log of baseline (IU/ml) at the 6-month of follow-up. The SNPs rs12979860, rs12980275 and rs8099917 were studied by PCR-RFLP. The overall response was obtained in 18 (62%) patients, including one patient who was treated with standard IFN. Additionally, a total of 9 (31%) patients cleared HBsAg, with appearance of anti-HBs. The viral load was undetectable in all of these patients. The same IL28B variants associated with IFN response in HCV infections were also more frequently found in HBV patients compared with non-responders. Our study indicates that treatment with IFN is effective in patients with HBV genotype F.

  18. Adjuvant therapy with pegylated interferon alfa-2b (36 months) versus low-dose interferon alfa-2b (18 months) in melanoma patients without macrometastatic nodes: an open-label, randomised, phase 3 European Association for Dermato-Oncology (EADO) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Jean Jacques; Jouary, Thomas; Dréno, Brigitte; Asselineau, Julien; Gutzmer, Ralf; Hauschild, Axel; Leccia, Marie Thérèse; Landthaler, Michael; Garbe, Claus; Sassolas, Bruno; Herbst, Rudolf A; Guillot, Bernard; Chene, Genevieve; Pehamberger, Hubert

    2013-01-01

    Both low-dose interferon (IFN) alfa-2b and pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN) alfa-2b have been shown to be superior to observation in the adjuvant treatment of melanoma without macrometastatic nodes, but have never been directly compared. Peg-IFN facilitates prolongation of treatment, which could provide additional benefit. This multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial compared standard low-dose interferon IFN and prolonged treatment with Peg-IFN. Patients with resected melanoma ≥1.5mm thick and without clinically detectable node metastases were randomised 1:1 to treatment with IFN 3 MU subcutaneously (SC) three times weekly for 18 months or Peg-IFN 100 μg SC once weekly for 36 months. Sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) was optional. The primary endpoint was disease-free survival (DFS). Secondary endpoints included distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), overall survival (OS) and adverse events (AEs) grade 3-4. Of 898 patients enrolled, 896 (443 Peg-IFN, 453 IFN) were eligible for evaluation (median follow-up 4.7 years). SLND was performed in 68.2% of patients. There were no statistical differences between the two arms for the primary outcome of DFS (hazard ratio [HR] 0.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.73-1.15) or the secondary outcomes of DMFS (HR 1.02, 95% CI 0.80-1.32) and OS (HR 1.09, 95% CI 0.82-1.45). Peg-IFN was associated with higher rates of grade 3-4 AEs (47.3% versus 25.2%; p<0.0001) and discontinuations (54.3% versus 30.4%) compared with IFN. This trial did not show superiority for adjuvant Peg-IFN over conventional low-dose IFN in melanoma patients without clinically detectable nodes. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00221702. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Type-I Interferon Responses: From Friend to Foe in the Battle against Chronic Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murira, Armstrong; Lamarre, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Type I interferons (IFN-I) have long been heralded as key contributors to effective antiviral responses. More widely understood in the context of acute viral infection, the role of this pleiotropic cytokine has been characterized as triggering antiviral states in cells and potentiating adaptive immune responses. Upon induction in the innate immune response, IFN-I triggers the expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), which upregulate the effector function of immune cells (e.g., dendritic cells, B cells, and T cells) toward successful resolution of infections. However, emerging lines of evidence reveal that viral persistence in the course of chronic infections could be driven by deleterious immunomodulatory effects upon sustained IFN-I expression. In this setting, elevation of IFN-I and ISGs is directly correlated to viral persistence and elevated viral loads. It is important to note that the correlation among IFN-I expression, ISGs, and viral persistence may be a cause or effect of chronic infection and this is an important distinction to make toward establishing the dichotomous nature of IFN-I responses. The aim of this mini review is to (i) summarize the interaction between IFN-I and downstream effector responses and therefore (ii) delineate the function of this cytokine on positive and negative immunoregulation in chronic infection. This is a significant consideration given the current therapeutic administration of IFN-I in chronic viral infections whose therapeutic significance is projected to continue despite emergence of increasingly efficacious antiviral regimens. Furthermore, elucidation of the interplay between virus and the antiviral response in the context of IFN-I will elucidate avenues toward more effective therapeutic and prophylactic measures against chronic viral infections.

  20. Interferon-α and cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor cooperatively mediates TRAIL-induced apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Chaohui, E-mail: zuochaohui@vip.sina.com [Department of Gastroduodenal and Pancreatic Surgery, Translation Medicine Research Center of Liver Cancer, Hunan Province Tumor Hospital & Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Xiangya Medical School, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province (China); Department of Pathology, Immunology and Laboratory Medicine and Shands Cancer Center, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Qiu, Xiaoxin [Department of Gastroduodenal and Pancreatic Surgery, Translation Medicine Research Center of Liver Cancer, Hunan Province Tumor Hospital & Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Xiangya Medical School, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province (China); Cancer Research Institute, University of South China, Hengyang, Hunan Province (China); Liu, Nianli; Yang, Darong [Cancer Research Institute, University of South China, Hengyang, Hunan Province (China); Xia, Man [Department of Gastroduodenal and Pancreatic Surgery, Translation Medicine Research Center of Liver Cancer, Hunan Province Tumor Hospital & Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Xiangya Medical School, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province (China); Department of Pathology, Immunology and Laboratory Medicine and Shands Cancer Center, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Liu, Jingshi [Department of Gastroduodenal and Pancreatic Surgery, Translation Medicine Research Center of Liver Cancer, Hunan Province Tumor Hospital & Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Xiangya Medical School, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province (China); Wang, Xiaohong [Cancer Research Institute, University of South China, Hengyang, Hunan Province (China); and others

    2015-05-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Interferon-alpha (IFN-α) has recently been recognized to harbor therapeutic potential in the prevention and treatment of HCC, but it remains controversial as to whether IFN-α exerts direct cytotoxicity against HCC. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is overexpressed in HCC and is considered to play a role in hepatocarcinogenesis. Therefore, we aimed to elucidate the combined effect of a COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, and IFN-α on in vitro growth suppression of HCC using the hepatoma cell line HLCZ01 and the in vivo nude mouse xenotransplantation model using HLCZ01 cells. Treatment with celecoxib and IFN-α synergistically inhibited cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Apoptosis was identified by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride and fluorescent staining. IFN-α upregulated the expression of TRAIL, while celecoxib increased the expression of TRAIL receptors. The combined regimen with celecoxib and IFN-α reduced the growth of xenotransplanted HCCs in nude mice. The regulation of IFN-α- and COX-2 inhibitor-induced cell death is impaired in a subset of TRAIL-resistant cells. The molecular mechanisms of HCC cells resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis were explored using molecular biological and immunological methods. Interferon-α and the COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib synergistically increased TRAIL-induced apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma. These data suggest that IFN-α and celecoxib may offer a novel role with important implications in designing new therapeutics for TRAIL-resistant tumors. - Highlights: ●The cytotoxic effect of TRAIL on a developed HCC HLCZ01 cells infected with HBV. ●IFN-α and celecoxib induced apoptosis in HLCZ01 cells infected with HBV. ●The combined regime reduced the growth of xenotransplanted HCCs in nude mice model.

  1. Reduction of cell viability induced by IFN-alpha generates impaired data on antiviral assay using Hep-2C cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Edson R A; Lima, Bruna M M P; de Moura, Wlamir C; Nogueira, Ana Cristina M de A

    2013-12-31

    Type I interferons (IFNs) exert an array of important biological functions on the innate immune response and has become a useful tool in the treatment of various diseases. An increasing demand in the usage of recombinant IFNs, mainly due to the treatment of chronic hepatitis C infection, augmented the need of quality control for this biopharmaceutical. A traditional bioassay for IFN potency assessment is the cytopathic effect reduction antiviral assay where a given cell line is preserved by IFN from a lytic virus activity using the cell viability as a frequent measure of end point. However, type I IFNs induce other biological effects such as cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis that can influence directly on viability of many cell lines. Here, we standardized a cytopathic effect reduction antiviral assay using Hep-2C cell/mengovirus combination and studied a possible impact of cell viability variations caused by IFN-alpha 2b on responses generated on the antiviral assay. Using the four-parameter logistic model, we observed less correlation and less linearity on antiviral assay when responses from IFN-alpha 2b 1000 IU/ml were considered in the analysis. Cell viability tests with MTT revealed a clear cell growth inhibition of Hep-2C cells under stimulation with IFN-alpha 2b. Flow cytometric cell-cycle analysis and apoptosis assessment showed an increase of S+G2 phase and higher levels of apoptotic cells after treatment with IFN-alpha 2b 1000 IU/ml under our standardized antiviral assay procedure. Considering our studied dose range, we also observed strong STAT1 activation on Hep-2C cells after stimulation with the higher doses of IFN-alpha 2b. Our findings showed that the reduction of cell viability driven by IFN-alpha can cause a negative impact on antiviral assays. We assume that the cell death induction and the cell growth inhibition effect of IFNs should also be considered while employing antiviral assay protocols in a quality control routine and emphasizes the

  2. The IFNAR1 subunit of the type I IFN receptor complex contains a functional nuclear localization sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Prem S; Johnson, Howard M

    2004-12-17

    A nuclear localization sequence (NLS) in the type II interferon (IFN) IFN gamma, which is responsible for the nuclear translocation of both the ligand and the alpha-subunit (IFNGR1) of the receptor complex, has previously been characterized and its role in signaling examined in detail. We have now identified an NLS in the type I IFN receptor (IFNAR) common subunit IFNAR1 from humans and show that the human IFNAR1 subunit can translocate to the nucleus following human IFN beta stimulation. An NLS in human IFNAR1 is located in the extracellular domain of IFNAR1 within the sequence (382)RKIIEKKT (numbered for the precursor form). Nuclear import by the NLS functions in a conventional fashion requiring cytosolic import factors, is energy-dependent and inhibited by the prototypical NLS of the SV40 large T-antigen. These studies provide a mechanism for nuclear import of IFNAR1, as well as for type I IFN ligands, and a starting point for studying an alternate role for IFNAR1 in nuclear signaling within the type I IFN system.

  3. Enrichment of IFN-γ producing cells in different murine adipose tissue depots upon infection with an apicomplexan parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Luzia; Marques, Raquel M; Ferreirinha, Pedro; Bezerra, Filipa; Melo, Joana; Moreira, João; Pinto, Ana; Correia, Alexandra; Ferreira, Paula G; Vilanova, Manuel

    2016-03-22

    Here we report that lean mice infected with the intracellular parasite Neospora caninum show a fast but sustained increase in the frequency of IFN-γ-producing cells noticeable in distinct adipose tissue depots. Moreover, IFN-γ-mediated immune memory could be evoked in vitro in parasite antigen-stimulated adipose tissue stromal vascular fraction cells collected from mice infected one year before. Innate or innate-like cells such as NK, NK T and TCRγδ(+) cells, but also CD4(+) and CD8(+) TCRβ(+) lymphocytes contributed to the IFN-γ production observed since day one of infection. This early cytokine production was largely abrogated in IL-12/IL23 p40-deficient mice. Moreover, production of IFN-γ by stromal vascular fraction cells isolated from these mice was markedly lower than that of wild-type counterparts upon stimulation with parasite antigen. In wild-type mice the increased IFN-γ production was concomitant with up-regulated expression of genes encoding interferon-inducible GTPases and nitric oxide synthase, which are important effector molecules in controlling intracellular parasite growth. This increased gene expression was markedly impaired in the p40-deficient mice. Overall, these results show that NK cells but also diverse T cell populations mediate a prompt and widespread production of IFN-γ in the adipose tissue of N. caninum infected mice.

  4. Macrophage-expressed IFN-β contributes to apoptotic alveolar epithelial cell injury in severe influenza virus pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Högner

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Influenza viruses (IV cause pneumonia in humans with progression to lung failure and fatal outcome. Dysregulated release of cytokines including type I interferons (IFNs has been attributed a crucial role in immune-mediated pulmonary injury during severe IV infection. Using ex vivo and in vivo IV infection models, we demonstrate that alveolar macrophage (AM-expressed IFN-β significantly contributes to IV-induced alveolar epithelial cell (AEC injury by autocrine induction of the pro-apoptotic factor TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL. Of note, TRAIL was highly upregulated in and released from AM of patients with pandemic H1N1 IV-induced acute lung injury. Elucidating the cell-specific underlying signalling pathways revealed that IV infection induced IFN-β release in AM in a protein kinase R- (PKR- and NF-κB-dependent way. Bone marrow chimeric mice lacking these signalling mediators in resident and lung-recruited AM and mice subjected to alveolar neutralization of IFN-β and TRAIL displayed reduced alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis and attenuated lung injury during severe IV pneumonia. Together, we demonstrate that macrophage-released type I IFNs, apart from their well-known anti-viral properties, contribute to IV-induced AEC damage and lung injury by autocrine induction of the pro-apoptotic factor TRAIL. Our data suggest that therapeutic targeting of the macrophage IFN-β-TRAIL axis might represent a promising strategy to attenuate IV-induced acute lung injury.

  5. Influence of type I IFN signaling on anti-MOG antibody-mediated demyelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Carsten Tue; Khorooshi, Reza; Asgari, Nasrin; Owens, Trevor

    2017-06-24

    Antibodies with specificity for myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) are implicated in multiple sclerosis and related diseases. The pathogenic importance of anti-MOG antibody in primary demyelinating pathology remains poorly characterized. The objective of this study is to investigate whether administration of anti-MOG antibody would be sufficient for demyelination and to determine if type I interferon (IFN) signaling plays a similar role in anti-MOG antibody-mediated pathology, as has been shown for neuromyelitis optica-like pathology. Purified IgG2a monoclonal anti-MOG antibody and mouse complement were stereotactically injected into the corpus callosum of wild-type and type I IFN receptor deficient mice (IFNAR1-KO) with and without pre-established experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Anti-MOG induced complement-dependent demyelination in the corpus callosum of wild-type mice and did not occur in mice that received control IgG2a. Deposition of activated complement coincided with demyelination, and this was significantly reduced in IFNAR1-KO mice. Co-injection of anti-MOG and complement at onset of symptoms of EAE induced similar levels of callosal demyelination in wild-type and IFNAR1-KO mice. Anti-MOG antibody and complement was sufficient to induce callosal demyelination, and pathology was dependent on type I IFN. Induction of EAE in IFNAR1-KO mice overcame the dependence on type I IFN for anti-MOG and complement-mediated demyelination.

  6. Constitutive expression of SMAR1 confers susceptibility to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in a transgenic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Bhawna; Malonia, Sunil K; Majumdar, Subeer S; Gupta, Pushpa; Wadhwa, Neerja; Badhwar, Archana; Gupta, Umesh D; Katoch, Vishwa M; Chattopadhyay, Samit

    2015-12-01

    Studies involving animal models of experimental tuberculosis have elucidated the predominant role of cytokines secreted by T cells and macrophages to be an essential component of the immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. The immune activities of CD4+ T cells are mediated in part by Th1 cytokine interferon gamma (IFN-γ) which is produced primarily by T cells and natural killer (NK) cells and critical for initiating the immune response against intracellular pathogen such as M. tuberculosis. Nuclear matrix protein SMAR1 plays an important role in V(D)J recombination, T helper cell differentiation and inflammatory diseases. In this study a transgenic mouse model was used to study the role of SMAR1 in M. tuberculosis infection. Wild type BALB/c, C57BL/6, BALB/c-EGFP-SMAR1 and C57BL/6-SMAR1 transgenic mice were infected with M. tuberculosis (H37Rv). A dose of 100 bacilli was used for infection via respiratory route. Bacterial load in lung and spleen of infected mice was determined at 2, 4, 6 and 8 wk post-infection. Gene expression analysis for Th1 cytokines and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was performed in infected lung tissues by quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. SMAR1 transgenic mice from both BALB/c and C57BL/6 genetic background displayed higher bacillary load and susceptibility to M. tuberculosis infection compared to wild type mice. This susceptibility was attributed due to compromised of Th1 response exhibited by transgenic mice. SMAR1 transgenic mice exhibited susceptibility to M. tuberculosis infection in vivo irrespective of genetic background. This susceptibility was attributed to downregulation of Th1 response and its hallmark cytokine IFN-γ. Hence, SMAR1 plays an important role in modulating host immune response after M. tuberculosis infection.

  7. IFN Alfa-2B and BCG Therapy Is An Effective Method In Superficial Bladder Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ozdemir

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The initial therapy for superficial bladder carcinoma is the transurethral resection of the tumor. In spite of successful resections, there are 60-79% recurrence and 15% progression rates. Additional therapies are suggested for the treatment of superficial bladder carcinoma. We compared the efficacy of interferon alfa-2b monotherapy with interferon alfa-2b plus Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG combination therapy with urine interleukin (IL 2, 6 and 10 levels of patients with superficial bladder carcinoma. Material and Method: The patients who underwent TUR-BT for superficial bladder tumor (pathological staging Ta-T1 between 2004 and 2007 at our hospital included in this prospective study. Intravesical immunotherapy was administered once a week for 6 weeks and there after a month for 6 months, starting 4 weeks after TUR-BT. IL levels were measured. Results: IL-2, IL-6 and IL- 10 levels in urine samples were taken at 2nd and 4th hours of intravesical therapy. A statistically significant difference was observed between mean urine IL-2 levels of patients treated with IFN%u03B1-2b monotherapy and IFN%u03B1- 2b plus BCG combination both at 2nd and 4th hours. (p=0.05 In IFN%u03B1-2b plus BCG combination group, there was a statistical significant difference between stages regarding IL-2 and IL-6 levels (p=0.05. Among patients with G3 tumors, IL-2 levels were higher at 2 and 4 hours (p=0.05 but there was no significant difference in IL-6 and IL-10 levels in this group of patients regardless of intravesical therapy received (p=0.05. Discussion: IFN%u03B1-2b and BCG combination therapy is a reliable and effective therapy in the management of superficial bladder tumors.

  8. MOLECULAR CLONING, SEQUENCING, EXPRESSION AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF GIANT PANDA (AILUROPODA MELANOLEUCA) INTERFERON-GAMMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hui; Wang, Wen-Xiu; Wang, Bao-Qin; Zhu, Xiao-Fu; Wu, Xu-Jin; Ma, Qing-Yi; Chen, De-Kun

    2012-06-29

    The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is an endangered species and indigenous to China. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is the only member of type □ IFN and is vital for the regulation of host adapted immunity and inflammatory response. Little is known aboutthe FN-γ gene and its roles in giant panda.In this study, IFN-γ gene of Qinling giant panda was amplified from total blood RNA by RT-CPR, cloned, sequenced and analysed. The open reading frame (ORF) of Qinling giant panda IFN-γ encodes 152 amino acidsand is highly similar to Sichuan giant panda with an identity of 99.3% in cDNA sequence. The IFN-γ cDNA sequence was ligated to the pET32a vector and transformed into E. coli BL21 competent cells. Expression of recombinant IFN-γ protein of Qinling giant panda in E. coli was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis. Biological activity assay indicated that the recombinant IFN-γ protein at the concentration of 4-10 µg/ml activated the giant panda peripheral blood lymphocytes,while at 12 µg/mlinhibited. the activation of the lymphocytes.These findings provide insights into the evolution of giant panda IFN-γ and information regarding amino acid residues essential for their biological activity.

  9. The histone deacetylase inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid attenuates human astrocyte neurotoxicity induced by interferon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashioka Sadayuki

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgrounds Increasing evidence shows that the histone deacetylase inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA possesses potent anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. It is tempting to evaluate the potential of SAHA as a therapeutic agent in various neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders. Methods We examined the effects of SAHA on interferon (IFN-γ-induced neurotoxicity of human astrocytes and on IFN-γ-induced phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT 3 in human astrocytes. We also studied the effects of SAHA on the astrocytic production of two representative IFN-γ-inducible inflammatory molecules, namely IFN-γ-inducible T cell α chemoattractant (I-TAC and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1. Results SAHA significantly attenuated the toxicity of astrocytes activated by IFN-γ towards SH-SY5Y human neuronal cells. In the IFN-γ-activated astrocytes, SAHA reduced the STAT3 phosphorylation. SAHA also inhibited the IFN-γ-induced astrocytic production of I-TAC, but not ICAM-1. These results indicate that SAHA suppresses IFN-γ-induced neurotoxicity of human astrocytes through inhibition of the STAT3 signaling pathway. Conclusion Due to its anti-neurotoxic and anti-inflammatory properties, SAHA appears to have the therapeutic or preventive potential for a wide range of neuroinflammatory disorders associated with activated astrocytes.

  10. Reversible silencing of cytomegalovirus genomes by type I interferon governs virus latency.

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    Franziska Dağ

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Herpesviruses establish a lifelong latent infection posing the risk for virus reactivation and disease. In cytomegalovirus infection, expression of the major immediate early (IE genes is a critical checkpoint, driving the lytic replication cycle upon primary infection or reactivation from latency. While it is known that type I interferon (IFN limits lytic CMV replication, its role in latency and reactivation has not been explored. In the model of mouse CMV infection, we show here that IFNβ blocks mouse CMV replication at the level of IE transcription in IFN-responding endothelial cells and fibroblasts. The IFN-mediated inhibition of IE genes was entirely reversible, arguing that the IFN-effect may be consistent with viral latency. Importantly, the response to IFNβ is stochastic, and MCMV IE transcription and replication were repressed only in IFN-responsive cells, while the IFN-unresponsive cells remained permissive for lytic MCMV infection. IFN blocked the viral lytic replication cycle by upregulating the nuclear domain 10 (ND10 components, PML, Sp100 and Daxx, and their knockdown by shRNA rescued viral replication in the presence of IFNβ. Finally, IFNβ prevented MCMV reactivation from endothelial cells derived from latently infected mice, validating our results in a biologically relevant setting. Therefore, our data do not only define for the first time the molecular mechanism of IFN-mediated control of CMV infection, but also indicate that the reversible inhibition of the virus lytic cycle by IFNβ is consistent with the establishment of CMV latency.

  11. Chikungunya Virus: In Vitro Response to Combination Therapy With Ribavirin and Interferon Alfa 2a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Karen M; Drusano, George L; D Argenio, David Z; Brown, Ashley N

    2016-10-15

    We evaluated the antiviral activities of ribavirin (RBV) and interferon (IFN) alfa as monotherapy and combination therapy against chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Vero cells were infected with CHIKV in the presence of RBV and/or IFN alfa, and viral production was quantified by plaque assay. A mathematical model was fit to the data to identify drug interactions for effect. We ran simulations using the best-fit model parameters to predict the antiviral activity associated with clinically relevant regimens of RBV and IFN alfa as combination therapy. The model predictions were validated using the hollow fiber infection model (HFIM) system. RBV and IFN alfa were effective against CHIKV as monotherapy at supraphysiological concentrations. However, RBV and IFN alfa were highly synergistic for antiviral effect when administered as combination therapy. Simulations with our mathematical model predicted that a standard clinical regimen of RBV plus IFN alfa would inhibit CHIKV burden by 2.5 log10 following 24 hours of treatment. In the HFIM system, RBV plus IFN alfa at clinical exposures resulted in a 2.1-log10 decrease in the CHIKV burden following 24 hours of therapy. These findings validate the prediction made by the mathematical model. These studies illustrate the promise of RBV plus IFN alfa as a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of CHIKV infections. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Type I Interferons are essential for the efficacy of replicase-based DNA vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Wolfgang W; Bergmann-Leitner, Elke S; Hwang, Leroy N; Restifo, Nicholas P

    2006-06-12

    The immunogenicity and efficacy of nucleic acid vaccines can be greatly enhanced when ant