WorldWideScience

Sample records for susceptible host cells

  1. Environmental factors regulate Paneth cell phenotype and host susceptibility to intestinal inflammation in Irgm1-deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison R. Rogala

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Crohn's disease (CD represents a chronic inflammatory disorder of the intestinal tract. Several susceptibility genes have been linked to CD, though their precise role in the pathogenesis of this disorder remains unclear. Immunity-related GTPase M (IRGM is an established risk allele in CD. We have shown previously that conventionally raised (CV mice lacking the IRGM ortholog, Irgm1 exhibit abnormal Paneth cells (PCs and increased susceptibility to intestinal injury. In the present study, we sought to utilize this model system to determine if environmental conditions impact these phenotypes, as is thought to be the case in human CD. To accomplish this, wild-type and Irgm1−/− mice were rederived into specific pathogen-free (SPF and germ-free (GF conditions. We next assessed how these differential housing environments influenced intestinal injury patterns, and epithelial cell morphology and function in wild-type and Irgm1−/− mice. Remarkably, in contrast to CV mice, SPF Irgm1−/− mice showed only a slight increase in susceptibility to dextran sodium sulfate-induced inflammation. SPF Irgm1−/− mice also displayed minimal abnormalities in PC number and morphology, and in antimicrobial peptide expression. Goblet cell numbers and epithelial proliferation were also unaffected by Irgm1 in SPF conditions. No microbial differences were observed between wild-type and Irgm1−/− mice, but gut bacterial communities differed profoundly between CV and SPF mice. Specifically, Helicobacter sequences were significantly increased in CV mice; however, inoculating SPF Irgm1−/− mice with Helicobacter hepaticus was not sufficient to transmit a pro-inflammatory phenotype. In summary, our findings suggest the impact of Irgm1-deficiency on susceptibility to intestinal inflammation and epithelial function is critically dependent on environmental influences. This work establishes the importance of Irgm1−/− mice as a model to elucidate host

  2. Expression of human CD81 differently affects host cell susceptibility to malaria sporozoites depending on the Plasmodium species.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvie, O.; Greco, C.; Franetich, J.F.; Dubart-Kupperschmitt, A.; Hannoun, L.; Gemert, G.J.A. van; Sauerwein, R.W.; Levy, S.; Boucheix, C.; Rubinstein, E.; Mazier, D.

    2006-01-01

    Plasmodium sporozoites can enter host cells by two distinct pathways, either through disruption of the plasma membrane followed by parasite transmigration through cells, or by formation of a parasitophorous vacuole (PV) where the parasite further differentiates into a replicative exo-erythrocytic

  3. [Validation of the modified algorithm for predicting host susceptibility to viruses taking into account susceptibility parameters of primary target cell cultures and natural immunity factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, V A; Shishkina, L N; Safatov, A S; Sergeev, A A; P'iankov, O V; Petrishchenko, V A; Zaĭtsev, B N; Toporkov, V S; Sergeev, A N; Nesvizhskiĭ, Iu V; Vorob'ev, A A

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents results of testing a modified algorithm for predicting virus ID50 values in a host of interest by extrapolation from a model host taking into account immune neutralizing factors and thermal inactivation of the virus. The method was tested for A/Aichi/2/68 influenza virus in SPF Wistar rats, SPF CD-1 mice and conventional ICR mice. Each species was used as a host of interest while the other two served as model hosts. Primary lung and trachea cells and secretory factors of the rats' airway epithelium were used to measure parameters needed for the purpose of prediction. Predicted ID50 values were not significantly different (p = 0.05) from those experimentally measured in vivo. The study was supported by ISTC/DARPA Agreement 450p.

  4. Blood Groups in Infection and Host Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooling, Laura

    2015-07-01

    Blood group antigens represent polymorphic traits inherited among individuals and populations. At present, there are 34 recognized human blood groups and hundreds of individual blood group antigens and alleles. Differences in blood group antigen expression can increase or decrease host susceptibility to many infections. Blood groups can play a direct role in infection by serving as receptors and/or coreceptors for microorganisms, parasites, and viruses. In addition, many blood group antigens facilitate intracellular uptake, signal transduction, or adhesion through the organization of membrane microdomains. Several blood groups can modify the innate immune response to infection. Several distinct phenotypes associated with increased host resistance to malaria are overrepresented in populations living in areas where malaria is endemic, as a result of evolutionary pressures. Microorganisms can also stimulate antibodies against blood group antigens, including ABO, T, and Kell. Finally, there is a symbiotic relationship between blood group expression and maturation of the gastrointestinal microbiome. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Blood Groups in Infection and Host Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Blood group antigens represent polymorphic traits inherited among individuals and populations. At present, there are 34 recognized human blood groups and hundreds of individual blood group antigens and alleles. Differences in blood group antigen expression can increase or decrease host susceptibility to many infections. Blood groups can play a direct role in infection by serving as receptors and/or coreceptors for microorganisms, parasites, and viruses. In addition, many blood group antigens facilitate intracellular uptake, signal transduction, or adhesion through the organization of membrane microdomains. Several blood groups can modify the innate immune response to infection. Several distinct phenotypes associated with increased host resistance to malaria are overrepresented in populations living in areas where malaria is endemic, as a result of evolutionary pressures. Microorganisms can also stimulate antibodies against blood group antigens, including ABO, T, and Kell. Finally, there is a symbiotic relationship between blood group expression and maturation of the gastrointestinal microbiome. PMID:26085552

  6. In vivo Host Environment Alters Pseudomonas aeruginosa Susceptibility to Aminoglycoside Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaolei; Dong, Yuanyuan; Fan, Zheng; Liu, Chang; Xia, Bin; Shi, Jing; Bai, Fang; Jin, Yongxin; Cheng, Zhihui; Jin, Shouguang; Wu, Weihui

    2017-01-01

    During host infection, Pseudomonas aeruginosa coordinately regulates the expression of numerous genes to adapt to the host environment while counteracting host clearance mechanisms. As infected patients take antibiotics, the invading bacteria encounter antibiotics in the host milieu. P. aeruginosa is highly resistant to antibiotics due to multiple chromosomally encoded resistant determinants. And numerous in vitro studies have demonstrated the regulatory mechanisms of antibiotic resistance related genes in response to antibiotics. However, it is not well-known how host environment affects bacterial response to antibiotics. In this study, we found that P. aeruginosa cells directly isolated from mice lungs displayed higher susceptibility to tobramycin than in vitro cultured bacteria. In vitro experiments demonstrated that incubation with A549 and differentiated HL60 (dHL60) cells sensitized P. aeruginosa to tobramycin. Further studies revealed that reactive oxygen species produced by the host cells contributed to the increased bacterial susceptibility. At the same concentration of tobramycin, presence of A549 and dHL60 cells resulted in higher expression of heat shock proteins, which are known inducible by tobramycin. Further analyses revealed decreased membrane potential upon incubation with the host cells and modification of lipopolysaccharide, which contributed to the increased susceptibility to tobramycin. Therefore, our results demonstrate that contact with host cells increased bacterial susceptibility to tobramycin. PMID:28352614

  7. Host-selective toxins of Pyrenophora tritici-repentis induce common responses associated with host susceptibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iovanna Pandelova

    Full Text Available Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (Ptr, a necrotrophic fungus and the causal agent of tan spot of wheat, produces one or a combination of host-selective toxins (HSTs necessary for disease development. The two most studied toxins produced by Ptr, Ptr ToxA (ToxA and Ptr ToxB (ToxB, are proteins that cause necrotic or chlorotic symptoms respectively. Investigation of host responses induced by HSTs provides better insight into the nature of the host susceptibility. Microarray analysis of ToxA has provided evidence that it can elicit responses similar to those associated with defense. In order to evaluate whether there are consistent host responses associated with susceptibility, a similar analysis of ToxB-induced changes in the same sensitive cultivar was conducted. Comparative analysis of ToxA- and ToxB-induced transcriptional changes showed that similar groups of genes encoding WRKY transcription factors, RLKs, PRs, components of the phenylpropanoid and jasmonic acid pathways are activated. ROS accumulation and photosystem dysfunction proved to be common mechanism-of-action for these toxins. Despite similarities in defense responses, transcriptional and biochemical responses as well as symptom development occur more rapidly for ToxA compared to ToxB, which could be explained by differences in perception as well as by differences in activation of a specific process, for example, ethylene biosynthesis in ToxA treatment. Results of this study suggest that perception of HSTs will result in activation of defense responses as part of a susceptible interaction and further supports the hypothesis that necrotrophic fungi exploit defense responses in order to induce cell death.

  8. Cattle Tick Rhipicephalus microplus-Host Interface: A Review of Resistant and Susceptible Host Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ala E. Tabor

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ticks are able to transmit tick-borne infectious agents to vertebrate hosts which cause major constraints to public and livestock health. The costs associated with mortality, relapse, treatments, and decreased production yields are economically significant. Ticks adapted to a hematophagous existence after the vertebrate hemostatic system evolved into a multi-layered defense system against foreign invasion (pathogens and ectoparasites, blood loss, and immune responses. Subsequently, ticks evolved by developing an ability to suppress the vertebrate host immune system with a devastating impact particularly for exotic and crossbred cattle. Host genetics defines the immune responsiveness against ticks and tick-borne pathogens. To gain an insight into the naturally acquired resistant and susceptible cattle breed against ticks, studies have been conducted comparing the incidence of tick infestation on bovine hosts from divergent genetic backgrounds. It is well-documented that purebred and crossbred Bos taurus indicus cattle are more resistant to ticks and tick-borne pathogens compared to purebred European Bos taurus taurus cattle. Genetic studies identifying Quantitative Trait Loci markers using microsatellites and SNPs have been inconsistent with very low percentages relating phenotypic variation with tick infestation. Several skin gene expression and immunological studies have been undertaken using different breeds, different samples (peripheral blood, skin with tick feeding, infestation protocols and geographic environments. Susceptible breeds were commonly found to be associated with the increased expression of toll like receptors, MHC Class II, calcium binding proteins, and complement factors with an increased presence of neutrophils in the skin following tick feeding. Resistant breeds had higher levels of T cells present in the skin prior to tick infestation and thus seem to respond to ticks more efficiently. The skin of resistant breeds also

  9. Host susceptibility hypothesis for shell disease in American lobsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlusty, Michael F; Smolowitz, Roxanna M; Halvorson, Harlyn O; DeVito, Simone E

    2007-12-01

    Epizootic shell disease (ESD) in American lobsters Homarus americanus is the bacterial degradation of the carapace resulting in extensive irregular, deep erosions. The disease is having a major impact on the health and mortality of some American lobster populations, and its effects are being transferred to the economics of the fishery. While the onset and progression of ESD in American lobsters is undoubtedly multifactorial, there is little understanding of the direct causality of this disease. The host susceptibility hypothesis developed here states that although numerous environmental and pathological factors may vary around a lobster, it is eventually the lobster's internal state that is permissive to or shields it from the final onset of the diseased state. To support the host susceptibility hypothesis, we conceptualized a model of shell disease onset and severity to allow further research on shell disease to progress from a structured model. The model states that shell disease onset will occur when the net cuticle degradation (bacterial degradation, decrease of host immune response to bacteria, natural wear, and resorption) is greater than the net deposition (growth, maintenance, and inflammatory response) of the shell. Furthermore, lesion severity depends on the extent to which cuticle degradation exceeds deposition. This model is consistent with natural observations of shell disease in American lobster.

  10. Toxicogenetics: In Search of Host Susceptibility to Environmental Toxicants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelareh eAlam

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals, various pesticide and herbicides are implicated as risk factors for human health. Paraquat, maneb, and rotenone, carbamate and organophospherous insecticides are examples of toxicants for which acute and chronic exposure are associated with multiple neurological disorders including Parkinson’s disease (PD. Nevertheless, the role of pesticide exposure in neurodegenerative diseases is not clear-cut, as there are inconsistencies in both the epidemiological and preclinical research. The aim of this short review is to show that the inconsistencies are related to individual differences in susceptibility to the effects of neurotoxicants, individual differences that can be traced to the genetic constitution of the individuals and animals studies, i.e., host-based susceptibility.

  11. Ebola virus host cell entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yasuteru

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus is an enveloped virus with filamentous structure and causes a severe hemorrhagic fever in human and nonhuman primates. Host cell entry is the first essential step in the viral life cycle, which has been extensively studied as one of the therapeutic targets. A virus factor of cell entry is a surface glycoprotein (GP), which is an only essential viral protein in the step, as well as the unique particle structure. The virus also interacts with a lot of host factors to successfully enter host cells. Ebola virus at first binds to cell surface proteins and internalizes into cells, followed by trafficking through endosomal vesicles to intracellular acidic compartments. There, host proteases process GPs, which can interact with an intracellular receptor. Then, under an appropriate circumstance, viral and endosomal membranes are fused, which is enhanced by major structural changes of GPs, to complete host cell entry. Recently the basic research of Ebola virus infection mechanism has markedly progressed, largely contributed by identification of host factors and detailed structural analyses of GPs. This article highlights the mechanism of Ebola virus host cell entry, including recent findings.

  12. Do parasitic trematode cercariae demonstrate a preference for susceptible host species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany F Sears

    Full Text Available Many parasites are motile and exhibit behavioural preferences for certain host species. Because hosts can vary in their susceptibility to infections, parasites might benefit from preferentially detecting and infecting the most susceptible host, but this mechanistic hypothesis for host-choice has rarely been tested. We evaluated whether cercariae (larval trematode parasites prefer the most susceptible host species by simultaneously presenting cercariae with four species of tadpole hosts. Cercariae consistently preferred hosts in the following order: Anaxyrus ( = Bufo terrestris (southern toad, Hyla squirella (squirrel tree frog, Lithobates ( = Rana sphenocephala (southern leopard frog, and Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban tree frog. These host species varied in susceptibility to cercariae in an order similar to their attractiveness with a correlation that approached significance. Host attractiveness to parasites also varied consistently and significantly among individuals within a host species. If heritable, this individual-level host variation would represent the raw material upon which selection could act, which could promote a Red Queen "arms race" between host cues and parasite detection of those cues. If, in general, motile parasites prefer to infect the most susceptible host species, this phenomenon could explain aggregated distributions of parasites among hosts and contribute to parasite transmission rates and the evolution of virulence. Parasite preferences for hosts belie the common assumption of disease models that parasites seek and infect hosts at random.

  13. Fast Decline of Pythium zingiberum in Soil and Its Recolonization by Cultivating Susceptible Host Plants

    OpenAIRE

    ICHITANI, Takio; SHIMIZU, Tokiya

    1984-01-01

    This experiment demonstrates the fast decline of Pythium zingiberum in soil and its recolonization by cultivating mioga, susceptible host plant, and discusses growth and survival of the pathogen in the host rhizosphere in cultivated fields.

  14. Arabidopsis thaliana is a susceptible host plant for the holoparasite Cuscuta spec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birschwilks, Mandy; Sauer, Norbert; Scheel, Dierk; Neumann, Stefanie

    2007-10-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana and Cuscuta spec. represent a compatible host-parasite combination. Cuscuta produces a haustorium that penetrates the host tissue. In early stages of development the searching hyphae on the tip of the haustorial cone are connected to the host tissue by interspecific plasmodesmata. Ten days after infection, translocation of the fluorescent dyes, Texas Red (TR) and 5,6-carboxyfluorescein (CF), demonstrates the existence of a continuous connection between xylem and phloem of the host and parasite. Cuscuta becomes the dominant sink in this host-parasite system. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing genes encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFP; 27 kDa) or a GFP-ubiquitin fusion (36 kDa), respectively, under the companion cell (CC)-specific AtSUC2 promoter were used to monitor the transfer of these proteins from the host sieve elements to those of Cuscuta. Although GFP is transferred unimpedly to the parasite, the GFP-ubiquitin fusion could not be detected in Cuscuta. A translocation of the GFP-ubiquitin fusion protein was found to be restricted to the phloem of the host, although a functional symplastic pathway exists between the host and parasite, as demonstrated by the transport of CF. These results indicate a peripheral size exclusion limit (SEL) between 27 and 36 kDa for the symplastic connections between host and Cuscuta sieve elements. Forty-six accessions of A. thaliana covering the entire range of its genetic diversity, as well as Arabidopsis halleri, were found to be susceptible towards Cuscuta reflexa.

  15. Susceptibility of various cell lines to Neospora caninum tachyzoites cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khordadmehr, M.,

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Neospora caninum is a coccidian protozoan parasite which is a major cause of bovine abortions and neonatal mortality in cattle, sheep, goat and horse. Occasionally, cultured cells are used for isolation and multiplication of the agent in vitro with several purposes. In this study the tachyzoite yields of N. caninum were compared in various cell cultures as the host cell lines. Among the cell cultures tested, two presented good susceptibility to the agent: cell lines Vero and MA-104. SW742 and TLI (in vitro suspension culture of lymphoid cells infected with Theileria lestoquardi showed moderate sensitivity. No viable tachyzoite were detected in the culture of MDCK and McCoy cell lines. These results demonstrate that MA-104 and SW742 cells present adequate susceptibility to N. caninum compared to Vero cells, which have been largely used to multiply the parasite in vitro. Moreover, these have easy manipulation, fast multiplication and relatively low nutritional requirements. In addition, the result of this study showed that TLI cell line as a suspension cell culture is susceptible to Nc-1 tachyzoites infection and could be used as an alternative host cell line for tachyzoites culture in vitro studies.

  16. Role of NETs in the difference in host susceptibility to Toxoplasma gondii between sheep and cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Kader; Gokpinar, Sami; Gazyagci, Aycan Nuriye; Babur, Cahit; Sursal, Neslihan; Azkur, Ahmet Kursat

    2017-07-01

    The main aim of this study was to compare extracellular traps (NETs) formation by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) of cattle and sheep when exposed to T. gondii tachyzoites in vitro. The effects of parasite concentrations and different incubation periods on NETs development in cattle and sheep PMNs were studied. The effect of NET structures on host cell invasion by tachyzoites was also studied. This is the first report of NETs development by sheep and cattle PMNs against T. gondii in vitro. T. gondii-induced extracellular DNA production from PMNs was dependent on tachyzoite concentrations and incubation time in both sheep and cattle. Many nuclear and cytoplasmic changes were observed in sheep and cattle PMNs after exposure to T. gondii tachyzoites. The typical appearance of NETs, with MPO, NE and histone (H3) attached to extracellular DNA, was observed. Tachyzoites were entrapped within this structure. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was higher in the cattle PMN-tachyzoite co-cultures than sheep. NETs structures released from sheep PMNs caused mechanical immobilisation of T. gondii tachyzoites, however, NET structures released from cattle PMNs may be lethal to tachyzoites. Bovine MPO may have a lethal effect on T. gondii tachyzoites in vitro during a 3h incubation. Besides other mechanisms that effect on host susceptibility to T. gondii in sheep and cattle, extracellular traps formation as a part of immunological reactions may be play a role in host susceptibility to T. gondii. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Relationships between host viremia and vector susceptibility for arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Cynthia C; Rutledge, C Roxanne; Tabachnick, Walter J

    2006-05-01

    Using a threshold model where a minimum level of host viremia is necessary to infect vectors affects our assessment of the relative importance of different host species in the transmission and spread of these pathogens. Other models may be more accurate descriptions of the relationship between host viremia and vector infection. Under the threshold model, the intensity and duration of the viremia above the threshold level is critical in determining the potential numbers of infected mosquitoes. A probabilistic model relating host viremia to the probability distribution of virions in the mosquito bloodmeal shows that the threshold model will underestimate the significance of hosts with low viremias. A probabilistic model that includes avian mortality shows that the maximum number of mosquitoes is infected by feeding on hosts whose viremia peaks just below the lethal level. The relationship between host viremia and vector infection is complex, and there is little experimental information to determine the most accurate model for different arthropod-vector-host systems. Until there is more information, the ability to distinguish the relative importance of different hosts in infecting vectors will remain problematic. Relying on assumptions with little support may result in erroneous conclusions about the importance of different hosts.

  18. Host cell reactivation in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lytle, C.D.; Benane, S.G.; Stafford, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    The survival of UV-irradiated herpes simplex virus was determined in cultured Potoroo (a marsupial) and human cells under lighting conditions which promoted photereactivation. Photoreactivation was readily demonstrated for herpes virus in two lines of Potoroo cells with dose reduction factors of 0.7 to 0.8 for ovary cells and 0.5 to 0.7 for kidney cells. Light from Blacklite (near UV) lamps was more effective than from Daylight (mostly visible) lamps, suggesting that near UV radiation was more effecient for photoreactivation in Potoroo cells. The quantitative and qualitative aspects of this photoreactivation were similar to those reported for a similar virus infecting chick embryo cells. UV-survival curves of herpes virus in Potoroo cells indicated a high level of 'dark' host cell reactivation. No photoreactivation was found for UV-irradiated vaccinia virus in Potoroo cells. A similar photoreactivation study was done using special control lighting (lambda>600 nm) and human cells with normal repair and with cells deficient in excision repair (XP). No photoreactivation was found for UV-irradiated herpes virus in either human cell with either Blacklite or Daylight lamps as the sources of photoreactivating light. This result contrasts with a report of photoreactivation for a herpes virus in the same XP cells using incandescent lamps. (author)

  19. Differential host susceptibility to Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, an emerging amphibian pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.L. Searle; S.S. Gervasi; J. Hua; J.I. Hammond; R.A. Relyea; D.H. Olson; A.R. Blaustein

    2011-01-01

    The amphibian fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has received considerable attention due to its role in amphibian population declines worldwide. Although many amphibian species appear to be affected by Bd, there is little information on species-specific differences in susceptibility to this pathogen. We used a comparative...

  20. Host phenology and leaf effects on susceptibility of California bay laurel to Phytophthora ramorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven F. Johnston; Michael F. Cohen; Tamas Torok; Ross K. Meentemeyer; Nathan E. Rank

    2016-01-01

    Spread of the plant pathogen Phytophthora ramorum, causal agent of the forest disease sudden oak death, is driven by a few competent hosts that support spore production from foliar lesions. The relationship between traits of a principal foliar host, California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica), and susceptibility to

  1. Kupffer cell complement receptor clearance function and host defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loegering, D J

    1986-01-01

    Kupffer cells are well known to be important for normal host defense function. The development of methods to evaluate the in vivo function of specific receptors on Kupffer cells has made it possible to assess the role of these receptors in host defense. The rationale for studying complement receptors is based on the proposed important role of these receptors in host defense and on the observation that the hereditary deficiency of a complement receptor is associated with recurrent severe bacterial infections. The studies reviewed here demonstrate that forms of injury that are associated with depressed host defense including thermal injury, hemorrhagic shock, trauma, and surgery also cause a decrease in complement receptor clearance function. This decrease in Kupffer cell receptor clearance function was shown not to be the result of depressed hepatic blood flow or depletion of complement components. Complement receptor function was also depressed following the phagocytosis of particulates that are known to depress Kupffer cell host defense function. Endotoxemia and bacteremia also were associated with a depression of complement receptor function. Complement receptor function was experimentally depressed in uninjured animals by the phagocytosis of IgG-coated erythrocytes. There was a close association between the depression of complement receptor clearance function and increased susceptibility to the lethal effects of endotoxin and bacterial infection. These studies support the hypotheses that complement receptors on Kupffer cells are important for normal host defense and that depression of the function of these receptors impairs host defense.

  2. Host Phenology and Leaf Effects on Susceptibility of California Bay Laurel to Phytophthora ramorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Steven F; Cohen, Michael F; Torok, Tamas; Meentemeyer, Ross K; Rank, Nathan E

    2016-01-01

    Spread of the plant pathogen Phytophthora ramorum, causal agent of the forest disease sudden oak death, is driven by a few competent hosts that support spore production from foliar lesions. The relationship between traits of a principal foliar host, California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica), and susceptibility to P. ramorum infection were investigated with multiple P. ramorum isolates and leaves collected from multiple trees in leaf-droplet assays. We examined whether susceptibility varies with season, leaf age, or inoculum position. Bay laurel susceptibility was highest during spring and summer and lowest in winter. Older leaves (>1 year) were more susceptible than younger ones (8 to 11 months). Susceptibility was greater at leaf tips and edges than the middle of the leaf. Leaf surfaces wiped with 70% ethanol were more susceptible to P. ramorum infection than untreated leaf surfaces. Our results indicate that seasonal changes in susceptibility of U. californica significantly influence P. ramorum infection levels. Thus, in addition to environmental variables such as temperature and moisture, variability in host plant susceptibility contributes to disease establishment of P. ramorum.

  3. MicroRNA-Based Attenuation of Influenza Virus across Susceptible Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Barbara M; Sjaastad, Louisa E; Fiege, Jessica K; Fay, Elizabeth J; Reyes, Ismarc; Moriarity, Branden; Langlois, Ryan A

    2018-01-15

    Influenza A virus drives significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock. Annual circulation of the virus in livestock and waterfowl contributes to severe economic disruption and increases the risk of zoonotic transmission of novel strains into the human population, where there is no preexisting immunity. Seasonal vaccinations in humans help prevent infection and can reduce symptoms when infection does occur. However, current vaccination regimens available for livestock are limited in part due to safety concerns regarding reassortment/recombination with circulating strains. Therefore, inactivated vaccines are used instead of the more immunostimulatory live attenuated vaccines. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been used previously to generate attenuated influenza A viruses for use as a vaccine. Here, we systematically targeted individual influenza gene mRNAs using the same miRNA to determine the segment(s) that yields maximal attenuation potential. This analysis demonstrated that targeting of NP mRNA most efficiently ablates replication. We further increased the plasticity of miRNA-mediated attenuation of influenza A virus by exploiting a miRNA, miR-21, that is ubiquitously expressed across influenza-susceptible hosts. In order to construct this targeted virus, we used CRISPR/Cas9 to eliminate the universally expressed miR-21 from MDCK cells. miR-21-targeted viruses were attenuated in human, mouse, canine, and avian cells and drove protective immunity in mice. This strategy has the potential to enhance the safety of live attenuated vaccines in humans and zoonotic reservoirs. IMPORTANCE Influenza A virus circulates annually in both avian and human populations, causing significant morbidity, mortality, and economic burden. High incidence of zoonotic infections greatly increases the potential for transmission to humans, where no preexisting immunity or vaccine exists. There is a critical need for new vaccine strategies to combat emerging influenza outbreaks. Micro

  4. Microarray analysis of gene expression profiles of Schistosoma japonicum derived from less-susceptible host water buffalo and susceptible host goat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmei Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Water buffalo and goats are natural hosts for S. japonicum in endemic areas of China. The susceptibility of these two hosts to schistosome infection is different, as water buffalo are less conducive to S. japonicum growth and development. To identify genes that may affect schistosome development and survival, we compared gene expression profiles of schistosomes derived from these two natural hosts using high-throughput microarray technology. RESULTS: The worm recovery rate was lower and the length and width of worms from water buffalo were smaller compared to those from goats following S. japonicum infection for 7 weeks. Besides obvious morphological difference between the schistosomes derived from the two hosts, differences were also observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Microarray analysis showed differentially expressed gene patterns for parasites from the two hosts, which revealed that genes related to lipid and nucleotide metabolism, as well as protein folding, sorting, and degradation were upregulated, while others associated with signal transduction, endocrine function, development, immune function, endocytosis, and amino acid/carbohydrate/glycan metabolism were downregulated in schistosomes from water buffalo. KEGG pathway analysis deduced that the differentially expressed genes mainly involved lipid metabolism, the MAPK and ErbB signaling pathways, progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, dorso-ventral axis formation, reproduction, and endocytosis, etc. CONCLUSION: The microarray gene analysis in schistosomes derived from water buffalo and goats provide a useful platform to disclose differences determining S. japonicum host compatibility to better understand the interplay between natural hosts and parasites, and identify schistosome target genes associated with susceptibility to screen vaccine candidates.

  5. The role of host genetics in susceptibility to influenza: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Horby

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization has identified studies of the role of host genetics on susceptibility to severe influenza as a priority. A systematic review was conducted to summarize the current state of evidence on the role of host genetics in susceptibility to influenza (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42011001380.PubMed, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and OpenSIGLE were searched using a pre-defined strategy for all entries up to the date of the search. Two reviewers independently screened the title and abstract of 1,371 unique articles, and 72 full text publications were selected for inclusion. Mouse models clearly demonstrate that host genetics plays a critical role in susceptibility to a range of human and avian influenza viruses. The Mx genes encoding interferon inducible proteins are the best studied but their relevance to susceptibility in humans is unknown. Although the MxA gene should be considered a candidate gene for further study in humans, over 100 other candidate genes have been proposed. There are however no data associating any of these candidate genes to susceptibility in humans, with the only published study in humans being under-powered. One genealogy study presents moderate evidence of a heritable component to the risk of influenza-associated death, and while the marked familial aggregation of H5N1 cases is suggestive of host genetic factors, this remains unproven.The fundamental question "Is susceptibility to severe influenza in humans heritable?" remains unanswered. Not because of a lack of genotyping or analytic tools, nor because of insufficient severe influenza cases, but because of the absence of a coordinated effort to define and assemble cohorts of cases. The recent pandemic and the ongoing epizootic of H5N1 both represent rapidly closing windows of opportunity to increase understanding of the pathogenesis of severe influenza through multi-national host genetic studies.

  6. Revisiting Trypanosoma rangeli Transmission Involving Susceptible and Non-Susceptible Hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana de Lima Ferreira

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma rangeli infects several triatomine and mammal species in South America. Its transmission is known to occur when a healthy insect feeds on an infected mammal or when an infected insect bites a healthy mammal. In the present study we evaluated the classic way of T. rangeli transmission started by the bite of a single infected triatomine, as well as alternative ways of circulation of this parasite among invertebrate hosts. The number of metacyclic trypomastigotes eliminated from salivary glands during a blood meal was quantified for unfed and recently fed nymphs. The quantification showed that ~50,000 parasites can be liberated during a single blood meal. The transmission of T. rangeli from mice to R. prolixus was evaluated using infections started through the bite of a single infected nymph. The mice that served as the blood source for single infected nymphs showed a high percentage of infection and efficiently transmitted the infection to new insects. Parasites were recovered by xenodiagnosis in insects fed on mice with infections that lasted approximately four months. Hemolymphagy and co-feeding were tested to evaluate insect-insect T. rangeli transmission. T. rangeli was not transmitted during hemolymphagy. However, insects that had co-fed on mice with infected conspecifics exhibited infection rates of approximately 80%. Surprisingly, 16% of the recipient nymphs became infected when pigeons were used as hosts. Our results show that T. rangeli is efficiently transmitted between the evaluated hosts. Not only are the insect-mouse-insect transmission rates high, but parasites can also be transmitted between insects while co-feeding on a living host. We show for the first time that birds can be part of the T. rangeli transmission cycle as we proved that insect-insect transmission is feasible during a co-feeding on these hosts.

  7. Parasitic plants of the genus Cuscuta and their interaction with susceptible and resistant host plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina eKaiser

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available By comparison with plant-microbe interaction, little is known about the interaction of parasitic plants with their hosts. Plants of the genus Cuscuta belong to the family of Cuscutaceae and comprise about 200 species, all of which live as stem holoparasites on other plants. Cuscuta spp. possess no roots nor fully expanded leaves and the vegetative portion appears to be a stem only. The parasite winds around plants and penetrates the host stems via haustoria, forming direct connections to the vascular bundles of their hosts to withdraw water, carbohydrates and other solutes. Besides susceptible hosts, a few plants exist that exhibit an active resistance against infestation by Cuscuta spp. For example, cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum fends off Cuscuta reflexa by means of a hypersensitive-type response occurring in the early penetration phase. This report on the plant-plant dialogue between Cuscuta spp. and its host plants focuses on the incompatible interaction of Cuscuta reflexa with tomato.

  8. Parasitic plants of the genus Cuscuta and their interaction with susceptible and resistant host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Bettina; Vogg, Gerd; Fürst, Ursula B; Albert, Markus

    2015-01-01

    By comparison with plant-microbe interaction, little is known about the interaction of parasitic plants with their hosts. Plants of the genus Cuscuta belong to the family of Cuscutaceae and comprise about 200 species, all of which live as stem holoparasites on other plants. Cuscuta spp. possess no roots nor fully expanded leaves and the vegetative portion appears to be a stem only. The parasite winds around plants and penetrates the host stems via haustoria, forming direct connections to the vascular bundles of their hosts to withdraw water, carbohydrates, and other solutes. Besides susceptible hosts, a few plants exist that exhibit an active resistance against infestation by Cuscuta spp. For example, cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fends off Cuscuta reflexa by means of a hypersensitive-type response occurring in the early penetration phase. This report on the plant-plant dialog between Cuscuta spp. and its host plants focuses on the incompatible interaction of C. reflexa with tomato.

  9. Bartonella entry mechanisms into mammalian host cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicher, Simone C; Dehio, Christoph

    2012-08-01

    The Gram-negative genus Bartonella comprises arthropod-borne pathogens that typically infect mammals in a host-specific manner. Bartonella bacilliformis and Bartonella quintana are human-specific pathogens, while several zoonotic bartonellae specific for diverse animal hosts infect humans as an incidental host. Clinical manifestations of Bartonella infections range from mild symptoms to life-threatening disease. Following transmission by blood-sucking arthropods or traumatic contact with infected animals, bartonellae display sequential tropisms towards endothelial and possibly other nucleated cells and erythrocytes, the latter in a host-specific manner. Attachment to the extracellular matrix (ECM) and to nucleated cells is mediated by surface-exposed bacterial adhesins, in particular trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs). The subsequent engulfment of the pathogen into a vacuolar structure follows a unique series of events whereby the pathogen avoids the endolysosomal compartments. For Bartonella henselae and assumingly most other species, the infection process is aided at different steps by Bartonella effector proteins (Beps). They are injected into host cells through the type IV secretion system (T4SS) VirB/D4 and subvert host cellular functions to favour pathogen uptake. Bacterial binding to erythrocytes is mediated by Trw, another T4SS, in a strictly host-specific manner, followed by pathogen-forced uptake involving the IalB invasin and subsequent replication and persistence within a membrane-bound intra-erythrocytic compartment. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Colonization, Pathogenicity, Host Susceptibility and Therapeutics for Staphylococcus aureus: What is the Clinical Relevance?1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Steven Y.C.; Chen, Luke F.; Fowler, Vance G.

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a human commensal that can also cause a broad spectrum of clinical disease. Factors associated with clinical disease are myriad and dynamic and include pathogen virulence, antimicrobial resistance and host susceptibility. Additionally, infection control measures aimed at the environmental niches of S. aureus and therapeutic advances continue to impact upon the incidence and outcomes of staphylococcal infections. This review article focuses on the clinical relevance of advances in our understanding of staphylococcal colonization, virulence, host susceptibility and therapeutics. Over the past decade key developments have arisen. First, rates of nosocomial methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections have significantly declined in many countries. Second, we have made great strides in our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of S. aureus in general and community-associated MRSA in particular. Third, host risk factors for invasive staphylococcal infections, such as advancing age, increasing numbers of invasive medical interventions, and a growing proportion of patients with healthcare contact, remain dynamic. Finally, several new antimicrobial agents active against MRSA have become available for clinical use. Humans and S. aureus co-exist and the dynamic interface between host, pathogen and our attempts to influence these interactions will continue to rapidly change. Although progress has been made in the past decade, we are likely to face further surprises such as the recent waves of community-associated MRSA. PMID:22160374

  11. Molecules at the interface of Cryptococcus and the host that determine disease susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Karen L; Olszewski, Michal A; Wormley, Floyd L

    2015-05-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii, the predominant etiological agents of cryptococcosis, are fungal pathogens that cause disease ranging from a mild pneumonia to life-threatening infections of the central nervous system (CNS). Resolution or exacerbation of Cryptococcus infection is determined following complex interactions of several host and pathogen derived factors. Alternatively, interactions between the host and pathogen may end in an impasse resulting in the establishment of a sub-clinical Cryptococcus infection. The current review addresses the delicate interaction between the host and Cryptococcus-derived molecules that determine resistance or susceptibility to infection. An emphasis will be placed on data highlighted at the recent 9th International Conference on Cryptococcus and Cryptococcosis (ICCC). Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Insect Cells as Hosts for Recombinat Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Murwani, Retno

    1997-01-01

    Since the development of recombinant baculovirus expression system, insect cell culture has rapidly gain popularity as the method of choice for production of a variety of biologically active proteins. Up to date tens of recombinant protein have been produced by this method commercially or non-commercially and have been widely used for research. This review describes the basic concept of baculovirus expression vector and the use of insect cells as host for recombinant proteins. Examples of the...

  13. Abrupt suspension of probiotics administration may increase host pathogen susceptibility by inducing gut dysbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi; Liu, Wenshu; Ran, Chao; Hu, Jun; Zhou, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the risk associated with suspension of probiotics administration in tilapia, an animal model that may mimic immune-compromised conditions in humans. Tilapias were fed for 14 days using a probiotics-supplemented diet, followed by a three-day suspension of probiotics treatment and a subsequent challenge by Aeromonas hydrophila. Unexpectedly, the suspension of a probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum JCM1149 significantly triggered susceptibility of the host to A. hydrophila. We further observed that suspension of JCM1149 resulted in host gut microbiota dysbiosis and the subsequent disorder in the intestinal metabolites (bile acids, amino acids, and glucose) and damage in the intestinal epithelium, giving rise to a condition similar to antibiotics-induced gut dysbiosis, which collectively impaired tilapia’s gut health and resistance to pathogenic challenges. Additionally, we determined that JCM1149 adhered relatively poorly to tilapia intestinal mucosa and was rapidly released from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) after suspension, with the rapid loss of probiotic strain probably being the direct cause of gut dysbiosis. Finally, three other probiotic Lactobacillus strains with low intestinal mucosa binding activity showed similar rapid loss phenotype following administration suspension, and induced higher host susceptibility to infection, indicating that the risk is a generic phenomenon in Lactobacillus. PMID:26983596

  14. Characterization of Arabidopsis Transcriptional Responses to Different Aphid Species Reveals Genes that Contribute to Host Susceptibility and Non-host Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaouannet, Maëlle; Morris, Jenny A.; Hedley, Peter E.; Bos, Jorunn I. B.

    2015-01-01

    Aphids are economically important pests that display exceptional variation in host range. The determinants of diverse aphid host ranges are not well understood, but it is likely that molecular interactions are involved. With significant progress being made towards understanding host responses upon aphid attack, the mechanisms underlying non-host resistance remain to be elucidated. Here, we investigated and compared Arabidopsis thaliana host and non-host responses to aphids at the transcriptional level using three different aphid species, Myzus persicae, Myzus cerasi and Rhopalosiphum pisum. Gene expression analyses revealed a high level of overlap in the overall gene expression changes during the host and non-host interactions with regards to the sets of genes differentially expressed and the direction of expression changes. Despite this overlap in transcriptional responses across interactions, there was a stronger repression of genes involved in metabolism and oxidative responses specifically during the host interaction with M. persicae. In addition, we identified a set of genes with opposite gene expression patterns during the host versus non-host interactions. Aphid performance assays on Arabidopsis mutants that were selected based on our transcriptome analyses identified novel genes contributing to host susceptibility, host defences during interactions with M. persicae as well to non-host resistance against R. padi. Understanding how plants respond to aphid species that differ in their ability to infest plant species, and identifying the genes and signaling pathways involved, is essential for the development of novel and durable aphid control in crop plants. PMID:25993686

  15. Brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, infestation of susceptible dog hosts is reduced by slow release of semiochemicals from a less susceptible host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Filho, Jaires Gomes; Ferreira, Lorena Lopes; Sarria, André Lucio Franceschini; Pickett, John A; Birkett, Michael A; Mascarin, Gabriel Moura; de León, Adalberto A Pérez; Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira

    2017-01-01

    Domestic dog breeds are hosts for the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, but infestation levels vary among breeds. Beagles are less susceptible to tick infestations than English cocker spaniels due to enhanced production of 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde that act as volatile tick repellents. We report the use of prototype slow-release formulations of these compounds to reduce the burden of R. sanguineus s. l. on English cocker spaniel dogs. Twelve dogs were randomly assigned to two groups with six dogs each. The treated group received collars with slow-release formulations of the compounds attached, while the control group received collars with clean formulations attached. Five environmental infestations were performed, with the number of ticks (at all stages) on the dogs being counted twice a day for 45days. The counts on the number of tick stages found per dog were individually fitted to linear mixed effects models with repeated measures and normal distribution for errors. The mean tick infestation in the treated group was significantly lower than in the control group. For larvae and nymphs, a decrease in tick infestation was observed at the fifth count, and for adults, lower average counts were observed in all counts. The compounds did not interfere with the distribution of the ticks on the body of the dogs, as a similar percentage of ticks was found on the anterior half of the dogs (54.5% for the control group and 56.2% for the treated group). The biological and reproductive parameters of the ticks were not affected by the repellents. This study highlights for the first time the potential use of a novel allomone (repellent)-based formulation for reduction of tick infestation on susceptible dogs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Bovine aortic endothelial cells are susceptible to Hantaan virus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahr, U.; Muranyi, W.; Mueller, S.; Kehm, R.; Handermann, M.; Darai, G.; Zeier, M.

    2004-01-01

    Hantavirus serotype Hantaan (HTN) is one of the causative agents of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS, lethality up to 10%). The natural host of HTN is Apodemus agrarius. Recent studies have shown that domestic animals like cattle are sporadically seropositive for hantaviruses. In the present study, the susceptibility of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) expressing α V β 3 -integrin to a HTN infection was investigated. Viral nucleocapsid protein and genomic RNA segments were detected in infected BAEC by indirect immunofluorescence assay, Western blot analysis, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively. The results of this study strongly support our previous observation on Puumala virus (PUU) that has been propagated efficiently in BAEC. These findings open a new window to contemplate the ecology of hantavirus infection and transmission route from animal to man

  17. Microsporidia infection impacts the host cell's cycle and reduces host cell apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higes, Mariano; Sagastume, Soledad; Juarranz, Ángeles; Dias-Almeida, Joyce; Budge, Giles E.; Meana, Aránzazu; Boonham, Neil

    2017-01-01

    Intracellular parasites can alter the cellular machinery of host cells to create a safe haven for their survival. In this regard, microsporidia are obligate intracellular fungal parasites with extremely reduced genomes and hence, they are strongly dependent on their host for energy and resources. To date, there are few studies into host cell manipulation by microsporidia, most of which have focused on morphological aspects. The microsporidia Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae are worldwide parasites of honey bees, infecting their ventricular epithelial cells. In this work, quantitative gene expression and histology were studied to investigate how these two parasites manipulate their host’s cells at the molecular level. Both these microsporidia provoke infection-induced regulation of genes involved in apoptosis and the cell cycle. The up-regulation of buffy (which encodes a pro-survival protein) and BIRC5 (belonging to the Inhibitor Apoptosis protein family) was observed after infection, shedding light on the pathways that these pathogens use to inhibit host cell apoptosis. Curiously, different routes related to cell cycle were modified after infection by each microsporidia. In the case of N. apis, cyclin B1, dacapo and E2F2 were up-regulated, whereas only cyclin E was up-regulated by N. ceranae, in both cases promoting the G1/S phase transition. This is the first report describing molecular pathways related to parasite-host interactions that are probably intended to ensure the parasite’s survival within the cell. PMID:28152065

  18. Host specific glycans are correlated with susceptibility to infection by lagoviruses, but not with their virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Ana M; Breiman, Adrien; Lora, Mónica; Le Moullac-Vaidye, Béatrice; Galanina, Oxana; Nyström, Kristina; Marchandeau, Stephane; Le Gall-Reculé, Ghislaine; Strive, Tanja; Neimanis, Aleksija; Bovin, Nicolai V; Ruvoën-Clouet, Nathalie; Esteves, Pedro J; Abrantes, Joana; Le Pendu, Jacques

    2017-11-29

    The rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) and the European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) are two lagoviruses from the family Caliciviridae that cause fatal diseases in two leporid genera, Oryctolagus and Lepus , respectively. In the last few years, several examples of host jumps of lagoviruses among leporids were recorded. In addition, a new pathogenic genotype of RHDV emerged and many non-pathogenic strains of lagoviruses have been described. The molecular mechanisms behind host shifts and the emergence of virulence are unknown. Since RHDV uses glycans of the histo-blood group antigen type as attachment factors to initiate infection, we studied if glycan specificities of the new pathogenic RHDV genotype, non-pathogenic lagoviruses and EBHSV potentially play a role in determining host range and virulence of lagoviruses. We observed binding to A, B or H antigens of the histo-blood group family for all strains known to primarily infect European rabbits ( Oryctolagus cuniculus ), that have recently been classified as GI strains. Yet, we could not explain the emergence of virulence since similar glycan specificities were found between several pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains. By contrast, EBHSV, recently classified as GII.1, bound to terminal β-linked N-acetylglucosamine residues of O-glycans. Expression of these attachment factors in the upper respiratory and digestive tracts in three lagomorph species ( Oryctolagus cuniculus, Lepus europaeus and Sylvilagus floridanus ) showed species-specific patterns regarding the susceptibility to infection by these viruses, indicating that species-specific glycan expression is likely a major contributor to lagoviruses host specificity and range. IMPORTANCE Lagoviruses constitute a genus of the Caliciviridae family, comprising highly pathogenic viruses, RHDV and EBHSV, which infect rabbits and hares, respectively. Recently, non-pathogenic strains were discovered and new pathogenic strains have emerged. In addition, host

  19. Susceptibility of different leukocyte cell types to Vaccinia virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Puig Juana M

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccinia virus, the prototype member of the family Poxviridae, was used extensively in the past as the Smallpox vaccine, and is currently considered as a candidate vector for new recombinant vaccines. Vaccinia virus has a wide host range, and is known to infect cultures of a variety of cell lines of mammalian origin. However, little is known about the virus tropism in human leukocyte populations. We report here that various cell types within leukocyte populations have widely different susceptibility to infection with vaccinia virus. Results We have investigated the ability of vaccinia virus to infect human PBLs by using virus recombinants expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP, and monoclonal antibodies specific for PBL subpopulations. Flow cytometry allowed the identification of infected cells within the PBL mixture 1–5 hours after infection. Antibody labeling revealed that different cell populations had very different infection rates. Monocytes showed the highest percentage of infected cells, followed by B lymphocytes and NK cells. In contrast to those cell types, the rate of infection of T lymphocytes was low. Comparison of vaccinia virus strains WR and MVA showed that both strains infected efficiently the monocyte population, although producing different expression levels. Our results suggest that MVA was less efficient than WR in infecting NK cells and B lymphocytes. Overall, both WR and MVA consistently showed a strong preference for the infection of non-T cells. Conclusions When infecting fresh human PBL preparations, vaccinia virus showed a strong bias towards the infection of monocytes, followed by B lymphocytes and NK cells. In contrast, very poor infection of T lymphocytes was detected. These finding may have important implications both in our understanding of poxvirus pathogenesis and in the development of improved smallpox vaccines.

  20. Virus Infection of Plants Alters Pollinator Preference: A Payback for Susceptible Hosts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Matthew P.; Bruce, Toby J. A.; Caulfield, John C.; Furzer, Oliver J.; Reed, Alison; Robinson, Sophie I.; Miller, Elizabeth; Davis, Christopher N.; Pickett, John A.; Whitney, Heather M.; Glover, Beverley J.; Carr, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Plant volatiles play important roles in attraction of certain pollinators and in host location by herbivorous insects. Virus infection induces changes in plant volatile emission profiles, and this can make plants more attractive to insect herbivores, such as aphids, that act as viral vectors. However, it is unknown if virus-induced alterations in volatile production affect plant-pollinator interactions. We found that volatiles emitted by cucumber mosaic virus (CMV)-infected tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and Arabidopsis thaliana plants altered the foraging behaviour of bumblebees (Bombus terrestris). Virus-induced quantitative and qualitative changes in blends of volatile organic compounds emitted by tomato plants were identified by gas chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry. Experiments with a CMV mutant unable to express the 2b RNA silencing suppressor protein and with Arabidopsis silencing mutants implicate microRNAs in regulating emission of pollinator-perceivable volatiles. In tomato, CMV infection made plants emit volatiles attractive to bumblebees. Bumblebees pollinate tomato by ‘buzzing’ (sonicating) the flowers, which releases pollen and enhances self-fertilization and seed production as well as pollen export. Without buzz-pollination, CMV infection decreased seed yield, but when flowers of mock-inoculated and CMV-infected plants were buzz-pollinated, the increased seed yield for CMV-infected plants was similar to that for mock-inoculated plants. Increased pollinator preference can potentially increase plant reproductive success in two ways: i) as female parents, by increasing the probability that ovules are fertilized; ii) as male parents, by increasing pollen export. Mathematical modeling suggested that over a wide range of conditions in the wild, these increases to the number of offspring of infected susceptible plants resulting from increased pollinator preference could outweigh underlying strong selection pressures favoring pathogen resistance

  1. Virus Infection of Plants Alters Pollinator Preference: A Payback for Susceptible Hosts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon C Groen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant volatiles play important roles in attraction of certain pollinators and in host location by herbivorous insects. Virus infection induces changes in plant volatile emission profiles, and this can make plants more attractive to insect herbivores, such as aphids, that act as viral vectors. However, it is unknown if virus-induced alterations in volatile production affect plant-pollinator interactions. We found that volatiles emitted by cucumber mosaic virus (CMV-infected tomato (Solanum lycopersicum and Arabidopsis thaliana plants altered the foraging behaviour of bumblebees (Bombus terrestris. Virus-induced quantitative and qualitative changes in blends of volatile organic compounds emitted by tomato plants were identified by gas chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry. Experiments with a CMV mutant unable to express the 2b RNA silencing suppressor protein and with Arabidopsis silencing mutants implicate microRNAs in regulating emission of pollinator-perceivable volatiles. In tomato, CMV infection made plants emit volatiles attractive to bumblebees. Bumblebees pollinate tomato by 'buzzing' (sonicating the flowers, which releases pollen and enhances self-fertilization and seed production as well as pollen export. Without buzz-pollination, CMV infection decreased seed yield, but when flowers of mock-inoculated and CMV-infected plants were buzz-pollinated, the increased seed yield for CMV-infected plants was similar to that for mock-inoculated plants. Increased pollinator preference can potentially increase plant reproductive success in two ways: i as female parents, by increasing the probability that ovules are fertilized; ii as male parents, by increasing pollen export. Mathematical modeling suggested that over a wide range of conditions in the wild, these increases to the number of offspring of infected susceptible plants resulting from increased pollinator preference could outweigh underlying strong selection pressures favoring pathogen

  2. The impact of Fusarium mycotoxins on human and animal host susceptibility to infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonissen, Gunther; Martel, An; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Verbrugghe, Elin; Vandenbroucke, Virginie; Li, Shaoji; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Van Immerseel, Filip; Croubels, Siska

    2014-01-28

    Contamination of food and feed with mycotoxins is a worldwide problem. At present, acute mycotoxicosis caused by high doses is rare in humans and animals. Ingestion of low to moderate amounts of Fusarium mycotoxins is common and generally does not result in obvious intoxication. However, these low amounts may impair intestinal health, immune function and/or pathogen fitness, resulting in altered host pathogen interactions and thus a different outcome of infection. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge about the impact of Fusarium mycotoxin exposure on human and animal host susceptibility to infectious diseases. On the one hand, exposure to deoxynivalenol and other Fusarium mycotoxins generally exacerbates infections with parasites, bacteria and viruses across a wide range of animal host species. Well-known examples include coccidiosis in poultry, salmonellosis in pigs and mice, colibacillosis in pigs, necrotic enteritis in poultry, enteric septicemia of catfish, swine respiratory disease, aspergillosis in poultry and rabbits, reovirus infection in mice and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus infection in pigs. However, on the other hand, T-2 toxin has been shown to markedly decrease the colonization capacity of Salmonella in the pig intestine. Although the impact of the exposure of humans to Fusarium toxins on infectious diseases is less well known, extrapolation from animal models suggests possible exacerbation of, for instance, colibacillosis and salmonellosis in humans, as well.

  3. Counting Legionella cells within single amoeba host cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we present the first attempt to quantify L. pneumophila cell numbers within individual amoebae hosts that may be released into engineered water systems. The maximum numbers of culturable L. pneumophila cells grown within Acanthamoeba polyphaga and Naegleria fowleri were 134...

  4. Perturbation of host-cell membrane is a primary mechanism of HIV cytopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloyd, M W; Lynn, W S

    1991-04-01

    Cytopathic viruses injure cells by a number of different mechanisms. The mechanism by which HIV-1 injures T cells was studied by temporally examining host-cell macromolecular syntheses, stages of the cell cycle, and membrane permeability following acute infection. T cells cytopathically infected at an m.o.i. of 1-5 grew normally for 24-72 hr, depending on the cell line, followed by the first manifestation of cell injury, slowing of cell division. At that time significant amounts of unintegrated HIV DNA and p24 core protein became detectable, and acridine orange flow cytometric cell cycle studies demonstrated the presence of fewer cells in the G2/M stage of the cell cycle. There was no change in the frequency of cells in the S-stage, and metabolic pulsing with radioactive precursors demonstrated that host-cell DNA, RNA, and protein syntheses were normal at that time and normal up to the time cells started to die (approximately 24 hr later), when all three decreased. Cellular lipid synthesis, however, was perturbed when cell multiplication slowed, with phospholipid synthesis reduced and neutral lipid synthesis enhanced. Permeability of the host-cell membrane to small molecules, such as Ca2+ and sucrose, was slightly enhanced early postinfection, and by the time of slowing of cell division, host membrane permeability was greatly increased to both Ca2+ and sucrose (Stokes radius 5.2 A) but not to inulin (Stokes radium 20 A). These changes in host-cell membrane permeability and phospholipid synthesis were not observed in acutely infected H9 cells, which are not susceptible to HIV cytopathology. Thus, HIV-1 appeared to predominantly injure T cells by perturbing host-cell membrane permeability and lipid synthesis, which is similar to the cytopathic mechanisms of paramyxoviruses.

  5. Corals hosting symbiotic hydrozoans are less susceptible to predation and disease

    KAUST Repository

    Montano, Simone

    2017-12-20

    In spite of growing evidence that climate change may dramatically affect networks of interacting species, whether-and to what extent-ecological interactions can mediate species\\' responses to disturbances is an open question. Here we show how a largely overseen association such as that between hydrozoans and scleractinian corals could be possibly associated with a reduction in coral susceptibility to ever-increasing predator and disease outbreaks. We examined 2455 scleractinian colonies (from both Maldivian and the Saudi Arabian coral reefs) searching for non-random patterns in the occurrence of hydrozoans on corals showing signs of different health conditions (i.e. bleaching, algal overgrowth, corallivory and different coral diseases). We show that, after accounting for geographical, ecological and co-evolutionary factors, signs of disease and corallivory are significantly lower in coral colonies hosting hydrozoans than in hydrozoan-free ones. This finding has important implications for our understanding of the ecology of coral reefs, and for their conservation in the current scenario of global change, because it suggests that symbiotic hydrozoans may play an active role in protecting their scleractinian hosts from stresses induced by warming water temperatures.

  6. Repeated Schistosoma japonicum infection following treatment in two cohorts: evidence for host susceptibility to helminthiasis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J Carlton

    Full Text Available In light of multinational efforts to reduce helminthiasis, we evaluated whether there exist high-risk subpopulations for helminth infection. Such individuals are not only at risk of morbidity, but may be important parasite reservoirs and appropriate targets for disease control interventions.We followed two longitudinal cohorts in Sichuan, China to determine whether there exist persistent human reservoirs for the water-borne helminth, Schistosoma japonicum, in areas where treatment is ongoing. Participants were tested for S. japonicum infection at enrollment and two follow-up points. All infections were promptly treated with praziquantel. We estimated the ratio of the observed to expected proportion of the population with two consecutive infections at follow-up. The expected proportion was estimated using a prevalence-based model and, as highly exposed individuals may be most likely to be repeatedly infected, a second model that accounted for exposure using a data adaptive, machine learning algorithm. Using the prevalence-based model, there were 1.5 and 5.8 times more individuals with two consecutive infections than expected in cohorts 1 and 2, respectively (p<0.001 in both cohorts. When we accounted for exposure, the ratio was 1.3 (p = 0.013 and 2.1 (p<0.001 in cohorts 1 and 2, respectively.We found clustering of infections within a limited number of hosts that was not fully explained by host exposure. This suggests some hosts may be particularly susceptible to S. japonicum infection, or that uncured infections persist despite treatment. We propose an explanatory model that suggests that as cercarial exposure declines, so too does the size of the vulnerable subpopulation. In low-prevalence settings, interventions targeting individuals with a history of S. japonicum infection may efficiently advance disease control efforts.

  7. Susceptibility testing of fish cell lines for virus isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariel, Ellen; Skall, Helle Frank; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    and laboratories, but also between lineages of the same cell line. To minimise the occurrence of false negatives in a cell culture based surveillance system, we have investigated methods, to select cell lineages that are relatively superior in their susceptibility to a panel of virus isolates. The procedures...... cell lineages, we increased the number of isolates of each virus, propagated stocks in a given cell line and tested all lineages of that line in use in the laboratory. Testing of relative cell line susceptibility between laboratories is carried out annually via the Inter-laboratory Proficiency Test...... sensitivity for surveillance purposes within a cell line and between laboratories.In terms of economic and practical considerations as well as attempting to approach a realistic test system, we suggest the optimal procedure for susceptibility testing of fish cell lines for virus isolation to be a combination...

  8. Effects of Non-Susceptible Hosts on the Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi of the Vector Triatoma infestans: an Experimental Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vázquez Diego P

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested experimentally the effects of the presence of non-susceptible hosts on the infection with Trypanosoma cruzi of the vector Triatoma infestans. The experiment consisted in two treatments: with chickens, including two chickens (non-susceptible hosts and two infected guinea pigs (susceptible hosts, and without chickens, including only two infected guinea pigs. The hosts were held unrestrained in individual metal cages inside a closed tulle chamber. A total of 200 uninfected T. infestans third instar nymphs were liberated in each replica, collected on day 14, and examined for infection and blood meal sources on day 32-36. The additional presence of chickens relative to infected guinea pigs: (a significantly modified the spatial distribution of bugs; (b increased significantly the likelihoods of having a detectable blood meal on any host and molting to the next instar; (c did not affect the bugs' probability of death by predation; and (d decreased significantly the overall percentage of T. infestans infected with T. cruzi. The bugs collected from inside or close to the guinea pigs' cages showed a higher infection rate (71-88% than those collected from the chickens' cages (22-32%. Mixed blood meals on chickens and guinea pigs were detected in 12-21% of bugs. Although the presence of chickens would decrease the overall percentage of infected bugs in short term experiments, the high rate of host change of T. infestans would make this difference fade out if longer exposure times had been provided.

  9. Hepatitis C virus host cell interactions uncovered

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottwein, Judith; Bukh, Jens

    2007-01-01

      Insights into virus-host cell interactions as uncovered by Randall et al. (1) in a recent issue of PNAS further our understanding of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) life cycle, persistence, and pathogenesis and might lead to the identification of new therapeutic targets. HCV persistently infects 180...... million individuals worldwide, causing chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The only approved treatment, combination therapy with IFN- and ribavirin, targets cellular pathways (2); however, a sustained virologic response is achieved only in approximately half of the patients...... treated. Therefore, there is a pressing need for the identification of novel drugs against hepatitis C. Although most research focuses on the development of HCV-specific antivirals, such as protease and polymerase inhibitors (3), cellular targets could be pursued and might allow the development of broad...

  10. A model to estimate effects of SNPs on host susceptibility and infectivity for an endemic infectious disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biemans, Floor; de Jong, Mart C M; Bijma, Piter

    2017-06-30

    Infectious diseases in farm animals affect animal health, decrease animal welfare and can affect human health. Selection and breeding of host individuals with desirable traits regarding infectious diseases can help to fight disease transmission, which is affected by two types of (genetic) traits: host susceptibility and host infectivity. Quantitative genetic studies on infectious diseases generally connect an individual's disease status to its own genotype, and therefore capture genetic effects on susceptibility only. However, they usually ignore variation in exposure to infectious herd mates, which may limit the accuracy of estimates of genetic effects on susceptibility. Moreover, genetic effects on infectivity will exist as well. Thus, to design optimal breeding strategies, it is essential that genetic effects on infectivity are quantified. Given the potential importance of genetic effects on infectivity, we set out to develop a model to estimate the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on both host susceptibility and host infectivity. To evaluate the quality of the resulting SNP effect estimates, we simulated an endemic disease in 10 groups of 100 individuals, and recorded time-series data on individual disease status. We quantified bias and precision of the estimates for different sizes of SNP effects, and identified the optimum recording interval when the number of records is limited. We present a generalized linear mixed model to estimate the effect of SNPs on both host susceptibility and host infectivity. SNP effects were on average slightly underestimated, i.e. estimates were conservative. Estimates were less precise for infectivity than for susceptibility. Given our sample size, the power to estimate SNP effects for susceptibility was 100% for differences between genotypes of a factor 1.56 or more, and was higher than 60% for infectivity for differences between genotypes of a factor 4 or more. When disease status was recorded 11 times on each

  11. Immune and biochemical responses in skin differ between bovine hosts genetically susceptible and resistant to the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzin, Alessandra Mara; Maruyama, Sandra Regina; Garcia, Gustavo Rocha; Oliveira, Rosane Pereira; Ribeiro, José Marcos Chaves; Bishop, Richard; Maia, Antônio Augusto Mendes; Moré, Daniela Dantas; Ferreira, Beatriz Rossetti; Santos, Isabel Kinney Ferreira de Miranda

    2017-01-31

    Ticks attach to and penetrate their hosts' skin and inactivate multiple components of host responses in order to acquire a blood meal. Infestation loads with the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, are heritable: some breeds carry high loads of reproductively successful ticks, whereas in others, few ticks feed and reproduce efficiently. In order to elucidate the mechanisms that result in the different outcomes of infestations with cattle ticks, we examined global gene expression and inflammation induced by tick bites in skins from one resistant and one susceptible breed of cattle that underwent primary infestations with larvae and nymphs of R. microplus. We also examined the expression profiles of genes encoding secreted tick proteins that mediate parasitism in larvae and nymphs feeding on these breeds. Functional analyses of differentially expressed genes in the skin suggest that allergic contact-like dermatitis develops with ensuing production of IL-6, CXCL-8 and CCL-2 and is sustained by HMGB1, ISG15 and PKR, leading to expression of pro-inflammatory chemokines and cytokines that recruit granulocytes and T lymphocytes. Importantly, this response is delayed in susceptible hosts. Histopathological analyses of infested skins showed inflammatory reactions surrounding tick cement cones that enable attachment in both breeds, but in genetically tick-resistant bovines they destabilized the cone. The transcription data provided insights into tick-mediated activation of basophils, which have previously been shown to be a key to host resistance in model systems. Skin from tick-susceptible bovines expressed more transcripts encoding enzymes that detoxify tissues. Interestingly, these enzymes also produce volatile odoriferous compounds and, accordingly, skin rubbings from tick-susceptible bovines attracted significantly more tick larvae than rubbings from resistant hosts. Moreover, transcripts encoding secreted modulatory molecules by the tick were significantly more

  12. Enforcing host cell polarity: an apicomplexan parasite strategy towards dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Martin

    2011-08-01

    The propagation of apicomplexan parasites through transmitting vectors is dependent on effective dissemination of parasites inside the mammalian host. Intracellular Toxoplasma and Theileria parasites face the challenge that their spread inside the host depends in part on the motile capacities of their host cells. In response, these parasites influence the efficiency of dissemination by altering adhesive and/or motile properties of their host cells. Theileria parasites do so by targeting signalling pathways that control host cell actin dynamics. The resulting enforced polar host cell morphology facilitates motility and invasiveness, by establishing focal adhesion and invasion structures at the leading edge of the infected cell. This parasite strategy highlights mechanisms of motility regulation that are also likely relevant for immune or cancer cell motility. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dual transcriptomics of virus-host interactions: comparing two Pacific oyster families presenting contrasted susceptibility to ostreid herpesvirus 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segarra, Amélie; Mauduit, Florian; Faury, Nicole; Trancart, Suzanne; Dégremont, Lionel; Tourbiez, Delphine; Haffner, Philippe; Barbosa-Solomieu, Valérie; Pépin, Jean-François; Travers, Marie-Agnès; Renault, Tristan

    2014-07-09

    Massive mortality outbreaks affecting Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) spat in various countries have been associated with the detection of a herpesvirus called ostreid herpesvirus type 1 (OsHV-1). However, few studies have been performed to understand and follow viral gene expression, as it has been done in vertebrate herpesviruses. In this work, experimental infection trials of C. gigas spat with OsHV-1 were conducted in order to test the susceptibility of several bi-parental oyster families to this virus and to analyze host-pathogen interactions using in vivo transcriptomic approaches. The divergent response of these oyster families in terms of mortality confirmed that susceptibility to OsHV-1 infection has a significant genetic component. Two families with contrasted survival rates were selected. A total of 39 viral genes and five host genes were monitored by real-time PCR. Initial results provided information on (i) the virus cycle of OsHV-1 based on the kinetics of viral DNA replication and transcription and (ii) host defense mechanisms against the virus. In the two selected families, the detected amounts of viral DNA and RNA were significantly different. This result suggests that Pacific oysters are genetically diverse in terms of their susceptibility to OsHV-1 infection. This contrasted susceptibility was associated with dissimilar host gene expression profiles. Moreover, the present study showed a positive correlation between viral DNA amounts and the level of expression of selected oyster genes.

  14. Estimating host genetic effects on susceptibility and infectivity to infectious diseases and their contribution to response to selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anche, M.T.

    2016-01-01

    Mahlet Teka Anche. (2016). Estimating host genetic effects on susceptibility and infectivity to infectious diseases and their contribution to response to selection. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands

    Genetic approaches aiming to reduce the prevalence of an infection in a

  15. Lymphotropism and host responses during acute wild-type canine distemper virus infections in a highly susceptible natural host

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line; Søgaard, Mette; Jensen, Trine Hammer

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms behind the in vivo virulence of immunosuppressive wild-type Morbillivirus infections are still not fully understood. To investigate lymphotropism and host responses we have selected the natural host model of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection in mink. This model displays...

  16. Invasion of Eukaryotic Cells by Legionella Pneumophila: A Common Strategy for all Hosts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S Hoffman

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila is an environmental micro-organism capable of producing an acute lobar pneumonia, commonly referred to as Legionnaires’ disease, in susceptible humans. Legionellae are ubiquitous in aquatic environments, where they survive in biofilms or intracellularly in various protozoans. Susceptible humans become infected by breathing aerosols laden with the bacteria. The target cell for human infection is the alveolar macrophage, in which the bacteria abrogate phagolysosomal fusion. The remarkable ability of L pneumophila to infect a wide range of eukaryotic cells suggests a common strategy that exploits very fundamental cellular processes. The bacteria enter host cells via coiling phagocytosis and quickly subvert organelle trafficking events, leading to formation of a replicative phagosome in which the bacteria multiply. Vegetative growth continues for 8 to 10 h, after which the bacteria develop into a short, highly motile form called the ‘mature form’. The mature form exhibits a thickening of the cell wall, stains red with the Gimenez stain, and is between 10 and 100 times more infectious than agar-grown bacteria. Following host cell lysis, the released bacteria infect other host cells, in which the mature form differentiates into a Gimenez-negative vegetative form, and the cycle begins anew. Virulence of L pneumophila is considered to be multifactorial, and there is growing evidence for both stage specific and sequential gene expression. Thus, L pneumophila may be a good model system for dissecting events associated with the host-parasite interactions.

  17. Distinct susceptibility of HIV vaccine vector-induced CD4 T cells to HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Qingli; Hou, Wei; Churchyard, Gavin; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Pitisuthithum, Punnee; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; Franchini, Genoveffa

    2018-01-01

    The concerns raised from adenovirus 5 (Ad5)-based HIV vaccine clinical trials, where excess HIV infections were observed in some vaccine recipients, have highlighted the importance of understanding host responses to vaccine vectors and the HIV susceptibility of vector-specific CD4 T cells in HIV vaccination. Our recent study reported that human Ad5-specific CD4 T cells induced by Ad5 vaccination (RV156A trial) are susceptible to HIV. Here we further investigated the HIV susceptibility of vector-specific CD4 T cells induced by ALVAC, a canarypox viral vector tested in the Thai trial RV144, as compared to Ad5 vector-specific CD4 T cells in the HVTN204 trial. We showed that while Ad5 vector-specific CD4 T cells were readily susceptible to HIV, ALVAC-specific CD4 T cells in RV144 PBMC were substantially less susceptible to both R5 and X4 HIV in vitro. The lower HIV susceptibility of ALVAC-specific CD4 T cells was associated with the reduced surface expression of HIV entry co-receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 on these cells. Phenotypic analyses identified that ALVAC-specific CD4 T cells displayed a strong Th1 phenotype, producing higher levels of IFN-γ and CCL4 (MIP-1β) but little IL-17. Of interest, ALVAC and Ad5 vectors induced distinct profiles of vector-specific CD8 vs. CD4 T-cell proliferative responses in PBMC, with ALVAC preferentially inducing CD8 T-cell proliferation, while Ad5 vector induced CD4 T-cell proliferation. Depletion of ALVAC-, but not Ad5-, induced CD8 T cells in PBMC led to a modest increase in HIV infection of vector-specific CD4 T cells, suggesting a role of ALVAC-specific CD8 T cells in protecting ALVAC-specific CD4 T cells from HIV. Taken together, our data provide strong evidence for distinct HIV susceptibility of CD4 T cells induced by different vaccine vectors and highlight the importance of better evaluating anti-vector responses in HIV vaccination. PMID:29474461

  18. Host cells and methods for production of isobutanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Larry Cameron; He, Hongxian; Huang, Lixuan Lisa; Okeefe, Daniel P.; Kruckeberg, Arthur Leo; Li, Yougen; Maggio-Hall, Lori; McElvain, Jessica; Nelson, Mark J.; Patnaik, Ranjan; Rothman, Steven Cary

    2017-10-17

    Provided herein are recombinant yeast host cells and methods for their use for production of isobutanol. Yeast host cells provided comprise an isobutanol biosynthetic pathway and at least one of reduced or eliminated aldehyde dehydrogenase activity, reduced or eliminated acetolactate reductase activity; or a heterologous polynucleotide encoding a polypeptide having ketol-acid reductoisomerase activity.

  19. Methods for production of proteins in host cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Mark; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2004-01-13

    The present invention provides methods for the production of proteins, particularly toxic proteins, in host cells. The invention provides methods which use a fusion protein comprising a chaperonin binding domain in host cells induced or regulated to have increased levels of chaperonin which binds the chaperonin binding domain.

  20. Genetic reprogramming of host cells by bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran Van Nhieu, Guy; Arbibe, Laurence

    2009-10-29

    During the course of infection, pathogens often induce changes in gene expression in host cells and these changes can be long lasting and global or transient and of limited amplitude. Defining how, when, and why bacterial pathogens reprogram host cells represents an exciting challenge that opens up the opportunity to grasp the essence of pathogenesis and its molecular details.

  1. Toxoplasmosis and Polygenic Disease Susceptibility Genes: Extensive Toxoplasma gondii Host/Pathogen Interactome Enrichment in Nine Psychiatric or Neurological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Carter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is not only implicated in schizophrenia and related disorders, but also in Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease, cancer, cardiac myopathies, and autoimmune disorders. During its life cycle, the pathogen interacts with ~3000 host genes or proteins. Susceptibility genes for multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, childhood obesity, Parkinson's disease, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (multiple sclerosis, and autism (, but not anorexia or chronic fatigue are highly enriched in the human arm of this interactome and 18 (ADHD to 33% (MS of the susceptibility genes relate to it. The signalling pathways involved in the susceptibility gene/interactome overlaps are relatively specific and relevant to each disease suggesting a means whereby susceptibility genes could orient the attentions of a single pathogen towards disruption of the specific pathways that together contribute (positively or negatively to the endophenotypes of different diseases. Conditional protein knockdown, orchestrated by T. gondii proteins or antibodies binding to those of the host (pathogen derived autoimmunity and metabolite exchange, may contribute to this disruption. Susceptibility genes may thus be related to the causes and influencers of disease, rather than (and as well as to the disease itself.

  2. How pathogens use linear motifs to perturb host cell networks

    KAUST Repository

    Via, Allegra; Uyar, Bora; Brun, Christine; Zanzoni, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Molecular mimicry is one of the powerful stratagems that pathogens employ to colonise their hosts and take advantage of host cell functions to guarantee their replication and dissemination. In particular, several viruses have evolved the ability to interact with host cell components through protein short linear motifs (SLiMs) that mimic host SLiMs, thus facilitating their internalisation and the manipulation of a wide range of cellular networks. Here we present convincing evidence from the literature that motif mimicry also represents an effective, widespread hijacking strategy in prokaryotic and eukaryotic parasites. Further insights into host motif mimicry would be of great help in the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms behind host cell invasion and the development of anti-infective therapeutic strategies.

  3. Inhibition of host cell translation elongation by Legionella pneumophila blocks the host cell unfolded protein response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempstead, Andrew D; Isberg, Ralph R

    2015-12-08

    Cells of the innate immune system recognize bacterial pathogens by detecting common microbial patterns as well as pathogen-specific activities. One system that responds to these stimuli is the IRE1 branch of the unfolded protein response (UPR), a sensor of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Activation of IRE1, in the context of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, induces strong proinflammatory cytokine induction. We show here that Legionella pneumophila, an intravacuolar pathogen that replicates in an ER-associated compartment, blocks activation of the IRE1 pathway despite presenting pathogen products that stimulate this response. L. pneumophila TLR ligands induced the splicing of mRNA encoding XBP1s, the main target of IRE1 activity. L. pneumophila was able to inhibit both chemical and bacterial induction of XBP1 splicing via bacterial translocated proteins that interfere with host protein translation. A strain lacking five translocated translation elongation inhibitors was unable to block XBP1 splicing, but this could be rescued by expression of a single such inhibitor, consistent with limitation of the response by translation elongation inhibitors. Chemical inhibition of translation elongation blocked pattern recognition receptor-mediated XBP1 splicing, mimicking the effects of the bacterial translation inhibitors. In contrast, host cell-promoted inhibition of translation initiation in response to the pathogen was ineffective in blocking XBP1 splicing, demonstrating the need for the elongation inhibitors for protection from the UPR. The inhibition of host translation elongation may be a common strategy used by pathogens to limit the innate immune response by interfering with signaling via the UPR.

  4. The other white-nose syndrome transcriptome: Tolerant and susceptible hosts respond differently to the pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, Christina M; Donaldson, Michael E; Willis, Craig K R; Saville, Barry J; McGuire, Liam P; Mayberry, Heather; Wilcox, Alana; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Misra, Vikram; Bollinger, Trent; Kyle, Christopher J

    2017-09-01

    Mitigation of emerging infectious diseases that threaten global biodiversity requires an understanding of critical host and pathogen responses to infection. For multihost pathogens where pathogen virulence or host susceptibility is variable, host-pathogen interactions in tolerant species may identify potential avenues for adaptive evolution in recently exposed, susceptible hosts. For example, the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans causes white-nose syndrome (WNS) in hibernating bats and is responsible for catastrophic declines in some species in North America, where it was recently introduced. Bats in Europe and Asia, where the pathogen is endemic, are only mildly affected. Different environmental conditions among Nearctic and Palearctic hibernacula have been proposed as an explanation for variable disease outcomes, but this hypothesis has not been experimentally tested. We report the first controlled, experimental investigation of response to P. destructans in a tolerant, European species of bat (the greater mouse-eared bat, Myotis myotis ). We compared body condition, disease outcomes and gene expression in control (sham-exposed) and exposed M. myotis that hibernated under controlled environmental conditions following treatment. Tolerant M. myotis experienced extremely limited fungal growth and did not exhibit symptoms of WNS. However, we detected no differential expression of genes associated with immune response in exposed bats, indicating that immune response does not drive tolerance of P. destructans in late hibernation. Variable responses to P. destructans among bat species cannot be attributed solely to environmental or ecological factors. Instead, our results implicate coevolution with the pathogen, and highlight the dynamic nature of the "white-nose syndrome transcriptome." Interspecific variation in response to exposure by the host (and possibly pathogen) emphasizes the importance of context in studies of the bat-WNS system, and robust

  5. Simultaneous transcriptional profiling of bacteria and their host cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Humphrys

    Full Text Available We developed an RNA-Seq-based method to simultaneously capture prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression profiles of cells infected with intracellular bacteria. As proof of principle, this method was applied to Chlamydia trachomatis-infected epithelial cell monolayers in vitro, successfully obtaining transcriptomes of both C. trachomatis and the host cells at 1 and 24 hours post-infection. Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens that cause a range of mammalian diseases. In humans chlamydiae are responsible for the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infections and trachoma (infectious blindness. Disease arises by adverse host inflammatory reactions that induce tissue damage & scarring. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying these outcomes. Chlamydia are genetically intractable as replication outside of the host cell is not yet possible and there are no practical tools for routine genetic manipulation, making genome-scale approaches critical. The early timeframe of infection is poorly understood and the host transcriptional response to chlamydial infection is not well defined. Our simultaneous RNA-Seq method was applied to a simplified in vitro model of chlamydial infection. We discovered a possible chlamydial strategy for early iron acquisition, putative immune dampening effects of chlamydial infection on the host cell, and present a hypothesis for Chlamydia-induced fibrotic scarring through runaway positive feedback loops. In general, simultaneous RNA-Seq helps to reveal the complex interplay between invading bacterial pathogens and their host mammalian cells and is immediately applicable to any bacteria/host cell interaction.

  6. Host manipulation by cancer cells: Expectations, facts, and therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissot, Tazzio; Arnal, Audrey; Jacqueline, Camille; Poulin, Robert; Lefèvre, Thierry; Mery, Frédéric; Renaud, François; Roche, Benjamin; Massol, François; Salzet, Michel; Ewald, Paul; Tasiemski, Aurélie; Ujvari, Beata; Thomas, Frédéric

    2016-03-01

    Similar to parasites, cancer cells depend on their hosts for sustenance, proliferation and reproduction, exploiting the hosts for energy and resources, and thereby impairing their health and fitness. Because of this lifestyle similarity, it is predicted that cancer cells could, like numerous parasitic organisms, evolve the capacity to manipulate the phenotype of their hosts to increase their own fitness. We claim that the extent of this phenomenon and its therapeutic implications are, however, underappreciated. Here, we review and discuss what can be regarded as cases of host manipulation in the context of cancer development and progression. We elaborate on how acknowledging the applicability of these principles can offer novel therapeutic and preventive strategies. The manipulation of host phenotype by cancer cells is one more reason to adopt a Darwinian approach in cancer research. © 2016 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Cell wall composition profiling of parasitic giant dodder (Cuscuta reflexa) and its hosts: a priori differences and induced changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Hanne R; Striberny, Bernd; Olsen, Stian; Vidal-Melgosa, Silvia; Fangel, Jonatan U; Willats, William G T; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Krause, Kirsten

    2015-08-01

    Host plant penetration is the gateway to survival for holoparasitic Cuscuta and requires host cell wall degradation. Compositional differences of cell walls may explain why some hosts are amenable to such degradation while others can resist infection. Antibody-based techniques for comprehensive profiling of cell wall epitopes and cell wall-modifying enzymes were applied to several susceptible hosts and a resistant host of Cuscuta reflexa and to the parasite itself. Infected tissue of Pelargonium zonale contained high concentrations of de-esterified homogalacturonans in the cell walls, particularly adjacent to the parasite's haustoria. High pectinolytic activity in haustorial extracts and high expression levels of pectate lyase genes suggest that the parasite contributes directly to wall remodeling. Mannan and xylan concentrations were low in P. zonale and in five susceptible tomato introgression lines, but high in the resistant Solanum lycopersicum cv M82, and in C. reflexa itself. Knowledge of the composition of resistant host cell walls and the parasite's own cell walls is useful in developing strategies to prevent infection by parasitic plants. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Susceptibility of Primary Human Choroid Plexus Epithelial Cells and Meningeal Cells to Infection by JC Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Bethany A; Gee, Gretchen V; Atwood, Walter J; Haley, Sheila A

    2018-04-15

    JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) establishes a lifelong persistence in roughly half the human population worldwide. The cells and tissues that harbor persistent virus in vivo are not known, but renal tubules and other urogenital epithelial cells are likely candidates as virus is shed in the urine of healthy individuals. In an immunosuppressed host, JCPyV can become reactivated and cause progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a fatal demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Recent observations indicate that JCPyV may productively interact with cells in the choroid plexus and leptomeninges. To further study JCPyV infection in these cells, primary human choroid plexus epithelial cells and meningeal cells were challenged with virus, and their susceptibility to infection was compared to the human glial cell line, SVG-A. We found that JCPyV productively infects both choroid plexus epithelial cells and meningeal cells in vitro Competition with the soluble receptor fragment LSTc reduced virus infection in these cells. Treatment of cells with neuraminidase also inhibited both viral infection and binding. Treatment with the serotonin receptor antagonist, ritanserin, reduced infection in SVG-A and meningeal cells. We also compared the ability of wild-type and sialic acid-binding mutant pseudoviruses to transduce these cells. Wild-type pseudovirus readily transduced all three cell types, but pseudoviruses harboring mutations in the sialic acid-binding pocket of the virus failed to transduce the cells. These data establish a novel role for choroid plexus and meninges in harboring virus that likely contributes not only to meningoencephalopathies but also to PML. IMPORTANCE JCPyV infects greater than half the human population worldwide and causes central nervous system disease in patients with weakened immune systems. Several recent reports have found JCPyV in the choroid plexus and leptomeninges of patients with encephalitis. Due to their role in forming the blood

  9. Fungal invasion of normally non-phagocytic host cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott G Filler

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Many fungi that cause invasive disease invade host epithelial cells during mucosal and respiratory infection, and subsequently invade endothelial cells during hematogenous infection. Most fungi invade these normally non-phagocytic host cells by inducing their own uptake. Candida albicans hyphae interact with endothelial cells in vitro by binding to N-cadherin on the endothelial cell surface. This binding induces rearrangement of endothelial cell microfilaments, which results in the endocytosis of the organism. The capsule of Cryptococcus neoformans is composed of glucuronoxylomannan, which binds specifically to brain endothelial cells, and appears to mediate both adherence and induction of endocytosis. The mechanisms by which other fungal pathogens induce their own uptake are largely unknown. Some angioinvasive fungi, such as Aspergillus species and the Zygomycetes, invade endothelial cells from the abluminal surface during the initiation of invasive disease, and subsequently invade the luminal surface of endothelial cells during hematogenous dissemination. Invasion of normally non-phagocytic host cells has different consequences, depending on the type of invading fungus. Aspergillus fumigatus blocks apoptosis of pulmonary epithelial cells, whereas Paracoccidioides brasiliensis induces apoptosis of epithelial cells. This review summarizes the mechanisms by which diverse fungal pathogens invade normally non-phagocytic host cells and discusses gaps in our knowledge that provide opportunities for future research.

  10. Lipids in host-pathogen interactions: pathogens exploit the complexity of the host cell lipidome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer-Janssen, Ynske P M; van Galen, Josse; Batenburg, Joseph J; Helms, J Bernd

    2010-01-01

    Lipids were long believed to have a structural role in biomembranes and a role in energy storage utilizing cellular lipid droplets and plasma lipoproteins. Research over the last decades has identified an additional role of lipids in cellular signaling, membrane microdomain organization and dynamics, and membrane trafficking. These properties make lipids an attractive target for pathogens to modulate host cell processes in order to allow their survival and replication. In this review we will summarize the often ingenious strategies of pathogens to modify the lipid homeostasis of host cells, allowing them to divert cellular processes. To this end pathogens take full advantage of the complexity of the lipidome. The examples are categorized in generalized and emerging principles describing the involvement of lipids in host-pathogen interactions. Several pathogens are described that simultaneously induce multiple changes in the host cell signaling and trafficking mechanisms. Elucidation of these pathogen-induced changes may have important implications for drug development. The emergence of high-throughput lipidomic techniques will allow the description of changes of the host cell lipidome at the level of individual molecular lipid species and the identification of lipid biomarkers.

  11. Host cells and methods for producing isoprenyl alkanoates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Taek Soon; Fortman, Jeffrey L.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2015-12-01

    The invention provides for a method of producing an isoprenyl alkanoate in a genetically modified host cell. In one embodiment, the method comprises culturing a genetically modified host cell which expresses an enzyme capable of catalyzing the esterification of an isoprenol and a straight-chain fatty acid, such as an alcohol acetyltransferase (AAT), wax ester synthase/diacylglycerol acyltransferase (WS/DGAT) or lipase, under a suitable condition so that the isoprenyl alkanoate is produced.

  12. Susceptibility to Phytophthora ramorum in California bay laurel, a key foliar host of sudden oak death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian L. Anacker; Nathan E. Rank; Daniel Hüberli; Matteo Garbelotto; Sarah Gordon; Rich Whitkus; Tami Harnik; Matthew Meshriy; Lori Miles; Ross K. Meentemeyer

    2008-01-01

    Sudden oak death, caused by the water mold Phytophthora ramorum, is a plant disease responsible for the death of hundreds of thousands of oak and tanoak trees. Some foliar hosts play a major role in the epidemiology of this disease. Upon infection by P. ramorum, these foliar hosts express non-fatal leaf lesions from which large...

  13. A multidirectional non-cell autonomous control and a genetic interaction restricting tobacco etch virus susceptibility in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Gopalan

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Viruses constitute a major class of pathogens that infect a variety of hosts. Understanding the intricacies of signaling during host-virus interactions should aid in designing disease prevention strategies and in understanding mechanistic aspects of host and pathogen signaling machinery.An Arabidopsis mutant, B149, impaired in susceptibility to Tobacco etch virus (TEV, a positive strand RNA virus of picoRNA family, was identified using a high-throughput genetic screen and a counterselection scheme. The defects include initiation of infection foci, rate of cell-to-cell movement and long distance movement.The defect in infectivity is conferred by a recessive locus. Molecular genetic analysis and complementation analysis with three alleles of a previously published mutant lsp1 (loss of susceptibility to potyviruses indicate a genetic interaction conferring haploinsufficiency between the B149 locus and certain alleles of lsp1 resulting in impaired host susceptibility. The pattern of restriction of TEV foci on leaves at or near the boundaries of certain cell types and leaf boundaries suggest dysregulation of a multidirectional non-cell autonomous regulatory mechanism. Understanding the nature of this multidirectional signal and the molecular genetic mechanism conferring it should potentially reveal a novel arsenal in the cellular machinery.

  14. Barley disease susceptibility factor RACB acts in epidermal cell polarity and positioning of the nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheler, Björn; Schnepf, Vera; Galgenmüller, Carolina; Ranf, Stefanie; Hückelhoven, Ralph

    2016-05-01

    RHO GTPases are regulators of cell polarity and immunity in eukaryotes. In plants, RHO-like RAC/ROP GTPases are regulators of cell shaping, hormone responses, and responses to microbial pathogens. The barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) RAC/ROP protein RACB is required for full susceptibility to penetration by Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei (Bgh), the barley powdery mildew fungus. Disease susceptibility factors often control host immune responses. Here we show that RACB does not interfere with early microbe-associated molecular pattern-triggered immune responses such as the oxidative burst or activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases. RACB also supports rather than restricts expression of defence-related genes in barley. Instead, silencing of RACB expression by RNAi leads to defects in cell polarity. In particular, initiation and maintenance of root hair growth and development of stomatal subsidiary cells by asymmetric cell division is affected by silencing expression of RACB. Nucleus migration is a common factor of developmental cell polarity and cell-autonomous interaction with Bgh RACB is required for positioning of the nucleus near the site of attack from Bgh We therefore suggest that Bgh profits from RACB's function in cell polarity rather than from immunity-regulating functions of RACB. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  15. Comparative Analysis of Host Cell Entry of Ebola Virus From Sierra Leone, 2014, and Zaire, 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann-Winkler, Heike; Gnirß, Kerstin; Wrensch, Florian; Pöhlmann, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    The ongoing Ebola virus (EBOV) disease (EVD) epidemic in Western Africa is the largest EVD outbreak recorded to date and requires the rapid development and deployment of antiviral measures. The viral glycoprotein (GP) facilitates host cell entry and, jointly with cellular interaction partners, constitutes a potential target for antiviral intervention. However, it is unknown whether the GPs of the currently and previously circulating EBOVs use the same mechanisms for cellular entry and are thus susceptible to inhibition by the same antivirals and cellular defenses. Here, we show that the GPs of the EBOVs circulating in 1976 and 2014 transduce the same spectrum of target cells, use the same cellular factors for host cell entry, and are comparably susceptible to blockade by antiviral interferon-induced transmembrane proteins and neutralizing antibody KZ52. Thus, the viruses responsible for the ongoing EVD epidemic should be fully susceptible to established antiviral strategies targeting GP and cellular entry factors. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  16. Effects of host injury on susceptibility of marine reef fishes to ectoparasitic gnathiid isopods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, William G.; Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.; Sikkel, Paul C.

    2018-01-01

    The importance of the role that parasites play in ecological communities is becoming increasingly apparent. However much about their impact on hosts and thus populations and communities remains poorly understood. A common observation in wild populations is high variation in levels of parasite infestation among hosts. While high variation could be due to chance encounter, there is increasing evidence to suggest that such patterns are due to a combination of environmental, host, and parasite factors. In order to examine the role of host condition on parasite infection, rates of Gnathia marleyi infestation were compared between experimentally injured and uninjured fish hosts. Experimental injuries were similar to the minor wounds commonly observed in nature. The presence of the injury significantly increased the probability of infestation by gnathiids. However, the level of infestation (i.e., total number of gnathiid parasites) for individual hosts, appeared to be unaffected by the treatment. The results from this study indicate that injuries obtained by fish in nature may carry the additional cost of increased parasite burden along with the costs typically associated with physical injury. These results suggest that host condition may be an important factor in determining the likelihood of infestation by a common coral reef fish ectoparasite, G. marleyi.

  17. Myxoma virus in the European rabbit: interactions between the virus and its susceptible host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Marianne M; Werden, Steven J; McFadden, Grant

    2007-01-01

    Myxoma virus (MV) is a poxvirus that evolved in Sylvilagus lagomorphs, and is the causative agent of myxomatosis in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). This virus is not a natural pathogen of O. cuniculus, yet is able to subvert the host rabbit immune system defenses and cause a highly lethal systemic infection. The interaction of MV proteins and the rabbit immune system has been an ideal model to help elucidate host/poxvirus interactions, and has led to a greater understanding of how other poxvirus pathogens are able to cause disease in their respective hosts. This review will examine how MV causes myxomatosis, by examining a selection of the identified immunomodulatory proteins that this virus expresses to subvert the immune and inflammatory pathways of infected rabbit hosts.

  18. Corals hosting symbiotic hydrozoans are less susceptible to predation and disease

    KAUST Repository

    Montano, Simone; Fattorini, Simone; Parravicini, Valeriano; Berumen, Michael L.; Galli, Paolo; Maggioni, Davide; Arrigoni, Roberto; Seveso, Davide; Strona, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    for our understanding of the ecology of coral reefs, and for their conservation in the current scenario of global change, because it suggests that symbiotic hydrozoans may play an active role in protecting their scleractinian hosts from stresses induced

  19. The common mouse protozoa Tritrichomonas muris alters mucosal T cell homeostasis and colitis susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante, Nichole K; Lemire, Paul; Cruz Tleugabulova, Mayra; Prescott, David; Mortha, Arthur; Streutker, Catherine J; Girardin, Stephen E; Philpott, Dana J; Mallevaey, Thierry

    2016-12-12

    The mammalian gastrointestinal tract hosts a diverse community of microbes including bacteria, fungi, protozoa, helminths, and viruses. Through coevolution, mammals and these microbes have developed a symbiosis that is sustained through the host's continuous sensing of microbial factors and the generation of a tolerant or pro-inflammatory response. While analyzing T cell-driven colitis in nonlittermate mouse strains, we serendipitously identified that a nongenetic transmissible factor dramatically increased disease susceptibility. We identified the protozoan Tritrichomonas muris as the disease-exacerbating element. Furthermore, experimental colonization with T. muris induced an elevated Th1 response in the cecum of naive wild-type mice and accelerated colitis in Rag1 -/- mice after T cell transfer. Overall, we describe a novel cross-kingdom interaction within the murine gut that alters immune cell homeostasis and disease susceptibility. This example of unpredicted microbial priming of the immune response highlights the importance of studying trans-kingdom interactions and serves as a stark reminder of the importance of using littermate controls in all mouse research. © 2016 Escalante et al.

  20. Bystander Host Cell Killing Effects of Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Shrestha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE binds to claudin receptors, e.g., claudin-4, and then forms a pore that triggers cell death. Pure cultures of host cells that do not express claudin receptors, e.g., fibroblasts, are unaffected by pathophysiologically relevant CPE concentrations in vitro. However, both CPE-insensitive and CPE-sensitive host cells are present in vivo. Therefore, this study tested whether CPE treatment might affect fibroblasts when cocultured with CPE-sensitive claudin-4 fibroblast transfectants or Caco-2 cells. Under these conditions, immunofluorescence microscopy detected increased death of fibroblasts. This cytotoxic effect involved release of a toxic factor from the dying CPE-sensitive cells, since it could be reproduced using culture supernatants from CPE-treated sensitive cells. Supernatants from CPE-treated sensitive cells, particularly Caco-2 cells, were found to contain high levels of membrane vesicles, often containing a CPE species. However, most cytotoxic activity remained in those supernatants even after membrane vesicle depletion, and CPE was not detected in fibroblasts treated with supernatants from CPE-treated sensitive cells. Instead, characterization studies suggest that a major cytotoxic factor present in supernatants from CPE-treated sensitive cells may be a 10- to 30-kDa host serine protease or require the action of that host serine protease. Induction of caspase-3-mediated apoptosis was found to be important for triggering release of the cytotoxic factor(s from CPE-treated sensitive host cells. Furthermore, the cytotoxic factor(s in these supernatants was shown to induce a caspase-3-mediated killing of fibroblasts. This bystander killing effect due to release of cytotoxic factors from CPE-treated sensitive cells could contribute to CPE-mediated disease.

  1. Transcriptome and microRNome of Theileria annulata Host Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Rchiad, Zineb

    2016-06-01

    Tropical Theileriosis is a parasitic disease of calves with a profound economic impact caused by Theileria annulata, an apicomplexan parasite of the genus Theileria. Transmitted by Hyalomma ticks, T. annulata infects and transforms bovine lymphocytes and macrophages into a cancer-like phenotype characterized by all six hallmarks of cancer. In the current study we investigate the transcriptional landscape of T. annulata-infected lymphocytes to define genes and miRNAs regulated by host cell transformation using next generation sequencing. We also define genes and miRNAs differentially expressed as a result of the attenuation of a T.annulata-infected macrophage cell line used as a vaccine. By comparing the transcriptional landscape of one attenuated and two transformed cell lines we identify four genes that we propose as key factors in transformation and virulence of the T. annulata host cells. We also identify miR- 126-5p as a key regulator of infected cells proliferation, adhesion, survival and invasiveness. In addition to the host cell trascriptome we studied T. annulata transcriptome and identified the role of ROS and TGF-β2 in controlling parasite gene expression. Moreover, we have used the deep parasite ssRNA-seq data to refine the available T. annulata annotation. Taken together, this study provides the full list of host cell’s genes and miRNAs transcriptionally perturbed after infection with T. annulata and after attenuation and describes genes and miRNAs never identified before as players in this type of host cell transformation. Moreover, this study provides the first database for the transcriptome of T. annulata and its host cells using next generation sequencing.

  2. Insights into Host Cell Modulation and Induction of New Cells by the Corn Smut Ustilago maydis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amey Redkar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Many filamentous fungal pathogens induce drastic modulation of host cells causing abnormal infectious structures such as galls, or tumors that arise as a result of re-programming in the original developmental cell fate of a colonized host cell. Developmental consequences occur predominantly with biotrophic phytopathogens. This suggests that these host structures result as an outcome of efficient defense suppression and intimate fungal–host interaction to suit the pathogen’s needs for completion of its infection cycle. This mini-review mainly summarizes host cell re-programming that occurs in the Ustilago maydis – maize interaction, in which the pathogen deploys cell-type specific effector proteins with varying activities. The fungus senses the physiological status and identity of colonized host cells and re-directs the endogenous developmental program of its host. The disturbance of host cell physiology and cell fate leads to novel cell shapes, increased cell size, and/or the number of host cells. We particularly highlight the strategies of U. maydis to induce physiologically varied host organs to form the characteristic tumors in both vegetative and floral parts of maize.

  3. Degree of host susceptibility in the initial disease outbreak influences subsequent epidemic spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severns, Paul M.; Estep, Laura K.; Sackett, Kathryn E.; Mundt, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Disease epidemics typically begin as an outbreak of a relatively small, spatially explicit population of infected individuals (focus), in which disease prevalence increases and rapidly spreads into the uninfected, at-risk population. Studies of epidemic spread typically address factors influencing disease spread through the at-risk population, but the initial outbreak may strongly influence spread of the subsequent epidemic.We initiated wheat stripe rust Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici epidemics to assess the influence of the focus on final disease prevalence when the degree of disease susceptibility differed between the at-risk and focus populations.When the focus/at-risk plantings consisted of partially genetic resistant and susceptible cultivars, final disease prevalence was statistically indistinguishable from epidemics produced by the focus cultivar in monoculture. In these experimental epidemics, disease prevalence was not influenced by the transition into an at-risk population that differed in disease susceptibility. Instead, the focus appeared to exert a dominant influence on the subsequent epidemic.Final disease prevalence was not consistently attributable to either the focus or the at-risk population when focus/at-risk populations were planted in a factorial set-up with a mixture (~28% susceptible and 72% resistant) and susceptible individuals. In these experimental epidemics, spatial heterogeneity in disease susceptibility within the at-risk population appeared to counter the dominant influence of the focus.Cessation of spore production from the focus (through fungicide/glyphosate application) after 1.3 generations of stripe rust spread did not reduce final disease prevalence, indicating that the focus influence on disease spread is established early in the epidemic.Synthesis and applications. Our experiments indicated that outbreak conditions can be highly influential on epidemic spread, even when disease resistance in the at-risk population

  4. Defective IL-17- and IL-22-dependent mucosal host response to Candida albicans determines susceptibility to oral candidiasis in mice expressing the HIV-1 transgene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goupil, Mathieu; Cousineau-Côté, Vincent; Aumont, Francine; Sénéchal, Serge; Gaboury, Louis; Hanna, Zaher; Jolicoeur, Paul; de Repentigny, Louis

    2014-10-26

    The tissue-signaling cytokines IL-17 and IL-22 are critical to host defense against oral Candida albicans infection, by their induction of oral antimicrobial peptide expression and recruitment of neutrophils. Mucosal Th17 cells which produce these cytokines are preferentially depleted in HIV-infected patients. Here, we tested the hypothesis that defective IL-17- and IL-22-dependent host responses to C. albicans determine the phenotype of susceptibility to oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) in transgenic (Tg) mice expressing HIV-1. Naïve CD4+ T-cells and the differentiated Th1, Th2, Th17, Th1Th17 and Treg lineages were all profoundly depleted in cervical lymph nodes (CLNs) of these Tg mice. However, naive CD4+ cells from Tg mice maintained the capacity to differentiate into these lineages in response to polarizing cytokines in vitro. Expression of Il17, Il22, S100a8 and Ccl20 was enhanced in oral mucosal tissue of non-Tg, but not of Tg mice, after oral infection with C. albicans. Treatment of infected Tg mice with the combination of IL-17 and IL-22, but not IL-17 or Il-22 alone, significantly reduced oral burdens of C. albicans and abundance of Candida hyphae in the epithelium of tongues of infected Tg mice, and restored the ability of the Tg mice to up-regulate expression of S100a8 and Ccl20 in response to C. albicans infection. These findings demonstrate that defective IL-17- and IL-22-dependent induction of innate mucosal immunity to C. albicans is central to the phenotype of susceptibility to OPC in these HIV transgenic mice.

  5. Host cells and methods for producing diacid compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steen, Eric J.; Fortman, Jeffrey L.; Dietrich, Jeffrey A.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2018-04-24

    The present invention provides for a method of producing one or more fatty acid derived dicarboxylic acids in a genetically modified host cell which does not naturally produce the one or more derived fatty acid derived dicarboxylic acids. The invention provides for the biosynthesis of dicarboxylic acid ranging in length from C3 to C26. The host cell can be further modified to increase fatty acid production or export of the desired fatty acid derived compound, and/or decrease fatty acid storage or metabolism.

  6. Host and Potential Vector Susceptibility to an Emerging Orbivirus in the United States: Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus Serotype 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruder, M G; Stallknecht, D E; Allison, A B; Mead, D G; Carter, D L; Howerth, E W

    2016-05-01

    Epizootic hemorrhagic disease viruses (EHDVs) are orbiviruses transmitted by Culicoides biting midges to domestic and wild ruminants. EHDV-1 and EHDV-2 are endemic in the United States, where epizootic hemorrhagic disease is the most significant viral disease of white-tailed deer (WTD;Odocoileus virginianus) and reports of epizootic hemorrhagic disease in cattle are increasing. In 2006, a reassortant EHDV-6 was isolated from dead WTD in Indiana and has been detected each subsequent year over a wide geographic region. Since EHDV-6 is not a historically endemic serotype in the United States, it is important to understand infection outcome in potential hosts. Specifically, we aimed to evaluate the pathogenicity of the virus in 2 primary US ruminant hosts (WTD and cattle) and the susceptibility of a confirmed US vector (Culicoides sonorensis). Five WTD and 4 cattle were inoculated with >10(6)TCID50EHDV-6 by intradermal and subcutaneous injection. All 5 WTD exhibited moderate to severe disease, and 3 died. Viremia was first detected 3 to 5 days postinfection (dpi) with surviving animals seroconverting by 10 dpi. Two of 4 inoculated cattle had detectable viremia, 5 to 10 dpi and 7 to 24 dpi, respectively. No clinical, hematologic, or pathologic abnormalities were observed. Antibodies were detected by 10 dpi in 3 of 4 cows.C. sonorensis were fed on WTD blood spiked with EHDV-6 and held for 4 to 14 days postfeeding at 25°C. From 4 to 14 days postfeeding, 19 of 171 midges were virus isolation positive and 6 of 171 had ≥10(2.7)TCID50EHDV-6. Although outcomes varied, these studies demonstrate the susceptibility of ruminant and vector hosts in the United States for this recently emerged EHDV serotype. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Genetic Susceptibility to Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacko, Martin [Department of Otorhinolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands); Braakhuis, Boudewijn J.M. [Department of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sturgis, Erich M. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery and Department of Epidemiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Boedeker, Carsten C. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, Albert-Ludwigs-University, Freiburg, Germany and Department of Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, HELIOS Hanseklinikum Stralsund, Stralsund (Germany); Suárez, Carlos [Department of Otolaryngology, Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias, Oviedo (Spain); Instituto Universitario de Oncología del Principado de Asturias, Oviedo (Spain); Rinaldo, Alessandra; Ferlito, Alfio [ENT Clinic, University of Udine, Udine (Italy); Takes, Robert P., E-mail: robert.takes@radboudumc.nl [Department of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2014-05-01

    Head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide, and its incidence is growing. Although environmental carcinogens and carcinogenic viruses are the main etiologic factors, genetic predisposition obviously plays a risk-modulating role, given that not all individuals exposed to these carcinogens experience the disease. This review highlights some aspects of genetic susceptibility to HNSCC: among others, genetic polymorphisms in biotransformation enzymes, DNA repair pathway, apoptotic pathway, human papillomavirus-related pathways, mitochondrial polymorphisms, and polymorphism related to the bilirubin-metabolized pathway. Furthermore, epigenetic variations, familial forms of HNSCC, functional assays for HNSCC risk assessment, and the implications and perspectives of research on genetic susceptibility in HNSCC are discussed.

  8. Genetic Susceptibility to Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacko, Martin; Braakhuis, Boudewijn J.M.; Sturgis, Erich M.; Boedeker, Carsten C.; Suárez, Carlos; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Ferlito, Alfio; Takes, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    Head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide, and its incidence is growing. Although environmental carcinogens and carcinogenic viruses are the main etiologic factors, genetic predisposition obviously plays a risk-modulating role, given that not all individuals exposed to these carcinogens experience the disease. This review highlights some aspects of genetic susceptibility to HNSCC: among others, genetic polymorphisms in biotransformation enzymes, DNA repair pathway, apoptotic pathway, human papillomavirus-related pathways, mitochondrial polymorphisms, and polymorphism related to the bilirubin-metabolized pathway. Furthermore, epigenetic variations, familial forms of HNSCC, functional assays for HNSCC risk assessment, and the implications and perspectives of research on genetic susceptibility in HNSCC are discussed

  9. ARF6, PI3-kinase and host cell actin cytoskeleton in Toxoplasma gondii cell invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira da Silva, Claudio; Alves da Silva, Erika; Costa Cruz, Mario; Chavrier, Philippe; Arruda Mortara, Renato

    2009-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infects a variety of different cell types in a range of different hosts. Host cell invasion by T. gondii occurs by active penetration of the host cell, a process previously described as independent of host actin polymerization. Also, the parasitophorous vacuole has been shown to resist fusion with endocytic and exocytic pathways of the host cell. ADP-ribosylation factor-6 (ARF6) belongs to the ARF family of small GTP-binding proteins. ARF6 regulates membrane trafficking and actin cytoskeleton rearrangements at the plasma membrane. Here, we have observed that ARF6 is recruited to the parasitophorous vacuole of tachyzoites of T. gondii RH strain and it also plays an important role in the parasite cell invasion with activation of PI3-kinase and recruitment of PIP 2 and PIP 3 to the parasitophorous vacuole of invading parasites. Moreover, it was verified that maintenance of host cell actin cytoskeleton integrity is important to parasite invasion.

  10. Lipid exchange between Borrelia burgdorferi and host cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameson T Crowley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, has cholesterol and cholesterol-glycolipids that are essential for bacterial fitness, are antigenic, and could be important in mediating interactions with cells of the eukaryotic host. We show that the spirochetes can acquire cholesterol from plasma membranes of epithelial cells. In addition, through fluorescent and confocal microscopy combined with biochemical approaches, we demonstrated that B. burgdorferi labeled with the fluorescent cholesterol analog BODIPY-cholesterol or (3H-labeled cholesterol transfer both cholesterol and cholesterol-glycolipids to HeLa cells. The transfer occurs through two different mechanisms, by direct contact between the bacteria and eukaryotic cell and/or through release of outer membrane vesicles. Thus, two-way lipid exchange between spirochetes and host cells can occur. This lipid exchange could be an important process that contributes to the pathogenesis of Lyme disease.

  11. Use of a Regression Model to Study Host-Genomic Determinants of Phage Susceptibility in MRSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zschach, Henrike; Larsen, Mette V; Hasman, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    strains to 12 (nine monovalent) different therapeutic phage preparations and subsequently employed linear regression models to estimate the influence of individual host gene families on resistance to phages. Specifically, we used a two-step regression model setup with a preselection step based on gene...... family enrichment. We show that our models are robust and capture the data's underlying signal by comparing their performance to that of models build on randomized data. In doing so, we have identified 167 gene families that govern phage resistance in our strain set and performed functional analysis...... on them. This revealed genes of possible prophage or mobile genetic element origin, along with genes involved in restriction-modification and transcription regulators, though the majority were genes of unknown function. This study is a step in the direction of understanding the intricate host...

  12. Diversity of susceptible hosts in canine distemper virus infection: a systematic review and data synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Gutierrez, Marlen; Ruiz-Saenz, Julian

    2016-05-12

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is the etiological agent of one of the most infectious diseases of domestic dogs, also known as a highly prevalent viral infectious disease of carnivores and posing a conservation threat to endangered species around the world. To get a better panorama of CDV infection in different Orders, a retrospective and documental systematic review of the role of CDV in different non-dog hosts was conducted. The bibliographical data were collected from MedLine/PubMed and Scopus databases. Data related to Order, Family, Genus and Species of the infected animals, the presence or absence of clinical signs, mortality, serological, molecular or antigenic confirmation of CDV infection, geographic location, were collected and summarized. Two hundred seventeen scientific articles were considered eligible which includes reports of serological evaluation, and antigenic or genomic confirmation of CDV infection in non-dog hosts. CDV infects naturally and experimentally different members of the Orders Carnivora (in 12 Families), Rodentia (four Families), Primates (two Families), Artiodactyla (three Families) and Proboscidea (one Family). The Order Carnivora (excluding domestic dogs) accounts for the vast majority (87.5%) of the records. Clinical disease associated with CDV infection was reported in 51.8% of the records and serological evidence of CDV infection in apparently healthy animals was found in 49.5% of the records. High mortality rate was showed in some of the recorded infections in Orders different to Carnivora. In non-dog hosts, CDV has been reported all continents with the exception of Australasia and in 43 different countries. The results of this systematic review demonstrate that CDV is able to infect a very wide range of host species from many different Orders and emphasizes the potential threat of infection for endangered wild species as well as raising concerns about potential zoonotic threats following the cessation of large-scale measles

  13. Gastrointestinal helminths may affect host susceptibility to anthrax through seasonal immune trade-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizauskas, Carrie A; Turner, Wendy C; Wagner, Bettina; Küsters, Martina; Vance, Russell E; Getz, Wayne M

    2014-11-12

    Most vertebrates experience coinfections, and many pathogen-pathogen interactions occur indirectly through the host immune system. These interactions are particularly strong in mixed micro-macroparasite infections because of immunomodulatory effects of helminth parasites. While these trade-offs have been examined extensively in laboratory animals, few studies have examined them in natural systems. Additionally, many wildlife pathogens fluctuate seasonally, at least partly due to seasonal host immune changes. We therefore examined seasonality of immune resource allocation, pathogen abundance and exposure, and interactions between infections and immunity in plains zebra (Equus quagga) in Etosha National Park (ENP), Namibia, a system with strongly seasonal patterns of gastrointestinal (GI) helminth infection intensity and concurrent anthrax outbreaks. Both pathogens are environmentally transmitted, and helminth seasonality is driven by environmental pressures on free living life stages. The reasons behind anthrax seasonality are currently not understood, though anthrax is less likely directly driven by environmental factors. We measured a complex, interacting set of variables and found evidence that GI helminth infection intensities, eosinophil counts, IgE and IgGb antibody titers, and possibly IL-4 cytokine signaling were increased in wetter seasons, and that ectoparasite infestations and possibly IFN-γ cytokine signaling were increased in drier seasons. Monocyte counts and anti-anthrax antibody titers were negatively associated with wet season eosinophilia, and monocytes were negatively correlated with IgGb and IgE titers. Taken together, this supports the hypothesis that ENP wet seasons are characterized by immune resource allocation toward Th-2 type responses, while Th1-type immunity may prevail in drier seasons, and that hosts may experience Th1-Th2 trade-offs. We found evidence that this Th2-type resource allocation is likely driven by GI parasite infections

  14. Host genetics in granuloma formation: human-like lung pathology in mice with reciprocal genetic susceptibility to M. tuberculosis and M. avium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Kondratieva

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Development of lung granulomata is a hallmark of infections caused by virulent mycobacteria, reflecting both protective host response that restricts infection spreading and inflammatory pathology. The role of host genetics in granuloma formation is not well defined. Earlier we have shown that mice of the I/St strain are extremely susceptible to Mycobacterium tuberculosis but resistant to M. avium infection, whereas B6 mice show a reversed pattern of susceptibility. Here, by directly comparing: (i characteristics of susceptibility to two infections in vivo; (ii architecture of lung granulomata assessed by immune staining; and (iii expression of genes encoding regulatory factors of neutrophil influx in the lung tissue, we demonstrate that genetic susceptibility of the host largely determines the pattern of lung pathology. Necrotizing granuloma surrounded by hypoxic zones, as well as a massive neutrophil influx, develop in the lungs of M. avium-infected B6 mice and in the lungs of M. tuberculosis-infected I/St mice, but not in the lungs of corresponding genetically resistant counterparts. The mirror-type lung tissue responses to two virulent mycobacteria indicate that the level of genetic susceptibility of the host to a given mycobacterial species largely determines characteristics of pathology, and directly demonstrate the importance of host genetics in pathogenesis.

  15. Host defense, dendritic cells and the human lung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.W. van Haarst (Jan Maarten)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractHost defense mechanisms protect the body against microorganisms and other foreign structures. These mechanisms can be divided in nonspecific, or innate, and specific, or acquired, immunity. In both branches of immunity the several types of leukocytes (white blood cells) play a dominant

  16. Regulatory T Cells and Host Anti-CML Responses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wong, Jr, K. K

    2008-01-01

    CD4+CD25+FoxP-3+ regulatory T-cells (Tregs) suppress immune responses to "self" antigens, but also have been shown to suppress host anti-tumor responses in several human malignancies, including breast, gastrointestinal, and ovarian cancer...

  17. Acidosis increases the susceptibility of respiratory epithelial cells to Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Iviana M; Demirdjian, Sally; Vargas, Jennifer; Goodale, Britton C; Berwin, Brent

    2017-07-01

    Bacterial infection can lead to acidosis of the local microenvironment, which is believed to exacerbate disease pathogenesis; however, the mechanisms by which changes in pH alter disease progression are poorly understood. We test the hypothesis that acidosis enhances respiratory epithelial cell death in response to infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa Our findings support the idea that acidosis in the context of P. aeruginosa infection results in increased epithelial cell cytotoxicity due to ExoU intoxication. Importantly, enforced maintenance of neutral pH during P. aeruginosa infection demonstrates that cytotoxicity is dependent on the acidosis. Investigation of the underlying mechanisms revealed that host cell cytotoxicity correlated with increased bacterial survival during an acidic infection that was due to reduced bactericidal activity of host-derived antimicrobial peptides. These findings extend previous reports that the activities of antimicrobial peptides are pH-dependent and provide novel insights into the consequences of acidosis on infection-derived pathology. Therefore, this report provides the first evidence that physiological levels of acidosis increase the susceptibility of epithelial cells to acute Pseudomonas infection and demonstrates the benefit of maintaining pH homeostasis during a bacterial infection. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Perspectives on the Trypanosoma cruzi–host cell receptor interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalta, Fernando; Scharfstein, Julio; Ashton, Anthony W.; Tyler, Kevin M.; Guan, Fangxia; Mukherjee, Shankar; Lima, Maria F.; Alvarez, Sandra; Weiss, Louis M.; Huang, Huan; Machado, Fabiana S.

    2009-01-01

    Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. The critical initial event is the interaction of the trypomastigote form of the parasite with host receptors. This review highlights recent observations concerning these interactions. Some of the key receptors considered are those for thromboxane, bradykinin, and for the nerve growth factor TrKA. Other important receptors such as galectin-3, thrombospondin, and laminin are also discussed. Investigation into the molecular biology and cell biology of host receptors for T. cruzi may provide novel therapeutic targets. PMID:19283409

  19. Effect of antiviral treatment and host susceptibility on positive selection in hepatitis C virus (HCV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Hernández, Nuria; Sentandreu, Vicente; Castro, José A; Torres-Puente, Manuela; Bracho, Alma; García-Robles, Inmaculada; Ortega, Enrique; Del Olmo, Juan; Carnicer, Fernando; González-Candelas, Fernando; Moya, Andrés

    2008-02-01

    We have conducted a large sequence study of the E1-E2 and NS5A regions of the HCV, subtypes 1a and b, both in patients previously treated with interferon, and untreated patients, who later responded, or not, to a combination therapy based on interferon plus ribavirin. We have examined the role played by the number of positively selected sites on disease progression and its relationship with several variables such as patients' age, sex and their risk of acquiring the disease. We have detected three groups of patients that respond or not to combination therapy: responders of intermediate age, older non-responders and young non-responders, they possess an increasing average number of positively selected sites in the E1-E2 region, respectively. We conclude that the host's genetic factors play an important role in whether the disease is contained or becomes chronic.

  20. [NKT cells and graft-versus-host disease-review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Hao, Sha; Yuan, Wei-Ping; Cheng, Tao

    2013-10-01

    NKT cells (nature killer T cells), as a regulatory cellular compartment in the immune system, express cell surface markers of T cells and NK cells. It secretes a variety of cytokines that stimulate specific antigens. Through regulating the balance of Th1/Th2, the NKT cells play an important role in prevention and treatment of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Its antitumor and anti-infectious effects serve as a basis of its application in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. A better understanding of the biological and immunological features of NKT cell, as well as its specific immune regulatory mechanisms, will further justify the rationales of using NKT cells in the management of GVHD for patients. In this review, the biologic properties, classification, differentiation and development, immune activation of NKT cells as well as the NKT cells and GVHD including the related mechanisms of prevention and treatment of GVHD with NKT cells, NKT cells and tumors, NKT cells and infection, and NKT cells and clinical GVHD are summarized.

  1. Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: Prion Pathology in Medulla Oblongata-Possible Routes of Infection and Host Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacono, Diego; Ferrari, Sergio; Gelati, Matteo; Zanusso, Gianluigi; Mariotto, Sara; Monaco, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), the most frequent human prion disorder, is characterized by remarkable phenotypic variability, which is influenced by the conformation of the pathologic prion protein and the methionine/valine polymorphic codon 129 of the prion protein gene. While the etiology of sCJD remains unknown, it has been hypothesized that environmental exposure to prions might occur through conjunctival/mucosal contact, oral ingestion, inhalation, or simultaneous involvement of the olfactory and enteric systems. We studied 21 subjects with definite sCJD to assess neuropathological involvement of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus and other medullary nuclei and to evaluate possible associations with codon 129 genotype and prion protein conformation. The present data show that prion protein deposition was detected in medullary nuclei of distinct sCJD subtypes, either valine homozygous or heterozygous at codon 129. These findings suggest that an "environmental exposure" might occur, supporting the hypothesis that external sources of contamination could contribute to sCJD in susceptible hosts. Furthermore, these novel data could shed the light on possible causes of sCJD through a "triple match" hypothesis that identify environmental exposure, host genotype, and direct exposure of specific anatomical regions as possible pathogenetic factors.

  2. Characterisation of cell death inducing Phytophthora capsici CRN effectors suggests diverse activities in the host nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remco eStam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant-Microbe interactions are complex associations that feature recognition of Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns by the plant immune system and dampening of subsequent responses by pathogen encoded secreted effectors. With large effector repertoires now identified in a range of sequenced microbial genomes, much attention centres on understanding their roles in immunity or disease. These studies not only allow identification of pathogen virulence factors and strategies, they also provide an important molecular toolset suited for studying immunity in plants. The Phytophthora intracellular effector repertoire encodes a large class of proteins that translocate into host cells and exclusively target the host nucleus. Recent functional studies have implicated the CRN protein family as an important class of diverse effectors that target distinct subnuclear compartments and modify host cell signalling. Here, we characterised three necrosis inducing CRNs and show that there are differences in the levels of cell death. We show that only expression of CRN20_624 has an additive effect on PAMP induced cell death but not AVR3a induced ETI. Given their distinctive phenotypes, we assessed localisation of each CRN with a set of nuclear markers and found clear differences in CRN subnuclear distribution patterns. These assays also revealed that expression of CRN83_152 leads to a distinct change in nuclear chromatin organisation, suggesting a distinct series of events that leads to cell death upon over-expression. Taken together, our results suggest diverse functions carried by CRN C-termini, which can be exploited to identify novel processes that take place in the host nucleus and are required for immunity or susceptibility.

  3. Arsenic mediated disruption of promyelocytic leukemia protein nuclear bodies induces ganciclovir susceptibility in Epstein-Barr positive epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sides, Mark D.; Block, Gregory J.; Shan, Bin; Esteves, Kyle C.; Lin, Zhen; Flemington, Erik K.; Lasky, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    Promyelocytic leukemia protein nuclear bodies (PML NBs) have been implicated in host immune response to viral infection. PML NBs are targeted for degradation during reactivation of herpes viruses, suggesting that disruption of PML NB function supports this aspect of the viral life cycle. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) Latent Membrane Protein 1 (LMP1) has been shown to suppress EBV reactivation. Our finding that LMP1 induces PML NB immunofluorescence intensity led to the hypothesis that LMP1 may modulate PML NBs as a means of maintaining EBV latency. Increased PML protein and morphometric changes in PML NBs were observed in EBV infected alveolar epithelial cells and nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. Treatment with low dose arsenic trioxide disrupted PML NBs, induced expression of EBV lytic proteins, and conferred ganciclovir susceptibility. This study introduces an effective modality to induce susceptibility to ganciclovir in epithelial cells with implications for the treatment of EBV associated pathologies.

  4. Metal binding proteins, recombinant host cells and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Anne O.; Caguiat, Jonathan J.

    2004-06-15

    The present disclosure provides artificial heavy metal binding proteins termed chelons by the inventors. These chelons bind cadmium and/or mercuric ions with relatively high affinity. Also disclosed are coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules and recombinant host cells comprising those recombinant DNA molecules for expression of the chelon proteins. In the recombinant host cells or transgenic plants, the chelons can be used to bind heavy metals taken up from contaminated soil, groundwater or irrigation water and to concentrate and sequester those ions. Recombinant enteric bacteria can be used within the gastrointestinal tracts of animals or humans exposed to toxic metal ions such as mercury and/or cadmium, where the chelon recombinantly expressed in chosen in accordance with the ion to be rededicated. Alternatively, the chelons can be immobilized to solid supports to bind and concentrate heavy metals from a contaminated aqueous medium including biological fluids.

  5. Dual analysis of the murine cytomegalovirus and host cell transcriptomes reveal new aspects of the virus-host cell interface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanda Juranic Lisnic

    Full Text Available Major gaps in our knowledge of pathogen genes and how these gene products interact with host gene products to cause disease represent a major obstacle to progress in vaccine and antiviral drug development for the herpesviruses. To begin to bridge these gaps, we conducted a dual analysis of Murine Cytomegalovirus (MCMV and host cell transcriptomes during lytic infection. We analyzed the MCMV transcriptome during lytic infection using both classical cDNA cloning and sequencing of viral transcripts and next generation sequencing of transcripts (RNA-Seq. We also investigated the host transcriptome using RNA-Seq combined with differential gene expression analysis, biological pathway analysis, and gene ontology analysis. We identify numerous novel spliced and unspliced transcripts of MCMV. Unexpectedly, the most abundantly transcribed viral genes are of unknown function. We found that the most abundant viral transcript, recently identified as a noncoding RNA regulating cellular microRNAs, also codes for a novel protein. To our knowledge, this is the first viral transcript that functions both as a noncoding RNA and an mRNA. We also report that lytic infection elicits a profound cellular response in fibroblasts. Highly upregulated and induced host genes included those involved in inflammation and immunity, but also many unexpected transcription factors and host genes related to development and differentiation. Many top downregulated and repressed genes are associated with functions whose roles in infection are obscure, including host long intergenic noncoding RNAs, antisense RNAs or small nucleolar RNAs. Correspondingly, many differentially expressed genes cluster in biological pathways that may shed new light on cytomegalovirus pathogenesis. Together, these findings provide new insights into the molecular warfare at the virus-host interface and suggest new areas of research to advance the understanding and treatment of cytomegalovirus

  6. Cryptosporidia: Epicellular parasites embraced by the host cell membrane

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valigurová, A.; Jirků, Miloslav; Koudela, Břetislav; Gelnar, M.; Modrý, David; Šlapeta, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 38, 8/9 (2008), s. 913-922 ISSN 0020-7519 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD524/03/H133; GA ČR GA524/05/0992; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Cryptosporidium * host cell invasion * epicellular * parasitophorous sac * ultrastructure Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 3.752, year: 2008

  7. Effects of actonomycin D and ultraviolet irradiation on multiplication of brome mosaic virus in host and non-host cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, K.; Furusawa, I.; Okuno, T.

    1981-01-01

    The modes of multiplication of brome mosaic virus (BMV) were compared in protoplasts isolated from host and non-host plants. BMV actively multiplied in the leaves and isolated mesophyll protoplasts of barley, a host of BMV. BMV multiplication in barley protoplasts was inhibited by addition of actinomycin D immediately after inoculation or by u.v. irradiation of the protoplasts before inoculation. In contrast, although BMV could not multiply in leaves of radish and turnip (non-hosts for BMV) it multiplied at a low level in protoplasts isolated from these two plant species. Moreover, u.v. irradiation, or the addition of actinomycin D, enhanced multiplication of BMV in radish and turnip protoplasts. These results suggest that (i) in the host cells replication of BMV is dependent on cellular metabolism of nucleic acid and protein, and (ii) in the non-host cells a substance(s) inhibitory to replication of BMV is synthesized. (author)

  8. Variations in host genes encoding adhesion molecules and susceptibility to falciparum malaria in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyagi Prajesh K

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Host adhesion molecules play a significant role in the pathogenesis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria and changes in their structure or levels in individuals can influence the outcome of infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of SNPs of three adhesion molecule genes, ICAM1, PECAM1 and CD36, with severity of falciparum malaria in a malaria-endemic and a non-endemic region of India. Methods The frequency distribution of seven selected SNPs of ICAM1, PECAM1 and CD36 was determined in 552 individuals drawn from 24 populations across India. SNP-disease association was analysed in a case-control study format. Genotyping of the population panel was performed by Sequenom mass spectroscopy and patient/control samples were genotyped by SNaPshot method. Haplotypes and linkage disequilibrium (LD plots were generated using PHASE and Haploview, respectively. Odds-ratio (OR for risk assessment was estimated using EpiInfo™ version 3.4. Results Association of the ICAM1 rs5498 (exon 6 G allele and the CD36 exon 1a A allele with increased risk of severe malaria was observed (severe versus control, OR = 1.91 and 2.66, P = 0.02 and 0.0012, respectively. The CD36 rs1334512 (-53 T allele as well as the TT genotype associated with protection from severe disease (severe versus control, TT versus GG, OR = 0.37, P = 0.004. Interestingly, a SNP of the PECAM1 gene (rs668, exon 3, C/G with low minor allele frequency in populations of the endemic region compared to the non-endemic region exhibited differential association with disease in these regions; the G allele was a risk factor for malaria in the endemic region, but exhibited significant association with protection from disease in the non-endemic region. Conclusion The data highlights the significance of variations in the ICAM1, PECAM1 and CD36 genes in the manifestation of falciparum malaria in India. The PECAM1 exon 3 SNP exhibits altered association with disease in the

  9. Transcriptome analysis of the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. medicaginis during colonisation of resistant and susceptible Medicago truncatula hosts identifies differential pathogenicity profiles and novel candidate effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Louise F; Williams, Angela H; Garg, Gagan; Buck, Sally-Anne G; Singh, Karam B

    2016-11-03

    Pathogenic members of the Fusarium oxysporum species complex are responsible for vascular wilt disease on many important crops including legumes, where they can be one of the most destructive disease causing necrotrophic fungi. We previously developed a model legume-infecting pathosystem based on the reference legume Medicago truncatula and a pathogenic F. oxysporum forma specialis (f. sp.) medicaginis (Fom). To dissect the molecular pathogenicity arsenal used by this root-infecting pathogen, we sequenced its transcriptome during infection of a susceptible and resistant host accession. High coverage RNA-Seq of Fom infected root samples harvested from susceptible (DZA315) or resistant (A17) M. truncatula seedlings at early or later stages of infection (2 or 7 days post infection (dpi)) and from vegetative (in vitro) samples facilitated the identification of unique and overlapping sets of in planta differentially expressed genes. This included enrichment, particularly in DZA315 in planta up-regulated datasets, for proteins associated with sugar, protein and plant cell wall metabolism, membrane transport, nutrient uptake and oxidative processes. Genes encoding effector-like proteins were identified, including homologues of the F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici Secreted In Xylem (SIX) proteins, and several novel candidate effectors based on predicted secretion, small protein size and high in-planta induced expression. The majority of the effector candidates contain no known protein domains but do share high similarity to predicted proteins predominantly from other F. oxysporum ff. spp. as well as other Fusaria (F. solani, F. fujikori, F. verticilloides, F. graminearum and F. pseudograminearum), and from another wilt pathogen of the same class, a Verticillium species. Overall, this suggests these novel effector candidates may play important roles in Fusaria and wilt pathogen virulence. Combining high coverage in planta RNA-Seq with knowledge of fungal pathogenicity

  10. Differential proteome analysis of chikungunya virus infection on host cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Li-Ping Thio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is an emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus that has caused multiple unprecedented and re-emerging outbreaks in both tropical and temperate countries. Despite ongoing research efforts, the underlying factors involved in facilitating CHIKV replication during early infection remains ill-characterized. The present study serves to identify host proteins modulated in response to early CHIKV infection using a proteomics approach. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The whole cell proteome profiles of CHIKV-infected and mock control WRL-68 cells were compared and analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE. Fifty-three spots were found to be differentially modulated and 50 were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF. Eight were significantly up-regulated and 42 were down-regulated. The mRNA expressions of 15 genes were also found to correlate with the corresponding protein expression. STRING network analysis identified several biological processes to be affected, including mRNA processing, translation, energy production and cellular metabolism, ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP and cell cycle regulation. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study constitutes a first attempt to investigate alteration of the host cellular proteome during early CHIKV infection. Our proteomics data showed that during early infection, CHIKV affected the expression of proteins that are involved in mRNA processing, host metabolic machinery, UPP, and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1 regulation (in favour of virus survival, replication and transmission. While results from this study complement the proteomics results obtained from previous late host response studies, functional characterization of these proteins is warranted to reinforce our understanding of their roles during early CHIKV infection in humans.

  11. Variation in RNA virus mutation rates across host cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Combe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that RNA viruses exhibit higher rates of spontaneous mutation than DNA viruses and microorganisms. However, their mutation rates vary amply, from 10(-6 to 10(-4 substitutions per nucleotide per round of copying (s/n/r and the causes of this variability remain poorly understood. In addition to differences in intrinsic fidelity or error correction capability, viral mutation rates may be dependent on host factors. Here, we assessed the effect of the cellular environment on the rate of spontaneous mutation of the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV, which has a broad host range and cell tropism. Luria-Delbrück fluctuation tests and sequencing showed that VSV mutated similarly in baby hamster kidney, murine embryonic fibroblasts, colon cancer, and neuroblastoma cells (approx. 10(-5 s/n/r. Cell immortalization through p53 inactivation and oxygen levels (1-21% did not have a significant impact on viral replication fidelity. This shows that previously published mutation rates can be considered reliable despite being based on a narrow and artificial set of laboratory conditions. Interestingly, we also found that VSV mutated approximately four times more slowly in various insect cells compared with mammalian cells. This may contribute to explaining the relatively slow evolution of VSV and other arthropod-borne viruses in nature.

  12. Establishment of Myotis myotis cell lines--model for investigation of host-pathogen interaction in a natural host for emerging viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaocui He

    Full Text Available Bats are found to be the natural reservoirs for many emerging viruses. In most cases, severe clinical signs caused by such virus infections are normally not seen in bats. This indicates differences in the virus-host interactions and underlines the necessity to develop natural host related models to study these phenomena. Due to the strict protection of European bat species, immortalized cell lines are the only alternative to investigate the innate anti-virus immune mechanisms. Here, we report about the establishment and functional characterization of Myotis myotis derived cell lines from different tissues: brain (MmBr, tonsil (MmTo, peritoneal cavity (MmPca, nasal epithelium (MmNep and nervus olfactorius (MmNol after immortalization by SV 40 large T antigen. The usefulness of these cell lines to study antiviral responses has been confirmed by analysis of their susceptibility to lyssavirus infection and the mRNA patterns of immune-relevant genes after poly I:C stimulation. Performed experiments indicated varying susceptibility to lyssavirus infection with MmBr being considerably less susceptible than the other cell lines. Further investigation demonstrated a strong activation of interferon mediated antiviral response in MmBr contributing to its resistance. The pattern recognition receptors: RIG-I and MDA5 were highly up-regulated during rabies virus infection in MmBr, suggesting their involvement in promotion of antiviral responses. The presence of CD14 and CD68 in MmBr suggested MmBr cells are microglia-like cells which play a key role in host defense against infections in the central nervous system (CNS. Thus the expression pattern of MmBr combined with the observed limitation of lyssavirus replication underpin a protective mechanism of the CNS controlling the lyssavirus infection. Overall, the established cell lines are important tools to analyze antiviral innate immunity in M. myotis against neurotropic virus infections and present a valuable

  13. Establishment of Myotis myotis cell lines--model for investigation of host-pathogen interaction in a natural host for emerging viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaocui; Korytář, Tomáš; Zhu, Yaqing; Pikula, Jiří; Bandouchova, Hana; Zukal, Jan; Köllner, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Bats are found to be the natural reservoirs for many emerging viruses. In most cases, severe clinical signs caused by such virus infections are normally not seen in bats. This indicates differences in the virus-host interactions and underlines the necessity to develop natural host related models to study these phenomena. Due to the strict protection of European bat species, immortalized cell lines are the only alternative to investigate the innate anti-virus immune mechanisms. Here, we report about the establishment and functional characterization of Myotis myotis derived cell lines from different tissues: brain (MmBr), tonsil (MmTo), peritoneal cavity (MmPca), nasal epithelium (MmNep) and nervus olfactorius (MmNol) after immortalization by SV 40 large T antigen. The usefulness of these cell lines to study antiviral responses has been confirmed by analysis of their susceptibility to lyssavirus infection and the mRNA patterns of immune-relevant genes after poly I:C stimulation. Performed experiments indicated varying susceptibility to lyssavirus infection with MmBr being considerably less susceptible than the other cell lines. Further investigation demonstrated a strong activation of interferon mediated antiviral response in MmBr contributing to its resistance. The pattern recognition receptors: RIG-I and MDA5 were highly up-regulated during rabies virus infection in MmBr, suggesting their involvement in promotion of antiviral responses. The presence of CD14 and CD68 in MmBr suggested MmBr cells are microglia-like cells which play a key role in host defense against infections in the central nervous system (CNS). Thus the expression pattern of MmBr combined with the observed limitation of lyssavirus replication underpin a protective mechanism of the CNS controlling the lyssavirus infection. Overall, the established cell lines are important tools to analyze antiviral innate immunity in M. myotis against neurotropic virus infections and present a valuable tool for a

  14. Establishment of Myotis myotis Cell Lines - Model for Investigation of Host-Pathogen Interaction in a Natural Host for Emerging Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaocui; Korytář, Tomáš; Zhu, Yaqing; Pikula, Jiří; Bandouchova, Hana; Zukal, Jan; Köllner, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Bats are found to be the natural reservoirs for many emerging viruses. In most cases, severe clinical signs caused by such virus infections are normally not seen in bats. This indicates differences in the virus-host interactions and underlines the necessity to develop natural host related models to study these phenomena. Due to the strict protection of European bat species, immortalized cell lines are the only alternative to investigate the innate anti-virus immune mechanisms. Here, we report about the establishment and functional characterization of Myotis myotis derived cell lines from different tissues: brain (MmBr), tonsil (MmTo), peritoneal cavity (MmPca), nasal epithelium (MmNep) and nervus olfactorius (MmNol) after immortalization by SV 40 large T antigen. The usefulness of these cell lines to study antiviral responses has been confirmed by analysis of their susceptibility to lyssavirus infection and the mRNA patterns of immune-relevant genes after poly I:C stimulation. Performed experiments indicated varying susceptibility to lyssavirus infection with MmBr being considerably less susceptible than the other cell lines. Further investigation demonstrated a strong activation of interferon mediated antiviral response in MmBr contributing to its resistance. The pattern recognition receptors: RIG-I and MDA5 were highly up-regulated during rabies virus infection in MmBr, suggesting their involvement in promotion of antiviral responses. The presence of CD14 and CD68 in MmBr suggested MmBr cells are microglia-like cells which play a key role in host defense against infections in the central nervous system (CNS). Thus the expression pattern of MmBr combined with the observed limitation of lyssavirus replication underpin a protective mechanism of the CNS controlling the lyssavirus infection. Overall, the established cell lines are important tools to analyze antiviral innate immunity in M. myotis against neurotropic virus infections and present a valuable tool for a

  15. CD8 T-cells and E-cadherin in host responses against oropharyngeal candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quimby, K.; Lilly, E.A.; Zacharek, M.; McNulty, K.; Leigh, J.E.; Vazquez, J.E.; Fidel, P.L.

    2011-01-01

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) is the most common oral infection in HIV+ persons. Previous studies suggest a role for CD8+ T-cells against OPC when CD4+ T-cells are lost, but enhanced susceptibility to infection occurs when CD8+ T-cell migration is inhibited by reduced tissue E-cadherin. Objective Conduct a longitudinal study of tissue CD8+ T-cells and E-cadherin expression before, during, and after episodes of OPC. Methods Oral fungal burden was monitored and tissue was evaluated for CD8+ T-cells and E-cadherin over a one-year period in HIV+ persons with a history of, or an acute episode of OPC. Results While longitudinal analyses precluded formal interpretations, point prevalence analyses of the dataset revealed that when patients experiencing OPC were successfully treated, tissue E-cadherin expression was similar to patients who had not experienced OPC, and higher numbers of CD8+ T-cells were distributed throughout OPC− tissue under normal expression of E-cadherin. Conclusion These results suggest that 1) reduction in tissue E-cadherin expression in OPC+ patients is not permanent, and 2) high numbers of CD8+ T-cells can be distributed throughout OPC− tissue under normal E-cadherin expression. Together these results extend our previous studies and continue to support a role for CD8+ T-cells in host defense against OPC. PMID:21958417

  16. Diversity and Geographical Distribution of Flavobacterium psychrophilum Isolates and Their Phages: Patterns of Susceptibility to Phage Infection and Phage Host Range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, Daniel; Christiansen, Rói Hammershaimb; Espejo, Romilio

    2014-01-01

    in disease control requires detailed knowledge about the diversity and dynamics of host susceptibility to phage infection. For this reason, we examined the genetic diversity of 49 F. psychrophilum strains isolated in three different areas (Chile, Denmark, and USA) through direct genome restriction enzyme...... analysis (DGREA) and their susceptibility to 33 bacteriophages isolated in Chile and Denmark, thus covering large geographical (>12,000 km) and temporal (>60 years) scales of isolation. An additional 40 phage-resistant isolates obtained from culture experiments after exposure to specific phages were...... examined for changes in phage susceptibility against the 33 phages. The F. psychrophilum and phage populations isolated from Chile and Denmark clustered into geographically distinct groups with respect to DGREA profile and host range, respectively. However, cross infection between Chilean phage isolates...

  17. Oral epithelial cells are susceptible to cell-free and cell-associated HIV-1 infection in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Jennifer S.; Rahemtulla, Firoz; Kent, Leigh W.; Hall, Stacy D.; Ikizler, Mine R.; Wright, Peter F.; Nguyen, Huan H.; Jackson, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Epithelial cells lining the oral cavity are exposed to HIV-1 through breast-feeding and oral-genital contact. Genital secretions and breast milk of HIV-1-infected subjects contain both cell-free and cell-associated virus. To determine if oral epithelial cells can be infected with HIV-1 we exposed gingival keratinocytes and adenoid epithelial cells to cell-free virus and HIV-1-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells and monocytes. Using primary isolates we determined that gingival keratinocytes are susceptible to HIV-1 infection via cell-free CD4-independent infection only. R5 but not X4 viral strains were capable of infecting the keratinocytes. Further, infected cells were able to release infectious virus. In addition, primary epithelial cells isolated from adenoids were also susceptible to infection; both cell-free and cell-associated virus infected these cells. These data have potential implications in the transmission of HIV-1 in the oral cavity

  18. Ureaplasma parvum infection alters filamin a dynamics in host cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Mary B

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ureaplasmas are among the most common bacteria isolated from the human urogenital tract. Ureaplasmas can produce asymptomatic infections or disease characterized by an exaggerated inflammatory response. Most investigations have focused on elucidating the pathogenic potential of Ureaplasma species, but little attention has been paid to understanding the mechanisms by which these organisms are capable of establishing asymptomatic infection. Methods We employed differential proteome profiling of bladder tissues from rats experimentally infected with U. parvum in order to identify host cell processes perturbed by colonization with the microbe. Tissues were grouped into four categories: sham inoculated controls, animals that spontaneously cleared infection, asymptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI, and complicated UTI. One protein that was perturbed by infection (filamin A was used to further elucidate the mechanism of U. parvum-induced disruption in human benign prostate cells (BPH-1. BPH-1 cells were evaluated by confocal microscopy, immunoblotting and ELISA. Results Bladder tissue from animals actively colonized with U. parvum displayed significant alterations in actin binding proteins (profilin 1, vinculin, α actinin, and filamin A that regulate both actin polymerization and cell cytoskeletal function pertaining to focal adhesion formation and signal transduction (Fisher's exact test, P U. parvum perturbed the regulation of filamin A. Specifically, infected BPH-1 cells exhibited a significant increase in filamin A phosphorylated at serine2152 (P ≤ 0.01, which correlated with impaired proteolysis of the protein and its normal intracellular distribution. Conclusion Filamin A dynamics were perturbed in both models of infection. Phosphorylation of filamin A occurs in response to various cell signaling cascades that regulate cell motility, differentiation, apoptosis and inflammation. Thus, this phenomenon may be a useful

  19. RNAi screen reveals host cell kinases specifically involved in Listeria monocytogenes spread from cell to cell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Chong

    Full Text Available Intracellular bacterial pathogens, such as Listeria monocytogenes and Rickettsia conorii display actin-based motility in the cytosol of infected cells and spread from cell to cell through the formation of membrane protrusions at the cell cortex. Whereas the mechanisms supporting cytosolic actin-based motility are fairly well understood, it is unclear whether specific host factors may be required for supporting the formation and resolution of membrane protrusions. To address this gap in knowledge, we have developed high-throughput fluorescence microscopy and computer-assisted image analysis procedures to quantify pathogen spread in human epithelial cells. We used the approach to screen a siRNA library covering the human kinome and identified 7 candidate kinases whose depletion led to severe spreading defects in cells infected with L. monocytogenes. We conducted systematic validation procedures with redundant silencing reagents and confirmed the involvement of the serine/threonine kinases, CSNK1A1 and CSNK2B. We conducted secondary assays showing that, in contrast with the situation observed in CSNK2B-depleted cells, L. monocytogenes formed wild-type cytosolic tails and displayed wild-type actin-based motility in the cytosol of CSNK1A1-depleted cells. Furthermore, we developed a protrusion formation assay and showed that the spreading defect observed in CSNK1A1-depleted cells correlated with the formation of protrusion that did not resolve into double-membrane vacuoles. Moreover, we developed sending and receiving cell-specific RNAi procedures and showed that CSNK1A was required in the sending cells, but was dispensable in the receiving cells, for protrusion resolution. Finally, we showed that the observed defects were specific to Listeria monocytogenes, as Rickettsia conorii displayed wild-type cell-to-cell spread in CSNK1A1- and CSNK2B-depleted cells. We conclude that, in addition to the specific host factors supporting cytosolic actin

  20. Host-Polarized Cell Growth in Animal Symbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pende, Nika; Wang, Jinglan; Weber, Philipp M; Verheul, Jolanda; Kuru, Erkin; Rittmann, Simon K-M R; Leisch, Nikolaus; VanNieuwenhze, Michael S; Brun, Yves V; den Blaauwen, Tanneke; Bulgheresi, Silvia

    2018-04-02

    To determine the fundamentals of cell growth, we must extend cell biological studies to non-model organisms. Here, we investigated the growth modes of the only two rods known to widen instead of elongating, Candidatus Thiosymbion oneisti and Thiosymbion hypermnestrae. These bacteria are attached by one pole to the surface of their respective nematode hosts. By incubating live Ca. T. oneisti and T. hypermnestrae with a peptidoglycan metabolic probe, we observed that the insertion of new cell wall starts at the poles and proceeds inward, concomitantly with FtsZ-based membrane constriction. Remarkably, in Ca. T. hypermnestrae, the proximal, animal-attached pole grows before the distal, free pole, indicating that the peptidoglycan synthesis machinery is host oriented. Immunostaining of the symbionts with an antibody against the actin homolog MreB revealed that it was arranged medially-that is, parallel to the cell long axis-throughout the symbiont life cycle. Given that depolymerization of MreB abolished newly synthesized peptidoglycan insertion and impaired divisome assembly, we conclude that MreB function is required for symbiont widening and division. In conclusion, our data invoke a reassessment of the localization and function of the bacterial actin homolog. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Yeast casein kinase 2 governs morphology, biofilm formation, cell wall integrity, and host cell damage of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sook-In; Rodriguez, Natalie; Irrizary, Jihyun; Liboro, Karl; Bogarin, Thania; Macias, Marlene; Eivers, Edward; Porter, Edith; Filler, Scott G; Park, Hyunsook

    2017-01-01

    The regulatory networks governing morphogenesis of a pleomorphic fungus, Candida albicans are extremely complex and remain to be completely elucidated. This study investigated the function of C. albicans yeast casein kinase 2 (CaYck2p). The yck2Δ/yck2Δ strain displayed constitutive pseudohyphae in both yeast and hyphal growth conditions, and formed enhanced biofilm under non-biofilm inducing condition. This finding was further supported by gene expression analysis of the yck2Δ/yck2Δ strain which showed significant upregulation of UME6, a key transcriptional regulator of hyphal transition and biofilm formation, and cell wall protein genes ALS3, HWP1, and SUN41, all of which are associated with morphogenesis and biofilm architecture. The yck2Δ/yck2Δ strain was hypersensitive to cell wall damaging agents and had increased compensatory chitin deposition in the cell wall accompanied by an upregulation of the expression of the chitin synthase genes, CHS2, CHS3, and CHS8. Absence of CaYck2p also affected fungal-host interaction; the yck2Δ/yck2Δ strain had significantly reduced ability to damage host cells. However, the yck2Δ/yck2Δ strain had wild-type susceptibility to cyclosporine and FK506, suggesting that CaYck2p functions independently from the Ca+/calcineurin pathway. Thus, in C. albicans, Yck2p is a multifunctional kinase that governs morphogenesis, biofilm formation, cell wall integrity, and host cell interactions.

  2. Mycobacterium leprae–host-cell interactions and genetic determinants in leprosy: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Roberta Olmo; de Souza Salles, Jorgenilce; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes; Sampaio, Elizabeth Pereira

    2011-01-01

    Leprosy, also known as Hansen’s disease, is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae in which susceptibility to the mycobacteria and its clinical manifestations are attributed to the host immune response. Even though leprosy prevalence has decreased dramatically, the high number of new cases indicates active transmission. Owing to its singular features, M. leprae infection is an attractive model for investigating the regulation of human immune responses to pathogen-induced disease. Leprosy is one of the most common causes of nontraumatic peripheral neuropathy worldwide. The proportion of patients with disabilities is affected by the type of leprosy and delay in diagnosis. This article briefly reviews the clinical features as well as the immunopathological mechanisms related to the establishment of the different polar forms of leprosy, the mechanisms related to M. leprae–host cell interactions and prophylaxis and diagnosis of this complex disease. Host genetic factors are summarized and the impact of the development of interventions that prevent, reverse or limit leprosy-related nerve impairments are discussed. PMID:21366421

  3. Host cell reactivation and UV-enhanced reactivation in synchronized mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lytle, C.D.; Schmidt, B.J.

    1981-01-01

    Does host cell reactivation (HCR) or UV-enhanced reactivation (UVER) of UV-irradiated Herpes simplex virus (UV-HSV) vary during the host mammalian cell cycle. The answer could be useful for interpreting UVER and or the two-component nature of the UV-HSV survival curve. Procedures were developed for infection of mitotically-synchronized CV-l monkey kidney cells. All virus survival curves determined at different cell cycle stages had two components with similar D 0 's and intercepts of the second components. Thus, no single stage of the host cell cycle was responsible for the second component of the virus survival curve. When the cells were UV-irradiated immediately prior to infection, enhanced survival of UV-HSV occurred for cell irradiation and virus infection initiated during late G 1 early S phase or late S early G 2 phase but not during early G 1 phase. For infection delayed by 24 h after cell irradiation, UVER was found at all investigated times. These results indicate that: (1) HCR is similar at all stages of the host cell cycle: and (2) the ''induction'' of UVER is not as rapid for cell-irradiation in early G 1 phase. This latter observation may be one reason why normal, contact-inhibited cells do not express UVER as rapidly as faster growing, less contact-inhibited cells. (author)

  4. Identification and functional characterization of Rca1, a transcription factor involved in both antifungal susceptibility and host response in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeputte, Patrick; Pradervand, Sylvain; Ischer, Françoise; Coste, Alix T; Ferrari, Sélène; Harshman, Keith; Sanglard, Dominique

    2012-07-01

    The identification of novel transcription factors associated with antifungal response may allow the discovery of fungus-specific targets for new therapeutic strategies. A collection of 241 Candida albicans transcriptional regulator mutants was screened for altered susceptibility to fluconazole, caspofungin, amphotericin B, and 5-fluorocytosine. Thirteen of these mutants not yet identified in terms of their role in antifungal response were further investigated, and the function of one of them, a mutant of orf19.6102 (RCA1), was characterized by transcriptome analysis. Strand-specific RNA sequencing and phenotypic tests assigned Rca1 as the regulator of hyphal formation through the cyclic AMP/protein kinase A (cAMP/PKA) signaling pathway and the transcription factor Efg1, but also probably through its interaction with a transcriptional repressor, most likely Tup1. The mechanisms responsible for the high level of resistance to caspofungin and fluconazole observed resulting from RCA1 deletion were investigated. From our observations, we propose that caspofungin resistance was the consequence of the deregulation of cell wall gene expression and that fluconazole resistance was linked to the modulation of the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway activity. In conclusion, our large-scale screening of a C. albicans transcription factor mutant collection allowed the identification of new effectors of the response to antifungals. The functional characterization of Rca1 assigned this transcription factor and its downstream targets as promising candidates for the development of new therapeutic strategies, as Rca1 influences host sensing, hyphal development, and antifungal response.

  5. Increased dermal mast cell prevalence and susceptibility to development of basal cell carcinoma in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimbaldeston, Michele A; Skov, Lone; Finlay-Jones, John J

    2002-01-01

    eliminate them. Studies in a range of inbred mouse strains as well as mast cell-depleted mice reconstituted with mast cell precursors support a functional link between histamine-staining dermal mast cells and the extent of susceptibility to UVB-induced systemic immunomodulation. Humans, like mouse strains......, display variations in dermal mast cell prevalence. In a study of Danish and South Australian BCC patients and control subjects, one 4-mm punch biopsy of non-sun-exposed buttock skin was sampled from each participant. This skin site was investigated to avoid any changes in mast cell prevalence caused...... by sun exposure. Two sections (4 microm) per biopsy were immunohistochemically stained for detection of histamine-containing dermal mast cells. Computer-generated image analysis evaluated dermal mast cell prevalence in both sections by quantifying the total number of mast cells according to the total...

  6. In Vitro Measles Virus Infection of Human Lymphocyte Subsets Demonstrates High Susceptibility and Permissiveness of both Naive and Memory B Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laksono, Brigitta M; Grosserichter-Wagener, Christina; de Vries, Rory D; Langeveld, Simone A G; Brem, Maarten D; van Dongen, Jacques J M; Katsikis, Peter D; Koopmans, Marion P G; van Zelm, Menno C; de Swart, Rik L

    2018-04-15

    importance of MV infection of B cells in vivo However, information on the relative susceptibility of B-cell subsets is scarce. Here, we compared the susceptibility and permissiveness to in vitro MV infection of human naive and memory T- and B-cell subsets isolated from peripheral blood or tonsils. Our results demonstrate that both naive and memory B cells are more permissive to MV infection than T cells. The highest infection levels were detected in plasma cells and germinal center B cells, suggesting that infection and depletion of these populations contribute to reduced host resistance. Copyright © 2018 Laksono et al.

  7. Histochemical and genetic analysis of host and non-host interactions of Arabidopsis with three Botrytis species: an important role for cell death control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baarlen, van P.; Woltering, E.J.; Staats, M.; Kan, van J.A.L.

    2007-01-01

    Susceptibility was evaluated of host and non-host plants to three pathogenic Botrytis species: the generalist B. cinerea and the specialists B. elliptica (lily) and B. tulipae (tulip). B. tulipae was, unexpectedly, able to infect plant species other than tulip, and to a similar extent as B. cinerea.

  8. Fierce competition between Toxoplasma and Chlamydia for host cell structures in dually infected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Julia D; de Beaumont, Catherine; Carrasco, Jose A; Ehrenman, Karen; Bavoil, Patrik M; Coppens, Isabelle

    2013-02-01

    The prokaryote Chlamydia trachomatis and the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, two obligate intracellular pathogens of humans, have evolved a similar modus operandi to colonize their host cell and salvage nutrients from organelles. In order to gain fundamental knowledge on the pathogenicity of these microorganisms, we have established a cell culture model whereby single fibroblasts are coinfected by C. trachomatis and T. gondii. We previously reported that the two pathogens compete for the same nutrient pools in coinfected cells and that Toxoplasma holds a significant competitive advantage over Chlamydia. Here we have expanded our coinfection studies by examining the respective abilities of Chlamydia and Toxoplasma to co-opt the host cytoskeleton and recruit organelles. We demonstrate that the two pathogen-containing vacuoles migrate independently to the host perinuclear region and rearrange the host microtubular network around each vacuole. However, Toxoplasma outcompetes Chlamydia to the host microtubule-organizing center to the detriment of the bacterium, which then shifts to a stress-induced persistent state. Solely in cells preinfected with Chlamydia, the centrosomes become associated with the chlamydial inclusion, while the Toxoplasma parasitophorous vacuole displays growth defects. Both pathogens fragment the host Golgi apparatus and recruit Golgi elements to retrieve sphingolipids. This study demonstrates that the productive infection by both Chlamydia and Toxoplasma depends on the capability of each pathogen to successfully adhere to a finely tuned developmental program that aims to remodel the host cell for the pathogen's benefit. In particular, this investigation emphasizes the essentiality of host organelle interception by intravacuolar pathogens to facilitate access to nutrients.

  9. IRES-mediated translation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in cultured cells derived from FMDV-susceptible and -insusceptible animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Takehiro; Ozawa, Makoto; Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko

    2016-03-31

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) possess a positive sense, single stranded RNA genome. Internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) element exists within its 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) of the viral RNA. Translation of the viral RNA is initiated by internal entry of the 40S ribosome within the IRES element. This process is facilitated by cellular factors known as IRES trans-acting factors (ITAFs). Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is host-restricted disease for cloven-hoofed animals such as cattle and pigs, but the factors determining the host range have not been identified yet. Although, ITAFs are known to promote IRES-mediated translation, these findings were confirmed only in cells derived from FMDV-insusceptible animals so far. We evaluated and compared the IRES-mediated translation activities among cell lines derived from four different animal species using bicistronic luciferase reporter plasmid, which possesses an FMDV-IRES element between Renilla and Firefly luciferase genes. Furthermore, we analyzed the effect of the cellular factors on IRES-mediated translation by silencing the cellular factors using siRNA in both FMDV-susceptible and -insusceptible animal cells. Our data indicated that IRES-mediated translational activity was not linked to FMDV host range. ITAF45 promoted IRES-mediated translation in all cell lines, and the effects of poly-pyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) were observed only in FMDV-susceptible cells. Thus, PTB and 4E-BP1 may influence the host range of FMDV. IRES-mediated translation activity of FMDV was not predictive of its host range. ITAF45 promoted IRES-mediated translation in all cells, and the effects of PTB and 4E-BP1 were observed only in FMDV-susceptible cells.

  10. Intravital imaging of donor allogeneic effector and regulatory T cells with host dendritic cells during GVHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kaifeng Lisa; Fulton, LeShara M; Berginski, Matthew; West, Michelle L; Taylor, Nicholas A; Moran, Timothy P; Coghill, James M; Blazar, Bruce R; Bear, James E; Serody, Jonathan S

    2014-03-06

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a systemic inflammatory response due to the recognition of major histocompatibility complex disparity between donor and recipient after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). T-cell activation is critical to the induction of GVHD, and data from our group and others have shown that regulatory T cells (Tregs) prevent GVHD when given at the time of HSCT. Using multiphoton laser scanning microscopy, we examined the single cell dynamics of donor T cells and dendritic cells (DCs) with or without Tregs postallogeneic transplantation. We found that donor conventional T cells (Tcons) spent very little time screening host DCs. Tcons formed stable contacts with DCs very early after transplantation and only increased velocity in the lymph node at 20 hours after transplant. We also observed that Tregs reduced the interaction time between Tcons and DCs, which was dependent on the generation of interleukin 10 by Tregs. Imaging using inducible Tregs showed similar disruption of Tcon-DC contact. Additionally, we found that donor Tregs induce host DC death and down-regulate surface proteins required for donor T-cell activation. These data indicate that Tregs use multiple mechanisms that affect host DC numbers and function to mitigate acute GVHD.

  11. Host cell tropism mediated by Australian bat lyssavirus envelope glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Dawn L; Smith, Ina L; Bossart, Katharine N; Wang, Lin-Fa; Broder, Christopher C

    2013-09-01

    Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) is a rhabdovirus of the lyssavirus genus capable of causing fatal rabies-like encephalitis in humans. There are two variants of ABLV, one circulating in pteropid fruit bats and another in insectivorous bats. Three fatal human cases of ABLV infection have been reported with the third case in 2013. Importantly, two equine cases also arose in 2013; the first occurrence of ABLV in a species other than bats or humans. We examined the host cell entry of ABLV, characterizing its tropism and exploring its cross-species transmission potential using maxGFP-encoding recombinant vesicular stomatitis viruses that express ABLV G glycoproteins. Results indicate that the ABLV receptor(s) is conserved but not ubiquitous among mammalian cell lines and that the two ABLV variants can utilize alternate receptors for entry. Proposed rabies virus receptors were not sufficient to permit ABLV entry into resistant cells, suggesting that ABLV utilizes an unknown alternative receptor(s). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Interaction of KSHV with Host Cell Surface Receptors and Cell Entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanan Valiya Veettil

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Virus entry is a complex process characterized by a sequence of events. Since the discovery of KSHV in 1994, tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of KSHV entry into its in vitro target cells. KSHV entry is a complex multistep process involving viral envelope glycoproteins and several cell surface molecules that is utilized by KSHV for its attachment and entry. KSHV has a broad cell tropism and the attachment and receptor engagement on target cells have an important role in determining the cell type-specific mode of entry. KSHV utilizes heparan sulfate, integrins and EphrinA2 molecules as receptors which results in the activation of host cell pre-existing signal pathways that facilitate the subsequent cascade of events resulting in the rapid entry of virus particles, trafficking towards the nucleus followed by viral and host gene expression. KSHV enters human fibroblast cells by dynamin dependant clathrin mediated endocytosis and by dynamin independent macropinocytosis in dermal endothelial cells. Once internalized into endosomes, fusion of the viral envelope with the endosomal membranes in an acidification dependent manner results in the release of capsids which subsequently reaches the nuclear pore vicinity leading to the delivery of viral DNA into the nucleus. In this review, we discuss the principal mechanisms that enable KSHV to interact with the host cell surface receptors as well as the mechanisms that are required to modulate cell signaling machinery for a successful entry.

  13. Does Animal Behavior Underlie Covariation Between Hosts' Exposure to Infectious Agents and Susceptibility to Infection? Implications for Disease Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawley, Dana M.; Etienne, Rampal S.; Ezenwa, Vanessa O.; Jolles, Anna E.

    2011-01-01

    Animal behavior is unique in influencing both components of the process of transmission of disease: exposure to infectious agents, and susceptibility to infection once exposed. To date, the influence of behavior on exposure versus susceptibility has largely been considered separately. Here, we ask

  14. Regulation of stem-cell mediated host immunity by the sphingolipid ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Regulation of stem-cell mediated host immunity by the sphingolipid pathway ... in the generation of mature immune cells and the functioning of the surrounding ... methods with human cells and genetically engineered mice to examine how the ...

  15. Biology of teeth and implants: Host factors - pathology, regeneration, and the role of stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert, F-Michael; Levin, Liran

    2018-01-01

    In chronic periodontitis and peri-implantitis, cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems are involved directly in the lesions within the tissues of the patient. Absence of a periodontal ligament around implants does not prevent a biologic process similar to that of periodontitis from affecting osseointegration. Our first focus is on factors in the biology of individuals that are responsible for the susceptibility of such individuals to chronic periodontitis and to peri-implantitis. Genetic factors are of significant importance in susceptibility to these diseases. Genetic factors of the host affect the composition of the oral microbiome in the same manner that they influence other microbiomes, such as those of the intestines and of the lungs. Our second focus is on the central role of stem cells in tissue regeneration, in the functioning of innate and adaptive immune systems, and in metabolism of bone. Epithelial cell rests of Malassez (ERM) are stem cells of epithelial origin that maintain the periodontal ligament as well as the cementum and alveolar bone associated with the ligament. The tissue niche within which ERM are found extends into the supracrestal areas of collagen fiber-containing tissues of the gingivae above the bony alveolar crest. Maintenance and regeneration of all periodontal tissues involves the activity of a variety of stem cells. The success of dental implants indicates that important groups of stem cells in the periodontium are active to enable that biologic success. Successful replantation of avulsed teeth and auto-transplantation of teeth is comparable to placing dental implants, and so must also involve periodontal stem cells. Biology of teeth and biology of implants represents the biology of the various stem cells that inhabit specialized niches within the periodontal tissues. Diverse biologic processes must function together successfully to maintain periodontal health. Osseointegration of dental implants does not involve formation of

  16. The perfect host: a mouse host embryo facilitating more efficient germ line transmission of genetically modified embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Taft

    Full Text Available There is a continual need to improve efficiency in creating precise genetic modifications in mice using embryonic stem cells (ESCs. We describe a novel approach resulting in 100% germline transmission from competent injected ESCs. We developed an F1 mouse host embryo (Perfect Host, PH that selectively ablates its own germ cells via tissue-specific induction of diphtheria toxin. This approach allows competent microinjected ESCs to fully dominate the germline, eliminating competition for this critical niche in the developing and adult animal. This is in contrast to conventional methods, where competition from host germ cells results in offspring derived from host cells and ESCs, necessitating extensive breeding of chimeras and genotyping to identify germline. The germline transmission process is also complicated by variability in the actual number of ESCs that colonize the germline niche and the proportion that are germline competent. To validate the PH approach we used ESC lines derived from 129 F1, BALB/cByJ, and BTBR backgrounds as well as an iPS line. Resulting chimeric males produced 194 offspring, all paternally derived from the introduced stem cells, with no offspring being derived from the host genome. We further tested this approach using eleven genetically modified C57BL/6N ESC lines (International Knockout Mouse Consortium. ESC germline transmission was observed in 9/11 (82% lines using PH blastocysts, compared to 6/11 (55% when conventional host blastocysts were used. Furthermore, less than 35% (83/240 of mice born in the first litters from conventional chimeras were confirmed to be of ESC-origin. By comparison, 100% (137/137 of the first litter offspring of PH chimeras were confirmed as ESC-derived. Together, these data demonstrate that the PH approach increases the probability of germline transmission and speeds the generation of ESC derived animals from chimeras. Collectively, this approach reduces the time and costs inherent in the

  17. Development of hyper osmotic resistant CHO host cells for enhanced antibody production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamachi, Yasuharu; Omasa, Takeshi

    2018-04-01

    Cell culture platform processes are generally employed to shorten the duration of new product development. A fed-batch process with continuous feeding is a conventional platform process for monoclonal antibody production using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. To establish a simplified platform process, the feeding method can be changed from continuous feed to bolus feed. However, this change induces a rapid increase of osmolality by the bolus addition of nutrients. The increased osmolality suppresses cell culture growth, and the final product concentration is decreased. In this study, osmotic resistant CHO host cells were developed to attain a high product concentration. To establish hyper osmotic resistant CHO host cells, CHO-S host cells were passaged long-term in a hyper osmotic basal medium. There were marked differences in cell growth of the original and established host cells under iso- (328 mOsm/kg) or hyper-osmolality (over 450 mOsm/kg) conditions. Cell growth of the original CHO host cells was markedly decreased by the induction of osmotic stress, whereas cell growth of the hyper osmotic resistant CHO host cells was not affected. The maximum viable cell concentration of hyper osmotic resistant CHO host cells was 132% of CHO-S host cells after the induction of osmotic stress. Moreover, the hyper osmotic resistant characteristic of established CHO host cells was maintained even after seven passages in iso-osmolality basal medium. The use of hyper osmotic resistance CHO host cells to create a monoclonal antibody production cell line might be a new approach to increase final antibody concentrations with a fed-batch process. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Glucosinolates from Host Plants Influence Growth of the Parasitic Plant Cuscuta gronovii and Its Susceptibility to Aphid Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jason D; Woldemariam, Melkamu G; Mescher, Mark C; Jander, Georg; De Moraes, Consuelo M

    2016-09-01

    Parasitic plants acquire diverse secondary metabolites from their hosts, including defense compounds that target insect herbivores. However, the ecological implications of this phenomenon, including the potential enhancement of parasite defenses, remain largely unexplored. We studied the translocation of glucosinolates from the brassicaceous host plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) into parasitic dodder vines (Convolvulaceae; Cuscuta gronovii) and its effects on the parasite itself and on dodder-aphid interactions. Aliphatic and indole glucosinolates reached concentrations in parasite tissues higher than those observed in corresponding host tissues. Dodder growth was enhanced on cyp79B2 cyp79B3 hosts (without indole glucosinolates) but inhibited on atr1D hosts (with elevated indole glucosinolates) relative to wild-type hosts, which responded to parasitism with localized elevation of indole and aliphatic glucosinolates. These findings implicate indole glucosinolates in defense against parasitic plants. Rates of settling and survival on dodder vines by pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) were reduced significantly when dodder parasitized glucosinolate-producing hosts (wild type and atr1D) compared with glucosinolate-free hosts (cyp79B2 cyp79B3 myb28 myb29). However, settling and survival of green peach aphids (Myzus persicae) were not affected. M. persicae population growth was actually reduced on dodder parasitizing glucosinolate-free hosts compared with wild-type or atr1D hosts, even though stems of the former contain less glucosinolates and more amino acids. Strikingly, this effect was reversed when the aphids fed directly upon Arabidopsis, which indicates an interactive effect of parasite and host genotype on M. persicae that stems from host effects on dodder. Thus, our findings indicate that glucosinolates may have both direct and indirect effects on dodder-feeding herbivores. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  19. Glucosinolates from Host Plants Influence Growth of the Parasitic Plant Cuscuta gronovii and Its Susceptibility to Aphid Feeding1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic plants acquire diverse secondary metabolites from their hosts, including defense compounds that target insect herbivores. However, the ecological implications of this phenomenon, including the potential enhancement of parasite defenses, remain largely unexplored. We studied the translocation of glucosinolates from the brassicaceous host plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) into parasitic dodder vines (Convolvulaceae; Cuscuta gronovii) and its effects on the parasite itself and on dodder-aphid interactions. Aliphatic and indole glucosinolates reached concentrations in parasite tissues higher than those observed in corresponding host tissues. Dodder growth was enhanced on cyp79B2 cyp79B3 hosts (without indole glucosinolates) but inhibited on atr1D hosts (with elevated indole glucosinolates) relative to wild-type hosts, which responded to parasitism with localized elevation of indole and aliphatic glucosinolates. These findings implicate indole glucosinolates in defense against parasitic plants. Rates of settling and survival on dodder vines by pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) were reduced significantly when dodder parasitized glucosinolate-producing hosts (wild type and atr1D) compared with glucosinolate-free hosts (cyp79B2 cyp79B3 myb28 myb29). However, settling and survival of green peach aphids (Myzus persicae) were not affected. M. persicae population growth was actually reduced on dodder parasitizing glucosinolate-free hosts compared with wild-type or atr1D hosts, even though stems of the former contain less glucosinolates and more amino acids. Strikingly, this effect was reversed when the aphids fed directly upon Arabidopsis, which indicates an interactive effect of parasite and host genotype on M. persicae that stems from host effects on dodder. Thus, our findings indicate that glucosinolates may have both direct and indirect effects on dodder-feeding herbivores. PMID:27482077

  20. Effects of Female Sex Hormones on Susceptibility to HSV-2 in Vaginal Cells Grown in Air-Liquid Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yung; Dizzell, Sara E; Leung, Vivian; Nazli, Aisha; Zahoor, Muhammad A; Fichorova, Raina N; Kaushic, Charu

    2016-08-30

    The lower female reproductive tract (FRT) is comprised of the cervix and vagina, surfaces that are continuously exposed to a variety of commensal and pathogenic organisms. Sexually transmitted viruses, such as herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), have to traverse the mucosal epithelial lining of the FRT to establish infection. The majority of current culture systems that model the host-pathogen interactions in the mucosal epithelium have limitations in simulating physiological conditions as they employ a liquid-liquid interface (LLI), in which both apical and basolateral surfaces are submerged in growth medium. We designed the current study to simulate in vivo conditions by growing an immortalized vaginal epithelial cell line (Vk2/E6E7) in culture with an air-liquid interface (ALI) and examined the effects of female sex hormones on their growth, differentiation, and susceptibility to HSV-2 under these conditions, in comparison to LLI cultures. ALI conditions induced Vk2/E6E7 cells to grow into multi-layered cultures compared to the monolayers present in LLI conditions. Vk2 cells in ALI showed higher production of cytokeratin in the presence of estradiol (E2), compared to cells grown in progesterone (P4). Cells grown under ALI conditions were exposed to HSV-2-green fluorescent protein (GFP) and the highest infection and replication was observed in the presence of P4. Altogether, this study suggests that ALI cultures more closely simulate the in vivo conditions of the FRT compared to the conventional LLI cultures. Furthermore, under these conditions P4 was found to confer higher susceptibility to HSV-2 infection in vaginal cells. The vaginal ALI culture system offers a better alternative to study host-pathogen interactions.

  1. Adhesion to the host cell surface is sufficient to mediate Listeria monocytogenes entry into epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Fabian E.; Rengarajan, Michelle; Chavez, Natalie; Radhakrishnan, Prathima; Gloerich, Martijn; Bianchini, Julie; Siemers, Kathleen; Luckett, William S.; Lauer, Peter; Nelson, W. James; Theriot, Julie A.

    2017-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium is the first physiological barrier breached by the Gram-positive facultative pathogen Listeria monocytogenes during an in vivo infection. Listeria monocytogenes binds to the epithelial host cell receptor E-cadherin, which mediates a physical link between the bacterium and filamentous actin (F-actin). However, the importance of anchoring the bacterium to F-actin through E-cadherin for bacterial invasion has not been tested directly in epithelial cells. Here we demonstrate that depleting αE-catenin, which indirectly links E-cadherin to F-actin, did not decrease L. monocytogenes invasion of epithelial cells in tissue culture. Instead, invasion increased due to increased bacterial adhesion to epithelial monolayers with compromised cell–cell junctions. Furthermore, expression of a mutant E-cadherin lacking the intracellular domain was sufficient for efficient L. monocytogenes invasion of epithelial cells. Importantly, direct biotin-mediated binding of bacteria to surface lipids in the plasma membrane of host epithelial cells was sufficient for uptake. Our results indicate that the only requirement for L. monocytogenes invasion of epithelial cells is adhesion to the host cell surface, and that E-cadherin–mediated coupling of the bacterium to F-actin is not required. PMID:28877987

  2. Host cell capable of producing enzymes useful for degradation of lignocellulosic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Los, Alrik Pieter; Sagt, Cornelis Maria Jacobus; Schoonneveld-Bergmans, Margot Elisabeth Francoise; Damveld, Robbertus Antonius

    2017-08-22

    The invention relates to a host cell comprising at least four different heterologous polynucleotides chosen from the group of polynucleotides encoding cellulases, hemicellulases and pectinases, wherein the host cell is capable of producing the at least four different enzymes chosen from the group of cellulases, hemicellulases and pectinases, wherein the host cell is a filamentous fungus and is capable of secretion of the at least four different enzymes. This host cell can suitably be used for the production of an enzyme composition that can be used in a process for the saccharification of cellulosic material.

  3. Host cell capable of producing enzymes useful for degradation of lignocellulosic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los, Alrik Pieter; Sagt, Cornelis Maria Jacobus; Schooneveld-Bergmans, Margot Elisabeth Francoise; Damveld, Robbertus Antonius

    2015-08-18

    The invention relates to a host cell comprising at least four different heterologous polynucleotides chosen from the group of polynucleotides encoding cellulases, hemicellulases and pectinases, wherein the host cell is capable of producing the at least four different enzymes chosen from the group of cellulases, hemicellulases and pectinases, wherein the host cell is a filamentous fungus and is capable of secretion of the at least four different enzymes. This host cell can suitably be used for the production of an enzyme composition that can be used in a process for the saccharification of cellulosic material.

  4. Susceptibility of Hep3B cells in different phases of cell cycle to tBid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shi-Hong; Chen, George G; Ye, Caiguo; Leung, Billy C S; Ho, Rocky L K; Lai, Paul B S

    2011-01-01

    tBid is a pro-apoptotic molecule. Apoptosis inducers usually act in a cell cycle-specific fashion. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether effect of tBid on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) Hep3B cells was cell cycle phase specific. We synchronized Hep3B cells at G0/G1, S or G2/M phases by chemicals or flow sorting and tested the susceptibility of the cells to recombinant tBid. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay and apoptosis by TUNEL. The results revealed that tBid primarily targeted the cells at G0/G1 phase of cell cycle, and it also increased the cells at the G2/M phase. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), on the other hand, arrested Hep3B cells at the G0/G1 phase, but significantly reduced cells at G2/M phase. The levels of cell cycle-related proteins and caspases were altered in line with the change in the cell cycle. The combination of tBid with 5-FU caused more cells to be apoptotic than either agent alone. Therefore, the complementary effect of tBid and 5-FU on different phases of the cell cycle may explain their synergistric effect on Hep3B cells. The elucidation of the phase-specific effect of tBid points to a possible therapeutic option that combines different phase specific agents to overcome resistance of HCC. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular insights into Cassava brown streak virus susceptibility and resistance by profiling of the early host response

    OpenAIRE

    Anjanappa, Ravi B; Mehta, Devang; Okoniewski, Michal J; Szabelska-Berȩsewicz, Alicja; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Vanderschuren, Hervé

    2018-01-01

    Cassava brown streak viruses (CBSVs) are responsible for significant cassava yield losses in eastern sub-Saharan Africa. To study the possible mechanisms of plant resistance to CBSVs we inoculated CBSV-susceptible and -resistant cassava varieties with a mixed infection of CBSVs using top-cleft grafting. Transcriptome profiling of the two cassava varieties was performed at the earliest time-point of full infection (28 days after grafting) in the susceptible scions. The expression of genes enco...

  6. A parasitic nematode releases cytokinin that controls cell division and orchestrates feeding site formation in host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Shahid; Radakovic, Zoran S; De La Torre, Carola M; Chronis, Demosthenis; Novák, Ondřej; Ramireddy, Eswarayya; Holbein, Julia; Matera, Christiane; Hütten, Marion; Gutbrod, Philipp; Anjam, Muhammad Shahzad; Rozanska, Elzbieta; Habash, Samer; Elashry, Abdelnaser; Sobczak, Miroslaw; Kakimoto, Tatsuo; Strnad, Miroslav; Schmülling, Thomas; Mitchum, Melissa G; Grundler, Florian M W

    2015-10-13

    Sedentary plant-parasitic cyst nematodes are biotrophs that cause significant losses in agriculture. Parasitism is based on modifications of host root cells that lead to the formation of a hypermetabolic feeding site (a syncytium) from which nematodes withdraw nutrients. The host cell cycle is activated in an initial cell selected by the nematode for feeding, followed by activation of neighboring cells and subsequent expansion of feeding site through fusion of hundreds of cells. It is generally assumed that nematodes manipulate production and signaling of the plant hormone cytokinin to activate cell division. In fact, nematodes have been shown to produce cytokinin in vitro; however, whether the hormone is secreted into host plants and plays a role in parasitism remained unknown. Here, we analyzed the spatiotemporal activation of cytokinin signaling during interaction between the cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, and Arabidopsis using cytokinin-responsive promoter:reporter lines. Our results showed that cytokinin signaling is activated not only in the syncytium but also in neighboring cells to be incorporated into syncytium. An analysis of nematode infection on mutants that are deficient in cytokinin or cytokinin signaling revealed a significant decrease in susceptibility of these plants to nematodes. Further, we identified a cytokinin-synthesizing isopentenyltransferase gene in H. schachtii and show that silencing of this gene in nematodes leads to a significant decrease in virulence due to a reduced expansion of feeding sites. Our findings demonstrate the ability of a plant-parasitic nematode to synthesize a functional plant hormone to manipulate the host system and establish a long-term parasitic interaction.

  7. Host Cell Restriction Factors that Limit Influenza A Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Villalón-Letelier

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Viral infection of different cell types induces a unique spectrum of host defence genes, including interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs and genes encoding other proteins with antiviral potential. Although hundreds of ISGs have been described, the vast majority have not been functionally characterised. Cellular proteins with putative antiviral activity (hereafter referred to as “restriction factors” can target various steps in the virus life-cycle. In the context of influenza virus infection, restriction factors have been described that target virus entry, genomic replication, translation and virus release. Genome wide analyses, in combination with ectopic overexpression and/or gene silencing studies, have accelerated the identification of restriction factors that are active against influenza and other viruses, as well as providing important insights regarding mechanisms of antiviral activity. Herein, we review current knowledge regarding restriction factors that mediate anti-influenza virus activity and consider the viral countermeasures that are known to limit their impact. Moreover, we consider the strengths and limitations of experimental approaches to study restriction factors, discrepancies between in vitro and in vivo studies, and the potential to exploit restriction factors to limit disease caused by influenza and other respiratory viruses.

  8. Identification and monitoring of host cell proteins by mass spectrometry combined with high performance immunochemistry testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Bomans

    Full Text Available Biotherapeutics are often produced in non-human host cells like Escherichia coli, yeast, and various mammalian cell lines. A major focus of any therapeutic protein purification process is to reduce host cell proteins to an acceptable low level. In this study, various E. coli host cell proteins were identified at different purifications steps by HPLC fractionation, SDS-PAGE analysis, and tryptic peptide mapping combined with online liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS. However, no host cell proteins could be verified by direct LC-MS analysis of final drug substance material. In contrast, the application of affinity enrichment chromatography prior to comprehensive LC-MS was adequate to identify several low abundant host cell proteins at the final drug substance level. Bacterial alkaline phosphatase (BAP was identified as being the most abundant host cell protein at several purification steps. Thus, we firstly established two different assays for enzymatic and immunological BAP monitoring using the cobas® technology. By using this strategy we were able to demonstrate an almost complete removal of BAP enzymatic activity by the established therapeutic protein purification process. In summary, the impact of fermentation, purification, and formulation conditions on host cell protein removal and biological activity can be conducted by monitoring process-specific host cell proteins in a GMP-compatible and high-throughput (> 1000 samples/day manner.

  9. SEVERE (GRADE III-IV ACUTE GRAFT VERSUS HOST DISEASE AFTER ALLOGENEIC HAEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Preložnik-Zupan

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Beside greater susceptibility to infections, acute graft host disease is a consequence of the activation of donor T-cells against host antigens. Most common target organs are skin, liver and intestinal mucosis.Methods. In the 6-year period between January 1995 and December 2000, 49 patients were treated with allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT in Transplant unit, Department of Hematology, Clinical Centre Ljubljana. The standard GVHD prophylaxis regimen consisted of cyclosporine and short-course methotrexate. Severe, grade III-IV aGVHD with skin and/or gastrointestinal and/or liver involvement appeared in 16 (32% of the 49 patients.Results. Among the 16 patients with severe aGVHD, 14 had liver involvement, ten gastrointestinal and eight skin involvement. One patient had skin involvement only, the rest of them had combined involvement of two or three organ systems. Routine first-line treatment for aGVHD, given to all 16 pts with severe forms of the disease, was methylprednisolone (MP 2mg/ kg. Six patients with predominant skin involvement responded to MP. Other ten patients with mainly liver and gastrointestinal involvement needed second or even third line aGVHD treatment. These were anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG and/or monoclonal antibodies (OKT3 and/or mycophenolate mofetil (MMF and/or FK506 (tacrolimus. Seven patients died of advanced aGVHD and treatment related infection.Conclusions. Based on our experiences, we conclude that in critically ill patients with severe aGVHD, neutropenia and high risk for opportunistic infection, each day of ineffective MP therapy may have fatal consequences. Simultaneous institution of a combination of corticosteroids and a second-line drug might prove more appropriate for patients with a severe form of aGVHD.

  10. Assessment of oxidant susceptibility of red blood cells in various species based on cell deformability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Michael J; Meiselman, Herbert J; Marshall-Gradisnik, Sonya M; Pyne, Michael; Kakanis, Michael; Keane, James; Brenu, Ekua; Christy, Rhys; Baskurt, Oguz K

    2011-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the oxidant susceptibility of red blood cells (RBC) from four species (echidna, human, koala, Tasmanian devil) based on changes in cellular deformability. These species were specifically chosen based on differences in lifestyle and/or biology associated with varied levels of oxidative stress. The major focus was the influence of superoxide radicals generated within the cell (phenazine methosulfate, PMS, 50 μM) or in the extracellular medium (xanthine oxidase-hypoxanthine, XO-HX, 0.1 U/ml XO) on RBC deformability at various shear stresses (SS). RBC deformability was assessed by laser-diffraction analysis using a "slit-flow ektacytometer". Both superoxide-generating treatments resulted in significant increases of methemoglobin for all species (p koala cells exhibited a similar sigmoid-like response to SS, short-beaked echidna values were markedly lower and only increased slightly with SS, while Tasmanian devil RBC were extremely rigid. The effect of XO-HX on RBC deformability was less when compared with PMS (i.e., smaller increase in rigidity) with the exception of Tasmanian devil RBC which exhibited essentially no deformation even at the highest SS; Tasmanian devil RBC response to XO-HX was thus comparable to that observed with PMS. Our findings indicate that ektacytometry can be used to determine the oxidant susceptibility of RBC from different species which varies significantly among mammals representing diverse lifestyles and evolutionary histories. These differences in susceptibility are consistent with species-specific discrepancies between observed and allometrically-predicted life spans and are compatible with the oxidant theory of aging.

  11. Patterns of oligonucleotide sequences in viral and host cell RNA identify mediators of the host innate immune system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D Greenbaum

    Full Text Available The innate immune response provides a first line of defense against pathogens by targeting generic differential features that are present in foreign organisms but not in the host. These innate responses generate selection forces acting both in pathogens and hosts that further determine their co-evolution. Here we analyze the nucleic acid sequence fingerprints of these selection forces acting in parallel on both host innate immune genes and ssRNA viral genomes. We do this by identifying dinucleotide biases in the coding regions of innate immune response genes in plasmacytoid dendritic cells, and then use this signal to identify other significant host innate immune genes. The persistence of these biases in the orthologous groups of genes in humans and chickens is also examined. We then compare the significant motifs in highly expressed genes of the innate immune system to those in ssRNA viruses and study the evolution of these motifs in the H1N1 influenza genome. We argue that the significant under-represented motif pattern of CpG in an AU context--which is found in both the ssRNA viruses and innate genes, and has decreased throughout the history of H1N1 influenza replication in humans--is immunostimulatory and has been selected against during the co-evolution of viruses and host innate immune genes. This shows how differences in host immune biology can drive the evolution of viruses that jump into species with different immune priorities than the original host.

  12. Host cell subversion by Toxoplasma GRA16, an exported dense granule protein that targets the host cell nucleus and alters gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougdour, Alexandre; Durandau, Eric; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Ortet, Philippe; Barakat, Mohamed; Kieffer, Sylvie; Curt-Varesano, Aurélie; Curt-Bertini, Rose-Laurence; Bastien, Olivier; Coute, Yohann; Pelloux, Hervé; Hakimi, Mohamed-Ali

    2013-04-17

    After invading host cells, Toxoplasma gondii multiplies within a parasitophorous vacuole (PV) that is maintained by parasite proteins secreted from organelles called dense granules. Most dense granule proteins remain within the PV, and few are known to access the host cell cytosol. We identify GRA16 as a dense granule protein that is exported through the PV membrane and reaches the host cell nucleus, where it positively modulates genes involved in cell-cycle progression and the p53 tumor suppressor pathway. GRA16 binds two host enzymes, the deubiquitinase HAUSP and PP2A phosphatase, which exert several functions, including regulation of p53 and the cell cycle. GRA16 alters p53 levels in a HAUSP-dependent manner and induces nuclear translocation of the PP2A holoenzyme. Additionally, certain GRA16-deficient strains exhibit attenuated virulence, indicating the importance of these host alterations in pathogenesis. Therefore, GRA16 represents a potentially emerging subfamily of exported dense granule proteins that modulate host function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Alternative states and population crashes in a resource-susceptible-infected model for planktonic parasites and hosts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerla, D.J.; Gsell, A.S.; Kooi, B.W.; Ibelings, B.W.; Van Donk, E.; Mooij, W.M.

    2013-01-01

    1. Despite the strong impact parasites can have, only few models of phytoplankton ecology or aquatic food webs have specifically included parasitism. 2. Here, we provide a susceptible-infected model for a diatom-chytrid host–parasite system that explicitly includes nutrients, infected and uninfected

  14. Alternative states and population crashes in a resource-susceptible-infected model for planktonic parasites and hosts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerla, D.J.; Gsell, A.S.; Kooi, B.W.; Ibelings, B.W.; Donk, van E.; Mooij, W.M.

    2013-01-01

    1. Despite the strong impact parasites can have, only few models of phytoplankton ecology or aquatic food webs have specifically included parasitism. 2. Here, we provide a susceptible-infected model for a diatom-chytrid hostparasite system that explicitly includes nutrients, infected and uninfected

  15. A cell-based high-throughput screening assay for radiation susceptibility using automated cell counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodzic, Jasmina; Dingjan, Ilse; Maas, Mariëlle JP; Meulen-Muileman, Ida H van der; Menezes, Renee X de; Heukelom, Stan; Verheij, Marcel; Gerritsen, Winald R; Geldof, Albert A; Triest, Baukelien van; Beusechem, Victor W van

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy is one of the mainstays in the treatment for cancer, but its success can be limited due to inherent or acquired resistance. Mechanisms underlying radioresistance in various cancers are poorly understood and available radiosensitizers have shown only modest clinical benefit. There is thus a need to identify new targets and drugs for more effective sensitization of cancer cells to irradiation. Compound and RNA interference high-throughput screening technologies allow comprehensive enterprises to identify new agents and targets for radiosensitization. However, the gold standard assay to investigate radiosensitivity of cancer cells in vitro, the colony formation assay (CFA), is unsuitable for high-throughput screening. We developed a new high-throughput screening method for determining radiation susceptibility. Fast and uniform irradiation of batches up to 30 microplates was achieved using a Perspex container and a clinically employed linear accelerator. The readout was done by automated counting of fluorescently stained nuclei using the Acumen eX3 laser scanning cytometer. Assay performance was compared to that of the CFA and the CellTiter-Blue homogeneous uniform-well cell viability assay. The assay was validated in a whole-genome siRNA library screening setting using PC-3 prostate cancer cells. On 4 different cancer cell lines, the automated cell counting assay produced radiation dose response curves that followed a linear-quadratic equation and that exhibited a better correlation to the results of the CFA than did the cell viability assay. Moreover, the cell counting assay could be used to detect radiosensitization by silencing DNA-PKcs or by adding caffeine. In a high-throughput screening setting, using 4 Gy irradiated and control PC-3 cells, the effects of DNA-PKcs siRNA and non-targeting control siRNA could be clearly discriminated. We developed a simple assay for radiation susceptibility that can be used for high-throughput screening. This will aid

  16. Inhibition of host cell protein synthesis by UV-inactivated poliovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helentjaris, T.; Ehrenfeld, E.

    1977-01-01

    The ability of poliovirus that was irradiated with UV light at energies up to 2,160 ergs/mm 2 to subsequently inhibit host cell protein synthesis was measured. The inactivation of the host cell shutoff function followed one-hit kinetics. Increasing irradiation did not affect the rate of inhibition until the multiplicity of infection after irradiation was reduced to approximately 1 PFU/cell. At higher functional multiplicities, the rate was unchanged, but an increasing lag before the onset of inhibition was observed with increasing irradiation. The energy levels required to inactivate virus-induced inhibition of host cell protein synthesis suggest that damage to virus RNA rather than to virus capsid proteins is responsible for the loss of function. When the inactivation of host cell shutoff was compared with the inactivation of other viral functions by UV irradiation, it correlated exactly with the loss of infectivity but not with other viral functions measured. Guanidine treatment, which prevents detectable viral RNA and protein synthesis, completely inhibited host cell shutoff by low multiplicities of unirradiated virus infection but not higher multiplicities. When a high multiplicity of virus was first reduced to a low titer by irradiation, host cell shutoff was still evident in the presence of guanidine. The results demonstrate that the complete inhibition of host cell protein synthesis can be accomplished by one infectious viral genome per cell

  17. Roles of Breast Cancer Susceptibility Genes BRCA’s in Mammary Epithelial Cell Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    FANCA . Hum. Mol. Genet. 11, 2591-2597 (2002). 13. Tessari, M.A. et al. Transcriptional activation of the cyclin A gene by the architectural...caretakercancer susceptibility gene FANCA (24), as well several IFN- or caspase- associated proteins, were down-regulated. Concomitantly, in these cells...a mammary differentiation factor STAT5B and a caretaker cancer susceptibility gene FANCA were down-regulated. Nev- ertheless, it has yet to be

  18. Adhesion, biofilm formation, cell surface hydrophobicity, and antifungal planktonic susceptibility: relationship among Candida spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Silva-Dias, Ana; Miranda, Isabel M.; Branco, Joana; Monteiro-Soares, Matilde; Pina-Vaz, Cid?lia; Rodrigues, Ac?cio G.

    2015-01-01

    We have performed the characterization of the adhesion profile, biofilm formation, cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) and antifungal susceptibility of 184 Candida clinical isolates obtained from different human reservoirs. Adhesion was quantified using a flow cytometric assay and biofilm formation was evaluated using two methodologies: XTT and crystal violet assay. CSH was quantified with the microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons test while planktonic susceptibility was assessed accordingly the C...

  19. Capture of cell culture-derived influenza virus by lectins: strain independent, but host cell dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, Lars; Zimmermann, Anke; Lehmann, Sylvia; Genzel, Yvonne; Lübben, Holger; Reichl, Udo; Wolff, Michael W

    2008-12-01

    Strategies to control influenza outbreaks are focused mainly on prophylactic vaccination. Human influenza vaccines are trivalent blends of different virus subtypes. Therefore and due to frequent antigenic drifts, strain independent manufacturing processes are required for vaccine production. This study verifies the strain independency of a capture method based on Euonymus europaeus lectin-affinity chromatography (EEL-AC) for downstream processing of influenza viruses under various culture conditions propagated in MDCK cells. A comprehensive lectin binding screening was conducted for two influenza virus types from the season 2007/2008 (A/Wisconsin/67/2005, B/Malaysia/2506/2004) including a comparison of virus-lectin interaction by surface plasmon resonance technology. EEL-AC resulted in a reproducible high product recovery rate and a high degree of contaminant removal in the case of both MDCK cell-derived influenza virus types demonstrating clearly the general applicability of EEL-AC. In addition, host cell dependency of EEL-AC was studied with two industrial relevant cell lines: Vero and MDCK cells. However, the choice of the host cell lines is known to lead to different product glycosylation profiles. Hence, altered lectin specificities have been observed between the two cell lines, requiring process adaptations between different influenza vaccine production systems.

  20. Recruitment of host's progenitor cells to sites of human amniotic fluid stem cells implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabella, Teodelinda; Poggi, Alessandro; Scaranari, Monica; Mogni, Massimo; Lituania, Mario; Baldo, Chiara; Cancedda, Ranieri; Gentili, Chiara

    2011-06-01

    The amniotic fluid is a new source of multipotent stem cells with a therapeutic potential for human diseases. Cultured at low cell density, human amniotic fluid stem cells (hAFSCs) were still able to generate colony-forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F) after 60 doublings, thus confirming their staminal nature. Moreover, after extensive in vitro cell expansion hAFSCs maintained a stable karyotype. The expression of genes, such as SSEA-4, SOX2 and OCT3/4 was confirmed at early and later culture stage. Also, hAFSCs showed bright expression of mesenchymal lineage markers and immunoregulatory properties. hAFSCs, seeded onto hydroxyapatite scaffolds and subcutaneously implanted in nude mice, played a pivotal role in mounting a response resulting in the recruitment of host's progenitor cells forming tissues of mesodermal origin such as fat, muscle, fibrous tissue and immature bone. Implanted hAFSCs migrated from the scaffold to the skin overlying implant site but not to other organs. Given their in vivo: (i) recruitment of host progenitor cells, (ii) homing towards injured sites and (iii) multipotentiality in tissue repair, hAFSCs are a very appealing reserve of stem cells potentially useful for clinical application in regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Donor Satellite Cell Engraftment is Significantly Augmented When the Host Niche is Preserved and Endogenous Satellite Cells are Incapacitated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldrin, Luisa; Neal, Alice; Zammit, Peter S; Muntoni, Francesco; Morgan, Jennifer E

    2012-01-01

    Stem cell transplantation is already in clinical practice for certain genetic diseases and is a promising therapy for dystrophic muscle. We used the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy to investigate the effect of the host satellite cell niche on the contribution of donor muscle stem cells (satellite cells) to muscle regeneration. We found that incapacitation of the host satellite cells and preservation of the muscle niche promote donor satellite cell contribution to muscle regeneration and functional reconstitution of the satellite cell compartment. But, if the host niche is not promptly refilled, or is filled by competent host satellite cells, it becomes nonfunctional and donor engraftment is negligible. Application of this regimen to aged host muscles also promotes efficient regeneration from aged donor satellite cells. In contrast, if the niche is destroyed, yet host satellite cells remain proliferation-competent, donor-derived engraftment is trivial. Thus preservation of the satellite cell niche, concomitant with functional impairment of the majority of satellite cells within dystrophic human muscles, may improve the efficiency of stem cell therapy. Stem Cells2012;30:1971–1984 PMID:22730231

  2. Cytotoxic Vibrio T3SS1 Rewires Host Gene Expression to Subvert Cell Death Signaling and Activate Cell Survival Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nisco, Nicole J.; Kanchwala, Mohammed; Li, Peng; Fernandez, Jessie; Xing, Chao; Orth, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial effectors are potent manipulators of host signaling pathways. The marine bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. para), delivers effectors into host cells through two type three secretion systems (T3SS). The ubiquitous T3SS1 is vital for V. para survival in the environment, whereas T3SS2 causes acute gastroenteritis in human hosts. Although the natural host is undefined, T3SS1 effectors attack highly conserved cellular processes and pathways to orchestrate non-apoptotic cell death. Much is known about how T3SS1 effectors function in isolation, but we wanted to understand how their concerted action globally affects host cell signaling. To assess the host response to T3SS1, we compared gene expression changes over time in primary fibroblasts infected with V. para that have a functional T3SS1 (T3SS1+) to those in cells infected with V. para lacking T3SS1 (T3SS1−). Overall, the host transcriptional response to both T3SS1+ and T3SS1− V. para was rapid, robust, and temporally dynamic. T3SS1 re-wired host gene expression by specifically altering the expression of 398 genes. Although T3SS1 effectors target host cells at the posttranslational level to cause cytotoxicity, network analysis indicated that V. para T3SS1 also precipitates a host transcriptional response that initially activates cell survival and represses cell death networks. The increased expression of several key pro-survival transcripts mediated by T3SS1 was dependent on a host signaling pathway that is silenced later in infection by the posttranslational action of T3SS1. Taken together, our analysis reveals a complex interplay between roles of T3SS1 as both a transcriptional and posttranslational manipulator of host cell signaling. PMID:28512145

  3. Intraspecific variation in host susceptibility and climatic factors mediate epidemics of sudden oak death in western US forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Huberli; K.J. Hayden; M. Calver; M. Garbelotto

    2011-01-01

    Umbellularia californica is one of the key infectious hosts of the exotic Phytophthora ramorum, which causes sudden oak death (SOD) in California and Oregon forests. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of the epidemiologically relevant parameters for SOD in California and southern Oregon, including potential differences between the two...

  4. A model to estimate effects of SNPs on host susceptibility and infectivity for an endemic infectious disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemans, Floor; Jong, de Mart C.M.; Bijma, Piter

    2017-01-01

    Background: Infectious diseases in farm animals affect animal health, decrease animal welfare and can affect human health. Selection and breeding of host individuals with desirable traits regarding infectious diseases can help to fight disease transmission, which is affected by two types of

  5. Epifluorescence and stereomicroscopy of trichomes associated with resistant and susceptible host plant genotypes of the Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epifluorescence, light and stereo-microscopy were used to characterize foliar trichomes associated with young flush leaves and stems of six plant genotypes that are hosts of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, vector of the economically important citrus greening disease. These genotypes incl...

  6. Susceptibility of ATM-deficient pancreatic cancer cells to radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayars, Michael; Eshleman, James; Goggins, Michael

    2017-05-19

    Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is inactivated in a significant minority of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas and may be predictor of treatment response. We determined if ATM deficiency renders pancreatic cancer cells more sensitive to fractionated radiation or commonly used chemotherapeutics. ATM expression was knocked down in three pancreatic cancer cell lines using ATM-targeting shRNA. Isogenic cell lines were tested for sensitivity to several chemotherapeutic agents and radiation. DNA repair kinetics were analyzed in irradiated cells using the comet assay. We find that while rendering pancreatic cancer cells ATM-deficient did not significantly change their sensitivity to several chemotherapeutics, it did render them exquisitely sensitized to radiation. Pancreatic cancer ATM status may help predict response to radiotherapy.

  7. Cellular Aspects of Shigella Pathogenesis: Focus on the Manipulation of Host Cell Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killackey, Samuel A; Sorbara, Matthew T; Girardin, Stephen E

    2016-01-01

    Shigella is a Gram-negative bacterium that is responsible for shigellosis. Over the years, the study of Shigella has provided a greater understanding of how the host responds to bacterial infection, and how bacteria have evolved to effectively counter the host defenses. In this review, we provide an update on some of the most recent advances in our understanding of pivotal processes associated with Shigella infection, including the invasion into host cells, the metabolic changes that occur within the bacterium and the infected cell, cell-to-cell spread mechanisms, autophagy and membrane trafficking, inflammatory signaling and cell death. This recent progress sheds a new light into the mechanisms underlying Shigella pathogenesis, and also more generally provides deeper understanding of the complex interplay between host cells and bacterial pathogens in general.

  8. Phage adsorption and lytic propagation in Lactobacillus plantarum: Could host cell starvation affect them?

    OpenAIRE

    Briggiler Marc?, Mari?ngeles; Reinheimer, Jorge; Quiberoni, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Background Bacteriophages constitute a great threat to the activity of lactic acid bacteria used in industrial processes. Several factors can influence the infection cycle of bacteriophages. That is the case of the physiological state of host cells, which could produce inhibition or delay of the phage infection process. In the present work, the influence of Lactobacillus plantarum host cell starvation on phage B1 adsorption and propagation was investigated. Result First, cell growth kinetics ...

  9. Porphyromonas gingivalis as a Model Organism for Assessing Interaction of Anaerobic Bacteria with Host Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunsch, Christopher M; Lewis, Janina P

    2015-12-17

    Anaerobic bacteria far outnumber aerobes in many human niches such as the gut, mouth, and vagina. Furthermore, anaerobic infections are common and frequently of indigenous origin. The ability of some anaerobic pathogens to invade human cells gives them adaptive measures to escape innate immunity as well as to modulate host cell behavior. However, ensuring that the anaerobic bacteria are live during experimental investigation of the events may pose challenges. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a Gram-negative anaerobe, is capable of invading a variety of eukaryotic non-phagocytic cells. This article outlines how to successfully culture and assess the ability of P. gingivalis to invade human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Two protocols were developed: one to measure bacteria that can successfully invade and survive within the host, and the other to visualize bacteria interacting with host cells. These techniques necessitate the use of an anaerobic chamber to supply P. gingivalis with an anaerobic environment for optimal growth. The first protocol is based on the antibiotic protection assay, which is largely used to study the invasion of host cells by bacteria. However, the antibiotic protection assay is limited; only intracellular bacteria that are culturable following antibiotic treatment and host cell lysis are measured. To assess all bacteria interacting with host cells, both live and dead, we developed a protocol that uses fluorescent microscopy to examine host-pathogen interaction. Bacteria are fluorescently labeled with 2',7'-Bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein acetoxymethyl ester (BCECF-AM) and used to infect eukaryotic cells under anaerobic conditions. Following fixing with paraformaldehyde and permeabilization with 0.2% Triton X-100, host cells are labeled with TRITC phalloidin and DAPI to label the cell cytoskeleton and nucleus, respectively. Multiple images taken at different focal points (Z-stack) are obtained for temporal

  10. Binding of paraquat to cell walls of paraquat resistant and susceptible biotypes of Hordeum glaucum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alizadeh, H.M.; Preston, C.; Powles, S.B.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Paraquat is a widely used, non-selective, light activated contact herbicide acting as a photosystem electron acceptor. Resistance to paraquat in weed species has occurred in Australia and world-wide following extensive use of this herbicide. The mechanism of resistance to paraquat in 'Hordeum glaucum' is correlated with reduced herbicide translocation and may be due to sequestration of herbicide away from its site of action by either binding to cell walls or other means. We measured paraquat binding to a cell wall fraction in resistant and susceptible biotypes of H. glaucum to determine whether differences in binding of paraquat to cell walls could explain herbicide resistance. The cell wall fraction was isolated from leaves of resistant and susceptible biotypes and incubated with 14 C-labelled paraquat. Of the total paraquat - absorbed by a cell wall preparation, about 80% remains strongly bind to the cell wall and doesn't readily exchange with solution in the absence of divalent cations. Divalent cations (Ca 2+ ,putrescine and paraquat) can competitively exchange for paraquat tightly bound to the cell wall. From kinetic experiments it seems that there are two types of binding sites in the cell wall with different affinities for paraquat. No significant differences between cell wall, characteristics of resistant and susceptible biotypes of H. glaucum have been found in any of our experiments. Therefore, increased binding of paraquat to the cell wall appears not to be a mechanism for exclusion of paraquat in resistant biotype

  11. Some Observations on Carbon Nano tubes Susceptibility to Cell Phagocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraczek-Szczypta, A.; Menaszek, E.; Blazewicz, S.; Menaszek, E.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of different types of carbon nano tubes (CNTs) on cell phagocytosis. Three kinds of carbon nano tubes: single-walled carbon nano horns (SWCNHs), multi walled carbon nano tubes (MWCNTs), and ultra-long single-walled carbon nano tubes (ULSWCNTs) before and after additional chemical functionalization were seeded with macrophage cell culture. Prior to biological testing, the CNTs were subjected to dispersion process with the use of phosphate buffered solution (PBS) and PBS containing surfactant (Tween 20) or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The results indicate that the cells interaction with an individual nano tube is entirely different as compared to CNTs in the form of aggregate. The presence of the surfactant favors the CNTs dispersion in culture media and facilitates phagocytosis process, while it has disadvantageous influence on cells morphology. The cells phagocytosis is a more effective for MWCNTs and SWCNHs after their chemical functionalization. Moreover, these nano tubes were well dispersed in culture media without using DMSO or surfactant. The functionalized carbon nano tubes were easily dispersed in pure PBS and seeded with cells

  12. SPOC1-mediated antiviral host cell response is antagonized early in human adenovirus type 5 infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreiner, Sabrina; Kinkley, Sarah; Bürck, Carolin

    2013-01-01

    , and playing a role in DNA damage response. SPOC1 co-localized with viral replication centers in the host cell nucleus, interacted with Ad DNA, and repressed viral gene expression at the transcriptional level. We discovered that this SPOC1-mediated restriction imposed upon Ad growth is relieved by its...... viruses (HSV-1, HSV-2, HIV-1, and HCV) also depleted SPOC1 in infected cells. Our findings provide a general model for how pathogenic human viruses antagonize intrinsic SPOC1-mediated antiviral responses in their host cells. A better understanding of viral entry and early restrictive functions in host...

  13. Characterization of host lymphoid cells in antibody-facilitated bone marrow chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, S.A.; Griffith, I.J.; Gambel, P.; Francescutti, L.H.; Wegmann, T.G.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have produced stable murine antibody-facilitated (AF) chimeras by the simultaneous injection of P1 bone marrow cells and anti-P2 monoclonal antibody into normal (unirradiated) adult (P1 X P2)F1 recipients. These AF chimeras are healthy, long-lived, and exhibit no overt signs of graft-versus-host disease. They are immunocompetent and tolerant of host, P2-encoded alloantigens. Donor cell engraftment and takeover, monitored by glucosephosphate isomerase isozyme patterns, is usually complete (greater than 95%) in the peripheral blood, bone marrow, and hemopoietic stem cell compartments of long-term (greater than 3 months posttransplantation) AF chimeras. The authors report here, however, that splenic, lymph node, and thymic leukocytes of AF chimeras represent donor/host chimeric populations. Spleen cell populations of AF chimeras exhibit substantial chimera-to-chimera variation in the preponderant residual host cell type(s) present. Interpretations of the implications of these findings are discussed

  14. Molecular model of a type III secretion system needle: Implications for host-cell sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Janet E; Roversi, Pietro; Cordes, Frank S; Johnson, Steven; Kenjale, Roma; Daniell, Sarah; Booy, Frank; Picking, William D; Picking, Wendy L; Blocker, Ariel J; Lea, Susan M

    2006-08-15

    Type III secretion systems are essential virulence determinants for many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. The type III secretion system consists of cytoplasmic, transmembrane, and extracellular domains. The extracellular domain is a hollow needle protruding above the bacterial surface and is held within a basal body that traverses both bacterial membranes. Effector proteins are translocated, via this external needle, directly into host cells, where they subvert normal cell functions to aid infection. Physical contact with host cells initiates secretion and leads to formation of a pore, thought to be contiguous with the needle channel, in the host-cell membrane. Here, we report the crystal structure of the Shigella flexneri needle subunit MxiH and a complete model for the needle assembly built into our three-dimensional EM reconstruction. The model, combined with mutagenesis data, reveals that signaling of host-cell contact is relayed through the needle via intersubunit contacts and suggests a mode of binding for a tip complex.

  15. Radiation-induced alterations in binding of concanavalin A to cells and in their susceptibility to agglutination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kazuhide; Kaneko, Ichiro

    1986-01-01

    Cell susceptibility to agglutination mediated by a plant lectin, concanavalin A (Con A), and the binding capacity of Con A to cells following γ-irradiation have been examined in mouse myeloid leukaemia cells cultured in suspension. Irradiation caused an immediate decrease in the amount of Con A bound to the cell surface, whereas susceptibility of irradiated cells to agglutination by Con A was unchanged when compared to that of the unirradiated cells. Post-irradiation incubation of cells at 37 0 resulted in a temporary, more than 1.3-fold increase in cell susceptibility to agglutination 60 min after irradiation, whereas binding capacity of cells for Con A gradually-recovered following irradiation, reaching a comparable level to that of unirradiated cells 3 h after irradiation. Cell susceptibility to agglutination by Con A does not depend strongly on its binding capacity. (author)

  16. Diversity in host clone performance within a Chinese hamster ovary cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Peter M; Berthelot, Maud E; Young, Robert J; Graham, James W A; Racher, Andrew J; Aldana, Dulce

    2015-01-01

    Much effort has been expended to improve the capabilities of individual Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) host cell lines to synthesize recombinant therapeutic proteins (rPs). However, given the increasing variety in rP molecular types and formats it may be advantageous to employ a toolbox of CHO host cell lines in biomanufacturing. Such a toolbox would contain a panel of hosts with specific capabilities to synthesize certain molecular types at high volumetric concentrations and with the correct product quality (PQ). In this work, we examine a panel of clonally derived host cell lines isolated from CHOK1SV for the ability to manufacture two model proteins, an IgG4 monoclonal antibody (Mab) and an Fc-fusion protein (etanercept). We show that these host cell lines vary in their relative ability to synthesize these proteins in transient and stable pool production format. Furthermore, we examined the PQ attributes of the stable pool-produced Mab and etanercept (by N-glycan ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), respectively), and uncovered substantial variation between the host cell lines in Mab N-glycan micro-heterogeneity and etanercept N and O-linked macro-heterogeneity. To further investigate the capabilities of these hosts to act as cell factories, we examined the glycosylation pathway gene expression profiles as well as the levels of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria in the untransfected hosts. We uncovered a moderate correlation between ER mass and the volumetric product concentration in transient and stable pool Mab production. This work demonstrates the utility of leveraging diversity within the CHOK1SV pool to identify new host cell lines with different performance characteristics. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  17. Membrane rafts: a potential gateway for bacterial entry into host cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartlova, Anetta; Cerveny, Lukas; Hubalek, Martin; Krocova, Zuzana; Stulik, Jiri

    2010-04-01

    Pathogenic bacteria have developed various mechanisms to evade host immune defense systems. Invasion of pathogenic bacteria requires interaction of the pathogen with host receptors, followed by activation of signal transduction pathways and rearrangement of the cytoskeleton to facilitate bacterial entry. Numerous bacteria exploit specialized plasma membrane microdomains, commonly called membrane rafts, which are rich in cholesterol, sphingolipids and a special set of signaling molecules which allow entry to host cells and establishment of a protected niche within the host. This review focuses on the current understanding of the raft hypothesis and the means by which pathogenic bacteria subvert membrane microdomains to promote infection.

  18. Brucella abortus choloylglycine hydrolase affects cell envelope composition and host cell internalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Inés Marchesini

    Full Text Available Choloylglycine hydrolase (CGH, E.C. 3.5.1.24 is a conjugated bile salt hydrolase that catalyses the hydrolysis of the amide bond in conjugated bile acids. Bile salt hydrolases are expressed by gastrointestinal bacteria, and they presumably decrease the toxicity of host's conjugated bile salts. Brucella species are the causative agents of brucellosis, a disease affecting livestock and humans. CGH confers Brucella the ability to deconjugate and resist the antimicrobial action of bile salts, contributing to the establishment of a successful infection through the oral route in mice. Additionally, cgh-deletion mutant was also attenuated in intraperitoneally inoculated mice, which suggests that CGH may play a role during systemic infection other than hydrolyzing conjugated bile acids. To understand the role CGH plays in B. abortus virulence, we infected phagocytic and epithelial cells with a cgh-deletion mutant (Δcgh and found that it is defective in the internalization process. This defect along with the increased resistance of Δcgh to the antimicrobial action of polymyxin B, prompted an analysis of the cell envelope of this mutant. Two-dimensional electrophoretic profiles of Δcgh cell envelope-associated proteins showed an altered expression of Omp2b and different members of the Omp25/31 family. These results were confirmed by Western blot analysis with monoclonal antibodies. Altogether, the results indicate that Brucella CGH not only participates in deconjugation of bile salts but also affects overall membrane composition and host cell internalization.

  19. Bacterial cell-cell communication in the host via RRNPP peptide-binding regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David ePerez-Pascual

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Human microbiomes are composed of complex and dense bacterial consortia. In these environments, bacteria are able to react quickly to change by coordinating their gene expression at the population level via small signaling molecules. In Gram-positive bacteria, cell-cell communication is mostly mediated by peptides that are released into the extracellular environment. Cell-cell communication based on these peptides is especially widespread in the group Firmicutes, in which they regulate a wide array of biological processes, including functions related to host-microbe interactions. Among the different agents of communication, the RRNPP family of cytoplasmic transcriptional regulators, together with their cognate re-internalized signaling peptides, represents a group of emerging importance. RRNPP members that have been studied so far are found mainly in species of bacilli, streptococci, and enterococci. These bacteria are characterized as both human commensal and pathogenic, and share different niches in the human body with other microorganisms. The goal of this mini-review is to present the current state of research on the biological relevance of RRNPP mechanisms in the context of the host, highlighting their specific roles in commensalism or virulence.

  20. Staphylococcus aureus produces membrane-derived vesicles that induce host cell death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamata Gurung

    Full Text Available Gram-negative bacteria produce outer membrane vesicles that play a role in the delivery of virulence factors to host cells. However, little is known about the membrane-derived vesicles (MVs produced by gram-positive bacteria. The present study examined the production of MVs from Staphylococcus aureus and investigated the delivery of MVs to host cells and subsequent cytotoxicity. Four S. aureus strains tested, two type strains and two clinical isolates, produced spherical nanovesicles during in vitro culture. MVs were also produced during in vivo infection of a clinical S. aureus isolate in a mouse pneumonia model. Proteomic analysis showed that 143 different proteins were identified in the S. aureus-derived MVs. S. aureus MVs were interacted with the plasma membrane of host cells via a cholesterol-rich membrane microdomain and then delivered their component protein A to host cells within 30 min. Intact S. aureus MVs induced apoptosis of HEp-2 cells in a dose-dependent manner, whereas lysed MVs neither delivered their component into the cytosol of host cells nor induced cytotoxicity. In conclusion, this study is the first report that S. aureus MVs are an important vehicle for delivery of bacterial effector molecules to host cells.

  1. Role of T cell receptor delta gene in susceptibility to celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roschmann, E; Wienker, T F; Volk, B A

    1996-02-01

    There is a strong genetic influence on the susceptibility to celiac disease. Although in the vast majority of patients with celiac disease, the HLA-DQ(alpha1*0501, beta1*0201) heterodimer encoded by the alleles HLA-DQA1*0501 and HLA-DQB1*0201 seems to confer the primary disease susceptibility, it cannot be excluded that other genes contribute to disease susceptibility, as indicated by the difference in concordance rates between monozygotic twins and HLA identical siblings (70% vs. 30%). Obviously other genes involved in the genetic control of T cell mediated immune response could potentially influence susceptibility to celiac disease. The density of T cells using the gammadelta T cell receptor (TCR) is considerably increased in the jejunal epithelium of patients with celiac disease, an abnormality considered to be specific for celiac disease. This suggests an involvement of gammadelta T cells in the pathogenesis of the disease. To ascertain whether the TCR delta (TCRD) gene contributes to celiac disease susceptibility we carried out an association study and genetic linkage analysis using a highly polymorphic microsatellite marker at the TCRD locus on chromosome 14q11.2. The association study demonstrated no significant difference in allele frequencies of the TCRD gene marker between celiac disease patients and controls; accordingly, the relative risk estimates did not reach the level of statistical significance. In the linkage analysis, performed in 23 families, the logarithm of the odds (LOD) scores calculated for celiac disease versus the TCRD gene marker excluded linkage, suggesting that there is no determinant contributing to celiac disease status at or 5 cM distant to the analyzed TCRD gene marker. In conclusion, the results of the present study provide no evidence that the analyzed TCRD gene contributes substantially to celiac disease susceptibility.

  2. Oral chronic graft-versus-host disease: analysis of dendritic cells subpopulations*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botari, Clara Marino Espricigo; Nunes, Adauto José Ferreira; de Souza, Mair Pedro; Orti-Raduan, Érica Sinara Lenharo; Salvio, Ana Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    The graft-versus-host disease is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients who have undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Aiming at contributing to the understanding of the role of myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells, and natural killer cells in chronic graft-versus-host disease, we examined biopsies of jugal mucosa of 26 patients with acute myeloid leukemia who had undergone allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Half of these patients developed oral chronic graft-versus-host disease. Microscopic sections were immunohistochemically stained for anti-CD1a, anti-CD123 and anti-CD56. We calculated the number of immunostained cells in the corium per square millimeter and applied the Mann-Whitney test. Results showed a statistically significant increase of myeloid dendritic cells (CD1a+; p=0,02) and natural killer cells (CD56; p=0,04) in patients with oral chronic graft-versus-host disease. CD123 immunostaining showed no statistical difference between groups. It was concluded that myeloid dendritic cells and natural killer cells participate in the development of oral chronic graft-versus-host disease. PMID:25054751

  3. Oral chronic graft-versus-host disease: analysis of dendritic cells subpopulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botari, Clara Marino Espricigo; Nunes, Adauto José Ferreira; Souza, Mair Pedro de; Orti-Raduan, Erica Sinara Lenharo; Salvio, Ana Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    The graft-versus-host disease is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients who have undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Aiming at contributing to the understanding of the role of myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells, and natural killer cells in chronic graft-versus-host disease, we examined biopsies of jugal mucosa of 26 patients with acute myeloid leukemia who had undergone allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Half of these patients developed oral chronic graft-versus-host disease. Microscopic sections were immunohistochemically stained for anti-CD1a, anti-CD123 and anti-CD56. We calculated the number of immunostained cells in the corium per square millimeter and applied the Mann-Whitney test. Results showed a statistically significant increase of myeloid dendritic cells (CD1a+; p=0,02) and natural killer cells (CD56; p=0,04) in patients with oral chronic graft-versus-host disease. CD123 immunostaining showed no statistical difference between groups. It was concluded that myeloid dendritic cells and natural killer cells participate in the development of oral chronic graft-versus-host disease.

  4. The increased susceptibility of hematopoietic stem cells to Friend leukemia virus in the repopulating period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirashima, Kunitake; Kumatori, Toshiyuki

    1977-01-01

    The present study considers two fundamental problems of leukemia and stem cells: (1) whether the target cells for malignant transformation of Friend leukemia virus (FV) are the pluripotential stem cells; (2) whether the susceptibility of the target cell is changeable depending on the proliferating state of the cell. In the experiments, inbred 8- to 12-week-old C3H/He and BC3Fl hybrid mice were used. As target cells for FV, two candidate cell populations should be considered. These are the pluripotential stem cells expressed as CFUs and the committed stem cells expressed as erythropoietin-responsive cells (ERC). According to our preliminary experiments on the recovery patterns of CFUs or ERC, after a single 150 rads X-irradiation (X) or administration of 215 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide (CY), it was clear that the repopulation of CFUs was quite different from that of ERC. The target cells for FV-induced transformation are the stem cells expressed as CFUs and the susceptibility of these increases under conditions of active repopulation after X-irradiation and cyclophosphamide administration. After the irradiation especially, this effect is dose-dependent for doses over 25 rads at 2 weeks after irradiation. (Auth.)

  5. Genome-wide association study identifies multiple susceptibility loci for diffuse large B cell lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerhan, James R.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Vijai, Joseph; Ghesquières, Hervé; McKay, James; Wang, Sophia S.; Wang, Zhaoming; Yeager, Meredith; Conde, Lucia; De Bakker, Paul I W; Nieters, Alexandra; Cox, David; Burdett, Laurie; Monnereau, Alain; Flowers, Christopher R.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela R.; Lan, Qing; Severi, Gianluca; Melbye, Mads; Gu, Jian; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Kane, Eleanor; Teras, Lauren R.; Purdue, Mark P.; Vajdic, Claire M.; Spinelli, John J.; Giles, Graham G.; Albanes, Demetrius; Kelly, Rachel S.; Zucca, Mariagrazia; Bertrand, Kimberly A.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Lawrence, Charles; Hutchinson, Amy; Zhi, Degui; Habermann, Thomas M.; Link, Brian K.; Novak, Anne J.; Dogan, Ahmet; Asmann, Yan W.; Liebow, Mark; Thompson, Carrie A.; Ansell, Stephen M.; Witzig, Thomas E.; Weiner, George J.; Veron, Amelie S.; Zelenika, Diana; Tilly, Hervé; Haioun, Corinne; Molina, Thierry Jo; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Glimelius, Bengt; Adami, Hans Olov; Bracci, Paige M.; Riby, Jacques; Smith, Martyn T.; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Cozen, Wendy; Hartge, Patricia; Morton, Lindsay M.; Severson, Richard K.; Tinker, Lesley F.; North, Kari E.; Becker, Nikolaus; Benavente, Yolanda; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Foretova, Lenka; Maynadie, Marc; Staines, Anthony; Lightfoot, Tracy; Crouch, Simon; Smith, Alex; Roman, Eve; Diver, W. Ryan; Offit, Kenneth; Zelenetz, Andrew; Klein, Robert J.; Villano, Danylo J.; Zheng, Tongzhang; Zhang, Yawei; Holford, Theodore R.; Kricker, Anne; Turner, Jenny; Southey, Melissa C.; Clavel, Jacqueline; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo; Kaaks, Rudolph; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Boeing, Heiner; Tjonneland, Anne; Angelucci, Emanuele; Di Lollo, Simonetta; Rais, Marco; Birmann, Brenda M.; Laden, Francine; Giovannucci, Edward; Kraft, Peter; Huang, Jinyan; Ma, Baoshan; Ye, Yuanqing; Chiu, Brian C H; Sampson, Joshua; Liang, Liming; Park, Ju Hyun; Chung, Charles C.; Weisenburger, Dennis D.; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Slager, Susan L.; Wu, Xifeng; De Sanjose, Silvia; Smedby, Karin E.; Salles, Gilles; Skibola, Christine F.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Chanock, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common lymphoma subtype and is clinically aggressive. To identify genetic susceptibility loci for DLBCL, we conducted a meta-analysis of 3 new genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and 1 previous scan, totaling 3,857 cases and 7,666 controls of

  6. Heterologously expressed Staphylococcus aureus fibronectin-binding proteins are sufficient for invasion of host cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinha, B; Francois, P; Que, Y A; Hussain, M; Heilmann, C; Moreillon, P; Lew, D; Krause, K H; Peters, Georg; Herrmann, M

    2000-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus invasion of mammalian cells, including epithelial, endothelial, and fibroblastic cells, critically depends on fibronectin bridging between S. aureus fibronectin-binding proteins (FnBPs) and the host fibronectin receptor integrin alpha(5)beta(1) (B. Sinha et al., Cell.

  7. Cell Therapy in Parkinson's Disease: Host Brain Repair Machinery Gets a Boost From Stem Cell Grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Eleonora; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2017-06-01

    This commentary highlights the major findings and future research directions arising from the recent publication by Zuo and colleagues in Stem Cells 2017 (in press). Here, we discuss the novel observations that transplanted human neural stem cells can induce endogenous brain repair by specifically stimulating a host of regenerative processes in the neurogenic niche (i.e., subventricular zone [SVZ]) in an animal model of Parkinson's disease. That the identified therapeutic proteomes, neurotrophic factors, and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the SVZ may facilitate brain regeneration and behavioral recovery open a new venue of research for our understanding of the pathology and treatment of Parkinson's disease. Stem Cells 2017;35:1443-1445. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  8. Cell-type-specific role for nucleus accumbens neuroligin-2 in depression and stress susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshmati, Mitra; Aleyasin, Hossein; Menard, Caroline; Christoffel, Daniel J; Flanigan, Meghan E; Pfau, Madeline L; Hodes, Georgia E; Lepack, Ashley E; Bicks, Lucy K; Takahashi, Aki; Chandra, Ramesh; Turecki, Gustavo; Lobo, Mary Kay; Maze, Ian; Golden, Sam A; Russo, Scott J

    2018-01-30

    Behavioral coping strategies are critical for active resilience to stress and depression; here we describe a role for neuroligin-2 (NLGN-2) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Neuroligins (NLGN) are a family of neuronal postsynaptic cell adhesion proteins that are constituents of the excitatory and inhibitory synapse. Importantly, NLGN-3 and NLGN-4 mutations are strongly implicated as candidates underlying the development of neuropsychiatric disorders with social disturbances such as autism, but the role of NLGN-2 in neuropsychiatric disease states is unclear. Here we show a reduction in NLGN-2 gene expression in the NAc of patients with major depressive disorder. Chronic social defeat stress in mice also decreases NLGN-2 selectively in dopamine D1-positive cells, but not dopamine D2-positive cells, within the NAc of stress-susceptible mice. Functional NLGN-2 knockdown produces bidirectional, cell-type-specific effects: knockdown in dopamine D1-positive cells promotes subordination and stress susceptibility, whereas knockdown in dopamine D2-positive cells mediates active defensive behavior. These findings establish a behavioral role for NAc NLGN-2 in stress and depression; provide a basis for targeted, cell-type specific therapy; and highlight the role of active behavioral coping mechanisms in stress susceptibility.

  9. The co-evolved Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer: trinity of bacterial virulence, host susceptibility and lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi S Manjulata

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Helicobacter pylori is an important yet unproven etiological agent of gastric cancer. H. pylori infection is more prevalent in developing Asian countries like India and it is usually acquired at an early age. It has been two decades since Marshall and Warren (1984 first described curved bacilli in the stomach of ulcer and gastritis patients. This discovery has won them the Nobel Prize recently, but the debate whether H. pylori is a pathogen or a commensal organism is still hot. Associations with disease-specific factors remain illusive years after the genome sequences were made available. Cytotoxin-associated antigen A (CagA and the so-called plasticity region cluster genes are implicated in pathogenesis of the carcinoma of stomach. Another virulence factor VacA whose role is still debatable, has recently been projected in pathology of gastric cancer. Studies of the evolution through genetic variation in H. pylori populations have provided a window into the history of human population migrations and a possible co-evolution of this pathogen with its human host. Possible symbiotic relationships were seriously debated since the discovery of this pathogen. The debate has been further intensified as some studies proposed H. pylori infection to be beneficial in some humans. In this commentary, we attempt to briefly discuss about H. pylori as a human pathogen, and some of the important issues linked to its pathophysiology in different hosts. 'We dance around in a ring and suppose, the secret sits in the middle and knows' – Robert Frost

  10. Susceptibility to antibiotics of Vibrio sp. AO1 growing in pure culture or in association with its hydroid host Aglaophenia octodonta (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabili, Loredana; Gravili, Cinzia; Boero, Ferdinando; Tredici, Salvatore M; Alifano, Pietro

    2010-04-01

    Vibrio harveyi is the major causal organism of vibriosis, causing potential devastation to diverse ranges of marine invertebrates over a wide geographical area. These microorganisms, however, are phenotypically diverse, and many of the isolates are also resistant to multiple antibiotics. In a previous study, we described a previously unknown association between Vibrio sp. AO1, a luminous bacterium related to the species V. harveyi, and the benthic hydrozoan Aglaophenia octodonta. In this study, we analyzed the susceptibility to antibiotics (ampicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, or co-trimoxazole = mix of sulfamethoxazole and trimetoprim) of Vibrio sp. AO1 growing in pure culture or in association with its hydroid host by using microcosm experiments. The results of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) experiments demonstrated that Vibrio sp. AO1 was highly resistant to ampicillin and streptomycin in pure culture. Nevertheless, these antibiotics, when used at sub-MIC values, significantly reduced the hydroid fluorescence. Co-trimoxazole showed the highest inhibitory effect on fluorescence of A. octodonta. However, in all treatments, the fluorescence was reduced after 48 h, but never disappeared completely around the folds along the hydrocaulus and at the base of the hydrothecae of A. octodonta when the antibiotic was used at concentration completely inhibiting growth in vitro. The apparent discrepancy between the MIC data and the fluorescence patterns may be due to either heterogeneity of the bacterial population in terms of antibiotic susceptibility or specific chemical-physical conditions of the hydroid microenvironment that may decrease the antibiotic susceptibility of the whole population. The latter hypothesis is supported by scanning electron microscope evidence for development of bacterial biofilm on the hydroid surface. On the basis of the results obtained, we infer that A. octodonta might behave as a reservoir of antibiotic multiresistant bacteria

  11. Cell-type-specific enrichment of risk-associated regulatory elements at ovarian cancer susceptibility loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, Simon G; Shen, Howard C; Hazelett, Dennis J; Lawrenson, Kate; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline; Tyrer, Jonathan; Rhie, Suhn K; Levanon, Keren; Karst, Alison; Drapkin, Ronny; Ramus, Susan J; Couch, Fergus J; Offit, Kenneth; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Monteiro, Alvaro N A; Antoniou, Antonis; Freedman, Matthew; Coetzee, Gerhard A; Pharoah, Paul D P; Noushmehr, Houtan; Gayther, Simon A

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the regulatory landscape of the human genome is a central question in complex trait genetics. Most single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with cancer risk lie in non-protein-coding regions, implicating regulatory DNA elements as functional targets of susceptibility variants. Here, we describe genome-wide annotation of regions of open chromatin and histone modification in fallopian tube and ovarian surface epithelial cells (FTSECs, OSECs), the debated cellular origins of high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSOCs) and in endometriosis epithelial cells (EECs), the likely precursor of clear cell ovarian carcinomas (CCOCs). The regulatory architecture of these cell types was compared with normal human mammary epithelial cells and LNCaP prostate cancer cells. We observed similar positional patterns of global enhancer signatures across the three different ovarian cancer precursor cell types, and evidence of tissue-specific regulatory signatures compared to non-gynecological cell types. We found significant enrichment for risk-associated SNPs intersecting regulatory biofeatures at 17 known HGSOC susceptibility loci in FTSECs (P = 3.8 × 10(-30)), OSECs (P = 2.4 × 10(-23)) and HMECs (P = 6.7 × 10(-15)) but not for EECs (P = 0.45) or LNCaP cells (P = 0.88). Hierarchical clustering of risk SNPs conditioned on the six different cell types indicates FTSECs and OSECs are highly related (96% of samples using multi-scale bootstrapping) suggesting both cell types may be precursors of HGSOC. These data represent the first description of regulatory catalogues of normal precursor cells for different ovarian cancer subtypes, and provide unique insights into the tissue specific regulatory variation with respect to the likely functional targets of germline genetic susceptibility variants for ovarian cancer. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Effects of host cell sterol composition upon internalization of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and clustered β1 integrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, JiHyun; Fukuto, Hana S; Brown, Deborah A; Bliska, James B; London, Erwin

    2018-01-26

    Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is a foodborne pathogenic bacterium that causes acute gastrointestinal illness, but its mechanisms of infection are incompletely described. We examined how host cell sterol composition affected Y. pseudotuberculosis uptake. To do this, we depleted or substituted cholesterol in human MDA-MB-231 epithelial cells with various alternative sterols. Decreasing host cell cholesterol significantly reduced pathogen internalization. When host cell cholesterol was substituted with various sterols, only desmosterol and 7-dehydrocholesterol supported internalization. This specificity was not due to sterol dependence of bacterial attachment to host cells, which was similar with all sterols studied. Because a key step in Y. pseudotuberculosis internalization is interaction of the bacterial adhesins invasin and YadA with host cell β1 integrin, we compared the sterol dependence of wildtype Y. pseudotuberculosis internalization with that of Δ inv , Δ yadA , and Δ inv Δ yadA mutant strains. YadA deletion decreased bacterial adherence to host cells, whereas invasin deletion had no effect. Nevertheless, host cell sterol substitution had a similar effect on internalization of these bacterial deletion strains as on the wildtype bacteria. The Δ inv Δ yadA double mutant adhered least to cells and so was not significantly internalized. The sterol structure dependence of Y. pseudotuberculosis internalization differed from that of endocytosis, as monitored using antibody-clustered β1 integrin and previous studies on other proteins, which had a more permissive sterol dependence. This study suggests that agents could be designed to interfere with internalization of Yersinia without disturbing endocytosis. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. The cytoskeleton in cell-autonomous immunity: structural determinants of host defence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostowy, Serge; Shenoy, Avinash R.

    2016-01-01

    Host cells use antimicrobial proteins, pathogen-restrictive compartmentalization and cell death in their defence against intracellular pathogens. Recent work has revealed that four components of the cytoskeleton — actin, microtubules, intermediate filaments and septins, which are well known for their roles in cell division, shape and movement — have important functions in innate immunity and cellular self-defence. Investigations using cellular and animal models have shown that these cytoskeletal proteins are crucial for sensing bacteria and for mobilizing effector mechanisms to eliminate them. In this Review, we highlight the emerging roles of the cytoskeleton as a structural determinant of cell-autonomous host defence. PMID:26292640

  14. Cell wall alterations in the leaves of fusariosis-resistant and susceptible pineapple cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Farias Viégas Aquije, Glória Maria; Zorzal, Poliana Belisário; Buss, David Shaun; Ventura, José Aires; Fernandes, Patricia Machado Bueno; Fernandes, Antonio Alberto Ribeiro

    2010-10-01

    Fusariosis, caused by the fungus Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. ananas (Syn. F. guttiforme), is one of the main phytosanitary threats to pineapple (Ananas comosus var. comosus). Identification of plant cell responses to pathogens is important in understanding the plant-pathogen relationship and establishing strategies to improve and select resistant cultivars. Studies of the structural properties and phenolic content of cell walls in resistant (Vitoria) and susceptible (Perola) pineapple cultivars, related to resistance to the fungus, were performed. The non-chlorophyll base of physiologically mature leaves was inoculated with a conidia suspension. Analyses were performed post-inoculation by light, atomic force, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and measurement of cell wall-bound phenolic compounds. Non-inoculated leaves were used as controls to define the constitutive tissue characteristics. Analyses indicated that morphological differences, such as cell wall thickness, cicatrization process and lignification, were related to resistance to the pathogen. Atomic force microscopy indicated a considerable difference in the mechanical properties of the resistant and susceptible cultivars, with more structural integrity, associated with higher levels of cell wall-bound phenolics, found in the resistant cultivar. p-Coumaric and ferulic acids were shown to be the major phenolics bound to the cell walls and were found in higher amounts in the resistant cultivar. Leaves of the resistant cultivar had reduced fungal penetration and a faster and more effective cicatrization response compared to the susceptible cultivar.

  15. A dual reporter cell assay for identifying serotype and drug susceptibility of herpes simplex virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen-Wen; Sun, Jun-Ren; Wu, Szu-Sian; Lin, Wan-Hsuan; Kung, Szu-Hao

    2011-08-15

    A dual reporter cell assay (DRCA) that allows real-time detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection was developed. This was achieved by stable transfection of cells with an expression cassette that contains the dual reporter genes, secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), under the control of an HSV early gene promoter. Baby hamster kidney (BHK) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines were used as parental cell lines because the former is permissive for both HSV serotypes, HSV-1 and HSV-2, whereas the latter is susceptible to infection only by HSV-2. The DRCA permitted differential detection of HSV-1 and HSV-2 by observation of EGFP-positive cells, as substantiated by screening a total of 35 samples. The BHK-based cell line is sensitive to a viral titer as low as a single plaque-forming unit with a robust assay window as measured by a chemiluminescent assay. Evaluations of the DRCA with representative acyclovir-sensitive and acyclovir-resistant HSV strains demonstrated that their drug susceptibilities were accurately determined by a 48-h format. In summary, this novel DRCA is a useful means for serotyping of HSV in real time as well as a rapid screening method for determining anti-HSV susceptibilities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. ABA suppresses Botrytis cinerea elicited NO production in tomato to influence H2O2 generation and increase host susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anushen eSivakumaran

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abscisic acid (ABA production has emerged a susceptibility factor in plant-pathogen interactions. This work examined the interaction of ABA with NO in tomato following challenge with the ABA-synthesising pathogen, Botrytis cinerea. Trace gas detection using a quantum cascade laser detected NO production within minutes of challenge with B. cinerea whilst photoacoustic laser detection detected ethylene production – an established mediator of defence against this pathogen - occurring after 6 h. Application of the NO generation inhibitor N-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME suppressed both NO and ethylene production and resistance against B. cinerea. The tomato mutant sitiens fails to accumulate ABA (abscisic acid, shows increased resistance to B. cinerea and we noted exhibited elevated NO and ethylene production. Exogenous application of L-NAME or ABA reduced NO production in sitiens and reduced resistance to B. cinerea. Increased resistance to B. cinerea in sitiens have previously been linked to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS generation but this was reduced in both L-NAME and ABA treated sitiens. Taken together, our data suggests that ABA can decreases resistance to B. cinerea via reduction of NO production which also suppresses both ROS and ethylene production.

  17. Preirradiation of host (monkey) cells mitigates the effects of UV upon simian virus 40 DNA replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaria, A.; Edenberg, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of preirradiation of host (monkey) cells upon the replication of UV-damaged SV40. Control cells and cells preirradiated with low fluences of UV were infected with undamaged SV40, and the immediate effects of a subsequent irradiation were determined. UV inhibited total SV40 DNA synthesis in both preirradiated and control cells, but the extent of inhibition was less in the preirradiated cells. A test fluence of 60 J/m 2 to SV40 replicating in preirradiated cells reduced synthesis only as much as a test fluence of 25 J/m 2 in control cells. The fraction of recently replicated SV40 molecules that re-entered the replication pool and subsequently completed one round of replication in the first 2 h after UV was also decreased less in the preirradiated cells. Thus preirradiation of the host cell mitigates the immediate inhibitory effects of a subsequent UV exposure upon SV40 replication. (Auth.)

  18. Coxiella burnetii Nine Mile II proteins modulate gene expression of monocytic host cells during infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw Edward I

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes acute and chronic disease in humans. Bacterial replication occurs within enlarged parasitophorous vacuoles (PV of eukaryotic cells, the biogenesis and maintenance of which is dependent on C. burnetii protein synthesis. These observations suggest that C. burnetii actively subverts host cell processes, however little is known about the cellular biology mechanisms manipulated by the pathogen during infection. Here, we examined host cell gene expression changes specifically induced by C. burnetii proteins during infection. Results We have identified 36 host cell genes that are specifically regulated when de novo C. burnetii protein synthesis occurs during infection using comparative microarray analysis. Two parallel sets of infected and uninfected THP-1 cells were grown for 48 h followed by the addition of chloramphenicol (CAM to 10 μg/ml in one set. Total RNA was harvested at 72 hpi from all conditions, and microarrays performed using Phalanx Human OneArray™ slides. A total of 784 (mock treated and 901 (CAM treated THP-1 genes were up or down regulated ≥2 fold in the C. burnetii infected vs. uninfected cell sets, respectively. Comparisons between the complementary data sets (using >0 fold, eliminated the common gene expression changes. A stringent comparison (≥2 fold between the separate microarrays revealed 36 host cell genes modulated by C. burnetii protein synthesis. Ontological analysis of these genes identified the innate immune response, cell death and proliferation, vesicle trafficking and development, lipid homeostasis, and cytoskeletal organization as predominant cellular functions modulated by C. burnetii protein synthesis. Conclusions Collectively, these data indicate that C. burnetii proteins actively regulate the expression of specific host cell genes and pathways. This is in addition to host cell genes that respond to the presence of the

  19. Diabetes increases susceptibility of primary cultures of rat proximal tubular cells to chemically induced injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Qing; Terlecky, Stanley R.; Lash, Lawrence H.

    2009-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is characterized by increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. In the present study, we prepared primary cultures of proximal tubular (PT) cells from diabetic rats 30 days after an ip injection of streptozotocin and compared their susceptibility to oxidants (tert-butyl hydroperoxide, methyl vinyl ketone) and a mitochondrial toxicant (antimycin A) with that of PT cells isolated from age-matched control rats, to test the hypothesis that PT cells from diabetic rats exhibit more cellular and mitochondrial injury than those from control rats when exposed to these toxicants. PT cells from diabetic rats exhibited higher basal levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and higher mitochondrial membrane potential, demonstrating that the PT cells maintain the diabetic phenotype in primary culture. Incubation with either the oxidants or mitochondrial toxicant resulted in greater necrotic and apoptotic cell death, greater evidence of morphological damage, greater increases in ROS, and greater decreases in mitochondrial membrane potential in PT cells from diabetic rats than in those from control rats. Pretreatment with either the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine or a catalase mimetic provided equivalent protection of PT cells from both diabetic and control rats. Despite the greater susceptibility to oxidative and mitochondrial injury, both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial glutathione concentrations were markedly higher in PT cells from diabetic rats, suggesting an upregulation of antioxidant processes in diabetic kidney. These results support the hypothesis that primary cultures of PT cells from diabetic rats are a valid model in which to study renal cellular function in the diabetic state.

  20. Trichomonas vaginalis exosomes deliver cargo to host cells and mediate host∶parasite interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Twu

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis is a common sexually transmitted parasite that colonizes the human urogential tract where it remains extracellular and adheres to epithelial cells. Infections range from asymptomatic to highly inflammatory, depending on the host and the parasite strain. Here, we use a combination of methodologies including cell fractionation, immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, RNA, proteomic and cytokine analyses and cell adherence assays to examine pathogenic properties of T. vaginalis. We have found that T.vaginalis produces and secretes microvesicles with physical and biochemical properties similar to mammalian exosomes. The parasite-derived exosomes are characterized by the presence of RNA and core, conserved exosomal proteins as well as parasite-specific proteins. We demonstrate that T. vaginalis exosomes fuse with and deliver their contents to host cells and modulate host cell immune responses. Moreover, exosomes from highly adherent parasite strains increase the adherence of poorly adherent parasites to vaginal and prostate epithelial cells. In contrast, exosomes from poorly adherent strains had no measurable effect on parasite adherence. Exosomes from parasite strains that preferentially bind prostate cells increased binding of parasites to these cells relative to vaginal cells. In addition to establishing that parasite exosomes act to modulate host∶parasite interactions, these studies are the first to reveal a potential role for exosomes in promoting parasite∶parasite communication and host cell colonization.

  1. Apicomplexans pulling the strings: manipulation of the host cell cytoskeleton dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Rita; Soares, Helena; Hemphill, Andrew; Leitão, Alexandre

    2016-07-01

    Invasive stages of apicomplexan parasites require a host cell to survive, proliferate and advance to the next life cycle stage. Once invasion is achieved, apicomplexans interact closely with the host cell cytoskeleton, but in many cases the different species have evolved distinct mechanisms and pathways to modulate the structural organization of cytoskeletal filaments. The host cell cytoskeleton is a complex network, largely, but not exclusively, composed of microtubules, actin microfilaments and intermediate filaments, all of which are modulated by associated proteins, and it is involved in diverse functions including maintenance of cell morphology and mechanical support, migration, signal transduction, nutrient uptake, membrane and organelle trafficking and cell division. The ability of apicomplexans to modulate the cytoskeleton to their own advantage is clearly beneficial. We here review different aspects of the interactions of apicomplexans with the three main cytoskeletal filament types, provide information on the currently known parasite effector proteins and respective host cell targets involved, and how these interactions modulate the host cell physiology. Some of these findings could provide novel targets that could be exploited for the development of preventive and/or therapeutic strategies.

  2. Plant parasitic nematode effectors target host defence and nuclear functions to establish feeding cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaël eQuentin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant parasitic nematodes are microscopic worms, the most damaging species of which have adopted a sedentary lifestyle within their hosts. These obligate endoparasites have a biotrophic relationship with plants, in which they induce the differentiation of root cells into hypertrophied, multinucleate feeding cells. Effectors synthesised in the oesophageal glands of the nematode are injected into the plant cells via the syringe-like stylet and play a key role in manipulating the host machinery. The establishment of specialized feeding cells requires these effectors to modulate many aspects of plant cell morphogenesis and physiology, including defence responses. This cell reprogramming requires changes to host nuclear processes. Some proteins encoded by parasitism genes target host nuclei. Several of these proteins were immunolocalised within feeding cell nuclei or shown to interact with host nuclear proteins. Comparative genomics and functional analyses are gradually revealing the roles of nematode effectors. We describe here these effectors and their hypothesised roles in the unique feeding behaviour of these pests.

  3. Predation scars may influence host susceptibility to pathogens: evaluating the role of corallivores as vectors of coral disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolet, K J; Chong-Seng, K M; Pratchett, M S; Willis, B L; Hoogenboom, M O

    2018-03-27

    Infectious diseases not regulated by host density, such as vector-borne diseases, have the potential to drive population declines and extinctions. Here we test the vector potential of the snail Drupella sp. and butterflyfish Chaetodon plebeius for two coral diseases, black band (BBD) and brown band (BrB) disease. Drupella transmitted BrB to healthy corals in 40% of cases immediately following feeding on infected corals, and even in 12% of cases 12 and 24 hours following feeding. However, Drupella was unable to transmit BBD in either transmission treatment. In a field experiment testing the vector potential of naturally-occurring fish assemblages, equivalent numbers of caged and uncaged coral fragments became infected with either BrB, BBD or skeletal eroding band, indicating that corallivorous fish were unlikely to have caused transmission. In aquaria, C. plebeius did not transmit either BBD or BrB, even following extended feeding on both infected and healthy nubbins. A literature review confirmed only four known coral disease vectors, all invertebrates, corroborating our conclusion that polyp-feeding fishes are unlikely to be vectors of coral diseases. This potentially because polyp-feeding fishes produce shallow lesions, not allowing pathogens to invade coral tissues. In contrast, corallivorous invertebrates that create deeper feeding scars increase pathogens transmission.

  4. Bat lung epithelial cells show greater host species-specific innate resistance than MDCK cells to human and avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Tessa; Eckerle, Isabella; Chang, Kin-Chow

    2018-04-10

    With the recent discovery of novel H17N10 and H18N11 influenza viral RNA in bats and report on high frequency of avian H9 seroconversion in a species of free ranging bats, an important issue to address is the extent bats are susceptible to conventional avian and human influenza A viruses. To this end, three bat species (Eidolon helvum, Carollia perspicillata and Tadarida brasiliensis) of lung epithelial cells were separately infected with two avian and two human influenza viruses to determine their relative host innate immune resistance to infection. All three species of bat cells were more resistant than positive control Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells to all four influenza viruses. TB1-Lu cells lacked sialic acid α2,6-Gal receptors and were most resistant among the three bat species. Interestingly, avian viruses were relatively more replication permissive in all three bat species of cells than with the use of human viruses which suggest that bats could potentially play a role in the ecology of avian influenza viruses. Chemical inhibition of the JAK-STAT pathway in bat cells had no effect on virus production suggesting that type I interferon signalling is not a major factor in resisting influenza virus infection. Although all three species of bat cells are relatively more resistant to influenza virus infection than control MDCK cells, they are more permissive to avian than human viruses which suggest that bats could have a contributory role in the ecology of avian influenza viruses.

  5. Traversing the Cell: Agrobacterium T-DNA’s Journey to the Host Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelvin, Stanton B.

    2012-01-01

    The genus Agrobacterium is unique in its ability to conduct interkingdom genetic exchange. Virulent Agrobacterium strains transfer single-strand forms of T-DNA (T-strands) and several Virulence effector proteins through a bacterial type IV secretion system into plant host cells. T-strands must traverse the plant wall and plasma membrane, traffic through the cytoplasm, enter the nucleus, and ultimately target host chromatin for stable integration. Because any DNA sequence placed between T-DNA “borders” can be transferred to plants and integrated into the plant genome, the transfer and intracellular trafficking processes must be mediated by bacterial and host proteins that form complexes with T-strands. This review summarizes current knowledge of proteins that interact with T-strands in the plant cell, and discusses several models of T-complex (T-strand and associated proteins) trafficking. A detailed understanding of how these macromolecular complexes enter the host cell and traverse the plant cytoplasm will require development of novel technologies to follow molecules from their bacterial site of synthesis into the plant cell, and how these transferred molecules interact with host proteins and sub-cellular structures within the host cytoplasm and nucleus. PMID:22645590

  6. Host cell proteins in biotechnology-derived products: A risk assessment framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zafra, Christina L Zuch; Quarmby, Valerie; Francissen, Kathleen; Vanderlaan, Martin; Zhu-Shimoni, Judith

    2015-11-01

    To manufacture biotechnology products, mammalian or bacterial cells are engineered for the production of recombinant therapeutic human proteins including monoclonal antibodies. Host cells synthesize an entire repertoire of proteins which are essential for their own function and survival. Biotechnology manufacturing processes are designed to produce recombinant therapeutics with a very high degree of purity. While there is typically a low residual level of host cell protein in the final drug product, under some circumstances a host cell protein(s) may copurify with the therapeutic protein and, if it is not detected and removed, it may become an unintended component of the final product. The purpose of this article is to enumerate and discuss factors to be considered in an assessment of risk of residual host cell protein(s) detected and identified in the drug product. The consideration of these factors and their relative ranking will lead to an overall risk assessment that informs decision-making around how to control the levels of host cell proteins. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The Vibrio parahaemolyticus Type III Secretion Systems manipulate host cell MAPK for critical steps in pathogenesis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Matlawska-Wasowska, Ksenia

    2010-12-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a food-borne pathogen causing inflammation of the gastrointestinal epithelium. Pathogenic strains of this bacterium possess two Type III Secretion Systems (TTSS) that deliver effector proteins into host cells. In order to better understand human host cell responses to V. parahaemolyticus, the modulation of Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) activation in epithelial cells by an O3:K6 clinical isolate, RIMD2210633, was investigated. The importance of MAPK activation for the ability of the bacterium to be cytotoxic and to induce secretion of Interleukin-8 (IL-8) was determined.

  8. Salmonella modulation of host cell gene expression promotes its intracellular growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Hannemann

    Full Text Available Salmonella Typhimurium has evolved a complex functional interface with its host cell largely determined by two type III secretion systems (T3SS, which through the delivery of bacterial effector proteins modulate a variety of cellular processes. We show here that Salmonella Typhimurium infection of epithelial cells results in a profound transcriptional reprogramming that changes over time. This response is triggered by Salmonella T3SS effector proteins, which stimulate unique signal transduction pathways leading to STAT3 activation. We found that the Salmonella-stimulated changes in host cell gene expression are required for the formation of its specialized vesicular compartment that is permissive for its intracellular replication. This study uncovers a cell-autonomous process required for Salmonella pathogenesis potentially opening up new avenues for the development of anti-infective strategies that target relevant host pathways.

  9. Salmonella modulation of host cell gene expression promotes its intracellular growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannemann, Sebastian; Gao, Beile; Galán, Jorge E

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium has evolved a complex functional interface with its host cell largely determined by two type III secretion systems (T3SS), which through the delivery of bacterial effector proteins modulate a variety of cellular processes. We show here that Salmonella Typhimurium infection of epithelial cells results in a profound transcriptional reprogramming that changes over time. This response is triggered by Salmonella T3SS effector proteins, which stimulate unique signal transduction pathways leading to STAT3 activation. We found that the Salmonella-stimulated changes in host cell gene expression are required for the formation of its specialized vesicular compartment that is permissive for its intracellular replication. This study uncovers a cell-autonomous process required for Salmonella pathogenesis potentially opening up new avenues for the development of anti-infective strategies that target relevant host pathways.

  10. Microbiota promote secretory cell determination in the intestinal epithelium by modulating host Notch signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troll, Joshua V; Hamilton, M Kristina; Abel, Melissa L; Ganz, Julia; Bates, Jennifer M; Stephens, W Zac; Melancon, Ellie; van der Vaart, Michiel; Meijer, Annemarie H; Distel, Martin; Eisen, Judith S; Guillemin, Karen

    2018-02-23

    Resident microbes promote many aspects of host development, although the mechanisms by which microbiota influence host tissues remain unclear. We showed previously that the microbiota is required for allocation of appropriate numbers of secretory cells in the zebrafish intestinal epithelium. Because Notch signaling is crucial for secretory fate determination, we conducted epistasis experiments to establish whether the microbiota modulates host Notch signaling. We also investigated whether innate immune signaling transduces microbiota cues via the Myd88 adaptor protein. We provide the first evidence that microbiota-induced, Myd88-dependent signaling inhibits host Notch signaling in the intestinal epithelium, thereby promoting secretory cell fate determination. These results connect microbiota activity via innate immune signaling to the Notch pathway, which also plays crucial roles in intestinal homeostasis throughout life and when impaired can result in chronic inflammation and cancer. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Cycle Inhibiting Factors (Cifs: Cyclomodulins That Usurp the Ubiquitin-Dependent Degradation Pathway of Host Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Oswald

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cycle inhibiting factors (Cifs are type III secreted effectors produced by diverse pathogenic bacteria. Cifs are “cyclomodulins” that inhibit the eukaryotic host cell cycle and also hijack other key cellular processes such as those controlling the actin network and apoptosis. This review summarizes current knowledge on Cif since its first characterization in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, the identification of several xenologues in distant pathogenic bacteria, to its structure elucidation and the recent deciphering of its mode of action. Cif impairs the host ubiquitin proteasome system through deamidation of ubiquitin or the ubiquitin-like protein NEDD8 that regulates Cullin-Ring-ubiquitin Ligase (CRL complexes. The hijacking of the ubiquitin-dependent degradation pathway of host cells results in the modulation of various cellular functions such as epithelium renewal, apoptosis and immune response. Cif is therefore a powerful weapon in the continuous arm race that characterizes host-bacteria interactions.

  12. Inter-laboratory comparison of cell lines for susceptibility to three viruses: VHSV, IHNV and IPNV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Ellen; Carstensen, Bendix; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    Eleven European National Reference Laboratories participated in an inter-laboratory comparison of the susceptibility of 5 selected cell lines to 3 fish pathogenic viruses. The test included viral hemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and infectious...... pancreatic necrosis Virus (IPNV), and the cell lines derived from bluegill fry (BF-2), chinook salmon embryo (CHSE-214), epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC), fathead minnow (FHM) and rainbow trout gonad (RTG-2). The results showed that for isolation of VHSV, BF-2 and RTG-2 cells performed equally well...

  13. Impact of 4 Lactobacillus plantarum capsular polysaccharide clusters on surface glycan composition and host cell signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remus, D.M.; Kranenburg, van R.; Swam, van I.I.; Taverne, N.; Bongers, R.S.; Wels, M.; Wells, J.; Bron, P.A.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background - Bacterial cell surface-associated polysaccharides are involved in the interactions of bacteria with their environment and play an important role in the communication between pathogenic bacteria and their host organisms. Cell surface polysaccharides of probiotic species are far less well

  14. S1P dependent inter organ trafficking of group 2 innate lymphoid cells suppots host defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are considered to be the innate counterparts of adaptive T lymphocytes and play important roles in host defense, tissue repair, metabolic homeostasis, and inflammatory diseases. ILCs are generally thought of as tissue-resident cells, but whether ILCs strictly behave in a...

  15. Natural killer cells in obesity: impaired function and increased susceptibility to the effects of cigarette smoke.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Shea, Donal

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Obese individuals who smoke have a 14 year reduction in life expectancy. Both obesity and smoking are independently associated with increased risk of malignancy. Natural killer cells (NK) are critical mediators of anti-tumour immunity and are compromised in obese patients and smokers. We examined whether NK cell function was differentially affected by cigarette smoke in obese and lean subjects. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Clinical data and blood were collected from 40 severely obese subjects (BMI>40 kg\\/m(2)) and 20 lean healthy subjects. NK cell levels and function were assessed using flow cytometry and cytotoxicity assays. The effect of cigarette smoke on NK cell ability to kill K562 tumour cells was assessed in the presence or absence of the adipokines leptin and adiponectin. NK cell levels were significantly decreased in obese subjects compared to lean controls (7.6 vs 16.6%, p = 0.0008). NK function was also significantly compromised in obese patients (30% +\\/- 13% vs 42% +\\/-12%, p = 0.04). Cigarette smoke inhibited NK cell ability to kill tumour cell lines (p<0.0001). NK cells from obese subjects were even more susceptible to the inhibitory effects of smoke compared to lean subjects (33% vs 28%, p = 0.01). Cigarette smoke prevented NK cell activation, as well as perforin and interferon-gamma secretion upon tumour challenge. Adiponectin but not leptin partially reversed the effects of smoke on NK cell function in both obese (p = 0.002) and lean controls (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS\\/SIGNIFICANCE: Obese subjects have impaired NK cell activity that is more susceptible to the detrimental effects of cigarette smoke compared to lean subjects. This may play a role in the increase of cancer and infection seen in this population. Adiponectin is capable of restoring NK cell activity and may have therapeutic potential for immunity in obese subjects and smokers.

  16. Natural killer cells in obesity: impaired function and increased susceptibility to the effects of cigarette smoke.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Shea, Donal

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obese individuals who smoke have a 14 year reduction in life expectancy. Both obesity and smoking are independently associated with increased risk of malignancy. Natural killer cells (NK) are critical mediators of anti-tumour immunity and are compromised in obese patients and smokers. We examined whether NK cell function was differentially affected by cigarette smoke in obese and lean subjects. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Clinical data and blood were collected from 40 severely obese subjects (BMI>40 kg\\/m(2)) and 20 lean healthy subjects. NK cell levels and function were assessed using flow cytometry and cytotoxicity assays. The effect of cigarette smoke on NK cell ability to kill K562 tumour cells was assessed in the presence or absence of the adipokines leptin and adiponectin. NK cell levels were significantly decreased in obese subjects compared to lean controls (7.6 vs 16.6%, p = 0.0008). NK function was also significantly compromised in obese patients (30% +\\/- 13% vs 42% +\\/-12%, p = 0.04). Cigarette smoke inhibited NK cell ability to kill tumour cell lines (p<0.0001). NK cells from obese subjects were even more susceptible to the inhibitory effects of smoke compared to lean subjects (33% vs 28%, p = 0.01). Cigarette smoke prevented NK cell activation, as well as perforin and interferon-gamma secretion upon tumour challenge. Adiponectin but not leptin partially reversed the effects of smoke on NK cell function in both obese (p = 0.002) and lean controls (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS\\/SIGNIFICANCE: Obese subjects have impaired NK cell activity that is more susceptible to the detrimental effects of cigarette smoke compared to lean subjects. This may play a role in the increase of cancer and infection seen in this population. Adiponectin is capable of restoring NK cell activity and may have therapeutic potential for immunity in obese subjects and smokers.

  17. Natural killer cells in obesity: impaired function and increased susceptibility to the effects of cigarette smoke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donal O'Shea

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obese individuals who smoke have a 14 year reduction in life expectancy. Both obesity and smoking are independently associated with increased risk of malignancy. Natural killer cells (NK are critical mediators of anti-tumour immunity and are compromised in obese patients and smokers. We examined whether NK cell function was differentially affected by cigarette smoke in obese and lean subjects. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Clinical data and blood were collected from 40 severely obese subjects (BMI>40 kg/m(2 and 20 lean healthy subjects. NK cell levels and function were assessed using flow cytometry and cytotoxicity assays. The effect of cigarette smoke on NK cell ability to kill K562 tumour cells was assessed in the presence or absence of the adipokines leptin and adiponectin. NK cell levels were significantly decreased in obese subjects compared to lean controls (7.6 vs 16.6%, p = 0.0008. NK function was also significantly compromised in obese patients (30% +/- 13% vs 42% +/-12%, p = 0.04. Cigarette smoke inhibited NK cell ability to kill tumour cell lines (p<0.0001. NK cells from obese subjects were even more susceptible to the inhibitory effects of smoke compared to lean subjects (33% vs 28%, p = 0.01. Cigarette smoke prevented NK cell activation, as well as perforin and interferon-gamma secretion upon tumour challenge. Adiponectin but not leptin partially reversed the effects of smoke on NK cell function in both obese (p = 0.002 and lean controls (p = 0.01. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Obese subjects have impaired NK cell activity that is more susceptible to the detrimental effects of cigarette smoke compared to lean subjects. This may play a role in the increase of cancer and infection seen in this population. Adiponectin is capable of restoring NK cell activity and may have therapeutic potential for immunity in obese subjects and smokers.

  18. Epigenetic silencing of host cell defense genes enhances intracellular survival of the rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose C Garcia-Garcia

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular bacteria have evolved mechanisms that promote survival within hostile host environments, often resulting in functional dysregulation and disease. Using the Anaplasma phagocytophilum-infected granulocyte model, we establish a link between host chromatin modifications, defense gene transcription and intracellular bacterial infection. Infection of THP-1 cells with A. phagocytophilum led to silencing of host defense gene expression. Histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1 expression, activity and binding to the defense gene promoters significantly increased during infection, which resulted in decreased histone H3 acetylation in infected cells. HDAC1 overexpression enhanced infection, whereas pharmacologic and siRNA HDAC1 inhibition significantly decreased bacterial load. HDAC2 does not seem to be involved, since HDAC2 silencing by siRNA had no effect on A. phagocytophilum intracellular propagation. These data indicate that HDAC up-regulation and epigenetic silencing of host cell defense genes is required for A. phagocytophilum infection. Bacterial epigenetic regulation of host cell gene transcription could be a general mechanism that enhances intracellular pathogen survival while altering cell function and promoting disease.

  19. Characterization of a continuous feline mammary epithelial cell line susceptible to feline epitheliotropic viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Patricia; Liu, Hongwei; Ossiboff, Robert J; Stucker, Karla M; Heymer, Anna; Millon, Lee; Wood, Jason; van der List, Deborah; Parker, John S L

    2009-04-01

    Mucosal epithelial cells are the primary targets for many common viral pathogens of cats. Viral infection of epithelia can damage or disrupt the epithelial barrier that protects underlying tissues. In vitro cell culture systems are an effective means to study how viruses infect and disrupt epithelial barriers, however no true continuous or immortalized feline epithelial cell culture lines are available. A continuous cell culture of feline mammary epithelial cells (FMEC UCD-04-2) that forms tight junctions with high transepithelial electrical resistance (>2000Omegacm(-1)) 3-4 days after reaching confluence was characterized. In addition, it was shown that FMECs are susceptible to infection with feline calicivirus (FCV), feline herpesvirus (FHV-1), feline coronavirus (FeCoV), and feline panleukopenia virus (FPV). These cells will be useful for studies of feline viral disease and for in vitro studies of feline epithelia.

  20. HumanViCe: Host ceRNA network in virus infected cells in human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman eGhosal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Host-virus interaction via host cellular components has been an important field of research in recent times. RNA interference mediated by short interfering RNAs and microRNAs (miRNA, is a widespread anti-viral defence strategy. Importantly, viruses also encode their own miRNAs. In recent times miRNAs were identified as key players in host-virus interaction. Furthermore, viruses were shown to exploit the host miRNA networks to suite their own need. The complex cross-talk between host and viral miRNAs and their cellular and viral targets forms the environment for viral pathogenesis. Apart from protein-coding mRNAs, non-coding RNAs may also be targeted by host or viral miRNAs in virus infected cells, and viruses can exploit the host miRNA mediated gene regulatory network via the competing endogenous RNA effect. A recent report showed that viral U-rich non-coding RNAs called HSUR, expressed in primate virus herpesvirus saimiri (HVS infected T cells, were able to bind to three host miRNAs, causing significant alteration in cellular level for one of the miRNAs. We have predicted protein coding and non protein-coding targets for viral and human miRNAs in virus infected cells. We identified viral miRNA targets within host non-coding RNA loci from AGO interacting regions in three different virus infected cells. Gene ontology (GO and pathway enrichment analysis of the genes comprising the ceRNA networks in the virus infected cells revealed enrichment of key cellular signalling pathways related to cell fate decisions and gene transcription, like Notch and Wnt signalling pathways, as well as pathways related to viral entry, replication and virulence. We identified a vast number of non-coding transcripts playing as potential ceRNAs to the immune response associated genes; e.g. APOBEC family genes, in some virus infected cells. All these information are compiled in HumanViCe, a comprehensive database that provides the potential ceRNA networks in virus

  1. Identification of a Peptide-Pheromone that Enhances Listeria monocytogenes Escape from Host Cell Vacuoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xayarath, Bobbi; Alonzo, Francis; Freitag, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen that invades mammalian cells and escapes from membrane-bound vacuoles to replicate within the host cell cytosol. Gene products required for intracellular bacterial growth and bacterial spread to adjacent cells are regulated by a transcriptional activator known as PrfA. PrfA becomes activated following L. monocytogenes entry into host cells, however the signal that stimulates PrfA activation has not yet been defined. Here we provide evidence for L. monocytogenes secretion of a small peptide pheromone, pPplA, which enhances the escape of L. monocytogenes from host cell vacuoles and may facilitate PrfA activation. The pPplA pheromone is generated via the proteolytic processing of the PplA lipoprotein secretion signal peptide. While the PplA lipoprotein is dispensable for pathogenesis, bacteria lacking the pPplA pheromone are significantly attenuated for virulence in mice and have a reduced efficiency of bacterial escape from the vacuoles of nonprofessional phagocytic cells. Mutational activation of PrfA restores virulence and eliminates the need for pPplA-dependent signaling. Experimental evidence suggests that the pPplA peptide may help signal to L. monocytogenes its presence within the confines of the host cell vacuole, stimulating the expression of gene products that contribute to vacuole escape and facilitating PrfA activation to promote bacterial growth within the cytosol. PMID:25822753

  2. Transcriptome analysis of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita)-infected tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) roots reveals complex gene expression profiles and metabolic networks of both host and nematode during susceptible and resistance responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shukla, Neha; Yadav, Rachita; Kaur, Pritam

    2017-01-01

    Root knot nematodes (RKNs, Meloidogyne incognita) are economically important endoparasites having a wide-host range. We have taken a comprehensive transcriptomic approach to investigate the expression of both tomato and RKN genes in tomato roots at five infection time intervals from susceptible p...

  3. Transcriptome analysis of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita)-infected tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) roots reveals complex gene expression profiles and metabolic networks of both host and nematode during susceptible and resistance responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shukla, Neha; Yadav, Rachita; Kaur, Pritam

    2018-01-01

    Root knot nematodes (RKNs, Meloidogyne incognita) are economically important endoparasites having a wide-host range. We have taken a comprehensive transcriptomic approach to investigate the expression of both tomato and RKN genes in tomato roots at five infection time intervals from susceptible p...

  4. Reduction of fatal graft-versus-host disease by 3H--thymidine suicide of donor cells cultured with host cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheever, M.A.; Einstein, A.B. Jr.; Kempf, R.A.; Fefer, A.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of the tritiated thymidine ( 3 H-TdR) suicide technique on the ability of donor cells to induce fatal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was studied. C57BL/6 (H-2/sup b/) spleen cells were stimulated in vitro with irradiated BALB/c (H-2/sup d/) Moloney lymphoma cells in mixed culture and 3 H-TdR of high-specific activity added to eliminate proliferating cells. The ability of such cells to induce fatal GVHD was assayed by injecting them i.v. into adult BALB/c mice immunosuppressed with cyclophosphamide (180 mg/kg). These cells induced fatal GVHD in fewer mice (52 percent) than did C57BL/6 cells cultured with BALB/c lymphoma cells but without 3 H-TdR (87 percent) and C57BL/6 cells cultured with irradiated C57BL/6 cells with (95 percent) or without 3 H-TdR (86 percent). Thus, the 3 H-TdR suicide technique greatly diminished the ability of cells to induce lethal GVHD

  5. RNAi screen reveals an Abl kinase-dependent host cell pathway involved in Pseudomonas aeruginosa internalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia F Pielage

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Internalization of the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa by non-phagocytic cells is promoted by rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton, but the host pathways usurped by this bacterium are not clearly understood. We used RNAi-mediated gene inactivation of approximately 80 genes known to regulate the actin cytoskeleton in Drosophila S2 cells to identify host molecules essential for entry of P. aeruginosa. This work revealed Abl tyrosine kinase, the adaptor protein Crk, the small GTPases Rac1 and Cdc42, and p21-activated kinase as components of a host signaling pathway that leads to internalization of P. aeruginosa. Using a variety of complementary approaches, we validated the role of this pathway in mammalian cells. Remarkably, ExoS and ExoT, type III secreted toxins of P. aeruginosa, target this pathway by interfering with GTPase function and, in the case of ExoT, by abrogating P. aeruginosa-induced Abl-dependent Crk phosphorylation. Altogether, this work reveals that P. aeruginosa utilizes the Abl pathway for entering host cells and reveals unexpected complexity by which the P. aeruginosa type III secretion system modulates this internalization pathway. Our results furthermore demonstrate the applicability of using RNAi screens to identify host signaling cascades usurped by microbial pathogens that may be potential targets for novel therapies directed against treatment of antibiotic-resistant infections.

  6. Vp130, a chloroviral surface protein that interacts with the host Chlorella cell wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onimatsu, Hideki; Sugimoto, Ichiro; Fujie, Makoto; Usami, Shoji; Yamada, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    A protein, Vp130, that interacts with the host cell wall was isolated from Chlorovirus CVK2. From its peptide sequence, the gene for Vp130 was identified on the PBCV-1 genomic sequence as an ORF combining A140R and A145R. In Vp130, the N-terminus was somehow modified and the C-terminus was occupied by 23-26 tandem repeats of a PAPK motif. In the internal region, Vp130 contained seven repeats of 70-73 amino acids, each copy of which was separated by PAPK sequences. This protein was well conserved among NC64A viruses. A recombinant rVp130N protein formed in Escherichia coli was shown not only to bind directly to the host cell wall in vitro but also to specifically bind to the host cells, as demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy. Because externally added rVp130N competed with CVK2 to bind to host cells, Vp130 is most likely to be a host-recognizing protein on the virion

  7. Modeling conduction in host-graft interactions between stem cell grafts and cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Michael Q; Yu, Jin; Whittington, R Hollis; Wu, Joseph C; Kovacs, Gregory T A; Giovangrandi, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    Cell therapy has recently made great strides towards aiding heart failure. However, while transplanted cells may electromechanically integrate into host tissue, there may not be a uniform propagation of a depolarization wave between the heterogeneous tissue boundaries. A model using microelectrode array technology that maps the electrical interactions between host and graft tissues in co-culture is presented and sheds light on the effects of having a mismatch of conduction properties at the boundary. Skeletal myoblasts co-cultured with cardiomyocytes demonstrated that conduction velocity significantly decreases at the boundary despite electromechanical coupling. In an attempt to improve the uniformity of conduction with host cells, differentiating human embryonic stem cells (hESC) were used in co-culture. Over the course of four to seven days, synchronous electrical activity was observed at the hESC boundary, implying differentiation and integration. Activity did not extend far past the boundary, and conduction velocity was significantly greater than that of the host tissue, implying the need for other external measures to properly match the conduction properties between host and graft tissue.

  8. Cell surface appearance of unexpected host MHC determinants on thymocytes from radiation bone marrow chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharrow, S.O.; Mathieson, B.J.; Singer, A.

    1981-01-01

    The phenotypic appearance of cell surface antigens on murine thymocytes from long-term radiation bone marrow chimeras was analyzed using indirect immunofluorescence and flow microfluorometry. Cells maturing in the thymi of these mice were typed for MHC (Kk, I-Ak, H-2b, Kb, and Ib) and non-MHC (Lty 1, Ly 9, and TL) determinants. All cells were of donor origin as determined by non-MHC (Ly) phenotype in P1 leads to P2, P1 x P2 leads to P1, and P1 leads to P2 radiation chimeras. In contrast, the MHC phenotypes of these thymocytes were markedly affected by the host environment. Specifically, H-2 and I-A determinants of both parental phenotypes were detected on thymocytes from P1 leads to P1 x P2 chimeras; I-A determinants of host phenotype were present, whereas I-A determinants of donor phenotype were reduced on thymocytes from P1 x P2 leads to P1 chimeras; and thymocytes from P1 leads to P2 chimeras possessed H-2 and I-A determinants of host phenotype but showed reduction of donor I-A phenotype determinants. The appearance of host cell surface H-2 and I-A determinants on thymocytes from chimeras closely parallels the functional recognition of MHC determinants by T cells from chimeric mice and thus may be significantly related to the development of the self-recognition repertoire by maturing T cells

  9. Variation among Staphylococcus aureus membrane vesicle proteomes affects cytotoxicity of host cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyejin; Oh, Man Hwan; Jun, So Hyun; Kim, Seung Il; Choi, Chi Won; Kwon, Hyo Il; Na, Seok Hyeon; Kim, Yoo Jeong; Nicholas, Asiimwe; Selasi, Gati Noble; Lee, Je Chul

    2016-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus secretes membrane-derived vesicles (MVs), which can deliver virulence factors to host cells and induce cytopathology. However, the cytopathology of host cells induced by MVs derived from different S. aureus strains has not yet been characterized. In the present study, the cytotoxic activity of MVs from different S. aureus isolates on host cells was compared and the proteomes of S. aureus MVs were analyzed. The MVs purified from S. aureus M060 isolated from a patient with staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome showed higher cytotoxic activity toward host cells than that shown by MVs from three other clinical S. aureus isolates. S. aureus M060 MVs induced HEp-2 cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner, but the cytotoxic activity of MVs was completely abolished by treatment with proteinase K. In a proteomic analysis, the MVs from three S. aureus isolates not only carry 25 common proteins, but also carry ≥60 strain-specific proteins. All S. aureus MVs contained δ-hemolysin (Hld), γ-hemolysin, leukocidin D, and exfoliative toxin C, but exfoliative toxin A (ETA) was specifically identified in S. aureus M060 MVs. ETA was delivered to HEp-2 cells via S. aureus MVs. Both rETA and rHld induced cytotoxicity in HEp-2 cells. In conclusion, MVs from clinical S. aureus isolates differ with respect to cytotoxic activity in host cells, and these differences may result from differences in the MV proteomes. Further proteogenomic analysis or mutagenesis of specific genes is necessary to identify cytotoxic factors in S. aureus MVs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Susceptibility and antibody response of Vesper Sparrows (Pooecetes gramineus) to West Nile virus: A potential amplification host in sagebrush-grassland habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K.; Dusek, Robert J.; Fassbinder-Orth, Carol; Owen, Benjamin; Franson, J. Christian

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) spread to the US western plains states in 2003, when a significant mortality event attributed to WNV occurred in Greater Sage-grouse ( Centrocercus urophasianus ). The role of avian species inhabiting sagebrush in the amplification of WNV in arid and semiarid regions of the North America is unknown. We conducted an experimental WNV challenge study in Vesper Sparrows ( Pooecetes gramineus ), a species common to sagebrush and grassland habitats found throughout much of North America. We found Vesper Sparrows to be moderately susceptible to WNV, developing viremia considered sufficient to transmit WNV to feeding mosquitoes, but the majority of birds were capable of surviving infection and developing a humoral immune response to the WNV nonstructural 1 and envelope proteins. Despite clearance of viremia, after 6 mo, WNV was detected molecularly in three birds and cultured from one bird. Surviving Vesper Sparrows were resistant to reinfection 6 mo after the initial challenge. Vesper sparrows could play a role in the amplification of WNV in sagebrush habitat and other areas of their range, but rapid clearance of WNV may limit their importance as competent amplification hosts of WNV.

  11. Knowledge to Predict Pathogens: Legionella pneumophila Lifecycle Critical Review Part I Uptake into Host Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis L. Mraz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila (L. pneumophila is an infectious disease agent of increasing concern due to its ability to cause Legionnaires’ Disease, a severe community pneumonia, and the difficulty in controlling it within water systems. L. pneumophila thrives within the biofilm of premise plumbing systems, utilizing protozoan hosts for protection from disinfectants and other environmental stressors. While there is a great deal of information regarding how L. pneumophila interacts with protozoa and human macrophages (host for human infection, the ability to use this data in a model to attempt to predict a concentration of L. pneumophila in a water system is not known. The lifecycle of L. pneumophila within host cells involves three processes: uptake, growth, and egression from the host cell. The complexity of these three processes would risk conflation of the concepts; therefore, this review details the available information regarding how L. pneumophila invades host cells (uptake within the context of data needed to model this process, while a second review will focus on growth and egression. The overall intent of both reviews is to detail how the steps in L. pneumophila’s lifecycle in drinking water systems affect human infectivity, as opposed to detailing just its growth and persistence in drinking water systems.

  12. Exploitation of the host cell ubiquitin machinery by microbial effector proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Han; Machner, Matthias P

    2017-06-15

    Pathogenic bacteria are in a constant battle for survival with their host. In order to gain a competitive edge, they employ a variety of sophisticated strategies that allow them to modify conserved host cell processes in ways that favor bacterial survival and growth. Ubiquitylation, the covalent attachment of the small modifier ubiquitin to target proteins, is such a pathway. Ubiquitylation profoundly alters the fate of a myriad of cellular proteins by inducing changes in their stability or function, subcellular localization or interaction with other proteins. Given the importance of ubiquitylation in cell development, protein homeostasis and innate immunity, it is not surprising that this post-translational modification is exploited by a variety of effector proteins from microbial pathogens. Here, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of the many ways microbes take advantage of host ubiquitylation, along with some surprising deviations from the canonical theme. The lessons learned from the in-depth analyses of these host-pathogen interactions provide a fresh perspective on an ancient post-translational modification that we thought was well understood.This article is part of a Minifocus on Ubiquitin Regulation and Function. For further reading, please see related articles: 'Mechanisms of regulation and diversification of deubiquitylating enzyme function' by Pawel Leznicki and Yogesh Kulathu ( J. Cell Sci. 130 , 1997-2006). 'Cell scientist to watch - Mads Gyrd-Hansen' ( J. Cell Sci. 130 , 1981-1983). © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Identification of differentially expressed genes associated with the enhancement of X-ray susceptibility by RITA in a hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma cell line (FaDu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luan Jinwei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Next generation sequencing and bio-informatic analyses were conducted to investigate the mechanism of reactivation of p53 and induction of tumor cell apoptosis (RITA-enhancing X-ray susceptibility in FaDu cells.

  14. Adhesion, biofilm formation, cell surface hydrophobicity and antifungal planktonic susceptibility: relationship among Candida spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel Silva-Dias

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We have performed the characterization of the adhesion profile, biofilm formation, cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH and antifungal susceptibility of 184 Candida clinical isolates obtained from different human reservoirs. Adhesion was quantified using a flow cytometric assay and biofilm formation was evaluated using two methodologies: XTT and crystal violet assay. CSH was quantified with the microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons test while planktonic susceptibility was assessed accordingly the CLSI protocol for yeast M27-A3 S4.Yeast cells of non-albicans species exhibit increased ability to adhere and form biofilm. However the correlation between adhesion and biofilm formation varied according to species and also with the methodology used for biofilm assessment. No association was found between strain´s site of isolation or planktonic antifungal susceptibility and adhesion or biofilm formation. Finally CSH seemed to be a good predictor for biofilm formation but not for adhesion.Despite the marked variability registered intra and inter species, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis were the species exhibiting high adhesion profile. C. tropicalis, C. guilliermondii and C. krusei revealed higher biofilm formation values in terms of biomass. C. parapsilosis was the species with lower biofilm metabolic activity.

  15. Adhesion, biofilm formation, cell surface hydrophobicity, and antifungal planktonic susceptibility: relationship among Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Dias, Ana; Miranda, Isabel M; Branco, Joana; Monteiro-Soares, Matilde; Pina-Vaz, Cidália; Rodrigues, Acácio G

    2015-01-01

    We have performed the characterization of the adhesion profile, biofilm formation, cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) and antifungal susceptibility of 184 Candida clinical isolates obtained from different human reservoirs. Adhesion was quantified using a flow cytometric assay and biofilm formation was evaluated using two methodologies: XTT and crystal violet assay. CSH was quantified with the microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons test while planktonic susceptibility was assessed accordingly the CLSI protocol for yeast M27-A3 S4. Yeast cells of non-albicans species exhibit increased ability to adhere and form biofilm. However, the correlation between adhesion and biofilm formation varied according to species and also with the methodology used for biofilm assessment. No association was found between strain's site of isolation or planktonic antifungal susceptibility and adhesion or biofilm formation. Finally CSH seemed to be a good predictor for biofilm formation but not for adhesion. Despite the marked variability registered intra and inter species, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis were the species exhibiting high adhesion profile. C. tropicalis, C. guilliermondii, and C. krusei revealed higher biofilm formation values in terms of biomass. C. parapsilosis was the species with lower biofilm metabolic activity.

  16. HIF-2α dictates the susceptibility of pancreatic cancer cells to TRAIL by regulating survivin expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harashima, Nanae; Takenaga, Keizo; Akimoto, Miho; Harada, Mamoru

    2017-01-01

    Cancer cells develop resistance to therapy by adapting to hypoxic microenvironments, and hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) play crucial roles in this process. We investigated the roles of HIF-1α and HIF-2α in cancer cell death induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) using human pancreatic cancer cell lines. siRNA-mediated knockdown of HIF-2α, but not HIF-1α, increased susceptibility of two pancreatic cancer cell lines, Panc-1 and AsPC-1, to TRAIL in vitro under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. The enhanced sensitivity to TRAIL was also observed in vivo. This in vitro increased TRAIL sensitivity was observed in other three pancreatic cancer cell lines. An array assay of apoptosis-related proteins showed that knockdown of HIF-2α decreased survivin expression. Additionally, survivin promoter activity was decreased in HIF-2α knockdown Panc-1 cells and HIF-2α bound to the hypoxia-responsive element in the survivin promoter region. Conversely, forced expression of the survivin gene in HIF-2α shRNA-expressing Panc-1 cells increased resistance to TRAIL. In a xenograft mouse model, the survivin suppressant YM155 sensitized Panc-1 cells to TRAIL. Collectively, our results indicate that HIF-2α dictates the susceptibility of human pancreatic cancer cell lines, Panc-1 and AsPC-1, to TRAIL by regulating survivin expression transcriptionally, and that survivin could be a promising target to augment the therapeutic efficacy of death receptor-targeting anti-cancer therapy. PMID:28476028

  17. Dynamic Quantification of Host Schwann Cell Migration into Peripheral Nerve Allografts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, Elizabeth L.; Myckatyn, Terence M.; Tong, Alice Y.; Yee, Andrew; Yan, Ying; Magill, Christina K.; Johnson, Philip J.; Mackinnon, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    Host Schwann cell (SC) migration into nerve allografts is the limiting factor in the duration of immunosuppression following peripheral nerve allotransplantation, and may be affected by different immunosuppressive regimens. Our objective was to compare SC migration patterns between clinical and experimental immunosuppression regimens both over time and at the harvest endpoint. Eighty mice that express GFP under the control of the Schwann cell specific S100 promoter were engrafted with allogeneic, nonfluorescent sciatic nerve grafts. Mice received immunosuppression with either tacrolimus (FK506), or experimental T-cell triple costimulation blockade (CSB), consisting of CTLA4-immunoglobulin fusion protein, anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody, and anti-inducible costimulator monoclonal antibody. Migration of GFP-expressing host SCs into wild-type allografts was assessed in vivo every 3 weeks until 15 weeks postoperatively, and explanted allografts were evaluated for immunohistochemical staining patterns to differentiate graft from host SCs. Immunosuppression with tacrolimus exhibited a plateau of SC migration, characterized by significant early migration (< 3 weeks) followed by a constant level of host SCs in the graft (15 weeks). At the endpoint, graft fluorescence was decreased relative to surrounding host nerve, and donor SCs persisted within the graft. CSB-treated mice displayed gradually increasing migration of host SCs into the graft, without the plateau noted in tacrolimus-treated mice, and also maintained a population of donor SCs at the 15-week endpoint. SC migration patterns are affected by immunosuppressant choice, particularly in the immediate postoperative period, and the use of a single treatment of CSB may allow for gradual population of nerve allografts with host SCs. PMID:20633557

  18. Multiple factors and processes involved in host cell killing by bacteriophage Mu: characterization and mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, B T; Marrs, C F; Howe, M M; Pato, M L

    1984-07-15

    The regions of bacteriophage Mu involved in host cell killing were determined by infection of a lambda-immune host with 12 lambda pMu-transducing phages carrying different amounts of Mu DNA beginning at the left end. Infecting lambda pMu phages containing 5.0 (+/- 0.2) kb or less of the left end of Mu DNA did not kill the lambda-immune host, whereas lambda pMu containing 5.1 kb did kill, thus locating the right end of the kil gene between approximately 5.0 and 5.1 kb. For the Kil+ phages the extent of killing increased as the multiplicity of infection (m.o.i.) increased. In addition, killing was also affected by the presence of at least two other regions of Mu DNA: one, located between 5.1 and 5.8 kb, decreased the extent of killing; the other, located between 6.3 and 7.9 kb, greatly increased host cell killing. Killing was also assayed after lambda pMu infection of a lambda-immune host carrying a mini-Mu deleted for most of the B gene and the middle region of Mu DNA. Complementation of mini-Mu replication by infecting B+ lambda pMu phages resulted in killing of the lambda-immune, mini-Mu-containing host, regardless of the presence or absence of the Mu kil gene. The extent of host cell killing increased as the m.o.i. of the infecting lambda pMu increased, and was further enhanced by both the presence of the kil gene and the region located between 6.3 and 7.9 kb. These distinct processes of kil-mediated killing in the absence of replication and non-kil-mediated killing in the presence of replication were also observed after induction of replication-deficient and kil mutant prophages, respectively.

  19. Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus: interaction with fibroblasts and muscle cells - new insights into parasite-mediated host cell cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Chaves Vilela

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus are parasitic, flagellated protists that inhabit the urogenital tract of humans and bovines, respectively. T. vaginalis causes the most prevalent non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide and has been associated with an increased risk for human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection in humans. Infections by T. foetus cause significant losses to the beef industry worldwide due to infertility and spontaneous abortion in cows. Several studies have shown a close association between trichomonads and the epithelium of the urogenital tract. However, little is known concerning the interaction of trichomonads with cells from deeper tissues, such as fibroblasts and muscle cells. Published parasite-host cell interaction studies have reported contradictory results regarding the ability of T. foetus and T. vaginalis to interact with and damage cells of different tissues. In this study, parasite-host cell interactions were examined by culturing primary human fibroblasts obtained from abdominal biopsies performed during plastic surgeries with trichomonads. In addition, mouse 3T3 fibroblasts, primary chick embryo myogenic cells and L6 muscle cells were also used as models of target cells. The parasite-host cell cultures were processed for scanning and transmission electron microscopy and were tested for cell viability and cell death. JC-1 staining, which measures mitochondrial membrane potential, was used to determine whether the parasites induced target cell damage. Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling staining was used as an indicator of chromatin damage. The colorimetric crystal violet assay was performed to ana-lyse the cytotoxicity induced by the parasite. The results showed that T. foetus and T. vaginalis adhered to and were cytotoxic to both fibroblasts and muscle cells, indicating that trichomonas infection of the connective and muscle tissues is likely to occur; such

  20. Mesenchymal stromal cells in the antimicrobial host response of hematopoietic stem cell recipients with graft-versus-host disease--friends or foes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, A; Lucchini, G; Schmidt, S; Schneider, A; Tramsen, L; Kuçi, S; Meisel, R; Bader, P; Lehrnbecher, T

    2014-10-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells, which exhibit broad immunosuppressive activities. Moreover, they may be administered irrespectively of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) compatibility, without inducing life-threatening immunological reactions, as they express no HLA class II and limited HLA class I antigens under resting conditions. These characteristics have made MSC an appealing candidate for cell therapy after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), for example, for treatment of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) or for graft rejection prevention/treatment in allogeneic HSCT recipients. Unfortunately, information regarding the effect of MSC infusion on the host response to infectious agents is scarce, and study results on infectious complications in patients receiving MSC are conflicting. The present review focuses on the available data from in vitro studies and animal models regarding the interaction of MSC with bacterial, viral and fungal pathogens. In a clinical part, we present the current information on infectious complications in allogeneic HSCT recipients who had received MSCs as prophylaxis or treatment of GvHD disease.

  1. Neural stem cell-encoded temporal patterning delineates an early window of malignant susceptibility in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narbonne-Reveau, Karine; Lanet, Elodie; Dillard, Caroline; Foppolo, Sophie; Chen, Ching-Huan; Parrinello, Hugues; Rialle, Stéphanie; Sokol, Nicholas S; Maurange, Cédric

    2016-06-14

    Pediatric neural tumors are often initiated during early development and can undergo very rapid transformation. However, the molecular basis of this early malignant susceptibility remains unknown. During Drosophila development, neural stem cells (NSCs) divide asymmetrically and generate intermediate progenitors that rapidly differentiate in neurons. Upon gene inactivation, these progeny can dedifferentiate and generate malignant tumors. Here, we find that intermediate progenitors are prone to malignancy only when born during an early window of development while expressing the transcription factor Chinmo, and the mRNA-binding proteins Imp/IGF2BP and Lin-28. These genes compose an oncogenic module that is coopted upon dedifferentiation of early-born intermediate progenitors to drive unlimited tumor growth. In late larvae, temporal transcription factor progression in NSCs silences the module, thereby limiting mitotic potential and terminating the window of malignant susceptibility. Thus, this study identifies the gene regulatory network that confers malignant potential to neural tumors with early developmental origins.

  2. Predicting the subcellular localization of viral proteins within a mammalian host cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas DY

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bioinformatic prediction of protein subcellular localization has been extensively studied for prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. However, this is not the case for viruses whose proteins are often involved in extensive interactions at various subcellular localizations with host proteins. Results Here, we investigate the extent of utilization of human cellular localization mechanisms by viral proteins and we demonstrate that appropriate eukaryotic subcellular localization predictors can be used to predict viral protein localization within the host cell. Conclusion Such predictions provide a method to rapidly annotate viral proteomes with subcellular localization information. They are likely to have widespread applications both in the study of the functions of viral proteins in the host cell and in the design of antiviral drugs.

  3. Reduced expression IRF7 in nasal epithelial cells from smokers as a potential mechanism mediating enhanced susceptibility to influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Smokers are more susceptible to viral infections, including influenza virus, yet the mechanisms mediating this effect are not known. Methods: We have established an in vitro model of differentiated nasal epithelial cells from smokers, which maintain enhanced levels...

  4. The lupus susceptibility gene Pbx1 regulates the balance between follicular helper T cell and regulatory T cell differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung-Chul; Hutchinson, Tarun E.; Titov, Anton A.; Seay, Howard R.; Li, Shiwu; Brusko, Todd M.; Croker, Byron P.; Salek-Ardakani, Shahram; Morel, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Pbx1 controls chromatin accessibility to a large number of genes and is entirely conserved between mice and humans. The Pbx1-d dominant negative isoform is more frequent in the CD4+ T cells from lupus patients than from healthy controls. Pbx1-d is associated with the production of autoreactive T cells in mice carrying the Sle1a1 lupus susceptibility locus. Transgenic expression of Pbx1-d in CD4+ T cells reproduced the phenotypes of Sle1a1 mice, with increased inflammatory functions of CD4+ T cells and impaired regulatory T cell homeostasis. Pbx1-d Tg also expanded the number of follicular helper T cells in a cell-intrinsic and antigen-specific manner that was enhanced in recall responses, and resulted in TH1-biased antibodies. Moreover, Pbx1-d Tg CD4+ T cells upregulated the expression of miR-10a, miR-21 and miR-155, which have been implicated in Treg and TFH cell homeostasis. Our results suggest that Pbx1-d impacts lupus development by regulating effector T cell differentiation and promoting TFH cells at the expense of Treg cells. In addition, our results identify Pbx1 as a novel regulator of CD4+ T cell effector function. PMID:27296664

  5. Industrial production of clotting factors: Challenges of expression, and choice of host cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sampath R

    2015-07-01

    The development of recombinant forms of blood coagulation factors as safer alternatives to plasma derived factors marked a major advance in the treatment of common coagulation disorders. These are complex proteins, mostly enzymes or co-enzymes, involving multiple post-translational modifications, and therefore are difficult to express. This article reviews the nature of the expression challenges for the industrial production of these factors, vis-à-vis the translational and post-translational bottlenecks, as well as the choice of host cell lines for high-fidelity production. For achieving high productivities of vitamin K dependent proteins, which include factors II (prothrombin), VII, IX and X, and protein C, host cell limitation of γ-glutamyl carboxylation is a major bottleneck. Despite progress in addressing this, involvement of yet unidentified protein(s) impedes a complete cell engineering solution. Human factor VIII expresses at very low levels due to limitations at several steps in the protein secretion pathway. Protein and cell engineering, vector improvement and alternate host cells promise improvement in the productivity. Production of Von Willebrand factor is constrained by its large size, complex structure, and the need for extensive glycosylation and disulfide-bonded oligomerization. All the licensed therapeutic factors are produced in CHO, BHK or HEK293 cells. While HEK293 is a recent adoption, BHK cells appear to be disfavored. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Anaplasma phagocytophilum Manipulates Host Cell Apoptosis by Different Mechanisms to Establish Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Alberdi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging zoonotic pathogen that causes human and animal granulocytic anaplasmosis and tick-borne fever of ruminants. This obligate intracellular bacterium evolved to use common strategies to establish infection in both vertebrate hosts and tick vectors. Herein, we discuss the different strategies used by the pathogen to modulate cell apoptosis and establish infection in host cells. In vertebrate neutrophils and human promyelocytic cells HL-60, both pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic factors have been reported. Tissue-specific differences in tick response to infection and differential regulation of apoptosis pathways have been observed in adult female midguts and salivary glands in response to infection with A. phagocytophilum. In tick midguts, pathogen inhibits apoptosis through the Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT pathway, while in salivary glands, the intrinsic apoptosis pathways is inhibited but tick cells respond with the activation of the extrinsic apoptosis pathway. In Ixodes scapularis ISE6 cells, bacterial infection down-regulates mitochondrial porin and manipulates protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum and cell glucose metabolism to inhibit apoptosis and facilitate infection, whereas in IRE/CTVM20 tick cells, inhibition of apoptosis appears to be regulated by lower caspase levels. These results suggest that A. phagocytophilum uses different mechanisms to inhibit apoptosis for infection of both vertebrate and invertebrate hosts.

  7. Pathogen Trojan Horse Delivers Bioactive Host Protein to Alter Maize Anther Cell Behavior in Situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linde, Karina; Timofejeva, Ljudmilla; Egger, Rachel L; Ilau, Birger; Hammond, Reza; Teng, Chong; Meyers, Blake C; Doehlemann, Gunther; Walbot, Virginia

    2018-03-01

    Small proteins are crucial signals during development, host defense, and physiology. The highly spatiotemporal restricted functions of signaling proteins remain challenging to study in planta. The several month span required to assess transgene expression, particularly in flowers, combined with the uncertainties from transgene position effects and ubiquitous or overexpression, makes monitoring of spatiotemporally restricted signaling proteins lengthy and difficult. This situation could be rectified with a transient assay in which protein deployment is tightly controlled spatially and temporally in planta to assess protein functions, timing, and cellular targets as well as to facilitate rapid mutagenesis to define functional protein domains. In maize ( Zea mays ), secreted ZmMAC1 (MULTIPLE ARCHESPORIAL CELLS1) was proposed to trigger somatic niche formation during anther development by participating in a ligand-receptor module. Inspired by Homer's Trojan horse myth, we engineered a protein delivery system that exploits the secretory capabilities of the maize smut fungus Ustilago maydis , to allow protein delivery to individual cells in certain cell layers at precise time points. Pathogen-supplied ZmMAC1 cell-autonomously corrected both somatic cell division and differentiation defects in mutant Zm mac1-1 anthers. These results suggest that exploiting host-pathogen interactions may become a generally useful method for targeting host proteins to cell and tissue types to clarify cellular autonomy and to analyze steps in cell responses. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  8. A novel mechanism of bacterial toxin transfer within host blood cell-derived microvesicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-lie Ståhl

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin (Stx is the main virulence factor of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, which are non-invasive strains that can lead to hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS, associated with renal failure and death. Although bacteremia does not occur, bacterial virulence factors gain access to the circulation and are thereafter presumed to cause target organ damage. Stx was previously shown to circulate bound to blood cells but the mechanism by which it would potentially transfer to target organ cells has not been elucidated. Here we show that blood cell-derived microvesicles, shed during HUS, contain Stx and are found within patient renal cortical cells. The finding was reproduced in mice infected with Stx-producing Escherichia coli exhibiting Stx-containing blood cell-derived microvesicles in the circulation that reached the kidney where they were transferred into glomerular and peritubular capillary endothelial cells and further through their basement membranes followed by podocytes and tubular epithelial cells, respectively. In vitro studies demonstrated that blood cell-derived microvesicles containing Stx undergo endocytosis in glomerular endothelial cells leading to cell death secondary to inhibited protein synthesis. This study demonstrates a novel virulence mechanism whereby bacterial toxin is transferred within host blood cell-derived microvesicles in which it may evade the host immune system.

  9. Establishment of a new cell line from the snout tissue of golden pompano Trachinotus ovatus, and its application in virus susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y; Wei, S; Wang, Z; Huang, X; Huang, Y; Cai, J; Li, C; Qin, Q

    2016-06-01

    A new marine-fish cell line, designated GPS, was established from the snout tissue of golden pompano Trachinotus ovatus. GPS cells multiplied well in Leibovitz's L-15 containing 10% foetal bovine serum (FBS) at 28° C and the cells have been subcultured for >60 passages. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of 16S ribosomal (r)RNA confirmed the origin of this cell line from T. ovatus. Chromosome analysis showed that GPS cells exhibited chromosomal aneuploidy with a modal chromosome number of 54. Bright green fluorescence signal was observed in enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-N3 transfected cells, indicating that GPS cells could be used to investigate gene functions in vitro. The GPS cells were highly susceptible to Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV), which was demonstrated by the presence of severe cytopathic effect (CPE) and increased viral titres. Real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis showed that the viral gene transcription and protein synthesis occurred during SGIV infection in GPS cells. Thus, this study described the characteristic of a new cell line from the snout tissue of T. ovatus that could be used as a tool for propagation of iridovirus and genetic manipulation to investigate host-pathogen interactions. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  10. Host Cell Responses to Persistent Mycoplasmas - Different Stages in Infection of HeLa Cells with Mycoplasma hominis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfe, Miriam; Deenen, René; Degrandi, Daniel; Köhrer, Karl; Henrich, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    Mycoplasma hominis is a facultative human pathogen primarily associated with bacterial vaginosis and pelvic inflammatory disease, but it is also able to spread to other sites, leading to arthritis or, in neonates, meningitis. With a minimal set of 537 annotated genes, M. hominis is the second smallest self-replicating mycoplasma and thus an ideal model organism for studying the effects of an infectious agent on its host more closely. M. hominis adherence, colonisation and invasion of HeLa cells were characterised in a time-course study using scanning electron microscopy, confocal microscopy and microarray-based analysis of the HeLa cell transcriptome. At 4 h post infection, cytoadherence of M. hominis to the HeLa cell surface was accompanied by differential regulation of 723 host genes (>2 fold change in expression). Genes associated with immune responses and signal transduction pathways were mainly affected and components involved in cell-cycle regulation, growth and death were highly upregulated. At 48 h post infection, when mycoplasma invasion started, 1588 host genes were differentially expressed and expression of genes for lysosome-specific proteins associated with bacterial lysis was detected. In a chronically infected HeLa cell line (2 weeks), the proportion of intracellular mycoplasmas reached a maximum of 10% and M. hominis-filled protrusions of the host cell membrane were seen by confocal microscopy, suggesting exocytotic dissemination. Of the 1972 regulated host genes, components of the ECM-receptor interaction pathway and phagosome-related integrins were markedly increased. The immune response was quite different to that at the beginning of infection, with a prominent induction of IL1B gene expression, affecting pathways of MAPK signalling, and genes connected with cytokine-cytokine interactions and apoptosis. These data show for the first time the complex, time-dependent reaction of the host directed at mycoplasmal clearance and the counter measures of

  11. Selective susceptibility to nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) across different human cell types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianulis, Elena C; Labib, Chantelle; Saulis, Gintautas; Novickij, Vitalij; Pakhomova, Olga N; Pakhomov, Andrei G

    2017-05-01

    Tumor ablation by nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) is an emerging therapeutic modality. We compared nsPEF cytotoxicity for human cell lines of cancerous (IMR-32, Hep G2, HT-1080, and HPAF-II) and non-cancerous origin (BJ and MRC-5) under strictly controlled and identical conditions. Adherent cells were uniformly treated by 300-ns PEF (0-2000 pulses, 1.8 kV/cm, 50 Hz) on indium tin oxide-covered glass coverslips, using the same media and serum. Cell survival plotted against the number of pulses displayed three distinct regions (initial resistivity, logarithmic survival decline, and residual resistivity) for all tested cell types, but with differences in LD 50 spanning as much as nearly 80-fold. The non-cancerous cells were less sensitive than IMR-32 neuroblastoma cells but more vulnerable than the other cancers tested. The cytotoxic efficiency showed no apparent correlation with cell or nuclear size, cell morphology, metabolism level, or the extent of membrane disruption by nsPEF. Increasing pulse duration to 9 µs (0.75 kV/cm, 5 Hz) produced a different selectivity pattern, suggesting that manipulation of PEF parameters can, at least for certain cancers, overcome their resistance to nsPEF ablation. Identifying mechanisms and cell markers of differential nsPEF susceptibility will critically contribute to the proper choice and outcome of nsPEF ablation therapies.

  12. Where in the Cell Are You? Probing HIV-1 Host Interactions through Advanced Imaging Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brennan S. Dirk

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Viruses must continuously evolve to hijack the host cell machinery in order to successfully replicate and orchestrate key interactions that support their persistence. The type-1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 is a prime example of viral persistence within the host, having plagued the human population for decades. In recent years, advances in cellular imaging and molecular biology have aided the elucidation of key steps mediating the HIV-1 lifecycle and viral pathogenesis. Super-resolution imaging techniques such as stimulated emission depletion (STED and photoactivation and localization microscopy (PALM have been instrumental in studying viral assembly and release through both cell–cell transmission and cell–free viral transmission. Moreover, powerful methods such as Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC have shed light on the protein-protein interactions HIV-1 engages within the host to hijack the cellular machinery. Specific advancements in live cell imaging in combination with the use of multicolor viral particles have become indispensable to unravelling the dynamic nature of these virus-host interactions. In the current review, we outline novel imaging methods that have been used to study the HIV-1 lifecycle and highlight advancements in the cell culture models developed to enhance our understanding of the HIV-1 lifecycle.

  13. Treg cell-IgA axis in maintenance of host immune homeostasis with microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Ting; Elson, Charles O.; Cong, Yingzi

    2010-01-01

    The intestine is the home to a vast diversity of microbiota and a complex of mucosal immune system. Multiple regulatory mechanisms control host immune responses to microbiota and maintain intestinal immune homeostasis. This mini review will provide evidence indicating a Treg cell-IgA axis and such axis playing a major role in maintenance of intestinal homeostasis.

  14. Bright fluorescent Streptococcus pneumoniae for live cell imaging of host-pathogen interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kjos, M.; Aprianto, R.; Fernandes, V.E.; Andrew, P.W.; Strijp, van J.A.G.; Nijland, R.; Veening, J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common nasopharyngeal resident in healthy people, but at the same time one of the major causes of infectious diseases such as pneumonia, meningitis and sepsis. The shift from commensal to pathogen and its interaction with host cells is poorly understood. One of the

  15. Bright Fluorescent Streptococcus pneumoniae for Live-Cell Imaging of Host-Pathogen Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kjos, Morten; Aprianto, Rieza; Fernandes, Vitor E.; Andrew, Peter W.; van Strijp, Jos A. G.; Nijland, Reindert; Veening, Jan-Willem

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common nasopharyngeal resident in healthy people but, at the same time, one of the major causes of infectious diseases such as pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis. The shift from commensal to pathogen and its interaction with host cells are poorly understood. One of the

  16. Transcriptional response of bronchial epithelial cells to Pseudomonas aeruginosa: identification of early mediators of host defense.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.B.; Sterkenburg, M.A. van; Rabe, K.F.; Schalkwijk, J.; Hiemstra, P.S.; Datson, N.A.

    2005-01-01

    The airway epithelium responds to microbial exposure by altering expression of a variety of genes to increase innate host defense. We aimed to delineate the early transcriptional response in human primary bronchial epithelial cells exposed for 6 h to a mixture of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha or

  17. Complexities in human herpesvirus-6A and -6B binding to host cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Simon Metz; Höllsberg, Per

    2006-01-01

    Human herpesvirus-6A and -6B uses the cellular receptor CD46 for fusion and infection of the host cell. The viral glycoprotein complex gH-gL from HHV-6A binds to the short consensus repeat 2 and 3 in CD46. Although all the major isoforms of CD46 bind the virus, certain isoforms may have higher...

  18. The Paracoccidioides cell wall: past and present layers towards understanding interaction with the host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana ePuccia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The cell wall of pathogenic fungi plays import roles in interaction with the host, so that its composition and structure may determine the course of infection. Here we present an overview of the current and past knowledge on the cell wall constituents of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. lutzii. These are temperature-dependent dimorphic fungi that cause paracoccidioidomycosis, a systemic granulomatous and debilitating disease. Focus is given on cell wall carbohydrate and protein contents, their immune-stimulatory features, adhesion properties, drug target characteristics, and morphological phase specificity. We offer a journey towards the future understanding of the dynamic life that takes place in the cell wall and of the changes that it may suffer when living in the human host.

  19. Bacteria modulate the CD8+ T cell epitope repertoire of host cytosol-exposed proteins to manipulate the host immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaakov Maman

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The main adaptive immune response to bacteria is mediated by B cells and CD4+ T-cells. However, some bacterial proteins reach the cytosol of host cells and are exposed to the host CD8+ T-cells response. Both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria can translocate proteins to the cytosol through type III and IV secretion and ESX-1 systems, respectively. The translocated proteins are often essential for the bacterium survival. Once injected, these proteins can be degraded and presented on MHC-I molecules to CD8+ T-cells. The CD8+ T-cells, in turn, can induce cell death and destroy the bacteria's habitat. In viruses, escape mutations arise to avoid this detection. The accumulation of escape mutations in bacteria has never been systematically studied. We show for the first time that such mutations are systematically present in most bacteria tested. We combine multiple bioinformatic algorithms to compute CD8+ T-cell epitope libraries of bacteria with secretion systems that translocate proteins to the host cytosol. In all bacteria tested, proteins not translocated to the cytosol show no escape mutations in their CD8+ T-cell epitopes. However, proteins translocated to the cytosol show clear escape mutations and have low epitope densities for most tested HLA alleles. The low epitope densities suggest that bacteria, like viruses, are evolutionarily selected to ensure their survival in the presence of CD8+ T-cells. In contrast with most other translocated proteins examined, Pseudomonas aeruginosa's ExoU, which ultimately induces host cell death, was found to have high epitope density. This finding suggests a novel mechanism for the manipulation of CD8+ T-cells by pathogens. The ExoU effector may have evolved to maintain high epitope density enabling it to efficiently induce CD8+ T-cell mediated cell death. These results were tested using multiple epitope prediction algorithms, and were found to be consistent for most proteins tested.

  20. Color-Coded Imaging of Syngeneic Orthotopic Malignant Lymphoma Interacting with Host Stromal Cells During Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takuro; Suetsugu, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Kosuke; Nakamura, Miki; Aoki, Hitomi; Kunisada, Takahiro; Tsurumi, Hisashi; Shimizu, Masahito; Hoffman, Robert M

    2016-04-01

    The EL4 cell line was previously derived from a lymphoma induced in a C57/BL6 mouse by 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene. In a previous study, EL4 lymphoma cells expressing red fluorescent protein (EL4-RFP) were established and injected into the tail vein of C57/BL6 green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice. Metastasis was observed at multiple sites which were also enriched with host GFP-expressing stromal cells. In the present study, our aim was to establish an orthotopic model of EL4-RFP. In the present study, EL4-RFP lymphoma cells were injected in the spleen of C57/BL6 GFP transgenic mice as an orthotopic model of lymphoma. Resultant primary tumor and metastases were imaged with the Olympus FV1000 scanning laser confocal microscope. EL4-RFP metastasis was observed 21 days later. EL4-RFP tumors in the spleen (primary injection site), liver, supra-mediastinum lymph nodes, abdominal lymph nodes, bone marrow, and lung were visualized by color-coded imaging. EL4-RFP metastases in the liver, lymph nodes, and bone marrow in C57/BL6 GFP mice were rich in GFP stromal cells such as macrophages, fibroblasts, dendritic cells, and normal lymphocytes derived from the host animal. Small tumors were observed in the spleen, which were rich in host stromal cells. In the lung, no mass formation of lymphoma cells occurred, but lymphoma cells circulated in lung peripheral blood vessels. Phagocytosis of EL4-RFP lymphoma cells by macrophages, as well as dendritic cells and fibroblasts, were observed in culture. Color-coded imaging of the lymphoma microenvironment suggests an important role of stromal cells in lymphoma progression and metastasis. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  1. Synchronous induction of detachment and reattachment of symbiotic Chlorella spp. from the cell cortex of the host Paramecium bursaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Yuuki; Fujishima, Masahiro

    2013-09-01

    Paramecium bursaria harbor several hundred symbiotic Chlorella spp. Each alga is enclosed in a perialgal vacuole membrane, which can attach to the host cell cortex. How the perialgal vacuole attaches beneath the host cell cortex remains unknown. High-speed centrifugation (> 1000×g) for 1min induces rapid detachment of the algae from the host cell cortex and concentrates the algae to the posterior half of the host cell. Simultaneously, most of the host acidosomes and lysosomes accumulate in the anterior half of the host cell. Both the detached algae and the dislocated acidic vesicles recover their original positions by host cyclosis within 10min after centrifugation. These recoveries were inhibited if the host cytoplasmic streaming was arrested by nocodazole. Endosymbiotic algae during the early reinfection process also show the capability of desorption after centrifugation. These results demonstrate that adhesion of the perialgal vacuole beneath the host cell cortex is repeatedly inducible, and that host cytoplasmic streaming facilitates recovery of the algal attachment. This study is the first report to illuminate the mechanism of the induction to desorb for symbiotic algae and acidic vesicles, and will contribute to the understanding of the mechanism of algal and organelle arrangements in Paramecium. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. The chlamydial periplasmic stress response serine protease cHtrA is secreted into host cell cytosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores Rhonda

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The periplasmic High Temperature Requirement protein A (HtrA plays important roles in bacterial protein folding and stress responses. However, the role of chlamydial HtrA (cHtrA in chlamydial pathogenesis is not clear. Results The cHtrA was detected both inside and outside the chlamydial inclusions. The detection was specific since both polyclonal and monoclonal anti-cHtrA antibodies revealed similar intracellular labeling patterns that were only removed by absorption with cHtrA but not control fusion proteins. In a Western blot assay, the anti-cHtrA antibodies detected the endogenous cHtrA in Chlamydia-infected cells without cross-reacting with any other chlamydial or host cell antigens. Fractionation of the infected cells revealed cHtrA in the host cell cytosol fraction. The periplasmic cHtrA protein appeared to be actively secreted into host cell cytosol since no other chlamydial periplasmic proteins were detected in the host cell cytoplasm. Most chlamydial species secreted cHtrA into host cell cytosol and the secretion was not inhibitable by a type III secretion inhibitor. Conclusion Since it is hypothesized that chlamydial organisms possess a proteolysis strategy to manipulate host cell signaling pathways, secretion of the serine protease cHtrA into host cell cytosol suggests that the periplasmic cHtrA may also play an important role in chlamydial interactions with host cells.

  3. The ins and outs of phosphosignalling in Plasmodium: Parasite regulation and host cell manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Teresa Gil; Morahan, Belinda; John von Freyend, Simona; Boeuf, Philippe; Grau, Georges; Garcia-Bustos, Jose; Doerig, Christian

    2016-07-01

    Signal transduction and kinomics have been rapidly expanding areas of investigation within the malaria research field. Here, we provide an overview of phosphosignalling pathways that operate in all stages of the Plasmodium life cycle. We review signalling pathways in the parasite itself, in the cells it invades, and in other cells of the vertebrate host with which it interacts. We also discuss the potential of these pathways as novel targets for antimalarial intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Coliphage 186 replication is delayed when the host cell is UV irradiated before infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, I.; Woods, W.H.; Egan, B.

    1981-01-01

    In contrast to results with injections by lambda and P2, the latent period for infection by coliphage 186 is extended when the host cell is UV irradiated before infection. We find that 186 replication is significantly delayed in such a cell, even though the phage itself has not been irradiated. In contrast, replication of the closely related phage P2 under the same conditions is not affected

  5. A role for host cell exocytosis in InlB-mediated internalisation of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ngo, Hoan; Bhalla, Manmeet; Chen, Da-Yuan; Ireton, Keith

    2017-11-01

    The bacterial surface protein InlB mediates internalisation of Listeria monocytogenes into human cells through interaction with the host receptor tyrosine kinase, Met. InlB-mediated entry requires localised polymerisation of the host actin cytoskeleton. Apart from actin polymerisation, roles for other host processes in Listeria entry are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that exocytosis in the human cell promotes InlB-dependent internalisation. Using a probe consisting of VAMP3 with an exofacial green fluorescent protein tag, focal exocytosis was detected during InlB-mediated entry. Exocytosis was dependent on Met tyrosine kinase activity and the GTPase RalA. Depletion of SNARE proteins by small interfering RNA demonstrated an important role for exocytosis in Listeria internalisation. Depletion of SNARE proteins failed to affect actin filaments during internalisation, suggesting that actin polymerisation and exocytosis are separable host responses. SNARE proteins were required for delivery of the human GTPase Dynamin 2, which promotes InlB-mediated entry. Our results identify exocytosis as a novel host process exploited by Listeria for infection. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Single nucleotide polymorphisms as susceptibility, prognostic, and therapeutic markers of nonsmall cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zienolddiny S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Shanbeh Zienolddiny, Vidar SkaugSection for Toxicology and Biological Work Environment, National Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo, NorwayAbstract: Lung cancer is a major public health problem throughout the world. Among the most frequent cancer types (prostate, breast, colorectal, stomach, lung, lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Among the two major subtypes of small cell lung cancer and nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC, 85% of tumors belong to the NSCLC histological types. Small cell lung cancer is associated with the shortest survival time. Although tobacco smoking has been recognized as the major risk factor for lung cancer, there is a great interindividual and interethnic difference in risk of developing lung cancer given exposure to similar environmental and lifestyle factors. This may indicate that in addition to chemical and environmental factors, genetic variations in the genome may contribute to risk modification. A common type of genetic variation in the genome, known as single nucleotide polymorphism, has been found to be associated with susceptibility to lung cancer. Interestingly, many of these polymorphisms are found in the genes that regulate major pathways of carcinogen metabolism (cytochrome P450 genes, detoxification (glutathione S-transferases, adduct removal (DNA repair genes, cell growth/apoptosis (TP53/MDM2, the immune system (cytokines/chemokines, and membrane receptors (nicotinic acetylcholine and dopaminergic receptors. Some of these polymorphisms have been shown to alter the level of mRNA, and protein structure and function. In addition to being susceptibility markers, several of these polymorphisms are emerging to be important for response to chemotherapy/radiotherapy and survival of patients. Therefore, it is hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms will be valuable genetic markers in individual-based prognosis and therapy in future. Here we will review some of the most

  7. Recovery of infectious pariacoto virus from cDNA clones and identification of susceptible cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K N; Ball, L A

    2001-12-01

    Pariacoto virus (PaV) is a nodavirus that was recently isolated in Peru from the Southern armyworm, Spodoptera eridania. Virus particles are non enveloped and about 30 nm in diameter and have T=3 icosahedral symmetry. The 3.0-A crystal structure shows that about 35% of the genomic RNA is icosahedrally ordered, with the RNA forming a dodecahedral cage of 25-nucleotide (nt) duplexes that underlie the inner surface of the capsid. The PaV genome comprises two single-stranded, positive-sense RNAs: RNA1 (3,011 nt), which encodes the 108-kDa catalytic subunit of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and RNA2 (1,311 nt), which encodes the 43-kDa capsid protein precursor alpha. In order to apply molecular genetics to the structure and assembly of PaV, we identified susceptible cell lines and developed a reverse genetic system for this virus. Cell lines that were susceptible to infection by PaV included those from Spodoptera exigua, Helicoverpa zea and Aedes albopictus, whereas cells from Drosophila melanogaster and Spodoptera frugiperda were refractory to infection. To recover virus from molecular clones, full-length cDNAs of PaV RNAs 1 and 2 were cotranscribed by T7 RNA polymerase in baby hamster kidney cells that expressed T7 RNA polymerase. Lysates of these cells were infectious both for cultured cells from Helicoverpa zea (corn earworm) and for larvae of Galleria mellonella (greater wax moth). The combination of infectious cDNA clones, cell culture infectivity, and the ability to produce milligram amounts of virus allows the application of DNA-based genetic methods to the study of PaV structure and assembly.

  8. Molecular mechanisms of Porphyromonas gingivalis-host cell interaction on periodontal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Nakayama

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis is a major oral pathogen and associated with periodontal diseases including periodontitis and alveolar bone loss. In this review, we indicate that two virulence factors, which are hemoglobin receptor protein (HbR and cysteine proteases “gingipains”, expressed by P. gingivalis have novel functions on the pathogenicity of P. gingivalis. P. gingivalis produces three types of gingipains and concomitantly several adhesin domains. Among the adhesin domains, hemoglobin receptor protein (HbR, also called HGP15, has the function of induction of interleukin-8 (IL-8 expression in human gingival epithelial cells, indicating the possibility that HbR is associated with P. gingivalis-induced periodontal inflammation. On bacteria-host cells contact, P. gingivalis induces cellular signaling alteration in host cells. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K and Akt are well known to play a pivotal role in various cellular physiological functions including cell survival and glucose metabolism in mammalian cells. Recently, we demonstrated that gingipains attenuate the activity of PI3K and Akt, which might have a causal influence on periodontal diseases by chronic infection to the host cells from the speculation of molecular analysis. In this review, we discuss new molecular and biological characterization of the virulence factors from P. gingivalis.

  9. Characterisation of mesothelioma-initiating cells and their susceptibility to anti-cancer agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Alizadeh Pasdar

    Full Text Available Malignant mesothelioma (MM is an aggressive type of tumour causing high mortality. One reason for this paradigm may be the existence of a subpopulation of tumour-initiating cells (TICs that endow MM with drug resistance and recurrence. The objective of this study was to identify and characterise a TIC subpopulation in MM cells, using spheroid cultures, mesospheres, as a model of MM TICs. Mesospheres, typified by the stemness markers CD24, ABCG2 and OCT4, initiated tumours in immunodeficient mice more efficiently than adherent cells. CD24 knock-down cells lost the sphere-forming capacity and featured lower tumorigenicity. Upon serial transplantation, mesospheres were gradually more efficiently tumrigenic with increased level of stem cell markers. We also show that mesospheres feature mitochondrial and metabolic properties similar to those of normal and cancer stem cells. Finally, we show that mesothelioma-initiating cells are highly susceptible to mitochondrially targeted vitamin E succinate. This study documents that mesospheres can be used as a plausible model of mesothelioma-initiating cells and that they can be utilised in the search for efficient agents against MM.

  10. Effects of Population Density and Host Availability on The Migration Process of Brown Planthopper Fed Using Susceptible and Resistant Rice Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Habibi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens Stal. (Hemiptera: Delphacidae, is an important pest of rice. This pest can cause hopperburn and field failure. This research aimed to determine the effects of population density and host availability on migration of N. lugens. The criteria used to justify the effects of host availability and population density on migration of N. lugens were based the hardness and tannin tests of the rice stems, fecundity of N. lugens, and the life cycle of N. lugens. The research was conducted under the temperature of 29.42°C with relative humidity of 61% and Light 12: Dark 12 times, using ten pairs of N. lugens brachypterous (F0 constant and then was added with five male adults on fifth days after the first infestation (F0 changed. The varieties used were IR64, as a resistant variety, and Ketan Lusi, as a susceptible variety. The results showed that the adding of the macropterous males did not affect the number of macropterous, because of that has been preplanned by the F0. Therefore, the percentage of existing macropterous was 51−52%.   INTISARI   Wereng Batang Cokelat (WBC merupakan salah satu hama tanaman padi yang sangat penting. Kerusakan parah dapat menyebabkan hopperburn dan puso (gagal panen. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui pengaruh kepadatan populasi dan tanaman inang sebagai tempat migrasi WBC. Parameter yang dikaji untuk mengetahui pengaruh kepadatan populasi WBC dan tanaman inang tempat migrasi WBC berdasarkan tingkat kekerasan dan kandungan tanin batang tanaman padi, fekunditas WBC, dan siklus hidup WBC. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada temperatur 29.42˚C dengan kelembapan relatif 61% dan durasi siang hari 12 jam: durasi malam hari 12 jam. Metode yang dilakukan adalah dengan menggunakan 10 pasang imago WBC brakhiptera (F0 konstan, kemudian dilakukan penambahan 5 ekor imago jantan pada hari kelima setelah infestasi awal (F0 diubah. Varietas padi yang digunakan yaitu padi varietas IR64 sebagai varietas

  11. Mycobacterium-Host Cell Relationships in Granulomatous Lesions in a Mouse Model of Latent Tuberculous Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ufimtseva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is a dangerous infectious disease characterized by a tight interplay between mycobacteria and host cells in granulomatous lesions (granulomas during the latent, asymptomatic stage of infection. Mycobacterium-host cell relationships were analyzed in granulomas obtained from various organs of BALB/c mice with chronic TB infection caused by in vivo exposure to the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG vaccine. Acid-fast BCG-mycobacteria were found to be morphologically and functionally heterogeneous (in size, shape, and replication rates in colonies in granuloma macrophages, dendritic cells, and multinucleate Langhans giant cells. Cord formation by BCG-mycobacteria in granuloma cells has been observed. Granuloma macrophages retained their ability to ingest damaged lymphocytes and thrombocytes in the phagosomes; however, their ability to destroy BCG-mycobacteria contained in these cells was compromised. No colocalization of BCG-mycobacteria and the LysoTracker dye was observed in the mouse cells. Various relationships between granuloma cells and BCG-mycobacteria were observed in different mice belonging to the same line. Several mice totally eliminated mycobacterial infection. Granulomas in the other mice had mycobacteria actively replicating in cells of different types and forming cords, which is an indicator of mycobacterial virulence and, probably, a marker of the activation of tuberculous infection in animals.

  12. Mycobacterium-Host Cell Relationships in Granulomatous Lesions in a Mouse Model of Latent Tuberculous Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a dangerous infectious disease characterized by a tight interplay between mycobacteria and host cells in granulomatous lesions (granulomas) during the latent, asymptomatic stage of infection. Mycobacterium-host cell relationships were analyzed in granulomas obtained from various organs of BALB/c mice with chronic TB infection caused by in vivo exposure to the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine. Acid-fast BCG-mycobacteria were found to be morphologically and functionally heterogeneous (in size, shape, and replication rates in colonies) in granuloma macrophages, dendritic cells, and multinucleate Langhans giant cells. Cord formation by BCG-mycobacteria in granuloma cells has been observed. Granuloma macrophages retained their ability to ingest damaged lymphocytes and thrombocytes in the phagosomes; however, their ability to destroy BCG-mycobacteria contained in these cells was compromised. No colocalization of BCG-mycobacteria and the LysoTracker dye was observed in the mouse cells. Various relationships between granuloma cells and BCG-mycobacteria were observed in different mice belonging to the same line. Several mice totally eliminated mycobacterial infection. Granulomas in the other mice had mycobacteria actively replicating in cells of different types and forming cords, which is an indicator of mycobacterial virulence and, probably, a marker of the activation of tuberculous infection in animals. PMID:26064970

  13. Capacity of lung stroma to educate dendritic cells inhibiting mycobacteria-specific T-cell response depends upon genetic susceptibility to tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapina, Marina A; Rubakova, Elvira I; Majorov, Konstantin B; Logunova, Nadezhda N; Apt, Alexander S

    2013-01-01

    The balance between activation and inhibition of local immune responses in affected tissues during prolonged chronic infections is important for host protection. There is ample evidence that regulatory, tolerogenic dendritic cells (DC) are developed and present in tissues and inhibit overwhelming inflammatory reactions. Also, it was firmly established that stromal microenvironment of many organs is able to induce development of immature regulatory DC (DCreg), an essential element of a general immune regulatory network. However, direct experimental data demonstrating inhibition of immune responses by stroma-instructed immature DCreg in infectious models are scarce, and virtually nothing is known about functioning of this axis of immunity during tuberculosis (TB) infection. In this study, we demonstrate that lung stromal cells are capable of supporting the development in culture of immature CD11b(+)CD11c(low)CD103(-) DCreg from lineage-negative (lin(-)) bone marrow precursors. DCreg developed on lung stroma isolated from mice of genetically TB-hyper-susceptible I/St and relatively resistant B6 inbred strains inhibited proliferative response of mycobacteria-specific CD4(+) T-cell lines a dose-dependent manner. Importantly, the inhibitory activity of B6 DCreg was substantially higher than that of I/St Dcreg. Moreover, when the donors of stromal cells were chronically infected with virulent mycobacteria, the capacity to instruct inhibitory DCreg was retained in B6, but further diminished in I/St stromal cells. DCreg-provided suppression was mediated by a few soluble mediators, including PGE2, NO and IL-10. The content of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Treg cells in the mediastinal, lung-draining lymph nodes at the advanced stages of chronic infection did not change in I/St, but increased 2-fold in B6 mice, and lung pathology was much more pronounced in the former mice. Taken together, these data provide genetic evidence that the capacity to maintain populations of regulatory cells

  14. Capacity of lung stroma to educate dendritic cells inhibiting mycobacteria-specific T-cell response depends upon genetic susceptibility to tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina A Kapina

    Full Text Available The balance between activation and inhibition of local immune responses in affected tissues during prolonged chronic infections is important for host protection. There is ample evidence that regulatory, tolerogenic dendritic cells (DC are developed and present in tissues and inhibit overwhelming inflammatory reactions. Also, it was firmly established that stromal microenvironment of many organs is able to induce development of immature regulatory DC (DCreg, an essential element of a general immune regulatory network. However, direct experimental data demonstrating inhibition of immune responses by stroma-instructed immature DCreg in infectious models are scarce, and virtually nothing is known about functioning of this axis of immunity during tuberculosis (TB infection. In this study, we demonstrate that lung stromal cells are capable of supporting the development in culture of immature CD11b(+CD11c(lowCD103(- DCreg from lineage-negative (lin(- bone marrow precursors. DCreg developed on lung stroma isolated from mice of genetically TB-hyper-susceptible I/St and relatively resistant B6 inbred strains inhibited proliferative response of mycobacteria-specific CD4(+ T-cell lines a dose-dependent manner. Importantly, the inhibitory activity of B6 DCreg was substantially higher than that of I/St Dcreg. Moreover, when the donors of stromal cells were chronically infected with virulent mycobacteria, the capacity to instruct inhibitory DCreg was retained in B6, but further diminished in I/St stromal cells. DCreg-provided suppression was mediated by a few soluble mediators, including PGE2, NO and IL-10. The content of CD4(+Foxp3(+ Treg cells in the mediastinal, lung-draining lymph nodes at the advanced stages of chronic infection did not change in I/St, but increased 2-fold in B6 mice, and lung pathology was much more pronounced in the former mice. Taken together, these data provide genetic evidence that the capacity to maintain populations of regulatory

  15. Higher susceptibility of NOD/LtSz-scid Il2rg−/− NSG mice to xenotransplanted lung cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanaji, Nobuhiro; Tadokoro, Akira; Susaki, Kentaro; Yokokura, Saki; Ohmichi, Kiyomi; Haba, Reiji; Watanabe, Naoki; Bandoh, Shuji; Ishii, Tomoya; Dobashi, Hiroaki; Matsunaga, Takuya

    2014-01-01

    No lung cancer xenograft model using non-obese diabetic (NOD)-scid Il2rg −/− mice has been reported. The purpose of this study is to select a suitable mouse strain as a xenogenic host for testing tumorigenicity of lung cancer. We directly compared the susceptibility of four immunodeficient mouse strains, c-nu, C.B-17 scid, NOD-scid, and NOD/LtSz-scid Il2rg −/− (NSG) mice, for tumor formation from xenotransplanted lung cancer cell lines. Various numbers (10 1 –10 5 cells/head) of two lung cancer cell lines, A549 and EBC1, were subcutaneously inoculated and tumor sizes were measured every week up to 12 weeks. When 10 4 EBC1 cells were inoculated, no tumor formation was observed in BALB/c-nu or C.B-17 scid mice. Tumors developed in two of the five NOD-scid mice (40%) and in all the five NSG mice (100%). When 10 3 EBC1 cells were injected, no tumors developed in any strain other than NSG mice, while tumorigenesis was achieved in all the five NSG mice (100%, P=0.0079) within 9 weeks. NSG mice similarly showed higher susceptibility to xenotransplantation of A549 cells. Tumor formation was observed only in NSG mice after inoculation of 10 3 or fewer A549 cells (40% vs 0% in 15 NSG mice compared with others, respectively, P=0.0169). We confirmed that the engrafted tumors originated from inoculated human lung cancer cells by immunohistochemical staining with human cytokeratin and vimentin. NSG mice may be the most suitable strain for testing tumorigenicity of lung cancer, especially if only a few cells are available

  16. Studies on the Identification of Constituents in Ethanol Extract of Radix Glycyrrhizae and Their Anti-Primary Hepatoma Cell Susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to study the chemical constituents of Radix Glycyrrhizae and to apply the resulting natural products in the study of drug susceptibility of hepatoma cells so as to provide a scientific basis for quality standards and clinical application of medicinal Radix Glycyrrhizae. Chromatographic materials were used for isolation and purification; structural identification was performed based on physicochemical properties and spectral data. MTT colorimetry was used to detect the proliferation inhibition rate against primary hepatoma cells by natural products, and flow cytometry was used to detect the changes in cell cycle progression. Five compounds were isolated and identified, namely, liquiritigenin (1, liquiritin (2, isoliquiritigenin (3, betulinic acid (4, and oleanolic acid (5. In the study, 5-FU (5-fluorouracil is used as a positive control to the hepatoma cells. Primary hepatoma cells were highly susceptible to 5-FU and liquiritigenin, both of which markedly inhibited the proliferation of hepatoma cells; flow cytometry results showed an increase in G0/G1 phase cells, a decrease in S phase cells, and a relative increase in G2/M phase cells. Primary hepatoma cells are highly susceptible to liquiritigenin, a natural product; the testing of tumor cell susceptibility is of important significance to the improvement of therapeutic effect of cancer.

  17. Ultrastructural characteristics of nurse cell-larva complex of four species of Trichinella in several hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacchi L.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The nurse cell-larva complex of nematodes of the genus Trichinella plays an Important role in the survival of the larva in decaying muscles, frequently favouring the transmission of the parasite in extreme environmental conditions. The ultrastructure of the nurse cell-larva complex in muscles from different hosts infected with T. nativa (a walrus and a polar bear, T. spiralis (horses and humans, T. pseudospiralis (a laboratory mouse and T. papuae (a laboratory mouse were examined. Analysis with transmission electron microscope showed that the typical nurse cell structure was present in all examined samples, irrespective of the species of larva, of the presence of a collagen capsule, of the age of infection and of the host species, suggesting that there exists a molecular mechanism that in the first stage of larva invasion is similar for encapsulated and non-encapsulated species.

  18. Lymphotoxin organizes contributions to host defense and metabolic illness from innate lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Vaibhav; Fu, Yang-Xin

    2014-04-01

    The lymphotoxin (LT)-pathway is a unique constituent branch of the Tumor Necrosis Superfamily (TNFSF). Use of LT is a critical mechanism by which fetal innate lymphoid cells regulate lymphoid organogenesis. Within recent years, adult innate lymphoid cells have been discovered to utilize this same pathway to regulate IL-22 and IL-23 production for host defense. Notably, genetic studies have linked polymorphisms in the genes encoding LTα to several phenotypes contributing to metabolic syndrome. The role of the LT-pathway may lay the foundation for a bridge between host immune response, microbiota, and metabolic syndrome. The contribution of the LT-pathway to innate lymphoid cell function and metabolic syndrome will be visited in this review. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Easy labeling of proliferative phase and sporogonic phase of microsporidia Nosema bombycis in host cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen

    Full Text Available Microsporidia are eukaryotic, unicellular parasites that have been studied for more than 150 years. These organisms are extraordinary in their ability to invade a wide range of hosts including vertebrates and invertebrates, such as human and commercially important animals. A lack of appropriate labeling methods has limited the research of the cell cycle and protein locations in intracellular stages. In this report, an easy fluorescent labeling method has been developed to mark the proliferative and sporogonic phases of microsporidia Nosema bombycis in host cells. Based on the presence of chitin, Calcofluor White M2R was used to label the sporogonic phase, while β-tubulin antibody coupled with fluorescence secondary antibody were used to label the proliferative phase by immunofluorescence. This method is simple, efficient and can be used on both infected cells and tissue slices, providing a great potential application in microsporidia research.

  20. CISH promoter polymorphism effects on T cell cytokine receptor signaling and type 1 diabetes susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfarth, Julia; Ahlert, Heinz; Rosenbauer, Joachim; Baechle, Christina; Roden, Michael; Holl, Reinhard W; Mayatepek, Ertan; Meissner, Thomas; Jacobsen, Marc

    2018-02-06

    Impaired regulatory T cell immunity plays a central role in the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) signaling is essential for regulatory T cells (T REG ), and cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein (CIS) regulates IL-2R signaling as a feedback inhibitor. Previous studies identified association of CISH promoter region single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with susceptibility to infectious diseases. Here we analyzed allele frequencies of three CISH SNPs (i.e., rs809451, rs414171, rs2239751) in a study of T1D patients (n = 260, onset age  10 years). Minor allele frequencies were compared to a control cohort of the 1000 Genomes Project. Assigned haplotypes were determined for effects on T1D manifestation and severity. Finally, the CISH haplotype influence on cytokine signaling and function was explored in T cells from healthy donors. We detected similar minor allele frequencies between T1D patients and the control cohort. T1D onset age, residual serum C-peptide level, and insulin requirement were comparable between different haplotypes. Only minor differences between the haplotypes were found for in vitro cytokine (i.e., IL-2, IL-7)-induced CIS mRNA expression. STAT5 phosphorylation was induced by IL-2 or IL-7, but no differences were found between the haplotypes. T REG purified from healthy donors with the two most common haplotypes showed similar capacity to inhibit heterologous effector T cells. This study provides no evidence for an association of CISH promoter SNPs with susceptibility to T1D or severity of disease. In contrast to previous studies, no influence of different haplotypes on CIS mRNA expression or T cell-mediated functions was found.

  1. Preferential susceptibility of Th9 and Th2 CD4+ T cells to X4-tropic HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova-Fink, Nina; Chowdhury, Fatema Z; Sun, Xiaoming; Harrington, Sean; Rosenberg, Eric S; Yu, Xu G; Lichterfeld, Mathias

    2017-10-23

    The functional polarization of CD4 T cells determines their antimicrobial effector profile, but may also impact the susceptibility to infection with HIV-1. Here, we analyzed the susceptibility of CD4 T cells with different functional polarization to infection with X4 and R5-tropic HIV-1. CD4 T cells with a Th1, Th2, Th17, and Th9 polarization were subjected to in-vitro infection assays with X4, R5, or vesicular stomatitis virus-G protein-pseudotyped HIV-1. In addition, we sorted differentially polarized CD4 T-cell subsets from individuals treated with antiretroviral therapy and analyzed the tropism of viral env sequences. Th9-polarized CD4 T cells and, to a lesser extent, Th2-polarized CD4 T cells expressed higher surface levels of CXCR4, and are more permissive to X4-tropic infection in vitro. In contrast, Th1 and Th17 CD4 T cells exhibited stronger surface expression of CCR5, and were more susceptible to infection with R5-tropic viruses. Correspondingly, the distribution of X4-tropic viral sequences in antiretroviral therapy-treated HIV-1-infected patients was biased toward Th9/Th2 cells, whereas R5-tropic sequences were more frequently observed in Th17 cells. CD4 T-cell polarization is associated with a distinct susceptibility to X4 and R5-tropic HIV-1 infection.

  2. Beet yellow stunt virus in cells of Sonchus oleraceus L. and its relation to host mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esau, K

    1979-10-15

    In Sonchus oleraceus L. (Asteraceae) infected with the beet yellow stunt virus (BYSV) the virions are found in phloem cells, including the sieve elements. In parenchymatous phloem cells, the virus is present mainly in the cytoplasm. In some parenchymatous cells, containing massive accumulations of virus, the flexuous rodlike virus particles are found partly inserted into mitochondrial cristae. The mitochondrial envelope is absent where virus is present in the cristae. A similar relation between virus and host mitochondria apparently has not been recorded for any other plant virus.

  3. Global impact of Salmonella type III secretion effector SteA on host cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenal-Muñoz, Elena; Gutiérrez, Gabriel; Ramos-Morales, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyzed HeLa cells transcriptome in response to Salmonella SteA. • Significant differential expression was detected for 58 human genes. • They are involved in ECM organization and regulation of some signaling pathways. • Cell death, cell adhesion and cell migration were decreased in SteA-expressing cells. • These results contribute to understand the role of SteA during infections. - Abstract: Salmonella enterica is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes gastroenteritis, bacteremia and typhoid fever in several animal species including humans. Its virulence is greatly dependent on two type III secretion systems, encoded in pathogenicity islands 1 and 2. These systems translocate proteins called effectors into eukaryotic host cell. Effectors interfere with host signal transduction pathways to allow the internalization of pathogens and their survival and proliferation inside vacuoles. SteA is one of the few Salmonella effectors that are substrates of both type III secretion systems. Here, we used gene arrays and bioinformatics analysis to study the genetic response of human epithelial cells to SteA. We found that constitutive synthesis of SteA in HeLa cells leads to induction of genes related to extracellular matrix organization and regulation of cell proliferation and serine/threonine kinase signaling pathways. SteA also causes repression of genes related to immune processes and regulation of purine nucleotide synthesis and pathway-restricted SMAD protein phosphorylation. In addition, a cell biology approach revealed that epithelial cells expressing steA show altered cell morphology, and decreased cytotoxicity, cell–cell adhesion and migration

  4. Global impact of Salmonella type III secretion effector SteA on host cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenal-Muñoz, Elena; Gutiérrez, Gabriel; Ramos-Morales, Francisco

    2014-07-11

    Highlights: • We analyzed HeLa cells transcriptome in response to Salmonella SteA. • Significant differential expression was detected for 58 human genes. • They are involved in ECM organization and regulation of some signaling pathways. • Cell death, cell adhesion and cell migration were decreased in SteA-expressing cells. • These results contribute to understand the role of SteA during infections. - Abstract: Salmonella enterica is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes gastroenteritis, bacteremia and typhoid fever in several animal species including humans. Its virulence is greatly dependent on two type III secretion systems, encoded in pathogenicity islands 1 and 2. These systems translocate proteins called effectors into eukaryotic host cell. Effectors interfere with host signal transduction pathways to allow the internalization of pathogens and their survival and proliferation inside vacuoles. SteA is one of the few Salmonella effectors that are substrates of both type III secretion systems. Here, we used gene arrays and bioinformatics analysis to study the genetic response of human epithelial cells to SteA. We found that constitutive synthesis of SteA in HeLa cells leads to induction of genes related to extracellular matrix organization and regulation of cell proliferation and serine/threonine kinase signaling pathways. SteA also causes repression of genes related to immune processes and regulation of purine nucleotide synthesis and pathway-restricted SMAD protein phosphorylation. In addition, a cell biology approach revealed that epithelial cells expressing steA show altered cell morphology, and decreased cytotoxicity, cell–cell adhesion and migration.

  5. NKp46 identifies an NKT cell subset susceptible to leukemic transformation in mouse and human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jianhua; Mitsui, Takeki; Wei, Min; Mao, Hsiaoyin; Butchar, Jonathan P.; Shah, Mithun Vinod; Zhang, Jianying; Mishra, Anjali; Alvarez-Breckenridge, Christopher; Liu, Xingluo; Liu, Shujun; Yokohama, Akihiko; Trotta, Rossana; Marcucci, Guido; Benson, Don M.; Loughran, Thomas P.; Tridandapani, Susheela; Caligiuri, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    IL-15 may have a role in the development of T cell large granular lymphocyte (T-LGL) or NKT leukemias. However, the mechanisms of action and the identity of the cell subset that undergoes leukemic transformation remain elusive. Here we show that in both mice and humans, NKp46 expression marks a minute population of WT NKT cells with higher activity and potency to become leukemic. Virtually 100% of T-LGL leukemias in IL-15 transgenic mice expressed NKp46, as did a majority of human T-LGL leukemias. The minute NKp46+ NKT population, but not the NKp46– NKT population, was selectively expanded by overexpression of endogenous IL-15. Importantly, IL-15 transgenic NKp46– NKT cells did not become NKp46+ in vivo, suggesting that NKp46+ T-LGL leukemia cells were the malignant counterpart of the minute WT NKp46+ NKT population. Mechanistically, NKp46+ NKT cells possessed higher responsiveness to IL-15 in vitro and in vivo compared with that of their NKp46– NKT counterparts. Furthermore, interruption of IL-15 signaling using a neutralizing antibody could prevent LGL leukemia in IL-15 transgenic mice. Collectively, our data demonstrate that NKp46 identifies a functionally distinct NKT subset in mice and humans that appears to be directly susceptible to leukemic transformation when IL-15 is overexpressed. Thus, IL-15 signaling and NKp46 may be useful targets in the treatment of patients with T-LGL or NKT leukemia. PMID:21364281

  6. Irgm1-deficient mice exhibit Paneth cell abnormalities and increased susceptibility to acute intestinal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Gulati, Ajay S; Cantillana, Viviana; Henry, Stanley C; Schmidt, Elyse A; Daniell, Xiaoju; Grossniklaus, Emily; Schoenborn, Alexi A; Sartor, R Balfour; Taylor, Gregory A

    2013-10-15

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic, immune-mediated, inflammatory disorder of the intestine that has been linked to numerous susceptibility genes, including the immunity-related GTPase (IRG) M (IRGM). IRGs comprise a family of proteins known to confer resistance to intracellular infections through various mechanisms, including regulation of phagosome processing, cell motility, and autophagy. However, despite its association with CD, the role of IRGM and other IRGs in regulating intestinal inflammation is unclear. We investigated the involvement of Irgm1, an ortholog of IRGM, in the genesis of murine intestinal inflammation. After dextran sodium sulfate exposure, Irgm1-deficient [Irgm1 knockout (KO)] mice showed increased acute inflammation in the colon and ileum, with worsened clinical responses. Marked alterations of Paneth cell location and granule morphology were present in Irgm1 KO mice, even without dextran sodium sulfate exposure, and were associated with impaired mitophagy and autophagy in Irgm1 KO intestinal cells (including Paneth cells). This was manifested by frequent tubular and swollen mitochondria and increased LC3-positive autophagic structures. Interestingly, these LC3-positive structures often contained Paneth cell granules. These results suggest that Irgm1 modulates acute inflammatory responses in the mouse intestine, putatively through the regulation of gut autophagic processes, that may be pivotal for proper Paneth cell functioning.

  7. Demonstration of clonable alloreactive host T cells in a primate model for bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisner, Y.; Ben-Bassat, I.; Douer, D.; Kaploon, A.; Schwartz, E.; Ramot, B.

    1986-01-01

    The phenomenon of marrow rejection following supralethal radiochemotherapy was explained in the past mainly by non-T-cell mechanisms known to be resistant to high-dose irradiation. In the present study a low but significant number of radiochemoresistant-clonable T cells was found in the peripheral blood and spleen of Rhesus monkeys following the cytoreductive protocol used for treatment of leukemia patients prior to bone marrow transplantation. More than 95% of the clonable cells are concentrated in the spleen 5 days after transplant. The cells possess immune memory as demonstrated by the generation of alloreactive-specific cytotoxicity. The present findings suggest that host-versus-graft activity may be mediated by alloreactive T cells. It is hoped that elimination of such cells prior to bone marrow transplantation will increase the engraftment rate of HLA-nonidentical marrow in leukemia patients

  8. Immunoregulatory Effects Triggered by Lactic Acid Bacteria Exopolysaccharides: New Insights into Molecular Interactions with Host Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Laiño

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have demonstrated that lactic acid bacteria (LAB with immunomodulatory capabilities (immunobiotics exert their beneficial effects through several molecules, including cell wall, peptidoglycan, and exopolysaccharides (EPS, that are able to interact with specific host cell receptors. EPS from LAB show a wide heterogeneity in its composition, meaning that biological properties depend on the strain and. therefore, only a part of the mechanism of action has been elucidated for these molecules. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the health-promoting actions of EPS from LAB with special focus on their immunoregulatory actions. In addition, we describe our studies using porcine intestinal epithelial cells (PIE cells as a model to evaluate the molecular interactions of EPS from two immunobiotic LAB strains and the host cells. Our studies showed that EPS from immunobiotic LAB have anti-inflammatory capacities in PIE cells since they are able to reduce the production of inflammatory cytokines in cells challenged with the Toll-like receptor (TLR-4-agonist lipopolysaccharide. The effects of EPS were dependent on TLR2, TLR4, and negative regulators of TLR signaling. We also reported that the radioprotective 105 (RP105/MD1 complex, a member of the TLR family, is partially involved in the immunoregulatory effects of the EPS from LAB. Our work described, for the first time, that LAB and their EPS reduce inflammation in intestinal epithelial cells in a RP105/MD1-dependent manner. A continuing challenge for the future is to reveal more effector-receptor relationships in immunobiotic-host interactions that contribute to the beneficial effects of these bacteria on mucosal immune homeostasis. A detailed molecular understanding should lead to a more rational use of immunobiotics in general, and their EPS in particular, as efficient prevention and therapies for specific immune-related disorders in humans and animals.

  9. Generational distribution of a Candida glabrata population: Resilient old cells prevail, while younger cells dominate in the vulnerable host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouklas, Tejas; Alonso-Crisóstomo, Luz; Székely, Tamás; Diago-Navarro, Elizabeth; Orner, Erika P; Smith, Kalie; Munshi, Mansa A; Del Poeta, Maurizio; Balázsi, Gábor; Fries, Bettina C

    2017-05-01

    Similar to other yeasts, the human pathogen Candida glabrata ages when it undergoes asymmetric, finite cell divisions, which determines its replicative lifespan. We sought to investigate if and how aging changes resilience of C. glabrata populations in the host environment. Our data demonstrate that old C. glabrata are more resistant to hydrogen peroxide and neutrophil killing, whereas young cells adhere better to epithelial cell layers. Consequently, virulence of old compared to younger C. glabrata cells is enhanced in the Galleria mellonella infection model. Electron microscopy images of old C. glabrata cells indicate a marked increase in cell wall thickness. Comparison of transcriptomes of old and young C. glabrata cells reveals differential regulation of ergosterol and Hog pathway associated genes as well as adhesion proteins, and suggests that aging is accompanied by remodeling of the fungal cell wall. Biochemical analysis supports this conclusion as older cells exhibit a qualitatively different lipid composition, leading to the observed increased emergence of fluconazole resistance when grown in the presence of fluconazole selection pressure. Older C. glabrata cells accumulate during murine and human infection, which is statistically unlikely without very strong selection. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that neutrophils constitute the predominant selection pressure in vivo. When we altered experimentally the selection pressure by antibody-mediated removal of neutrophils, we observed a significantly younger pathogen population in mice. Mathematical modeling confirmed that differential selection of older cells is sufficient to cause the observed demographic shift in the fungal population. Hence our data support the concept that pathogenesis is affected by the generational age distribution of the infecting C. glabrata population in a host. We conclude that replicative aging constitutes an emerging trait, which is selected by the host and may even play an

  10. Nanomimics of host cell membranes block invasion and expose invasive malaria parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najer, Adrian; Wu, Dalin; Bieri, Andrej; Brand, Françoise; Palivan, Cornelia G; Beck, Hans-Peter; Meier, Wolfgang

    2014-12-23

    The fight against most infectious diseases, including malaria, is often hampered by the emergence of drug resistance and lack or limited efficacies of vaccines. Therefore, new drugs, vaccines, or other strategies to control these diseases are needed. Here, we present an innovative nanotechnological strategy in which the nanostructure itself represents the active substance with no necessity to release compounds to attain therapeutic effect and which might act in a drug- and vaccine-like dual function. Invasion of Plasmodium falciparum parasites into red blood cells was selected as a biological model for the initial validation of this approach. Stable nanomimics-polymersomes presenting receptors required for parasite attachment to host cells-were designed to efficiently interrupt the life cycle of the parasite by inhibiting invasion. A simple way to build nanomimics without postformation modifications was established. First, a block copolymer of the receptor with a hydrophobic polymer was synthesized and then mixed with a polymersome-forming block copolymer. The resulting nanomimics bound parasite-derived ligands involved in the initial attachment to host cells and they efficiently blocked reinvasion of malaria parasites after their egress from host cells in vitro. They exhibited efficacies of more than 2 orders of magnitude higher than the soluble form of the receptor, which can be explained by multivalent interactions of several receptors on one nanomimic with multiple ligands on the infective parasite. In the future, our strategy might offer interesting treatment options for severe malaria or a way to modulate the immune response.

  11. Internalization of components of the host cell plasma membrane during infection by Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho TMU

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Epimastigote and trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi attach to the macrophage surface and are internalized with the formation of a membrane bounded vacuole, known as the parasitophorous vacuole (PV. In order to determine if components of the host cell membrane are internalized during formation of the PV we labeled the macrophage surface with fluorescent probes for proteins, lipids and sialic acid residues and then allowed the labeled cells to interact with the parasites. The interaction process was interrupted after 1 hr at 37ºC and the distribution of the probes analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. During attachment of the parasites to the macrophage surface an intense labeling of the attachment regions was observed. Subsequently labeling of the membrane lining the parasitophorous vacuole containing epimastigote and trypomastigote forms was seen. Labeling was not uniform, with regions of intense and light or no labeling. The results obtained show that host cell membrane lipids, proteins and sialoglycoconjugates contribute to the formation of the membrane lining the PV containing epimastigote and trypomastigote T. cruzi forms. Lysosomes of the host cell may participate in the process of PV membrane formation.

  12. Legionella Effector AnkX Disrupts Host Cell Endocytic Recycling in a Phosphocholination-Dependent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samual C. Allgood

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The facultative intracellular bacterium Legionella pneumophila proliferates within amoebae and human alveolar macrophages, and it is the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, a life-threatening pneumonia. Within host cells, L. pneumophila establishes a replicative haven by delivering numerous effector proteins into the host cytosol, many of which target membrane trafficking by manipulating the function of Rab GTPases. The Legionella effector AnkX is a phosphocholine transferase that covalently modifies host Rab1 and Rab35. However, a detailed understanding of the biological consequence of Rab GTPase phosphocholination remains elusive. Here, we broaden the understanding of AnkX function by presenting three lines of evidence that it interferes with host endocytic recycling. First, using immunogold transmission electron microscopy, we determined that GFP-tagged AnkX ectopically produced in mammalian cells localizes at the plasma membrane and tubular membrane compartments, sites consistent with targeting the endocytic recycling pathway. Furthermore, the C-terminal region of AnkX was responsible for association with the plasma membrane, and we determined that this region was also able to bind the phosphoinositide lipids PI(3P and PI(4P in vitro. Second, we observed that mCherry-AnkX co-localized with Rab35, a regulator of recycling endocytosis and with major histocompatibility class I protein (MHC-I, a key immunoregulatory protein whose recycling from and back to the plasma membrane is Rab35-dependent. Third, we report that during infection of macrophages, AnkX is responsible for the disruption of endocytic recycling of transferrin, and AnkX's phosphocholination activity is critical for this function. These results support the hypothesis that AnkX targets endocytic recycling during host cell infection. Finally, we have demonstrated that the phosphocholination activity of AnkX is also critical for inhibiting fusion of the Legionella

  13. The Pla Protease of Yersinia pestis Degrades Fas Ligand to Manipulate Host Cell Death and Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Adam J.; Walker, Margaret E.; Gielda, Lindsay M.; Lathem, Wyndham W.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Pneumonic plague is a deadly respiratory disease caused by Yersinia pestis. The bacterial protease Pla contributes to disease progression and manipulation of host immunity, but the mechanisms by which this occurs are largely unknown. Here we show that Pla degrades the apoptotic signaling molecule Fas ligand (FasL) to prevent host cell apoptosis and inflammation. Wild-type Y. pestis, but not a Pla mutant (Δpla), degrades FasL, which results in decreased downstream caspase-3/7 activation and reduced apoptosis. Similarly, lungs of mice challenged with wild-type Y. pestis show reduced levels of FasL and activated caspase-3/7 compared to Δpla infection. Consistent with a role for FasL in regulating immune responses, Δpla infection results in aberrant pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. The loss of FasL or inhibition of caspase activity alters host inflammatory responses and enables enhanced Y. pestis outgrowth in the lungs. Thus, by degrading FasL, Y. pestis manipulates host cell death pathways to facilitate infection. PMID:24721571

  14. Suppressed Gastric Mucosal TGF-β1 Increases Susceptibility to H. pylori-Induced Gastric Inflammation and Ulceration: A Stupid Host Defense Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Yunjeong; Han, Sang Uk; Kim, Yoon Jae; Kim, Ju Hyeon; Kim, Shin Tae; Kim, Seong-Jin

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims Loss of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) exhibits a similar pathology to that seen in a subset of individuals infected with Helicobacter pylori, including propagated gastric inflammation, oxidative stress, and autoimmune features. We thus hypothesized that gastric mucosal TGF-β1 levels could be used to determine the outcome after H. pylori infection. Methods Northern blot for the TGF-β1 transcript, staining of TGF-β1 expression, luciferase reporter assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for TGF-β1 levels were performed at different times after H. pylori infection. Results The TGF-β1 level was markedly lower in patients with H. pylori-induced gastritis than in patients with a similar degree of gastritis induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. There was a significant negative correlation between the severity of inflammation and gastric mucosal TGF-β1 levels. SNU-16 cells showing intact TGF-β signaling exhibited a marked decrease in TGF-β1 expression, whereas SNU-638 cells defective in TGF-β signaling exhibited no such decrease after H. pylori infection. The decreased expressions of TGF-β1 in SNU-16 cells recovered to normal after 24 hr of H. pylori infection, but lasted very spatial times, suggesting that attenuated expression of TGF-β1 is a host defense mechanism to avoid attachment of H. pylori. Conclusions H. pylori infection was associated with depressed gastric mucosal TGF-β1 for up to 24 hr, but this apparent strategy for rescuing cells from H. pylori attachment exacerbated the gastric inflammation. PMID:20479912

  15. Suppressed Gastric Mucosal TGF-beta1 Increases Susceptibility to H. pylori-Induced Gastric Inflammation and Ulceration: A Stupid Host Defense Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Yunjeong; Han, Sang Uk; Kim, Yoon Jae; Kim, Ju Hyeon; Kim, Shin Tae; Kim, Seong-Jin; Hahm, Ki-Baik

    2010-03-01

    Loss of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) exhibits a similar pathology to that seen in a subset of individuals infected with Helicobacter pylori, including propagated gastric inflammation, oxidative stress, and autoimmune features. We thus hypothesized that gastric mucosal TGF-beta1 levels could be used to determine the outcome after H. pylori infection. Northern blot for the TGF-beta1 transcript, staining of TGF-beta1 expression, luciferase reporter assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for TGF-beta1 levels were performed at different times after H. pylori infection. The TGF-beta1 level was markedly lower in patients with H. pylori-induced gastritis than in patients with a similar degree of gastritis induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. There was a significant negative correlation between the severity of inflammation and gastric mucosal TGF-beta1 levels. SNU-16 cells showing intact TGF-beta signaling exhibited a marked decrease in TGF-beta1 expression, whereas SNU-638 cells defective in TGF-beta signaling exhibited no such decrease after H. pylori infection. The decreased expressions of TGF-beta1 in SNU-16 cells recovered to normal after 24 hr of H. pylori infection, but lasted very spatial times, suggesting that attenuated expression of TGF-beta1 is a host defense mechanism to avoid attachment of H. pylori. H. pylori infection was associated with depressed gastric mucosal TGF-beta1 for up to 24 hr, but this apparent strategy for rescuing cells from H. pylori attachment exacerbated the gastric inflammation.

  16. Ezh2 does not mediate retinal ganglion cell homeostasis or their susceptibility to injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Cheng

    Full Text Available Epigenetic predisposition is thought to critically contribute to adult-onset disorders, such as retinal neurodegeneration. The histone methyltransferase, enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (Ezh2, is transiently expressed in the perinatal retina, particularly enriched in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs. We previously showed that embryonic deletion of Ezh2 from retinal progenitors led to progressive photoreceptor degeneration throughout life, demonstrating a role for embryonic predisposition of Ezh2-mediated repressive mark in maintaining the survival and function of photoreceptors in the adult. Enrichment of Ezh2 in RGCs leads to the question if Ezh2 also mediates gene expression and function in postnatal RGCs, and if its deficiency changes RGC susceptibility to cell death under injury or disease in the adult. To test this, we generated mice carrying targeted deletion of Ezh2 from RGC progenitors driven by Math5-Cre (mKO. mKO mice showed no detectable defect in RGC development, survival, or cell homeostasis as determined by physiological analysis, live imaging, histology, and immunohistochemistry. Moreover, RGCs of Ezh2 deficient mice revealed similar susceptibility against glaucomatous and acute optic nerve trauma-induced neurodegeneration compared to littermate floxed or wild-type control mice. In agreement with the above findings, analysis of RNA sequencing of RGCs purified from Ezh2 deficient mice revealed few gene changes that were related to RGC development, survival and function. These results, together with our previous report, support a cell lineage-specific mechanism of Ezh2-mediated gene repression, especially those critically involved in cellular function and homeostasis.

  17. Susceptibility of glucokinase-MODY mutants to inactivation by oxidative stress in pancreatic β-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Kirsty S; Matschinsky, Franz M; Agius, Loranne; Arden, Catherine

    2011-12-01

    The posttranslational regulation of glucokinase (GK) differs in hepatocytes and pancreatic β-cells. We tested the hypothesis that GK mutants that cause maturity-onset diabetes of the young (GK-MODY) show compromised activity and posttranslational regulation in β-cells. Activity and protein expression of GK-MODY and persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy (PHHI) mutants were studied in β-cell (MIN6) and non-β-cell (H4IIE) models. Binding of GK to phosphofructo-2-kinase, fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (PFK2/FBPase2) was studied by bimolecular fluorescence complementation in cell-based models. Nine of 11 GK-MODY mutants that have minimal effect on enzyme kinetics in vitro showed decreased specific activity relative to wild type when expressed in β-cells. A subset of these were stable in non-β-cells but showed increased inactivation in conditions of oxidative stress and partial reversal of inactivation by dithiothreitol. Unlike the GK-MODY mutants, four of five GK-PHHI mutants had similar specific activity to wild type and Y214C had higher activity than wild type. The GK-binding protein PFK2/FBPase2 protected wild-type GK from oxidative inactivation and the decreased stability of GK-MODY mutants correlated with decreased interaction with PFK2/FBPase2. Several GK-MODY mutants show posttranslational defects in β-cells characterized by increased susceptibility to oxidative stress and/or protein instability. Regulation of GK activity through modulation of thiol status may be a physiological regulatory mechanism for the control of GK activity in β-cells.

  18. Observation of reversible, rapid changes in drug susceptibility of hypoxic tumor cells in a microfluidic device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germain, Todd; Ansari, Megan; Pappas, Dimitri, E-mail: d.pappas@ttu.edu

    2016-09-14

    Hypoxia is a major stimulus for increased drug resistance and for survival of tumor cells. Work from our group and others has shown that hypoxia increases resistance to anti-cancer compounds, radiation, and other damage-pathway cytotoxic agents. In this work we utilize a microfluidic culture system capable of rapid switching of local oxygen concentrations to determine changes in drug resistance in prostate cancer cells. We observed rapid adaptation to hypoxia, with drug resistance to 2 μM staurosporine established within 30 min of hypoxia. Annexin-V/Sytox Green apoptosis assays over 9 h showed 78.0% viability, compared to 84.5% viability in control cells (normoxic cells with no staurosporine). Normoxic cells exposed to the same staurosporine concentration had a viability of 48.6% after 9 h. Hypoxia adaptation was rapid and reversible, with Hypoxic cells treated with 20% oxygen for 30 min responding to staurosporine with 51.6% viability after drug treatment for 9 h. Induction of apoptosis through the receptor-mediated pathway, which bypasses anti-apoptosis mechanisms induced by hypoxia, resulted in 39.4 ± 7% cell viability. The rapid reversibility indicates co-treatment of oxygen with anti-cancer compounds may be a potential therapeutic target. - Highlights: • Microfluidic system switches rapidly between normoxia and hypoxia (5 min). • Observation of rapid adaptation of PC3 cells to hypoxia and normoxia (30 min). • Drug susceptibility in tumor cells restored after chip switched to normoxia for 30 min.

  19. The structural proteins of epidemic and historical strains of Zika virus differ in their ability to initiate viral infection in human host cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Sandra; Viranaicken, Wildriss; Turpin, Jonathan; El-Kalamouni, Chaker; Roche, Marjolaine; Krejbich-Trotot, Pascale; Desprès, Philippe; Gadea, Gilles

    2018-03-01

    Mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) recently emerged in South Pacific islands and Americas where large epidemics were documented. In the present study, we investigated the contribution of the structural proteins C, prM and E in the permissiveness of human host cells to epidemic strains of ZIKV. To this end, we evaluated the capacity of the epidemic strain BeH819015 to infect epithelial A549 and neuronal SH-SY5Y cells in comparison to the African historical MR766 strain. For that purpose, we generated a molecular clone of BeH819015 and a chimeric clone of MR766 which contains the BeH819015 structural protein region. We showed that ZIKV containing BeH819015 structural proteins was much less efficient in cell-attachment leading to a reduced susceptibility of A549 and SH-SY5Y cells to viral infection. Our data illustrate a previously underrated role for C, prM, and E in ZIKV epidemic strain ability to initiate viral infection in human host cells. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of lactoferrin protein on red blood cells and macrophages: mechanism of parasite–host interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Namrata Anand,1 Rupinder K Kanwar,2 Mohan Lal Dubey,1 R K Vahishta,3 Rakesh Sehgal,1,* Anita K Verma,4 Jagat R Kanwar2,*1Department of Medical Parasitology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India; 2Nanomedicine Laboratory of Immunology and Molecular Biomedical Research, School of Medicine, Molecular and Medical Research Strategic Research Centre, Faculty of Health, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC, Australia; 3Department of Histopathology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, 4Nanobiotech Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Kirorimal College, University of Delhi, Delhi, India*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Lactoferrin is a natural multifunctional protein known to have antitumor, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory activity. Apart from its antimicrobial effects, lactoferrin is known to boost the immune response by enhancing antioxidants. Lactoferrin exists in various forms depending on its iron saturation. The present study was done to observe the effect of lactoferrin, isolated from bovine and buffalo colostrum, on red blood cells (RBCs and macrophages (human monocytic cell line-derived macrophages THP1 cells.Methods: Lactoferrin obtained from both species and in different iron saturation forms were used in the present study, and treatment of host cells were given with different forms of lactoferrin at different concentrations. These treated host cells were used for various studies, including morphometric analysis, viability by MTT assay, survivin gene expression, production of reactive oxygen species, phagocytic properties, invasion assay, and Toll-like receptor-4, Toll-like receptor-9, and MDR1 expression, to investigate the interaction between lactoferrin and host cells and the possible mechanism of action with regard to parasitic infections.Results: The mechanism of interaction between host cells and lactoferrin have shown various aspects of gene

  1. The Influence of Virus Infection on the Extracellular pH of the Host Cell Detected on Cell Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hengjun; Maruyama, Hisataka; Masuda, Taisuke; Honda, Ayae; Arai, Fumihito

    2016-01-01

    Influenza virus infection can result in changes in the cellular ion levels at 2-3 h post-infection. More H(+) is produced by glycolysis, and the viral M2 proton channel also plays a role in the capture and release of H(+) during both viral entry and egress. Then the cells might regulate the intracellular pH by increasing the export of H(+) from the intracellular compartment. Increased H(+) export could lead indirectly to increased extracellular acidity. To detect changes in extracellular pH of both virus-infected and uninfected cells, pH sensors were synthesized using polystyrene beads (ϕ1 μm) containing Rhodamine B and Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). The fluorescence intensity of FITC can respond to both pH and temperature. So Rhodamine B was also introduced in the sensor for temperature compensation. Then the pH can be measured after temperature compensation. The sensor was adhered to cell membrane for extracellular pH measurement. The results showed that the multiplication of influenza virus in host cell decreased extracellular pH of the host cell by 0.5-0.6 in 4 h after the virus bound to the cell membrane, compared to that in uninfected cells. Immunostaining revealed the presence of viral PB1 protein in the nucleus of virus-bound cells that exhibited extracellular pH changes, but no PB1 protein are detected in virus-unbound cells where the extracellular pH remained constant.

  2. Neuroblastoma cell lines contain pluripotent tumor initiating cells that are susceptible to a targeted oncolytic virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonatan Y Mahller

    Full Text Available Although disease remission can frequently be achieved for patients with neuroblastoma, relapse is common. The cancer stem cell theory suggests that rare tumorigenic cells, resistant to conventional therapy, are responsible for relapse. If true for neuroblastoma, improved cure rates may only be achieved via identification and therapeutic targeting of the neuroblastoma tumor initiating cell. Based on cues from normal stem cells, evidence for tumor populating progenitor cells has been found in a variety of cancers.Four of eight human neuroblastoma cell lines formed tumorspheres in neural stem cell media, and all contained some cells that expressed neurogenic stem cell markers including CD133, ABCG2, and nestin. Three lines tested could be induced into multi-lineage differentiation. LA-N-5 spheres were further studied and showed a verapamil-sensitive side population, relative resistance to doxorubicin, and CD133+ cells showed increased sphere formation and tumorigenicity. Oncolytic viruses, engineered to be clinically safe by genetic mutation, are emerging as next generation anticancer therapeutics. Because oncolytic viruses circumvent typical drug-resistance mechanisms, they may represent an effective therapy for chemotherapy-resistant tumor initiating cells. A Nestin-targeted oncolytic herpes simplex virus efficiently replicated within and killed neuroblastoma tumor initiating cells preventing their ability to form tumors in athymic nude mice.These results suggest that human neuroblastoma contains tumor initiating cells that may be effectively targeted by an oncolytic virus.

  3. Rodent Plasmodium-infected red blood cells: imaging their fates and interactions within their hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claser, Carla; Malleret, Benoit; Peng, Kaitian; Bakocevic, Nadja; Gun, Sin Yee; Russell, Bruce; Ng, Lai Guan; Rénia, Laurent

    2014-02-01

    Malaria, a disease caused by the Plasmodium parasite, remains one of the most deadly infectious diseases known to mankind. The parasite has a complex life cycle, of which only the erythrocytic stage is responsible for the diverse pathologies induced during infection. To date, the disease mechanisms that underlie these pathologies are still poorly understood. In the case of infections caused by Plasmodium falciparum, the species responsible for most malaria related deaths, pathogenesis is thought to be due to the sequestration of infected red blood cells (IRBCs) in deep tissues. Other human and rodent malaria parasite species are also known to exhibit sequestration. Here, we review the different techniques that allow researchers to study how rodent malaria parasites modify their host cells, the distribution of IRBCs in vivo as well as the interactions between IRBCs and host tissues. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Host epithelial cell invasion by Campylobacter jejuni: trigger or zipper mechanism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadhg eÓ Cróinín

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni, a spiral-shaped Gram-negative pathogen, is a highly frequent cause of gastrointestinal foodborne illness in humans worldwide. Clinical outcome of C. jejuni infections ranges from mild to severe diarrheal disease, and some other complications including reactive arthritis and Guillain–Barré syndrome. This review article highlights various C. jejuni pathogenicity factors, host cell determinants and proposed signaling mechanisms involved in human host cell invasion and their potential role in the development of C. jejuni-mediated disease. A model is presented which outlines the various important interactions of C. jejuni with the intestinal epithelium, and we discuss the pro’s and con’s for the zipper over the trigger mechanism of invasion. Future work should clarify the contradictory role of some previously identified factors, and should identify and characterize novel virulence determinants, which are crucial to provide fresh insights into the diversity of strategies employed by this pathogen to cause disease.

  5. Recognizing the SINEs of Infection: Regulation of Retrotransposon Expression and Modulation of Host Cell Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Dunker

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Short interspersed elements (SINEs are a family of retrotransposons evolutionarily derived from cellular RNA polymerase III transcripts. Over evolutionary time, SINEs have expanded throughout the human genome and today comprise ~11% of total chromosomal DNA. While generally transcriptionally silent in healthy somatic cells, SINE expression increases during a variety of types of stresses, including DNA virus infection. The relevance of SINE expression to viral infection was largely unexplored, however, recent years have seen great progress towards defining the impact of SINE expression on viral replication and host gene expression. Here we review the origin and diversity of SINE elements and their transcriptional control, with an emphasis on how their expression impacts host cell biology during viral infection.

  6. Susceptibility of mouse minute virus to inactivation by heat in two cell culture media types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleh, Marc; Romanowski, Peter; Bhebe, Prince; Zhang, Li; Chinniah, Shivanthi; Lawrence, Bill; Bashiri, Houman; Gaduh, Asri; Rajurs, Viveka; Rasmussen, Brian; Chuck, Alice; Dehghani, Houman

    2009-01-01

    Viral contaminations of biopharmaceutical manufacturing cell culture facilities are a significant threat and one for which having a risk mitigation strategy is highly desirable. High temperature, short time (HTST) mammalian cell media treatment may potentially safeguard manufacturing facilities from such contaminations. HTST is thought to inactivate virions by denaturing proteins of the viral capsid, and there is evidence that HTST provides ample virucidal efficacy against nonenveloped or naked viruses such as mouse minute virus (MMV), a parvovirus. The aim of the studies presented herein was to further delineate the susceptibility of MMV, known to have contaminated mammalian cell manufacturing facilities, to heat by exposing virus-spiked cell culture media to a broad range of temperatures and for various times of exposure. The results of these studies show that HTST is capable of inactivating MMV by three orders of magnitude or more. Thus, we believe that HTST is a useful technology for the purposes of providing a barrier to adventitious contamination of mammalian cell culture processes in the biopharmaceutical industry. 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers

  7. Staphylococcus aureus ?-Toxin-Dependent Induction of Host Cell Death by Membrane-Derived Vesicles

    OpenAIRE

    Thay, Bernard; Wai, Sun Nyunt; Oscarsson, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus causes a wide spectrum of infections in humans, ranging from superficial cutaneous infections, infections in the circum-oral region, to life-threatening bacteremia. It was recently demonstrated that Gram-positive organisms such as S. aureus liberate membrane-derived vesicles (MVs), which analogously to outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) of Gram-negative bacteria can play a role in delivering virulence factors to host cells. In the present study we have shown that cholesterol...

  8. The HSV-1 mechanisms of cell-to-cell spread and fusion are critically dependent on host PTP1B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian C Carmichael

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available All herpesviruses have mechanisms for passing through cell junctions, which exclude neutralizing antibodies and offer a clear path to neighboring, uninfected cells. In the case of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1, direct cell-to-cell transmission takes place between epithelial cells and sensory neurons, where latency is established. The spreading mechanism is poorly understood, but mutations in four different HSV-1 genes can dysregulate it, causing neighboring cells to fuse to produce syncytia. Because the host proteins involved are largely unknown (other than the virus entry receptor, we were intrigued by an earlier discovery that cells infected with wild-type HSV-1 will form syncytia when treated with salubrinal. A biotinylated derivative of this drug was used to pull down cellular complexes, which were analyzed by mass spectrometry. One candidate was a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP1B, and although it ultimately proved not to be the target of salubrinal, it was found to be critical for the mechanism of cell-to-cell spread. In particular, a highly specific inhibitor of PTP1B (CAS 765317-72-4 blocked salubrinal-induced fusion, and by itself resulted in a dramatic reduction in the ability of HSV-1 to spread in the presence of neutralizing antibodies. The importance of this phosphatase was confirmed in the absence of drugs by using PTP1B-/- cells. Importantly, replication assays showed that virus titers were unaffected when PTP1B was inhibited or absent. Only cell-to-cell spread was altered. We also examined the effects of salubrinal and the PTP1B inhibitor on the four Syn mutants of HSV-1, and strikingly different responses were found. That is, both drugs individually enhanced fusion for some mutants and reduced fusion for others. PTP1B is the first host factor identified to be specifically required for cell-to-cell spread, and it may be a therapeutic target for preventing HSV-1 reactivation disease.

  9. The HSV-1 mechanisms of cell-to-cell spread and fusion are critically dependent on host PTP1B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Jillian C; Yokota, Hiroki; Craven, Rebecca C; Schmitt, Anthony; Wills, John W

    2018-05-01

    All herpesviruses have mechanisms for passing through cell junctions, which exclude neutralizing antibodies and offer a clear path to neighboring, uninfected cells. In the case of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), direct cell-to-cell transmission takes place between epithelial cells and sensory neurons, where latency is established. The spreading mechanism is poorly understood, but mutations in four different HSV-1 genes can dysregulate it, causing neighboring cells to fuse to produce syncytia. Because the host proteins involved are largely unknown (other than the virus entry receptor), we were intrigued by an earlier discovery that cells infected with wild-type HSV-1 will form syncytia when treated with salubrinal. A biotinylated derivative of this drug was used to pull down cellular complexes, which were analyzed by mass spectrometry. One candidate was a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP1B), and although it ultimately proved not to be the target of salubrinal, it was found to be critical for the mechanism of cell-to-cell spread. In particular, a highly specific inhibitor of PTP1B (CAS 765317-72-4) blocked salubrinal-induced fusion, and by itself resulted in a dramatic reduction in the ability of HSV-1 to spread in the presence of neutralizing antibodies. The importance of this phosphatase was confirmed in the absence of drugs by using PTP1B-/- cells. Importantly, replication assays showed that virus titers were unaffected when PTP1B was inhibited or absent. Only cell-to-cell spread was altered. We also examined the effects of salubrinal and the PTP1B inhibitor on the four Syn mutants of HSV-1, and strikingly different responses were found. That is, both drugs individually enhanced fusion for some mutants and reduced fusion for others. PTP1B is the first host factor identified to be specifically required for cell-to-cell spread, and it may be a therapeutic target for preventing HSV-1 reactivation disease.

  10. Human borna disease virus infection impacts host proteome and histone lysine acetylation in human oligodendroglia cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xia [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Department of Neurology, The Fifth People' s Hospital of Shanghai, School of Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Zhao, Libo [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Department of Neurology, The Third People' s Hospital of Chongqing, 400014 (China); Yang, Yongtao [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Institute of Neuroscience, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Bode, Liv [Bornavirus Research Group affiliated to the Free University of Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Huang, Hua [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Institute of Neuroscience, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Liu, Chengyu [Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Institute of Neuroscience, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Huang, Rongzhong [Department of Rehabilitative Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400010 (China); Zhang, Liang [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Institute of Neuroscience, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); and others

    2014-09-15

    Background: Borna disease virus (BDV) replicates in the nucleus and establishes persistent infections in mammalian hosts. A human BDV strain was used to address the first time, how BDV infection impacts the proteome and histone lysine acetylation (Kac) of human oligodendroglial (OL) cells, thus allowing a better understanding of infection-driven pathophysiology in vitro. Methods: Proteome and histone lysine acetylation were profiled through stable isotope labeling for cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomics. The quantifiable proteome was annotated using bioinformatics. Histone acetylation changes were validated by biochemistry assays. Results: Post BDV infection, 4383 quantifiable differential proteins were identified and functionally annotated to metabolism pathways, immune response, DNA replication, DNA repair, and transcriptional regulation. Sixteen of the thirty identified Kac sites in core histones presented altered acetylation levels post infection. Conclusions: BDV infection using a human strain impacted the whole proteome and histone lysine acetylation in OL cells. - Highlights: • A human strain of BDV (BDV Hu-H1) was used to infect human oligodendroglial cells (OL cells). • This study is the first to reveal the host proteomic and histone Kac profiles in BDV-infected OL cells. • BDV infection affected the expression of many transcription factors and several HATs and HDACs.

  11. Staphylococcus aureus α-toxin-dependent induction of host cell death by membrane-derived vesicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Thay

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus causes a wide spectrum of infections in humans, ranging from superficial cutaneous infections, infections in the circum-oral region, to life-threatening bacteremia. It was recently demonstrated that Gram-positive organisms such as S. aureus liberate membrane-derived vesicles (MVs, which analogously to outer membrane vesicles (OMVs of Gram-negative bacteria can play a role in delivering virulence factors to host cells. In the present study we have shown that cholesterol-dependent fusion of S. aureus MVs with the plasma membrane represents a route for delivery of a key virulence factor, α-toxin (α-hemolysin; Hla to human cells. Most S. aureus strains produce this 33-kDa pore-forming protein, which can lyse a wide range of human cells, and induce apoptosis in T-lymphocytes. Our results revealed a tight association of biologically active α-toxin with membrane-derived vesicles isolated from S. aureus strain 8325-4. Concomitantly, α-toxin contributed to HeLa cell cytotoxicity of MVs, and was the main vesicle-associated protein responsible for erythrocyte lysis. In contrast, MVs obtained from an isogenic hla mutant were significantly attenuated with regards to both causing lysis of erythrocytes and death of HeLa cells. This is to our knowledge the first recognition of an S. aureus MV-associated factor contributing to host cell cytotoxicity.

  12. Human borna disease virus infection impacts host proteome and histone lysine acetylation in human oligodendroglia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xia; Zhao, Libo; Yang, Yongtao; Bode, Liv; Huang, Hua; Liu, Chengyu; Huang, Rongzhong; Zhang, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Background: Borna disease virus (BDV) replicates in the nucleus and establishes persistent infections in mammalian hosts. A human BDV strain was used to address the first time, how BDV infection impacts the proteome and histone lysine acetylation (Kac) of human oligodendroglial (OL) cells, thus allowing a better understanding of infection-driven pathophysiology in vitro. Methods: Proteome and histone lysine acetylation were profiled through stable isotope labeling for cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomics. The quantifiable proteome was annotated using bioinformatics. Histone acetylation changes were validated by biochemistry assays. Results: Post BDV infection, 4383 quantifiable differential proteins were identified and functionally annotated to metabolism pathways, immune response, DNA replication, DNA repair, and transcriptional regulation. Sixteen of the thirty identified Kac sites in core histones presented altered acetylation levels post infection. Conclusions: BDV infection using a human strain impacted the whole proteome and histone lysine acetylation in OL cells. - Highlights: • A human strain of BDV (BDV Hu-H1) was used to infect human oligodendroglial cells (OL cells). • This study is the first to reveal the host proteomic and histone Kac profiles in BDV-infected OL cells. • BDV infection affected the expression of many transcription factors and several HATs and HDACs

  13. The Role of B Cell Targeting in Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Rhoades

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD is a leading cause of late morbidity and mortality following allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Current therapies, including corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors, are only effective in roughly 50% of cases; therefore, new treatment strategies are under investigation. What was previously felt to be a T cell disease has more recently been shown to involve activation of both T and B cells, as well as a number of cytokines. With a better understanding of its pathophysiology have come more expansive preclinical and clinical trials, many focused on B cell signaling. This report briefly reviews our current understanding of cGVHD pathophysiology and reviews clinical and preclinical trials with B cell-targeted agents.

  14. γδ T cells in homeostasis and host defence of epithelial barrier tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Morten M; Witherden, Deborah A; Havran, Wendy L

    2017-12-01

    Epithelial surfaces line the body and provide a crucial interface between the body and the external environment. Tissue-resident epithelial γδ T cells represent a major T cell population in the epithelial tissues and are ideally positioned to carry out barrier surveillance and aid in tissue homeostasis and repair. In this Review, we focus on the intraepithelial γδ T cell compartment of the two largest epithelial tissues in the body - namely, the epidermis and the intestine - and provide a comprehensive overview of the crucial contributions of intraepithelial γδ T cells to tissue integrity and repair, host homeostasis and protection in the context of the symbiotic relationship with the microbiome and during pathogen clearance. Finally, we describe epithelium-specific butyrophilin-like molecules and briefly review their emerging role in selectively shaping and regulating epidermal and intestinal γδ T cell repertoires.

  15. Geochemical association of Pu and Am in selected host-phases of contaminated soils from the UK and their susceptibility to chemical and microbiological leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimber, Richard L.; Corkhill, Claire L.; Amos, Sean; Livens, Francis R.; Lloyd, Jonathan R.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the biogeochemical behaviour and potential mobility of actinides in soils and groundwater is vital for developing remediation and management strategies for radionuclide-contaminated land. Pu is known to have a high Kd in soils and sediments, however remobilization of low concentrations of Pu remains a concern. Here, some of the physicochemical properties of Pu and the co-contaminant, Am, are investigated in contaminated soils from Aldermaston, Berkshire, UK, and the Esk Estuary, Cumbria, UK, to determine their potential mobility. Sequential extraction techniques were used to examine the host-phases of the actinides in these soils and their susceptibility to microbiological leaching was investigated using acidophilic sulphur-oxidising bacteria. Sequential extractions found the majority of 239,240 Pu associated with the highly refractory residual phase in both the Aldermaston (63.8–85.5 %) and Esk Estuary (91.9–94.5%) soils. The 241 Am was distributed across multiple phases including the reducible oxide (26.1–40.0%), organic (45.6–63.6%) and residual fractions (1.9–11.1%). Plutonium proved largely resistant to leaching from microbially-produced sulphuric acid, with a maximum 0.18% leached into solution, although up to 12.5% of the 241 Am was leached under the same conditions. If Pu was present as distinct oxide particles in the soil, then 241 Am, a decay product of Pu, would be expected to be physically retained in the particle. The differences in geochemical association and bioleachability of the two actinides suggest that this is not the case and hence, that significant Pu is not present as distinct particles. These data suggest the majority of Pu in the contaminated soils studied is highly recalcitrant to geochemical changes and is likely to remain immobile over significant time periods, even when challenged with aggressive “bioleaching” bacteria. - Highlights: • Pu in the contaminated soils is associated with the recalcitrant

  16. Manipulation of the Host Cell Membrane during Plasmodium Liver Stage Egress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul-Christian Burda

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A crucial step in the life cycle of Plasmodium parasites is the transition from the liver stage to the blood stage. Hepatocyte-derived merozoites reach the blood vessels of the liver inside host cell-derived vesicles called merosomes. The molecular basis of merosome formation is only partially understood. Here we show that Plasmodium berghei liver stage merozoites, upon rupture of the parasitophorous vacuole membrane, destabilize the host cell membrane (HCM and induce separation of the host cell actin cytoskeleton from the HCM. At the same time, the phospholipid and protein composition of the HCM appears to be substantially altered. This includes the loss of a phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2 reporter and the PIP2-dependent actin-plasma membrane linker ezrin from the HCM. Furthermore, transmembrane domain-containing proteins and palmitoylated and myristoylated proteins, as well as glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins, lose their HCM localization. Collectively, these findings provide an explanation of HCM destabilization during Plasmodium liver stage egress and thereby contribute to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that lead to merosome formation.

  17. Phylogeographic origin of Helicobacter pylori determines host-adaptive responses upon coculture with gastric epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheh, Alexander; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Merrell, D Scott; Correa, Pelayo; Wilson, Keith T; Fox, James G

    2013-07-01

    While Helicobacter pylori infects over 50% of the world's population, the mechanisms involved in the development of gastric disease are not fully understood. Bacterial, host, and environmental factors play a role in disease outcome. To investigate the role of bacterial factors in H. pylori pathogenesis, global gene expression of six H. pylori isolates was analyzed during coculture with gastric epithelial cells. Clustering analysis of six Colombian clinical isolates from a region with low gastric cancer risk and a region with high gastric cancer risk segregated strains based on their phylogeographic origin. One hundred forty-six genes had increased expression in European strains, while 350 genes had increased expression in African strains. Differential expression was observed in genes associated with motility, pathogenicity, and other adaptations to the host environment. European strains had greater expression of the virulence factors cagA, vacA, and babB and were associated with increased gastric histologic lesions in patients. In AGS cells, European strains promoted significantly higher interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression than did African strains. African strains significantly induced apoptosis, whereas only one European strain significantly induced apoptosis. Our data suggest that gene expression profiles of clinical isolates can discriminate strains by phylogeographic origin and that these profiles are associated with changes in expression of the proinflammatory and protumorigenic cytokine IL-8 and levels of apoptosis in host epithelial cells. These findings support the hypothesis that bacterial factors determined by the phylogeographic origin of H. pylori strains may promote increased gastric disease.

  18. Complexities in human herpesvirus-6A and -6B binding to host cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, Simon Metz; Hoellsberg, Per

    2006-01-01

    Human herpesvirus-6A and -6B uses the cellular receptor CD46 for fusion and infection of the host cell. The viral glycoprotein complex gH-gL from HHV-6A binds to the short consensus repeat 2 and 3 in CD46. Although all the major isoforms of CD46 bind the virus, certain isoforms may have higher affinity than others for the virus. Within recent years, elucidation of the viral complex has identified additional HHV-6A and -6B specific glycoproteins. Thus, gH-gL associates with a gQ1-gQ2 dimer to form a heterotetrameric complex. In addition, a novel complex consisting of gH-gL-gO has been described that does not bind CD46. Accumulating evidence suggests that an additional HHV-6A and -6B receptor exists. The previous simple picture of HHV-6A/B-host cell contact therefore includes more layers of complexities on both the viral and the host cell side of the interaction

  19. Effect of endocytosis inhibitors on Coxiella burnetii interaction with host cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tujulin, E.; Macellaro, A.; Norlander, L.; Liliehoeoek, B.

    1998-01-01

    The obligate intracellular rickettsia Coxiella burnetii has previously been reported to reach the intra-vacuolar compartment of host cells by phagocytosis. With the aim to further examine the mechanisms of C. burnetii internalisation, macrophage monolayers were treated with well characterised inhibitors of endocytosis. The treatment with two general inhibitors, colchicine and methylamine, resulted in a pronounced dose-dependent decrease of radiolabelled phase II rickettsiae retained from the intracellular fraction. A third inhibitor used, amiloride, has been reported to reduce effectively clathrin-independent pinocytic pathways. The internalisation of C. burnetii was shown to be substantially reduced also by amiloride and the effect was dependent on its concentration. The passive role of C. burnetii in the internalisation was verified by using heat-killed C. burnetii. Host cells treated with either of the three inhibitors (amiloride, colchicine and methylamine) showed a similar reduction of intracellular C. burnetii after exposure to killed as weal as live organisms. The data presented indicate that different endocytic mechanisms, pinocytosis as well as phagocytosis, may mediate the uptake of C. burnetii by a host cell. Key words: Coxiella burnetii; internalisation; endocytosis (authors)

  20. Genome-wide host responses against infectious laryngotracheitis virus vaccine infection in chicken embryo lung cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jeongyoon

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV; gallid herpesvirus 1 infection causes high mortality and huge economic losses in the poultry industry. To protect chickens against ILTV infection, chicken-embryo origin (CEO and tissue-culture origin (TCO vaccines have been used. However, the transmission of vaccine ILTV from vaccinated- to unvaccinated chickens can cause severe respiratory disease. Previously, host cell responses against virulent ILTV infections were determined by microarray analysis. In this study, a microarray analysis was performed to understand host-vaccine ILTV interactions at the host gene transcription level. Results The 44 K chicken oligo microarrays were used, and the results were compared to those found in virulent ILTV infection. Total RNAs extracted from vaccine ILTV infected chicken embryo lung cells at 1, 2, 3 and 4 days post infection (dpi, compared to 0 dpi, were subjected to microarray assay using the two color hybridization method. Data analysis using JMP Genomics 5.0 and the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA program showed that 213 differentially expressed genes could be grouped into a number of functional categories including tissue development, cellular growth and proliferation, cellular movement, and inflammatory responses. Moreover, 10 possible gene networks were created by the IPA program to show intermolecular connections. Interestingly, of 213 differentially expressed genes, BMP2, C8orf79, F10, and NPY were expressed distinctly in vaccine ILTV infection when compared to virulent ILTV infection. Conclusions Comprehensive knowledge of gene expression and biological functionalities of host factors during vaccine ILTV infection can provide insight into host cellular defense mechanisms compared to those of virulent ILTV.

  1. A Trichomonas vaginalis Rhomboid Protease and Its Substrate Modulate Parasite Attachment and Cytolysis of Host Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riestra, Angelica M.; Gandhi, Shiv; Sweredoski, Michael J.; Moradian, Annie; Hess, Sonja; Urban, Sinisa; Johnson, Patricia J.

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is an extracellular eukaryotic parasite that causes the most common, non-viral sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Although disease burden is high, molecular mechanisms underlying T. vaginalis pathogenesis are poorly understood. Here, we identify a family of putative T. vaginalis rhomboid proteases and demonstrate catalytic activity for two, TvROM1 and TvROM3, using a heterologous cell cleavage assay. The two T. vaginalis intramembrane serine proteases display different subcellular localization and substrate specificities. TvROM1 is a cell surface membrane protein and cleaves atypical model rhomboid protease substrates, whereas TvROM3 appears to localize to the Golgi apparatus and recognizes a typical model substrate. To identify TvROM substrates, we interrogated the T. vaginalis surface proteome using both quantitative proteomic and bioinformatic approaches. Of the nine candidates identified, TVAG_166850 and TVAG_280090 were shown to be cleaved by TvROM1. Comparison of amino acid residues surrounding the predicted cleavage sites of TvROM1 substrates revealed a preference for small amino acids in the predicted transmembrane domain. Over-expression of TvROM1 increased attachment to and cytolysis of host ectocervical cells. Similarly, mutations that block the cleavage of a TvROM1 substrate lead to its accumulation on the cell surface and increased parasite adherence to host cells. Together, these data indicate a role for TvROM1 and its substrate(s) in modulating attachment to and lysis of host cells, which are key processes in T. vaginalis pathogenesis. PMID:26684303

  2. An in silico pipeline to filter the Toxoplasma gondii proteome for proteins that could traffic to the host cell nucleus and influence host cell epigenetic regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syn, Genevieve; Blackwell, Jenefer M; Jamieson, Sarra E; Francis, Richard W

    2018-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii uses epigenetic mechanisms to regulate both endogenous and host cell gene expression. To identify genes with putative epigenetic functions, we developed an in silico pipeline to interrogate the T. gondii proteome of 8313 proteins. Step 1 employs PredictNLS and NucPred to identify genes predicted to target eukaryotic nuclei. Step 2 uses GOLink to identify proteins of epigenetic function based on Gene Ontology terms. This resulted in 611 putative nuclear localised proteins with predicted epigenetic functions. Step 3 filtered for secretory proteins using SignalP, SecretomeP, and experimental data. This identified 57 of the 611 putative epigenetic proteins as likely to be secreted. The pipeline is freely available online, uses open access tools and software with user-friendly Perl scripts to automate and manage the results, and is readily adaptable to undertake any such in silico search for genes contributing to particular functions.

  3. Expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase linked to chemoradiation susceptibility of human colon cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ji-Won; Yang, Se Young; Kim, Dae Yong; Oh, Jae Hwan; Cho, Jae Youl; Yoo, Byong Chul; Kim, Seung Cheol; Kim, Won Ki; Hong, Jun Pyu; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Yeo, Hyun Yang; Lee, Jae Yong; Kim, M Sun; Kim, Jong Heon

    2014-01-01

    Resistance to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in patients with colorectal cancer prevents effective treatment and leads to unnecessary and burdensome chemotherapy. Therefore, prediction of 5-FU resistance is imperative. To identify the proteins linked to 5-FU resistance, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteomics was performed using the human colon cancer cell line SNU-C4R with induced 5-FU resistance. Proteins showing altered expression in SNU-C4R were identified by matrix-associated laser desorption/ionization–time-of-flight analysis, and their roles in susceptibility to 5-FU or radiation were evaluated in various cell lines by transfection of specific siRNA or creation of overexpression constructs. Changes in cellular signaling and expression of mitochondrial apoptotic factors were investigated by Western Blot analysis. A mitochondrial membrane potential probe (JC-1 dye) and a flow cytometry system were employed to determine the mitochondrial membrane potential. Finally, protein levels were determined by Western Blot analysis in tissues from 122 patients with rectal cancer to clarify whether each identified protein is a useful predictor of a chemoradiation response. We identified mitochondrial phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (mPEPCK) as a candidate predictor of 5-FU resistance. PEPCK was downregulated in SNU-C4R compared with its parent cell line SNU-C4. Overexpression of mPEPCK did not significantly alter the susceptibility to either 5-FU or radiation. Suppression of mPEPCK led to a decrease in both the cellular level of phosphoenolpyruvate and the susceptibility to 5-FU and radiation. Furthermore, the cellular levels of phosphoenolpyruvate (an end product of PEPCK and a substrate of pyruvate kinase), phosphorylated AKT, and phosphorylated 4EBP1 were decreased significantly secondary to the mPEPCK suppression in SNU-C4. However, mPEPCK siRNA transfection induced changes in neither the mitochondrial membrane potential nor the expression levels of

  4. Sialoglycoconjugates in Trypanosoma cruzi-host cell interaction: possible biological model - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alane Beatriz Vermelho

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available A number of glycoconjugates, including glycolipids and glycoproteins, participate in the process of host-cell invasion by Trypanosoma cruzi and one of the most important carbohydrates involved on this interaction is sialic acid. It is known that parasite trans-sialidase participates with sialic acid in a coordinated fashion in the initial stages of invasion. Given the importance of these sialogycoconjugates, this review sets out various possible biological models for the interaction between the parasite and mammalian cells that possess a sialylated receptor/ligand system.

  5. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: What Is the Mechanism in Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Dunavin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available After more than a decade of preclinical and clinical development, therapeutic infusion of mesenchymal stromal cells is now a leading investigational strategy for the treatment of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD. While their clinical use continues to expand, it is still unknown which of their immunomodulatory properties contributes most to their therapeutic activity. Herein we describe the proposed mechanisms, focusing on the inhibitory activity of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs at immunologic checkpoints. A deeper understanding of the mechanism of action will allow us to design more effective treatment strategies.

  6. Impacts of CA9 gene polymorphisms on urothelial cell carcinoma susceptibility and clinicopathologic characteristics in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shian-Shiang Wang

    Full Text Available Carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9 is reportedly overexpressed in several types of carcinomas and is generally considered a marker of malignancy. The current study explored the effect of CA9 gene polymorphisms on the susceptibility of developing urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC and the clinicopathological status.A total of 442 participants, including 221 healthy people and 221 patients with UCC, were recruited for this study. Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of the CA9 gene were assessed by a real-time PCR with the TaqMan assay. After adjusting for other co-variants, the individuals carrying at least one A allele at CA9 rs1048638 had a 2.303-fold risk of developing UCC than did wild-type (CC carriers. Furthermore, UCC patients who carried at least one A allele at rs1048638 had a higher invasive stage risk (p< 0.05 than did patients carrying the wild-type allele. Moreover, among the UCC patients with smoker, people with at least one A allele of CA9 polymorphisms (rs1048638 had a 4.75-fold (95% CI = 1.204-18.746 increased risk of invasive cancer.The rs1048638 polymorphic genotypes of CA9 might contribute to the prediction of susceptibility to and pathological development of UCC. This is the first study to provide insight into risk factors associated with CA9 variants in carcinogenesis of UCC in Taiwan.

  7. Comprehensive Analysis of the Activation and Proliferation Kinetics and Effector Functions of Human Lymphocytes, and Antigen Presentation Capacity of Antigen-Presenting Cells in Xenogeneic Graft-Versus-Host Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Yasufumi; Sato, Kazuya; Hayakawa, Hiroko; Takayama, Norihito; Nakano, Hirofumi; Ito, Ryoji; Mashima, Kiyomi; Oh, Iekuni; Minakata, Daisuke; Yamasaki, Ryoko; Morita, Kaoru; Ashizawa, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Chihiro; Hatano, Kaoru; Fujiwara, Shin-Ichiro; Ohmine, Ken; Muroi, Kazuo; Kanda, Yoshinobu

    2018-04-17

    Xenogeneic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) models in highly immunodeficient mice are currently being used worldwide to investigate human immune responses against foreign antigens in vivo. However, the individual roles of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells, and donor/host hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the induction and development of GVHD have not been fully investigated. In the present study, we comprehensively investigated the immune responses of human T cells and the antigen presentation capacity of donor/host hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic APCs in xenogeneic GVHD models using nonobese diabetic/Shi-scid-IL2rg null mice. CD4 + T cells and, to a lesser extent, CD8 + T cells individually mediated potentially lethal GVHD. In addition to inflammatory cytokine production, CD4 + T cells also supported the activation and proliferation of CD8 + T cells. Using bone marrow chimeras, we demonstrated that host hematopoietic, but not nonhematopoietic, APCs play a critical role in the development of CD4 + T cell-mediated GVHD. During early GVHD, we detected 2 distinct populations in memory CD4 + T cells. One population was highly activated and proliferated in major histocompatibility complex antigen (MHC) +/+ mice but not in MHC -/- mice, indicating alloreactive T cells. The other population showed a less activated and slowly proliferative status regardless of host MHC expression, and was associated with higher susceptibility to apoptosis, indicating nonalloreactive T cells in homeostasis-driven proliferation. These observations are clinically relevant to donor T cell response after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Our findings provide a better understanding of the immunobiology of humanized mice and support the development of novel options for the prevention and treatment for GVHD. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Goat uterine epithelial cells are susceptible to infection with Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus (CAEV in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Al Ahmad Mohamad Z

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to determine, using immunofluorescence and in situ hybridization, whether CAEV is capable of infecting goat uterine epithelial cells in vivo. Five CAEV seropositive goats confirmed as infected using double nested polymerase chain reaction (dnPCR on leucocytes and on vaginal secretions were used as CAEV positive goats. Five CAEV-free goats were used as controls. Samples from the uterine horn were prepared for dnPCR, in situ hybridization, and immunofluorescence. The results from dnPCR confirmed the presence of CAEV proviral DNA in the uterine horn samples of infected goats whereas no CAEV proviral DNA was detected in samples taken from the uninfected control goats. The in situ hybridization probe was complementary to part of the CAEV gag gene and confirmed the presence of CAEV nucleic acids in uterine samples. The positively staining cells were seen concentrated in the mucosa of the lamina propria of uterine sections. Finally, laser confocal analysis of double p28/cytokeratin immunolabelled transverse sections of CAEV infected goat uterus, demonstrated that the virus was localized in glandular and epithelial cells. This study clearly demonstrates that goat uterine epithelial cells are susceptible to CAEV infection in vivo. This finding could help to further our understanding of the epidemiology of CAEV, and in particular the possibility of vertical transmission.

  9. Low-risk susceptibility alleles in 40 human breast cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riaz, Muhammad; Elstrodt, Fons; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Dehghan, Abbas; Klijn, Jan GM; Schutte, Mieke

    2009-01-01

    Low-risk breast cancer susceptibility alleles or SNPs confer only modest breast cancer risks ranging from just over 1.0 to1.3 fold. Yet, they are common among most populations and therefore are involved in the development of essentially all breast cancers. The mechanism by which the low-risk SNPs confer breast cancer risks is currently unclear. The breast cancer association consortium BCAC has hypothesized that the low-risk SNPs modulate expression levels of nearby located genes. Genotypes of five low-risk SNPs were determined for 40 human breast cancer cell lines, by direct sequencing of PCR-amplified genomic templates. We have analyzed expression of the four genes that are located nearby the low-risk SNPs, by using real-time RT-PCR and Human Exon microarrays. The SNP genotypes and additional phenotypic data on the breast cancer cell lines are presented. We did not detect any effect of the SNP genotypes on expression levels of the nearby-located genes MAP3K1, FGFR2, TNRC9 and LSP1. The SNP genotypes provide a base line for functional studies in a well-characterized cohort of 40 human breast cancer cell lines. Our expression analyses suggest that a putative disease mechanism through gene expression modulation is not operative in breast cancer cell lines

  10. Noxa/Mcl-1 Balance Regulates Susceptibility of Cells to Camptothecin-Induced Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yide Mei

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Although camptothecin (CPT has been reported to induce apoptosis in various cancer cells, the molecular details of this regulation remain largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that 131-113-only protein Noxa is upregulated during CPT-induced apoptosis, which is independent of p53. In addition, we show that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is responsible for Noxa's induction. Luciferase assay, cAMP response element binding protein (CREB knockdown experiments further demonstrate that CREB is involved in the transcriptional upregulation of Noxa. Moreover, blocking Noxa expression using specific small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA significantly reduces the apoptosis in response to CPT, indicating that Noxa is an essential mediator for CPT-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, antiapoptotic Mcl-1 was also upregulated through PI3K/Akt signaling pathway upon CPT treatment. Using immunoprecipitation assay, Noxa was found to interact with Mcl-1 in the presence or absence of CPT. Knockdown of Mcl-1 expression by short hairpin ribonucleic acid (shRNA was shown to potentiate CPT-induced apoptosis. Consistently, ectopic overexpression of Mcl-1 rescued cells from apoptosis induced by CPT. Cells coexpressing Noxa, Mcl-1 at different ratio correlates well with the extent of apoptosis, suggesting that the balance between Noxa, Mcl-1 may determine the susceptibility of HeLa cells to CPT-induced apoptosis.

  11. Noxa/Mcl-1 Balance Regulates Susceptibility of Cells to Camptothecin-Induced Apoptosis1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yide; Xie, Chongwei; Xie, Wei; Tian, Xu; Li, Mei; Wu, Mian

    2007-01-01

    Although camptothecin (CPT) has been reported to induce apoptosis in various cancer cells, the molecular details of this regulation remain largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that BH3-only protein Noxa is upregulated during CPT-induced apoptosis, which is independent of p53. In addition, we show that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway is responsible for Noxa's induction. Luciferase assay and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) knockdown experiments further demonstrate that CREB is involved in the transcriptional upregulation of Noxa. Moreover, blocking Noxa expression using specific small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) significantly reduces the apoptosis in response to CPT, indicating that Noxa is an essential mediator for CPT-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, antiapoptotic Mcl-1 was also upregulated through PI3K/Akt signaling pathway upon CPT treatment. Using immunoprecipitation assay, Noxa was found to interact with Mcl-1 in the presence or absence of CPT. Knockdown of Mcl-1 expression by short hairpin ribonucleic acid (shRNA) was shown to potentiate CPT-induced apoptosis. Consistently, ectopic overexpression of Mcl-1 rescued cells from apoptosis induced by CPT. Cells coexpressing Noxa and Mcl-1 at different ratio correlates well with the extent of apoptosis, suggesting that the balance between Noxa and Mcl-1 may determine the susceptibility of HeLa cells to CPT-induced apoptosis. PMID:17971907

  12. Impact of host cell variation on the neutralization of HIV-1 in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonis, Victoria R; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Bunnik, Evelien M; Brown, Bruce K; Scarlatti, Gabriella

    2009-09-01

    In this review we present current advances in our understanding of HIV-1 neutralization assays that employ primary cell types, as compared with those that utilize cell lines and the newer, more standardized pseudovirus assays. A commentary on the challenges of standardizing in-vitro neutralization assays using primary cells is included. The data from reporter cell line neutralization assays may agree with results observed in primary cells; however, exceptions have recently been reported. Multiple variables exist in primary cell assays using peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-seronegative donors; in-vitro neutralization titers can vary significantly based on the donor cells used for assay targets and for virus propagation. Thus, more research is required to achieve validated primary cell neutralization assays. HIV-vaccine-induced antibody performance in the current neutralization assays may function as a 'gatekeeper' for HIV-1 subunit vaccine advancement. Development of standardized platforms for reproducible measurement of in-vitro neutralization is therefore a high priority. Given the considerable variation in results obtained from some widely applied HIV neutralization platforms, parallel evaluation of new antibodies using different host cells for assay targets, as well as virus propagation, is recommended until immune correlates of protection are identified.

  13. Non-small cell lung cancer: current status of chemoradiation for locally advanced disease and an update on susceptibility and prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byhardt, Roger W.

    1996-01-01

    Locally advanced, inoperable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) afflicts 40,000 patients yearly. The traditional treatment has been radiation therapy (RT) alone with 5 year survival rates averaging around 5%. Recent reports of randomized clinical trials using combined radiochemotherapy suggest significant improvement in survival compared to RT alone. These trials are difficult to evaluate because of differences in dose, timing and sequencing of both the chemotherapy (CT) and the RT. Dr. Byhardt will give an overview of the significant chemoradiation trials, especially with respect to the factors associated with reduction of local failure and distant metastasis. Dr. Tishler will review the biologic rationale of these regimens and make some prognostications about the potential role of new chemotherapy agents, new developments in RT dose-time-fractionation, and new RT technology in future radiochemotherapy trials. While progress continues to be made using the more traditional cancer treatment modalities, investigations in NSCLC epidemiology and prevention are providing new insights regarding susceptibility, etiology, failure risk stratification, and potential avenues of therapeutic intervention. Dr. Spitz will discuss NSCLC as a paradigm of an environmentally induced disease in which host susceptibility may be determined by genetically determined modulation of environmental exposures. A mutagen sensitivity assay can determine individuals at high risk for developing NSCLC if exposed to carcinogens such as those in cigarette smoke. This susceptibility may have prognostic implications that could influence choice of therapy. Highly susceptible individuals can also be selected for special counseling, smoking cessation, with consideration given to chemoprevention. Dr. Gritz will review major work done in this area

  14. Selective alterations of the host cell architecture upon infection with parvovirus minute virus of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nueesch, Juerg P.F.; Lachmann, Sylvie; Rommelaere, Jean

    2005-01-01

    During a productive infection, the prototype strain of parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVMp) induces dramatic morphological alterations to the fibroblast host cell A9, resulting in cell lysis and progeny virus release. In order to understand the mechanisms underlying these changes, we characterized the fate of various cytoskeletal filaments and investigated the nuclear/cytoplasmic compartmentalization of infected cells. While most pronounced effects could be seen on micro- and intermediate filaments, manifest in dramatic rearrangements and degradation of filamentous (F-)actin and vimentin structures, only little impact could be seen on microtubules or the nuclear envelope during the entire monitored time of infection. To further analyze the disruption of the cytoskeletal structures, we investigated the viral impact on selective regulatory pathways. Thereby, we found a correlation between microtubule stability and MVM-induced phosphorylation of α/β tubulin. In contrast, disassembly of actin filaments late in infection could be traced back to the disregulation of two F-actin associated proteins gelsolin and Wiscott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein (WASP). Thereby, an increase in the amount of gelsolin, an F-actin severing protein was observed during infection, accounting for the disruption of stress fibers upon infection. Concomitantly, the actin polymerization activity also diminished due to a loss of WASP, the activator protein of the actin polymerization machinery the Arp2/3 complex. No effects could be seen in amount and distribution of other F-actin regulatory factors such as cortactin, cofilin, and profilin. In summary, the selective attack of MVM towards distinct host cell cytoskeletal structures argues for a regulatory feature during infection, rather than a collapse of the host cell as a mere side effect of virus production

  15. Cell wall glycoproteins at interaction sites between parasitic giant dodder (Cuscuta reflexa) and its host Pelargonium zonale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striberny, Bernd; Krause, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    The process of host plant penetration by parasitic dodder (genus Cuscuta) is accompanied by molecular and structural changes at the host/parasite interface. Recently, changes in pectin methyl esterification levels in the host cell walls abutting parasitic cells in established infection sites were reported. In addition to that, we show here that the composition of cell wall glycoproteins in Cuscuta-infected Pelargonium zonale undergoes substantial changes. While several arabinogalactan protein epitopes exhibit decreased abundances in the vicinity of the Cuscuta reflexa haustorium, extensins tend to increase in the infected areas.

  16. How the growth rate of host cells affects cancer risk in a deterministic way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draghi, Clément; Viger, Louise; Denis, Fabrice; Letellier, Christophe

    2017-09-01

    It is well known that cancers are significantly more often encountered in some tissues than in other ones. In this paper, by using a deterministic model describing the interactions between host, effector immune and tumor cells at the tissue level, we show that this can be explained by the dependency of tumor growth on parameter values characterizing the type as well as the state of the tissue considered due to the "way of life" (environmental factors, food consumption, drinking or smoking habits, etc.). Our approach is purely deterministic and, consequently, the strong correlation (r = 0.99) between the number of detectable growing tumors and the growth rate of cells from the nesting tissue can be explained without evoking random mutation arising during DNA replications in nonmalignant cells or "bad luck". Strategies to limit the mortality induced by cancer could therefore be well based on improving the way of life, that is, by better preserving the tissue where mutant cells randomly arise.

  17. High susceptibility of activated lymphocytes to oxidative stress-induced cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna R. Degasperi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study provides evidence that activated spleen lymphocytes from Walker 256 tumor bearing rats are more susceptible than controls to tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH-induced necrotic cell death in vitro. The iron chelator and antioxidant deferoxamine, the intracellular Ca2+ chelator BAPTA, the L-type Ca2+ channel antagonist nifedipine or the mitochondrial permeability transition inhibitor cyclosporin A, but not the calcineurin inhibitor FK-506, render control and activated lymphocytes equally resistant to the toxic effects of t-BOOH. Incubation of activated lymphocytes in the presence of t-BOOH resulted in a cyclosporin A-sensitive decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. These results indicate that the higher cytosolic Ca2+ level in activated lymphocytes increases their susceptibility to oxidative stress-induced cell death in a mechanism involving the participation of mitochondrial permeability transition.O presente estudo demonstra que linfócitos ativados de baço de ratos portadores do tumor de Walker 256 são mais susceptíveis à morte celular necrótica induzida por tert-butil hidroperóxido (t-BOOH in vitro quando comparados aos controles. O quelante de ferro e antioxidante deferoxamina, o quelante intracelular de Ca2+ BAPTA, o antagonista de canal de Ca2+ nifedipina ou o inibidor da transição de permeabilidade mitocondrial ciclosporina-A, mas não o inibidor de calcineurina FK-506, inibiram de maneira similar a morte celular induzida por t-BOOH em linfócitos ativados e controles. Os linfócitos ativados apresentaram redução do potencial de membrana mitocondrial induzida por t-BOOH num mecanismo sensível a ciclosporina-A. Nossos resultados indicam que o aumento da concentração de Ca2+ citosólico em linfócitos ativados aumenta a susceptibilidade dos mesmos à morte celular induzida por estresse oxidativo, num mecanismo envolvendo a participação do poro de transição de permeabilidade mitocondrial.

  18. Pleomorphic adenoma cells vary in their susceptibility to SV40 transformation depending on the initial karyotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmierczak, B; Thode, B; Bartnitzke, S; Bullerdiek, J; Schloot, W

    1992-07-01

    Chromosomal aberrations involving 8q12 or 12q13-15 characterize two cytogenetic subgroups of salivary gland pleomorphic adenomas. As the tumors of the two groups differ in their clinical and histologic characteristics, we decided to determine their susceptibility to SV40 transformation. We transfected cell cultures from 13 adenomas with aberrations involving 8q12 and from seven adenomas with involvement of 12q13-15 using an SV40 plasmid coding for the early region of the viral genome. Whereas all cultures with aberrations of 12q13-15 showed transformed foci, only 4 of the 13 cultures with 8q12 abnormalities showed foci of transformed cells. We also observed a much higher immortalization rate in the first group (3/7 vs. 1/13). All successfully transformed tumor cell cultures showed a relatively stable karyotype in the pre-crisis stage and a high mitotic index, were T-antigen positive, and had an extended life span in vitro.

  19. Early host cell targets of Yersinia pestis during primary pneumonic plague.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger D Pechous

    Full Text Available Inhalation of Yersinia pestis causes primary pneumonic plague, a highly lethal syndrome with mortality rates approaching 100%. Pneumonic plague progression is biphasic, with an initial pre-inflammatory phase facilitating bacterial growth in the absence of host inflammation, followed by a pro-inflammatory phase marked by extensive neutrophil influx, an inflammatory cytokine storm, and severe tissue destruction. Using a FRET-based probe to quantitate injection of effector proteins by the Y. pestis type III secretion system, we show that these bacteria target alveolar macrophages early during infection of mice, followed by a switch in host cell preference to neutrophils. We also demonstrate that neutrophil influx is unable to limit bacterial growth in the lung and is ultimately responsible for the severe inflammation during the lethal pro-inflammatory phase.

  20. Towards identifying host cell-type specific response patterns to bacterial endosymbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavrilovic, Srdjan

    The establishment of Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation (SNF) is a complex process. It requires highly sophisticated signal exchanges between host plant and bacteria in order to fine-tune the molecular mechanisms necessary for optimal performance of the symbiosis, which ultimately determines the evoluti......The establishment of Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation (SNF) is a complex process. It requires highly sophisticated signal exchanges between host plant and bacteria in order to fine-tune the molecular mechanisms necessary for optimal performance of the symbiosis, which ultimately determines......, and whole plant transformants were regenerated. These will form a basis for isolating transcriptionally active mRNA fractions associated with ribosomes and 21 nt long small RNAs from targeted cell populations....

  1. On the lack of host-cell reactivation of UV-irradiated phage T5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, T.; Harm, W.

    1976-01-01

    Previously reported experiments have shown that host-cell reactivation (HCR) of UV-irradiated phage T1 in excision-repair proficient Escherichia coli cells is inhibited by superinfection with phage T5. Theoretical considerations have led to predictions concerning the dependence of repair inhibition on the multiplicity of superinfecting T5 phage and on the UV fluence to which they were exposed. These predictions have been supported by experimental results described in this paper. The fluence dependence permitted calculation of the relative UV sensitivity of the gene function responsible for repair inhibition; it was found to be about 2.3% that of the plaque-forming ability of phage T5. The T5-inhibitable step in excision repair occurs early in the infective cycle of T1. Furthermore, experiments involving the presence of 400 μg/ml chloramphenicol showed that HCR inhibition of T1 is caused by a protein produced after the FST segment of T5 (i.e. the first 8% of the T5 genome) has entered the host cell. A previously described minor T1 recovery process, occuring in both excision-repair-proficient and -deficient host-cells, is inhibited by T5 infection due to a different substance, which is most likely associated with the 'second-step-transfer' region of T5 DNA (involving the remainder of the genome). Superinfection with T4v 1 phage resulted in HCR inhibition of T1, resembling that observed after T5 superinfection. The discussion of these results suggests that inhibition of the bacterial excision repair system by T5 or T4 infection occurs at the level of UV-endonucleolytic incision, and that lack of HCR both in T-even phages and in T5 can be explained in the same manner

  2. A subset of herpes simplex virus replication genes induces DNA amplification within the host cell genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heilbronn, R.; zur Hausen, H. (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (West Germany))

    1989-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) induces DNA amplification of target genes within the host cell chromosome. To characterize the HSV genes that mediate the amplification effect, combinations of cloned DNA fragments covering the entire HSV genome were transiently transfected into simian virus 40 (SV40)-transformed hamster cells. This led to amplification of the integrated SV40 DNA sequences to a degree comparable to that observed after transfection of intact virion DNA. Transfection of combinations of subclones and of human cytomegalovirus immediate-early promoter-driven expression constructs for individual open reading frames led to the identification of sic HSV genes which together were necessary and sufficient for the induction of DNA amplification: UL30 (DNA polymerase), UL29 (major DNA-binding protein), UL5, UL8, UL42, and UL52. All of these genes encode proteins necessary for HSV DNA replication. However, an additional gene coding for an HSV origin-binding protein (UL9) was required for origin-dependent HSV DNA replication but was dispensable for SV40 DNA amplification. The results show that a subset of HSV replication genes is sufficient for the induction of DNA amplification. This opens the possibility that HSV expresses functions sufficient for DNA amplification but separate from those responsible for lytic viral growth. HSV infection may thereby induce DNA amplification within the host cell genome without killing the host by lytic viral growth. This may lead to persistence of a cell with a new genetic phenotype, which would have implications for the pathogenicity of the virus in vivo.

  3. Dendritic cell chimerism in oral mucosa of transplanted patients affected by graft-versus-host disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Claudio A; Rabanales, Ramón; Rojas-Alcayaga, Gonzalo; Larrondo, Milton; Escobar, Alejandro F; López, Mercedes N; Salazar-Onfray, Flavio; Alfaro, Jorge I; González, Fermín E

    2016-02-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is one of the main complications after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Clinical features of GVHD include either an acute (aGVHD) or a chronic (cGVHD) condition that affects locations such as the oral mucosa. While the involvement of the host's dendritic cells (DCs) has been demonstrated in aGVHD, the origin (donor/host) and mechanisms underlying oral cGVHD have not been completely elucidated. In this study, we intend to determine the origin of DCs present in mucosal tissue biopsies from the oral cavity of transplanted patients affected by cGVHD. We purified DCs, from oral biopsies of three patients with cGVHD, through immunobeads and subsequently performed DNA extraction. The origin of the obtained DCs was determined by PCR amplification of 13 informative short tandem repeat (STR) alleles. We also characterised the DCs phenotype and the inflammatory infiltrate from biopsies of two patients by immunohistochemistry. Clinical and histological features of the biopsies were concordant with oral cGVHD. We identified CD11c-, CD207- and CD1a-positive cells in the epithelium and beneath the basal layer. Purification of DCs from the mucosa of patients affected by post-transplantation cGVHD was >95%. PCR-STR data analysis of DCs DNA showed that 100% of analysed cells were of donor origin in all of the evaluated patients. Our results demonstrate that resident DCs isolated from the oral tissue of allotransplanted patients affected by cGVHD are originated from the donor. Further research will clarify the role of DCs in the development and/or severity of oral cGVHD. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Immunohistochemical localization of host and donor-derived cells in the regenerating thymus of radiation bone marrow chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceredig, R.; Schreyer, M.

    1984-01-01

    The anatomical distribution of CBA (Thy-1.2) host and AKR (Thy-1.1) donor-derived cells in the regenerating thymus of AKR → CBA radiation bone marrow chimeras was investigated. Cryostat sections of chimeric thymuses were incubated with biotin-conjugated monoclonal anti-Thy-1 antibodies specific for host and donor-derived cells and the distribution of the corresponding Thy-1 antigen revealed by the immunoperoxidase staining technique. The thymus was initially repopulated by Thy-1.2 + host-derived cells, but by 28 days following bone marrow reconstitution the few remaining host cells were found mostly in the thymus medulla. However, occasional Thy-1.2 + cells were still present in extramedullary, primarily cortical, sites. Donor-derived (Thy-1.1 + ) cells were first seen in the 11-day chimeric thymus as single cells frequently closely associated with blood vessels in medullary areas. By 17 days, the cortex contained many Thy-1.1 + cells, although occasional single positive cells were still present in the medulla. Changes in the anatomical distribution of host and donor-derived cells in the regenerating chimeric thymus appeared to correlate with changes in their Thy-1 fluorescence profile as determined by flow microfluorometry. (Auth.)

  5. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Mosquito C6/36 Cells Reveals Host Proteins Involved in Zika Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Qi-Lin; Deng, Cheng-Lin; Chen, Xi; Wang, Jun; Wang, Shao-Bo; Wang, Wei; Deng, Fei; Zhang, Bo; Xiao, Gengfu; Zhang, Lei-Ke

    2017-06-15

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging arbovirus belonging to the genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae During replication processes, flavivirus manipulates host cell systems to facilitate its replication, while the host cells activate antiviral responses. Identification of host proteins involved in the flavivirus replication process may lead to the discovery of antiviral targets. The mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are epidemiologically important vectors for ZIKV, and effective restrictions of ZIKV replication in mosquitoes will be vital in controlling the spread of virus. In this study, an iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis of ZIKV-infected Aedes albopictus C6/36 cells was performed to investigate host proteins involved in the ZIKV infection process. A total of 3,544 host proteins were quantified, with 200 being differentially regulated, among which CHCHD2 can be upregulated by ZIKV infection in both mosquito C6/36 and human HeLa cells. Our further study indicated that CHCHD2 can promote ZIKV replication and inhibit beta interferon (IFN-β) production in HeLa cells, suggesting that ZIKV infection may upregulate CHCHD2 to inhibit IFN-I production and thus promote virus replication. Bioinformatics analysis of regulated host proteins highlighted several ZIKV infection-regulated biological processes. Further study indicated that the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) plays roles in the ZIKV entry process and that an FDA-approved inhibitor of the 20S proteasome, bortezomib, can inhibit ZIKV infection in vivo Our study illustrated how host cells respond to ZIKV infection and also provided a candidate drug for the control of ZIKV infection in mosquitoes and treatment of ZIKV infection in patients. IMPORTANCE ZIKV infection poses great threats to human health, and there is no FDA-approved drug available for the treatment of ZIKV infection. During replication, ZIKV manipulates host cell systems to facilitate its replication, while host cells activate

  6. Human embryonic stem cell (hES derived dendritic cells are functionally normal and are susceptible to HIV-1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandi Sriram

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human embryonic stem (hES cells hold considerable promise for cell replacement and gene therapies. Their remarkable properties of pluripotency, self-renewal, and tractability for genetic modification potentially allows for the production of sizeable quantities of therapeutic cells of the hematopoietic lineage. Dendritic cells (DC arise from CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs and are important in many innate and adaptive immune functions. With respect to HIV-1 infection, DCs play an important role in the efficient capture and transfer of the virus to susceptible cells. With an aim of generating DCs from a renewable source for HIV-1 studies, here we evaluated the capacity of hES cell derived CD34+ cells to give rise to DCs which can support HIV-1 infection. Results Undifferentiated hES cells were cultured on S17 mouse bone marrow stromal cell layers to derive CD34+ HPCs which were subsequently grown in specific cytokine differentiation media to promote the development of DCs. The hES derived DCs (hES-DC were subjected to phenotypic and functional analyses and compared with DCs derived from fetal liver CD34+ HPC (FL-DC. The mature hES-DCs displayed typical DC morphology consisting of veiled stellate cells. The hES-DCs also displayed characteristic phenotypic surface markers CD1a, HLA-DR, B7.1, B7.2, and DC-SIGN. The hES-DCs were found to be capable of antigen uptake and stimulating naïve allogeneic CD4+ T cells in a mixed leukocyte reaction assay. Furthermore, the hES-DCs supported productive HIV-1 viral infection akin to standard DCs. Conclusion Phenotypically normal and functionally competent DCs that support HIV-1 infection can be derived from hES cells. hES-DCs can now be exploited in applied immunology and HIV-1 infection studies. Using gene therapy approaches, it is now possible to generate HIV-1 resistant DCs from anti-HIV gene transduced hES-CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells.

  7. The cytotoxic type 3 secretion system 1 of Vibrio rewires host gene expression to subvert cell death and activate cell survival pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nisco, Nicole J; Kanchwala, Mohammed; Li, Peng; Fernandez, Jessie; Xing, Chao; Orth, Kim

    2017-05-16

    Bacterial effectors potently manipulate host signaling pathways. The marine bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus ( V. para ) delivers effectors into host cells through two type 3 secretion systems (T3SSs). T3SS1 is vital for V. para survival in the environment, whereas T3SS2 causes acute gastroenteritis in human hosts. Although the natural host is undefined, T3SS1 effectors attack highly conserved cellular processes and pathways to orchestrate nonapoptotic cell death. To understand how the concerted action of T3SS1 effectors globally affects host cell signaling, we compared gene expression changes over time in primary fibroblasts infected with V. para that have a functional T3SS1 (T3SS1 + ) to those in cells infected with V. para lacking T3SS1 (T3SS1 - ). Overall, the host transcriptional response to both T3SS1 + and T3SS1 - V. para was rapid, robust, and temporally dynamic. T3SS1 rewired host gene expression by specifically altering the expression of 398 genes. Although T3SS1 effectors targeted host cells at the posttranslational level to cause cytotoxicity, V. para T3SS1 also precipitated a host transcriptional response that initially activated cell survival and repressed cell death networks. The increased expression of several key prosurvival transcripts mediated by T3SS1 depended on a host signaling pathway that is silenced posttranslationally later in infection. Together, our analysis reveals a complex interplay between the roles of T3SS1 as both a transcriptional and posttranslational manipulator of host cell signaling. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. Modulation of Host Osseointegration during Bone Regeneration by Controlling Exogenous Stem Cells Differentiation Using a Material Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaohua; Wang, Liping; Xia, Zengmin; Chen, Li; Jiang, Xi; Rowe, David; Wei, Mei

    2014-02-01

    Stem cell-based tissue engineering for large bone defect healing has attracted enormous attention in regenerative medicine. However, sufficient osseointegration of the grafts combined with exogenous stem cells still remains a major challenge. Here we developed a material approach to modulate the integration of the grafts to the host tissue when exogenous bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were used as donor cells. Distinctive osseointegration of bone grafts was observed as we varied the content of hydroxyapatite (HA) in the tissue scaffolds implanted in a mouse femur model. More than 80% of new bone was formed in the first two weeks of implantation in high HA content scaffold but lack of host integration while only less than 5% of the new bone was formed during this time period in the no HA group but with much stronger host integration. Cell origin analysis leveraging GFP reporter indicates new bone in HA containing groups was mainly derived from donor BMSCs. In comparison, both host and donor cells were found on new bone surface in the no HA groups which led to seamless bridging between host tissue and the scaffold. Most importantly, host integration during bone formation is closely dictated to the content of HA present in the scaffolds. Taken together, we demonstrate a material approach to modulate the osseointegration of bone grafts in the context of exogenous stem cell-based bone healing strategy which might lead to fully functional bone tissue regeneration.

  9. Tracing Conidial Fate and Measuring Host Cell Antifungal Activity Using a Reporter of Microbial Viability in the Lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Jhingran

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence can be harnessed to monitor microbial fate and to investigate functional outcomes of individual microbial cell-host cell encounters at portals of entry in native tissue environments. We illustrate this concept by introducing fluorescent Aspergillus reporter (FLARE conidia that simultaneously report phagocytic uptake and fungal viability during cellular interactions with the murine respiratory innate immune system. Our studies using FLARE conidia reveal stepwise and cell-type-specific requirements for CARD9 and Syk, transducers of C-type lectin receptor and integrin signals, in neutrophil recruitment, conidial uptake, and conidial killing in the lung. By achieving single-event resolution in defined leukocyte populations, the FLARE method enables host cell profiling on the basis of pathogen uptake and killing and may be extended to other pathogens in diverse model host organisms to query molecular, cellular, and pharmacologic mechanisms that shape host-microbe interactions.

  10. Strategy to prime the host and cells to augment therapeutic efficacy of progenitor cells for patients with myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeehoon Kang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cell therapy in myocardial infarction (MI is an innovative strategy that is regarded as a rescue therapy to repair the damaged myocardium and to promote neovascularization for the ischemic border zone. Among several stem cell sources for this purpose, autologous progenitors from bone marrow or peripheral blood would be the most feasible and safest cell-source. Despite the theoretical benefit of cell therapy, this method is not widely adopted in the actual clinical practice due to its low therapeutic efficacy. Various methods have been used to augment the efficacy of cell therapy in MI, such as using different source of progenitors, genetic manipulation of cells, or priming of the cells or hosts (patients with agents. Among these methods, the strategy to augment the therapeutic efficacy of the autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells by priming agents may be the most feasible and the safest method that can be applied directly to the clinic. In this review, we will discuss the current status and future directions of priming peripheral blood mononuclear cells or patients, as for cell therapy of MI.

  11. Generation of Functional Thymic Epithelium from Human Embryonic Stem Cells that Supports Host T Cell Development

    OpenAIRE

    Parent, Audrey V.; Russ, Holger A.; Khan, Imran S.; LaFlam, Taylor N.; Metzger, Todd C.; Anderson, Mark S.; Hebrok, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Inducing immune tolerance to prevent rejection is a key step toward successful engraftment of stem-cell-derived tissue in a clinical setting. Using human pluripotent stem cells to generate thymic epithelial cells (TECs) capable of supporting T cell development represents a promising approach to reach this goal; however, progress toward generating functional TECs has been limited. Here, we describe a robust in vitro method to direct differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into th...

  12. The destiny of the resistance/susceptibility against GCRV is controlled by epigenetic mechanisms in CIK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Xueying; Yang, Chunrong; Wan, Quanyuan; Rao, Youliang; Su, Jianguo

    2017-07-03

    Hemorrhagic disease caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) has severely threatened the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) cultivation industry. It is noteworthy that the resistance against GCRV infection was reported to be inheritable, and identified at both individual and cellular levels. Therefore, this work was inspired and dedicated to unravel the molecular mechanisms of fate decision post GCRV infection in related immune cells. Foremost, the resistant and susceptible CIK (C. idella kidney) monoclonal cells were established by single cell sorting, subculturing and infection screening successively. RNA-Seq, MeDIP-Seq and small RNA-Seq were carried out with C1 (CIK cells), R2 (resistant cells) and S3 (susceptible cells) groups. It was demonstrated that genome-wide DNA methylation, mRNA and microRNA expression levels in S3 were the highest among three groups. Transcriptome analysis elucidated that pathways associated with antioxidant activity, cell proliferation regulation, apoptosis activity and energy consuming might contribute to the decision of cell fates post infection. And a series of immune-related genes were identified differentially expressed across resistant and susceptible groups, which were negatively modulated by DNA methylation or microRNAs. To conclude, this study systematically uncovered the regulatory mechanism on the resistance from epigenetic perspective and provided potential biomarkers for future studies on resistance breeding.

  13. The influence of virus infection on the extracellular pH of the host cell detected on cell membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengjun Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Influenza virus infection can result in changes in the cellular ion levels at 2–3 hours post-infection. More H+ is produced by glycolysis, and the viral M2 proton channel also plays a role in the capture and release of H+ during both viral entry and egress. Then the cells might regulate the intracellular pH by increasing the export of H+ from the intracellular compartment. Increased H+ export could lead indirectly to increased extracellular acidity. To detect changes in extracellular pH of both virus-infected and uninfected cells, pH sensors were synthesized using polystyrene beads (1μm containing Rhodamine B and Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC. The fluorescence intensity of FITC can respond to both pH and temperature. So Rhodamine B was also introduced in the sensor for temperature compensation. Then the pH can be measured after temperature compensation. The sensor was adhered to cell membrane for extracellular pH measurement. The results showed that the multiplication of influenza virus in host cell decreased extracellular pH of the host cell by 0.5–0.6 in 4 hours after the virus bound to the cell membrane, compared to that in uninfected cells. Immunostaining revealed the presence of viral PB1 subunits in the nucleus of virus-bound cells that exhibited extracellular pH changes, but no PB1 subunits are detected in virus-unbound cells where the extracellular pH remained constant.

  14. Autophagy sustains the replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory virus in host cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qinghao; Qin, Yixian; Zhou, Lei; Kou, Qiuwen; Guo, Xin; Ge, Xinna; Yang, Hanchun; Hu, Hongbo

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we confirmed the autophagy induced by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in permissive cells and investigated the role of autophagy in the replication of PRRSV. We first demonstrated that PRRSV infection significantly results in the increased double-membrane vesicles, the accumulation of LC3 fluorescence puncta, and the raised ratio of LC3-II/β-actin, in MARC-145 cells. Then we discovered that induction of autophagy by rapamycin significantly enhances the viral titers of PRRSV, while inhibition of autophagy by 3-MA and silencing of LC3 gene by siRNA reduces the yield of PRRSV. The results showed functional autolysosomes can be formed after PRRSV infection and the autophagosome–lysosome-fusion inhibitor decreases the virus titers. We also examined the induction of autophagy by PRRSV infection in pulmonary alveolar macrophages. These findings indicate that autophagy induced by PRRSV infection plays a role in sustaining the replication of PRRSV in host cells.

  15. Autophagy sustains the replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory virus in host cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qinghao; Qin, Yixian; Zhou, Lei; Kou, Qiuwen; Guo, Xin; Ge, Xinna [Key Laboratory of Animal Epidemiology and Zoonosis of Ministry of Agriculture, College of Veterinary Medicine and State Key Laboratory of Agribiotechnology, China Agricultural University, Beijing (China); Yang, Hanchun, E-mail: yanghanchun1@cau.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Animal Epidemiology and Zoonosis of Ministry of Agriculture, College of Veterinary Medicine and State Key Laboratory of Agribiotechnology, China Agricultural University, Beijing (China); Hu, Hongbo, E-mail: hongbo@cau.edu.cn [College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing (China)

    2012-08-01

    In this study, we confirmed the autophagy induced by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in permissive cells and investigated the role of autophagy in the replication of PRRSV. We first demonstrated that PRRSV infection significantly results in the increased double-membrane vesicles, the accumulation of LC3 fluorescence puncta, and the raised ratio of LC3-II/{beta}-actin, in MARC-145 cells. Then we discovered that induction of autophagy by rapamycin significantly enhances the viral titers of PRRSV, while inhibition of autophagy by 3-MA and silencing of LC3 gene by siRNA reduces the yield of PRRSV. The results showed functional autolysosomes can be formed after PRRSV infection and the autophagosome-lysosome-fusion inhibitor decreases the virus titers. We also examined the induction of autophagy by PRRSV infection in pulmonary alveolar macrophages. These findings indicate that autophagy induced by PRRSV infection plays a role in sustaining the replication of PRRSV in host cells.

  16. The Role of MicroRNAs in Myeloid Cells during Graft-versus-Host Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The successful treatment of various hematologic diseases with allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation is often limited by the occurrence of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD. Several microRNAs (miRs have recently been shown to impact the biology of GvHD by regulating pro- as well as anti-inflammatory target genes. There is increasing evidence that a single miR can have different effects by preferentially targeting certain genes depending on the cell type that the miR is analyzed in. This review will focus on the role of miRs in myeloid cells during the development of acute and chronic GvHD and autoimmune diseases. Because miRs act on the expression of multiple target genes and may thereby influence the immune system at different functional levels, they are potentially attractive targets for the modification of allogeneic immune responses using miR mimics and inhibitors.

  17. Separate effects of irradiation and of graft-versus-host reaction on rat mucosal mast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummins, A.G.; Munro, G.H.; Huntley, J.F.; Miller, H.R.P.; Ferguson, A.

    1989-01-01

    T cell mediated immune responses in the gut can produce enteropathy and malabsorption. The authors investigated the relevance of mucosal mast cells (MMC) to the mechanisms of this enteropathy by using graft-versus-host reaction (GvHR) in the rat as a model of mucosal delayed type hypersensitivity. x-irradiation, with or without GvHR, led to the virtual disappearance of jejunal MMC, undetectable jejunal rat mast cell protease (RMCPII) and very low levels of RMCPII in serum (all p<0.01 when compared with unirradiated controls). These experiments show that there is a modest expansion in jejunal MMC in unirradiated rats with semiallogeneic GvHR, whereas irradiation, alone or associated with GvHR, profoundly depletes MMC for at least two weeks. The enteropathy of GvHR can evolve in the virtual absence of MMC. (author)

  18. Serratia marcescens Induces Apoptotic Cell Death in Host Immune Cells via a Lipopolysaccharide- and Flagella-dependent Mechanism*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kenichi; Adachi, Tatsuo; Imamura, Katsutoshi; Takano, Shinya; Usui, Kimihito; Suzuki, Kazushi; Hamamoto, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Takeshi; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2012-01-01

    Injection of Serratia marcescens into the blood (hemolymph) of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, induced the activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), followed by caspase activation and apoptosis of blood cells (hemocytes). This process impaired the innate immune response in which pathogen cell wall components, such as glucan, stimulate hemocytes, leading to the activation of insect cytokine paralytic peptide. S. marcescens induced apoptotic cell death of silkworm hemocytes and mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro. We searched for S. marcescens transposon mutants with attenuated ability to induce apoptosis of silkworm hemocytes. Among the genes identified, disruption mutants of wecA (a gene involved in lipopolysaccharide O-antigen synthesis), and flhD and fliR (essential genes in flagella synthesis) showed reduced motility and impaired induction of mouse macrophage cell death. These findings suggest that S. marcescens induces apoptosis of host immune cells via lipopolysaccharide- and flagella-dependent motility, leading to the suppression of host innate immunity. PMID:22859304

  19. Differential susceptibility of primary cultured human skin cells to hypericin PDT in an in vitro model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, A; Wiggins, T; Davids, L M

    2015-08-01

    Skin cancer is the most common cancer worldwide, and its incidence rate in South Africa is increasing. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been shown to be an effective treatment modality, through topical administration, for treatment of non-melanoma skin cancers. Our group investigates hypericin-induced PDT (HYP-PDT) for the treatment of both non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers. However, a prerequisite for effective cancer treatments is efficient and selective targeting of the tumoral cells with minimal collateral damage to the surrounding normal cells, as it is well established that cancer therapies have bystander effects on normal cells in the body, often causing undesirable side effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the cellular and molecular effects of HYP-PDT on normal primary human keratinocytes (Kc), melanocytes (Mc) and fibroblasts (Fb) in an in vitro tissue culture model which represented both the epidermal and dermal cellular compartments of human skin. Cell viability analysis revealed a differential cytotoxic response to a range of HYP-PDT doses in all the human skin cell types, showing that Fb (LD50=1.75μM) were the most susceptible to HYP-PDT, followed by Mc (LD50=3.5μM) and Kc (LD50>4μM HYP-PDT) These results correlated with the morphological analysis which displayed distinct morphological changes in Fb and Mc, 24h post treatment with non-lethal (1μM) and lethal (3μM) doses of HYP-PDT, but the highest HYP-PDT doses had no effect on Kc morphology. Fluorescent microscopy displayed cytoplasmic localization of HYP in all the 3 skin cell types and additionally, HYP was excluded from the nuclei in all the cell types. Intracellular ROS levels measured in Fb at 3μM HYP-PDT, displayed a significant 3.8 fold (phuman skin cells thus highlighting the efficacy and indeed, the potential bystander effect of if administered in vivo. This study contributes toward our knowledge of the cellular response of the epidermis to photodynamic therapies and

  20. Bacterial viruses enable their host to acquire antibiotic resistance genes from neighbouring cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haaber, Jakob Krause; Leisner, Jørgen; Cohn, Marianne Thorup

    2016-01-01

    Prophages are quiescent viruses located in the chromosomes of bacteria. In the human pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus, prophages are omnipresent and are believed to be responsible for the spread of some antibiotic resistance genes. Here we demonstrate that release of phages from a subpopulation of S....... aureus cells enables the intact, prophage-containing population to acquire beneficial genes from competing, phage-susceptible strains present in the same environment. Phage infection kills competitor cells and bits of their DNA are occasionally captured in viral transducing particles. Return...... of such particles to the prophage-containing population can drive the transfer of genes encoding potentially useful traits such as antibiotic resistance. This process, which can be viewed as ‘auto-transduction’, allows S. aureus to efficiently acquire antibiotic resistance both in vitro and in an in vivo virulence...

  1. The functions of the variable lipoprotein family of Mycoplasma hyorhinis in adherence to host cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qiyan; Wang, Jia; Ji, Yan; Ni, Bo; Zhang, Bixiong; Ma, Qinghong; Wei, Yanna; Xiao, Shaobo; Feng, Zhixin; Liu, Maojun; Shao, Guoqing

    2016-04-15

    Mycoplasma hyorhinis (M. hyorhinis) is a swine pathogen that is associated with various human cancers and contamination in cell cultures. However, no studies on the adhesion molecules of this pathogen have yet been reported. The variable lipoprotein (Vlp) family is an important surface component of M. hyorhinis. Herein, we performed several experiments to identify the function of the Vlp family in adherence to host cells. Seven recombinant Vlp (rVlp) proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity chromatography. The potential role of rVlp adherence to pig kidney (PK-15) and swine tracheal epithelial (STEC) cells was then studied by indirect immunofluorescence assay and microtiter plate adherence assay. Adhesion of M. hyorhinis to PK-15 and STEC cells was specifically inhibited by the addition of a cocktail of rVlp proteins. The rVlp protein mixture was shown to bind to both PK-15 and STEC cells. The binding increased in a dose-dependent manner and could be blocked by antisera against the rVlp proteins. Most of the rVlp proteins could bind individually to both PK-15 and STEC cells except for rVlpD and rVlpF, which bound only to STEC cells. Because Vlp members vary in size among different strains and generations, they may vary in their cytoadhesion capabilities in various strains. In summary, the present results indicate that the Vlp family functions as adhesins of M. hyorhinis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Lethal graft-versus-host disease: modification with allogeneic cultured donor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauch, P.; Lipton, J.M.; Hamilton, B.; Obbagy, J.; Kudisch, M.; Nathan, D.; Hellman, S.

    1984-01-01

    The use of the bone marrow culture technique was studied as a means to prepare donor marrow for bone marrow transplantation to avoid lethal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Preliminary experiments demonstrated the rapid loss of theta-positive cells in such cultures, so that theta-positive cells were not detected after 6 days. Initial experiments in C3H/HeJ (H-2k, Hbbd) recipients prepared with 900 rad demonstrated improved survival when 3-day cultured C57BL/6 (H-2b, Hbbs) donor cells were used in place of hind limb marrow for transplantation. However, hemoglobin typing of recipient animals revealed only short-term donor engraftment, with competitive repopulation of recipient marrow occurring. Subsequent experiments were done in 1,200-rad prepared recipients, with long-term donor engraftment demonstrated. The majority of 1,200-rad prepared animals receiving cultured allogeneic cells died of GVHD, but animals receiving 28-day cultured cells had an improved 90-day survival and a delay in GVHD development over animals receiving hind limb marrow or marrow from shorter times in culture. In addition, animals receiving anti-theta-treated, 3-day nonadherent cells had an improved survival (44%) over animals receiving anti-theta-treated hind limb marrow (20%). These experiments demonstrate modest benefit for the use of cultured cells in bone marrow transplantation across major H-2 histocompatibility complex differences

  3. A colitogenic memory CD4+ T cell population mediates gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Vivian; Agle, Kimberle; Chen, Xiao; Beres, Amy; Komorowski, Richard; Belle, Ludovic; Taylor, Carolyn; Zhu, Fenlu; Haribhai, Dipica; Williams, Calvin B.; Verbsky, James; Blumenschein, Wendy; Sadekova, Svetlana; Bowman, Eddie; Ballantyne, Christie; Weaver, Casey; Serody, David A.; Vincent, Benjamin; Serody, Jonathan; Cua, Daniel J.; Drobyski, William R.

    2016-01-01

    Damage to the gastrointestinal tract is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and is attributable to T cell–mediated inflammation. In this work, we identified a unique CD4+ T cell population that constitutively expresses the β2 integrin CD11c and displays a biased central memory phenotype and memory T cell transcriptional profile, innate-like properties, and increased expression of the gut-homing molecules α4β7 and CCR9. Using several complementary murine GVHD models, we determined that adoptive transfer and early accumulation of β2 integrin–expressing CD4+ T cells in the gastrointestinal tract initiated Th1-mediated proinflammatory cytokine production, augmented pathological damage in the colon, and increased mortality. The pathogenic effect of this CD4+ T cell population critically depended on coexpression of the IL-23 receptor, which was required for maximal inflammatory effects. Non–Foxp3-expressing CD4+ T cells produced IL-10, which regulated colonic inflammation and attenuated lethality in the absence of functional CD4+Foxp3+ T cells. Thus, the coordinate expression of CD11c and the IL-23 receptor defines an IL-10–regulated, colitogenic memory CD4+ T cell subset that is poised to initiate inflammation when there is loss of tolerance and breakdown of mucosal barriers. PMID:27500496

  4. Rotavirus replication is correlated with S/G2 interphase arrest of the host cell cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selene Glück

    Full Text Available In infected cells rotavirus (RV replicates in viroplasms, cytosolic structures that require a stabilized microtubule (MT network for their assembly, maintenance of the structure and perinuclear localization. Therefore, we hypothesized that RV could interfere with the MT-breakdown that takes place in mitosis during cell division. Using synchronized RV-permissive cells, we show that RV infection arrests the cell cycle in S/G2 phase, thus favoring replication by improving viroplasms formation, viral protein translation, and viral assembly. The arrest in S/G2 phase is independent of the host or viral strain and relies on active RV replication. RV infection causes cyclin B1 down-regulation, consistent with blocking entry into mitosis. With the aid of chemical inhibitors, the cytoskeleton network was linked to specific signaling pathways of the RV-induced cell cycle arrest. We found that upon RV infection Eg5 kinesin was delocalized from the pericentriolar region to the viroplasms. We used a MA104-Fucci system to identify three RV proteins (NSP3, NSP5, and VP2 involved in cell cycle arrest in the S-phase. Our data indicate that there is a strong correlation between the cell cycle arrest and RV replication.

  5. Host Cell Plasma Membrane Phosphatidylserine Regulates the Assembly and Budding of Ebola Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu-Gyamfi, Emmanuel; Johnson, Kristen A; Fraser, Mark E; Scott, Jordan L; Soni, Smita P; Jones, Keaton R; Digman, Michelle A; Gratton, Enrico; Tessier, Charles R; Stahelin, Robert V

    2015-09-01

    Lipid-enveloped viruses replicate and bud from the host cell where they acquire their lipid coat. Ebola virus, which buds from the plasma membrane of the host cell, causes viral hemorrhagic fever and has a high fatality rate. To date, little has been known about how budding and egress of Ebola virus are mediated at the plasma membrane. We have found that the lipid phosphatidylserine (PS) regulates the assembly of Ebola virus matrix protein VP40. VP40 binds PS-containing membranes with nanomolar affinity, and binding of PS regulates VP40 localization and oligomerization on the plasma membrane inner leaflet. Further, alteration of PS levels in mammalian cells inhibits assembly and egress of VP40. Notably, interactions of VP40 with the plasma membrane induced exposure of PS on the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane at sites of egress, whereas PS is typically found only on the inner leaflet. Taking the data together, we present a model accounting for the role of plasma membrane PS in assembly of Ebola virus-like particles. The lipid-enveloped Ebola virus causes severe infection with a high mortality rate and currently lacks FDA-approved therapeutics or vaccines. Ebola virus harbors just seven genes in its genome, and there is a critical requirement for acquisition of its lipid envelope from the plasma membrane of the human cell that it infects during the replication process. There is, however, a dearth of information available on the required contents of this envelope for egress and subsequent attachment and entry. Here we demonstrate that plasma membrane phosphatidylserine is critical for Ebola virus budding from the host cell plasma membrane. This report, to our knowledge, is the first to highlight the role of lipids in human cell membranes in the Ebola virus replication cycle and draws a clear link between selective binding and transport of a lipid across the membrane of the human cell and use of that lipid for subsequent viral entry. Copyright © 2015, American

  6. Human gastric mucins differently regulate Helicobacter pylori proliferation, gene expression and interactions with host cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma C Skoog

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori colonizes the mucus niche of the gastric mucosa and is a risk factor for gastritis, ulcers and cancer. The main components of the mucus layer are heavily glycosylated mucins, to which H. pylori can adhere. Mucin glycosylation differs between individuals and changes during disease. Here we have examined the H. pylori response to purified mucins from a range of tumor and normal human gastric tissue samples. Our results demonstrate that mucins from different individuals differ in how they modulate both proliferation and gene expression of H. pylori. The mucin effect on proliferation varied significantly between samples, and ranged from stimulatory to inhibitory, depending on the type of mucins and the ability of the mucins to bind to H. pylori. Tumor-derived mucins and mucins from the surface mucosa had potential to stimulate proliferation, while gland-derived mucins tended to inhibit proliferation and mucins from healthy uninfected individuals showed little effect. Artificial glycoconjugates containing H. pylori ligands also modulated H. pylori proliferation, albeit to a lesser degree than human mucins. Expression of genes important for the pathogenicity of H. pylori (babA, sabA, cagA, flaA and ureA appeared co-regulated in response to mucins. The addition of mucins to co-cultures of H. pylori and gastric epithelial cells protected the viability of the cells and modulated the cytokine production in a manner that differed between individuals, was partially dependent of adhesion of H. pylori to the gastric cells, but also revealed that other mucin factors in addition to adhesion are important for H. pylori-induced host signaling. The combined data reveal host-specific effects on proliferation, gene expression and virulence of H. pylori due to the gastric mucin environment, demonstrating a dynamic interplay between the bacterium and its host.

  7. Transcriptional profiling of the host cell response to feline immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, Reinhard; Klein, Dieter

    2014-03-19

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a widespread pathogen of the domestic cat and an important animal model for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) research. In contrast to HIV, only limited information is available on the transcriptional host cell response to FIV infections. This study aims to identify FIV-induced gene expression changes in feline T-cells during the early phase of the infection. Illumina RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) was used identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at 24 h after FIV infection. After removal of low-quality reads, the remaining sequencing data were mapped against the cat genome and the numbers of mapping reads were counted for each gene. Regulated genes were identified through the comparison of FIV and mock-infected data sets. After statistical analysis and the removal of genes with insufficient coverage, we detected a total of 69 significantly DEGs (44 up- and 25 down-regulated genes) upon FIV infection. The results obtained by RNA-seq were validated by reverse transcription qPCR analysis for 10 genes. Out of the most distinct DEGs identified in this study, several genes are already known to interact with HIV in humans, indicating comparable effects of both viruses on the host cell gene expression and furthermore, highlighting the importance of FIV as a model system for HIV. In addition, a set of new genes not previously linked to virus infections could be identified. The provided list of virus-induced genes may represent useful information for future studies focusing on the molecular mechanisms of virus-host interactions in FIV pathogenesis.

  8. Melaleuca alternifolia Concentrate Inhibits in Vitro Entry of Influenza Virus into Host Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifang Jiang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Influenza virus causes high morbidity among the infected population annually and occasionally the spread of pandemics. Melaleuca alternifolia Concentrate (MAC is an essential oil derived from a native Australian tea tree. Our aim was to investigate whether MAC has any in vitro inhibitory effect on influenza virus infection and what mechanism does the MAC use to fight the virus infection. In this study, the antiviral activity of MAC was examined by its inhibition of cytopathic effects. In silico prediction was performed to evaluate the interaction between MAC and the viral haemagglutinin. We found that when the influenza virus was incubated with 0.010% MAC for one hour, no cytopathic effect on MDCK cells was found after the virus infection and no immunofluorescence signal was detected in the host cells. Electron microscopy showed that the virus treated with MAC retained its structural integrity. By computational simulations, we found that terpinen-4-ol, which is the major bioactive component of MAC, could combine with the membrane fusion site of haemagglutinin. Thus, we proved that MAC could prevent influenza virus from entering the host cells by disturbing the normal viral membrane fusion procedure.

  9. Susceptible genes and molecular pathways related to heavy ion irradiation in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fushimi, Kazuaki; Uzawa, Katsuhiro; Ishigami, Takashi; Yamamoto, Nobuharu; Kawata, Tetsuya; Shibahara, Takahiko; Ito, Hisao; Mizoe, Jun-etsu; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Tanzawa, Hideki

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: Heavy ion beams are high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation characterized by a higher relative biologic effectiveness than low LET radiation. The aim of the current study was to determine the difference of gene expression between heavy ion beams and X-rays in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC)-derived cells. Materials and methods: The OSCC cells were irradiated with accelerated carbon or neon ion irradiation or X-rays using three different doses. We sought to identify genes the expression of which is affected by carbon and neon ion irradiation using Affymetrix GeneChip analysis. The identified genes were analyzed using the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis Tool to investigate the functional network and gene ontology. Changes in mRNA expression in the genes were assessed by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results: The microarray analysis identified 84 genes that were modulated by carbon and neon ion irradiation at all doses in OSCC cells. Among the genes, three genes (TGFBR2, SMURF2, and BMP7) and two genes (CCND1 and E2F3), respectively, were found to be involved in the transforming growth factor β-signaling pathway and cell cycle:G1/S checkpoint regulation pathway. The qRT-PCR data from the five genes after heavy ion irradiation were consistent with the microarray data (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Our findings should serve as a basis for global characterization of radiation-regulated genes and pathways in heavy ion-irradiated OSCC

  10. β1-Adrenergic receptor deficiency in ghrelin-expressing cells causes hypoglycemia in susceptible individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Bharath K.; Osborne-Lawrence, Sherri; Vijayaraghavan, Prasanna; Hepler, Chelsea; Zigman, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Ghrelin is an orexigenic gastric peptide hormone secreted when caloric intake is limited. Ghrelin also regulates blood glucose, as emphasized by the hypoglycemia that is induced by caloric restriction in mouse models of deficient ghrelin signaling. Here, we hypothesized that activation of β1-adrenergic receptors (β1ARs) localized to ghrelin cells is required for caloric restriction–associated ghrelin release and the ensuing protective glucoregulatory response. In mice lacking the β1AR specifically in ghrelin-expressing cells, ghrelin secretion was markedly blunted, resulting in profound hypoglycemia and prevalent mortality upon severe caloric restriction. Replacement of ghrelin blocked the effects of caloric restriction in β1AR-deficient mice. We also determined that treating calorically restricted juvenile WT mice with beta blockers led to reduced plasma ghrelin and hypoglycemia, the latter of which is similar to the life-threatening, fasting-induced hypoglycemia observed in infants treated with beta blockers. These findings highlight the critical functions of ghrelin in preventing hypoglycemia and promoting survival during severe caloric restriction and the requirement for ghrelin cell–expressed β1ARs in these processes. Moreover, these results indicate a potential role for ghrelin in mediating beta blocker–associated hypoglycemia in susceptible individuals, such as young children. PMID:27548523

  11. [Mesenchymal stromal cells in the treatment of graft-versus-host disease: where do we stand?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüle, Silke; Berger, André

    2015-11-01

    Medicinal products based on mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are expected to have a therapeutic benefit in a variety of conditions and, accordingly, are being tested in many clinical studies. The treatment and prevention of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is one of the world's most widely studied MSC therapy concepts. So far, one MSC medicinal product has been approved for the treatment of GvHD. This article gives an overview of the particular features related to the production of MSC-based medicinal products, the state of non-clinical research, and the clinical development status of MSCs and the associated challenges, especially in the context of GvHD.

  12. [Susceptibility of induced sickle in samples of heterozygous hemoglobin S patients (sickle cell trait) suffering diabetes mellitus type 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Piedra, Pablo; Cervantes-Villagrana, Alberto Rafael; Ramos-Jiménez, Raúl; Presno-Bernal, José Miguel; Cervantes-Villagrana, Rodolfo Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Hemoglobin S is an abnormal protein that induces morphological changes in erythrocyte in low-oxygen conditions. In Mexico, it is reported that up to 13.7% of the population with mutation in one allele are considered asymptomatic (sickle cell trait). The sickle cell trait and diabetes mellitus are conditions that occur together in more than one million patients worldwide. Both diseases possibly produce microvascular changes in retinopathy and acute chest syndrome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the induction of sickle cells in samples of diabetic patients with sickle cell trait to identify altered red cell parameters. We obtained samples of diabetic patients to determine hemoglobin A1c and S; furthermore, red blood cell biometrics data were analyzed. We found that older men with diabetes were susceptible to generate sickle cells and this correlated with reduced red blood cell count and an increase in media cell volume. In samples of women diabetes, there were no differences. We conclude that samples from patients with sickle cell trait and diabetes can cause sickle cells with high frequency in men, with lower red blood cells count and increased mean corpuscular volume as susceptibility parameters.

  13. COMPARISON OF SUSCEPTIBILITY TO INFLUENZA INFECTION IN NASAL EPITHELIAL CELLS OBTAINED FROM SMOKERS AND NON-SMOKERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several studies have demonstrated that individuals who smoke have greater susceptibility to influenza infections, as well as other respiratory virus infections, than non-smokers, yet the role of airway epithelial cells in this response is not clear. To determine whether in vivo t...

  14. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Spatially Controls Activation and Misregulation of Host Cell Rac1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Yersinia pseudotuberculosis binds host cells and modulates the mammalian Rac1 guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase at two levels. Activation of Rac1 results from integrin receptor engagement, while misregulation is promoted by translocation of YopE and YopT proteins into target cells. Little is known regarding how these various factors interplay to control Rac1 dynamics. To investigate these competing processes, the localization of Rac1 activation was imaged microscopically using fluorescence resonance energy transfer. In the absence of translocated effectors, bacteria induced activation of the GTPase at the site of bacterial binding. In contrast, the entire cellular pool of Rac1 was inactivated shortly after translocation of YopE RhoGAP. Inactivation required membrane localization of Rac1. The translocated protease YopT had very different effects on Rac1. This protein, which removes the membrane localization site of Rac1, did not inactivate Rac1, but promoted entry of cleaved activated Rac1 molecules into the host cell nucleus, allowing Rac1 to localize with nuclear guanosine nucleotide exchange factors. As was true for YopE, membrane-associated Rac1 was the target for YopT, indicating that the two translocated effectors may compete for the same pool of target protein. Consistent with the observation that YopE inactivation requires membrane localization of Rac1, the presence of YopT in the cell interfered with the action of the YopE RhoGAP. As a result, interaction of target cells with a strain that produces both YopT and YopE resulted in two spatially distinct pools of Rac1: an inactive cytoplasmic pool and an activated nuclear pool. These studies demonstrate that competition between bacterial virulence factors for access to host substrates is controlled by the spatial arrangement of a target protein. In turn, the combined effects of translocated bacterial proteins are to generate pools of a single signaling molecule with distinct localization and

  15. More Novel Hantaviruses and Diversifying Reservoir Hosts — Time for Development of Reservoir-Derived Cell Culture Models?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Eckerle

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to novel, improved and high-throughput detection methods, there is a plethora of newly identified viruses within the genus Hantavirus. Furthermore, reservoir host species are increasingly recognized besides representatives of the order Rodentia, now including members of the mammalian orders Soricomorpha/Eulipotyphla and Chiroptera. Despite the great interest created by emerging zoonotic viruses, there is still a gross lack of in vitro models, which reflect the exclusive host adaptation of most zoonotic viruses. The usually narrow host range and genetic diversity of hantaviruses make them an exciting candidate for studying virus-host interactions on a cellular level. To do so, well-characterized reservoir cell lines covering a wide range of bat, insectivore and rodent species are essential. Most currently available cell culture models display a heterologous virus-host relationship and are therefore only of limited value. Here, we review the recently established approaches to generate reservoir-derived cell culture models for the in vitro study of virus-host interactions. These successfully used model systems almost exclusively originate from bats and bat-borne viruses other than hantaviruses. Therefore we propose a parallel approach for research on rodent- and insectivore-borne hantaviruses, taking the generation of novel rodent and insectivore cell lines from wildlife species into account. These cell lines would be also valuable for studies on further rodent-borne viruses, such as orthopox- and arenaviruses.

  16. Dynamic Changes in Host Gene Expression following In Vitro Viral Mimic Stimulation in Crocodile Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subir Sarker

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The initial control of viral infection in a host is dominated by a very well orchestrated early innate immune system; however, very little is known about the ability of a host to control viral infection outside of mammals. The reptiles offer an evolutionary bridge between the fish and mammals, with the crocodile having evolved from the archosauria clade that included the dinosaurs, and being the largest living reptile species. Using an RNA-seq approach, we have defined the dynamic changes of a passaged primary crocodile cell line to stimulation with both RNA and DNA viral mimics. Cells displayed a marked upregulation of many genes known to be involved in the mammalian response to viral infection, including viperin, Mx1, IRF7, IRF1, and RIG-I with approximately 10% of the genes being uncharacterized transcripts. Both pathway and genome analysis suggested that the crocodile may utilize the main known mammalian TLR and cytosolic antiviral RNA signaling pathways, with the pathways being responsible for sensing DNA viruses less clear. Viral mimic stimulation upregulated the type I interferon, IFN-Omega, with many known antiviral interferon-stimulated genes also being upregulated. This work demonstrates for the first time that reptiles show functional regulation of many known and unknown antiviral pathways and effector genes. An enhanced knowledge of these ancient antiviral pathways will not only add to our understanding of the host antiviral innate response in non-mammalian species, but is critical to fully comprehend the complexity of the mammalian innate immune response to viral infection.

  17. Contemporary theories of cervical carcinogenesis: the virus, the host, and the stem cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crum, C P

    2000-03-01

    Cervical cancer is a complex disease that, by its association with human papillomavirus (HPV), has elicited research in a broad range of areas pertaining to its basic diagnostic and clinical aspects. The complexity of this association lies not only in the fundamental relationship between virus and cancer but also in its translation to pathologic diagnosis and clinical management. Offshoots from the relationship of virus to pathology include studies targeting the link between papillomavirus infection and cervical epithelial abnormalities, the molecular epidemiology of papillomavirus infection, and the potential use of HPV testing as either a screening technique or a tool for managing women who have Pap smear abnormalities. A second variable that is critical to the pathogenesis of cervical neoplasia is the cervical transformation zone. The wide range of invasive and noninvasive lesion phenotypes associated with HPV infection in this region indicate that not only the virus but also specific host target epithelial cells in the transformation zone play an important part in the development of cervical neoplasia. Further understanding of this relationship between the virus and the host epithelium will hinge on determining the subtypes of epithelial cells in the transformation zone and their phenotypic response to infection. New technologies, such as expression arrays, promise to clarify, if not resolve, the complexity of molecular interactions leading to the multiplicity of tumor phenotypes associated with HPV infection of the uterine cervix.

  18. Purification of infectious human herpesvirus 6A virions and association of host cell proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garoff Henrik

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viruses that are incorporating host cell proteins might trigger autoimmune diseases. It is therefore of interest to identify possible host proteins associated with viruses, especially for enveloped viruses that have been suggested to play a role in autoimmune diseases, like human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A in multiple sclerosis (MS. Results We have established a method for rapid and morphology preserving purification of HHV-6A virions, which in combination with parallel analyses with background control material released from mock-infected cells facilitates qualitative and quantitative investigations of the protein content of HHV-6A virions. In our iodixanol gradient purified preparation, we detected high levels of viral DNA by real-time PCR and viral proteins by metabolic labelling, silver staining and western blots. In contrast, the background level of cellular contamination was low in the purified samples as demonstrated by the silver staining and metabolic labelling analyses. Western blot analyses showed that the cellular complement protein CD46, the receptor for HHV-6A, is associated with the purified and infectious virions. Also, the cellular proteins clathrin, ezrin and Tsg101 are associated with intact HHV-6A virions. Conclusion Cellular proteins are associated with HHV-6A virions. The relevance of the association in disease and especially in autoimmunity will be further investigated.

  19. Lactobacilli interfere with Streptococcus pyogenes hemolytic activity and adherence to host epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil D Saroj

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A streptococcus (GAS, a frequent colonizer of the respiratory tract mucosal surface, causes a variety of human diseases, ranging from pharyngitis to the life-threatening streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome. Lactobacilli have been demonstrated to colonize the respiratory tract. In this study, we investigated the interference of lactobacilli with the virulence phenotypes of GAS. The Lactobacillus strains L. rhamnosus Kx151A1 and L. reuteri PTA-5289, but not L. salivarius LMG9477, inhibited the hemolytic activity of GAS. The inhibition of hemolytic activity was attributed to a decrease in the production of streptolysin S (SLS. Conditioned medium (CM from the growth of L. rhamnosus Kx151A1 and L. reuteri PTA-5289 was sufficient to down-regulate the expression of the sag operon, encoding SLS. The Lactobacillus strains L. rhamnosus Kx151A1, L. reuteri PTA-5289 and L. salivarius LMG9477 inhibited the initial adherence of GAS to host epithelial cells. Intriguingly, competition with a combination of Lactobacillus species reduced GAS adherence to host cells most efficiently. The data suggest that an effector molecule released from certain Lactobacillus strains attenuates the production of SLS at the transcriptional level and that combinations of Lactobacillus strains may protect the pharyngeal mucosa more efficiently from the initial colonization of GAS. The effector molecules released from Lactobacillus strains affecting the virulence phenotypes of pathogens hold potential in the development of a new generation of therapeutics.

  20. Impact of 4 Lactobacillus plantarum capsular polysaccharide clusters on surface glycan composition and host cell signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remus Daniela M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial cell surface-associated polysaccharides are involved in the interactions of bacteria with their environment and play an important role in the communication between pathogenic bacteria and their host organisms. Cell surface polysaccharides of probiotic species are far less well described. Therefore, improved knowledge on these molecules is potentially of great importance to understand the strain-specific and proposed beneficial modes of probiotic action. Results The Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 genome encodes 4 clusters of genes that are associated with surface polysaccharide production. Two of these clusters appear to encode all functions required for capsular polysaccharide formation (cps2A-J and cps4A-J, while the remaining clusters are predicted to lack genes encoding chain-length control functions and a priming glycosyl-transferase (cps1A-I and cps3A-J. We constructed L. plantarum WCFS1 gene deletion mutants that lack individual (Δcps1A-I, Δcps2A-J, Δcps3A-J and Δcps4A-J or combinations of cps clusters (Δcps1A-3J and Δcps1A-3I, Δcps4A-J and assessed the genome wide impact of these mutations by transcriptome analysis. The cps cluster deletions influenced the expression of variable gene sets in the individual cps cluster mutants, but also considerable numbers of up- and down-regulated genes were shared between mutants in cps cluster 1 and 2, as well as between mutant in cps clusters 3 and 4. Additionally, the composition of overall cell surface polysaccharide fractions was altered in each mutant strain, implying that despite the apparent incompleteness of cps1A-I and cps3A-J, all clusters are active and functional in L. plantarum. The Δcps1A-I strain produced surface polysaccharides in equal amounts as compared to the wild-type strain, while the polysaccharides were characterized by a reduced molar mass and the lack of rhamnose. The mutants that lacked functional copies of cps2A-J, cps3A-J or cps4A

  1. The effect of Bulgarian propolis against Trypanosoma cruzi and during its interaction with host cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Pires Dantas

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Propolis has shown activity against pathogenic microorganisms that cause diseases in humans and animals. The ethanol (Et-Blg and acetone (Ket-Blg extracts from a Bulgarian propolis, with known chemical compositions, presented similar activity against tissue culture-derived amastigotes. The treatment of Trypanosoma cruzi-infected skeletal muscle cells with Et-Blg led to a decrease of infection and of the intracellular proliferation of amastigotes, while damage to the host cell was observed only at concentration 12.5 times higher than those affecting the parasite. Ultrastructural analysis of the effect of both extracts in epimastigotes revealed that the main targets were the mitochondrion and reservosomes. Et-Blg also affected the mitochondrion-kinetoplast complex in trypomastigotes, offering a potential target for chemotherapeutic agents.

  2. Mechanisms of Disease: Host-Pathogen Interactions between Burkholderia Species and Lung Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Jonathan; Bell, Rachel E.; Clark, Graeme C.

    2015-01-01

    Members of the Burkholderia species can cause a range of severe, often fatal, respiratory diseases. A variety of in vitro models of infection have been developed in an attempt to elucidate the mechanism by which Burkholderia spp. gain entry to and interact with the body. The majority of studies have tended to focus on the interaction of bacteria with phagocytic cells with a paucity of information available with regard to the lung epithelium. However, the lung epithelium is becoming more widely recognized as an important player in innate immunity and the early response to infections. Here we review the complex relationship between Burkholderia species and epithelial cells with an emphasis on the most pathogenic species, Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei. The current gaps in knowledge in our understanding are highlighted along with the epithelial host-pathogen interactions that offer potential opportunities for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26636042

  3. A MAM7 peptide-based inhibitor of Staphylococcus aureus adhesion does not interfere with in vitro host cell function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Alice Hawley

    Full Text Available Adhesion inhibitors that block the attachment of pathogens to host tissues may be used synergistically with or as an alternative to antibiotics. The wide-spread bacterial adhesin Multivalent Adhesion Molecule (MAM 7 has recently emerged as a candidate molecule for a broad-spectrum adhesion inhibitor which may be used to prevent bacterial colonization of wounds. Here we have tested if the antibacterial properties of a MAM-based inhibitor could be used to competitively inhibit adhesion of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA to host cells. Additionally, we analyzed its effect on host cellular functions linked to the host receptor fibronectin, such as migration, adhesion and matrix formation in vitro, to evaluate potential side effects prior to advancing our studies to in vivo infection models. As controls, we used inhibitors based on well-characterized bacterial adhesin-derived peptides from F1 and FnBPA, which are known to affect host cellular functions. Inhibitors based on F1 or FnBPA blocked MRSA attachment but at the same time abrogated important cellular functions. A MAM7-based inhibitor did not interfere with host cell function while showing good efficacy against MRSA adhesion in a tissue culture model. These observations provide a possible candidate for a bacterial adhesion inhibitor that does not cause adverse effects on host cells while preventing bacterial infection.

  4. Membrane cholesterol regulates lysosome-plasma membrane fusion events and modulates Trypanosoma cruzi invasion of host cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Hissa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi are able to invade several types of non-phagocytic cells through a lysosomal dependent mechanism. It has been shown that, during invasion, parasites trigger host cell lysosome exocytosis, which initially occurs at the parasite-host contact site. Acid sphingomyelinase released from lysosomes then induces endocytosis and parasite internalization. Lysosomes continue to fuse with the newly formed parasitophorous vacuole until the parasite is completely enclosed by lysosomal membrane, a process indispensable for a stable infection. Previous work has shown that host membrane cholesterol is also important for the T. cruzi invasion process in both professional (macrophages and non-professional (epithelial phagocytic cells. However, the mechanism by which cholesterol-enriched microdomains participate in this process has remained unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: In the present work we show that cardiomyocytes treated with MβCD, a drug able to sequester cholesterol from cell membranes, leads to a 50% reduction in invasion by T. cruzi trypomastigotes, as well as a decrease in the number of recently internalized parasites co-localizing with lysosomal markers. Cholesterol depletion from host membranes was accompanied by a decrease in the labeling of host membrane lipid rafts, as well as excessive lysosome exocytic events during the earlier stages of treatment. Precocious lysosomal exocytosis in MβCD treated cells led to a change in lysosomal distribution, with a reduction in the number of these organelles at the cell periphery, and probably compromises the intracellular pool of lysosomes necessary for T. cruzi invasion. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Based on these results, we propose that cholesterol depletion leads to unregulated exocytic events, reducing lysosome availability at the cell cortex and consequently compromise T. cruzi entry into host cells. The results also suggest that two different pools of

  5. Helicobacter pylori Disrupts Host Cell Membranes, Initiating a Repair Response and Cell Proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsueh-Fen Juan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori, the human stomach pathogen, lives on the inner surface of the stomach and causes chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. Plasma membrane repair response is a matter of life and death for human cells against physical and biological damage. We here test the hypothesis that H. pylori also causes plasma membrane disruption injury, and that not only a membrane repair response but also a cell proliferation response are thereby activated. Vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA and cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA have been considered to be major H. pylori virulence factors. Gastric cancer cells were infected with H. pylori wild type (vacA+/cagA+, single mutant (ΔvacA or ΔcagA or double mutant (ΔvacA/ΔcagA strains and plasma membrane disruption events and consequent activation of membrane repair components monitored. H. pylori disrupts the host cell plasma membrane, allowing localized dye and extracellular Ca2+ influx. Ca2+-triggered members of the annexin family, A1 and A4, translocate, in response to injury, to the plasma membrane, and cell surface expression of an exocytotic maker of repair, LAMP-2, increases. Additional forms of plasma membrane disruption, unrelated to H. pylori exposure, also promote host cell proliferation. We propose that H. pylori activation of a plasma membrane repair is pro-proliferative. This study might therefore provide new insight into potential mechanisms of H. pylori-induced gastric carcinogenesis.

  6. Which Way In? The RalF Arf-GEF Orchestrates Rickettsia Host Cell Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennoll-Bankert, Kristen E.; Rahman, M. Sayeedur; Gillespie, Joseph J.; Guillotte, Mark L.; Kaur, Simran J.; Lehman, Stephanie S.; Beier-Sexton, Magda; Azad, Abdu F.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial Sec7-domain-containing proteins (RalF) are known only from species of Legionella and Rickettsia, which have facultative and obligate intracellular lifestyles, respectively. L. pneumophila RalF, a type IV secretion system (T4SS) effector, is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) of ADP-ribosylation factors (Arfs), activating and recruiting host Arf1 to the Legionella-containing vacuole. In contrast, previous in vitro studies showed R. prowazekii (Typhus Group) RalF is a functional Arf-GEF that localizes to the host plasma membrane and interacts with the actin cytoskeleton via a unique C-terminal domain. As RalF is differentially encoded across Rickettsia species (e.g., pseudogenized in all Spotted Fever Group species), it may function in lineage-specific biology and pathogenicity. Herein, we demonstrate RalF of R. typhi (Typhus Group) interacts with the Rickettsia T4SS coupling protein (RvhD4) via its proximal C-terminal sequence. RalF is expressed early during infection, with its inactivation via antibody blocking significantly reducing R. typhi host cell invasion. For R. typhi and R. felis (Transitional Group), RalF ectopic expression revealed subcellular localization with the host plasma membrane and actin cytoskeleton. Remarkably, R. bellii (Ancestral Group) RalF showed perinuclear localization reminiscent of ectopically expressed Legionella RalF, for which it shares several structural features. For R. typhi, RalF co-localization with Arf6 and PI(4,5)P2 at entry foci on the host plasma membrane was determined to be critical for invasion. Thus, we propose recruitment of PI(4,5)P2 at entry foci, mediated by RalF activation of Arf6, initiates actin remodeling and ultimately facilitates bacterial invasion. Collectively, our characterization of RalF as an invasin suggests that, despite carrying a similar Arf-GEF unknown from other bacteria, different intracellular lifestyles across Rickettsia and Legionella species have driven divergent roles for Ral

  7. Modelling glioblastoma tumour-host cell interactions using adult brain organotypic slice co-culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angeles Marques-Torrejon

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is an aggressive incurable brain cancer. The cells that fuel the growth of tumours resemble neural stem cells found in the developing and adult mammalian forebrain. These are referred to as glioma stem cells (GSCs. Similar to neural stem cells, GSCs exhibit a variety of phenotypic states: dormant, quiescent, proliferative and differentiating. How environmental cues within the brain influence these distinct states is not well understood. Laboratory models of GBM can be generated using either genetically engineered mouse models, or via intracranial transplantation of cultured tumour initiating cells (mouse or human. Unfortunately, these approaches are expensive, time-consuming, low-throughput and ill-suited for monitoring live cell behaviours. Here, we explored whole adult brain coronal organotypic slices as an alternative model. Mouse adult brain slices remain viable in a serum-free basal medium for several weeks. GSCs can be easily microinjected into specific anatomical sites ex vivo, and we demonstrate distinct responses of engrafted GSCs to diverse microenvironments in the brain tissue. Within the subependymal zone – one of the adult neural stem cell niches – injected tumour cells could effectively engraft and respond to endothelial niche signals. Tumour-transplanted slices were treated with the antimitotic drug temozolomide as proof of principle of the utility in modelling responses to existing treatments. Engraftment of mouse or human GSCs onto whole brain coronal organotypic brain slices therefore provides a simplified, yet flexible, experimental model. This will help to increase the precision and throughput of modelling GSC-host brain interactions and complements ongoing in vivo studies. This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper.

  8. Mast Cell Stabilizers as Host Modulatory Drugs to Prevent and Control Periodontal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhoom Singh Mehta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mast cells are among the first cells to get in-volved in periodontal inflammation. Their numbers have been shown to be in-creased in cases of gingivitis and periodontal disease. The hypothesis: Since mast cell stabilizers like sodium cromogly-cate (SCG and nedocromil sodium (NS have been used in the prophylaxis of bronchial asthma without any significant adverse effects and also the fact that drugs like SCG show significant anti-inflammatory activities, it would be logical to use mast cell stabilizers as host modulating drugs for the treatment and prevention of peri-odontal disease. Evaluation of the hypothesis: Safety and efficacy of both SCG and NS are well documented. So, it will be systemically safe to use in humans. However, oral administration SCG or delivery of the drug by means local irrigation will not be very useful because SCG may not be secreted in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF(as in the case of oral administraion or the drug may get washed out from periodontal pocket due to the constant flow of GCF(as in the case of irrigation. A local or targeted drug delivery of mast cell stabilizers can be used in patients with periodontal disease. Role of mast cells in periodontal disease has been dealt in-depth in many studies and articles. However, limited amount of research has been done on using mast cell stabilizers in the prevention and control of periodontal diseases. More studies are needed to study the efficacy and effective-ness of mast cell stabilizers as an adjunct to phase I therapy in the control of periodontal disease.

  9. Genetic variations in MTHFR and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma susceptibility in Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Weifeng; Zhang, Sheng; Qiu, Hao; Wang, Lixin; Sun, Bin; Yin, Jun; Gu, Haiyong

    2014-05-01

    Esophageal cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a fatal malignancy associated with low 5-year survival rate. The aim of this study was to assess the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs1801133 C>T, rs3753584 A>G, rs4845882 G>A, rs4846048 A>G and rs9651118 T>C genotypes and ESCC susceptibility in a hospital-based case-control study. We conducted genotyping analyses for these five SNPs with 629 ESCC cases and 686 controls in a Chinese Han population. Ligation detection reaction method was used to identify genotypes of these MTHFR SNPs. Our results demonstrated that MTHFR rs1801133 C>T was associated with the risk of ESCC; however, MTHFR rs4845882 G>A and rs4846048 A>G SNPs were associated with the decreased risk of ESCC, and MTHFR rs3753584 A>G and rs9651118 T>C SNPs were not associated with ESCC risk. Our findings suggests that MTHFR rs1801133 C>T, rs4845882 G>A and rs4846048 A>G SNPs may be genetic modifiers for developing ESCC in Chinese Han population.

  10. Differential Susceptibility of Bacteria to Mouse Paneth Cell a-Defensins under Anaerobic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R. Mastroianni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Small intestinal Paneth cells secrete a-defensin peptides, termed cryptdins (Crps in mice, into the intestinal lumen, where they confer immunity to oral infections and define the composition of the ileal microbiota. In these studies, facultative bacteria maintained under aerobic or anaerobic conditions displayed differential sensitivities to mouse a-defensins under in vitro assay conditions. Regardless of oxygenation, Crps 2 and 3 had robust and similar bactericidal activities against S. typhimurium and S. flexneri, but Crp4 activity against S. flexneri was attenuated in the absence of oxygen. Anaerobic bacteria varied in their susceptibility to Crps 2-4, with Crp4 showing less activity than Crps 2 and 3 against Enterococcus faecalis, and Bacteroides fragilis in anaerobic assays, but Fusobacterium necrophorum was killed only by Crp4 and not by Crps 2 and 3. The influence of anaerobiosis in modulating Crp bactericidal activities in vitro suggests that a-defensin effects on the enteric microbiota may be subject to regulation by local oxygen tension.

  11. Miniaturized Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test by Combining Concentration Gradient Generation and Rapid Cell Culturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel C. Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Effective treatment of bacterial infection relies on timely diagnosis and proper prescription of antibiotic drugs. The antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST is one of the most crucial experimental procedures, providing the baseline information for choosing effective antibiotic agents and their dosages. Conventional methods, however, require long incubation times or significant instrumentation costs to obtain test results. We propose a lab-on-a-chip approach to perform AST in a simple, economic, and rapid manner. Our assay platform miniaturizes the standard broth microdilution method on a microfluidic device (20 × 20 mm that generates an antibiotic concentration gradient and delivers antibiotic-containing culture media to eight 30-nL chambers for cell culture. When tested with 20 μL samples of a model bacterial strain (E. coli ATCC 25922 treated with ampicillin or streptomycin, our method allows for the determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations consistent with the microdilution test in three hours, which is almost a factor of ten more rapid than the standard method.

  12. Interaction between host T cells and Reed-Sternberg cells in Hodgkin lymphomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppema, S; van den Berg, Anke

    2000-01-01

    Recent studies provide evidence that Reed-Sternberg (R-S) cells produce factors that may explain the characteristic inflammatory infiltrate in the affected tissues of Hodgkin lymphoma. The various chemokines and cytokines that are produced lead to a preferential influx of Th2-type T cells and

  13. Quantification of residual host cell DNA in adenoviral vectors produced on PER.C6 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbers, Linda; Koel, Björn; Weggeman, Miranda; Goudsmit, Jaap; Havenga, Menzo; Marzio, Giuseppe

    2005-01-01

    Recombinant adenoviral vectors for gene therapy and vaccination are routinely prepared on cultures of immortalized cells, allowing the production of vector batches of high titer and consistent quality. Quantification of residual DNA from the producing cell line is part of the purity tests for

  14. A Polymorphism within the Internal Fusion Loop of the Ebola Virus Glycoprotein Modulates Host Cell Entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Markus; Crone, Lisa; Dietzel, Erik; Paijo, Jennifer; González-Hernández, Mariana; Nehlmeier, Inga; Kalinke, Ulrich; Becker, Stephan; Pöhlmann, Stefan

    2017-05-01

    The large scale of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa in 2013-2016 raised the question whether the host cell interactions of the responsible Ebola virus (EBOV) strain differed from those of other ebolaviruses. We previously reported that the glycoprotein (GP) of the virus circulating in West Africa in 2014 (EBOV2014) exhibited reduced ability to mediate entry into two nonhuman primate (NHP)-derived cell lines relative to the GP of EBOV1976. Here, we investigated the molecular determinants underlying the differential entry efficiency. We found that EBOV2014-GP-driven entry into diverse NHP-derived cell lines, as well as human monocyte-derived macrophages and dendritic cells, was reduced compared to EBOV1976-GP, although entry into most human- and all bat-derived cell lines tested was comparable. Moreover, EBOV2014 replication in NHP but not human cells was diminished relative to EBOV1976, suggesting that reduced cell entry translated into reduced viral spread. Mutagenic analysis of EBOV2014-GP and EBOV1976-GP revealed that an amino acid polymorphism in the receptor-binding domain, A82V, modulated entry efficiency in a cell line-independent manner and did not account for the reduced EBOV2014-GP-driven entry into NHP cells. In contrast, polymorphism T544I, located in the internal fusion loop in the GP2 subunit, was found to be responsible for the entry phenotype. These results suggest that position 544 is an important determinant of EBOV infectivity for both NHP and certain human target cells. IMPORTANCE The Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa in 2013 entailed more than 10,000 deaths. The scale of the outbreak and its dramatic impact on human health raised the question whether the responsible virus was particularly adept at infecting human cells. Our study shows that an amino acid exchange, A82V, that was acquired during the epidemic and that was not observed in previously circulating viruses, increases viral entry into diverse target cells

  15. Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells as a New Host Cell in Latent Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdiyev, Adil M.; Bagirova, Melahat; Elcicek, Serhat; Koc, Rabia Cakir; Baydar, Serap Yesilkir; Findikli, Necati; Oztel, Olga N.

    2011-01-01

    Some protozoan infections such as Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium, and Plasmodium can be transmitted through stem cell transplantations. To our knowledge, so far, there is no study about transmission of Leishmania parasites in stem cell transplantation and interactions between parasites and stem cells in vitro. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between different species of Leishmania parasites and adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs). ADMSCs have been isolated, cultured, characterized, and infected with different species of Leishmania parasites (L. donovani, L. major, L. tropica, and L. infantum). Infectivity was examined by Giemsa staining, microculture, and polymerase chain reaction methods. As a result, infectivity of ADMSCs by Leishmania parasites has been determined for the first time in this study. According to our findings, it is very important that donors are screened for Leishmania parasites before stem cell transplantations in regions where leishmaniasis is endemic. PMID:21896818

  16. Use of an Optical Trap for Study of Host-Pathogen Interactions for Dynamic Live Cell Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Tam, Jenny M.; Castro, Carlos E.; Heath, Robert J. W.; Mansour, Michael K.; Cardenas, Michael L.; Xavier, Ramnik J.; Lang, Matthew J.; Vyas, Jatin M.

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic live cell imaging allows direct visualization of real-time interactions between cells of the immune system1, 2; however, the lack of spatial and temporal control between the phagocytic cell and microbe has rendered focused observations into the initial interactions of host response to pathogens difficult. Historically, intercellular contact events such as phagocytosis3 have been imaged by mixing two cell types, and then continuously scanning the field-of-view to find serendipitous int...

  17. Use of lymphokine-activated killer cells to prevent bone marrow graft rejection and lethal graft-vs-host disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azuma, E.; Yamamoto, H.; Kaplan, J.

    1989-01-01

    Prompted by our recent finding that lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells mediate both veto and natural suppression, we tested the ability of adoptively transferred LAK cells to block two in vivo alloreactions which complicate bone marrow transplantation: resistance to transplanted allogeneic bone marrow cells, and lethal graft-vs-host disease. Adoptive transfer of either donor type B6D2 or recipient-type B6 lymphokine-activated bone marrow cells, cells found to have strong LAK activity, abrogated or inhibited the resistance of irradiated B6 mice to both B6D2 marrow and third party-unrelated C3H marrow as measured by CFU in spleen on day 7. The ability of lymphokine-activated bone marrow cells to abrogate allogeneic resistance was eliminated by C lysis depletion of cells expressing asialo-GM1, NK1.1, and, to a variable degree, Thy-1, but not by depletion of cells expressing Lyt-2, indicating that the responsible cells had a LAK cell phenotype. Similar findings were obtained by using splenic LAK cells generated by 3 to 7 days of culture with rIL-2. Demonstration that allogeneic resistance could be blocked by a cloned LAK cell line provided direct evidence that LAK cells inhibit allogeneic resistance. In addition to inhibiting allogeneic resistance, adoptively transferred recipient-type LAK cells prevented lethal graft-vs-host disease, and permitted long term engraftment of allogeneic marrow. Irradiation prevented LAK cell inhibition of both allogeneic resistance and lethal graft-vs-host disease. These findings suggest that adoptive immunotherapy with LAK cells may prove useful in preventing graft rejection and graft-versus-host disease in human bone marrow transplant recipients

  18. Identification of 19 new risk loci and potential regulatory mechanisms influencing susceptibility to testicular germ cell tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchfield, Kevin; Levy, Max; Orlando, Giulia; Loveday, Chey; Law, Philip J; Migliorini, Gabriele; Holroyd, Amy; Broderick, Peter; Karlsson, Robert; Haugen, Trine B; Kristiansen, Wenche; Nsengimana, Jérémie; Fenwick, Kerry; Assiotis, Ioannis; Kote-Jarai, ZSofia; Dunning, Alison M; Muir, Kenneth; Peto, Julian; Eeles, Rosalind; Easton, Douglas F; Dudakia, Darshna; Orr, Nick; Pashayan, Nora; Bishop, D Timothy; Reid, Alison; Huddart, Robert A; Shipley, Janet; Grotmol, Tom; Wiklund, Fredrik; Houlston, Richard S; Turnbull, Clare

    2017-07-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have transformed understanding of susceptibility to testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), but much of the heritability remains unexplained. Here we report a new GWAS, a meta-analysis with previous GWAS and a replication series, totaling 7,319 TGCT cases and 23,082 controls. We identify 19 new TGCT risk loci, roughly doubling the number of known TGCT risk loci to 44. By performing in situ Hi-C in TGCT cells, we provide evidence for a network of physical interactions among all 44 TGCT risk SNPs and candidate causal genes. Our findings implicate widespread disruption of developmental transcriptional regulators as a basis of TGCT susceptibility, consistent with failed primordial germ cell differentiation as an initiating step in oncogenesis. Defective microtubule assembly and dysregulation of KIT-MAPK signaling also feature as recurrently disrupted pathways. Our findings support a polygenic model of risk and provide insight into the biological basis of TGCT.

  19. High-risk human papillomavirus E7 expression reduces cell-surface MHC class I molecules and increases susceptibility to natural killer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bottley, G; Watherston, O G; Hiew, Y-L

    2007-01-01

    a role for E7 in tumour immune evasion. We show that knockdown of E7 expression in HPV16- and HPV18-transformed cervical carcinoma cells by RNA interference increased expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I at the cell surface and reduced susceptibility of these cells to natural...... killer (NK) cells. Tetracycline-regulated induction of HPV16 E7 resulted in reduced expression of cell surface MHC class I molecules and increased NK cell killing. Our results suggest that, for HPV-associated malignancies, reduced MHC class I expression is the result of an active immune evasion strategy...

  20. The Xanthomonas campestris type III effector XopJ targets the host cell proteasome to suppress salicylic-acid mediated plant defence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suayib Üstün

    Full Text Available The phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv requires type III effector proteins (T3Es for virulence. After translocation into the host cell, T3Es are thought to interact with components of host immunity to suppress defence responses. XopJ is a T3E protein from Xcv that interferes with plant immune responses; however, its host cellular target is unknown. Here we show that XopJ interacts with the proteasomal subunit RPT6 in yeast and in planta to inhibit proteasome activity. A C235A mutation within the catalytic triad of XopJ as well as a G2A exchange within the N-terminal myristoylation motif abolishes the ability of XopJ to inhibit the proteasome. Xcv ΔxopJ mutants are impaired in growth and display accelerated symptom development including tissue necrosis on susceptible pepper leaves. Application of the proteasome inhibitor MG132 restored the ability of the Xcv ΔxopJ to attenuate the development of leaf necrosis. The XopJ dependent delay of tissue degeneration correlates with reduced levels of salicylic acid (SA and changes in defence- and senescence-associated gene expression. Necrosis upon infection with Xcv ΔxopJ was greatly reduced in pepper plants with reduced expression of NPR1, a central regulator of SA responses, demonstrating the involvement of SA-signalling in the development of XopJ dependent phenotypes. Our results suggest that XopJ-mediated inhibition of the proteasome interferes with SA-dependent defence response to attenuate onset of necrosis and to alter host transcription. A central role of the proteasome in plant defence is discussed.

  1. Host-cell reactivation of ultraviolet-irradiated SV 40 DNA in five complementation groups of xeroderma pigmentosum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahams, P.J.; Eb, A.J. van der

    1976-01-01

    Host-cell reactivation of UV-irradiated double-stranded SV40 DNA was studied in BSC-1 monkey cells, normal human cells, heterozygous Xeroderma pigmentosum xp cells, representative cell strains of the five complemention groups of XP and in XP 'variant' cells. The following percentages of survival of the plaque-forming ability of double-stranded SV40 DNA were found in XP cells compared with the value found in normal monkey and human cells: groupA, 13%; group B, 30%; group C, 18%; group D, 14%; group E, 59%; and in the heterozygous XP cells almost 100%. The survival in XP 'variant' cells was 66%. The survival of single-stranded SV40 DNA in BSC-1 cells was much lower than that of double-stranded SV40 DNA in XP cells of complementation group A, which possibly indicates that some repair of UV damage occurs even in XP cells of group A

  2. A proposed cell model for multiple-occurrence regional landslide events: Implications for landslide susceptibility mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, M. J.

    2017-10-01

    Multiple-occurrence regional landslide events (MORLEs) consist of hundreds to thousands of shallow landslides occurring more or less simultaneously within defined areas, ranging from tens to thousands of square kilometres. While MORLEs can be triggered by rainstorms and earthquakes, this paper is confined to those landslide events triggered by rainstorms. Globally, MORLEs occur in a range of geological settings in areas of moderate to steep slopes subject to intense rainstorms. Individual landslides in rainstorm-triggered events are dominantly small, shallow debris and earth flows, and debris and earth slides involving regolith or weathered bedrock. The model used to characterise these events assumes that energy distribution within the event area is represented on the land surface by a cell structure; with maximum energy expenditure within an identifiable core and rapid dissipation concentrically away from the centre. The version of the model presented here has been developed for rainfall-triggered landslide events. It proposes that rainfall intensity can be used to determine different critical landslide response zones within the cell (referred to as core, middle, and periphery zones). These zones are most readily distinguished by two conditions: the proportion of the slope that fails and the particular type of the slope stability factor that assumes dominance in determining specific sites of landslide occurrence. The latter condition means that the power of any slope stability factor to distinguish between stable and unstable sites varies throughout the affected area in accordance with the landslide response zones within the cell; certain factors critical for determining the location of landslide sites in one part of the event area have little influence in other parts of the event area. The implication is that landslide susceptibility maps (and subsequently derived mitigation measures) based on conventional slope stability factors may have only limited validity

  3. Osteopontin attenuates acute gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease by preventing apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Kentaro; Minami, Naoki; Matsuura, Minoru; Iida, Tomoya; Toyonaga, Takahiko; Nagaishi, Kanna; Arimura, Yoshiaki; Fujimiya, Mineko; Uede, Toshimitsu; Nakase, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims: Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, which often targets gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Osteopontin (OPN) plays an important physiological role in the efficient development of Th1 immune responses and cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis. The role of OPN in acute GI-GVHD is poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the role of OPN in donor T cells in the pathogenicity of acute GI-GVHD. Methods: OPN knockout (KO) mice and C57BL/6 (B6) mice were used as donors, and (C57BL/6 × DBA/2) F1 (BDF1) mice were used as allograft recipients. Mice with acute GI-GVHD were divided into three groups: the control group (BDF1→BDF1), B6 group (B6→BDF1), and OPN-KO group (OPN-KO→BDF1). Bone marrow cells and spleen cells from donors were transplanted to lethally irradiated recipients. Clinical GVHD scores were assessed daily. Recipients were euthanized on day 7 after transplantation, and colons and small intestines were collected for various analyses. Results: The clinical GVHD score in the OPN-KO group was significantly increased compared with the B6 and control groups. We observed a difference in the severity of colonic GVHD between the OPN-KO group and B6 group, but not small intestinal-GVHD between these groups. Interferon-γ, Tumor necrosis factor-α, Interleukin-17A, and Interleukin-18 gene expression in the OPN-KO group was differed between the colon and small intestine. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the fluorescence intensity of splenic and colonic CD8 T cells expressing Fas Ligand was increased in the OPN-KO group compared with the B6 group. Conclusion: We demonstrated that the importance of OPN in T cells in the onset of acute GI-GVHD involves regulating apoptosis of the intestinal cell via the Fas-Fas Ligand pathway. - Highlights: • A lack of osteopontin in donor cells exacerbated clinical gastrointestinal GVHD. • Donor cells lacking

  4. Mild hypothermic culture conditions affect residual host cell protein composition post-Protein A chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goey, Cher Hui; Bell, David; Kontoravdi, Cleo

    2018-04-01

    Host cell proteins (HCPs) are endogenous impurities, and their proteolytic and binding properties can compromise the integrity, and, hence, the stability and efficacy of recombinant therapeutic proteins such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Nonetheless, purification of mAbs currently presents a challenge because they often co-elute with certain HCP species during the capture step of protein A affinity chromatography. A Quality-by-Design (QbD) strategy to overcome this challenge involves identifying residual HCPs and tracing their source to the harvested cell culture fluid (HCCF) and the corresponding cell culture operating parameters. Then, problematic HCPs in HCCF may be reduced by cell engineering or culture process optimization. Here, we present experimental results linking cell culture temperature and post-protein A residual HCP profile. We had previously reported that Chinese hamster ovary cell cultures conducted at standard physiological temperature and with a shift to mild hypothermia on day 5 produced HCCF of comparable product titer and HCP concentration, but with considerably different HCP composition. In this study, we show that differences in HCP variety at harvest cascaded to downstream purification where different residual HCPs were present in the two sets of samples post-protein A purification. To detect low-abundant residual HCPs, we designed a looping liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method with continuous expansion of a preferred, exclude, and targeted peptide list. Mild hypothermic cultures produced 20% more residual HCP species, especially cell membrane proteins, distinct from the control. Critically, we identified that half of the potentially immunogenic residual HCP species were different between the two sets of samples.

  5. A novel method for producing target cells and assessing cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity in outbred hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bendinelli Mauro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytotoxic T lymphocytes play a crucial role in the immunological control of microbial infections and in the design of vaccines and immunotherapies. Measurement of cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity requires that the test antigen is presented by target cells having the same or compatible class I major hystocompatibility complex antigens as the effector cells. Conventional assays use target cells labeled with 51chromium and infer cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity by measuring the isotope released by the target cells lysed following incubation with antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. This assay is sensitive but needs manipulation and disposal of hazardous radioactive reagents and provides a bulk estimate of the reporter released, which may be influenced by spontaneous release of the label and other poorly controllable variables. Here we describe a novel method for producing target in outbred hosts and assessing cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity by flow cytometry. Results The method consists of culturing skin fibroblasts, immortalizing them with a replication defective clone of simian virus 40, and finally transducing them with a bicistronic vector encoding the target antigen and the reporter green fluorescent protein. When used in a flow cytometry-based assay, the target cells obtained with this method proved valuable for assessing the viral envelope protein specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity in domestic cats acutely or chronically infected with feline immunodeficiency virus, a lentivirus similar to human immunodeficiency virus and used as animal model for AIDS studies. Conclusion Given the versatility of the bicistronic vector used, its ability to deliver multiple and large transgenes in target cells, and its extremely wide cell specificity when pseudotyped with the vesicular stomatitis virus envelope protein, the method is potentially exploitable in many animal species.

  6. Shigella reroutes host cell central metabolism to obtain high-flux nutrient supply for vigorous intracellular growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentner, David; Martano, Giuseppe; Callon, Morgane; Chiquet, Petra; Brodmann, Maj; Burton, Olga; Wahlander, Asa; Nanni, Paolo; Delmotte, Nathanaël; Grossmann, Jonas; Limenitakis, Julien; Schlapbach, Ralph; Kiefer, Patrick; Vorholt, Julia A; Hiller, Sebastian; Bumann, Dirk

    2014-07-08

    Shigella flexneri proliferate in infected human epithelial cells at exceptionally high rates. This vigorous growth has important consequences for rapid progression to life-threatening bloody diarrhea, but the underlying metabolic mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we used metabolomics, proteomics, and genetic experiments to determine host and Shigella metabolism during infection in a cell culture model. The data suggest that infected host cells maintain largely normal fluxes through glycolytic pathways, but the entire output of these pathways is captured by Shigella, most likely in the form of pyruvate. This striking strategy provides Shigella with an abundant favorable energy source, while preserving host cell ATP generation, energy charge maintenance, and survival, despite ongoing vigorous exploitation. Shigella uses a simple three-step pathway to metabolize pyruvate at high rates with acetate as an excreted waste product. The crucial role of this pathway for Shigella intracellular growth suggests targets for antimicrobial chemotherapy of this devastating disease.

  7. Modulation of nonessential amino acid biosynthetic pathways in virulent Hessian fly larvae (Mayetiola destructor), feeding on susceptible host wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor), an obligate plant-parasitic gall midge, is an important dipteran pest of wheat (Triticum aestivum). The insect employs an effector-based feeding strategy to reprogram the host plant to be nutritionally beneficial for the developing larva by inducing formation of p...

  8. Bacterial host and reporter gene optimization for genetically encoded whole cell biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutesco, Catherine; Prévéral, Sandra; Escoffier, Camille; Descamps, Elodie C T; Prudent, Elsa; Cayron, Julien; Dumas, Louis; Ricquebourg, Manon; Adryanczyk-Perrier, Géraldine; de Groot, Arjan; Garcia, Daniel; Rodrigue, Agnès; Pignol, David; Ginet, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Whole-cell biosensors based on reporter genes allow detection of toxic metals in water with high selectivity and sensitivity under laboratory conditions; nevertheless, their transfer to a commercial inline water analyzer requires specific adaptation and optimization to field conditions as well as economical considerations. We focused here on both the influence of the bacterial host and the choice of the reporter gene by following the responses of global toxicity biosensors based on constitutive bacterial promoters as well as arsenite biosensors based on the arsenite-inducible P ars promoter. We observed important variations of the bioluminescence emission levels in five different Escherichia coli strains harboring two different lux-based biosensors, suggesting that the best host strain has to be empirically selected for each new biosensor under construction. We also investigated the bioluminescence reporter gene system transferred into Deinococcus deserti, an environmental, desiccation- and radiation-tolerant bacterium that would reduce the manufacturing costs of bacterial biosensors for commercial water analyzers and open the field of biodetection in radioactive environments. We thus successfully obtained a cell survival biosensor and a metal biosensor able to detect a concentration as low as 100 nM of arsenite in D. deserti. We demonstrated that the arsenite biosensor resisted desiccation and remained functional after 7 days stored in air-dried D. deserti cells. We also report here the use of a new near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent reporter candidate, a bacteriophytochrome from the magnetotactic bacterium Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1, which showed a NIR fluorescent signal that remained optimal despite increasing sample turbidity, while in similar conditions, a drastic loss of the lux-based biosensors signal was observed.

  9. Extracellular Vesicle-Associated Transitory Cell Wall Components and Their Impact on the Interaction of Fungi with Host Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimrichter, Leonardo; de Souza, Marcio M; Del Poeta, Maurizio; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Joffe, Luna; Tavares, Patricia de M; Rodrigues, Marcio L

    2016-01-01

    Classic cell wall components of fungi comprise the polysaccharides glucans and chitin, in association with glycoproteins and pigments. During the last decade, however, system biology approaches clearly demonstrated that the composition of fungal cell walls include atypical molecules historically associated with intracellular or membrane locations. Elucidation of mechanisms by which many fungal molecules are exported to the extracellular space suggested that these atypical components are transitorily located to the cell wall. The presence of extracellular vesicles (EVs) at the fungal cell wall and in culture supernatants of distinct pathogenic species suggested a highly functional mechanism of molecular export in these organisms. Thus, the passage of EVs through fungal cell walls suggests remarkable molecular diversity and, consequently, a potentially variable influence on the host antifungal response. On the basis of information derived from the proteomic characterization of fungal EVs from the yeasts Cryptoccocus neoformans and Candida albicans and the dimorphic fungi Histoplasma capsulatum and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, our manuscript is focused on the clear view that the fungal cell wall is much more complex than previously thought.

  10. Mycobacterial secretion systems ESX-1 and ESX-5 play distinct roles in host cell death and inflammasome activation

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Abdallah; Bestebroer, Jovanka; Savage, Nigel D L; De Punder, Karin; Van Zon, Maaike; Wilson, Louis D.; Korbee, Cees J.; Van Der Sar, Astrid M.; Ottenhoff, Tom Hm M; Van Der Wel, Nicole N.; Bitter, Wilbert M.; Peters, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    for the translocation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Mycobacterium marinum to the cytosol of host cells. However, the M. marinum ESX-5 mutant does not induce inflammasome activation and IL-1b activation. The ESX-5 system also induces a caspase-independent cell death

  11. RNA-Seq Based Transcriptome Analysis of the Type I Interferon Host Response upon Vaccinia Virus Infection of Mouse Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Hernáez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinia virus (VACV encodes the soluble type I interferon (IFN binding protein B18 that is secreted from infected cells and also attaches to the cell surface, as an immunomodulatory strategy to inhibit the host IFN response. By using next generation sequencing technologies, we performed a detailed RNA-seq study to dissect at the transcriptional level the modulation of the IFN based host response by VACV and B18. Transcriptome profiling of L929 cells after incubation with purified recombinant B18 protein showed that attachment of B18 to the cell surface does not trigger cell signalling leading to transcriptional activation. Consistent with its ability to bind type I IFN, B18 completely inhibited the IFN-mediated modulation of host gene expression. Addition of UV-inactivated virus particles to cell cultures altered the expression of a set of 53 cellular genes, including genes involved in innate immunity. Differential gene expression analyses of cells infected with replication competent VACV identified the activation of a broad range of host genes involved in multiple cellular pathways. Interestingly, we did not detect an IFN-mediated response among the transcriptional changes induced by VACV, even after the addition of IFN to cells infected with a mutant VACV lacking B18. This is consistent with additional viral mechanisms acting at different levels to block IFN responses during VACV infection.

  12. Adjustment of host cells for accommodation of symbiotic bacteria: vacuole defunctionalization, HOPS suppression, and TIP1g retargeting in Medicago

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gavrin, A.Y.; Kaiser, B.N.; Geiger, D.; Tyerman, S.D.; Wen, Z.; Bisseling, T.; Fedorova, E.E.

    2014-01-01

    In legume–rhizobia symbioses, the bacteria in infected cells are enclosed in a plant membrane, forming organelle-like compartments called symbiosomes. Symbiosomes remain as individual units and avoid fusion with lytic vacuoles of host cells. We observed changes in the vacuole volume of infected

  13. Peptide Nucleic Acid Knockdown and Intra-host Cell Complementation of Ehrlichia Type IV Secretion System Effector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratibha Sharma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Survival of Ehrlichia chaffeensis depends on obligatory intracellular infection. One of the barriers to E. chaffeensis research progress has been the inability, using conventional techniques, to generate knock-out mutants for genes essential for intracellular infection. This study examined the use of Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNAs technology to interrupt type IV secretion system (T4SS effector protein expression in E. chaffeensis followed by intracellular complementation of the effector to determine its requirement for infection. Successful E. chaffeensis infection depends on the E. chaffeensis-specific T4SS protein effector, ehrlichial translocated factor-1 (Etf-1, which induces Rab5-regulated autophagy to provide host cytosolic nutrients required for E. chaffeensis proliferation. Etf-1 is also imported by host cell mitochondria where it inhibits host cell apoptosis to prolong its infection. We designed a PNA specific to Etf-1 and showed that the PNA bound to the target region of single-stranded Etf-1 RNA using a competitive binding assay. Electroporation of E. chaffeensis with this PNA significantly reduced Etf-1 mRNA and protein, and the bacteria's ability to induce host cell autophagy and infect host cells. Etf-1 PNA-mediated inhibition of ehrlichial Etf-1 expression and E. chaffeensis infection could be intracellularly trans-complemented by ectopic expression of Etf-1-GFP in host cells. These data affirmed the critical role of bacterial T4SS effector in host cell autophagy and E. chaffeensis infection, and demonstrated the use of PNA to analyze the gene functions of obligate intracellular bacteria.

  14. Host characteristics, sun exposure, indoor tanning and risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veierød, Marit B; Couto, Elisabeth; Lund, Eiliv; Adami, Hans-Olov; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2014-07-15

    Use of indoor tanning devices increases risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma, but the association with risk of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin is unclear. Cohort studies of SCC risk are rare and we aimed to assess the association between SCC risk and host characteristics, sun exposure, and indoor tanning in a population-based cohort of Norwegian and Swedish women conjunctly with SCC incidence data from national cancer registries. Host characteristics and exposure to sun and indoor tanning devices before 50-years old were recorded by questionnaire at inclusion (30-50 years) in 1991/92. Multivariable relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by Poisson regression. During follow-up of 106,548 women through December 2009, SCC was diagnosed in 141 women. Skin sensitivity to acute sun exposure was the most important pigmentation characteristic (RR = 2.73, 95% CI 1.47-5.05, for red with pain/red with pain and blisters versus brown). We found no consistent associations with sunburns and bathing vacations in the first five age decades, but a significant positive trend for bathing vacations summarized over ages 10-49 years (Ptrend  = 0.02). We also found significantly increased risks of SCC following indoor tanning at age 40-49 years (RR = 2.17, 95% CI 1.29-3.67, for ≥ 1 time/month versus never) and indoor tanning summarized over ages 10-49 years (Ptrend  = 0.001). RR for ever versus never use of indoor tanning over ages 10-49 years was 1.93 (95% CI 1.27-2.95). Propensity to burn was an important host characteristic, and bathing vacations and indoor tanning summarized over ages 10-49 years increased SCC risk. © 2013 UICC.

  15. Microscopy-based Assays for High-throughput Screening of Host Factors Involved in Brucella Infection of Hela Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Alain; Low, Shyan H; Emmenlauer, Mario; Conde-Alvarez, Raquel; Salcedo, Suzana P; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre; Dehio, Christoph

    2016-08-05

    Brucella species are facultative intracellular pathogens that infect animals as their natural hosts. Transmission to humans is most commonly caused by direct contact with infected animals or by ingestion of contaminated food and can lead to severe chronic infections. Brucella can invade professional and non-professional phagocytic cells and replicates within endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived vacuoles. The host factors required for Brucella entry into host cells, avoidance of lysosomal degradation, and replication in the ER-like compartment remain largely unknown. Here we describe two assays to identify host factors involved in Brucella entry and replication in HeLa cells. The protocols describe the use of RNA interference, while alternative screening methods could be applied. The assays are based on the detection of fluorescently labeled bacteria in fluorescently labeled host cells using automated wide-field microscopy. The fluorescent images are analyzed using a standardized image analysis pipeline in CellProfiler which allows single cell-based infection scoring. In the endpoint assay, intracellular replication is measured two days after infection. This allows bacteria to traffic to their replicative niche where proliferation is initiated around 12 hr after bacterial entry. Brucella which have successfully established an intracellular niche will thus have strongly proliferated inside host cells. Since intracellular bacteria will greatly outnumber individual extracellular or intracellular non-replicative bacteria, a strain constitutively expressing GFP can be used. The strong GFP signal is then used to identify infected cells. In contrast, for the entry assay it is essential to differentiate between intracellular and extracellular bacteria. Here, a strain encoding for a tetracycline-inducible GFP is used. Induction of GFP with simultaneous inactivation of extracellular bacteria by gentamicin enables the differentiation between intracellular and extracellular

  16. Mycobacterium tuberculosis nuoG is a virulence gene that inhibits apoptosis of infected host cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamalakannan Velmurugan

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The survival and persistence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis depends on its capacity to manipulate multiple host defense pathways, including the ability to actively inhibit the death by apoptosis of infected host cells. The genetic basis for this anti-apoptotic activity and its implication for mycobacterial virulence have not been demonstrated or elucidated. Using a novel gain-of-function genetic screen, we demonstrated that inhibition of infection-induced apoptosis of macrophages is controlled by multiple genetic loci in M. tuberculosis. Characterization of one of these loci in detail revealed that the anti-apoptosis activity was attributable to the type I NADH-dehydrogenase of M. tuberculosis, and was mainly due to the subunit of this multicomponent complex encoded by the nuoG gene. Expression of M. tuberculosis nuoG in nonpathogenic mycobacteria endowed them with the ability to inhibit apoptosis of infected human or mouse macrophages, and increased their virulence in a SCID mouse model. Conversely, deletion of nuoG in M. tuberculosis ablated its ability to inhibit macrophage apoptosis and significantly reduced its virulence in mice. These results identify a key component of the genetic basis for an important virulence trait of M. tuberculosis and support a direct causal relationship between virulence of pathogenic mycobacteria and their ability to inhibit macrophage apoptosis.

  17. Toroidal surface complexes of bacteriophage φ12 are responsible for host-cell attachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leo-Macias, Alejandra; Katz, Garrett; Wei Hui; Alimova, Alexandra; Katz, A.; Rice, William J.; Diaz-Avalos, Ruben; Hu Guobin; Stokes, David L.; Gottlieb, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Cryo-electron tomography and subtomogram averaging are utilized to determine that the bacteriophage φ12, a member of the Cystoviridae family, contains surface complexes that are toroidal in shape, are composed of six globular domains with six-fold symmetry, and have a discrete density connecting them to the virus membrane-envelope surface. The lack of this kind of spike in a reassortant of φ12 demonstrates that the gene for the hexameric spike is located in φ12's medium length genome segment, likely to the P3 open reading frames which are the proteins involved in viral-host cell attachment. Based on this and on protein mass estimates derived from the obtained averaged structure, it is suggested that each of the globular domains is most likely composed of a total of four copies of P3a and/or P3c proteins. Our findings may have implications in the study of the evolution of the cystovirus species in regard to their host specificity. - Research Highlights: → Subtomogram averaging reveals enhanced detail of a φ12 cystovirus surface protein complex. → The surface protein complex has a toroidal shape and six-fold symmetry. → It is encoded by the medium-size genome segment. → The proteins of the surface complex most likely are one copy of P3a and three copies of P3c.

  18. Host cell proteins in biologics development: Identification, quantitation and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing; Hunter, Alan K; Mozier, Ned M

    2009-06-15

    Host cell proteins (HCPs) are those produced or encoded by the organisms and unrelated to the intended recombinant product. Some are necessary for growth, survival, and normal cellular processing whereas others may be non-essential, simply carried along as baggage. Like the recombinant product, HCPs may also be modified by the host with a number of post-translational modifications. Regardless of the utility, or lack thereof, HCPs are undesirable in the final drug substance. Though commonly present in small quantities (parts per million expressed as nanograms per milligrams of the intended recombinant protein) much effort and cost is expended by industry to remove them. The purpose of this review is to summarize what is of relevance in regards to the biology, the impact of genomics and proteomics on HCP evaluation, the regulatory expectations, analytical approaches, and various methodologies to remove HCPs with bioprocessing. Historical data, bioinformatics approaches and industrial case study examples are provided. Finally, a proposal for a risk assessment tool is provided which brings these facets together and proposes a means for manufacturers to classify and organize a control strategy leading to meaningful product specifications. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Roles of the Picornaviral 3C Proteinase in the Viral Life Cycle and Host Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Sun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Picornaviridae family comprises a large group of non-enveloped viruses that have a major impact on human and veterinary health. The viral genome contains one open reading frame encoding a single polyprotein that can be processed by viral proteinases. The crucial 3C proteinases (3Cpros of picornaviruses share similar spatial structures and it is becoming apparent that 3Cpro plays a significant role in the viral life cycle and virus host interaction. Importantly, the proteinase and RNA-binding activity of 3Cpro are involved in viral polyprotein processing and the initiation of viral RNA synthesis. In addition, 3Cpro can induce the cleavage of certain cellular factors required for transcription, translation and nucleocytoplasmic trafficking to modulate cell physiology for viral replication. Due to interactions between 3Cpro and these essential factors, 3Cpro is also involved in viral pathogenesis to support efficient infection. Furthermore, based on the structural conservation, the development of irreversible inhibitors and discovery of non-covalent inhibitors for 3Cpro are ongoing and a better understanding of the roles played by 3Cpro may provide insights into the development of potential antiviral treatments. In this review, the current knowledge regarding the structural features, multiple functions in the viral life cycle, pathogen host interaction, and development of antiviral compounds for 3Cpro is summarized.

  20. Signal transduction of Helicobacter pylori during interaction with host cell protein receptors of epithelial and immune cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachathundikandi, Suneesh Kumar; Tegtmeyer, Nicole; Backert, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infections can induce pathologies ranging from chronic gastritis, peptic ulceration to gastric cancer. Bacterial isolates harbor numerous well-known adhesins, vacuolating cytotoxin VacA, protease HtrA, urease, peptidoglycan, and type IV secretion systems (T4SS). It appears that H. pylori targets more than 40 known host protein receptors on epithelial or immune cells. A series of T4SS components such as CagL, CagI, CagY, and CagA can bind to the integrin α5β1 receptor. Other targeted membrane-based receptors include the integrins αvβ3, αvβ5, and β2 (CD18), RPTP-α/β, GP130, E-cadherin, fibronectin, laminin, CD46, CD74, ICAM1/LFA1, T-cell receptor, Toll-like receptors, and receptor tyrosine kinases EGFR, ErbB2, ErbB3, and c-Met. In addition, H. pylori is able to activate the intracellular receptors NOD1, NOD2, and NLRP3 with important roles in innate immunity. Here we review the interplay of various bacterial factors with host protein receptors. The contribution of these interactions to signal transduction and pathogenesis is discussed. PMID:24280762

  1. Direct identification of the Meloidogyne incognita secretome reveals proteins with host cell reprogramming potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Bellafiore

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, is an obligate parasite that causes significant damage to a broad range of host plants. Infection is associated with secretion of proteins surrounded by proliferating cells. Many parasites are known to secrete effectors that interfere with plant innate immunity, enabling infection to occur; they can also release pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs, e.g., flagellin that trigger basal immunity through the nematode stylet into the plant cell. This leads to suppression of innate immunity and reprogramming of plant cells to form a feeding structure containing multinucleate giant cells. Effectors have generally been discovered using genetics or bioinformatics, but M. incognita is non-sexual and its genome sequence has not yet been reported. To partially overcome these limitations, we have used mass spectrometry to directly identify 486 proteins secreted by M. incognita. These proteins contain at least segmental sequence identity to those found in our 3 reference databases (published nematode proteins; unpublished M. incognita ESTs; published plant proteins. Several secreted proteins are homologous to plant proteins, which they may mimic, and they contain domains that suggest known effector functions (e.g., regulating the plant cell cycle or growth. Others have regulatory domains that could reprogram cells. Using in situ hybridization we observed that most secreted proteins were produced by the subventral glands, but we found that phasmids also secreted proteins. We annotated the functions of the secreted proteins and classified them according to roles they may play in the development of root knot disease. Our results show that parasite secretomes can be partially characterized without cognate genomic DNA sequence. We observed that the M. incognita secretome overlaps the reported secretome of mammalian parasitic nematodes (e.g., Brugia malayi, suggesting a common parasitic behavior and a possible

  2. The role of CD1d-restricted NKT cells in the clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from the lung is dependent on the host genetic background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Patrick; Sigounas, Vaia Yioula; Thompson, Jenna L; van Rooijen, Nico; Poynter, Matthew E; Wargo, Matthew J; Boyson, Jonathan E

    2015-06-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important human opportunistic pathogen, accounting for a significant fraction of hospital-acquired lung infections. CD1d-restricted NKT cells comprise an unusual innate-like T cell subset that plays important roles in both bacterial and viral infections. Previous reports have differed in their conclusions regarding the role of NKT cells in clearance of P. aeruginosa from the lung. Since there is significant strain-dependent variation in NKT cell number and function among different inbred strains of mice, we investigated whether the role of NKT cells was dependent on the host genetic background. We found that NKT cells did indeed play a critical role in the clearance of P. aeruginosa from the lungs of BALB/c mice but that they played no discernible role in clearance from the lungs of C57BL/6 mice. We found that the strain-dependent role of NKT cells was associated with significant strain-dependent differences in cytokine production by lung NKT cells and that impaired clearance of P. aeruginosa in BALB/c CD1d(-/-) mice was associated with an increase in neutrophil influx to the lung and increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines after infection. Finally, we found that the role of alveolar macrophages was also dependent on the genetic background. These data provide further support for a model in which the unusually high level of variability in NKT cell number and function among different genetic backgrounds may be an important contributor to infectious-disease susceptibility and pathology. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Solar cell metals and their hosts: A tale of oversupply and undersupply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elshkaki, Ayman; Graedel, T.E.

    2015-01-01

    discourage end of life recycling of those metals; (4) the greenhouse gases produced by mining oversupplies of the host metals zinc and copper will, in some case, exceed the greenhouse gases savings produced by a fossil fuel to solar cell transition; (5) these challenges can be minimized, but probably not avoided, by increasing the recovery rates of Se, Te, In, and Ge from the host metal ores, and by more efficient end of life recycling.

  4. Trans-suppression of defense DEFB1 gene in intestinal epithelial cells following Cryptosporidium parvum infection is associated with host delivery of parasite Cdg7_FLc_1000 RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Zhenping; Gong, Ai-Yu; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Xin-Tian; Li, Min; Dolata, Courtney E; Chen, Xian-Ming

    2018-03-01

    To counteract host immunity, Cryptosporidium parvum has evolved multiple strategies to suppress host antimicrobial defense. One such strategy is to reduce the production of the antimicrobial peptide beta-defensin 1 (DEFB1) by host epithelial cells but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Recent studies demonstrate that a panel of parasite RNA transcripts of low protein-coding potential are delivered into infected host cells and may modulate host gene transcription. Using in vitro models of intestinal cryptosporidiosis, in this study, we analyzed the expression profile of host beta-defensin genes in host cells following infection. We found that C. parvum infection caused a significant downregulation of the DEFB1 gene. Interestingly, downregulation of DEFB1 gene was associated with host delivery of Cdg7_FLc_1000 RNA transcript, a C. parvum RNA that has previously demonstrated to be delivered into the nuclei of infected host cells. Knockdown of Cdg7_FLc_1000 in host cells could attenuate the trans-suppression of host DEFB1 gene and decreased the parasite burden. Therefore, our data suggest that trans-suppression of DEFB1 gene in intestinal epithelial cells following C. parvum infection involves host delivery of parasite Cdg7_FLc_1000 RNA, a process that may be relevant to the epithelial defense evasion by C. parvum at the early stage of infection.

  5. Identification of Host Cell Factors Associated with Astrovirus Replication in Caco-2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Andrea; Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Barkla, Bronwyn J; Méndez, Ernesto; Arias, Carlos F

    2015-10-01

    Astroviruses are small, nonenveloped viruses with a single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome causing acute gastroenteritis in children and immunocompromised patients. Since positive-sense RNA viruses have frequently been found to replicate in association with membranous structures, in this work we characterized the replication of the human astrovirus serotype 8 strain Yuc8 in Caco-2 cells, using density gradient centrifugation and free-flow zonal electrophoresis (FFZE) to fractionate cellular membranes. Structural and nonstructural viral proteins, positive- and negative-sense viral RNA, and infectious virus particles were found to be associated with a distinct population of membranes separated by FFZE. The cellular proteins associated with this membrane population in infected and mock-infected cells were identified by tandem mass spectrometry. The results indicated that membranes derived from multiple cell organelles were present in the population. Gene ontology and protein-protein interaction network analysis showed that groups of proteins with roles in fatty acid synthesis and ATP biosynthesis were highly enriched in the fractions of this population in infected cells. Based on this information, we investigated by RNA interference the role that some of the identified proteins might have in the replication cycle of the virus. Silencing of the expression of genes involved in cholesterol (DHCR7, CYP51A1) and fatty acid (FASN) synthesis, phosphatidylinositol (PI4KIIIβ) and inositol phosphate (ITPR3) metabolism, and RNA helicase activity (DDX23) significantly decreased the amounts of Yuc8 genomic and antigenomic RNA, synthesis of the structural protein VP90, and virus yield. These results strongly suggest that astrovirus RNA replication and particle assembly take place in association with modified membranes potentially derived from multiple cell organelles. Astroviruses are common etiological agents of acute gastroenteritis in children and immunocompromised patients

  6. Identification of Host Cell Factors Associated with Astrovirus Replication in Caco-2 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Andrea; Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Barkla, Bronwyn J.; Méndez, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Astroviruses are small, nonenveloped viruses with a single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome causing acute gastroenteritis in children and immunocompromised patients. Since positive-sense RNA viruses have frequently been found to replicate in association with membranous structures, in this work we characterized the replication of the human astrovirus serotype 8 strain Yuc8 in Caco-2 cells, using density gradient centrifugation and free-flow zonal electrophoresis (FFZE) to fractionate cellular membranes. Structural and nonstructural viral proteins, positive- and negative-sense viral RNA, and infectious virus particles were found to be associated with a distinct population of membranes separated by FFZE. The cellular proteins associated with this membrane population in infected and mock-infected cells were identified by tandem mass spectrometry. The results indicated that membranes derived from multiple cell organelles were present in the population. Gene ontology and protein-protein interaction network analysis showed that groups of proteins with roles in fatty acid synthesis and ATP biosynthesis were highly enriched in the fractions of this population in infected cells. Based on this information, we investigated by RNA interference the role that some of the identified proteins might have in the replication cycle of the virus. Silencing of the expression of genes involved in cholesterol (DHCR7, CYP51A1) and fatty acid (FASN) synthesis, phosphatidylinositol (PI4KIIIβ) and inositol phosphate (ITPR3) metabolism, and RNA helicase activity (DDX23) significantly decreased the amounts of Yuc8 genomic and antigenomic RNA, synthesis of the structural protein VP90, and virus yield. These results strongly suggest that astrovirus RNA replication and particle assembly take place in association with modified membranes potentially derived from multiple cell organelles. IMPORTANCE Astroviruses are common etiological agents of acute gastroenteritis in children and

  7. Helper T cell subpopulations from women are more susceptible to the toxic effect of sodium arsenite in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega, Libia; Montes de Oca, Pavel; Saavedra, Rafael; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Arsenic is known to produce inhibition as well as induction of proliferative responses in animal and human cells depending on the doses. Despite the amount of information on the immunotoxic effects of arsenic exposure in different animal models, little is known in humans. Arsenic susceptibility of lymphocyte subpopulations (T helper (Th), CD4+; T cytotoxic (Tc), CD8+) and whether arsenic effects are gender related are still to be determined. This work evaluated the in vitro toxicity of sodium arsenite on human T lymphocyte subpopulations from men and women. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained from healthy young men and women were treated with sodium arsenite (0.01, 0.1, and 1 μM). We assessed cell viability, cell proliferation, and the proportion of Th and Tc cells after 48 or 72 h of arsenic exposure in resting and phytohemagglutinin M (PHA)-activated PBMC. We observed that sodium arsenite at 1 μM was more toxic for Th than for Tc cells in PBMC from women. Besides, T lymphocytes from women were more affected by the cell proliferation inhibition induced by arsenic, suggesting that women could be more susceptible to the toxic and immunotoxic effects caused by arsenic exposure

  8. Changes in human dendritic cell number and function in severe obesity may contribute to increased susceptibility to viral infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Shea, D

    2013-02-26

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are key immune sentinels linking the innate and adaptive immune systems. DCs recognise danger signals and initiate T-cell tolerance, memory and polarisation. They are critical cells in responding to a viral illness. Obese individuals have been shown to have an impaired response to vaccinations against virally mediated conditions and to have an increased susceptibility to multi-organ failure in response to viral illness. We investigated if DCs are altered in an obese cohort (mean body mass index 51.7±7.3 kg m(-2)), ultimately resulting in differential T-cell responses. Circulating DCs were found to be significantly decreased in the obese compared with the lean cohort (0.82% vs 2.53%). Following Toll-like receptor stimulation, compared with lean controls, DCs generated from the obese cohort upregulated significantly less CD83 (40% vs 17% mean fluorescence intensity), a molecule implicated in the elicitation of T-cell responses, particularly viral responses. Obese DCs produced twofold more of the immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 than lean controls, and in turn stimulated fourfold more IL-4-production from allogenic naive T cells. We conclude that obesity negatively impacts the ability of DCs to mature and elicit appropriate T-cell responses to a general stimulus. This may contribute to the increased susceptibility to viral infection observed in severe obesity.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 26 February 2013; doi:10.1038\\/ijo.2013.16.

  9. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex enhances susceptibility of CD4 T cells to HIV through a TLR2-mediated pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema M Thayil

    Full Text Available Among HIV-infected individuals, co-infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is associated with faster progression to AIDS. We investigated the hypothesis that M. bovis BCG and M. tuberculosis (Mtb complex could enhance susceptibility of CD4+ cells to HIV infection. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs collected from healthy donors were stimulated with M. bovis BCG, M. tuberculosis CDC1551 and M. smegmatis MC(2155, and stimulated CD4+ cells were infected with R5-and X4-tropic single replication-competent pseudovirus. CD4+ cells stimulated with Mtb complex showed enhanced infection with R5- and X4-tropic HIV, compared to unstimulated cells or cells stimulated with M. smegmatis (p<0.01. Treatment with TLR2 siRNA reversed the increased susceptibility of CD4+ cells with R5- and X4-tropic virus induced by Mtb complex. These findings suggest that TB infection and/or BCG vaccination may be a risk factor for HIV acquisition.

  10. Increased ATP generation in the host cell is required for efficient vaccinia virus production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Che-Fang

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To search for cellular genes up-regulated by vaccinia virus (VV infection, differential display-reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (ddRT-PCR assays were used to examine the expression of mRNAs from mock-infected and VV-infected HeLa cells. Two mitochondrial genes for proteins that are part of the electron transport chain that generates ATP, ND4 and CO II, were up-regulated after VV infection. Up-regulation of ND4 level by VV infection was confirmed by Western blotting analysis. Up-regulation of ND4 was reduced by the MAPK inhibitor, apigenin, which has been demonstrated elsewhere to inhibit VV replication. The induction of ND4 expression occurred after viral DNA replication since ara C, an inhibitor of poxviral DNA replication, could block this induction. ATP production was increased in the host cells after VV infection. Moreover, 4.5 μM oligomycin, an inhibitor of ATP production, reduced the ATP level 13 hr after virus infection to that of mock-infected cells and inhibited viral protein expression and virus production, suggesting that increased ATP production is required for efficient VV production. Our results further suggest that induction of ND4 expression is through a Bcl-2 independent pathway.

  11. Astrocyte Apoptosis and HIV Replication Are Modulated in Host Cells Coinfected with Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier M. Urquiza

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiological agent of Chagas disease. In immunosuppressed individuals, as it occurs in the coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, the central nervous system may be affected. In this regard, reactivation of Chagas disease is severe and often lethal, and it accounts for meningoencephalitis. Astrocytes play a crucial role in the environment maintenance of healthy neurons; however, they can host HIV and T. cruzi. In this report, human astrocytes were infected in vitro with both genetically modified-pathogens to express alternative fluorophore. As evidenced by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, HIV and T. cruzi coexist in the same astrocyte, likely favoring reciprocal interactions. In this context, lower rates of cell death were observed in both T. cruzi monoinfected-astrocytes and HIV-T. cruzi coinfection in comparison with those infected only with HIV. The level of HIV replication is significantly diminished under T. cruzi coinfection, but without affecting the infectivity of the HIV progeny. This interference with viral replication appears to be related to the T. cruzi multiplication rate or its increased intracellular presence but does not require their intracellular cohabitation or infected cell-to-cell contact. Among several Th1/Th2/Th17 profile-related cytokines, only IL-6 was overexpressed in HIV-T. cruzi coinfection exhibiting its cytoprotective role. This study demonstrates that T. cruzi and HIV are able to coinfect astrocytes thus altering viral replication and apoptosis.

  12. Apa is a trimeric autotransporter adhesin of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae responsible for autoagglutination and host cell adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Longwen; Zhou, Liang; Sun, Changjiang; Feng, Xin; Du, ChongTao; Gao, Yu; Ji, Qun; Yang, Shuxin; Wang, Yu; Han, Wenyu; Langford, P R; Lei, Liancheng

    2012-10-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, and adherence to host cells is a key step in the pathogenic process. Although trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs) were identified in many pathogenic bacteria in recent years, none in A. pleuropneumoniae have been characterized. In this study, we identified a TAA from A. pleuropneumoniae, Apa, and characterized the contribution of its amino acid residues to the adhesion process. Sequence analysis of the C-terminal amino acid residues of Apa revealed the presence of a putative translocator domain and six conserved HsfBD1-like or HsfBD2-like binding domains. Western blot analysis revealed that the 126 C-terminal amino acids of Apa could form trimeric molecules. By confocal laser scanning microscopy, one of these six domains (ApaBD3) was determined to mediate adherence to epithelial cells. Adherence assays and adherence inhibition assays using a recombinant E. coli- ApaBD3 strain which expressed ApaBD3 on the surface of E. coli confirmed that this domain was responsible for the adhesion activity. Moreover, cellular enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays demonstrated that ApaBD3 mediated high-level adherence to epithelial cell lines. Intriguingly, autoagglutination was observed with the E. coli- ApaBD3 strain, and this phenomenon was dependent upon the association of the expressed ApaBD3 with the C-terminal translocator domain. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Invasion of Dendritic Cells, Macrophages and Neutrophils by the Bordetella Adenylate Cyclase Toxin: A Subversive Move to Fool Host Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedele, Giorgio; Schiavoni, Ilaria; Adkins, Irena; Klimova, Nela; Sebo, Peter

    2017-09-21

    Adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) is released in the course of B. pertussis infection in the host's respiratory tract in order to suppress its early innate and subsequent adaptive immune defense. CD11b-expressing dendritic cells (DC), macrophages and neutrophils are professional phagocytes and key players of the innate immune system that provide a first line of defense against invading pathogens. Recent findings revealed the capacity of B. pertussis CyaA to intoxicate DC with high concentrations of 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), which ultimately skews the host immune response towards the expansion of Th17 cells and regulatory T cells. CyaA-induced cAMP signaling swiftly incapacitates opsonophagocytosis, oxidative burst and NO-mediated killing of bacteria by neutrophils and macrophages. The subversion of host immune responses by CyaA after delivery into DC, macrophages and neutrophils is the subject of this review.

  14. Downregulation of miR-205 modulates cell susceptibility to oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stresses in renal tubular cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyo Muratsu-Ikeda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress play a crucial role in tubular damage in both acute kidney injury (AKI and chronic kidney disease (CKD. While the pathophysiological contribution of microRNAs (miRNA to renal damage has also been highlighted, the effect of miRNA on renal damage under oxidative and ER stresses conditions remains elusive. METHODS: We assessed changes in miRNA expression in the cultured renal tubular cell line HK-2 under hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced oxidative stress or ER stress using miRNA microarray assay and real-time RT-PCR. The pathophysiological effect of miRNA was evaluated by cell survival rate, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS level, and anti-oxidant enzyme expression in miRNA-inhibited HK-2 or miRNA-overexpressed HK-2 under these stress conditions. The target gene of miRNA was identified by 3'-UTR-luciferase assay. RESULTS: We identified 8 and 10 miRNAs whose expression was significantly altered by oxidative and ER stresses, respectively. Among these, expression of miR-205 was markedly decreased in both stress conditions. Functional analysis revealed that decreased miR-205 led to an increase in cell susceptibility to oxidative and ER stresses, and that this increase was associated with the induction of intracellular ROS and suppression of anti-oxidant enzymes. While increased miR-205 by itself made no change in cell growth or morphology, cell viability under oxidative or ER stress conditions was partially restored. Further, miR-205 bound to the 3'-UTR of the prolyl hydroxylase 1 (PHD1/EGLN2 gene and suppressed the transcription level of EGLN2, which modulates both intracellular ROS level and ER stress state. CONCLUSIONS: miR-205 serves a protective role against both oxidative and ER stresses via the suppression of EGLN2 and subsequent decrease in intracellular ROS. miR-205 may represent a novel therapeutic target in AKI and CKD associated with oxidative or ER stress in tubules.

  15. Establishment and characterization of GSA-1, a human cell line highly susceptible to apoptosis after free-fall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Jun; Himeda, Jyuni; Chen, Zheng; Sugaya, Shigeru; Takahashi, Shunji; Kita, Kazuko; Ichinose, Masaharu; Suzuki, Nobuo

    2002-01-01

    The induction of apoptosis by microgravity and/or gravity-changing stress is considered to be one of the important causes of cell death, although the molecular mechanisms of the apoptotic event remain unclarified. In this study, we established a cell line,GSA-1, from ethyl methanesulfonate-treated human RSa cells. GSA-1 cells were highly susceptible to apoptosis after a free-fall; 24.4% of these cells underwent apoptosis after free-fall, compared with only 6% of the RSa cells. The apoptosis of GSA-1 cells was augmented by ultraviolet (UV, principally 254-nm wavelength) irradiation before free-fall to a greater extents than those in RSa cells. The molecular mechanisms of apoptosis included p53 and Bax proteins; the expression of nuclear p53 and cytoplasmic Bax in GSA-1 cells increased at 4 h after free-fall irrespective of irradiation. In addition, the rate of removal of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) in UV-irradiated GSA-1 cells was higher in cells exposed to free-fall than in those under the l-G condition. Our results suggested that in GSA-1 cells, free-fall accelerates apoptosis, and that this process is associated with the accumulation of p53 and Bax, as well as CPD removal. Thus, GSA-1 cells should be useful for investigating the mechanism of cellular response, including the induction of apoptosis under gravity-changing stress. (author)

  16. Small hypoxia-primed mesenchymal stem cells attenuate graft-versus-host disease

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, YongHwan

    2018-05-22

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are of particular interest for the treatment of immune-related diseases due to their immunosuppressive capacity. Here, we show that Small MSCs primed with Hypoxia and Calcium ions (SHC-MSCs) exhibit enhanced stemness and immunomodulatory functions for treating allogeneic conflicts. Compared with naïve cultured human umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs, SHC-MSCs were resistant to passage-dependent senescence mediated via the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and p53/p21 cascade and secreted large amounts of pro-angiogenic and immunomodulatory factors, resulting in suppression of T-cell proliferation. SHC-MSCs showed DNA demethylation in pluripotency, germline, and imprinted genes similarly to very small embryonic-like stem cells, suggesting a potential mutual relationship. Genome-wide DNA methylome and transcriptome analyses indicated that genes related to immune modulation, cell adhesion, and the cell cycle were up-regulated in SHC-MSCs. Particularly, polo-like kinase-1 (PLK1), zinc-finger protein-143, dehydrogenase/reductase-3, and friend-of-GATA2 play a key role in the beneficial effects of SHC-MSCs. Administration of SHC-MSCs or PLK1-overexpressing MSCs significantly ameliorated symptoms of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in a humanized mouse model, resulting in significantly improved survival, less weight loss, and reduced histopathologic injuries in GVHD target organs compared with naïve MSC-infused mice. Collectively, our findings suggest that SHC-MSCs can improve the clinical treatment of allogeneic conflicts, including GVHD.

  17. A virulence-associated filamentous bacteriophage of Neisseria meningitidis increases host-cell colonisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Bille

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis is a commensal of human nasopharynx. In some circumstances, this bacteria can invade the bloodstream and, after crossing the blood brain barrier, the meninges. A filamentous phage, designated MDAΦ for Meningococcal Disease Associated, has been associated with invasive disease. In this work we show that the prophage is not associated with a higher virulence during the bloodstream phase of the disease. However, looking at the interaction of N. meningitidis with epithelial cells, a step essential for colonization of the nasopharynx, we demonstrate that the presence of the prophage, via the production of viruses, increases colonization of encapsulated meningococci onto monolayers of epithelial cells. The analysis of the biomass covering the epithelial cells revealed that meningococci are bound to the apical surface of host cells by few layers of heavily piliated bacteria, whereas, in the upper layers, bacteria are non-piliated but surrounded by phage particles which (i form bundles of filaments, and/or (ii are in some places associated with bacteria. The latter are likely to correspond to growing bacteriophages during their extrusion through the outer membrane. These data suggest that, as the biomass increases, the loss of piliation in the upper layers of the biomass does not allow type IV pilus bacterial aggregation, but is compensated by a large production of phage particles that promote bacterial aggregation via the formation of bundles of phage filaments linked to the bacterial cell walls. We propose that MDAΦ by increasing bacterial colonization in the mucosa at the site-of-entry, increase the occurrence of diseases.

  18. Als3 is a Candida albicans invasin that binds to cadherins and induces endocytosis by host cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quynh T Phan

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is the most common cause of hematogenously disseminated and oropharyngeal candidiasis. Both of these diseases are characterized by fungal invasion of host cells. Previously, we have found that C. albicans hyphae invade endothelial cells and oral epithelial cells in vitro by inducing their own endocytosis. Therefore, we set out to identify the fungal surface protein and host cell receptors that mediate this process. We found that the C. albicans Als3 is required for the organism to be endocytosed by human umbilical vein endothelial cells and two different human oral epithelial lines. Affinity purification experiments with wild-type and an als3delta/als3delta mutant strain of C. albicans demonstrated that Als3 was required for C. albicans to bind to multiple host cell surface proteins, including N-cadherin on endothelial cells and E-cadherin on oral epithelial cells. Furthermore, latex beads coated with the recombinant N-terminal portion of Als3 were endocytosed by Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing human N-cadherin or E-cadherin, whereas control beads coated with bovine serum albumin were not. Molecular modeling of the interactions of the N-terminal region of Als3 with the ectodomains of N-cadherin and E-cadherin indicated that the binding parameters of Als3 to either cadherin are similar to those of cadherin-cadherin binding. Therefore, Als3 is a fungal invasin that mimics host cell cadherins and induces endocytosis by binding to N-cadherin on endothelial cells and E-cadherin on oral epithelial cells. These results uncover the first known fungal invasin and provide evidence that C. albicans Als3 is a molecular mimic of human cadherins.

  19. Phospholipase D promotes Arcanobacterium haemolyticum adhesion via lipid raft remodeling and host cell death following bacterial invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlson Petteri

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arcanobacterium haemolyticum is an emerging bacterial pathogen, causing pharyngitis and more invasive infections. This organism expresses an unusual phospholipase D (PLD, which we propose promotes bacterial pathogenesis through its action on host cell membranes. The pld gene is found on a genomic region of reduced %G + C, suggesting recent horizontal acquisition. Results Recombinant PLD rearranged HeLa cell lipid rafts in a dose-dependent manner and this was inhibited by cholesterol sequestration. PLD also promoted host cell adhesion, as a pld mutant had a 60.3% reduction in its ability to adhere to HeLa cells as compared to the wild type. Conversely, the pld mutant appeared to invade HeLa cells approximately two-fold more efficiently as the wild type. This finding was attributable to a significant loss of host cell viability following secretion of PLD from intracellular bacteria. As determined by viability assay, only 15.6% and 82.3% of HeLa cells remained viable following invasion by the wild type or pld mutant, respectively, as compared to untreated HeLa cells. Transmission electron microscopy of HeLa cells inoculated with A. haemolyticum strains revealed that the pld mutant was contained within intracellular vacuoles, as compared to the wild type, which escaped the vacuole. Wild type-infected HeLa cells also displayed the hallmarks of necrosis. Similarly inoculated HeLa cells displayed no signs of apoptosis, as measured by induction of caspase 3/7, 8 or 9 activities. Conclusions These data indicate that PLD enhances bacterial adhesion and promotes host cell necrosis following invasion, and therefore, may be important in the disease pathogenesis of A. haemolyticum infections.

  20. Identification of Host Cell Factors Associated with Astrovirus Replication in Caco-2 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Murillo, Andrea; Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Barkla, Bronwyn J.; Méndez, Ernesto; Arias, Carlos F.

    2015-01-01

    Astroviruses are small, nonenveloped viruses with a single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome causing acute gastroenteritis in children and immunocompromised patients. Since positive-sense RNA viruses have frequently been found to replicate in association with membranous structures, in this work we characterized the replication of the human astrovirus serotype 8 strain Yuc8 in Caco-2 cells, using density gradient centrifugation and free-flow zonal electrophoresis (FFZE) to fractionate cellula...

  1. Adenovirus E4ORF1-induced MYC activation promotes host cell anabolic glucose metabolism and virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Minh; Graham, Nicholas A; Braas, Daniel; Nehil, Michael; Komisopoulou, Evangelia; Kurdistani, Siavash K; McCormick, Frank; Graeber, Thomas G; Christofk, Heather R

    2014-04-01

    Virus infections trigger metabolic changes in host cells that support the bioenergetic and biosynthetic demands of viral replication. Although recent studies have characterized virus-induced changes in host cell metabolism (Munger et al., 2008; Terry et al., 2012), the molecular mechanisms by which viruses reprogram cellular metabolism have remained elusive. Here, we show that the gene product of adenovirus E4ORF1 is necessary for adenovirus-induced upregulation of host cell glucose metabolism and sufficient to promote enhanced glycolysis in cultured epithelial cells by activation of MYC. E4ORF1 localizes to the nucleus, binds to MYC, and enhances MYC binding to glycolytic target genes, resulting in elevated expression of specific glycolytic enzymes. E4ORF1 activation of MYC promotes increased nucleotide biosynthesis from glucose intermediates and enables optimal adenovirus replication in primary lung epithelial cells. Our findings show how a viral protein exploits host cell machinery to reprogram cellular metabolism and promote optimal progeny virion generation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Bst1 is required for Candida albicans infecting host via facilitating cell wall anchorage of Glycosylphosphatidyl inositol anchored proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Zou, Zui; Huang, Xin; Shen, Hui; He, Li Juan; Chen, Si Min; Li, Li Ping; Yan, Lan; Zhang, Shi Qun; Zhang, Jun Dong; Xu, Zheng; Xu, Guo Tong; An, Mao Mao; Jiang, Yuan Ying

    2016-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidyl inositol anchored proteins (GPI-APs) on fungal cell wall are essential for invasive infections. While the function of inositol deacylation of GPI-APs in mammalian cells has been previously characterized the impact of inositol deacylation in fungi and implications to host infection remains largely unexplored. Herein we describe our identification of BST1, an inositol deacylase of GPI-Aps in Candida albicans, was critical for GPI-APs cell wall attachment and host infection. BST1-deficient C. albicans (bst1Δ/Δ) was associated with severely impaired cell wall anchorage of GPI-APs and subsequen unmasked β-(1,3)-glucan. Consistent with the aberrant cell wall structures, bst1Δ/Δ strain did not display an invasive ability and could be recognized more efficiently by host immune systems. Moreover, BST1 null mutants or those expressing Bst1 variants did not display inositol deacylation activity and exhibited severely attenuated virulence and reduced organic colonization in a murine systemic candidiasis model. Thus, Bst1 can facilitate cell wall anchorage of GPI-APs in C. albicans by inositol deacylation, and is critical for host invasion and immune escape. PMID:27708385

  3. Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 induce shutoff of host protein synthesis by different mechanisms in Friend erythroleukemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, T.M.; Sinden, R.R.; Sadler, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 disrupt host protein synthesis after viral infection. We have treated both viral types with agents which prevent transcription of the viral genome and used these treated viruses to infect induced Friend erythroleukemia cells. By measuring the changes in globin synthesis after infection, we have determined whether expression of the viral genome precedes the shutoff of host protein synthesis or whether the inhibitor molecule enters the cells as part of the virion. HSV-2-induced shutoff of host protein synthesis was insensitive to the effects of shortwave (254-nm) UV light and actinomycin D. Both of the treatments inhibited HSV-1-induced host protein shutoff. Likewise, treatment of HSV-1 with the cross-linking agent 4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen and longwave (360-nm) UV light prevented HSV-1 from inhibiting cellular protein synthesis. Treatment of HSV-2 with 4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen did not affect the ability of the virus to interfere with host protein synthesis, except at the highest doses of longwave UV light. It was determined that the highest longwave UV dosage damaged the HSV-2 virion as well as cross-linking the viral DNA. The results suggest that HSV-2 uses a virion-associated component to inhibit host protein synthesis and that HSV-1 requires the expression of the viral genome to cause cellular protein synthesis shutoff

  4. Anaplasma phagocytophilum MSP4 and HSP70 Proteins Are Involved in Interactions with Host Cells during Pathogen Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinela Contreras

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma phagocytophilum transmembrane and surface proteins play a role during infection and multiplication in host neutrophils and tick vector cells. Recently, A. phagocytophilum Major surface protein 4 (MSP4 and Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70 were shown to be localized on the bacterial membrane, with a possible role during pathogen infection in ticks. In this study, we hypothesized that A. phagocytophilum MSP4 and HSP70 have similar functions in tick-pathogen and host-pathogen interactions. To address this hypothesis, herein we characterized the role of these bacterial proteins in interaction and infection of vertebrate host cells. The results showed that A. phagocytophilum MSP4 and HSP70 are involved in host-pathogen interactions, with a role for HSP70 during pathogen infection. The analysis of the potential protective capacity of MSP4 and MSP4-HSP70 antigens in immunized sheep showed that MSP4-HSP70 was only partially protective against pathogen infection. This limited protection may be associated with several factors, including the recognition of non-protective epitopes by IgG in immunized lambs. Nevertheless, these antigens may be combined with other candidate protective antigens for the development of vaccines for the control of human and animal granulocytic anaplasmosis. Focusing on the characterization of host protective immune mechanisms and protein-protein interactions at the host-pathogen interface may lead to the discovery and design of new effective protective antigens.

  5. Mast cells have no impact on cutaneous leishmaniasis severity and related Th2 differentiation in resistant and susceptible mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Christoph; Wolff, Svenja; Zapf, Thea; Raifer, Hartmann; Feyerabend, Thorsten B; Bollig, Nadine; Camara, Bärbel; Trier, Claudia; Schleicher, Ulrike; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Lohoff, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The genus leishmania comprises different protozoan parasites which are causative agents of muco-cutaneous and systemic, potentially lethal diseases. After infection with the species Leishmania major, resistant mice expand Th1