Brittany F Sears
Full Text Available Many parasites are motile and exhibit behavioural preferences for certain host species. Because hosts can vary in their susceptibility to infections, parasites might benefit from preferentially detecting and infecting the most susceptible host, but this mechanistic hypothesis for host-choice has rarely been tested. We evaluated whether cercariae (larval trematode parasites prefer the most susceptible host species by simultaneously presenting cercariae with four species of tadpole hosts. Cercariae consistently preferred hosts in the following order: Anaxyrus ( = Bufo terrestris (southern toad, Hyla squirella (squirrel tree frog, Lithobates ( = Rana sphenocephala (southern leopard frog, and Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban tree frog. These host species varied in susceptibility to cercariae in an order similar to their attractiveness with a correlation that approached significance. Host attractiveness to parasites also varied consistently and significantly among individuals within a host species. If heritable, this individual-level host variation would represent the raw material upon which selection could act, which could promote a Red Queen "arms race" between host cues and parasite detection of those cues. If, in general, motile parasites prefer to infect the most susceptible host species, this phenomenon could explain aggregated distributions of parasites among hosts and contribute to parasite transmission rates and the evolution of virulence. Parasite preferences for hosts belie the common assumption of disease models that parasites seek and infect hosts at random.
Jaouannet, Maëlle; Morris, Jenny A.; Hedley, Peter E.; Bos, Jorunn I. B.
Aphids are economically important pests that display exceptional variation in host range. The determinants of diverse aphid host ranges are not well understood, but it is likely that molecular interactions are involved. With significant progress being made towards understanding host responses upon aphid attack, the mechanisms underlying non-host resistance remain to be elucidated. Here, we investigated and compared Arabidopsis thaliana host and non-host responses to aphids at the transcriptional level using three different aphid species, Myzus persicae, Myzus cerasi and Rhopalosiphum pisum. Gene expression analyses revealed a high level of overlap in the overall gene expression changes during the host and non-host interactions with regards to the sets of genes differentially expressed and the direction of expression changes. Despite this overlap in transcriptional responses across interactions, there was a stronger repression of genes involved in metabolism and oxidative responses specifically during the host interaction with M. persicae. In addition, we identified a set of genes with opposite gene expression patterns during the host versus non-host interactions. Aphid performance assays on Arabidopsis mutants that were selected based on our transcriptome analyses identified novel genes contributing to host susceptibility, host defences during interactions with M. persicae as well to non-host resistance against R. padi. Understanding how plants respond to aphid species that differ in their ability to infest plant species, and identifying the genes and signaling pathways involved, is essential for the development of novel and durable aphid control in crop plants. PMID:25993686
Full Text Available Aphids are economically important pests that display exceptional variation in host range. The determinants of diverse aphid host ranges are not well understood, but it is likely that molecular interactions are involved. With significant progress being made towards understanding host responses upon aphid attack, the mechanisms underlying non-host resistance remain to be elucidated. Here, we investigated and compared Arabidopsis thaliana host and non-host responses to aphids at the transcriptional level using three different aphid species, Myzus persicae, Myzus cerasi and Rhopalosiphum pisum. Gene expression analyses revealed a high level of overlap in the overall gene expression changes during the host and non-host interactions with regards to the sets of genes differentially expressed and the direction of expression changes. Despite this overlap in transcriptional responses across interactions, there was a stronger repression of genes involved in metabolism and oxidative responses specifically during the host interaction with M. persicae. In addition, we identified a set of genes with opposite gene expression patterns during the host versus non-host interactions. Aphid performance assays on Arabidopsis mutants that were selected based on our transcriptome analyses identified novel genes contributing to host susceptibility, host defences during interactions with M. persicae as well to non-host resistance against R. padi. Understanding how plants respond to aphid species that differ in their ability to infest plant species, and identifying the genes and signaling pathways involved, is essential for the development of novel and durable aphid control in crop plants.
Bribosia, E; Bylemans, D; Van Impe, G; Migon, M
The group of hawthorn leaf-curling aphids (Dysaphis spp.) hosted by the common hawthorn Crataegus monogyna Jacq. may play an important role in the biological control of the rosy apple aphid, Dysaphis plantaginea (Passerini), by increasing reproduction opportunities for the indigenous hymenopteran parasitoid Ephedrus persicae Froggatt. Unfortunately, most fruitgrowers hesitate to introduce the common hawthorn in their orchards because they fear fire blight infections which may be transmitted by this highly susceptible hawthron species. This potential hazard led us to investigate the suitability to leaf-curling aphids of alternative Crataegus species. As representative for these closely-related aphids, the species Dysaphis apiifolia petroselini (Börner) was used in the trials. Ten Crataegus species characterized by their very low susceptibility to fire blight were examined from two angles. Firstly, aphid sexuals were introduced in autumn onto the different species to verify whether egg laying could take place. Secondly, the development of fundatrices and gall formation were followed the next spring. Although eggs and mature fundatrices could be obtained on almost all species, no fundatrice-hosting galls were recorded in spring. The possible causes of these negative results with respect to the geographical origin of the particular Crataegus species involved in this work are discussed.
Gsell, A.S.; De Senerpont Domis, L.N.; Van Donk, E.; Ibelings, B.W.
The cost of parasitism often depends on environmental conditions and host identity. Therefore, variation in the biotic and abiotic environment can have repercussions on both, species-level host-parasite interaction patterns but also on host genotype-specific susceptibility to disease. We exposed
Silvie, O.; Greco, C.; Franetich, J.F.; Dubart-Kupperschmitt, A.; Hannoun, L.; Gemert, G.J.A. van; Sauerwein, R.W.; Levy, S.; Boucheix, C.; Rubinstein, E.; Mazier, D.
Plasmodium sporozoites can enter host cells by two distinct pathways, either through disruption of the plasma membrane followed by parasite transmigration through cells, or by formation of a parasitophorous vacuole (PV) where the parasite further differentiates into a replicative exo-erythrocytic
Hallett, Rebecca H
The relative resistance and susceptibility of various cruciferous plants to swede midge, Contarinia nasturtii (Kieffer) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), damage was investigated to provide growers with planting recommendations and to identify potential sources of resistance to the swede midge. Broccoli cultivars experienced more severe damage than cabbage, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts. The broccoli 'Paragon', 'Eureka', and 'Packman' are highly susceptible to the swede midge, whereas 'Triathlon' and 'Regal' showed reduced susceptibility to damage and slower development of damage symptoms. No differences were found between normal and red cultivars of cabbage and cauliflower in damage severity and progression of damage symptoms. Four new plant species (Brassica juncea Integlifolia group, Erucastrum gallicum (Willd.) O. E. Shulz., Lepidium campestre (L.) R.Br., and Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medic.) are reported as hosts of the swede midge. The weed species Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb, Camelina microcarpa Andrz. ex Dc., and Erysimum cheiranthoides L. exhibited no damage symptoms, and they seem to be nonhost crucifers for the swede midge.
Rebollar, Eria A; Hughey, Myra C; Medina, Daniel; Harris, Reid N; Ibáñez, Roberto; Belden, Lisa K
Symbiotic bacteria on amphibian skin can inhibit growth of the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) that has caused dramatic population declines and extinctions of amphibians in the Neotropics. It remains unclear how the amphibians' skin microbiota is influenced by environmental bacterial reservoirs, host-associated factors such as susceptibility to pathogens, and pathogen presence in tropical amphibians. We sampled skin bacteria from five co-occurring frog species that differ in Bd susceptibility at one Bd-naive site, and sampled one of the non-susceptible species from Bd-endemic and Bd-naive sites in Panama. We hypothesized that skin bacterial communities (1) would be distinct from the surrounding environment regardless of the host habitat, (2) would differ between Bd susceptible and non-susceptible species and (3) would differ on hosts in Bd-naive and Bd-endemic sites. We found that skin bacterial communities were enriched in bacterial taxa that had low relative abundances in the environment. Non-susceptible species had very similar skin bacterial communities that were enriched in particular taxa such as the genera Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter. Bacterial communities of Craugastor fitzingeri in Bd-endemic sites were less diverse than in the naive site, and differences in community structure across sites were explained by changes in relative abundance of specific bacterial taxa. Our results indicate that skin microbial structure was associated with host susceptibility to Bd and might be associated to the history of Bd presence at different sites.
Empirical treatment for enteric fevers should, therefore, be discouraged while quinolones, cefepime, carbapenem, azithromycin and third generation cephalosporins be given preference. KEY WORDS: Susceptibility, Antimicrobial, Salmonella species, Enteric fever. INTRODUCTION. In the 21st century, enteric fever in the.
Zhong, Zhenhui; Norvienyeku, Justice; Chen, Meilian; Bao, Jiandong; Lin, Lianyu; Chen, Liqiong; Lin, Yahong; Wu, Xiaoxian; Cai, Zena; Zhang, Qi; Lin, Xiaoye; Hong, Yonghe; Huang, Jun; Xu, Linghong; Zhang, Honghong; Chen, Long; Tang, Wei; Zheng, Huakun; Chen, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yanli; Lian, Bi; Zhang, Liangsheng; Tang, Haibao; Lu, Guodong; Ebbole, Daniel J; Wang, Baohua; Wang, Zonghua
One major threat to global food security that requires immediate attention, is the increasing incidence of host shift and host expansion in growing number of pathogenic fungi and emergence of new pathogens. The threat is more alarming because, yield quality and quantity improvement efforts are encouraging the cultivation of uniform plants with low genetic diversity that are increasingly susceptible to emerging pathogens. However, the influence of host genome differentiation on pathogen genome differentiation and its contribution to emergence and adaptability is still obscure. Here, we compared genome sequence of 6 isolates of Magnaporthe species obtained from three different host plants. We demonstrated the evolutionary relationship between Magnaporthe species and the influence of host differentiation on pathogens. Phylogenetic analysis showed that evolution of pathogen directly corresponds with host divergence, suggesting that host-pathogen interaction has led to co-evolution. Furthermore, we identified an asymmetric selection pressure on Magnaporthe species. Oryza sativa-infecting isolates showed higher directional selection from host and subsequently tends to lower the genetic diversity in its genome. We concluded that, frequent gene loss or gain, new transposon acquisition and sequence divergence are host adaptability mechanisms for Magnaporthe species, and this coevolution processes is greatly driven by directional selection from host plants.
Dimitrov, Dimitar; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Iezhova, Tatjana A; Bernotienė, Rasa; Ilgūnas, Mikas; Bukauskaitė, Dovile; Zehtindjiev, Pavel; Ilieva, Mihaela; Shapoval, Anatoly P; Bolshakov, Casimir V; Markovets, Mikhail Yu; Bensch, Staffan; Valkiūnas, Gediminas
The interest in experimental studies on avian malaria caused by Plasmodium species has increased recently due to the need of direct information about host-parasite interactions. Numerous important issues (host susceptibility, development of infection, the resistance and tolerance to avian malaria) can be answered using experimental infections. However, specificity of genetically different lineages of malaria parasites and their isolates is largely unknown. This study reviews recent experimental studies and offers additional data about susceptibility of birds to several widespread cytochrome b (cyt b) lineages of Plasmodium species belonging to four subgenera. We exposed two domesticated avian hosts (canaries Serinus canaria and ducklings Anas platyrhynchos) and also 16 species of common wild European birds to malaria infections by intramuscular injection of infected blood and then tested them by microscopic examination and PCR-based methods. Our study confirms former field and experimental observations about low specificity and wide host-range of Plasmodium relictum (lineages SGS1 and GRW11) and P. circumflexum (lineage TURDUS1) belonging to the subgenera Haemamoeba and Giovannolaia, respectively. However, the specificity of different lineages and isolates of the same parasite lineage differed between species of exposed hosts. Several tested Novyella lineages were species specific, with a few cases of successful development in experimentally exposed birds. The majority of reported cases of mortality and high parasitaemia were observed during parasite co-infections. Canaries were susceptible mainly for the species of Haemamoeba and Giovannolaia, but were refractory to the majority of Novyella isolates. Ducklings were susceptible to three malaria infections (SGS1, TURDUS1 and COLL4), but parasitaemia was light (<0.01%) and transient in all exposed birds. This study provides novel information about susceptibility of avian hosts to a wide array of malaria parasite
Objective: To determine the prevalence of antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus species isolated from foremilk samples. Setting: Milk was collected from five farms within a 70 km radius of Gaborone, Botswana. Subjects: Two hundred and twenty five staphylococci isolates from foremilk samples. Main outcome measures: ...
Dalia Saad ElFeky
Oct 23, 2015 ... Species identification and antifungal susceptibility pattern of Candida isolates in cases of vulvovaginal candidiasis. Dalia Saad ElFeky a,. *, Noha Mahmoud Gohar a. , Eman Ahmad El-Seidi a. ,. Mona Mahmoud Ezzat a. , Somaia Hassan AboElew b a Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, ...
C.L. Searle; S.S. Gervasi; J. Hua; J.I. Hammond; R.A. Relyea; D.H. Olson; A.R. Blaustein
The amphibian fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has received considerable attention due to its role in amphibian population declines worldwide. Although many amphibian species appear to be affected by Bd, there is little information on species-specific differences in susceptibility to this pathogen. We used a comparative...
Conservation of a molecular target across species can be used as a line-of-evidence to predict the likelihood of chemical susceptibility. The web-based Sequence Alignment to Predict Across Species Susceptibility (SeqAPASS) tool was developed to simplify, streamline, and quantitatively assess protein sequence/structural similarity across taxonomic groups as a means to predict relative intrinsic susceptibility. The intent of the tool is to allow for evaluation of any potential protein target, so it is amenable to variable degrees of protein characterization, depending on available information about the chemical/protein interaction and the molecular target itself. To allow for flexibility in the analysis, a layered strategy was adopted for the tool. The first level of the SeqAPASS analysis compares primary amino acid sequences to a query sequence, calculating a metric for sequence similarity (including detection of candidate orthologs), the second level evaluates sequence similarity within selected domains (e.g., ligand-binding domain, DNA binding domain), and the third level of analysis compares individual amino acid residue positions identified as being of importance for protein conformation and/or ligand binding upon chemical perturbation. Each level of the SeqAPASS analysis provides increasing evidence to apply toward rapid, screening-level assessments of probable cross species susceptibility. Such analyses can support prioritization of chemicals for further ev
Lloyd, A C; Hamacek, E L; Smith, D; Kopittke, R A; Gu, H
Citrus crops are considered to be relatively poor hosts for Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), as for other tephritid species. Australian citrus growers and crop consultants have reported observable differences in susceptibility of different citrus cultivars under commercial growing conditions. In this study we conducted laboratory tests and field surveys to determine susceptibility to B. tryoni of six citrus cultivars [(Eureka lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck); Navel and Valencia oranges (C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck); and Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins (C. reticulata Blanco). The host susceptibility of these citrus cultivars was quantified by a Host Susceptibility Index, which is defined as the number of adult flies produced per gram of fruit infested at a calculated rate of one egg per gram of fruit. The HSI was ranked as Murcott (0.083) > Imperial (0.052) > Navel (0.026) - Ellendale (0.020) > Valencia (0.008) > Eureka (yellow) (0.002) > Eureka (green) (0). Results of the laboratory study were in agreement with the level of field infestation in the four citrus cultivars (Eureka lemon, Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins) that were surveyed from commercial orchards under baiting treatments against fruit flies in the Central Burnett district of Queensland. Field surveys of citrus hosts from the habitats not subject to fruit fly management showed that the numbers of fruit flies produced per gram of fruit were much lower, compared with the more susceptible noncitrus hosts, such as guava (Psidium guajava L.), cherry guava (P. littorale Raddi), mulberry (Morus nigra L.), loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.), and pear (Pyrus communis L.). Therefore, the major citrus crops commercially cultivated in Australia have a relatively low susceptibility to B. tryoni, with Eureka lemons being a particularly poor host for this tephritid fruit fly.
Westram, A M; Baumgartner, C; Keller, I; Jokela, J
Many parasites infect multiple host species. In coevolving host-parasite interactions, theory predicts that parasites should be adapted to locally common hosts, which could lead to regional shifts in host preferences. We studied the interaction between freshwater Gammarus (Crustacea, Amphipoda) and their acanthocephalan parasites using a large-scale field survey and experiments, combined with molecular identification of cryptic host and parasite species. Gammarus pulex is a common host for multiple species of Acanthocephala in Europe but, in Switzerland, is less common than two cryptic members of the Gammarus fossarum species complex (type A and type B). We found that natural populations of these cryptic species were frequently infected by Pomphorhynchus tereticollis and Polymorphus minutus. Four additional parasite species occurred only locally. Parasites were more common in G. fossarum type B than in type A. Infection experiments using several host and parasite sources confirmed consistently lower infection rates in G. pulex than in G. fossarum type A, suggesting a general difference in susceptibility between the two species. In conclusion, we could show that cryptic host species differ in their interactions with parasites, but that these differences were much less dramatic than differences between G. fossarum (type A) and G. pulex. Our data suggest that the acanthocephalans in Switzerland have adapted to the two most common Gammarus species in this region where host species frequencies differ from near-by regions in Europe. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Baron, Miriam J; Wong, Sandra L; Nybakken, Kent; Carey, Vincent J; Madoff, Lawrence C
Many pathogens engage host cell surface glycosaminoglycans, but redundancy in pathogen adhesins and host glycosaminoglycan-anchoring proteins (heparan sulfate proteoglycans) has limited the understanding of the importance of glycosaminoglycan binding during infection. The alpha C protein of group B streptococcus, a virulence determinant for this neonatal human pathogen, binds to host glycosaminoglycan and mediates the entry of bacteria into human cells. We studied alpha C protein-glycosaminoglycan binding in Drosophila melanogaster, whose glycosaminoglycan repertoire resembles that of humans but whose genome includes only three characterized membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan genes. The knockdown of glycosaminoglycan polymerases or of heparan sulfate proteoglycans reduced the cellular binding of alpha C protein. The interruption of alpha C protein-glycosaminoglycan binding was associated with longer host survival and a lower bacterial burden. These data indicate that the glycosaminoglycan-alpha C protein interaction involves multiple heparan sulfate proteoglycans and impairs bacterial killing. Host glycosaminoglycans, anchored by multiple proteoglycans, thereby determine susceptibility to infection. Because there is homology between Drosophila and human glycosaminoglycan/proteoglycan structures and many pathogens express glycosaminoglycan-binding structures, our data suggest that interfering with glycosaminoglycan binding may protect against infections in humans.
Medeiros, Matthew C I; Ricklefs, Robert E; Brawn, Jeffrey D; Hamer, Gabriel L
The prevalence of vector-borne parasites varies greatly across host species, and this heterogeneity has been used to relate infectious disease susceptibility to host species traits. However, a few empirical studies have directly associated vector-borne parasite prevalence with exposure to vectors across hosts. Here, we use DNA sequencing of blood meals to estimate utilization of different avian host species by Culex mosquitoes, and relate utilization by these malaria vectors to avian Plasmodium prevalence. We found that avian host species that are highly utilized as hosts by avian malaria vectors are significantly more likely to have Plasmodium infections. However, the effect was not consistent among individual Plasmodium taxa. Exposure to vector bites may therefore influence the relative number of all avian Plasmodium infections among host species, while other processes, such as parasite competition and host-parasite coevolution, delimit the host distributions of individual Plasmodium species. We demonstrate that links between avian malaria susceptibility and host traits can be conditioned by patterns of exposure to vectors. Linking vector utilization rates to host traits may be a key area of future research to understand mechanisms that produce variation in the prevalence of vector-borne pathogens among host species.
Full Text Available Heavy metals, various pesticide and herbicides are implicated as risk factors for human health. Paraquat, maneb, and rotenone, carbamate and organophospherous insecticides are examples of toxicants for which acute and chronic exposure are associated with multiple neurological disorders including Parkinson’s disease (PD. Nevertheless, the role of pesticide exposure in neurodegenerative diseases is not clear-cut, as there are inconsistencies in both the epidemiological and preclinical research. The aim of this short review is to show that the inconsistencies are related to individual differences in susceptibility to the effects of neurotoxicants, individual differences that can be traced to the genetic constitution of the individuals and animals studies, i.e., host-based susceptibility.
Goldstein, Ellie J C; Tyrrell, Kerin L; Citron, Diane M
The genus Lactobacillus is a taxonomically complex and is composed of over 170 species that cannot be easily differentiated phenotypically and often require molecular identification. Although they are part of the normal human gastrointestinal and vaginal flora, they can also be occasional human pathogens. They are extensively used in a variety of commercial products including probiotics. Their antimicrobial susceptibilities are poorly defined in part because of their taxonomic complexity and are compounded by the different methods recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute and International Dairy Foundation. Their use as probiotics for prevention of Clostridium difficile infection is prevalent among consumers worldwide but raises the question of will the use of any concurrent antibiotic effect their ability to survive. Lactobacillus species are generally acid resistant and are able to survive ingestion. They are generally resistant to metronidazole, aminoglycosides and ciprofloxacin with L. acidophilus being susceptible to penicillin and vancomycin, whereas L. rhamnosus and L. casei are resistant to metronidazole and vancomycin. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (Ptr, a necrotrophic fungus and the causal agent of tan spot of wheat, produces one or a combination of host-selective toxins (HSTs necessary for disease development. The two most studied toxins produced by Ptr, Ptr ToxA (ToxA and Ptr ToxB (ToxB, are proteins that cause necrotic or chlorotic symptoms respectively. Investigation of host responses induced by HSTs provides better insight into the nature of the host susceptibility. Microarray analysis of ToxA has provided evidence that it can elicit responses similar to those associated with defense. In order to evaluate whether there are consistent host responses associated with susceptibility, a similar analysis of ToxB-induced changes in the same sensitive cultivar was conducted. Comparative analysis of ToxA- and ToxB-induced transcriptional changes showed that similar groups of genes encoding WRKY transcription factors, RLKs, PRs, components of the phenylpropanoid and jasmonic acid pathways are activated. ROS accumulation and photosystem dysfunction proved to be common mechanism-of-action for these toxins. Despite similarities in defense responses, transcriptional and biochemical responses as well as symptom development occur more rapidly for ToxA compared to ToxB, which could be explained by differences in perception as well as by differences in activation of a specific process, for example, ethylene biosynthesis in ToxA treatment. Results of this study suggest that perception of HSTs will result in activation of defense responses as part of a susceptible interaction and further supports the hypothesis that necrotrophic fungi exploit defense responses in order to induce cell death.
Alacid, Elisabet; Park, Myung G; Turon, Marta; Petrou, Katherina; Garcés, Esther
Marine microbial interactions involving eukaryotes and their parasites play an important role in shaping the structure of phytoplankton communities. These interactions may alter population densities of the main host, which in turn may have consequences for the other concurrent species. The effect generalist parasitoids exert on a community is strongly dependent on the degree of host specificity. Parvilucifera sinerae is a generalist parasitoid able to infect a wide range of dinoflagellates, including toxic-bloom-forming species. A density-dependent chemical cue has been identified as the trigger for the activation of the infective stage. Together these traits make Parvilucifera-dinoflagellate hosts a good model to investigate the degree of specificity of a generalist parasitoid, and the potential effects that it could have at the community level. Here, we present for the first time, the strategy by which a generalist dinoflagellate parasitoid seeks out its host and determine whether it exhibits host preferences, highlighting key factors in determining infection. Our results demonstrate that in its infective stage, P. sinerae is able to sense potential hosts, but does not actively select among them. Instead, the parasitoids contact the host at random, governed by the encounter probability rate and once encountered, the chance to penetrate inside the host cell and develop the infection strongly depends on the degree of host susceptibility. As such, their strategy for persistence is more of a game of Russian roulette, where the chance of survival is dependent on the susceptibility of the host. Our study identifies P. sinerae as a potential key player in community ecology, where in mixed dinoflagellate communities consisting of hosts that are highly susceptible to infection, parasitoid preferences may mediate coexistence between host species, reducing the dominance of the superior competitor. Alternatively, it may increase competition, leading to species exclusion. If
Full Text Available Marine microbial interactions involving eukaryotes and their parasites play an important role in shaping the structure of phytoplankton communities. These interactions may alter population densities of the main host, which in turn may have consequences for the other concurrent species. The effect generalist parasitoids exert on a community is strongly dependent on the degree of host specificity. Parvilucifera sinerae is a generalist parasitoid able to infect a wide range of dinoflagellates, including toxic-bloom-forming species. A density-dependent chemical cue has been identified as the trigger for the activation of the infective stage. Together these traits make Parvilucifera-dinoflagellate hosts a good model to investigate the degree of specificity of a generalist parasitoid, and the potential effects that it could have at the community level. Here, we present for the first time, the strategy by which a generalist dinoflagellate parasitoid seeks out its host and determine whether it exhibits host preferences, highlighting key factors in determining infection. Our results demonstrate that in its infective stage, P. sinerae is able to sense potential hosts, but does not actively select among them. Instead, the parasitoids contact the host at random, governed by the encounter probability rate and once encountered, the chance to penetrate inside the host cell and develop the infection strongly depends on the degree of host susceptibility. As such, their strategy for persistence is more of a game of Russian roulette, where the chance of survival is dependent on the susceptibility of the host. Our study identifies P. sinerae as a potential key player in bloom community ecology, where in mixed dinoflagellate communities consisting of hosts that are highly susceptible to infection, parasitoid preferences may mediate coexistence between host species, reducing the dominance of the superior competitor. Alternatively, it may increase competition, leading
Luciana de Lima Ferreira
Full Text Available Trypanosoma rangeli infects several triatomine and mammal species in South America. Its transmission is known to occur when a healthy insect feeds on an infected mammal or when an infected insect bites a healthy mammal. In the present study we evaluated the classic way of T. rangeli transmission started by the bite of a single infected triatomine, as well as alternative ways of circulation of this parasite among invertebrate hosts. The number of metacyclic trypomastigotes eliminated from salivary glands during a blood meal was quantified for unfed and recently fed nymphs. The quantification showed that ~50,000 parasites can be liberated during a single blood meal. The transmission of T. rangeli from mice to R. prolixus was evaluated using infections started through the bite of a single infected nymph. The mice that served as the blood source for single infected nymphs showed a high percentage of infection and efficiently transmitted the infection to new insects. Parasites were recovered by xenodiagnosis in insects fed on mice with infections that lasted approximately four months. Hemolymphagy and co-feeding were tested to evaluate insect-insect T. rangeli transmission. T. rangeli was not transmitted during hemolymphagy. However, insects that had co-fed on mice with infected conspecifics exhibited infection rates of approximately 80%. Surprisingly, 16% of the recipient nymphs became infected when pigeons were used as hosts. Our results show that T. rangeli is efficiently transmitted between the evaluated hosts. Not only are the insect-mouse-insect transmission rates high, but parasites can also be transmitted between insects while co-feeding on a living host. We show for the first time that birds can be part of the T. rangeli transmission cycle as we proved that insect-insect transmission is feasible during a co-feeding on these hosts.
Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Pfaller, Michael A; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of caspofungin Etest and the recently revised CLSI breakpoints. A total of 497 blood isolates, of which 496 were wild-type isolates, were included. A total of 65/496 susceptible isolates (13.1%) were misclassified as intermediate (I) or re...
Twelve different antibiotics were used against bacterial species to record their sensitivity. The antibiotics were amikacin, amoxicillin, ampicillin, cephalexin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, gentamycin, kanamycin, neomycin, ofloxacin, sulphamethoxazole trimethoprim and tetracycline. The species that showed sensitivity to ...
Isabelle De Dobbelaere; Kurt Heungens; Martine Maes
Until now there has been little scientific information available about the susceptibility of different Rhododendron species and cultivars to Phytophthora ramorum. However, growers could use this knowledge as part of their control strategy. In our susceptibility screening we first optimized different inoculation methods on stem and...
The antimicrobial susceptibility profile of L. monocytogenes and other Listeria species isolated from some ready-to-eat (RTE) foods sold in Kano metropolis, north-western Nigeria was carried out using disc-diffusion method. The results obtained showed that L. monocytogenes was moderately susceptible to all the ...
This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of Salmonella species among children having diarrhea in Katsina State, Nigeria. A total of 220 diarrhea stool samples of children aged five years and below (0-5 years) were collected and screened for Salmonella species using culture technique. Presumptively positive ...
Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) remains one of the most common infections of the female genital tract. Correct identification of the isolated Candida species is essential to direct the empirical antifungal therapy. Objectives: This local study was conducted to identify the spectrum of Candida species associated with VVC using ...
de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Jensen, Annette Bruun; Eilenberg, Jørgen
.g. Entomophthora, Strongwellsea and Entomophaga). Species diversification of the obligate IPF within Entomophthoromycota thus seems to be primarily driven by co-evolutionary host adaptation to specific insect families, genera or species-complexes, but the underlying genetic factors of host adaptation...... in this fungal order are largely unknown and leave many unanswered questions. For example are the number of virulence factors increasing, or decreasing when fungal pathogens adapt to a narrow range of potential hosts? And, are host specialization based on many genetic changes with small effect or few with large...... differences and similarities in order to detect patterns of host-specific molecular adaptation....
Antonissen, Gunther; Martel, An; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Verbrugghe, Elin; Vandenbroucke, Virginie; Li, Shaoji; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Van Immerseel, Filip; Croubels, Siska
Contamination of food and feed with mycotoxins is a worldwide problem. At present, acute mycotoxicosis caused by high doses is rare in humans and animals. Ingestion of low to moderate amounts of Fusarium mycotoxins is common and generally does not result in obvious intoxication. However, these low amounts may impair intestinal health, immune function and/or pathogen fitness, resulting in altered host pathogen interactions and thus a different outcome of infection. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge about the impact of Fusarium mycotoxin exposure on human and animal host susceptibility to infectious diseases. On the one hand, exposure to deoxynivalenol and other Fusarium mycotoxins generally exacerbates infections with parasites, bacteria and viruses across a wide range of animal host species. Well-known examples include coccidiosis in poultry, salmonellosis in pigs and mice, colibacillosis in pigs, necrotic enteritis in poultry, enteric septicemia of catfish, swine respiratory disease, aspergillosis in poultry and rabbits, reovirus infection in mice and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus infection in pigs. However, on the other hand, T-2 toxin has been shown to markedly decrease the colonization capacity of Salmonella in the pig intestine. Although the impact of the exposure of humans to Fusarium toxins on infectious diseases is less well known, extrapolation from animal models suggests possible exacerbation of, for instance, colibacillosis and salmonellosis in humans, as well. PMID:24476707
Full Text Available An overview of the octocoral and hydrozoa host species of pygmy seahorses is provided, based on recently collected data for H. bargibanti, H. denise and H. pontohi and literature records. Seven new interspecific host-species associations are recognized, and an overview of the so far documented number of host species is given. Detailed re-examination of octocoral type material and a review of the taxonomic history are included, as a baseline for further studies. The host-specificity and colour morphs of pygmy seahorses are discussed, as well as the validity of (previous identifications and conservations issues.
Kar, Banya; Moussa, Cisse; Mohapatra, Amruta; Mohanty, Jyotirmaya; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Sahoo, Pramoda Kumar
Branchiuran ectoparasites of the genus Argulus can have extensive damaging effects on cultured fish. There exist no systematic studies that evaluate susceptibility or resistance of various carp species to Argulus sp. and the underlying mechanisms. The present study aimed at identifying the most susceptible and resistant cultured species, studying settlement and survival of parasite on these species, and finally unravelling the variations of immune response in both resistant and susceptible species. Fish from eight species (Labeo rohita, Cirrhinus mrigala, Catla catla, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Cyprinus carpio, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Carassius auratus, Labeo fimbriatus) were individually challenged with metanauplii of A. siamensis (100 metanauplii/fish) before rearing them in single tank in triplicate for 45 days. Based on the observed parasite load on each species, L. rohita was found to be the most susceptible and C. idella the resistant species. The settlement and survival of the parasite on L. rohita and C. idella was compared at 24, 48, 72 and 96h post experimental infection. Survival was significantly low at 72h onwards in C. idella indicating it is an unsuitable/poorly preferred host for A. siamensis. The inflammatory responses which are known to be related to susceptibility were analysed. Individuals of both the species were exposed to A. siamensis (100 parasites/fish), and after 24h and 3 d, skin samples directly from the attachment site and non-attachment sites were assessed for transcriptomic profiles of selected innate defence genes. Artificial skin abrasion permitted comparisons between abrasion associated injury and louse-associated injury. The inflammatory responses varied significantly between both species indicating their role in determining susceptibility of a host to A. siamensis. The expression of major histocompatibility class II and matrix metalloproteinase 2 was significantly higher in C. idella compared to L. rohita and therefore
Reijnen, B.T.; Meij, van der S.E.T.; Ofwegen, van L.P.
An overview of the octocoral and hydrozoan host species of pygmy seahorses is provided based on literature records and recently collected field data for Hippocampus bargibanti, H. denise and H. pontohi. Seven new associations are recognized and an overview of the so far documented host species is
A total of 51 isolates of Candida species were recovered from 122 urine samples. Candida albicans was the most prevalent species 41.2% (21 isolates), followed by C. parapsilosis (27.5%), C. glabrata (17.6%), C. krusei (7.8%) and C. tropicalis (5.9%). Antifungal susceptibility test indicated that 100% and 96.1% of the ...
In spite of growing evidence that climate change may dramatically affect networks of interacting species, whether-and to what extent-ecological interactions can mediate species\\' responses to disturbances is an open question. Here we show how a largely overseen association such as that between hydrozoans and scleractinian corals could be possibly associated with a reduction in coral susceptibility to ever-increasing predator and disease outbreaks. We examined 2455 scleractinian colonies (from both Maldivian and the Saudi Arabian coral reefs) searching for non-random patterns in the occurrence of hydrozoans on corals showing signs of different health conditions (i.e. bleaching, algal overgrowth, corallivory and different coral diseases). We show that, after accounting for geographical, ecological and co-evolutionary factors, signs of disease and corallivory are significantly lower in coral colonies hosting hydrozoans than in hydrozoan-free ones. This finding has important implications for our understanding of the ecology of coral reefs, and for their conservation in the current scenario of global change, because it suggests that symbiotic hydrozoans may play an active role in protecting their scleractinian hosts from stresses induced by warming water temperatures.
Steven F. Johnston; Michael F. Cohen; Tamas Torok; Ross K. Meentemeyer; Nathan E. Rank
Spread of the plant pathogen Phytophthora ramorum, causal agent of the forest disease sudden oak death, is driven by a few competent hosts that support spore production from foliar lesions. The relationship between traits of a principal foliar host, California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica), and susceptibility to
S. Mukaratirwa; I.F. Munjere; M. Takawira; G. Chingwena
Gastrodiscosis outbreaks due to Gastrodiscus aegyptiacus were recorded in horses in the vicinity of Harare, Zimbabwe, in the absence of Bulinus forskalii, B. senegalensis and Cleopatra sp. which are considered to be the only intermediate host snails. This suggested the possibility of other snail species acting as intermediate hosts in the life cycle of the trematode. A study was carried out to determine the susceptibility of 7 freshwater snail species to infection with G. aegyptiacus. First g...
to influence the rate of AIDS progression in HIV-1 infected individuals. The candidate host genes suspected to influence the rate of progression from HIV to AIDS can be divided into three categories: (i) genes encoding cell-surface receptors or lig- ands for these proteins; (ii) genes within human leukocyte antigens (HLA) that ...
LaClaire, L; Facklam, R
Facklamia spp. are gram-positive cocci, arranged in short chains or diplos, and resemble viridans streptococci on 5% sheep blood agar. Eighteen strains representing four species of Facklamia were isolated from blood cultures, an abscess, bone, cerebrospinal fluid, gall bladder, vaginal swab, and one unknown source. Cultures were tested against 15 antimicrobial agents by using the broth microdilution MIC method. Reduced susceptibilities to the beta lactams, erythromycin, clindamycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline were found. These results indicate that the susceptibilities of the Facklamia species are varied and that some strains have resistance patterns which may present difficulty in managing systemic infections in patients.
The aim of the study was to determine the antifungal susceptibility pattern and test for cure of Candida species among women of child bearing age who visited the General Hospital Onitsha, Nigeria with symptoms suggestive of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis (VVC). Materials and Methods: Eight hundred and seventy six female ...
Cucco, Lucilla; Massacci, Francesca Romana; Sebastiani, Carla; Mangili, Piermario; Bano, Luca; Cocchi, Monia; Luppi, Andrea; Ortenzi, Roberta; Pezzotti, Giovanni; Magistrali, Chiara Francesca
Pasteurella multocida is a widespread pathogen associated with major animal diseases of economic significance. Despite this, little is known about the capsular types, virulence gene pattern, and antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates from hosts affected by different diseases, and no data are available in Italy. One hundred eighty six isolates of P. multocida, were taken from different species in different states of health in several Italian regions, and were tested for genes encoding for capsular types (cap) and major virulence factors (tbpA, toxA, hgbB and pfhA). Antimicrobial susceptibility was investigated with the agar diffusion test. The majority of isolates was capA+. However, the distribution differed according to species and disease of origin, with a greater heterogeneity in isolates from rabbits; capE was never found, while capB was detected once. Only capA+ and capF+ strains tested positive for pfhA. Conversely, almost all capD+ isolates were hgbB+. In bovine respiratory disease, pfhA+/tbpA+/capA+ isolates predominated, while tbpA+/toxA+/capD+ isolates predominated in sheep. Overall, low levels of resistance were found, with full susceptibility to ceftiofur and florfenicol. Lower susceptibility to older antimicrobials was recorded, since only approximately 1/3 of the isolates showed susceptibility to tylosin and erythromycin, and resistance to tetracycline (7.5%), and trimethoprim - sulphametoxazole (4.8%) was also observed.
... of predation of Ceraeochrysa species showed a high predation rate of up to 140 P. boerneri consumed per day by a single Ceraeochrysa individual. Other predators of P. boerneri were recorded but were not sufficiently common to warrant detailed study. Keywords: anholocyclic, biological control agent, pine woolly aphid, ...
Roscher, Christiane; Schumacher, Jens; Foitzik, Oliver; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef
The hypothesis that plant species diversity and genetic variation of the host species decrease the severity of plant diseases is supported by studies of agricultural systems, but experimental evidence from more complex systems is scarce. In an experiment with grassland communities of varying species richness (1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 60 species) and functional group richness (1, 2, 3, and 4 functional groups), we used different cultivars of Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) to study effects of biodiversity and cultivar identity on the occurrence and severity of foliar fungal diseases caused by Puccinia coronata (crown rust) and P. graminis (stem rust). Cultivar monocultures of perennial ryegrass revealed strong differences in pathogen susceptibility among these cultivars. Disease intensity caused by both rust fungi decreased significantly with growing species richness of species mixtures. The response to the diversity gradient was related to the decreased density and size of the host individuals with increasing species richness. The occurrence of other grass species known to be possible hosts of the pathogens in the experimental mixtures did not promote disease intensity in L. perenne, indicating that there was a high host specificity of pathogen strains. Differences in pathogen susceptibility among perennial ryegrass cultivars persisted independent of diversity treatment, host density and host individual size, but resulted in a cultivar-specific pattern of changes in pathogen infestation across the species-richness gradient. Our study provided evidence that within-species variation in pathogen susceptibility and competitive interactions of the host species with the environment, as caused by species diversity treatments, are key determinants of the occurrence and severity of fungal diseases.
Langwig, Kate E; Frick, Winifred F; Hoyt, Joseph R; Parise, Katy L; Drees, Kevin P; Kunz, Thomas H; Foster, Jeffrey T; Kilpatrick, A Marm
Disease can play an important role in structuring species communities because the effects of disease vary among hosts; some species are driven towards extinction, while others suffer relatively little impact. Why disease impacts vary among host species remains poorly understood for most multi-host pathogens, and factors allowing less-susceptible species to persist could be useful in conserving highly affected species. White-nose syndrome (WNS), an emerging fungal disease of bats, has decimated some species while sympatric and closely related species have experienced little effect. We analysed data on infection prevalence, fungal loads and environmental factors to determine how variation in infection among sympatric host species influenced the severity of WNS population impacts. Intense transmission resulted in almost uniformly high prevalence in all species. By contrast, fungal loads varied over 3 orders of magnitude among species, and explained 98% of the variation among species in disease impacts. Fungal loads increased with hibernating roosting temperatures, with bats roosting at warmer temperatures having higher fungal loads and suffering greater WNS impacts. We also found evidence of a threshold fungal load, above which the probability of mortality may increase sharply, and this threshold was similar for multiple species. This study demonstrates how differences in behavioural traits among species-in this case microclimate preferences-that may have been previously adaptive can be deleterious after the introduction of a new pathogen. Management to reduce pathogen loads rather than exposure may be an effective way of reducing disease impact and preventing species extinctions.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience'. © 2016 The Author(s).
Damm, U.; Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Cannon, P.F.; Crous, P.W.
Colletotrichum (Glomerellaceae, Sordariomycetes) species with dark setae and curved conidia are known as anthracnose pathogens of a number of economically important hosts and are often identified as C. dematium. Colletotrichum dematium has been synonymised with many species, including the type of
Isabelle De Dobbelaere; Kurt Heungens; Martine Maes
Although Rhododendron is the most important host of Phytophthora ramorum. in Europe, there is little scientific information about the susceptibility levels of different Rhododendron species and cultivars. Increasing this knowledge would help nurseries in the management of the disease and could be used by plant protection services to target their...
Westram A. M.; Baumgartner C; Keller I; Jokela J.
Many parasites infect multiple host species. In coevolving host parasite interactions theory predicts that parasites should be adapted to locally common hosts which could lead to regional shifts in host preferences. We studied the interaction between freshwater Gammarus (Crustacea Amphipoda) and their acanthocephalan parasites using a large scale field survey and experiments combined with molecular identification of cryptic host and parasite species. Gammarus pulex is a common host for multip...
Full Text Available The fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd, which causes the disease chytridiomycosis, has been linked to catastrophic amphibian declines throughout the world. Amphibians differ in their vulnerability to chytridiomycosis; some species experience epizootics followed by collapse while others exhibit stable host/pathogen dynamics where most amphibian hosts survive in the presence of Bd (e.g., in the enzootic state. Little is known about the factors that drive the transition between the two disease states within a community, or whether populations of species that survived the initial epizootic are stable, yet this information is essential for conservation and theory. Our study focuses on a diverse Peruvian amphibian community that experienced a Bd-caused collapse. We explore host/Bd dynamics of eight surviving species a decade after the mass extinction by using population level disease metrics and Bd-susceptibility trials. We found that three of the eight species continue to be susceptible to Bd, and that their populations are declining. Only one species is growing in numbers and it was non-susceptible in our trials. Our study suggests that some species remain vulnerable to Bd and exhibit ongoing population declines in enzootic systems where Bd-host dynamics are assumed to be stable.
Wooldridge, Scott A.
It is well established that different coral species have different susceptibilities to thermal stress, yet it is less clear which biological or physical mechanisms allow some corals to resist thermal stress, whereas other corals bleach and die. Although the type of symbiont is clearly of fundamental importance, many aspects of coral bleaching cannot be explained solely by differences in symbionts amongst coral species. Here, I use the CO2 (sink) limitation model of coral bleaching to repose various host traits believed to influence thermal tolerance (e.g. metabolic rates, colony tissue thickness, skeletal growth form, mucus production rates, tissue concentration of fluorescent pigments and heterotrophic feedings capacity) in terms of an integrated strategy to reduce the likelihood of CO2 limitation around its intracellular photosymbionts. Contrasting observational data for the skeletal vital effect on oxygen isotope composition (δ18O) partitions two alternate evolutionary strategies. The first strategy is heavily reliant on a sea water supply chain of CO2 to supplement respiratory CO2(met). In contrast, the alternate strategy is less reliant on the sea water supply source, potentially facilitated by increased basal respiration rates and/or a lower photosynthetic demand for CO2. The comparative vulnerability of these alternative strategies to modern ocean conditions is used to explain the global-wide observation that corals with branching morphologies (and thin tissue layers) are generally more thermally sensitive than corals with massive morphologies (and thick tissue layers). The life history implications of this new framework are discussed in terms of contrasting fitness drivers and past environmental constraints, which delivers ominous predictions for the viability of thin-tissued branching and plating species during the present human-dominated ("Anthropocene") era of the Earth System.
Nielsen, Line; Søgaard, Mette; Jensen, Trine Hammer
The mechanisms behind the in vivo virulence of immunosuppressive wild-type Morbillivirus infections are still not fully understood. To investigate lymphotropism and host responses we have selected the natural host model of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection in mink. This model displays multis...... in PBMCs was investigated throughout the acute infections. We observed Th1- and Th2-type cytokine responses beginning in the prodromal phase, and late inflammatory responses were shared between the wild-type infections.......The mechanisms behind the in vivo virulence of immunosuppressive wild-type Morbillivirus infections are still not fully understood. To investigate lymphotropism and host responses we have selected the natural host model of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection in mink. This model displays...... multisystemic infection similar to measles virus (MV) and rinderpest virus (RPV) infections in their susceptible natural hosts. The wild-type CDVs investigated provoked marked virulence differences inducing mild versus marked to severe acute disease. The mildly virulent wild-type induced transient lymphopenia...
Full Text Available The biological effects of interventions to control infectious diseases typically depend on the intensity of pathogen challenge. As much as the levels of natural pathogen circulation vary over time and geographical location, the development of invariant efficacy measures is of major importance, even if only indirectly inferrable. Here a method is introduced to assess host susceptibility to pathogens, and applied to a detailed dataset generated by challenging groups of insect hosts (Drosophila melanogaster with a range of pathogen (Drosophila C Virus doses and recording survival over time. The experiment was replicated for flies carrying the Wolbachia symbiont, which is known to reduce host susceptibility to viral infections. The entire dataset is fitted by a novel quantitative framework that significantly extends classical methods for microbial risk assessment and provides accurate distributions of symbiont-induced protection. More generally, our data-driven modeling procedure provides novel insights for study design and analyses to assess interventions.
Chassaing, Benoit; Koren, Omry; Carvalho, Frederic A; Ley, Ruth E; Gewirtz, Andrew T
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is driven by a seemingly aberrant immune response to the gut microbiota with disease development dictated by genetics and environmental factors. A model exemplifying this notion is our recent demonstration that colonisation of adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) during microbiota acquisition drove chronic colitis in mice lacking the flagellin receptor TLR5 (T5KO). T5KO colitis persisted beyond AIEC clearance and requires TLR4 and the NLRC4 inflammasome. We hypothesised that AIEC instigates chronic inflammation by increasing microbial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and flagellin levels. Examine if transient AIEC colonisation lastingly alters levels of LPS and flagellin and changes microbiota composition. Germ-free mice (wild type (WT) and T5KO) were inoculated with AIEC strain LF82 and placed in standard housing allowing a complex microbiota that eliminated AIEC in both mice strains. Faeces were assayed for the inflammatory marker, lipocalin-2, bacterial loads, and microbiota composition by pyrosequencing. Faecal LPS and flagellin bioactivity were measured via a cell-based reporter assay. Transient AIEC colonisation, in WT mice, did not alter inflammatory markers, bacterial loads, microbiota composition, nor its pro-inflammatory potential. By contrast, transient AIEC colonisation of T5KO mice drove chronic inflammation which correlated with microbiota components having higher levels of bioactive LPS and flagellin. Such AIEC-induced elevation of LPS and flagellin persisted well beyond AIEC clearance, required AIEC be flagellated, and was associated with alteration in microbiota species composition including a loss of species diversity. AIEC, and perhaps other pathobionts, may instigate chronic inflammation in susceptible hosts by altering the gut microbiota composition so as to give it an inherently greater ability to activate innate immunity/pro-inflammatory gene expression. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For
Bordes, Frédéric; Morand, Serge; Ricardo, Guerrero
Patterns of ectoparasite species richness in mammals have been investigated in various terrestrial mammalian taxa such as primates, ungulates and carnivores. Several ecological or life traits of hosts are expected to explain much of the variability in species richness of parasites. In the present comparative analysis we investigate some determinants of parasite richness in bats, a large and understudied group of flying mammals, and their obligate blood-sucking ectoparasite, streblid bat flies (Diptera). We investigate the effects of host body size, geographical range, group size and roosting ecology on the species richness of bat flies in tropical areas of Venezuela and Peru, where both host and parasite diversities are high. We use the data from a major sampling effort on 138 bat species from nine families. We also investigate potential correlation between bat fly species richness and brain size (corrected for body size) in these tropical bats. We expect a relationship if there is a potential energetic trade-off between costly large brains and parasite-mediated impacts. We show that body size and roosting in cavities are positively correlated with bat fly species richness. No effects of bat range size and group size were observed. Our results also suggest an association between body mass-independent brain size and bat fly species richness.
Zhi Liu; Wenshu Liu; Chao Ran; Jun Hu; Zhigang Zhou
In this study, we investigated the risk associated with suspension of probiotics administration in tilapia, an animal model that may mimic immune-compromised conditions in humans. Tilapias were fed for 14 days using a probiotics-supplemented diet, followed by a three-day suspension of probiotics treatment and a subsequent challenge by Aeromonas hydrophila. Unexpectedly, the suspension of a probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum JCM1149 significantly triggered susceptibility of the host to A...
Tian, Yue; Wang, Tian-Ping; Wang, Qi-Zhi; Lv, Da-Bing; Yin, Xiao-Mei; Zhou, Li; Wang, Zhen-Li; Wang, Feng-Feng; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Le-Sheng
To understand the susceptibilities of Oncomelania hupensis snails to Schistosoma japonicum miracidia from different hosts. The Schistosoma japonicum eggs from different hosts, such as rabbits, cattle and mice were collected. These eggs were incubated for miracidia, respectively. Each snail from the same site was exposed to 5 miracidia of Schistosoma japonicum from different hosts. The infected snails were fed in the laboratory for two months. Then all the snails were dissected and observed under the dissecting microscope in order to know the infection rate of snails. In the experiment group, the infection rates of snails infected with miracidia from rabbits, cattle and mice were 1.42%, 8.67% and 19.87%, respectively, the mortality rates were 29.5%, 13.5% and 24.5%, respectively. However, the infection rates of snails in the control group were 2.63%, 2.02% and 11.66%, respectively, and the mortality rates were 24.0%, 49.5% and 18.5%, respectively. The susceptibilities of Oncomelania snails to Schistosoma japonicum miracidia from 3 kinds of hosts are significantly different.
Lin, Borong; Zhuo, Kan; Chen, Shiyan; Hu, Lili; Sun, Longhua; Wang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Lian-Hui; Liao, Jinling
Evidence is emerging that plant-parasitic nematodes can secrete effectors to interfere with the host immune response, but it remains unknown how these effectors can conquer host immune responses. Here, we depict a novel effector, MjTTL5, that could suppress plant immune response. Immunolocalization and transcriptional analyses showed that MjTTL5 is expressed specifically within the subventral gland of Meloidogyne javanica and up-regulated in the early parasitic stage of the nematode. Transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing MjTTL5 were significantly more susceptible to M. javanica infection than wild-type plants, and vice versa, in planta silencing of MjTTL5 substantially increased plant resistance to M. javanica. Yeast two-hybrid, coimmunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescent complementation assays showed that MjTTL5 interacts specifically with Arabidopsis ferredoxin : thioredoxin reductase catalytic subunit (AtFTRc), a key component of host antioxidant system. The expression of AtFTRc is induced by the infection of M. javanica. Interaction between AtFTRc and MjTTL could drastically increase host reactive oxygen species-scavenging activity, and result in suppression of plant basal defenses and attenuation of host resistance to the nematode infection. Our results demonstrate that the host ferredoxin : thioredoxin system can be exploited cunningly by M. javanica, revealing a novel mechanism utilized by plant-parasitic nematodes to subjugate plant innate immunity and thereby promoting parasitism. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.
Takács, A P; Horváth, J; Kazinczi, G; Gáborjányi, R
Susceptibility of 33 Lycopersicon species and varieties to Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) were studied. Plants were mechanically inoculated with the C/U1 strain of TMV and U/246 strain of CMV. Virus infection was checked by symptomatology, DAS ELISA and back inoculation (biotest). All the studied Lycopersicon species and varieties were susceptible to TMV-C/U1. L. esculentum Mill. convar. infiniens Lehm. var. flammatum Lehm., L. esculentum Mill. convar. fruticosum Lehm. var. speciosum Lehm. and L. esculentum Mill. convar. infiniens Lehm. var. validum Bail. showed extreme resistance to CMV-U/246. The other 30 species and varieties were susceptible to CMV-U/246. New compatible and incompatible host-virus relations have been reported. The extreme resistant Lycopersicon varieties could be used as resistance sources in tomato breeding.
Kaushansky, A; Metzger, P G; Douglass, A N; Mikolajczak, S A; Lakshmanan, V; Kain, H S; Kappe, S Hi
Intracellular eukaryotic parasites and their host cells constitute complex, coevolved cellular interaction systems that frequently cause disease. Among them, Plasmodium parasites cause a significant health burden in humans, killing up to one million people annually. To succeed in the mammalian host after transmission by mosquitoes, Plasmodium parasites must complete intracellular replication within hepatocytes and then release new infectious forms into the blood. Using Plasmodium yoelii rodent malaria parasites, we show that some liver stage (LS)-infected hepatocytes undergo apoptosis without external triggers, but the majority of infected cells do not, and can also resist Fas-mediated apoptosis. In contrast, apoptosis is dramatically increased in hepatocytes infected with attenuated parasites. Furthermore, we find that blocking total or mitochondria-initiated host cell apoptosis increases LS parasite burden in mice, suggesting that an anti-apoptotic host environment fosters parasite survival. Strikingly, although LS infection confers strong resistance to extrinsic host hepatocyte apoptosis, infected hepatocytes lose their ability to resist apoptosis when anti-apoptotic mitochondrial proteins are inhibited. This is demonstrated by our finding that B-cell lymphoma 2 family inhibitors preferentially induce apoptosis in LS-infected hepatocytes and significantly reduce LS parasite burden in mice. Thus, targeting critical points of susceptibility in the LS-infected host cell might provide new avenues for malaria prophylaxis.
El Damaty, Hend M; Tartor, Yasmine H; Mahmmod, Yasser Saadeldien Ibrahim
Arabian horses, the eldest equine breeds, have great economic and social significance for its long, unique, and storied history. Molecular characterization of dermatophyte species affecting Arabian horses is a crucial necessity for epidemiologic and therapeutic purposes. The objective of this study...... was to identify and differentiate isolates of dermatophytes isolated from naturally infected Arabian horses at species and strains levels using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and DNA sequencing. Additionally, antifungal susceptibility testing using broth microdilution method was performed...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Species identification and antifungal susceptibility tests were carried out on 212 Candida isolates obtained from bloodstream infections, urinary tract infections and dialysis-associated peritonitis, from cases attended at a Brazilian public tertiary hospital from January 1998 to January 2005. Findings Candida albicans represented 33% of the isolates, Candida parapsilosis 31.1%, Candida tropicalis 17.9%,Candida glabrata 11.8%, and others species 6.2%. In blood culture, C. parapsilosis was the most frequently encountered species (48%. The resistance levels to the antifungal azoles were relatively low for the several species, except for C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. Amphotericin B resistance was observed in 1 isolate of C. parapsilosis. Conclusions The species distribution and antifungal susceptibility herein observed presented several epidemiological features common to other tertiary hospitals in Latin American countries. It also exhibited some peculiarity, such as a very high frequency of C. parapsilosis both in bloodstream infections and dialysis-associated peritonitis. C. albicans also occurred in an important number of case infections, in all evaluated clinical sources. C. glabrata presented a high proportion of resistant isolates. The data emphasize the necessity to carry out the correct species identification accompanied by the susceptibility tests in all tertiary hospitals.
Moury, Benoît; Fabre, Frédéric; Hébrard, Eugénie; Froissart, Rémy
Prediction of pathogen emergence is an important field of research, both in human health and in agronomy. Most studies of pathogen emergence have focused on the ecological or anthropic factors involved rather than on the role of intrinsic pathogen properties. The capacity of pathogens to infect a large set of host species, i.e. to possess a large host range breadth (HRB), is tightly linked to their emergence propensity. Using an extensive plant virus database, we found that four traits related to virus genome or transmission properties were strongly and robustly linked to virus HRB. Broader host ranges were observed for viruses with single-stranded genomes, those with three genome segments and nematode-transmitted viruses. Also, two contrasted groups of seed-transmitted viruses were evidenced. Those with a single-stranded genome had larger HRB than non-seed-transmitted viruses, whereas those with a double-stranded genome (almost exclusively RNA) had an extremely small HRB. From the plant side, the family taxonomic rank appeared as a critical threshold for virus host range, with a highly significant increase in barriers to infection between plant families. Accordingly, the plant-virus infectivity matrix shows a dual structure pattern: a modular pattern mainly due to viruses specialized to infect plants of a given family and a nested pattern due to generalist viruses. These results contribute to a better prediction of virus host jumps and emergence risks.
Smith, Clare M; Proulx, Megan K; Olive, Andrew J; Laddy, Dominick; Mishra, Bibhuti B; Moss, Caitlin; Gutierrez, Nuria Martinez; Bellerose, Michelle M; Barreira-Silva, Palmira; Phuah, Jia Yao; Baker, Richard E; Behar, Samuel M; Kornfeld, Hardy; Evans, Thomas G; Beamer, Gillian; Sassetti, Christopher M
The outcome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and the immunological response to the bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine are highly variable in humans. Deciphering the relative importance of host genetics, environment, and vaccine preparation for the efficacy of BCG has proven difficult in natural populations. We developed a model system that captures the breadth of immunological responses observed in outbred individual mice, which can be used to understand the contribution of host genetics to vaccine efficacy. This system employs a panel of highly diverse inbred mouse strains, consisting of the founders and recombinant progeny of the "Collaborative Cross" project. Unlike natural populations, the structure of this panel allows the serial evaluation of genetically identical individuals and the quantification of genotype-specific effects of interventions such as vaccination. When analyzed in the aggregate, our panel resembled natural populations in several important respects: the animals displayed a broad range of susceptibility to M. tuberculosis, differed in their immunological responses to infection, and were not durably protected by BCG vaccination. However, when analyzed at the genotype level, we found that these phenotypic differences were heritable. M. tuberculosis susceptibility varied between lines, from extreme sensitivity to progressive M. tuberculosis clearance. Similarly, only a minority of the genotypes was protected by vaccination. The efficacy of BCG was genetically separable from susceptibility to M. tuberculosis, and the lack of efficacy in the aggregate analysis was driven by nonresponsive lines that mounted a qualitatively distinct response to infection. These observations support an important role for host genetic diversity in determining BCG efficacy and provide a new resource to rationally develop more broadly efficacious vaccines. Tuberculosis (TB) remains an urgent global health crisis, and the efficacy of the currently used TB
S R Motukupally
Full Text Available Purpose: To report clinical and microbiological profile of patients with ocular candidiasis. Materials and Methods: Patients with ocular candidiasis were retrospectively identified from microbiology records. Significant isolates of Candida species were identified by Vitek 2 compact system. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of antifungal agents such as amphotericin B, itraconazole, voriconazole, fluconazole and caspofungin was determined by E test and of natamycin by microbroth dilution assay. Data on treatment and outcome were collected from medical records. Results: A total of 42 isolates of Candida were isolated from patients with keratitis-29, endophthalmitis-12 and orbital cellulitis-1. The most common species isolated was Candida albicans (12-keratitis, 4-endophthalmitis, 1-orbital cellulitis. All except one isolate were susceptible to amphotericin B. MIC of caspofungin was in the susceptible range in 28 (96.5% corneal isolates while 12 out of 29 (41.3% corneal isolates were sensitive to fluconazole. Resistance to voriconazole was seen in four corneal isolates. All isolates were susceptible to natamycin and all except two isolates were resistant or susceptible dose-dependent to itraconazole. Outcome of healed ulcer was achieved in 12/18 (66.6% patients treated medically, while surgical intervention was required in 11 patients. Among the isolates from endophthalmitis patients, 11/12 were susceptible to amphotericin B, 6/12 to voriconazole and all to natamycin. Ten out of 11 patients (one patient required evisceration with endophthalmitis were given intravitreal amphotericin B injection with variable outcome. Conclusions: Ocular candidiasis needs early and specific treatment for optimal results. Candida species continue to be susceptible to most commonly available antifungals including amphotericin B, voriconazole and natamycin.
Guzzetti, Luciana B; Vescina, Cecilia M; Gil, M Florencia; Gatti, Blanca M
Serious infections caused by Candida yeasts are frequent in the hospital population. Due to differences in species distribution and antifungal susceptibility testing depending on the geographic area and the type of patient, it is important to study the epidemiology of each institution. For this purpose, we conducted a retrospective, descriptive study on the occurrence of candidemia in the Children's Hospital "Superiora Sor María Ludovica" of the city of La Plata. In a 6-year period (2010-2015), 177 candidemia episodes were recorded. The predominant species were Candida albicans (45%) and Candida parapsilosis (28%). The hospital wards with the highest number of candidemia episodes were the pediatric, neonatal and cardiovascular intensive care units (58%). No resistance to amphotericin B was observed throughout the period whereas resistance to azoles was limited to 4 strains of less frequent species. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Liu, Zhi; Liu, Wenshu; Ran, Chao; Hu, Jun; Zhou, Zhigang
In this study, we investigated the risk associated with suspension of probiotics administration in tilapia, an animal model that may mimic immune-compromised conditions in humans. Tilapias were fed for 14 days using a probiotics-supplemented diet, followed by a three-day suspension of probiotics treatment and a subsequent challenge by Aeromonas hydrophila. Unexpectedly, the suspension of a probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum JCM1149 significantly triggered susceptibility of the host to A. hydrophila. We further observed that suspension of JCM1149 resulted in host gut microbiota dysbiosis and the subsequent disorder in the intestinal metabolites (bile acids, amino acids, and glucose) and damage in the intestinal epithelium, giving rise to a condition similar to antibiotics-induced gut dysbiosis, which collectively impaired tilapia’s gut health and resistance to pathogenic challenges. Additionally, we determined that JCM1149 adhered relatively poorly to tilapia intestinal mucosa and was rapidly released from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) after suspension, with the rapid loss of probiotic strain probably being the direct cause of gut dysbiosis. Finally, three other probiotic Lactobacillus strains with low intestinal mucosa binding activity showed similar rapid loss phenotype following administration suspension, and induced higher host susceptibility to infection, indicating that the risk is a generic phenomenon in Lactobacillus. PMID:26983596
de Oliveira Filho, Jaires Gomes; Ferreira, Lorena Lopes; Sarria, André Lucio Franceschini; Pickett, John A; Birkett, Michael A; Mascarin, Gabriel Moura; de León, Adalberto A Pérez; Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira
Domestic dog breeds are hosts for the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, but infestation levels vary among breeds. Beagles are less susceptible to tick infestations than English cocker spaniels due to enhanced production of 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde that act as volatile tick repellents. We report the use of prototype slow-release formulations of these compounds to reduce the burden of R. sanguineus s. l. on English cocker spaniel dogs. Twelve dogs were randomly assigned to two groups with six dogs each. The treated group received collars with slow-release formulations of the compounds attached, while the control group received collars with clean formulations attached. Five environmental infestations were performed, with the number of ticks (at all stages) on the dogs being counted twice a day for 45days. The counts on the number of tick stages found per dog were individually fitted to linear mixed effects models with repeated measures and normal distribution for errors. The mean tick infestation in the treated group was significantly lower than in the control group. For larvae and nymphs, a decrease in tick infestation was observed at the fifth count, and for adults, lower average counts were observed in all counts. The compounds did not interfere with the distribution of the ticks on the body of the dogs, as a similar percentage of ticks was found on the anterior half of the dogs (54.5% for the control group and 56.2% for the treated group). The biological and reproductive parameters of the ticks were not affected by the repellents. This study highlights for the first time the potential use of a novel allomone (repellent)-based formulation for reduction of tick infestation on susceptible dogs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Lisa K. Belden
Full Text Available Vertebrates, including amphibians, host diverse symbiotic microbes that contribute to host disease resistance. Globally, and especially in montane tropical systems, many amphibian species are threatened by a chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd, that causes a lethal skin disease. Bd therefore may be a strong selective agent on the diversity and function of the microbial communities inhabiting amphibian skin. In Panamá, amphibian population declines and the spread of Bd have been tracked. In 2012, we completed a field survey in Panamá to examine frog skin microbiota in the context of Bd infection. We focused on three frog species and collected two skin swabs per frog from a total of 136 frogs across four sites that varied from west to east in the time since Bd arrival. One swab was used to assess bacterial community structure using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and to determine Bd infection status, and one was used to assess metabolite diversity, as the bacterial production of anti-fungal metabolites is an important disease resistance function. The skin microbiota of the three Panamanian frog species differed in OTU (operational taxonomic unit, ~bacterial species community composition and metabolite profiles, although the pattern was less strong for the metabolites. Comparisons between frog skin bacterial communities from Panamá and the US suggest broad similarities at the phylum level, but key differences at lower taxonomic levels. In our field survey in Panamá, across all four sites, only 35 individuals (~26% were Bd infected. There was no clustering of OTUs or metabolite profiles based on Bd infection status and no clear pattern of west-east changes in OTUs or metabolite profiles across the four sites. Overall, our field survey data suggest that different bacterial communities might be producing broadly similar sets of metabolites across frog hosts and sites. Community structure and function may not be as tightly coupled in
Full Text Available Mammalian species vary widely in their apparent susceptibility to prion diseases. For example, several felid species developed prion disease (feline spongiform encephalopathy or FSE during the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE epidemic in the United Kingdom, whereas no canine BSE cases were detected. Whether either of these or other groups of carnivore species can contract other prion diseases (e.g. chronic wasting disease or CWD remains an open question. Variation in the host-encoded prion protein (PrP(C largely explains observed disease susceptibility patterns within ruminant species, and may explain interspecies differences in susceptibility as well. We sequenced and compared the open reading frame of the PRNP gene encoding PrP(C protein from 609 animal samples comprising 29 species from 22 genera of the Order Carnivora; amongst these samples were 15 FSE cases. Our analysis revealed that FSE cases did not encode an identifiable disease-associated PrP polymorphism. However, all canid PrPs contained aspartic acid or glutamic acid at codon 163 which we propose provides a genetic basis for observed susceptibility differences between canids and felids. Among other carnivores studied, wolverine (Gulo gulo and pine marten (Martes martes were the only non-canid species to also express PrP-Asp163, which may impact on their prion diseases susceptibility. Populations of black bear (Ursus americanus and mountain lion (Puma concolor from Colorado showed little genetic variation in the PrP protein and no variants likely to be highly resistant to prions in general, suggesting that strain differences between BSE and CWD prions also may contribute to the limited apparent host range of the latter.
Stewart, Paula; Campbell, Lauren; Skogtvedt, Susan; Griffin, Karen A; Arnemo, Jon M; Tryland, Morten; Girling, Simon; Miller, Michael W; Tranulis, Michael A; Goldmann, Wilfred
Mammalian species vary widely in their apparent susceptibility to prion diseases. For example, several felid species developed prion disease (feline spongiform encephalopathy or FSE) during the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic in the United Kingdom, whereas no canine BSE cases were detected. Whether either of these or other groups of carnivore species can contract other prion diseases (e.g. chronic wasting disease or CWD) remains an open question. Variation in the host-encoded prion protein (PrP(C)) largely explains observed disease susceptibility patterns within ruminant species, and may explain interspecies differences in susceptibility as well. We sequenced and compared the open reading frame of the PRNP gene encoding PrP(C) protein from 609 animal samples comprising 29 species from 22 genera of the Order Carnivora; amongst these samples were 15 FSE cases. Our analysis revealed that FSE cases did not encode an identifiable disease-associated PrP polymorphism. However, all canid PrPs contained aspartic acid or glutamic acid at codon 163 which we propose provides a genetic basis for observed susceptibility differences between canids and felids. Among other carnivores studied, wolverine (Gulo gulo) and pine marten (Martes martes) were the only non-canid species to also express PrP-Asp163, which may impact on their prion diseases susceptibility. Populations of black bear (Ursus americanus) and mountain lion (Puma concolor) from Colorado showed little genetic variation in the PrP protein and no variants likely to be highly resistant to prions in general, suggesting that strain differences between BSE and CWD prions also may contribute to the limited apparent host range of the latter.
Full Text Available Phelipanche ramosa (L. Pomel (branched broomrape is a holoparasitic plant that reproduces on crops and also on weeds, which contributes to increase the parasite seed bank in fields. This parasite extracts all its nutrients at the host's expense so that host-parasite trophic relationships are crucial to determine host and parasite growth. This study quantified the intensity with which P. ramosa draws assimilates from its host and analyzed whether it varied with host species, host phenological stage and host growth rate. A greenhouse experiment was conducted on three host species: the crop species Brassica napus (L. (oilseed rape and two weed species, Capsella bursa-pastoris (L. Medik. and Geranium dissectum (L.. Plants were grown with or without P. ramosa and under three light levels to modulate host growth rate. The proportion of host biomass loss due to parasitism by P. ramosa differed between host species (at host fructification, biomass loss ranged from 34% to 84%. Brassica napus and C. bursa-pastoris displayed a similar response to P. ramosa, probably because they belong to the same botanical family. The sensitivity to P. ramosa in each host species could be related to the precocity of P. ramosa development on them. Host compartments could be ranked as a function of their sensitivity to parasitism, with the reproductive compartment being the most severely affected, followed by stems and roots. The proportion of biomass allocated to leaves was not reduced by parasitism. The proportion of pathosystem biomass allocated to the parasite depended on host species. It generally increased with host stage progression but was constant across light induced-host growth rate, showing that P. ramosa adapts its growth to host biomass production. The rank order of host species in terms of sink strength differed from that in terms of host sensitivity. Finally, for B. napus, the biomass of individual parasite shoots decreased with increasing their number per
Bastos, Reginaldo G; Howard, Zachary P; Hiroyasu, Aoi; Goodman, Alan G
Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q fever, a zoonotic disease that threatens both human and animal health. Due to the paucity of experimental animal models, little is known about how host factors interface with bacterial components and affect pathogenesis. Here, we used Drosophila melanogaster, in conjunction with the biosafety level 2 (BSL2) Nine Mile phase II (NMII) clone 4 strain of C. burnetii, as a model to investigate host and bacterial components implicated in infection. We demonstrate that adult Drosophila flies are susceptible to C. burnetii NMII infection and that this bacterial strain, which activates the immune deficiency (IMD) pathway, is able to replicate and cause mortality in the animals. We show that in the absence of Eiger, the only known tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily homolog in Drosophila, Coxiella-infected flies exhibit reduced mortality from infection. We also demonstrate that the Coxiella type 4 secretion system (T4SS) is critical for the formation of the Coxiella-containing vacuole and establishment of infection in Drosophila Altogether, our data reveal that the Drosophila TNF homolog Eiger and the Coxiella T4SS are implicated in the pathogenesis of C. burnetii in flies. The Drosophila/NMII model mimics relevant aspects of the infection in mammals, such as a critical role of host TNF and the bacterial T4SS in pathogenesis. Our work also demonstrates the usefulness of this BSL2 model to investigate both host and Coxiella components implicated in infection. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.
Hamilton, C M; Stafford, P; Pinelli, E; Holland, C V
Toxocara canis, the parasitic roundworm of dogs, can infect a number of paratenic hosts, such as mice and humans, due to the widespread dissemination of its ova in the environment. In these paratenic hosts, larvae have been shown to exhibit a predilection for the central nervous system, resulting in an increasing number of parasites migrating to the brain as infection progresses. In an initial experiment, we investigated the differential brain involvement of T. canis in 7 strains of inbred mice, and chose 2 strains, susceptible (BALB/c) and resistant (NIH) to cerebral infection. In a second experiment, both strains were investigated in terms of course of migration, larval accumulation, and behavioural response to T. canis infection. Results revealed that infected BALB/c mice took significantly longer to drink from a water source (following a period of deprivation), compared with control mice, indicating some degree of memory impairment. Cerebral larval recoveries from both strains of mice demonstrated variation between the two experiments, suggesting that larval burdens may not be a reliable indicator of susceptibility or resistance to T. canis infection. The percentage of total recovered larvae in each organ may be a better representation of larval distribution. Our model system may provide insights into the impact of chronic geohelminth infection on cognitive development.
Jones, Thomas S; Bilton, Adam R; Mak, Lorraine; Sait, Steven M
Parasitoids face challenges by switching between host species that influence survival and fitness, determine their role in structuring communities, influence species invasions, and affect their importance as biocontrol agents. In the generalist parasitoid, Venturia canescens (Gravenhorst) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), we investigated the costs in encapsulation, survival, and body size on juveniles when adult parasitoids switched from their original host, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidotera, Pyralidae) to a novel host, Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae), over multiple generations. Switching had an initial survival cost for juvenile parasitoids in the novel host, but increased survival occurred within two generations. Conversely, mortality in the original host increased. Body size, a proxy for fecundity, also increased with the number of generations in the novel host species, reflecting adaptation or maternal effects due to the larger size of the novel host, and therefore greater resources available to the developing parasitoid. Switching to a novel host appears to have initial costs for a parasitoid, even when the novel host may be better quality, but the costs rapidly diminish. We predict that the net cost of switching to a novel host for parasitoids will be complex and will depend on the initial reduction in fitness from parasitizing a novel host versus local adaptations against parasitoids in the original host. PMID:25691971
Ito, Takafumi; Maeno, Yukio
Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) is known as the causative agent of herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis (HVHN) of goldfish (Carassius auratus). Recently, the virus has also been detected from Prussian carp (C. gibelio) and crucian carp (C. carassius) from European and Asian countries. To analyze the risk of spreading to new host species, the susceptibility of other fish species to the virus is essential. In this study experimental infections of indigenous Cyprininae species in Japan were performed by immersion in and intraperitoneal injection of a CyHV-2 isolate. Although Edonishiki, a variety of goldfish, immersed with the virus showed a cumulative mortality of 90%, no mortality was observed in ginbuna C. auratus langsdorfii, nagabuna C. auratus buergeri, nigorobuna C. auratus grandoculis and common carp Cyprinus carpio. Cumulative mortality was 100, 20 and 10% in intraperitoneally injected Edonishiki, ginbuna and nagabuna, respectively. Furthermore all Edonishiki immersed with the virus died. However, even after stimuli of sudden temperature changes, the immersed ginbuna and nagabuna did not die. Moreover no mortality was observed in co-reared Ranchu, another variety of goldfish, with immersed ginbuna and nagabuna although all three Ranchu co-reared with immersed Edonishiki died. CyHV-2 DNA was detected and the virus was re-isolated from all dead fish. Moreover CyHV-2 DNA was detected from some of the surviving Carassius spp. These results revealed that susceptibility of Japanese indigenous Cyprininae fish species to CyHV-2 is much lower than for goldfish. In addition, ability of replication of CyHV-2 might be different among Carassius fish species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Simon C Groen
Full Text Available Plant volatiles play important roles in attraction of certain pollinators and in host location by herbivorous insects. Virus infection induces changes in plant volatile emission profiles, and this can make plants more attractive to insect herbivores, such as aphids, that act as viral vectors. However, it is unknown if virus-induced alterations in volatile production affect plant-pollinator interactions. We found that volatiles emitted by cucumber mosaic virus (CMV-infected tomato (Solanum lycopersicum and Arabidopsis thaliana plants altered the foraging behaviour of bumblebees (Bombus terrestris. Virus-induced quantitative and qualitative changes in blends of volatile organic compounds emitted by tomato plants were identified by gas chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry. Experiments with a CMV mutant unable to express the 2b RNA silencing suppressor protein and with Arabidopsis silencing mutants implicate microRNAs in regulating emission of pollinator-perceivable volatiles. In tomato, CMV infection made plants emit volatiles attractive to bumblebees. Bumblebees pollinate tomato by 'buzzing' (sonicating the flowers, which releases pollen and enhances self-fertilization and seed production as well as pollen export. Without buzz-pollination, CMV infection decreased seed yield, but when flowers of mock-inoculated and CMV-infected plants were buzz-pollinated, the increased seed yield for CMV-infected plants was similar to that for mock-inoculated plants. Increased pollinator preference can potentially increase plant reproductive success in two ways: i as female parents, by increasing the probability that ovules are fertilized; ii as male parents, by increasing pollen export. Mathematical modeling suggested that over a wide range of conditions in the wild, these increases to the number of offspring of infected susceptible plants resulting from increased pollinator preference could outweigh underlying strong selection pressures favoring pathogen
Groen, Simon C; Jiang, Sanjie; Murphy, Alex M; Cunniffe, Nik J; Westwood, Jack H; Davey, Matthew P; Bruce, Toby J A; Caulfield, John C; Furzer, Oliver J; Reed, Alison; Robinson, Sophie I; Miller, Elizabeth; Davis, Christopher N; Pickett, John A; Whitney, Heather M; Glover, Beverley J; Carr, John P
Plant volatiles play important roles in attraction of certain pollinators and in host location by herbivorous insects. Virus infection induces changes in plant volatile emission profiles, and this can make plants more attractive to insect herbivores, such as aphids, that act as viral vectors. However, it is unknown if virus-induced alterations in volatile production affect plant-pollinator interactions. We found that volatiles emitted by cucumber mosaic virus (CMV)-infected tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and Arabidopsis thaliana plants altered the foraging behaviour of bumblebees (Bombus terrestris). Virus-induced quantitative and qualitative changes in blends of volatile organic compounds emitted by tomato plants were identified by gas chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry. Experiments with a CMV mutant unable to express the 2b RNA silencing suppressor protein and with Arabidopsis silencing mutants implicate microRNAs in regulating emission of pollinator-perceivable volatiles. In tomato, CMV infection made plants emit volatiles attractive to bumblebees. Bumblebees pollinate tomato by 'buzzing' (sonicating) the flowers, which releases pollen and enhances self-fertilization and seed production as well as pollen export. Without buzz-pollination, CMV infection decreased seed yield, but when flowers of mock-inoculated and CMV-infected plants were buzz-pollinated, the increased seed yield for CMV-infected plants was similar to that for mock-inoculated plants. Increased pollinator preference can potentially increase plant reproductive success in two ways: i) as female parents, by increasing the probability that ovules are fertilized; ii) as male parents, by increasing pollen export. Mathematical modeling suggested that over a wide range of conditions in the wild, these increases to the number of offspring of infected susceptible plants resulting from increased pollinator preference could outweigh underlying strong selection pressures favoring pathogen resistance
Davey, Matthew P.; Bruce, Toby J. A.; Caulfield, John C.; Furzer, Oliver J.; Reed, Alison; Robinson, Sophie I.; Miller, Elizabeth; Davis, Christopher N.; Pickett, John A.; Whitney, Heather M.; Glover, Beverley J.; Carr, John P.
Plant volatiles play important roles in attraction of certain pollinators and in host location by herbivorous insects. Virus infection induces changes in plant volatile emission profiles, and this can make plants more attractive to insect herbivores, such as aphids, that act as viral vectors. However, it is unknown if virus-induced alterations in volatile production affect plant-pollinator interactions. We found that volatiles emitted by cucumber mosaic virus (CMV)-infected tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and Arabidopsis thaliana plants altered the foraging behaviour of bumblebees (Bombus terrestris). Virus-induced quantitative and qualitative changes in blends of volatile organic compounds emitted by tomato plants were identified by gas chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry. Experiments with a CMV mutant unable to express the 2b RNA silencing suppressor protein and with Arabidopsis silencing mutants implicate microRNAs in regulating emission of pollinator-perceivable volatiles. In tomato, CMV infection made plants emit volatiles attractive to bumblebees. Bumblebees pollinate tomato by ‘buzzing’ (sonicating) the flowers, which releases pollen and enhances self-fertilization and seed production as well as pollen export. Without buzz-pollination, CMV infection decreased seed yield, but when flowers of mock-inoculated and CMV-infected plants were buzz-pollinated, the increased seed yield for CMV-infected plants was similar to that for mock-inoculated plants. Increased pollinator preference can potentially increase plant reproductive success in two ways: i) as female parents, by increasing the probability that ovules are fertilized; ii) as male parents, by increasing pollen export. Mathematical modeling suggested that over a wide range of conditions in the wild, these increases to the number of offspring of infected susceptible plants resulting from increased pollinator preference could outweigh underlying strong selection pressures favoring pathogen resistance
Mukaratirwa, S; Munjere, I F; Takawira, M; Chingwena, G
Gastrodiscosis outbreaks due to Gastrodiscus aegyptiacus were recorded in horses in the vicinity of Harare, Zimbabwe, in the absence of Bulinus forskalii, B. senegalensis and Cleopatra sp. which are considered to be the only intermediate host snails. This suggested the possibility of other snail species acting as intermediate hosts in the life cycle of the trematode. A study was carried out to determine the susceptibility of 7 freshwater snail species to infection with G. aegyptiacus. First generation (F-1) of 5 freshwater pulmonate snail species, Bulinus tropicus, Bulinus globosus, Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Helisoma dyuri and Physa acuta that were bred in the laboratory, and 2 prosobranch snail species, Melanoides tuberculata and Cleopatra sp. that were collected from the field were used in this study. Data pertaining to mortalities and cercariae shedding were recorded throughout the experimental period. The prosobranch snails, M. tuberculata and Cleopatra sp. were susceptible to G. aegyptiacus with a minimum prepatent period of 45 days and 54 days, respectively. Bulinus tropicus, P. acuta and H. duryi were susceptible as evidenced by the presence of different generations of rediae and mature cercariae on dissection at 59 days post-infection although attempts to induce the snails to shed from 28 days post-infection did not produce cercariae. Bulinus globosus and Bio. pfeifferi were refractory to infection. The results revealed the ability of G. aegyptiacus to infect M. tuberculata, Cleopatara sp., B. tropicus, P. acuta and H. duryi under experimental conditions and this may explain the recorded outbreaks of gastrodiscosis in equine populations in Zimbabwe in the absence of the known intermediate hosts. Bulinus tropicus is considered as the most likely major intermediate host of G. aegyptiacus because of its wide distribution in Zimbabwe and is well adapted to a wide variety of environments.
Full Text Available Gastrodiscosis outbreaks due to Gastrodiscus aegyptiacus were recorded in horses in the vicinity of Harare, Zimbabwe, in the absence of Bulinus forskalii, B. senegalensis and Cleopatra sp. which are considered to be the only intermediate host snails. This suggested the possibility of other snail species acting as intermediate hosts in the life cycle of the trematode. A study was carried out to determine the susceptibility of 7 freshwater snail species to infection with G. aegyptiacus. First generation (F-1 of 5 freshwater pulmonate snail species, Bulinus tropicus, Bulinus globosus, Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Helisoma dyuri and Physa acuta that were bred in the laboratory, and 2 prosobranch snail species, Melanoides tuberculata and Cleopatra sp. that were collected from the field were used in this study. Data pertaining to mortalities and cercariae shedding were recorded throughout the experimental period. The prosobranch snails, M. tuberculata and Cleopatra sp. were susceptible to G. aegyptiacus with a minimum prepatent period of 45 days and 54 days, respectively. Bulinus tropicus, P. acuta and H. duryi were susceptible as evidenced by the presence of different generations of rediae and mature cercariae on dissection at 59 days post-infection although attempts to induce the snails to shed from 28 days post-infection did not produce cercariae. Bulinus globosus and Bio. Pfeifferi were refractory to infection. The results revealed the ability of G. aegyptiacus to infect M. tuberculata, Cleopatara sp., B. tropicus, P. acuta and H. duryi under experimental conditions and this may explain the recorded outbreaks of gastrodiscosis in equine populations in Zimbabwe in the absence of the known intermediate hosts. Bulinus tropicus is considered as the most likely major intermediate host of G. aegyptiacus because of its wide distribution in Zimbabwe and is well adapted to a wide variety of environments.
Mannion, Catharine M; Derksen, Andrew I; Seal, Dakshina R; Osborne, Lance S; Martin, Cliff G
Since its 2005 introduction into the United States, chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), has become a problematic pest of agronomic, vegetable, fruit, and ornamental plants. Knowledge of its population dynamics may help managers better monitor and control S. dorsalis. Population estimates were recorded for S. dorsalis and other thrips species on Knock-Out rose (Rosa 'Radrazz') and green buttonwood (Conocarpus erectus L.) from July 2007 to September 2008 in two field plots (one per plant species) in Homestead, FL. Yellow sticky card traps and samples of terminals, flowers, buds, and leaves were collected. S. dorsalis accounted for 95% of all thrips individuals collected from plants and 84% from traps with the remainder including at least 18 other thrips species. More thrips were caught on or flying near rose plants (47,438) than on or near buttonwoods (5,898), and on-plant densities of S. dorsalis appeared higher for rose than for buttonwood. Compared with rose leaves, rose buds, terminals, and flowers each had higher numbers of S. dorsalis, and buds and terminals had higher densities. On each host plant species, S. dorsalis density fluctuated over time with peaks in the late spring, summer, and fall, but populations were consistently low in the late winter and early spring. On roses, increased plant damage ratings correlated with reduced numbers of flowers and buds, reduced mean flower areas, and increased on-plant number and density of S. dorsalis. There were positive correlations over time between S. dorsalis density and plant damage rating for rose flowers (R = 0.78; P = 0.0003) and for buttonwood terminals (R = 0.90; P = 0.0001). Yellow sticky card traps were effective for monitoring S. dorsalis and may be especially useful and economically justified for the most susceptible hosts, but they also work well for less susceptible hosts. A good S. dorsalis scouting program should hence consider trap catches and symptoms such as leaf
Full Text Available Integrated taxonomy uses evidence from a number of different character types to delimit species and other natural groupings. While this approach has been advocated recently, and should be of particular utility in the case of diminutive insect parasitoids, there are relatively few examples of its application in these taxa. Here, we use an integrated framework to delimit independent lineages in Encyrtus sasakii (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Encyrtidae, a parasitoid morphospecies previously considered a host generalist. Sequence variation at the DNA barcode (cytochrome c oxidase I, COI and nuclear 28S rDNA loci were compared to morphometric recordings and mating compatibility tests, among samples of this species complex collected from its four scale insect hosts, covering a broad geographic range of northern and central China. Our results reveal that Encyrtus sasakii comprises three lineages that, while sharing a similar morphology, are highly divergent at the molecular level. At the barcode locus, the median K2P molecular distance between individuals from three primary populations was found to be 11.3%, well outside the divergence usually observed between Chalcidoidea conspecifics (0.5%. Corroborative evidence that the genetic lineages represent independent species was found from mating tests, where compatibility was observed only within populations, and morphometric analysis, which found that despite apparent morphological homogeneity, populations clustered according to forewing shape. The independent lineages defined by the integrated analysis correspond to the three scale insect hosts, suggesting the presence of host specific cryptic species. The finding of hidden host specificity in this species complex demonstrates the critical role that DNA barcoding will increasingly play in revealing hidden biodiversity in taxa that present difficulties for traditional taxonomic approaches.
Domestic dog breeds are hosts for the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, but infestation levels vary among breeds. Beagles are less susceptible to tick infestations than English cocker spaniels due to enhanced production of 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde that act as tick repellents. We report th...
Neil A. Mabbott
Full Text Available Prion diseases are sub-acute neurodegenerative diseases that affect humans and some domestic and free-ranging animals. Infectious prion agents are considered to comprise solely of abnormally folded isoforms of the cellular prion protein known as PrPSc. Pathology during prion disease is restricted to the central nervous system where it causes extensive neurodegeneration and ultimately leads to the death of the host. The first half of this review provides a thorough account of our understanding of the various ways in which PrPSc prions may spread between individuals within a population, both horizontally and vertically. Many natural prion diseases are acquired peripherally, such as by oral exposure, lesions to skin or mucous membranes, and possibly also via the nasal cavity. Following peripheral exposure, some prions accumulate to high levels within the secondary lymphoid organs as they make their journey from the site of infection to the brain, a process termed neuroinvasion. The replication of PrPSc prions within secondary lymphoid organs is important for their efficient spread to the brain. The second half of this review describes the key tissues, cells and molecules which are involved in the propagation of PrPSc prions from peripheral sites of exposure (such as the lumen of the intestine to the brain. This section also considers how additional factors such as inflammation and aging might influence prion disease susceptibility.
Mabbott, Neil A
Prion diseases are sub-acute neurodegenerative diseases that affect humans and some domestic and free-ranging animals. Infectious prion agents are considered to comprise solely of abnormally folded isoforms of the cellular prion protein known as PrP Sc . Pathology during prion disease is restricted to the central nervous system where it causes extensive neurodegeneration and ultimately leads to the death of the host. The first half of this review provides a thorough account of our understanding of the various ways in which PrP Sc prions may spread between individuals within a population, both horizontally and vertically. Many natural prion diseases are acquired peripherally, such as by oral exposure, lesions to skin or mucous membranes, and possibly also via the nasal cavity. Following peripheral exposure, some prions accumulate to high levels within the secondary lymphoid organs as they make their journey from the site of infection to the brain, a process termed neuroinvasion. The replication of PrP Sc prions within secondary lymphoid organs is important for their efficient spread to the brain. The second half of this review describes the key tissues, cells and molecules which are involved in the propagation of PrP Sc prions from peripheral sites of exposure (such as the lumen of the intestine) to the brain. This section also considers how additional factors such as inflammation and aging might influence prion disease susceptibility.
Rowena Y Kelley
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin contamination of maize pose negative impacts in agriculture and health. Commercial maize hybrids are generally susceptible to this fungus. Significant levels of host plant resistance have been observed in certain maize inbred lines. This study was conducted to identify maize genes associated with host plant resistance or susceptibility to A. flavus infection and aflatoxin accumulation. RESULTS: Genome wide gene expression levels with or without A. flavus inoculation were compared in two resistant maize inbred lines (Mp313E and Mp04:86 in contrast to two susceptible maize inbred lines (Va35 and B73 by microarray analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA was used to find genes contributing to the larger variances associated with the resistant or susceptible maize inbred lines. The significance levels of gene expression were determined by using SAS and LIMMA programs. Fifty candidate genes were selected and further investigated by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR in a time-course study on Mp313E and Va35. Sixteen of the candidate genes were found to be highly expressed in Mp313E and fifteen in Va35. Out of the 31 highly expressed genes, eight were mapped to seven previously identified quantitative trait locus (QTL regions. A gene encoding glycine-rich RNA binding protein 2 was found to be associated with the host hypersensitivity and susceptibility in Va35. A nuclear pore complex protein YUP85-like gene was found to be involved in the host resistance in Mp313E. CONCLUSION: Maize genes associated with host plant resistance or susceptibility were identified by a combination of microarray analysis, qRT-PCR analysis, and QTL mapping methods. Our findings suggest that multiple mechanisms are involved in maize host plant defense systems in response to Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin accumulation. These findings will be important in identification of DNA markers for breeding maize lines
Elizabeth J Carlton
Full Text Available In light of multinational efforts to reduce helminthiasis, we evaluated whether there exist high-risk subpopulations for helminth infection. Such individuals are not only at risk of morbidity, but may be important parasite reservoirs and appropriate targets for disease control interventions.We followed two longitudinal cohorts in Sichuan, China to determine whether there exist persistent human reservoirs for the water-borne helminth, Schistosoma japonicum, in areas where treatment is ongoing. Participants were tested for S. japonicum infection at enrollment and two follow-up points. All infections were promptly treated with praziquantel. We estimated the ratio of the observed to expected proportion of the population with two consecutive infections at follow-up. The expected proportion was estimated using a prevalence-based model and, as highly exposed individuals may be most likely to be repeatedly infected, a second model that accounted for exposure using a data adaptive, machine learning algorithm. Using the prevalence-based model, there were 1.5 and 5.8 times more individuals with two consecutive infections than expected in cohorts 1 and 2, respectively (p<0.001 in both cohorts. When we accounted for exposure, the ratio was 1.3 (p = 0.013 and 2.1 (p<0.001 in cohorts 1 and 2, respectively.We found clustering of infections within a limited number of hosts that was not fully explained by host exposure. This suggests some hosts may be particularly susceptible to S. japonicum infection, or that uncured infections persist despite treatment. We propose an explanatory model that suggests that as cercarial exposure declines, so too does the size of the vulnerable subpopulation. In low-prevalence settings, interventions targeting individuals with a history of S. japonicum infection may efficiently advance disease control efforts.
Vázquez Diego P
Full Text Available We tested experimentally the effects of the presence of non-susceptible hosts on the infection with Trypanosoma cruzi of the vector Triatoma infestans. The experiment consisted in two treatments: with chickens, including two chickens (non-susceptible hosts and two infected guinea pigs (susceptible hosts, and without chickens, including only two infected guinea pigs. The hosts were held unrestrained in individual metal cages inside a closed tulle chamber. A total of 200 uninfected T. infestans third instar nymphs were liberated in each replica, collected on day 14, and examined for infection and blood meal sources on day 32-36. The additional presence of chickens relative to infected guinea pigs: (a significantly modified the spatial distribution of bugs; (b increased significantly the likelihoods of having a detectable blood meal on any host and molting to the next instar; (c did not affect the bugs' probability of death by predation; and (d decreased significantly the overall percentage of T. infestans infected with T. cruzi. The bugs collected from inside or close to the guinea pigs' cages showed a higher infection rate (71-88% than those collected from the chickens' cages (22-32%. Mixed blood meals on chickens and guinea pigs were detected in 12-21% of bugs. Although the presence of chickens would decrease the overall percentage of infected bugs in short term experiments, the high rate of host change of T. infestans would make this difference fade out if longer exposure times had been provided.
Bantar, C; Fernandez Canigia, L; Relloso, S; Lanza, A; Bianchini, H; Smayevsky, J
The association between the three species belonging to the "Streptococcus milleri" group and different sites of isolation was examined for 73 successive strains recovered from clinically significant, purulent infections. Susceptibility testing was performed on 64 of these strains. The present study supports the association of particular species with different clinical sources. Susceptibility data suggest that emerging penicillin resistance among Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus intermedius isolates may represent a potential clinical problem in the therapeutic management of infections caused by these species. PMID:8818904
Mohan; Ram Murugan
BJECTIVES 1. To evaluate the Vitek 2 system for clinical identification of Candida species and their antifungal susceptibility test; 2. To study the incidence of various types of Candida species in this part of Tamilnadu. METHODS Samples collected from different wards were subjected for culture, isolation and identification of Candida Species and Antifungal Susceptibility testing by Vitek System. Vitek 2 test was carried out in Apollo Specialty Hospital Lab Services, Madurai....
Hosseini, S; Heyman, F; Olsson, U; Broberg, A; Funck Jensen, D; Karlsson, M
.... Phytophthora niederhauserii is considered to have a broad host range. Zoospores of some P hytophthora species are chemotactically attracted to the isoflavones that are secreted by their host plants...
McFrederick, Quinn S; Wcislo, William T; Hout, Michael C; Mueller, Ulrich G
Social transmission and host developmental stage are thought to profoundly affect the structure of bacterial communities associated with honey bees and bumble bees, but these ideas have not been explored in other bee species. The halictid bees Megalopta centralis and M. genalis exhibit intrapopulation social polymorphism, which we exploit to test whether bacterial communities differ by host social structure, developmental stage, or host species. We collected social and solitary Megalopta nests and sampled bees and nest contents from all stages of host development. To survey these bacterial communities, we used 16S rRNA gene 454 pyrosequencing. We found no effect of social structure, but found differences by host species and developmental stage. Wolbachia prevalence differed between the two host species. Bacterial communities associated with different developmental stages appeared to be driven by environmentally acquired bacteria. A Lactobacillus kunkeei clade bacterium that is consistently associated with other bee species was dominant in pollen provisions and larval samples, but less abundant in mature larvae and pupae. Foraging adults appeared to often reacquire L. kunkeei clade bacteria, likely while foraging at flowers. Environmental transmission appears to be more important than social transmission for Megalopta bees at the cusp between social and solitary behavior. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yin, Xiao; Liu, Rui-Qi; Su, Hang; Su, Li; Guo, Yu-Rui; Wang, Zi-Jia; Du, Wei; Li, Mei-Jie; Zhang, Xi; Wang, Yue-Jin; Liu, Guo-Tian; Xu, Yan
The downy mildew disease in grapevines is caused by Plasmopara viticola. This disease poses a serious threat wherever viticulture is practiced. Wild Vitis species showing resistance to P. viticola offer a promising pathway to develop new grapevine cultivars resistant to P. viticola which will allow reduced use of environmentally unfriendly fungicides. Here, transmission and scanning microscopy was used to compare the resistance responses to downy mildew of three resistant genotypes of V. davidii var. cyanocarpa, V. piasesezkii and V. pseudoreticulata and the suceptible V. vinifera cultivar 'Pinot Noir'. Following inoculation with sporangia of P. viticola isolate 'YL' on V. vinifera cv. 'Pinot Noir', the infection was characterized by a rapid spread of intercellular hyphae, a high frequency of haustorium formation within the host's mesophyll cells, the production of sporangia and by the absence of host-cell necrosis. In contrast zoospores were collapsed in the resistant V. pseudoreticulata 'Baihe-35-1', or secretions appeared arround stomata at the beginning of the infection period in V. davidii var. cyanocarpa 'Langao-5' and V. piasezkii 'Liuba-8'. The main characteristics of the resistance responses were the rapid depositions of callose and the appearance of empty hyphae and the plasmolysis of penetrated tissue. Moreover, collapsed haustoria were observed in V. davidii var. cyanocarpa 'Langao-5' at 5 days post inoculation (dpi) and in V. piasezkii 'Liuba-8' at 7 dpi. Lastly, necrosis extended beyond the zone of restricted colonization in all three resistant genotypes. Sporangia were absent in V. piasezkii 'Liuba-8' and greatly decreased in V. davidii var. cyanocarpa 'Langao-5' and in V. pseudoreticulata 'Baihe-35-1' compared with in V. vinifera cv. 'Pinot Noir'. Overall, these results provide insights into the cellular biological basis of the incompatible interactions between the pathogen and the host. They indicate a number of several resistant Chinese wild
Krasnov, B R; Mouillot, D; Khokhlova, I S; Shenbrot, G I; Poulin, R
Different parasite taxa exploit different host resources and are often unlikely to interact directly. It is unclear, however, whether the diversity of any given parasite taxon is indirectly influenced by that of other parasite taxa on the same host. Some components of host immune defences may operate simultaneously against all kinds of parasites, whereas investment by the host in specific defences against one type of parasite may come at the expense of defence against other parasites. We investigated the relationships between the species diversity of 4 higher taxa of ectoparasites (fleas, sucking lice, mesostigmatid mites, and ixodid ticks), and between the species richness of ectoparasites and endoparasitic helminths, across different species of rodent hosts. Our analyses used 2 measures of species diversity, species richness and taxonomic distinctness, and controlled for the potentially confounding effects of sampling effort and phylogenetic relationships among host species. We found positive pairwise correlations between the species richness of fleas, mites and ticks; however, there was no association between species richness of any of these 3 groups and that of lice. We also found a strong positive relationship between the taxonomic distinctness of ecto- and endoparasite assemblages across host species. These results suggest the existence of a process of apparent facilitation among unrelated taxa in the organization of parasite communities. We propose explanations based on host immune responses, involving acquired cross-resistance to infection and interspecific variation in immunocompetence among hosts, to account for these patterns.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Using phylogenetic approaches, the expectation that parallel cladogenesis should occur between parasites and hosts has been validated in some studies, but most others provided evidence for frequent host shifts. Here we examine the evolutionary history of the association between Microbotryum fungi that cause anther smut disease and their Caryophyllaceous hosts. We investigated the congruence between host and parasite phylogenies, inferred cospeciation events and host shifts, and assessed whether geography or plant ecology could have facilitated the putative host shifts identified. For cophylogeny analyses on microorganisms, parasite strains isolated from different host species are generally considered to represent independent evolutionary lineages, often without checking whether some strains actually belong to the same generalist species. Such an approach may mistake intraspecific nodes for speciation events and thus bias the results of cophylogeny analyses if generalist species are found on closely related hosts. A second aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the impact of species delimitation on the inferences of cospeciation. Results We inferred a multiple gene phylogeny of anther smut strains from 21 host plants from several geographic origins, complementing a previous study on the delimitation of fungal species and their host specificities. We also inferred a multi-gene phylogeny of their host plants, and the two phylogenies were compared. A significant level of cospeciation was found when each host species was considered to harbour a specific parasite strain, i.e. when generalist parasite species were not recognized as such. This approach overestimated the frequency of cocladogenesis because individual parasite species capable of infecting multiple host species (i.e. generalists were found on closely related hosts. When generalist parasite species were appropriately delimited and only a single representative of
Rad Afshar G.
Full Text Available Diagnosis and treatment of patients with periodontitis as a manifestation of systemic diseases"nis of especial concern to the periodontist, especially those associated with genetic disorders, which have"npoor prognosis. With aggressive progression of periodontal bone and attachment loss, a patient could be"na partial or total edentulous early in life."nThe aim of this article was to report a case of Papillon-Lefevre syndrome (PLS with generalized"nprepubertal periodontitis (GPPP. A ten-year old boy for whom active periodontal treatment and"nsubsequent maintenance recalls was performed for five years since the diagnosis of PLS. Treatment"nprocedures included: precise mechanical instrumentation at several visits, periodontal surgery, adjunctive"nserial systemic antibiotic therapy, professional irrigation of pockets with 0/2% chlorhexidine solution and"nperiodic maintenance recall visits. In spite of all of these, progressive course of the disease continued"nuntil the patient was fifteen and edentulous. Unfortunately association of GPPP with systemic"nunmanageable condition or diseases has caused refractory periodontitis, which yet has no proven and"nreliable treatment protocol. Besides, this article has discussed more successful treatment modalities for"nPLS with GPPP and the genetic aspects of host susceptibility, which is a complicated and challenging"nfield.
Badali, Hamid; Mohammadi, Rasoul; Mashedi, Olga; de Hoog, G Sybren; Meis, Jacques F
Despite the common, worldwide, occurrence of dermatophytes, little information is available regarding susceptibility profiles against currently available and novel antifungal agents. A collection of sixty-eight clinical Trichophyton species and Epidermophyton floccosum were previously identified and
Rosen, L; Shroyer, D A
Five species of colonized Toxorhynchites mosquitoes were compared for relative susceptibility to parenteral infection with the four dengue serotypes and St. Louis and Japanese encephalitis viruses. Tx. amboinensis, Tx. brevipalpis, Tx. rutilus, and Tx. splendens were equally susceptible to infection with the dengue viruses, while Tx. theobaldi was relatively resistant to infection with those viruses. All five mosquito species were equally susceptible to infection with the encephalitis viruses. The intensity of immunofluorescence in head squashes was slightly less in Tx. brevipalpis infected with the dengue viruses as compared to the other three mosquito species susceptible to those viruses. Immunofluorescence was also less in Tx. theobaldi infected with the encephalitis viruses as compared with all the other mosquito species.
McLeish Michael J
Full Text Available Abstract Background The interaction between insects and plants takes myriad forms in the generation of spectacular diversity. In this association a species host range is fundamental and often measured using an estimate of phylogenetic concordance between species. Pollinating fig wasps display extreme host species specificity, but the intraspecific variation in empirical accounts of host affiliation has previously been underestimated. In this investigation, lineage delimitation and codiversification tests are used to generate and discuss hypotheses elucidating on pollinating fig wasp associations with Ficus. Results Statistical parsimony and AMOVA revealed deep divergences at the COI locus within several pollinating fig wasp species that persist on the same host Ficus species. Changes in branching patterns estimated using the generalized mixed Yule coalescent test indicated lineage duplication on the same Ficus species. Conversely, Elisabethiella and Alfonsiella fig wasp species are able to reproduce on multiple, but closely related host fig species. Tree reconciliation tests indicate significant codiversification as well as significant incongruence between fig wasp and Ficus phylogenies. Conclusions The findings demonstrate more relaxed pollinating fig wasp host specificity than previously appreciated. Evolutionarily conservative host associations have been tempered by horizontal transfer and lineage duplication among closely related Ficus species. Independent and asynchronistic diversification of pollinating fig wasps is best explained by a combination of both sympatric and allopatric models of speciation. Pollinator host preference constraints permit reproduction on closely related Ficus species, but uncertainty of the frequency and duration of these associations requires better resolution.
Ballesteros, Gabriel I; Gadau, Jürgen; Legeai, Fabrice; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Angelica; Lavandero, Blas; Simon, Jean-Christophe; Figueroa, Christian C
The molecular mechanisms that allow generalist parasitoids to exploit many, often very distinct hosts are practically unknown. The wasp Aphidius ervi, a generalist koinobiont parasitoid of aphids, was introduced from Europe into Chile in the late 1970s to control agriculturally important aphid species. A recent study showed significant differences in host preference and host acceptance (infectivity) depending on the host A. ervi were reared on. In contrast, no genetic differentiation between A. ervi populations parasitizing different aphid species and aphids of the same species reared on different host plants was found in Chile. Additionally, the same study did not find any fitness effects in A. ervi if offspring were reared on a different host as their mothers. Here, we determined the effect of aphid host species (Sitobion avenae versus Acyrthosiphon pisum reared on two different host plants alfalfa and pea) on the transcriptome of adult A. ervi females. We found a large number of differentially expressed genes (between host species: head: 2,765; body: 1,216; within the same aphid host species reared on different host plants: alfalfa versus pea: head 593; body 222). As expected, the transcriptomes from parasitoids reared on the same host species (pea aphid) but originating from different host plants (pea versus alfalfa) were more similar to each other than the transcriptomes of parasitoids reared on a different aphid host and host plant (head: 648 and 1,524 transcripts; body: 566 and 428 transcripts). We found several differentially expressed odorant binding proteins and olfactory receptor proteins in particular, when we compared parasitoids from different host species. Additionally, we found differentially expressed genes involved in neuronal growth and development as well as signaling pathways. These results point towards a significant rewiring of the transcriptome of A. ervi depending on aphid-plant complex where parasitoids develop, even if different biotypes
Bandilla, M; Hakalahti, T; Hudson, P J; Valtonen, E T
By sampling individual rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, at a fish farm we showed that Argulus coregoni were aggregated within their host population. The relative significance of susceptibility and exposure generating the observed pattern was tested using experimental infections. We examined, whether rainbow trout developed protective resistance mechanisms against the louse following a challenge infection and if there was variation between individual trout in their susceptibility to A. coregoni metanauplii. Fish were exposed to 20 A. coregoni for 5, 25, 50, 85 or 120 min and the numbers attaching recorded. Three weeks later, developing argulids were removed and the experiment repeated with a standardized exposure of 20 metanauplii. Prior exposure of fish with A. coregoni did not reduce the total infection intensity compared to naive fish, but fish gained infection more rapidly. We suggest that there is no protective acquired resistance of pre-exposed rainbow trout to subsequent Argulus exposure. The possibility that an immunosuppressive mechanism by argulids was acting enabling the higher attachment rate could be refuted since control individuals, not previously exposed to lice, gained the infection at a similar rate as the fish challenged twice. Our results do not indicate clear differences in susceptibility among individual fish but the transmission of metanauplii on fish seemed to be opportunistic and non-selective. Our results support the view that variation in exposure time, rather than differences in susceptibility of individual hosts, might be the key factor in generating the aggregated distribution of Argulus on their hosts.
C. J. Carter
Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is not only implicated in schizophrenia and related disorders, but also in Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease, cancer, cardiac myopathies, and autoimmune disorders. During its life cycle, the pathogen interacts with ~3000 host genes or proteins. Susceptibility genes for multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, childhood obesity, Parkinson's disease, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (multiple sclerosis, and autism (, but not anorexia or chronic fatigue are highly enriched in the human arm of this interactome and 18 (ADHD to 33% (MS of the susceptibility genes relate to it. The signalling pathways involved in the susceptibility gene/interactome overlaps are relatively specific and relevant to each disease suggesting a means whereby susceptibility genes could orient the attentions of a single pathogen towards disruption of the specific pathways that together contribute (positively or negatively to the endophenotypes of different diseases. Conditional protein knockdown, orchestrated by T. gondii proteins or antibodies binding to those of the host (pathogen derived autoimmunity and metabolite exchange, may contribute to this disruption. Susceptibility genes may thus be related to the causes and influencers of disease, rather than (and as well as to the disease itself.
Al Hatmi, A.M.S.
During the last decades, human infections by Fusarium species (Fungi) have shown global increase, both in immunocompromised and in immunocompetent patients. These infections can be classified in four classes: (1) superficial infections of skin and nails, (2) keratitis of the cornea, and (3) deep localized and (4) disseminated infections. In this PhD project we addressed some of the major problems connected to human fusarioses. (1) We first identified and delimited the species that are etiolog...
Jordaan, Elizabeth M.; De Waele, D.
The host suitability of five of the most common weed species occurring in maize (Zea mays L.) fields in South Africa to Pratylenchus zeae was tested. Based on the number of nematodes per root unit, mealie crotalaria (Crotalaria sphaerocarpa) was a good host; goose grass (Eleusine indica), common pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus), and thorn apple (Datura stramonium) were moderate hosts; and khaki weed (Tagetes minuta) was a poor host. Only the root residues of khaki weed suppressed the P. zeae inf...
A central aspect in biology and ecology is to determine the combination of factors that influence the distribution of species. In the case of herbivorous insects, the distribution of herbivorous species is necessarily associated with their host plants, a pattern often referred to as “host use”. Nove...
Mirajkar, Nandita S; Davies, Peter R; Gebhart, Connie J
Outbreaks of swine dysentery, caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and the recently discovered "Brachyspira hampsonii," have reoccurred in North American swine herds since the late 2000s. Additionally, multiple Brachyspira species have been increasingly isolated by North American diagnostic laboratories. In Europe, the reliance on antimicrobial therapy for control of swine dysentery has been followed by reports of antimicrobial resistance over time. The objectives of our study were to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility trends of four Brachyspira species originating from U.S. swine herds and to investigate their associations with the bacterial species, genotypes, and epidemiological origins of the isolates. We evaluated the susceptibility of B. hyodysenteriae, B. hampsonii, Brachyspira pilosicoli, and Brachyspira murdochii to tiamulin, valnemulin, doxycycline, lincomycin, and tylosin by broth microdilution and that to carbadox by agar dilution. In general, Brachyspira species showed high susceptibility to tiamulin, valnemulin, and carbadox, heterogeneous susceptibility to doxycycline, and low susceptibility to lincomycin and tylosin. A trend of decreasing antimicrobial susceptibility by species was observed (B. hampsonii > B. hyodysenteriae > B. murdochii > B. pilosicoli). In general, Brachyspira isolates from the United States were more susceptible to these antimicrobials than were isolates from other countries. Decreased antimicrobial susceptibility was associated with the genotype, stage of production, and production system from which the isolate originated, which highlights the roles of biosecurity and husbandry in disease prevention and control. Finally, this study also highlights the urgent need for Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute-approved clinical breakpoints for Brachyspira species, to facilitate informed therapeutic and control strategies. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Christodoulides, Nicholas; Van Dam, Alex; Peterson, Daniel A.
For plant-eating insects, we still have only a nascent understanding of the genetic basis of host-use promiscuity. Here, to improve that situation, we investigated host-induced gene expression plasticity in the invasive lobate lac scale insect, Paratachardina pseudolobata (Hemiptera: Keriidae). We...... of several recently published studies of other plant-eating insect species. Thus, across plant-eating insect species, there may be a common set of gene expression changes that enable host-use promiscuity....
Fogliata, S V; Vera, A; Gastaminza, G; Cuenya, M I; Zucchi, M I; Willink, E; Castagnaro, A P; Murúa, M G
The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), has a widespread distribution throughout the Western Hemisphere and is a pest of many crop plants including sugarcane, corn, sorghum and rice. The use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn has been the primary tool for managing this species in corn fields. Sugarcane borer control has been recently threatened by observations of susceptibility and/or resistance to certain varieties of Bt corn and the protein used in many newer varieties. This has led to increased interest in understanding sugarcane borer genetic diversity and gene flow within and among its populations and the consequent exchange of alleles between geographically distant populations. The objective of this study was to examine reproductive compatibility between host-associated geographic populations of D. saccharalis in Argentina and to determine whether this pest represents a complex of host-associated cryptic species rather than a wide ranging generalist species. Intra and inter-population crosses revealed that D. saccharalis populations from the northwestern and Pampas regions presented evidence of prezygotic and postzygotic incompatibility. Such a result is likely to be the product of an interruption of gene flow produced by either geographic or host plant associated isolation, suggesting that Tucumán (northwestern) and Buenos Aires (Pampas) populations of D. saccharalis are a distinct genotype and possibly an incipient species.
Full Text Available Bacteria of the genus Acinetobacter, especially species Acinetobacter baumanii, is one of the most important causes of infection in immunocompromised patients in hospital. The aim of this study was to determine susceptibility of Acinetobacter species isolated from swabs of inflamed wounds to antibiotics. The study was conducted in several departments of the Clinical Centre 'Kragujevac' through retrospective analysis of 220 Acinetobacter species isolates from surgical wounds in 2011. The isolates of Acinetobaster species were mostly sensitive to ampicillin-sulbactam, colistin and tigecycline in all hospital departments that were surveyed. Only minority of the isolated Acinetobacter species were susceptible to cotrimoxazole, amikacin, imipenem and/or meropenem. Antibiotics with the highest in vitro efficacy against Acinetobacter species were ampicillinsulbactam, colistin and tigecycline. Highly resistant Acinetobacter species were more frequently isolated from patients in Intensive Care Unit.
19, 48.7%), Can- dida glabrata (n=7, 17.9%), Candida tropicalis (n=4, 10.3%) and Candida dubliniensis (n=4,. 10.3%). Other species isolated were Candida sake (n=2, 5.1%), Candida krusei (n=2, 5.1%) and. Candida parapsilosis (n=1, 2.6%).
James H. Miller; M. Boyd Edwards
Abstract. This study used a simple approach of post-treatment observations to colleot data on hexbicide effectiveness for common southeastern hardwoods and shrub species, and for loblolly pine. Both site preparation and release herbicides labeled for loblolly pine were examiued.
Al Hatmi, A.M.S.
During the last decades, human infections by Fusarium species (Fungi) have shown global increase, both in immunocompromised and in immunocompetent patients. These infections can be classified in four classes: (1) superficial infections of skin and nails, (2) keratitis of the cornea, and (3) deep
Dagi, Hatice Turk; Findik, Duygu; Senkeles, Cigdem; Arslan, Ugur
In this study, our aim was to identify Candida species isolated from bloodstream infections and to determine their susceptibilities to various antifungal agents to demonstrate the local resistance profiles and to guide empirical treatment for clinicians. Two hundred Candida isolates (95 Candida albicans, 105 non-albicans Candida strains) were included in the study. Candida species were identified by conventional, biochemical and molecular methods. Antifungal susceptibility tests for amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, caspofungin and anidulafungin were performed with broth microdilution method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M27-A3 document. Of the 200 Candida strains, the most prevalent species were C. albicans (47.5 %), Candida glabrata (18.0 %) and Candida parapsilosis complex (14.0 %). All Candida species except for three (1.5 %) Candida kefyr strains were susceptible to amphotericin B. Only one (2.8 %) C. glabrata was resistant to fluconazole (MIC ≥ 64 μg/ml), and the others (97.2 %) exhibited dose-dependent susceptibility. All species, but C. glabrata strains, were susceptible to fluconazole. Resistance to voriconazole, posaconazole, caspofungin and anidulafungin was not detected in any strain. Candida albicans were susceptible to all antifungal drugs. Three C. kefyr strains were resistant to amphotericin B. Only one C. glabrata was resistant to fluconazole. All the strains were susceptible to voriconazole, posaconazole, caspofungin and anidulafungin. In vitro antifungal susceptibility tests should be performed to select of appropriate and effective antifungal therapy, and monitor the development of resistance.
C. J. Carter
Toxoplasma gondii is not only implicated in schizophrenia and related disorders, but also in Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease, cancer, cardiac myopathies, and autoimmune disorders. During its life cycle, the pathogen interacts with ~3000 host genes or proteins. Susceptibility genes for multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, childhood obesity, Parkinson's disease, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (P??from??8.01E ? 05??(ADHD)??to??1.22E ?...
Full Text Available Wolbachia are intracellular bacteria that manipulate the reproduction of their arthropod hosts in remarkable ways. They are predominantly transmitted vertically from mother to offspring but also occasionally horizontally between species. In doing so, they infect a huge range of arthropod species worldwide. Recently, a statistical analysis estimated the infection frequency of Wolbachia among arthropod hosts to be 66%. At the same time, the authors of this analysis highlighted some weaknesses of the underlying data and concluded that in order to improve the estimate, a larger number of individuals per species should be assayed and species be chosen more randomly. Here we apply the statistical approach to a more appropriate data set from a recent survey that tested both a broad range of species and a sufficient number of individuals per species. Indeed, we find a substantially different infection frequency: We now estimate the proportion of Wolbachia-infected species to be around 40% which is lower than the previous estimate but still points to a surprisingly high number of arthropods harboring the bacteria. Notwithstanding this difference, we confirm the previous result that, within a given species, typically most or only a few individuals are infected. Moreover, we extend our analysis to include several reproductive parasites other than Wolbachia that were also screened for in the aforementioned empirical survey. For these symbionts we find a large variation in estimated infection frequencies and corroborate the finding that Wolbachia are the most abundant endosymbionts among arthropod species.
Visvabharathy, Lavanya; Xayarath, Bobbi; Weinberg, Guy; Shilling, Rebecca A.; Freitag, Nancy E.
Anesthetics are known to modulate host immune responses, but separating the variables of surgery from anesthesia when analyzing hospital acquired infections is often difficult. Here, the bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) was used to assess the impact of the common anesthetic propofol on host susceptibility to infection. Brief sedation of mice with physiologically relevant concentrations of propofol increased bacterial burdens in target organs by more than 10,000-fold relative to infected control animals. The adverse effects of propofol sedation on immune clearance of Lm persisted after recovery from sedation, as animals given the drug remained susceptible to infection for days following anesthesia. In contrast to propofol, sedation with alternative anesthetics such as ketamine/xylazine or pentobarbital did not increase susceptibility to systemic Lm infection. Propofol altered systemic cytokine and chemokine expression during infection, and prevented effective bacterial clearance by inhibiting the recruitment and/or activity of immune effector cells at sites of infection. Propofol exposure induced a marked reduction in marginal zone macrophages in the spleens of Lm infected mice, resulting in bacterial dissemination into deep tissue. Propofol also significantly increased mouse kidney abscess formation following infection with the common nosocomial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Taken together, these data indicate that even brief exposure to propofol severely compromises host resistance to microbial infection for days after recovery from sedation. PMID:26381144
Friscina, Arianna; Chiappetta, Laura; Jacquemond, Mireille; Tepfer, Mark
Cacao swollen shoot virus (CSSV) is a major pathogen of cacao (Theobroma cacao) in Africa, and long-standing efforts to limit its spread by the culling of infected trees have had very limited success. CSSV is a particularly difficult virus to study, as it has a very narrow host range, limited to several tropical tree species. Furthermore, the virus is not mechanically transmissible, and its insect vector can only be used with difficulty. Thus, the only efficient means to infect cacao plants that have been experimentally described so far are by particle bombardment or the agroinoculation of cacao plants with an infectious clone. We have genetically transformed three non-host species with an infectious form of the CSSV genome: two experimental hosts widely used in plant virology (Nicotiana tabacum and N. benthamiana) and the model species Arabidopsis thaliana. In transformed plants of all three species, the CSSV genome was able to replicate, and, in tobacco, CSSV particles could be observed by immunosorbent electron microscopy, demonstrating that the complete virus cycle could be completed in a non-host plant. These results will greatly facilitate the preliminary testing of CSSV control strategies using plants that are easy to raise and to transform genetically. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.
Sandoval, C P; Nosil, P
The evolution of ecological specialization has been a central topic in ecology because specialized adaptations to divergent environments can result in reproductive isolation and facilitate speciation. However, the order in which different aspects of habitat adaptation and habitat preference evolve is unclear. Timema walking-stick insects feed and mate on the host plants on which they rest. Previous studies of T. cristinae ecotypes have documented divergent, host-specific selection from visual predators and the evolution of divergent host and mate preferences between populations using different host-plant species (Ceanothus or Adenostoma). Here we present new data that show that T. podura, a nonsister species of T. cristinae, has also formed ecotypes on these host genera and that in both species these ecotypes exhibit adaptive divergence in color-pattern and host preference. Color-pattern morphs exhibit survival trade-offs on different hosts due to differential predation. In contrast, fecundity trade-offs on different hosts do not occur in either species. Thus, host preference in both species has evolved before divergent physiological adaptation but in concert with morphological adaptations. Our results shed light onto which traits are involved in the initial stages of ecological specialization and ecologically based reproductive isolation.
Wang, He; Xu, Ying-Chun; Hsueh, Po-Ren
In the Asia-Pacific region, Candida albicans is the predominant Candida species causing invasive candidiasis/candidemia in Australia, Japan, Korea, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand whereas C. tropicalis is the most frequently encountered Candida species in Pakistan and India. Invasive isolates of C. albicans, C. parapsilosis complex and C. tropicalis remain highly susceptible to fluconazole (>90% susceptible). Fluconazole resistance (6.8-15%), isolates with the non-wild-type phenotype for itraconazole susceptibility (3.9-10%) and voriconazole (5-17.8%), and echinocandin resistance (2.1-2.2% in anidulafungin and 2.2% in micafungin) among invasive C. glabrata complex isolates are increasing in prevalence. Moreover, not all isolates of C. tropicalis have been shown to be susceptible to fluconazole (nonsusceptible rate, 5.7-11.6% in China) or voriconazole (nonsusceptible rate, 5.7-9.6% in China).
Sheath, Danny J; Andreou, Demetra; Britton, J Robert
Predicting how elevated temperatures from climate change alter host-parasite interactions requires understandings of how warming affects host susceptibility and parasite virulence. Here, the effect of elevated water temperature and parasite exposure level was tested on parasite prevalence, abundance and burden, and on fish growth, using Pomphorhynchus laevis and its fish host Squalius cephalus. At 60 days post-exposure, prevalence was higher at the elevated temperature (22 °C) than ambient temperature (18 °C), with infections achieved at considerably lower levels of exposure. Whilst parasite number was significantly higher in infected fish at 22 °C, both mean parasite weight and parasite burden was significantly higher at 18 °C. There were, however, no significant relationships between fish growth rate and temperature, parasite exposure, and the infection parameters. Thus, whilst elevated temperature significantly influenced parasite infection rates, it also impacted parasite development rates, suggesting warming could have complex implications for parasite dynamics and host resistance.
Monjane Adérito L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Maize streak virus -strain A (MSV-A; Genus Mastrevirus, Family Geminiviridae, the maize-adapted strain of MSV that causes maize streak disease throughout sub-Saharan Africa, probably arose between 100 and 200 years ago via homologous recombination between two MSV strains adapted to wild grasses. MSV recombination experiments and analyses of natural MSV recombination patterns have revealed that this recombination event entailed the exchange of the movement protein - coat protein gene cassette, bounded by the two genomic regions most prone to recombination in mastrevirus genomes; the first surrounding the virion-strand origin of replication, and the second around the interface between the coat protein gene and the short intergenic region. Therefore, aside from the likely adaptive advantages presented by a modular exchange of this cassette, these specific breakpoints may have been largely predetermined by the underlying mechanisms of mastrevirus recombination. To investigate this hypothesis, we constructed artificial, low-fitness, reciprocal chimaeric MSV genomes using alternating genomic segments from two MSV strains; a grass-adapted MSV-B, and a maize-adapted MSV-A. Between them, each pair of reciprocal chimaeric genomes represented all of the genetic material required to reconstruct - via recombination - the highly maize-adapted MSV-A genotype, MSV-MatA. We then co-infected a selection of differentially MSV-resistant maize genotypes with pairs of reciprocal chimaeras to determine the efficiency with which recombination would give rise to high-fitness progeny genomes resembling MSV-MatA. Results Recombinants resembling MSV-MatA invariably arose in all of our experiments. However, the accuracy and efficiency with which the MSV-MatA genotype was recovered across all replicates of each experiment depended on the MSV susceptibility of the maize genotypes used and the precise positions - in relation to known recombination hotspots
Di Giallonardo, Francesca; Schlub, Timothy E; Shi, Mang; Holmes, Edward C
Viruses use the cellular machinery of their hosts for replication. It has therefore been proposed that the nucleotide and dinucleotide compositions of viruses should match those of their host species. If this is upheld, it may then be possible to use dinucleotide composition to predict the true host species of viruses sampled in metagenomic surveys. However, it is also clear that different taxonomic groups of viruses tend to have distinctive patterns of dinucleotide composition that may be independent of host species. To determine the relative strength of the effect of host versus virus family in shaping dinucleotide composition, we performed a comparative analysis of 20 RNA virus families from 15 host groupings, spanning two animal phyla and more than 900 virus species. In particular, we determined the odds ratios for the 16 possible dinucleotides and performed a discriminant analysis to evaluate the capability of virus dinucleotide composition to predict the correct virus family or host taxon from which it was isolated. Notably, while 81% of the data analyzed here were predicted to the correct virus family, only 62% of these data were predicted to their correct subphylum/class host and a mere 32% to their correct mammalian order. Similarly, dinucleotide composition has a weak predictive power for different hosts within individual virus families. We therefore conclude that dinucleotide composition is generally uniform within a virus family but less well reflects that of its host species. This has obvious implications for attempts to accurately predict host species from virus genome sequences alone. IMPORTANCE Determining the processes that shape virus genomes is central to understanding virus evolution and emergence. One question of particular importance is why nucleotide and dinucleotide frequencies differ so markedly between viruses. In particular, it is currently unclear whether host species or virus family has the biggest impact on dinucleotide frequencies and
Hashemi-Shahraki, Abodolrazagh; Heidarieh, Parvin; Bostanabad, Saeed Zaker; Hashemzadeh, Mohamad; Feizabadi, Mohamad Mehdi; Schraufnagel, Dean; Mirsaeidi, Mehdi
The aim of this multicenter study was to determine the genetic diversity and antibiotic susceptibility of clinically isolated Nocardia species. One hundred twenty-seven patients with nocardiosis were randomly selected from 5 provinces of Iran. Molecular diagnosis of Nocardia species was performed using multilocus sequence analysis of gyrase B of the β subunit of DNA topoisomerase (gyrB), and 16S rRNA and subunit A of SecA preproteintranslocase (secA1). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed following the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations. Thirty-five N. cyriacigeorgica, 30 N. asteroides, 26 N. farcinica, 12 N. otitidiscaviarum, and 10 N. abscessus cultures were studied. All isolates were susceptible to linezolid. All isolates of N. cyriacigeorgica, N. asteroides, N. abscessus, and N. otitidiscaviarum were susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, while 8% of N. farcinica isolates were resistant to this drug. All N. otitidiscaviarum isolates were highly resistant to imipenem, but N. cyriacigeorgica, N. asteroides, N. farcinica, and N. abscessus were only moderate resistant. The susceptibility patterns vary with different species of Nocardia. Resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in Iran is low and this drug should be first line therapy, unless drug susceptibility testing shows resistance. Linezolid also covers Nocardia well and could be a second line agent.
Kokalis-Burelle, Nancy; Butler, David M; Rosskopf, Erin N
Several cover crops with potential for use in tropical and subtropical regions were assessed for susceptibility to three common species of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica. Crops were selected based on potential use as organic amendments in anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) applications. Nematode juvenile (J2) numbers in soil and roots, egg production, and host plant root galling were evaluated on arugula (Eruca sativa, cv. Nemat), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, cv. Iron & Clay), jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis, cv. Comum), two commercial mixtures of Indian mustard and white mustard (Brassica juncea & Sinapis alba, mixtures Caliente 61 and Caliente 99), pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum, cv. Tifleaf III), sorghum-sudangrass hybrid (Sorghum bicolor × S. bicolor var. sudanense, cv. Sugar Grazer II), and three cultivars of sunflower (Helianthus annuus, cvs. 545A, Nusun 660CL, and Nusun 5672). Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, cv. Rutgers) was included in all trials as a susceptible host to all three nematode species. The majority of cover crops tested were less susceptible than tomato to M. arenaria, with the exception of jack bean. Sunflower cv. Nusun 5672 had fewer M. arenaria J2 isolated from roots than the other sunflower cultivars, less galling than tomato, and fewer eggs than tomato and sunflower cv. 545A. Several cover crops did not support high populations of M. incognita in roots or exhibit significant galling, although high numbers of M. incognita J2 were isolated from the soil. Arugula, cowpea, and mustard mixture Caliente 99 did not support M. incognita in soil or roots. Jack bean and all three cultivars of sunflower were highly susceptible to M. javanica, and all sunflower cultivars had high numbers of eggs isolated from roots. Sunflower, jack bean, and both mustard mixtures exhibited significant galling in response to M. javanica. Arugula, cowpea, and sorghum-sudangrass consistently had low numbers of all three
QUEIROZ J. M.
Full Text Available There is a great number of Charaxinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae species in the tropics whose larvae feed on several plant families. However the genus Anaea is almost always associated with Croton species (Euphorbiaceae. This work describes patterns of host plant use by immature and adult abundance on different vertical strata of sympatric Anaea species in a forest of Southeastern Brazil. Quantitative samples of leaves were taken in April/1999 and May/2000 to collect eggs and larvae of four Anaea species on C.alchorneicarpus, C. floribundus and C. salutaris in a semideciduous forest. Sampled leaves were divided into three classes of plant phenological stage: saplings, shrubs and trees. The results showed that the butterfly species are segregating in host plant use on two scales: host plant species and plant phenological stages. C. alchorneicarpus was used by only one Anaea species, whereas C. floribundus was used by three species and C. salutaris by four Anaea species. There was one Anaea species concentrated on sapling, another on sapling/shrub and two others on shrub/tree leaves. Adults of Anaea were more frequent at canopy traps but there were no differences among species caught in traps at different vertical positions. This work supplements early studies on host plant use among Charaxinae species and it describes how a guild of closely related butterfly species may be organized in a complex tropical habitat.
Partha Pratim Das
Results: From the 59 culture positive HIV seropositive cases, 61 Candida isolates were recovered; Candidaalbicans (n=47, 77.0%, C. dubliniensis (n=9, 14.7%, C. parapsilosis (n=2, 3.2%, C. glabrata (n=2, 3.2%, and C. famata (n=1, 1.6%. Candida colonization in HIV-seropositive individuals was significantly higher than that of HIV-seronegative (control group. Antifungal susceptibility testing revealed (n=6, 9.3% C. albicans isolates resistant to voriconazole and fluconazole by disk-diffusion method whereas no resistance was seen by Fungitest method. Interpretation & conclusions: C. albicans was the commonest Candida species infecting or colonizing HIV seropositive individuals. Oropharyngeal Candida isolates had high level susceptibility to all the major antifungals commonly in use. Increased level of immunosuppression in HIV-seropositives and drug resistance of non-albicans Candida species makes identification and susceptibility testing of Candida species necessary in different geographical areas of the country.
Kondo, Yusuke; Ohtsuka, Susumu; Hirabayashi, Takeshi; Okada, Shoma; Ogawa, Nanako O; Ohkouchi, Naohiko; Shimazu, Takeshi; Nishikawa, Jun
In the Seto Inland Sea of western Japan, metacercariae of three species of trematodes, Lepotrema clavatum Ozaki, 1932, Cephalolepidapedon saba Yamaguti, 1970, and Opechona olssoni (Yamaguti, 1934), were found in the mesoglea of the jellyfish Aurelia aurita s.l., Chrysaora pacifica, and Cyanea nozakii. Moreover, these jellyfish frequently harbored juveniles of the fish species Psenopsis anomala, Thamnaconus modestus, and Trachurus japonicus. The former two fish species are well-known medusivores. We investigated seasonal changes in the prevalence and intensity of these metacercariae in their host jellyfish from March 2010 to September 2012 and presumed that infection by the trematodes of the definitive host fish occurs through these associations. The mean intensity of metacercariae in A. aurita s.l. clearly showed seasonality, being consistently high in June of each year. The intensity of metacercariae in C. nozakii was highest among all jellyfish hosts and appeared to be enhanced by medusivory of this second intermediate, and/or paratenic host. Trophic interactions between jellyfish and associated fish were verified using both gut content and stable isotope analyses. The detection of trematodes and nematocysts in the guts of P. anomala and T. modestus juveniles, in addition to stable isotope analysis, suggests that transmission of the parasites occurs via prey-predator relationships. In addition, the stable isotope analysis also suggested that P. anomala is more nutritionally dependent on jellyfish than Th. modestus and Tr. japonicus. © Y. Kondo et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016.
Nagadenahalli B Siddappa
Full Text Available The high prevalence of HIV-1/AIDS in areas endemic for schistosomiasis and other helminthic infections has led to the hypothesis that parasites increase host susceptibility to immunodeficiency virus infection. We previously showed that rhesus macaques (RM with active schistosomiasis were significantly more likely to become systemically infected after intrarectal (i.r. exposure to an R5-tropic clade C simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV-C than were parasite-free controls. However, we could not address whether this was due to systemic or mucosal effects. If systemic immunoactivation resulted in increased susceptibility to SHIV-C acquisition, a similarly large difference in host susceptibility would be seen after intravenous (i.v. SHIV-C challenge. Conversely, if increased host susceptibility was due to parasite-induced immunoactivation at the mucosal level, i.v. SHIV-C challenge would not result in significant differences between parasitized and parasite-free monkeys.We enrolled two groups of RM and infected one group with Schistosoma mansoni; the other group was left parasite-free. Both groups were challenged i.v. with decreasing doses of SHIV-C. No statistically significant differences in 50% animal infectious doses (AID(50 or peak viremia were seen between the two groups. These data strongly contrast the earlier i.r. SHIV-C challenge (using the same virus stock in the presence/absence of parasites, where we noted a 17-fold difference in AID(50 and one log higher peak viremia in parasitized monkeys (P90% of all new HIV-1 infections worldwide are acquired through mucosal contact, parasitic infections that inflame mucosae may play an important role in the spread of HIV-1.
virus families with know or suspected histories of changes in host-species tropism from animal to humans. In the Paramyxoviridae family, Hendra ...8725 John J. Kingman Road, MS 6201 Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-6201 T E C H N IC A L R E P O R T DTRA-TR-16-79 Cross-species virus -host...Cross-species virus -host protein-protein interactions inhibiting innate immunity What are the major goals of the project? List the major goals of
Moir, Melinda L; Vesk, Peter A; Brennan, Karl E C; Poulin, Robert; Hughes, Lesley; Keith, David A; McCarthy, Michael A; Coates, David J
Translocation, introduction, reintroduction, and assisted migrations are species conservation strategies that are attracting increasing attention, especially in the face of climate change. However, preventing the extinction of the suite of dependent species whose host species are threatened is seldom considered, and the effects on dependent species of moving threatened hosts are unclear. There is no published guidance on how to decide whether to move species, given this uncertainty. We examined the dependent-host system of 4 disparate taxonomic groups: insects on the feather-leaf banksia (Banksia brownii), montane banksia (B. montana), and Stirling Range beard heath (Leucopogon gnaphalioides); parasites of wild cats; mites and ticks on Duvaucel's gecko (Hoplodactylus duvaucelii) and tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus); and internal coccidian parasites of Cirl Bunting (Emberiza cirlus) and Hihi (Notiomystis cincta). We used these case studies to demonstrate a simple process for use in species- and community-level assessments of efforts to conserve dependents with their hosts. The insects dependent on Stirling Range beard heath and parasites on tigers (Panthera tigris) appeared to represent assemblages that would not be conserved by ex situ host conservation. In contrast, for the cases of dependent species we examined involving a single dependent species (internal parasites of birds and the mite Geckobia naultina on Duvaucel's gecko), ex situ conservation of the host species would also conserve the dependent species. However, moving dependent species with their hosts may be insufficient to maintain viable populations of the dependent species, and additional conservation strategies such as supplementing populations may be needed. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.
Bloom, Seth M.; Bijanki, Vinieth N.; Nava, Gerardo M.; Sun, Lulu; Malvin, Nicole P.; Donermeyer, David L.; Dunne, W. Michael; Allen, Paul M.; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S.
SUMMARY The intestinal microbiota is important for induction of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). IBD is associated with complex shifts in microbiota composition, but it is unclear whether specific bacterial subsets induce IBD and, if so, whether their proportions in the microbiota are altered during disease. Here we fulfilled Koch’s postulates in host-genotype-specific fashion using a mouse model of IBD with human-relevant disease-susceptibility mutations. From screening experiments we isolated common commensal Bacteroides species, introduced them into antibiotic-pretreated mice, and quantitatively re-isolated them in culture. The bacteria colonized IBD-susceptible and non-susceptible mice equivalently, but induced disease exclusively in susceptible animals. Conversely, commensal Enterobacteriaceae were >100-fold enriched during spontaneous disease but an Enterobacteriaceae isolate failed to induce disease in antibiotic-pretreated mice despite robust colonization. We thus demonstrate that IBD-associated microbiota alterations do not necessarily reflect underlying disease etiology. These findings establish important experimental criteria and a conceptual framework for understanding microbial contributions to IBD. PMID:21575910
Van Putten, WF; Biere, A; Van Damme, JMM
We investigated genetic diversity in West European populations of the fungal pathogen Microbotryum violaceum in sympatric, parapatric and allopatric populations of the host species Silene latifolia and S. dioica, using four polymorphic microsatellite loci. In allopatric host populations, the fungus
Van Putten, W.F.; Biere, A.; Van Damme, J.M.M.
We investigated genetic diversity in West European populations of the fungal pathogen Microbotryum violaceum in sympatric, parapatric and allopatric populations of the host species Silene latifolia and S. dioica, using four polymorphic microsatellite loci. In allopatric host populations, the fungus
Guarro, J; Gams, W; Pujol, I; Gené, J
We provide an overview of opportunistic fungal infections caused by Acremonium (Cephalosporium) species and discuss the classification of these species as well as the diagnosis and treatment of acremonium infections. We used a microdilution broth method to compare in vitro susceptibilities and minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum fungicidal concentrations of amphotericin B, miconazole, itraconazole, 5-fluorocytosine, fluconazole, and ketoconazole for 33 clinical and environmental isolates of Acremonium. In general, the isolates tested displayed little susceptibility to the antifungals tested. Fluconazole and 5-fluorocytosine were ineffective in all cases. The efficacy of the remaining drugs was dependent on the strain. Amphotericin B showed the best results.
Riverine freshwater mussel species can be found in highly diverse communities where many similar species coexist. Mussel species potentially compete for food and space as adults, and for fish host resources during the larval (glochidial) stage. Resource partitioning at the larv...
Brian L. Anacker; Nathan E. Rank; Daniel Hüberli; Matteo Garbelotto; Sarah Gordon; Rich Whitkus; Tami Harnik; Matthew Meshriy; Lori Miles; Ross K. Meentemeyer
Sudden oak death, caused by the water mold Phytophthora ramorum, is a plant disease responsible for the death of hundreds of thousands of oak and tanoak trees. Some foliar hosts play a major role in the epidemiology of this disease. Upon infection by P. ramorum, these foliar hosts express non-fatal leaf lesions from which large...
Mauck, Kerry E; De Moraes, Consuelo M; Mescher, Mark C
Plant viruses can profoundly alter the phenotypes of their host plants, with potentially far-reaching implications for ecology. Yet few studies have explored the indirect, host-mediated, effects of plant viruses on non-vector insects. We examined how infection of Cucurbita pepo plants by Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) impacted the susceptibility of aphids (Myzus persicae) to attack by the parasitoid wasp Aphidius colemani. In semi-natural foraging assays, we observed higher rates of aphid parasitism on infected plants compared to healthy plants. Subsequent experiments revealed that this difference is not explained by different attack rates on plants differing in infection status, but rather by the fact that parasitoid larvae successfully complete their development more often when aphid hosts feed on infected plants. This suggests that the reduced nutritional quality of infected plants as host for aphids--documented in previous studies--compromises their ability to mount effective defenses against parasitism. Furthermore, our current findings indicate that the aphid diet during parasitoid development (rather than prior to wasp oviposition) is a key factor influencing resistance. These findings complement our previous work showing that CMV-induced changes in host plant chemistry alter patterns of aphid recruitment and dispersal in ways conducive to virus transmission.
Kline, Kimberly A.; Schwartz, Drew J.; Gilbert, Nicole M.
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is most often caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). UPEC inoculation into the female urinary tract (UT) can occur through physical activities that expose the UT to an inherently polymicrobial periurethral, vaginal, or gastrointestinal flora. We report that a common urogenital inhabitant and opportunistic pathogen, group B Streptococcus (GBS), when present at the time of UPEC exposure, undergoes rapid UPEC-dependent exclusion from the murine urinary tract, yet it influences acute UPEC-host interactions and alters host susceptibility to persistent outcomes of bladder and kidney infection. GBS presence results in increased UPEC titers in the bladder lumen during acute infection and reduced inflammatory responses of murine macrophages to live UPEC or purified lipopolysaccharide (LPS), phenotypes that require GBS mimicry of host sialic acid residues. Taken together, these studies suggest that despite low titers, the presence of GBS at the time of polymicrobial UT exposure may be an overlooked risk factor for chronic pyelonephritis and recurrent UTI in susceptible groups, even if it is outcompeted and thus absent by the time of diagnosis. PMID:22988014
Bustamante, B; Martins, M A; Bonfietti, L X; Szeszs, M W; Jacobs, J; Garcia, C; Melhem, M S C
Yeast identification and in vitro susceptibility testing provide helpful information for appropriate administration of antifungal treatments; however, few reports from the Latin American region have been published. The aim of this study was to identify the species present in isolates from bloodstream infections diagnosed in nine hospitals in Lima, Peru and to determine their in vitro susceptibility to four antifungal drugs. We tested and identified 153 isolates collected between October 2009 and August 2011 using standard methods. PCR and PCR-RFLP assays were performed to distinguish Candida albicans from Candida dubliniensis and to identify species of the Candida parapsilosis and Candida glabrata complexes. Antifungal susceptibility testing for fluconazole, anidulafungin and voriconazole was performed using the CSLI M27-A3 method, and amphotericin B susceptibility was determined using the Etest method. The most frequently isolated species were: C. albicans (61; 39.9 %), C. parapsilosis (43; 28.1 %), C. tropicalis (36; 23.5%) and C. glabrata (8; 5.2 %). The overall susceptibility rates were 98.0 %, 98.7 %, 98.0 % and 97.4 % for amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole and anidulafungin, respectively. No isolate was resistant to more than one drug. These results showed that the rate of resistance to four antifungal drugs was low among Candida bloodstream isolates in Lima, Peru. © 2014 The Authors.
McTaggart, Lisa R; Doucet, Jennifer; Witkowska, Maria; Richardson, Susan E
Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of 112 clinical isolates, 28 type strains, and 9 reference strains of Nocardia were determined using the Sensititre Rapmyco microdilution panel (Thermo Fisher, Inc.). Isolates were identified by highly discriminatory multilocus sequence analysis and were chosen to represent the diversity of species recovered from clinical specimens in Ontario, Canada. Susceptibility to the most commonly used drug, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, was observed in 97% of isolates. Linezolid and amikacin were also highly effective; 100% and 99% of all isolates demonstrated a susceptible phenotype. For the remaining antimicrobials, resistance was species specific with isolates of Nocardia otitidiscaviarum, N. brasiliensis, N. abscessus complex, N. nova complex, N. transvalensis complex, N. farcinica, and N. cyriacigeorgica displaying the traditional characteristic drug pattern types. In addition, the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of a variety of rarely encountered species isolated from clinical specimens are reported for the first time and were categorized into four additional drug pattern types. Finally, MICs for the control strains N. nova ATCC BAA-2227, N. asteroides ATCC 19247(T), and N. farcinica ATCC 23826 were robustly determined to demonstrate method reproducibility and suitability of the commercial Sensititre Rapmyco panel for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Nocardia spp. isolated from clinical specimens. The reported values will facilitate quality control and standardization among laboratories. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Nielsen, Ulrik Braüner; Xu, Jing; Nielsen, Knud Nor
; significant differences were seen between taxa, that is, species, and between some species and their subspecies. The Greek fir, Abies cephalonica, was the only species without damage. An inoculation experiment on detached twigs with mycelium plugs from a N. neomacrospora culture showed that all species could......The fungus Neonectria neomacrospora has recently caused an epidemic outbreak in conifer species within the genus Abies in Denmark and Norway. Christmas tree producers in Europe and North America rely, to a large extent, on Abies species. The damage caused by N. neomacrospora, including dead shoot...... be infected. The damage observed in the inoculation experiment could explain 30% of the variation in the field observations based on species mean values. The epidemic outbreak and the high number of species susceptible to this fungus indicate that N. neomacrospora requires attention in the cultivation...
Jenkins, William G.; Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.; Sikkel, Paul C.
The importance of the role that parasites play in ecological communities is becoming increasingly apparent. However much about their impact on hosts and thus populations and communities remains poorly understood. A common observation in wild populations is high variation in levels of parasite infestation among hosts. While high variation could be due to chance encounter, there is increasing evidence to suggest that such patterns are due to a combination of environmental, host, and parasite factors. In order to examine the role of host condition on parasite infection, rates of Gnathia marleyi infestation were compared between experimentally injured and uninjured fish hosts. Experimental injuries were similar to the minor wounds commonly observed in nature. The presence of the injury significantly increased the probability of infestation by gnathiids. However, the level of infestation (i.e., total number of gnathiid parasites) for individual hosts, appeared to be unaffected by the treatment. The results from this study indicate that injuries obtained by fish in nature may carry the additional cost of increased parasite burden along with the costs typically associated with physical injury. These results suggest that host condition may be an important factor in determining the likelihood of infestation by a common coral reef fish ectoparasite, G. marleyi.
E. V. Rakhimova
Full Text Available Key on the basis of the host plant taxonomy, symptoms of the infected plants and microscopic features of fungi was composed for identification of powdery mildews of the Kazakhstan. Features, which were used for identification of fungus, were the number of asci in cleistothecium, the number of ascospores in ascus and the type of appendages of cleistothecium. Key was composed for 81 species and 25 variations of Erysiphales fungi, infecting 739 species of host plants, which belong to 305 genera.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many parasites show an extraordinary degree of host specificity, even though a narrow range of host species reduces the likelihood of successful transmission. In this study, we evaluate the genetic basis of host specificity and transmission success of experimental F1 hybrids from two closely related tapeworm species (Schistocephalus solidus and S. pungitii, both highly specific to their respective vertebrate second intermediate hosts (three- and nine-spined sticklebacks, respectively. Methods We used an in vitro breeding system to hybridize Schistocephalus solidus and S. pungitii; hybridization rate was quantified using microsatellite markers. We measured several fitness relevant traits in pure lines of the parental parasite species as well as in their hybrids: hatching rates, infection rates in the copepod first host, and infection rates and growth in the two species of stickleback second hosts. Results We show that the parasites can hybridize in the in vitro system, although the proportion of self-fertilized offspring was higher in the heterospecific breeding pairs than in the control pure parental species. Hybrids have a lower hatching rate, but do not show any disadvantages in infection of copepods. In fish, hybrids were able to infect both stickleback species with equal frequency, whereas the pure lines were only able to infect their normal host species. Conclusions Although not yet documented in nature, our study shows that hybridization in Schistocephalus spp. is in principle possible and that, in respect to their expanded host range, the hybrids are fitter. Further studies are needed to find the reason for the maintenance of the species boundaries in wild populations.
Henrich, Tina; Benesh, Daniel P; Kalbe, Martin
Many parasites show an extraordinary degree of host specificity, even though a narrow range of host species reduces the likelihood of successful transmission. In this study, we evaluate the genetic basis of host specificity and transmission success of experimental F(1) hybrids from two closely related tapeworm species (Schistocephalus solidus and S. pungitii), both highly specific to their respective vertebrate second intermediate hosts (three- and nine-spined sticklebacks, respectively). We used an in vitro breeding system to hybridize Schistocephalus solidus and S. pungitii; hybridization rate was quantified using microsatellite markers. We measured several fitness relevant traits in pure lines of the parental parasite species as well as in their hybrids: hatching rates, infection rates in the copepod first host, and infection rates and growth in the two species of stickleback second hosts. We show that the parasites can hybridize in the in vitro system, although the proportion of self-fertilized offspring was higher in the heterospecific breeding pairs than in the control pure parental species. Hybrids have a lower hatching rate, but do not show any disadvantages in infection of copepods. In fish, hybrids were able to infect both stickleback species with equal frequency, whereas the pure lines were only able to infect their normal host species. Although not yet documented in nature, our study shows that hybridization in Schistocephalus spp. is in principle possible and that, in respect to their expanded host range, the hybrids are fitter. Further studies are needed to find the reason for the maintenance of the species boundaries in wild populations.
Full Text Available Four species of parasitic microfungi were collected recenUy on Padus serotina (Ehrh. Borkh. (Rosaceae in Poland. Three species, Phyllactina guttata (Wallr. ex Fr. Lév. (Erysiphales, Monilia linhartiana Sacc. (Hyphomycetes, and Microsphaeropsis olivacea (Bonord. Höhn. (Coelomycetes, have not been reported before on thc plant, and Padus serotina is a new host for them. Monnilia linhartiana Sacc. is a new species for Poland. The fourth species, Podosphaera tridactyla (Wallr. de Baly var. tridactyla (Erysiphales, is known only from three localities in Europe, and has been collected on the host plant in Poland for the first time.
Zhang, Ruiling; Huang, Xiaolei; Jiang, Liyun; Lei, Fumin; Qiao, Gexia
The impact of both the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and the separation of the Taiwan and Hainan Islands on the evolution of the fauna and flora in adjacent regions has been a topic of considerable interest. Mollitrichosiphum is a polyphagous insect group with a wide range of host plants (14 families) and distributions restricted to Southeast Asia. Based on the mitochondrial Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit I (COI) and Cytochrome b (Cytb) genes, the nuclear elongation factor-1α (EF-1α) gene, and the detailed distribution and host plant data, we investigated the species differentiation modes of the Chinese Mollitrichosiphum species. Phylogenetic analyses supported the monophyly of Mollitrichosiphum. The divergence time of Mollitrichosiphum tenuicorpus (c. 11.0 mya (million years ago)), Mollitrichosiphum nandii and Mollitrichosiphum montanum (c. 10.6 mya) was within the time frame of the uplift of the QTP. Additionally, basal species mainly fed on Fagaceae, while species that fed on multiple plants diverged considerably later. Ancestral state reconstruction suggests that Fagaceae may be the first acquired host, and the acquisition of new hosts and the expansion of host range may have promoted species differentiation within this genus. Overall, it can be concluded that geographical isolation and the expansion of the host plant range may be the main factors driving species differentiation of Mollitrichosiphum. PMID:22949873
Stanford, Marianne M; Werden, Steven J; McFadden, Grant
Myxoma virus (MV) is a poxvirus that evolved in Sylvilagus lagomorphs, and is the causative agent of myxomatosis in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). This virus is not a natural pathogen of O. cuniculus, yet is able to subvert the host rabbit immune system defenses and cause a highly lethal systemic infection. The interaction of MV proteins and the rabbit immune system has been an ideal model to help elucidate host/poxvirus interactions, and has led to a greater understanding of how other poxvirus pathogens are able to cause disease in their respective hosts. This review will examine how MV causes myxomatosis, by examining a selection of the identified immunomodulatory proteins that this virus expresses to subvert the immune and inflammatory pathways of infected rabbit hosts.
Betrán, Ana; Villuendas, M Cruz; Rezusta, Antonio; Pereira, Javier; Revillo, M José; Rodríguez-Nava, Verónica
Nocardia is an opportunistic pathogen that causes respiratory infections in immunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to analyze the epidemiology, clinical significance and antimicrobial susceptibility of Nocardia species isolated from eight children with cystic fibrosis. The isolated species were identified as Nocardia farcinica, Nocardia transvalensis, Nocardia pneumoniae, Nocardia veterana and Nocardia wallacei. N. farcinica was isolated in three patients and all of them presented lung affectation with a chronic colonization and pneumonia. N. farcinica showed resistance against gentamicin, tobramycin, cefotaxime, but was susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and amikacin. N. transvalensis, which was isolated from two patients, showed an association with chronic colonization. N. transvalensis was resistant to tobramycin and amikacin, but susceptible to ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and cefotaxime. N. veterana, N. pneumoniae and N. wallacei were isolated from three different patients and appeared in transitory lung colonization. N. veterana and N. pneumoniae were susceptible to imipenem, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, amikacin, tobramycin, and cefotaxime. N. wallacei was resistant to amikacin, tobramycin, imipenem, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and susceptible to ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime. All the isolates were identified up to species level by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The presence of Nocardia in the sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis is not always an indication of an active infection; therefore, the need for a treatment should be evaluated on an individual basis. The detection of multidrug-resistant species needs molecular identification and susceptibility testing, and should be performed for all Nocardia infections. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
HOLLAND, CELIA; STAFFORD, PETER
PUBLISHED Toxocara canis, the parasitic roundworm of dogs, can infect a number of paratenic hosts, such as mice and humans, due to the widespread dissemination of its ova in the environment. In these paratenic hosts, larvae have been shown to exhibit a predilection for the central nervous system, resulting in an increasing number of parasites migrating to the brain as infection progresses. In an initial experiment, we investigated the differential brain involvement of T. canis in 7 strains...
The current and pending restriction on the use of soil fumigants and other nematicides effective in controlling nematodes in field grown floriculture crops has increased the importance of determining the relative susceptibility of these crops to important species of root-knot nematodes. Greenhouse ...
Specimens of Labeo capensis (n = 13) and Labeo umbratus (n = 26) from the Vaal Dam (South Africa) were collected and examined for gill and skin monogenean parasites. Three new Dactylogyrus and one new Dogielius species are described. Dactylogyrus iwani n.sp. (longer inner root on anchor and predominates on L.
Soudant, Philippe; E Chu, Fu-Lin; Volety, Aswani
This review assesses and examines the work conducted to date concerning host and parasite interactions between marine bivalve molluscs and protozoan parasites, belonging to Perkinsus species. The review focuses on two well-studied host-parasite interaction models: the two clam species, Ruditapes philippinarum and R. decussatus, and the parasite Perkinsus olseni, and the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, and the parasite Perkinsus marinus. Cellular and humoral defense responses of the host in combating parasitic infection, the mechanisms (e.g., antioxidant enzymes, extracellular products) employed by the parasite in evading host defenses as well as the role of environmental factors in modulating the host-parasite interactions are described. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Ecological immunology is an interdisciplinary field that helps elucidate interactions between the environment and immune response. The host species individuals experience have profound effects on immune response in many species of insects. However, this conclusion comes from studies of herbivorous insects even though species of mycophagous insects also inhabit many different host species. The goal of this study was to determine if fungal host species as well as individual, sex, body size, and host patch predict one aspect of immune function, phenoloxidase activity (PO. We sampled a metapopulation of Bolitotherus cornutus, a mycophagous beetle in southwestern Virginia. B. cornutus live on three species of fungus that differ in nutritional quality, social environment, and density. A filter paper phenoloxidase assay was used to quantify phenoloxidase activity. Overall, PO activity was significantly repeatable among individuals (0.57 in adult B. cornutus. While there was significant variance among individuals in PO activity, there were surprisingly no significant differences in PO activity among subpopulations, beetles living on different host species, or between the sexes; there was also no effect of body size. Our results suggest that other factors such as age, genotype, disease prevalence, or natal environment may be generating variance among individuals in PO activity.
Zschach, Henrike; Larsen, Mette V; Hasman, Henrik
Staphylococcus aureus is a major agent of nosocomial infections. Especially in methicillin-resistant strains, conventional treatment options are limited and expensive, which has fueled a growing interest in phage therapy approaches. We have tested the susceptibility of 207 clinical S. aureus...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Social parasitism is an important selective pressure for social insect species. It is particularly the case for the hosts of dulotic (so called slave-making ants, which pillage the brood of host colonies to increase the worker force of their own colony. Such raids can have an important impact on the fitness of the host nest. An arms race which can lead to geographic variation in host defenses is thus expected between hosts and parasites. In this study we tested whether the presence of a social parasite (the dulotic ant Myrmoxenus ravouxi within an ant community correlated with a specific behavioral defense strategy of local host or non-host populations of Temnothorax ants. Social recognition often leads to more or less pronounced agonistic interactions between non-nestmates ants. Here, we monitored agonistic behaviors to assess whether ants discriminate social parasites from other ants. It is now well-known that ants essentially rely on cuticular hydrocarbons to discriminate nestmates from aliens. If host species have evolved a specific recognition mechanism for their parasite, we hypothesize that the differences in behavioral responses would not be fully explained simply by quantitative dissimilarity in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles, but should also involve a qualitative response due to the detection of particular compounds. We scaled the behavioral results according to the quantitative chemical distance between host and parasite colonies to test this hypothesis. Results Cuticular hydrocarbon profiles were distinct between species, but host species did not show a clearly higher aggression rate towards the parasite than toward non-parasite intruders, unless the degree of response was scaled by the chemical distance between intruders and recipient colonies. By doing so, we show that workers of the host and of a non-host species in the parasitized site displayed more agonistic behaviors (bites and ejections towards parasite
Penna, Bruno; Varges, Renato; Medeiros, Luciana; Martins, Gabriel M; Martins, Rodrigo R; Lilenbaum, Walter
The diversity of species of the genus Staphylococcus sp. and the antimicrobial resistance of isolates from 151 unmedicated dogs of both sexes with a clinical diagnosis of otitis were recorded. Ninety-one isolates of Staphylococcus spp. were identified by biochemical reactions and tested for susceptibility to 15 antimicrobials. Coagulase-positive species were most common; S. pseudintermedius (38.4%), S. schleiferi schleiferi (15.4%), S. aureus (14.3%), S. epidermidis (11%), S. simulans (11%), S. schleiferi coagulans (8.8%) and S. saprophyticus (1.1%). All the isolates showed resistance to at least one drug and 89% were multiresistant. Amoxicillin combined with clavulanic acid and oxacillin were the most effective, while resistance was widely observed for neomycin and erythromycin. The results highlight the recognition and the potential need for bacterial culture with species identification and antimicrobial susceptibility tests for appropriate antimicrobial therapy.
Beaulieu, Wesley T; Panaccione, Daniel G; Ryan, Katy L; Kaonongbua, Wittaya; Clay, Keith
Periglandula ipomoeae and P. turbinae (Ascomycota, Clavicipitaceae) are recently described fungi that form symbiotic associations with the morning glories (Convolvulaceae) Ipomoea asarifolia and Turbina corymbosa, respectively. These Periglandula species are vertically transmitted and produce bioactive ergot alkaloids in seeds of infected plants and ephemeral mycelia on the adaxial surface of young leaves. Whether other morning glories that contain ergot alkaloids also are infected by Periglandula fungi is a central question. Here we report on a survey of eight species of Convolvulaceae (Argyreia nervosa, I. amnicola, I. argillicola, I. gracilis, I. hildebrandtii, I. leptophylla, I. muelleri, I. pes-caprae) for ergot alkaloids in seeds and associated clavicipitaceous fungi potentially responsible for their production. All host species contained ergot alkaloids in four distinct chemotypes with concentrations of 15.8-3223.0 μg/g. Each chemotype was a combination of four or five ergot alkaloids out of seven alkaloids detected across all hosts. In addition, each host species exhibited characteristic epiphytic mycelia on adaxial surfaces of young leaves with considerable interspecific differences in mycelial density. We sequenced three loci from fungi infecting each host: the nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer region (ITS), introns of the translation factor 1-α gene (tefA) and the dimethylallyl-tryptophan synthase gene (dmaW), which codes for the enzyme that catalyzes the first step in ergot alkaloid biosynthesis. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed that these fungi are in the family Clavicipitaceae and form a monophyletic group with the two described Periglandula species. This study is the first to report Periglandula spp. from Asian, Australian, African and North American species of Convolvulaceae, including host species with a shrub growth form and host species occurring outside of the tropics. This study demonstrates that ergot alkaloids in morning glories
Wynn, James L.; Levy, Ofer
Neonatal sepsis continues to take a devastating toll globally. Although adequate to protect against invasive infection in most newborns, the distinct function of neonatal innate host defense coupled with impairments in adaptive immune responses, increases the likelihood of acquiring infection early in life with subsequent rapid dissemination and death. Unique differences exist between neonates and older populations with respect to the capacity, quantity, and quality of innate host responses to pathogens. Recent characterization of the age-dependent maturation of neonatal innate immune function has identified novel translational approaches that may lead to improved diagnostic, prophylactic and therapeutic modalities. PMID:20569810
Severns, Paul M.; Estep, Laura K.; Sackett, Kathryn E.; Mundt, Christopher C.
Summary Disease epidemics typically begin as an outbreak of a relatively small, spatially explicit population of infected individuals (focus), in which disease prevalence increases and rapidly spreads into the uninfected, at-risk population. Studies of epidemic spread typically address factors influencing disease spread through the at-risk population, but the initial outbreak may strongly influence spread of the subsequent epidemic.We initiated wheat stripe rust Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici epidemics to assess the influence of the focus on final disease prevalence when the degree of disease susceptibility differed between the at-risk and focus populations.When the focus/at-risk plantings consisted of partially genetic resistant and susceptible cultivars, final disease prevalence was statistically indistinguishable from epidemics produced by the focus cultivar in monoculture. In these experimental epidemics, disease prevalence was not influenced by the transition into an at-risk population that differed in disease susceptibility. Instead, the focus appeared to exert a dominant influence on the subsequent epidemic.Final disease prevalence was not consistently attributable to either the focus or the at-risk population when focus/at-risk populations were planted in a factorial set-up with a mixture (~28% susceptible and 72% resistant) and susceptible individuals. In these experimental epidemics, spatial heterogeneity in disease susceptibility within the at-risk population appeared to counter the dominant influence of the focus.Cessation of spore production from the focus (through fungicide/glyphosate application) after 1.3 generations of stripe rust spread did not reduce final disease prevalence, indicating that the focus influence on disease spread is established early in the epidemic.Synthesis and applications. Our experiments indicated that outbreak conditions can be highly influential on epidemic spread, even when disease resistance in the at-risk population
Liu, Sheng-fa; Peng, Wen-feng; Gao, Peng; Fu, Ming-jun; Wu, Han-zhou; Lu, Ming-ke; Gao, Ji-qing; Xiao, Jun
In the literature, 630 species of Digenea (Trematoda) have been reported from Chinese marine fishes. These belong to 209 genera and 35 families. The names of these species, along with their hosts, geographical distribution and records, are listed in this paper.
Tang, Q.B.; Jiang, J.W.; Yan, Y.H.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Wang, C.Z.
The genetic basis of larval host-plant preference was investigated in reciprocal F1, F2, and backcrossed generations derived from hybrid crosses between the generalist species Helicoverpa armigera (Hu¿bner) and the closely related specialist species Helicoverpa assulta (Guene¿e) (Lepidoptera:
López Gómez, Manuel Francisco
The infection process of Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita and M. javanica was compared on zucchini squash, cucumber, melon, pumpkin and watermelon in a growth chamber. All cucurbits were susceptible to the three isolates although M. javanica showed higher invasion rates, faster development and egg production than M. arenaria. Differences among cucurbits were primarily due to root invasion rates and formation of egg masses. Cucumber and melon were better hosts for nematode invasion and repro...
Chandler, James Angus; Lang, Jenna Morgan; Bhatnagar, Srijak; Eisen, Jonathan A; Kopp, Artyom
Drosophila melanogaster is emerging as an important model of non-pathogenic host-microbe interactions. The genetic and experimental tractability of Drosophila has led to significant gains in our understanding of animal-microbial symbiosis. However, the full implications of these results cannot be appreciated without the knowledge of the microbial communities associated with natural Drosophila populations. In particular, it is not clear whether laboratory cultures can serve as an accurate model of host-microbe interactions that occur in the wild, or those that have occurred over evolutionary time. To fill this gap, we characterized natural bacterial communities associated with 14 species of Drosophila and related genera collected from distant geographic locations. To represent the ecological diversity of Drosophilids, examined species included fruit-, flower-, mushroom-, and cactus-feeders. In parallel, wild host populations were compared to laboratory strains, and controlled experiments were performed to assess the importance of host species and diet in shaping bacterial microbiome composition. We find that Drosophilid flies have taxonomically restricted bacterial communities, with 85% of the natural bacterial microbiome composed of only four bacterial families. The dominant bacterial taxa are widespread and found in many different host species despite the taxonomic, ecological, and geographic diversity of their hosts. Both natural surveys and laboratory experiments indicate that host diet plays a major role in shaping the Drosophila bacterial microbiome. Despite this, the internal bacterial microbiome represents only a highly reduced subset of the external bacterial communities, suggesting that the host exercises some level of control over the bacteria that inhabit its digestive tract. Finally, we show that laboratory strains provide only a limited model of natural host-microbe interactions. Bacterial taxa used in experimental studies are rare or absent in wild
James Angus Chandler
Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster is emerging as an important model of non-pathogenic host-microbe interactions. The genetic and experimental tractability of Drosophila has led to significant gains in our understanding of animal-microbial symbiosis. However, the full implications of these results cannot be appreciated without the knowledge of the microbial communities associated with natural Drosophila populations. In particular, it is not clear whether laboratory cultures can serve as an accurate model of host-microbe interactions that occur in the wild, or those that have occurred over evolutionary time. To fill this gap, we characterized natural bacterial communities associated with 14 species of Drosophila and related genera collected from distant geographic locations. To represent the ecological diversity of Drosophilids, examined species included fruit-, flower-, mushroom-, and cactus-feeders. In parallel, wild host populations were compared to laboratory strains, and controlled experiments were performed to assess the importance of host species and diet in shaping bacterial microbiome composition. We find that Drosophilid flies have taxonomically restricted bacterial communities, with 85% of the natural bacterial microbiome composed of only four bacterial families. The dominant bacterial taxa are widespread and found in many different host species despite the taxonomic, ecological, and geographic diversity of their hosts. Both natural surveys and laboratory experiments indicate that host diet plays a major role in shaping the Drosophila bacterial microbiome. Despite this, the internal bacterial microbiome represents only a highly reduced subset of the external bacterial communities, suggesting that the host exercises some level of control over the bacteria that inhabit its digestive tract. Finally, we show that laboratory strains provide only a limited model of natural host-microbe interactions. Bacterial taxa used in experimental studies are rare
Zhou, Mei-Jiao; Xiao, Jin-Hua; Bian, Sheng-Nan; Li, Yan-Wei; Niu, Li-Ming; Hu, Hao-Yuan; Wu, Wen-Shan; Murphy, Robert W; Huang, Da-Wei
Philotrypesis, a major component of the fig wasp community (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), is a model taxon for studying male fighting and mating behaviour. Its extreme sexual dimorphism and male polymorphism render species identification uncertain and in-depth research on its ecology, behaviour and other evolutionary topics challenging. The fig wasps' enclosed habitat within the syconia makes their mating behaviour inaccessible, to the extent of matching conspecific females and males. In this study, we combine morphological and molecular analyses to identify species of Philotrypesis sampled from south China and to associate their extraordinarily dimorphic genders and labile male morphologies. Morphological evaluations of females identify 22 species and 28 male morphs. The mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I and nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2 data detect 21 species using females, and 15 species among the males. Most of the males match the species as delimited by females. Both markers reveal cryptic species in P. quadrisetosa on Ficus vasculosa. Most species of wasps live on one species of fig but three species co-occur in two hosts (F. microcarpa and F. benjamina), which indicates host switching. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Conservation of a molecular target across species can be used as a line-of-evidence to predict the likelihood of chemical susceptibility. The web-based Sequence Alignment to Predict Across Species Susceptibility (SeqAPASS) tool was developed to simplify, streamline, and quantitat...
Gottdenker, Nicole L.; Chaves, Luis Fernando; Calzada, José E.; Saldaña, Azael; Carroll, C. Ronald
Background Anthropogenic land use may influence transmission of multi-host vector-borne pathogens by changing diversity, relative abundance, and community composition of reservoir hosts. These reservoir hosts may have varying competence for vector-borne pathogens depending on species-specific characteristics, such as life history strategy. The objective of this study is to evaluate how anthropogenic land use change influences blood meal species composition and the effects of changing blood meal species composition on the parasite infection rate of the Chagas disease vector Rhodnius pallescens in Panama. Methodology/Principal Findings R. pallescens vectors (N = 643) were collected in different habitat types across a gradient of anthropogenic disturbance. Blood meal species in DNA extracted from these vectors was identified in 243 (40.3%) vectors by amplification and sequencing of a vertebrate-specific fragment of the 12SrRNA gene, and T. cruzi vector infection was determined by pcr. Vector infection rate was significantly greater in deforested habitats as compared to contiguous forests. Forty-two different species of blood meal were identified in R. pallescens, and species composition of blood meals varied across habitat types. Mammals (88.3%) dominated R. pallescens blood meals. Xenarthrans (sloths and tamanduas) were the most frequently identified species in blood meals across all habitat types. A regression tree analysis indicated that blood meal species diversity, host life history strategy (measured as rmax, the maximum intrinsic rate of population increase), and habitat type (forest fragments and peridomiciliary sites) were important determinants of vector infection with T. cruzi. The mean intrinsic rate of increase and the skewness and variability of rmax were positively associated with higher vector infection rate at a site. Conclusions/Significance In this study, anthropogenic landscape disturbance increased vector infection with T. cruzi, potentially
Nicole L Gottdenker
Full Text Available Anthropogenic land use may influence transmission of multi-host vector-borne pathogens by changing diversity, relative abundance, and community composition of reservoir hosts. These reservoir hosts may have varying competence for vector-borne pathogens depending on species-specific characteristics, such as life history strategy. The objective of this study is to evaluate how anthropogenic land use change influences blood meal species composition and the effects of changing blood meal species composition on the parasite infection rate of the Chagas disease vector Rhodnius pallescens in Panama.R. pallescens vectors (N = 643 were collected in different habitat types across a gradient of anthropogenic disturbance. Blood meal species in DNA extracted from these vectors was identified in 243 (40.3% vectors by amplification and sequencing of a vertebrate-specific fragment of the 12SrRNA gene, and T. cruzi vector infection was determined by pcr. Vector infection rate was significantly greater in deforested habitats as compared to contiguous forests. Forty-two different species of blood meal were identified in R. pallescens, and species composition of blood meals varied across habitat types. Mammals (88.3% dominated R. pallescens blood meals. Xenarthrans (sloths and tamanduas were the most frequently identified species in blood meals across all habitat types. A regression tree analysis indicated that blood meal species diversity, host life history strategy (measured as r(max, the maximum intrinsic rate of population increase, and habitat type (forest fragments and peridomiciliary sites were important determinants of vector infection with T. cruzi. The mean intrinsic rate of increase and the skewness and variability of r(max were positively associated with higher vector infection rate at a site.In this study, anthropogenic landscape disturbance increased vector infection with T. cruzi, potentially by changing host community structure to favor hosts
Richard E. Feldman
Full Text Available Species interactions like parasitism influence the outcome of climate-driven shifts in species ranges. For some host species, parasitism can only occur in that part of its range that overlaps with a second host species. Thus, predicting future parasitism may depend on how the ranges of the two hosts change in relation to each other. In this study, we tested whether the climate driven species range shift of Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer accounts for predicted changes in parasitism of two other species from the family Cervidae, Alces alces (moose and Rangifer tarandus (caribou, in North America. We used MaxEnt models to predict the recent (2000 and future (2050 ranges (probabilities of occurrence of the cervids and a parasite Parelaphostrongylus tenuis (brainworm taking into account range shifts of the parasite’s intermediate gastropod hosts. Our models predicted that range overlap between A. alces/R. tarandus and P. tenuis will decrease between 2000 and 2050, an outcome that reflects decreased overlap between A. alces/R. tarandus and O. virginianus and not the parasites, themselves. Geographically, our models predicted increasing potential occurrence of P. tenuis where A. alces/R. tarandus are likely to decline, but minimal spatial overlap where A. alces/R. tarandus are likely to increase. Thus, parasitism may exacerbate climate-mediated southern contraction of A. alces and R. tarandus ranges but will have limited influence on northward range expansion. Our results suggest that the spatial dynamics of one host species may be the driving force behind future rates of parasitism for another host species.
Mijovic, Gordana; Pejakov, Ljubica; Vujosevic, Danijela
The global increase in multidrug resistance of Acinetobacter has created widespread problems in the treatment of patients in intensive care units (ICUs). The aim of this study was to assess the current level of antimicrobial susceptibility of Acinetobacter species in ICU of Clinical Centre of Montenegro and determine their epidemiology. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested in 70 isolates of Acinetobacter collected from non-repeating samples taken from 40 patients. The first nine isolates were genotyped by repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR). Tigecycline was found to be the most active antimicrobial agent with 80.6% of susceptibility. All the isolates were multidrug resistant with fully resistance to cefalosporinas, piperacillin and piperacillin/tazobactam. More than half of them (58.5%) were probably extensively resistant. Seven out of nine examined strains were clonally related by rep-PCR. Our results showed extremely high rate of multidrug resistance (MDR) of Acinetobacter isolates and high percentage of its clonally spreading.
Wilk, Esther; Pandey, Ashutosh K; Leist, Sarah Rebecca; Hatesuer, Bastian; Preusse, Matthias; Pommerenke, Claudia; Wang, Junxi; Schughart, Klaus
The host response to influenza A infections is strongly influenced by host genetic factors. Animal models of genetically diverse mouse strains are well suited to identify host genes involved in severe pathology, viral replication and immune responses. Here, we have utilized a dual RNAseq approach that allowed us to investigate both viral and host gene expression in the same individual mouse after H1N1 infection. We performed a detailed expression analysis to identify (i) correlations between changes in expression of host and virus genes, (ii) host genes involved in viral replication, and (iii) genes showing differential expression between two mouse strains that strongly differ in resistance to influenza infections. These genes may be key players involved in regulating the differences in pathogenesis and host defense mechanisms after influenza A infections. Expression levels of influenza segments correlated well with the viral load and may thus be used as surrogates for conventional viral load measurements. Furthermore, we investigated the functional role of two genes, Reg3g and Irf7, in knock-out mice and found that deletion of the Irf7 gene renders the host highly susceptible to H1N1 infection. Using RNAseq analysis we identified novel genes important for viral replication or the host defense. This study adds further important knowledge to host-pathogen-interactions and suggests additional candidates that are crucial for host susceptibility or survival during influenza A infections.
Miaud, C.; Dejean, T.; Savard, K.; Millery, A.; Valentini, A.; Gaudin, N. C. G.; Garner, T. W. J.
Invasive species can be a threat to native species in several ways, including transmitting lethal infections caused by the parasites they carry. However, invasive species may also be plagued by novel and lethal infections they acquire when invading, making inferences regarding the ability of an invasive host to vector disease difficult from field observations of infection and disease. This is the case for the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) in Europe and one invasive hos...
Allison, Andrew B.; Kohler, Dennis J.; Fox, Karen A.; Brown, Justin D.; Gerhold, Richard W.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Dubovi, Edward J.; Parrish, Colin R.; Holmes, Edward C.
Although parvoviruses are commonly described in domestic carnivores, little is known about their biodiversity in nondomestic species. A phylogenetic analysis of VP2 gene sequences from puma, coyote, gray wolf, bobcat, raccoon, and striped skunk revealed two major groups related to either feline panleukopenia virus (“FPV-like”) or canine parvovirus (“CPV-like”). Cross-species transmission was commonplace, with multiple introductions into each host species but, with the exception of raccoons, r...
Seyedeh F. Afzali
Full Text Available Aim: Epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS causes by aquatic oomycete fungus, Aphanomyces invadans is a dangerous fish disease of a wide range of fresh and brackish water, wild and farmed fish throughout the world. The objective of the present study was to determine the susceptibility of a number of tropical fish species to the EUS and compare the severity of infection between experimental groups. Materials and Methods: Snakehead, Channa striata (Bloch, 1793; snakeskin gourami, Trichopodus pectoralis (Regan, 1910; koi carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758; broadhead catfish, Clarias macrocephalus (Günther, 1864; goldfish, Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758; climbing perch, Anabas testudineus (Bloch, 1792; and Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 were challenged by intramuscular injection using zoospores of Aphanomyces invadans (NJM9701. The infected fish skins and muscles were examined for EUS histopathological characteristics, and the results on the severity of lesions and mortality were analyzed using SPSS program. Results: All zoospore-injected fish were shown to be susceptible to the EUS infection except Nile tilapia. Although, the general histopathological pattern was similar in the zoospore-injected group, but there were some variation in granulomatous reaction, that is the presence or absence of giant cells, and time of mortality were detected. The result of statistical analysis showed that there was a significant difference between species, (c2=145.11 and p<0.01. Conclusion: Gourami, koi carp, and catfish were demonstrated to be highly susceptible while goldfish and climbing perch were found to be moderately susceptible to the EUS infection. These findings suggested that the cellular response of fish to mycotic infection and granulomatous reaction varied in different fish species, which could not be an indicator of susceptibility or resistant to the EUS itself, although it was shown that the granulation rate and the level of
Fett, William F.; Dunn, Michael F.
Bacterial exopolysaccharide (EPS) was extracted from infected leaves of several host plants inoculated with phytopathogenic strains of Pseudomonas syringae pathovars. Extraction was by a facilitated diffusion procedure or by collection of intercellular fluid using a centrifugation method. The extracted EPS was purified and characterized. All bacterial pathogens which induced watersoaked lesions on their host leaves, a characteristic of most members of this bacterial group, were found to produce alginic acid (a polymer consisting of varying ratios of mannuronic and guluronic acids). Only trace amounts of bacterial EPS could be isolated from leaves inoculated with a pathovar (pv. syringae) which does not induce the formation of lesions with a watersoaked appearance. Guluronic acid was either present in very low amounts or absent in the alginic acid preparations. All bacterial alginates were acetylated (7-11%). Levan (a fructan) was apparently not produced as an EPS in vivo by any of the pathogens tested. PMID:16666545
Abbasi Nejat, Ziba; Farahyar, Shirin; Falahati, Mehraban; Ashrafi Khozani, Mahtab; Hosseini, Aga Fateme; Faiazy, Azamsadat; Ekhtiari, Masoome; Hashemi-Hafshenjani, Saeideh
Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an important health problem caused by Candida spp. The aim of this study was molecular identification, phylogenetic analysis, and evaluation of antifungal susceptibility of non-albicans Candida isolates from VVC. Vaginal secretion samples were collected from 550 vaginitis patients at Sayyad Shirazi Medical and Educational Center of Gorgan (Golestan Province, Iran) from May to October 2015. Samples were analyzed using conventional mycological and molecular approaches. Clinical isolates were analyzed with specific PCR using CGL primers, and the internal transcribed spacer region and the D1-D2 domain of the large-subunit rRNA gene were amplified and sequenced. Susceptibility to amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, and clotrimazole was determined by the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute. In total, 35 non-albicans Candida isolates were identified from VVC patients. The isolates included 27 strains of Candida glabrata (77.1%), 5 Candida krusei (Pichia kudriavzevii; 14.3%), 2 Candida kefyr (Kluyveromyces marxianus; 5.7%), and 1 Candida lusitaniae (Clavispora lusitaniae; 2.9%). The fungicides itraconazole and amphotericin B were effective against all species. One isolate of C. glabrata showed resistance to fluconazole and clotrimazole, and 26 isolates of C. glabrata indicated dose-dependent susceptibility to fluconazole. C. lusitaniae was susceptible in a dose-dependent manner to fluconazole and resistant to clotrimazole. Non-albicans Candida spp. are common agents of vulvovaginitis, and C. glabrata is the most common species in the tested patients.
Full Text Available Background: In an effort to understand what limits the virulence of malaria parasites in relation to the host genetic and immunogenic background, we investigated the possibility that the parasite and host genotype crossover interactions constrain virulence.Methods: Two groups of mice from different genotypes were used (C57BL/6 (B6 and DBA/2 mice. The mice were infected with a virulent parasite line Plasmodium yoelii17XL (P. yoelii17XL. Parasitemia, hematocrit value and lymphocytes yielded by livers and spleens were evaluated. Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS analysis illustrated phenotypic characterization of lymphocytes.Results: Infection with P. yoelii17XL did not result in thedeath of DBA/2 mice. In contrast,B6 mice developed significantly high parasitemia and succumbed to death. Using (FACS analysis, DBA/2 mice were found to experience a marked expansion of interleukin (IL-2Rb+ CD3int cells and gd T cells in the liver, especially in the recovery phase. The expansion of unconventional T cells (i.e. B220+ T cells was also marked in DBA/2 mice.Conclusion: The outcome of murine malaria infections depends on the dynamic interplay between the immune-mediator and the genotype of the host.
Barna, B; Fodor, J; Harrach, B D; Pogány, M; Király, Z
Plant pathogens can be divided into biotrophs and necrotrophs according to their different life styles; biotrophs prefer living, while necrotrophs prefer dead cells for nutritional purposes. Therefore tissue necrosis caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) during pathogen infection increases host susceptibility to necrotrophic, but resistance to biotrophic pathogen. Consequently, elevation of antioxidant capacity of plants enhances their tolerance to development of necroses caused by necrotrophic pathogens. Plant hormones can strongly influence induction of ROS and antioxidants, thereby influencing susceptibility or resistance of plants to pathogens. Pathogen-induced ROS themselves are considered as signaling molecules. Generally, salicylic acid (SA) signaling induces defense against biotrophic pathogens, whereas jasmonic acid (JA) against necrotrophic pathogens. Furthermore pathogens can modify plant's defense signaling network for their own benefit by changing phytohormone homeostasis. On the other hand, ROS are harmful also to the pathogens, consequently they try to defend themselves by elevating antioxidant activity and secreting ROS scavengers in the infected tissue. The Janus face nature of ROS and plant cell death on biotrophic and on necrotrophic pathogens is also supported by the experiments with BAX inhibitor-1 and the mlo mutation of Mlo gene in barley. It was found that ROS and elevated plant antioxidant activity play an important role in systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and induced systemic resistance (ISR), as well as in mycorrhiza induced abiotic and biotic stress tolerance of plants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Ottonelli Stopiglia, Cheila Denise; Magagnin, Cibele Massotti; Castrillón, Mauricio Ramírez; Mendes, Sandra Denise Camargo; Heidrich, Daiane; Valente, Patricia; Scroferneker, Maria Lúcia
Sporotrichosis is a subacute or chronic mycosis caused worldwide by the dimorphic species complex, Sporothrix schenckii. We studied 85 isolates recovered in Brazil to verify their identification and evaluate their in vitro antifungal susceptibility patterns. Based on phenotypic tests (microscopic features, ability to grow at 30°C and 37°C, colony diameters, as well as assimilation of sucrose and raffinose) and molecular assays (amplification of a fragment of the calmodulin gene), the strains were identified as S. schenckii, S. brasiliensis and S. globosa, with a predominance of S. schenckii isolates. There was 37.7% disagreement between the phenotypic and genotypic identification methodologies. In general, terbinafine was the most active drug, followed by ketoconazole and itraconazole, and the less active fluconazole and voriconazole. Five isolates (one S. globosa and four S. schenckii) were found to be itraconazole-resistant strains but, in general, there were no differences in the in vitro antifungal susceptibility profiles among the Sporothrix species.
Crawford-Sidebotham, T J
Laboratory experiments were designed to study differential susceptibility of nine species of slugs to metaldehyde/bran and to methiocarb baits. Differential susceptibility was found between some of the species for each type of bait, both immediately after baiting and also after a 48 h recovery period. Thus neither type of bait is suitable for use in ecological investigations. This conclusion was supported by evidence that interspecific behavioural interactions occurred when metaldehyde, but not methiocarb, baits were used.At the same time the relative efficiency of the two types of baits as molluscicides was estimated. Methiocarb was shown to be a better molluscicide because, not only did it initially poison more slugs than did metaldehyde, but also a number of the slugs initially poisoned by metaldehyde recovered during the following 48 h period, whereas this did not happen with methiocarb. The similarity between these results and those obtained from field experiments by other workers is discussed.
Eisen, Jonathan A.; Kopp, Artyom
The combination of ecological diversity with genetic and experimental tractability makes Drosophila a powerful model for the study of animal-associated microbial communities. Despite the known importance of yeasts in Drosophila physiology, behavior, and fitness, most recent work has focused on Drosophila-bacterial interactions. In order to get a more complete understanding of the Drosophila microbiome, we characterized the yeast communities associated with different Drosophila species collected around the world. We focused on the phylum Ascomycota because it constitutes the vast majority of the Drosophila-associated yeasts. Our sampling strategy allowed us to compare the distribution and structure of the yeast and bacterial communities in the same host populations. We show that yeast communities are dominated by a small number of abundant taxa, that the same yeast lineages are associated with different host species and populations, and that host diet has a greater effect than host species on yeast community composition. These patterns closely parallel those observed in Drosophila bacterial communities. However, we do not detect a significant correlation between the yeast and bacterial communities of the same host populations. Comparative analysis of different symbiont groups provides a more comprehensive picture of host-microbe interactions. Future work on the role of symbiont communities in animal physiology, ecological adaptation, and evolution would benefit from a similarly holistic approach. PMID:22885750
Goldstein, G; Rada, F; Sternberg, L; Burguera, J L; Burguera, M; Orozco, A; Montilla, M; Zabala, O; Azocar, A; Canales, M J; Celis, A
The gas exchange and water relations of the hemiparasite Pthirusa maritima and two its mangrove host species, Conocarpus erectus and Coccoloba uvifera, were studied in an intertidal zone of the Venezuelan coast. Carbon uptake and transpiration, leaf osmotic and total water potential, as well as nutrient content in the xylem sap and leaves of mistletoes and hosts were followed through the dry and wet season. In addition, carbon isotope ratios of leaf tissue were measured to further evaluate water use efficiency. Under similar light and humidity conditions, mistletoes had higher transpiration rates, lower leaf water potentials, and lower water use efficiencies than their hosts. Potassium content was much higher in mistletoes than in host leaves, but mineral nutrient content in the xylem sap of mistletoes was relatively low. The resistance of the liquid pathway from the soil to the leaf surface of mistletoes was larger than the total liquid flow resistance of host plants. Differences in the daily cycles of osmotic potential of the xylem sap also indicate the existence of a high resistance pathway along the vascular connection between the parasite pathway along the vascular connection between the parasite and its host. P. maritima mistletoes adjust to the different physiological characteristics of the host species which it parasitizes, thus ensuring an adequate water and carbon balance.
Igic, Branislav; Braganza, Kim; Hyland, Margaret M; Silyn-Roberts, Heather; Cassey, Phillip; Grim, Tomas; Rutila, Jarkko; Moskát, Csaba; Hauber, Mark E
Obligate brood parasitic birds lay their eggs in nests of other species and parasite eggs typically have evolved greater structural strength relative to host eggs. Increased mechanical strength of the parasite eggshell is an adaptation that can interfere with puncture ejection behaviours of discriminating hosts. We investigated whether hardness of eggshells is related to differences between physical and chemical traits from three different races of the parasitic common cuckoo Cuculus canorus, and their respective hosts. Using tools developed for materials science, we discovered a novel correlate of increased strength of parasite eggs: the common cuckoo's egg exhibits a greater microhardness, especially in the inner region of the shell matrix, relative to its host and sympatric non-host species. We then tested predictions of four potential mechanisms of shell strength: (i) increased relative thickness overall, (ii) greater proportion of the structurally harder shell layers, (iii) higher concentration of inorganic components in the shell matrix, and (iv) elevated deposition of a high density compound, MgCO(3), in the shell matrix. We confirmed support only for hypothesis (i). Eggshell characteristics did not differ between parasite eggs sampled from different host nests in distant geographical sites, suggesting an evolutionarily shared microstructural mechanism of stronger parasite eggshells across diverse host-races of brood parasitic cuckoos.
Transcriptome analysis of the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. medicaginis during colonisation of resistant and susceptible Medicago truncatula hosts identifies differential pathogenicity profiles and novel candidate effectors.
Thatcher, Louise F; Williams, Angela H; Garg, Gagan; Buck, Sally-Anne G; Singh, Karam B
Pathogenic members of the Fusarium oxysporum species complex are responsible for vascular wilt disease on many important crops including legumes, where they can be one of the most destructive disease causing necrotrophic fungi. We previously developed a model legume-infecting pathosystem based on the reference legume Medicago truncatula and a pathogenic F. oxysporum forma specialis (f. sp.) medicaginis (Fom). To dissect the molecular pathogenicity arsenal used by this root-infecting pathogen, we sequenced its transcriptome during infection of a susceptible and resistant host accession. High coverage RNA-Seq of Fom infected root samples harvested from susceptible (DZA315) or resistant (A17) M. truncatula seedlings at early or later stages of infection (2 or 7 days post infection (dpi)) and from vegetative (in vitro) samples facilitated the identification of unique and overlapping sets of in planta differentially expressed genes. This included enrichment, particularly in DZA315 in planta up-regulated datasets, for proteins associated with sugar, protein and plant cell wall metabolism, membrane transport, nutrient uptake and oxidative processes. Genes encoding effector-like proteins were identified, including homologues of the F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici Secreted In Xylem (SIX) proteins, and several novel candidate effectors based on predicted secretion, small protein size and high in-planta induced expression. The majority of the effector candidates contain no known protein domains but do share high similarity to predicted proteins predominantly from other F. oxysporum ff. spp. as well as other Fusaria (F. solani, F. fujikori, F. verticilloides, F. graminearum and F. pseudograminearum), and from another wilt pathogen of the same class, a Verticillium species. Overall, this suggests these novel effector candidates may play important roles in Fusaria and wilt pathogen virulence. Combining high coverage in planta RNA-Seq with knowledge of fungal pathogenicity
Scordato, Elizabeth S C; Kardish, Melissa R
Patterns of diversity and turnover in macroorganism communities can often be predicted from differences in habitat, phylogenetic relationships among species and the geographical scale of comparisons. In this study, we asked whether these factors also predict diversity and turnover in parasite communities. We studied communities of avian malaria in two sympatric, ecologically similar, congeneric host species at three different sites. We asked whether parasite prevalence and community structure varied with host population, host phylogeography or geographical distance. We used PCR to screen birds for infections and then used Bayesian methods to determine phylogenetic relationships among malaria strains. Metrics of both community and phylogenetic beta diversity were used to examine patterns of malaria strain turnover between host populations, and partial Mantel tests were used determine the correlation between malaria beta diversity and geographical distance. Finally, we developed microsatellite markers to describe the genetic structure of host populations and assess the relationship between host phylogeography and parasite beta diversity. We found that different genera of malaria parasites infect the two hosts at different rates. Within hosts, parasite communities in one population were phylogenetically clustered, but there was otherwise no correlation between metrics of parasite beta diversity and geographical or genetic distance between host populations. Patterns of parasite turnover among host populations are consistent with malaria transmission occurring in the winter rather than on the breeding grounds. Our results indicate greater turnover in parasite communities between different hosts than between different study sites. Differences in host species, as well as transmission location and vector ecology, seem to be more important in structuring malaria communities than the distance-decay relationships frequently found in macroorganisms. Determining the factors
Zhu, J.; Obrycki, J. J.; Ochieng, Samuel A.; Baker, Thomas C.; Pickett, J. A.; Smiley, D.
It is well documented that host-related odors enable many species of parasitoids and predatory insects to locate their prey and prey habitats. This study reports the first characterization of prey and prey host odor reception in two species of lacewings, Chrysoperla carnea (Say) and Chrysopa oculata L. 2-Phenylethanol, one of the volatiles emitted from their prey’s host plants (alfalfa and corn) evoked a significant EAG response from antennae of C. carnea. Traps baited with this compound attracted high numbers of adult C. carnea, which were predominantly females. One of the sex pheromone components (1R,4aS,7S,7aR)-nepetalactol of an aphid species, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) attracted only C. oculata adults. Single sensillum recordings showed that the olfactory neurons of C. carnea responded to both 2-phenylethanol and aphid sex pheromone components, but those of C. oculata only responded to the latter.
Razzaghi-Abyaneh, M; Sadeghi, G; Zeinali, E; Alirezaee, M; Shams-Ghahfarokhi, M; Amani, A; Mirahmadi, R; Tolouei, R
Candidiasis is the most prevalent fungal infection affecting human and animals all over the world. This study represents the epidemiological aspects of superficial candidiasis in outpatients and in vitro antifungal susceptibility of etiologic Candida species. Clinical samples were taken from 173 patients including skin and nail scrapings (107; 61.8%), vaginal discharge (28; 16.2%), sputum (20; 11.6%), oral swabs (7; 4.0%), bronchoalveolar lavage (6; 3.5%) and 1 specimen (0.6%) of each eye tumor, gastric juice, urine, biopsy and urinary catheter and confirmed as candidiasis by direct microscopy, culture and histopathology. Susceptibility patterns of the isolated Candida species were determined using the disk diffusion and broth microdilution methods. Among 173 Candida isolates, C. albicans (72.3%) was the most prevalent species followed by C. parapsilosis (11.5%). Other identified species were C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. guilliermondii, C. intermedia and C. sake. Majority of the Candida isolates were susceptible to fluconazole (95.4%) followed by 5-flucytosine (89.6%), voriconazole (78.6%) itraconazole (48.0%) and ketoconazole (42.8%). Caspofungin was the most potent antifungal drug against C. albicans (MICs; 0.062-1 μg/mL), ketoconazole for C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis (MICs; 0.031-0.25 μg/mL) and itraconazole for C. krusei, C. glabrata and C. guilliermondii (MICs; 0.031-1 μg/mL). This study reinforces the significance of superficial candidiasis as an important fungal infection with multiple clinical presentations. Our results further indicate that susceptibility testing to commonly used antifungals is crucial in order to select the appropriate therapeutic strategies which minimize complications while improving patients' life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Alfouzan, Wadha; Al-Enezi, Tahani; AlRoomi, Ebteehal; Sandhya, Vayalil; Chandy, Rachel; Khan, Zia Uddin
Candida species are part of the normal human microbiota. However, in recent years, nosocomial bloodstream Candida infections have emerged as a significant problem ranking the fourth common cause of fungemia in intensive care units. Although microdilution methods are the ones recommended for susceptibility testing, they are difficult to undertake in the clinical practice. Thus, an automated commercially available test is ideal. To compare minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) obtained with the recently introduced Vitek 2 yeast susceptibility system card (AST-YS01) with Etest. 263 clinical Candida isolates representing six species were included in the study. Categorical agreements (CA) were assessed as described elsewhere. Irrespective of the Candida species tested, the overall CA between Vitek 2 and Etest ranged between 66.7% and 100%. In general, Etest yielded lower MICs than Vitek 2. For Candida albicans, the CA between Vitek 2 and Etest was >95% for amphotericin B, voriconazole and flucytosine, but only 89% for fluconazole. With respect to Candida glabrata, the CA was between 97% and 100%. The major errors were with Candida krusei and flucytosine and Candida kefyr and amphotericin B. Candida tropicalis susceptibility for fluconazole by Vitek 2 reported more SDD and resistant strains than Etest. Candida parapsilosis showed 100% CA against all the four antifungals tested. No very major errors were detected between the two methods. Vitek 2 provided comparable results to Etest with quick turnaround for the testing of Candida species susceptibilities. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Marín Martínez, Elena M; Aller García, Ana Isabel; Martín-Mazuelos, Estrella
Invasive fungal infection (IFI) has increased in recent years due to there being a greater number of risk factors. IFI caused by Candida is the most frequent, and although Candida albicans is the most isolated species, there is currently a decrease of C. albicans and an increase of other species of the genus. To analyse the epidemiology, risk factors, and antifungal susceptibility of blood culture isolates of non-C.albicans Candida species in our hospital in the last 12years. A retrospective study was conducted on 107 patients with candidaemia admitted to our hospital. Candida isolates susceptibility to fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, amphotericinB, 5-fluorocytosine, caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin was determined by means of a microdilution technique (Sensititre Yeast One; Izasa, Spain). From a total of 109 strains, 59 belonged to non-C. albicans Candida species: 25 Candida parapsilosis complex, 14 Candida glabrata complex, 13 Candida tropicalis, 4 Candida krusei, 1 Candida lipolytica, 1 Candida membranaefaciens, and 1 Candida pulcherrima. The most common risk factor in adults and children was catheter use. It was observed that 8.5% of those non-C.albicans strains were resistant to fluconazole. The results of this work confirm that it is necessary to know the epidemiology of non-C.albicans Candida species, the in vitro susceptibility of the species involved, and the main risk factors, especially in patients with predisposing conditions. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Park, Ga Eun; Kang, Cheol-In; Cha, Min Kyeong; Cho, Sun Young; Seok, Hyeri; Lee, Ji Hye; Kim, Ji Yeon; Ha, Young Eun; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Peck, Kyong Ran; Lee, Nam Yong; Song, Jae-Hoon
During recent decades, the rates of multidrug resistance, including resistance to carbapenems, have increased dramatically among Acinetobacter species. Tigecycline has activity against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter spp, including carbapenem-resistant isolates. However, reports of tigecycline-resistant Acinetobacter spp are emerging from different parts of the world. The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential risk factors associated with tigecycline non-susceptible Acinetobacter bacteremia. The medical records of 152 patients with Acinetobacter bacteremia attending Samsung Medical Center between January 2010 and December 2014 were reviewed. Non-susceptibility to tigecycline was defined as a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of tigecycline ≥4μg/ml. Cases were patients with tigecycline non-susceptible Acinetobacter bacteremia and controls were those with tigecycline-susceptible Acinetobacter bacteremia. Of the 152 patients included in the study, 61 (40.1%) had tigecycline non-susceptible Acinetobacter bacteremia (case group). These patients were compared to 91 patients with tigecycline-susceptible Acinetobacter bacteremia (control group). The case group showed high resistance to other antibiotics (>90%) except colistin (6.6%) and minocycline (9.8%) when compared to the control group, which exhibited relatively low resistance to other antibiotics (<50%). Multivariate analysis showed that recent exposure to corticosteroids (minimum 20mg per day for more than 5 days within 2 weeks) (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.887, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.170-7.126) and carbapenems (within 2 weeks) (adjusted OR 4.437, 95% CI 1.970-9.991) were significantly associated with tigecycline non-susceptible Acinetobacter bacteremia. Although prior exposure to tigecycline was more common in the case group than in the control group (9.8%, 6/61 vs. 2.2%, 2/91; p=0.046), this variable was found not to be a significant factor associated with tigecycline non-susceptibility
Nguyen, Cuong Thach; Park, Sang-Sang; Rhee, Dong-Kwon
Streptococci cause a variety of diseases, such as dental caries, pharyngitis, meningitis, pneumonia, bacteremia, endocarditis, erysipelas, and necrotizing fasciitis. The natural niche of this genus of bacteria ranges from the mouth and nasopharynx to the skin, indicating that the bacteria will inevitably be subjected to environmental changes during invasion into the host, where it is exposed to the host immune system. Thus, the Streptococcus-host interaction determines whether bacteria are cleared by the host's defenses or whether they survive after invasion to cause serious diseases. If this interaction was to be deciphered, it could aid in the development of novel preventive and therapeutic agents. Streptococcus species possess many virulent factors, such as peroxidases and heat-shock proteins (HSPs), which play key roles in protecting the bacteria from hostile host environments. This review will discuss insights into the mechanism(s) by which streptococci adapt to host environments. Additionally, we will address how streptococcal infections trigger host stress responses; however, the mechanism by which bacterial components modulate host stress responses remains largely unknown.
Wang, S; Riggs, R D
Seven populations of Heterodera trifolii from Arkansas, Kentucky, Pennsylvania, and Australia plus 3 or 4 single-cyst isolates (SCI) from each population were tested for reproduction on seven species of plants to compare the host preferences among and within populations. Common lespedeza, Kummerowia striata cv. Kobe, was a good host for all populations and isolates. Therefore, a plant was considered to be a host if the number of females produced on it was 10% or more of the number on Kobe. All seven populations reproduced on Trifolium repens and T. pratense. None reproduced on Beta vulgaris or Glycine max. One single-cyst isolate from the Australian population produced a few females on T. pratense. The Australian population maintained on carnation, Dianthus caryophyllus, produced females on carnation but not on curly dock, Rumex crispus. However, its subpopulation maintained on T. repens produced females on R. crispus but not on carnation. Four of the other six populations produced females on R. crispus, and four produced females on carnation. Differences in host range were observed among seven of the mother populations and their SCI, and among isolates within each population. Five host range patterns were found in populations and SCI of H. trifolii. Significant quantitative differences occurred among populations in the numbers of females on most hosts, between isolates and their original populations, and among isolates from the same population. SCI selected from white clover produced fewer females on a series of test hosts and had host ranges the same as or narrower than those of the original populations. However, SCI selected from Kobe lespedeza had more females on some hosts and had host ranges the same as or wider than those of the original populations. The host ranges of all populations and SCI of H. trifolii were different from those of populations and SCI of race 3 of H. glycines and H. lespedezae.
Thieltges, D.W.; Poulin, R.
Studies on the factors determining parasite richness in hosts are typically performedusing data compiled for various sets of species from disparate habitats. However, parasite transmissionis embedded within local trophic networks, and proper comparisons among host speciesof the drivers of parasite
Arinana; Tsunoda, Kunio; Herliyana, Elis N; Hadi, Yusuf S
Standardized laboratory testing of wood and wood-based products against subterranean termites in Indonesia (SNI 01.7207-2006) (SNI) has no requirement for the inclusion of a comparative reference species of wood (reference control). This is considered a weakness of the Indonesian standard. Consequently, a study was undertaken to identify a suitable Indonesian species of community wood that could be used as a reference control. Four candidate species of community woods: Acacia mangium, Hevea brasiliensis, Paraserianthes falcataria and Pinus merkusii were selected for testing their susceptibility to feeding by Coptotermes formosanus. Two testing methods (SNI and the Japanese standard method JIS K 1571-2004) were used to compare the susceptibility of each species of wood. Included in the study was Cryptomeria japonica, the reference control specified in the Japanese standard. The results of the study indicated that P. merkusii is a suitable reference species of wood for inclusion in laboratory tests against subterranean termites, conducted in accordance with the Indonesian standard (SNI 01.7207-2006).
Nyström, Sofie; Hammarström, Per
Prion diseases are lethal, infectious diseases associated with prion protein (PrP) misfolding. A large number of mammals are susceptible to both sporadic and acquired prion diseases. Although PrP is highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed in all mammals, not all species exhibit prion disease. By employing full length recombinant PrP from five known prion susceptible species (human, cattle, cat, mouse and hamster) and two species considered to be prion resistant (pig and dog) the amyloidogenicity of these PrPs has been delineated. All the mammalian PrPs, even from resistant species, were swiftly converted from the native state to amyloid-like structure when subjected to a native condition conversion assay. The PrPs displayed amyloidotypic tinctorial and ultrastructural hallmarks. Self-seeded conversion of the PrPs displayed significantly decreased lag phases demonstrating that nucleation dependent polymerization is a dominating mechanism in the fibrillation process. Fibrils from Aβ1-40, Aβ1-42, Lysozyme, Insulin and Transthyretin did not accelerate conversion of HuPrP whereas fibrils from HuPrP90-231 and HuPrP121-231 as well as full length PrPs of all PrPs efficiently seeded conversion showing specificity of the assay requiring the C-terminal PrP sequence. Our findings have implications for PrP misfolding and could have ramifications in the context of prion resistant species and silent carriers.
Gehman, Alyssa-Lois M; Byers, James E
Parasites often alter host physiology and behavior, which can enhance predation risk for infected hosts. Higher consumption of parasitized prey can in turn lead to a less parasitized prey population (the healthy herd hypothesis). Loxothylacus panopaei is a non-native castrating barnacle parasite on the mud crab Eurypanopeus depressus along the Atlantic coast. Through prey choice mesocosm experiments and a field tethering experiment, we investigated whether the predatory crab Callinectes sapidus and other predators preferentially feed on E. depressus infected with L. panopaei. We found that C. sapidus preferentially consumed infected E. depressus 3 to 1 over visibly uninfected E. depressus in the mesocosm experiments. Similarly, infected E. depressus were consumed 1.2 to 1 over uninfected conspecifics in field tethering trials. We evaluated a mechanism behind this skewed prey choice, specifically whether L. panopaei affects E. depressus movement, making infected prey more vulnerable to predator attack. Counter to our expectations, infected E. depressus ran faster during laboratory trials than uninfected E. depressus, suggesting that quick movement may not decrease predation risk and seems instead to make the prey more vulnerable. Ultimately, the preferential consumption of L. panopaei-infected prey by C. sapidus highlights how interactions between organisms could affect where novel parasites are able to thrive.
Rudd, Stephen; Tetko, Igor V.
The identification of the genes that participate at the biological interface of two species remains critical to our understanding of the mechanisms of disease resistance, disease susceptibility and symbiosis. The sequencing of complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries prepared from the biological interface between two organisms provides an inexpensive way to identify the novel genes that may be expressed as a cause or consequence of compatible or incompatible interactions. Sequence classification and annotation of species origin typically use an orthology-based approach and require access to large portions of either genome, or a close relative. Novel species- or clade-specific sequences may have no counterpart within existing databases and remain ambiguous features. Here we present a web-service, Éclair, which utilizes support vector machines for the classification of the origin of expressed sequence tags stemming from mixed host cDNA libraries. In addition to providing an interface for the classification of sequences, users are presented with the opportunity to train a model to suit their preferred species pair. Éclair is freely available at . PMID:15980572
Khoury, David S.; Cromer, Deborah; Best, Shannon E.; James, Kylie R.; Sebina, Ismail; Haque, Ashraful; Davenport, Miles P.
The best correlate of malaria severity in human Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) infection is the total parasite load. Pf-infected humans could control parasite loads by two mechanisms, either decreasing parasite multiplication, or increasing parasite clearance. However, few studies have directly measured these two mechanisms in vivo. Here, we have directly quantified host clearance of parasites during Plasmodium infection in mice. We transferred labelled red blood cells (RBCs) from Plasmodium infected donors into uninfected and infected recipients, and tracked the fate of donor parasites by frequent blood sampling. We then applied age-based mathematical models to characterise parasite clearance in the recipient mice. Our analyses revealed an increased clearance of parasites in infected animals, particularly parasites of a younger developmental stage. However, the major decrease in parasite multiplication in infected mice was not mediated by increased clearance alone, but was accompanied by a significant reduction in the susceptibility of RBCs to parasitisation.
Michael J McLeish
Full Text Available Parasitoid diversity in terrestrial ecosystems is enormous. However, ecological processes underpinning their evolutionary diversification in association with other trophic groups are still unclear. Specialisation and interdependencies among chalcid wasps that reproduce on Ficus presents an opportunity to investigate the ecology of a multi-trophic system that includes parasitoids. Here we estimate the host-plant species specificity of a parasitoid fig wasp genus that attacks the galls of non-pollinating pteromalid and pollinating agaonid fig wasps. We discuss the interactions between parasitoids and the Ficus species present in a forest patch of Uganda in context with populations in Southern Africa. Haplotype networks are inferred to examine intraspecific mitochondrial DNA divergences and phylogenetic approaches used to infer putative species relationships. Taxonomic appraisal and putative species delimitation by molecular and morphological techniques are compared. Results demonstrate that a parasitoid fig wasp population is able to reproduce on at least four Ficus species present in a patch. This suggests that parasitoid fig wasps have relatively broad host-Ficus species ranges compared to fig wasps that oviposit internally. Parasitoid fig wasps did not recruit on all available host plants present in the forest census area and suggests an important ecological consequence in mitigating fitness trade-offs between pollinator and Ficus reproduction. The extent to which parasitoid fig wasps exert influence on the pollination mutualism must consider the fitness consequences imposed by the ability to interact with phenotypes of multiple Ficus and fig wasps species, but not equally across space and time.
Dalia Saad ElFeky
Full Text Available Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC remains one of the most common infections of the female genital tract. Correct identification of the isolated Candida species is essential to direct the empirical antifungal therapy. Objectives: This local study was conducted to identify the spectrum of Candida species associated with VVC using different phenotypic and genotypic methods and assess their antifungal susceptibility pattern. Materials and methods: High vaginal swabs were collected from 125 patients presenting with a clinical picture suggestive of VVC. Swabs were subjected to Gram-stain and culture on Sabouraud dextrose agar. Species identification of Candida isolates was done using phenotypic methods including germ tube test, Rice Tween-80 agar, Chrom ID (CAN2 agar and API 20C AUX, while PCR-RFLP was used as the gold standard method. Antifungal susceptibility testing was done using the disk diffusion method. Results: Vaginal swab cultures yielded Candida growth in 63 cases (50.4%. Candida albicans was the predominant isolated species (60.3% while the most common non-albicans species was Candida glabrata (12.7%. Forty-five (71.4% and fifty-five (87.3% Candida isolates were correctly speciated by Rice Tween-80 Agar and API 20C AUX, respectively, while fifty-seven isolates (90.5% were correctly assigned into the 3 groups of yeasts identified by CAN2 agar. Amphotericin B was more effective than azoles against vaginal Candida isolates. Conclusion: C. albicans is the most common species associated with VVC. API 20C AUX was the most accurate phenotypic method for the proper identification of most Candida species whereas PCR-RFLP could properly confirm Candida species identification genotypically.
Full Text Available Among social parasites, workerless inquilines entirely depend on their host for survival and reproduction. They are usually close phylogenetic relatives of their host, which raises important questions about their evolutionary history and mechanisms of speciation at play. Here we present new findings on Ectatomma parasiticum, the only inquiline ant described in the Ectatomminae subfamily. Field data confirmed its rarity and local distribution in a facultative polygynous population of E. tuberculatum in Mexico. Genetic analyses demonstrated that the parasite is a sibling species of its host, from which it may have diverged recently. Polygyny is suggested to have favored the evolution of social parasite by sympatric speciation. Nevertheless, host workers from this population were able to discriminate parasites from their conspecifics. They treated the parasitic queens either as individuals of interest or as intruders, depending on their colonial origin, probably because of the peculiar chemical profile of the parasites and/or their reproductive status. We suggest that E. parasiticum could have conserved from its host sibling species the queen-specific substances that produce attracting and settling effect on workers, which, in return, would increase the probability to be detected. This hypothesis could explain the imperfect social integration of the parasite into host colonies.
Gavish, Yoni; Kedem, Hadar; Messika, Irit; Cohen, Carmit; Toh, Evelyn; Munro, Daniel; Dong, Qunfeng; Fuqua, Clay; Clay, Keith; Hawlena, Hadas
Relationships between host and microbial diversity have important ecological and applied implications. Theory predicts that these relationships will depend on the spatio-temporal scale of the analysis and the niche breadth of the organisms in question, but representative data on host-microbial community assemblage in nature is lacking. We employed a natural gradient of rodent species richness and quantified bacterial communities in rodent blood at several hierarchical spatial scales to test the hypothesis that associations between host and microbial species diversity will be positive in communities dominated by organisms with broad niches sampled at large scales. Following pyrosequencing of rodent blood samples, bacterial communities were found to be comprised primarily of broad niche lineages. These communities exhibited positive correlations between host diversity, microbial diversity and the likelihood for rare pathogens at the regional scale but not at finer scales. These findings demonstrate how microbial diversity is affected by host diversity at different spatial scales and suggest that the relationships between host diversity and overall disease risk are not always negative, as the dilution hypothesis predicts.
Full Text Available Relationships between host and microbial diversity have important ecological and applied implications. Theory predicts that these relationships will depend on the spatio-temporal scale of the analysis and the niche breadth of the organisms in question, but representative data on host-microbial community assemblage in nature is lacking. We employed a natural gradient of rodent species richness and quantified bacterial communities in rodent blood at several hierarchical spatial scales to test the hypothesis that associations between host and microbial species diversity will be positive in communities dominated by organisms with broad niches sampled at large scales. Following pyrosequencing of rodent blood samples, bacterial communities were found to be comprised primarily of broad niche lineages. These communities exhibited positive correlations between host diversity, microbial diversity and the likelihood for rare pathogens at the regional scale but not at finer scales. These findings demonstrate how microbial diversity is affected by host diversity at different spatial scales and suggest that the relationships between host diversity and overall disease risk are not always negative, as the dilution hypothesis predicts.
Kimberly A Kline
Full Text Available The epidemiology and bacteriology of urinary tract infection (UTI varies across the human lifespan, but the reasons for these differences are poorly understood. Using established monomicrobial and polymicrobial murine UTI models caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC and/or Group B Streptococcus (GBS, we demonstrate age and parity as inter-related factors contributing to UTI susceptibility. Young nulliparous animals exhibited 10-100-fold higher bacterial titers compared to older animals. In contrast, multiparity was associated with more severe acute cystitis in older animals compared to age-matched nulliparous controls, particularly in the context of polymicrobial infection where UPEC titers were ∼1000-fold higher in the multiparous compared to the nulliparous host. Multiparity was also associated with significantly increased risk of chronic high titer UPEC cystitis and ascending pyelonephritis. Further evidence is provided that the increased UPEC load in multiparous animals required TLR4-signaling. Together, these data strongly suggest that the experience of childbearing fundamentally and permanently changes the urinary tract and its response to pathogens in a manner that increases susceptibility to severe UTI. Moreover, this murine model provides a system for dissecting these and other lifespan-associated risk factors contributing to severe UTI in at-risk groups.
Huann Carllo Gentil Vasconcelos
Full Text Available Host-parasite interactions between crustaceans and six fish species (Psectrogaster falcata, Ageneiosus ucayalensis, Acestrorhynchus falcirostris, Hemiodus unimaculatus, Serrasalmus gibbus and Geophagus proximus from a reservoir in eastern Amazon, northern Brazil, were investigated. Eight hundred and seventy-eight parasites belonging to three crustacean species, Excorallana berbicensis, Argulus chicomendesi and Ergasilus turucuyus, which parasitized the hosts’ mouth, gills and tegument, were collected from 295 fish and examined. High infestation levels were caused by E. berbicensis on the body surface of the hosts. Excorallana berbicensis showed aggregate dispersion, except in S. gibbus, while E. turucuyus showed random dispersion in A. falcirostris. The host’s sex did not influence infestation by E. berbicensis, and high parasitism failed to affect the body conditions of the fish. In the case of some hosts, rainfall rates, temperature, dissolved oxygen levels and water pH affected the prevalence and abundance of E. berbicensis, the dominant parasite species. Results revealed that the environment and life-style of the hosts were determining factors in infestations by parasites. Current assay is the first report on E. berbicensis for the six hosts, as well as on A. chicomendesi for G. proximus and P. falcata.
Turgeman, Tidhar; Kakongi, Nathan; Schneider, Avishai; Vinokur, Yakov; Teper-Bamnolker, Paula; Carmeli, Shmuel; Levy, Maggie; Skory, Christopher D; Lichter, Amnon; Eshel, Dani
Sweetpotato is a nutritional source worldwide. Soft rot caused by Rhizopus spp. is a major limiting factor in the storage of produce, rendering it potentially unsafe for human consumption. In this study, Rhizopus oryzae was used to develop a concept of postharvest disease control by weakening the pathogen through induction of spore germination under starvation conditions. We isolated the sweetpotato active fractions (SPAFs) that induce spore germination and used them at a low dose to enhance spore weakening caused by starvation. Germination in SPAF at 1 mg/ml weakened the pathogen spores by delaying their ability to form colonies on rich media and by increasing their sensitivity to heat stress. The weakening effect was also supported by reduced metabolic activity, as detected by Alarmar Blue fluorescent dye assays. Spores incubated with SPAF at 1 mg/ml showed DNA fragmentation in some of their nuclei, as observed by TUNEL assay. In addition, these spores exhibited changes in ultrastructural morphology (i.e., shrinkage of germ tubes, nucleus deformation, and vacuole formation) which are hallmarks of programmed cell death. We suggest that induction of spore germination under starvation conditions increases their susceptibility to stress and, therefore, might be considered a new strategy for pathogen control.
R M Abd El-Baky
Full Text Available Purpose: To study the prevalence and the antimicrobial resistance of campylobacter species isolated from children suffering from gastroenteritis . Materials and Methods: A total of 125 stool samples were collected from children with gastroenteritis. The identification of isolates was performed with conventional methods as well as with molecular methods based on 16SrRNA species-specific gene amplification by PCR and product analysis. Resistance pattern of the isolated strains was determined using agar dilution method. Results: Conventional methods including sodium hippurate hydrolysis revealed that 12 (9.6% samples were positive for Campylobacter species. Ten out of 12 Campylobacter spp. were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 2 as Campylobacter coli but PCR assay revealed that five samples only were positive for Campylobacter and all were C. jejuni. Antimicrobial susceptibility to 10 antimicrobials was performed and all isolates (five isolates of C. jejuni were susceptible to chloramphenicol, gentamicin and amikacin but all were resistant to ceftriaxone. Conclusion: PCR assay method allows reliable detection of C. jejuni. C. jejuni was the most prevalent Campylobacter species. Gentamicin, amikacin and chloramphenicol were the most effective antibiotic.
Nunes, Jorge Meneses; Bizerra, Fernando César; Ferreira, Renata Carmona E; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes
Rhodotorula species are emergent fungal pathogens capable of causing invasive infections, primarily fungemia. They are particularly problematic in immunosuppressed patients when using a central venous catheter. In this study, we evaluated the species distribution of 51 clinical and 8 environmental Rhodotorula species isolates using the ID32C system and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing. Antifungal susceptibility testing and biofilm formation capability using a crystal violet staining assay were performed. Using ITS sequencing as the gold standard, the clinical isolates were identified as follows: 44 R. mucilaginosa isolates, 2 R. glutinis isolates, 2 R. minuta isolates, 2 R. dairenensis isolates, and 1 Rhodosporidium fluviale isolate. The environmental isolates included 7 R. mucilaginosa isolates and 1 R. slooffiae isolate. Using the ID32C system, along with a nitrate assimilation test, only 90.3% of the isolates tested were correctly identified. In the biofilm formation assay, R. mucilaginosa and R. minuta exhibited greater biofilm formation ability compared to the other Rhodotorula species; the clinical isolates of R. mucilaginosa showed greater biofilm formation compared to the environmental isolates (P = 0.04). Amphotericin B showed good in vitro activity (MIC ≤ 1 μg/ml) against planktonic cells, whereas voriconazole and posaconazole showed poor activity (MIC(50)/MIC(90), 2/4 μg/ml). Caspofungin and fluconazole MICs were consistently high for all isolates tested (≥64 μg/ml and ≥ 4 μg/ml, respectively). In this study, we emphasized the importance of molecular methods to correctly identify Rhodotorula species isolates and non-R. mucilaginosa species in particular. The antifungal susceptibility profile reinforces amphotericin B as the antifungal drug of choice for the treatment of Rhodotorula infections. To our knowledge, this is the first study evaluating putative differences in the ability of biofilm formation among different Rhodotorula
Valdezate, Sylvia; Garrido, Noelia; Carrasco, Gema; Medina-Pascual, María J; Villalón, Pilar; Navarro, Ana M; Saéz-Nieto, Juan A
The aims of this study were to explore the clinical distribution, by species, of the genus Nocardia and to assess the antimicrobial susceptibilities of the 10 most prevalent species identified in Spain. Over a 10 year period (2005-14), 1119 Nocardia strains were molecularly identified and subjected to the Etest. The distribution and resistance trends over the sub-periods 2005-09 and 2010-14 were also examined. Of the strains examined, 82.9% belonged to the following species: Nocardia cyriacigeorgica (25.3%), Nocardia nova (15.0%), Nocardia abscessus (12.7%), Nocardia farcinica (11.4%), Nocardia carnea (4.3%), Nocardia brasiliensis (3.5%), Nocardia otitidiscaviarum (3.1%), Nocardia flavorosea (2.6%), Nocardia rhamnosiphila (2.6%) and Nocardia transvalensis (2.4%). Their prevalence values were similar during 2005-09 and 2010-14, except for those of N. abscessus , N. farcinica and N. transvalensis , which fell significantly in the second sub-period ( P ≤ 0.05). The major location of isolation was the respiratory tract (∼86%). Half (13/27) of all strains from the CNS were N. farcinica . Significant differences in MIC results were recorded for some species between the two sub-periods. According to the CLSI's breakpoints, low resistance rates (≤15%) were recorded for seven species with respect to cefotaxime, imipenem and tobramycin; five species showed similar rates with respect to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Linezolid and amikacin were the most frequently active agents. The accurate identification of the infecting species and the determination of its susceptibility to antimicrobial agents, given the large number of strains with atypical patterns, are crucial if patients with nocardiosis are to be successfully treated.
Sheppard, Samuel K; Colles, Frances M; McCarthy, Noel D; Strachan, Norval J C; Ogden, Iain D; Forbes, Ken J; Dallas, John F; Maiden, Martin C J
Bacterial populations can display high levels of genetic structuring but the forces that influence this are incompletely understood. Here, by combining modelling approaches with multilocus sequence data for the zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter, we investigated how ecological factors such as niche (host) separation relate to population structure. We analysed seven housekeeping genes from published C. jejuni and C. coli isolate collections from a range of food and wild animal sources as well as abiotic environments. By reconstructing genetic structure and the patterns of ancestry, we quantified C. jejuni host association, inferred ancestral populations, investigated genetic admixture in different hosts and determined the host origin of recombinant C. jejuni alleles found in hybrid C. coli lineages. Phylogenetically distinct C. jejuni lineages were associated with phylogenetically distinct wild birds. However, in the farm environment, phylogenetically distant host animals shared several C. jejuni lineages that could not be segregated according to host origin using these analyses. Furthermore, of the introgressed C. jejuni alleles found in C. coli lineages, 73% were attributed to genotypes associated with food animals. Our results are consistent with an evolutionary scenario where distinct Campylobacter lineages are associated with different host species but the ecological factors that maintain this are different in domestic animals such that phylogenetically distant animals can harbour closely related strains. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Full Text Available The present review summarized the factors or determinants that may explain parasite diversity among host species and the consequences of this parasite diversity on the evolution of host-life history traits. As host–parasite interactions are asymmetrical exploited–exploiter relationships, ecological and epidemiological theories produce hypotheses to find the potential determinants of parasite species richness, while life-history theory helps for testing potential consequences on parasite diversity on the evolution of hosts. This review referred only to studies that have specifically controlled or took into account phylogenetic information illustrated with parasites of mammals. Several points needing more investigation were identified with a special emphasis to develop the metabolic theory of epidemiology.
Lazzarotto, C M; Lazzari, S M N; Penteado, S R C
Greenidea ficicola Takahashi and Greenidea psidii van der Goot (Aphididae: Greenideinae) are Asian aphid species newly introduced in Brazil associated with Moraceae and Myrtaceae. The feeding behavior of G. ficicola and G. psidii was investigated on their respective host plants, Ficus benjamina (Moraceae) and Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae), using the Electrical Penetration Graph (EPG). Fifteen females of each aphid species were monitored during 24h using a DC-EPG GIGA-4 monitor. The time spent in phloem phase (waveforms E1 and E2) was 13.6% of the total recording time for G. ficicola and 0.8% for G. psidii. The average time in the pathway phase (waveforms C and pd) represented 50% of the total time for both species. Aphids spent more time in non-penetration and stylet pathway activities than in the phloem phase or actual feeding. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the two species formed different groups in relation to EPG parameters, despite some overlapping. The probing patterns with multiple penetrations of short duration in the sieve elements for both species may indicate apparent unsuitability for sustained feeding on their respective host plants. These results suggest that these two exotic species are in the process of adaptation to their host plants in their new environment and/or the plants may present either chemical or physical barriers against these insects.
Duncan, L W; Ferris, H
PLANT ROOTS WERE MECHANICALLY INJURED OR SUBJECTED TO NEMATODE PARASITISM TO TEST THE MODEL OF HOST DAMAGE BY TWO NEMATODE SPECIES: y = m' + (l - m')c'z(P)z(P) for y 1.0, where m' = m + (m - m) (1 - y)/[(1 - y) + (l - y)] and c' = (z(-T) + z(-T))/2. Damage functions for greenhouse-grown radish plants (cv. Cherry Belle) mechanically injured with small or large steel needles were used to predict growth of plants injured by both needles. Growth predictions accounted for 94%, 87%, and 82% of mean treatment variation in plant height, stem weight, and root weight, respectively. Cowpea (cv. California Blackeye No. 5) damage functions, based on preplant population levels of Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica, were used to predict seed yield of plants concomitantly infected with various levels of each species. Single species damage functions and population growth curves indicated significant host resistance to M. incognita and significantly lower virulence of that species compared to M. javanica. Model predictions accounted for 88% of mean seed yield variation in two-species treatments. In a separate experiment, mean top weights of 30-day-old cowpea plants, nniformly inoculated with 20,000 M. javanica eggs, increased with increasing levels of concomitantly inoculated M. incognita eggs. It is speculated that competitive interactions between M. incognita and M. javanica mitigated host damage by the more virulent species.
Pérez, C A; Wingfield, M J; Altier, N; Blanchette, R A
Mycosphaerella species are well-known causal agents of leaf diseases on many economically and ecologically important plant species. In Uruguay, a relatively large number of Mycosphaerellaceae and Teratosphaeriaceae are found on Eucalyptus, but nothing is known of these fungi on native Myrtaceae. The aim of this study was to identify Mycosphaerellaceae and Teratosphaeriaceae species associated with leaf diseases on native Myrtaceae in Uruguay and to consider whether host jumps by the pathogen from introduced Eucalyptus to native Myrtaceae have occurred. Several native forests throughout the country were surveyed with special attention given to those located close to Eucalyptus plantations. Five species belonging to the Mycosphaerellaceae and Teratosphaeriaceae clades were found on native Myrtaceous trees and three of these had previously been reported on Eucalyptus in Uruguay. Those occurring both on Eucalyptus and native Myrtaceae included Pallidocercospora heimii, Pseudocercospora norchiensis, and Teratosphaeria aurantia. In addition, Mycosphaerella yunnanensis, a species known to occur on Eucalyptus but not previously recorded in Uruguay, was found on leaves of two native Myrtaceous hosts. Because most of these species occur on Eucalyptus in countries other than Uruguay, it appears that they were introduced in this country and have adapted to be able to infect native Myrtaceae. These apparent host jumps have the potential to result in serious disease problems and they should be carefully monitored. Copyright © 2012 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Steinauer, Michelle L; Parham, James E; Nickol, Brent B
Leptorhynchoides thecatus (Linton, 1891), an acanthocephalan parasite of freshwater fishes, varies in host use, development, and habitat use throughout North America. Spatial structure of these characteristics was examined from data extracted from the literature. Geographic patterns were inferred from point comparisons using correllograms and then tested with Moran's I statistic for global and local significance, and visually from regional means within major river drainages. Species of Micropterus Lacepède, 1802 (black basses) were common hosts in most regions, except the Lower Mississippi and South Atlantic regions where species of Lepomis Rafinesque, 1819 (sunfishes) were common hosts. Development, described as the proportions of adults relative to cystacanths (extraintestinal juveniles), decreased with latitude. Habitat use of L. thecatus showed marked geographic patterns. Leptorhynchoides thecatus occurred in the intestine of sunfishes in the South Atlantic and Lower Mississippi regions, in the ceca in fish of all species included in the study in the Missouri and Texas-Gulf regions, and both in ceca and intestines in fish of all species in northern regions. Leptorhynchoides thecatus showed geographic patterning within the variable traits across the range of the species. These patterns may be the result of ecological factors or of genetic differences that might indicate L. thecatus comprises multiple cryptic species.
Hofmeister, Erik K.; Dusek, Robert J.; Fassbinder-Orth, Carol; Owen, Benjamin; Franson, J. Christian
West Nile virus (WNV) spread to the US western plains states in 2003, when a significant mortality event attributed to WNV occurred in Greater Sage-grouse ( Centrocercus urophasianus ). The role of avian species inhabiting sagebrush in the amplification of WNV in arid and semiarid regions of the North America is unknown. We conducted an experimental WNV challenge study in Vesper Sparrows ( Pooecetes gramineus ), a species common to sagebrush and grassland habitats found throughout much of North America. We found Vesper Sparrows to be moderately susceptible to WNV, developing viremia considered sufficient to transmit WNV to feeding mosquitoes, but the majority of birds were capable of surviving infection and developing a humoral immune response to the WNV nonstructural 1 and envelope proteins. Despite clearance of viremia, after 6 mo, WNV was detected molecularly in three birds and cultured from one bird. Surviving Vesper Sparrows were resistant to reinfection 6 mo after the initial challenge. Vesper sparrows could play a role in the amplification of WNV in sagebrush habitat and other areas of their range, but rapid clearance of WNV may limit their importance as competent amplification hosts of WNV.
Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Ding; Sjölinder, Mikael; Wan, Yi; Sjölinder, Hong
CD46, a membrane cofactor expressed on all nucleated human cells, plays an essential role in suppressing autoimmune reactions and protecting host cells from complement-mediated attack. Human transgenic CD46 homozygous mice (CD46+/+ ) are prone to lethal sepsis upon infection with Neisseria meningitidis (N. meningitidis). However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we determined thatCD46+/+ mice produce large numbers of M1 type macrophages with enhanced surface expression of MHC II and production of pro-inflammatory mediators such as IL-6, TNF, IL-12, and IL-1β In the presence of M-CSF or GM-CSF, CD46 signaling enhances monocyte-macrophage differentiation. Additionally, CD46+/+ macrophages rapidly undergo apoptosis upon LPS challenge or meningococcal infection, which could contribute to uncontrolled bacterial dissemination in vivo. Adoptive transfer of CD46+/+ peritoneal macrophages aggravated septic responses in wild-type mice, but the depletion of macrophages partially alleviated septic reactions in CD46+/+ mice after N. meningitidis infection. Our findings reveal a novel role of CD46 in accelerating inflammatory responses upon meningococcal infection or LPS stimulation by regulating the functional polarization and survival of macrophages. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Fernández, Olga Lucía; Diaz-Toro, Yira; Muvdi, Sandra; Rodríguez, Isabel; Gomez, María Adelaida; Saravia, Nancy Gore
Background Pentavalent antimonials have been the first line treatment for dermal leishmaniasis in Colombia for over 30 years. Miltefosine is administered as second line treatment since 2005. The susceptibility of circulating populations of Leishmania to these drugs is unknown despite clinical evidence supporting the emergence of resistance. Methodology/Principal Findings In vitro susceptibility was determined for intracellular amastigotes of 245 clinical strains of the most prevalent Leishmania Viannia species in Colombia to miltefosine (HePC) and/or meglumine antimoniate (SbV); 163, (80%) were evaluated for both drugs. Additionally, susceptibility to SbV was examined in two cohorts of 85 L. V. panamensis strains isolated between 1980–1989 and 2000–2009 in the municipality of Tumaco. Susceptibility to each drug differed among strains of the same species and between species. Whereas 68% of L. V. braziliensis strains presented in vitro resistance to HePC, 69% were sensitive to SbV. Resistance to HePC and SbV occurred respectively, in 20% y 21% of L. panamensis strains. Only 3% of L. V. guyanensis were resistant to HePC, and none to SbV. Drug susceptibility differed between geographic regions and time periods. Subpopulations having disparate susceptibility to SbV were discerned among L. V. panamensis strains isolated during 1980–1990 in Tumaco where resistant strains belonged to zymodeme 2.3, and sensitive strains to zymodeme 2.2. Conclusions/Significance Large scale evaluation of clinical strains of Leishmania Viannia species demonstrated species, population, geographic, and epidemiologic differences in susceptibility to meglumine antimoniate and miltefosine, and provided baseline information for monitoring susceptibility to these drugs. Sensitive and resistant clinical strains within each species, and zymodeme as a proxy marker of antimony susceptibility for L. V. panamensis, will be useful in deciphering factors involved in susceptibility and the distribution
Trazilbo José de Paula Júnior
Full Text Available We studied the susceptibility of species used as green manure in common bean fields to root rot (Rhizoctonia solani and southern blight (Sclerotium rolfsii. Seeds of Crotalaria breviflora, Canavalia ensiformis, Cajanus cajan, Dolichos lablab, Stizolobium cinereum, S. aterrimum, and the bean cvs. "Pérola", "Valente" and "Carnaval" were sown in soil infested by either R. solani AG-4 or S. rolfsii in greenhouse. The emergence of D. lablab seedlings in soil infested by R. solani dropped to 62%. C. breviflora, C. ensiformis and cv. "Valente" presented the lowest root rot severity. The pathogen S. rolfsii drastically reduced seedling emergence in all species; no C. cajan and S. cinereum seedling emerged. All plant species presented high southern blight severity. We conclude that leguminous crops are not suitable as green manure for areas of bean cultivation with high R. solani and S. rolfsii populations.
Temir A. Britayev
Full Text Available To assess whether closely related host species harbour similar symbiotic communities, we studied two polychaetes, Chaetopterus sp. (n = 11 and Chaetopterus cf. appendiculatus (n = 83 living in soft sediments of Nhatrang Bay (South China Sea, Vietnam. The former harboured the porcellanid crabs Polyonyx cf. heok and Polyonyx sp., the pinnotherid crab Tetrias sp. and the tergipedid nudibranch Phestilla sp. The latter harboured the polynoid polychaete Ophthalmonoe pettiboneae, the carapid fish Onuxodon fowleri and the porcellanid crab Eulenaios cometes, all of which, except O. fowleri, seemed to be specialized symbionts. The species richness and mean intensity of the symbionts were higher in Chaetopterus sp. than in C. cf. appendiculatus (1.8 and 1.02 species and 3.0 and 1.05 individuals per host respectively. We suggest that the lower density of Chaetopterus sp. may explain the higher number of associated symbionts observed, as well as the 100% prevalence (69.5% in C. cf. appenciculatus. Most Chaetopterus sp. harboured two symbiotic species, which was extremely rare in C. cf. appendiculatus, suggesting lower interspecific interactions in the former. The crab and nudibranch symbionts of Chaetopterus sp. often shared a host and lived in pairs, thus partitioning resources. This led to the species coexisting in the tubes of Chaetopterus sp., establishing a tightly packed community, indicating high species richness and mean intensity, together with a low species dominance. In contrast, the aggressive, strictly territorial species associated with C. cf. appendiculatus established a symbiotic community strongly dominated by single species and, thus, low species richness and mean intensity. Therefore, we suggest that interspecific interactions are determining species richness, intensity and dominance, while intraspecific interactions are influencing only intensity and abundance. It is possible that species composition may have influenced the
Rogala, Allison R; Schoenborn, Alexi A; Fee, Brian E; Cantillana, Viviana A; Joyce, Maria J; Gharaibeh, Raad Z; Roy, Sayanty; Fodor, Anthony A; Sartor, R Balfour; Taylor, Gregory A; Gulati, Ajay S
Crohn's disease (CD) represents a chronic inflammatory disorder of the intestinal tract. Several susceptibility genes have been linked to CD, though their precise role in the pathogenesis of this disorder remains unclear. Immunity-Related GTPase M (IRGM) is an established CD risk allele. We have shown previously that conventionally-raised (CV) mice lacking the IRGM ortholog, Irgm1, exhibit abnormal Paneth cells (PCs) and increased susceptibility to intestinal injury. In the present study, we sought to utilize this model system to determine if environmental conditions impact these phenotypes, as is thought to be the case in human CD. To accomplish this, wild-type and Irgm1-/- mice were re-derived into specific pathogen-free (SPF) and germ-free (GF) conditions. We next assessed how these differential housing environments influenced intestinal injury patterns and epithelial cell morphology and function in wild-type and Irgm1-/- mice. Remarkably, in contrast to CV mice, SPF Irgm1-/- mice showed only a slight increase in susceptibility to dextran sodium sulfate-induced inflammation. SPF Irgm1-/- mice also displayed minimal abnormalities in PC number, morphology, and antimicrobial peptide expression. Goblet cell numbers and epithelial proliferation were also unaffected by Irgm1 in SPF conditions. No microbial differences were observed between wild-type and Irgm1-/- mice, but gut bacterial communities differed profoundly between CV and SPF mice. Specifically, Helicobacter sequences were significantly increased in CV mice; however, inoculating SPF Irgm1-/- mice with H. hepaticus was not sufficient to transmit a pro-inflammatory phenotype. In summary, our findings suggest the impact of Irgm1-deficiency on susceptibility to intestinal inflammation and epithelial function is critically dependent on environmental influences. This work establishes the importance of Irgm1-/- mice as a model to elucidate host-environment interactions that regulate mucosal homeostasis and
Choi, Young-Joon; Denchev, Cvetomir M; Shin, Hyeon-Dong
About 20 species of Peronospora have been reported to cause downy mildew on Chenopodium, but, particularly in plant pathology literature, only one species, P. farinosa, is considered to be involved. We performed sequence analysis of the ITS rDNA to reveal the phylogenetic relationships of Peronospora specimens from five species of Chenopodium, viz. C. album, C. ambrosioides, C. bonus-henricus, C. hybridum, and C. polyspermum. The five clades corresponded to particular Chenopodium species, and showed a high level of sequence divergence. Differences in the morphology of the conidia and ultimate branchlets also supported the separation of the five groups at the host species level. These results suggest that the names P. variabilis, P. boni-henrici, P. chenopodii, and P. chenopodii-polyspermi should be used for the four downy mildew pathogens specific to C. album, C. bonus-henricus, C. hybridum, and C. polyspermum, respectively. The Peronospora on C. ambrosioides was found to be an independent species.
Venail, Roger; Lhoir, Jonathan; Fall, Moussa; del Río, Ricardo; Talavera, Sandra; Labuschagne, Karien; Miranda, Miguel; Pagès, Nonito; Venter, Gert; Rakotoarivony, Ignace; Allène, Xavier; Scheid, Bethsabée; Gardès, Laëtitia; Gimonneau, Geoffrey; Lancelot, Renaud; Garros, Claire; Cêtre-Sossah, Catherine; Balenghien, Thomas; Carpenter, Simon; Baldet, Thierry
.... The objective of the present study is to determine baseline susceptibility of multiple Culicoides vector species and populations in Europe and Africa to the most commonly used insecticide active ingredients...
Faseela Taivalap Shafi
Full Text Available Background: Oral candidiasis is increasingly seen among hospitalized patients and is usually treated empirically. It can be the marker of systemic infection. Antifingal resistance is one of the emerging problems in candidiasis. Aim and Objectives: To study the distribution pattern of various Candida species among hospitalised patients with oral candidiasis, to detect the antifungal resistance among Candida and to assess the possible risk factors associated with those patients. Methods: Out of 300 patients screened, oral thrush material was collected from 36 patients having oral candidiasis. Candida spp. were isolated and identified. Antifungal susceptibility test was performed by disk diffusion method. Results: Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated species (64%. Highest resistance was seen with ketoconazole (18%. Except one C. tropicalis, all the isolates were sensitive to amphotericin B. All the patients were on broad spectrum antibiotic treatment. Diabetes mellitus was seen in 50 % of the patients. Other predisposing factors include tuberculosis, COPD, cancer and steroid treatment. Conclusion: Eventhough there is progressive shift from a predominance of C. albicans to non-albicans Candida species in candidiasis, C. albicans remains as the most important pathogen in oral candidiasis. Since azole resistance is increasing, accurate identification of Candida spp. and antifungal susceptibility testing is crucial for patient management and for facilitating hospital control measures.
Full Text Available Introduction. Campylobacter is one of the leading bacterial causes of food-borne disease. The prevalence of Campylobacter species resistant to antimicrobial agents is increasing. This study is intended to determine prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Campylobacter species among under-five children with diarrhea. Methodology. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 227 under-five children with diarrhea from July to October 2012 at Jimma town. Isolation and identification of Campylobacter species were performed using standard bacteriological techniques. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed following standard protocol. Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests were used for analysis. Results. From 227 under-five children, 16.7% were positive for Campylobacter spp.; isolates, C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari, accounted for 71.1%, 21.1%, and 7.9%, respectively. Higher rate of resistance was observed to ampicillin 76.3%, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (68.4%, tetracycline (39.5%, chloramphenicol (31.6%, clindamycin (26.3%, and doxycycline (23.7%. Erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, norfloxacin, and nalidixic acid were effective for more than 80% of the isolates. Multiple drug resistance was observed among 78.9% of all the three spp. Conclusions. Isolation rate of Campylobacter spp. was high. C. lari was reported for the first time at this study area. Higher rate of resistance was observed to the commonly used drugs.
De Waele, D; Jordaan, E M; Basson, S
The host suitability to Ditylenchus destructor of seven common weed species in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) fields in South Africa was determined. Based on the number of nematodes per root unit, white goosefoot (Chenopodium album), feathertop chloris (Chloris virgata), purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus), jimson weed (Datura stramonium), goose grass (Eleusine indica), khaki weed (Tagetes minuta), and cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium) were poor hosts. Ditylenchus destructor survived on all weed species; population densities increased in peanut hulls and caused severe damage to seeds of peanut grown after weeds. Roots of purple nutsedge left in the soil suppressed populations of D. destructor and root and pod development in peanut grown after the weed. However, nematode populations in peanut hulls and seeds were not suppressed. Some weed species, especially purple nutsedge which is common in peanut fields, can be used to indicate the presence of D. destructor in the absence of peanut.
Full Text Available The nurse cell-larva complex of nematodes of the genus Trichinella plays an Important role in the survival of the larva in decaying muscles, frequently favouring the transmission of the parasite in extreme environmental conditions. The ultrastructure of the nurse cell-larva complex in muscles from different hosts infected with T. nativa (a walrus and a polar bear, T. spiralis (horses and humans, T. pseudospiralis (a laboratory mouse and T. papuae (a laboratory mouse were examined. Analysis with transmission electron microscope showed that the typical nurse cell structure was present in all examined samples, irrespective of the species of larva, of the presence of a collagen capsule, of the age of infection and of the host species, suggesting that there exists a molecular mechanism that in the first stage of larva invasion is similar for encapsulated and non-encapsulated species.
Ranjith, Konduri; Sontam, Bhavani; Sharma, Savitri; Joseph, Joveeta; Chathoth, Kanchana N; Sama, Kalyana C; Murthy, Somasheila I; Shivaji, Sisinthy
To determine the type of Candida species in ocular infections and to investigate the relationship of antifungal susceptibility profile to virulence factors. Fifty isolates of yeast-like fungi from patients with keratitis, endophthalmitis, and orbital cellulitis were identified by Vitek-2 compact system and DNA sequencing of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 regions of the rRNA gene, followed by phylogenetic analysis for phenotypic and genotypic identification, respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentration of six antifungal drugs was determined by E test/microbroth dilution methods. Phenotypic and genotypic methods were used to determine the virulence factors. Phylogenetic analysis showed the clustering of all isolates into eight distinct groups with a major cluster formed Candida parapsilosis (n = 21), which was the most common species by both Vitek 2 and DNA sequencing. Using χ2 test no significant difference was noted between the techniques except that Vitek 2 did not identify C. viswanathii, C. orthopsilosis, and two non-Candida genera. Of 43 tested Candida isolates high susceptibility to amphotericin B (39/43, 90.6%) and natamycin (43/43, 100%) was noted. While none of the isolates produced coagulase, all produced esterase and catalase. The potential to form biofilm was detected in 23/43 (53.4%) isolates. Distribution of virulence factors by heat map analysis showed difference in metabolic activity of biofilm producers from nonbiofilm producers. Identified by Vitek 2 and DNA sequencing methods C. parapsilosis was the most common species associated with eye infections. Irrespective of the virulence factors elaborated, the Candida isolates were susceptible to commonly used antifungal drugs such as amphotericin B and natamycin.
Tyagi Prajesh K
Full Text Available Abstract Background Host adhesion molecules play a significant role in the pathogenesis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria and changes in their structure or levels in individuals can influence the outcome of infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of SNPs of three adhesion molecule genes, ICAM1, PECAM1 and CD36, with severity of falciparum malaria in a malaria-endemic and a non-endemic region of India. Methods The frequency distribution of seven selected SNPs of ICAM1, PECAM1 and CD36 was determined in 552 individuals drawn from 24 populations across India. SNP-disease association was analysed in a case-control study format. Genotyping of the population panel was performed by Sequenom mass spectroscopy and patient/control samples were genotyped by SNaPshot method. Haplotypes and linkage disequilibrium (LD plots were generated using PHASE and Haploview, respectively. Odds-ratio (OR for risk assessment was estimated using EpiInfo™ version 3.4. Results Association of the ICAM1 rs5498 (exon 6 G allele and the CD36 exon 1a A allele with increased risk of severe malaria was observed (severe versus control, OR = 1.91 and 2.66, P = 0.02 and 0.0012, respectively. The CD36 rs1334512 (-53 T allele as well as the TT genotype associated with protection from severe disease (severe versus control, TT versus GG, OR = 0.37, P = 0.004. Interestingly, a SNP of the PECAM1 gene (rs668, exon 3, C/G with low minor allele frequency in populations of the endemic region compared to the non-endemic region exhibited differential association with disease in these regions; the G allele was a risk factor for malaria in the endemic region, but exhibited significant association with protection from disease in the non-endemic region. Conclusion The data highlights the significance of variations in the ICAM1, PECAM1 and CD36 genes in the manifestation of falciparum malaria in India. The PECAM1 exon 3 SNP exhibits altered association with disease in the
Jordaan, E M; De Waele, D
The host suitability of five of the most common weed species occurring in maize (Zea mays L.) fields in South Africa to Pratylenchus zeae was tested. Based on the number of nematodes per root unit, mealie crotalaria (Crotalaria sphaerocarpa) was a good host; goose grass (Eleusine indica), common pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus), and thorn apple (Datura stramonium) were moderate hosts; and khaki weed (Tagetes minuta) was a poor host. Only the root residues of khaki weed suppressed the P. zeae infestation of subsequently grown maize. When goose grass, khaki weed, and mealie crotalaria were grown in association with maize in soil infested with P. zeae, goose grass and khaki weed severely suppressed maize root development; this resulted in a low number of nematodes per maize root system and a high number of nematodes per maize root unit. Mealie crotalaria did not restrict maize root growth and did not affect nematode densities per maize root system or maize root unit. Special attention should be given to the control of mealie crotalaria, which is a good host for P. zeae, and goose grass, which, in addition to its ability to compete with maize, is also a suitable host for P. zeae.
Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Hasman, Henrik
A total of 569 different bacterial isolates (156 Salmonella, 202 E. coli, 43 S. aureus, 38 S. hyicus, 52 E. faecalis, 78 E faecium) were tested for susceptibility to copper sulphate, benzalkonium chloride, hydrogen peroxide and chlorhexidine using MIC determinations. A total of 442 isolates were ...... bacterial species to these compounds, and Salmonella especially seems intrinsically less susceptible than the other bacterial species, which might have human health implications. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....
Cattle are the reservoir hosts of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo, and also be reservoir hosts of other Leptospira species such as L. kirschneri, and L. interrogans. As a reservoir host, cattle shed Leptospira, infecting other animals, including humans. Previous studies with human and murin...
Hahn, D.C.; Hatfield, J.S.
We investigated patterns of cowbird host selection in a large (1300 ha), unfragmented forest in eastern New York in 1992-3 to determine whether cowbird parasitism rates can be attributed to species-specific traits or to other features associated with nest sites. Nest height was significantly associated with parasitism (P = 0.003) in this community of 23 species (n = 430 nests, 23% parasitized). Further analysis revealed that the difference in mean nest heights between parasitized and unparasitized nests was due to species identity, and within each species there was no difference in mean nest heights between parasitized and unparasitized nests. These results imply that during 1992-3 cowbirds in this forest specialized on species that have low nests and did not necessarily select low nests regardless of species. This was further supported by a negative association across all 23 species between mean nest height and parasitism rate (P = 0.03). Thus, although most of the forest-nesting species in this community experienced cowbird parasitism, there was a tendency for higher parasitism rates on low-nesting species such as the Ovenbird, Black-and-white Warbler, Louisiana Waterthrush, Veery, and Hermit Thrush. The Wood Thrush, a mid-range nester which is heavily parasitized in southern Illinois, experienced only 10% parasitism in our site and ranked 9th in parasitism rate, although it was the most abundant species in this forest in terms of the number of nests found. A long-term study is necessary to determine whether this cowbird population consistently parasitizes the ground-nesting species of this forest community more often than those nesting at higher levels or whether they periodically shift among hosts at different heights and in different habitats across the local landscape.
Guzman-Valencia, Stephanie; Santillán-Galicia, Ma Teresa; Guzmán-Franco, Ariel W; Vega-Muñoz, Ricardo
Adaptation to different host plants can lead to host-associated differentiation (HAD). The mites Oligonychus perseae and Oligonychus punicae have a broad range of host plants, but, to date, records of them coexisting sympatrically had only been reported on avocado. However, our field observations showed both species coexisting on host plants other than avocado. The lack of previous records of these mites on the host plants studied here suggests only recent divergence to new host plant species. Previous studies showed that O. punicae had a limited migration capacity compared with O. perseae, suggesting that O. punicae is more likely to develop a close host plant relationship leading to HAD. Adults of both species were collected from trees hosting both mite species. Three genera of host plants considered were Persea, Salix, and Alnus; two species within one genus were Alnus jorullensis and Alnus acuminata; and three varieties within one species were Persea americana var. Fuerte, var. Hass, and var. Criollo, a noncommercial variety. Using sequence data from a segment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I, the phylogenetic relationships and genetic population structure of both mite species in relation to the host plant were determined. Oligonychus perseae populations showed a significant population structure in relation to host plant at the species and genus level, but there was no effect of variety. In contrast, host plant explained none of the genetic variation among O. punicae populations. The potential role of coexistence mechanisms in the contrasting genetic population structure of both mite species is discussed. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Ottens, K; Winkler, I S; Lewis, M L; Scheffer, S J; Gomes-Costa, G A; Condon, M A; Forbes, A A
Tropical herbivorous insects are astonishingly diverse, and many are highly host-specific. Much evidence suggests that herbivorous insect diversity is a function of host plant diversity; yet, the diversity of some lineages exceeds the diversity of plants. Although most species of herbivorous fruit flies in the Neotropical genus Blepharoneura are strongly host-specific (they deposit their eggs in a single host plant species and flower sex), some species are collected from multiple hosts or flowers and these may represent examples of lineages that are diversifying via changes in host use. Here, we investigate patterns of diversification within six geographically widespread Blepharoneura species that have been collected and reared from at least two host plant species or host plant parts. We use microsatellites to (1) test for evidence of local genetic differentiation associated with different sympatric hosts (different plant species or flower sexes) and (2) examine geographic patterns of genetic differentiation across multiple South American collection sites. In four of the six fly species, we find evidence of local genetic differences between flies collected from different hosts. All six species show evidence of geographic structure, with consistent differences between flies collected in the Guiana Shield and flies collected in Amazonia. Continent-wide analyses reveal - in all but one instance - that genetically differentiated flies collected in sympatry from different host species or different sex flowers are not one another's closest relatives, indicating that genetic differences often arise in allopatry before, or at least coincident with, the evolution of novel host use. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.
Castillo, Daniel; Christiansen, Rói Hammershaimb; Espejo, Romilio
in disease control requires detailed knowledge about the diversity and dynamics of host susceptibility to phage infection. For this reason, we examined the genetic diversity of 49 F. psychrophilum strains isolated in three different areas (Chile, Denmark, and USA) through direct genome restriction enzyme...
Full Text Available The natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (NRAMP1, Vitamin-D receptor (VDR and Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α have been associated in susceptibility to tuberculosis, but the results have been inconsistent. This study aimed to determine the association of NRAMP1, VDR, and TNF-á variant with development of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB among Iranian patients. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs at INT4, D543, 3'UTR of NRAMP1 gene, SNPs in restriction sites of BsmI, and FokI of the VDR gene and SNPs of TNF-α at -238,-308, -244,857,-863 positions were analyzed by PCR-RFLP among two groups of individual; patients with PTB (n=117 and healthy controls (n=60. Thereafter, the frequencies of extended haplotypes and diplotypes were estimated. No statistically significant differences were observed in allele frequencies of INT4, D543, 3'UTR of NRAMPI, FokI of VDR and TNF-α at -238, -244,-863 and -857 position. Although, the frequency of b allele of BsmI [ORs: 0.24 CI95% (0.07-0.67 (p=0.001] and -308 A variant in TNF-α promoter region [ORs:0.26 CI95%( 0.07-0.77 (p=0.006] were significantly more in PTB patients than healthy controls. The frequency of extended diplotypes of NRAMP [GG TGTG++GA; 0.02(0.001-0.0035], VDR [FFBB; 0.2(0.6-0.6] and TNF-α [CCCCGGGGGG; 0.49(0.25-0.97] were statistically different in patients and control subjects (p<0.05. This study confirmed the association of SNPs in BsmI (B/b + b/b of VDR and SNPs in -308A (G/A +G/G of TNF-α genes with susceptibility to tuberculosis in Iranian PTB patients. Furthermore, the extended haplotypes and diplotypes analysis can be considered as an alternative way to determine the host susceptibility to TB.
Skorobrechova, Ekaterina M; Nikishin, Vladimir P; Lisitsyna, Olga I
Micromorphology and ultrastructure of capsule forming around acanthocephalan Corynosoma strumosum in uncommon paratenic hosts-lizards Lacerta agilis and Lacerta viridis-have been studied. Experimental infestation of the lizards by acanthocephalans obtained from naturally infested sea fishes showed that only small amount of parasites occurred in the intestine of the host was able to migrate into body cavity and to be encapsulated. Micromorphology of capsules of different ages from different species of lizards and micromorphology and ultrastructure of capsules at the age of 1.5 and 10 days appeared to be similar. In the capsule's structure cells of inflammatory rank were prevailing: mononuclear and multinuclear macrophages, eosinophils, and basophils. Fibroblasts were not numerous and were located only in the outer part of a capsule; exocellular collagen fibers were absent. Inflammatory character of capsule confirms the idea that lizards are unsuitable paratenic hosts for corynosomes.
Peter T. Wolter; Philip A. Townsend; Brian R. Sturtevant; Clayton C. Kingdon
Insects and disease affect large areas of forest in the U.S. and Canada. Understanding ecosystem impacts of such disturbances requires knowledge of host species distribution patterns on the landscape. In this study, we mapped the distribution and abundance of host species for the spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) to facilitate landscape scale...
Isoken H. Igbinosa
Full Text Available This study assessed the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Aeromonas species isolated from Alice and Fort Beaufort wastewater treatment plant in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined using the disc diffusion method, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay was employed for the detection of antibiotics resistance genes. Variable susceptibilities were observed against ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, gentamicin, minocycline, among others. Aeromonas isolates from both locations were 100% resistant to penicillin, oxacillin, ampicillin, and vancomycin. Higher phenotypic resistance was observed in isolates from Fort Beaufort compared to isolates from Alice. Class A pse1 β-lactamase was detected in 20.8% of the isolates with a lower detection rate of 8.3% for blaTEM gene. Class 1 integron was present in 20.8% of Aeromonas isolates while class 2 integron and TetC gene were not detected in any isolate. The antibiotic resistance phenotypes observed in the isolates and the presence of β-lactamases genes detected in some isolates are of clinical and public health concern as this has consequences for antimicrobial chemotherapy of infections associated with Aeromonas species. This study further supports wastewater as potential reservoirs of antibiotic resistance determinants in the environment.
Wood, Chelsea L; Micheli, Fiorenza; Fernández, Miriam; Gelcich, Stefan; Castilla, Juan Carlos; Carvajal, Juan
1. Parasites comprise a substantial proportion of global biodiversity and exert important ecological influences on hosts, communities and ecosystems, but our knowledge of how parasite populations respond to human impacts is in its infancy. 2. Here, we present the results of a natural experiment in which we used a system of highly successful marine protected areas and matched open-access areas in central Chile to assess the influence of fishing-driven biodiversity loss on parasites of exploited fish and invertebrate hosts. We measured the burden of gill parasites for two reef fishes (Cheilodactylus variegatus and Aplodactylus punctatus), trematode parasites for a keyhole limpet (Fissurella latimarginata), and pinnotherid pea crab parasites for a sea urchin (Loxechinus albus). We also measured host density for all four hosts. 3. We found that nearly all parasite species exhibited substantially greater density (# parasites m(-2)) in protected than in open-access areas, but only one parasite species (a gill monogenean of C. variegatus) was more abundant within hosts collected from protected relative to open-access areas. 4. These data indicate that fishing can drive declines in parasite abundance at the parasite population level by reducing the availability of habitat and resources for parasites, but less commonly affects the abundance of parasites at the infrapopulation level (within individual hosts). 5. Considering the substantial ecological role that many parasites play in marine communities, fishing and other human impacts could exert cryptic but important effects on marine community structure and ecosystem functioning via reductions in parasite abundance. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2013 British Ecological Society.
Rendón-Franco, Emilio; Muñoz-García, Claudia I; Romero-Callejas, Evangelina; Moreno-Torres, Karla I; Suzán, Gerardo
Reduced species diversity has been suggested to increase transmission rates and prevalence of infectious diseases. While this theory has been studied mostly in single pathogen systems, little is known regarding multiple pathogens systems in vertebrates at the community level. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of host richness and diversity on multiple parasite systems on a local scale. We captured small rodents and collected feces in three different vegetation types in a natural protected area in Janos, Chihuahua, Mexico. The flotation technique was used to identify parasite eggs or oocysts. Analysis of linear correlations was conducted between parasite prevalence and host and parasite diversity and richness. Negative correlation was detected between parasite prevalence and host diversity (p = 0.02 r(2) =-0.86), but no significant correlations was detected between parasite prevalence and host richness or parasite diversity or richness. Our study shows that at local scale, host diversity could affect multiple parasite systems in the same way that single pathogens do. Further studies should be performed on larger temporal and spatial scales to more thoroughly investigate the correlation observed in our analysis.
Santoro, Mario; Alfaro-Alarcón, Alejandro; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Cerrone, Anna; Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Otranto, Domenico; Hagnauer, Isabel; Jiménez, Mauricio; Galiero, Giorgio
Angiostrongylus costaricensis (Strongylida, Angiostrongylidae) is a roundworm of rodents, which may cause a severe or fatal zoonosis in several countries of the Americas. A single report indicated that the white-nosed coati (Nasua narica), acts as a potential free-ranging wildlife reservoir. Here we investigated the prevalence and features of A. costaricensis infection in two procyonid species, the white-nosed coati and the raccoon (Procyon lotor) from Costa Rica to better understand their possible role in the epidemiology of this zoonotic infection. Eighteen of 32 (56.2%) white-nosed coatis collected between July 2010 and March 2016 were infected with A. costaricensis but none of 97 raccoons from the same localities were diagnosed with this infection. First-stage larvae of A. costaricensis were obtained from feces of 17 fresh white-nosed coati carcasses by Baermann technique. Parasite identity was confirmed by morphology, histology and molecular characterization of target genes. These data demonstrate that the white-nosed coati is a naturally susceptible definitive host for A. costaricensis in Costa Rica contrary to findings in the raccoon. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Understanding the ecology and evolutionary history of symbionts and their hosts requires accurate taxonomic knowledge, including clear species boundaries and phylogenies. Tortoise mites (Mesostigmata: Uropodoidea are among the most diverse arthropod associates of bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae, but their taxonomy and host associations are largely unstudied. We tested the hypotheses that (1 morphologically defined species are supported by molecular data, and that (2 bark beetle uropodoids with a broad host range comprise cryptic species. To do so, we assessed the species boundaries of uropodoid mites collected from 51 host species, across 11 countries and 103 sites, using morphometric data as well as partial cytochrome oxidase I (COI and nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA (28S. Overall, morphologically defined species were confirmed by molecular datasets, with a few exceptions. Twenty-nine of the 36 uropodoid species (Trichouropoda, Nenteria and Uroobovella collected in this study had narrow host ranges, while seven species had putative broad host ranges. In all but one species, U. orri, our data supported the existence of these host generalists, which contrasts with the typical finding that widespread generalists are actually complexes of cryptic specialists.
Knee, Wayne; Beaulieu, Frédéric; Skevington, Jeffrey H; Kelso, Scott; Cognato, Anthony I; Forbes, Mark R
Understanding the ecology and evolutionary history of symbionts and their hosts requires accurate taxonomic knowledge, including clear species boundaries and phylogenies. Tortoise mites (Mesostigmata: Uropodoidea) are among the most diverse arthropod associates of bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae), but their taxonomy and host associations are largely unstudied. We tested the hypotheses that (1) morphologically defined species are supported by molecular data, and that (2) bark beetle uropodoids with a broad host range comprise cryptic species. To do so, we assessed the species boundaries of uropodoid mites collected from 51 host species, across 11 countries and 103 sites, using morphometric data as well as partial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA (28S). Overall, morphologically defined species were confirmed by molecular datasets, with a few exceptions. Twenty-nine of the 36 uropodoid species (Trichouropoda, Nenteria and Uroobovella) collected in this study had narrow host ranges, while seven species had putative broad host ranges. In all but one species, U. orri, our data supported the existence of these host generalists, which contrasts with the typical finding that widespread generalists are actually complexes of cryptic specialists.
Caira, J N; Rodriguez, N; Pickering, M
Two new species of diphyllidean cestodes of the genus Echinobothrium, each hosted by a different skate species in the Raja miraletus complex, are described. Echinobothrium mercedesae n. sp. is described from R. cf. miraletus 2 off Senegal. Echinobothrium yiae n. sp. is described from R. cf. miraletus 1 off South Africa. Both species are small worms that differ from their 29 described congeners in the combination of number of cephalic peduncle spines per column, hook formula, number and arrangement of testes, and arrangement of vitelline follicles. They are easily distinguished from one another in that whereas the vitelline follicles of E. yiae n. sp. are circumcortical, they are lateral in E. mercedesae n. sp., and also in number of cephalic peduncle spines per column (14-17 vs. 10-12). Echinobothrium yiae n. sp. is also unusual in that the cephalic peduncle spines stop short of the anterior margin of the peduncle. In addition, although the paucity of available material precluded their formal description, evidence of 2 additional new species parasitizing R. miraletus also from Senegal is presented. In combination these worms provide support for the interpretation that what is currently recognized as Raja miraletus actually consists of a complex of geographically restricted species, rather than a polymorphic species of multiple parapatric or allopatrically distributed populations. This interpretation is not only supported by previously published molecular data, but also by newly collected morphological data involving differences in the color patterns of disc ocelli among host specimens of the 3 forms available as a result of digital efforts to ensure the accuracy of host identifications, which are also presented here.
Full Text Available In this study, we implement the DEIM algorithm (Discrete Empirical Interpolation Method combined with POD (Proper Orthogonal Decomposition to provide dimension reduction of a model describing the aggregative response of parasitoids to hosts in a coupled multi-species system. The model is defined by five reaction-diffusionchemotaxis equations. We show DEIM improves the efficiency of the POD approximation and achieves a complexity reduction of the nonlinear terms. Numerical results are presented.
Li, Yanwei; Zhou, Xin; Feng, Gui; Hu, Haoyuan; Niu, Liming; Hebert, Paul D N; Huang, Dawei
Although the genus Sycophila has broad host preferences, some species are specifically associated with figs as nonpollinator wasps. Because of their sexual dimorphism, morphological plasticity, cryptic mating behaviour and poorly known biology, species identifications are often uncertain. It is particularly difficult to match conspecific females and males. In this study, we employed two molecular markers, mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS2, to identify Sycophila from six Chinese fig species. Morphological studies revealed 25 female and male morphs, while sequence results for both genes were consistent in supporting the presence of 15 species, of which 13 were host specialists and two used dual hosts. A single species of Sycophila was respectively found on four fig species, but six species were isolated from Ficus benjamina and a same number was reared from Ficus microcarpa. Sequence results revealed three male morphs in one species and detected two species that were overlooked by morphological analysis. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Barger, Michael A
Metacercariae of Panopistus pricei (Brachylaimidae) are common parasites of 2 species of terrestrial gastropods (Neohelix albolabris; Webbhelix multilineata) in southeastern Nebraska. Field data were collected to determine if individuals of N. albolabris and W. multilineata function as ecologically equivalent second intermediate hosts of P. pricei along a transect on the western edge of the Missouri River. Metacercariae were recovered and measured from samples of 30 snails of each species collected at each of 6 sites; whole kidneys from snails of both species were examined to quantify microhabitat use. Microhabitat use of P. pricei did not differ between host species; in both N. albolabris and W. multilineata, metacercariae were concentrated in the primary ureter and occurred throughout the kidney proper. Prevalences and mean abundances did not differ between host species at any site, nor did the relationship between parasite abundance and host size. Prevalences and mean abundances across sites were positively correlated between host species. At 2 sites, demographics of metacercariae differed between host species, suggesting short-term differences in the history of encounters with cercariae in the environment and differences in transmission to shrew definitive hosts. Overall, N. albolabris and W. multilineata appear to be equivalent and required second intermediate hosts of P. pricei in the area studied.
Saikkonen, Kari; Young, Carolyn A; Helander, Marjo; Schardl, Christopher L
The closely linked fitness of the Epichloë symbiont and the host grass is presumed to align the coevolution of the species towards specialization and mutually beneficial cooperation. Ecological observations demonstrating that Epichloë-grass symbioses can modulate grassland ecosystems via both above- and belowground ecosystem processes support this. In many cases the detected ecological importance of Epichloë species is directly or indirectly linked to defensive mutualism attributable to alkaloids of fungal-origin. Now, modern genetic and molecular techniques enable the precise studies on evolutionary origin of endophytic Epichloë species, their coevolution with host grasses and identification the genetic variation that explains phenotypic diversity in ecologically relevant characteristics of Epichloë-grass associations. Here we briefly review the most recent findings in these areas of research using the present knowledge of the genetic variation that explains the biosynthetic pathways driving the diversity of alkaloids produced by the endophyte. These findings underscore the importance of genetic interplay between the fungus and the host in shaping their coevolution and ecological role in both natural grass ecosystems, and in the agricultural arena.
Akiyoshi, Donna E; Dilo, Julia; Pearson, Christine; Chapman, Susan; Tumwine, James; Tzipori, Saul
Cryptosporidium meleagridis, a protozoon first observed in turkeys, has been linked by several investigators to cryptosporidiosis in humans. C. meleagridis is the only known Cryptosporidium species that infects both avian and mammalian species. We describe the successful propagation of C. meleagridis (isolate TU1867), originally purified from a patient with diarrhea, in laboratory animals including chickens, mice, piglets, and calves. TU1867 was readily transmitted from one animal host to another, maintaining genetic homogeneity and stability. The rate of infectivity and virulence of TU1867 for the mammalian species were similar to those of Cryptosporidium parvum. Laboratory propagation of genetically and phenotypically stable and well-characterized reference isolates, representing various Cryptosporidium species, particularly those infectious to humans, will improve considerably the spectrum and quality of laboratory and field investigations on this medically important protozoa.
José Hildefonso de Souza
Full Text Available Termites are well known for their ability to damage wood and various types of wood-derived products. This study was performed in the municipality of Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, with the objective of evaluating the susceptibility of the wood of five different forest species to the activity of the Asian subterranean termite, Coptotermes gestroi. Wood stakes from the following forest species were used as specimens: pine (Pinus sp., Pinaceae, Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa, Lecythidaceae, cabbage angelin (Andira inermis, Leguminosae-Papilionoideae, maçaranduba (Manilkara huberi, Sapotaceae and pink ipê (Tabebuia avellanedae, Bignoniaceae. The stakes, with dimensions of 2 cm x 2 cm x 16 cm, were subjected to the activity of C. gestroi from September 2, 2006 to June 2, 2007. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks with four replications in an 11 x 5 x 3 factorial arrangement. Twelve stakes of each of the five forest species were installed at each of eleven sites, totaling 660 stakes. Three evaluations were performed, at 90, 180 and 270 days after stake installation. The results indicated that the pine, Brazil nut and cabbage angelin stakes were more susceptible to C. gestroi attack, while the pink ipê and maçaranduba stakes suffered no significant damage from this termite. There was a significant negative correlation between the wood consumption rate and the wood density of the species studied. The woods most susceptible to C. gestroi attack presented moderate to low densities and therefore less resistance, as in the case of pine and cabbage angelin.Os térmitas são bem conhecidos por sua capacidade de danificar madeira e vários tipos de produtos derivados. O estudo foi realizado no município de Seropédica, RJ, com o objetivo de avaliar a susceptibilidade da madeira de cinco essências florestais à ação do cupim subterrâneo asiático, Coptotermes gestroi. Como corpos-de-prova foram utilizados estacas de
Julio Miguel Grandez-Rios
Full Text Available Understanding the drivers of plant-insect interactions is still a key issue in terrestrial ecology. Here, we used 30 well-defined plant-herbivore assemblages to assess the effects of host plant phylogenetic isolation and origin (native vs. exotic on the species richness, composition and specialization of the insect herbivore fauna on co-occurring plant species. We also tested for differences in such effects between assemblages composed exclusively of exophagous and endophagous herbivores. We found a consistent negative effect of the phylogenetic isolation of host plants on the richness, similarity and specialization of their insect herbivore faunas. Notably, except for Jaccard dissimilarity, the effect of phylogenetic isolation on the insect herbivore faunas did not vary between native and exotic plants. Our findings show that the phylogenetic isolation of host plants is a key factor that influences the richness, composition and specialization of their local herbivore faunas, regardless of the host plant origin.
Payne; Payne; Woods
Brood-parasitic village indigobirds, Vidua chalybeata, were bred in captivity and foster-reared by their normal host, red-billed firefinch, Lagonosticta senegala, or by an experimental foster species, Bengalese finch, Lonchura striata. Male indigobirds reared by Bengalese finches developed the songs of Bengalese finches, and males reared by firefinches developed songs of firefinches. Males copied their foster father only when they had lived with him long after independence (45 days post-fledging), while males separated normally at independence (22-24 days post-fledging) copied songs of other individuals and not songs of their foster father. Males reared by Bengalese finches showed no preference to learn firefinch song over songs of the experimental foster species or other control finch species even when they had lived with firefinches as companions from the time of fledging to independence. Males copied several song themes, acquired the same number of mimicry songs, and acquired their songs at the same age, whether reared by Bengalese finches or by firefinches. When they lived with other indigobirds, the male indigobirds copied mimicry songs of male indigobirds that mimicked the same foster species. We predicted mimicry-song specificity and repertoire size in experimental indigobirds from a hypothesis of an early developmental period when young indigobirds focus their attention on their foster parents, and a later period when they direct their attention to other birds with similar songs. The predictions, based on field observations of wild birds, were that (1) males reared by a novel foster species other than the normal host would learn the song of that foster species, and (2) males that left their foster parents at the normal time of independence would copy the songs of other individuals, including other adult indigobirds that mimicked the same foster species. Begging calls of young indigobirds did not mimic the calls of young firefinches. Indigobirds reared alone
Juliano Cezar Minardi da Cruz
Full Text Available Zoonotic events of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV from non-human primates to humans have generated the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, one of the most devastating infectious disease of the last century with more than 30 million people dead and about 40.3 million people currently infected worldwide. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 and HIV-2, the two major viruses that cause AIDS in humans are retroviruses of the lentivirus genus. The genus includes arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV and Maedi-Visna virus (MVV, and a heterogeneous group of viruses known as small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs, affecting goat and sheep. Lentivirus genome integrates into the host DNA, causing persistent infection associated with a remarkable diversity during viral replication. Direct evidence of mixed infections with these two closely related SRLVs was found in both sheep and goats. The evidence of a genetic continuum with caprine and ovine field isolates demonstrates the absence of an efficient species barrier preventing cross-species transmission. In dual-infected animals, persistent infections with both CAEV and MVV have been described, and viral chimeras have been detected. This not only complicates animal trade between countries but favors the risk that highly pathogenic variants may emerge as has already been observed in the past in Iceland and, more recently, in outbreaks with virulent strains in Spain. SRLVs affecting wildlife have already been identified, demonstrating the existence of emergent viruses adapted to new hosts. Viruses adapted to wildlife ruminants may acquire novel biopathological properties which may endanger not only the new host species but also domestic ruminants and humans. SRLVs infecting sheep and goats follow a genomic evolution similar to that observed in HIV or in other lentiviruses. Lentivirus genetic diversity and host factors leading to the establishment of naturally occurring virulent versus avirulent infections
Minardi da Cruz, Juliano Cezar; Singh, Dinesh Kumar; Lamara, Ali; Chebloune, Yahia
Zoonotic events of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) from non-human primates to humans have generated the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), one of the most devastating infectious disease of the last century with more than 30 million people dead and about 40.3 million people currently infected worldwide. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 and HIV-2), the two major viruses that cause AIDS in humans are retroviruses of the lentivirus genus. The genus includes arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) and Maedi-Visna virus (MVV), and a heterogeneous group of viruses known as small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs), affecting goat and sheep. Lentivirus genome integrates into the host DNA, causing persistent infection associated with a remarkable diversity during viral replication. Direct evidence of mixed infections with these two closely related SRLVs was found in both sheep and goats. The evidence of a genetic continuum with caprine and ovine field isolates demonstrates the absence of an efficient species barrier preventing cross-species transmission. In dual-infected animals, persistent infections with both CAEV and MVV have been described, and viral chimeras have been detected. This not only complicates animal trade between countries but favors the risk that highly pathogenic variants may emerge as has already been observed in the past in Iceland and, more recently, in outbreaks with virulent strains in Spain. SRLVs affecting wildlife have already been identified, demonstrating the existence of emergent viruses adapted to new hosts. Viruses adapted to wildlife ruminants may acquire novel biopathological properties which may endanger not only the new host species but also domestic ruminants and humans. SRLVs infecting sheep and goats follow a genomic evolution similar to that observed in HIV or in other lentiviruses. Lentivirus genetic diversity and host factors leading to the establishment of naturally occurring virulent versus avirulent infections, in addition to
Fábio Silvestre Ataides
Full Text Available AbstractINTRODUCTION:Candida parapsilosis is a common yeast species found in cases of onychomycosis and candidemia associated with infected intravascular devices. In this study, we differentiated Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis , and Candida metapsilosis from a culture collection containing blood and subungual scraping samples. Furthermore, we assessed the in vitro antifungal susceptibility of these species to fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, amphotericin B, and caspofungin.METHODS:Differentiation of C. parapsilosis complex species was performed by amplification of the secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (SADH gene and digestion by the restriction enzyme Ban I. All isolates were evaluated for the determination of minimal inhibitory concentrations using Etest, a method for antifungal susceptibility testing.RESULTS:Among the 87 isolates, 78 (89.7% were identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto , five (5.7% were identified as C. orthopsilosis , and four (4.6% were identified as C. metapsilosis . Analysis of antifungal susceptibility showed that C. parapsilosis sensu strictoisolates were less susceptible to amphotericin B and itraconazole. One C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolate was resistant to amphotericin B and itraconazole. Moreover, 10.2% of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolates were resistant to caspofungin. Two C. parapsilosis sensu strictoisolates and one C. metapsilosis isolate were susceptible to fluconazole in a dose-dependent manner.CONCLUSIONS:We reported the first molecular identification of C. parapsilosiscomplex species in State of Goiás, Brazil. Additionally, we showed that although the three species exhibited differences in antifungal susceptibility profiles, the primary susceptibility of this species was to caspofungin.
Full Text Available Background: To study prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken and beef meat, and determine the drug susceptibility of strains, 450 samples in Tehran, Iran were investigated. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and the antimicrobial resistance of entropathogenic Campylobacter strains ,especially C. jejuni isolated from raw chicken and beef meat in Tehran- Iran. Materials and Methods: Out of 250 chickens and 200 beef meats, 121(26.8 % contaminated cases with Campylobacter strains were isolated. Campylobacter was isolated from a significantly larger number of chickens (44% than beef meats (5.5 % (P < 0.05. Results: From all isolated Campylobacter organisms, 93 (76.8% species were identified as C. jejuni and 28 cases (23.1% as C. coli. Susceptibilities of 121 strains (93 C. jejuni and 28 C. coli were determined against 12 antimicrobial drugs using the disk agar diffusion method. Resistance to nalidixic acid (75% and ciprofloxacin (50% was an alarming finding, moreover, 32.6% of isolates was resistant to tetracycline, 10.8% to ampicillin, 29.3% to colisitin and 26.1% to amoxicillin. The highest sensitivity was seen to erythromycin (95 % and gentamicin (96%. Conclusions: These results showed that a high proportion of chicken and beef meat in Iran is contaminated with Campylobacter, particularly with Campylobacter jejuni. The high rate of contamination, especially chicken is a significant public health concern. Most of the isolates were resistant; therefore, human infection with Campylobacter spp. via consumption of these products is possible.
Stalažs, Arturs; Moročko-Bičevska, Inga
Cecidophyopsis mites are important pests in all cultivation regions of Ribes causing bud galls and sterility. Despite their economic importance, the knowledge on Cecidophyopsis species infesting Ribes in various areas of the world is still deficient. The present study was carried out to identify Cecidophyopsis species occurring in Latvia on cultivated and wild Ribes, to assess their host range and gain insight into the genetic diversity of these insufficiently studied pests by use of multiplex PCR, rDNA sequences and morphological characters. Cecidophyopsis alpina, C. aurea, C. spicata and C. selachodon were detected to occur in all surveyed habitats. For the first time, C. alpina was identified on blackcurrants and redcurrants, and C. aurea on redcurrants, blackcurrants and alpine currants. The presence of C. ribis was not confirmed with molecular tools during this study. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the presence of four Cecidophyopsis species identified by multiplex PCR. A close phylogenetic relatedness was found for C. aurea and C. alpina, and for C. ribis and C. spicata highlighting the necessity for additional studies. Our findings suggest a need to consider also other Cecidophyopsis species besides C. ribis in breeding programs for host resistance to mites.
Sandoval-Denis, Marcelo; Sutton, Deanna A; Cano-Lira, José F; Gené, Josepa; Fothergill, Annette W; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Guarro, Josep
A set of 73 isolates of the emerging fungus Trichoderma isolated from human and animal clinical specimens were characterized morphologically and molecularly using a multilocus sequence analysis that included the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the nuclear ribosomal DNA and fragments of the translation elongation factor 1 alpha (Tef1), endochitinase CHI18-5 (Chi18-5), and actin 1 (Act1) genes. The most frequent species was Trichoderma longibrachiatum (26%), followed by Trichoderma citrinoviride (18%), the Hypocrea lixii/Trichoderma harzianum species complex (15%), the newly described species Trichoderma bissettii (12%), and Trichoderma orientale (11%). The most common anatomical sites of isolation in human clinical specimens were the respiratory tract (40%), followed by deep tissue (30%) and superficial tissues (26%), while all the animal-associated isolates were obtained from superficial tissue samples. Susceptibilities of the isolates to eight antifungal drugs in vitro showed mostly high MICs, except for voriconazole and the echinocandins. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Walker, Louise A.; Gow, Neil A. R.
The echinocandin antifungal drugs inhibit synthesis of the major fungal cell wall polysaccharide β(1,3)-glucan. Echinocandins have good efficacy against Candida albicans but reduced activity against other Candida species, in particular Candida parapsilosis and Candida guilliermondii. Treatment of Candida albicans with a sub-MIC level of caspofungin has been reported to cause a compensatory increase in chitin content and to select for sporadic echinocandin-resistant FKS1 point mutants that also have elevated cell wall chitin. Here we show that elevated chitin in response to caspofungin is a common response in various Candida species. Activation of chitin synthesis was observed in isolates of C. albicans, Candida tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, and C. guilliermondii and in some isolates of Candida krusei in response to caspofungin treatment. However, Candida glabrata isolates demonstrated no exposure-induced change in chitin content. Furthermore, isolates of C. albicans, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, and C. guilliermondii which were stimulated to have higher chitin levels via activation of the calcineurin and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathways had reduced susceptibility to caspofungin. Isolates containing point mutations in the FKS1 gene generally had higher chitin levels and did not demonstrate a further compensatory increase in chitin content in response to caspofungin treatment. These results highlight the potential of increased chitin synthesis as a potential mechanism of tolerance to caspofungin for the major pathogenic Candida species. PMID:23089748
Miyambo, Tsakani; Makhalanyane, Thulani P; Cowan, Don A; Valverde, Angel
The fynbos biome in South Africa is globally recognised as a plant biodiversity hotspot. However, very little is known about the bacterial communities associated with fynbos plants, despite interactions between primary producers and bacteria having an impact on the physiology of both partners and shaping ecosystem diversity. This study reports on the structure, phylogenetic composition and potential roles of the endophytic bacterial communities located in the stems of three fynbos plants (Erepsia anceps, Phaenocoma prolifera and Leucadendron laureolum). Using Illumina MiSeq 16S rRNA sequencing we found that different subpopulations of Deinococcus-Thermus, Alphaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Firmicutes dominated the endophytic bacterial communities. Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria were prevalent in P. prolifera, whereas Deinococcus-Thermus dominated in L. laureolum, revealing species-specific host-bacteria associations. Although a high degree of variability in the endophytic bacterial communities within hosts was observed, we also detected a core microbiome across the stems of the three plant species, which accounted for 72% of the sequences. Altogether, it seems that both deterministic and stochastic processes shaped microbial communities. Endophytic bacterial communities harboured putative plant growth-promoting bacteria, thus having the potential to influence host health and growth. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
English, E D; Adomako-Ankomah, Y; Boyle, J P
Recent years have witnessed the discovery of a number of secreted proteins in Toxoplasma gondii that play important roles in host–pathogen interactions and parasite virulence, particularly in the mouse model. However, the role that these proteins play in driving the unique features of T. gondii compared to some of its nearest apicomplexan relatives (Hammondia hammondi and Neospora caninum) is unknown. These unique features include distinct dissemination characteristics in vivo and a vast host range. In this review we comprehensively survey what is known about disease outcome, the host response and host range for T. gondii, H. hammondi, and N. caninum. We then review what is presently known about recently identified secreted virulence effectors in these three genetically related, but phenotypically distinct, species. Finally we exploit the existence of genome sequences for these three organisms and discuss what is known about the presence, and functionality, of key T. gondii effectors in these three species. PMID:25655311
Full Text Available Members of the Burkholderia species can cause a range of severe, often fatal, respiratory diseases. A variety of in vitro models of infection have been developed in an attempt to elucidate the mechanism by which Burkholderia spp. gain entry to and interact with the body. The majority of studies have tended to focus on the interaction of bacteria with phagocytic cells with a paucity of information available with regard to the lung epithelium. However, the lung epithelium is becoming more widely recognised as an important player in innate immunity and the early response to infections. Here we review the complex relationship between Burkholderia species and epithelial cells with an emphasis on the most pathogenic species, B. pseudomallei and B. mallei. The current gaps in knowledge in our understanding are highlighted along with the epithelial host-pathogen interactions that offer potential opportunities for therapeutic intervention.
David, Jonathan; Bell, Rachel E.; Clark, Graeme C.
Members of the Burkholderia species can cause a range of severe, often fatal, respiratory diseases. A variety of in vitro models of infection have been developed in an attempt to elucidate the mechanism by which Burkholderia spp. gain entry to and interact with the body. The majority of studies have tended to focus on the interaction of bacteria with phagocytic cells with a paucity of information available with regard to the lung epithelium. However, the lung epithelium is becoming more widely recognized as an important player in innate immunity and the early response to infections. Here we review the complex relationship between Burkholderia species and epithelial cells with an emphasis on the most pathogenic species, Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei. The current gaps in knowledge in our understanding are highlighted along with the epithelial host-pathogen interactions that offer potential opportunities for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26636042
Cocho, Lidia; Fernández, Itziar; Calonge, Margarita; Sainz de la Maza, Maite; Rovira, Montserrat; Stern, Michael E; Garcia-Vazquez, Carmen; Enríquez-de-Salamanca, Amalia
To determine if cytokine tear levels before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can help anticipate the occurrence of ocular chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). In this pilot study, 25 patients undergoing HSCT were followed prospectively for ≤43 months. After ocular examinations, tears were collected before HSCT. Levels of 19 cytokines (epidermal growth factor [EGF], eotaxin 1/CCL11, fractalkine/CX3CL1, IL-1Ra, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8/CXCL8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-17A, IP-10/CXCL10, IFN-γ, VEGF, TNF-α, and RANTES/CCL5) were measured by multiplex bead assay. A multistate model (MSM) based on four states (HSCT, systemic cGVHD, ocular cGVHD, and death) was developed to identify cytokines associated with each transition probability. Molecules included in the final multivariable model were selected by a supervised principal components analysis. Bootstrap resampling internally validated the final MSM. Model discriminatory ability was determined by time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curves and the corresponding area under the curve (AUC). The final model, based on fractalkine, IL-1Ra, and IL-6 tear levels, accurately influenced the transition between the four different states. The AUC for this model, based on a new variable built upon the combination of these three molecules, was 67% to 80% throughout follow-up and, thus, had good discriminatory ability. In this prospective study, a model based on pre-HSCT tear levels of the inflammatory molecules fractalkine, IL-1Ra, and IL-6 had good prognostic ability for the development of ocular cGVHD after HSCT. These cytokines potentially could act as susceptibility biomarkers for the development of this disease after HSCT.
Ranathunge Nalika Priyanwada
Full Text Available Colletotrichum truncatum (syn. C. capsici, like many other members of the genus Colletotrichum, displays a highly developed infection mechanism against a number of agriculturally important crops. Among many survival strategies, C. truncatum is well known for its wide host range and high pathogenicity on several major crop species. Meticulous understanding of a pathogen’s infection mechanisms is the best way to achieve successful management of a disease. This study was carried out to evaluate the pathogenicity of C. truncatum on selected crop plants and weed species and to detect the possibility of non-host species to facilitate survival of the pathogen. Inoculation of an isolate of C. truncatum to four crops: curry chilli - Capsicum annuum (var. CA8, eggplant - Solanum melongena (var. Lena Iri, tomato - Solanum lycopersicum (var. Thilina and green chilli - C. annuum (var. KA2 and three weed species: little ironweed (Vernonia cinerea, billygoat-weed (Ageratum conyzoides and Bengal dayflower (Commelina benghalensis resulted in approximately 3.5 disease severity (DS (100% disease incidence-DI on S. lycopersicum and C. annuum (var. KA2, followed by 2.8 and 1.8 DS (100%, 75% DI on C. annuum (var. CA8 and S. melongena (var. Lena Iri, respectively. The three weed species were completely symptomless up to 8 weeks after the inoculation (WAI. However, microscopic studies and serial culturing of the inoculated tissues revealed the presence of the fungus in all the tested plants. Appressoria were present in all treated leaves and eventually broke their dormancy upon leaf senescence nearly 6 WAI. This study reveals the potential of C. truncatum infecting all tested crops and the capability of the three weed species in harboring the pathogen asymptomatically for several weeks. Thus, early management of inoculum in the field is suggested for C. truncatum diseases.
Herbst, Werner; Willems, Hermann; Heuser, Jörg; Ewers, Christa
Anaerobic spirochetes of the genus Brachyspira are important pathogens causing swine dysentery (Brachyspira [B.] hyodysenteriae) and porcine intestinal spirochetosis (B. pilosicoli, PIS). In addition, avian intestinal spirochetosis (AIS) is caused by B. pilosicoli, B. intermedia and B. alvinipulli. Despite the economic impact of AIS, the disease has not received appropriate attention in Germany. This study was aimed at identifying Brachyspira spp. in Germany and determining their antimicrobial susceptibility. From 2009 to 2013, a total of 71 fecal swabs were obtained from clinically healthy layer hens from eight different commercial flocks. Brachyspira spp. culture was performed in trypticase soybean agar added with 5% sheep blood. Species determination was conducted by PCRs targeting the NADH-gen and the 16S rDNA or by nox-gene sequencing. Antimicrobial susceptibility to macrolides, lincosamides and pleuromutilins was tested by a microdilution assay. Brachyspira spp. were isolated from 40 (56.3%) swabs distributed over all eight flocks. In 26 cases, the following species were determined by PCR: B. pilosicoli (n = 16), B. intermedia (2), B. innocens (3), B. murdochii (1), mixtures of B. pilosicoli/B. intermedia (2), B. innocens/B. intermedia (1), B. innocens/B. murdochii (1). Remaining isolates were characterized by nox-gene sequencing as B. "pulli" (n = 9), B. alvinipulli (3), B. intermedia (1) and as not identifiable (1). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 37 isolates revealed minimal inhibitory concentrations 90 (MIC90) of > 128 mg/l (tylosin), 64 mg/l (lincomycin), 8 mg/l (tiamulin) and 4 mg/l (valnemulin), respectively. Comparing to breakpoints applied to pigs, these values lie within the range of resistance. The demonstration of different Brachyspira spp., particularly B. pilosicoli, intermedia and alvinipulli in commercial layers, indicates the need of further research to assess their potential role in causing AIS in German poultry flocks. The
Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on a report for one species (Scylla serrata, it is widely believed that mud crabs are relatively resistant to disease caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. We tested this hypothesis by determining the degree of susceptibility in two species of mud crabs, Scylla olivacea and Scylla paramamosain, both of which were identified by mitochondrial 16 S ribosomal gene analysis. We compared single-dose and serial-dose WSSV challenges on S. olivacea and S. paramamosain. Findings In a preliminary test using S. olivacea alone, a dose of 1 × 106 WSSV copies/g gave 100% mortality within 7 days. In a subsequent test, 17 S. olivacea and 13 S. paramamosain were divided into test and control groups for challenge with WSSV at 5 incremental, biweekly doses starting from 1 × 104 and ending at 5 × 106 copies/g. For 11 S. olivacea challenged, 3 specimens died at doses between 1 × 105 and 5 × 105 copies/g and none died for 2 weeks after the subsequent dose (1 × 106 copies/g that was lethal within 7 days in the preliminary test. However, after the final challenge on day 56 (5 × 106 copies/g, the remaining 7 of 11 S. olivacea (63.64% died within 2 weeks. There was no mortality in the buffer-injected control crabs. For 9 S. paramamosain challenged in the same way, 5 (55.56% died after challenge doses between 1 × 104 and 5 × 105 copies/g, and none died for 2 weeks after the challenge dose of 1 × 106 copies/g. After the final challenge (5 × 106 copies/g on day 56, no S. paramamosain died during 2 weeks after the challenge, and 2 of 9 WSSV-infected S. paramamosain (22.22% remained alive together with the control crabs until the end of the test on day 106. Viral loads in these survivors were low when compared to those in the moribund crabs. Conclusions S. olivacea and S. paramamosain show wide variation in response to challenge with WSSV. S. olivacea and S. paramamosain are susceptible to white spot disease, and S. olivacea is more
Somboonna, Naraporn; Mangkalanan, Seksan; Udompetcharaporn, Attasit; Krittanai, Chartchai; Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya; Flegel, Tw
Based on a report for one species (Scylla serrata), it is widely believed that mud crabs are relatively resistant to disease caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). We tested this hypothesis by determining the degree of susceptibility in two species of mud crabs, Scylla olivacea and Scylla paramamosain, both of which were identified by mitochondrial 16 S ribosomal gene analysis. We compared single-dose and serial-dose WSSV challenges on S. olivacea and S. paramamosain. In a preliminary test using S. olivacea alone, a dose of 1 × 106 WSSV copies/g gave 100% mortality within 7 days. In a subsequent test, 17 S. olivacea and 13 S. paramamosain were divided into test and control groups for challenge with WSSV at 5 incremental, biweekly doses starting from 1 × 104 and ending at 5 × 106 copies/g. For 11 S. olivacea challenged, 3 specimens died at doses between 1 × 105 and 5 × 105 copies/g and none died for 2 weeks after the subsequent dose (1 × 106 copies/g) that was lethal within 7 days in the preliminary test. However, after the final challenge on day 56 (5 × 106 copies/g), the remaining 7 of 11 S. olivacea (63.64%) died within 2 weeks. There was no mortality in the buffer-injected control crabs. For 9 S. paramamosain challenged in the same way, 5 (55.56%) died after challenge doses between 1 × 104 and 5 × 105 copies/g, and none died for 2 weeks after the challenge dose of 1 × 106 copies/g. After the final challenge (5 × 106 copies/g) on day 56, no S. paramamosain died during 2 weeks after the challenge, and 2 of 9 WSSV-infected S. paramamosain (22.22%) remained alive together with the control crabs until the end of the test on day 106. Viral loads in these survivors were low when compared to those in the moribund crabs. S. olivacea and S. paramamosain show wide variation in response to challenge with WSSV. S. olivacea and S. paramamosain are susceptible to white spot disease, and S. olivacea is more susceptible than S. paramamosain. Based on our single
Randhawa, H S; Saunders, G W; Burt, M D B
A parasitological survey in the Bay of Fundy, Canada, resulted in the recovery of mature specimens from 5 species of phyllobothriid tapeworms (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea) from 4 rajid skates: Echeneibothrium canadensis and E. dubium abyssorum specimens from Amblyraja radiata; E. vernetae and Pseudanthobothrium n.sp. from Leucoraja erinacea and L. ocellata; and P. hanseni from A. radiata and Malacoraja senta. Partial sequence data of a variable region (D2) from the large subunit ribosomal DNA (LSU) were used here to determine the host distribution of immature specimens for 4 of these 5 species (E. d. abyssorum was not included in the analyses). Immature specimens from both Pseudanthobothrium spp. were identified in the same hosts as recorded previously for mature specimens, thus suggesting that there are mechanisms that prevent the attachment of the parasite in an 'unsuitable' host species. Immature E. canadensis specimens were recovered exclusively from A. radiata, whereas immature E. vernetae specimens were recovered from L. erinacea and A. radiata, despite the latter host species not harbouring mature E. vernetae specimens. Their presence in the latter host species may be explained by host restriction or resistance, which allows the attachment of the parasites in the 'wrong' host species, but not establishment or development.
Chen, S C A; Marriott, D; Playford, E G; Nguyen, Q; Ellis, D; Meyer, W; Sorrell, T C; Slavin, M
The risk factors for and clinical features of bloodstream infection with uncommon Candida spp. (species other than C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicals and C. krusei) are incompletely defined. To identify clinical variables associated with these species that might guide management, 57 cases of candidaemia resulting from uncommon Candida spp. were analysed in comparison with 517 episodes of Candida albicans candidaemia (2001-2004). Infection with uncommon Candida spp. (5.3% of candidaemia cases), as compared with C. albicans candidaemia, was significantly more likely to be outpatient-acquired than inpatient-acquired (15 of 57 vs. 65 of 517 episodes, p 0.01). Prior exposure to fluconazole was uncommon (n=1). Candida dubliniensis was the commonest species (n=22, 39%), followed by Candida guilliermondii (n=11, 19%) and Candida lusitaniae (n=7, 12%).C. dubliniensis candidaemia was independently associated with recent intravenous drug use (p 0.01) and chronic liver disease (p 0.03), and infection with species other than C. dubliniensis was independently associated with age<65 years (p 0.02), male sex (p 0.03) and human immunodeficiency virus infection (p 0.05). Presence of sepsis at diagnosis and crude 30-day mortality rates were similar for C. dubliniensis-related, non-C. dubliniensis-related and C. albicans-related candidaemia. Haematological malignancy was the commonest predisposing factor in C. guilliermondii (n=3, 27%) and C. lusitaniae (n=3, 43%) candidaemia. The 30-day mortality rate of C. lusitaniae candidaemia was higher than the overall death rate for all uncommon Candida spp. (42.9% vs. 25%, p not significant). All isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B, voriconazole, posaconazole, and caspofungin; five strains (9%) had fluconazole MIC values of 16-32 mg/L. Candidaemia due to uncommon Candida spp. is emerging among hospital outpatients; certain clinical variables may assist in recognition of this entity.
Taverna, Constanza Giselle; Córdoba, Susana; Murisengo, Omar Alejandro; Vivot, Walter; Davel, Graciela; Bosco-Borgeat, María Eugenia
Trichosporon species are emerging causative agents of mycoses; most are documented in immunocompromised patients. Species identification is important for epidemiological purposes in order to better define species clinical associations and to improve antifungal treatment. Here, we studied a collection of 41 Trichosporon strains recovered from hospitalized patients in Argentina. All strains were identified by sequencing the D1/D2 domain of 26S, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions, and intergenic spacer 1 (IGS1) region. In addition, we determined the IGS1 region genotypes of the suspected T. asahii strains. Antifungal susceptibility of all strains was investigated. Thirty-eight of the 41 strains in this study were identified as follows: 29 T. asahii, 3 T. inkin, 3 T. montevideense, 2 T. faecale, and 1 T. dermatis. The identity of the three remaining strains could not be confirmed. Strain DMic 114126 (Culture collection of the Mycology Department (DMic), National Institute of Infectious Diseases "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán".) may represent a T. asahii subspecies or a new Trichosporon species, strain DMic 94750 was identified as T. cf. guehoae and strain DMic 114132 as T. cf. akiyoshidainum. The distribution of T. asahii genotypes was as follows: 12 genotype 3, 9 genotype 1, 4 genotype 4, 2 genotype 5, and 2 genotype 7. Amphotericin B minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were ≤1 mg/l for 78% (32/41) of the strains. Fluconazole MICs were ≥2 mg/l for 90% of the strains. However, itraconazole, voriconazole, ketoconazole, and posaconazole MICs were ≤1 mg/l for 100% of the strains. Terbinafine MICs were ≤1 mg/l for 98% 40/41 of the strains.
van der Mescht, Luther; Matthee, Sonja; Matthee, Conrad A
In parasitic taxa, life history traits such as microhabitat preference and host specificity can result in differential evolutionary responses to similar abiotic events. The present study investigates the influence of vicariance and host association on the genetic structure of two generalist flea species, Listropsylla agrippinae, and Chiastopsylla rossi. The taxa differ in the time spent on the host (predominantly fur vs. nest) and level of host specificity. A total of 1056 small mammals were brushed to collect 315 fleas originating from 20 geographically distinct localities in South Africa. Phylogeographic genetic structure of L. agrippinae and C. rossi were determined by making use of 315 mitochondrial COII and 174 nuclear EF1-α sequences. Both parasites show significant genetic differentiation among the majority of the sampling sites confirming limited dispersal ability for fleas. The generalist fur flea with a narrower host range, L. agrippinae, displayed geographic mtDNA spatial genetic structure at the regional scale and this pattern is congruent with host vicariance. The dating of the divergence between the L. agrippinae geographic clades co-insides with paleoclimatic changes in the region approximately 5.27 Ma and this provides some evidence for a co-evolutionary scenario. In contrast, the more host opportunistic nest flea, C. rossi, showed a higher level of mtDNA and nDNA spatial genetic structure at the inter-populational scale, most likely attributed to comparatively higher restrictions to dispersal. In the present study, the evolutionary history of the flea species could best be explained by the association between parasite and host (time spent on the host). The phylogeographic pattern of the fur flea with a narrower host range correspond to host spatial genetic structures, while the pattern in the host opportunistic nest flea correspond to higher genetic divergences between sampling localities that may also be associated with higher effective
Neale, Helen C; Laister, Robert; Payne, Joseph; Preston, Gail; Jackson, Robert W; Arnold, Dawn L
The co-evolution of bacterial plant pathogens and their hosts is a complex and dynamic process. Host resistance imposes stress on invading pathogens that can lead to changes in the bacterial genome enabling the pathogen to escape host resistance. We have observed this phenomenon with the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola where isolates that have lost the genomic island PPHGI-1 carrying the effector gene avrPphB from its chromosome are infective against previously resistant plant hosts. However, we have never observed island extinction from the pathogen population within a host suggesting the island is maintained. Here, we present a mathematical model which predicts different possible fates for the island in the population; one outcome indicated that PPHGI-1 would be maintained at low frequency in the population long term, if it confers a fitness benefit. We empirically tested this prediction and determined that PPHGI-1 frequency in the bacterial population drops to a low but consistently detectable level during host resistance. Once PPHGI-1-carrying cells encounter a susceptible host, they rapidly increase in the population in a negative frequency-dependent manner. Importantly, our data show that mobile genetic elements can persist within the bacterial population and increase in frequency under favourable conditions. © 2016 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Susceptibility and possible resistance mechanisms in the palm species Phoenix dactylifera, Chamaerops humilis and Washingtonia filifera against Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier, 1790) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).
Cangelosi, B; Clematis, F; Curir, P; Monroy, F
Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, known as the Red Palm Weevil (RPW), is reported as a pest of up to 40 palm species. However, the susceptibility degree and the defense mechanisms of these species against this weevil are still poorly known. In Europe, the RPW is a major pest of Phoenix canariensis while other palm species, including the congeneric Phoenix dactylifera, seem to be less suitable hosts for this insect. The aim of our study was to compare the defensive response of P. dactylifera, Chamaerops humilis and Washingtonia filifera against R. ferrugineus and try to define the mechanisms of resistance that characterize these species. Bioassays were carried out to evaluate the mortality induced on RPW larvae by extracts from the leaf rachis of the studied palm species. Tests at semi-field scale were also conducted, based either on forced palm infestation, with larvae of RPW, or on natural infestation, with adult females. Rachis extracts from C. humilis and W. filifera caused 100% larval mortality after 2 days of exposure, while extracts of P. dactylifera did not impair larval survival. Independently of the effect of the leaf extracts, the weevils were unable to naturally infest the three palm species, although larval survival was high after forced infestation of the plants. We concluded that the observed lack of infestation of P. dactylifera by RPW is due to factors other than antibiosis. In W. filifera and C. humilis, although the presence of antixenosis mechanisms cannot be excluded, resistance to R. ferrugineus seems to rely on the presence of antibiosis compounds.
Full Text Available A survey of predatory thrips, their prey and associated host plants was carried out from February 2013 to February 2014 in Chiang Rai, Phayao, Chiang Mai, Lamphun and Lampang provinces in Northern Thailand. The survey revealed 10 species of predatory thrips in 5 genera in the Family Phlaeothripidae. They were: Aleurodothrips fasciapennis (Franklin, Androthrips flavipes Schmutz, Androthrips ramachandrai Karny, Karnyothrips flavipes (Jones, two indeterminate Karnyothrips sp.1 and sp.2, Leptothrips sp., Podothrips lucasseni (Krüger, and two indeterminate Podothrips sp. 1, and sp. 2. Eleven species of insect and mite pests serving as prey were found associated with 16 species of host plants in 13 families. They were: scale insects, Coccus viridis (Green and two Coccus spp.; spiraling whitefly, Aleurodicus dispersus Russell; unidentified gall-making Hemiptera; coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari; unidentified crambid lepidopterous larvae; Kanzawa spider mite, Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida; santol gall mite, Eriophyes sandorici Nelepa; litchi rust mite, Aceria litchii (Keifer; and bamboo green mite, Aponychus corpuzae Rimando. The findings from this investigation could provide basic information necessary for further investigation in the use of some of these predatory thrips as biological control agents of insect and mite pests of economic importance in Thailand.
Stępień, Łukasz; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Urbaniak, Monika
Asparagus officinalis L. is an important crop in many European countries, likely infected by a number of Fusarium species. Most of them produce mycotoxins in plant tissues, thus affecting the physiology of the host plant. However, there is lack of information on Fusarium communities in wild asparagus, where they would definitely have considerable environmental significance. Therefore, the main scientific aim of this study was to identify the Fusarium species and quantify their typical mycotoxins present in wild asparagus plants collected at four time points of the season. Forty-four Fusarium strains of eight species--Fusarium acuminatum, Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium equiseti, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium sporotrichioides, and Fusarium tricinctum--were isolated from nine wild asparagus plants in 2013 season. It is the first report of F. sporotrichioides isolated from this particular host. Fumonisin B1 was the most abundant mycotoxin, and the highest concentrations of fumonisins B1-B3 and beauvericin were found in the spears collected in May. Moniliformin and enniatins were quantified at lower concentrations. Mycotoxins synthesized by individual strains obtained from infected asparagus tissues were assessed using in vitro cultures on sterile rice grain. Most of the F. sporotrichioides strains synthesized HT-2 toxin and F. equiseti strains were found to be effective zearalenone producers.
Sivakumaran, Anushen; Akinyemi, Aderemi; Mandon, Julian; Cristescu, Simona M.; Hall, Michael A.; Harren, Frans J. M.; Mur, Luis A. J.
Abscisic acid (ABA) production has emerged a susceptibility factor in plant-pathogen interactions. This work examined the interaction of ABA with nitric oxide (NO) in tomato following challenge with the ABA-synthesizing pathogen, Botrytis cinerea. Trace gas detection using a quantum cascade laser detected NO production within minutes of challenge with B. cinerea whilst photoacoustic laser detection detected ethylene production – an established mediator of defense against this pathogen – occurring after 6 h. Application of the NO generation inhibitor N-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) suppressed both NO and ethylene production and resistance against B. cinerea. The tomato mutant sitiens fails to accumulate ABA, shows increased resistance to B. cinerea and we noted exhibited elevated NO and ethylene production. Exogenous application of L-NAME or ABA reduced NO production in sitiens and reduced resistance to B. cinerea. Increased resistance to B. cinerea in sitiens have previously been linked to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation but this was reduced in both L-NAME and ABA-treated sitiens. Taken together, our data suggests that ABA can decreases resistance to B. cinerea via reduction of NO production which also suppresses both ROS and ethylene production. PMID:27252724
Full Text Available Abscisic acid (ABA production has emerged a susceptibility factor in plant-pathogen interactions. This work examined the interaction of ABA with NO in tomato following challenge with the ABA-synthesising pathogen, Botrytis cinerea. Trace gas detection using a quantum cascade laser detected NO production within minutes of challenge with B. cinerea whilst photoacoustic laser detection detected ethylene production – an established mediator of defence against this pathogen - occurring after 6 h. Application of the NO generation inhibitor N-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME suppressed both NO and ethylene production and resistance against B. cinerea. The tomato mutant sitiens fails to accumulate ABA (abscisic acid, shows increased resistance to B. cinerea and we noted exhibited elevated NO and ethylene production. Exogenous application of L-NAME or ABA reduced NO production in sitiens and reduced resistance to B. cinerea. Increased resistance to B. cinerea in sitiens have previously been linked to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS generation but this was reduced in both L-NAME and ABA treated sitiens. Taken together, our data suggests that ABA can decreases resistance to B. cinerea via reduction of NO production which also suppresses both ROS and ethylene production.
Sivakumaran, Anushen; Akinyemi, Aderemi; Mandon, Julian; Cristescu, Simona M; Hall, Michael A; Harren, Frans J M; Mur, Luis A J
Abscisic acid (ABA) production has emerged a susceptibility factor in plant-pathogen interactions. This work examined the interaction of ABA with nitric oxide (NO) in tomato following challenge with the ABA-synthesizing pathogen, Botrytis cinerea. Trace gas detection using a quantum cascade laser detected NO production within minutes of challenge with B. cinerea whilst photoacoustic laser detection detected ethylene production - an established mediator of defense against this pathogen - occurring after 6 h. Application of the NO generation inhibitor N-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) suppressed both NO and ethylene production and resistance against B. cinerea. The tomato mutant sitiens fails to accumulate ABA, shows increased resistance to B. cinerea and we noted exhibited elevated NO and ethylene production. Exogenous application of L-NAME or ABA reduced NO production in sitiens and reduced resistance to B. cinerea. Increased resistance to B. cinerea in sitiens have previously been linked to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation but this was reduced in both L-NAME and ABA-treated sitiens. Taken together, our data suggests that ABA can decreases resistance to B. cinerea via reduction of NO production which also suppresses both ROS and ethylene production.
Calvo, J H; Berzal, B; Calvete, C; Miranda, M A; Estrada, R; Lucientes, J
Blood meal identification can provide information about the natural host-feeding patterns or preferences of Culicoides species. Such information could indirectly provide data indicating which reservoirs are significant in associated vector-borne diseases. We positively identified the host species through DNA sequencing of the cytochrome b gene in 144 of the 170 (84.7%) blood meal specimens tested. In the remaining samples, identification of the blood-meal source was unsuccessful, possibly due to the post-ingestion time prior to sampling or the availability of the species-specific cytochrome b gene sequences in the database. The majority of identified blood meals were derived from mammalian blood (95.8%), and only six contained chicken blood. We identified five species as mammalian hosts for Culicoides spp.: sheep (87.7%), human (6.5%), cattle (3.7%) and Savi's Pine Vole (Micrototus savii) (2.1%). The results suggested that large mammals, specifically ruminants, were most frequently fed upon by biting midges (Culicoides spp.), but evidence of opportunistic feeding behaviour was also found. Host feeding behaviour of Culicoides species may also be influenced by the relative abundance of a particular host species in the area being studied. In this sense, Savi's Pine Vole, a wild species, was found to be a locally relevant host and a putative reservoir for viruses transmitted by species of biting midges belonging to the Culicoides genus. Finally, feeding on multiple potential host species was observed. One midge acquired blood meals from human and chicken hosts, while four other midges fed on two different sheep.
Valter Luis Iost Teodoro
Full Text Available Introduction The incidence of opportunistic fungal infections has increased in recent years and is considered an important public health problem. Among systemic and opportunistic mycoses, cryptococcosis is distinguished by its clinical importance due to the increased risk of infection in individuals infected by human immunodeficiency virus. Methods To determine the occurrence of pathogenic Cryptococcus in pigeon excrement in the City of Araraquara, samples were collected from nine environments, including state and municipal schools, abandoned buildings, parks, and a hospital. The isolates were identified using classical tests, and susceptibility testing for the antifungal drugs (fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, and amphotericin B independently was also performed. After collection, the excrement samples were plated on Niger agar and incubated at room temperature. Results A total of 87 bird dropping samples were collected, and 66.6% were positive for the genus Cryptococcus. The following species were identified: Cryptococcus neoformans (17.2%, Cryptococcus gattii (5.2%, Cryptococcus ater (3.5%, Cryptococcus laurentti (1.7%, and Cryptococcus luteolus (1.7%. A total of 70.7% of the isolates were not identified to the species level and are referred to as Cryptococcus spp. throughout the manuscript. Conclusions Although none of the isolates demonstrated resistance to antifungal drugs, the identification of infested areas, the proper control of birds, and the disinfection of these environments are essential for the epidemiological control of cryptococcosis.
Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the insecticidal activity of essential oils from Fennel, Foeniculum vulgare (Apiaceae, and Summer savory, Satureja hortensis (Lamiaceae, against two stored-product insects. Essential oils from two species of plants were obtained by Clevenger-type water distillation and their fumigant toxicities were tested against adults of the wheat weevil, Sitophilus granarius and rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (Curculionidae. The mortality was determined after 24 and 48 hrs from beginning of exposure. LC50 values of each essential oil were estimated for each insect species. Fumigation bioassays revealed that essential oils from two plants had strong insecticidal activity on experimental insects. LC50 values indicated that S. granarius was more susceptible than S. oryzae to essential oils at the exposure time 24 and 48 hrs. The mortality effect of S. hortensis oil was lower than F. vulgare oil. The LC50 values decreased with the duration of exposure to the essential oil concentrations. In all case, responses varied according to plant material, concentration, and exposure time. These results indicated that essential oils from S. hortensis and F. vulgare could be applicable to the management of stored product insects to decrease ecologically detrimental effects of utilization synthetic insecticides.
Carnahan, A M; Chakraborty, T; Fanning, G R; Verma, D; Ali, A; Janda, J M; Joseph, S W
Previous DNA hybridization studies established 12 Aeromonas genospecies, from which nine phenotypic species have been proposed: Aeromonas hydrophila, A. sobria, A. caviae, A. media, A. veronii, A. schubertii, A. salmonicida, A. eucrenophila, and A. jandaei. We have delineated a new Aeromonas genospecies, A. trota, on the basis of 13 strains isolated primarily from fecal specimens from southern and southeastern Asia. All strains were highly related to the proposed type strain, AH2 (ATCC 49657T): 51 to 100% (60 degrees C) and 49 to 99% (75 degrees C), with 0.2 to 2.2 divergence. AH2 was only 16 to 41% (60 degrees C) related to all other Aeromonas type strains and DNA group definition strains. The unique profile of A. trota includes negative reactions for esculin hydrolysis, arabinose fermentation, and the Voges-Proskauer test, positive reactions for cellobiose fermentation, lysine decarboxylation, and citrate utilization, and susceptibility to ampicillin, as determined by the broth microdilution MIC method and the Bauer-Kirby disk diffusion method (10 micrograms). Nine of the A. trota strains were from a single study of 165 geographically diverse aeromonads. This finding questions the efficacy of screening fecal specimens for Aeromonas spp. with ampicillin-containing media and suggests a previously unrecognized prevalence of this new species.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Candida species have various degrees of susceptibility to common antifungal drugs. The extent of resistance to amphotericin B and fluconazole of Candida glabrata isolates causing candidemia has been reported. Active surveillance may help us to monitor the trend of susceptibility to antifungal drugs and to determine if there is an emerging co-resistance to both drugs of Candida species, specifically, of C. glabrata in Taiwan. Methods The susceptibilities to amphotericin B and fluconazole of Candida species collected in 1999 and 2002 of the Taiwan Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance of Yeasts (TSARY were determined by the microdilution method. Results The antifungal susceptibilities of 342 and 456 isolates collected from 11 hospitals participating in both TSARY 1999 and TSARY 2002, respectively, have been determined. The resistance rate to amphotericin B has increased from 0.3% in the TSARY1999 to 2.2% in the TSARY 2002. In contrast, the resistance rate to fluconazole has decreased from 8.8% to 2.2%. Nevertheless, significantly more C. glabrata isolates were not susceptible to fluconazole in the TSARY 2002 (47.4% than that in the TSARY 1999 (20.8%. There were 9.8% and 11% of C. glabrata isolates having susceptible-dose dependent and resistant phenotype to fluconazole in the TSARY 1999, verse 45.3% and 2.1% in the TSARY 2002. Conclusion There was an increase of resistance rate to amphotericin B in C. glabrata. On the other hand, although the resistance rate to fluconazole has decreased, almost half of C. glabrata isolates were not susceptible to this drug. Hence, continuous monitoring the emerging of co-resistance to both amphotericin B and fluconazole of Candida species, specifically, of C. glabrata, will be an important early-warning system.
Perronne, Rémi; Gibot-Leclerc, Stéphanie; Dessaint, Fabrice; Reibel, Carole; Le Corre, Valérie
Phelipanche ramosa is a major root-holoparasitic damaging weed characterized by a broad host range, including numerous Fabaceae species. In France, the agricultural threat posed by P. ramosa has increased over two decades due to the appearance of a genetically differentiated pathovar presenting a clear host specificity for oilseed rape. The new pathovar has led to a massive expansion of P. ramosa in oilseed rape fields. The germination rate of P. ramosa seeds is currently known to vary among P. ramosa pathovars and host species. However, only a few studies have investigated whether phylogenetic relatedness among potential host species is a predictor of the ability of these species to induce the seed germination of parasitic weeds by testing for phylogenetic signal. We focused on a set of 12 Fabaceae species and we assessed the rate of induction of seed germination by these species for two pathovars based on in vitro co-cultivation experiments. All Fabaceae species tested induced the germination of P. ramosa seeds. The germination rate of P. ramosa seeds varied between Fabaceae species and tribes studied, while pathovars appeared non-influential. Considering oilseed rape as a reference species, we also highlighted a significant phylogenetic signal. Phylogenetically related species therefore showed more similar rates of induction of seed germination than species drawn at random from a phylogenetic tree. In in vitro conditions, only Lotus corniculatus induced a significantly higher germination rate than oilseed rape, and could potentially be used as a catch crop after confirmation of these results under field conditions.
Castro, Luz Ángela
Full Text Available Introduction: Candida albicans is the most frequently isolated yeast from the oral cavity of HIV-infected individuals. The use of fluconazole has increased the number of resistant or less-sensitive Candida species different from C. albicans, to this antifungal agent. Objective: To establish the Candida species present in the oral cavity of HIV-infected individuals at a hospital in Cali (Colombia, their population densities, and the susceptibility to fluconazole of species different from C. albicans. Materials and methods: Samples were cultured in CHROMagar Candida and the number of colony forming units (CFU was counted. Yeast identification was done with API 20C Aux, and the susceptibility tests to fluconazole, by Etest. Results: 230 patients were studied, and 202 isolates were obtained: 106 single and 96 mixed. C. albicans predominated, followed by C. dubliniensis and C. glabrata. Candida species other than C. albicans predominated in counts lower than 400 CFU/mL. Susceptibility study to fluconazole of species different from C. albicans showed that 14 (40 % of the isolates were susceptible dose-dependent and 7 (20 %, resistant. Conclusion: In the studied population, the oral cavity was colonized by non-wild type isolates that represent a risk for the development of oropharyngeal candidiasis resistant to fluconazole treatment.
Kachuei, R; Khodavaisy, S; Rezaie, S; Sharifynia, S
Among filamentous fungal pathogens, Aspergillus spp. and zygomycetes account for highest rates of morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised patients. Recently developed antifungal drugs offer the potential to improve management and therapeutic outcomes of fungal infections. The aim of this study was to analyse the in vitro activities of voriconazole, itraconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin against clinical isolates of Aspergillus spp. and Rhizopus oryzae. The in vitro antifungal susceptibility of 54 isolates belonging to different clinical isolates of Aspergillus spp. and R. oryzae was tested for four antifungal agents using a microdilution reference method (CLSI, M38-A2). All isolates were identified by typical colony and microscopic characteristics, and also characterized by molecular methods. Caspofungin (MEC range: 0.008-0.25 and MEC50: 0.0023μg/mL) was the most active drug in vitro against Aspergillus spp., followed by voriconazole (MIC range: 0.031-8 and MIC50: 0.5μg/mL), itraconazole (MIC range: 0.031-16 and MIC50: 0.25μg/mL), and amphotericin B (MIC range: 0.125-4 and MIC50: 0.5μg/mL), in order of decreasing activity. The caspofungin, voriconazole, and itraconazole demonstrated poor in vitro activity against R. oryzae isolates evaluated, followed by amphotericin B. This study demonstrates that caspofungin had good antifungal activity and azole agents had better activity than amphotericin B against Aspergillus species. Although, azole drugs are considered ineffective against R. oryzae. This result is just from a small scale in vitro susceptibility study and we did not take other factors into consideration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Moreno, Xiomara; Reviakina, Vera; Panizo, María M; Ferrara, Giusseppe; García, Nataly; Alarcón, Víctor; Garcés, María F; Dolande, Maribel
Candida parapsilosis is a species complex consisting of Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis. Studies worldwide have described its epidemiology and susceptibility to antifungal agents. The aims of this study were to carry out the molecular identification of blood isolates belonging to the Candida parapsilosis species complex, and to determine their in vitro susceptibility to antifungals of systemic use. A study of 86 strains of C. parapsilosis species complex collected in 2008-2011 and obtained from the Candidaemia Surveillance Network of Mycology Department of the Rafael Rangel National Institute of Hygiene, was made. Secondary alcohol-dehydrogenase gene amplification was performed using polymerase chain reaction, and the products were analysed by restriction fragments length polymorphisms using the enzyme BanI. Susceptibility tests were performed using Etest(®), following the manufacturer's instructions with modifications. Of the 86 isolates studied, 81 (94.2%) were C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, 4 (4.6%) C. orthopsilosis, and one (1.2%) C. metapsilosis. C. parapsilosis isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B and caspofungin, showing low rates of resistance to fluconazole and voriconazole. C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis were susceptible to all the antifungals tested. The results obtained in Venezuela provide for the first time important information about the distribution of C. parapsilosis species complex in cases of candidaemia, and support the need for continuing surveillance programs, including molecular discrimination of species and antifungal susceptibility tests, which may guide specific therapy. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Irwin Peter J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Hippobosca longipennis (the 'dog louse fly' is a blood sucking ectoparasite found on wild carnivores such as cheetahs and lions and domesticated and feral dogs in Africa, the Middle East and Asia, including China. Known as an intermediate host for Acanthocheilonema dracunculoides and a transport host for Cheyletiella yasguri, it has also been suggested that H. longipennis may be a vector for other pathogens, including Acanthocheilonema sp.? nov., which was recently reported to infect up to 48% of dogs in northern India where this species of fly is known to commonly infest dogs. To test this hypothesis, hippoboscid flies feeding on dogs in Ladakh in northern India were collected and subjected to microscopic dissection. Results A total of 12 infective larvae were found in 10 out of 65 flies dissected; 9 from the head, 2 from the thorax and 1 from the abdomen. The larvae averaged 2, 900 (± 60 μm in length and 34 (± 5 μm in width and possessed morphological features characteristic of the family Onchocercidae. Genetic analysis and comparison of the 18S, ITS-2, 12S and cox-1 genes confirmed the identity of the larvae as the Acanthocheilonema sp.? nov. reported in dogs in Ladakh. Conclusion This study provides evidence for a potential intermediate host-parasite relationship between H. longipennis and the canine Acanthocheilonema sp.? nov. in northern India.
Mirajkar, Nandita S; Gebhart, Connie J
Production-limiting diseases in swine caused by Brachyspira are characterized by mucohemorrhagic diarrhea (B. hyodysenteriae and "B. hampsonii") or mild colitis (B. pilosicoli), while B. murdochii is often isolated from healthy pigs. Emergence of novel pathogenic Brachyspira species and strains with reduced susceptibility to commonly used antimicrobials has reinforced the need for standardized susceptibility testing. Two methods are currently used for Brachyspira susceptibility testing: agar dilution (AD) and broth microdilution (BMD). However, these tests have primarily been used for B. hyodysenteriae and rarely for B. pilosicoli. Information on the use of commercial susceptibility testing products such as antibiotic gradient strips is lacking. Our main objective was to validate and compare the susceptibility results, measured as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), of 6 antimicrobials for 4 Brachyspira species (B. hyodysenteriae, "B. hampsonii", B. pilosicoli, and B. murdochii) by BMD and AD (tiamulin, valnemulin, lincomycin, tylosin, and carbadox) or antibiotic gradient strip (doxycycline) methods. In general, the results of a high percentage of all 4 Brachyspira species differed by ±1 log2 dilution or less by BMD and AD for tiamulin, valnemulin, lincomycin, and tylosin, and by BMD and antibiotic gradient strip for doxycycline. The carbadox MICs obtained by BMD were 1-5 doubling dilutions different than those obtained by AD. BMD for Brachyspira was quicker to perform with less ambiguous interpretation of results when compared with AD and antibiotic gradient strip methods, and the results confirm the utility of BMD in routine diagnostics. © 2016 The Author(s).
Dang, Trang D; Searle, Catherine L; Blaustein, Andrew R
Emerging infectious diseases have been documented in numerous plant and animal populations. The infectious disease amphibian chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is associated with global amphibian population declines. While much Bd-amphibian research has centered on response variation in hosts, a paucity of information exists on how variation in the pathogen, such as strain differences, affects infection dynamics. To examine how different Bd strains may differentially impact multiple hosts, we conducted laboratory experiments to measure 2 infection outcomes, viz. host survival and pathogen load, in 3 amphibian host species (Pacific treefrog, western toad, and Cascades frog) after exposure to 3 different Bd strains (an additional fourth Bd strain was tested in toads only). Our results confirm that the infection response differs among host species. Western toads experienced significant mortality, but Pacific treefrogs and Cascades frogs did not. Interestingly, our experiment also captured strain-dependent virulence variation but only in 1 host species, the western toad. Increased mortality was observed in 2 of the 4 Bd strains tested in this host species. Toads were also the only host species found to have variable pathogen load dependent on strain type; individuals exposed to the Panama strain harbored significantly higher loads compared to all other strains. These findings underscore the dynamic nature of Bd infection, showing that virulence can vary contingent on host and strain type. We highlight the importance of both host- and pathogen-dependent factors in determining overall infection virulence and show the need for in vivo testing to fully assess pathogenicity.
Grieshop, Matthew J.; Flinn, Paul W.; Nechols, James R.
Host-foraging responses to different intra- and interpatch densities were used to assess three Trichogramma spp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) Trichogramma deion Pinto and Oatman, T. ostriniae Pang and Chen, and T. pretiosum Riley — as potential biological control agents for the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Single naïve females were allowed 6 h to forage in Plexiglas arenas with four different spatial arrangements of host eggs, nine single-egg patches), nine four-egg patches, 36 single-egg patches, and 36 four-egg patches. No significant differences were found among species in the number of patches parasitized. As expected, all three species parasitized the most eggs in the 36 four-egg patch treatment and the least in the nine single-egg patch treatment. T. deion parasitized significantly more eggs than T. pretiosum on the nine four-egg patches. T. ostriniae parasitized significantly more patches when intrapatch density was greater, regardless of interpatch density. In contrast, T. deion only parasitized more patches at the greater intrapatch density when the interpatch density was low. Patch density had no effect on T. pretiosum. The spatial pattern of parasitism was more aggregated for T. deion and T. ostriniae in the 36 four-egg patches treatment compared to the 36 single-egg patches treatment. Therefore, intrapatch density was more important than interpatch density for T. ostriniae, and potentially for T. deion, but not for T. pretiosum. T. deion may be the best candidate for augmentative biological control because it parasitized either slightly or significantly more eggs than the other two species in all four treatments. Furthermore, the pattern of parasitism by T. deion in the 36 four-egg patches treatment was the most aggregated among the three species, suggesting a more thorough searching pattern. In contrast, T. pretiosum had the least aggregated pattern of parasitism and therefore may have used a more
Full Text Available The impact of both the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP and the separation of the Taiwan and Hainan Islands on the evolution of the fauna and flora in adjacent regions has been a topic of considerable interest. Mollitrichosiphum is a polyphagous insect group with a wide range of host plants (14 families and distributions restricted to Southeast Asia. Based on the mitochondrial Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit I (COI and Cytochrome b (Cytb genes, the nuclear elongation factor-1α (EF-1α gene, and the detailed distribution and host plant data, we investigated the species differentiation modes of the Chinese Mollitrichosiphum species. Phylogenetic analyses supported the monophyly of Mollitrichosiphum. The divergence time of Mollitrichosiphum tenuicorpus (c. 11.0 mya (million years ago, Mollitrichosiphum nandii and Mollitrichosiphum montanum (c. 10.6 mya was within the time frame of the uplift of the QTP. Additionally, basal species mainly fed on Fagaceae, while species that fed on multiple plants diverged considerably later. Ancestral state reconstruction suggests that Fagaceae may be the first acquired host, and the acquisition of new hosts and the expansion of host range may have promoted species differentiation within this genus. Overall, it can be concluded that geographical isolation and the expansion of the host plant range may be the main factors driving species differentiation of Mollitrichosiphum.
Peterson, Anna C; Ghersi, Bruno M; Alda, Fernando; Firth, Cadhla; Frye, Matthew J; Bai, Ying; Osikowicz, Lynn M; Riegel, Claudia; Lipkin, W Ian; Kosoy, Michael Y; Blum, Michael J
It is becoming increasingly likely that rodents will drive future disease epidemics with the continued expansion of cities worldwide. Though transmission risk is a growing concern, relatively little is known about pathogens carried by urban rats. Here, we assess whether the diversity and prevalence of Bartonella bacteria differ according to the (co)occurrence of rat hosts across New Orleans, LA (NO), where both Norway (Rattus norvegicus) and roof rats (Rattus rattus) are found, relative to New York City (NYC) which only harbors Norway rats. We detected human pathogenic Bartonella species in both NYC and New Orleans rodents. We found that Norway rats in New Orleans harbored a more diverse assemblage of Bartonella than Norway rats in NYC and that Norway rats harbored a more diverse and distinct assemblage of Bartonella compared to roof rats in New Orleans. Additionally, Norway rats were more likely to be infected with Bartonella than roof rats in New Orleans. Flea infestation appears to be an important predictor of Bartonella infection in Norway rats across both cities. These findings illustrate that pathogen infections can be heterogeneous in urban rodents and indicate that further study of host species interactions could clarify variation in spillover risk across cities.
Simmons, D Rabern; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Huang, Yin-Tse; Bateman, Craig; Campbell, Alina S; Dreaden, Tyler J; Li, You; Ploetz, Randy C; Black, Adam; Li, Hou-Feng; Chen, Chi-Yu; Wingfield, Michael J; Hulcr, Jiri
Raffaelea (Ophiostomatales) is a genus of more than 20 ophiostomatoid fungi commonly occurring in symbioses with wood-boring ambrosia beetles. We examined ambrosia beetles and plant hosts in the USA and Taiwan for the presence of these mycosymbionts and found 22 isolates representing known and undescribed lineages in Raffaelea. From 28S rDNA and β-tubulin sequences, we generated a molecular phylogeny of Ophiostomatales and observed morphological features of seven cultures representing undescribed lineages in Raffaelea s. lat. From these analyses, we describe five new species in Raffaelea s. lat.: R. aguacate, R. campbellii, R. crossotarsa, R. cyclorhipidia, and R. xyleborina spp. nov. Our analyses also identified two plant-pathogenic species of Raffaelea associated with previously undocumented beetle hosts: (1) R. quercivora, the causative agent of Japanese oak wilt, from Cyclorhipidion ohnoi and Crossotarsus emancipatus in Taiwan, and (2) R. lauricola, the pathogen responsible for laurel wilt, from Ambrosiodmus lecontei in Florida. The results of this study show that Raffaelea and associated ophiostomatoid fungi have been poorly sampled and that future investigations on ambrosia beetle mycosymbionts should reveal a substantially increased diversity.
Zhou, Chengran; Liu, Shanlin; Song, Wenhui; Luo, Shiqi; Meng, Guanliang; Yang, Chentao; Yang, Hua; Ma, Jinmin; Wang, Liang; Gao, Shan; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Zhao, Yun; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Xin
RNA alternative splicing (AS) is an important post-transcriptional mechanism enabling single genes to produce multiple proteins. It has been well demonstrated that viruses deploy host AS machinery for viral protein productions. However, knowledge on viral AS is limited to a few disease-causing viruses in model species. Here we report a novel approach to characterizing viral AS using whole transcriptome dataset from host species. Two insect transcriptomes (Acheta domesticus and Planococcus citri) generated in the 1,000 Insect Transcriptome Evolution (1KITE) project were used as a proof of concept using the new pipeline. Two closely related densoviruses (Acheta domesticus densovirus, AdDNV, and Planococcus citri densovirus, PcDNV, Ambidensovirus, Densovirinae, Parvoviridae) were detected and analyzed for AS patterns. The results suggested that although the two viruses shared major AS features, dramatic AS divergences were observed. Detailed analysis of the splicing junctions showed clusters of AS events occurred in two regions of the virus genome, demonstrating that transcriptome analysis could gain valuable insights into viral splicing. When applied to large-scale transcriptomics projects with diverse taxonomic sampling, our new method is expected to rapidly expand our knowledge on RNA splicing mechanisms for a wide range of viruses.
Otranto, Domenico; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Mallia, Egidio; DiGeronimo, Peter M; Brianti, Emanuele; Testini, Gabriella; Traversa, Donato; Lia, Riccardo P
Thelazia callipaeda infects the eyes of carnivores and humans in Far Eastern Asiatic and European countries. Studies have demonstrated the occurrence of T. callipaeda in foxes from areas where canine thelaziosis is endemic. However, there is little information on the role of wild carnivores as hosts of this nematode. From May 2003 to May 2009, a total of 130 carcasses of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes; n=75), wolves (Canis lupus; n=2), beech martens (Martes foina; n=22), brown hares (Lepus europaeus; n=13), Eurasian badgers (Meles meles; n=10), and wild cats (Felis silvestris; n=8) were examined in an area of southern Italy where canine thelaziosis is highly prevalent. At necropsy, animals were examined and nematodes were collected from the conjunctival sacs of both eyes. All nematodes were morphologically identified and at least five specimens from each of the five host species were molecularly processed by PCR amplification and sequencing of a partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1). Five out of the six wild animal species examined were found to be infected with eyeworms. The overall infection rate, excluding the Eurasian badgers that were all negative, was 39.1%. All the 189 adult nematodes collected (intensity of infection=4+/-2.2) were morphologically identified as T. callipaeda. The molecular analysis confirmed that the only haplotype of T. callipaeda circulating in Europe (i.e., haplotype 1) is present in that area. The competence of red foxes, wolves, beech martens, brown hares, and wild cats as definitive hosts for T. callipaeda is discussed in relationship to their ecology and their likely exposure to the vector Phortica variegata in the study area. The role the wild fauna plays in maintaining and spreading eyeworm infection in humans and domestic animals is also discussed.
Caron, Yannick; Cabaraux, Ariane; Marechal, Françoise; Losson, Bertrand
Cercarial dermatitis or swimmer's itch is a skin condition in humans due to the larval forms of bird schistosomes of some species of the genus Trichobilharzia. The life cycle of these schistosomes requires freshwater snails (intermediate host) and waterfowl (definitive host). Repeated exposures to cercariae can lead to skin sensitization with the induction of pruritic skin lesions. We describe, in this study, two outbreaks of human cercarial dermatitis at the Eau d'Heure Lakes, Belgium. In July and August 2012, a total of, respectively, 78 and 10 people reported a sudden skin rash accompanied by pruritus following recreational activities in the Plate Taille Lake. However, no ocellate furcocercariae were detected following light exposure of the snails collected between September 2012 and September 2013 (n = 402). No outbreaks were recorded in 2013 and 2014. In August 2015, about 30 new cases were recorded. Snails were collected (n = 270) in different locations around the lake. PCR was used to identify accurately the intermediate hosts and the parasite species involved. After light exposure, seven Radix spp. (2.6%) shed ocellate furcocercariae. Molecular identification based on the rDNA internal transcribed spacer 2 sequence ascribed the infected snails to R. balthica ( = R. peregra = R. ovata) (6/7) and R. auricularia (1/7). Based on the amplification of the D2 domain of the 28S rDNA, the cercariae were shown to belong to two different haplotypes of Trichobilharzia franki. This is the first record in Belgium of T. franki and associated skin condition.
Keeley, W.H.; Germaine, Stephen S.; Stanley, Thomas R.; Spaulding, Sarah A.; Wanner, C.E.
Thinning ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests to achieve desired ecological conditions remains a priority in the North American west. In addition to reducing the risk of high-severity wildfires in unwanted areas, stand thinning may increase wildlife and plant diversity and provide increased opportunity for seedling recruitment. We initiated conservative (i.e. minimal removal of trees) ponderosa stand thinning treatments with the goals of reducing fire risk and improving habitat conditions for native wildlife and flora. We then compared site occupancy of brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), chipping sparrows (Spizella passerina), plumbeous vireos (Vireo plumbeus), and western wood-pewees (Contopus sordidulus) in thinned and unthinned (i.e., control) forest stands from 2007 to 2009. Survey stations located in thinned stands had 64% fewer trees/ha, 25% less canopy cover, and 23% less basal area than stations in control stands. Occupancy by all three host species was negatively associated with tree density, suggesting that these species respond favorably to forest thinning treatments in ponderosa pine forests. We also encountered plumbeous vireos more frequently in plots closer to an ecotonal (forest/grassland) edge, an association that may increase their susceptibility to edge-specialist, brood parasites like brown-headed cowbirds. Occupancy of brown-headed cowbirds was not related to forest metrics but was related to occupancy by plumbeous vireos and the other host species in aggregate, supporting previous reports on the affiliation between these species. Forest management practices that promote heterogeneity in forest stand structure may benefit songbird populations in our area, but these treatments may also confer costs associated with increased cowbird occupancy. Further research is required to understand more on the complex relationships between occupancy of cowbirds and host species, and between cowbird occupancy and realized rates of nest parasitism.
Cirtwill, Alyssa R; Stouffer, Daniel B; Poulin, Robert; Lagrue, Clément
Variations in levels of parasitism among individuals in a population of hosts underpin the importance of parasites as an evolutionary or ecological force. Factors influencing parasite richness (number of parasite species) and load (abundance and biomass) at the individual host level ultimately form the basis of parasite infection patterns. In fish, diet range (number of prey taxa consumed) and prey selectivity (proportion of a particular prey taxon in the diet) have been shown to influence parasite infection levels. However, fish diet is most often characterized at the species or fish population level, thus ignoring variation among conspecific individuals and its potential effects on infection patterns among individuals. Here, we examined parasite infections and stomach contents of New Zealand freshwater fish at the individual level. We tested for potential links between the richness, abundance and biomass of helminth parasites and the diet range and prey selectivity of individual fish hosts. There was no obvious link between individual fish host diet and helminth infection levels. Our results were consistent across multiple fish host and parasite species and contrast with those of earlier studies in which fish diet and parasite infection were linked, hinting at a true disconnect between host diet and measures of parasite infections in our study systems. This absence of relationship between host diet and infection levels may be due to the relatively low richness of freshwater helminth parasites in New Zealand and high host-parasite specificity.
Ingen, J. van; Laan, T. van der; Dekhuijzen, R.; Boeree, M.J.; Soolingen, D. van
In this study, 2275 clinical isolates of 49 species of non-tuberculous mycobacteria isolated in The Netherlands were subjected to standardised drug susceptibility testing using the Middlebrook 7H10 agar dilution method. Clarithromycin and rifabutin were most active, with 87% and 83% of all isolates,
Parasitic plants acquire diverse secondary metabolites from their hosts, including defense compounds that target insect herbivores. However, the ecological implications of this phenomenon, including the potential enhancement of parasite defenses, remain largely unexplored. We studied the translocation of glucosinolates from the brassicaceous host plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) into parasitic dodder vines (Convolvulaceae; Cuscuta gronovii) and its effects on the parasite itself and on dodder-aphid interactions. Aliphatic and indole glucosinolates reached concentrations in parasite tissues higher than those observed in corresponding host tissues. Dodder growth was enhanced on cyp79B2 cyp79B3 hosts (without indole glucosinolates) but inhibited on atr1D hosts (with elevated indole glucosinolates) relative to wild-type hosts, which responded to parasitism with localized elevation of indole and aliphatic glucosinolates. These findings implicate indole glucosinolates in defense against parasitic plants. Rates of settling and survival on dodder vines by pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) were reduced significantly when dodder parasitized glucosinolate-producing hosts (wild type and atr1D) compared with glucosinolate-free hosts (cyp79B2 cyp79B3 myb28 myb29). However, settling and survival of green peach aphids (Myzus persicae) were not affected. M. persicae population growth was actually reduced on dodder parasitizing glucosinolate-free hosts compared with wild-type or atr1D hosts, even though stems of the former contain less glucosinolates and more amino acids. Strikingly, this effect was reversed when the aphids fed directly upon Arabidopsis, which indicates an interactive effect of parasite and host genotype on M. persicae that stems from host effects on dodder. Thus, our findings indicate that glucosinolates may have both direct and indirect effects on dodder-feeding herbivores. PMID:27482077
Kuchboev, Abdurakhim E; Krücken, Jürgen; Ruziev, Bakhtiyor H; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg
Protostrongylids are important pulmonary parasites of ungulates, particularly caprines. Their complex life cycles involve terrestrian gastropods as intermediate hosts. Morphological discrimination of larvae in feces and snails is impossible to the species level, and molecular data are missing for many species. To improve diagnosis and epidemiology of protostrongylids, this study describes internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2) sequences for five protostrongylid and one metastrongylid species from Uzbekistan. Morphological and molecular analyses identified Protostrongylus rufescens, Protostrongylus hobmaieri, Protostrongylus sp., Spiculocaulus leuckarti, and Cystocaulus ocreatus. Sequence differences between ITS-2 were sufficient to allow species identification, e.g., in the Protostrongylinae intraspecific and interspecific genetic distances ranged between 0-0.01 and 0.05 and 0.16, respectively. There was one exception in the Elaphostrongylidae with identical ITS-2 sequences in Elaphostrongylus cervi and Elaphostrongylus rangiferi questioning their status as valid species. Maximum likelihood analysis sequences largely supported the currently assumed phylogenetic relationships among Protostrongylidae as predicted using morphological characters. The monophyly of the subfamilies Varestrongylinae, Elaphostrongylinae, and Protostrongylinae was corroborated with support values in Shimodaira-Hasegawa or Bayesian modifications of the approximate likelihood ratio test (aLRT) ≥97%, but support for Muellerinae was weak (8 and 52%, respectively) since Muellerius capillaris differs significantly from the other Muellerinae. On the genus level, paraphyly of the genus Protostrongylus was confirmed since the members of the genera Spiculocaulus and Orthostrongylus were located within the Protostrongylus cluster (aLRT ≥99%). Maximum likelihood unequivocally assigned every unique sequence to the correct species confirming suitability of ITS-2 regions for diagnosis protostrongylids
Leiva, Natalia Verónica; López, Zambra; González, María Teresa; Muñoz, Gabriela
Metacercarial stages of digeneans were collected from decapod crustaceans inhabiting intertidal rocky zones in central Chile. The digeneans were identified through a molecular analysis based on the V4 region of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene. We analyzed 356 crustaceans belonging to 10 species, 115 intertidal fish belonging to 6 species, and 4 specimens of 1 coastal bird species. In total, 74.1% of crustaceans were parasitized with metacercariae. We found 1 species of Opecoelidae. This species showed low genetic divergence (0% and 0.1%) with adult digeneans found in intertidal fish and with the species Helicometrina labrisomi infesting a subtidal fish from northern Chile (Labrisomus philippii). Additionally, we found 2 species of Microphallidae, 1 closely related to Maritrema (1.3% genetic distance) and the other related to Microphallus (5% genetic distance). Therefore, our findings showed that the decapod crustaceans are relevant hosts in food webs from the southeastern Pacific coast. Furthermore, we found 5 species of crustaceans as second intermediate hosts for H. labrisomi and 2 species as secondary intermediate hosts for 2 Microphallidae, which contribute to elucidate parts of their life cycles through molecular markers and extended the host distribution of H. labrisomi in the southeastern Pacific coast.
Dorémus, Tristan; Cousserans, François; Gyapay, Gabor; Jouan, Véronique; Milano, Patricia; Wajnberg, Eric; Darboux, Isabelle; Cônsoli, Fernando Luis; Volkoff, Anne-Nathalie
Ichnoviruses are large dsDNA viruses that belong to the Polydnaviridae family. They are specifically associated with endoparasitic wasps of the family Ichneumonidae and essential for host parasitization by these wasps. We sequenced the Hyposoter didymator Ichnovirus (HdIV) encapsidated genome for further analysis of the transcription pattern of the entire set of HdIV genes following the parasitization of four different lepidopteran host species. The HdIV genome was found to consist of at least 50 circular dsDNA molecules, carrying 135 genes, 98 of which formed 18 gene families. The HdIV genome had general features typical of Ichnovirus (IV) genomes and closely resembled that of the IV carried by Hyposoter fugitivus. Subsequent transcriptomic analysis with Illumina technology during the course of Spodoptera frugiperda parasitization led to the identification of a small subset of less than 30 genes with high RPKM values in permissive hosts, consisting with these genes encoding crucial virulence proteins. Comparisons of HdIV expression profiles between host species revealed differences in transcript levels for given HdIV genes between two permissive hosts, S. frugiperda and Pseudoplusia includens. However, we found no evident intrafamily gene-specific transcription pattern consistent with the presence of multigenic families within IV genomes reflecting an ability of the wasps concerned to exploit different host species. Interestingly, in two non-permissive hosts, Mamestra brassiccae and Anticarsia gemmatalis (most of the parasitoid eggs were eliminated by the host cellular immune response), HdIV genes were generally less strongly transcribed than in permissive hosts. This suggests that successful parasitism is dependent on the expression of given HdIV genes exceeding a particular threshold value. These results raise questions about the mecanisms involved in regulating IV gene expression according to the nature of the lepidopteran host species encountered.
Full Text Available Ichnoviruses are large dsDNA viruses that belong to the Polydnaviridae family. They are specifically associated with endoparasitic wasps of the family Ichneumonidae and essential for host parasitization by these wasps. We sequenced the Hyposoter didymator Ichnovirus (HdIV encapsidated genome for further analysis of the transcription pattern of the entire set of HdIV genes following the parasitization of four different lepidopteran host species. The HdIV genome was found to consist of at least 50 circular dsDNA molecules, carrying 135 genes, 98 of which formed 18 gene families. The HdIV genome had general features typical of Ichnovirus (IV genomes and closely resembled that of the IV carried by Hyposoter fugitivus. Subsequent transcriptomic analysis with Illumina technology during the course of Spodoptera frugiperda parasitization led to the identification of a small subset of less than 30 genes with high RPKM values in permissive hosts, consisting with these genes encoding crucial virulence proteins. Comparisons of HdIV expression profiles between host species revealed differences in transcript levels for given HdIV genes between two permissive hosts, S. frugiperda and Pseudoplusia includens. However, we found no evident intrafamily gene-specific transcription pattern consistent with the presence of multigenic families within IV genomes reflecting an ability of the wasps concerned to exploit different host species. Interestingly, in two non-permissive hosts, Mamestra brassiccae and Anticarsia gemmatalis (most of the parasitoid eggs were eliminated by the host cellular immune response, HdIV genes were generally less strongly transcribed than in permissive hosts. This suggests that successful parasitism is dependent on the expression of given HdIV genes exceeding a particular threshold value. These results raise questions about the mecanisms involved in regulating IV gene expression according to the nature of the lepidopteran host species
Anna C Peterson
Full Text Available Many pathogens infect more than one host species, and clarifying how these different hosts contribute to pathogen dynamics can facilitate the management of pathogens and can lend insight into the functioning of pathogens in ecosystems. In this study, we investigated a suite of native and non-native amphibian hosts of the pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd across multiple scales to identify potential mechanisms that may drive infection patterns in the Colorado study system. Specifically, we aimed to determine if: 1 amphibian populations vary in Bd infection across the landscape, 2 amphibian community composition predicts infection (e.g., does the presence or abundance of any particular species influence infection in others?, 3 amphibian species vary in their ability to produce infectious zoospores in a laboratory infection, 4 heterogeneity in host ability observed in the laboratory scales to predict patterns of Bd prevalence in the landscape. We found that non-native North American bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus are widespread and have the highest prevalence of Bd infection relative to the other native species in the landscape. Additionally, infection in some native species appears to be related to the density of sympatric L. catesbeianus populations. At the smaller host scale, we found that L. catesbeianus produces more of the infective zoospore stage relative to some native species, but that this zoospore output does not scale to predict infection in sympatric wild populations of native species. Rather, landscape level infection relates most strongly to density of hosts at a wetland as well as abiotic factors. While non-native L. catesbeianus have high levels of Bd infection in the Colorado Front Range system, we also identified Bd infection in a number of native amphibian populations allopatric with L. catesbeianus, suggesting that multiple host species are important contributors to the dynamics of the Bd pathogen in this
Stopiglia, Cheila Denise Ottonelli; Heidrich, Daiane; Sorrentino, Julia Medeiros; Vieira, Fabiane Jamono; Landell, Melissa Fontes; Valente, Patrícia; Scroferneker, Maria Lúcia
The Sporothrix schenckii complex is the etiologic agent of sporotrichosis, a subacute or chronic mycosis which can affect humans and animals. Killer yeasts have been used in the medical field for development of novel antimycotics and biotyping of pathogenic fungi. The action of 18 killer yeasts on the growth of 88 characterized S. schenckii, Sporothrix globosa, Sporothrix brasiliensis, and Sporothrix mexicana clinical and environmental isolates was evaluated. Killer studies were performed on Petri dishes containing cheese black starch agar. The yeasts Candida catenulata (QU26, QU31, QU127, LV102); Trichosporon faecale (QU100); Trichosporon japonicum (QU139); Kluyveromyces lactis (QU30, QU99, QU73); Kazachstania unispora (QU49), Trichosporon insectorum (QU89), and Kluyveromyces marxianus (QU103) showed activity against all strains of the S. schenckii complex tested. Observation by optical microscopy of S. brasiliensis 61 within the inhibition haloes around the colonies of the killer yeasts QU100, QU139, and LV102 showed that there was no conidiation, but there was hyphal proliferation. The toxins were fungistatic against S. brasiliensis 61. There was no difference in susceptibility to the toxins among the S. schenckii species complex. Further investigations are necessary to clearly establish the mechanism of action of the toxins. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Smith, J E; Challen, M P; White, P F; Edmondson, R N; Chandler, D
Twelve isolates from the genus Agaricus (Fungi, Basidiomycota) were investigated for their ability to support development of the phorid fly, Megaselia halterata (Wood), which is an important pest of the commercial white button mushroom Agaricus bisporus. Combined effects of oviposition of adult female M. halterata and larval development in mushroom compost inoculated with Agaricus mycelium were determined using bioassays. The numbers of M. halterata offspring that developed were affected by the Agaricus isolate used, and there was a significant separation between resistant and susceptible isolates. In a bioassay where the female phorids had a choice of all 12 isolates for oviposition, three isolates produced >200 adults per 100 g compost pot while the remaining nine isolates had 100 adults per 100 g compost pot while the remainder resulted in <4 adults per pot. With the susceptible isolates, there was a positive correlation between increasing concentration of mycelium in the substrate and phorid development until the concentration exceeded 40% after which numbers of emerging phorids declined. Genetic identity of Agaricus isolates was determined using ITS sequencing and phylogenetic methods, which revealed two major cluster groups. Isolates supporting the development of large populations of M. halterata were located in one of these clusters (group I), and were either Agaricus bisporus or other species from the same Agaricus section Duploannulatae. Isolates that did not support the development of M. halterata populations were located in a different cluster (group II) and were more genetically distant from A. bisporus, e.g. Agaricus sections Arvenses, Minores and Xanthodermatei. Species of Agaricus with resistance to M. halterata could have significant potential for the breeding and cultivation of phorid-free mushrooms.
Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; de Hoog, G Sybren; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires
BACKGROUND: Sporotrichosis is a chronic (sub)cutaneous infection caused by thermodimorphic fungi in the order, Ophiostomatales. These fungi are characterized by major differences in routes of transmission, host predilections, species virulence, and susceptibilities to antifungals. Sporothrix species
Guérin-Faublée, Véronique; Tardy, Florence; Bouveron, Clarisse; Carret, Gérard
The antimicrobial susceptibility was determined for 50 Streptococcus uberis, 42 S. dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae and eight S. agalactiae strains isolated from cow mastitis. Only 27% of the strains were susceptible to all antimicrobial compounds tested. Resistance to tetracycline was most frequent (particularly for S. dysgalactiae strains), then macrolide and/or lincomycin resistance. High level resistance to streptomycin and kanamycin was detected. All S. dysgalactiae and S. agalactiae strains were susceptible to beta-lactams but 44% of the S. uberis strains showed an elevated penicillin G MIC. All strains were susceptible to chloramphenicol and rifampicin.
Komiyama, Edson Yukio; Lepesqueur, Laura Soares Souto; Yassuda, Cinthia Gomes; Samaranayake, Lakshman P; Parahitiyawa, Nipuna B; Balducci, Ivan; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Yumi
.... faecalis isolates, in particular, were evaluated for virulence attributes such as their biofilm formation potential, and susceptibility to antimicrobials and an antiseptic, chlorhexidine gluconate...
Yoneyama, Kaori; Arakawa, Ryota; Ishimoto, Keiko; Kim, Hyun Il; Kisugi, Takaya; Xie, Xiaonan; Nomura, Takahito; Kanampiu, Fred; Yokota, Takao; Ezawa, Tatsuhiro; Yoneyama, Koichi
Strigolactones released from plant roots trigger both seed germination of parasitic weeds such as Striga spp. and hyphal branching of the symbionts arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Generally, strigolactone composition in exudates is quantitatively and qualitatively different among plants, which may be involved in susceptibility and host specificity in the parasite-plant interactions. We hypothesized that difference in strigolactone composition would have a significant impact on compatibility and host specificity/preference in AM symbiosis. Strigolactones in root exudates of Striga-susceptible (Pioneer 3253) and -resistant (KST 94) maize (Zea mays) cultivars were characterized by LC-MS/MS combined with germination assay using Striga hermonthica seeds. Levels of colonization and community compositions of AM fungi in the two cultivars were investigated in field and glasshouse experiments. 5-Deoxystrigol was exuded exclusively by the susceptible cultivar, while the resistant cultivar mainly exuded sorgomol. Despite the distinctive difference in strigolactone composition, the levels of AM colonization and the community compositions were not different between the cultivars. The present study demonstrated that the difference in strigolactone composition has no appreciable impact on AM symbiosis, at least in the two maize cultivars, and further suggests that the traits involved in Striga-resistance are not necessarily accompanied by reduction in compatibility to AM fungi. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.
Martinson, Vincent G; Carpinteyro-Ponce, Javier; Moran, Nancy A; Markow, Therese A
Almost all animals possess gut microbial communities, but the nature of these communities varies immensely. For example, in social bees and mammals, the composition is relatively constant within species and is dominated by specialist bacteria that do not live elsewhere; in laboratory studies and field surveys of Drosophila melanogaster , however, gut communities consist of bacteria that are ingested with food and that vary widely among individuals and localities. We addressed whether an ecological specialist in its natural habitat has a microbiota dominated by gut specialists or by environmental bacteria. Drosophila nigrospiracula is a species that is endemic to the Sonoran Desert and is restricted to decaying tissues of two giant columnar cacti, Pachycereus pringlei (cardón cactus) and Carnegiea gigantea (saguaro cactus). We found that the D. nigrospiracula microbiota differs strikingly from that of the cactus tissue on which the flies feed. The most abundant bacteria in the flies are rare or completely absent in the cactus tissue and are consistently abundant in flies from different cacti and localities. Several of these fly-associated bacterial groups, such as the bacterial order Orbales and the genera Serpens and Dysgonomonas , have been identified in prior surveys of insects from the orders Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, and Diptera, including several Drosophila species. Although the functions of these bacterial groups are mostly unexplored, Orbales species studied in bees are known to break down plant polysaccharides and use the resulting sugars. Thus, these bacterial groups appear to be specialized to the insect gut environment, where they may colonize through direct host-to-host transmission in natural settings. IMPORTANCE Flies in the genus Drosophila have become laboratory models for microbiota research, yet the bacteria commonly used in these experiments are rarely found in wild-caught flies and instead represent bacteria also present in the food
Baroncelli, Riccardo; Talhinhas, Pedro; Pensec, Flora; Sukno, Serenella A.; Le Floch, Gaetan; Thon, Michael R.
Colletotrichum spp. infect a wide diversity of hosts, causing plant diseases on many economically important crops worldwide. The genus contains approximately 189 species organized into at least 11 major phylogenetic lineages, also known as species complexes. The Colletotrichum acutatum species complex is a diverse yet relatively closely related group of plant pathogenic fungi within this genus. Within the species complex we find a wide diversity of important traits such as host range and host preference, mode of reproduction and differences in the strategy used to infect their hosts. Research on fungal comparative genomics have attempted to find correlations in these traits and patterns of gene family evolution but such studies typically compare fungi from different genera or even different fungal Orders. The C. acutatum species complex contains most of this diversity within a group of relatively closely related species. This Perspective article presents a review of the current knowledge on C. acutatum phylogeny, biology, and pathology. It also demonstrates the suitability of C. acutatum for the study of gene family evolution on a fine scale to uncover evolutionary events in the genome that are associated with the evolution of phenotypic characters important for host interactions. PMID:29075253
Full Text Available Colletotrichum spp. infect a wide diversity of hosts, causing plant diseases on many economically important crops worldwide. The genus contains approximately 189 species organized into at least 11 major phylogenetic lineages, also known as species complexes. The Colletotrichum acutatum species complex is a diverse yet relatively closely related group of plant pathogenic fungi within this genus. Within the species complex we find a wide diversity of important traits such as host range and host preference, mode of reproduction and differences in the strategy used to infect their hosts. Research on fungal comparative genomics have attempted to find correlations in these traits and patterns of gene family evolution but such studies typically compare fungi from different genera or even different fungal Orders. The C. acutatum species complex contains most of this diversity within a group of relatively closely related species. This Perspective article presents a review of the current knowledge on C. acutatum phylogeny, biology, and pathology. It also demonstrates the suitability of C. acutatum for the study of gene family evolution on a fine scale to uncover evolutionary events in the genome that are associated with the evolution of phenotypic characters important for host interactions.
Kucukates, Emine; Gultekin, Nuh N; Alisan, Zeynep; Hondur, Nur; Ozturk, Recep
To determine the species incidence and susceptibility pattern to 9 antifungal agents of yeasts isolated from various clinical specimens of colonized or infected patients treated in the coronary and surgical intensive care units (ICU). A total of 421 ICU patients were treated at the Cardiology Institute, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey between June 2013 and May 2014, and 44 Candida species were isolated from blood, urine, endotracheal aspiration fluid, sputum, and wounds of 16 ICU patients. Identification of Candida was performed using CHROMagar. Antifungal susceptibility was determined by a Sensititre YeastOne colorimetric microdilution panel. Candida albicans (C. albicans) was the most commonly observed microorganism 23 (54%); the other microorganisms isolated were Candida tropicalis 12 (27%), Candida glabrata 5 (11%), Candida parapsilosis 1 (2%), Candida lusitaniae 1 (2%), Candida sake 1 (2%), and Geotrichum capitatum 1 (2%). All isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B and 5-flucytosine. Geotrichum capitatum excepted, the other isolates were also susceptible to anidulafungin, micafungin, and caspofungin. Candida parapsilosis was found to be susceptible to all the studied antifungals. High MIC rates for azole group of antifungal drugs were found for C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. glabrata. The rate of colonisation was 3.8% (16/421). Only 0.7% (3/421) patients out of a total of 421 developed candidemia. We found that the yeast colonization and infection rates of patients in our ICUs are very low. Candida albicans is still the most common species. We detected a decreasing susceptibility to azole compounds.
Dejene, Sintayehu; Heitkonig, Ignas; Prins, Herbert; Tessema, Zewdu K.; Boer, de Fred
Current theories on diversity–disease relationships describe host species diversity and species identity as important factors influencing disease risk, either diluting or amplifying disease prevalence in a community. Whereas the simple term ‘diversity’ embodies a set of animal community
Dicksved, Johan; Ellström, Patrik; Engstrand, Lars; Rautelin, Hilpi
The gut microbiota is essential for human health, but very little is known about how the composition of this ecosystem can influence and respond to bacterial infections. Here we address this by prospectively studying the gut microbiota composition before, during, and after natural Campylobacter infection in exposed poultry abattoir workers. The gut microbiota composition was analyzed with 16S amplicon sequencing of fecal samples from poultry abattoir workers during the peak season of Campylobacter infection in Sweden. The gut microbiota compositions were compared between individuals who became culture positive for Campylobacter and those who remained negative. Individuals who became Campylobacter positive had a significantly higher abundance of Bacteroides (P = 0.007) and Escherichia (P = 0.002) species than those who remained culture negative. Furthermore, this group had a significantly higher abundance of Phascolarctobacterium (P = 0.017) and Streptococcus (P = 0.034) sequences than the Campylobacter-negative group, which had an overrepresentation of Clostridiales (P = 0.017), unclassified Lachnospiraceae (P = 0.008), and Anaerovorax (P = 0.015) sequences. Intraindividual comparisons of the fecal microbiota compositions yielded small differences over time in Campylobacter-negative participants, but significant long-term changes were found in the Campylobacter-positive group (P microbiota reduces resistance to Campylobacter colonization in humans and that Campylobacter infection can have long-term effects on the composition of the human fecal microbiota. Studies using mouse models have made important contributions to our understanding of the role of the gut microbiota in resistance to bacterial enteropathogen colonization. The relative abundances of Escherichia coli and Bacteroides species have been pointed out as important determinants of susceptibility to Gram-negative pathogens in general and Campylobacter infection in particular. In this study, we assessed the
Nagayoshi, Yohsuke; Miyazaki, Taiga; Shimamura, Shintaro; Nakayama, Hironobu; Minematsu, Asuka; Yamauchi, Shunsuke; Takazono, Takahiro; Nakamura, Shigeki; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Kohno, Shigeru; Mukae, Hiroshi; Izumikawa, Koichi
The pathogenic fungus Candida glabrata is often resistant to azole antifungal agents. Drug efflux through azole transporters, such as Cdr1 and Cdr2, is a key mechanism of azole resistance and these genes are under the control of the transcription factor Pdr1. Recently, the monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) inhibitor clorgyline was shown to inhibit the azole efflux pumps, leading to increased azole susceptibility in C. glabrata. In the present study, we have evaluated the effects of clorgyline on susceptibility of C. glabrata to not only azoles, but also to micafungin and amphotericin B, using wild-type and several mutant strains. The addition of clorgyline to the culture media increased fluconazole susceptibility of a C. glabrata wild-type strain, whereas micafungin and amphotericin B susceptibilities were markedly decreased. These phenomena were also observed in other medically important Candida species, including Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei. Expression levels of CDR1, CDR2 and PDR1 mRNAs and an amount of Cdr1 protein in the C. glabrata wild-type strain were highly increased in response to the treatment with clorgyline. However, loss of Cdr1, Cdr2, Pdr1, and a putative clorgyline target (Fms1), which is an ortholog of human MAO-A, or overexpression of CDR1 did not affect the decreased susceptibility to micafungin and amphotericin B in the presence of clorgyline. The presence of other azole efflux pump inhibitors including milbemycin A4 oxime and carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone also decreased micafungin susceptibility in C. glabrata wild-type, Δcdr1, Δcdr2, and Δpdr1 strains. These findings suggest that azole efflux pump inhibitors increase azole susceptibility but concurrently induce decreased susceptibility to other classes of antifungals independent of azole transporter functions.
Moreno, Luisa Z; Miraglia, Fabiana; Lilenbaum, Walter; Neto, José S F; Freitas, Julio C; Morais, Zenaide M; Hartskeerl, Rudy A; da Costa, Barbara L P; Vasconcellos, Silvio A; Moreno, Andrea M
Leptospirosis is a widespread systemic zoonosis, considered as reemerging in certain developing countries. Although the cross agglutinin absorption test is still considered the standard method for Leptospira identification, it presents several disadvantages. The aim of this study was to characterize Leptospira spp. isolated from various hosts by genotyping and broth microdilution susceptibility testing in an attempt to differentiate Leptospira species, serogroups and serovars. Forty-seven isolates were studied. They were previously serotyped, and species confirmation was performed by 16S rRNA sequencing. Single-enzyme amplified fragment length polymorphism (SE-AFLP) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis enabled the distinction of L. interrogans from L. santarosai, L. meyeri and L. borgpetersenii in two main clusters. Among L. interrogans, it was possible to differentiate into two new clusters the serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae from the serogroups Canicola and Pomona. L. santarosai isolates presented higher genetic variation than the other species in both techniques. Interestingly, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) cluster analysis also provided Leptospira serogroup differentiation. Further studies are necessary regarding serovar Bananal isolates, as they presented the highest MIC values for most of the antimicrobials tested. All studied techniques successfully distinguished Leptospira species and serogroups. Despite being library-dependent methods, these approaches are less labor intensive and more economically viable, particularly SE-AFLP, and can be implemented in most reference laboratories worldwide to enable faster Leptospira typing.
Houbraken, J.; Giraud, S.; Meijer, M.
reported clinical isolates from animal or human patients. Susceptibility tests showed that the antifungal susceptibility profiles of the four members of the R. argillacea complex are similar, and caspofungin showed significant activity in vitro, followed by amphotericin B and posaconazole. Voriconazole...
Allison, Andrew B.; Harbison, Carole E.; Pagan, Israel; Stucker, Karla M.; Kaelber, Jason T.; Brown, Justin D.; Ruder, Mark G.; Keel, M. Kevin; Dubovi, Edward J.; Holmes, Edward C.
Understanding the mechanisms of cross-species virus transmission is critical to anticipating emerging infectious diseases. Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) emerged as a variant of a feline parvovirus when it acquired mutations that allowed binding to the canine transferrin receptor type 1 (TfR). However, CPV-2 was soon replaced by a variant virus (CPV-2a) that differed in antigenicity and receptor binding. Here we show that the emergence of CPV involved an additional host range variant virus that has circulated undetected in raccoons for at least 24 years, with transfers to and from dogs. Raccoon virus capsids showed little binding to the canine TfR, showed little infection of canine cells, and had altered antigenic structures. Remarkably, in capsid protein (VP2) phylogenies, most raccoon viruses fell as evolutionary intermediates between the CPV-2 and CPV-2a strains, suggesting that passage through raccoons assisted in the evolution of CPV-2a. This highlights the potential role of alternative hosts in viral emergence. PMID:22072763
Wicklein, Bernd; Darder, Margarita; Aranda, Pilar; Ruiz-Hitzky, Eduardo
A new type of hybrid biomaterials based on the clay minerals montmorillonite and sepiolite as well as phosphatidylcholine, acting as environment-friendly biomodifier, was prepared. The biohybrids were characterized by sampling of adsorption isotherms in different organic solvents. The results suggest bilayer formation both on the external sepiolite surface as well as in the intracrystalline space of the montmorillonite. The obtained supported lipid membranes were further investigated by X-ray diffraction, multinuclear solid state NMR, Fourier transformed IR spectroscopy and thermal analysis. From these results an adsorption model based on electrostatic interaction between the polar phospholipid headgroups and the silicate surface could be postulated. The versatility of bio-organoclays as immobilization host for biological species was demonstrated in a mycotoxin retention study.
Norrbom, Allen L; Rodriguez, Erick J; Steck, Gary J; Sutton, Bruce A; Nolazco, Norma
Twenty-eight new species of Anastrepha are described and illustrated: A. acca (Bolivia, Peru), A. adami (Peru), A. amplidentata (Bolivia, Peru), A. annonae (Peru), A. breviapex (Peru), A. caballeroi (Peru), A. camba (Bolivia, Peru), A. cicra (Bolivia, Peru), A. disjuncta (Peru), A. durantae (Peru), A. echaratiensis (Peru), A. eminens (Peru), A. ericki (Peru), A. gonzalezi (Bolivia, Peru), A. guevarai (Peru), A. gusi (Peru), A. kimi (Colombia, Peru), A. korytkowskii (Bolivia, Peru), A. latilanceola (Bolivia, Peru), A. melanoptera (Peru), A. mollyae (Bolivia, Peru), A. perezi (Peru), A. psidivora (Peru), A. robynae (Peru), A. rondoniensis (Brazil, Peru), A. tunariensis (Bolivia, Peru), A. villosa (Bolivia), and A. zacharyi (Peru). The following host plant records are reported: A. amplidentata from Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae); A. caballeroi from Quararibea malacocalyx A. Robyns & S. Nilsson (Malvaceae); A. annonae from Annona mucosa Jacq. and Annona sp. (Annonaceae); A. durantae from Duranta peruviana Moldenke (Verbenaceae); and A. psidivora from Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae).
Yang, Da; Goldstein, Guillermo; Wang, Miao; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Wang, Ai-Ying; Liu, Yan-Yan; Hao, Guang-You
Mistletoes absorb water from the vascular system of their hosts and thus the water use of mistletoes can be influenced by the water status of their hosts besides abiotic environmental conditions; however, there is a lack of studies on the dynamics of mistletoe water utilization in relation to both types of controlling factors. By building a canopy platform at 20 m above the ground, we monitored the dynamic changes of sap flow of Viscum coloratum (Kom.) Nakai (Loranthaceae) in combination with continuous measurements of microclimatic variables and volumetric water content (VWC) of its host tree branch xylem. We found that the host tree VWC exhibited substantial fluctuations during sunny days but lower VWC of the host did not negatively affect the sap flow of V. coloratum. Hourly and daily mean transpiration rates (Esap) of V. coloratum calculated from sap flow measurements showed strong positive correlations with photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) measured in close vicinity to the point of mistletoe attachment. The mean Esap of V. coloratum was substantially higher than that of their host during clear days (4.55 ± 0.54 vs 2.01 ± 0.15 kg m-2 day-1). Moreover, the mistletoe-to-host transpiration ratio was not constant but became increasingly larger with the increase of PPFD or VPD on both hourly and daily bases, suggesting a weaker control of water loss in the mistletoe in comparison to its host species. The strong dependence of mistletoe Esap on micrometeorological variables and its decoupling from the host tree xylem water status suggests that the development of dense tree canopy functions as a potential mechanism for the host trees in reducing the competitive water use of mistletoes. These findings have important implications for the interactions between mistletoe species and their host trees in temperate forests. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email
Andrew B Allison
Full Text Available Canine parvovirus (CPV emerged as a new pandemic pathogen of dogs in the 1970s and is closely related to feline panleukopenia virus (FPV, a parvovirus of cats and related carnivores. Although both viruses have wide host ranges, analysis of viral sequences recovered from different wild carnivore species, as shown here, demonstrated that>95% were derived from CPV-like viruses, suggesting that CPV is dominant in sylvatic cycles. Many viral sequences showed host-specific mutations in their capsid proteins, which were often close to sites known to control binding to the transferrin receptor (TfR, the host receptor for these carnivore parvoviruses, and which exhibited frequent parallel evolution. To further examine the process of host adaptation, we passaged parvoviruses with alternative backgrounds in cells from different carnivore hosts. Specific mutations were selected in several viruses and these differed depending on both the background of the virus and the host cells in which they were passaged. Strikingly, these in vitro mutations recapitulated many specific changes seen in viruses from natural populations, strongly suggesting they are host adaptive, and which were shown to result in fitness advantages over their parental virus. Comparison of the sequences of the transferrin receptors of the different carnivore species demonstrated that many mutations occurred in and around the apical domain where the virus binds, indicating that viral variants were likely selected through their fit to receptor structures. Some of the viruses accumulated high levels of variation upon passage in alternative hosts, while others could infect multiple different hosts with no or only a few additional mutations. Overall, these studies demonstrate that the evolutionary history of a virus, including how long it has been circulating and in which hosts, as well as its phylogenetic background, has a profound effect on determining viral host range.
Sanna A Leppänen
Full Text Available Genetic divergence and speciation in plant-feeding insects could be driven by contrasting selection pressures imposed by different plant species and taxa. While numerous examples of host-associated differentiation (HAD have been found, the overall importance of HAD in insect diversification remains unclear, as few studies have investigated its frequency in relation to all speciation events. One promising way to infer the prevalence and repeatability of HAD is to estimate genetic differentiation in multiple insect taxa that use the same set of hosts. To this end, we measured and compared variation in mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS2 sequences in population samples of leaf-galling Pontania and bud-galling Euura sawflies (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae collected from six Salix species in two replicate locations in northern Fennoscandia. We found evidence of frequent HAD in both species complexes, as individuals from the same willow species tended to cluster together on both mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenetic trees. Although few fixed differences among the putative species were found, hierarchical AMOVAs showed that most of the genetic variation in the samples was explained by host species rather than by sampling location. Nevertheless, the levels of HAD measured across specific pairs of host species were not correlated in the two focal galler groups. Hence, our results support the hypothesis of HAD as a central force in herbivore speciation, but also indicate that evolutionary trajectories are only weakly repeatable even in temporally overlapping radiations of related insect taxa.
Victoriano-Romero, Elizabeth; Valencia-Díaz, Susana; Toledo-Hernández, Víctor Hugo; Flores-Palacios, Alejandro
Seed dispersal permits the colonization of favorable habitats and generation of new populations, facilitating escape from habitats that are in decline. There is little experimental evidence of the factors that limit epiphyte dispersion towards their hosts. In a tropical dry forest in central Mexico, we monitored the phenology of dispersion of epiphyte species of the genus Tillandsia; we tested experimentally whether precipitation could cause failures in seed dispersal and whether seed capture differs among vertical strata and between host species with high (Bursera copallifera) and low (Conzattia multiflora) epiphyte loads. With the exception of one species that presents late dispersion and low abundance, all of the species disperse prior to the onset of the rainy season. However, early rains immobilize the seeds, affecting up to 24% of the fruits in species with late dispersion. We observed that Tillandsia seeds reach both Bursera and Conzattia hosts, but found that adherence to the host is 4-5 times higher in Bursera. Furthermore, seeds liberated from Bursera travel shorter distances and up to half may remain within the same crown, while the highest seed capture takes place in the upper strata of the trees. We conclude that dispersion of Tillandsia seeds is limited by early rains and by the capture of seeds within the trees where populations concentrate. This pattern of capture also helps to explain the high concentrations of epiphytes in certain hosts, while trees with few epiphytes can be simultaneously considered deficient receivers and efficient exporters of seeds.
Seed dispersal permits the colonization of favorable habitats and generation of new populations, facilitating escape from habitats that are in decline. There is little experimental evidence of the factors that limit epiphyte dispersion towards their hosts. In a tropical dry forest in central Mexico, we monitored the phenology of dispersion of epiphyte species of the genus Tillandsia; we tested experimentally whether precipitation could cause failures in seed dispersal and whether seed capture differs among vertical strata and between host species with high (Bursera copallifera) and low (Conzattia multiflora) epiphyte loads. With the exception of one species that presents late dispersion and low abundance, all of the species disperse prior to the onset of the rainy season. However, early rains immobilize the seeds, affecting up to 24% of the fruits in species with late dispersion. We observed that Tillandsia seeds reach both Bursera and Conzattia hosts, but found that adherence to the host is 4–5 times higher in Bursera. Furthermore, seeds liberated from Bursera travel shorter distances and up to half may remain within the same crown, while the highest seed capture takes place in the upper strata of the trees. We conclude that dispersion of Tillandsia seeds is limited by early rains and by the capture of seeds within the trees where populations concentrate. This pattern of capture also helps to explain the high concentrations of epiphytes in certain hosts, while trees with few epiphytes can be simultaneously considered deficient receivers and efficient exporters of seeds. PMID:28158320
Paital, Biswaranjan; Panda, Sumana Kumari; Hati, Akshaya Kumar; Mohanty, Bobllina; Mohapatra, Manoj Kumar; Kanungo, Shyama; Chainy, Gagan Bihari Nityananda
The world is projected to experience an approximate doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentration in the next decades. Rise in atmospheric CO2 level as one of the most important reasons is expected to contribute to raise the mean global temperature 1.4 °C-5.8 °C by that time. A survey from 128 countries speculates that global warming is primarily due to increase in atmospheric CO2 level that is produced mainly by anthropogenic activities. Exposure of animals to high environmental temperatures is mostly accompanied by unwanted acceleration of certain biochemical pathways in their cells. One of such examples is augmentation in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent increase in oxidation of lipids, proteins and nucleic acids by ROS. Increase in oxidation of biomolecules leads to a state called as oxidative stress (OS). Finally, the increase in OS condition induces abnormality in physiology of animals under elevated temperature. Exposure of animals to rise in habitat temperature is found to boost the metabolism of animals and a very strong and positive correlation exists between metabolism and levels of ROS and OS. Continuous induction of OS is negatively correlated with survivability and longevity and positively correlated with ageing in animals. Thus, it can be predicted that continuous exposure of animals to acute or gradual rise in habitat temperature due to global warming may induce OS, reduced survivability and longevity in animals in general and poikilotherms in particular. A positive correlation between metabolism and temperature in general and altered O2 consumption at elevated temperature in particular could also increase the risk of experiencing OS in homeotherms. Effects of global warming on longevity of animals through increased risk of protein misfolding and disease susceptibility due to OS as the cause or effects or both also cannot be ignored. Therefore, understanding the physiological impacts of global warming in relation to
Paital, Biswaranjan; Panda, Sumana Kumari; Hati, Akshaya Kumar; Mohanty, Bobllina; Mohapatra, Manoj Kumar; Kanungo, Shyama; Chainy, Gagan Bihari Nityananda
The world is projected to experience an approximate doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentration in the next decades. Rise in atmospheric CO2 level as one of the most important reasons is expected to contribute to raise the mean global temperature 1.4 °C-5.8 °C by that time. A survey from 128 countries speculates that global warming is primarily due to increase in atmospheric CO2 level that is produced mainly by anthropogenic activities. Exposure of animals to high environmental temperatures is mostly accompanied by unwanted acceleration of certain biochemical pathways in their cells. One of such examples is augmentation in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent increase in oxidation of lipids, proteins and nucleic acids by ROS. Increase in oxidation of biomolecules leads to a state called as oxidative stress (OS). Finally, the increase in OS condition induces abnormality in physiology of animals under elevated temperature. Exposure of animals to rise in habitat temperature is found to boost the metabolism of animals and a very strong and positive correlation exists between metabolism and levels of ROS and OS. Continuous induction of OS is negatively correlated with survivability and longevity and positively correlated with ageing in animals. Thus, it can be predicted that continuous exposure of animals to acute or gradual rise in habitat temperature due to global warming may induce OS, reduced survivability and longevity in animals in general and poikilotherms in particular. A positive correlation between metabolism and temperature in general and altered O2 consumption at elevated temperature in particular could also increase the risk of experiencing OS in homeotherms. Effects of global warming on longevity of animals through increased risk of protein misfolding and disease susceptibility due to OS as the cause or effects or both also cannot be ignored. Therefore, understanding the physiological impacts of global warming in relation to
Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Candida species are the most opportunistic fungi affecting the nails and resulting in onychomycosis. In this study, we identified and evaluated in-vitro susceptibility of the recovered isolates against fluconazole (FLC, voriconazole (VRC, and clotrimazole (CLT using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI M27-A3 document. Materials and Methods: From patients with either clinically or mycologically proven onychomycosis, 97 isolates comprising of seven Candida species were isolated, which were identified by both conventional and molecular techniques such as polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. In addition, Candida dubliniensis was confirmed by restriction endonuclease analysis. Antifungal susceptibility of each isolate against the three azoles applied in this study was determined using the CLSI microdilution reference method M27-A3. Results: Candida parapsilosis (C. parapsilosis was the most frequently isolated species (n=44, followed by C. albicans (n=23, C. tropicalis (n=13, C. glabrata (n=7, C. krusei (n=6, C. guilliermondii (n=3, and C. dubliniensis (n=1. All the isolates were susceptible to CLT. VRC had lower minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values for the isolates compared to FLC. Geometric mean MIC values of VRC, FLC, and CLT for C. parapsilosis isolates were 0.07 µg/ml, 0.8 µg/ml, and 0.35 µg/ml, respectively. Collectively, all species exhibited greater susceptibility to VRC in comparison to C. albicans (P≤0.001. Conclusion: This study showed that non-albicans Candida species were the most common etiologic agents of non-dermatophyte onychomycosis. The major antifungal agents used in clinics to empirically treat yeast onychomycosis are FLC and CLT. Our data suggested that CLT is a better choice for the treatment of Candida onychomycosis, especially in drug resistant cases.
Taj-Aldeen, Saad J; Salah, Husam; Al-Hatmi, Abdullah M S; Hamed, Manal; Theelen, Bart; van Diepeningen, Anne D; Boekhout, Teun; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia
Susceptibility testing using the EUCAST-AFST method against 39 clinical Fusarium strains consecutively collected from local and invasive infections during the last 10years assessed the in vitro activities of amphotericin B (AmB) and triazole antifungal agents. In addition, the susceptibility pattern of 12 reference strains from the CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre (CBS) was evaluated. In particular Fusarium petroliphilum and F. solani sensu lato were involved in disseminated infections and known for treatment failure. AmB displayed the lowest MICs followed by voriconazole VRC, posaconazole (POC). Itraconazole (ITC) showed high MIC values, displaying in vitro resistance. Clinical isolates were significantly (P antifungal therapy. Resistant profiles to AmB and VRC, which are the currently recommended agents in the guidelines for treatments, and a late diagnosis may be associated with high mortality rate in immunocompromised patients. The present antifungal susceptibility profiles showed that species- and strain-specific differences in antifungal susceptibility exist within Fusarium and that susceptibility testing is important and may improve the prognosis of these infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Koinari, M; Karl, S; Elliot, A; Ryan, U; Lymbery, A J
The third-stage larvae of several genera of anisakid nematodes are important etiological agents for zoonotic human anisakiasis. The present study investigated the prevalence of potentially zoonotic anisakid larvae in fish collected on the coastal shelves off Madang and Rabaul in Papua New Guinea (PNG) where fish represents a major component of the diet. Nematodes were found in seven fish species including Decapterus macarellus, Gerres oblongus, Pinjalo lewisi, Pinjalo pinjalo, Selar crumenophthalmus, Scomberomorus maculatus and Thunnus albacares. They were identified by both light and scanning electron microscopy as Anisakis Type I larvae. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit II (cox2) gene identified all nematodes as Anisakis typica. This study represents the first in-depth characterisation of Anisakis larvae from seven new fish hosts in PNG. The overall prevalence of larvae was low (7.6%) and no recognised zoonotic Anisakis species were identified, suggesting a very low threat of anisakiasis in PNG. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Payne; Payne; Woods; Sorenson
Brood-parasitic village indigobirds, Vidua chalybeata, were bred in captivity and foster-reared by their normal host species, the red-billed firefinch, Lagonosticta senegala, or by an experimental foster species, the Bengalese finch, Lonchura striata. Captive-reared female indigobirds were tested as adults for mate choice and for host choice. In tests of mate choice, female indigobirds responded preferentially towards mimicry songs of male indigobirds that were similar to those of the females' own foster parents. Females reared by Bengalese finches responded to male songs that mimicked Bengalese finch song rather than to male songs that mimicked their normal host species, the firefinch. In tests of host choice, females reared by Bengalese finches laid in the nests of Bengalese finches, and females reared by firefinches laid in the nests of firefinches. Wild-caught females showed the same behaviours as captive-bred females reared by firefinches. A female indigobird's social companions (firefinch or Bengalese) following her independence of her foster parents had no effect on her sexual response to male mimicry song or her choice of a host species in brood parasitism. The results support the predictions of a model of imprinting-like behaviour development in which young indigobirds focus their attention on their foster parents, rather than a model of innate bias for songs and nests of their normal host species, or a null model of nonspecific brood parasitism and differential survival. The results provide experimental support for the recent origin of brood parasite-host associations and the significance of imprinting in speciation in these brood parasites. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.
Gláucia Moreira Espíndola Lima
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to identify Candida spp. isolated from candiduria episodes at a tertiary hospital in the Midwest region of Brazil, and to determine their susceptibility profiles to antifungal compounds. From May 2011 to April 2012, Candida spp. isolated from 106 adult patients with candiduria admitted to the University Hospital of the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul were evaluated. Both, species identification and susceptibility testing with fluconazole-FLC, voriconazole-VRC, and amphotericin B-AmB were carried out using the Vitek 2. To discriminate species of the C. parapsilosis complex, a RAPD-PCR technique using the RPO2 primer was performed. From the total of 106 isolates, 42 (39.6% C. albicans and 64 (60.4% Candida non-albicans (CNA - 33 C. tropicalis, 18 C. glabrata, 5 C. krusei, 4 C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, 2 C. kefyr, 1 C. lusitaniae, and 1 C. guilliermondii were identified. All isolates were susceptible to AmB and VRC, whereas all C. glabrata isolates presented either resistance (5.6% or dose-dependent susceptibility (94.4% to FLC. The study of Candida spp. and their resistance profiles may help in tailoring more efficient therapeutic strategies for candiduria.
Full Text Available Under the preference-performance hypothesis, natural selection will favor females that choose oviposition sites that optimize the fitness of their offspring. Such a preference-performance relationship may entail important consequences mainly on fitness-related traits. We used the well-characterized cactus-Drosophila system to investigate the reproductive capacity in the pair of sibling species D. buzzatii and D. koepferae reared in two alternative host plants. According to our hypothesis, ovariole number (as a proxy of reproductive capacity depends on host plant selection. Our results indicate that the capacity of D. buzzatii showed to be mild, only increasing the number of ovarioles by as much as 10% when reared in its preferred host. In contrast, D. koepferae exhibited a similar reproductive capacity across host cacti, even though it showed a preference for its primary host cactus. Our study also revealed that D. buzzatii has a larger genetic variation for phenotypic plasticity than its sibling, although ovariole number did not show clear-cut differences between species. We will discuss the weak preference-performance pattern observed in these cactophilic species in the light of nutritional and toxicological differences found between the natural host plants.
Witsenboer, Hanneke M.A.; Kloosterziel, Karen M.; Hateboer, Guus; Nijkamp, H. John J.; Hille, Jacques
AAL-toxin causes severe necrosis in leaves of susceptible tomato cultivars at nanomolar concentrations. In resistant tomato cultivars harbouring the semi-dominant Alternaria stem canker resistance locus necrosis is also observed, however at much higher toxin concentrations, in both lines the
Gerla, D.J.; Gsell, A.S.; Kooi, B.W.; Ibelings, B.W.; Donk, van E.; Mooij, W.M.
1. Despite the strong impact parasites can have, only few models of phytoplankton ecology or aquatic food webs have specifically included parasitism. 2. Here, we provide a susceptible-infected model for a diatom-chytrid hostparasite system that explicitly includes nutrients, infected and uninfected
Gerla, D.J.; Gsell, A.S.; Kooi, B.W.; Ibelings, B.W.; Van Donk, E.; Mooij, W.M.
1. Despite the strong impact parasites can have, only few models of phytoplankton ecology or aquatic food webs have specifically included parasitism. 2. Here, we provide a susceptible-infected model for a diatom-chytrid host–parasite system that explicitly includes nutrients, infected and uninfected
Pinho, Danilo Batista; Firmino, André Luiz; Ferreira-Junior, Walnir Gomes; Pereira, Olinto Liparini
Continuing the study of black mildews in fragments of the Atlantic forest, three new species and five new records are described herein. Irenopsis luheae-grandiflorae, Meliola vicosensis and Meliola xylopia-sericiae are new species. Cecropia hololeuca, Piper gaudichaudianum and Trichilia lepidota are new hosts for Asteridiella leucosykeae, Asteridiella glabroides and Meliola trichiliae respectively. Asteridiella obesa and Meliola psychotriae var. chiococcae are reported for the first time from Brazil. The new species are described and illustrated based on light and scanning electron microscopy and tables with main characteristics of morphologically similar specimens with species collected in Viçosa are provided. Other species belonging to Meliolaceae collected on hosts belonging to the Annonaceae, Meliaceae and Tiliaceae in Brazil also were studied.
Full Text Available Two species of opiine Braconidae, reared from fruit-infesting Tephritidae in Kenya, are described. Psyttalia masneri sp. n. was reared from fruits of Dracaena fragrans (L. Ker Gawl. (Liliaceae infested with Taomyia marshalli Bezzi in western Kenya. Psyttalia masneri is the only opiine braconid known to attack members of the genus Taomyia. Unusual morphological features of P. masneri and its host are detailed. Psyttalia halidayi sp. n. was reared from fruits of Lettowianthus stellatus Diels (Annonaceae infested with Ceratitis rosa Karsch in coastal Kenya. Psyttalia halidayi is morphologically similar to several described species of Psyttalia that have previously been used in the biological control of tephritid pests. Unlike these other species, P. halidayi can attack and successfully develop on C. rosa, a serious pest of cultivated fruits. A list of valid species in Psyttalia is provided, along with comments on species groups and host records.
Maira Giseli C. Silva
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Candidemia is a bloodstream infection produced by Candida genus yeasts. Objective: The purpose of this study was to characterize the epidemiology and the fluconazole susceptibility in Candida species isolated from patients at a regional hospital in Passo Fundo, RS. Methods: Records from the laboratory were used to identify patients with positive blood cultures for Candida between 2010 and 2011. The in vitro activity of fluconazole was determined using the disk diffusion method. Results: Were analyzed 24 positive blood cultures for Candida and found a 54.16% mortality rate. C. albicans was the most prevalent species, followed by C. parapsilosis and C. krusei. For susceptibility to fluconazole, C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis showed 100% sensitivity. However, C. krusei was 100% resistant; and C. glabrata, 50% resistant. Conclusion: The high mortality and fluconazole resistance rates emphasize the importance of the diagnosis of candidemia in a hospital environment.
Kamiya, Tsukushi; O'Dwyer, Katie; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Poulin, Robert
Although a small set of external factors account for much of the spatial variation in plant and animal diversity, the search continues for general drivers of variation in parasite species richness among host species. Qualitative reviews of existing evidence suggest idiosyncrasies and inconsistent predictive power for all proposed determinants of parasite richness. Here, we provide the first quantitative synthesis of the evidence using a meta-analysis of 62 original studies testing the relationship between parasite richness across animal, plant and fungal hosts, and each of its four most widely used presumed predictors: host body size, host geographical range size, host population density, and latitude. We uncover three universal predictors of parasite richness across host species, namely host body size, geographical range size and population density, applicable regardless of the taxa considered and independently of most aspects of study design. A proper match in the primary studies between the focal predictor and both the spatial scale of study and the level at which parasite species richness was quantified (i.e. within host populations or tallied across a host species' entire range) also affected the magnitude of effect sizes. By contrast, except for a couple of indicative trends in subsets of the full dataset, there was no strong evidence for an effect of latitude on parasite species richness; where found, this effect ran counter to the general latitude gradient in diversity, with parasite species richness tending to be higher further from the equator. Finally, the meta-analysis also revealed a negative relationship between the magnitude of effect sizes and the year of publication of original studies (i.e. a time-lag bias). This temporal bias may be due to the increasing use of phylogenetic correction in comparative analyses of parasite richness over time, as this correction yields more conservative effect sizes. Overall, these findings point to common underlying
Full Text Available Species in the genus Zygophiala are associated with sooty blotch and flyspeck disease on a wide range of hosts. In this study, 63 Zygophiala isolates collected from flyspeck colonies on a range of plants from several regions of China were used for phylogeny, host range and geographic distribution analysis. Phylogenetic trees were constructed on four genes--internal transcribed spacer (ITS, partial translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF, β-tubulin (TUB2, and actin (ACT--both individually and in combination. Isolates were grouped into 11 clades among which five new species, Z. emperorae, Z. trispora, Z. musae, Z. inaequalis and Z. longispora, were described. Species of Zygophiala differed in observed host range and geographic distribution. Z. wisconsinensis and Z. emperorae were the most prevalent throughout the sampled regions of China, whereas Z. trispora, Z. musae, Z. inaequalis and Z. longispora were collected only in southern China. The hosts of Z. wisconsinensis and Z. emperorae were mainly in the family Rosaceae whereas Z. trispora, Z. musae, Z. inaequalis and Z. longispora were found mainly on banana (Musa spp.. Cross inoculation tests provided evidence of host specificity among SBFS species.
Gutierrez, Alejandra C; Gołębiowski, Marek; Pennisi, Mariana; Peterson, Graciela; García, Juan J; Manfrino, Romina G; López Lastra, Claudia C
Differences in free fatty acids (FFAs) chemical composition of insects may be responsible for susceptibility or resistance to fungal infection. Determination of FFAs found in cuticular lipids can effectively contribute to the knowledge concerning insect defense mechanisms. In this study, we have evaluated the susceptibility of three species of cockroaches to the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin by topical application. Mortality due to M. anisopliae was highly significant on adults and nymphs of Blattella germanica L. (Blattodea: Blattellidae). However, mortality was faster in adults than in nymphs. Adults of Blatta orientalis L. (Blattodea: Blattidae) were not susceptible to the fungus, and nymphs of Blaptica dubia Serville (Blattodea: Blaberidae) were more susceptible to the fungus than adults. The composition of cuticular FFAs in the three species of cockroaches was also studied. The analysis indicated that all of the fatty acids were mostly straight-chain, long-chain, saturated or unsaturated. Cuticular lipids of three species of cockroaches contained 19 FFAs, ranging from C14:0 to C24:0. The predominant fatty acids found in the three studied species of cockroaches were oleic, linoleic, palmitic, and stearic acid. Only in adults of Bl. orientalis, myristoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, arachidic acid, dihomolinoleic acid, and behenic acid were identified. Lignoceric acid was detected only in nymphs of Bl. orientalis. Heneicosylic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were identified in adults of Ba. dubia. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Full Text Available Aggressiveness of 14 Phoma medicaginis isolates obtained from Medicago truncatula (barrel medic and M. ciliaris (ciliate medic growing in Tunisia was measured after inoculation on leaves and roots of M. truncatula. The ability of one isolate to cause disease on M. sativa (alfalfa, Cicer arietinum (chickpea, Pisum sativum (pea, Lens culinaris (lentil and Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean was also tested. The pathogen caused dark lesions that enlarged and coalesced causing yellowing and premature abscission of leaves, resulting in decreased shoot fresh weight in barrel medic plants. All P. medicaginis isolates infected barrel medic roots causing collar rot, brown root discoloration, yellowing of cotyledons and reduced shoot and root development. The pathogen colonized the cortex and the stele of plants and produced fertile pycnidia on infected roots. Symptoms on leaves allowed for greater discrimination in aggressiveness among isolates in comparison to symptoms on roots. No correlations were observed between the parameters measured on leaves and roots suggesting organ specialization in this pathogen. Phoma medicaginis infected leaves of alfalfa, pea, common bean and chickpea causing necrosis and tissue yellowing at 15 d post inoculation (dpi. Pycnidium production was observed on dead and dying foliar tissues of alfalfa, pea and common bean, but not on chickpea. The pathogen caused symptoms of collar rot and brown root discoloration on alfalfa, chickpea, pea and common bean, but did not cause symptoms on leaves or roots of lentil at 15 dpi. Phoma medicaginis was more pathogenic on barrel medic, the host of origin, in comparison to the other legumes, suggesting that these species are likely to be secondary hosts for this pathogen.
Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Endo, Nobuyuki
The susceptibility of the stink bug species Nezara viridula (L.), Nezara antennata Scott, Piezodorus hybneri (Gmelin), and Riptortus pedestris (F.) to insecticides was tested, establishing their 50% lethal dose (LD50) values as baseline data. Third instars and adults of the four species were treated by topical application with seven insecticides: fenitrothion, fenthion, etofenprox, silafluofen, dinotefuran, clothianidin, and ethiprole. The weight of the stink bug and weight of the insecticide applied to each bug were used as explanatory variables in the probit regression analysis. The effect of the body weight on the dose-response relationship, the proportional model, was not uniform among the tested insecticide-stink bug combinations. However, the basic model fit all combinations and could estimate LD50 values successfully. Therefore, LD50 values at the medium (average) weight estimated by the basic model were selected to describe the susceptibility of the stink bugs. The LD50 value of silafluofen for N. viridula adults, and that of silafluofen and etofenprox for N. antennata adults, was at least 2,338 ng greater than the other species exposed to each insecticide. Almost all of the LD50 values for adults were over 10 times greater than those of the same species' nymphs treated with the same insecticide. Thus monitoring of occurring species and their developmental stages is important for controlling effectively the stink bug pest complex by insecticides, especially by silafluofen or etofenprox. The estimated LD50 values can be used as baseline data to compare the susceptibility of the species collected in another year or location.
Taj-Aldeen, Saad J; Deshmukh, Anand; Doiphode, Sanjay; Wahab, Atqah Abdul; Allangawi, Mona; AlMuzrkchi, Ahmed; Klaassen, Corné H; Meis, Jacques F
BACKGROUND: Nocardia species are rare, opportunistic organisms that cause disease in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical presentations of various Nocardia infections based on the 16S ribosomal RNA gene of the isolate, as well as related risk factors and susceptibility patterns to antimicrobial agents METHODS: Thirteen patients with a diagnosis of nocardiosis were included in the present study. Seven Nocardia species were identified by 16S ribosomal RNA. Susceptibility testing was performed using six antimicrobial agents. RESULTS: Five patients were immunocompromised, and eight were immunocompetent with predisposing factors including cystic fibrosis, tuberculosis and ophthalmic infections. Nocardia caused pulmonary infections in eight patients (61.5%), invasive systemic infections in three patients (23%) and local (ophthalmic) infections in two patients (15.4%). In the patients with pulmonary disease, nocardiosis was caused by six species (Nocardia cyriacigeorgica, Nocardia otitidiscaviarum, Nocardia farcinica, Nocardia carnea, Nocardia testacea and Nocardia asiatica). The seventh species identified in the present study was Nocardia crassostreae. DISCUSSION: N crassostreae is a multidrug-resistant organism that was reported to be an emerging human pathogen causing invasive nocardiosis in a patient with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. N farcinica was isolated from blood in a patient with breast cancer. None of the Nocardia isolates were resistant to linezolid. One N otitidiscaviarum isolate was a multidrug-resistant organism. All patients in the present study were treated with the appropriate antibiotics and their condition resolved without further sequelae. CONCLUSIONS: The present study is the first report on N crassostreae as a human pathogen. The detection of multidrug-resistant species necessitate molecular identification and susceptibility testing, and should be performed for all Nocardia infections
Full Text Available Candidemia is an emerging problem among patients hospitalized in Internal Medicine Wards (IMW. We performed a retrospective study to assess the epidemiology, species distribution, antifungal susceptibility and outcome of candidaemia recorded over a 3-year period (2010-2012 among IMW of community hospitals of Udine province in Italy: forty-eight patients were identified, with an overall incidence of 1.44 cases/1000 hospital admissions/year. Candida albicans was the most frequent species, followed by Candida parapsilosis that accounted for 42.9% of Tolmezzo cases. All isolates were susceptible to amphotericin and caspofungin, while 11.4% of strains were not-susceptible to voriconazole and 14.3% to fluconazole. Crude mortality was 41.7%. In conclusion, in community hospitals overall incidence of candidemia is similar to tertiary care hospitals, but 80% of cases are detected in IMW. Candida species distribution is overlapping, but differences in local epidemiology were found and should be taken into consideration. No resistance to amphotericin and caspofungin was found while resistance to azoles was observed. Knowledge of this data might be useful when planning the best therapeutic strategy.
Barrios-San Martín, Joceline; Quiroz, Andrés; Verdugo, Jaime A; Parra, Leonardo; Hormazabal, Emilio; Astudillo, Luis A; Rojas-Herrera, Marcelo; Ramírez, Claudio C
Poplars are frequently attacked by aphids. The differential susceptibility of poplar hybrids to the aphid Chaitophorus leucomelas Koch (Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae) has been described, but the mechanism underlying this pattern is unknown. This work tested the hypothesis that poplar resistance to this aphid is associated with the presence of volatiles and secondary plant compounds that affect host selection and feeding behavior. This hypothesis was tested by studying the host choice and feeding behavior of C. leucomelas on two poplar hybrids with contrasting susceptibilities to this aphid ([Populus trichocarpa Torrey & Gray x Populus deltoides Bartram ex Marshall] x P. deltoides [TD x D], and [P. trichocarpa x Populus maximowiczii Henry] x [P. trichocarpa x P. maximowiczii] [TM x TM]). The results showed that C. leucomelas rejected leaves of the TM x TM hybrid and did not prefer odors from either hybrid. Electronic monitoring of the probing behavior of C. leucomelas suggested the involvement of antifeedant factors in the TM x TM hybrid. In addition, the chemical characterization of volatiles, epicuticular waxes, and internal phenols of leaves from both poplar hybrids revealed that TM x TM had a higher abundance of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, n-alkanes, and phenols. These results are discussed in terms of their contribution to poplar breeding programs aimed at enhancing insect resistance.
Wang, Y; Hajimorad, M R
'Gene-for-gene' theory predicts that gain of virulence by an avirulent pathogen on plants expressing resistance (R) genes is associated with fitness loss in susceptible hosts. However, the validity of this prediction has been studied in only a few plant viral pathosystems. In this study, the Soybean mosaic virus (SMV)-Rsv4 pathosystem was exploited to test this prediction. In Rsv4-genotype soybeans, P3 of avirulent SMV strains provokes an as yet uncharacterized resistance mechanism that restricts the invading virus to the inoculated leaves. A single amino acid substitution in P3 functionally converts an avirulent to a virulent strain, suggesting that the genetic composition of P3 plays a crucial role in virulence on Rsv4-genotype soybeans. In this study, we examined the impact of gain of virulence mutation(s) on the fitness of virulent variants derived from three avirulent SMV strains in a soybean genotype lacking the Rsv4 gene. Our data demonstrate that gain of virulence mutation(s) by all avirulent viruses on Rsv4-genotype soybean is associated with a relative fitness loss in a susceptible host. The implications of this finding on the durable deployment of the Rsv4 gene in soybean are discussed. © 2015 BSPP and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Georgi, Enrico; Schacht, Erik; Scholz, Holger C; Splettstoesser, Wolf D
Tularaemia is a widespread zoonosis in Europe caused by Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica. Because of a lack of standardized CLSI-approved antibiotic susceptibility data from European Francisella strains, the antibiotic susceptibilities of a selection of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica isolates originating from Germany, Austria, France, Spain and other European countries were determined. Rarely isolated species and subspecies of Francisella such as Francisella philomiragia, F. tularensis subsp. novicida and F. tularensis subsp. mediasiatica as well as the type strain of Francisella hispaniensis were included in this study. MIC data were obtained using cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth with a 2% growth supplement. The broth microdilution testing system comprised 14 antibiotics, including gentamicin, streptomycin, ciprofloxacin and tetracycline. All of the 91 strains tested were susceptible to aminoglycosides, quinolones, tetracycline and chloramphenicol. The antimicrobial susceptibility of rare Francisellae was similar to the antibiotic profile of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica strains. For erythromycin, we detected two geographically distinct groups of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica isolates in western Europe. One group was resistant and the other one was susceptible. Both groups overlapped in a small region in Germany. Being performed in accordance with CLSI criteria, this study provides reliable data on antibiotic susceptibility patterns of European Francisella isolates. The standardized methodology of this study can be used for testing of suspicious colonies from clinical specimens for therapeutic guidance. Based on the results, aminoglycosides or quinolones are recommended as first-choice antibiotics for the therapy of F. hispaniensis, F. philomiragia or F. tularensis subsp. novicida infections in immunocompromised patients.
Yang, Xuemei; Buschman, Lawrent L; Zhu, Kun Yan; Margolies, David C
Changes in the susceptibility and detoxifying enzyme activity were measured in laboratory strains of Banks grass mite, Oligonychus pratensis (Banks), and twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, that were repeatedly exposed to three insecticides. Three strains of each mite species were exposed to one of two pyrethroids, bifenthrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin, or an organophosphate, dimethoate, for 10 selection cycles at the LC60 for each insecticide. A reference or nonselected strain of each mite species was not exposed to insecticides. After 10 cycles of exposure, susceptibility to the corresponding insecticides, bifenthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and dimethoate, decreased 4.5-, 5.9-, and 289.2-fold, respectively, relative to the reference strain in the respective O. pratensis strains, and 14.8-, 5.7-, and 104.7-fold, respectively, relative to the reference strain in the respective T. urticae strains. In the bifenthrin-exposed O. pratensis strain, there was a 88.9-fold cross-resistance to dimethoate. In the dimethoate-exposed T. urticae strain, there was a 15.9-fold cross-resistance to bifenthrin. These results suggest that there may be cross-resistance between dimethoate and bifenthrin. The reduced susceptibility to dimethoate remained stable for three months in the absence of selection pressure in both mites. The decrease in susceptibility in the O. pratensis strains exposed to bifenthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and dimethoate was associated with a 4.7-, 3.0-, and 3.6-fold increase in general esterase activity, respectively. The decrease in susceptibility in the T. urticae strains exposed to bifenthrin and lambda-cyhalothrin was associated with a 1.3- and 1.1-fold increase in general esterase activity, respectively. The mean general esterase activity was significantly higher in the pyrethroid-exposed O. pratensis and T. urticae strains than in the nonselected strain. There was no significant increase in esterase activity in the dimethoate-exposed T. urticae
Barneche, Jorge Adrian; Gillung, Jéssica Paula; González, Alda
Exetasis jujuyensis Gillung sp. nov. (Acroceridae) is described from Argentina and a dichotomous key to species of Exetasis Walker is provided. Detailed observations are presented on the effect of fly larval development on the behavior of the host spider (Acanthoscurria sternalis Pocock (Theraphosidae)).
Full Text Available Plant roots are known to harbor large and diverse communities of bacteria. It has been suggested that plant identity can structure these root-associated communities, but few studies have specifically assessed how the composition of root microbiota varies within and between plant species growing under natural conditions. We assessed the community composition of endophytic and epiphytic bacteria through high throughput sequencing using 16S rDNA derived from root tissues collected from a population of a wild, clonal plant (Orange hawkweed–Pilosella aurantiaca as well as two neighboring plant species (Oxeye daisy–Leucanthemum vulgare and Alsike clover–Trifolium hybridum. Our first goal was to determine if plant species growing in close proximity, under similar environmental conditions, still hosted unique root microbiota. Our results showed that plants of different species host distinct bacterial communities in their roots. In terms of community composition, Betaproteobacteria (especially the family Oxalobacteraceae were found to dominate in the root microbiota of L. vulgare and T. hybridum samples, whereas the root microbiota of P. aurantiaca had a more heterogeneous distribution of bacterial abundances where Gammaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria occupied a larger portion of the community. We also explored the extent of individual variance within each plant species investigated, and found that in the plant species thought to have the least genetic variance among individuals (P. aurantiaca still hosted just as diverse microbial communities. Whether all plant species host their own distinct root microbiota and plants more closely related to each other share more similar bacterial communities still remains to be fully explored, but among the plants examined in this experiment there was no trend that the two species belonging to the same family shared more similarities in terms of bacterial community composition.
Yang, Bo; Liu, Jin; Jiang, Yue; Chen, Feng
The species of Chlorella represent a highly specialized group of green microalgae that can produce high levels of protein. Many Chlorella strains can grow rapidly and achieve high cell density under controlled conditions and are thus considered to be promising protein sources. Many advances in the genetic engineering of Chlorella have occurred in recent years, with significant developments in successful expression of heterologous proteins for various applications. Nevertheless, a lot of obstacles remain to be addressed, and a sophisticated and stable Chlorella expression system has yet to emerge. This review provides a brief summary of current knowledge on Chlorella and an overview of recent progress in the genetic engineering of Chlorella, and highlights the advances in the development of a genetic toolbox of Chlorella for heterologous protein expression. Research directions to further exploit the Chlorella expression system with respect to both challenges and perspectives are also discussed. This paper serves as a comprehensive literature review for the Chlorella community and will provide valuable insights into future exploration of Chlorella as a promising host for heterologous protein expression. Copyright © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
du Toit, C. A.; Holter, P.; Lutermann, H.
Various species of dung beetle serve as intermediate hosts after ingesting the embryonated eggs (1115 x 3037 mu m) of Spirocerca lupi (Spirurida: Spirocercidae) in dog faeces. The feeding mechanisms of coprophagous dung beetles restrict the size of the food particles they can ingest and hence may...
de Vries, R.P.; Burgers, K.; van de Vondervoort, P.J.I
A new species of the group of black aspergilli, Aspergillus vadensis, was analyzed for its potential as a host for homologous and heterologous protein production. Unlike the other black aspergilli, this strain does not acidify the culture medium when nitrate is the nitrogen source and only produces...
Raz, Assaf; Tanasescu, Ana-Maria; Zhao, Anna M.; Serrano, Anna; Alston, Tricia; Sol, Asaf; Bachrach, Gilad; Fischetti, Vincent A.
Cell wall anchored virulence factors are critical for infection and colonization of the host by Gram-positive bacteria. Such proteins have an N-terminal leader sequence and a C-terminal sorting signal, composed of an LPXTG motif, a hydrophobic stretch, and a few positively charged amino acids. The sorting signal halts translocation across the membrane, allowing sortase to cleave the LPXTG motif, leading to surface anchoring. Deletion of sortase prevents the anchoring of virulence factors to the wall; the effects on bacterial physiology however, have not been thoroughly characterized. Here we show that deletion of Streptococcus pyogenes sortase A leads to accumulation of sorting intermediates, particularly at the septum, altering cellular morphology and physiology, and compromising membrane integrity. Such cells are highly sensitive to cathelicidin, and are rapidly killed in blood and plasma. These phenomena are not a loss-of-function effect caused by the absence of anchored surface proteins, but specifically result from the accumulation of sorting intermediates. Reduction in the level of sorting intermediates leads to a return of the sortase mutant to normal morphology, while expression of M protein with an altered LPXTG motif in wild type cells leads to toxicity in the host environment, similar to that observed in the sortase mutant. These unanticipated effects suggest that inhibition of sortase by small-molecule inhibitors could similarly lead to the rapid elimination of pathogens from an infected host, making such inhibitors much better anti-bacterial agents than previously believed. PMID:26484774
Full Text Available Migratory birds have evolved elaborate physiological adaptations to travelling, the implications for their susceptibility to avian influenza are however unknown. Three groups of stonechats (Saxicola torquata from (I strongly migrating, (II weakly migrating and (III non-migrating populations were experimentally infected with HPAIV H5N1. The different bird groups of this insectivorous passerine species were infected in autumn, when the migrating populations clearly exhibit migratory restlessness. Following infection, all animals succumbed to the disease from 3 through 7 days post inoculation. Viral shedding, antigen distribution in tissues, and survival time did not differ between the three populations. However, notably, endothelial tropism of the HPAIV infection was exclusively seen in the group of resident birds. In conclusion, our data document for the first time the high susceptibility of an insectivorous passerine species to H5N1 infection, and the epidemiological role of these passerine birds is probably limited due to their high sensitivity to HPAIV H5N1 infection. Despite pronounced inherited differences in migratory status, the groups were generally indistinguishable in their susceptibility, survival time, clinical symptoms and viral shedding. Nevertheless, the migratory status partly influenced pathogenesis in the way of viral tropism.
Dorsthorst, D.T.A. te; Zwaaftink, R.B.; Rijs, A.J.M.M.; Meletiadis, J.; Verweij, P.E.
The in vitro susceptibility of 45 Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus terreus isolates against caspofungin (CAS) was assessed by the CLSI reference method with spectrophotometric reading and by a colorimetric method that employed the dye MTT. Perfect agreement was found between
Peccoud, Jean; de la Huerta, Manon; Bonhomme, Joël; Laurence, Cindy; Outreman, Yannick; Smadja, Carole M; Simon, Jean-Christophe
Linking adaptive divergence to hybrid unfitness is necessary to understand the ecological factors contributing to reproductive isolation and speciation. To date, this link has been demonstrated in few model systems, most of which encompass ecotypes that occupy relatively early stages in the speciation process. Here we extend these studies by assessing how host-plant adaptation conditions hybrid fitness in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. We made crosses between and within five pea aphid biotypes adapted to different host plants and representing various stages of divergence within the complex. Performance of F1 hybrids and nonhybrids was assessed on a "universal" host that is favorable to all pea aphid biotypes in laboratory conditions. Although hybrids performed equally well as nonhybrids on the universal host, their performance was much lower than nonhybrids on the natural hosts of their parental populations. Hence, hybrids, rather than being intrinsically deficient, are maladapted to their parents' hosts. Interestingly, the impact of this maladaptation was stronger in certain hybrids from crosses involving the most divergent biotype, suggesting that host-dependent postzygotic isolation has continued to evolve late in divergence. Even though host-independent deficiencies are not excluded, hybrid maladaptation to parental hosts supports the hypothesis of ecological speciation in this complex. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.
Deepa Anil Kumar
Full Text Available Oral candidiasis is a common occurrence in diabetic patients. Species of Candida isolated from these infections and their virulence pattern undergo changes over time and require periodic assessments. Objective of this study was to determine changes in the spectrum of Candida species colonizing oral cavity, their antifungal susceptibility patterns, and virulence attributes, in adult diabetic patients. Oral swabs were collected from 100 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM and an equal number of healthy controls. Specimens were cultured for Candida and species were identified, according to standard protocols. Of 100 diabetic patients, 42 were colonized by yeasts with C. albicans as the predominant species (51%. Non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC species accounted for 47% of the specimens, with C. tropicalis being the commonest. Among healthy controls, 23 were colonized by Candida species, of which C. albicans was predominant. Results obtained indicate that C. albicans continues to be the predominant species in oral cavities of diabetic patients. Candidal carriage was significantly associated with duration of diabetes and fasting blood sugar levels. Virulence attributes, proteinase and phospholipase secretion, and biofilm formation were significantly higher in DM group.
Wisplinghoff, Hilmar; Ebbers, Jenny; Geurtz, Lea; Stefanik, Danuta; Major, Yvette; Edmond, Michael B; Wenzel, Richard P; Seifert, Harald
Candida spp. are among the most frequent nosocomial pathogens, contributing significantly to morbidity and mortality. Longitudinal data on the epidemiology of Candida bloodstream infections (BSIs) are still limited. Isolates and clinical data from 1218 episodes of Candida BSI were prospectively collected from patients in 52 hospitals in the USA between 1998 and 2006. Susceptibilities to amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, anidulafungin, caspofungin and micafungin were determined for 1077 Candida isolates by the CLSI reference broth microdilution method using the recently published species-specific clinical breakpoints. Candida albicans was the most prevalent species (50.7%), followed by Candida parapsilosis (17.4%), Candida glabrata (16.7%) and Candida tropicalis (10.2%). The prevalence of non-albicans Candida spp. increased over time. Patients had a mean age of 51 years and a mean length of hospital stay prior to BSI of 22 days. The main underlying conditions were gastrointestinal (20.1%) and pulmonary (13.0%) diseases. Intravenous catheters (19.1%) and the urinary tract (8.0%) were the most frequently determined likely sources, whilst in the majority of patients (61.1%) no source could be identified. Overall mortality was 38.1%. Of the isolates studied, 0.8% of C. albicans, 100.0% of C. glabrata, 2.9% of C. parapsilosis and 4.9% of C. tropicalis were non-susceptible to fluconazole, and 0.6% of C. albicans, 5.0% of Candida krusei, 7.6% of C. parapsilosis and 9.8% of C. tropicalis were non-susceptible to voriconazole. All echinocandins showed good activity against most Candida spp., including the majority of C. parapsilosis isolates, but only 38.1% of C. glabrata tested susceptible to caspofungin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.
Chen, Yi-Chun; Kuo, Shu-Fang; Chen, Fang-Ju; Lee, Chen-Hsiang
The Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) revised the clinical breakpoints (CBPs) for the azoles and echinocandins against Candida species in 2012. We aimed to report the epidemiology of candidemia and antifungal susceptibility of Candida species and evaluate the impact of new CBPs on antifungal susceptibility in our region. All blood isolates of Candida species were obtained from 2007 to 2012. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of fluconazole, voriconazole, echinocandins and flucytosine against Candida isolates were determined by Sensititre YeastOne system. Differences in susceptibility rates between the CBPs of previous and revised versions of CLSI were examined. Of 709 Candida isolates, the fluconazole-susceptible rate was 96.5% in Candida albicans, 85.8% in Candida tropicalis and 92.1% in Candida parapsilosis by the revised CBPs. Compared with the susceptibility results by previous CBPs, the marked reductions in susceptibility of C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis to fluconazole, that of C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis to voriconazole, that of C. tropicalis and Candida glabrata to anidulafungin and that of C. tropicalis, C. glabrata and Candida krusei to caspofungin by revised CBPs were found. In conclusion, Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis remain highly susceptible to fluconazole. The non-susceptible rates of Candida species to azoles and echinocandins increase with interpretation by the revised CBPs. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Mekonen, Mekdem; Abate, Ebba; Aseffa, Abraham
Ethiopia is among the high-burden countries of tuberculosis (TB) in the world Since mycobacterial culture and susceptibility testing are not routinely performed in Ethiopia, recent data on susceptibility patterns and the mycobacterial species cultured from sputum smear positive patients are limited....
Salinas-Vargas, Delfina; Santillán-Galicia, Ma Teresa; Guzmán-Franco, Ariel W; Hernández-López, Antonio; Ortega-Arenas, Laura D; Mora-Aguilera, Gustavo
We studied species diversity and genetic variation among populations of Brevipalpus mites from four species of citrus host plants. We sampled mites on orange, lime, grapefruit and mandarin trees from orchards at six localities distributed in the five most important citrus producing states in Mexico. Genetic variation among citrus host plants and localities were assessed by analysis of nucleotide sequence data from fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI). Both Brevipalpus yothersi and B. californicus were found at these sites, and B. yothersi was the most abundant species found on all citrus species and in all localities sampled. B. californicus was found mainly on orange and mandarin and only in two of the states sampled. AMOVA and haplotype network analyses revealed no correlation between B. yothersi genetic population structure and geographical origin or citrus host plant species. Considering that a previous study reported greater genetic diversity in B. yothersi populations from Brazil than we observed in Mexico, we discuss the possibility that the Mexican populations may have originated in the southern region of America.
Mata-López, Rosario; León-Règagnon, Virginia; García-Prieto, Luis
The amphibian genus Leptodactylus includes around 50 species, of which only 2 are distributed in Mexico; the helminth fauna of these 2 species is poorly known. As part of a research program on amphibian parasites in Mexico from 1997 to 2005, 281 sabinal frogs Leptodactylus melanonotus from 42 localities in 11 Mexican states were examined from a helminthological perspective. A total of 20 taxa of helminths-7 digeneans (5 adults, 2 larvae) and 13 nematodes (8 adults, 5 larvae)-was found to infect this amphibian host species. These data represent 105 new locality records, and 11 taxa are recorded in L. melanonotus for the first time. Infracommunity analyses of the sabinal frogs from Tres Palos indicated that these hosts are depauperate. The helminth community is dominated by specialist species, with Cosmocerca podicipinus the most common in almost 50% of the infracommunities. Percutaneous infection and predator-prey interactions were the 2 most common infection routes by helminths in frogs from Tres Palos, with 79% of the parasites recruited via skin penetration. Finally, our results show that the helminth fauna parasitizing L. melanonotus throughout Mexico has low similarity with the helminth fauna of leptodactylids studied comprehensively in South America, with only 2 digeneans and 3 nematodes being shared by hosts from both regions. As a result of our survey, the number of helminth species parasitizing L. melanonotus increased to 34. Considering its native distribution range, this number is now 36 with the inclusion of the nematodes Oswaldocruzia costaricensis and Cruzia empera in Costa Rica.
MacKenzie, Keith D.; Palmer, Melissa B.; Köster, Wolfgang L.; White, Aaron P.
Salmonella are important pathogens worldwide and a predominant number of human infections are zoonotic in nature. The ability of strains to form biofilms, which is a multicellular behavior characterized by the aggregation of cells, is predicted to be a conserved strategy for increased persistence and survival. It may also contribute to the increasing number of infections caused by ingestion of contaminated fruits and vegetables. There is a correlation between biofilm formation and the ability of strains to colonize and replicate within the intestines of multiple host species. These strains predominantly cause localized gastroenteritis infections in humans. In contrast, there are salmonellae that cause systemic, disseminated infections in a select few host species; these “invasive” strains have a narrowed host range, and most are unable to form biofilms. This includes host-restricted Salmonella serovar Typhi, which are only able to infect humans, and atypical gastroenteritis strains associated with the opportunistic infection of immunocompromised patients. From the perspective of transmission, biofilm formation is advantageous for ensuring pathogen survival in the environment. However, from an infection point of view, biofilm formation may be an anti-virulence trait. We do not know if the capacity to form biofilms prevents a strain from accessing the systemic compartments within the host or if loss of the biofilm phenotype reflects a change in a strain’s interaction with the host. In this review, we examine the connections between biofilm formation, Salmonella disease states, degrees of host adaptation, and how this might relate to different transmission patterns. A better understanding of the dynamic lifecycle of Salmonella will allow us to reduce the burden of livestock and human infections caused by these important pathogens. PMID:29159172
Guinea, Jesús; Recio, Sandra; Peláez, Teresa; Torres-Narbona, Marta; Bouza, Emilio
We studied the activity of voriconazole against 400 clinical strains of Aspergillus from the pre-voriconazole (1999 to 2002) and post-voriconazole (2003 to 2007) periods. Although the mean MICs of strains from the post-voriconazole period were slightly higher (0.39 versus 0.57 μg/ml; P < 0.001), all strains were susceptible to voriconazole and presented an MIC of ≤2 μg/ml.
Ga Eun Park
Conclusions: These data suggest that tigecycline non-susceptible Acinetobacter spp have emerged and disseminated in the hospital in association with a recent exposure to carbapenems and an immunosuppressed state. This indicates that the rational use of antibiotics through a comprehensive antimicrobial stewardship program, especially in immunosuppressed patients, may be essential in limiting the emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant organisms such as tigecycline-resistant Acinetobacter spp, which are difficult to treat.
Bradshaw, Michael; Braun, Uwe; Götz, Monika; Meeboon, Jamjan; Takamatsu, Susumu
The taxonomic history of the common powdery mildew of Chrysanthemum × morifolium (chrysanthemum, florist's daisy), originally described in Germany as Oidium chrysanthemi, is discussed. The position of O. chrysanthemi was investigated on the basis of morphological traits and molecular phylogenetic analyses. Based on the results of this study, this species, which is closely related to Golovinomyces artemisae, was reassessed and reallocated to Golovinomyces. The phylogenetic analysis and taxonomic reassessment of the chrysanthemum powdery mildew is supplemented by a morphological description, a summary of its worldwide distribution data, and a brief discussion of the introduction of this fungus to North America. G. chrysanthemi differs from true G. artemisiae in that it has much longer conidiophores, is not constricted at the base, and has much larger and most importantly longer conidia. The close affinity of Golovinomyces to Artemisia and Chrysanthemum species signifies a coevolutionary event between the powdery mildews concerned and their host species in the subtribe Artemisiinae (Asteraceae tribe Anthemideae). This conclusion is fully supported by the current phylogeny and taxonomy of the host plant genera and the coevolution that occurred with the host and pathogen. The following powdery mildew species, which are associated with hosts belonging to the tribe Anthemideae of the Asteraceae, are epitypified: Alphitomorpha depressa β artemisiae (≡ Alphitomorpha artemisiae), Erysiphe artemisiae, and Oidium chrysanthemi. Erysiphe macrocarpa is neotypified. Their sequences were retrieved from the epitype collections and have been added to the phylogenetic tree. Golovinomyces orontii, an additional powdery mildew species on Chrysanthemum ×morifolium, is reported. This species is rarely found as a spontaneous infection and was obtained from inoculation experiments.
Comparison of European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) and Etest methods with the CLSI broth microdilution method for echinocandin susceptibility testing of Candida species.
Pfaller, M A; Castanheira, M; Diekema, D J; Messer, S A; Moet, G J; Jones, R N
The antifungal broth microdilution (BMD) method of the European Committee on Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) and the Etest agar diffusion method were compared with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) BMD method M27-A3 for anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin susceptibility testing of 133 clinical isolates of Candida species. The isolates were characterized for the presence or absence of fks1 and/or fks2 gene mutations and included 34 isolates of C. glabrata (4 mutant strains), 32 of C. albicans (1 mutant strain), 25 of C. parapsilosis, 19 of C. guilliermondii, 12 of C. tropicalis (2 mutant strains), and 11 of C. krusei. Excellent essential agreement (EA; within 2 dilutions) between the CLSI and EUCAST and CLSI and Etest MIC results was observed. The overall EA between the EUCAST and CLSI results ranged from 89.5% (caspofungin) to 99.2% (micafungin), whereas the EA between the Etest and CLSI results ranged from 90.2% (caspofungin) to 93.2% (anidulafungin). The categorical agreement (CA) between methods for each antifungal agent was assessed using previously determined epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs). Excellent CA (>90%) was observed for all comparisons between the EUCAST and CLSI results with the exceptions of C. glabrata and caspofungin (85.3%) and C. krusei and caspofungin (54.5%). The CA between the Etest and CLSI results was also excellent for all comparisons, with the exception of C. krusei and caspofungin (81.8%). All three methods were able to differentiate wild-type (WT) strains from those with fks mutations. With anidulafungin as the test reagent, the CLSI method identified 5 of 7 mutant strains, whereas the EUCAST method and the Etest identified 6 of 7 mutant strains. With either caspofungin or micafungin as the test reagent, the CLSI method identified all 7 mutant strains and the EUCAST method identified 6 of 7 mutant strains. The Etest identified all 7 mutant strains using caspofungin as the reagent. All three
Joseph A. Francese; David R. Lance; Baode Wang; Zhichun Xu; Alan J. Sawyer; Victor C. Mastro
Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), the Asian longhorned beetle (ALB) is a pest of hardwoods in its native range of China. While the host range of this pest has been studied extensively, its mechanisms for host selection are still unknown. Our goal was to study the factors influencing movement and orientation of adult ALB...
Hamid Mohamed E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug therapy is recommended in conjunction with surgery in treatment of actinomycetoma. The specific prescription depends on the type of bacteria (actinomycetoma or fungi (eumycetoma causing the disease and their in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility. Objectives To investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility among isolates of Streptomyces spp. isolated from cases of actinomycetoma in man and animals in Sudan. Methods Streptomyces strains (n = 18 isolated from cases of actinomycetoma were tested in vitro against 15 commonly prescribed antibacterial agents using MIC agar dilution method as per standard guidelines. Results Streptomyces strains isolated from actinomycetoma fall into various phenotypic groups. All of the strains were inhibited by novobiocin (8 μg/mL, gentamycin (8, 32 μg/mL and doxycycline (32 μg/mL. Fusidic acid (64 μg/mL inhibited 94.4% of the strains; bacitracin, streptomycin, cephaloridine, clindamycin, ampicillin, rifampicin and tetracycline (64 μg/mL inhibited between 61.1 and 77.8% of the strains. All strains were found resistant to amphotericin B (64 μg/mL, penicillin (20 μg/mL and sulphamethoxazole (64 μg/mL. Conclusions Saprophytic Streptomyces spp. cause actinomycetoma in man and animal belong to separate phenotypes and have a wide range of susceptibility patterns to antimicrobial agents, which pose a lot of difficulties in selecting effective in vivo treatment for actinomycetoma.
Nagashima, Masahito; Yamagishi, Yuka; Mikamo, Hiroshige
There have been the current Japanese data on susceptibility testing for Candida isolates from vaginal candidiasis. The in vitro activities of therapeutic antifungal drugs for vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC); miconazole (MCZ), itraconazole (ITCZ), fluconazole (FLCZ), clotrimazole (CTZ), oxiconazole (OCZ), isoconazole (ICZ) and bifonazole (BFZ) against vaginal isolates. Fifty-four strains Candida albicans and 19 strains of Candida glabrata were evaluated using a broth microdilution method specified by Clinical Laboratories Standard Institute (CLSI) document M27-A3. The MIC90 of each drug, MCZ, ITCZ, FLCZ, CTZ, OCZ, ICZ and BFZ, against C. albicans and C. glabrata isolates were 0.25, 0.12, 1, 0.06, 0.12, 0.12 and 1 μg/ml and 1, 1, 8, 0.5, 0.25, 0.5 and 1 μg/ml respectively. The activities of these drugs, except for BFZ, against C. glabrata were lower than that of C. albicans. There was one azole-resistant isolate in C. glabrata of which MIC of FLCZ is > 64 μg/ml and this isolate had cross resistance to other antifungal drugs tested. These results suggest that antifungal drugs for treatment of VVC continues to have potent antifungal activities against C. albicans and C. glabrata isolates from vaginitis. CTZ, OCZ and ICZ susceptibility of FLCZ low susceptibility C. glabrata are relatively higher than MCZ, ITCZ and FLCZ. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Eveillard, Sandrine; Jollard, Camille; Labroussaa, Fabien; Khalil, Dima; Perrin, Mireille; Desqué, Delphine; Salar, Pascal; Razan, Frédérique; Hévin, Cyril; Bordenave, Louis; Foissac, Xavier; Masson, Jean E.; Malembic-Maher, Sylvie
Flavescence dorée (FD) is a quarantine disease of grapevine, involving interactions between the plants, leafhopper vectors, and FD phytoplasma. Characterizing the susceptibility of vine varieties could limit disease propagation. After extensive surveys in vineyards, we showed that Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) is highly susceptible, with a high proportion of symptomatic branches and phytoplasma titers, in contrast to Merlot (M). Localized insect transmissions and grafting showed that phytoplasma circulate in the whole plant in the CS cultivar, but in M they are restricted to the transmission point. Insect-mediated transmission under high confinement mimicking natural conditions confirmed these phenotypes and allowed the classification of 28 Vitis accessions into three distinct categories, according to the percentage of infected plants and their phytoplasma titers. Reduced symptoms, low phytoplasma titers, and low percentages of infected plants were found to be associated in the Vitis vinifera cultivars tested. Interestingly, the low susceptibility of M was observed for one of its parents, i.e., Magdeleine Noire des Charentes. Rootstocks and their Vitis parents, although having high percentages of infected plants and intermediate to high phytoplasma titers, shared a symptomless response. This is troubling, because rootstocks can constitute a silent reservoir of contamination in mother plants or when they grow wild nearby vineyards. Altogether, data suggest distribution of genetic traits within the Vitis genus involved in insect-mediated phytoplasma transmission, multiplication, circulation, and symptom development. PMID:27965681
Carlos Augusto de Oliveira Júnior
Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens is a microorganism commonly found in the microbiota of humans and animals and a potential cause of enteric, muscle or nervous diseases. The treatment of these diseases is based on antimicrobial therapy and it is extremely important to know the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the strains present in the region. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of C. perfringens isolated from domestic and wild animals in Brazil against seven different antimicrobials. Forty-one strains from the stool samples of cattle (n = 12, buffalo (n = 2, goat (n = 3, dogs (n = 12 and wild carnivores (n = 12 were examined. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by the agar dilution method using Brucella agar supplemented with 5% of sheep blood, 0.1% of vitamin K, 0.1% of hemin and concentrations ranging from 0,25 to 256,0 mg L-1 of the following antibiotics: erythromycin, florfenicol, metronidazole, oxytetracycline, penicillin, tylosin, and vancomycin. All C. perfringens strains were susceptible to florfenicol, metronidazole, penicillin and vancomycin. Two strains (4.9% were resistant to erythromycin and tylosin, while five (12.2% were resistant to oxytetracycline, one of which (2.4% from an ocelot.
Morales-López, Soraya Eugenia; Taverna, Constanza G; Bosco-Borgeat, María Eugenia; Maldonado, Ivana; Vivot, Walter; Szusz, Wanda; Garcia-Effron, Guillermo; Córdoba, Susana B
The presence of the cryptic species belonging to the Candida glabrata complex has not been studied in Argentina. We analyzed a collection of 117 clinical isolates of C. glabrata complex belonging to a National Culture Collection of Instituto Nacional de Microbiología "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán" from Argentina (40 isolates from blood samples, 18 from other normally sterile sites, 20 from vagina, 14 from urine, 7 from oral cavity, 3 from catheter, 1 from a stool sample and 14 isolates whose clinical origin was not recorded). The aims of this work were to determine the prevalence of the cryptic species Candida nivariensis and Candida bracarensis and to evaluate the susceptibility profile of isolates against nine antifungal drugs. Identification was carried out by using classical phenotypic tests, CHROMagar™ Candida, PCR and MALDI-TOF. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of amphotericin B, 5-fluorocytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, ketoconazole, posaconazole, caspofungin and anidulafungin were determined according to the EDef 7.3 (EUCAST) reference document. Of the 117 isolates, 114 were identified as C. glabrata and three as C. nivariensis by using PCR and MALDI-TOF. There were no major differences between C. nivariensis and C. glabrata susceptibility profiles. No resistant strains were found to echinocandins. We have found that the percentage of C. nivariensis in our culture collection was 2.56. This is the first description of C. nivariensis in Argentina, and data obtained could contribute to the knowledge of the epidemiology of this cryptic species.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza A virus infects not only humans, but also other species including avian and swine. If a novel influenza A subtype acquires the ability to spread between humans efficiently, it could cause the next pandemic. Therefore it is necessary to understand the evolutionary processes of influenza A viruses in various hosts in order to gain better knowledge about the emergence of pandemic virus. The virus has segmented RNA genome and 7th segment, M gene, encodes 2 proteins. M1 is a matrix protein and M2 is a membrane protein. The M gene may be involved in determining host tropism. Besides, novel vaccines targeting M1 or M2 protein to confer cross subtype protection have been under development. We conducted the present study to investigate the evolution of the M gene by analyzing its sequence in different species. Results Phylogenetic tree revealed host-specific lineages and evolution rates were different among species. Selective pressure on M2 was stronger than that on M1. Selective pressure on M1 for human influenza was stronger than that for avian influenza, as well as M2. Site-by-site analyses identified one site (amino acid position 219 in M1 as positively selected in human. Positions 115 and 121 in M1, at which consensus amino acids were different between human and avian, were under negative selection in both hosts. As to M2, 10 sites were under positive selection in human. Seven sites locate in extracellular domain. That might be due to host's immune pressure. One site (position 27 positively selected in transmembrane domain is known to be associated with drug resistance. And, two sites (positions 57 and 89 locate in cytoplasmic domain. The sites are involved in several functions. Conclusion The M gene of influenza A virus has evolved independently, under different selective pressure on M1 and M2 among different hosts. We found potentially important sites that may be related to host tropism and immune responses. These
Furuse, Yuki; Suzuki, Akira; Kamigaki, Taro; Oshitani, Hitoshi
Influenza A virus infects not only humans, but also other species including avian and swine. If a novel influenza A subtype acquires the ability to spread between humans efficiently, it could cause the next pandemic. Therefore it is necessary to understand the evolutionary processes of influenza A viruses in various hosts in order to gain better knowledge about the emergence of pandemic virus. The virus has segmented RNA genome and 7th segment, M gene, encodes 2 proteins. M1 is a matrix protein and M2 is a membrane protein. The M gene may be involved in determining host tropism. Besides, novel vaccines targeting M1 or M2 protein to confer cross subtype protection have been under development. We conducted the present study to investigate the evolution of the M gene by analyzing its sequence in different species. Phylogenetic tree revealed host-specific lineages and evolution rates were different among species. Selective pressure on M2 was stronger than that on M1. Selective pressure on M1 for human influenza was stronger than that for avian influenza, as well as M2. Site-by-site analyses identified one site (amino acid position 219) in M1 as positively selected in human. Positions 115 and 121 in M1, at which consensus amino acids were different between human and avian, were under negative selection in both hosts. As to M2, 10 sites were under positive selection in human. Seven sites locate in extracellular domain. That might be due to host's immune pressure. One site (position 27) positively selected in transmembrane domain is known to be associated with drug resistance. And, two sites (positions 57 and 89) locate in cytoplasmic domain. The sites are involved in several functions. The M gene of influenza A virus has evolved independently, under different selective pressure on M1 and M2 among different hosts. We found potentially important sites that may be related to host tropism and immune responses. These sites may be important for evolutional process in different
Lainson F Alex
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pasteurella multocida causes disease in many host species throughout the world. In bovids, it contributes to bovine respiratory disease (BRD and causes haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS. Previous studies have suggested that BRD-associated P. multocida isolates are of limited diversity. A multilocus sequence typing (MLST scheme for P. multocida was used to determine whether the low levels of diversity reported are due to the limited discriminatory power of the typing method used, restricted sample selection or true niche association. Bovine respiratory isolates of P. multocida (n = 133 from the UK, the USA and France, collected between 1984 and 2008 from both healthy and clinically affected animals, were typed using MLST. Isolates of P. multocida from cases of HS, isolates from other host species and data from the MLST database were used as comparison. Results Bovine respiratory isolates were found to be clonal (ISA 0.45 with 105/128 belonging to clonal complex 13 (CC13. HS isolates were not related to bovine respiratory isolates. Of the host species studied, the majority had their own unique sequence types (STs, with few STs being shared across host species, although there was some cross over between porcine and bovine respiratory isolates. Avian, ovine and porcine isolates showed greater levels of diversity compared to cattle respiratory isolates, despite more limited geographic origins. Conclusions The homogeneity of STs of bovine respiratory P. multocida observed, and the differences between these and P. multocida subpopulations from bovine non-respiratory isolates and non-bovine hosts may indicate niche association.
Full Text Available Salmonella species are important foodborne pathogens that have been implicated in a number of foodborne outbreaks. A total of 240 beef and its related samples obtained from the Techiman Municipality of Ghana were screened using the conventional method in the Food and Drug Administration-Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA-BAM-USA. The overall prevalence of Salmonella species was 57.08%. The prevalence of Salmonella species ranged from 33.30% to 75.00% in the meat and its related samples (table, knife and apron, and 6.30% to 93.80% at the various meat sale points (locations where meat is sold. Prevalence of Salmonella species was significantly higher in meat (75.00%, table (60.00% and knife (60.00%, than apron (33.33%. The most contaminated meat sale point was Kenten and Main markets (93.75% and the least contaminated sale point was Sansema junction (6.25%. All the Salmonella species were susceptible to ciprofloxacin but resistant to vancomycin. Intermediate resistances occur for all the antibiotics except ciprofloxacin and vancomycin. The Salmonella species also exhibited 23 antibiotic resistant patterns with the pattern EVa (erythromycin and vancomycin being the commonest (exhibited by nine different isolates. Multiple antibiotic index (MAR index ranged from 0.11 to 0.67. This study revealed that beef and its related samples in Techiman markets are contaminated with Salmonella.
Garedew, Legesse; Taddese, Ayele; Biru, Tigist; Nigatu, Seleshe; Kebede, Elias; Ejo, Mebrat; Fikru, Abraham; Birhanu, Tamiru
Background Listeriosis, mostly caused by Listeria monocytogenes species, has become a major concern to public health authorities due to its clinical severity and high mortality rate, particularly in high risk groups. Currently, there is limited information regarding the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of listeria species in ready-to-eat foods of animal origin in Gondar town, Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility p...
Pemán, Javier; Cantón, Emilia; Quindós, Guillermo; Eraso, Elena; Alcoba, Julia; Guinea, Jesús; Merino, Paloma; Ruiz-Pérez-de-Pipaon, María Teresa; Pérez-del-Molino, Luisa; Linares-Sicilia, María José; Marco, Francesc; García, Julio; Roselló, Eva María; Gómez-G-de-la-Pedrosa, Elia; Borrell, Nuria; Porras, Aurelio; Yagüe, Genoveva
.... Episodes were identified prospectively over 13 months at 44 hospitals. Molecular methods were used to determine the cryptic species inside the Candida parapsilosis and Candida glabrata complexes...
Conclusions: We conclude that Enterobacteriaceae species from bovine milk presented significantly distinct antimicrobial resistance profiles, evaluated by phenotypic test, which has implications for treatment and management decisions.
Daniel P Depledge
Full Text Available Genome sequencing of Leishmania species that give rise to a range of disease phenotypes in the host has revealed highly conserved gene content and synteny across the genus. Only a small number of genes are differentially distributed between the three species sequenced to date, L. major, L. infantum and L. braziliensis. It is not yet known how many of these genes are expressed in the disease-promoting intracellular amastigotes of these species or whether genes conserved between the species are differentially expressed in the host.We have used customised oligonucleotide microarrays to confirm that all of the differentially distributed genes identified by genome comparisons are expressed in intracellular amastigotes, with only a few of these subject to regulation at the RNA level. In the first large-scale study of gene expression in L. braziliensis, we show that only approximately 9% of the genes analysed are regulated in their RNA expression during the L. braziliensis life cycle, a figure consistent with that observed in other Leishmania species. Comparing amastigote gene expression profiles between species confirms the proposal that Leishmania transcriptomes undergo little regulation but also identifies conserved genes that are regulated differently between species in the host. We have also investigated whether host immune competence influences parasite gene expression, by comparing RNA expression profiles in L. major amastigotes derived from either wild-type (BALB/c or immunologically compromised (Rag2(-/- gamma(c (-/- mice. While parasite dissemination from the site of infection is enhanced in the Rag2(-/- gamma(c (-/- genetic background, parasite RNA expression profiles are unperturbed.These findings support the hypothesis that Leishmania amastigotes are pre-adapted for intracellular survival and undergo little dynamic modulation of gene expression at the RNA level. Species-specific parasite factors contributing to virulence and pathogenicity
Devi S Manjulata
Full Text Available Abstract Helicobacter pylori is an important yet unproven etiological agent of gastric cancer. H. pylori infection is more prevalent in developing Asian countries like India and it is usually acquired at an early age. It has been two decades since Marshall and Warren (1984 first described curved bacilli in the stomach of ulcer and gastritis patients. This discovery has won them the Nobel Prize recently, but the debate whether H. pylori is a pathogen or a commensal organism is still hot. Associations with disease-specific factors remain illusive years after the genome sequences were made available. Cytotoxin-associated antigen A (CagA and the so-called plasticity region cluster genes are implicated in pathogenesis of the carcinoma of stomach. Another virulence factor VacA whose role is still debatable, has recently been projected in pathology of gastric cancer. Studies of the evolution through genetic variation in H. pylori populations have provided a window into the history of human population migrations and a possible co-evolution of this pathogen with its human host. Possible symbiotic relationships were seriously debated since the discovery of this pathogen. The debate has been further intensified as some studies proposed H. pylori infection to be beneficial in some humans. In this commentary, we attempt to briefly discuss about H. pylori as a human pathogen, and some of the important issues linked to its pathophysiology in different hosts. 'We dance around in a ring and suppose, the secret sits in the middle and knows' – Robert Frost
Lecompte, François; Nicot, Philippe C; Ripoll, Julie; Abro, Manzoor A; Raimbault, Astrid K; Lopez-Lauri, Félicie; Bertin, Nadia
Plant soluble sugars, as main components of primary metabolism, are thought to be implicated in defence against pathogenic fungi. However, the function of sucrose and hexoses remains unclear. This study aimed to identify robust patterns in the dynamics of soluble sugars in sink tissues of tomato plants during the course of infection by the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea . Distinct roles for glucose and fructose in defence against B. cinerea were hypothesized. We examined sugar contents and defence hormonal markers in tomato stem tissues before and after infection by B. cinerea , in a range of abiotic environments created by various nitrogen and water supplies. Limited nitrogen or water supplies increased tomato stem susceptibility to B. cinerea . Glucose and fructose contents of tissues surrounding infection sites evolved differently after inoculation. The fructose content never decreased after inoculation with B. cinerea , while that of glucose showed either positive or negative variation, depending on the abiotic environment. An increase in the relative fructose content (defined as the proportion of fructose in the soluble sugar pool) was observed in the absence of glucose accumulation and was associated with lower susceptibility. A lower expression of the salicylic acid marker PR1a , and a lower repression of a jasmonate marker COI1 were associated with reduced susceptibility. Accordingly, COI1 expression was positively correlated with the relative fructose contents 7 d after infection. Small variations of fructose content among the sugar pool are unlikely to affect intrinsic pathogen growth. Our results highlight distinct use of host glucose and fructose after infection by B. cinerea and suggest strongly that adjustment of the relative fructose content is required for enhanced plant defence.
Lantry, Brian F.; Adams, Jean V.; Christie, Gavin; Schaner, Teodore; Bowlby, James; Keir, Michael; Lantry, Jana; Sullivan, Paul; Bishop, Daniel; Treska, Ted; Morrison, Bruce
We examined how attack frequency by sea lampreys on fishes in Lake Ontario varied in response to sea lamprey abundance and preferred host abundance (lake trout > 433 mm). For this analysis we used two gill net assessment surveys, one angler creel survey, three salmonid spawning run datasets, one adult sea lamprey assessment, and a bottom trawl assessment of dead lake trout. The frequency of fresh sea lamprey marks observed on lake trout from assessment surveys was strongly related to the frequency of sea lamprey attacks observed on salmon and trout from the creel survey and spawning migrations. Attack frequencies on all salmonids examined were related to the ratio between the abundances of adult sea lampreys and lake trout. Reanalysis of the susceptibility to sea lamprey attack for lake trout strains stocked into Lake Ontario reaffirmed that Lake Superior strain lake trout were among the most and Seneca Lake strain among the least susceptible and that Lewis Lake strain lake trout were even more susceptible than the Superior strain. Seasonal attack frequencies indicated that as the number of observed sea lamprey attacks decreased during June–September, the ratio of healing to fresh marks also decreased. Simulation of the ratios of healing to fresh marks indicated that increased lethality of attacks by growing sea lampreys contributed to the decline in the ratios and supported laboratory studies about wound healing duration.
Full Text Available The fruit fly Drosophila is a classic model organism to study adaptation as well as the relationship between genetic variation and phenotypes. Although associated bacterial communities might be important for many aspects of Drosophila biology, knowledge about their diversity, composition, and factors shaping them is limited. We used 454-based sequencing of a variable region of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene to characterize the bacterial communities associated with wild and laboratory Drosophila isolates. In order to specifically investigate effects of food source and host species on bacterial communities, we analyzed samples from wild Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans collected from a variety of natural substrates, as well as from adults and larvae of nine laboratory-reared Drosophila species. We find no evidence for host species effects in lab-reared flies; instead, lab of origin and stochastic effects, which could influence studies of Drosophila phenotypes, are pronounced. In contrast, the natural Drosophila-associated microbiota appears to be predominantly shaped by food substrate with an additional but smaller effect of host species identity. We identify a core member of this natural microbiota that belongs to the genus Gluconobacter and is common to all wild-caught flies in this study, but absent from the laboratory. This makes it a strong candidate for being part of what could be a natural D. melanogaster and D. simulans core microbiome. Furthermore, we were able to identify candidate pathogens in natural fly isolates.
Staubach, Fabian; Baines, John F.; Künzel, Sven; Bik, Elisabeth M.; Petrov, Dmitri A.
The fruit fly Drosophila is a classic model organism to study adaptation as well as the relationship between genetic variation and phenotypes. Although associated bacterial communities might be important for many aspects of Drosophila biology, knowledge about their diversity, composition, and factors shaping them is limited. We used 454-based sequencing of a variable region of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene to characterize the bacterial communities associated with wild and laboratory Drosophila isolates. In order to specifically investigate effects of food source and host species on bacterial communities, we analyzed samples from wild Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans collected from a variety of natural substrates, as well as from adults and larvae of nine laboratory-reared Drosophila species. We find no evidence for host species effects in lab-reared flies; instead, lab of origin and stochastic effects, which could influence studies of Drosophila phenotypes, are pronounced. In contrast, the natural Drosophila–associated microbiota appears to be predominantly shaped by food substrate with an additional but smaller effect of host species identity. We identify a core member of this natural microbiota that belongs to the genus Gluconobacter and is common to all wild-caught flies in this study, but absent from the laboratory. This makes it a strong candidate for being part of what could be a natural D. melanogaster and D. simulans core microbiome. Furthermore, we were able to identify candidate pathogens in natural fly isolates. PMID:23967097
Guk, Sang-Mee; Park, Jin-Young; Seo, Min; Han, Eun-Taek; Kim, Jae-Lip; Chai, Jong-Yil
Susceptibility of inbred mouse strains to Metagonimus yokogawai, Metagonimus miyatai, and Metagonimus takahashii infections was studied using BALB/c, ddY, C57BL/6J, C3H/HeN, and A/J mice, with H-2 haplotypes d, s, b, k, and a, respectively. Two hundred metacercariae were orally fed to each mouse, and the worm recovery rates (WRR), worm dimensions, and intrauterine egg numbers were measured at days 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 postinfection (PI). On day 14 PI, the WRR of M. yokogawai was highest in ddY mice (average, 62.2%); those of M. miyatai and M. takahashii were highest in ddY (19.5%) and BALB/c mice (10.4%), respectively; worm maturation was best in C3H/HeN (M. yokogawai), C57BL/6J (M. miyatai), and ddY mice (M. takahashii). All mouse strains showed higher susceptibility to infection with M. yokogawai than with M. miyatai or M. takahashii. The results show that susceptibility of mice to Metagonimus infection varies according to mouse strain and parasite species but is suggested to be independent of the mouse H-2 haplotype.
Mateu, P; Raga, J A; Aznar, F J
We investigated patterns of specificity of liver flukes (fam. Brachycladiidae) in a community of cetaceans from the western Mediterranean. The liver and pancreas of 103 striped dolphins, Stenella coeruleoalba, 18 Risso's dolphins, Grampus griseus, 14 bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, 8 common dolphins, Delphinus delphis, and 5 long-finned pilot whales, Globicephala melas, were analysed for brachycladiid species. Two species were found: Oschmarinella rochebruni in striped dolphins (prevalence (P): 61.2%; mean intensity (MI) (95% CI): 34.2 (25.7-45.6)), and Brachycladium atlanticum in striped dolphins (P: 39.8%; MI: 7.1 (4.8-13.1)) and a single individual of common dolphin (P: 12.5%; intensity: 19), which represents a new host record. A molecular analysis using the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of the rDNA gene confirmed that specimens of B. atlanticum were conspecific regardless of host species. Available dietary data suggest that Risso's dolphins, bottlenose dolphins and long-finned pilot whales would contact rarely, if at all, the infective stages of O. rochebruni and B. atlanticum. Neither the prevalence nor the mean abundance of B. atlanticum differed significantly between striped and common dolphins, but a principal component analysis using seven morphometric variables indicated that specimens collected from the common dolphin were stunted. These worms also had fewer eggs compared with specimens typically found in striped dolphins, although the size of the eggs was similar in both host species. Dwarfism and low fecundity have typically been found in helminths infecting unusual host species, and might reflect the lower compatibility of B. atlanticum for common dolphins. In summary, both O. rochebruni and B. atlanticum appear to exhibit a narrow specificity for striped dolphins in the western Mediterranean.
[Antifungal susceptibility profiles of Candida species to triazole: application of new CLSI species-specific clinical breakpoints and epidemiological cutoff values for characterization of antifungal resistance].
Karabıçak, Nilgün; Alem, Nihal
The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) Subcommittee on Antifungal Susceptibility Testing has newly introduced species-specific clinical breakpoints (CBPs) for fluconazole and voriconazole. When CBPs can not be determined, wild-type minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) distributions are detected and epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) provide valuable means for the detection of emerging resistance. The aim of this study is to determine triazole resistance patterns in Candida species by the recently revised CLSI CBPs. A total of 140 Candida strains isolated from blood cultures of patients with invasive candidiasis hospitalized in various intensive care units in Turkey and sent to our reference laboratory between 2011-2012, were included in the study. The isolates were identified by conventional methods, and susceptibility testing was performed against fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole, by the 24-h CLSI broth microdilution (BMD) method. Azole resistance rates for all Candida species were determined using the new species-specific CLSI CBPs and ECVs criteria, when appropriate. The species distribution of the isolates were as follows; C.parapsilosis (n= 31 ), C.tropicalis (n= 26 ), C.glabrata (n= 21), C.albicans (n= 18), C.lusitaniae (n= 16), C.krusei (n= 16), C.kefyr (n= 9), C.guilliermondii (n= 2), and C.dubliniensis (n= 1). According to the newly determined CLSI CBPs for fluconazole and C.albicans, C.parapsilosis, C.tropicalis [susceptible (S), ≤ 2 µg/ml; dose-dependent susceptible (SDD), 4 µg/ml; resistant (R), ≥ 8 µg/ml], and C.glabrata (SDD, ≤ 32 µg/ml; R≥ 64 µg/ml) and for voriconazole and C.albicans, C.parapsilosis, C.tropicalis (S, ≤ 0.12 µg/ml; SDD, 0.25-0.5 µg/ml; R, ≥ 1 µg/ml), and C.krusei (S, ≤ 0.5 µg/ml; SDD, 1 µg/ml; R, ≥ 2 µg/ml), it was found that three of C.albicans, one of C.parapsilosis and one of C.glabrata isolates were resistant to fluconazole, while two of C.albicans and two of C
Transcriptome analysis of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita)-infected tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) roots reveals complex gene expression profiles and metabolic networks of both host and nematode during susceptible and resistance responses
Shukla, Neha; Yadav, Rachita; Kaur, Pritam
plants and two infection time intervals from resistant plants, grown under soil conditions. Differentially expressed genes during susceptible (1827-tomato, 462-RKN) and resistance (25-tomato, 160-RKN) interactions were identified. In susceptible responses, tomato genes involved in cell wall structure......, development, primary and secondary metabolites and defense signalling pathways along with RKN genes involved in host parasitism, development and defense are discussed. In resistance responses, tomato genes involved in secondary metabolite and hormone-mediated defense responses along with RKN genes involved...
Damke, Edílson; Tsuzuki, Joyce K; Cortez, Diógenes A G; Ferreira, Izabel C P; Bertoni, Thâmara A; Batista, Márcia R; Donati, Lucélia; Svidzinski, Terezinha I E; Consolaro, Márcia E L
Study of in vivo antifungal activity of the hydroalcoholic extract (HE) and n-BuOH extract (BUTE) of Sapindus saponaria against azole-susceptible and -resistant human vaginal Candida spp. The in vitro antifungal activity of HE, BUTE, fluconazole (FLU), and itraconazole (ITRA) was determined by the broth microdilution method. We obtained values of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicide concentration (MFC) for 46 strains of C. albicans and 10 of C. glabrata isolated from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). VVC was induced in hyperestrogenic Wistar rats with azole-susceptible C. albicans (SCA), azole-resistant C. albicans (RCA), and azole-resistant C. glabrata (RCG). The rats were treated intravaginally with 0.1 mL of HE or BUTE at concentrations of 1%, 2.5% and 5%; 100 μg/mL of FLU (treatment positive control); or distilled water (negative control) at 1, 24, and 48 h after induction of the infection, and the progress of VVC was monitored by culturing and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The toxicity was evaluated in cervical cells of the HeLa cell line. The extracts showed in vitro inhibitory and fungicidal activity against all the isolates, and the MIC and MFC values for the C. glabrata isolates were slightly higher. In vivo, the SCA, RCA, and RCG infections were eliminated by 21 days post-infection, with up to 5% HE and BUTE, comparable to the activity of FLU. No cytotoxic action was observed for either extract. Our results demonstrated that HE and BUTE from S. saponaria show inhibitory and fungicidal activity in vitro, in addition to in vivo activity against azole-resistant vaginal isolates of C. glabrata and azole-susceptible and resistant isolates of C. albicans. Also considering the lack of cytotoxicity and the low concentrations of the extracts necessary to eliminate the infection in vivo, HE and BUTE show promise for continued studies with purified antifungal substances in VVC yeast isolates.
Andrade, Juvana M; Baba, Elio H; Machado-de-Avila, Ricardo A; Chavez-Olortegui, Carlos; Demicheli, Cynthia P; Frézard, Frédéric; Monte-Neto, Rubens L; Murta, Silvane M F
Antimony (Sb) resistance in leishmaniasis chemotherapy has become one of the major challenges to the control of this spreading worldwide public health problem. Since the plasma membrane pore-forming protein aquaglyceroporin 1 (AQP1) is the major route of Sb uptake in Leishmania, functional studies are relevant to characterize drug transport pathways in the parasite. We generated AQP1-overexpressing Leishmania guyanensis and L. braziliensis mutants and investigated their susceptibility to the trivalent form of Sb (Sb(III)) in the presence of silver and nitrate salts. Both AQP1-overexpressing lines presented 3- to 4-fold increased AQP1 expression levels compared with those of their untransfected counterparts, leading to an increased Sb(III) susceptibility of about 2-fold. Competition assays using silver nitrate, silver sulfadiazine, or silver acetate prior to Sb(III) exposure increased parasite growth, especially in AQP1-overexpressing mutants. Surprisingly, Sb(III)-sodium nitrate or Sb(III)-potassium nitrate combinations showed significantly enhanced antileishmanial activities compared to those of Sb(III) alone, especially against AQP1-overexpressing mutants, suggesting a putative nitrate-dependent modulation of AQP1 activity. The intracellular level of antimony quantified by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry showed that the concomitant exposure to Sb(III) and nitrate favors antimony accumulation in the parasite, increasing the toxicity of the drug and culminating with parasite death. This is the first report showing evidence of AQP1-mediated Sb(III) susceptibility modulation by silver in Leishmania and suggests the potential antileishmanial activity of the combination of nitrate salts and Sb(III). Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Luis, Angela D; O'Shea, Thomas J; Hayman, David T S; Wood, James L N; Cunningham, Andrew A; Gilbert, Amy T; Mills, James N; Webb, Colleen T
Bats are natural reservoirs of several important emerging viruses. Cross-species transmission appears to be quite common among bats, which may contribute to their unique reservoir potential. Therefore, understanding the importance of bats as reservoirs requires examining them in a community context rather than concentrating on individual species. Here, we use a network approach to identify ecological and biological correlates of cross-species virus transmission in bats and rodents, another important host group. We show that given our current knowledge the bat viral sharing network is more connected than the rodent network, suggesting viruses may pass more easily between bat species. We identify host traits associated with important reservoir species: gregarious bats are more likely to share more viruses and bats which migrate regionally are important for spreading viruses through the network. We identify multiple communities of viral sharing within bats and rodents and highlight potential species traits that can help guide studies of novel pathogen emergence. © 2015 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by CNRS and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Molecular phylogenetics, systematics and host-plant associations of the Bruchidius albosparsus (Fåhraeus) species group (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae) with the description of four new species.
Delobel, Alex; Le Ru, Bruno; Genson, Gwenaëlle; Musyoka, Boaz K; Kergoat, Gael J
Bruchidius Schilsky is a large paraphyletic genus of seed beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) which consists of multiple lineages that are usually associated with narrow sets of host-plants. In this study we focus on a group that mostly develops on wattle trees (acacias) belonging to the genus Vachellia Wight & Arn. This group originally included nine species and was designated as the Bruchidius centromaculatus (Allard) species group, but recent phylogenetic analyses revealed that these species belong to a much wider group of species with similar morphologies. For reasons of anteriority we call this enlarged group Bruchidius albosparsus (Fåhraeus). Here we review the morphology of species in this group and provide new diagnoses and ecological data for 10 species. The following combinations and synonymies are proposed: Bruchidius tanaensis (Pic, 1921) (= Bruchus tanaensis Pic, 1921) comb. nov. and Bruchidius albosparsus (Fåhraeus, 1839) (= Bruchus spadiceus Fåhraeus, 1839) syn. nov. Four new species are also described: B. eminingensis sp. nov., B. gerrardiicola sp. nov., B. glomeratus sp. nov. and B. haladai sp. nov. Finally we carried out molecular phylogenetic analyses on a multi-marker dataset of 59 specimens and 35 species, including 14 species from the group. The resulting trees allow us to confirm the monophyly of the group of interest and provide a more detailed picture of their evolutionary relationships.
Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Cottrell, Ted E
We investigated differential susceptibility of lady beetles to entomopathogenic nematodes, for two reasons: (1) to estimate potential nontarget effects on natural lady beetle populations, (2) to compare the susceptibility of exotic versus native lady beetle species. We hypothesize that successful establishment of some exotically introduced arthropods may be due, in part, to a lower susceptibility relative to competing native species. In laboratory studies, we compared the pathogenicity, virulence, and reproductive capacity of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema carpocapsae among two native (Coleomegilla maculata and Olla v-nigrum) and two successfully established exotic (Harmonia axyridis and Coccinella septempunctata) lady beetles, and a known susceptible lepidopteran host, Agrotis ipsilon. After 1 and 2 days of exposure to either nematode species, mortality of A. ipsilon was higher than in all lady beetles. Thus, we predict that nematode field applications would have significantly less impact on lady beetle populations than on a susceptible target pest. Additionally, the impact of soil-applied nematodes may be lower on lady beetles than on soil-dwelling hosts because the former spends relatively less time on the soil. Exotic lady beetles were less susceptible to nematode infection than native species. Reproductive capacity data also indicated lower host suitability in H. axyridis, but not in C. septempunctata. Overall, the hypothesis that low susceptibility to pathogens in certain exotic lady beetles may have contributed to competitive establishment was supported (especially for H. axyridis). Additional studies incorporating different hosts and pathogens from various geographic locations will be required to further address the hypothesis.
Conville, Patricia S; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Wallace, Richard J; Witebsky, Frank G; Koziol, Deloris; Hall, Geraldine S; Killian, Scott B; Knapp, Cindy C; Warshauer, David; Van, Tam; Wengenack, Nancy L; Deml, Sharon; Woods, Gail L
Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of clinical isolates of Nocardia is recommended to detect resistance to commonly used antimicrobial agents; such testing is complicated by difficulties in inoculum preparation and test interpretation. In this study, six laboratories performed repetitive broth microdilution testing on single strains of Nocardia brasiliensis, Nocardia cyriacigeorgica, Nocardia farcinica, Nocardia nova, and Nocardia wallacei. For each isolate, a total of 30 microdilution panels from three different lots were tested at most sites. The goal of the study was to determine the inter- and intralaboratory reproducibility of susceptibility testing of this group of isolates. Acceptable agreement (>90% agreement at ±1 dilution of the MIC mode) was found for amikacin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, and moxifloxacin. After eliminating MIC values from single laboratories whose results showed the greatest deviation from those of the remaining laboratories, acceptable agreement was also found for amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, linezolid, minocycline, and tobramycin. Results showed unsatisfactory reproducibility of broth microdilution testing of ceftriaxone with N. cyriacigeorgica and N. wallacei, tigecycline with N. brasiliensis and N. cyriacigeorgica, and sulfonamides with N. farcinica and N. wallacei. N. nova ATCC BAA-2227 is proposed as a quality control organism for AST of Nocardia sp., and the use of a disk diffusion test for sulfisoxazole is proposed as a check of the adequacy of the inoculum and to confirm sulfonamide MIC results.
Brown-Elliott, Barbara A.; Wallace, Richard J.; Witebsky, Frank G.; Koziol, Deloris; Hall, Geraldine S.; Killian, Scott B.; Knapp, Cindy C.; Warshauer, David; Van, Tam; Wengenack, Nancy L.; Deml, Sharon; Woods, Gail L.
Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of clinical isolates of Nocardia is recommended to detect resistance to commonly used antimicrobial agents; such testing is complicated by difficulties in inoculum preparation and test interpretation. In this study, six laboratories performed repetitive broth microdilution testing on single strains of Nocardia brasiliensis, Nocardia cyriacigeorgica, Nocardia farcinica, Nocardia nova, and Nocardia wallacei. For each isolate, a total of 30 microdilution panels from three different lots were tested at most sites. The goal of the study was to determine the inter- and intralaboratory reproducibility of susceptibility testing of this group of isolates. Acceptable agreement (>90% agreement at ±1 dilution of the MIC mode) was found for amikacin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, and moxifloxacin. After eliminating MIC values from single laboratories whose results showed the greatest deviation from those of the remaining laboratories, acceptable agreement was also found for amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, linezolid, minocycline, and tobramycin. Results showed unsatisfactory reproducibility of broth microdilution testing of ceftriaxone with N. cyriacigeorgica and N. wallacei, tigecycline with N. brasiliensis and N. cyriacigeorgica, and sulfonamides with N. farcinica and N. wallacei. N. nova ATCC BAA-2227 is proposed as a quality control organism for AST of Nocardia sp., and the use of a disk diffusion test for sulfisoxazole is proposed as a check of the adequacy of the inoculum and to confirm sulfonamide MIC results. PMID:22219309
Background Downy mildew is a destructive grapevine disease caused by Plasmopara viticola (Berk. and Curt.) Berl. and de Toni, which can only be controlled by intensive fungicide treatments. Natural sources of resistance from wild grapevine (Vitis) species are used in conventional breeding approaches, but the signals and effectors involved in resistance in this important crop species are not well understood. Results Early transcriptional changes associated with P. viticola infection in susceptible V. vinifera and resistant V. riparia plants were analyzed using the Combimatrix microarray platform. Transcript levels were measured 12 and 24 h post-inoculation, reflecting the time points immediately preceding the onset of resistance in V. riparia, as determined by microscopic analysis. Our data indicate that resistance in V. riparia is induced after infection, and is not based on differences in basal gene expression between the two species. The strong and rapid transcriptional reprogramming involves the induction of pathogenesis-related proteins and enzymes required for the synthesis of phenylpropanoid-derived compounds, many of which are also induced, albeit to a lesser extent, in V. vinifera. More interestingly, resistance in V. riparia also involves the specific modulation of numerous transcripts encoding components of signal transduction cascades, hypersensitive reaction markers and genes involved in jasmonate biosynthesis. The limited transcriptional modulation in V. vinifera represents a weak attempted defense response rather than the activation of compatibility-specific pathways. Conclusions Several candidate resistance genes were identified that could be exploited in future biotechnological approaches to increase disease resistance in susceptible grapevine species. Measurements of jasmonic acid and methyl jasmonate in infected leaves suggest that this hormone may also be involved in V. riparia resistance to P. viticola. PMID:20167053
Barbier, Eder; Bernard, Enrico
Better knowledge of the geographical distribution of parasites and their hosts can contribute to clarifying aspects of host specificity, as well as on the interactions among hosts, parasites, and the environment in which both exist. Ectoparasitic flies of the Nycteribiidae and Streblidae families are highly specialized hematophagous parasites of bats, whose distributional patterns, species richness, and associations with hosts remain underexplored and poorly known in Brazil. Here, we used information available in the literature and unpublished data to verify if the occurrence of bat hosts in a given environment influences the occurrence and distribution of nycteribiid and streblid flies in different ecoregions in the northeastern Brazil. We evaluate species richness and similarity between ecoregions and tested correlations between species richness and the number of studies in each ecoregion and federative unit. We recorded 50 species and 15 genera of bat ectoparasitic flies on 36 species and 27 genera of bat hosts. The Atlantic Forest had the highest fly species richness (n = 31; 62%), followed by Caatinga (n = 27; 54%). We detected the formation of distinct groups, with low species overlap between ecoregions for both flies and bats. Fly species richness was correlated with host species richness and with the number of studies in each federative unit, but not with the number of studies by ecoregion. Due to the formation of distinct groups with low species overlap for both groups, host availability is likely to be one of the factors that most influence the occurrence of highly specific flies. We also discuss host specificity for some species, produced an updated list of species and distribution for both nycteribiid and streblid flies with information on interaction networks, and conclude by presenting recommendations for more effective inventories of bat ectoparasites in the future.
Guo, Li-Na; Xiao, Meng; Kong, Fanrong; Chen, Sharon C-A; Wang, He; Sorrell, Tania C; Jiang, Wei; Dou, Hong-Tao; Li, Ruo-Yu; Xu, Ying-Chun
Three reference and 45 clinical isolates of Trichosporon were analyzed by conventional phenotypic and molecular methods to determine the species and genotypes of Trichosporon isolates from China. Target loci for molecular methods included the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene, and the intergenic spacer 1 (IGS1) region. Identification of eight Trichosporon species was achieved, of which Trichosporon asahii was the most common. Of the sequence-based molecular methods, the one targeting the D1/D2 domain assigned 97.9% (47/48) of isolates (seven species) correctly, while tests targeting both the ITS and IGS1 regions correctly identified all 48 isolates. The commercial API 20C AUX and Vitek 2 Compact YST systems correctly identified 91.9% and 73% of isolates when their biochemical profiles were queried against those of species contained in the databases, respectively, and misidentified 63.6% and 36.4% of isolates of species that were unclaimed by the databases, respectively. The predominant genotype among T. asahii clinical isolates, genotype 4 (51.4%), is rarely found in other countries. Voriconazole and itraconazole were the most active drugs in vitro against all the Trichosporon species tested, while caspofungin and amphotericin B demonstrated poor activity.
Klimovičová, Miroslava; Smoľák, Radoslav; Njoroge, Peter; Hromada, Martin
Neoaulonastus cinnyris sp. nov. (Acari: Prostigmata: Syringophilidae) parasitising Cinnyris mediocris (Passeriformes: Nectariniidae) from Tanzania is described. Additionally, Picobia oritis Skoracki et al. 2009 was recorded on four new hosts belonging to the family Nectariniidae from Ethiopian region: Cinnyris oustaleti (Bocage) from Angola, Cinnyris venustus (Shaw) from West Somalia, Cinnyris talatala Smith from Botswana and Zambia and Cinnyris erythrocercus (Hartlaub) from Uganda. All known quill mite species from family Nectariniidae are summarized in table.
Svidzinski Terezinha IE
Full Text Available Abstract Background Study of in vivo antifungal activity of the hydroalcoholic extract (HE and n-BuOH extract (BUTE of Sapindus saponaria against azole-susceptible and -resistant human vaginal Candida spp. Methods The in vitro antifungal activity of HE, BUTE, fluconazole (FLU, and itraconazole (ITRA was determined by the broth microdilution method. We obtained values of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicide concentration (MFC for 46 strains of C. albicans and 10 of C. glabrata isolated from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC. VVC was induced in hyperestrogenic Wistar rats with azole-susceptible C. albicans (SCA, azole-resistant C. albicans (RCA, and azole-resistant C. glabrata (RCG. The rats were treated intravaginally with 0.1 mL of HE or BUTE at concentrations of 1%, 2.5% and 5%; 100 μg/mL of FLU (treatment positive control; or distilled water (negative control at 1, 24, and 48 h after induction of the infection, and the progress of VVC was monitored by culturing and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The toxicity was evaluated in cervical cells of the HeLa cell line. Results The extracts showed in vitro inhibitory and fungicidal activity against all the isolates, and the MIC and MFC values for the C. glabrata isolates were slightly higher. In vivo, the SCA, RCA, and RCG infections were eliminated by 21 days post-infection, with up to 5% HE and BUTE, comparable to the activity of FLU. No cytotoxic action was observed for either extract. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that HE and BUTE from S. saponaria show inhibitory and fungicidal activity in vitro, in addition to in vivo activity against azole-resistant vaginal isolates of C. glabrata and azole-susceptible and resistant isolates of C. albicans. Also considering the lack of cytotoxicity and the low concentrations of the extracts necessary to eliminate the infection in vivo, HE and BUTE show promise for continued studies with purified antifungal substances
Taj-Aldeen, S J; Kolecka, A; Boesten, R; Alolaqi, A; Almaslamani, M; Chandra, P; Meis, J F; Boekhout, T
Bloodstream infections (BSIs) due to Candida spp. constitute the predominant group of hospital-based fungal infections worldwide. A retrospective study evaluated the performance of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for the identification of BSI Candida isolates. The epidemiology, risk factors, demographic features, species distribution, and clinical outcome associated with candidemia in patients admitted to a single tertiary-care hospital in Qatar, were analyzed. A single-center, retrospective analysis covering the period from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2010 was performed. Molecular identification used sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit ribosomal DNA (LSU rDNA) and the ITS1/2 regions of the rDNA. MALDI-TOF MS-based identification of all yeast isolates was performed with the ethanol/formic acid extraction protocol according to Bruker Daltonics (Bremen, Germany). The susceptibility profiles of 201 isolates to amphotericin B, itraconazole, fluconazole, voriconazole, anidulafungin, caspofungin, posaconazole, and isavuconazole were tested using CLSI standard broth microdilution method (M27-A3 and M27 S4) guidelines. Statistical analyses were performed with the statistical package SPSS 19.0. A total of 187 patients with 201 episodes of candidemia were identified. Candida albicans was the most common species isolated (33.8 %; n = 68), whereas non-albicans Candida species represented 66.2 % (n = 133) of the episodes. The species distribution and outcome of candidemia showed a difference in the crude mortality between patients infected with C. albicans (n = 30; 45.5 %) and non-albicans Candida species. For example, C. parapsilosis candidemia was associated with the lowest mortality rate (40.6 %), and patients with other non-albicans species had the highest mortality rate (68-71.4 %). High mortality rates were observed among pediatric (60 years of age). All strains showed low minimum
Moendeg, Kharleezelle J; Angeles, Jose Ma M; Goto, Yasuyuki; Leonardo, Lydia R; Kirinoki, Masashi; Villacorte, Elena A; Rivera, Pilarita T; Inoue, Noboru; Chigusa, Yuichi; Kawazu, Shin-ichiro
The zoonotic characteristic of the human parasite Schistosoma japonicum infecting a significant number of wild and domestic animals highlights the need to develop a unified surveillance in multiple host species for a strengthened schistosomiasis control. It has been shown in several studies that water buffaloes and dogs are considered important reservoirs in the transmission of the schistosome parasite to humans. Recombinant antigens like thioredoxin peroxidase-1 (SjTPx-1) and tandem repeat proteins (Sj1TR, Sj7TR) have been shown to be good diagnostic antigens individually in humans, water buffaloes, and dogs in previous studies. Mixing these antigens together in a cocktail-ELISA might not only improve their diagnostic potentials but rather produce a multi-host species detection means for zoonotic schistosomiasis. In this study, we aimed to develop and optimize cocktail-ELISA by testing different combinations of these recombinant antigens in humans, water buffaloes, and dogs. As compared with the diagnostic potential calculated for each of the three recombinant antigens used, their combination has presented improved specificities, positive predictive values, and kappa values. Using samples collected from various endemic areas in the Philippines, results showed that the combination of SjTPx-1/Sj7TR/Sj1TR has the highest sensitivity in humans (84.1 %), water buffaloes, and dogs (80 %) and specificity (100 %) in all host species. This study therefore suggests the use of cocktail-ELISA in improving the zoonotic surveillance in schistosomiasis endemic areas.
Full Text Available Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae serve as vectors of several mammalian and avian diseases, including bluetongue, Schmallenberg, African horse sickness, avian malaria and Oropouche. Host preference investigations are necessary to assess the transmission routes of vector-borne diseases and to inform mitigation strategies. A recent study examining the main sensory structures (palps and antennae of Culicoides species suggests that they be classified as ornithophilic or mammalophilic according to their feeding habits. We analyzed Culicoides host preferences according to the literature and carried out a multiple correspondence analysis linking these preferences with morphological data. Seven out of 12 variables were found to be reliable predictors of host preference in Culicoides species: Antenna Flagellomer-Sensilla Coeloconica-Number: (7–10 and (11–13; Antenna Flagellomer-Sensilla Coeloconica IV–X: presence; Palpus-size: wide and/or narrow opening and shallow pit; Palpus-Shape: strongly swollen; Antenna-Short sensilla trichodea-distal part segment IV to X-Number: 2 seta each. Our results demonstrate that the presence of sensilla coeloconica and the maxillary palpus can be used to separate ornithophilic and mammalophilic or ornithophilic/mammalophilic species.
Full Text Available The Soconusco region of southeast Mexico has almost a quarter of the orchid species registered in Mexico and 37 threatened species (NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2001, many with severely reduced and non-viable populations. We chose two of the most threatened species, Rossioglossum grande (Lindl. Garay and G. C. Kenn. and Cuitlauzina convallarioides (Schltr. Dressler and N. H. Williams and a rare species recently discovered in the region, Rhynchostele bictoniensis (Bateman Soto Arenas and Salazar, to study the mycorrhizal fungi associated with the roots, isolate them and use them to induce seed germination and promote development in asymbiotically produced protocorms, in the laboratory. We isolated ten strains of Rhizoctonia-like orchid mycorrhizal fungi from Rossioglossum grande and three from Cuitlauzina convallarioides. Using selected fungal strains from the same species, we tested for the promotion of further development of asymbiotically pre-germinated protocorms of R. grande and the promotion of seed germination of C. convallarioides. In the case of R. bictoniensis, we studied the effects on seed germination of nine strains of Rhizoctonia-like fungi isolated from other orchid species. For R. grande, after 10 months, one strain of Rhizoctonia promoted development of the pre-germinated protocorms, and almost 90% of the protocorms produced rhizoids. For C. convallarioides, after 3 months, one fungal strain promoted protocorm development to the stage where they produced green tissue under illumination, suggesting the onset of photosynthesis. For R. bictoniensis three of the fungal strains (from other orchid species promoted germination and, after 4 months, autotrophic protocorms.
California serogroup viruses, including Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV) and snowshoe hare virus (SSHV), are mosquito-borne members of the Bunyaviridae family and are endemic across North America. These arboviruses are potential pathogens which occasionally cause neuroinvasive disease in humans and livestock. A neutralization assay was used to document JCV and SSHV seroprevalence using blood collected from a variety of domestic and wildlife host species. These species were sampled in an island setting, Newfoundland, which contains diverse ecoregions, ecological landscapes, and habitats. Seroprevalence rates for each virus differed significantly among host species and within certain species across different geographic areas. JCV was significantly associated with large mammals, and SSHV was significantly associated with snowshoe hares. Seroprevalence rates in the 5 species of animals tested for prior exposure to JCV ranged from 0% in snowshoe hares to 64% in horses. Seroprevalence rates for SSHV ranged from less than 1% in bovines to 55% in all snowshoe hares. The seroprevalence of SSHV differed significantly (P Newfoundland was associated with significantly lower JCV seroprevalence (P < 0.01) than that for cattle which had lived off-island. PMID:22798366
Garrido-Olvera, L; Arita, H T; Pérez-Ponce De León, G
Freshwater fish helminths, the most well known Mexican vertebrate parasites, include approximately 260 species (platyhelminthes, acanthocephalans, nematodes, and hirudineans). The distribution patterns of adult helminth diversity (throughout parasite and host groups and hydrological regions) are described and the effects of host traits and environmental and geographical factors on diversity are evaluated. Adult helminths include 160 species, parasitizing 149 fish species of 23 families distributed in 21 regions. Nematoda was the most species-rich (>50 species). Cichlidae harboured rich helminth assemblages, with widespread parasites. By contrast, Atherinopsidae and Goodeidae showed relatively poor helminth assemblages, including specific parasites with narrow distribution. Helminth richness in southeastern Mexico was higher than northern or central regions. Non-parametric richness estimators were used to avoid confusion in comparisons with unequal sampling efforts. Bootstrap values, the method with the best performance, indicated that estimated richness shows the same distribution pattern that observed richness. Non-phylogenetic and phylogenetic analyses were used to determine the role of different factors in the parasite diversification. The distribution range was the most important richness predictor (widespread fishes harbour richer parasite assemblages), although interactions between this variable and others such as trophic level, latitude, habitat temperature and precipitation are also important. Likewise, biogeographical factors can also affect parasite diversity.
Full Text Available Abstract Nosocomial yeast infections have significantly increased during the past two decades in industrialized countries, including Taiwan. This has been associated with the emergence of resistance to fluconazole and other antifungal drugs. The medical records of 88 patients, colonized or infected with Candida species, from nine of the 22 hospitals that provided clinical isolates to the Taiwan Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance of Yeasts (TSARY program in 1999 were reviewed. A total of 35 patients contributed fluconazole resistant strains [minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs ≧ 64 mg/l], while the remaining 53 patients contributed susceptible ones (MICs ≦ 8 mg/l. Fluconazole resistance was more frequent among isolates of Candida tropicalis (46.5% than either C. albicans (36.8% or C. glabrata (30.8%. There was no significant difference in demographic characteristics or underlying diseases among patients contributing strains different in drug susceptibility.
Howard, Susan J.; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Gomez-Lopez, Alicia
Isavuconazole is a novel expanded-spectrum triazole, which has recently been approved by the FDA as an orphan drug to treat invasive aspergillosis and is currently being studied in phase III clinical trials for invasive candidiasis. The susceptibility of relatively few clinical isolates has been reported. In this study, the isavuconazole susceptibilities of 1,237 Aspergillus and 2,010 Candida geographically diverse clinical isolates were determined by EUCAST methodology at four European mycology laboratories, producing the largest multicenter data set thus far for this compound. In addition, a blinded collection of 30 cyp51A mutant Aspergillus fumigatus clinical isolates and 10 wild-type isolates was tested. From these two data sets, the following preliminary epidemiological cutoff (ECOFF) values were suggested: 2 mg/liter for Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus terreus, and Aspergillus flavus; 4 mg/liter for Aspergillus niger; 0.25 mg/liter for Aspergillus nidulans; and 0.03 mg/liter for Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida tropicalis. Unfortunately, ECOFFs could not be determined for Candida glabrata or Candida krusei due to an unexplained interlaboratory MIC variation. For the blinded collection of A. fumigatus isolates, all MICs were ≤2 mg/liter for wild-type isolates. Differential isavuconazole MICs were observed for triazole-resistant A. fumigatus isolates with different cyp51A alterations: TR34/L98H mutants had elevated isavuconazole MICs, whereas isolates with G54 and M220 alterations had MICs in the wild-type range, suggesting that the efficacy of isavuconazole may not be affected by these alterations. This study will be an aid in interpreting isavuconazole MICs for clinical care and an important step in the future process of setting official clinical breakpoints. PMID:23959309
Benanti, Erin L; Nguyen, Catherine M; Welch, Matthew D
Burkholderia pseudomallei and B. mallei are bacterial pathogens that cause melioidosis and glanders, whereas their close relative B. thailandensis is non-pathogenic. All use the trimeric autotransporter BimA to facilitate actin-based motility, host cell fusion, and dissemination. Here, we show that BimA orthologs mimic different host actin-polymerizing proteins. B. thailandensis BimA activates the host Arp2/3 complex. In contrast, B. pseudomallei and B. mallei BimA mimic host Ena/VASP actin polymerases in their ability to nucleate, elongate, and bundle filaments by associating with barbed ends, as well as in their use of WH2 motifs and oligomerization for activity. Mechanistic differences among BimA orthologs resulted in distinct actin filament organization and motility parameters, which affected the efficiency of cell fusion during infection. Our results identify bacterial Ena/VASP mimics and reveal that pathogens imitate the full spectrum of host actin-polymerizing pathways, suggesting that mimicry of different polymerization mechanisms influences key parameters of infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Biere, A.; Honders, S.C.
It is often assumed that host specialization is promoted by trade-offs in the performance of parasites on different host species, but experimental evidence for such trade-offs is scant. We studied differences in performance among strains of the anther smut fungus Ustilago violacea from two closely
Daniel G. Streicker; Amy S. Turmelle; Maarten J. Vonhof; Ivan V. Kuzmin; Gary F. McCracken; Charles E. Rupprecht
.... Using a data set of hundreds of rabies viruses sampled from 23 North American bat species, we present a general framework to quantify per capita rates of cross-species transmission and reconstruct...
Full Text Available Plant-parasitic nematodes produce at least one structurally unique class of small helix-rich retinol- and fatty-acid-binding proteins that have no counterparts in their plant hosts. Herein we describe a protein of the plant-parasitic root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica, which is a member of the nematode-specific fatty-acid- and retinol-binding (Mj-FAR-1 family of proteins. The mj-far-1 mRNA was detected through M. javanica pre-parasitic J2s, migratory and sedentary parasitic stages by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Immunolocalization assays demonstrate that the FAR protein of Meloidogyne is secreted during sedentary stages, as evidenced by the accumulation of FAR at the nematode cuticle surface and along the adjacent host root tissues. Tomato roots constitutively expressing mj-far-1 demonstrated an increased susceptibility to root-knot nematodes infection as observed by accelerated gall induction and expansion, accompanied by a higher percentage of nematodes developing into mature females compared to control roots. RNA interference assays that expressed double-stranded RNA complementary to mj-far-1 in transgenic tomato lines specifically reduced nematode infection levels. Histological analysis of nematode-infested roots indicated that in roots overexpressing mj-far-1, galls contained larger feeding cells and might support a faster nematode development and maturation. Roots overexpressing mj-far-1 suppressed jasmonic acid responsive genes such as the proteinase inhibitor (Pin2 and γ-thionin, illustrating the possible role of Mj-FAR-1 in manipulating the lipid based signaling in planta. This data, suggests that Meloidogyne FAR might have a strategic function during the interaction of the nematode with its plant host. Our study present the first demonstration of an in planta functional characterization and localization of FAR proteins secreted by plant-parasitic nematodes. It provides evidence that Mj
Wan, Ran; Hou, Xiaoqing; Wang, Xianhang; Qu, Jingwu; Singer, Stacy D.; Wang, Yuejin; Wang, Xiping
The necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea is a major threat to grapevine cultivation worldwide. A screen of 41 Vitis genotypes for leaf resistance to B. cinerea suggested species independent variation and revealed 18 resistant Chinese wild Vitis genotypes, while most investigated V. vinifera, or its hybrids, were susceptible. A particularly resistant Chinese wild Vitis, “Pingli-5” (V. sp. [Qinling grape]) and a very susceptible V. vinifera cultivar, “Red Globe” were selected for further study. Microscopic analysis demonstrated that B. cinerea growth was limited during early infection on “Pingli-5” before 24 h post-inoculation (hpi) but not on Red Globe. It was found that reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidative system were associated with fungal growth. O2- accumulated similarly in B. cinerea 4 hpi on both Vitis genotypes. Lower levels of O2- (not H2O2) were detected 4 hpi and ROS (H2O2 and O2-) accumulation from 8 hpi onwards was also lower in “Pingli-5” leaves than in “Red Globe” leaves. B. cinerea triggered sustained ROS production in “Red Globe” but not in “Pingli-5” with subsequent infection progresses. Red Globe displayed little change in antioxidative activities in response to B. cinerea infection, instead, antioxidative activities were highly and timely elevated in resistant “Pingli-5” which correlated with its minimal ROS increases and its high resistance. These findings not only enhance our understanding of the resistance of Chinese wild Vitis species to B. cinerea, but also lay the foundation for breeding B. cinerea resistant grapes in the future. PMID:26579134
Full Text Available Background: The incidence of fungal infections has increased significantly, contributing to morbidity and mortality. This is caused by an alarming increase in infections with multi-drug resistant bacteria leading to overuse of broad-spectrum antimicrobials, which lead to overgrowth of Candida, thus enhancing its opportunity to cause disease. Candida are major human fungal pathogens that cause both mucosal and deep tissue infections. Objective : The aim of our study was to identify the distribution of Candida species among clinical isolates and their sensitivity pattern for common antifungal drugs. Materials and Methods : Two hundred and thirty-seven different clinical isolates of Candida were collected from patients visiting to a tertiary care centre of Indore from 2010 to 2012. Identification of Candida species as well as antifungal sensitivity testing was performed with Vitek2 Compact (Biomerieux France using vitek 2 cards for identification of yeast and yeast like organisms (ID-YST cards. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed with Vitek2 "Fungal Susceptibility Card (AST YS01 kits respectively. Results : We found that the non-albicans Candida were more prevalent than Candida albicans in paediatric (60 year patients than other age group (4-18, 19-60 years patients and also in intensive care unit (ICU patients as compared to out patient department (OPD patients. Resistance rates for amphotericin B, fluconazole, flucytosine, itraconazole, and voriconazole were 2.9%, 5.9%, 0.0%, 4.2% and 2.5%%, respectively. All the strains of C. krusei were found resistant to fluconazole with intermediate sensitivity to flucytosine. Conclusion: Species-level identification of Candida and their antifungal sensitivity testing should be performed to achieve better clinical results.
Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV exhibits a high level of genetic variability, and variants with reduced susceptibility to antivirals can occur even before treatment begins. In addition, alcohol decreases efficacy of antiviral therapy and increases sequence heterogeneity of HCV RNA but how ethanol affects HCV sequence is unknown. Ethanol metabolism and HCV infection increase the level of reactive species that can alter cell metabolism, modify signaling, and potentially act as mutagen to the viral RNA. Therefore, we investigated whether ethanol and reactive species affected the basal sequence variability of HCV RNA in hepatocytes. Human hepatoma cells supporting a continuous replication of genotype 1b HCV RNA (Con1, AJ242652 were exposed to ethanol, acetaldehyde, hydrogen peroxide, or L-buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine (BSO that decreases intracellular glutathione as seen in patients. Then, NS5A region was sequenced and compared with genotype 1b HCV sequences in the database. Ethanol and BSO elevated nucleotide and amino acid substitution rates of HCV RNA by 4-18 folds within 48 hrs which were accompanied by oxidative RNA damage. Iron chelator and glutathione ester decreased both RNA damage and mutation rates. Furthermore, infectious HCV and HCV core gene were sufficient to induce oxidative RNA damage even in the absence of ethanol or BSO. Interestingly, the dn/ds ratio and percentage of sites undergoing positive selection increased with ethanol and BSO, resulting in an increased detection of NS5A variants with reduced susceptibility to interferon alpha, cyclosporine, and ribavirin and others implicated in immune tolerance and modulation of viral replication. Therefore, alcohol is likely to synergize with virus-induced oxidative/nitrosative stress to modulate the basal mutation rate of HCV. Positive selection induced by alcohol and reactive species may contribute to antiviral resistance.
Guevara-Suarez, Marcela; Cano-Lira, José Francisco; de García, María Caridad Cepero; Sopo, Leticia; De Bedout, Catalina; Cano, Luz Elena; García, Ana María; Motta, Adriana; Amézquita, Adolfo; Cárdenas, Martha; Espinel-Ingroff, Ana; Guarro, Josep; Restrepo, Silvia; Celis, Adriana
Fusariosis have been increasing in Colombia in recent years, but its epidemiology is poorly known. We have morphologically and molecularly characterized 89 isolates of Fusarium obtained between 2010 and 2012 in the cities of Bogotá and Medellín. Using a multi-locus sequence analysis of rDNA internal transcribed spacer, a fragment of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha (Tef-1α) and of the RNA-dependent polymerase subunit II (Rpb2) genes, we identified the phylogenetic species and circulating haplotypes. Since most of the isolates studied were from onychomycoses (nearly 90 %), we carried out an epidemiological study to determine the risk factors associated with such infections. Five phylogenetic species of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC), i.e., F. falciforme, F. keratoplasticum, F. lichenicola, F. petroliphilum, and FSSC 6 as well as two of the Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC), i.e., FOSC 3 and FOSC 4, were identified. The most prevalent species were FOSC 3 (38.2%) followed by F. keratoplasticum (33.7%). In addition, our isolates were distributed into 23 haplotypes (14 into FOSC and nine into FSSC). Two of the FSSC phylogenetic species and two haplotypes of FSSC were not described before. Our results demonstrate that recipients of pedicure treatments have a lower probability of acquiring onychomycosis than those not receiving such treatments. The antifungal susceptibility of all the isolates to five clinically available agents showed that amphotericin B was the most active drug, while the azoles exhibited lower in vitro activity.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Hard ticks have been identified as important vectors of rickettsiae causing the spotted fever syndrome. Tick-borne rickettsiae are considered to be emerging, but only limited data are available about their presence in Western Europe, their natural life cycle and their reservoir hosts. Ixodes ricinus, the most prevalent tick species, were collected and tested from different vegetation types and from potential reservoir hosts. In one biotope area, the annual and seasonal variability of rickettsiae infections of the different tick stages were determined for 9 years. Results The DNA of the human pathogen R. conorii as well as R. helvetica, R. sp. IRS and R. bellii-like were found. Unexpectedly, the DNA of the highly pathogenic R. typhi and R. prowazekii and 4 other uncharacterized Rickettsia spp. related to the typhus group were also detected in I. ricinus. The presence of R. helvetica in fleas isolated from small rodents supported our hypothesis that cross-infection can occur under natural conditions, since R. typhi/prowazekii and R. helvetica as well as their vectors share rodents as reservoir hosts. In one biotope, the infection rate with R. helvetica was ~66% for 9 years, and was comparable between larvae, nymphs, and adults. Larvae caught by flagging generally have not yet taken a blood meal from a vertebrate host. The simplest explanation for the comparable prevalence of R. helvetica between the defined tick stages is, that R. helvetica is vertically transmitted through the next generation with high efficiency. The DNA of R. helvetica was also present in whole blood from mice, deer and wild boar. Conclusion Besides R. helvetica, unexpected rickettsiae are found in I. ricinus ticks. We propose that I. ricinus is a major reservoir host for R. helvetica, and that vertebrate hosts play important roles in the further geographical dispersion of rickettsiae.
Boonthai, Traimat; Loch, Thomas P; Standish, Isaac; Faisal, Mohamed
Spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) is a notifiable pathogen of the World Organization of Animal Health. Since SVCV was isolated in Lake Ontario in 2007, concern has grown about its spread in the Great Lakes basin and its potential negative impacts on fish species of importance in stock enhancement programs basinwide. The susceptibility of representative fish species from the families Cyprinidae (Fathead Minnow Pimephales promelas, Golden Shiner Notemigonus crysoleucas, Spotfin Shiner Cyprinella spiloptera, and Creek Chub Semotilus atromaculatus), Centrarchidae (Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides), Percidae (Walleye Sander vitreus), Salmonidae (Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss), and Esocidae (Muskellunge Esox masquinongy) to SVCV was evaluated by experimental infection under laboratory conditions. Morbidity and mortality were recorded, and virus re-isolation, seminested reverse transcription PCR, and histopathological assessments were performed. Using intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection, Fathead Minnows and Golden Shiners were highly susceptible to SVCV (40-70% mortality). All dead or moribund and apparently healthy surviving Fathead Minnows and Golden Shiners were SVCV positive. The SVCV was also detected in challenged but healthy Spotfin Shiners (30%) and Creek Chub (5%). However, noncyprinid species exhibited no morbidity or mortality and were free of SVCV following an observation period of 30 d. In a follow-up experimental challenge, Fathead Minnows and Golden Shiners were SVCV challenged at 10 3 and 10 5 PFU/mL by means of waterborne immersion. After immersion, Fathead Minnows and Golden Shiners exhibited characteristic SVCV disease signs, but mortality was less (30% and 10% mortality, respectively) than that in fish with i.p. injections. The SVCV was detected in all mortalities and a subset of healthy Fathead Minnows and Golden Shiners. Necrotic changes were observed in the kidneys, liver, spleen, ovaries, and heart, and other histopathological lesions also
Full Text Available The intestinal ecosystem is formed by a complex, yet highly characteristic microbial community. The parameters defining whether this community permits invasion of a new bacterial species are unclear. In particular, inhibition of enteropathogen infection by the gut microbiota ( = colonization resistance is poorly understood. To analyze the mechanisms of microbiota-mediated protection from Salmonella enterica induced enterocolitis, we used a mouse infection model and large scale high-throughput pyrosequencing. In contrast to conventional mice (CON, mice with a gut microbiota of low complexity (LCM were highly susceptible to S. enterica induced colonization and enterocolitis. Colonization resistance was partially restored in LCM-animals by co-housing with conventional mice for 21 days (LCM(con21. 16S rRNA sequence analysis comparing LCM, LCM(con21 and CON gut microbiota revealed that gut microbiota complexity increased upon conventionalization and correlated with increased resistance to S. enterica infection. Comparative microbiota analysis of mice with varying degrees of colonization resistance allowed us to identify intestinal ecosystem characteristics associated with susceptibility to S. enterica infection. Moreover, this system enabled us to gain further insights into the general principles of gut ecosystem invasion by non-pathogenic, commensal bacteria. Mice harboring high commensal E. coli densities were more susceptible to S. enterica induced gut inflammation. Similarly, mice with high titers of Lactobacilli were more efficiently colonized by a commensal Lactobacillus reuteri(RR strain after oral inoculation. Upon examination of 16S rRNA sequence data from 9 CON mice we found that closely related phylotypes generally display significantly correlated abundances (co-occurrence, more so than distantly related phylotypes. Thus, in essence, the presence of closely related species can increase the chance of invasion of newly incoming species into
Stenger, B.L.S.; Clark, M.E.; Kváč, Martin; Khan, E.; Giddings, C.W.; Prediger, Jitka; McEvoy, J.M.
Roč. 36, 2015-Dec (2015), s. 287-293 ISSN 1567-1348 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-01090S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Cryptosporidium * Tree squirrels * Ground squirrels * Host specificity * Zoonotic Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.591, year: 2015
We previously reported fatal metacestode infection in a captive orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) with a novel taeniid tapeworm, Versteria sp. Data from ermine (Mustela erminea) and mink (Neovison vison) implicate mustelids as definitive North America hosts and expand known Versteria diversity. The orangu...
D. Rabern Simmons; Z. Wilhelm de Beer; Yin-Tse Huang; Craig Bateman; Alina S. Campbell; Tyler J. Dreaden; You Li; Randy C. Ploetz; Adam Black; Hou-Feng Li; Chi-Yu Chen; Michael J. Wingfield; Jiri Hulcr
Raffaelea (Ophiostomatales) is a genus of more than 20 ophiostomatoid fungi commonly occurring in symbioses with wood-boring ambrosia beetles. We examined ambrosia beetles and plant hosts in the USA and Taiwan for the presence of these mycosymbionts and found 22 isolates representing known and undescribed lineages in ...
The science of microsporidiology encompasses a diverse assemblage of pathogens from a large and varied group of hosts. Many members of this group have been studied and exploited for their role in the control of insect pests and vectors as well as their detrimental impact on vertebrates including ma...
Jean Jose Nepomichene, Thiery Nirina; Elissa, Nohal; Cardinale, Eric; Boyer, Sebastien
Mosquito diversity and abundance were examined in six Madagascan villages in either arid (Toliary II district) or humid (Mampikony district) ecotypes, each with a history of Rift Valley fever virus transmission. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light traps without CO2 (LT) placed near ruminant parks and animal-baited net trap (NT) baited with either zebu or sheep/goat were used to sample mosquitoes, on two occasions between March 2011 and October 2011. Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Giles) was the most abundant species, followed by Culex antennatus (Becker) and Anopheles squamosus/cydippis (Theobald/de Meillon). These three species comprised more than half of all mosquitoes collected. The NT captured more mosquitoes in diversity and in abundance than the LT, and also caught more individuals of each species, except for An. squamosus/cydippis. Highest diversity and abundance were observed in the humid and warm district of Mampikony. No host preference was highlighted, except for Cx. tritaeniorhynchus presenting a blood preference for zebu baits. The description of species diversity, abundance, and host preference described herein can inform the development of control measures to reduce the risk of mosquito-borne diseases in Madagascar. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Mario, Débora Alves Nunes; Santos, Roberto Christ Vianna; Denardi, Laura Bedin; Vaucher, Rodrigo de Almeida; Santurio, Janio Morais; Alves, Sydney Hartz
The presence of melanin in the fungal cell is a major virulence factor of the genus Sporothrix since it protects the fungal cells against the defense systems. The present study aimed to investigate the interference of melanin in the susceptibility of Sporothrix brasiliensis and Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto to amphotericin B and itraconazole, drugs recommended as therapy for disseminated and subcutaneous sporotrichosis, respectively. Yeast cells were cultivated in minimal medium with or without l-DOPA in order to induce the production of melanin. Microdilution and killing assay methods were used to determine the antifungal activity against yeast cells with different amounts of melanin. The killing assay showed that melanization protected isolates within the S. schenckii complex from amphotericin B, particularly in the lower concentrations tested. Studies combining amphotericin B and inhibitors of melanin are required in order to avoid this effect. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Buiate, E A S; Xavier, K V; Moore, N; Torres, M F; Farman, M L; Schardl, C L; Vaillancourt, L J
Colletotrichum graminicola and C. sublineola cause anthracnose leaf and stalk diseases of maize and sorghum, respectively. In spite of their close evolutionary relationship, the two species are completely host-specific. Host specificity is often attributed to pathogen virulence factors, including specialized secondary metabolites (SSM), and small-secreted protein (SSP) effectors. Genes relevant to these categories were manually annotated in two co-occurring, contemporaneous strains of C. graminicola and C. sublineola. A comparative genomic and phylogenetic analysis was performed to address the evolutionary relationships among these and other divergent gene families in the two strains. Inoculation of maize with C. sublineola, or of sorghum with C. graminicola, resulted in rapid plant cell death at, or just after, the point of penetration. The two fungal genomes were very similar. More than 50% of the assemblies could be directly aligned, and more than 80% of the gene models were syntenous. More than 90% of the predicted proteins had orthologs in both species. Genes lacking orthologs in the other species (non-conserved genes) included many predicted to encode SSM-associated proteins and SSPs. Other common groups of non-conserved proteins included transporters, transcription factors, and CAZymes. Only 32 SSP genes appeared to be specific to C. graminicola, and 21 to C. sublineola. None of the SSM-associated genes were lineage-specific. Two different strains of C. graminicola, and three strains of C. sublineola, differed in no more than 1% percent of gene sequences from one another. Efficient non-host recognition of C. sublineola by maize, and of C. graminicola by sorghum, was observed in epidermal cells as a rapid deployment of visible resistance responses and plant cell death. Numerous non-conserved SSP and SSM-associated predicted proteins that could play a role in this non-host recognition were identified. Additional categories of genes that were also highly
Wilson-Welder, Jennifer H.; Frank, Ami T.; Hornsby, Richard L.; Olsen, Steven C.; Alt, David P.
Cattle are the reservoir hosts of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo, and can also be reservoir hosts of other Leptospira species such as L. kirschneri, and Leptospira interrogans. As a reservoir host, cattle shed Leptospira, infecting other animals, including humans. Previous studies with human and murine neutrophils have shown activation of neutrophil extracellular trap or NET formation, and upregulation of inflammatory mediators by neutrophils in the presence of Leptospira. Humans, companion animals and most widely studied models of Leptospirosis are of acute infection, hallmarked by systemic inflammatory response, neutrophilia, and septicemia. In contrast, cattle exhibit chronic infection with few outward clinical signs aside from reproductive failure. Taking into consideration that there is host species variation in innate immunity, especially in pathogen recognition and response, the interaction of bovine peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) and several Leptospira strains was evaluated. Studies including bovine-adapted strains, human pathogen strains, a saprophyte and inactivated organisms. Incubation of PMNs with Leptospira did induce slight activation of neutrophil NETs, greater than unstimulated cells but less than the quantity from E. coli P4 stimulated PMNs. Very low but significant from non-stimulated, levels of reactive oxygen peroxides were produced in the presence of all Leptospira strains and E. coli P4. Similarly, significant levels of reactive nitrogen intermediaries (NO2) was produced from PMNs when incubated with the Leptospira strains and greater quantities in the presence of E. coli P4. PMNs incubated with Leptospira induced RNA transcripts of IL-1β, MIP-1α, and TNF-α, with greater amounts induced by live organisms when compared to heat-inactivated leptospires. Transcript for inflammatory cytokine IL-8 was also induced, at similar levels regardless of Leptospira strain or viability. However, incubation of Leptospira strains
Klimpel, Sven; Förster, Maike; Schmahl, Günter
In the present study, two abundant sympatric rodent species (27 Apodemus flavicollis and 33 A. sylvaticus) were studied for their endo- and ectoparasite fauna. The rodents were trapped in Dormagen, a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. A total of 20 different parasites species were identified, 13 endoparasite (2 Digenea, 5 Cestoda and 7 Nematoda) and 7 ectoparasite (5 Insecta and 2 Arachnida) species. Thirteen parasite species were found inhabiting both rodent species. The predominant endoparasite species in both rodents was the nematode Pelodera strongyloides, followed by the nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus and a Syphacia species. The flea Ctenophthalmus agyrtes was the dominant ectoparasite in both rodent species. A. flavicollis usually carried 1-7 ecto-/endoparasite species (mean 4.0), whereas A. sylvaticus were mostly infested with 1-9 (mean 4.4). The parasite diversity of A. flavicollis (H' = 0.268, J = 0.097) was marginal lower in comparison to A. sylvaticus (H' = 0.319, J = 0.110). The two rodent species examined show remarkable similarities in the composition of their endo- and ectoparasite fauna being directly related to their similar pattern of living in the investigated area.
Mirajkar, Nandita S.; Davies, Peter R.; Gebhart, Connie J.
Outbreaks of swine dysentery, caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and the recently discovered “Brachyspira hampsonii,” have reoccurred in North American swine herds since the late 2000s. Additionally, multiple Brachyspira species have been increasingly isolated by North American diagnostic laboratories. In Europe, the reliance on antimicrobial therapy for control of swine dysentery has been followed by reports of antimicrobial resistance over time. The objectives of our study were to determi...
Full Text Available Appropriate antimicrobial treatment of shigellosis depends on identifying its changing resistance pattern over time. We evaluated 15,255 stool culture submitted from July 2001 to June 2006 to the Laboratory of Children Medical Center Hospital. Specimen culture, bacterial identification, and disk diffusion susceptibility testing were performed according to National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines. From 15,255 stool samples, 682 (4.5% were positive for Shigella species. The most common species of Shigella were S. flexneri (48% and S. sonnei (45%; other results were S. dysenteriae (5% and S. boydii (2%. The rate of Sensitivity to ceftriaxone (95%, ceftizoxime (94%, and nalidixic acid (84% were among our isolates. Resistance to co-trimoxazole and ampicillin was 87% and 86%, respectively. S. flexneri was more multiresistant than other species (47.9%. Our isolates are overall most sensitive to ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, and nalidixic acid (> 84%. They were most resistant to co-trimoxazole and ampicillin (> 86%. Because resistance varies according to specific location, continuous local monitoring of resistance patterns is necessary for the app