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Sample records for susceptible female partners

  1. Older Sexual Partners and Adolescent Females' Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Ann; Erickson, Gina A; McLaughlin, Heather

    2016-03-01

    The physical health detriments associated with adolescent females' having older romantic partners are well documented. However, little is known about the relationship between having an older partner and females' subsequent mental health. Two waves of data from 1,440 participants in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were analyzed. The sample was restricted to females in grades 7-12 who had not had sex at Wave 1 (1994-1995) and reported at least one romantic relationship by Wave 2 (1996). A lagged dependent variable approach with ordinary least-squares regression measured changes in depression and self-esteem associated with sexual and nonsexual relationships with same-age and older partners. Intimate partner violence was tested as a mediator. Compared with respondents reporting a nonsexual relationship with a same-age partner, those reporting a nonsexual relationship with an older partner, sex with a same-age partner or sex with an older partner experienced greater increases in depression between surveys; mean predicted depression levels at Wave 2 ranged from 7.7 to 9.0 across these groups (possible range, 0-27). Intimate partner violence explained one-third of the difference between those who had had sex and those who had not had sex with same-age partners. Fewer associations were found for self-esteem, and differences between groups were small. Health correlates of adolescent sexual behavior go beyond physical health outcomes. Future research should identify mechanisms through which relationships, especially those with older partners, are associated with declines in mental health. Copyright © 2016 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  2. Estrangement, interventions, and male violence toward female partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, D; Wight, L

    1997-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to integrate three relatively distinct lines of research on male violence towards intimate female partners. First, the relation between conjugal violence and estrangement is examined. We found them to be positively associated, but they can vary independently. Second, we examined the association between estrangement and interventions. Estrangement was found to be associated with private, private/public and mainly public interventions depending upon the level of estrangement. High levels of estrangement are strongly but not invariably associated with ending the relationship. Third, we reviewed the link between interventions and violence. Interventions which empower battered female partners are most effective in ending male partner violence. Taken together, the findings tend not to support hypotheses derived from the theory of male proprietariness. Implications for social policy are discussed in the final segment.

  3. Intimate Partner Violence among Male and Female Russian University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysova, Aleksandra V.; Douglas, Emily M.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports data from three Russian sites of the International Dating Violence Study. Using a sample of 338 university students (54% female) from three Russian university sites, four different types of partner violence are examined: physical assault, physical injury, sexual coercion, and psychological aggression. High prevalence rates…

  4. Multiple partners and partner choice as risk factors for sexually transmitted disease among female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, G P; Foxman, B; Schmidt, A J; Farris, K B; Carter, R J; Neumann, S; Tolo, K A; Walters, A M

    1992-01-01

    Multiple sexual partners and partner choice are believed to increase the risk of sexually transmitted disease (STD), but these behaviors had not previously been assessed outside of clinical populations. In this study, a cross-sectional survey among single, white, female students in their senior year of college was conducted to measure the association between behavioral risk factors and the acquisition of self-reported STDs during college. The usable response rate was 47.2% (n = 467). The combined prevalence of chlamydial infection, gonorrhea, genital herpes, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, syphilis, and trichomoniasis during a 3.5-year period was 11.7%. There was a strong association between number of sexual partners and having an STD: those women with 5 or more sexual partners were 8 times more likely to report having an STD than those with only 1 partner, even after adjusting for age at first intercourse (odds ratio = 8.1; 95% confidence interval = 1.99, 32.64). The prevalence of a history of STDs increased with more causal partner choice and earlier age at first intercourse, but neither factor was independently associated with a history of STDs. Of the respondents, 23% always used condoms. Future research should focus on identifying ways of effectively changing high-risk sexual behavior.

  5. Physical tactics of female partners against male batterer program participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondolf, Edward W

    2012-09-01

    Descriptive and predictive analyses were conducted using a multisite database of batterer program participants to assess the nature and extent of their female partner's violence, and implications for batterer program outcome (N = 563). Approximately 40% of the women reported ever using "severe" conflict tactics on the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS; 17% used severe tactics in the arrest incident). Approximately 20% of the women reported using any type of physical tactic during a 15-month follow-up, and nearly all of these women were with men who physically attacked them during that period. These women were also highly likely to report acting out of fear or self-defense, and having sought a variety of services to deal with the men's violence. Their male partners, furthermore, showed evidence of antisocial tendencies and alcohol problems. Overall, the findings suggest women's "violent resistance" rather than "mutuality and symmetry." Batterer programs appear more appropriate in this regard than couples counseling.

  6. Measuring intimate partner violence among male and female farmworkers in San Diego County, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Michael R; Cunradi, Carol B

    2011-01-01

    Although there are over one million farmworkers in the United States, little is known about intimate partner violence (IPV) among this population. Given the particular demands of agricultural labor, however, farmworkers and their partners are highly susceptible to a host of occupation-specific stressors that may result in relationship conflict, and thereafter IPV. In cases where one or both members of the dyad engage in problematic drinking, the likelihood of violence increases exponentially. The purpose of this exploratory quantitative study was to estimate the prevalence of IPV among a mixed gender sample of farmworkers in San Diego County, California, and assess the association of potential correlates (acculturation- and work-related stress, problem drinking, and impulsivity) to IPV. Bilingual interviewers conducted survey data collection by using standardized instruments (e.g., Revised Conflict Tactics Scale; Migrant Farm Work Stress Inventory; AUDIT). Nearly all participants (n = 100) were Mexican born. Results showed that approximately 16% of female individuals (n = 61) and 32% of male individuals (n = 37) reported partner violence perpetration, victimization, or both, in the past year. Significant correlates of IPV were problem drinking (among males) and impulsivity (among females). This study demonstrates the feasibility of conducting IPV research among male and female farmworkers. Additional research is warranted to more fully explore the role of acculturation- and work-related stress, drinking, and other personal characteristics and environmental factors in precipitating couple conflict and thereafter IPV.

  7. Media Portrayals of Female Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlyle, Kellie E; Scarduzio, Jennifer A; Slater, Michael D

    2014-09-01

    Preventing intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health priority. An important component of designing prevention programs is developing an understanding of how media portrayals of health issues influence public opinion and policy. To better understand the ways in which media images may be informing our understanding of IPV, this study content analyzed portrayals of IPV in news media articles. Stratified media outlets were used to obtain a representative sample of daily newspapers based on their designated market areas. Researchers created constructed months using weeks from each season across a 2-year period. The first part of the study investigated quantitative differences in the coverage of female and male perpetrators (n = 395) and identified several areas where coverage differed. The second part of the study qualitatively examined coverage of female perpetrators (n = 61) to provide a richer description of such coverage. This study contributes to our understanding of female perpetrators and how these portrayals may contribute to the larger gender symmetry debate surrounding female aggressors. Implications for public health policy and research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Intrapersonal and Familial Effects of Child Sexual Abuse on Female Partners of Male Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Christine M. Anderson; Veach, Patricia McCarthy

    2005-01-01

    Intrapersonal and familial effects of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) were investigated by interviewing 10 female partners of male survivors. Consensual qualitative research analysis (C. Hill, B. Thompson, & E. Nutt Williams, 1997) yielded 13 domains describing male partner, female partner, couple, and family functioning. Findings concerning…

  9. Ultrasonic vocalizations of female Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) in response to social partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börner, Annegret; Hjemdahl, Rebecca; Götz, Thomas; Brown, Gillian R

    2016-02-01

    In many species of animals, male vocalizations function to attract mating partners and coordinate sexual interactions. Whereas male vocalizations have been well studied in several species, the function of female vocalizations in mating contexts is not fully understood. In Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus), both males and females produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) during sexual encounters with opposite sex partners. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that female vocalizations play a role in sociosexual interactions by examining how rates of 50 kHz USV production vary in relation to the sex and gonadal status of the partner, and by examining whether the proportion of frequency modulated (FM) and constant frequency calls differs between these categories of social partner. The results showed that females produced a higher total number of 50 kHz USVs to intact males than castrated males, and produced similar numbers of calls to both categories of females. Females also produced a higher proportion of FM calls to male partners than to female partners, and spent more time in the vicinity of male than female partners, regardless of the partners' gonadal status. Female USVs therefore potentially provide a measure of sexual motivation and may function to promote female mate choice in this species with multimale mating and a high risk of infanticide. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Sexual Self-Acceptance, Communication with Partner, and Contraceptive Use among Adolescent Females: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschann, Jeanne M.; Adler, Nancy E.

    1997-01-01

    Examined relationships among sexual self-acceptance, communication with sexual partners about sex and contraception, and contraceptive use in 201 adolescent females, ages 14 to 19. Found that females with greater sexual self-acceptance communicated more with partners about sex and contraception. Discussion about contraception, but not about sex,…

  11. Intimate partner violence among male and female students in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Kelmendi, K.; Baumgartner, F.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to analyze the rates of intimate partner violence focusing on physical, psychological and sexual violence using the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS-2) using the sample of 700 students from main public university in Pristina. Findings from the study show high rates of perpetration of intimate partner violence; physical violence (42.1%), psychological violence (64.7%) and sexual violence (34.6%), including both minor and severe acts, however, the majority of acts were mino...

  12. [Female intimate partner homicide: clinical and criminological issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cechova-Vayleux, E; Leveillee, S; Lhuillier, J-P; Garre, J-B; Senon, J-L; Richard-Devantoy, S

    2013-12-01

    Female intimate partner homicide (FIPH) is a fatal complication of domestic violence. The aim of this study was to describe the socio-demographic, clinical and criminological characteristics of male perpetrators of FIPH and to compare them to the perpetrators of extrafamilial homicide and the perpetrators of intrafamilial homicide other than FIPH. Between 1975 and 2005, 32 FIPH were perpetrated in the region of Angers (France), and these were compared to 26 intrafamilial homicides other than FIPH and to 97 extrafamilial homicides perpetrated in the same period, in the same region. The socio-demographic, clinical and criminological data were collected from psychiatric expert reports and medical files. The mean age of the FIPH perpetrators was 37.8years. They were professionally active, in majority as manual workers. They had a psychiatric record (69%), a previous criminal record (31%), and a history of violence against others (47%). Half of these perpetrators also had experienced a traumatic event before the age of 18. Compared to extrafamilial homicide perpetrators, FIPH perpetrators occupied more frequently a manual job and had prior criminal records less frequently. In the majority of cases of FIPH and intrafamilial homicide, the murder occurred in the evening, at the victim's home, and while the perpetrator was intoxicated. FIPH was mostly premeditated and was accompanied four times less frequently by another criminal behaviour compared to extrafamilial homicide. The FIPH perpetrators had more depressive symptoms and suicidal ideations when committing the crime and remained on the crime scene more often than extrafamilial homicide perpetrators who mostly attempted to flee the crime scene. FIPH perpetrators and extra- and intrafamilial homicide perpetrators were found criminally responsible in half of the cases. The socio-demographic, clinical and criminological characteristics of FIPH perpetrators were not statistically different from those of perpetrators of

  13. Understanding Patterns of Intimate Partner Abuse in Male-Male, Male-Female, and Female-Female Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaman, Alexandru; McAfee, Scot; Homel, Peter; Jacob, Theresa

    2017-06-01

    Intimate Partner Abuse (IPA), a major social problem, can lead to mental health conditions and is implicated in 30 % of female and 5 % of male homicide deaths. We hypothesized that due to distinct relationship structures and power dynamics which are immersed in varying sociocultural contexts, victims of male-male, female-female and female-male dyads experience different patterns of IPA. Our objectives were: (1) To examine the demographic and clinical characteristics of victims of male victim-male abuser (M-M), female victim-male abuser (F-M), male victim-female abuser (M-F), and female victim-female abuser (F-F) dyads. (2) To compare patterns of IPA reported by the victims in these groups. Out of 397 subjects in the general population that attempted this Internet-based study, 214 English-speaking subjects were older than 18 years, had experienced IPA, and provided complete information for the analysis. Victims of IPA were screened and specific methods of abuse were evaluated. M-Ms were significantly more educated (70 %) than other groups. F-Fs experienced more abuse before age 18 by a parent or relative. F-Fs experienced the most physical abuse while M-Ms the least (p = 0.004). Physical abuse or threats of abuse in front of children was reported more in F-Fs (p < 0.01) and least in M-Ms. IPA patterns differ significantly with F-Fs presenting the most physical profile and M-Ms presenting the least.

  14. Mate choice : Female relatives share sexual partners in bats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pen, Ido; Kerth, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    Groups of female greater horseshoe bats share more than just caves. A long-term study has revealed that female relatives share males as well, but the adaptive significance of this family-wide mate fidelity remains obscure.

  15. Men perceive their female partners, and themselves, as more attractive around ovulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobey, Kelly D.; Buunk, Abraham P.; Pollet, Thomas V.; Klipping, Christine; Roberts, S. Craig

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether men perceive changes in their female partner's attractiveness as a function of her fertility status. We further tested how both male and female self-perception varies in relation to female fertility status. This study benefits from the use of

  16. Susceptibility to eating disorders among collegiate female student-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLester, Cherilyn N; Hardin, Robin; Hoppe, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Research has suggested that the prevalence of young women with eating disorders (EDs) is increasing, but determining the exact prevalence of EDs within the female student-athlete (FS-A) population is difficult. Looking at certain traits may help us to identify their level of susceptibility to developing an ED. To determine the susceptibility of FS-As to EDs in relation to self-concept, including self-esteem and body image. Cross-sectional study. Athletic training and health centers at National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I, II, and III institutions via e-mail questionnaire correspondence. A total of 439 FS-As from 17 participating institutions completed the questionnaires. The sample was primarily white (83.1%) and underclass (61.8%). The questionnaire consisted of 4 parts: 3 subscales of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Body Cathexis Scale, and demographic items. A total of 6.8% of FS-As were susceptible to anorexia and 1.8% were susceptible to bulimia. The majority of FS-As (61%) reported normal self-esteem levels, whereas 29.4% had high self-esteem. Overall, 64.5% were satisfied and 23% were very satisfied with their body image. These results are generally positive in that they suggest FS-As have high levels of self-concept and are at low risk to develop EDs. However, these findings do not mean that all concerns should be dismissed. Although more than 90% of the respondents were not susceptible to an ED, there are still FS-As who may be. Athletic departments should evaluate their FS-As' levels of self-concept so that their susceptibility to EDs can be addressed. The emotional aspect of health care should be included in providing holistic care for student-athletes. Athletic trainers often are the primary health care providers for FS-As, so they should be made aware of this concern.

  17. Susceptibility to Eating Disorders Among Collegiate Female Student–Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLester, Cherilyn N.; Hardin, Robin; Hoppe, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Context: Research has suggested that the prevalence of young women with eating disorders (EDs) is increasing, but determining the exact prevalence of EDs within the female student–athlete (FS-A) population is difficult. Looking at certain traits may help us to identify their level of susceptibility to developing an ED. Objective: To determine the susceptibility of FS-As to EDs in relation to self-concept, including self-esteem and body image. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Athletic training and health centers at National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I, II, and III institutions via e-mail questionnaire correspondence. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 439 FS-As from 17 participating institutions completed the questionnaires. The sample was primarily white (83.1%) and underclass (61.8%). Main Outcome Measure(s): The questionnaire consisted of 4 parts: 3 subscales of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Body Cathexis Scale, and demographic items. Results: A total of 6.8% of FS-As were susceptible to anorexia and 1.8% were susceptible to bulimia. The majority of FS-As (61%) reported normal self-esteem levels, whereas 29.4% had high self-esteem. Overall, 64.5% were satisfied and 23% were very satisfied with their body image. Conclusions: These results are generally positive in that they suggest FS-As have high levels of self-concept and are at low risk to develop EDs. However, these findings do not mean that all concerns should be dismissed. Although more than 90% of the respondents were not susceptible to an ED, there are still FS-As who may be. Athletic departments should evaluate their FS-As' levels of self-concept so that their susceptibility to EDs can be addressed. The emotional aspect of health care should be included in providing holistic care for student–athletes. Athletic trainers often are the primary health care providers for FS-As, so they should be made aware of this concern. PMID:24762233

  18. The Experience of Community in Canadian Military Families: A Female Partners' Perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mullin-Splude, Bernadine

    2006-01-01

    .... The literature review covered the topics of Community, Military Families and Social Support. The emerging questions dealt with matters of meaning and perception of community for the female military partners...

  19. Effect of sleeping alone on sleep quality in female bed partners of snorers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumen, M; Quera Salva, M A; d'Ortho, M-P; Leroux, K; Audibert, P; Fermanian, C; Chabolle, F; Lofaso, F

    2009-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to objectively measure the effect of sleeping alone for one night on sleep quality in female bed partners of male snorers. Females complaining of poor sleep due to snoring by their bed partner and having no known hearing loss or snoring were included in a prospective multicentre cross-sectional study. 23 females underwent one polysomnography recording while sleeping with their bed partner and another while sleeping alone. Their sleep parameters were compared between the two nights. We excluded seven couples because the female partner snored for >10% of the sleep time (n = 6) or had obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (n = 1). In the remaining 16 females, sleep time, sleep efficiency, arousal index and percentages of deep sleep (stages 3-4) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep were not significantly different between the two nights. Percentages of light sleep (non-REM stage 2) and awakening index were lower when sleeping alone (p = 0.023 and p = 0.046, respectively). Sleep quality was decreased and sleep fragmentation increased in females sleeping with male snorers. Some females had unrecognised snoring. However, our data do not suggest that objective sleep quality improves substantially in the female nonsnoring partner when she sleeps alone for one night.

  20. Accounting for Intimate Partner Violence: A Biographical Analysis of Narrative Strategies Used by Men Experiencing IPV From Their Female Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbally, Melissa

    2015-10-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious social issue which affects the medium- and long-term health outcomes of many individuals worldwide. The cost of IPV on the physical and psychological well-being of individuals, in addition to its wider economic costs in responding to abused persons, is significant. Presently, there is a lack of understanding about the nature of female-initiated IPV and how men account for their experiences of it. This study examined male victims' life stories of their IPV experiences from their intimate partners. Using the biographical narrative interpretive method, three cases were analyzed from a social constructionist perspective to examine what narrative strategies men used to account for their experiences of being abused by their female partners. Three dominant narrative strategies were used by respondents: the fatherhood narrative, the good husband narrative, and the abuse narrative. The abuse narrative had a unique narrative form, which reflected respondents' disassociation between their identities as men and also as abused persons. Dominant conflicting discourses of masculinity and intimate partner abuse disadvantaged men in identifying IPV and secondly in responding appropriately. This study found that men prefer to use dominant discursive identities as legitimate means from which to disclose IPV experiences. The findings from this study illustrate that broad questioning by professionals regarding fatherhood may be most helpful in promoting disclosures of IPV if this is suspected. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Male partner experiences of females with an acquired brain injury: An interpretative phenomenological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunsden, Cara; Kiemle, Gundi; Mullin, Stephen

    2017-09-01

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) not only has an impact on the survivor, but also on the partner and personal relationships as a whole. The present study aimed to investigate the male partner experience of living with a female with an ABI; exploring role change, intimacy and future expectations. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six male partners of five females with a subarachnoid haemorrhage and one female with a traumatic brain injury. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed in depth using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). Four main themes captured the male partner's lived experience; "Entering the unknown world of ABI", "Imprisoned by the ABI", "Compassion without self-compassion", and "Holding on to hope". The accounts uncovered the male partner's journey following ABI; the unpredictability, sorrow, frustration, and finally acceptance and commitment to their partner. They identified the limited support available for partners following ABI; the sense of feeling forgotten by services and the need for information and support in the acute stages. Rehabilitation needs to take a systemic and longer-term focus, supporting both the survivor and their partner through the journey of ABI.

  2. Intimate partner aggression reporting concordance and correlates of agreement among men with alcohol use disorders and their female partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panuzio, Jillian; O'Farrell, Timothy J; Marshall, Amy D; Murphy, Christopher M; Murphy, Marie; Taft, Casey T

    2006-09-01

    This study examined relationship aggression reporting concordance among 303 men with alcohol use disorders and their female partners enrolled in couples-based alcohol abuse treatment. Agreement for physical and psychological aggression was generally consistent with, or higher than, concordance rates reported among other populations. Men's antisocial personality disorder characteristics were the strongest predictor of higher concordance for male- and female-perpetrated aggression. Higher alcohol problem severity, poorer relationship adjustment, and higher psychopathic personality features were associated with better concordance in some analyses. Women reported experiencing more physical aggression than men reported perpetrating, and women reported perpetrating more psychological aggression than men reported experiencing. Findings highlight the importance of obtaining aggression reports from both partners and the need for research investigating methods for improving concordance.

  3. Coercive forms of sexual risk and associated violence perpetrated by male partners of female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Jay G; McCauley, Heather L; Decker, Michele R; Miller, Elizabeth; Reed, Elizabeth; Raj, Anita

    2011-03-01

    Partner violence is associated with STDs among female adolescents, but the mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. Sexually coercive and deceptive behaviors of male partners that increase female STD risk may be factors in this relationship. A sample of 356 females aged 14-20 who attended adolescent health clinics in Greater Boston between April and December 2006 were assessed for physical and sexual violence perpetrated by male partners and for exposure to sexual risk factors. Adjusted logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between intimate partner violence and standard sexual risk behaviors (e.g., multiple partnerships) and coercive or deceptive sexual risk factors (e.g., coerced condom nonuse). More than two-fifths of the sample had experienced intimate partner violence. In adjusted analyses, adolescents reporting intimate partner violence were more likely than others to report standard sexual risk behaviors--multiple partners, anal sex and unprotected anal sex (odds ratios, 1.7-2.2). They also were more likely to report coercive or deceptive sexual risk factors--partner sexual infidelity, fear of requesting condom use, negative consequences of condom request, and coerced condom nonuse (2.9-5.3). The high prevalence of intimate partner violence against young women attending adolescent clinics strongly indicates the need to target this population for abuse-related interventions. This need is underlined by the observed association between partner violence and sexual risk involving coercion or deception by male partners. Clinic-based STD and pregnancy prevention efforts should include assessment of sexual risk factors that are beyond the control of young women, particularly for those experiencing abuse. Copyright © 2011 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  4. Perceived female intelligence as economic bad in partner choice

    OpenAIRE

    Karbowski, Adam; Deja, Dominik; Zawisza, Mateusz

    2016-01-01

    We study gender differences in preferences for mate characteristics such as perceived (by the opposite sex) physical attractiveness and intelligence using data from the Columbia speed dating experiment. We have observed that the probability of a woman's positive speed dating decision rises with perceived male physical attractiveness, as well as their intelligence. The probability of a man's positive decision rises with perceived female physical attractiveness. However, the relationship betwee...

  5. Alcohol Use Predicts Number of Sexual Partners for Female but not Male STI Clinic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Kate B; Senn, Theresa E; Walsh, Jennifer L; Scott-Sheldon, Lori A J; Carey, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that greater alcohol involvement will predict number of sexual partners to a greater extent for women than for men, and that the hypothesized sex-specific, alcohol-sexual partner associations will hold when controlling for alternative sex-linked explanations (i.e., depression and drug use). We recruited 508 patients (46 % female, 67 % African American) from a public sexually transmitted infections (STI) clinic. Participants reported number of sexual partners, drinks per week, maximum drinks per day, frequency of heavy drinking; they also completed the AUDIT-C and a measure of alcohol problems. As expected, men reported more drinking and sexual partners. Also as expected, the association between alcohol use and number of partners was significant for women but not for men, and these associations were not explained by drug use or depression. A comprehensive prevention strategy for women attending STI clinics might include alcohol use reduction.

  6. Violence against Chinese female sex workers from their stable partners: a hierarchical multiple regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Li, Xiaoming; Su, Shaobing; Hong, Yan; Zhou, Yuejiao; Tang, Zhenzhu; Shen, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    Limited data are available regarding risk factors that are related to intimate partner violence (IPV) against female sex workers (FSWs) in the context of stable partnerships. Out of the 1,022 FSWs, 743 reported ever having a stable partnership and 430 (more than half) of those reported experiencing IPV. Hierarchical multivariate regression revealed that some characteristics of stable partners (e.g., low education, alcohol use) and relationship stressors (e.g., frequent friction, concurrent partnerships) were independently predictive of IPV against FSWs. Public health professionals who design future violence prevention interventions targeting FSWs need to consider the influence of their stable partners.

  7. Female partners of opioid-injecting men in the Republic of Georgia: an initial characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lund Ingunn O

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV and Hepatitis C virus (HCV infections are strongly related to injection drug use in the Republic of Georgia. Little information is available about HIV and HCV status, sexual risk, support for their partner, and risk for physical violence among the female partners of opioid-injecting men in the Republic of Georgia, many of whom may not be using drugs, yet may be at high risk of being infected with HIV and HCV from their drug-using partners. Methods In order to better understand the risks for females whose partners are injecting drugs, the present study conducted an initial investigation of the non-substance-using female partners of 40 opioid-injecting men who were participating in a clinical trial examining the feasibility and efficacy of a 22-week comprehensive intervention that paired behavioral treatment with naltrexone. The 40 female partners were assessed at their male partners’ study intake. Results The female sample was 32.3 years old (SD=6.7, 37 (93% were married, with 15.5 years of education. A majority reported at least partial employment the majority of the time during the past 3 years, with only one woman reported being unemployed most of the time during the past 3 years. They self-reported they were 3% HIV-positive and 8% HCV-positive. Their HIV sex risk scores indicated a relatively low risk. However, only 4 (10% women reported using a condom most of the time while having sex and 15 (38% report not having had sex during the last 30 days. Experiences of interpersonal violence were common, with 42% reporting physical abuse by their partner during the last year and 48% reporting feeling unsafe in their current relationship. Conclusions The alarmingly high rate of failure to use barrier protection methods, together with the high percentage who did not know their HIV and HCV status, suggest that it may be beneficial to include non-substance-using female partners in prevention programs along with their partners

  8. Lived experiences of male intimate partners of female rape victims in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evalina van Wijk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexual violence in South Africa is a major public health and social problem. Sexual assault or rape is a traumatic event which disrupts not only the life of the female rape victim, but also that of her male intimate partner (MIP, irrespective of whether he witnessed or was informed of the incident.Objectives: The study aimed to explore the lived experiences of MIPs of female rape victims and the meaning of these experiences in the six months following the partner’s rape.Method: We conducted a longitudinal hermeneutic phenomenological study. Nine purposively sampled adult MIPs were interviewed over a period of six months. The participants were in an intimate relationship with a female rape victim prior to and immediately after the rape; their partners had been treated at a specialised centre for victims of rape and sexual assault. Four interviews were conducted with each of the nine intimate partners of female rape victims: (1 within 14 days of, (2 a month after, (3 three months after, and (4 six months after the rape.Results: Two major themes emerged: being-in-the-world as a secondary victim of rape, and living in multiple worlds, those of their female partners, family, friends, society, employers or colleagues, professionals and the justice system. The participant’s familiar world became strange and even threatening, and his relationship with his partner became uncertain.Conclusion: Early supportive intervention for intimate partners of female rape victims is required to prevent on-going emotional trauma and alleviate the effects of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder and suffering at intra- and interpersonal levels.

  9. International online survey: female ejaculation has a positive impact on women's and their partners' sexual lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimpissinger, Florian; Springer, Christopher; Stackl, Walter

    2013-07-01

    WHAT'S KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT? AND WHAT DOES THE STUDY ADD?: Genital secretions during female orgasm (female ejaculation) have been a matter of controversy for centuries. Scientific work on this essential part of female sexual function has been able to differentiate between female ejaculation, urinary incontinence and vaginal transudate. According to earlier studies, less than 50% of women actually do ejaculate during sexual stimulation. Few affected women discuss female ejaculation with their physician--partly because of its physiological nature, partly through embarrassment. To gain knowledge on the characteristics of female ejaculation and its impact on women's sexual lives, an online questionnaire has been designed and published internationally. In this way, data from 320 women who perceive ejaculation could be acquired. Most women and their partners perceive female ejaculation as an enrichment of their sexual lives. To study characteristics of female ejaculation as perceived by healthy women. To evaluate whether fluid emission during sexual activity has an impact on women's or their partners' sexual lives. An online questionnaire consisting of 23 questions addressing the participants' characteristics, aspects of perceived female ejaculation, and its impact on women's and their partners' lives was published internationally on various online platforms. Over a period of 18 months, 320 women from all over the world were included in the study (excluding women below the age of 18 years and double entries). The women's mean age was 34.1 years (±11.1) and their mean age at first ejaculation was 25.4 years. Most women ejaculate a few times a week. The volume of ejaculation is approximately 2 oz (29.1%), and the fluid is usually clear as water (83.1%). For most women (78.8%) and their partners (90.0%), female ejaculation is an enrichment of their sexual lives, whereas 14 women (4.4%) stated that their partners were unaware of their potential ejaculation. Perceived

  10. Female partners of men who use pornography: are honesty and mutual use associated with relationship satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Marley N; Alderson, Kevin G

    2014-01-01

    The authors discuss findings pertaining to male pornography use and female partners' relationship satisfaction and distress. The authors investigated honesty regarding pornography use and mutual consumption between partners, along with honesty and mutual use as predictors of satisfaction. Female participants (N = 340) in committed relationships completed the Pornography Distress Scale and Couples Satisfaction Index online. Participants reporting more honesty showed higher satisfaction and lower levels of distress, and participants disclosing mutual use showed lower levels of distress, although no differences were reported in satisfaction. Honesty regarding pornography use significantly predicted relationship dissatisfaction. Directions for future research and counseling implications are discussed.

  11. Partner violence and HIV risk among female sex workers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Li, Xiaoming; Hong, Yan; Chen, Yiyun; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Yuejiao

    2012-05-01

    Global literature suggests that partner violence contributes to HIV-related vulnerability and risk among women. Female sex workers (FSWs) play a significant role in China's skyrocketing increase of heterosexual transmission of HIV. The aim of this article is to examine the association between partner violence and HIV risk among FSWs in China. This study, based on a cross-sectional survey of 1,022 FSWs recruited from communities in China, attempted to address the relationship between partner violence and HIV risk among this vulnerable population. About 58% of the FSWs had experienced violence from their stable partners (including 55.5% reporting emotional violence, 20.1% physical violence, and 16.2% sexual violence) and 45% from their clients (including 39.7% reporting emotional violence, 17.1% physical violence, and 16.8% sexual violence). Partner violence perpetuated by either stable partners or clients was strongly associated with most of the HIV risk measures we assessed. This study confirmed the association of partner violence and HIV risk among FSWs. We call for culturally appropriate interventions for both partner violence and HIV risk reduction among FSWs in China.

  12. Susceptibility to air pollution in elderly males and females

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boezen, H M; Vonk, J.M.; van der Zee, S C; Gerritsen, J; Hoek, G; Brunekreef, B; Schouten, Jan; Postma, D S

    It is important to know which individuals in the general population have increased susceptibility to air pollution. The aim of this study was to identify susceptible subgroups by studying airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR), high total immunoglobulin (Ig)E and sex. Diary data on lower and upper

  13. How Partner Gender Influences Female Students' Problem Solving in Physics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, N.; Harskamp, E.

    2006-12-01

    Research has shown that female students cannot profit as much as male students can from cooperative learning in physics, especially in mixed-gender dyads. This study has explored the influence of partner gender on female students' learning achievement, interaction and the problem-solving process during cooperative learning. In Shanghai, a total of 50 students (26 females and 24 males), drawn from two classes of a high school, took part in the study. Students were randomly paired, and there were three research groups: mixed-gender dyads (MG), female-female dyads (FF) and male-male dyads (MM). Analysis of students' pre- and post-test performances revealed that female students in the single-gender condition solved physics problems more effectively than did those in the mixed-gender condition, while the same was not the case for male students. We further explored the differences between female and male communication styles, and content among the three research groups. It showed that the females' interaction content and problem-solving processes were more sensitive to partner gender than were those for males. This might explain why mixed-gender cooperation in physics disadvantages females in high schools.

  14. Romantic Partners' Contribution to the Continuity of Male and Female Delinquent and Violent Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Veronica M.; Wiersma, Jacquelyn D.; Cleveland, H. Harrington

    2011-01-01

    Using data drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), this study examined males' and females' criminality in young adulthood with models that considered the associations of both their own past delinquency and their current partners' criminality. Specific models considered the main effects of both previous…

  15. Multiple sex partner behavior in female undergraduate students in China: A multi-campus survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Miaoxuan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background China is realizing increases in women engaged in premarital sex and multiple sex partner behavior. Our aim was to examine prevalence and determinants of multiple sex partner behavior among female undergraduates in China. Methods Anonymously completed questionnaires were received from 4,769 unmarried female undergraduates, recruited using randomized cluster sampling by type of university and students' major and grade. Items captured demographic, family, peer and work influence, and student factors (major, academic performance, and sex-related knowledge and attitudes. To examine risk factors for sexual behaviors, we used multi-level logistic regression, yielding odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Results Of 4,769 female students, 863 (18.10% reported ever having sexual intercourse, and 5.31% reported having multiple sex partners (29.32% of all women having sexual intercourse. Several demographic, family, peer and work influences, and student factors (including major, performance, knowledge, and attitude toward sex were risk factors for ever having sex. However, risk factors for multiple sex partners only included working in a place of entertainment, having current close friends that were living with boyfriends, poor academic performance, and positive attitudes toward multiple partners. These women also were more likely to practice masturbation, start having sex at a younger age, have sex with married men and/or men not their "boyfriends" at first coitus, and not use condoms consistently. Conclusion A small but important subset of Chinese female undergraduates is engaged in unprotected sex with multiple sex partners. Interventions need to target at risk women, stressing the importance of consistent condom use.

  16. Multiple sex partner behavior in female undergraduate students in China: a multi-campus survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hong; Chen, Weiqi; Wu, Haocheng; Bi, Yongyi; Zhang, Miaoxuan; Li, Shiyue; Braun, Kathryn L

    2009-08-22

    China is realizing increases in women engaged in premarital sex and multiple sex partner behavior. Our aim was to examine prevalence and determinants of multiple sex partner behavior among female undergraduates in China. Anonymously completed questionnaires were received from 4,769 unmarried female undergraduates, recruited using randomized cluster sampling by type of university and students' major and grade. Items captured demographic, family, peer and work influence, and student factors (major, academic performance, and sex-related knowledge and attitudes). To examine risk factors for sexual behaviors, we used multi-level logistic regression, yielding odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Of 4,769 female students, 863 (18.10%) reported ever having sexual intercourse, and 5.31% reported having multiple sex partners (29.32% of all women having sexual intercourse). Several demographic, family, peer and work influences, and student factors (including major, performance, knowledge, and attitude toward sex) were risk factors for ever having sex. However, risk factors for multiple sex partners only included working in a place of entertainment, having current close friends that were living with boyfriends, poor academic performance, and positive attitudes toward multiple partners. These women also were more likely to practice masturbation, start having sex at a younger age, have sex with married men and/or men not their "boyfriends" at first coitus, and not use condoms consistently. A small but important subset of Chinese female undergraduates is engaged in unprotected sex with multiple sex partners. Interventions need to target at risk women, stressing the importance of consistent condom use.

  17. Assessment of nutritional knowledge in female athletes susceptible to the Female Athlete Triad syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petroczi Andrea

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study aimed to i assess nutritional knowledge in female athletes susceptible to the Female Athlete Triad (FAT syndrome and to compare with controls; and ii to compare nutritional knowledge of those who were classified as being 'at risk' for developing FAT syndrome and those who are 'not at risk'. Methods In this study, participants completed General Nutritional Knowledge Questionnaire (GNKQ, the Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26 and survey measures of training/physical activity, menstrual and skeletal injury history. The sample consisted of 48 regional endurance athletes, 11 trampoline gymnasts and 32 untrained controls. Based on proxy measures for the FAT components, participants were classified being 'at risk' or 'not at risk' and nutrition knowledge scores were compared for the two groups. Formal education related to nutrition was considered. Results A considerably higher percentage of athletes were classified 'at risk' of menstrual dysfunction than controls (28.8% and 9.4%, respectively and a higher percentage scored at or above the cutoff value of 20 on the EAT-26 test among athletes than controls (10.2% and 3.1%, respectively. 8.5% of athletes were classified 'at risk' for bone mineral density in contrast to none from the control group. Nutrition knowledge and eating attitude appeared to be independent for both athletes and controls. GNKQ scores of athletes were higher than controls but the differences between the knowledge of 'at risk' and 'not at risk' athletes and controls were inconsequential. Formal education in nutrition or closely related subjects does not have an influence on nutrition knowledge or on being classified as 'at risk' or 'not at risk'. Conclusion The lack of difference in nutrition knowledge between 'at risk' and 'not at risk' athletes suggests that lack of information is not accountable for restricted eating associated with the Female Athlete Triad.

  18. Female-perpetrated intimate partner violence and romantic attachment style in a college student sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orcutt, Holly K; Garcia, Marilyn; Pickett, Scott M

    2005-06-01

    The frequency, severity, and reciprocity of female-perpetrated intimate partner violence and its consequences (i.e., injuries) were investigated in a college sample of women (N = 457). Participants were classified into one of the following four groups on the basis of self-reported physical assault perpetration and victimization against their relationship partners: nonviolent, perpetrator-only, victim-only, and bidirectionally violent. Results showed that females in the bidirectionally violent group had a reportedly higher occurrence (although not always statistically significant) of perpetration and victimization than those in the perpetrator-only and victim-only groups. Additionally, a similar degree of reciprocity was indicated by females in bidirectionally violent relationships in terms of violence severity and the occurrence of injury. Adult romantic attachment style was also examined among a subset of females (N = 328), and bidirectionally violent females were found to have the highest reported levels of attachment anxiety. Further, females high in attachment anxiety and low in attachment avoidance were more likely to report perpetrating violence than females high in both styles. Implications for prevention are discussed.

  19. Traumatic childhood exposures in the lives of male perpetrators of female intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Margaret E; Scrandis, Debra A

    2013-09-01

    Despite efforts to use behavior modification interventions for male perpetrators, intimate partner violence (IPV) remains a significant problem in some male-female relationships. Childhood exposure to traumatic violent experiences, especially when untreated, can influence adult behaviors. Little is known about these possible factors in the lives of male perpetrators of IPV and if they influence their violent behavior against female intimate partners. This study's aim was to explore the life perspective of men who have been violent with their female intimate partners using Gadamer's hermeneutic phenomenology. Nine men with a history of female IPV were interviewed twice over a 5-month period. Interview content focused on their experiences in childhood and adult lives. Four themes emerged from the qualitative interviews: (a) childhood and family issues, (b) school and mental health issues, (c) substance abuse and (d) legal issues. Traumatic violent experiences in childhood, such as physical and sexual abuse, frequently led to school problems, misuse of substances, and arrests for a spectrum of crimes. These results highlight the importance of identifying traumatic violent exposures through a brief two-question screen of all children in primary care. Implications for individualized mental health treatment of male perpetrators and recommendations for further research are addressed.

  20. Contraceptive use patterns within females' first sexual relationships: the role of relationships, partners, and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manlove, Jennifer; Terry-Humen, Elizabeth

    2007-02-01

    This study used the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) to assess whether characteristics of females' sexual partners, relationships, and choice of contraceptive methods were associated with contraceptive use patterns within their first sexual relationship. White, black, and Hispanic females under age 25 (N=915) provided retrospective information on sexual activity and contraceptive use for first sexual relationships that occurred between 1991 and 1995. Females with older sexual partners and with same race/ethnicity partners (among Hispanics) had reduced odds of ever using contraception and/or uninterrupted use. Longer sexual relationships were associated with higher odds of ever using contraception but lower odds of uninterrupted use. Females who were older at first sex, who used hormonal methods (among whites), or who switched to more effective methods during their first sexual relationships had higher odds of ever using contraception and/or uninterrupted use. In contrast, switching to less effective methods during a first sexual relationship was associated with reduced odds of uninterrupted use.

  1. Partner violence and psychosocial distress among female sex workers in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Hong

    Full Text Available Despite recognized vulnerability of female sex workers (FSW, most data on this population are focused on their HIV and STI prevalence; studies on their experience of partner violence and psychosocial distress are limited, especially FSW in China.A cross-sectional survey was administered among 1,022 FSW recruited from 9 different types of commercial sex venues in Southwest China. Partner violence scales were adapted from WHO's Women's Health and Domestic Violence scale and psychosocial distress was measured by five indicators, including alcohol intoxication, drug use, suicidal behavior, depression, and loneliness. Random effects modeling was used to control for cluster effects.About 58% of FSW ever experienced violence from their stable partners, and 45% suffered it from their clients. Partner violence was strongly associated with each of the five measures of psychosocial distress, even after controlling for potential confounders.This study is one of the first to examine the association between partner violence and psychosocial distress among FSW in China. The high prevalence of violence experience and distress in this population suggests urgency for intervention. The public health programs targeting FSW should go beyond the focus on HIV/STI prevention and care for the fundamental health and human rights of millions of FSW in China.

  2. Partner violence and psychosocial distress among female sex workers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yan; Zhang, Chen; Li, Xiaoming; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Yuejiao

    2013-01-01

    Despite recognized vulnerability of female sex workers (FSW), most data on this population are focused on their HIV and STI prevalence; studies on their experience of partner violence and psychosocial distress are limited, especially FSW in China. A cross-sectional survey was administered among 1,022 FSW recruited from 9 different types of commercial sex venues in Southwest China. Partner violence scales were adapted from WHO's Women's Health and Domestic Violence scale and psychosocial distress was measured by five indicators, including alcohol intoxication, drug use, suicidal behavior, depression, and loneliness. Random effects modeling was used to control for cluster effects. About 58% of FSW ever experienced violence from their stable partners, and 45% suffered it from their clients. Partner violence was strongly associated with each of the five measures of psychosocial distress, even after controlling for potential confounders. This study is one of the first to examine the association between partner violence and psychosocial distress among FSW in China. The high prevalence of violence experience and distress in this population suggests urgency for intervention. The public health programs targeting FSW should go beyond the focus on HIV/STI prevention and care for the fundamental health and human rights of millions of FSW in China.

  3. Love, Trust, and HIV Risk Among Female Sex Workers and Their Intimate Male Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Bazzi, Angela Robertson; Martinez, Gustavo; Rangel, M Gudelia; Ulibarri, Monica D; Fergus, Kirkpatrick B; Amaro, Hortensia; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2015-08-01

    We examined correlates of love and trust among female sex workers and their noncommercial male partners along the Mexico-US border. From 2011 to 2012, 322 partners in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, completed assessments of love and trust. Cross-sectional dyadic regression analyses identified associations of relationship characteristics and HIV risk behaviors with love and trust. Within 161 couples, love and trust scores were moderately high (median 70/95 and 29/40 points, respectively) and correlated with relationship satisfaction. In regression analyses of HIV risk factors, men and women who used methamphetamine reported lower love scores, whereas women who used heroin reported slightly higher love. In an alternate model, men with concurrent sexual partners had lower love scores. For both partners, relationship conflict was associated with lower trust. Love and trust are associated with relationship quality, sexual risk, and drug use patterns that shape intimate partners' HIV risk. HIV interventions should consider the emotional quality of sex workers' intimate relationships.

  4. "Mouth Wide Shut": Strategies of Female Sex Workers for Coping With Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente-Martínez, Alicia; Ubillos-Landa, Silvia; García-Zabala, Marina; Páez-Rovira, Darío

    2016-09-25

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between possible violence suffered by female sex workers in their intimate relationships, with their affects, coping strategies, and emotional regulation to overcome such violence and improve their well-being. Structured personal interviews were carried out with female sex workers in three different settings: street, club, and flats. The sample was composed of 137 Spanish female sex workers (85.4% are foreign and 20% Spanish-born sex workers). High levels of tension and problems with their partners were linked to an affective imbalance and poor well-being. Positive affectivity determined the use of adaptive strategies, whereas negative affectivity predicted dysfunctional strategies. Three different path analyses and theoretical support concluded that self-control was the only strategy related to improve well-being in female sex workers who reported lower potential tension and difficulty in their intimate relationships. In contrast, inhibition was associated with an increase on distress levels when negative affectivity predominated and sex workers had reported potential tension and difficulty situations with their partners. It was a cross-sectional study, and thus we cannot infer causality or direction from the observed associations. Given these findings, violence prevention strategies in the intimate relationships should be prioritized in the prostitution context. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. [Migrants' female partners: social image and the search for sexual and reproductive health services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Marín, Sandra C; Cristancho-Marulanda, Sergio; González-López, José Rafael

    2011-04-01

    Analysing the self-image and social image of migrants' female partners (MFP) and their relationship with the search for sexual and reproductive health services (SRHS) in communities having a high US migratory intensity index. 60 MFP were subjected to in-depth interviews between October 2004 and May 2005 and 19 semi-structured interviews were held with members of their families, 14 representatives from social organisations, 10 health service representatives and 31 men and women residing in the community. MFP self-image and social image regards women as being "vulnerable", "alone", "lacking sexual partner" and thus being sexually inactive. Consequently, "they must not contract sexually-transmitted diseases (STD), use contraceptives or become pregnant" when their partners are in the USA. The search for SRHS services was found to be related to self-image, social image and the notion of family or social control predominated in the behaviour expected for these women which, in turn, was related to conditions regarding their coexistence (or not) with their families. MFP living with their family or their partner's family were subject to greater "family" control in their search for SRHS services. On the contrary, MFP living alone were subjected to greater "social" control over such process. Sexuallyinactive women's self-image and social image seems to have a bearing on such women's social behaviour and could become an obstacle to the timely search for SRHS services in communities having high migratory intensity.

  6. A Qualitative Examination of Situational Risk Recognition Among Female Victims of Physical Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Andrew M; Bell, Kathryn M; Wyngarden, Nicole

    2016-07-01

    Little is known about intimate partner violence (IPV) victims' situational risk recognition, defined as the ability to identify situational factors that signal imminent risk of victimization. Using semi-structured interviews, qualitative data were collected from a community sample of 31 female victims of IPV episodes involving substance use. Thirteen themes were identified, the most prevalent being related to the partner's verbal behavior, tone of voice, motor behavior, alcohol or drug use, and facial expression. Participants reporting at least some anticipation of physical aggression (61.3% of the sample) tended to identify multiple factors (M = 3.47), suggesting numerous situational features often contribute to situational risk recognition. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. A Study Regarding Attitudes Ofyoung Slum Dwelling Females Towards Their Husband/Sex Partner Presuming Them Hiv Infected

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Shukla; J P Srivastava; V K Srivastava; S C Saxena; Seema Nigam

    2004-01-01

    Research Question : What is the attitude of young females towards their husband or sex partners presuming them infected with HIV?Objectives : Attitude of young slum dwelling females towards husband or sex partner presuming them HIV infectedaccording to age of respondentsaccording to marital status of respondentsaccording to occupation of respondentsaccording to literacy status of respondents Study Design : Cross sectional studyStudy Area : 10% of the Slums of Kanpur City having population les...

  8. Clinical trial considerations on male contraception and collection of pregnancy information from female partner: update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banholzer, Maria Longauer; Wandel, Christoph; Barrow, Paul; Mannino, Marie; Schmitt, Georg; Guérard, Melanie; Müller, Lutz; Greig, Gerard; Amemiya, Kenjie; Peck, Richard; Singer, Thomas; Doessegger, Lucette

    2016-12-01

    This is an update to our 2012 publication on clinical trial considerations on male contraception and collection of pregnancy information from female partner, after critical review of recent (draft) guidances released by the International Council for Harmonisation [ICH] the Clinical Trial Facilitation Group [CTFG] and the US Food & Drug Administration [FDA]. Relevant aspects of the new guidance documents are discussed in the context of male contraception and pregnancy reporting from female partner in clinical trials and the approach is updated accordingly. Genotoxicity The concept of a threshold is introduced using acceptable daily intake/permissible daily exposure to define genotoxicity requirements, hence highly effective contraception in order to avoid conception. The duration for highly effective contraception has been extended from 74 to 90 days from the end of relevant systemic exposure. Teratogenicity Pharmacokinetic considerations to estimate safety margins have been contextualized with regard to over- and underestimation of the risk of teratogenicity transmitted by a vaginal dose. The duration of male contraception after the last dose takes into account the end of relevant systemic exposure if measured, or a default period of five half-lives after last dose for small molecules and two half-lives for immunoglobulins (mAbs). Measures to prevent exposure of the conceptus via a vaginal dose apply to reproductively competent or vasectomized men, unless measurements fail to detect the compound in seminal fluid. Critical review of new guidance documents provides a comparison across approaches and resulted in an update of our previous publication. Separate algorithms for small molecules and monoclonal antibodies are proposed to guide the recommendations for contraception for male trial participants and pregnancy reporting from female partners. No male contraception is required if the dose is below a defined threshold for genotoxic concern applicable to small

  9. Use of Noninvasive Bone Structural Measurements to Evaluate Stress Fracture Susceptibility Among Female Recruits in U.S. Marine Corps Basic Training: Individual Profiles of Stress Fracture Susceptibility Among Female Recruits in U.S. Marine Corps Basic Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shaffer, Rick

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to derive predictive models of stress fracture susceptibility in female military recruits by administering a questionnaire highlighting exercise and health habits prior...

  10. On the role of individual differences in female odor and ultrasonic vocalizations for male's choice of partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoeren, Eelke M; Helander, Lars R; Iversen, Eric E; Ågmo, Anders

    2014-06-10

    Intrasexual competition for access to a female mate is believed to be unusual in wild male rats, which suggests that female choosiness could be important. Even if competition is unusual, males still have to inevitably approach one partner first for copulation. In females, it has been shown that females spend longer time with one male compared to the others when tested in a multiple partner paradigm. The male mate preference was investigated in this study. In addition, the role of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) and female odors in the male's initial choice to approach one female instead of another was studied in this experiment. Male rats could choose between three different sexually receptive females. The experiment started with a 15-minute period with inaccessible females followed by a 15-minute period with accessible females in which the males could copulate with the females of his choice. The results showed that male rats spent more time with the female of 1st entry over the second or third females visited. No differences were found in USV subtype patterns emitted by the different females or the number of sniff episodes towards the different female chambers. Thus, the present experiments did not offer any evidence suggesting that USVs or individual differences in female odors play any role in male mate choice. Other factors that were not investigated in this study might be involved in male mate selection, but it should also be considered that mate selection could be random. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. HIV risk behaviours and their relationship to intimate partner violence (IPV) among men who have multiple female sexual partners in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Loraine; Jewkes, Rachel; Mathews, Catherine; Johnston, Lisa Grazina; Flisher, Alan J; Zembe, Yanga; Chopra, Mickey

    2011-01-01

    HIV/AIDS and intimate partner violence (IPV) are growing public health concerns in South Africa. Knowledge about adult men's perpetration of IPV and links between HIV risk behaviours and IPV is limited. Respondent driven sampling was used to recruit men who have multiple concurrent female sexual partners. Forty-one percent of the 428 recruited men had perpetrated IPV. Inconsistent condom use was associated with physical IPV; experiencing a symptom of a sexually transmitted infection and engaging in transactional sex were associated with physical and sexual IPV; problem alcohol use was associated with physical, and any IPV, but not sexual IPV; having five or more partners was associated with sexual IPV; perceptions of partners' infidelity were associated with physical and any IPV. HIV risk reduction interventions among men, especially those with multiple female sex partners, should incorporate strategies to change the underlying construction of masculinity that combines the anti-social and risky behaviours of IPV perpetration, inconsistent condom use, transactional sex and heavy alcohol consumption.

  12. Men's sexual response to female partner's intranasal oxytocin administration for hypoactive sexual desire disorder: an open prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muin, Dana A; Sheikh Rezaei, Safoura; Tremmel-Scheinost, Max; Salama, Mohamed; Luger, Anton; Wolzt, Michael; Husslein, Peter W; Bayerle-Eder, Michaela

    2017-03-01

    To study sexual function, quality of life, and depression in men, whose female partners are undergoing double-blind placebo-controlled randomized treatment for hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). Open prospective cohort study of 22 weeks. Academic medical center. Male partners of 30 premenopausal and postmenopausal women with HSDD. Baseline, 3-month, and 5-month assessment (for 8 weeks each) of male response to female partner's use of oxytocin nasal spray (32 IE) and placebo within 50 minutes before sexual intercourse. Primary outcome parameters were Sexual Life Quality Questionnaire-Male, Sexual Activity Record, Partner Performance Questionnaire, and Hamilton Depression Scale. Male Sexual Life Quality questionnaire improved significantly from -7.4 ± 9.9 at baseline to 8.2 ± 12 with female partners' treatment with oxytocin nasal spray and to 10.8 ± 13.8 with placebo. Frequency of intercourse improved slightly but not significantly from 6.3 ± 3.9 at baseline to 7.3 ± 4 with female oxytocin therapy, but not with placebo. Male desire and arousal remained stable throughout the study period. Evaluation of female partners' performance by men improved significantly from 8.9 ± 2.8 at baseline to 10.6 ± 2.2 with oxytocin and to 11.2 ± 2.6 with placebo. Female treatment with either oxytocin or placebo for HSDD significantly improves male sexual quality of life and evaluation of female partner's sexual performance with no difference between oxytocin and placebo on any outcome parameters. A nonsignificant improvement was seen in the frequency of intercourse, male arousal, desire, satisfaction, and Hamilton depression scale. NCT02229721. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Intimate Partner Violence among Female Sex Workers in Two Mexico-U.S. Border Cities: Partner Characteristics and HIV Risk-behaviors as Correlates of Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Ulibarri, Monica D.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Amaro, Hortensia; O’Campo, Patricia; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2010-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been associated with greater vulnerability to HIV infection among women. We examined prevalence and correlates of IPV among female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, two large Mexico-U.S. border cities where HIV prevalence is rising. Participants were 300 FSWs with a current spouse or a steady partner. Participants’ mean age was 33 years, and mean number of years as a sex worker was 6 years. The prevalence of IPV in the past 6 months among par...

  14. The female menstrual cycle does not influence testosterone concentrations in male partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strom Jakob O

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The time of ovulation has since long been believed to be concealed to male heterosexual partners. Recent studies have, however, called for revision of this notion. For example, male testosterone concentrations have been shown to increase in response to olfactory ovulation cues, which could be biologically relevant by increasing sexual drive and aggressiveness. However, this phenomenon has not previously been investigated in real-life human settings. We therefore thought it of interest to test the hypothesis that males' salivary testosterone concentrations are influenced by phases of their female partners' menstrual cycle; expecting a testosterone peak at ovulation. Methods Thirty young, healthy, heterosexual couples were recruited. During the course of 30-40 days, the women registered menses and ovulation, while the men registered sexual activity, physical exercise, alcohol intake and illness (confounders, and obtained daily saliva samples for testosterone measurements. All data, including the registered confounders, were subjected to multiple regression analysis. Results In contrast to the hypothesis, the ovulation did not affect the testosterone levels, and the resulting testosterone profile during the menstrual cycle was on the average flat. The specific main hypothesis, that male testosterone levels on the day of ovulation would be higher than day 4 of the cycle, was clearly contradicted by a type II error(β-analysis ( Conclusions Even though an ovulation-related salivary testosterone peak was observed in individual cases, no significant effect was found on a group level.

  15. Concurrent sexual partnerships among female sex workers and their non-commercial male partners in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Angela Marie; Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Rangel, M Gudelia; Staines, Hugo S; Morris, Martina; Patterson, Thomas L; Ulibarri, Monica D; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the prevalence and correlates of concurrent (overlapping) sexual partnerships among female sex workers (FSWs) and their non-commercial male partners in two Mexico-US border cities. A cross-sectional survey of FSWs and their non-commercial male partners was conducted in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico (2010-2011). Eligible FSWs and verified non-commercial partners were aged ≥18 years; FSWs had ever used hard drugs (lifetime) and recently exchanged sex for money, drugs or other goods (past month). Participants underwent baseline questionnaires obtaining dates of sex and condom use with ≤5 other recurring partners, including FSWs' regular clients. These dates were compared with dates of sex with enrolled study partners to determine overlap (ie, 'recurring' concurrency). Bivariate probit regression identified recurring concurrency correlates. Among 428 individuals (214 couples), past-year recurring concurrency prevalence was 16% and was higher among women than their non-commercial male partners (26% vs 6%). In 10 couples (5%), both partners reported recurring concurrency. The majority of couples (64%) always had unprotected sex, and most of the individuals (70%) with recurring concurrency 'sometimes' or 'never' used condoms with their concurrent partners. Recurring concurrency was positively associated with FSWs' income, men's caballerismo (a form of traditional masculinity) and men's belief that their FSW partners had sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Recurring concurrency, representing sustained periods of overlapping partnerships in which unprotected sex was common, should be addressed by couple-based STI prevention interventions.

  16. Intimate Partner Violence among Female Sex Workers in Two Mexico-U.S. Border Cities: Partner Characteristics and HIV Risk-behaviors as Correlates of Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulibarri, Monica D; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Amaro, Hortensia; O'Campo, Patricia; Patterson, Thomas L

    2010-12-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been associated with greater vulnerability to HIV infection among women. We examined prevalence and correlates of IPV among female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, two large Mexico-U.S. border cities where HIV prevalence is rising. Participants were 300 FSWs with a current spouse or a steady partner. Participants' mean age was 33 years, and mean number of years as a sex worker was 6 years. The prevalence of IPV in the past 6 months among participants was 35%. Using multivariate logistic regression, factors independently associated with IPV included having experienced abuse as a child, a partner who had sex with someone else, and lower sexual relationship power. Our findings suggest the need for previous abuse screening and violence prevention services for FSWs in the Mexico-U.S. border region. Careful consideration of relationship dynamics such as infidelity and relationship power is warranted when assessing for IPV risk.

  17. CHANGES IN CONDOM USE OVER TIME AMONG FEMALE SEX WORKERS AND THEIR MALE NONCOMMERCIAL PARTNERS AND CLIENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracas, Ashley; Bazzi, Angela Robertson; Artamonova, Irina; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Staines, Hugo; Ulibarri, Monica D.

    2017-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) often report inconsistent condom use with clients and noncommercial male partners, yet changes in condom use with various partner types during participation in observation studies remains underexplored. This longitudinal study of 214 FSWs and their male, noncommercial partners in the Mexico-U.S. border region, where HIV prevalence among FSWs continues to be high, utilized negative binomial regressions to examine changes in condom use with intimate partners and clients (regular and nonregular) over 24 months. Condom use decreased over time among couples in Ciudad Juarez, but there was no change in condom use among couples in Tijuana. FSWs’ condom use with regular and nonregular clients significantly increased over time, which is consistent with previous research finding behavioral changes when participating in observational studies. Findings suggest the need for continued efforts to promote condom use among FSWs and their noncommercial male partners in addition to clients. PMID:27427926

  18. Predictors of Chlamydia Trachomatis testing: perceived norms, susceptibility, changes in partner status, and underestimation of own risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Hoor, Gill A; Ruiter, Robert A C; van Bergen, Jan E A M; Hoebe, Christian J P A; Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole H T M; Kok, Gerjo

    2016-01-20

    It is hard to convince people to participate in chlamydia screening programs outside the clinical setting. In two earlier studies (BMC Public Health. 2013;13:1091; J Med Internet Res. 2014;16(1):e24), we identified explicit and implicit determinants of chlamydia screening behavior and attempted, unsuccessfully, to improve participation rates by optimizing the recruitment letter. In the present study, we examined the links between a number of social-cognitive determinants (e.g., stereotypical beliefs about a person with chlamydia, intentions, changes in partner status), and self-reported chlamydia testing behavior six months after the initial study. The present study is a follow-up to our first study (T0). We assessed self-reported testing behavior 6 months after the first measure by means of an online questionnaire (T1; N = 269). Furthermore, at T1, we measured the social-cognitive determinants in more detail, and explored the influence of stereotypical beliefs and any changes in partner status during this six month period. In total, 25 (9.1 %) of the participants tested for chlamydia at some point during the six months between baseline (T0) and follow up (T1). Testing behavior was influenced by testing intentions in combination with changes in risk behavior. The higher the participants' own numbers of partners ever, the higher they estimated the number of partners of the stereotypical person with chlamydia. Testing intentions were most strongly predicted by perceived norms and susceptibility, and having had multiple partners in the last 6 months (R(2) = .41). The most relevant determinants for testing intentions and behavior were susceptibility, subjective norms and changes in partner status. We found a systematic tendency for individuals to underestimate their own risk, especially the risk of inconsistent condom use. Future research should focus on more promising alternatives to population-based interventions, such as online interventions, screening in

  19. Preferences and Ratings of Partner Traits in Female Survivors of Childhood Abuse With PTSD and Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberz, Klara A; Müller-Engelmann, Meike; Priebe, Kathlen; Friedmann, Franziska; Görg, Nora; Herzog, Julia Isabell; Steil, Regina

    2017-11-01

    There is growing empirical evidence for an association between childhood abuse (CA) and intimate partner violence (IPV) in adulthood. We tested whether revictimized survivors of severe to extreme severities of child sexual abuse (CSA) and severe severities of child physical abuse (CPA) differed from nonvictimized healthy controls in their trait preferences in intimate partners and their current mate choice. In a sample of 52 revictimized female patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after CSA/CPA and 52 female healthy controls, the validated Intimate Partner Preferences Questionnaire (IPPQ) was used to assess (a) the desirability of tenderness, dominance, and aggression traits in potential partners, and (b) the presence of these traits in their current intimate partners. Factors potentially associated with partner preference and mate choice, for example, chronicity of traumatic events and lower self-esteem, were explored. Our results showed that, in general, revictimized PTSD patients did not have a preference for dominant or aggressive partners. However, revictimized women displayed a significantly larger discrepancy than did healthy controls between their preferences for tenderness traits and their ratings of the presence of tenderness traits in their current partners. Our results indicated that revictimized patients had lower self-esteem values; however, these values were associated with higher demands for tenderness traits. Furthermore, our results revealed that compared with patients who experienced early-onset childhood abuse (CA), those who experienced later onset CA were more accepting of dominant traits in potential partners. Women who had experienced IPV rated their current partners to be overly dominant. A higher tolerance of dominance traits might increase the risk of IPV in a specific subgroup of abused women (women with a later onset of abuse experiences and experiences of IPV).

  20. AIRE: a missing link to explain female susceptibility to autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrih-Aknin, Sonia; Panse, Rozen Le; Dragin, Nadine

    2018-01-01

    Women are more susceptible to autoimmune diseases than men. Autoimmunity results from tolerance breakdown toward self-components. Recently, three transcription modulators were identified in medullary thymic epithelial cells that orchestrate immune central tolerance processes: the autoimmune regulator (AIRE), FEZ family zinc finger 2 (FEZF2 or FEZ1), and PR domain zinc finger protein 1 (PRDM1). Interestingly, these three transcription modulators regulate nonredundant tissue-specific antigen subsets and thus cover broad antigen diversity. Recent data from different groups demonstrated that sex hormones (estrogen and testosterone) are involved in the regulation of thymic AIRE expression in humans and mice through direct transcriptional modulation and epigenetic changes. As a consequence, AIRE displays gender-biased thymic expression, with females showing a lower expression compared with males, a finding that could explain the female susceptibility to autoimmune diseases. So far, FEZF2 has not been related to an increased gender bias in autoimmune disease. PRDM1 expression has not been shown to display gender-differential thymic expression, but its expression level and its gene polymorphisms are associated with female-dependent autoimmune disease risk. Altogether, various studies have demonstrated that increased female susceptibility to autoimmune diseases is in part a consequence of hormone-driven reduced thymic AIRE expression. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  1. An analysis of treatment preferences and sexual quality of life outcomes in female partners of Chinese men with erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Jun; Bai, Wen-Jun; Dai, Yu-Tian; Xu, Wen-Ping; Wang, Chia-Ning; Li, Han-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    The impact of erectile dysfunction is distressing to both males and their female partners, but less attention has been paid to identify female partners' preferred treatment and sexual quality of life outcomes. The present analysis explores female partners' treatment preference for erectile dysfunction in Chinese Men. This was a phase 4, randomized, open-label, multicenter, crossover study in Chinese men with erectile dysfunction who were naïve to phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor treatments. Eligible patients were randomized to sequential 20-mg tadalafil/100-mg sildenafil or 100-mg sildenafil/20-mg tadalafil for 8 weeks each. Of 418 patients, female partners of 64 patients agreed to enter the study; of 64 patients who entered the study with female partners, 63 were randomized, and 62 completed the study. Baseline demographics and disease characteristics were comparable between treatment groups. Significantly more couples preferred tadalafil compared with sildenafil overall (75.4% vs 24.6%; P sexual quality of life scores were reported at endpoint (Visit 8) in male patients and female partners in both tadalafil and sildenafil treatment groups (P < 0.001). Significantly higher mean changes from baseline were observed for male patients in the tadalafil group compared with the sildenafil group for the erectile function (P = 0.013) and overall satisfaction (P = 0.019) International Index for Erectile Function domains and the spontaneity domain (P < 0.001) of the Psychological and Interpersonal Relationship Scale. No major safety concerns were reported during the study. Though both treatments were effective, safe, and tolerable, more couples preferred tadalafil compared with sildenafil.

  2. Risk factors of anxiety and depressive symptoms in female patients experiencing intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakuła Juchnowicz, Hanna; Łukasik, Paulina; Morylowska-Topolska, Justyna; Krukow, Paweł

    2017-02-26

    The aim of the study was to find factors associated with higher severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms in female patients experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV). The study was conducted in six randomly selected primary healthcare centers in Lublin province. The HADS (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) and a structured questionnaire designed by the authors were administered to a total of 350 consecutive female patients visiting a GP. Fully completed questionnaire forms were obtained from 200 women. 102 (51%) participants who confirmed experiencing IPV ultimately made up the study cohort. Sequential models were created using backward stepwise multiple regression to investigate the potential risk and the protective factors associated with higher severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms in the study group. 68% and 56% of the participants respectively had positive scores on the HADS anxiety and depression subscales. Living in a small town or in the countryside was associated with higher scores on the anxiety subscale (b = -1.18, p = 0.003), but not on the depression subscale. Chronic physical illness (b = 2.42, p = 0.013; b = 2.86, p = 0.015), being unemployed (b = 0.58, p = 0.024; b = 0.69, p = 0.008), and exposure to economic violence (b = 3.97, p anxiety subscale. The type of violence and socioeconomic characteristics were more strongly associated with anxiety and depressive symptoms in women experiencing IPV than demographic variables.

  3. Female intimate partner violence perpetration: stability and predictors of mutual and nonmutual aggression across the first year of college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Maria; Hoffman, Joseph H; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2011-01-01

    Cross-sectional and longitudinal predictors of mutual and nonmutual intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration were identified in a sample of female college freshmen (N = 499). Using female reports, couples were classified as to whether the relationship included no IPV, female-only IPV, or mutual IPV (male-only IPV was too rare to analyze). Mutual IPV was more common than asymmetrical IPV, and women in mutually violent relationships perpetrated more frequent acts of physical aggression than those in female-only violent relationships. In cross-sectional analyses of IPV in the first semester of college, only partner antisocial behavior and psychological aggression distinguished female-only IPV from no IPV; witnessing mother-to-father aggression, higher psychological aggression, more frequent partner marijuana use, partner antisocial behavior, and, surprisingly, higher relationship satisfaction, discriminated mutual IPV from no IPV. Contrary to hypothesis, first semester (T1) IPV did not predict having a new partner in the second semester (T2); however, women who reported more frequent heavy episodic drinking and lower relationship satisfaction at T1 were more likely to be in a different relationship at T2. Prospective prediction of T2 IPV category failed to support the hypothesis that female-only IPV would escalate to mutual IPV. The majority of couples with female-only IPV reported no IPV at T2. After accounting for T1 IPV, the only significant predictor of T2 IPV category was T1 psychological aggression, suggesting that this may be an appropriate target for IPV prevention efforts among college dating couples. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Correlates of Young Men's Intention to Discuss Birth Control with Female Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, N Tatiana; Morrison, Diane M; Querna, Katherine; Casey, Erin A; Beadnell, Blair

    2017-03-01

    Heterosexually active men who wish to prevent conception, but are not willing to use condoms consistently, need to discuss birth control with female partners. Improving the understanding of correlates of men's intention to have such discussions is one step toward supporting this health-facilitating behavior. A sample of 372 heterosexually active men aged 18-25 were recruited and surveyed online between December 2010 and June 2011. Men answered questions on attitudes toward, norms regarding and self-efficacy about discussing birth control, and about endorsement of two sexual scripts. Multiple regression analyses tested these measures' associations with intention to discuss birth control, controlling for age and relationship status. Attitudes, norms and self-efficacy were each positively associated with men's intention to discuss birth control, accounting for 34% of variance. The more strongly men endorsed a traditional masculinity sexual script, the less likely they were to intend to discuss birth control (coefficient, -0.2). Endorsement of an alternative, gender-equitable "sex-positive woman" script, which emphasizes sexual pleasure and emotional connection as goals for both partners, had no association with intention. Strategies that merit further exploration as potential supports for men's intention to discuss birth control include improving men's self-efficacy and positive attitudes and norms pertaining to such discussions, and reducing belief in traditionally masculine sexual scripts or transforming them to include discussing birth control. Future research should work both experimentally and longitudinally to document each element of the process that ends with men's full participation in effective contraceptive use. Copyright © 2016 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  5. [Prevalence and factors associated with intimate partner abuse in female users of public health services in Mexico: a comparative analyses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila-Burgos, Leticia; Valdez-Santiagob, Rosario; Barroso-Quiab, Abigail; Híjar, Martha; Rojas, Rosalba; Del Río-Zolezzi, Aurora

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the evolution of the prevalence in intimate partner violence during the years 2003 and 2006 in Mexico, identifying factors associated with its severity, comparing our results with findings from 2003. Data from the Encuesta Nacional de Violencia contra las Mujeres (ENVIM 2006) was used; it has urban-rural national representation of female users of Mexican public health services. A total of 22,318 women above 14 years of age were interviewed. A multinomial logistic regression model was adjusted. The dependent variable was the Index of Intimate Partner Abuse. Intimate partner abuse increased 17% in comparison to the year 2003. Women's personal history of childhood abuse (ORA= 5.12, 95% CI4.15-6.30) and rape (ORA = 3.5, 95% CI = 2.66-4.62) were the most important women's factors that were found associated with severe violence. Male partner's daily alcohol consumption increased eleven fold the possibility of severe violence; higher disagreement with traditional female gender roles and higher education of both partners were protective factors. Factors associated with violence and their severities were consistent with findings reported in 2003. Intimate partner violence is a highly prevalent social problem which requires comprehensive strategies supporting empowerment of women through higher education, early detection and care of those battered, as well as structured interventions to prevent violence in future generations.

  6. Female caregivers' experiences with intimate partner violence and behavior problems in children investigated as victims of maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, Andrea L; Connelly, Cynthia D; Kelleher, Kelly J; Barth, Richard P; Landsverk, John A

    2006-01-01

    We examined the relationship between women's experiences with intimate partner violence and their reports of child behavior problems. Data were from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, a national probability study of children who were the subjects of child abuse and neglect investigations. The sample consisted of 2020 female caregivers of children between the ages of 4 and 14 years who were interviewed about demographic characteristics, child behavior problems, female caregiver mental health, parenting behaviors, experiences with intimate partner violence, and community characteristics. Information on child abuse and neglect was obtained in interviews with child protective services workers. Multiple-regression analyses were used to investigate the association between caregiver victimization and child behavior problems while controlling for the effects of child, family, and environmental characteristics. The potential moderating effects of caregiver depression and parenting practices on the relation between intimate partner violence and child behavior problems were examined also. Severe intimate partner violence was associated with both externalizing and internalizing behavior problems when other risk factors were controlled. Use of corporal punishment and psychological aggression were significant moderators, but maternal depression did not moderate the relation between intimate partner violence and behavior problems. This study adds to the evidence that maternal caregivers' experiences with intimate partner violence are related to child functioning. The findings suggest that systematic efforts are needed to ensure that mental health needs are identified and addressed appropriately in children exposed to this violence.

  7. Effects of an intervention program for female victims of intimate partner violence on psychological symptoms and perceived social support

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Nina B.; Sara B. Eriksen; Elklit, Ask

    2014-01-01

    Background: Research has documented severe mental health problems in female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV). Therefore, providing effective treatment is pivotal. Few studies have investigated the effects of intervention programs on reducing the harmful consequences of IPV.Objective: The present study examined the effects of a specific three-phase intervention program for female victims of IPV on psychological symptoms (PTSD, anxiety, and depression) and perceived social support. Gi...

  8. Cognitive emotional consequences of male infertility in their female partners: a qualitative content analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Fatemeh Zahra; Taghipour, Ali; Roudsari, Robab Latifnejad; Kimiaei, Seyed Ali; Mazlom, Seyed Reza; Amirian, Maliheh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Infertility, as a global phenomenon and one of the most important issues of reproductive health, affects women more often than men, even when the infertility is due to a male factor. The purpose of this study was to explore the cognitive emotional experiences of women faced with male infertility. Methods This qualitative study was conducted in 2014–2015 in Mashhad, Iran. The perceptions and experiences of healthy women whose husbands were diagnosed with primary male factor infertility were investigated using a qualitative content analysis approach. Participants were selected through purposeful sampling, and data collection was conducted using in-depth semistructured interviews. Data were analyzed using conventional content analysis with MAXqda software. Study rigor was verified via criteria proposed by Lincoln and Guba. Results One main theme emerged through analysis entitled “cognitive emotional reactions confronting infertility diagnosis” with sub-themes of cognitive emotional reactions when confronted with male infertility diagnosis with subthemes of disbelief and denial, fear and apprehension, suffering and emotional distress, disappointment, frustration, confusion, and joy. Conclusion The diagnosis of male infertility was associated with important emotional cognitive consequences for their female partners. Emotional support, providing new insights into how to treat the issue, and trying to shorten the process of diagnosis are necessary for these women. This kind of support could reduce the psychological effects of confrontation with the diagnosis of male infertility, including social insecurity for women. PMID:26767097

  9. Sexualization reduces helping intentions towards female victims of intimate partner violence through mediation of moral patiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacilli, Maria Giuseppina; Pagliaro, Stefano; Loughnan, Steve; Gramazio, Sarah; Spaccatini, Federica; Baldry, Anna Costanza

    2017-06-01

    This paper examines the influence of female sexualization on people's willingness to provide help in cases of intimate partner violence (IPV). We examined how sexualization may make women seem lacking moral patiency and moral virtue both of which may lead to a reduced willingness to help. In the first study, participants read a fictitious newspaper article describing an IPV incident. They were then presented with a picture of the ostensible victim depicting the woman with either a sexualized or non-sexualized appearance. Participants judged both the victim's moral patiency and morality, and then expressed their willingness to provide help to that victim. Although the sexualized victim was viewed as a lesser moral patient (Studies 1 and 2) and as less moral (Study 2), it was seeing the victim as unworthy of moral patiency rather than lacking moral virtue (immoral) that linked sexualization to reduced help. Controlling for participants' sexism and women's admission of infidelity, Study 2 replicated that sexualization reduced helping intentions through a lack of moral patiency. Practical implications are discussed. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Association between Intimate Partner Violence and Health Behaviors of Female Emergency Department Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Elizabeth Mathew

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We assessed the correlation between intimate partner violence (IPV and health behaviors, including seat belt use, smoke alarm in home, handgun access, body mass index, diet, and exercise. We hypothesized that IPV victims would be less likely to have healthy behaviors as compared to women with similar demographics.Methods: All adult female patients who presented to 3 Atlanta-area emergency department waiting rooms on weekdays from 11AM to 7PM were asked to participate in a computer-based survey by trained research assistants. The Universal Violence Prevention Screen was used for IPV identification. The survey also assessed seatbelt use, smoke alarm presence, handgun access, height, weight, exercise, and diet. We used chi-square tests of association, odds ratios, and independent t-tests tomeasure associations between variables.Results: Participants ranged from 18 to 68 years, with a mean of 38 years. Out of 1,452 respondents, 155 patients self-identified as white (10.7%, and 1,218 as black (83.9%; 153 out of 832 women who were in a relationship in the prior year (18.4% screened positive for IPV. We found significant relationships between IPV and not wearing a seatbelt (p,0.01, handgun access (p,0.01, and eating unhealthy foods (p,0.01.Conclusion: Women experiencing IPV are more likely to exhibit risky health behaviors than women who are not IPV victims. [West J Emerg Med. 2012;13(3:278–282.

  11. Sex differences in metabolic aging of the brain: insights into female susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liqin; Mao, Zisu; Woody, Sarah K; Brinton, Roberta D

    2016-06-01

    Despite recent advances in the understanding of clinical aspects of sex differences in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the underlying mechanisms, for instance, how sex modifies AD risk and why the female brain is more susceptible to AD, are not clear. The purpose of this study is to elucidate sex disparities in brain aging profiles focusing on 2 major areas-energy and amyloid metabolism-that are most significantly affected in preclinical development of AD. Total RNA isolated from hippocampal tissues of both female and male 129/C57BL/6 mice at ages of 6, 9, 12, or 15 months were comparatively analyzed by custom-designed Taqman low-density arrays for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction detection of a total of 182 genes involved in a broad spectrum of biological processes modulating energy production and amyloid homeostasis. Gene expression profiles revealed substantial differences in the trajectory of aging changes between female and male brains. In female brains, 44.2% of genes were significantly changed from 6 months to 9 months and two-thirds showed downregulation. In contrast, in male brains, only 5.4% of genes were significantly altered at this age transition. Subsequent changes in female brains were at a much smaller magnitude, including 10.9% from 9 months to 12 months and 6.1% from 12 months to 15 months. In male brains, most changes occurred from 12 months to 15 months and the majority were upregulated. Furthermore, gene network analysis revealed that clusterin appeared to serve as a link between the overall decreased bioenergetic metabolism and increased amyloid dyshomeostasis associated with the earliest transition in female brains. Together, results from this study indicate that: (1) female and male brains follow profoundly dissimilar trajectories as they age; (2) female brains undergo age-related changes much earlier than male brains; (3) early changes in female brains signal the onset of a hypometabolic phenotype at risk for AD. These

  12. Risk for Heterosexual HIV Transmission Among Non-Injecting Female Partners of Injection Drug Users in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusküla, A; McMahon, J M; Kals, M; Talu, A; Abel-Ollo, K; Rüütel, K; Des Jarlais, D C

    2013-03-01

    The HIV epidemic in Estonia, as with other eastern European countries, is currently concentrated among injection drug users (IDUs). Non-IDUs who have IDU sex partners could serve as a potential bridge in an expanding epidemic. We applied HIV transmission modelling to data collected from non-IDU/IDU heterosexual couples in Kohtla-Järve, Estonia to estimate HIV risk from IDUs to their sex partners based on self-reported sexual behaviors shared by the couple. IDUs and their current main non-injecting sex partners were recruited for an interviewer-administered survey and HIV testing. Bernoulli modelling techniques were applied to estimate the risk of HIV transmission (incidence) among HIV negative non-injecting female partners of male IDUs. The estimated HIV incidence in this population of non-injecting women with only main sexual partners in the last 6 months ranged from 3.24 to 4.94 HIV seroconversions per 100 person years depending on the value used in the models for the per act transmission rate during acute stage infection. Non-IDUs who have IDU sex partners are at high risk for HIV and could serve as a potential bridge to a more generalized epidemic. Whether this might lead to an expansion of the HIV epidemic beyond core groups in Estonia or other Eastern European countries warrants closer study.

  13. Female commercial sex worker perspective on susceptibility of HIV-AIDS in Yogyakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmudah, Nurul; Dasuki, Djaswadi; Kurniawati, Herlin Fitriani

    2017-08-01

    Commercial sex worker is one of the groups with the highest level of susceptibility against HIV infection. They are 13,5 fold more prone to a living with HIV infection than the female of non commercial sex workers. Moreover, these commercial sex workers are also stigmatized with social sanction and discrimination against people with HIV-AIDS. The society mostly avoid them, deject them, isolate them, insult them, despise them, distrust them, and even go against the existence of those suffering from or infected by HIV-AIDS. Thus, stigmatizing and discrimination are basicly highly prohibited since they can incur higher social problems. It is also vital to handle the spread of HIV-AIDS in the society as soon as possible in the attempt of fighting against the spread of the disease. Hence, being broad minded, tolerant, and caring towards them as well as working hand in hand with the community are expected to diminish, minimize, and even eradicate the outbreak of HIV-AIDS. Caring towards those suffering from the infection without stigmatizing them and discriminating them will be one of the first measurements to take to improve what is needed to prevent the prevalence and spread of the disease. Thus, the primary objective of this research is to know the perception of female commercial sex workers on the susceptibility of HIV-AIDS in Yogyakarta. The research participants were selected from three localizations in Yogyakarta namely Pasar Kembang, Bongsuwung, and Giwangan. It is revealed that the participants had a good perception on the susceptibility of AIDS infection as seen from the fact there are free avalaible condoms for them to use everytime they have a sexual intercourse with the clients. All participants were aware of their high susceptibility against the infection of STIs/HIV/AIDS and thus they want to save their skin from those diseases. Also they had a good knowledge that having an intercourse without condom may get them infected.

  14. Susceptibility of reproduction in female pigs to impairment by stress or elevation of cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, A I; Hemsworth, P H; Tilbrook, A J

    2005-08-01

    It is generally agreed that stress can impair reproduction. Furthermore, it is often thought that cortisol, which is secreted during stress as a result of activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal axis, is associated with this stress-induced impairment of reproduction. It has been hypothesized that reproduction in females is particularly susceptible to disruption by acute stress during the series of endocrine events that induce estrus and ovulation. Nevertheless, we found no support for this conjecture when we subjected female pigs to repeated acute stress or repeated acute elevation of cortisol during the period leading up to estrus and ovulation. Conversely, studies have demonstrated that prolonged stress and sustained elevation of cortisol can disrupt reproductive processes in female pigs. Nevertheless, in each study that demonstrated this effect, there were some animals subjected to the prolonged stressor or the sustained elevation of cortisol in which the reproductive parameters that were measured were not affected by the treatment. We propose that reproduction in female pigs is resistant to the effects of acute or repeated acute stress or acute or repeated acute elevation of cortisol even if these occur during the series of endocrine events that induce estrus and ovulation. Furthermore, while reproductive processes in some individuals are compromised, reproduction in a proportion of female pigs appears to be resistant to the effects of prolonged stress or sustained elevation of cortisol.

  15. Neural correlates of the females' susceptibility to negative emotions: an insight into gender-related prevalence of affective disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jiajin; Luo, Yuejia; Yan, Jin H; Meng, Xianxin; Yu, Fengqiong; Li, Hong

    2009-11-01

    Considerable studies reported that females are more susceptible to affective disturbances such as depression, anxiety disorder, and phobia compared to males. Based on the close relation between emotional sensitivity and liability to affective disturbances (Hofer et al. [2006]: NeuroImage 32, 854-862; Spearing [2001]: Bipolar disorder, 2nd ed. Bethesda (MA): National institute of Mental Health), this study investigated the neural mechanism underlying the females' liability to affective disturbances by hypothesizing that females are more susceptible to negative emotions than males. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded for highly negative (HN), moderately negative (MN), and neutral images in Experiment 1, and for highly positive, moderately positive, and neutral images in Experiment 2, whereas subjects (15 males and 15 females) performed a standard/deviant distinction task, irrespective of the emotional valence of deviants in both experiments. In addition to the prominent emotional reactions evoked by HN stimuli in both genders, Experiment 1 displayed conspicuous emotional responses of females to MN stimuli across N2 and P3 components, which were absent in males. In contrast, Experiment 2 demonstrated neither significant valence effect, nor significant valence by gender interaction effect at these components. Thus, although both genders are sensitive to HN stimuli, females, instead of males, are particularly susceptible to negative stimuli of lesser salience, and this female specific susceptibility does not exist to the positive stimuli. Therefore, females must be more susceptible to negative emotions in life settings, which may be one important mechanism underlying their higher prevalence of affective disturbances.

  16. Parenting in Females Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence and Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Anna E.; Cranston, Christopher C.; Shadlow, Joanna O.

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence may have a significant impact on parenting. The current study expands on existing research by examining the effects of child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence on parenting styles and parenting self-efficacy. In women from a parenting intervention program (n = 20), child sexual abuse was…

  17. Female rats are less susceptible during puberty to the lethal effects of percutaneous exposure to VX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linnzi K.M. Wright

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nerve agents with low volatility such as VX are primarily absorbed through the skin when released during combat or a terrorist attack. The barrier function of the stratum corneum may be compromised during certain stages of development, allowing VX to more easily penetrate through the skin. However, age-related differences in the lethal potency of VX have yet to be evaluated using the percutaneous (pc route of exposure. Thus, we estimated the 24 and 48 h median lethal dose for pc exposure to VX in male and female rats during puberty and early adulthood. Pubescent, female rats were less susceptible than both their male and adult counterparts to the lethal effects associated with pc exposure to VX possibly because of hormonal changes during that stage of development. This study emphasizes the need to control for both age and sex when evaluating the toxicological effects associated with nerve agent exposure in the rat model.

  18. Impact of male partner's awareness and support for contraceptives on female intent to use contraceptives in southeast Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeanolue, Echezona E; Iwelunmor, Juliet; Asaolu, Ibitola; Obiefune, Michael C; Ezeanolue, Chinenye O; Osuji, Alice; Ogidi, Amaka G; Hunt, Aaron T; Patel, Dina; Yang, Wei; Ehiri, John E

    2015-09-10

    Despite the growing body of evidence on use of modern contraceptives among women in sub-Saharan African countries, little is known about the broader context in which female decision-making concerning contraceptive use occurs, particularly the role of their male partners' awareness and support of modern contraceptives. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 2468 pregnant women and their male partners enrolled in the Healthy Beginning Initiative (HBI), an intervention to increase HIV testing among pregnant women in Enugu, southeast Nigeria. The aims of this study were to determine: 1) male partners' awareness of, and support for, female contraceptive methods, and 2) influence of male partners' contraceptive awareness and support on pregnant women's expressed desire to use contraception. We used logistic regression models to examine the association between male partners' awareness and support of modern contraceptives on their spouses' desire to use contraceptives. Men's awareness of, and support for, use of modern contraceptives were significantly associated with their female partners' desire to use contraception. A majority of the men who were aware of modern contraceptives (66.5 %) and those who supported their spouses' use of contraception (72.5 %) had partners who expressed a desire to use contraception. Men who were aware of female contraception were 3 times more likely to have spouses who desired to use contraception (AOR = 3.17, 95 % C.I: 2.70-3.75). In addition, men who showed support for their spouses' use of contraception were over 5 times more likely to have spouses who indicated a desire to use contraception (AOR = 5.76, 95 % C.I: 4.82-6.88). Living in a household of 5 or more people (AOR = 1.45, 95 % C.I: 1.23-1.72) and residing in an urban area (AOR = 0.81, 95 % C.I: 0.67-0.97) were also significantly associated with women's expressed desire to use modern contraception. Men's awareness of, and support for, use of modern contraceptives were markedly

  19. Interpersonal and structural contexts of intimate partner violence among female sex workers in conflict-affected northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Margaret; Goldenberg, Shira M; Master, Aditi; Muzaaya, Godfrey; Akello, Monica; Braschel, Melissa; Birungi, Josephine; Shannon, Kate

    2017-07-06

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is the most prevalent form of violence against women, yet remains under-researched among sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa. We explored the interpersonal and structural determinants of recent IPV among female sex workers in northern Uganda. This analysis drew on data from a community-based cross-sectional study (conducted May 2011-January 2012), involving 379 female sex workers in Gulu, northern Uganda. Using logistic regression and multivariable modeling, we examined the correlates of recent male-perpetrated physical or sexual IPV. Of 379 women with noncommercial partners, 59 percent reported having experienced recent moderate/severe physical or sexual IPV. Reporting recent client violence (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 3.67; 95 percent confidence interval [CI]: 2.31-5.83), doing what their partner wanted (AOR: 2.46; 95 percent CI: 1.46-4.13), and forced sexual debut (AOR: 1.92; 95 percent CI: 1.20-3.05) were independently associated with moderate/severe IPV; recent police arrest and/or incarceration were/was marginally significantly associated with IPV (AOR: 2.25; 95 percent CI: 0.86-5.88, p = 0.097). Greater odds of IPV among sex workers were associated with recent workplace violence, forced sexual debut, and gendered power dynamics favoring male partner control. Programs and policies promoting the safety and health of marginalized women and addressing gender dynamics and violence are needed.

  20. Age at sexual initiation and number of sexual partners in the female Spanish population Results from the AFRODITA survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sanjose, Silvia; Cortés, Xavier; Méndez, Cristina; Puig-Tintore, Lluis; Torné, Aureli; Roura, Esther; Bosch, F Xavier; Castellsague, Xavier

    2008-10-01

    The AFRODITA study was designed to describe patterns relating to the number of lifetime sexual partners (SP) and age at first sexual intercourse (AFSI) by geographic region in a representative sample of Spanish women. A representative sample of the female Spanish population was obtained using the Access Panel Technique. Postal questionnaires were sent to 11,086 women aged 18-70 years. Data were collected on AFSI, number of sexual partners, contraceptive methods, cervical cancer screening and socio-demographic characteristics. The average AFSI was 20.9 years. AFSI below the age of 19 years was reported by 30.8% of the women. Among sexually active women, 70.6% reported being monogamous and 6.4% reported > or = 5 lifetime sexual partners. Younger age at interview was strongly related to earlier AFSI and to higher number of lifetime sexual partners. Women younger than 25 were 39 times more likely to have an AFSI before age 18 than women over age 55. The percentage of women aged less than 25 reporting two or more sexual partners was four times higher than that of women 56 and older. In the multivariate analysis, having two or more sexual partners was independently associated with young age, early AFSI, having ever used oral contraceptives, living in an urban area, having had a screening Pap test in the last 3 years, having a sexually transmitted infection and nuliparity. This study confirms important changes in the sexual behaviour of Spanish women. Younger cohorts show a younger age at sexual initiation and higher number of sexual partners. These are key factors that may induce changes in the human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and the cervical cancer incidence in Spain.

  1. A Study Regarding Attitudes Ofyoung Slum Dwelling Females Towards Their Husband/Sex Partner Presuming Them Hiv Infected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Shukla

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Research Question : What is the attitude of young females towards their husband or sex partners presuming them infected with HIV?Objectives : Attitude of young slum dwelling females towards husband or sex partner presuming them HIV infectedaccording to age of respondentsaccording to marital status of respondentsaccording to occupation of respondentsaccording to literacy status of respondents Study Design : Cross sectional studyStudy Area : 10% of the Slums of Kanpur City having population less than 3000.Participants : 13 to 25 years aged females of selected slums.Study variables : Age, marital status, occur' ,:on, literacy status.Statistical Analysis : PercentageResults : 12.3% expressed about non disclosure of disease. 25.7% were indecisive, 65.2% to pursue for treatment, 32.7% to continue sex relationship and 31.2% to continue social relationship. Respondents employed as teachers showed greater degree of concern for more care (45.5% and also for continuation of social and sexual relationship. Continuation on social & sexual relationship along with pursuation for treatment and more care of victim (husband/sex partner was observed among highest percentage in graduate and above level with gradual decrease in the prevalence with decrease in the level of education.

  2. Parenting in females exposed to intimate partner violence and childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Anna E; Cranston, Christopher C; Shadlow, Joanna O

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence may have a significant impact on parenting. The current study expands on existing research by examining the effects of child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence on parenting styles and parenting self-efficacy. In women from a parenting intervention program (n = 20), child sexual abuse was related to lower parenting self-efficacy and more permissive parenting. In women at a domestic violence shelter (n = 45), child sexual abuse was related to current sexual coercion of the partner, and authoritative parenting was related to higher parenting self-efficacy. These results indicate that having a history of child sexual abuse should be taken into consideration when dealing with mothers in violent relationships.

  3. Female Nur77-deficient mice show increased susceptibility to diet-induced obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Perez-Sieira

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is essential in the regulation of body weight. The key process in fat catabolism and the provision of energy substrate during times of nutrient deprivation or enhanced energy demand is the hydrolysis of triglycerides and the release of fatty acids and glycerol. Nur77 is a member of the NR4A subfamily of nuclear receptors that plays an important metabolic role, modulating hepatic glucose metabolism and lipolysis in muscle. However, its endogenous role on white adipose tissue, as well as the gender dependency of these mechanisms, remains largely unknown. Male and female wild type and Nur77 deficient mice were fed with a high fat diet (45% calories from fat for 4 months. Mice were analyzed in vivo with the indirect calorimetry system, and tissues were analyzed by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. Female, but not male Nur77 deficient mice, gained more weight and fat mass when compared to wild type mice fed with high fat diet, which can be explained by decreased energy expenditure. The lack of Nur77 also led to a decreased pHSL/HSL ratio in white adipose tissue and increased expression of CIDEA in brown adipose tissue of female Nur77 deficient mice. Overall, these findings suggest that Nur77 is an important physiological modulator of lipid metabolism in adipose tissue and that there are gender differences in the sensitivity to deletion of the Nur77 signaling. The decreased energy expenditure and the actions of Nur77 on liver, muscle, brown and white adipose tissue contribute to the increased susceptibility to diet-induced obesity in females lacking Nur77.

  4. Reproductive health knowledge, sexual partners, contraceptive use and motives for premarital sex among female sub-urban Nigerian secondary students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moronkola, O A; Fakeye, J A

    Adolescents in sub-Saharan African countries constitute a large proportion of the population. They are sexually active, engage in unsafe reproductive health behavior with attendant consequences but lack appropriate reproductive health education. In the Nigeria Nation Reproductive Health Strategy Framework and Plan, the status of adolescents' reproductive health care is considered low. This study assessed reproductive health knowledge, sexual partners, contraceptive use, and motives for premarital sex among female sub-urban Nigerian secondary students. The study was cross-sectional, involving 500 senior secondary 1 and 2 female sub-urban students. The instrument used was a self-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS. More than 70.0% of the respondents had knowledge of all reproductive health items; male and female condoms were popular contraceptives. At least 53.4% were sexually active and a majority (49.6%) had boyfriends as sex partners. Peer pressure (31.6%) and fun/pleasure (29.2%) were major motives for engaging in premarital sex. Majority (40.3%) terminated pregnancies through self-medication. Though respondents had knowledge of reproductive health, there is need to introduce health education (incorporating reproductive health education) as a core subject in schools as well as provision of youth-friendly health facilities.

  5. Age at menarche, menstrual patterns, sexual health knowledge, attitudes and premarital sexual partners of female athletes in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moronkola, O A; Oyebami, O

    2007-10-01

    The study aimed to find out age at menarche, menstrual patterns, attitudes and premarital sexual partners of female athletes in Ibadan Nigeria. The study adopted descriptive cross sectional survey design involving 250 female athletes training or camping under Oyo State Sports Council, Ibadan, Nigeria. The data collection tool was a self-developed validated questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS package. Majority (44.0%) had menarche between 12-13 years, (71.6%) had regular menstrual period, more than 50% of the study participants had correct knowledge of all sexual health knowledge items, more than 50% of the responses to items on attitude suggested they were not favourably disposed to premarital sex. However, 72.4% had premarital sex with the person they wanted to marry, 44.0% with male athletes, 28.0% with coaches and 23.1% with other staff of the sports council. Majority of the study participants had sexual health knowledge but sizeable proportion of the study participants also had attitudes that favour premarital sex and had different types of sexual partners. There is therefore an urgent need for health education of the female athletes especially against sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS and education of coaches and sports officials of the need to serve as role models in the area of sexuality to athletes.

  6. The Occurrence of Male-to-Female Intimate Partner Violence on Days of Men's Drinking: The Moderating Effects of Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fals-Stewart, William; Leonard, Kenneth E.; Birchler, Gary R.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the moderating effects of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) on the day-to-day relationship between male partner alcohol consumption and male-to-female intimate partner violence (IPV) for men entering a domestic violence treatment program (n = 170) or an alcoholism treatment program (n = 169) were examined. For both samples,…

  7. Willingness to use short-term oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) by migrant miners and female partners of migrant miners in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcao, Joana; Ahoua, Laurence; Zerbe, Allison; di Mattei, Pietro; Baggaley, Rachel; Chivurre, Victor; Mulondo, Prince; Ramiro, Isaias; Dalal, Shona; Morales, Fernando; O'Reilly, Kevin; El-Sadr, Wafaa

    2017-12-01

    Migrant miners from Mozambique who work in South Africa and their partners are at substantial risk for HIV infection. We conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the willingness of migrant miners and female partners of miners to take short-term pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for prevention of HIV acquisition. The study was conducted in Gaza Province, Mozambique, between September and October 2015. A total of 131 male miners and female partners of male miners completed a questionnaire. Subsequently, 48 in-depth interviews among male miners and female partners of miners and 3 focus-group discussions (6 participants each) among female partners of miners were conducted. Quantitative data were tabulated using Stata. A structured coding scheme was developed and qualitative data were analysed using Atlas.ti. Most participants (94%) were willing to take PrEP for short-term use. Facilitating factors for willingness to use PrEP were concerns about partner's sexual behaviour, desire for pregnancy and one's own sexual behaviour. The main barriers to PrEP use were concerns regarding side-effects, perceived difficulty adhering to daily pill taking and concern about partner/family disapproval. Overall, participants saw potential barriers for PrEP as minor obstacles that could be overcome. The male partner's influence on PrEP use was significant.

  8. Polymorphisms in DNA Repair Gene XRCC3 and Susceptibility to Breast Cancer in Saudi Females

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    Alaa Mohammed Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated three common polymorphisms (SNPs in the XRCC3 gene (rs861539, rs1799794, and rs1799796 in 143 Saudi females suffering from breast cancer (median age = 51.4 years and 145 age matched normal healthy controls. DNA was extracted from whole blood and genotyping was conducted using PCR-RFLP. rs1799794 showed significant association, where AA and AA+AG occurred at a significantly higher frequency in the cancer patients compared to the control group (OR: 28.1; 95% CI: 3.76–21.12; χ2: 22.82; pT and rs1799796 A>G did not show a significant difference when the results in the patients and controls were compared. However, the frequency of rs1799796 differed significantly in patients with different age of diagnosis, tumor grade, and ER and HER2 status. The wild type A allele occurred at a higher frequency in the ER− and HER2− group. Our results among Saudis suggest that some variations in XRCC3 may contribute to breast cancer susceptibility. In conclusion, the results obtained during this study suggest that rs1799794 in XRCC3 shows strong association with breast cancer development in Saudi females.

  9. The Prevalence and Inter-Relationship of Negative Body Image Perception, Depression and Susceptibility to Eating Disorders among Female Medical Undergraduate Students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manaf, Nurajirahbt Abdul; Saravanan, Coumaravelou; Zuhrah, Beevi

    2016-01-01

    ... between depression, body image and susceptibility to eating disorders. In addition, this study aimed to determine whether depression is a mediator between body image and susceptibility to eating disorders among female college...

  10. The influence of gender role stereotyping on women's experiences of female same-sex intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassouneh, Dena; Glass, Nancy

    2008-03-01

    Female same-sex intimate partner violence (FSSIPV) is a serious problem that affects the health and safety of lesbian and bisexual women. To begin to address the paucity of research, a mixed methods study was conducted to identify shared and unique risk and protective factors for FSSIPV. This article reports on qualitative findings related to the influence of gender role stereotyping on women's experiences of FSSIPV. Findings indicate that gender role stereotyping shapes women's experiences of FSSIPV by influencing individual, familial, community, and societal perceptions and responses to this phenomenon.

  11. Female bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) use objects to solicit the sexual partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visalberghi, Elisabetta; Di Bernardi, Cecilia; Marino, Luca A; Fragaszy, Dorothy; Izar, Patricia

    2017-08-01

    Female wild bearded capuchins (Sapajus libidinosus) living at Serra da Capivara National Park (SCNP) that use stone and stick tools during foraging occasionally toss or throw stones at the male during courtship. We report similar behaviors in a different population that uses stones as tools in foraging. We video-recorded the sexual behavior of four females (27 days during nine proceptive periods) belonging to a group of wild capuchins living in Fazenda Boa Vista (FBV), 320 km from SCNP. Three females used stones or branches when they solicited the alpha male (79 episodes). The female that did not use objects was the sole female to solicit a subordinate male. The vast majority of episodes (95%) involved pushing or dropping branches, both loose and attached to the tree, toward the male. Females used objects only during the one-way courtship phase, before the male reciprocated the female's solicitations. In 93% of the episodes in which a female used objects, she performed affiliative behaviors immediately before or after using the objects. We conclude that throwing or pounding stones and pushing or dropping branches by females in SCNP and FBV in the sexual context have a clear affiliative meaning (to attract the male's attention). Given the tool-using status of both populations where these behaviors have been reported, it is important to determine whether they appear in populations that do not use tools, or are restricted to populations already primed to use objects in other contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Ballroom dancing is more intensive for the female partners due to their unique hold technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaczi, M; Tekus, E; Atlasz, T; Cselko, A; Pinter, G; Balatincz, D; Kaj, M; Wilhelm, M

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we tested the hypotheses that, relative to the maximum capacities, ballroom dancing is more intensive for females than males, and that the hold technique (female vs. male) regulates dancing intensity. Ten dance couples were tested in a maximal treadmill test, competition simulation, and stationary dance hold position. Peak heart rate and relative oxygen consumption were measured during the tests, except that oxygen consumption was not measured during competition simulation. Regardless of gender, heart rate increased similarly in the treadmill test and in the competition simulation. In the treadmill test, females achieved an oxygen consumption of 78% of the males (p dancing is more intensive for females because of their unique hold technique.

  13. Prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence towards female students of the University of Ibadan, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Umana, Joseph E; Fawole, Olufunmilayo I; Adeoye, Ikeola A

    2014-01-01

    Background In Nigeria, there is paucity of information on the IPV burden and experience among young women in courtship and dating relationships. This study assesses the prevalence and correlates of IPV in female undergraduate and postgraduate students in a tertiary institution. Methods The study was a cross-sectional survey. A four-stage sampling technique was used to select 1,100 undergraduate and 255 postgraduate female students from the University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Data was collected usi...

  14. History of Intimate Partner Violence is Associated with Sex Work but not STI among HIV- positive Female Drinkers in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urada, Lianne A.; Raj, Anita; Cheng, Debbie M.; Quinn, Emily; Bridden, Carly; Blokhina, Elena A.; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Samet, Jeffrey H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper assesses the associations between intimate partner violence (IPV) and STIs and sexual risks among HIV-positive female drinkers in St. Petersburg, Russia. Survey and STI data were analyzed from 285 women in HERMITAGE, a secondary prevention study with HIV-positive heavy drinkers. Logistic and Poisson regression analyses assessed associations of IPV with STI and risky sex. Most women (78%) experienced IPV and 19% were STI-positive; 15% sold sex. IPV was not significantly associated with STI, but was with selling sex (AOR=3.56, 95% CI=1.02–12.43). In conclusion, IPV is common and associated with sex trade involvement among Russian HIV-positive female drinkers. PMID:23970660

  15. Intimate Partner Violence Victimization and Associated Implications for Health and Functioning Among Male and Female Post-9/11 Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Katherine M; Vogt, Dawne; Maskin, Rachel M; Smith, Brian N

    2017-09-01

    There is increased emphasis on identifying patients who experience intimate partner violence (IPV) in Department of Veterans Affairs and other health care settings. A better understanding of IPV's implications for health and functioning is needed among post-911 Veterans, and especially male Veterans, to inform IPV screening and response. To identify past 6-month IPV experienced among partnered post-9/11 Veterans and examine sex-based associations between IPV and health. A national sample of Veterans completed a survey that included measures of IPV victimization and health. Types of IPV and relationships with health and functioning were examined separately for male and female Veterans. In total, 407 post-9/11 Veterans (52% women) in intimate relationships. IPV victimization was assessed with the Conflict Tactics Scales-Revised. Health and functioning indicators included posttraumatic stress disorder (PCL-5) and depression (Beck Depression Inventory-Primary Care) symptoms, physical health-related quality of life (Short-Form 12-item Health Survey), and occupational functioning (Inventory of Psychosocial Functioning). Nearly two thirds of both men and women reported past 6-month IPV, with greatest endorsement of psychological aggression (65% of men, 59% of women). A total of 8% of men and 7% of women reported physical IPV and 4% of men and 7% of women reported sexual IPV. Psychological aggression was strongly linked with mental health for both sexes and greater occupational impairment for men. Physical and sexual IPV were associated with more severe mental health symptoms for women while physical IPV was negatively associated with physical health-related quality of life for men. Recent IPV victimization, especially psychological aggression, is a key health issue for partnered male and female post-9/11 Veterans. Practice and research implications are discussed.

  16. Understanding the susceptibility to HIV of female and male students case study of LAMS school in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kissezounnon, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    This research project aims to understand the factors that influence susceptibility to HIV for female and male students in LAMS (Lycee Agricole Meidji o Sekou in Benin), in order to contribute to the reduction of the phenomenon. The results of questionnaires, group discussions and interviews show the

  17. “Amar te Duele” (“Love Hurts”): Sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence, depression symptoms and HIV risk among female sex workers who use drugs and their non-commercial, steady partners in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulibarri, Monica D.; Roesch, Scott; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Staines, Hugo; Amaro, Hortensia; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2014-01-01

    A significant body of research among female sex workers (FSWs) has focused on individual-level HIV risk factors. Comparatively little is known about their non-commercial, steady partners who may heavily influence their behavior and HIV risk. This cross-sectional study of 214 FSWs who use drugs and their male steady partners aged ≥18 in two Mexico-U.S. border cities utilized a path-analytic model for dyadic data based upon the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model to examine relationships between sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence (IPV), depression symptoms, and unprotected sex. FSWs’ relationship power, IPV perpetration and victimization were significantly associated with unprotected sex within the relationship. Male partners’ depression symptoms were significantly associated with unprotected sex within the relationship. Future HIV prevention interventions for FSWs and their male partners should address issues of sexual relationship power, IPV, and mental health both individually and in the context of their relationship. PMID:24743959

  18. Susceptibility of adult female Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae to the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is modified following blood feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuels Richard I

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mosquito Aedes aegypti, vector of dengue fever, is a target for control by entomopathogenic fungi. Recent studies by our group have shown the susceptibility of adult A. aegypti to fungal infection by Metarhizium anisopliae. This fungus is currently being tested under field conditions. However, it is unknown whether blood-fed A. aegypti females are equally susceptible to infection by entomopathogenic fungi as sucrose fed females. Insect populations will be composed of females in a range of nutritional states. The fungus should be equally efficient at reducing survival of insects that rest on fungus impregnated surfaces following a blood meal as those coming into contact with fungi before host feeding. This could be an important factor when considering the behavior of A. aegypti females that can blood feed on multiple hosts over a short time period. Methods Female A. aegypti of the Rockefeller strain and a wild strain were infected with two isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus M. anisopliae (LPP 133 and ESALQ 818 using an indirect contact bioassay at different times following blood feeding. Survival rates were monitored on a daily basis and one-way analysis of variance combined with Duncan's post-hoc test or Log-rank survival curve analysis were used for statistical comparisons of susceptibility to infection. Results Blood feeding rapidly reduced susceptibility to infection, determined by the difference in survival rates and survival curves, when females were exposed to either of the two M. anisopliae isolates. Following a time lag which probably coincided with digestion of the blood meal (96-120 h post-feeding, host susceptibility to infection returned to pre-blood fed (sucrose fed levels. Conclusions Reduced susceptibility of A. aegypti to fungi following a blood meal is of concern. Furthermore, engorged females seeking out intra-domicile resting places post-blood feeding, would be predicted to rest for prolonged

  19. Improvement in sexual quality of life of the female partner following vardenafil treatment of men with erectile dysfunction: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Morales, Antonio; Graziottin, Alessandra; Jaoudé, Gilbert Bou; Debruyne, Frans; Buvat, Jacques; Beneke, Manfred; Neuser, Dieter

    2011-10-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) impacts on both members of the couple. Female partners of men with ED are more likely to report reduced sexual quality of life than women whose partners do not have ED. To assess vardenafil efficacy in men with ED and determine the effects of treatment on their female partner's sexual quality of life. Study participants comprised men aged 18-64 years with ED and their female partners. Eligible men had ED of ≥6 months' duration and a female partner who was motivated to support their ED treatment. Eligible women had a total Female Sexual Function Index score >23.55, indicating absence of significant sexual dysfunction. Following a 4-week screening period, men were randomized to treatment with vardenafil 10 mg or placebo, which could be titrated to 20 or 5 mg after 4 weeks. Primary efficacy variables were question 3 of the Sexual Encounter Profile questionnaire (SEP3) and the quality-of-life domain of the modified Sexual Life Quality Questionnaire (mSLQQ-QOL). The intent-to-treat population included 343 couples, with 168 and 175 men receiving vardenafil or placebo, respectively. Vardenafil treatment significantly improved both erection maintenance and the female partners' sexual quality of life. Least squares (LS) mean SEP3 overall success rates after 12 weeks of treatment were 9.5 (baseline) vs. 67.2 (week 12) and 12.4 (baseline) vs. 24.2 (week 12) in the vardenafil and placebo groups, respectively (P sexual quality of life of their female partners. © 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  20. HIV risk behaviors among Black/African American and Hispanic/Latina Female partners of men who have sex with men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harawa, Nina T; McCuller, William J; Chavers, Constance; Janson, Mike

    2013-03-01

    We examined the frequencies of HIV-related risk factors among women reporting and not reporting sex with a man who has sex with men and women (MSMW).We used data from 15,625 visits of Black and Hispanic/Latina females, ages 15–64 years, to Los Angeles County HIV testing sites (2007–2008). The following risk factors were associated with reporting an MSMW partner: number of sex partners, use of party drugs, anal sex, and sexual partners with other risk factors. Overall, females who reported an MSMW partner differed little in their likelihood of testing HIV positive (0.93%) compared to those who did not (0.58%, p value = 0.19). Among females reporting one male sex partner, having an MSMW partner was strongly associated with HIV (2.8 vs. 0.63%, p = 0.03). Interventions targeting women who report other risky behaviors may reach many who have been with MSMW. Women with one partner are an important focus of such efforts.

  1. Intimate partner violence among female drug users admitted to the general hospital: screening and prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldentey, Clara; Tirado Muñoz, Judit; Ferrer, Tessie; Fonseca Casals, Francina; Rossi, Paola; Mestre-Pintó, Juan Ignacio; Torrens Melich, Marta

    2017-06-28

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health problem worldwide. Several factors have been found to be associated with an increased prevalence of IPV, such as substance use. A cross-sectional study was conducted with the aim of determining the prevalence of IPV among women entering Hospital del Mar (Barcelona) for any medical/surgical reason, and who had a diagnosis of substance use disorder. Secondly, it was intended to psychometrically validate the Spanish version of the Hurt, Insulted, Threatened with Harm, Screamed (HITS) questionnaire. All patients were assessed by two IPV questionnaires, the Composite Abuse Scale (CAS) and HITS. Out of 52 patients interviewed, 46 answered both questionnaires. According to the CAS questionnaire, 23 patients (50%) experienced IPV at some point in their lives and 11 (23.9%) in the last year. Cannabis consumption was also associated with an increased severity of IPV (95% CI 3.5-28.9, p = .013).According to the HITS questionnaire, there was a prevalence of 39.1% (18 patients) in the last 12 months. HITS had a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 78% relative to the CAS questionnaire. A cut-off score x∈ [6.7], derived through ROC analysis, correctly discriminated 91% of the victims and 100% of the non-victims. The results obtained showed that the prevalence of IPV was very high among women who suffered from more than one substance use disorder. Therefore, it is highly recommended to systematically screen for IPV victimization by putting the HITS questionnaire into practice.

  2. Effects of an intervention program for female victims of intimate partner violence on psychological symptoms and perceived social support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina B. Hansen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research has documented severe mental health problems in female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV. Therefore, providing effective treatment is pivotal. Few studies have investigated the effects of intervention programs on reducing the harmful consequences of IPV. Objective: The present study examined the effects of a specific three-phase intervention program for female victims of IPV on psychological symptoms (PTSD, anxiety, and depression and perceived social support. Given that many of the women dropped out before and during the intervention program, potential differences in initial levels of psychological symptoms, perceived social support, as well as descriptive variables were explored between the women who completed the whole program and the groups of women who dropped out prematurely. Method: The initial sample consisted of 212 female victims of IPV. Symptoms of PTSD, depression, anxiety, and level of perceived social support were measured with validated scales before the start of the intervention and after completion of each treatment phase. Results: Results showed a significant effect of the intervention program on reducing psychological symptoms and increasing levels of perceived social support. Effect sizes ranged from medium to very high. Significant positive effects were found for each of the treatment phases. There were no significant differences between the women who completed the whole program and those women who dropped out prematurely in terms of initial level of symptoms and perceived social support as well as descriptive characteristics. Conclusions: Specifically developed intervention programs for female victims of IPV are effective in reducing the harmful personal consequences of IPV. Future studies should consider employing controlled study designs and address the issue of high drop out rates found in intervention studies.

  3. Detection of Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection in Female Partners of Infertile Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mehdi Kalantar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of infertility is about 10-15% among the couples overally. Several factors can affect fertility ability of men and women. Chlamydia is a non-motile gram negative obligatory interacellular pathogenic organism. It can cause infections in females as cervicitis, urethritis, endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease also prostatitis and epidydidimitis in male as well. The aim of this survey is to mention the frequency of infection with Chlamydia in infertile female who were treated in Yazd Research & Clinical Center for Infertility.Materials and Methods: A questionnaire containing some demographic information and clinical features related to the infection was completed for each infertile woman. Specimen of vaginal discharge was collected by well trained nurses using sterile cotton swap from 91 women. Elisa test was done on blood serum. DNA extraction for Chlamydia was carried out using low salt method and PCR was done using MOMP and plasmid primers. DNA sequencing was performed on two PCR products using Chromas LITE ver.2.01 and analyzed by BLAST.Results: Of 91 blood samples collected in this survey, none of them was positive by ELISA. Also there was no positive PCR result. Four PCR products showed a questionable band which was not in the range of Chlamydia. The products underwent DNA sequencing and there were not any finding related to any other micro-organism.Conclusion: However, it is well known that Chlamydia as an infection plays a role in infertility. Nevertheless, there was not evidence of this organism in these infertile patients. It is necessary to design such a survey in larger populations of infertile patients especially on infertile women with tubal infertility and their husbands as well.

  4. Higher variability in the number of sexual partners in males can contribute to a higher prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Pedersen, Anders Gorm

    2009-11-07

    By examining published, empirical data we show that men and women consistently differ in the shape of the distribution of the number of sexual partners. The female distribution is always relatively narrow-variance is low-with a big majority of women having a number of partners close to the average. The male distribution is much wider-variance is high-with many men having few sex partners and many others having more partners than most females. Using stochastic modelling we demonstrate that this difference in variance is, in principle, sufficient to cause a difference in the gender prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases: compared to the situation where the genders have identical sex partner distributions, men will reach a lower equilibrium value, while women will stay at the same level (meaning that female prevalence becomes higher than male). We carefully analyse model behaviour and derive approximate expressions for equilibrium prevalences in the two different scenarios. We find that the size of the difference in gender prevalence depends on the variance ratio (the ratio between the variances of the male and female sex partner distributions), on the expected number of life-time partners, and on the probability of disease transmission. We note that in addition to humans, the variance phenomenon described here is likely to play a role for sexually transmitted diseases in other species also. We also show, again by examining published, empirical data, that the female to male prevalence ratio increases with the overall prevalence of a sexually transmitted disease (i.e., the more widespread the disease, the more women are affected). We suggest that this pattern may be caused by the effect described above in highly prevalent sexually transmitted diseases, while its impact in low-prevalence epidemics is surpassed by the action of high-risk individuals (mostly males).

  5. The contribution of emotional partners to sexual risk taking and violence among female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchters, Stanley; Richter, Marlise L; Bosire, Wilkister; Nelson, Gill; Kingola, Nzioki; Zhang, Xu-Dong; Temmerman, Marleen; Chersich, Matthew F

    2013-01-01

    To assess sexual risk-taking of female sex workers (FSWs) with emotional partners (boyfriends and husbands), compared to regular and casual clients. Experiences of violence and the degree of relationship control that FSWs have with emotional partners are also described. Cohort study with quarterly follow-up visit over 12-months. Four hundred HIV-uninfected FSWs older than 16 years were recruited from their homes and guesthouses in Mombasa, Kenya. A structured questionnaire assessed participant characteristics and study outcomes at each visit, and women received risk-reduction counselling, male and female condoms, and HIV testing. Four or more unprotected sex acts in the past week were reported by 21.3% of women during sex with emotional partners, compared to 5.8% with regular and 4.8% with casual clients (Pphysically forced to have sex by their emotional partners. Half experienced sexual or physical violence in the past year, similarly associated with partner numbers and inconsistent condom use. High-risk sexual behaviour, low control and frequent violence in relationships with emotional partners heighten FSWs' vulnerability and high HIV risk, requiring targeted interventions that also encompass emotional partners.

  6. Prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence towards female students of the University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umana, Joseph E; Fawole, Olufunmilayo I; Adeoye, Ikeola A

    2014-12-08

    In Nigeria, there is paucity of information on the IPV burden and experience among young women in courtship and dating relationships. This study assesses the prevalence and correlates of IPV in female undergraduate and postgraduate students in a tertiary institution. The study was a cross-sectional survey. A four-stage sampling technique was used to select 1,100 undergraduate and 255 postgraduate female students from the University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Data was collected using a 43-item self-administered structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analyses were carried out at 0.05 level of significance. The life-time prevalence of IPV was 42.3% (postgraduate: 34.5%, undergraduate: 44.1%; P violence was also more frequently reported by respondents who had a previous history of physical (62.5%) (OR = 2.65; 95% CI: 2.02-3.49) and sexual (53.2%) (OR = 1.63; 95% CI:1.12-2.35) violence than respondents who had no such history. Postgraduate (OR = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.46-0.87) and married (OR = 0.53; 95% CI: 0.35-0.78) students were less likely to have experienced IPV than undergraduate and single students respectively. Students who smoked (OR = 2.46; 95% CI: 1.58-3.83); consumed alcohol (OR = 2.36; 95% CI: 1.82- 3.06); and with history of interparental violence (OR = 2.40; 95% CI: 1.88- 3.07) had a higher likelihood of experiencing violence than students who were not exposed to these behaviors. Adverse effects (such as the inability to concentrate) of IPV on academic performance were reported by 10.3% of victims. The prevalence of IPV was high. There is the urgent need for interventions that will reduce vulnerability by addressing modifiable risk factors like smoking and alcohol consumption. Interventions should also encourage seeking health care following violence to reduce its consequences.

  7. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Linlong [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Magdalou, Jacques [UMR 7561 CNRS-Nancy Université, Faculté de Médicine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Chen, Liaobin [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE + ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE + HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE + HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a “two-programming” hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is “the first programming”, and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as “the second programming”. - Highlights: • Prenatal ethanol exposure increase the susceptibility of NAFLD in female offspring. • Prenatal ethanol exposure reprograms fetal liver’s glucose and lipid metabolism . • Prenatal ethanol exposure cause

  8. Role of spontaneous physical activity in prediction of susceptibility to activity based anorexia in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Leighton, Claudio E; Grace, Martha; Billington, Charles J; Kotz, Catherine M

    2014-08-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a chronic eating disorder affecting females and males, defined by body weight loss, higher physical activity levels and restricted food intake. Currently, the commonalities and differences between genders in etiology of AN are not well understood. Animal models of AN, such as activity-based anorexia (ABA), can be helpful in identifying factors determining individual susceptibility to AN. In ABA, rodents are given an access to a running wheel while food restricted, resulting in paradoxical increased physical activity levels and weight loss. Recent studies suggest that different behavioral traits, including voluntary exercise, can predict individual weight loss in ABA. A higher inherent drive for movement may promote development and severity of AN, but this hypothesis remains untested. In rodents and humans, drive for movement is defined as spontaneous physical activity (SPA), which is time spent in low-intensity, non-volitional movements. In this paper, we show that a profile of body weight history and behavioral traits, including SPA, can predict individual weight loss caused by ABA in male and female rats with high accuracy. Analysis of the influence of SPA on ABA susceptibility in males and females rats suggests that either high or low levels of SPA increase the probability of high weight loss in ABA, but with larger effects in males compared to females. These results suggest that the same behavioral profile can identify individuals at-risk of AN for both male and female populations and that SPA has predictive value for susceptibility to AN. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Voluntary wheel running attenuates ethanol withdrawal-induced increases in seizure susceptibility in male and female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaud, Leslie L.; Walls, Shawn A.; McCulley, Walter D.; Rosenwasser, Alan M.

    2012-01-01

    We recently found that voluntary wheel running attenuated ethanol withdrawal-induced increased susceptibility to chemoconvulsant-induced seizures in male rats. Since female rats recover from ethanol withdrawal (EW) more quickly than male rats across several behavioral measures, this study was designed to determine whether the effects of exercise on EW seizures also exhibited sex differences. Animals were maintained under No-Wheel, Locked-Wheel or Free-Wheel conditions and ethanol was administered by liquid diet for 14 days with control animals pair-fed an isocaloric diet, after which seizure thresholds were determined at 1 day or 3 days of EW. Consistent with previous reports, females ran significantly more than males, regardless of diet condition. Introduction of the ethanol-containing liquid diet dramatically increased running for females during the day (rest) phase, with little impact on night phase activity. Consistent with previous reports, EW increased seizure susceptibility at 1 day in non-exercising males and females and at 3 days in males. These effects were attenuated by access to running wheels in both sexes. We also assessed the effects of sex, ethanol diet and exercise on ethanol clearance following an acute ethanol administration at 1 day EW in a separate set of animals. Blood ethanol concentrations at 30 min post-injection were lower in males, ethanol-exposed animals, and runners, but no interactions among these factors were detected. Interestingly, females displayed more rapid ethanol clearance than males and there were no effects of either diet or wheel access on clearance rates. Taken together, these data suggest that voluntary wheel running during ethanol administration provides protective effects against EW seizures in both males and females. This effect may be mediated, in part, in male, but not female rat, by effects of exercise on early pharmacokinetic contributions. This supports the idea that encouraging alcoholics to exercise may benefit

  10. HPV-related information sharing and factors associated with U.S. men's disclosure of an HPV test result to their female sexual partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhefka, Stephanie L; Daley, Ellen M; Anstey, Erica Hesch; Vamos, Cheryl A; Buhi, Eric R; Kolar, Stephanie; Giuliano, Anna R

    2012-04-01

    Prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) is high in both men and women, yet men have seldom been involved in HPV education/prevention programmes, and their disclosure of known HPV infection has rarely been studied. This analysis sought to determine factors associated with men's HPV test result disclosure and HPV-related information sharing with partners. From 2007 to 2010, men enrolled in a psychosocial study of responses to HP testing who reported having a female main sexual partner (N=251) completed surveys including questions about HPV test results, disclosure of HPV test results to partner(s), relationship characteristics and stigma (for those who reported HPV-positive results) approximately 3 weeks after receiving an HPV test result. Logistic regression was conducted to determine factors associated with disclosure of HPV test results in cross-sectional analysis. Most men disclosed their test results to a main partner (82%). Self-reported HPV-negative test result, a high school education and a higher commitment to a sexual partner were significantly associated with increased disclosure in multivariable analysis. Men who disclosed (vs those who did not) were significantly more likely to provide their partners with HPV-related information. Among men who disclosed to their main partner, nearly half reported that partner asked them questions about HPV. Results from this study highlight the critical role that men who are symptomatic for, who are tested for or who are vaccinated against HPV can play in educating their sexual partners, independent of whether they actually disclose their test results.

  11. Emergency Department Visits and Injury Hospitalizations for Female and Male Victims and Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine L. Kothari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The potential for hospital-based interventions for male victims of intimate partner violence (IPV as well as adult perpetrators of both genders has been largely unexplored despite early evidence of acute-care utilization that may be as high as female victims. The current investigation compared the emergency department (ED and injury-related-hospitalization rates of IPV-involved individuals against standardized national norms, assessing differences by gender and victim/perpetrator-status. Methods. This cross-sectional study collected one-year ED and in-patient visit data from hospital records for individuals listed as victim or perpetrator in an IPV criminal charging request in a Midwestern county (N=2,937. Expected rates were calculated based upon age-adjusted national norms. Results. The IPV-involved population generated ED rates 4.1 times higher than expected and injury-related-hospitalization rates that were 4.0 times higher than expected. Bi-directionally-violent individuals (both victim and perpetrator in IPV charges consistently had the highest utilization rates (ED 8.4 RR, injury-hospitalization 22.5 RR. Victims, primarily female, had higher ED-visits than perpetrators, primarily male (victims = 4.6 RR, perpetrator = 3.1 RR. Perpetrators, though, had higher injury hospitalizations (victims = 0.8RR, perpetrators = 5.5 RR. Conclusions. Substantial opportunities exist within acute-care medical settings to intervene with IPV-involved women, men, victims, and perpetrators, although the magnitude of the opportunity varied by setting, gender and victim/perpetrator-status.

  12. Work-related violence and inconsistent condom use with non-paying partners among female sex workers in Adama City, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Alyssa; Kidanu, Aklilu; Bradley, Heather M; Kumoji, Evelyn Kuor; Kennedy, Caitlin E; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2013-08-23

    Although reported condom use between female sex workers and their clients is high in Ethiopia, condom use with regular, non-paying partners remains low, posing a substantial risk of HIV infection to sex workers, their partners and the general population. Previous studies have identified the synergistic effects of substance abuse, violence and HIV risk, but few have examined these inter-relationships among female sex workers and their regular, non-paying partners. This study explored the associations between work-related violence, alcohol abuse and inconsistent condom use among establishment-based female sex workers and their regular, non-paying partners in Adama City, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 350 establishment-based female sex workers, aged 15-35, at 63 bars, hotels and nightclubs. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to test the association between work-related violence and condom use with regular, non-paying partners, controlling for age, overall income, education and sex workers' total number of sexual partners in the past week. Alcohol abuse was explored as an effect modifier. Respondents reported a high prevalence of work-related violence (59%) and alcohol abuse (51%). Work-related violence was statistically significantly associated with unprotected sex with regular, non-paying partners among those who abused alcohol (OR: 6.34, 95% CI: 2.43-16.56) and among those who did not (OR: 2.98, 95% CI: 1.36-6.54). Alcohol abuse was not associated with inconsistent condom use within these partnerships, though it may strengthen the effect of work-related violence on unprotected sex. Findings suggest violence against establishment-based female sex workers is associated with HIV risk within regular, non-paying partnerships. Qualitative work is needed to better understand the links between a violent work environment and condom use with regular, non-paying partners and how interventions can be implemented in this context to

  13. Violence From a Sexual Partner is Significantly Associated With Poor HIV Care and Treatment Outcomes Among Female Sex Workers in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Carlisdania; Barrington, Clare; Donastorg, Yeycy; Perez, Martha; Fleming, Paul J; Decker, Michele R; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2017-03-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) experience high rates of violence from their sexual partners. Although violence is associated with HIV risk behaviors among FSWs, there is limited evidence on the association between violence and HIV treatment outcomes. We analyzed data from a socio-behavioral survey with a cohort of FSWs living with HIV in the Dominican Republic (n = 268) to describe the burden of violence from a sexual partner in the last 6 months. We assessed the relationship between violence and HIV treatment outcomes, comparing findings across 2 types of sexual partners: intimate partners and clients. Nearly one-fifth of women (18.3%) experienced violence in the last 6 months. More women experienced violence from an intimate partner (12.3%) than a client (8.3%), with some (2.6%) reporting both. Although violence from an intimate partner was significantly associated with not currently being on antiretroviral treatment [ART; adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 4.05, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00 to 16.36] and missing an ART dose in the last 4 days (AOR: 5.26, 95% CI: 1.91 to 14.53), violence from a client was associated with never having received HIV care (AOR: 2.85, 95% CI: 1.03 to 7.92) and ever interrupting ART (AOR: 5.45, 95% CI: 1.50 to 19.75). Violence from a sexual partner is associated with poor HIV treatment outcomes among FSWs. Different patterns by type of partner reflect how relationship dynamics may influence these associations. Violence prevention and support services should be tailored based on type of partner. Violence screening and referrals should be integrated into HIV care services for FSWs to improve their health and reduce ongoing transmission.

  14. Concurrent sexual partnerships among female sex workers and their non-commercial male partners in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Angela M.; Syvertsen, Jennifer L.; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Staines, Hugo S.; Morris, Martina; Patterson, Thomas L.; Ulibarri, Monica D.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the prevalence and correlates of concurrent (overlapping) sexual partnerships among female sex workers (FSWs) and their non-commercial male partners in two Mexico-U.S. border cities. Methods A cross-sectional survey of FSWs and their non-commercial male partners was conducted in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico (2010–2011). Eligible FSWs and verified non-commercial partners were aged ≥18 years; FSWs had ever used hard drugs (lifetime) and recently exchanged sex for money, drugs, or other goods (past month). Participants underwent baseline questionnaires obtaining dates of sex and condom use with ≤5 other recurring partners, including FSWs’ regular clients. These dates were compared to dates of sex with enrolled study partners to determine overlap (i.e., “recurring” concurrency). Bivariate probit regression identified recurring concurrency correlates. Results Among 428 individuals (214 couples), past-year recurring concurrency prevalence was 16% and was higher among women than their non-commercial male partners (26% vs. 6%). In 10 couples (5%), both partners reported recurring concurrency. The majority of couples (64%) always had unprotected sex, and most of the individuals (70%) with recurring concurrency “sometimes” or “never” used condoms with their concurrent partners. Recurring concurrency was positively associated with FSWs’ income, men’s caballerismo (a form of traditional masculinity), and men’s belief that their FSW-partners had STIs. Conclusions Recurring concurrency, representing sustained periods of overlapping partnerships in which unprotected sex was common, should be addressed by couple-based STI prevention interventions. PMID:23172036

  15. Female partner's perception of premature ejaculation and its impact on relationship breakups, relationship quality, and sexual satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burri, Andrea; Giuliano, François; McMahon, Chris; Porst, Hartmut

    2014-09-01

    Women's perceptions of the men's ejaculatory behavior, as well as the impact premature ejaculation (PE) has on the couple's functioning, are important factors that need to be considered. This survey investigated women's perception and importance of ejaculatory function, as well as the specific aspects of PE that cause distress. In addition, the survey further identified the factors with a greater impact on intimacy, relationship, and sexual behavior. The 1,463 females belonging to a web panel from three different countries (Mexico, Italy, and South Korea), aged 20-50 years, participated in the survey. A combination of validated and self-constructed questionnaires to assess women's perception of PE, relationship satisfaction and quality, and sexual functioning and satisfaction were used. Descriptive statistics in form of proportions and percentages, correlation, and regression analyses. A significant correlation between the importance of ejaculatory control and felt distress could be observed (rho = 0.55, P < 0.001). Women reporting less sexual problems considered ejaculatory control more important and reported more PE-related distress (rho = 0.23 and 0.11, respectively; P < 0.001 for both). The male's lack of attention and focus on performance was the most frequently reported reasons for sexual distress (47.6%) followed by "the short time between penetration and ejaculation" (39.9%), and "the lack of ejaculatory control" (24.1%). Almost a quarter of women reported that the man's ejaculatory problem had previously led to relationship breakups (22.8%). Women considering duration to be important were more likely to report breakups. The study highlights the detrimental effects of PE on relationship and sexual satisfaction in the female partner and how it can lead to the termination of the relationship. Most notably, this is the first study to report that an important source of female distress are not only parameters related to performance such as

  16. The Prevalence and Inter-Relationship of Negative Body Image Perception, Depression and Susceptibility to Eating Disorders among Female Medical Undergraduate Students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manaf, Nurajirahbt Abdul; Saravanan, Coumaravelou; Zuhrah, Beevi

    2016-01-01

    .... To identify the prevalence of depression and susceptibility to eating disorders among a sample of 206 female students in one of the private universities in Malaysia and explore the relationship...

  17. The Prevalence and Inter-Relationship of Negative Body Image Perception, Depression and Susceptibility to Eating Disorders among Female Medical Undergraduate Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaf, Nurajirahbt Abdul; Saravanan, Coumaravelou; Zuhrah, Beevi

    2016-03-01

    Female students are thought to be more negatively impacted by body image ideals and often more susceptible to various eating related disorders compared to men. A previous study using a sample of female students in Malaysia did not identify whether the increase in susceptibility to eating disorders can be explained by the level of body image acceptance. To identify the prevalence of depression and susceptibility to eating disorders among a sample of 206 female students in one of the private universities in Malaysia and explore the relationship between depression, body image and susceptibility to eating disorders. In addition, this study aimed to determine whether depression is a mediator between body image and susceptibility to eating disorders among female college students. The Body Image Acceptance and Action Questionnaire were used to assess body image acceptance, the Patient Health Questionnaire to measure depression and the Eating Attitude Test- 26 was used to assess susceptibility to eating disorders. The results showed that 65.5% (n=135) of the students were depressed and 6.3% (n=13) were susceptible to eating disorders. There was a significant positive relationship between depression and eating disorders and a negative relationship between body image and depression as well as between body image and eating disorder. Further, the regression model showed that depression was partially mediating the effect of body image on eating disorders. Body image and depression contribute to eating disorders and treating depression could reduce susceptibility to eating disorders.

  18. The Prevalence and Inter-Relationship of Negative Body Image Perception, Depression and Susceptibility to Eating Disorders among Female Medical Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaf, Nurajirahbt Abdul; Zuhrah, Beevi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Female students are thought to be more negatively impacted by body image ideals and often more susceptible to various eating related disorders compared to men. A previous study using a sample of female students in Malaysia did not identify whether the increase in susceptibility to eating disorders can be explained by the level of body image acceptance. Aim To identify the prevalence of depression and susceptibility to eating disorders among a sample of 206 female students in one of the private universities in Malaysia and explore the relationship between depression, body image and susceptibility to eating disorders. In addition, this study aimed to determine whether depression is a mediator between body image and susceptibility to eating disorders among female college students. Materials and Methods The Body Image Acceptance and Action Questionnaire were used to assess body image acceptance, the Patient Health Questionnaire to measure depression and the Eating Attitude Test- 26 was used to assess susceptibility to eating disorders. Results The results showed that 65.5% (n=135) of the students were depressed and 6.3% (n=13) were susceptible to eating disorders. There was a significant positive relationship between depression and eating disorders and a negative relationship between body image and depression as well as between body image and eating disorder. Further, the regression model showed that depression was partially mediating the effect of body image on eating disorders. Conclusion Body image and depression contribute to eating disorders and treating depression could reduce susceptibility to eating disorders. PMID:27134977

  19. Disclosure of intimate partner violence in current marital/partner relationships among female university students and among women at an emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svavarsdóttir, Erla Kolbrún; Orlygsdottir, Brynja

    2015-01-01

    Detecting intimate partner violence (IPV) might empower women to start working on the impact that the abuse experience has had on their lives. Little, however, is known about disclosure of abuse in community and in clinical settings. The purpose of this study was to explore whether there was a difference in the disclosure of abuse experience among women who were attending the emergency department (ED) at Landspitali University Hospital or were located at a university site, that is, at the University Square at the University of Iceland. A cross-sectional research design was used. Data were collected at the same time in 2009 over a period of 9 months from N = 306 women ranging in age from 18 to 67 years (n = 166 at the University Square and n = 140 at the ED). A significantly higher proportion of the women at the ED reported that they were victims of IPV in their current marital/partner relationship and scored higher on the Women Abuse Screening Tool total scale than the women at the university site. This gave a clear indication that the women at the ED experienced significantly more frequent and more severe IPV in their current marital/partner relationship compared with the women at the university site. Identifying IPV in primary and clinical settings might, therefore, function as a protective factor if these women are offered appropriate first response and interventions.

  20. Female rats are more susceptible to the deleterious effects of paradoxical sleep deprivation on cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajali, Vahid; Sheibani, Vahid; Esmaeili-Mahani, Saeed; Shabani, Mohammad

    2012-03-17

    Paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) may alter subsequent learning and memory capacity. There are differences in both the intensity and direction of responses of the male and female species to the same environmental stimuli and experimental conditions. In the present study, we examined the extent of the effects of PSD for 72h on spatial learning and memory, anxiety-like behavior, corticosterone levels, and the body weight in male as well as in intact and ovariectomized (OVX) female Wistar rats. Multiple platform method was used for PSD induction. Spatial learning and memory and anxiety-like behavior were determined using Morris water maze (MWM) task and open field test, respectively. The data showed that PSD could not significantly affect subsequent spatial learning and short-term memory in male rats, while it significantly impaired the performance of the intact and OVX female rats. The PSD-intact and -OVX female rats showed more memory impairment than the PSD-male animals. Those impairments do not appear to be due to elevated stress level, since the plasma corticosterone did not significantly change following PSD induction. The open field data showed that PSD significantly reduced anxiety-like behavior in all experimental groups. In addition, PSD had a reducing effect on the mean body weight of female groups. Such results suggest that the female rats are more vulnerable to the deleterious effects of sleep loss on cognitive performance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. HIV prevalence and related risk behaviours among female partners of male injecting drugs users in Iran: results of a bio-behavioural survey, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipour, Abbas; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Sajadi, Leily; Zolala, Farzaneh

    2013-11-01

    Sexual partners of injecting drug users (IDUs) are at high risk of HIV infection, yet data for such populations are scarce worldwide, particularly in the Middle East and North African region. This study measured and compared the prevalence of HIV, hepatitis C (HCV), hepatitis B (HBV) and related behavioural factors in male IDUs (MIDUs), their main female sexual partners who were also injecting drug users (FIDUPs) and their main non-injecting female partners (FNIDUPs). Using convenience sampling, MIDUs were recruited at drop-in health centres in three cities (Tehran, Mashhad and Shiraz), who in turn recruited their main female partners. Behavioural data were collected using a standard questionnaire, and blood samples were drawn for HIV and HCV antibody testing and HBV surface antigen. HIV prevalence was 9.4% (95% CI 2.96% to 26.2%) among MIDUs (n=226), 7.7% (95% CI 1.9% to 26.3%) among FIDUPs (n=42) and 2.8% (95% CI 0.65% to 11.3%) among FNIDUPs (n=184). HCV prevalence was 38.6% (95% CI 20.3% to 60.7%) among MIDUs, 36.6% (95% CI 13.6% to 67.9%) among FIDUPs and 8.4% (95% CI 5.67% to 12.4%) among FNIDUPs. HBV surface antigen prevalence was 3.6% (95% CI 1.5% to 8.3%), 7.3% (95% CI 1.9% to 24.8%) and 1.1% (95% CI 0.3% to 4.7%), respectively. Among MIDUs, 19.5% (95% CI 3.4% to 62.2%) had a history of sexual contact with other men. Mean age at first sexual contact in MIDUs was 19.2 years (95% CI 18.6 to 25.2) and in FIDUPs and FNIDUPs 16.4 years (95% CI 14.1 to 22.1) and 18.2 years (95% CI 15.7 to 23.1), respectively. FIDUPs and FNIDUPs had a higher mean number of sexual partners (other than their main partner) in the previous month than MIDUs (5.5 (95% CI 0 to 14.1) and 2.5 (95% CI 1.1 to 4) vs 1.3 (95% CI 0.37 to 2.2), respectively). FIDUPs tended to use drugs before or during sex with their main and casual partners more often than MIDUs (with main partner: 69% (95% CI 41.5% to 87.5%) vs 54.4% (95% CI 27% to 79.4%), respectively, and with casual partners: 47.6% (95% CI

  2. The mediating role of partner communication skills on HIV/STD-associated risk behaviors in young African American females with a history of sexual violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Jessica McDermott; Salazar, Laura F; Wingood, Gina M; DiClemente, Ralph J; Rose, Eve; Crosby, Richard A

    2008-05-01

    To examine the prevalence of sexual violence among young African American females and to explore the mediating role that partner communication plays on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted disease-associated risk behaviors among youth with a history of sexual violence relative to those without. Only data from baseline, before randomization, were used for this analysis. A clinic-based sample of young females enrolled in a randomized trial of an HIV-prevention program in Atlanta, Georgia, from March 2002 to August 2004. African American females aged 15 to 21 years who reported sexual activity in the previous 60 days. Of 1558 screened, 874 females were eligible and 82% (n = 715) participated at baseline. History of sexual violence as well as (1) sexual partner communication skills, (2) current sexual behaviors, and (3) psychological well-being. Lifetime prevalence of sexual violence was 26%. Communication skills partially mediated the relationship between sexual violence and psychological well-being and sexual behavior outcomes. Given the lifetime prevalence of sexual violence and its adverse sexual, psychological, and relational sequelae, it is paramount that effective interventions are developed. Based on our findings, improving partner communications skills is one particularly important area for HIV/sexually transmitted disease risk-reduction interventions for youths with a history of sexual violence.

  3. Prenatal ethanol exposure increases osteoarthritis susceptibility in female rat offspring by programming a low-functioning IGF-1 signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Qubo; Tan, Yang; Zhang, Xianrong; Luo, Hanwen; Deng, Yu; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2015-10-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicates that osteoarthritis (OA) and prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) are both associated with low birth weight but possible causal interrelationships have not been investigated. To investigate the effects of PEE on the susceptibility to OA in adult rats that experienced intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), and to explore potential intrauterine mechanisms, we established the rat model of IUGR by PEE and dexamethasone, and the female fetus and 24-week-old adult offspring subjected to strenuous running for 6 weeks were sacrificed. Knee joints were collected from fetuses and adult offspring for histochemistry, immunohistochemistry and qPCR assays. Histological analyses and the Mankin score revealed increased cartilage destruction and accelerated OA progression in adult offspring from the PEE group compared to the control group. Immunohistochemistry showed reduced expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling pathway components. Furthermore, fetuses in the PEE group experienced IUGR but exhibited a higher postnatal growth rate. The expression of many IGF-1 signaling components was downregulated, which coincided with reduced amounts of type II collagen in the epiphyseal cartilage of fetuses in the PEE group. These results suggest that PEE enhances the susceptibility to OA in female adult rat offspring by down-regulating IGF-1 signaling and retarding articular cartilage development.

  4. Age-Associated Changes in Estrogen Receptor Ratios Correlate with Increased Female Susceptibility to Coxsackievirus B3-Induced Myocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Koenig

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sexual bias is a hallmark in various diseases. This review evaluates sexual dimorphism in clinical and experimental coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3 myocarditis, and how sex bias in the experimental disease changes with increased age. Coxsackieviruses are major causes of viral myocarditis, an inflammation of the heart muscle, which is more frequent and severe in men than women. Young male mice infected with CVB3 develop heart-specific autoimmunity and severe myocarditis. Females infected during estrus (high estradiol develop T-regulatory cells and when infected during diestrus (low estradiol develop autoimmunity similar to males. During estrus, protection depends on estrogen receptor alpha (ERα, which promotes type I interferon, activation of natural killer/natural killer T cells and suppressor cell responses. Estrogen receptor beta has opposing effects to ERα and supports pro-inflammatory immunity. However, the sexual dimorphism of the disease is significantly ameliorated in aged animals when old females become as susceptible as males. This correlates to a selective loss of the ERα that is required for immunosuppression. Therefore, sex-associated hormones control susceptibility in the virus-mediated disease, but their impact can alter with the age and physiological stage of the individual.

  5. The influence of having children on HIV-related risk behaviors of female sex workers and their intimate male partners in two Mexico-US border cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolon, Maria Luisa; Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Robertson, Angela M; Rangel, M Gudelia; Martinez, Gustavo; Ulibarri, Monica D; Servin, Argentina; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2013-06-01

    Among female sex workers who use drugs, the experience of having children and its effect on HIV risk behaviors remains underexplored. We draw from a study of 214 female sex workers and their intimate non-commercial partners in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, México (n = 428), approximately 30% of whom have children living with them. During qualitative interviews with 41 of these couples, having children emerged as an important topic. Children influenced partners' lives and HIV-related risk behaviors in positive and negative ways. Couples perceived that children strengthened their relationships. Concern for children's well-being motivated couples to contemplate healthier lifestyle changes. However, childrearing costs motivated sex work and structural constraints prevented couples from enacting lifestyle changes. Case studies illustrate these themes and highlight implications for couple- and family-based harm reduction interventions. Specifically, our results suggest a need for economic alternatives to sex work while working with families to develop risk reduction skills.

  6. Genetic influences on female infidelity and number of sexual partners in humans: a linkage and association study of the role of the vasopressin receptor gene (AVPR1A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkas, Lynn F; Oelsner, Elizabeth C; Mak, Y T; Valdes, Anna; Spector, Tim D

    2004-12-01

    In humans, in contrast to animals, the genetic influences on infidelity are unclear. We report here a large study of over 1600 unselected United Kingdom female twin pairs who confidentially reported previous episodes of infidelity and total lifetime number of sexual partners, as well as attitudes towards infidelity. Our findings demonstrate that infidelity and number of sexual partners are both under moderate genetic influence (41% and 38% heritable, respectively) and the genetic correlation between these two traits is strong (47%). Conversely, attitudes towards infidelity are driven by shared and unique environmental, but not genetic, influences. A genome-wide linkage scan identified three suggestive but nonsignificant linkage areas associated with infidelity and number of sexual partners on chromosomes 3, 7 and 20 with a maximum LOD score of 2.46. We were unsuccessful in associating infidelity or number of sexual partners with a locus implicated in other mammals' sexual behavior, the vasopressin receptor gene. Nonetheless, our findings on the heritability of sexual infidelity and number of sexual partners provide support for certain evolutionary theories of human sexual behavior, as well as justifying further genetic and molecular research in this domain.

  7. Recalled sexual experiences in childhood with older partners: a study of Brazilian men who have sex with men and male-to-female transgender persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Balan, Ivan; Dolezal, Curtis; Mello, Maeve B

    2012-04-01

    This study assessed the prevalence of recalled childhood sexual experiences with an older partner among men who have sex with men (MSM) and/or male-to-female transgender persons recruited in Campinas, Brazil. It also analyzed associations between such recalled experiences and sexual risk behavior in adulthood. Participants recruited using respondent driven sampling completed a self-administered, computer-based questionnaire, and underwent HIV testing. For data analysis, raw scores were weighted based on participants' reported network size. Of 575 participants (85% men and 15% transgender), 32% reported childhood sexual experiences with an older partner. Mean age at first experience was 9 years, partners being, on average, 19 years old, and mostly men. Most frequent behaviors were partners exposing their genitals, mutual fondling, child masturbating partner, child performing oral sex on partner, and child being anally penetrated. Only 29% of the participants who had had such childhood sexual experiences considered it abuse; 57% reported liking, 29% being indifferent and only 14% not liking the sexual experience at the time it happened. Transgender participants were significantly more likely to report such experiences and, compared with men, had less negative feelings about the experience at the time of the interview. No significant associations were found between sexual experiences in childhood and unprotected receptive or insertive anal intercourse in adulthood. Results highlight the importance of assessing participants' perception of abuse, regardless of researchers' pre-determined criteria to identify abuse. MSM and transgender people may experience childhood sexual experiences with older partners differently from other populations (e.g., heterosexuals), particularly in countries with different cultural norms concerning sexuality than those prevalent in Europe and the U.S.

  8. Tumor susceptibility gene 101 (TSG101 is a novel binding-partner for the class II Rab11-FIPs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor P Horgan

    Full Text Available The Rab11-FIPs (Rab11-family interacting proteins; henceforth, FIPs are a family of Rab11a/Rab11b/Rab25 GTPase effector proteins implicated in an assortment of intracellular trafficking processes. Through proteomic screening, we have identified TSG101 (tumor susceptibility gene 101, a component of the ESCRT-I (endosomal sorting complex required for transport complex, as a novel FIP4-binding protein, which we find can also bind FIP3. We show that α-helical coiled-coil regions of both TSG101 and FIP4 mediate the interaction with the cognate protein, and that point mutations in the coiled-coil regions of both TSG101 and FIP4 abrogate the interaction. We find that expression of TSG101 and FIP4 mutants cause cytokinesis defects, but that the TSG101-FIP4 interaction is not required for localisation of TSG101 to the midbody/Flemming body during abscission. Together, these data suggest functional overlap between Rab11-controlled processes and components of the ESCRT pathway.

  9. Common genetic factors among sexual orientation, gender nonconformity, and number of sex partners in female twins: implications for the evolution of homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burri, Andrea; Spector, Tim; Rahman, Qazi

    2015-04-01

    Homosexuality is a stable population-level trait in humans that lowers direct fitness and yet is substantially heritable, resulting in a so-called Darwinian "paradox." Evolutionary models have proposed that polymorphic genes influencing homosexuality confer a reproductive benefit to heterosexual carriers, thus offsetting the fitness costs associated with persistent homosexuality. This benefit may consist of a "sex typicality" intermediate phenotype. However, there are few empirical tests of this hypothesis using genetically informative data in humans. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that common genetic factors can explain the association between measures of sex typicality, mating success, and homosexuality in a Western (British) sample of female twins. Here, we used data from 996 female twins (498 twin pairs) comprising 242 full dizygotic pairs and 256 full monozygotic pairs (mean age 56.8) and 1,555 individuals whose co-twin did not participate. Measures of sexual orientation, sex typicality (recalled childhood gender nonconformity), and mating success (number of lifetime sexual partners) were completed. Variables were subject to multivariate variance component analysis. We found that masculine women are more likely to be nonheterosexual, report more sexual partners, and, when heterosexual, also report more sexual partners. Multivariate twin modeling showed that common genetic factors explained the relationship between sexual orientation, sex typicality, and mating success through a shared latent factor. Our findings suggest that genetic factors responsible for nonheterosexuality are shared with genetic factors responsible for the number of lifetime sexual partners via a latent sex typicality phenotype in human females. These results may have implications for evolutionary models of homosexuality but are limited by potential mediating variables (such as personality traits) and measurement issues. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  10. Study protocol for the recruitment of female sex workers and their non-commercial partners into couple-based HIV research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syvertsen Jennifer L

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Researchers are increasingly recognizing the importance of addressing sexual and drug-related HIV risk within the context of intimate relationships rather than solely focusing on individual behaviors. Practical and effective methods are needed to recruit, screen, and enroll the high risk and hard-to-reach couples who would most benefit from HIV interventions, such as drug-using female sex workers (FSWs and their intimate, non-commercial partners. This paper outlines a bi-national, multidisciplinary effort to develop and implement a study protocol for research on the social context and epidemiology of HIV, sexually transmitted infections (STI, and high risk behaviors among FSWs and their non-commercial male partners in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. We provide an overview of our study and specifically focus on the sampling, recruitment, screening, and successful enrollment of high risk couples into a public health study in this context. Methods/Design We used targeted and snowball sampling to recruit couples through the female partner first and administered a primary screener to check her initial eligibility. Willing and eligible females then invited their primary male partners for couple-based screening using a couple verification screening (CVS instrument adapted from previous studies. The CVS rechecked eligibility and separately asked each partner the same questions about their relationship to "test" if the couple was legitimate. We adapted the original protocol to consider issues of gender and power within the local cultural and socioeconomic context and expanded the question pool to create multiple versions of the CVS that were randomly administered to potential couples to determine eligibility and facilitate study enrollment. Discussion The protocol successfully enrolled 214 high risk couples into a multi-site public health study. This work suggests the importance of collaborating to construct a study protocol

  11. Acceptability of vaginal microbicides among female sex workers and their intimate male partners in two Mexico-US border cities: a mixed methods analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Angela M; Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Martinez, Gustavo; Rangel, M Gudelia; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Stockman, Jamila K; Ulibarri, Monica D; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2013-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) may benefit from pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) including microbicides for HIV prevention. Since adherence is a key factor in PrEP efficacy, we explored microbicide acceptability and potential barriers to use within FSWs' intimate relationships in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, where HIV prevalence is increasing. FSWs and their verified intimate (non-commercial) male partners completed quantitative and qualitative interviews from 2010 to 2012. Our complementary mixed methods design followed an iterative process to assess microbicide acceptability, explore related relationship dynamics and identify factors associated with concern about male partners' anger regarding microbicide use. Among 185 couples (n=370 individuals), interest in microbicides was high. In qualitative interviews with 28 couples, most participants were enthusiastic about microbicides for sex work contexts but some explained that microbicides could imply mistrust/infidelity within their intimate relationships. In the overall sample, nearly one in six participants (16%) worried that male partners would become angry about microbicides, which was associated with higher self-esteem among FSWs and lower self-esteem and past year conflicts causing injury within relationships among men. HIV prevention interventions should consider intimate relationship dynamics posing potential barriers to PrEP acceptability and adherence, involve male partners and promote risk communication skills.

  12. Ironic Effects of Sexual Minority Group Membership: Are Lesbians Less Susceptible to Invoking Negative Female Stereotypes than Heterosexual Women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedlich, Claudia; Steffens, Melanie C; Krause, Jacqueline; Settke, Elisabeth; Ebert, Irena D

    2015-07-01

    The traditional stereotype of the typical woman has been described as "nice, but incompetent." However, such general gender stereotypes are applied to individual targets only under certain conditions: They are used to "fill in the blanks" (Heilman, 2012) if little personal information is provided about a target. "Typical lesbians" are regarded to have more typically masculine (agentic) characteristics such as task competence than the typical woman does. We thus hypothesized that if a woman displays behavior coinciding with the stereotype of the typical woman, it is more readily interpreted as stereotypically female if performed by a heterosexual woman than by a lesbian. Participants (N = 296) read a hypothetical job interview in which we manipulated the target's sexual orientation (between subjects). Findings demonstrated that a lesbian was judged as more competent than a heterosexual woman in the presence of behavior that may be interpreted as gender-stereotypical (Experiments 1 and 2). This difference in competence judgments was not found in the absence of gender-stereotypical behavior (Experiment 1). Judging the heterosexual woman as low in masculinity was related to a judgment of lower competence (Experiment 2). Our findings demonstrate that there are conditions under which lesbians, a group often stereotyped negatively, are less susceptible to invoking negative female stereotypes than heterosexual women are.

  13. The role of heavy episodic drinking and hostile sexism in men's sexual aggression toward female intimate partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisco, Claire G; Parrott, Dominic J; Tharp, Andra Teten

    2012-11-01

    Research indicates that men's heavy episodic drinking is a significant risk factor for their perpetration of sexual aggression toward intimate partners. The aim of this investigation was to examine how hostile sexism (i.e., antipathy toward women) and benevolent sexism (i.e., subjectively positive, yet patriarchal, views of women) influence the relation between men's heavy episodic drinking and their perpetration of sexual aggression toward intimate partners. Participants were 205 heterosexual drinking men who completed self-report measures of quantity of alcohol consumption during the past 12 months, hostile sexism, and sexual aggression toward an intimate partner during the past 12 months. Men's heavy episodic drinking was positively associated with sexual aggression perpetration toward intimate partners amongst men who endorsed high, but not low, levels of hostile sexism. No such interactive effect emerged for men's endorsement of benevolent sexism. These results have important implications for understanding cumulative risk factors for the perpetration of sexual aggression toward intimates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. No effect of partner age and lifespan on female age‐specific reproductive performance in blue tits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amininasab, Seyed Mehdi; Hammers, Martijn; Vedder, Oscar; Komdeur, Jan; Korsten, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Studies of age-specific reproductive performance are fundamental to our understanding of population dynamics and the evolution of life-history strategies. In species with bi-parental care, reproductive ageing trajectories of either parent may be influenced by their partner's age, but this has rarely

  15. Is economic dependence on the husband a risk factor for intimate partner violence against female factory workers in Nepal?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhungel, Sunita; Dhungel, Pabita; Dhital, Shalik Ram

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Violence related injury is a serious public health issue all over the world. This study aims to assess the association between several socio-economic factors and intimate partner violence (IPV) in Nepal. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 236 women working in carpet...

  16. Risk Assessments by Female Victims of Intimate Partner Violence: Predictors of Risk Perceptions and Comparison to an Actuarial Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor-Smith, Jennifer K.; Henning, Kris; Moore, Stephanie; Holdford, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies support the validity of both structured risk assessment tools and victim perceptions as predictors of risk for repeat intimate partner violence (IPV). Combining structured risk assessments and victim risk assessments leads to better predictions of repeat violence than either alone, suggesting that the two forms of assessment provide…

  17. Wistar-Kyoto Female Rats Are More Susceptible to Develop Sugar Binging: A Comparison with Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papacostas-Quintanilla, Helena; Ortiz-Ortega, Víctor Manuel; López-Rubalcava, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    -like behavior in the PMT. In conclusion, WKY female rats can be considered as a more susceptible rat strain to develop SBLB. PMID:28536692

  18. Wistar-Kyoto Female Rats Are More Susceptible to Develop Sugar Binging: A Comparison with Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Papacostas-Quintanilla

    2017-05-01

    anxiety-like behavior in the PMT. In conclusion, WKY female rats can be considered as a more susceptible rat strain to develop SBLB.

  19. A preliminary investigation of the influence of subjective norms and relationship commitment on stages of change in female intimate partner violence victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Tirone, Vanessa; Nathanson, Alison M; Handsel, Vanessa A; Rhatigan, Deborah L

    2013-02-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is a prevalent and serious problem throughout the world, causing devastating mental and physical health problems for victims. Recent research has begun to focus on factors that may influence women's decisions to stay or leave their abusive partners, as interventions for batterers has only resulted in minimal success in reducing IPV. Therefore, this study preliminarily examined the influence of women's perceptions of their social network members' subjective norms and their relationship commitment on stages of change to end an abusive relationship among a community sample of female IPV victims (N = 84). Results showed that subjective norms and women's relationship commitment were associated with women's stages of change. Relationship commitment did not mediate the relation between subjective norms and stages of change. These findings indicate that a number of factors contribute to women's stay/leave decision-making process, and close social network members could be included in interventions designed to keep women safe.

  20. Cost and effectiveness of Chlamydia screening among male military recruits: Markov modeling of complications averted through notification of prior female partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevin, Remington L; Shuping, Eric E; Frick, Kevin D; Gaydos, Joel C; Gaydos, Charlotte A

    2008-08-01

    Despite rising rates of female screening, a high economic burden remains associated with Chlamydia infection from high rates of undetected asymptomatic disease and its associated sequelae of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and chronic pelvic pain (CP). Males comprise the majority of US military recruits and represent an ideal population in which to achieve identification and interruption of sexually transmitted infection among infected partners through mass tandem screening. We developed a static decision tree incorporating a calibrated Markov model to predict the differences in healthcare payer direct healthcare costs, cases of PID and CP averted among female partners of male recruits through implementation of either selective (aged 24 and younger) or universal recruit screening policies incorporating partner notification. A policy of selective male screening added $10.30 in direct costs per recruit, whereas universal male screening added an additional $1.60. A policy of selective male screening yielded an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $3.7K per case of PID averted, and $7.3K per case of CP averted, whereas universal screening yielded an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $8.2K per additional case of PID and $16.4K per additional case of CP averted beyond selective screening. Neither policy was dominant, and results were qualitatively robust to single-variable and probabilistic sensitivity analysis. In consonance with other studies of mass tandem screening, we found both selective and universal male recruit screening cost-effective as compared with other interventions. Our results argue in favor of universal screening of male recruits for Chlamydia infection, linked to partner notification.

  1. Better life quality and sexual function in men and their female partners with short-segment posterior fixation in the treatment of thoracolumbar junction burst fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cankaya, Deniz; Balci, Melih; Deveci, Alper; Yoldas, Burak; Tuncel, Altug; Tabak, Yalcin

    2016-04-01

    Thoracolumbar junction burst fractures remain a challenging problem due to controversy over the treatment choice of short- or long-segment posterior fixation. The aim of the present study was to compare life quality and sexual function of patients after short- and long-segment posterior fixations in the treatment of thoracolumbar junction burst fractures. In this prospective, randomized study, 24 sexually active male patients diagnosed with thoracolumbar junction burst fractures were randomly assigned to either the short-segment posterior fixation (SSPF) group or the long-segment posterior fixation group (LLPF). The exclusion criteria were rheumatological disease and spinal surgery history. There were no significant differences in age, body mass index or smoking habits between the groups. The life quality score of EQ-5D and the International Index of erectile function (IIEF-5) score of male patients and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) score of female partners were recorded preoperatively and 1 year after surgery. The mean age of patients in the SSPF and LSPF groups was 44.58 and 42.92 years, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in the preoperative EQ-5D and IIEF-5 scores of male patients and the FSFI score of their partners. Postoperatively, the EQ-5D scores (p = 0.011) and IIEF-5 scores (p = 0.000) of male patients and the FSFI score of their partners (p = 0.001) were better in the short-segment group. Patients treated with SSPF have better sexual function and life quality with their partners compared to those treated with LSPF. The main clinical relevance of this study is that the impact of the choice of short or long-segment treatment on postoperative sexual function and life quality should be considered by surgeons when performing posterior fixation after thoracolumbar junction burst fractures.

  2. Prevalence and correlates of HIV and sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers and their non-commercial male partners in two Mexico-USA border cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Angela M; Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Ulibarri, Monica D; Rangel, M Gudelia; Martinez, Gustavo; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2014-08-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) acquire HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) through unprotected sex with commercial and non-commercial (intimate) male partners. Little research has focused on FSWs' intimate relationships, within which condom use is rare. We sought to determine the prevalence and correlates of HIV/STIs within FSWs' intimate relationships in Northern Mexico. From 2010 to 2011, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of FSWs and their non-commercial male partners in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico. Eligible FSWs and their verified male partners were aged ≥18 years; FSWs reported lifetime use of heroin, cocaine, crack, or methamphetamine and recently exchanged sex (past month). Participants completed baseline questionnaires and testing for HIV, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. We determined the prevalence and correlates of individuals' HIV/STI positivity using bivariate probit regression. Among 212 couples (n = 424), prevalence of HIV was 2.6 % (n = 11). Forty-two (9.9 %) tested positive for any HIV/STIs, which was more prevalent among women than men (12.7 % vs. 7.1 %, p sex work clients were less likely to test positive for HIV/STIs than those without regular clients. Similarly, male partners of FSWs who had regular clients were 9 % less likely to have HIV/STIs. Higher sexual decision-making power was protective against HIV/STIs for women. Men who recently used methamphetamine or reported perpetrating any conflict within steady relationships were more likely to test positive for HIV/STIs. Within FSWs' intimate relationships in two Mexican-US border cities, nearly one in ten partners tested positive for HIV/STIs. Couple-based prevention interventions should recognize how intimate relationship factors and social contexts influence HIV/STI vulnerability.

  3. Different effect of l-NAME treatment on susceptibility to decompression sickness in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Aleksandra; Buzzacott, Peter; Lambrechts, Kate; Wang, Qiong; Belhomme, Marc; Theron, Michael; Popov, Georgi; Distefano, Giovanni; Guerrero, Francois

    2014-11-01

    Vascular bubble formation results from supersaturation during inadequate decompression contributes to endothelial injuries, which form the basis for the development of decompression sickness (DCS). Risk factors for DCS include increased age, weight-fat mass, decreased maximal oxygen uptake, chronic diseases, dehydration, and nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Production of NO is often affected by diving and its expression-activity varies between the genders. Little is known about the influence of sex on the risk of DCS. To study this relationship we used an animal model of Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) to induce decreased NO production. Male and female rats with diverse ages and weights were divided into 2 groups: treated with l-NAME (in tap water; 0.05 mg·mL(-1) for 7 days) and a control group. To control the distribution of nitrogen among tissues, 2 different compression-decompression protocols were used. Results showed that l-NAME was significantly associated with increased DCS in female rats (p = 0.039) only. Weight was significant for both sexes (p = 0.01). The protocol with the highest estimated tissue pressures in the slower compartments was 2.6 times more likely to produce DCS than the protocol with the highest estimated tissue pressures in faster compartments. The outcome of this study had significantly different susceptibility to DCS after l-NAME treatment between the sexes, while l-NAME per se had no effect on the likelihood of DCS. The analysis also showed that for the appearance of DCS, the most significant factors were type of protocol and weight.

  4. History of intimate partner violence is associated with sex work but not sexually transmitted infection among HIV-positive female drinkers in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urada, L A; Raj, A; Cheng, D M; Quinn, E; Bridden, C; Blokhina, E A; Krupitsky, E; Samet, J H

    2013-04-01

    This paper assesses the associations between intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and sexual risks among HIV-positive female drinkers in St Petersburg, Russia. Survey and STI data were analysed from 285 women in HERMITAGE, a secondary prevention study of HIV-positive heavy drinkers. Logistic and Poisson regression analyses assessed associations of IPV with STI and risky sex. Most women (78%) experienced IPV and 19% were STI positive; 15% sold sex. IPV was not significantly associated with STI, but was with selling sex (adjusted odds ratio = 3.56, 95% confidence interval = 1.02-12.43). In conclusion, IPV is common and associated with sex trade involvement among Russian HIV-positive female drinkers.

  5. Higher variability in the number of sexual partners in males can contribute to a higher prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Rodrigo Gouveia; Pedersen, Anders Gorm

    2009-01-01

    of sexually transmitted diseases: compared to the situation where the genders have identical sex partner distributions, men will reach a lower equilibrium value, while women will stay at the same level (meaning that female prevalence becomes higher than male). We carefully analyse model behaviour and derive...... with the overall prevalence of a sexually transmitted disease (i.e., the more widespread the disease, the more women are affected). We suggest that this pattern may be caused by the effect described above in highly prevalent sexually transmitted diseases, while its impact in low-prevalence epidemics is surpassed......, and on the probability of disease transmission. We note that in addition to humans, the variance phenomenon described here is likely to play a role for sexually transmitted diseases in other species also. We also show, again by examining published, empirical data, that the female to male prevalence ratio increases...

  6. Intimate-Partner and Client-Initiated Violence among Female Street-Based Sex Workers in China: Does a Support Network Help?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Hail-Jares

    Full Text Available Globally, female street-based sex workers are vulnerable to gender-based violence. Previous research has shown having a peer social network can reduce sex workers' risks of victimization. However, mechanisms of how social network impacts violence among female street-based sex workers are still far from clear.Our study was based on data abstracted from a paper-and-pencil survey administered among 218 female street-based sex workers in Shanghai, China. We focused on self-reported client-initiated violence and intimate-partner violence in emotional, physical, and sexual forms. Social networks were characterized by the size and sources of financial and psychosocial support (e.g. family, friends, and peers. Multi-variable logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AOR of each type of violence exposure by social network structure after the adjustment of age, education, and years in Shanghai.The street-based female sex workers in our study were primarily rural-to-urban migrants (95.7% with an average age of 41 years old. 24.3% and 62.8% of the sex workers reported intimate-partner violence and client-initiated violence respectively. Lack of financial support, as defined by having only one individual or none in her peer support system to help financially, was significantly associated with self-reported intimate-partner violence (AOR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.1-5.9. Respondents who reported client-initiated violence, by contrast, were more likely to report lacked psychosocial support from family (AOR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.0-4.6 and peers (AOR: 5.1, 95% CI: 2.2-11.This study is one of the first to systematically analyze the associations between social network and gender-based violence among street-based female sex worker. We reported a high prevalence of both types of gender-based violence and their complex associations with family, friends, and peer support network. Policies with goals to reduce violence against women may apply these findings to

  7. Intimate-Partner and Client-Initiated Violence among Female Street-Based Sex Workers in China: Does a Support Network Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hail-Jares, Katie; Chang, Ruth C F; Choi, Sugy; Zheng, Huang; He, Na; Huang, Z Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Globally, female street-based sex workers are vulnerable to gender-based violence. Previous research has shown having a peer social network can reduce sex workers' risks of victimization. However, mechanisms of how social network impacts violence among female street-based sex workers are still far from clear. Our study was based on data abstracted from a paper-and-pencil survey administered among 218 female street-based sex workers in Shanghai, China. We focused on self-reported client-initiated violence and intimate-partner violence in emotional, physical, and sexual forms. Social networks were characterized by the size and sources of financial and psychosocial support (e.g. family, friends, and peers). Multi-variable logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) of each type of violence exposure by social network structure after the adjustment of age, education, and years in Shanghai. The street-based female sex workers in our study were primarily rural-to-urban migrants (95.7%) with an average age of 41 years old. 24.3% and 62.8% of the sex workers reported intimate-partner violence and client-initiated violence respectively. Lack of financial support, as defined by having only one individual or none in her peer support system to help financially, was significantly associated with self-reported intimate-partner violence (AOR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.1-5.9). Respondents who reported client-initiated violence, by contrast, were more likely to report lacked psychosocial support from family (AOR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.0-4.6) and peers (AOR: 5.1, 95% CI: 2.2-11). This study is one of the first to systematically analyze the associations between social network and gender-based violence among street-based female sex worker. We reported a high prevalence of both types of gender-based violence and their complex associations with family, friends, and peer support network. Policies with goals to reduce violence against women may apply these findings to leverage social

  8. Prevalence of intimate partner violence and its associated risk factors among Saudi female patients attending the primary healthcare centers in Western Saudi Arabia

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    Turki A. Alzahrani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV among female patients, age 18-60 years, attending primary health care centers (PHCCs and to measure its determinants, and reporting behavior. Methods: A cross-sectional study design using validated, translated, and self-administered questionnaire among 497 Saudi female patients attending PHCCs in Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA from January to February 2015 was employed. A 2-stage probability sampling was adopted for selection of PHCCs in the first stage, and then participants in the second stage. Results: The estimated prevalence of IPV during the last year was 11.9%. Predictors of IPV related to abused women included divorced status and divorced parents; while those related to abusers (husbands included widowed parents, exposure to violence in childhood, and alcohol or drugs addiction. Most of the abused wives (56% talked regarding their IPV to their families, their husbands’ families (15.2%, or their friends (11.8%; while only a minority (3.3% complained to the police or to a judge, and no one reported this to a family physician, or to women protection agency. Conclusion: One out of 10 women is a victim of IPV in Taif, KSA. Intimate partner violence is significantly associated with a number of victim and abuser-related psychosocial factors, the detection of which might help screening for individuals at risk.

  9. Direct and Mediated Effects of Perceived Father Criticism and Sarcasm on Females' Perceptions of Relational Partners' Disconfirming Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Michael J.; Dobos, Jean A.

    1993-01-01

    Finds that adult males' perceptions of criticism and sarcasm from their fathers significantly and independently contributed to males' perceived confirmation from their fathers. Shows that a causal model using these three variables to predict females' reports of males' relational communication accounted for a significant percentage of variance in…

  10. Molecular Pathogenesis of EBV Susceptibility in XLP as Revealed by Analysis of Female Carriers with Heterozygous Expression of SAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palendira, Umaimainthan; Low, Carol; Chan, Anna; Hislop, Andrew D.; Ho, Edwin; Phan, Tri Giang; Deenick, Elissa; Cook, Matthew C.; Riminton, D. Sean; Choo, Sharon; Loh, Richard; Alvaro, Frank; Booth, Claire; Gaspar, H. Bobby; Moretta, Alessandro; Khanna, Rajiv; Rickinson, Alan B.; Tangye, Stuart G.

    2011-01-01

    X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in SH2D1A which encodes SAP. SAP functions in signalling pathways elicited by the SLAM family of leukocyte receptors. A defining feature of XLP is exquisite sensitivity to infection with EBV, a B-lymphotropic virus, but not other viruses. Although previous studies have identified defects in lymphocytes from XLP patients, the unique role of SAP in controlling EBV infection remains unresolved. We describe a novel approach to this question using female XLP carriers who, due to random X-inactivation, contain both SAP+ and SAP− cells. This represents the human equivalent of a mixed bone marrow chimera in mice. While memory CD8+ T cells specific for CMV and influenza were distributed across SAP+ and SAP− populations, EBV-specific cells were exclusively SAP+. The preferential recruitment of SAP+ cells by EBV reflected the tropism of EBV for B cells, and the requirement for SAP expression in CD8+ T cells for them to respond to Ag-presentation by B cells, but not other cell types. The inability of SAP− clones to respond to Ag-presenting B cells was overcome by blocking the SLAM receptors NTB-A and 2B4, while ectopic expression of NTB-A on fibroblasts inhibited cytotoxicity of SAP− CD8+ T cells, thereby demonstrating that SLAM receptors acquire inhibitory function in the absence of SAP. The innovative XLP carrier model allowed us to unravel the mechanisms underlying the unique susceptibility of XLP patients to EBV infection in the absence of a relevant animal model. We found that this reflected the nature of the Ag-presenting cell, rather than EBV itself. Our data also identified a pathological signalling pathway that could be targeted to treat patients with severe EBV infection. This system may allow the study of other human diseases where heterozygous gene expression from random X-chromosome inactivation can be exploited. PMID:22069374

  11. Molecular pathogenesis of EBV susceptibility in XLP as revealed by analysis of female carriers with heterozygous expression of SAP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umaimainthan Palendira

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP is a primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in SH2D1A which encodes SAP. SAP functions in signalling pathways elicited by the SLAM family of leukocyte receptors. A defining feature of XLP is exquisite sensitivity to infection with EBV, a B-lymphotropic virus, but not other viruses. Although previous studies have identified defects in lymphocytes from XLP patients, the unique role of SAP in controlling EBV infection remains unresolved. We describe a novel approach to this question using female XLP carriers who, due to random X-inactivation, contain both SAP(+ and SAP(- cells. This represents the human equivalent of a mixed bone marrow chimera in mice. While memory CD8(+ T cells specific for CMV and influenza were distributed across SAP(+ and SAP(- populations, EBV-specific cells were exclusively SAP(+. The preferential recruitment of SAP(+ cells by EBV reflected the tropism of EBV for B cells, and the requirement for SAP expression in CD8(+ T cells for them to respond to Ag-presentation by B cells, but not other cell types. The inability of SAP(- clones to respond to Ag-presenting B cells was overcome by blocking the SLAM receptors NTB-A and 2B4, while ectopic expression of NTB-A on fibroblasts inhibited cytotoxicity of SAP(- CD8(+ T cells, thereby demonstrating that SLAM receptors acquire inhibitory function in the absence of SAP. The innovative XLP carrier model allowed us to unravel the mechanisms underlying the unique susceptibility of XLP patients to EBV infection in the absence of a relevant animal model. We found that this reflected the nature of the Ag-presenting cell, rather than EBV itself. Our data also identified a pathological signalling pathway that could be targeted to treat patients with severe EBV infection. This system may allow the study of other human diseases where heterozygous gene expression from random X-chromosome inactivation can be exploited.

  12. Molecular pathogenesis of EBV susceptibility in XLP as revealed by analysis of female carriers with heterozygous expression of SAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palendira, Umaimainthan; Low, Carol; Chan, Anna; Hislop, Andrew D; Ho, Edwin; Phan, Tri Giang; Deenick, Elissa; Cook, Matthew C; Riminton, D Sean; Choo, Sharon; Loh, Richard; Alvaro, Frank; Booth, Claire; Gaspar, H Bobby; Moretta, Alessandro; Khanna, Rajiv; Rickinson, Alan B; Tangye, Stuart G

    2011-11-01

    X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in SH2D1A which encodes SAP. SAP functions in signalling pathways elicited by the SLAM family of leukocyte receptors. A defining feature of XLP is exquisite sensitivity to infection with EBV, a B-lymphotropic virus, but not other viruses. Although previous studies have identified defects in lymphocytes from XLP patients, the unique role of SAP in controlling EBV infection remains unresolved. We describe a novel approach to this question using female XLP carriers who, due to random X-inactivation, contain both SAP(+) and SAP(-) cells. This represents the human equivalent of a mixed bone marrow chimera in mice. While memory CD8(+) T cells specific for CMV and influenza were distributed across SAP(+) and SAP(-) populations, EBV-specific cells were exclusively SAP(+). The preferential recruitment of SAP(+) cells by EBV reflected the tropism of EBV for B cells, and the requirement for SAP expression in CD8(+) T cells for them to respond to Ag-presentation by B cells, but not other cell types. The inability of SAP(-) clones to respond to Ag-presenting B cells was overcome by blocking the SLAM receptors NTB-A and 2B4, while ectopic expression of NTB-A on fibroblasts inhibited cytotoxicity of SAP(-) CD8(+) T cells, thereby demonstrating that SLAM receptors acquire inhibitory function in the absence of SAP. The innovative XLP carrier model allowed us to unravel the mechanisms underlying the unique susceptibility of XLP patients to EBV infection in the absence of a relevant animal model. We found that this reflected the nature of the Ag-presenting cell, rather than EBV itself. Our data also identified a pathological signalling pathway that could be targeted to treat patients with severe EBV infection. This system may allow the study of other human diseases where heterozygous gene expression from random X-chromosome inactivation can be exploited.

  13. Lower susceptibility of female mice to acetaminophen hepatotoxicity: Role of mitochondrial glutathione, oxidant stress and c-jun N-terminal kinase

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    Du, Kuo; Williams, C. David; McGill, Mitchell R.; Jaeschke, Hartmut, E-mail: hjaeschke@kumc.edu

    2014-11-15

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose causes severe hepatotoxicity in animals and humans. However, the mechanisms underlying the gender differences in susceptibility to APAP overdose in mice have not been clarified. In our study, APAP (300 mg/kg) caused severe liver injury in male mice but 69–77% lower injury in females. No gender difference in metabolic activation of APAP was found. Hepatic glutathione (GSH) was rapidly depleted in both genders, while GSH recovery in female mice was 2.6 fold higher in the mitochondria at 4 h, and 2.5 and 3.3 fold higher in the total liver at 4 h and 6 h, respectively. This faster recovery of GSH, which correlated with greater induction of glutamate-cysteine ligase, attenuated mitochondrial oxidative stress in female mice, as suggested by a lower GSSG/GSH ratio at 6 h (3.8% in males vs. 1.4% in females) and minimal centrilobular nitrotyrosine staining. While c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation was similar at 2 and 4 h post-APAP, it was 3.1 fold lower at 6 h in female mice. However, female mice were still protected by the JNK inhibitor SP600125. 17β-Estradiol pretreatment moderately decreased liver injury and oxidative stress in male mice without affecting GSH recovery. Conclusion: The lower susceptibility of female mice is achieved by the improved detoxification of reactive oxygen due to accelerated recovery of mitochondrial GSH levels, which attenuates late JNK activation and liver injury. However, even the reduced injury in female mice was still dependent on JNK. While 17β-estradiol partially protects male mice, it does not affect hepatic GSH recovery. - Highlights: • Female mice are less susceptible to acetaminophen overdose than males. • GSH depletion and protein adduct formation are similar in both genders. • Recovery of hepatic GSH levels is faster in females and correlates with Gclc. • Reduced oxidant stress in females leads to reduced JNK activation. • JNK activation and mitochondrial translocation are critical

  14. Symptoms of depression, anxiety, and somatization in female victims and perpetrators of intimate partner violence in Maputo City, Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacarias, Antonio Eugenio; Macassa, Gloria; Soares, Joaquim JF; Svanström, Leif; Antai, Diddy

    2012-01-01

    Background Little knowledge exists in Mozambique and sub-Saharan Africa about the mental health (symptoms of depression, anxiety, and somatization) of women victims and perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV) by type of abuse (psychological aggression, physical assault without/with injury, and sexual coercion). This study scrutinizes factors associated with mental health among women victims and perpetrators of IPV over the 12 months prior to the study. Methods and materials Mental health data were analyzed with bivariate and multiple regression methods for 1442 women aged 15–49 years who contacted Forensic Services at Maputo Central Hospital (Maputo City, Mozambique) for IPV victimization between April 1, 2007 and March 31, 2008. Results In bivariate analyses, victims and perpetrators of IPVs scored higher on symptoms of mental health than their unaffected counterparts. Multiple regressions revealed that controlling behaviors, mental health comorbidity, social support, smoking, childhood abuse, sleep difficulties, age, and lack of education were more important in explaining symptoms of mental health than demographics/socioeconomics or life-style factors. Victimization and perpetration across all types of IPV were not associated with symptoms of mental health. Conclusion In our sample, victimization and perpetration were not important factors in explaining mental ill health, contrary to previous findings. More research into the relationship between women’s IPV victimization and perpetration and mental health is warranted as well as the influence of controlling behaviors on mental health. PMID:23071419

  15. PERSONAL MEASURES OF POWER-FREQUENCY MAGNETIC FIELD EXPOSURE AMONG MEN FROM AN INFERTILITY CLINIC: DISTRIBUTION, TEMPORAL VARIABILITY AND CORRELATION WITH THEIR FEMALE PARTNERS' EXPOSURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ryan C; Hauser, Russ; Maynard, Andrew D; Neitzel, Richard L; Wang, Lu; Kavet, Robert; Morey, Patricia; Ford, Jennifer B; Meeker, John D

    2016-12-01

    Power-frequency magnetic field exposure science as it relates to men and couples have not been explored despite the advantage of this information in the design and interpretation of reproductive health epidemiology studies. This analysis examined the distribution and temporal variability of exposures in men, and the correlation of exposures within couples using data from a longitudinal study of 25 men and their female partners recruited from an infertility clinic. The average and 90th percentile demonstrated fair to good reproducibility, whereas the maximum showed poor reproducibility over repeated sampling days, each separated by a median of 4.6 weeks. Average magnetic field exposures were also strongly correlated within couples, suggesting that one partner's data could be used as a surrogate in the absence of data from the other for this metric. Environment was also an important effect modifier in these explored matters. These issues should be considered in future relevant epidemiology studies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Hope Amidst Horror: Documenting the Effects of the "War On Drugs" Among Female Sex Workers and Their Intimate Partners in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Bazzi, Angela Robertson; Mittal, María Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Sensationalistic media coverage has fueled stereotypes of the Mexican border city of Tijuana as a violent battleground of the global drug war. While the drug war shapes health and social harms in profoundly public ways, less visible are the experiences and practices of hope that forge communities of care and represent more private responses to this crisis. In this article, we draw on ethnographic fieldwork and photo elicitation with female sex workers who inject drugs and their intimate, non-commercial partners in Tijuana to examine the personal effects of the drug war. Drawing on a critical phenomenology framework, which links political economy with phenomenological concern for subjective experience, we explore the ways in which couples try to find hope amidst the horrors of the drug war. Critical visual scholarship may provide a powerful alternative to dominant media depictions of violence, and ultimately clarify why this drug war must end.

  17. Female vulnerability to the development of depression-like behavior in a rat model of intimate partner violence is related to anxious temperament, coping responses and amygdala vasopressin receptor 1a expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume L Poirier

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to violence is traumatic and an important source of mental health disturbance, yet the factors associated with victimization remain incompletely understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate factors related to vulnerability to depression-like behaviors in females. An animal model of intimate partner violence, which was previously shown to produce long-lasting behavioral effects in females as a result of male partner aggression, was used. The associations among the degree of partner aggression, the long-term consequences on depressive-like behavior, and the impact of the anxious temperament of the female were examined. In a separate group, pre-selected neural markers were evaluated in the amygdala and the lateral septum of females. Expression was examined by analyses of targeted candidate genes, serotonin transporter (slc6a4, vasopressin receptor 1a, (avpr1a, and oxytocin receptor (oxtr. Structural equation modeling revealed that the female’s temperament moderated depressive-like behavior that was induced by cohabitation aggression from the male partner. More specifically, increased floating in the forced swim test following male aggression was most apparent in females exhibiting more anxiety-like behavior (i.e., less open arm exploration in an elevated plus-maze prior to the cohabitation. Aggression reduced slc6a4 levels in the lateral septum. However, the interaction between partner aggression and the anxious temperament of the female affected the expression of avpr1a in the amygdala. Although aggression reduced levels of this marker in females with high anxiety, no such pattern was observed in females with low anxiety. These results identify important characteristics in females that moderate the impact of male aggression. Furthermore, these results provide potential therapeutic targets of interest in the amygdala and the lateral septum to help improve post-stress behavioral pathology and increase resilience to social

  18. Symptoms of depression, anxiety, and somatization in female victims and perpetrators of intimate partner violence in Maputo City, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares JJ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Antonio Eugenio Zacarias,1,2 Gloria Macassa,3 Joaquim JF Soares,1 Leif Svanström,1 Diddy Antai1,41Karolinska Institutet, Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Social Medicine, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Eduardo Mondlane University, Faculty of Medicine, Maputo, Mozambique; 3University of Gävle, Department of Occupational and Health Sciences, Gävle, Sweden; 4Division of Global Health and Inequalities, The Angels Trust – Nigeria, Abuja, NigeriaBackground: Little knowledge exists in Mozambique and sub-Saharan Africa about the mental health (symptoms of depression, anxiety, and somatization of women victims and perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV by type of abuse (psychological aggression, physical assault without/with injury, and sexual coercion. This study scrutinizes factors associated with mental health among women victims and perpetrators of IPV over the 12 months prior to the study.Methods and materials: Mental health data were analyzed with bivariate and multiple regression methods for 1442 women aged 15–49 years who contacted Forensic Services at Maputo Central Hospital (Maputo City, Mozambique for IPV victimization between April 1, 2007 and March 31, 2008.Results: In bivariate analyses, victims and perpetrators of IPVs scored higher on symptoms of mental health than their unaffected counterparts. Multiple regressions revealed that controlling behaviors, mental health comorbidity, social support, smoking, childhood abuse, sleep difficulties, age, and lack of education were more important in explaining symptoms of mental health than demographics/socioeconomics or life-style factors. Victimization and perpetration across all types of IPV were not associated with symptoms of mental health.Conclusion: In our sample, victimization and perpetration were not important factors in explaining mental ill health, contrary to previous findings. More research into the relationship between women’s IPV victimization and perpetration

  19. Intimate partner violence and ways of coping with stress: cross-sectional survey of female patients in Russian general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokhmatkina, Natalia V; Agnew-Davies, Roxane; Costelloe, Ceire; Kuznetsova, Olga Yu; Nikolskaya, Irina M; Feder, Gene S

    2015-04-01

    Despite World Health Organization guidelines on health service responses to intimate partner violence (IPV) against women general practitioners (GPs) often overlook the problem. Training on IPV addresses GPs' barriers to asking women patients about abuse and responding appropriately. One of the barriers is stereotype of women as passive victims. Little is known about coping behaviour of women patients with a history of IPV. The objectives are (i) to compare problem- and emotion-focused coping used by patients who have experienced IPV with those who have not; (ii) to examine whether greater coping resources (health, education, employment and income) would be associated with more problem-focused coping. The Russian Ways of Coping Questionnaire was administered to every fifth woman who participated in a cross-sectional survey on IPV prevalence in 24 St Petersburg general practices. Linear regression was used (n = 159) to test associations between life-time IPV, coping resources and ways of coping. Mean problem-focused coping scores were 0.2-4.7 units higher in those patients who have experienced IPV compared with those who have not [95% confidence interval (CI): -4.2, 11.9; P = 0.16-0.92], while mean emotion-focused coping scores were 2.5-4.2 units higher (95% CI: -3.0, 11.0; P = 0.12-0.57). After adjustment for coping resources there was no evidence for an association between IPV and problem-focused coping. Patients who have experienced IPV use as much problem-focused and emotion-focused coping, as those patients who have not experienced IPV. These findings should be incorporated into training on IPV to address GPs' stereotypes towards patients who have experienced IPV. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Is economic dependence on the husband a risk factor for intimate partner violence against female factory workers in Nepal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhungel, Sunita; Dhungel, Pabita; Dhital, Shalik Ram; Stock, Christiane

    2017-09-13

    Violence related injury is a serious public health issue all over the world. This study aims to assess the association between several socio-economic factors and intimate partner violence (IPV) in Nepal. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 236 women working in carpet and garment factories in Kathmandu, Nepal. Interviews were conducted to collect quantitative data on three forms of IPV, namely physical violence, psychological violence and sexual violence, as well as on a number of potentially associated factors. Twenty-two percent of women experienced sexual IPV, 28% physical IPV and 35% psychological IPV at least once in the last 12 months. The variables independently associated with at least one form of IPV were: age of the woman >29 years [OR = 4.23, p = 0.025 for physical IPV; OR = 6.94, p = 0.008 for sexual IPV; OR = 3.42, p = 0.043 for psychological IPV], alcohol consumption of the husband [OR = 9.97, p < 0.001 for physical IPV; OR = 3.76, p = 0.004 for sexual IPV; OR = 4.85, p < 0.001 for psychological IPV], education of the husband above primary level [OR = 0.43, p = 0.013 for physical IPV; OR = 0.51, p = 0.033 for psychological IPV], and economic dependency of the woman on the husband [OR = 3.04, p = 0.021 for physical IPV; OR = 2.97, p = 0.008 for psychological IPV]. This study identified various factors associated with IPV and showed that economic dependence of wives on their husband was among the most important ones. Thus, for the prevention of IPV against women, long term strategies aiming at livelihood and economic empowerment as well as independence of women would be suggested.

  1. The influence of having children on HIV-related risk behaviors of female sex workers and their intimate male partners in two Mexico–US border cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolon, Maria Luisa; Syvertsen, Jennifer L.; Robertson, Angela M.; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Martinez, Gustavo; Ulibarri, Monica D.; Servin, Argentina

    2013-01-01

    Among female sex workers who use drugs, the experience of having children and its effect on HIV risk behaviors remains underexplored. We draw from a study of 214 female sex workers and their intimate non-commercial partners in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, México (n = 428), approximately 30% of whom have children living with them. During qualitative interviews with 41 of these couples, having children emerged as an important topic. Children influenced partners’ lives and HIV-related risk behaviors in positive and negative ways. Couples perceived that children strengthened their relationships. Concern for children’s well-being motivated couples to contemplate healthier lifestyle changes. However, childrearing costs motivated sex work and structural constraints prevented couples from enacting lifestyle changes. Case studies illustrate these themes and highlight implications for couple- and family-based harm reduction interventions. Specifically, our results suggest a need for economic alternatives to sex work while working with families to develop risk reduction skills. PMID:23418131

  2. Prevalence of intimate partner violence and its association with symptoms of depression; a cross-sectional study based on a female population sample in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lövestad, Solveig; Löve, Jesper; Vaez, Marjan; Krantz, Gunilla

    2017-04-20

    Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is the most common type of violence targeting women. IPV includes acts of physical aggression, sexual coercion, psychological abuse and controlling behaviors and these forms of violence often coexist in the same relationship. Living with IPV is associated with serious mental health outcomes such as depression and depressive symptoms. Few population based studies from Sweden have investigated the relationship between different forms of IPV and women's depressive symptoms and even fewer used controlling behavior as an independent variable in such studies. The aim of this study was therefore to assess the prevalence of exposure to IPV in terms of controlling behavior, sexual, and physical violence and their association with self-reported symptoms of depression in a female population based sample. The cross-sectional, population based sample contained 573 women aged 18-65 years randomly selected in Sweden. Five self-reported symptoms that define depression in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders were assessed. Physical and sexual violence were inquired about using the World Health Organization's (WHO) Violence Against Women Instrument (VAWI), while controlling behavior was assessed with the Controlling Behavior Scale (CBS). Associations between different forms of IPV and symptoms of depression were estimated by crude and adjusted odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Bivariable associations revealed that women exposed to controlling behavior, had higher OR of depressive symptoms compared to unexposed women (OR 2.43; 95% CI 1.63-3.63). Women exposed to physical and sexual violence had also a higher OR of depressive symptoms (OR 3.78; 95% CI 1.99-7.17 and OR 5.10; 95% CI 1.74-14.91 respectively). After adjusting for socio-demographic and psychosocial covariates, all three forms of IPV showed statistically significant associations with self-reported symptoms of depression. A strength with this study is

  3. Incidence and Predictors of HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Female Sex Workers and Their Intimate Male Partners in Northern Mexico: A Longitudinal, Multilevel Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzi, Angela Robertson; Rangel, Gudelia; Martinez, Gustavo; Ulibarri, Monica D; Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Bazzi, Samuel A; Roesch, Scott; Pines, Heather A; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2015-05-01

    Preventing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) requires an understanding of sexual relationship factors beyond the individual level. We estimated HIV/STI incidence and identified time-varying predictors of STI acquisition in a prospective cohort study of female sex workers and their intimate (noncommercial) male partners in northern Mexico. From 2010 to 2013, couples underwent behavioral and biological assessments biannually for 24 months. Among 413 initially HIV-uninfected participants, 8 seroconverted during follow-up. Incidence of HIV (1.12 cases/100 person-years (PY)), chlamydia (9.47 cases/100 PY), active syphilis (4.01 cases/100 PY), and gonorrhea (1.78 cases/100 PY) was higher among women than among men (HIV: P = 0.069; all STIs combined: P sex-work clients (adjusted OR = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.14, 1.03). Improving vulnerable couples' sexual health will require addressing the contexts in which drug use, interpersonal conflict, and economic vulnerability converge. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Experimentally measured susceptibility to peer influence and adolescent sexual behavior trajectories: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Giletta, Matteo; Widman, Laura; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2014-09-01

    A performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility was examined as a moderator of the longitudinal association between peer norms and trajectories of adolescents' number of sexual intercourse partners. Seventy-one 9th grade adolescents (52% female) participated in an experimental "chat room" paradigm involving "e-confederates" who endorsed sexual risk behaviors. Changes in participants' responses to risk scenarios before versus during the "chat room" were used as a performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility. Participants reported their perceptions of popular peers' number of sexual intercourse partners at baseline and self-reported their number of sexual intercourse partners at baseline and 6, 12, and 18 months later. Susceptibility was examined as a moderator of the longitudinal association between perceptions of popular peers' number of sexual intercourse partners and trajectories of adolescents' own numbers of partners. High perceptions of the number of popular peers' sexual intercourse partners combined with high peer influence susceptibility predicted steeper longitudinal trajectories of adolescents' number of partners. Results provide novel preliminary evidence regarding the importance of peer influence susceptibility in adolescents' development of sexual behaviors.

  5. Experimentally-Measured Susceptibility to Peer Influence and Adolescent Sexual Behavior Trajectories: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Giletta, Matteo; Widman, Laura; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2014-01-01

    A performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility was examined as a moderator of the longitudinal association between peer norms and trajectories of adolescents' number of sexual intercourse partners. Seventy-one 9th grade adolescents (52% female) participated in an experimental “chat room” paradigm involving “e-confederates” who endorsed sexual risk behaviors. Changes in participants' responses to risk scenarios before versus during the “chat room” were used as a performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility. Participants reported their perceptions of popular peers' number of sexual intercourse partner sat baseline, and self-reported their number of sexual intercourse partners at baseline and 6, 12, and 18 months later. Susceptibility was examined as a moderator of the longitudinal association between perceptions of popular peers' number of sexual intercourse partners and trajectories of adolescents' own numbers of partners. High perceptions of the number of popular peers' sexual intercourse partners combined with high peer influence susceptibility predicted steeper longitudinal trajectories of adolescents' number of partners. Results provide novel preliminary evidence regarding the importance of peer influence susceptibility in adolescents' development of sexual behaviors. PMID:24999763

  6. Why Straus's "Reanalysis" of physical tactics used by female partners is wrong: a response to "Addressing violence by female partners is vital to prevent or stop violence against women: evidence from the multisite batterer intervention evaluation," by Murray Straus, Violence Against Women, 20, 889-899.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondolf, Edward W

    2014-12-01

    This article refutes Straus's reinterpretation of our study, "Physical Tactics of Female Partners Against Male Batterer Program Participants," drawing on our extended follow-up of batterer program participants and their partners in four cities (Gondolf, 2002). Straus claims that the rate of women's violence in the sample is "high" and asserts the need to address women's violence to reduce the men's violence, which is the opposite of our findings and interpretation. We contend that our focus on the men and women who both used tactics in the total sample addresses the research question. We elaborate why our regression analyses to "explain" the women's violence are sound, despite Straus's unsubstantiated speculations. We argue further that the evidence points to women's "violent resistance" against severe, repeated violence, and that those cases do not fit the "both victim" dyad type that Straus promotes. Moreover, they are inappropriate for couples counseling. Finally, we revisit the limitations of the Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS) as a sufficient measure of the women's experience of male violence and raise concern about the implications of Straus's claims. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. TMEM187-IRAK1 Polymorphisms Associated with Rheumatoid Arthritis Susceptibility in Tunisian and French Female Populations: Influence of Geographic Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olfa Khalifa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphisms have been identified in the Xq28 locus as risk loci for rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Here, we investigated the association between three polymorphisms in the Xq28 region containing TMEM187 and IRAK1 (rs13397, rs1059703, and rs1059702 in two unstudied populations: Tunisian and French. The rs13397 G and rs1059703 T major alleles were significantly increased in RA patients (n=408 compared with age-matched controls (n=471 in both Tunisian and French women. These results were confirmed by a meta-analysis replication study including two independent Greek and Korean cohorts. The rs1059702 C major allele was significantly associated with RA, only with French women. In the French population, the GTC haplotype displayed a protective effect against RA, while the ATC, GCC, and GTT haplotypes conferred significant risk for RA. No association for these haplotypes was found in the Tunisian population. Our results replicated for the first time the association of the three Xq28 polymorphisms with RA risk in Tunisian and French populations and suggested that RA susceptibility is associated with TMEM187-IRAK1 polymorphisms in women. Our data further support the involvement of X chromosome in RA susceptibility and evidence ethnicities differences that might be explained by differences in the frequencies of SE HLA-DRB1 alleles between both populations.

  8. Sex, stress and sleep apnoea: Decreased susceptibility to upper airway muscle dysfunction following intermittent hypoxia in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, Ken D; Lewis, Philip; McDonald, Fiona

    2017-11-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is a devastating respiratory control disorder more common in men than women. The reasons for the sex difference in prevalence are multifactorial, but are partly attributable to protective effects of oestrogen. Indeed, OSAS prevalence increases in post-menopausal women. OSAS is characterized by repeated occlusions of the pharyngeal airway during sleep. Dysfunction of the upper airway muscles controlling airway calibre and collapsibility is implicated in the pathophysiology of OSAS, and sex differences in the neuro-mechanical control of upper airway patency are described. It is widely recognized that chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), a cardinal feature of OSAS due to recurrent apnoea, drives many of the morbid consequences characteristic of the disorder. In rodents, exposure to CIH-related redox stress causes upper airway muscle weakness and fatigue, associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Of interest, in adults, there is female resilience to CIH-induced muscle dysfunction. Conversely, exposure to CIH in early life, results in upper airway muscle weakness equivalent between the two sexes at 3 and 6 weeks of age. Ovariectomy exacerbates the deleterious effects of exposure to CIH in adult female upper airway muscle, an effect partially restored by oestrogen replacement therapy. Intriguingly, female advantage intrinsic to upper airway muscle exists with evidence of substantially greater loss of performance in male muscle during acute exposure to severe hypoxic stress. Sex differences in upper airway muscle physiology may have relevance to human OSAS. The oestrogen-oestrogen receptor α axis represents a potential therapeutic target in OSAS, particularly in post-menopausal women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Increased susceptibility to collagen-induced arthritis in female mice carrying congenic Cia40/Pregq2 fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liljander, Maria; Andersson, Åsa Inga Maria; Holmdahl, Rikard

    2008-01-01

    of the B10.Q strain. The major polymorphic candidate genes for the effects on CIA are Cd79b, Abca8a, and Map2k6. The congenic fragment also contains polymorphic genes that affect reproductive behavior and reproductive success. The Sox9 gene, known to influence sex reversal, is a candidate gene...... effects on onset, incidence, severity, and anti-CII antibody titers were observed in female mice carrying a heterozygous congenic Cia40/Pregq2 fragment of NFR/N origin, containing one or more polymorphic genes. Congenic male mice did not show increased incidence of CIA, but males carrying a heterozygous...

  10. Collateral Intimate Partner Homicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Meyer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Collateral intimate partner homicide (CIPH is an underinvestigated genre of intimate partner violence (IPV where an individual(s connected to the IPV victim is murdered. We conducted a content analysis of a statewide database of CIPH newspaper articles (1990-2007. Out of 111 collateral murder victims, there were 84 IPV female focal victims and 84 male perpetrators. The most frequently reported CIPH decedent was the focal victim’s new partner (30%; 45% of focal victims were themselves killed. News reports framed CIPH as the unexpected result of interpersonal conflict, despite evidence of a systematic pattern of coercion and violence that capitulated in murder.

  11. Experimentally Measured Susceptibility to Peer Influence and Adolescent Sexual Behavior Trajectories: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Giletta, Matteo; Widman, Laura; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2014-01-01

    A performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility was examined as a moderator of the longitudinal association between peer norms and trajectories of adolescents' number of sexual intercourse partners. Seventy-one 9th grade adolescents (52% female) participated in an experimental "chat room" paradigm involving…

  12. Experimentally measured susceptibility to peer influence and adolescent sexual behavior trajectories : A preliminary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choukas-Bradley, S.; Giletta, M.; Widman, L.; Cohen, G.L.; Prinstein, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    A performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility was examined as a moderator of the longitudinal association between peer norms and trajectories of adolescents' number of sexual intercourse partners. Seventy-one 9th grade adolescents (52% female) participated in an experimental "chat

  13. Promoting male partner HIV testing and safer sexual decision making through secondary distribution of self-tests by HIV-negative female sex workers and women receiving antenatal and post-partum care in Kenya: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumurthy, Harsha; Masters, Samuel H; Mavedzenge, Sue Napierala; Maman, Suzanne; Omanga, Eunice; Agot, Kawango

    2016-06-01

    Increased uptake of HIV testing by men in sub-Saharan Africa is essential for the success of combination prevention. Self-testing is an emerging approach with high acceptability, but little evidence exists on the best strategies for test distribution. We assessed an approach of providing multiple self-tests to women at high risk of HIV acquisition to promote partner HIV testing and to facilitate safer sexual decision making. In this cohort study, HIV-negative women aged 18-39 years were recruited at two sites in Kisumu, Kenya: a health facility with antenatal and post-partum clinics and a drop-in centre for female sex workers. Participants gave informed consent and were instructed on use of oral fluid based rapid HIV tests. Participants enrolled at the health facility received three self-tests and those at the drop-in centre received five self-tests. Structured interviews were conducted with participants at enrolment and over 3 months to determine how self-tests were used. Outcomes included the number of self-tests distributed by participants, the proportion of participants whose sexual partners used a self-test, couples testing, and sexual behaviour after self-testing. Between Jan 14, 2015, and March 13, 2015, 280 participants were enrolled (61 in antenatal care, 117 in post-partum care, and 102 female sex workers); follow-up interviews were completed for 265 (96%). Most participants with primary sexual partners distributed self-tests to partners: 53 (91%) of 58 participants in antenatal care, 91 (86%) of 106 in post-partum care, and 64 (75%) of 85 female sex workers. 82 (81%) of 101 female sex workers distributed more than one self-test to commercial sex clients. Among self-tests distributed to and used by primary sexual partners of participants, couples testing occurred in 27 (51%) of 53 in antenatal care, 62 (68%) of 91 from post-partum care, and 53 (83%) of 64 female sex workers. Among tests received by primary and non-primary sexual partners, two (4%) of 53

  14. Sustained Ex Vivo Susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum to Artemisinin Derivatives but Increasing Tolerance to Artemisinin Combination Therapy Partner Quinolines in The Gambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amambua-Ngwa, Alfred; Okebe, Joseph; Mbye, Haddijatou; Ceesay, Sukai; El-Fatouri, Fatima; Joof, Fatou; Nyang, Haddy; Janha, Ramatoulie; Affara, Muna; Ahmad, Abdullahi; Kolly, Olimatou; Nwakanma, Davis; D'Alessandro, Umberto

    2017-12-01

    Antimalarial interventions have yielded a significant decline in malaria prevalence in The Gambia, where artemether-lumefantrine (AL) has been used as a first-line antimalarial for a decade. Clinical Plasmodium falciparum isolates collected from 2012 to 2015 were analyzed ex vivo for antimalarial susceptibility and genotyped for drug resistance markers (pfcrt K76T, pfmdr1 codons 86, 184, and 1246, and pfk13) and microsatellite variation. Additionally, allele frequencies of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from other drug resistance-associated genes were compared from genomic sequence data sets from 2008 (n = 79) and 2014 (n = 168). No artemisinin resistance-associated pfk13 mutation was found, and only 4% of the isolates tested in 2015 showed significant growth after exposure to dihydroartemisinin. Conversely, the 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) of amodiaquine and lumefantrine increased within this period. pfcrt 76T and pfmdr1 184F mutants remained at a prevalence above 80%. pfcrt 76T was positively associated with higher IC50s to chloroquine. pfmdr1 NYD increased in frequency between 2012 and 2015 due to lumefantrine selection. The TNYD (pfcrt 76T and pfmdr1 NYD wild-type haplotype) also increased in frequency following AL implementation in 2008. These results suggest selection for pfcrt and pfmdr1 genotypes that enable tolerance to lumefantrine. Increased tolerance to lumefantrine calls for sustained chemotherapeutic monitoring in The Gambia to minimize complete artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) failure in the future. Copyright © 2017 Amambua-Ngwa et al.

  15. Susceptibility to obesity and gallbladder stasis produced by a protein- and fat-enriched diet in male mice compared with female mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takiguchi Soichi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The frequency of Japanese subjects over 20 years old with metabolic syndrome is 45.6% in men but just 16.7% in women. The reason why Japanese male subjects are more susceptible to metabolic syndrome than women is unknown. One possibility is the higher frequency of Japanese male subjects (40–70 years old who had a drinking habit (67%, while that of female subjects was only 25%. In addition, daily fat intake was markedly increased in Japanese subjects (from 9% to 25%, and cholesterol cholelithiasis is one of the most rapidly increasing digestive diseases during the past 50 years. The object of this study is to examine whether a potential sex-related risk factor exists in the manifestation of metabolic syndrome as well as gallstone formation. Methods Gallbladder dysmotility accerelates gallstone formation and gallbladder contraction depends on cholecystokinin (CCK and its receptor (CCK-1R. We developed CCK-1R gene knockout (-/- mice. The effects of the fat- and protein- enriched diet OA-2 on body weight, hyperlipidemia, and frequencies of sludge and gallstone formation were examined, and compared between wild-type and CCK-1R(-/- male and female mice. The OA-2 diet contains slightly higher protein and fat (7.9 % fat and 27.6 % protein compared with a standard diet (CRF-1 (5.6 % fat and 22.6 % protein, but their total energies are similar. After weaning, CRF-1 was provided until 3 months of age in all animals. Administration of an OA-2 diet was started when age-matched CCK-1R(-/- and wild-type male and female mice reached maturity, at 3 months of age. Administration of CRF-1 was continued in the rest of the animals. Mice were sacrificed by guillotine at 6 and 12 months of age and the blood was collected to measure plasma levels of triglyceride and cholesterol. The gallbladder was removed and classified as normal (clear gallbladder, clouded (sludge formation, and/or containing gallstone formations. Results As long as CRF-1 was

  16. Relationships among Substance Use, Multiple Sexual Partners, and Condomless Sex: Differences between Male and Female U.S. High School Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunchuan; Kim, Heejung; Peltzer, Jill

    2017-01-01

    Male and female students manifest different behaviors in condomless sex. This cross-sectional, exploratory, correlational study examined the differences in risk factors for condomless sex between male and female high school students, using secondary data from 4,968 sexually active males and females participating in the 2011 National Youth Risk…

  17. Seizure susceptibility and the brain regional sensitivity to oxidative stress in male and female rats in the lithium-pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peternel, Sandra; Pilipović, Kristina; Zupan, Gordana

    2009-04-30

    Several studies have shown the existence of sex differences in the sensitivity to various convulsants in animals and to the development of some epilepsy types in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there are sex differences in seizure susceptibility and sensitivity of different brain regions to oxidative stress in rats with status epilepticus (SE) induced by lithium-pilocarpine administration, that provides a common experimental model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) in humans. Latencies to isolated full limbic seizures or SE onset as well as the number of the animals presenting full limbic seizures, SE or full limbic seizures that progressed to SE were recorded for 2 h after pilocarpine administration. Number of animals which survived 24 h after SE onset was also monitored. Levels of lipid peroxidation as well as the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities in the piriform and entorhinal cortices, temporal neocortex, thalamus, and hippocampus in rats of both sexes, at 24 h after SE onset were determined. Results of our study showed that males developed full limbic seizures and SE more rapidly and in greater number than females. Levels of lipid peroxidation in all brain regions examined, the SOD activities in the piriform and entorhinal cortices, and temporal neocortex as well as the GSH-Px activities in the piriform and entorhinal cortices, and thalamus were significantly higher in rats with SE in comparison to the values of mentioned biochemical parameters in rats of the control groups. Lipid peroxidation level in the temporal neocortex as well as the GSH-Px activity in the hippocampus in male rats were significantly higher in comparison to the values registered in females. With the exception of the thalamus, where SOD activity in male rats with SE was significantly higher in relation to the respective control group and also to females with SE, sex differences in the response of other brain regions

  18. Client perspectives on design and implementation of a couples-based intervention to reduce sexual and drug risk behaviors among female sex workers and their noncommercial partners in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A; Robertson, Angela M; Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Hernandez, Daniel O; Ulibarri, Monica D; Rangel, M Gudelia; Martinex, Gustavo; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2014-03-01

    This mixed-methods study examined the acceptability of a hypothetical couples-based HIV prevention program for female sex workers and their intimate (non-commercial) male partners in Mexico. Among 320 participants, 67 % preferred couples-based over individual programs, particularly among men. Reasons cited for preferring couples-based programs included convenience and health benefits for both partners. Participants reported that they would benefit from general health information and services, HIV counseling and testing, job training (particularly for men) and other services. However, qualitative interviews revealed that barriers relating to the environment (i.e., poor access to services), providers (i.e., lack of a therapeutic alliance), and intimate relationships (i.e., mistrust or instability) would need to be addressed before such a program could be successfully implemented. Despite women's concerns about privacy and men's preferences for gender-specific services, couples-based HIV prevention programs were largely acceptable to female sex workers and their intimate male partners.

  19. A dose-response relationship between exposure to a large-scale HIV preventive intervention and consistent condom use with different sexual partners of female sex workers in southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deering Kathleen N

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Avahan Initiative, a large-scale HIV preventive intervention targeted to high-risk populations including female sex workers (FSWs, was initiated in 2003 in six high-prevalence states in India, including Karnataka. This study assessed if intervention exposure was associated with condom use with FSWs’ sexual partners, including a dose-response relationship. Methods Data were from a cross-sectional study (2006-07 of 775 FSWs in three districts in Karnataka. Survey methods accounted for the complex cluster sampling design. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression was used to separately model the relationships between each of five intervention exposure variables and five outcomes for consistent condom use (CCU= always versus frequently/sometimes/never with different sex partners, including with: all clients; occasional clients; most recent repeat client; most recent non-paying partner; and the husband or cohabiting partner. Linear tests for trends were conducted for three continuous intervention exposure variables. Results FSWs reported highest CCU with all clients (81.7%; CCU was lowest with FSWs’ husband or cohabiting partner (9.6%. In multivariable analysis, the odds of CCU with all clients and with occasional clients were 6.3-fold [95% confidence intervals, CIs: 2.8-14.5] and 2.3-fold [95% CIs: 1.4-4.1] higher among FSWs contacted by intervention staff and 4.9-fold [95% CIs: 2.6-9.3] and 2.3-fold [95% CIs: 1.3-4.1] higher among those who ever observed a condom demonstration by staff, respectively, compared to those who had not. A significant dose-response relationship existed between each of these CCU outcomes and increased duration since first contacted by staff (P=0.001; P=0.006 and numbers of condom demonstrations witnessed (P=0.004; P=0.026; a dose-response relationship was also observed between condom use with all clients and number of times contacted by staff (P=0.047. Intervention exposure was not

  20. High-fat/fructose feeding during prenatal and postnatal development in female rats increases susceptibility to renal and metabolic injury later in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Elizabeth R; Alexander, Barbara T; Lee, Jonathan; Hutchens, Zachary M; Maric-Bilkan, Christine

    2013-02-15

    Accumulating evidence suggests that both an adverse prenatal and early postnatal environment increase susceptibility to renal and metabolic dysfunction later in life; however, whether exposure to adverse conditions during both prenatal and postnatal development act synergistically to potentiate the severity of renal and metabolic injury remains unknown. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a standard diet or a diet high in fat/fructose throughout pregnancy and lactation. After being weaned, female offspring were randomized to either standard diet or the high-fat/high-fructose diet, resulting in the following treatment groups: NF-NF, offspring of mothers fed a standard diet and fed a standard diet postnatally; NF-HF, offspring of mothers fed a standard diet and fed a high-fat/fructose diet postnatally; HF-NF, offspring of mothers fed a high-fat/fructose diet and fed a standard diet postnatally; HF-HF, offspring of mothers fed a high-fat/fructose diet and fed a high-fat/fructose diet postnatally. At the time of euthanasia (17 wk of age), HF-HF offspring weighed 30% more and had 110% more visceral fat than NF-NF offspring. The HF-HF offspring also had elevated blood glucose levels, glucose intolerance, 286% increase in urine albumin excretion, and 60% increase in glomerulosclerosis compared with NF-NF. In addition, HF-HF offspring exhibited a 100% increase in transforming growth factor-β protein expression and 116% increase in the abundance of infiltrated macrophages compared with the NF-NF offspring. These observations suggest that high-fat/fructose feeding during prenatal and throughout postnatal life increases the susceptibility to renal and metabolic injury later in life.

  1. Hockey Concussion Education Project, Part 1: Susceptibility-weighted imaging study in male and female ice hockey players over a single season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmer, Karl G.; Pasternak, Ofer; Fredman, Eli; Preciado, Ronny I.; Koerte, Inga K.; Sasaki, Takeshi; Mayinger, Michael; Johnson, Andrew M.; Holmes, Jeffrey D.; Forwell, Lorie; Skopelja, Elaine N.; Shenton, Martha E.; Echlin, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Object Concussion, or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), is a commonly occurring sports-related injury, especially in contact sports such as hockey. Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), which are small, hypointense lesions on T2*-weighted images, can result from TBI. The authors use susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) to automatically detect small hypointensities that may be subtle signs of chronic and acute damage due to both subconcussive and concussive injury. The goal was to investigate how the burden of these hypointensities change over time, over a playing season, and postconcussion, compared with subjects who did not suffer a medically observed and diagnosed concussion. Methods Images were obtained in 45 university-level adult male and female ice hockey players before and after a single Canadian Interuniversity Sports season. In addition, 11 subjects (5 men and 6 women) underwent imaging at 72 hours, 2 weeks, and 2 months after concussion. To identify subtle changes in brain tissue and potential CMBs, nonvessel clusters of hypointensities on SWI were automatically identified and a hypointensity burden index was calculated for all subjects at the beginning of the season (BOS) and the end of the season (EOS), in addition to postconcussion time points (where applicable). Results A statistically significant increase in the hypointensity burden, relative to the BOS, was observed for male subjects at the 2-week postconcussion time point. A smaller, nonsignificant rise in the burden for all female subjects was also observed within the same time period. The difference in hypointensity burden was also statistically significant for men with concussions between the 2-week time point and the BOS. There were no significant changes in burden for nonconcussed subjects of either sex between the BOS and EOS time points. However, there was a statistically significant difference in the burden between male and female subjects in the nonconcussed group at both the BOS and EOS time

  2. Hockey Concussion Education Project, Part 1. Susceptibility-weighted imaging study in male and female ice hockey players over a single season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmer, Karl G; Pasternak, Ofer; Fredman, Eli; Preciado, Ronny I; Koerte, Inga K; Sasaki, Takeshi; Mayinger, Michael; Johnson, Andrew M; Holmes, Jeffrey D; Forwell, Lorie A; Skopelja, Elaine N; Shenton, Martha E; Echlin, Paul S

    2014-04-01

    Concussion, or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), is a commonly occurring sports-related injury, especially in contact sports such as hockey. Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), which appear as small, hypointense lesions on T₂*-weighted images, can result from TBI. The authors use susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) to automatically detect small hypointensities that may be subtle signs of chronic and acute damage due to both subconcussive and concussive injury. The goal was to investigate how the burden of these hypointensities changes over time, over a playing season, and postconcussion, in comparison with subjects who did not suffer a medically observed and diagnosed concussion. Images were obtained in 45 university-level adult male and female ice hockey players before and after a single Canadian Interuniversity Sports season. In addition, 11 subjects (5 men and 6 women) underwent imaging at 72 hours, 2 weeks, and 2 months after concussion. To identify subtle changes in brain tissue and potential CMBs, nonvessel clusters of hypointensities on SWI were automatically identified, and a hypointensity burden index was calculated for all subjects at the beginning of the season (BOS), the end of the season (EOS), and at postconcussion time points (where applicable). A statistically significant increase in the hypointensity burden, relative to the BOS, was observed for male subjects with concussions at the 2-week postconcussion time point. A smaller, nonsignificant rise in the burden for female subjects with concussions was also observed within the same time period. There were no significant changes in burden for nonconcussed subjects of either sex between the BOS and EOS time points. However, there was a statistically significant difference in the burden between male and female subjects in the nonconcussed group at both the BOS and EOS time points, with males having a higher burden. This method extends the utility of SWI from the enhancement and detection of larger (> 5

  3. “I get angry if he’s always drinking and we have no money”: Exploring motivations for male and female perpetrated intimate partner violence in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehringer, Jessica A.; Hindin, Michelle J.

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to describe the context of and motivations for female and male perpetrated IPV in Cebu, Philippines using data from in-depth interviews with 19 married women. We found three categories of IPV motivations --self-defense or retaliation, reactivity, and control. Motivations differed by gender, with women acting out of self-defense more often and men acting out of control more often. Effective IPV prevention and treatment programs should take these gender differences into consideration. Moreover, it is important to look at how IPV occurs within relationships and how this may vary by context and gender. While intimate partner violence is a well-known problem for both men and women in developing countries, we know relatively little about the context of violence in these settings. There is research from the U.S. on motivations for and other contextual aspects of female-perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV) and a handful of studies in lower income countries, the U.S. and Canada on motivations for and contextual aspects of male-perpetrated IPV. To create effective prevention and treatment interventions for both male and female perpetrated IPV in developing countries, it is critical to understand how IPV occurs within relationships in these settings and how this may vary by context and gender. We carried out this study to explore the context of both male and female perpetrated IPV in the Philippines using in-depth interviews with married women. We report here the findings on IPV motives and forms of IPV. PMID:23659284

  4. Social Partners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tikkanen, Tarja; Hansen, Leif Emil; Guðmundsson, Bernharður

    2012-01-01

    based on a survey carried out in the Nordic countries in the regie of Nordic Council of Ministries the article deals with the role of social partners in senior and older workers policies and practises......based on a survey carried out in the Nordic countries in the regie of Nordic Council of Ministries the article deals with the role of social partners in senior and older workers policies and practises...

  5. Women's finger sensitivity correlates with partnered sexual behavior but not solitary masturbation frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart; Fischer, Agneta H; Hess, Ursula

    2008-01-01

    In a sample of 97 healthy Dutch female university students, women with greater finger tactile sensitivity (von Frey-type filaments) engaged more in partnered (but not solitary masturbation) sexual behavior. Orgasmic responses in the past 30 days were not correlated with finger sensitivity. Results are discussed in terms of differences between different sexual behaviors, as well as susceptibility to reinforcement, and psychoanalytic views of conversion hysteria.

  6. A group intervention to reduce intimate partner violence among female drug users. Results from a randomized controlled pilot trial in a community substance-abuse center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirado-Muñoz, Judit; Gilchrist, Gail; Lligoña, Eva; Gilbert, Louisa; Torrens, Marta

    2015-09-15

    A greater proportion of drug dependent women are victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) than women in the general population; however, few interventions have been developed to reduce IPV among drug dependent women. An adapted version of the Women's Wellness Treatment, to address IPV and depressive symptoms, was piloted in a randomized controlled trial conducted in outpatient treatment program in Barcelona, Spain among 14 women receiving outpatient treatment for a drug use disorder who screened positive for IPV in the previous month. Participants were randomly assigned to receive the 10 session cognitive behavioral therapy (IPaViT-CBT) group intervention or treatment as usual. The frequency of IPV, depressive symptoms, substance use, quality of life and health status were assessed at baseline and 1, 3 and 12 months post intervention. Intention to treat analysis was performed. Moderate effects for the intervention were found in reducing psychological maltreatment, increasing assertiveness of IPV and reducing aggressiveness in the partner relationship, and in reducing the frequency of drinking up to 3 months post intervention. The intervention did not significantly reduce the likelihood of any IPV, depressive symptoms, quality of life or self-reported health status, up to 12-months post intervention. This pilot trial suggests some initial support for the 10-session CBT group intervention among IPV victims who received treatment for drug use. Study findings indicate that it is feasible to deliver the intervention in a community substance abuse center. An adequately powered trial is required to replicate these results.

  7. How Nurses in Johannesburg Address Intimate Partner Violence in Female Patients: Understanding IPV Responses in Low- and Middle-Income Country Health Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Courtenay; Hatcher, Abigail M; Woollett, Nataly; Black, Vivian

    2015-06-19

    One in three women, globally, experiences intimate partner violence (IPV). Although 80% of the world's population resides in the low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), health system responses to IPV are poorly understood. In 2013, the World Health Organization released new guidelines for IPV but universal screening was not recommended in LMICs due to perceived lack of capacity and insufficient evidence. South Africa, with IPV prevalence estimated at 31% to 55%, offers a window into LMIC health systems. South African women seek health care for partner abuse, yet no guidelines exist to direct providers. This research aimed to understand how and why nurses respond to IPV. Using a descriptive design, 25 nurses from five health facilities were interviewed, generating rich narratives of provider actions. Themes were coded and analyzed. An iterative process of constant comparison of emergent data was undertaken to verify and confirm final themes. In the absence of IPV guidelines, nurses employed interventions characterized as counseling, ascertaining abuse, and referral. Nurses' actions were motivated by fear for patients' survival, perceived professional obligations, patients' expectations of receiving treatment, personal experiences of IPV, and weak police responses to IPV. Findings indicated nurses were responding to IPV in a routine manner, yet comprehensive guidelines remain essential to govern and locate their actions within the framework of a public health response. South Africa yields lessons for enhancing understanding of IPV responses in LMICs, while contributing to a slim evidence base of the "how" and "why" of provider actions toward IPV in patients. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Sexual and Reproductive Health Indicators and Intimate Partner Violence Victimization Among Female Family Planning Clinic Patients Who Have Sex with Women and Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Heather L; Silverman, Jay G; Decker, Michele R; Agénor, Madina; Borrero, Sonya; Tancredi, Daniel J; Zelazny, Sarah; Miller, Elizabeth

    2015-08-01

    Sexual minority women are more likely than heterosexual women to have ever experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). Although IPV is associated with sexual risk and poor reproductive health outcomes among US women overall, little is known about whether IPV is related to sexual and reproductive health indicators among sexual minority women in particular. Baseline data from a prospective intervention trial were collected from women ages 16-29 years at 24 family planning clinics in western PA (n=3,455). Multivariable logistic regression for clustered survey data was used to compare women who have sex with men only (WSM) and women who have sex with women and men (WSWM) on (1) IPV prevalence and (2) sexual and reproductive health behaviors, outcomes, and services use, controlling for IPV. Finally, we tested the interaction of sexual minority status and IPV. WSWM were significantly more likely than WSM to report a lifetime history of IPV (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 3.00; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.30, 3.09). Controlling for IPV, WSWM reported higher levels of sexual risk behaviors (e.g., unprotected vaginal and anal sex), male-perpetrated reproductive coercion, unwanted pregnancy, and sexually transmitted infection (STI) and pregnancy testing but less contraceptive care seeking. The association between IPV and lifetime STI diagnosis was greater among WSWM than among WSM. IPV was pervasive and associated with sexual risk and reproductive health indicators among WSWM in this clinic-based setting. Healthcare providers' sexual risk assessment and provision of sexual and reproductive health services should be informed by an understanding of women's sexual histories, including sex of sexual partners and IPV history, in order to help ensure that all women receive the clinical care they need.

  9. PARTNER Project

    CERN Multimedia

    Ballantine, A; Dixon-Altaber, H; Dosanjh, M; Kuchina, L

    2011-01-01

    Hadrontherapy uses particle beams to treat tumours located near critical organs and tumours that respond poorly to conventional radiation therapy. It has become evident that there is an emerging need for reinforcing research in hadrontherapy and it is essential to train professionals in this rapidly developing field. PARTNER is a 4-year Marie Curie Training project funded by the European Commission with 5.6 million Euros aimed at the creation of the next generation of experts. Ten academic institutes and research centres and two leading companies are participating in PARTNER, that is coordinated by CERN, forming a unique multidisciplinary and multinational European network. The project offers research and training opportunities to 25 young biologists, engineers, physicians and physicists and is allowing them to actively develop modern techniques for treating cancer in close collaboration with leading European Institutions. For this purpose PARTNER relies on cutting edge research and technology development, ef...

  10. “I’ve never asked one question.” Understanding the barriers among orthopedic surgery residents to screening female patients for intimate partner violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Lesley Gotlib; Young, Aynsely; Rotstein, Ori D.; Schemitsch, Emil

    2014-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global public health problem. Orthopedic surgery residents may identify IPV among injured patients treated in fracture clinics. Yet, these residents face a number of barriers to recognizing and discussing IPV with patients. We sought to explore orthopedic surgery residents’ knowledge of IPV and their preparedness to screen patients for IPV in academic fracture clinic settings with a view to developing targeted IPV education and training. Methods We conducted focus groups with junior and intermediate residents. Discussions explored residents’ knowledge of and experiences with IPV screening and preparedness for screening and responding to IPV among orthopedic patients. Data were analyzed iteratively using an inductive approach. Results Residents were aware of the issue of abuse generally, but had received no specific information or training on IPV in orthopedics. Residents did not see orthopedics faculty screen patients for IPV or advocate for screening. They did not view IPV screening or intervention as part of the orthopedic surgeon’s role. Residents’ clinical experiences emphasized time management and surgical intervention by effectively “getting through clinic” and “dealing with the surgical problem.” Communication with patients about other health issues was minimal or nonexistent. Conclusion Orthopedic surgery residents are entering a career path where IPV is well documented. They encounter cultural and structural barriers preventing the incorporation of IPV screening into their clinical and educational experiences. Hospitals and academic programs must collaborate in efforts to build capacity for sustainable IPV screening programs among these trainees. PMID:25421078

  11. "I've never asked one question." Understanding the barriers among orthopedic surgery residents to screening female patients for intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotlib Conn, Lesley; Young, Aynsely; Rotstein, Ori D; Schemitsch, Emil

    2014-12-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global public health problem. Orthopedic surgery residents may identify IPV among injured patients treated in fracture clinics. Yet, these residents face a number of barriers to recognizing and discussing IPV with patients. We sought to explore orthopedic surgery residents' knowledge of IPV and their preparedness to screen patients for IPV in academic fracture clinic settings with a view to developing targeted IPV education and training. We conducted focus groups with junior and intermediate residents. Discussions explored residents' knowledge of and experiences with IPV screening and preparedness for screening and responding to IPV among orthopedic patients. Data were analyzed iteratively using an inductive approach. Residents were aware of the issue of abuse generally, but had received no specific information or training on IPV in orthopedics. Residents did not see orthopedics faculty screen patients for IPV or advocate for screening. They did not view IPV screening or intervention as part of the orthopedic surgeon's role. Residents' clinical experiences emphasized time management and surgical intervention by effectively "getting through clinic" and "dealing with the surgical problem." Communication with patients about other health issues was minimal or nonexistent. Orthopedic surgery residents are entering a career path where IPV is well documented. They encounter cultural and structural barriers preventing the incorporation of IPV screening into their clinical and educational experiences. Hospitals and academic programs must collaborate in efforts to build capacity for sustainable IPV screening programs among these trainees.

  12. Artificial oocyte activation with calcium ionophore allowed fertilization and pregnancy in a couple with long-term unexplained infertility where the female partner had diminished EGG reserve and failure to fertilize oocytes despite intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Check, J H; Summers-Chase, D; Cohen, R; Brasile, D

    2010-01-01

    To determine if fertilization and embryo development and pregnancy was possible following in vitro fertilization (IVF) in a couple with long-term unexplained infertility where the female partner had diminished egg reserve and where fertilization failure occurred despite conventional oocyte insemination and intracyoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). In vitro fertilization was performed using a low-dose follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulation protocol. Prior to ICSI, artificial oocyte activation with calcium ionophore was used. Only one mature oocyte was retrieved but it fertilized and cleaved to a good quality 8-cell embryo on day 3. A pregnancy with fetal viability was achieved but she subsequently miscarried. A second attempt successful. Fertilization and pregnancy is possible even in women with diminished egg reserve with previous failed fertilization with ICSI by performing artificial oocyte activation with calcium ionophore. It is not clear if the sperm lacked oscillin or if the eggs were not responsive to oscillin.

  13. Social Partners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Leif Emil

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to present findings from a new Nordic survey on social partners’ policy and practice in regards older workers. The goal of the survey was to find out to what extent the social partners have developed policies and outlined strategies, which explicitly address...... the demographic change and promote opportunities for lifelong learning and career development among their senior members (45+). Workforce in the Nordic countries tend to be highly organised – especially the older workers. The social partners’ involvement in the discussion of sustainable society....... The findings showed, on one hand, that while some social partners have started very good work, for many the issues of lifelong learning and opportunities for career development for older workers are not on their agenda. Besides differences between the unions in regards many aspects and within most countries...

  14. Self-Efficacy Mediates the Association between Partner Trust and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    psychological resilience and partner trust to increase understanding of trust towards one's intercourse partner. Mediation analyses, stratified by gender, reveal that condom usage is predicted by self-efficacy and partner trust among females but not males. Higher psychological resilience predicts lower partner trust among ...

  15. High-fat/fructose feeding during prenatal and postnatal development in female rats increases susceptibility to renal and metabolic injury later in life

    OpenAIRE

    Flynn, Elizabeth R.; Alexander, Barbara T.; Lee, Jonathan; Hutchens, Zachary M.; Maric-Bilkan, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that both an adverse prenatal and early postnatal environment increase susceptibility to renal and metabolic dysfunction later in life; however, whether exposure to adverse conditions during both prenatal and postnatal development act synergistically to potentiate the severity of renal and metabolic injury remains unknown. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a standard diet or a diet high in fat/fructose throughout pregnancy and lactation. After being weaned, fe...

  16. Preconception Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation of Adult Male Mice with a History of Developmental TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) Exposure Prevents Preterm Birth in Unexposed Female Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConaha, Melinda E.; Ding, Tianbing; Lucas, John A.; Arosh, Joe A.; Osteen, Kevin G.; Bruner-Tran, Kaylon L.

    2013-01-01

    We recently reported that adult male C57BL/6 mice exposed in utero to the environmental toxicant TCDD confer an increased risk of preterm birth (PTB) to unexposed females. Risk of PTB was coincident with decreased placental progesterone receptor (PR) mRNA expression and increased toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) mRNA expression, suggesting toxicant exposure induced a heightened inflammatory response at the maternal-fetal interface. Since omega-3 fatty acids exhibit anti-inflammatory activity, herein, we provided TCDD-exposed males a fish oil-enriched diet prior to mating. Although PTB was common in control females mated to TCDD-exposed males on the standard diet, fish oil supplementation of TCDD-exposed males eliminated PTB in unexposed partners. We also determined the influence of preconception, paternal fish oil supplementation on the placental inflammatory response in late pregnancy (E18.5) by examining expression of PR and TLR-4 mRNA as well as expression of 15-hydroxy prostaglandin dehydrogenase (PGDH). PGDH catabolizes the inflammatory PGE2 to an inactive form; thus, reduced expression of this enzyme would promote tissue inflammation. Compared to control pregnancies, examination of E18.5 placentas arising from TCDD-exposed males on the standard diet revealed a significant increase in TLR-4 mRNA expression corresponding to a reduction in PR mRNA and PGDH protein expression. In contrast, fish oil supplementation of toxicant-exposed males led to normalization of placental expression of both PR and TLR-4 mRNA and a marked increase in PGDH expression. These studies suggest that a paternal preconception diet which includes omega-3 fatty acids prevents the toxicant-associated increase in the placental inflammatory response at late gestation, preventing PTB. PMID:21653731

  17. Gestational ingestion of oxidized frying oil by C57BL/6J mice differentially affects the susceptibility of the male and female offspring to diet-induced obesity in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Hui-Ching; Huang, Chin-Fang; Chang, Yi-Chun; Lin, Yu-Shun; Chao, Pei-Min

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal ingestion of oxidized frying oil (OFO) during pregnancy influences the susceptibility to diet-induced obesity (DIO) of the adult offspring. Pregnant C57BL/6J mice were fed either a control diet [10% fresh soybean oil (SO)] or an OFO-containing diet (10% OFO) throughout the entire gestational period. After parturition, all pups were nursed by SO-fed dams for 3 wk, weaned onto a nonpurified standard diet for 4 wk, and shifted to a high-fat diet (29% butter + 1% SO) for 5 wk. Consequently, 4 groups of offspring were obtained, consisting of the male (m) or female (f) offspring of dams fed the OFO diet (OFO-m and OFO-f) or the SO diet (SO-m and SO-f). At pregnancy d 18, higher amounts (P diets showed that adult OFO-f mice were prone to DIO, whereas adult OFO-m mice were resistant. The adult OFO-m mice also had higher expression of PPARα target genes in the liver and white adipose tissue (WAT) and of thermogenic genes in the WAT than adult SO-m mice, whereas adult OFO-f and SO-f mice did not differ. We conclude that uterine PPARα activation caused by maternal OFO ingestion affects hepatic PPARα activity and adipose thermogenic capacity and contributes to the differential susceptibility to DIO in the male and female offspring in adulthood.

  18. Sex differences in the predictors of juvenile delinquency: females are more susceptible to poor environments; males are influenced more by low self-control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steketee, M.; Junger, Marianne; Junger-Tas, J.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the article is to investigate whether well-established risk factors for delinquency among adolescents are equally important for males and females. The risk factors discussed here are derived from four theoretical approaches: social bonding/social control theory, self-control theory,

  19. The Influence of Pregnancy, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Perceived Susceptibility Patterns on Sexual Risk Reduction for Adolescent Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, Trace S.; Ethier, Kathleen A.; Milan, Stephanie; Lewis, Jessica B.; Niccolai, Linda M.; Meade, Christina; Ickovics, Jeannette R.

    2005-01-01

    Risky sexual behavior can lead to pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Our study of 300 adolescent females takes an integrative approach by incorporating these multiple outcomes to assess the influence of risk perceptions on sexual behavior by (1) identifying subgroups of perceived susceptibility…

  20. ¿Qué sabemos sobre los hombres que maltratan a su pareja? Una revisión sistemática What do we know about men who abuse their female partner? A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Carrasco-Portiño

    2007-07-01

    más eficaces.OBJECTIVES: To analyze articles published in scientific journals from 2000 to 2005 that specifically focus on men who abuse their female partner, and to identify characteristics that the quantitative empirical studies have in common. METHODS: A systematic review of articles published from January 2000 to June 2005 on the topic of men who abuse their female partner was conducted by searching the following databases: EconLit, Embase, Eric, Francis, Índice Médico Español, ISI Web of Knowledge (Web of Science and Current Contents, Medline, Psicodoc, PsycInfo, and Sociological Abstracts. RESULTS: Of the 944 studies identified, victim-specific articles were eliminated, and 61 (6.5% were analyzed. Of these, violence-related journals had published 34 (55.7%; medical sciences journals had published only 4 (6.6%. North American institutions had published 47 of the 61 articles (77.0%, most of which were from the United States of America (70.5%, and only 1 article (1.6% came from Latin America (Puerto Rico. Of the 29 articles that employed quantitative analysis, 19 (65.5% examined the etiology of and risk factors related to domestic violence, and 10 (34.5% focused on interventions geared toward the aggressor. CONCLUSIONS: Few scientific studies were found that tackled the causes of violence against the female partner, and those that did used epidemiological methods that fell short of quantifying the causes of partner violence. Studies that approach the issue from a curative angle do not provide enough evidence on the effectiveness of programs aimed at abusers. No articles were found in public health journals. The absence of scientific literature on this topic could be impeding informed policy-making and hindering efforts to put more effective intervention programs in place.

  1. Trends in Intimate Partner Violence: 1980-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Rachael A.; Kaukinen, Catherine Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Research on trends in partner violence has primarily relied on official measures of victimization focusing primarily on women's risk for intimate partner homicide. The current study uses 28 years of data from the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) to examine the trends of intimate partner violence against female victims and identify…

  2. Male partner selectivity, romantic confidence, and media depictions of partner scarcity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Laramie D

    2013-01-18

    An experiment was conducted to explore the effects of exposure to partner scarcity or abundance messages on men's partner selectivity, romantic confidence, and self-assessed attractiveness. Undergraduate male participants watched a soap opera narrative featuring either two men competing over one potential female partner (partner scarcity) or two women competing over one potential male partner (partner abundance). Relative to control subjects, watching either narrative reduced romantic confidence. Experimental condition also affected partner selectivity and self-assessed attractiveness, though both effects were moderated by endorsement of traditional masculine ideology. Viewing the abundance narrative resulted in greater selectivity and self-assessed attractiveness for men high in endorsement of traditional masculinity but diminished selectivity and self-assessed attractiveness for men low in endorsement of traditional masculine identity.

  3. Susceptibility and morbidity between male and female Swiss mice infected with Angiostrongylus costaricensis: Susceptibilidade e morbidade entre camundongos Swiss machos e fêmeas infectados com Angiostrongylus costaricensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia B. Mentz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The gender of vertebrate hosts may affect the outcome of parasitic infections. An experimental murine infection with Angiostrongylus costaricensis was followed with determinations of body weight, fecal larval elimination, number and length of adult worms, number of macroscopic intestinal lesions, and mortality. Groups of male and female Swiss mice were infected with 10 3rd-stage A. costaricensis larvae per animal. The results indicate there are no significant differences related to gender of the host, except for higher length of worms developed in male mice.O sexo dos hospedeiros vertebrados pode influenciar no resultado de infecções parasitárias. A infecção experimental de camundongos com Angiostrongylus costaricensis foi acompanhada com observação do peso corporal, eliminação de larvas nas fezes, número e comprimento dos vermes adultos, número de lesões macroscópicas nos intestinos e mortalidade. Grupos de camundongos Swiss machos e fêmeas foram infectados cada um com 10 larvas de terceiro estágio de A. costaricensis. Os resultados indicam que não há diferenças significativas relacionados ao sexo dos hospedeiros, exceto pelo maior comprimento dos vermes nos hospedeiros machos.

  4. Female sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35–40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  5. Female sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, T S Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M

    2015-07-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35-40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality.

  6. The Constitution of Partnering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Stefan Christoffer

    The constitution of partnering. Afhandlingen behandler konstitueringen af ledelseskonceptet partnering og dets anvendelse i dansk byggeri. Partnering er et udbredt koncept i byggeriet som betoner samarbejde, tillid og gensidighed mellem de deltagende parter, og konceptet har de senere år har været...... om, hvordan partnering som koncept er fremkommet og har udviklet sig og hvilke konstitutive effekter partnering har på byggeriets praksis. Det teoretiske udgangspunkt i Foucault begrundes i behovet for at fastholde en mangefacetteret og historisk analyse af partnering i modsætning til de...... ledelseskoncept (partnering) medvirker til at strukturere byggeprocesser ved at skabe bestemte muligheder for handling samtidig med at der opretholdes en betydelig stabilitet. Afhandlingen har en række praktiske implikationer ved at identificere de dispositiver eller sociale teknologier som en forandring af...

  7. Partnering and contracting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohnstedt, Kristian Ditlev

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - Partnering is often, by economists, and construction managerial literature related to more incomplete contracts. This can be explained by seeing partnering as something that neutralizes opportunism. The aim is to uncover whether partnering neutralizes opportunism when there is an incomp......Purpose - Partnering is often, by economists, and construction managerial literature related to more incomplete contracts. This can be explained by seeing partnering as something that neutralizes opportunism. The aim is to uncover whether partnering neutralizes opportunism when...... there is an incomplete contract or reduces transaction costs for renegotiation of complete contracts when new information arises. Design - The study is a cross-sectional design comprising document analysis and interviews. Findings - Firstly that partnering does not necessarily entail more incomplete contracts, which...... contradicts the incomplete contracting theory. Secondly, in complete contract setting partnering can be motivated when seen as a willingness to renegotiate complete contracts i.e. partnering lowers transaction costs for renegotiation. Partnering can make it rational for one party to accept disadvantageous...

  8. A comparison of two methods of partner notification for sexually transmitted infections in South Africa: patient-delivered partner medication and patient-based partner referral

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Young, T.; de Kock, A.; Jones, H.; Altini, L.; Ferguson, T.; van de Wijgert, J.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine acceptability and feasibility of patient-based partner referral (PBPR) and patient-delivered partner medication (PDPM) among female sexually transmitted infection (STI) patients in a community-based STI screening study. Women were randomized to STI

  9. Gender symmetry, sexism, and intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Christopher T; Swan, Suzanne C; Raghavan, Chitra

    2009-11-01

    This study of a predominantly Hispanic sample of 92 male and 140 female college students examines both gender symmetry in intimate partner violence (IPV) and inconsistent relationships found in previous studies between sexist attitudes and IPV. Results indicate that although comparable numbers of men and women perpetrate and are victimized in their relationships with intimate partners, the path models suggest that women's violence tends to be in reaction to male violence, whereas men tend to initiate violence and then their partners respond with violence. Benevolent sexism was shown to have a protective effect against men's violence toward partners. Findings highlight the importance of studying women's violence not only in the context of men's violence but also within a broader sociocultural context.

  10. Intimate partner homicide: review and implications of research and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Glass, Nancy; Sharps, Phyllis W; Laughon, Kathryn; Bloom, Tina

    2007-07-01

    Current rates of intimate partner homicide of females are approximately 4 to 5 times the rate for male victims, although the rates for both have decreased during the past 25 years. The major risk factor for intimate partner homicide, no matter if a female or male partner is killed, is prior domestic violence. This review presents and critiques the evidence supporting the other major risk factors for intimate partner homicide in general, and for intimate partner homicide of women (femicide) in particular, namely guns, estrangement, stepchild in the home, forced sex, threats to kill, and nonfatal strangulation (choking). The demographic risk factors are also examined and the related phenomena of pregnancy-related homicide, attempted femicide, and intimate partner homicide-suicide.

  11. Physical Health Effects of Intimate Partner Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillito, Carrie LeFevre

    2012-01-01

    Although intimate partner violence has been recognized as both a social problem and health issue, the extent to which it is a health issue for both males and females in the general population is largely unknown. This longitudinal research uses data from the National Survey of Family and Households (1987-2003). Random effects logistic regression…

  12. IDRC PARTNERING CYCLE

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    1. Exploration: Opportunities for collaboration are identified, potential partners are qualified, risks are assessed, and a decision to work with one or more partners is made. Some of the activities taking place during the exploration stage are: researching and gathering intelligence; examining options; and confirming matching.

  13. Condom Use and Number of Sexual Partners among Secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    partners encourages condom use during sex among high school female students in Urban Cameroon. Methods ... normal class periods with the permission of the principals and the co-operation of the teachers concerned. ... during first sex than those with single partners, 27 (43.2%). (X2=147.5; df=6; p=0.000) (Table 3).

  14. Hypnotic susceptibility and dream characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamore, N; Barrett, D

    1989-11-01

    This study examined the relationship of hypnotic susceptibility to a variety of dream characteristics and types of dream content. A Dream Questionnaire was constructed synthesizing Gibson's dream inventory and Hilgard's theoretical conceptions of hypnosis. Employing the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility and the Field Inventory for evaluating hypnotic response, several dream dimensions correlated significantly with hypnotizability. For subjects as a whole, the strongest correlates were the frequency of dreams which they believed to be precognitive and out-of-body dreams. Ability to dream on a chosen topic also correlated significantly with hypnotic susceptibility for both genders. For females only, there was a negative correlation of hypnotic susceptibility to flying dreams. Absorption correlated positively with dream recall, ability to dream on a chosen topic, reports of conflict resolution in dreams, creative ideas occurring in dreams, amount of color in dreams, pleasantness of dreams, bizarreness of dreams, flying dreams and precognitive dreams.

  15. An Animal Model of Active (Act) Versus Sedentary (Sed) Lifestyle and Susceptibility to Air Pollution: Response to Ozone (O3) in Female Sprague-Dawley Rats Allowed to Train Chronically On Running Wheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological data suggest that a sedentary lifestyle may contribute to increased suseptibility to environmental pollutants. Furthermore, the association between a sedentary pattern and development of obesity may exacerbate susceptibility. To study the effects of ACT vs. SED l...

  16. “I get angry if he’s always drinking and we have no money”: Exploring motivations for male and female perpetrated intimate partner violence in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Fehringer, Jessica A.; Hindin, Michelle J.

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to describe the context of and motivations for female and male perpetrated IPV in Cebu, Philippines using data from in-depth interviews with 19 married women. We found three categories of IPV motivations --self-defense or retaliation, reactivity, and control. Motivations differed by gender, with women acting out of self-defense more often and men acting out of control more often. Effective IPV prevention and treatment programs should take these gender diffe...

  17. A Partner's Guide to Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Patients About ACOG A Partner's Guide to Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs A Partner's Guide ... May 2016 PDF Format A Partner's Guide to Pregnancy Pregnancy Why is it important to be supportive ...

  18. AgSTAR Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    AgSTAR’s Partner Program builds stronger relationships with state and non-governmental stakeholders to support all phases of anaerobic digester projects: planning, deployment, and long-term success.

  19. Partners in Pollinator Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partners include USDA, states, international organizations, and stakeholders such as NGOs and bee keepers. Efforts include identifying and using best management practices to reduce honey bee exposure to dust from pesticide-treated seed.

  20. Green Power Partner List

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. There are thousands of Green Power Partners, all listed on this page.

  1. Pacific Partners Wargame Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    participants, U.S. Leaders should 6 Senior Leader Seminars (SLS), Land Forces Talks (LFT), and Executive Steering Groups ( ESG ) are types of senior level...convey information, and enhance strong interpersonal relationships among the current and future senior leaders of the services. LFTs and ESGs are led... ESG focus on the partner nation Army, while LFT generally also include other partner nation security forces. 6

  2. Older partners and STD prevalence among pregnant African American teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begley, Elin; Crosby, Richard A; DiClemente, Ralph J; Wingood, Gina M; Rose, Eve

    2003-03-01

    Several recent studies have addressed the question of whether adolescent females who have sex with older partners have a greater risk of sexually transmitted disease (STD) acquisition. The goal was to identify differences in STD prevalence and selected measures of behavioral risk between unmarried pregnant African American adolescent females reporting sex with older partners and those reporting sex with similar-age partners. Adolescents (n = 169) were recruited during their first prenatal visit. Adolescents completed a self-administered survey and a face-to-face interview and provided urine specimens for nucleic acid amplification assays. Approximately 65% of adolescents reported that their male sex partners were >/=2 years older, while 35% reported having similar-age male sex partners. In age-adjusted analyses, adolescents with older partners were four times more likely to test positive for chlamydia (P pregnant adolescents reporting older partners may be a priority for targeted delivery of partner services. More frequent screening for chlamydia may also be cost-effective for pregnant adolescents with older partners.

  3. Sexual discordance and sexual partnering among heterosexual women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nield, Jennifer; Magnusson, Brianna; Brooks, Christopher; Chapman, Derek; Lapane, Kate L

    2015-05-01

    This study examined characteristics of self-identified heterosexual women who were concordant or discordant in their sexual behavior and the association of discordance and sexual partnering among those aged 15-44 years from the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (n = 7,353). Sexual concordance was defined as reporting a heterosexual identity and no female partners in the past year; discordance was reporting a heterosexual identity and having at least one female partner in the past year. Sexual partnering was defined as being concurrent, serially monogamous or monogamous with a male partner in the previous year. Polytomous logistic regression models evaluated the association between sexual discordance and sexual partnering. Among self-identified heterosexual, sexually active women, 11.2 % reported ever having had a same sex partner. Heterosexually discordant women who had both male and female partners in the previous year were 5.5 times as likely to report having a concurrent relationship (95 % CI 2.77-11.09) and 2.4 times as likely to report engaging in serially monogamous relationships (95 % CI 1.19-4.97) with male partners. Discordance between heterosexual identity and same sex behavior is a factor in risky behaviors. Women who have sex with women and men may act as bridges for the transmission of STDs, particularly to their female partners. Sexual education should include information inclusive of non-heteronormative behaviors and identities to provide sexual minorities with the tools and information they need. Clinical guidelines should ensure that all women are offered counseling and screening for reproductive and sexual health.

  4. "What do You Mean I've Got to Wait for Six Weeks?!" Understanding the Sexual Behaviour of Men and Their Female Partners after Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision in the Western Cape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toefy, Yoesrie; Skinner, Donald; Thomsen, Sarah C

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have shown that voluntary male medical circumcision (VMMC) reduces the incidence of the Type-1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in heterosexual men by up to 60%. However, there is an increased risk of transmission of STIs, including HIV, in the immediate post-operative period after receiving VMMC. This study is to understand sexual practices of couples in the post-operative period in a Coloured population in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Coloured Males who had undergone VMMC in the previous six months in the Cape Town area and their partners participated in eight single-gender focus group discussions. The groups explored why the men decided to undergo VMMC, what kind of counselling they received, and how they experienced the 6-week post-operative period, including sexually. The primary motivation to VMMC uptake included religious injunction and hygiene reasons and protection against sexually transmitted infections not necessarily HIV. There was some exploration of alternative sexual practices. During the period immediately post operation the respondents spoke of pain and fear of any sexual arousal, but towards the end of the six week period, sexual desire returned. Both men and women felt that sex was important to maintain the relationship. Gaps were identified in the pre- and post-MC procedure counselling. There is a real risk that men in this population may begin sex before complete healing has occurred. VMMC counselling to encourage men to stay sexually safe in the wound-healing period, needs to take into account the real-life factors of the circumcised men. It is essential from a public health, and gender perspective that effective counselling strategies for the VMMC post-operative period, and the longer term, are developed and tested.

  5. "What do You Mean I've Got to Wait for Six Weeks?!" Understanding the Sexual Behaviour of Men and Their Female Partners after Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision in the Western Cape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoesrie Toefy

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that voluntary male medical circumcision (VMMC reduces the incidence of the Type-1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV in heterosexual men by up to 60%. However, there is an increased risk of transmission of STIs, including HIV, in the immediate post-operative period after receiving VMMC. This study is to understand sexual practices of couples in the post-operative period in a Coloured population in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.Coloured Males who had undergone VMMC in the previous six months in the Cape Town area and their partners participated in eight single-gender focus group discussions. The groups explored why the men decided to undergo VMMC, what kind of counselling they received, and how they experienced the 6-week post-operative period, including sexually.The primary motivation to VMMC uptake included religious injunction and hygiene reasons and protection against sexually transmitted infections not necessarily HIV. There was some exploration of alternative sexual practices. During the period immediately post operation the respondents spoke of pain and fear of any sexual arousal, but towards the end of the six week period, sexual desire returned. Both men and women felt that sex was important to maintain the relationship. Gaps were identified in the pre- and post-MC procedure counselling.There is a real risk that men in this population may begin sex before complete healing has occurred. VMMC counselling to encourage men to stay sexually safe in the wound-healing period, needs to take into account the real-life factors of the circumcised men. It is essential from a public health, and gender perspective that effective counselling strategies for the VMMC post-operative period, and the longer term, are developed and tested.

  6. Associations between dysfunctional personality traits and intimate partner violence in perpetrators and victims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, J.J.; Baan, L.; Bogaerts, S.

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, the role of borderline and antisocial personality traits and psychological and physical forms of intimate partner violence were examined. Using self- and partner-reports, 30 perpetrators (28 males) and 30 victims (29 females) of partner violence, including 23 (former) couples,

  7. Condom Use and Number of Sexual Partners among Secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The proportion of female students who engage in multiple sexual partners without using condoms are at risk of HIV transmission. Sexuality education and a friendly environment for condom availability are key in addressing the risky sexual behaviours of female students. Key words: Cameroon, condom use, ...

  8. Trends in antimicrobial susceptibility for azithromycin and ceftriaxone in Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, between 2012 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, Carolien M; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F; van Dam, Alje P; de Vries, Henry Jc; van der Helm, Jannie J

    2017-01-05

    Resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to azithromycin and ceftriaxone has been increasing in the past years. This is of concern since the combination of these antimicrobials is recommended as the first-line treatment option in most guidelines. To analyse trends in antimicrobial resistance, we retrospectively selected all consultations with a positive N. gonorrhoeae culture at the sexually transmitted infection clinic, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, from January 2012 through September 2015. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for azithromycin and ceftriaxone were analysed per year, and determinants associated with decreased susceptibility to azithromycin (MIC > 0.25 mg/L) or ceftriaxone (MIC > 0.032 mg/L) were assessed. Between 2012 and 2015 azithromycin resistance (MIC > 0.5 mg/L) was around 1.2%, the percentage of isolates with intermediate MICs (> 0.25 and ≤ 0.5 mg/L) increased from 3.7% in 2012, to 8.6% in 2015. Determinants associated with decreased azithromycin susceptibility were, for men who have sex with men (MSM), infections diagnosed in the year 2014, two infected sites, and HIV status (HIV; associated with less decreased susceptibility); for heterosexuals this was having ≥ 10 sex partners (in previous six months). Although no ceftriaxone resistance (MIC > 0.125 mg/L) was observed during the study period, the proportion of isolates with decreased ceftriaxone susceptibility increased from 3.6% in 2012, to 8.4% in 2015. Determinants associated with decreased ceftriaxone susceptibility were, for MSM, infections diagnosed in 2014, and pharyngeal infections; and for heterosexuals, infections diagnosed in 2014 or 2015, being of female sex, and having ≥ 10 sex partners. Continued decrease of azithromycin and ceftriaxone susceptibility will threaten future treatment of gonorrhoea. Therefore, new treatment strategies are warranted. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  9. Partner Communication, Discordant Fertility Goals, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Participants who perceive that their partner wants fewer children also were more likely to use contraception (AOR, females = 1.8 [95% CI = 1.2-2.8]), (AOR, males = 1.9 [95% CI = 1.2-3.1]). Discussion of FP is a key determinant of contraceptive use; in couples with discordant fertility goals, pro-natalist males do not always ...

  10. All-Cause Mortality Among Men Whose Cohabiting Partner Has Been Diagnosed with Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakaya, Naoki; Saito-Nakaya, Kumi; Bidstrup, Pernille Envold Hansen

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that spouses of cancer patients are at increased risk for several chronic diseases. We investigated mortality in relation to cancer morbidity in the stable female partner.......Previous studies suggest that spouses of cancer patients are at increased risk for several chronic diseases. We investigated mortality in relation to cancer morbidity in the stable female partner....

  11. Older Romantic Partners and Depressive Symptoms During Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

    2010-01-01

    Although developmental theory predicts that adolescent romantic relationships have important benefits, empirical evidence suggests that they may also carry substantial psychosocial risk. This study uses data from 4,948 respondents (50% female) in Wave I and Wave II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine the association between involvement with an older romantic partner and depressive symptoms during adolescence. Ordinary least squares regression models compared Wave II depressive symptoms among respondents with older partners (defined as an age difference of 2 or more years) to respondents with same-age or younger partners, controlling for baseline depressive symptoms and sociodemographic characteristics. Ten percent of females and two percent of males reported having an older romantic partner at Wave II. Among females only, involvement with an older romantic partner was associated with a modest but significant increase in depressive symptoms between waves. This association was largely mediated by increases in substance use. Findings suggest that involvement with an older male partner during adolescence may increase the risk of poor emotional outcomes among females. PMID:20424899

  12. Intimate partner violence (IPV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke; Van, Toan Ngo; Nguyen, Hanh Thi Thuy

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global problem that affects one-third of all women. The present study aims to develop and determine the validity of a screening instrument for the detection of IPV in pregnant women in Tanzania and Vietnam and to determine the minimum number...

  13. Associations of Partner Age Gap at Sexual Debut with Teenage Parenthood and Lifetime Number of Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masho, Saba W; Chambers, Gregory J; Wallenborn, Jordyn T; Ferrance, Jacquelyn L

    2017-06-01

    Age at sexual debut and age gap between partners at debut are modifiable characteristics that may be related to risky sexual behaviors. Understanding any such relationships is a necessary first step toward strengthening risk interventions. Age at sexual debut and partner age gap were examined for 3,154 female and 2,713 male respondents to the 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth who first had intercourse before age 18. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess associations between these measures and teenage parenthood and reporting a high lifetime number of partners (i.e., a number above the sample median). Females' odds of teenage parenthood were elevated if sexual debut occurred at ages 15-17 and involved a partner age gap of 3-4 years (odds ratio, 1.8) or more (2.0); they were reduced if debut occurred before age 15 and the gap was 3-4 years (0.8). Females' likelihood of reporting a high lifetime number of partners was negatively associated with age gap (0.4-0.7, depending on age at debut and length of age gap). Males' likelihood of reporting a large number of partners was positively associated with age gap if sexual debut was before age 15 and the gap was five or more years (1.7) or if debut was at ages 15-17 and involved a 3-4-year gap (2.0). Identifying the mechanisms underlying these associations could inform program design and implementation. Copyright © 2017 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  14. Predictability of Conversation Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Takaguchi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in sensing technologies have enabled us to examine the nature of human social behavior in greater detail. By applying an information-theoretic method to the spatiotemporal data of cell-phone locations, [C. Song et al., Science 327, 1018 (2010SCIEAS0036-8075] found that human mobility patterns are remarkably predictable. Inspired by their work, we address a similar predictability question in a different kind of human social activity: conversation events. The predictability in the sequence of one’s conversation partners is defined as the degree to which one’s next conversation partner can be predicted given the current partner. We quantify this predictability by using the mutual information. We examine the predictability of conversation events for each individual using the longitudinal data of face-to-face interactions collected from two company offices in Japan. Each subject wears a name tag equipped with an infrared sensor node, and conversation events are marked when signals are exchanged between sensor nodes in close proximity. We find that the conversation events are predictable to a certain extent; knowing the current partner decreases the uncertainty about the next partner by 28.4% on average. Much of the predictability is explained by long-tailed distributions of interevent intervals. However, a predictability also exists in the data, apart from the contribution of their long-tailed nature. In addition, an individual’s predictability is correlated with the position of the individual in the static social network derived from the data. Individuals confined in a community—in the sense of an abundance of surrounding triangles—tend to have low predictability, and those bridging different communities tend to have high predictability.

  15. Predictability of Conversation Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaguchi, Taro; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Nobuo; Yano, Kazuo; Masuda, Naoki

    2011-08-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies have enabled us to examine the nature of human social behavior in greater detail. By applying an information-theoretic method to the spatiotemporal data of cell-phone locations, [C. Song , ScienceSCIEAS0036-8075 327, 1018 (2010)] found that human mobility patterns are remarkably predictable. Inspired by their work, we address a similar predictability question in a different kind of human social activity: conversation events. The predictability in the sequence of one’s conversation partners is defined as the degree to which one’s next conversation partner can be predicted given the current partner. We quantify this predictability by using the mutual information. We examine the predictability of conversation events for each individual using the longitudinal data of face-to-face interactions collected from two company offices in Japan. Each subject wears a name tag equipped with an infrared sensor node, and conversation events are marked when signals are exchanged between sensor nodes in close proximity. We find that the conversation events are predictable to a certain extent; knowing the current partner decreases the uncertainty about the next partner by 28.4% on average. Much of the predictability is explained by long-tailed distributions of interevent intervals. However, a predictability also exists in the data, apart from the contribution of their long-tailed nature. In addition, an individual’s predictability is correlated with the position of the individual in the static social network derived from the data. Individuals confined in a community—in the sense of an abundance of surrounding triangles—tend to have low predictability, and those bridging different communities tend to have high predictability.

  16. Empowerment, partner's behaviours and intimate partner physical violence among married women in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwagala, Betty; Wandera, Stephen Ojiambo; Ndugga, Patricia; Kabagenyi, Allen

    2013-12-01

    There is dearth of knowledge and research about the role of empowerment, partners' behaviours and intimate partner physical violence (IPPV) among married women in Uganda. This paper examined the influence of women's empowerment and partners' behaviours on IPPV among married women in Uganda. The 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey data were used, selecting a weighted sample of 1,307 women in union considered for the domestic violence module. Cross tabulations (chi-square tests) and multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify factors associated with IPPV. The prevalence of IPPV among women in union in Uganda is still high (41%). Women's occupation was the only measure of empowerment that was significantly associated with IPPV, where women in professional employment were less likely to experience IPPV. Women from wealthy households were less likely to experience IPPV. IPPV was more likely to be reported by women who had ever had children and witnessed parental IPPV. IPPV was also more likely to be reported by women whose husbands or partners: accused them of unfaithfulness, did not permit them to meet female friends, insisted on knowing their whereabouts and sometimes or often got drunk. Women who were afraid their partners were also more likely to report IPPV. In the Ugandan context, women's empowerment as assessed by the UDHS has limited mitigating effect on IPPV in the face of partners' negative behaviours and history of witnessing parental violence.

  17. Sexual networks, partnership mixing, and the female-to-male ratio of HIV infections in generalized epidemics: An agent-based simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Reniers

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Empirical estimates of the female-to-male ratio of infections in generalized HIV epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa range from 1.31 in Zambia to 2.21 in Ivory Coast. Inequalities in the gender ratio of infections can arise because of differences in exposure (to HIV-positive partners, susceptibility (given exposure, and survival (once infected. Differences in susceptibility have to date received most attention, but neither the relatively high gender ratio of infections nor the heterogeneity in empirical estimates is fully understood. Objective: Demonstrate the relevance of partnership network attributes and sexual mixing patterns to gender differences in the exposure to HIV-positive partners and the gender ratio of infections. Methods: Agent-based simulation model built in NetLogo. Results: The female-to-male ratio of infections predicted by our model ranges from 1.13 to 1.75. Gender-asymmetric partnership concurrency, rapid partnership turnover, elevated partnership dissolution in female-positive serodiscordant couples, and lower partnership re-entry rates among HIV-positive women can produce (substantial differences in the gender ratio of infections. Coital dilution and serosorting have modest moderating effects. Conclusions: Partnership network attributes and sexual mixing patterns can have a considerable effect on the gender ratio of HIV infections. We need to look beyond individual behavior and gender differences in biological susceptibility if we are to fully understand, and remedy, gender inequalities in HIV infection in generalized epidemics.

  18. Parents as Writing Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenworth, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Parents know that writing is essential to their children's success, and they're eager to help their children become good writers. But often, they're at a loss about how to help. Instead of leaving them in the dark, schools can make parents into valuable writing partners by giving them a toolkit of guidelines for coaching writers.…

  19. Partnering i praksis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Stefan Christoffer; Bang, Henrik L.; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    Publikationen sammenfatter resultater og erfaringer vedrørende brug af partnering i realiseringen af LO's hovedsæde i Havnestaden, København. Forløbet i byggesagen adskiller sig fra traditionelle byggesager på en række områder. Vigtigst af disse er anvendelsen af en række partneringstiltag, der...... udgør et brud med den traditionelle organisering og gennemførelse af byggesager. Dog har det været vanskeligt at realisere intentionerne om det gode samarbejde. Anvendelsen af partnering har således ikke resulteret i ændret arbejdspraksis. Som årsager hertil peges bl.a. på, at byggeriets traditionelle...... kontraktlige aftalesystem står i modsætningsforhold til de grundlæggende forudsætninger for partnering, og at der mangler operationelle værktøjer til understøttelse af partneringsprocessen....

  20. First use of antidepressant medication in male partners of women with breast cancer in Denmark from 1998 to 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cromhout, Pernille F; Latocha, Kristine M; Olsen, Maja H

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A diagnosis of breast cancer disrupts the life of the patient, but also the partner may experience adverse psychological effects. We examined partners' risk for first use of antidepressant medication, as a proxy for pharmacologically treated depression. METHODS: By linkage of national...... registers, we identified 1 420 592 depression-free men living with a cancer-free female partner in 1998 to 2011. During follow-up, breast cancer was diagnosed in female partners of 26 256 men. In Poisson regression models, we estimated the rate ratios for first use of antidepressant medication compared...... to partners of breast cancer-free women. Cox regression analyses examined associations between exposed partners' sociodemographic characteristics, somatic comorbidity, death of female partner, and first use of antidepressant medication. RESULTS: Male partners of women with breast cancer had an increased rate...

  1. The global prevalence of intimate partner homicide: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckl, Heidi; Devries, Karen; Rotstein, Alexandra; Abrahams, Naeemah; Campbell, Jacquelyn; Watts, Charlotte; Moreno, Claudia Garcia

    2013-09-07

    Homicide is an important cause of premature mortality globally, but evidence for the magnitude of homicides by intimate partners is scarce and hampered by the large amount of missing information about the victim-offender relationship. The objective of the study was to estimate global and regional prevalence of intimate partner homicide. A systematic search of five databases (Medline, Global Health, Embase, Social Policy, and Web of Science) yielded 2167 abstracts, and resulted in the inclusion of 118 full-text articles with 1122 estimates of the prevalence of intimate partner homicide after double-blind screening. All studies were included that reported the number or proportion of women or men who were murdered by an intimate partner in a country, province, or town, using an inclusive definition of an intimate partner. Additionally, a survey of official sources of 169 countries provided a further 53 estimates. We selected one estimate per country-year using a quality assessment decision algorithm. The median prevalence of intimate partner homicide was calculated by country and region overall, and for women and men separately. Data were obtained for 66 countries. Overall 13·5% (IQR 9·2-18·2) of homicides were committed by an intimate partner, and this proportion was six times higher for female homicides than for male homicides (38·6%, 30·8-45·3, vs 6·3%, 3·1-6·3). Median percentages for all (male and female) and female intimate partner homicide were highest in high-income countries (all, 14·9%, 9·2-18·2; female homicide, 41·2%, 30·8-44·5) and in southeast Asia (18·8%, 11·3-18·8; 58·8%, 58·8-58·8). Adjustments to account for unknown victim-offender relationships generally increased the prevalence, suggesting that results presented are conservative. At least one in seven homicides globally and more than a third of female homicides are perpetrated by an intimate partner. Such violence commonly represents the culmination of a long history of abuse

  2. Heteronormativity and sexual partnering among bisexual Latino men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Garcia, Jonathan; Wilson, Patrick A; Parker, Richard G; Severson, Nicolette

    2015-05-01

    Our analyses address the question of how bisexual Latino men organize their sexual partnerships. Heteronormativity can be understood as the set of social norms and normative structures that guide sexual partnering among men and women. We provide descriptive statistics to describe bisexual Latino men's sexual partnerships. Logistic and linear regression modeling were used to explore bivariate and multivariate relationships. Of our total sample (N = 142), 41.6 % had unprotected vaginal intercourse 2 months prior to the interview; 21.8 % had unprotected anal intercourse with female partners; 37.5 % had unprotected insertive anal intercourse with male partners; and 22.5 % had unprotected receptive anal intercourse with male partners. In our multivariate model, machismo was directly associated with meeting female partners through formal spaces (workplace, school, and/or church), but inversely associated with meeting male partners in formal spaces. Machismo was positively associated with meeting male sex partners through social networks (i.e., friendship and kinship networks). The more comfortable men were with homosexuality the less likely they were to meet men online and the more likely they were to meet men through social networks of friends and kinship. Interventions to reduce sexually transmitted diseases that target bisexual behavior as an epidemiological "bridge" of transmission from homosexual to heterosexual networks might very well benefit from a more complex understanding of how Latino bisexuality is patterned. Thus, this exploratory analysis might lead to a rethinking of how to address risk and vulnerability among Latino bisexual men and their sexual networks.

  3. Conditioned mate-guarding behavior in the female rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Amanda; Shalev, Shy; Bellevue, Shannon; Pfaus, James G

    2014-05-28

    Female and male rats are often described as having a promiscuous mating strategy, yet simple Pavlovian conditioning paradigms, in which a neutral odor or strain-related cues are paired with preferred sexual reward states during an animal's first sexual experiences, shift this strategy toward copulatory and mate preferences for partners bearing the familiar odor or strain cue. We examined whether female rats given exclusive rewarding copulation with one particular male would display mate-guarding behavior, a strong index of monogamous mating. Ovariectomized, hormone-primed female Long-Evans rats were given their first 10 paced sexual experiences at 4-day intervals with a particular unscented male of the same strain. A final test was conducted in an open field 4-days later in which the primed, partnered female was given access to the male partner and a fully-primed competitor female. In this situation, the partnered females mounted the competitor female repeatedly if she came near the vicinity of the male. This behavior prevented the male from copulating with the competitor, and was not displayed if partnered females could not pace the rate of copulatory behavior efficiently during the training trials, nor was it displayed by the competitor females. Fos expression was examined in both the partnered and competitor females after the final open field test. Partnered females had significantly higher expression within the supraoptic nucleus and nucleus accumbens shell compared to partnered females that did not develop this behavior or competitor females. These data show that females engaged in paced copulation with the same male display mate-guarding when exposed to that male and a competitor female. Increased activation of the SON and NAc may underlie this behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Partner personality in distressed relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds, D.P.H.; Barelds-Dijkstra, P.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examines the personality characteristics of partners receiving marital therapy. On the basis of previous research, we expected partners in distressed relationships to be more neurotic and more introverted and to have lower self-esteem than partners in non-distressed relationships.

  5. Bacterial vaginosis is not associated with circumcision status of the current male partner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenilman, J. M.; Fresia, A.; Berger, B.; McCormack, W. M.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is common in sexually active women, and in a large proportion the underlying aetiology is unknown. We evaluated partner circumcision status as a potential risk and hypothesised that women with uncircumcised partners were at increased risk for BV. METHODS: Retrospective audit of a partner study (272 heterosexual couples) conducted in Baltimore between 1990 and 1992. BV defined by clinical criteria and circumcision status of males was determined by physical examination. RESULTS: BV was diagnosed in 83 (30%) female partners; 75 (27%) males were uncircumcised. In males and females respectively, gonorrhoea was diagnosed in 20% and 16%, and chlamydia in 7% and 11%. In women with circumcised partners, 58/197 (29%) had BV compared with 25/75 (33%) with uncircumcised partners (p = 0.53). CONCLUSION: Women with uncircumcised current partners are not at increased risk for BV. 




 PMID:10616362

  6. Social desirability and partner agreement of men's reporting of intimate partner violence in substance abuse treatment settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Andrew J; Schumacher, Julie A; Coffey, Scott F

    2015-02-01

    Estimates indicate that intimate partner violence (IPV) occurs in approximately 30% of relationships and up to 85% of the relationships of men in substance abuse treatment. However, partners consistently display poor agreement in reporting the presence of IPV. Social desirability is frequently offered as the primary reason for under-reporting of IPV by perpetrators. The goal of the current study was to explicitly test the social desirability hypothesis using both partners' reports of negotiation, psychological aggression, physical aggression, sexual aggression, and injuries in a substance abuse treatment sample. A total of 54 males and their female partners were recruited from a residential adult substance use treatment facility. Consistent with prior literature, partners displayed poor agreement about the presence of different types of IPV. The male partner's social desirability was not associated with his reporting of male-to-female physical aggression, psychological aggression, or injuries. Men who engaged in higher levels of self-deceptive enhancement and lower levels of impression management were more likely to under-report male-to-female sexual coercion. Overall, the findings question the generalized importance of social desirability in IPV reporting in substance abuse treatment populations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Romantic partners in a market perspective: expectations about what ensures a highly desirable partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Felipe N; Hattori, Wallisen T; Yamamoto, Maria Emília; Lopes, Fívia A

    2013-10-01

    This study used the biological market perspective and influential statistical models from the marketing field to investigate males' and females' expectations regarding which combination of characteristics are most relevant in ensuring desirable partnerships for same-sex individuals. Thus, 358 Brazilian undergraduates assessed eight descriptions of same-gender stimulus targets (formulated with different levels of physical attractiveness, social skills, and current or prospective social status) and evaluated the overall desirability of the targets' expected or probable partners. From the possible combinations, three groups emerged: for one group, mainly composed of men, status characteristics were the most important attributes; for the others, mostly composed of women, social skills or physical characteristics were identified as most important in appealing to a desirable partner. This work expands the understanding of variability in male and female romantic expectations, and its implications are discussed from an evolutionary perspective.

  8. New partner - Forestland

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      New partner   Do you need a moment of relaxation and adventure?  Come to Divonne-les-bains and benefit of an immediate discount of 20% on all ropes courses of Forestland http://www.forestland.fr/ upon presentation of your Staff Association membership card. The park is open from 10h00 to 19h00 on Wednesday, Saturday, Sunday during the school period and public holidays (France and Switzerland) or every day during school holidays (France and Switzerland). Different levels of difficulty are available: children, juniors, adults, athletes.

  9. Discrepant Patterns of Heavy Drinking, Marijuana Use, and Smoking and Intimate Partner Violence: Results from the California Community Health Study of Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunradi, Carol B.; Todd, Michael; Mair, Christina

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed whether discrepant (husband or wife use only) or concordant (both partners use) patterns of heavy drinking, marijuana use, and smoking are associated with increased risk for male-to-female partner violence and female-to-male partner violence among adult couples. Based on a geographic sample of married or cohabiting couples…

  10. [Gender differences in mental distress of patients with lung cancer and their partners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Katja; Reißig, Angelika; Strauß, Bernhard; Rosendahl, Jenny

    2014-11-01

    In a prospective uncontrolled observational study we investigated the influence of gender, resilience, and marital satisfaction on mental distress of patients suffering from lung cancer and their partners. Female patients and partners report-ed impaired physical and mental health as well as lower resilience and marital satisfaction than males. Mental distress was negatively associated with resilience and marital satisfaction, both, in patients and their partners. We found a partial mediation effect of resilience and marital satisfaction on the relationship between gender and mental distress. Taking these results into account, particularly female patients and partners should preferably receive psychooncological support. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Promoting the female condom to refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Papo

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available UNHCR and its partners have been providing male condoms since the late 1990s. However, uptake remains alarmingly low. Will the agency be more successful in promoting the female condom, a female-initiated barrier method of contraception and disease prevention?

  12. Drinking context and intimate partner violence: evidence from the California community health study of couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunradi, Carol B; Mair, Christina; Todd, Michael; Remer, Lillian

    2012-09-01

    Couples in which one or both partners is a heavy or problem drinker are at elevated risk for intimate partner violence (IPV), yet little is known about the extent to which each partner's drinking in different contexts (volume consumed per setting in bars, parties, at home, or in public places) increases the likelihood that partner aggression will occur. This study examined associations between the volume consumed in different settings by each partner and the occurrence and frequency of IPV. We obtained a geographic sample of married or cohabiting couples residing in 50 medium to large California cities. Cross-sectional survey data were collected via confidential telephone interviews (60% response rate). Logistic and negative binomial regression analyses were based on 1,585 couples who provided information about past-12-month IPV, drinking contexts (number of times attended, proportion of drinking occasions when attended, average number of drinks), frequency of intoxication, and psychosocial and demographic factors. Drinking context-IPV associations for each partner were adjusted for the other partner's volume for that context and other covariates. Male partner's volume per setting for bars and parks or public places was associated with the occurrence and frequency of male-to-female IPV and female-to-male IPV. Male's volume per setting for quiet evening at home was associated with the occurrence of female-to-male IPV; female partner's volume for this setting was associated with the frequency of male-to-female IPV and female-to-male IPV. Among couples in the general population, each partner's drinking in certain contexts is an independent risk factor for the occurrence and frequency of partner aggression.

  13. Hepatitis C treatment - better outcomes through partner support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleur Chapman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground Globally, it is estimated that 170 million people are living with hepatitis C and between three and four million are newly infected annually. In Australia, around 1% of people are living with chronic hepatitis C, with two-thirds of these being men. Aims This research aimed to determine the impact of hepatitis C treatment on partners of patients using in-depth exploratory techniques. Method Four infected men and their partners (n= 8 participants and three service providers were recruited and interviewed separately to identify the needs of female partners supporting patients with Hepatitis C. Discussion was based on the experiences of female partners during the treatment phase of male hepatitis C patients. Results All participants recognised a need for greater assistance for partners of hepatitis C treatment patients. It was also recognised that strong social support improved treatment outcomes and helped to maintain the survival of family relationships during the intensive treatment phase. Conclusion Although this research was limited by size, it provides valuable insights into ways to enhance hepatitis C management outcomes beyond traditional medical treatment regimes, for example through formal partner support.

  14. The constitution of partnering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Stefan Christoffer

    it is demonstrated how the newly established notion of the construction sector, founded on a technical-scientific rationality, gave rise to a pervasive functional differentiation, in which existing practices, material and actors was subjected to a gaze of normation owing to the normative ideal of the optimal...... place in the efforts to handle the tensions between a traditional stratified sociality, with its commonsense qualities, and a 'smooth' sociality in which circulation, self-governance, individual responsibility and ownership are more important than unambiguity, planning and control. Furthermore......This dissertation has been submitted in partial requirements for the PhD degree at the Technical University of Denmark. The dissertation is the result of a study entitled 'Interorganisational knowledge processes in construction. Knowledge and practice in partnering.' The study has been conducted...

  15. Breast cancer and menopause: partners' perceptions and personal experiences--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayakhot, Padaphet; Vincent, Amanda; Teede, Helena

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the partners' perceptions, understanding, and personal experiences of early menopause and menopausal therapy in women with breast cancer. A questionnaire study was completed by 50 partners of women with diagnoses of breast cancer, recruited via outpatient clinics and the community. Descriptive statistics and χ tests were applied. Most (68%) of the partners perceived hot flushes as the meaning of menopause. Most (60%) partners perceived that loss of sexuality was the key problem/fears about being menopausal. Partners perceived that exercise (72%) and reducing stress (64%) were most effective in alleviating symptoms of menopause. Most partners reported that they did not understand the risks/benefits of hormone therapy (50%), bioidentical hormones (90%), and herbal therapies (84%). The general practitioner was considered the best source of information on menopause (68%). Partners expected menopause to affect a women's everyday life and relationships with family and partner and, particularly, to cause intermittent stress on the relationship (66%) and to decrease libido or sexual interest (64%). Forty-four percent of partners reported that there was some difficulty in communication/discussion about menopause with family and partners. This pilot study highlights (1) the lack of understanding of menopause and menopausal therapies that partners of women with breast cancer have, (2) the personal experience of having a female partner with breast cancer, and (3) the partners' attitudes and responses toward menopause in women with breast cancer.

  16. A cross-sectional study of factors underlying the risk of female nurses' suffering abuse by their partners Estudio transversal sobre factores de riesgo de sufrir violencia por compañero íntimo en la mujer enfermera Estudo transversal sobre fatores de risco de violência por parceiro íntimo entre enfermeiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Aurora Rodríguez-Borrego

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify factors underlying the risk of suffering abuse by a partner. A cross-sectional study of 622 female nurses was accomplished, randomly chosen at their place of work, at a hospital and health centers. We used a self-administered validated questionnaire that covered psychological, physical and sexual abuse, complemented by a set of sociodemographic questions. The nurses at most risk of being abused by their partners were those who supported their family by their own salary (Odds Ratio: 2.41 [0.63-9.15], those who lived with dependents (Odds Ratio: 4.27 [1.43-2.78] and had a partner from social class IIIa (Odds Ratio: 2.62 [1.37-5.00]. The data appear to indicate financial independence as a risk factor for this type of abuse.Se tuvo por objetivo investigar los factores de riesgo relacionados al maltrato por compañero íntimo. Se trata de un estudio transversal realizado en 622 enfermeras, elegidas por aleatorización de sus lugares de trabajo, Hospitales y Centros de Salud. Se utilizó un cuestionario autoadministrado sobre maltratos psicológico, físico y sexual, complementado con preguntas de carácter sociodemográfico. Las mujeres enfermeras con mayor probabilidad de sufrir violencia del compañero íntimo fueron las que mantienen la familia con su salario (Odds Ratio: 2,41 [0,63-9,15], las que conviven con hijos (Odds Ratio: 4,27 [1,43-2,78] y las con pareja de clase social IIIa (Odds Ratio: 2.62 [1.37-5.00]. Se concluye que los datos parecen indicar que la independencia constituye un riesgo de maltrato.O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar os fatores de risco de abuso por parceiro íntimo entre enfermeiras. Trata-se de estudo transversal, realizado com 622 enfermeiras, selecionadas aleatoriamente nos seus locais de trabalho (hospitais e centros de saúde. Utilizou-se um questionário autoadministrado sobre maus-tratos psicológico, físico e sexual, complementado com perguntas de caráter sociodemográfico. As

  17. Sexual dysfunction among diabetics and its impact on the SQoL of their partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owiredu, W K B A; Alidu, H; Amidu, N; Obirikorang, C; Gyasi-Sarpong, C K; Bawah, A T; Dapare, P P M; Luuse, A T

    2017-11-01

    Sexual dysfunction (SD) has long been known to affect a significant number of people worldwide with serious implications and limitations on sexual expression and fulfillment. This may affect the sexual quality of life (SQoL) of individuals and their partners. A cross-sectional study was conducted among diabetic patients and their partners who visited the Tema General Hospital. A total of 130 and 116 diabetic males and females and their partners were interviewed. Male and female diabetic participants and partners were evaluated using the Golombuk Rust Inventory for Sexual Satisfaction-Male (GRISS-M)/SQoL-M and GRISS-Female/SQoL-F, respectively. For the diabetic males, the mean age and duration of diabetes (DOD) was 63.04±10.85 and 8.38±6.53 years, respectively, and that of the diabetic females was 56.98±9.42 and 6.11±5.31 years, respectively. Diabetic male participants with SD were significantly older and had a longer duration of diabetes. The mean SQoL and SQoL-Partner (SQoL-P) recorded for the diabetic males and their partners was 42.29±30.88 and 52.86±15.26, respectively. The mean SQoL and SQoL-P recorded for the diabetic females and their partners was 57.73±14.91 and 64.97±19.68, respectively. Diabetic males who had impotence had female partners with significantly lower SQoL-P scores, and similar results were recorded for those who had premature ejaculation, nonsensuality, avoidance and dissatisfaction problems. Female diabetics who had nonsensuality, avoidance and infrequency had male partners who recorded significantly lower SQoL-P scores. Female diabetics with higher perceptions of what an adequate intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) should be had male partners with significantly lower SQoL-P scores. Ageing and DOD are more likely to affect the sexual functioning of diabetic males than females. SD in diabetics with problems of impotence/vaginismus, premature ejaculation/anorgasmia, nonsensuality and avoidance has an adverse effect on the SQo

  18. Partnering with NASA: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gary

    2017-01-01

    Partnerships is an important part of doing business at NASA. NASA partners with external organizations to access capabilities under collaborative agreements; enters into agreements for partner access to NASA capabilities; expand overall landscape of space activity; and spurring innovation. NASA partnerships consist of Reimbursable and Non-Reimbursable Space Act Agreements. Partnerships at Ames aligns with Ames' core competencies, and Partners often office in the NASA Research Park, which is an established regional innovation cluster that facilitates commercialization and services as a technology accelerator via onsite collaborations between NASA and its partners.

  19. Women's experience of intimate partner violence in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Anastasia J

    2005-07-01

    This study examined individual, partner, and community characteristics associated with the occurrence of intimate partner violence among ever-married women of reproductive age, using data from the 2000 Haiti Demographic and Health Survey. Separate logistic regressions were analyzed to assess women's risks of experiencing emotional, physical and sexual violence and multiple forms of intimate partner violence in the past 12 months. Twenty-nine percent of women in the sample experienced some form of intimate partner violence in the past 12 months, with 13 percent having experienced at least two different forms of violence. Significant positive associations with all forms of violence were found for lack of completion of primary school, history of violence exposure in women's families of origin either through witnessing violence between parents while growing up or direct experience of physical violence perpetrated by family members, partner's jealousy, partner's need for control, partner's history of drunkenness, and female-dominated financial decision-making. Significant positive associations were found between men's physical abuse of children at the community level and women's risk of experiencing emotional and physical violence. Neighborhood poverty and male unemployment, number of children living at home, women's attitudinal acceptance of wife beating, and male-dominated financial decision-making were additional risk factors for sexual violence. Women's economic independence was a protective factor for emotional and physical violence, while relationship quality was protective for all forms of violence and multiple victimizations.

  20. Revisiting the Role of Communication in Adolescent Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinger, Adam M.; Rickert, Vaughn I.; Fry, Deborah A.; Lessel, Harriet; Davidson, Leslie L.

    2012-01-01

    A growing literature suggests that communication strategies can promote or inhibit intimate partner violence (IPV). Research on communication is still needed on a group ripe for early IPV intervention: high school-aged adolescents. This article revisits our previous analyses of young female reproductive clinic patients (Messinger, Davidson, &…

  1. Japanese Women's Perceptions of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagae, Miyoko; Dancy, Barbara L.

    2010-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a problem in Japan. The purpose is to describe IPV as perceived by a purposive sample of 11 Japanese adult females who were in a heterosexual marriage at the time of IPV. We used a cross-sectional, retroactive, qualitative description research design with individual, fact-to-face in depth interviews. At the time…

  2. Violence against Deaf Women: Effect of Partner Hearing Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Melissa L.; Kobek Pezzarossi, Caroline M.

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of Deaf female undergraduate students, the current study sought to investigate the prevalence, correlates, and characteristics of intimate partner violence victimization in hearing-Deaf and Deaf-Deaf relationships. Initial results suggest that similarities in hearing status and communication preference are associated with increased…

  3. Gender Differences in Intended Escalatory Tendencies among Marital Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstok, Zeev; Straus, Murray A.

    2011-01-01

    This study addresses the intended escalatory tendency in eight hypothetical situations in which the provocator's identity (partner or stranger, male or female) and the provocation form (verbal or physical aggression) were manipulated. The research question is "how does the identity of the provocator and the form of his or her provocation…

  4. Factors predictive of abnormal semen parameters in male partners ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    environment and a source of social stigma.[1,4] The burden of this stigma is felt more by female partners, who are often perceived as responsible for infertility and are faced with the challenges of ... status, family setting, type of infertility, duration of infertility, his- tory of smoking and alcohol intake, history of childhood mumps.

  5. SPECIATION AND ANTIFUNGAL SUSCEPTIBILITY TESTING OF CANDIDA ISOLATED FROM URINE

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. M.N. Sumana*, Satya Sai B, Netra Devraj Kademani, Madhuri M J

    2017-01-01

    Candiduria is uncommon and appears more often in females and catheterized males. C.albicans& C.tropicals were the species most frequently identified. Our results provide contemporary insight into the antifungal susceptibility profile of Candida species causing candiduria

  6. Intimate partner violence: psychological and verbal abuse during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debono, Christie; Borg Xuereb, Rita; Scerri, Josianne; Camilleri, Liberato

    2017-08-01

    would enable the identification of pregnant women who are susceptible to psychological and verbal intimate partner abuse, thus enabling the provision of adequate support. There is also a need to introduce routine screening for psychological and verbal intimate partner abuse during the antenatal period, following extensive training to all professionals concerned. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Susceptibility for thin ideal media and eating styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E; van Strien, Tatjana

    This study examined the relations between susceptibility for thin ideal media and restrained, emotional and external eating, directly and indirectly through body dissatisfaction. Thin ideal media susceptibility, body dissatisfaction and eating styles were measured in a sample of 163 female students.

  8. Women's perceived susceptibility to and utilisation of cervical cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-10-24

    Oct 24, 2014 ... Nevertheless, low perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer amongst ..... In the current study, married women were more likely to use ... between knowledge about HPV and behaviour. ... because they had few sex partners and did not smoke or ... and/or midwives' experiences of providing cervical cancer.

  9. Partners' relationship quality and childbearing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, A.J.; Thomson, E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the influence of partner relationship quality on childbearing. We are innovative in using relationship quality reports from both partners, drawing on the first and second wave of the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study. Thus, we can identify potential effects of discordant

  10. Partner selection and Hollywood Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh; Kramer, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Based on cognitive, neurological and evolutionary based film theory the article describes the representation of partner selection in Hollywood films. It analyses paradigm scenarios of partner selection and love, It further describes some of those mechanisms that regulate the relation between...

  11. It takes 2: partner attributes associated with sexually transmitted infections among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartzendruber, Andrea; Zenilman, Jonathan M; Niccolai, Linda M; Kershaw, Trace S; Brown, Jennifer L; Diclemente, Ralph J; Sales, Jessica M

    2013-05-01

    The aims of this study were to identify partner attributes associated with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among adolescents and to summarize implications for research and prevention. The design of this study was systematic review. We identified peer-reviewed studies published in 1990 through 2010 that assessed 1 or more partner attributes in relation to a biologically confirmed STI among adolescents (15-24 years) by searching MEDLINE and included articles. Studies that included adolescents but more than 50% of the sample or with mean or median age of 25 years or greater were excluded. Sixty-four studies met the eligibility criteria; 61% were conducted in high-income countries; 80% were cross sectional; and 91% enrolled females and 42% enrolled males. There was no standard "partner" definition. Partner attributes assessed most frequently included the following: age, race/ethnicity, multiple sex partners, and STI symptoms. Older partners were associated with prevalent STIs but largely unrelated to incidence. Black race was associated with STIs but not uniformly. Partners with multiple partners and STI symptoms seem to be associated with STIs predominantly among females. Although significant associations were reported, weaker evidence exists for the following: other partner sociodemographics, sexual and other behaviors (sexual concurrency, intimate partner violence, substance use, travel), and STI history. There were no apparent differences by STI. Partner attributes are independently associated with STIs among male and female adolescents worldwide. These findings reinforce the importance of assessing partner attributes when determining STI risk. Prevention efforts should continue to promote and address barriers to condom use. Increased efforts are needed to screen and treat STIs and reduce risky behavior among men. A standard partner definition would facilitate the interpretation of findings in future studies.

  12. "Are we Facebook official?" Implications of dating partners' Facebook use and profiles for intimate relationship satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Lauren M; Danielewicz, Jennifer; Cayemberg, Crystal

    2012-02-01

    Extending previous research on positive and negative correlates of Facebook use for individuals' outcomes, this study examined male and female dating partners' (n=58 couples) Facebook use and portrayals of their intimate relationship on the Facebook profile. Confirming hypotheses from compatibility theories of mate selection, partners demonstrated similar Facebook intensity (e.g., usage, connection to Facebook), and were highly likely to portray their relationship on their Facebook profiles in similar ways (i.e., display partnered status and show their partner in profile picture). These Facebook profile choices played a role in the overall functioning of the relationship, with males' indications of a partnered status linked with higher levels of their own and their partners' (marginal) relationship satisfaction, and females' displays of their partner in their profile picture linked with higher levels of their own and their partners' relationship satisfaction. Finally, male and female reports of having had disagreements over the Facebook relationship status was associated with lower level of females' but not males' relationship satisfaction, after accounting for global verbal conflict. Thus, the findings point to the unique contribution of Facebook disagreements to intimate relationship functioning. Results from this study encourage continued examination of technology use and behaviors in contexts of intimate relationships.

  13. Sexual willingness with same- and other-sex prospective partners: Experimental evidence from the bar scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmers, Breanne R; Harbke, Colin R; Herbstrith, Julie C

    2017-04-04

    Sex is ubiquitous in the media, but only a fraction depicts sexual interactions between same-sex partners. This field study, conducted outside of bars in the Midwestern United States, examined 83 heterosexuals' sexual willingness with a same- or other-sex partner. Participants viewed a randomly assigned video vignette of a same- or other-sex partner. Alcohol intake, partner attractiveness, and sexual willingness were measured. Using moderated regression analysis, we found that alcohol intake predicted sexual willingness with the male target for both men and women, but not with the female target. The attractiveness of same-sex partners was related to sexual willingness. Sexual willingness was only influenced by alcohol intake and perceived attractiveness of a same-sex prospective partner. Most notably, alcohol intake was related to increased sexual willingness of men with a same-sex partner, suggesting a potential shift in normative casual sexual behavior among heterosexual men.

  14. Intimate partner violence perpetrators in a forensic psychiatric outpatient setting : Criminal history, psychopathology, and victimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrichs, J.; Bogaerts, S.; Sijtsema, J.J.; Klerx, F.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated criminological, psychopathological, and victimological profiles of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators in a sample of 119 Dutch female and male forensic psychiatric outpatients aged 18 to 58 years. In addition, differences in criminological, psychopathological, and

  15. Psychological Distress among Individuals Whose Partners Have Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaya, Naoki; Sone, Toshimasa; Nakaya, Kumi; Tomata, Yasutake; Hozawa, Atsushi; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2017-09-01

    Cancer diagnosis influences both patients and their closest relatives. This cross-sectional study examined psychological distress among individuals whose partners had cancer in a population-based sample. Participants in the survey were citizens residing in Ohsaki City, Miyagi, Japan. Spouse pairs were identified by information of participants' relationship to the householder and address provided by municipality, and we collected self-report information on cancer history and current pain (but not the cause of pain). Psychological distress was evaluated using the Kessler 6 scale (K6). We identified 29,410 potential participants (14,705 couples), of which 23,766 (11,690 men and 12,076 women) were included in the analyses. A total of 1,374 participants (581 male and 793 female participants) had partners with history of cancer. Logistic regression analyses revealed that these participants, regardless of sex, did not show significantly higher risk of psychological distress (K6 score ≥ 13). When stratifying the analysis by partners' current pain, men whose partners had cancer and pain showed greater odds of psychological distress (odds ratio = 1.5, p = 0.04), compared with men whose partners had no cancer and had pain. However, male subjects whose partners had cancer but no pain did not show greater odds of psychological distress compared with men whose partners had no cancer and no pain. By contrast, in women whose partners had cancer, psychological distress was not associated with pain status. In conclusion, men whose partners had cancer and pain have higher risk of psychological distress, and its screening to these individuals may reduce the risk.

  16. FEMALE SEXUAL AUTONOMY: THE FEMALE CONDOM IN EROTIC PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grayce Alencar Albuquerque

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to learn about the experiences of women from a Health Strategy in view of the experience of sexual autonomy in the face of the female condom. It is an exploratory and qualitative study, completed in April 2010, which used semi-structured interview as data collection technique and the theory of social constructionism to aid in data analysis. Of the total of 25 women participants, after six months, only 12 were still in continuous use of the female condom. They pointed out the female condom as able to provide them with bargaining power, since it is inserted into their bodies. For some, the difficulty of trading remained for failure partner's approval. It is observed that in practice, the female condom becomes hostage of gender relations.

  17. Declining Segregation of Same-Sex Partners: Evidence from Census 2000 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Amy L

    2013-10-01

    Despite recent media and scholarly attention describing the "disappearance" of traditionally gay neighborhoods, urban scholars have yet to quantify the segregation of same-sex partners and determine whether declining segregation from different-sex partners is a wide-spread trend. Focusing on the 100 most populous places in the United States, I use data from the 2000 and 2010 Decennial Census to examine the segregation of same-sex partners over time and its place-level correlates. I estimate linear regression models to examine the role of four place characteristics in particular: average levels of education, aggregate trends in the family life cycle of same-sex partners, violence and social hostility motivated by sexual orientation bias, and representation of same-sex partners in the overall population. On average, same-sex partners were less segregated from different-sex partners in 2010 than in 2000, and the vast majority of same-sex partners lived in environments of declining segregation. Segregation was lower and declined more rapidly in places that had a greater percentage of graduate degree holders. In addition, segregation of female partners was lower in places that had a greater share of female partner households with children. These findings suggest that sexual orientation should be considered alongside economic status, race, and ethnicity as an important factor that contributes to neighborhood differentiation and urban spatial inequality.

  18. How Do We Get Partners to Test for HIV?: Predictors of Uptake of Partner HIV Testing Following Individual Outpatient Provider Initiated HIV Testing in Rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiene, Susan M; Gbenro, Olumide; Sileo, Katelyn M; Lule, Haruna; Wanyenze, Rhoda K

    2017-08-01

    In a sample of outpatients (152 females, 152 males) receiving individual provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling (PITC) we aimed to identify factors associated with subsequent uptake of partner HIV testing. Purposively sampled outpatients receiving PITC at a Ugandan hospital completed a questionnaire immediately prior to testing for HIV, and then at 3 and 6 months post-test. By 6-month follow-up 96% of participants reported disclosing their HIV test results to their partner and 96.4% reported asking their partner to test. 38.8% of women and 78.9% of men reported that their partner tested and they knew their results. Recent (men AOR 5.84, 95.0% CI 1.90-17.99; women AOR 6.19, 95.0% CI 2.74-13.59) or any previous testing by the partner (women AOR 4.01, 95% CI 1.06-15.10) predicted uptake of partner testing by the 6-month follow-up. Among women, perceiving greater social support from their partner, which perhaps reflects better relationship quality, was predictive of their male partner testing for HIV (AOR 2.37, 95% CI 1.22-4.58). Notably intimate partner violence showed no negative association with partner testing. Our findings demonstrate that women are at a disadvantage compared to men in their ability to influence their partner to test for HIV, and that improving social support in intimate relationships should be a focus of HIV partner testing interventions. However, more research on interventions to improve partner testing is needed, particularly in identifying effective ways to support women in engaging their partners to test.

  19. Female Condom

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... P080002. Accessed Nov. 13, 2014. Female condom About Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  20. Partnering for Success (OIT Customer Day Partner Recognition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-04-01

    Office of Industrial Technologies document produced for 2002 Customer Day event, which features industry partners who have worked with OIT to achieve outstanding energy efficiency achievements from January 2001 to the present.

  1. Dilemmas in counselling females with the fragile X syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.B.A. de Vries (Bert); H.M. van den Boer-van den Berg; M.F. Niermeijer (Martinus); A. Tibben (Arend)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe dilemmas in counselling a mildly retarded female with the fragile X syndrome and her retarded partner are presented. The fragile X syndrome is an X linked mental retardation disorder that affects males and, often less severely, females. Affected females

  2. Susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoeck, Marcus Matheus Johannes

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis the author studied the diagnostic procedures for susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia (MH), with special emphasis upon refining the biological diagnostic test and improving protocols and guidelines for investigation of MH susceptibility. MH is a pharmacogenetic disease of skeletal

  3. Discrepant Patterns of Heavy Drinking, Marijuana Use, and Smoking and Intimate Partner Violence: Results From the California Community Health Study of Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunradi, Carol B; Todd, Michael; Mair, Christina

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed whether discrepant (husband or wife use only) or concordant (both partners use) patterns of heavy drinking, marijuana use, and smoking are associated with increased risk for male-to-female partner violence and female-to-male partner violence among adult couples. Based on a geographic sample of married or cohabiting couples residing in 50 California cities, logistic regression analyses were conducted using dyadic data on past-year partner violence, binge drinking and frequency of intoxication, marijuana use, and smoking. When all substance use patterns were included simultaneously, wife-only heavy drinking couples were at elevated risk for male-to-female partner violence, as were concordant marijuana-using couples. Husband-only marijuana discrepant couples were at increased risk for female-to-male partner violence. Further research is needed to explore the processes by which discrepant and concordant substance use patterns may contribute to partner aggression. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Are romantic partners a source of college students' weight concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Virgil; Ajmere, Kavita

    2005-01-01

    This study explored the importance of weight in college students' dating relationships and the expression of weight-related concerns between dating romantic partners. In a survey of 554 undergraduates, we found that overweight women were less likely to be dating than their peers, and that weight was positively correlated with relationship satisfaction in men, but negatively correlated with satisfaction in women. We also found that over 30% of students in exclusive relationships had either been told by their partner (or had told their partner) to gain or lose weight. While male partners were typically told to gain weight, female partners were as likely to be told to lose as gain weight. Women's weight-loss attempts and self-esteem were not related to being the targets of these comments, but women told to lose weight reported lower relationship satisfaction; men's self-esteem was not related to being the targets of these comments, but men told to gain weight reported lower relationship satisfaction. Although our results support prior research suggesting that weight is differentially important for men and women in romantic relationships, they challenge the hypothesis that individual romantic partners are a primary source of students' body dissatisfaction and weight concerns.

  5. Become a Green Power Partner

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Learn more about becoming a Green Power Partner, including recognition opportunities.

  6. Partners Against Crime (PAC) Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The Partners Against Crime (PAC) program promotes collaboration among police officers, Durham residents, and city and county government officials to find...

  7. Partnering models in Nordic construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    Traditionally, procurement and contractual policies adopted by building and construction clients produce a system in which clients procure design services separately from construction services, while operation and maintenance have been subject to further, separate procurement actions...... delivery, often in combination with the introduction of private finance in hitherto publicly funded buildings and infrastructure works (PPP, PFI). Some construction clients have taken this a step further and adopted a much more collaborative approach towards project delivery, often known as partnering...... of local research and industry partners including major building clients. Data were collected by means of national reviews of partnering policies and practices, thematic analyses, and case studies. The concept partnering was introduced in a Nordic context in the 1990s and has since then been implemented...

  8. Partnering in the Construction Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlev Bohnstedt, Kristian; Bejder, Erik; Haugbølle, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Huge efforts have been made in order to stimulate thorough improvements in the construction industry in terms of value for money, feasibility and consistency when facilitating a partnering approach. Despite this attention there is limited documentation on the development of research trends, thus...... gaps in existing body of knowledge. The objective of this literature-based paper is to explore the current literature by systematically reviewing and summarizing research trends in leading top-tier construction management journals between 2002 and 2012, addressing how the themes in partnering related...... publications change across this period. It is concluded that trends such as research on developing trust among construction partners to facilitate project success, feasibility of and the barriers to adopting a partnering approach and strategic propositions for overcoming barriers are highly emerging. Finally...

  9. Partner reaction following ostomy surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloeckner, M R

    1983-01-01

    This study was conducted to obtain information regarding sexual adjustment following ostomy surgery and to explore the spouse/partner's reaction upon resuming sexual activities following surgery. Home interviews were conducted with 40 subjects who had a permanent stoma, where the mean length of time since surgery averaged 4.6 years. Retrospective perceptions of the spouse/partner's reactions were varied. A majority reported that their spouses reacted positively to the first sexual experience following ostomy surgery. However a substantial number of subjects stated that their sexual partner reacted with caution ("fear of hurting me") or in a negative manner. This and previous studies indicate that the sexual partner plays a key role in helping the person adjust following ostomy surgery.

  10. Same-Sex Partner Bereavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patlamazoglou, Lefteris; Simmonds, Janette G; Snell, Tristan L

    2017-01-01

    The experience of same-sex-attracted people who have lost a partner is neglected in the existing literature on bereavement. Previous research on lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex, queer and questioning (LGBTIQ) populations tends to focus on the loss of a partner to HIV-related causes, and there is scant research concerning non-HIV-related bereavement. The purpose of this article is to investigate the non-HIV-related bereavement experiences of same-sex partners and to address the potential complications of disenfranchised grief. Coping with the loss of a same-sex partner and the impact of bereavement on subsequent relationships are also discussed. Implications for counseling of bereaved same-sex-attracted individuals are drawn, and recommendations for future psychological research on the experience of bereavement are made.

  11. Risk of sexually transmitted infections among Mayan women in rural Guatemala whose partners are migrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Janet M; Schaffer, Jessica R; Sac Ixcot, Maria L; Page, Kimberly; Hearst, Norman

    2014-01-01

    HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) are of concern in Mayan districts of Guatemala in which labor migration is common. This study assessed whether the migration status of men is associated with reported STI symptoms among their female primary partners. In a multivariate analysis of survey data taken from a larger Mayan sexual health study, the odds of reporting STI symptoms were twofold higher among women who reported that their partner migrated (OR 2.08, 95 % CI, 1.16-3.71), compared to women whose partners did not. Women from the Mam and Kaqchikel ethnolinguistic groups reported higher rates of STI symptoms after adjustment for their partners' migration status.

  12. Partner Ballroom Dance Robot -PBDR-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosuge, Kazuhiro; Takeda, Takahiro; Hirata, Yasuhisa; Endo, Mitsuru; Nomura, Minoru; Sakai, Kazuhisa; Koizumi, Mizuo; Oconogi, Tatsuya

    In this research, we have developed a dance partner robot, which has been developed as a platform for realizing the effective human-robot coordination with physical interaction. The robot could estimate the next dance step intended by a human and dance the step with the human. This paper introduce the robot referred to as PBDR (Partner Ballroom Dance Robot), which has performed graceful dancing with the human in EXPO 2005, Aichi, Japan.

  13. Partner violence and abortion characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colarossi, Lisa; Dean, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective cohort study using randomly selected medical charts of women reporting a history of partner violence and women with no history of partner violence at the time of a family planning or abortion appointment (n = 6,564 per group). We analyzed lifetime history of partner violence for odds of lifetime history of abortion and miscarriage number, and birth control problems. To more closely match timing, we analyzed a subsample of 2,186 women reporting current violence versus not at the time of an abortion appointment for differences in gestational age, medical versus surgical method choice, and return for follow-up visit. After adjusting for years at risk and demographic characteristics, women with a past history of partner violence were not more likely to have ever had one abortion, but they were more likely to have had problems with birth control, repeat abortions, and miscarriages than women with no history of violence. Women with current partner violence were also more likely to be receiving an abortion at a later gestational age. We found no differences between the groups in return for abortion follow-up visit or choice of surgical versus medication abortion. Findings support screening for the influence of partner violence on reproductive health and related safety planning.

  14. Ovulatory shifts in women's attractions to primary partners and other men: further evidence of the importance of primary partner sexual attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Christina M; Pillsworth, Elizabeth G; Haselton, Martie G

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has documented shifts in women's attractions to their romantic partner and to men other than their partner across the ovulation cycle, contingent on the degree to which her partner displays hypothesized indicators of high-fitness genes. The current study set out to replicate and extend this finding. Forty-one couples in which the woman was naturally cycling participated. Female partners reported their feelings of in-pair attraction and extra-pair attraction on two occasions, once on a low-fertility day of the cycle and once on a high-fertility day of the cycle just prior to ovulation. Ovulation was confirmed using luteinizing hormone tests. We collected two measures of male partner sexual attractiveness. First, the women in the study rated their partner's sexual attractiveness. Second, we photographed the partners and had the photos independently rated for attractiveness. Shifts in women's in-pair attractions across the cycle were significantly moderated by women's ratings of partner sexual attractiveness, such that the less sexually attractive women rated their partner, the less in-pair attraction they reported at high fertility compared with low fertility (partial r = .37, p(dir) = .01). Shifts in women's extra-pair attractions across the cycle were significantly moderated by third-party ratings of partner attractiveness, such that the less attractive the partner was, the more extra-pair attraction women reported at high relative to low fertility (partial r = -.33, p(dir) = .03). In line with previous findings, we found support for the hypothesis that the degree to which a woman's romantic partner displays indicators of high-fitness genes affects women's attractions to their own partner and other men at high fertility.

  15. Depression and intimate partner violence among college students in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Akiko; Nourian, Maziar M; Assasnik, Nushean; Franchek-Roa, Kathy

    2016-10-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health threat and causes mental as well as physical health problems. Depression is a common mental health consequence of IPV. While Iran has a high prevalence of IPV and depression, the association between IPV and depression has not been well examined. The Iranian data from the International Dating Violence Study (IDVS) 2001-2006 (ICPSR 29583) were analyzed. Twenty-three male and 75 female college students were selected in the IDVS Iranian data. Nearly all of the participants, male and female, reported being victims and perpetrators of IPV. Female participants were more likely to report depression compared to male participants. Participants who had experienced sexual IPV reported significantly higher levels of depression compared to those who did not experience sexual IPV. However, when substance abuse and partner conflict were analyzed, the contribution of sexual IPV on depression was no longer significant. This study suggests that IPV prevention and intervention programs should take into consideration that college-aged men and women frequently experience and use violence in dating relationships. Depression interventions should be included for female students. Substance abuse and partner conflict are important risk factors for depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Preliminary evaluation of an analog procedure to assess acceptability of intimate partner violence against women: The Partner Violence Acceptability Movie Task (PVAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique eGracia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Acceptability of partner violence against women is a risk factor linked to its perpetration, and to public, professionals’ and victims’ responses to this behavior. Research on the acceptability of violence in intimate partner relationships is, however, limited by reliance solely on self-reports that often provide distorted or socially desirable accounts that may misrepresent respondents’ true attitudes. This study presents data on the development and initial validation of a new analog task assessing respondents’ acceptability of physical violence toward women in intimate relationships: the Partner Violence Acceptability Movie task (PVAM. This new analog task is intended to provide a more implicit measure of the acceptability of partner violence against women. For this analog task, clips were extracted from commercially available films (90-second segments portraying partner violence. Two independent samples were used to develop and evaluate the PVAM: a sample of 245 undergraduate students and a sample of 94 male intimate partner violence offenders. This new analog task demonstrated acceptable internal consistency. Results also indicated adequate construct validity. Both perpetrators and undergraduates scoring high in the PVAM also scored higher in self-reported justifications of partner abuse. Perpetrators of partner violence scored significantly higher in acceptability of partner violence than the undergraduate sample (both male and female students, and male students scored higher than females. These preliminary results suggest that the PVAM may be a promising tool to assess the acceptability of violence in intimate partner relationships, highlighting the need to consider alternatives to self-report to evaluate potential beliefs about partner violence.

  17. Sexual HIV risk among substance-using female commercial sex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexual HIV risk among substance-using female commercial sex workers in ... risk for HIV (defined as engaging in unprotected sex with sexual partners in the past ... previously been diagnosed with HIV or a sexually transmitted disease (STD) ...

  18. The new female condom (FC2) in Uganda: perceptions and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The new female condom (FC2) in Uganda: perceptions and experiences of users and their sexual partners. Rhoda K Wanyenze, Lynn Atuyambe, Vista Kibirige, Sarah Mbabazi, Nazarius M Tumwesigye, Kara Djurhuus, Alice Namale ...

  19. A Descriptive Profile of Abused Female Sex Workers in India

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Panchanadeswaran, Subadra; Johnson, Sethulakshmi C; Sivaram, Sudha; Srikrishnan, A K; Zelaya, Carla; Solomon, Suniti; Go, Vivian F; Celentano, David

    2010-01-01

    This descriptive study presents the profiles of abused female sex workers (FSWs) in Chennai, India. Of 100 abused FSWs surveyed using a structured questionnaire, severe forms of violence by intimate partners were reported...

  20. The oxytocin system promotes resilience to the effects of neonatal isolation on adult social attachment in female prairie voles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, C E; Arambula, S E; Young, L J

    2015-01-01

    Genes and social experiences interact to create variation in social behavior and vulnerability to develop disorders of the social domain. Socially monogamous prairie voles display remarkable diversity in neuropeptide receptor systems and social behavior. Here, we examine the interaction of early-life adversity and brain oxytocin receptor (OTR) density on adult social attachment in female prairie voles. First, pups were isolated for 3 h per day, or unmanipulated, from postnatal day 1–14. Adult subjects were tested on the partner preference (PP) test to assess social attachment and OTR density in the brain was quantified. Neonatal social isolation impaired female PP formation, without affecting OTR density. Accumbal OTR density was, however, positively correlated with the percent of time spent huddling with the partner in neonatally isolated females. Females with high accumbal OTR binding were resilient to neonatal isolation. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that parental nurturing shapes neural systems underlying social relationships by enhancing striatal OTR signaling. Thus, we next determined whether early touch, mimicking parental licking and grooming, stimulates hypothalamic OT neuron activity. Tactile stimulation induced immediate-early gene activity in OT neurons in neonates. Finally, we investigated whether pharmacologically potentiating OT release using a melanocortin 3/4 agonist, melanotan-II (10 mg kg−1 subcutaneously), would mitigate the social isolation-induced impairments in attachment behavior. Neonatal melanotan-II administration buffered against the effects of early isolation on partner preference formation. Thus, variation in accumbal OTR density and early OT release induced by parental nurturing may moderate susceptibility to early adverse experiences, including neglect. PMID:26196439

  1. Mechanisms of Partner Violence Reduction in a Group HIV-Risk Intervention for Hispanic Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Brian E; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M; Peragallo, Nilda P; Mitrani, Victoria B

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to test whether partner communication about HIV and/or alcohol intoxication mediated reductions in intimate partner violence (IPV) in SEPA (Salud [health], Educación [education], Promoción [promotion], y [and] Autocuidado [self-care]), a culturally specific, theoretically based group HIV-risk reduction intervention for Hispanic women. SEPA had five sessions covering sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV prevention, partner communication, condom negotiation and use, and IPV. SEPA reduced IPV and alcohol intoxication, and improved partner communication compared with controls in a randomized trial with adult U.S. Hispanic women (SEPA, n = 274; delayed intervention control, n = 274) who completed structured interviews at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months post-baseline. Parallel process latent growth curve models indicated that partner communication about HIV mediated the reduction in male-to-female IPV in SEPA, B = -0.78, SE = 0.14, p< .001, but alcohol intoxication did not, B = -0.15, SE = 0.19, p = .431. Male-to-female IPV mediated the intervention effect on female-to-male IPV, B = -1.21, SE = 0.24, p< .001. Skills building strategies originally designed to enhance women's communication with their partners about sexual risk behaviors also worked to reduce male-to-female IPV, which in turn reduced female-to-male IPV. These strategies could be integrated into other types of health promotion interventions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Gender differences in partners of patients with COPD and their perceptions about the patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakken N

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nienke Nakken,1 Daisy JA Janssen,1,2 Monique van Vliet,3 Geeuwke J de Vries,4 Giny AL Clappers-Gielen,5 Arent Jan Michels,6 Jean WM Muris,7 Jan H Vercoulen,8 Emiel FM Wouters,1,9 Martijn A Spruit1 1Department of Research and Education, CIRO, Horn, 2Centre of Expertise for Palliative Care, Maastricht University Medical Centre+ (MUMC+, Maastricht, 3Department of Respiratory Medicine, Zuyderland, Heerlen, 4Department of Respiratory Medicine, Zuyderland, Sittard-Geleen, 5Department of Respiratory Medicine, Elkerliek Hospital, Helmond, 6Department of Respiratory Medicine, St Anna Hospital, Geldrop, 7Department of Family Medicine, CAPHRI School of Public Health and Primary Care, Maastricht University, Maastricht, 8Department of Medical Psychology and Department of Pulmonary Diseases, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, 9Department of Respiratory Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Centre+ (MUMC+, Maastricht, the Netherlands Background/objectives: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD not only affects patients but also their partners. Gender-related differences in patients with COPD are known, for instance regarding symptoms and quality of life. Yet, research regarding gender differences in partners of patients with COPD has been conducted to a lesser extent, and most research focused on female partners. We aimed to investigate differences between male and female partners of patients with COPD regarding their own characteristics and their perceptions of patients’ characteristics.Design: Cross-sectional study.Setting: Four hospitals in the Netherlands.Participants: One hundred and eighty-eight patient–partner couples were included in this cross-sectional study.Measurements: General and clinical characteristics, health status, care dependency, symptoms of anxiety and depression, social support, caregiver burden, and coping styles were assessed during a home visit.Results: Female partners had more symptoms of anxiety and a

  3. Multiple sexual partners among U.S. adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santelli, J S; Brener, N D; Lowry, R; Bhatt, A; Zabin, L S

    1998-01-01

    Because many teenagers and young adults fail to use condoms correctly and consistently, the number of sexual partners they have is an important risk factor for sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. Identifying factors that are associated with having multiple partners can help in the design of disease interventions. Data on 8,450 males and females aged 14-22 who participated in the 1992 Youth Risk Behavior Survey were used to examine the prevalence of and factors associated with young people's having multiple partners. In all, 63% of female respondents and 64% of males were sexually experienced. Among those who had had sex during the three months before the survey, 15% and 35%, respectively, had had two or more partners during that period. At each age, the majority of sexually experienced respondents had had more than one lifetime partner; between ages 14 and 21, the proportion who had had six or more rose from 8% to 31% among females and from 14% to 45% among males. In logistic regression analyses, alcohol use, illicit drug use and young age at first coitus were associated with increased odds that females had had two or more partners in the previous three months, and being married lowered the odds; black or Hispanic race or ethnicity, alcohol use and young age at first coitus increased the odds for males, and being married reduced the odds. As the number of reported alcohol-related behaviors increased, the adjusted proportion of respondents who had recently had multiple partners rose from 8% to 48% among females and from 23% to 61% among men. The strong association between alcohol use and having multiple sexual partners underscores the need to educate young people about the effects of alcohol on partner choice and the risk of infection with sexually transmitted diseases.

  4. Women's adult romantic attachment style and communication by cell phone with romantic partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskirch, Robert S

    2012-08-01

    Cell phones have become important communication media for individuals in romantic relationships. The frequency of and methods used for communication may vary by adults' style of romantic attachment. Female university students (N = 31) currently in romantic relationships responded to a questionnaire. They estimated the frequency of calls and text messages received from and made to their romantic partners and completed the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised instrument, a measure of attachment anxiety and avoidance. Also, the participants reviewed their cell phones' memories and provided accurate frequency of communication to and from the romantic partner. Attachment anxiety was associated with more estimated text messages sent to and received from the romantic partners and actual text messages sent to and received from the romantic partners. Attachment avoidance was associated (r = -.38) with fewer estimated calls made to the romantic partners and fewer actual calls made to the romantic partners (r = -.34).

  5. Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration by Court-Ordered Men: Distinctions and Intersections among Physical Violence, Sexual Violence, Psychological Abuse, and Stalking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Kathleen C.; Hall, Jeffrey E.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the construct validity of two different measurement models of male partners' perpetration of physical violence, sexual violence, psychological abuse, and stalking against intimate partners. Data were obtained from a sample of 340 men arrested for physical assault of a female spouse or partner and court ordered into batterer…

  6. Publishing protocols for partnered research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysong, Sylvia J; Woodard, LeChauncy; Garvin, Jennifer H; Murawsky, Jeffrey; Petersen, Laura A

    2014-12-01

    Published scientific protocols are advocated as a means of controlling bias in research reporting. Indeed, many journals require a study protocol with manuscript submission. However, publishing protocols of partnered research (PPR) can be challenging in light of the research model's dynamic nature, especially as no current reporting standards exist. Nevertheless, as these protocols become more prevalent, a priori documentation of methods in partnered research studies becomes increasingly important. Using as illustration a suite of studies aimed at improving coordination and communication in the primary care setting, we sought to identify challenges in publishing PPR relative to traditional designs, present alternative solutions to PPR publication, and propose an initial checklist of content to be included in protocols of partnered research. Challenges to publishing PPR include reporting details of research components intended to be co-created with operational partners, changes to sampling and entry strategy, and alignment of scientific and operational goals. Proposed solutions include emulating reporting standards of qualitative research, participatory action research, and adaptive trial designs, as well as embracing technological tools that facilitate publishing adaptive protocols, with version histories that are able to be updated as major protocol changes occur. Finally, we present a proposed checklist of reporting elements for partnered research protocols.

  7. Female Genital Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z Health Topics Female genital cutting Female genital cutting > A-Z Health Topics Female genital cutting fact ... Publications email updates Enter email Submit Female genital cutting Female genital cutting (FGC), sometimes called female circumcision ...

  8. Early-life environment influencing susceptibility to cytomegalovirus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Maier, A B; Slagbom, P E

    2012-01-01

    genetically informative cohorts. From the Leiden Longevity Study (LLS) we selected long-lived sib-pairs (n=844) and their middle-aged offspring and the offspring's partners (n=1452). From the Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins (LSADT) 604 (302 pairs) same-sex monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins...... number for partners was 71% (Penvironment accounts for the similarity within twin pairs. Our findings suggest that susceptibility to CMV infection......--even under continuous within-partnership exposure--appears to be more strongly influenced by early-life environment than by genetic factors and adult environment....

  9. Intimate partner violence at a tertiary institution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    or threatened physical, sexual, psychological, emotional, or stalking abuse by an intimate partner'. An intimate partner can be a current or former spouse or a nonmarital partner, such as a boyfriend, girlfriend or dating partner, and can be someone of the same or the opposite sex. The South African (SA) Domestic Violence ...

  10. Ovulatory Shifts in Women’s Attractions to Primary Partners and Other Men: Further Evidence of the Importance of Primary Partner Sexual Attractiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has documented shifts in women’s attractions to their romantic partner and to men other than their partner across the ovulation cycle, contingent on the degree to which her partner displays hypothesized indicators of high-fitness genes. The current study set out to replicate and extend this finding. Forty-one couples in which the woman was naturally cycling participated. Female partners reported their feelings of in-pair attraction and extra-pair attraction on two occasions, once on a low-fertility day of the cycle and once on a high-fertility day of the cycle just prior to ovulation. Ovulation was confirmed using luteinizing hormone tests. We collected two measures of male partner sexual attractiveness. First, the women in the study rated their partner’s sexual attractiveness. Second, we photographed the partners and had the photos independently rated for attractiveness. Shifts in women’s in-pair attractions across the cycle were significantly moderated by women’s ratings of partner sexual attractiveness, such that the less sexually attractive women rated their partner, the less in-pair attraction they reported at high fertility compared with low fertility (partial r = .37, pdir = .01). Shifts in women’s extra-pair attractions across the cycle were significantly moderated by third-party ratings of partner attractiveness, such that the less attractive the partner was, the more extra-pair attraction women reported at high relative to low fertility (partial r = −.33, pdir = .03). In line with previous findings, we found support for the hypothesis that the degree to which a woman’s romantic partner displays indicators of high-fitness genes affects women’s attractions to their own partner and other men at high fertility. PMID:22984512

  11. Social Norms for Intimate Partner Violence in Situations Involving Victim Infidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Tricia H.; Mulla, Mazheruddin M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated perceived descriptive norms (i.e., perceived prevalence) for male-to-female intimate partner violence (IPV) following victim infidelity (i.e., girlfriend had sex with another man). While watching a video-taped vignette of a young, dating couple in an argument that escalated to male-to-female violence, male…

  12. Genetic heterogeneity in breast cancer susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, T I

    1996-01-01

    Approximately 20% of breast cancer patients have a family history of the disease, and in one-fourth of these cases breast cancer appears to be inherited as an autosomally dominant trait. Five genes and gene regions involved in breast cancer susceptibility have been uncovered. Germ-line mutations in the recently cloned BRCA1 gene at 17q21 is considered to be responsible for the disease in a majority of the breast-ovarian cancer families and in 40-45% of the site-specific breast cancer families, but appears not to be involved in families with both male and female breast cancer cases. The BRCA2 locus at 13q12-q13 appears to be involved in 40-45% of the site-specific breast cancer families, and in most of the families with affected males. The gene located in this region, however, does not seem to confer susceptibility to ovarian cancer. The TP53 gene is involved in breast cancer development in the Li-Fraumeni syndrome and Li-Fraumeni syndrom-like families, whereas germ-line mutations in the androgen receptor (AR) gene is present in a subset of male breast cancers. Furthermore, females who are obligate carriers of ataxia telangiectasia (AT) have a 4-12 times relative risk of developing breast cancer as compared with the general female population, indicating that germ-line mutations in AT also confer susceptibility to breast cancer.

  13. Sexually Transmitted Disease Partner Notification among African-American, Adolescent Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Buchsbaum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To better understand preferences and practices regarding partner notification of sexually transmitted infection (STI among female, African-American adolescents. Methods. Participants completed a questionnaire and STI testing at baseline. Those diagnosed with Chlamydia or gonorrhea were recruited for a follow-up study, involving another questionnaire and repeat STI testing after three months. Results. At baseline, most participants (85.1% preferred to tell their partner about an STI diagnosis themselves instead of having a health care provider inform him, and 71.0% preferred to bring their partner for clinic treatment instead of giving him pills or a prescription. Two-thirds of participants were classified as having high self-efficacy for partner notification of a positive STI diagnosis. In the multivariable analysis, older participants and those with fewer lifetime sexual partners were more likely to have high self-efficacy. Ninety-three participants (26.6% had Chlamydia or gonorrhea and, of this subset, 55 participated in the follow-up study. Most adolescents in the follow-up study (76.4% notified their partner about their infection. Conclusion. Although participants were willing to use most methods of partner notification, most preferred to tell partners themselves and few preferred expedited partner therapy. Traditional methods for partner notification and treatment may not be adequate for all adolescents in this population.

  14. Pharma partnering: other people's science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Partnering is an ideal field if someone is seeking to move from a scientific to a more business-oriented discipline. Partnering's goal is to identify and acquire external innovation. These discoveries are then included in a company's pipeline and help bring novel treatments to patients. Advanced scientific training is essential in the identification and evaluation of these external assets. Here I describe how partnering works in a pharmaceutical company and offer advice on how to make a successful transition from a PhD program to a business career. © 2017 Hofmann. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  15. Partnering and integrated supply management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnø, Ole-Christian; Olsen, Anders; Thyssen, Mikael

    2003-01-01

    are common among the actors in the building industry. Partnering is still in its early stages, and a strategic development of the concept to include long-term collaborative relationships appears to be able to offer considerable potential, while there is a pressing need for the development of methods...... for strategic management of collaborative relationships on a line with the purchasing perspectives offered by Supply Chain Management. Based on a study of the literature and an in-depth case study carried out within a large Scandinavian contractor, this article gives a proposal for how Partnering can...... be supported by strategic purchasing, with the aim of achieving strategic Partnering. The contribution of this article is thus the development of a new purchasing perspective within Construction Supply Chain Management....

  16. Female aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Esposito Sorpreso

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Female aging is a process that involves hypoestrogenism time, the individual impact on each woman, and what we can do as experts to reduce morbidity and provide quality of life. This natural process in the female life cycle has been of concern to women after menopause. Changes in different biophysical and psychosocial aspects, and their individual experiences, have repercussions on the lives of patients seeking specialized and multidisciplinary support to reduce the harmful effects of prolonged hypoestrogenism. Overweight and obesity, inadequate living habits and the presence of multi-morbidities cause damage to the quality of life and impact the functional capacity. Behavioral prescription and hormone therapy are among the treatments given to ease symptoms and reduce morbidity. A better understanding of these factors can help identify groups that require more care after menopause.

  17. Integrated treatment options for male perpetrators of intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Cory A; Easton, Caroline J

    2017-01-01

    Male-to-female intimate partner violence remains a worldwide public health issue with adverse physical and psychological consequences for victims, perpetrators and children. Personality disorders, addiction, trauma and mood symptoms are established risk factors for intimate partner violence perpetration and factor prominently into a recovery-oriented treatment approach. We reviewed the partner violence literature for detailed reports of traditional as well as innovative, integrated treatment approaches. Empirically based recommendations for intervention programs and the policies that guide intervention efforts are offered. Nascent research suggests that integrated treatment models utilising a holistic approach to account for psychological comorbidity and interventions that involve a motivational interviewing component appear promising in terms of significantly improving intimate partner violence treatment compliance and reducing subsequent acts of physical partner violence. Further, methodologically rigorous research is required to fully assess the benefits of traditional and integrated treatment options. We have advanced several recommendations, including the development of and exclusive reliance upon empirically supported treatments, conducting a thorough risk and needs assessment of the offender and the immediate family to facilitate appropriate treatment referrals, integrating content to foster the offender's internal motivation to change maladaptive behaviours, and attempting to minimise offender treatment burdens through the strategic use of integrated treatment models. Intimate partner violence is a complicated and nuanced problem that is perpetrated by a heterogeneous population and requires greater variability in integrated treatment options. [Crane CA, Easton CJ. Integrated treatment options for male perpetrators of intimate partner violence. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:24-33]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  18. Hormones of choice: the neuroendocrinology of partner preference in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, C L; Nunez, A A; Clemens, L G

    2011-04-01

    Partner preference behavior can be viewed as the outcome of a set of hierarchical choices made by an individual in anticipation of mating. The first choice involves approaching a conspecific verses an individual of another species. As a rule, a conspecific is picked as a mating partner, but early life experiences can alter that outcome. Within a species, an animal then has the choice between a member of the same sex or the opposite sex. The final choice is for a specific individual. This review will focus on the middle choice, the decision to mate with either a male or a female. Available data from rats, mice, and ferrets point to the importance of perinatal exposure to steroid hormones in the development of partner preferences, as well as the importance of activational effects in adulthood. However, the particular effects of this hormone exposure show species differences in both the specific steroid hormone responsible for the organization of behavior and the developmental period when it has its effect. Where these hormones have an effect in the brain is mostly unknown, but regions involved in olfaction and sexual behavior, as well as sexually dimorphic regions, seem to play a role. One limitation of the literature base is that many mate or 'partner preference studies' rely on preference for a specific stimulus (usually olfaction) but do not include an analysis of the relation, if any, that stimulus has to the choice of a particular sexual partner. A second limitation has been the almost total lack of attention to the type of behavior that is shown by the choosing animal once a 'partner' has been chosen, specifically, if the individual plays a mating role typical of its own sex or the opposite sex. Additional paradigms that address these questions are needed for better understanding of partner preferences in rodents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [An investigation on the epidemic situation of intimate partner violence in 2,575 college students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Pu-Yu; Hao, Jia-Hu; Huang, Zhao-Hui; Xiao, Li-Min; Tao, Fang-Biao

    2011-04-01

    To investigate the prevalence of love affairs and intimate partner violence, and to explore the relationship between intimate partner violence and other mental health and risk behavior in college students. Three universities were selected using cluster sampling method in Hefei and Wuhu. Totally, 2575 college students completed an anonymous questionnaire. Intimate partner violence, depression, satisfaction of school life, self-esteem, suicidal psychology and behavior were evaluated to estimate the relationship between intimate partner violence and mental health/risk behavior. There were 46.9% students reported that they had intimate partner currently or in the past. The rate of having intimate partner in male students was higher than that in female students (χ(2) = 44.13, P rates were higher in sophomores and juniors than in freshmen (χ(2) = 161.84, P students had sexual behavior with their intimate partners. But only 21.8% (34/156) intimate partners reported that they used condom every time. There were 11.5% (18/156) intimate partners reported that they never took any contraception. There were 18.6% (29/156) students reported that they were pregnant or led to their girlfriend becoming pregnant, but only less than 50.0% adolescents induced abortion in a legal hospitals. The rates of being the victim of physical assault, emotional abuse, sexual coercion, the total intimate partner violence were 18.0%, 33.6%, 5.1%, 37.1%. The rates of being the victim of physical assault, emotional abuse, total intimate partner violence in male adolescents were higher than those in female adolescents, but the rate of sexual coercion was on the contrary (χ(2) = 70.21, 13.25, 14.04, 5.77, P students had underwent more than 3 times, and 47.1% had underwent more than 2 types of intimate partner violence. The score of depression was highest in the victims of intimate partner violence, but the scores of self-esteem and school life satisfaction were on the contrary (F = 4.00, 16.39, 8

  20. Variation in personality and fitness in wild female baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfarth, Robert M; Silk, Joan B; Cheney, Dorothy L

    2012-10-16

    Studies of personality in nonhuman primates have usually relied on assessments by humans and seldom considered the function of the resulting "trait" classifications. In contrast, we applied exploratory principal component analysis to seven behaviors among 45 wild female baboons over 7 y to determine whether the personality dimensions that emerged were associated with measures of reproductive success. We identified three relatively stable personality dimensions, each characterized by a distinct suite of behaviors that were not redundant with dominance rank or the availability of kin. Females scoring high on the "Nice" dimension were friendly to all females and often grunted to lower-ranking females to signal benign intent. "Aloof" females were aggressive, less friendly, and grunted primarily to higher-ranking females. "Loner" females were often alone, relatively unfriendly, and also grunted most often to higher-ranking females. Aloof and Loner females were rarely approached by others. Personality dimensions were correlated in different ways with three measures previously shown to be associated with fitness: stress levels and two behavioral indices reflecting the closeness of dyadic bonds formed by individuals. Females who scored high on Nice had high composite sociality indices (CSI) and stable partner preferences, whereas females who scored high on Aloof had lower CSI scores but significantly more stable partner preferences. Loner females had significantly lower CSI scores, less stable partner preferences, and significantly higher glucocorticoid levels. It remains to be determined which of the Nice or Aloof personality dimensions is more adaptive, or whether variation is maintained by contrasting effects on fitness.

  1. Partner approval and intention to use contraception among Zanzibari women presenting for post-abortion care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esber, Allahna; Foraker, Randi E; Hemed, Maryam; Norris, Alison

    2014-07-01

    We examined the effect of partner approval of contraception on intention to use contraception among women obtaining post-abortion care in Zanzibar. Our data source was a 2010 survey of 193 women obtaining post-abortion care at a large public hospital in Zanzibar. We used multivariable logistic regression analysis to assess associations between partner approval and intention to use contraception. Overall, 23% of participants had used a contraceptive method in the past, and 66% reported intending to use contraception in the future. We found that partner approval of contraception and ever having used contraception in the past were each associated with intending to use contraception in the future. In the multivariable model, adjusting for past contraception use, partner approval of contraception was associated with 20 times the odds of intending to use contraception (odds ratio, 20.25; 95% confidence interval, 8.45-48.56). We found a strong association between partner approval and intention to use contraception. Efforts to support contraceptive use must include both male and female partners. Public health and educational efforts to increase contraceptive use must include men and be targeted to both male and female partners. Given that male partners are often not present when women obtain health care, creative efforts will be required to meet men in community settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Partnering for Student Transfer Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Washington's community and technical colleges, private non-profit baccalaureate, and public baccalaureate colleges and universities have a proud history of partnering to serve students. Nowhere is this cooperation more evident than in the smooth transfer process from community and technical colleges into four-year colleges and universities. This…

  3. The Impact of Gender, Partner Status, and Race on Locoregional Failure and Overall Survival in Head and Neck Cancer Patients in Three Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilling, Thomas J.; Bae, Kyounghwa; Paulus, Rebecca; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah; Garden, Adam S.; Forastiere, Arlene; Ang, K. Kian; Movsas, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE We investigated the impact of race, in conjunction with gender and partner status, on both locoregional control (LRC) and overall survival (OS) in three head and neck trials conducted by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). METHODS AND MATERIALS Patients from RTOG 9003, 9111, and 9703 were included. Patients were stratified by treatment arms. Covariates of interest were partner status (partnered/non-partnered), race (white/non-white), and sex (female/male). Chi-square testing demonstrated homogeneity across treatment arms. Hazards ratio (HR) was used to estimate time to event outcome. Unadjusted and adjusted HRs were calculated for all covariates with associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and p-values. RESULTS 1736 patients were analyzed. Unpartnered males had inferior OS to partnered females (adjusted HR=1.22, 95% CI=(1.09, 1.36)), partnered males (adjusted HR=1.20, 95% CI=(1.09, 1.28)), and unpartnered females (adjusted HR=1.20, 95% CI=(1.09, 1.32)). White females had superior OS compared with white males, non-white females, and non-white males. Non-white males had inferior OS compared to white males. Partnered whites had improved OS relative to partnered non-white, unpartnered white, and unpartnered non-white patients. Unpartnered males had inferior LRC than partnered males (adjusted HR=1.26, 95% CI=(1.09, 1.46)) and unpartnered females (adjusted HR=1.30, 95% CI=(1.05, 1.62)). White females had superior LRC to non-white males and females. White males had improved LRC than non-white males. Partnered whites had improved LRC than partnered and unpartnered non-white patients. Unpartnered whites had improved LRC than unpartnered non-whites. CONCLUSIONS Race, gender, and partner status impacted on both overall survival and locoregional failure, both singly and in combination. PMID:21549515

  4. Validation of Fear of Partner Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, K Daniel; Foran, Heather; Cohen, Shiri

    2013-10-01

    Therapists have a responsibility to ascertain if psychological aggression, physical aggression, sexual aggression exist, and if there is fear of the partner. A fear of partner measure was evaluated in 100 couples who sought relationship feedback. Fear of partner's psychological, physical, and sexual aggression was related to actual reports of such behavior. For both men and women, fear of speaking in front of partner and fear of being in therapy with partner were related to reports of psychological aggression perpetrated by the partner, dominance, and isolation by the partner, and one's own marital dissatisfaction. Among respondents who were aggressed against, more men than women reported fear of participating in therapy with their partner. The measure herein can be used to determine the extent of fear of aggression by partners and to assist in the decision-making about the appropriateness of marital therapy and divorce mediation. © 2013 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  5. With or without you: does partner satisfaction and partner-directed violence influence the presence of a partner on women's Facebook cover profile photographs?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pavol Prokop; Natália Morvayová

    2016-01-01

    .... We investigated relationships between the presence of a current romantic partner on the CPP and the displayed relationship status and partner satisfaction, partner-directed violence and women's...

  6. Limited results of group self-management education for rheumatoid arthritis patients and their partners : explanations from the patient perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bode, C.; Taal, E.; Emons, P.A.A.; Galetzka, M.; Rasker, J.J.; Laar, M.A.F.J. van de

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the reasons for limited results of group self-management for RA patients and their partners from the patient perspective. Semi-structured interviews with ten male and ten female patients who had participated in group self-management with or without their partner were

  7. Limited results of group self-management education for rheumatoid arthritis patients and their partners: Explanations from the patient perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bode, Christina; Taal, Erik; Emons, P.A.A.; Galetzka, Mirjam; Rasker, Hans J.; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the reasons for limited results of group self-management for RA patients and their partners from the patient perspective. Semi-structured interviews with ten male and ten female patients who had participated in group self-management with or without their partner were

  8. Gender Stereotype Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Marina A.; Weber, Susanna; Simoes, Elisabeth; Sokolov, Alexander N.

    2014-01-01

    Gender affects performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, and this impact may stem from socio-cultural factors such as gender stereotyping. Here we systematically manipulated gender stereotype messages on a social cognition task on which no initial gender gap has been documented. The outcome reveals: (i) Stereotyping affects both females and males, with a more pronounced impact on females. Yet an explicit negative message for males elicits a striking paradoxical deterioration in performance of females. (ii) Irrespective of gender and directness of message, valence of stereotype message affects performance: negative messages have stronger influence than positive ones. (iii) Directness of stereotype message differentially impacts performance of females and males: females tend to be stronger affected by implicit than explicit negative messages, whereas in males this relationship is opposite. The data are discussed in the light of neural networks underlying gender stereotyping. The findings provide novel insights into the sources of gender related fluctuations in cognition and behavior. PMID:25517903

  9. Gender stereotype susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Marina A; Weber, Susanna; Simoes, Elisabeth; Sokolov, Alexander N

    2014-01-01

    Gender affects performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, and this impact may stem from socio-cultural factors such as gender stereotyping. Here we systematically manipulated gender stereotype messages on a social cognition task on which no initial gender gap has been documented. The outcome reveals: (i) Stereotyping affects both females and males, with a more pronounced impact on females. Yet an explicit negative message for males elicits a striking paradoxical deterioration in performance of females. (ii) Irrespective of gender and directness of message, valence of stereotype message affects performance: negative messages have stronger influence than positive ones. (iii) Directness of stereotype message differentially impacts performance of females and males: females tend to be stronger affected by implicit than explicit negative messages, whereas in males this relationship is opposite. The data are discussed in the light of neural networks underlying gender stereotyping. The findings provide novel insights into the sources of gender related fluctuations in cognition and behavior.

  10. Genetic susceptibility of periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laine, M.L.; Crielaard, W.; Loos, B.G.

    2012-01-01

    In this systematic review, we explore and summarize the peer-reviewed literature on putative genetic risk factors for susceptibility to aggressive and chronic periodontitis. A comprehensive literature search on the PubMed database was performed using the keywords ‘periodontitis’ or ‘periodontal

  11. Fourie susceptible.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    a number of cultivars exhibited field resistance to halo blight and bacterial brown spot, all cultivars were more or less susceptible to .... Cerillos. Alubia. I. 91. 57. Kranskop. Red speckled sugar. II. 97. 63. OPS-RS1. Red speckled sugar. II. 96. 63. OPS-RS2. Red speckled sugar. I. 100. 61. OPS-RS3. Red speckled sugar. II. 97.

  12. Determinants of female sexual orgasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontula, Osmo; Miettinen, Anneli

    2016-01-01

    The pursuit of sexual pleasure is a key motivating factor in sexual activity. Many things can stand in the way of sexual orgasms and enjoyment, particularly among women. These are essential issues of sexual well-being and gender equality. This study presents long-term trends and determinants of female orgasms in Finland. The aim is to analyze the roles of factors such as the personal importance of orgasms, sexual desire, masturbation, clitoral and vaginal stimulation, sexual self-esteem, communication with partner, and partner's sexual techniques. In Finland, five national sex surveys that are based on random samples from the central population register have been conducted. They are representative of the total population within the age range of 18-54 years in 1971 ( N =2,152), 18-74 years in 1992 ( N =2,250), 18-81 years in 1999 ( N =1,496), 18-74 years in 2007 ( N =2,590), and 18-79 years in 2015 ( N =2,150). Another dataset of 2,049 women in the age group of 18-70 years was collected in 2015 via a national Internet panel. Contrary to expectations, women did not have orgasms that are more frequent by increasing their experience and practice of masturbation, or by experimenting with different partners in their lifetime. The keys to their more frequent orgasms lay in mental and relationship factors. These factors and capacities included orgasm importance, sexual desire, sexual self-esteem, and openness of sexual communication with partners. Women valued their partner's orgasm more than their own. In addition, positive determinants were the ability to concentrate, mutual sexual initiations, and partner's good sexual techniques. A relationship that felt good and worked well emotionally, and where sex was approached openly and appreciatively, promoted orgasms. The findings indicate that women differ greatly from one another in terms of their tendency and capacity to experience orgasms. The improvements in gender equality and sexual education since the 1970s have not

  13. Pregnancy-associated violent deaths: the role of intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sandra L; Macy, Rebecca J; Sullivan, Kristen; Magee, Melissa L

    2007-04-01

    This literature review examines intimate partner violence in relation to pregnancy-associated femicide and suicide. Empirical publications were eligible for review if they included information on intimate partner violence and examined females who were pregnant/postpartum and who were victims of femicide/attempted femicide and/or suicide/attempted suicide. Nine publications met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Results suggest that intimate partners perpetrate one- to two-thirds of the pregnancy-associated femicides in the United States and that pregnant women make up 5% of urban intimate partner femicides. Intimate partner abuse during pregnancy appears to be a risk factor for severe intimate partner violence, including attempted/completed femicide. So little information exists concerning intimate partner violence in pregnancy-associated suicides that it is impossible to draw conclusions regarding this topic; however, a hospital-based study suggests that intimate partner violence may be a risk factor for attempting suicide while pregnant. More research is needed concerning intimate partner pregnancy-associated femicide and suicide so that evidenced-based preventive/therapeutic interventions may be developed.

  14. Female sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Lynne; Magos, Adam

    2008-07-01

    There has been considerable development and implementation of new contraceptive methods over the last 15 years. However, sterilization has remained the most widely used method around the world. Ideally, the procedure should be safe, have a high efficacy, be readily accessible, and be personally and culturally acceptable. The cost for each procedure would be low and the method would be simple, quick, easily learned and be able to be performed in an outpatient setting without general anesthesia. A transuterine method of female sterilization has long been the ideal for the gynecologist. The Essure system fulfils many of the criteria, and is the first one to be approved by the US FDA. However, there is still a need for further research to find a device with the success rate of the Essure but without its irreversibility.

  15. Mathematical Modeling of Hidden Intimate Partner Violence in Spain: A Quantitative and Qualitative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. De la Poza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The fact that women are abused by their male partner is something that happens worldwide in the 21st century. In numerous cases, abuse only becomes publicly known when a fatal event occurs and is beyond any possible remedy, that is, when men murder their female partner. Since 2003, 793 (September 4, 2015 women have been assassinated by their significant other or excouple in Spain. Only 7.2% of murdered women had reported their fear and previous intimate partner violence (IPV to the police. Even when the number of female victims is comparable to the number of victims by terrorism, the Government has not assigned an equal amount of resources to diminish the magnitude of this hidden social problem. In this paper, a mathematical epidemiological model to forecast intimate partner violence in Spain is constructed. Both psychological and physical aggressor subpopulations are predicted and simulated. The model’s robustness versus uncertain parameters is studied by a sensitivity analysis.

  16. Do countries catch cold when trading partners sneeze? Evidence from spillovers in the Baltics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley I. Obiora

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available How do countries respond to shocks from their major trading partners? This paper addresses the question in the context of the observed shifts in trade linkages between the Baltic countries and their major trading partners. Vector autoregression (VAR models were used to examine the magnitude and sources of growth spillovers to the Baltics from key trading partners, as well as shocks from the real effective exchange rate (REER.Our results show there are significant cross-country spillovers to the Baltics, with spillovers from the EU outweighing those from Russia. Shocks to the REER generally depress growth in the Baltics, and this effect rises over time. We also find that financial and trade linkages are the dominant transmission channels of spillovers to the region, which explains the current realization of downside risks to the Baltics from the global slowdown. In general, therefore, these results suggest that the Baltics are susceptible to shocks from their key trading partners.

  17. Female song and vocal interactions with males in a Neotropical wren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L Hall

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bird song is thought to function primarily in same-sex competition, mate attraction, and reproductive stimulation of a partner. However, these conclusions are based largely on studies of the song of male birds in north-temperate species. We investigate female song in a Neotropical wren, Thryophilus pleurostictus, using observations and experiments to test the function of female song. Female banded wrens sang much less often than males, their songs were shorter, and their repertoire of song types was smaller. Females did not seem to sing for same-sex competition for resources or mates: female song rate did not increase in response to simulated intrusion, and females sang in response to less than one-third of playbacks simulating territorial intrusion by either unpaired or paired females. Territorial defense is important for both survival and reproduction in species that occupy all-purpose territories year-round, but female involvement in territorial defense was limited. Females were more likely to approach simulated intruders when their partner approached more closely, and were closer to their partner during playback simulating a pair of intruders, perhaps contributing to defense jointly with their partner. Females did not appear to use song to attract males for mating: only 25% of females sang in response to playback simulating an unpaired male during the nest-building period, and they were less likely to sing shortly before laying when they were more likely to be fertile. Female song in banded wrens seemed to be used primarily for communicating with their breeding partner: female songs overlapped or began within one second of a song by their partner more often than expected by chance, and male vocal behavior changed in response to song by their partner. However, the low rate of female song in banded wrens suggests this function does not select for song elaboration, consistent with the view that same-sex competition is the main driver of female

  18. The association between intimate partner violence, alcohol and depression in family practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chondros Patty

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depressive symptoms, intimate partner violence and hazardous drinking are common among patients attending general practice. Despite the high prevalence of these three problems; the relationship between them remains relatively unexplored. Methods This paper explores the association between depressive symptoms, ever being afraid of a partner and hazardous drinking using cross-sectional screening data from 7667 randomly selected patients from a large primary care cohort study of 30 metropolitan and rural general practices in Victoria, Australia. The screening postal survey included the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, the Fast Alcohol Screening Test and a screening question from the Composite Abuse Scale on ever being afraid of any intimate partner. Results 23.9% met criteria for depressive symptoms. A higher proportion of females than males (20.8% vs. 7.6% reported ever being afraid of a partner during their lifetime (OR 3.2, 95%CI 2.5 to 4.0 and a lower proportion of females (12% than males (25% were hazardous drinkers (OR 0.4; 95%CI 0.4 to 0.5; and a higher proportion of females than males (20.8% vs. 7.6% reported ever being afraid of a partner during their lifetime (OR 3.2, 95%CI 2.5 to 4.0. Men and women who had ever been afraid of a partner or who were hazardous drinkers had on average higher depressive symptom scores than those who had never been afraid or who were not hazardous drinkers. There was a stronger association between depressive symptoms and ever been afraid of a partner compared to hazardous drinking for both males (ever afraid of partner; Diff 6.87; 95% CI 5.42, 8.33; p Conclusions Strategies to assist primary care doctors to recognise and manage intimate partner violence and hazardous drinking in patients with depression may lead to better outcomes from management of depression in primary care.

  19. Genital Herpes in Marital Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jacob

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available During 1983-86, 225 patients were clinically diagnosed to have genital herpes (GH at our clinic. Of these, 90 men and 55 women were currently married. All the spouses were screened clinically and through standardized techniques for isolation and typing of herpes simplex virus, serological testing and Papanicolaou smear. There were 90 couples in whom at least one spouse had GH and in 38 (42% couples both partners had GH. Clinically, 49% of wives and 75% of husbands of GH patients were diagnosed to have the disease. The spouses of recurrent GH patients had a higher frequency of the disease than spouses of primary GH patients. Among spouses who were clinically asymptomatic, 40% had high serological titres suggestive of GH. Wives generally experienced more severe symptoms, especially pain in the lesions. Majority of lesions in both the partners were vesicles and ulcers. Prodromata were more among recurrent GH patients in both the partners. The frequency of recurrences wasalso similar in spouses. Seventy percent of wives and 40% of husbands could not identify any precipitating factor. Intercourse, physical stress and rich food were cited as possible factors in the remaining. All the wives had acquired the diseases through their husbands who were promiscuous. Fifty percent of husbands had been infected before marriage. Given the fact that asymptomatic carriers exist, it is better to consider all marital partners of GH as infected. Repeated and long-term follow, - up examination, particularly of wives of GH patients is therefore essential as an important socio-preventive aspect of this disease.

  20. Parents, Reading Partners, Library Advocates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deskins, Liz

    2011-01-01

    According to the author, one of her most important goals as a school librarian is to inspire her students to become lifelong lovers of reading. She recognizes that she cannot do this alone, and one of her most powerful partners is a parent. She can encourage a child to check out a book that may open their eyes to the wonders of literature, but if…

  1. Intimate Partner Violence, 1993-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2015 Special Report NCJ 2392 03 Intimate Partner Violence, 1993–2010 Shannan Catalano, Ph.D., BJS Statistician ... to 2010, the overall rate of intimate partner violence in the United States declined by 64%, from ...

  2. Bed Partner Often Fuels Loved One's Insomnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 166425.html Bed Partner Often Fuels Loved One's Insomnia Well-intentioned tips to encourage better sleep often ... specialists found that when a loved one had insomnia, the partner's suggested solutions -- including watching TV or ...

  3. Million Solar Roofs: Partners Make Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-06-01

    Million Solar Roofs (MSR) Partners Make Markets Executive Summary is a summary of the MSR Annual Partnership Update, a report from all the partners and partnerships who participate in the MSR Initiative.

  4. Testing the mate-choice hypothesis of the female orgasm: disentangling traits and behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherlock, James M; Sidari, Morgan J; Harris, Emily Ann; Barlow, Fiona Kate; Zietsch, Brendan P

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of the female orgasm in humans and its role in romantic relationships is poorly understood. Whereas the male orgasm is inherently linked to reproduction, the female orgasm is not linked to obvious reproductive or survival benefits. It also occurs less consistently during penetrative sex than does the male orgasm. Mate-choice hypotheses posit that the wide variation in female orgasm frequency reflects a discriminatory mechanism designed to select high-quality mates. We aimed to determine (1) whether women report that their orgasm frequency varies between partners, (2) whether this variation reflects mates' personal characteristics, and (3) whether this variation reflects own and partner sexual behaviour during intercourse. We collected survey data from 103 women who rated (1) the extent to which their orgasm frequency varied between partners, (2) the characteristics of previous sexual partners who induced high-orgasm frequency and those who induced low-orgasm frequency, and (3) the specific behaviours during sex with those partners. This is the first study to test within-woman variation in orgasm and partner traits. Overall, women reported variation in their orgasm rates with different partners. Partners who induced high-orgasm rates were rated as more humorous, creative, warm, faithful, and better smelling than partners who induced low-orgasm rates, and also engaged in greater efforts to induce partner orgasm. Some assumptions and predictions of mate-choice hypotheses of female orgasm were supported, while other aspects of our findings provide reasons to remain sceptical.

  5. Actors', partners', and observers' perceptions of sarcasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, P

    2000-10-01

    This study compared actors', partners', and observers' perceptions of the amount of sarcasm used by participants (n = 80) in videotaped conversations. Significant differences were found among perceptions of actors, partners, and observers. Of the three perspectives, actors perceived themselves as using the greatest amount of sarcasm, followed by partners' perceptions of actors. Observers perceived actors as using the least amount of sarcasm. Correlations conducted to assess whether partners and observers recognized actors' individual attempts at sarcasm during the conversations were generally low.

  6. How do physicians and their partners coordinate their careers and private lives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Martina; Buddeberg-Fischer, Barbara

    2011-03-25

    Over the past few years, there has been increasing interest in the question of how couples coordinate their careers and private lives. The aim of this study was to investigate the career arrangements of physicians and their partners according to gender and parenthood status, and to compare dual-physician couples with other types of couples. Data pertaining to 414 physicians (214 females, 51.7%; 200 males, 48.3%) from a cohort of medical school graduates participating in the SwissMedCareer Study was analysed according to socio-demographic variables, employment status and career prioritisation of the physicians and their partners. Differences in terms of gender, parenthood status and type of couple were investigated with Chi-square tests. The most prevalent career arrangement for a male physician with young children was that of full-time employment for the physician himself with a partner not in employment or working less than 50%-time. By contrast, the most common arrangement for a female physician with young children was that of 50-69% part-time employment with a partner working full-time. For couples without children, the most common arrangement was full-time employment for both partners. Dual-physician couples differed significantly from other types of couples in terms of how they rated career priority, with male physicians with physician partners more likely than male physicians with partners holding another academic degree or with non-academic partners to regard both careers as equally important (p ≤0.001). Female physicians with physician partners were more likely to consider their partners' careers as of prime importance than those with academic or non-academic partners (p ≤0.001). The priority given by couples to the man's career reflects traditional gender-role attitudes in male and female physicians. Starting a family slows down the career progress of female physicians but not of male physicians. Providing more childcare facilities in hospitals and

  7. Social factors related to syringe sharing among injecting partners: a focus on gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, S G; Latkin, C A; Gielen, A C

    2001-12-01

    The study of social networks has become an increasingly utilized method of examining the relationship between injection drug users' social environment and risk of HIV. This study examined relational aspects of two injection drug users (IDUs) within a single social network as they relate to sharing syringes. Data presented in this study were derived from baseline interviews of 508 IDUs from Baltimore, MD. Analyses were performed separately for male and female participants in an effort to understand gender differences in social aspects of syringe sharing. Among this sample, women shared syringes with a significantly higher percentage of injecting partners compared to men. In separate multilevel logistic regression models, significant variables associated with males' and females' syringe sharing were: sharing drugs daily with female injecting partners, injecting partners' provision of drugs when indexes' were withdrawing, being sexual partners, and injecting partners' injecting speedballs. Factors associated with male injecting dyads sharing of syringes were: being kin, injecting partners' injection of heroin and daily drug use, and drinking alcohol together. Results from this study demonstrate the usefulness of examining relationship characteristics of injecting dyads related to syringe sharing as they differ between men and women.

  8. Domestic violence and partner notification: implications for treatment and counseling of women with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, K H; Paskey, S J; Reuland, M M; Zimmerman, S I; North, R L

    1995-01-01

    Current public health policy encourages partner notification to protect those at risk of HIV infection. Provider experiences with partner notification, domestic violence, and women with HIV compel a reassessment of this strategy. In a survey of 136 health care providers in Baltimore, substantial numbers reported knowledge of their HIV-infected patients' experiences with domestic violence before and after partner notification. Providers believed that fear of physical abuse, emotional abuse, and abandonment are important reasons why many female patients resist partner notification. Provider opposition to partner notification was strong in cases where female patients faced a risk of domestic violence. The realization that HIV-infected women fear and experience domestic violence has broad implications for health care practice. The authors recommend changes in provider practices to insure that the risk of domestic violence is identified and addressed, and that partner notification strategies do not threaten the safety of HIV-infected women. They also highlight areas for further research on the connections among partner notification, domestic violence, and women with HIV.

  9. [Determinants of partner violence in health workers of IMSS, Morelos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Ceballos, Paola Adanari; Mudgal, Jyoti; Flores, Yvonne; Rivera-Rivera, Leonor; Díaz-Montiel, Juan Carlos; Salmerón, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    To study the prevalence of partner violence, and to identify the associated risk factors in a sample of female workers of IMSS (Mexican Social Security Institute), Morelos State. Cross-sectional data from 1 173 women participating in the cohort study of IMSS workers are utilized to study these associations. The study provides information on frequency of psychological, physical or sexual violence and perception of severity during the 12 months prior to the time of data collection. It was carried out in Morelos between October 1998 and March 2000. Polytomous logistic regression models were used to obtain odds ratios for different degrees of partner violence. A high prevalence of partner violence is observed in the sample. Main factors associated with higher severity of violence are state of the relationship and alcohol intake, emotional status of the couple at home, work burden of the woman, and a history of violence in childhood. All these factors are potentially modifiable through interventions aimed at stress reduction. These results should be considered when developing preventive programs against partner violence in Mexico.

  10. Determinants of communication between partners about STD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determinants of communication between partners about STD symptoms: implications for partner referral in South Africa. ... to have good knowledge about the effects of STDs and the transmission of STDs in the absence of symptoms, had positive attitudes towards condoms and perceived social support for partner referral.

  11. Living with heart failure : Partner perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttik, Marie Louise; Blaauwbroek, Arnarins; Dijker, Anton; Jaarsma, Tiny

    2007-01-01

    To preserve the supportive capabilities of partners of heart failure (HF) patients, it is necessary to gain insight in the experiences and potential needs of these partners. Thirteen partners of HF patients participated in semistructured interviews specifically focused on their experiences as a

  12. Positive illusions about one's partner's physical attractiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds-Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P. H.

    This study examined couples' ratings of self and partner physical attractiveness. On the basis of the theory of positive illusions, it was expected that individuals would rate their partners as more attractive than their partners would rate themselves. Both members of 93 heterosexual couples, with a

  13. Partner Stalking and Implications for Women's Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, TK; Shannon, Lisa; Cole, Jennifer; Swanberg, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    In general research suggests partner violence has a negative impact on women's employment. However, there has been limited examination of partner stalking and consequences for employment. The purpose of this study was to examine partner stalking and employment consequences among two samples of women. One sample was women who had obtained a…

  14. Genetic Susceptibility to Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Kovacic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a complex multifocal arterial disease involving interactions of multiple genetic and environmental factors. Advances in techniques of molecular genetics have revealed that genetic ground significantly influences susceptibility to atherosclerotic vascular diseases. Besides further investigations of monogenetic diseases, candidate genes, genetic polymorphisms, and susceptibility loci associated with atherosclerotic diseases have been identified in recent years, and their number is rapidly increasing. This paper discusses main genetic investigations fields associated with human atherosclerotic vascular diseases. The paper concludes with a discussion of the directions and implications of future genetic research in arteriosclerosis with an emphasis on prospective prediction from an early age of individuals who are predisposed to develop premature atherosclerosis as well as to facilitate the discovery of novel drug targets.

  15. Communal nursing in wild house mice is not a by-product of group living: Females choose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidt, Andrea; Lindholm, Anna K.; König, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Communal nursing, the provision of milk to non-offspring, has been argued to be a non-adaptive by-product of group living. We used 2 years of field data from a wild house mouse population to investigate this question. Communal nursing never occurred among females that previously lacked overlap in nest box use. Females nursed communally in only 33 % of cases in which there was a communal nursing partner available from the same social group. Solitarily nursing females were not socially isolated in their group; nevertheless, high spatial associations prior to reproduction predict which potential female partner was chosen for communal nursing. An increase in partner availability increased the probability of communal nursing, but population density itself had a negative effect, which may reflect increased female reproductive competition during summer. These results argue that females are selective in their choice of nursing partners and provide further support that communal nursing with the right partner is adaptive.

  16. Marijuana Usage and Hypnotic Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzini, Louis R.; McDonald, Roy D.

    1973-01-01

    Anonymous self-reported drug usage data and hypnotic susceptibility scores were obtained from 282 college students. Frequent marijuana users (more than 10 times) showed greater susceptibility to hypnosis than nonusers. (Author)

  17. How did partners experience cancer patients' participation in a phase I study? An observational study after a patient's death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenberg, Simone M C H; Peters, Marlies E W J; van der Graaf, Winette T A; Wymenga, Anke N Machteld; Prins, Judith B; van Herpen, Carla M L

    2016-06-01

    It can be assumed that patients' participation in a phase I study will have an important impact on their partners' life. However, evaluation of partners' experiences while patients are undergoing experimental treatment and of their well-being after the patient's death is lacking. We aimed to explore partners' experience of patients' participation in phase I studies and to investigate their well-being after a patient's death. This was an observational study conducted after the patient's death. Partners of deceased patients who had participated in a phase I study completed a questionnaire designed by us for experience evaluation and the Beck Depression Inventory for Primary Care, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Inventory of Traumatic Grief, and the RAND-36 Health Survey. The median age of the 58 participating partners was 58 years (range: 51-65), and 67% was female. Partners reported negative effects on patients' quality of life, but only 5% of partners regretted patients' participation. Approximately two years after the patients' death, 19% of partners scored for depression, 36% for psychological distress, and 46% for complicated grief, and partners generally scored significantly lower on social and mental functioning compared to normative comparators. Although partners reported negative consequences on patients' quality of life, most did not regret patients' participation in the phase I studies. Prevalence of depression, psychological distress, and complicated grief seemed important problems after a patient's death, and these must be considered when shaping further support for partners of patients participating in phase I trials.

  18. "Program for Partners": Support Groups for Partners of Adults with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimarolli, Verena; Sussman-Skalka, Carol; Goodman, Caryn

    2004-01-01

    This study of time-limited support groups attended by partners of individuals with visual impairments found that participation increased the attendees' knowledge of their visually impaired partners' situations, improved the quality of communication between the partners, and reduced the sighted partners' negative appraisal of their role.

  19. Intimate partner femicide in South Africa in 1999 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahams, Naeemah; Mathews, Shanaaz; Martin, Lorna J; Lombard, Carl; Jewkes, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Death is the most extreme consequence of intimate partner violence. Female homicide studies with data on the perpetrator-victim relationship can provide insights. We compare the results of two South African national studies of female homicide with similar sampling done 10 y apart. We conducted a retrospective national survey using a weighted cluster design of a proportionate random sample of 38 mortuaries to identify homicides committed in 2009. We abstracted victim data from mortuary and autopsy reports, and perpetrator data from police interviews. We compared homicides of women 14 y and older in 2009 with previously published data collected with the same methodology for homicides committed in 1999. The study found that the rate of female homicide per 100,000 female population in 2009 was 12.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.3, 16.5), compared to 24.7 (95% CI: 17.7, 31.6) in 1999. The incidence rate ratio of 0.54 (95% CI: 0.20, 0.84) reflects a significantly lower rate in 2009. The rate of intimate partner femicide was 5.6/100,000 in 2009 versus 8.8/100,000 in 1999, with an incidence rate ratio of 0.63 (95% CI: 0.24, 1.02), indicating no difference between rates. Logistic regression analysis of homicide characteristics showed that the odds ratio of suspected rape among non-intimate femicides in 2009 compared to 1999 was 2.61 (95% CI: 1.23, 4.08) and among intimate partner femicides it was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.50, 1.42). The OR of homicide by gunshot was 0.54 (95% CI: 0.30, 0.99) in 2009 versus 1999. There was a significant drop in convictions of perpetrators of non-intimate femicide in 2009 versus 1999 (OR = 0.32 [95% CI: 0.19, 0.53]). Limitations of the study include the relatively small sample size and having only two time points. Female homicide in South Africa was lower in 2009 than 1999, but intimate partner femicide and suspected rape homicide rates were not statistically different. The cause of the difference is unknown. The findings suggest that South Africa

  20. Intimate partner femicide in South Africa in 1999 and 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeemah Abrahams

    Full Text Available Death is the most extreme consequence of intimate partner violence. Female homicide studies with data on the perpetrator-victim relationship can provide insights. We compare the results of two South African national studies of female homicide with similar sampling done 10 y apart.We conducted a retrospective national survey using a weighted cluster design of a proportionate random sample of 38 mortuaries to identify homicides committed in 2009. We abstracted victim data from mortuary and autopsy reports, and perpetrator data from police interviews. We compared homicides of women 14 y and older in 2009 with previously published data collected with the same methodology for homicides committed in 1999. The study found that the rate of female homicide per 100,000 female population in 2009 was 12.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.3, 16.5, compared to 24.7 (95% CI: 17.7, 31.6 in 1999. The incidence rate ratio of 0.54 (95% CI: 0.20, 0.84 reflects a significantly lower rate in 2009. The rate of intimate partner femicide was 5.6/100,000 in 2009 versus 8.8/100,000 in 1999, with an incidence rate ratio of 0.63 (95% CI: 0.24, 1.02, indicating no difference between rates. Logistic regression analysis of homicide characteristics showed that the odds ratio of suspected rape among non-intimate femicides in 2009 compared to 1999 was 2.61 (95% CI: 1.23, 4.08 and among intimate partner femicides it was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.50, 1.42. The OR of homicide by gunshot was 0.54 (95% CI: 0.30, 0.99 in 2009 versus 1999. There was a significant drop in convictions of perpetrators of non-intimate femicide in 2009 versus 1999 (OR = 0.32 [95% CI: 0.19, 0.53]. Limitations of the study include the relatively small sample size and having only two time points.Female homicide in South Africa was lower in 2009 than 1999, but intimate partner femicide and suspected rape homicide rates were not statistically different. The cause of the difference is unknown. The findings suggest that

  1. Intimate Partner Femicide in South Africa in 1999 and 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahams, Naeemah; Mathews, Shanaaz; Martin, Lorna J.; Lombard, Carl; Jewkes, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Background Death is the most extreme consequence of intimate partner violence. Female homicide studies with data on the perpetrator–victim relationship can provide insights. We compare the results of two South African national studies of female homicide with similar sampling done 10 y apart. Methods and Findings We conducted a retrospective national survey using a weighted cluster design of a proportionate random sample of 38 mortuaries to identify homicides committed in 2009. We abstracted victim data from mortuary and autopsy reports, and perpetrator data from police interviews. We compared homicides of women 14 y and older in 2009 with previously published data collected with the same methodology for homicides committed in 1999. The study found that the rate of female homicide per 100,000 female population in 2009 was 12.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.3, 16.5), compared to 24.7 (95% CI: 17.7, 31.6) in 1999. The incidence rate ratio of 0.54 (95% CI: 0.20, 0.84) reflects a significantly lower rate in 2009. The rate of intimate partner femicide was 5.6/100,000 in 2009 versus 8.8/100,000 in 1999, with an incidence rate ratio of 0.63 (95% CI: 0.24, 1.02), indicating no difference between rates. Logistic regression analysis of homicide characteristics showed that the odds ratio of suspected rape among non-intimate femicides in 2009 compared to 1999 was 2.61 (95% CI: 1.23, 4.08) and among intimate partner femicides it was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.50, 1.42). The OR of homicide by gunshot was 0.54 (95% CI: 0.30, 0.99) in 2009 versus 1999. There was a significant drop in convictions of perpetrators of non-intimate femicide in 2009 versus 1999 (OR = 0.32 [95% CI: 0.19, 0.53]). Limitations of the study include the relatively small sample size and having only two time points. Conclusions Female homicide in South Africa was lower in 2009 than 1999, but intimate partner femicide and suspected rape homicide rates were not statistically different. The cause of the difference is

  2. Maternal Re-Partnering and New-Partner Fertility: Associations with Nonresident Father Investments in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Lawrence M; Cancian, Maria; Meyer, Daniel R

    2012-02-01

    Research suggests that paternal re-partnering and new-partner fertility are associated with decreased nonresident father investments in children. Few studies, however, have examined the influence of maternal re-partnering and new-partner births on nonresident father investments. We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine associations of maternal re-partnering (through cohabitation or marriage with a new partner) and new-partner births with nonresident father visitation and child support payments. Results suggest that maternal re-partnering is associated with a decrease in both yearly father-child contact and child support received by the mother. New-partner fertility for mothers who are co-residing with a partner is associated with an additional decrease in monthly father-child contact, but does not have an additional influence on yearly father-child contact or child support receipt.

  3. Intimate partner violence and the meaning of love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marilyn; Nunley, Barbara; Martin, Evelyn

    2013-06-01

    Despite physical, emotional, verbal, and sexual abuse from their partner, many women remain in an abusive relationship, often proclaiming to love the one who is hurting them. Nineteen females who had experienced intimate partner violence were interviewed and asked to share their experiences and describe their meaning of love. An analysis of the transcripts was done using qualitative content analysis. With this approach, the contents of the verbal data were summarized and arranged in three major categories: (1) What love is not; (2) Attributes of a loving relationship; and (3) Attachment to the relationship. The findings demonstrate a woman's clear recognition of being in an abusive relationship, yearning to be truly loved, but often finding herself unable to detach from the relationship.

  4. Pupil-mimicry conditions trust in partners: moderation by oxytocin and group membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kret, Mariska E; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    2017-03-15

    Across species, oxytocin, an evolutionarily ancient neuropeptide, facilitates social communication by attuning individuals to conspecifics' social signals, fostering trust and bonding. The eyes have an important signalling function; and humans use their salient and communicative eyes to intentionally and unintentionally send social signals to others, by contracting the muscles around their eyes and pupils. In our earlier research, we observed that interaction partners with dilating pupils are trusted more than partners with constricting pupils. But over and beyond this effect, we found that the pupil sizes of partners synchronize and that when pupils synchronously dilate, trust is further boosted. Critically, this linkage between mimicry and trust was bound to interactions between ingroup members. The current study investigates whether these findings are modulated by oxytocin and sex of participant and partner. Using incentivized trust games with partners from ingroup and outgroup whose pupils dilated, remained static or constricted, this study replicates our earlier findings. It further reveals that (i) male participants withhold trust from partners with constricting pupils and extend trust to partners with dilating pupils, especially when given oxytocin rather than placebo; (ii) female participants trust partners with dilating pupils most, but this effect is blunted under oxytocin; (iii) under oxytocin rather than placebo, pupil dilation mimicry is weaker and pupil constriction mimicry stronger; and (iv) the link between pupil constriction mimicry and distrust observed under placebo disappears under oxytocin. We suggest that pupil-contingent trust is parochial and evolved in social species in and because of group life. © 2017 The Authors.

  5. Effects of administered alcohol on intimate partner interactions in a conflict resolution paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Maria; Crane, Cory A; Quigley, Brian M; Levitt, Ash; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2014-03-01

    Although couples' alcohol use has been associated with intimate partner aggression and poorer marital functioning, few studies have examined the proximal effects of alcohol on couple interactions. The current experimental study examined the effects of alcohol, administered independently to male and female intimate partners, on positive and negative interaction behaviors within a naturalistic conflict resolution paradigm. Married and cohabiting couples (n = 152) were recruited from the community and each partner randomly assigned to receive either alcohol (target dose: .08 mg/kg) or no alcohol. They engaged in two 15-minute interactions regarding current disagreements in their relationship, one before and one after beverage administration. Videotaped interactions were coded by trained observers using the Rapid Marital Interaction Coding System, and positive and negative interaction behaviors were analyzed using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model. Participants displayed decreased negativity and increased positivity following alcohol consumption when their partners were sober but no differences in negativity or positivity when their partners also consumed alcohol. There were no gender differences. Although participants with a history of perpetrating intimate partner aggression displayed more negativity, prior aggression did not interact with beverage condition. The immediate effects of alcohol consumption on couple interaction behaviors appeared more positive than negative. Contrary to hypotheses, congruent partner drinking had neither particularly positive nor particularly negative effects. These unique findings represent a rare glimpse into the immediate consequences of alcohol consumption on couple interaction and stand in contrast to its delayed or long-term effects.

  6. Female Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Transplant Vision Facts and Myths Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Female Reproductive System Print A ... or sperm. continue Parts of the Female Reproductive System Unlike the male, the human female has a ...

  7. Intimate partner aggression and women's work outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Manon Mireille; Barling, Julian; Turner, Nick

    2014-10-01

    Using conservation of resources theory, we examined the relationship between intimate partner aggression enacted against heterosexual women and 3 types of work-related outcomes for these women: withdrawal while at work (i.e., cognitive distraction, work neglect), withdrawal from work (i.e., partial absenteeism, intentions to quit), and performance. In Study 1, we compared withdrawal both at and from work across 3 clinically categorized groups of women (n = 50), showing that experiencing physical aggression is related to higher work neglect. We replicated and extended these findings in Study 2 using a community sample of employed women (n = 249) by considering the incremental variance explained by both physical aggression and psychological aggression on these same outcomes. Results showed that physical aggression predicted higher levels of withdrawal both at and from work, with psychological aggression predicting additional variance in partial absenteeism over and above the effects of physical aggression. Study 3 extended the model to include academic performance as an outcome in a sample of female college students (n = 122) in dating relationships. Controlling for the women's conscientiousness, psychological aggression predicted lower academic performance after accounting for the effects of physical aggression. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of these results, as well as directions for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Trajectories of Intimate Partner Violence Victimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M. Swartout

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purposes of this study were to assess the extent to which latent trajectories of female intimate partner violence (IPV victimization exist; and, if so, use negative childhood experiences to predict trajectory membership.Methods: We collected data from 1,575 women at 5 time-points regarding experiences during adolescence and their 4 years of college. We used latent class growth analysis to fit a series of personcentered, longitudinal models ranging from 1 to 5 trajectories. Once the best-fitting model was selected, we used negative childhood experience variables—sexual abuse, physical abuse, and witnessing domestic violence—to predict most-likely trajectory membership via multinomial logistic regression.Results: A 5-trajectory model best fit the data both statistically and in terms of interpretability. The trajectories across time were interpreted as low or no IPV, low to moderate IPV, moderate to low IPV, high to moderate IPV, and high and increasing IPV, respectively. Negative childhood experiences differentiated trajectory membership, somewhat, with childhood sexual abuse as a consistent predictor of membership in elevated IPV trajectories.Conclusion: Our analyses show how IPV risk changes over time and in different ways. These differential patterns of IPV suggest the need for prevention strategies tailored for women that consider victimization experiences in childhood and early adulthood. [West J Emerg Med. 2012;13(3:272–277.

  9. Measurement and Relation between Received and Exerted Violence against Partner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Moral de la Rubia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A female victimization model is often assumed in the study of couple violence, even in general population. In Mexico, a questionnaire of couple violence has been developed. This instrument evaluates suffered and exerted violence. The aims of this paper were to contrast the factor structure of this questionnaire, calculate its internal consistency, describe its distributions, compare means of violence between both sexes and between persons who live or not with their partners, and study the relationship between received and exerted violence. A non-experimental research with a trans-sectional design was performed. The questionnaire was applied to a non probability sample of 223 women and 177 men with heterosexual couples from general population. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were used for data analysis. The factor structure of received violence scale was one-dimensional, and the one of exerted violence scale was two-dimensional. Both sexes reported to exert violence with the same frequency, but men complained to receive violence with more frequency than women. Persons who live with their partners reported to receive more violence and to exert more non-psychological violence than persons who do not live with their partners. The correlations between received and exercised violence were moderate. A recursive model of violent reaction showed a fit to data from good to adequate, and had good properties of invariance between both sexes, and between persons who live or not with their partners. It is concluded that the questionnaire has good properties of factor structure and internal consistency, and data refute a model of female victimization.

  10. To punish or to leave: distinct cognitive processes underlie partner control and partner choice behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin W Martin

    Full Text Available When a cooperative partner defects, at least two types of response are available: Punishment, aimed at modifying behavior, and ostracism, aimed at avoiding further social interaction with the partner. These options, termed partner control and partner choice, have been distinguished at behavioral and evolutionary levels. However, little work has compared their cognitive bases. Do these disparate behaviors depend on common processes of moral evaluation? Specifically, we assess whether they show identical patterns of dependence on two key dimensions of moral evaluation: A person's intentions, and the outcomes that they cause. We address this issue in a "trembling hand" economic game. In this game, an allocator divides a monetary stake between themselves and a responder based on a stochastic mechanism. This allows for dissociations between the allocator's intent and the actual outcome. Responders were either given the opportunity to punish or reward the allocator (partner control or to switch to a different partner for a subsequent round of play (partner choice. Our results suggest that partner control and partner choice behaviors are supported by distinct underlying cognitive processes: Partner control exhibits greater sensitivity to the outcomes a partner causes, while partner choice is influenced almost exclusively by a partner's intentions. This cognitive dissociation can be understood in light of the unique adaptive functions of partner control and partner choice.

  11. Having multiple sexual partners among Iranian Injection Drug Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin eAssari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transmission of HIV from intra-venous drug users (IDUs to the community occurs predominantly through high-risk sexual behaviors. Limited information exists regarding the high-risk sexual behaviors of IDUs in Iran. Aim. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with having multiple sexual partners among Iranian IDUs. Methods. This is a national survey on drug-dependent adults. Participants were sampled from medical centers, prisons, and streets of capitals of 29 provinces in Iran, between May 2007 and February 2008. We analyzed data of 1,416 current IDUs. Socio-demographics and drug use characteristics were entered into a binary logistic regression model to determine predictors of having multiple sexual partners. Results. Having multiple sexual partners in the past or at the time of survey was reported by 56.4% of Iranian IDUs. Multivariate analysis showed that the likelihood of having multiple sexual partners in IDUs decreased by being married (odds ratio [OR], 0.38; P < .001 and increased by female gender (OR, 13.44; P = .02, having illegal income (OR, 1.72; P = .003, higher monthly family income (OR, 1.01; P = .003, pleasure, curiosity, and recreation as cause of first drug use (OR, 1.37; P = .04, ruins as usual place for injection (OR, 1.89; P = .001, and history of syringe sharing (OR, 1.50; P = .02. Conclusions. Having multiple sexual partners was reported by majority of Iranian IDUs, and this was linked to socio-demographics, initiation data, and other risk behaviors. This information should be considered in prevention efforts to reduce sexual transmission of HIV infection in Iran.

  12. Antifungal susceptibility and test for cure of candida species among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to determine the antifungal susceptibility pattern and test for cure of Candida species among women of child bearing age who visited the General Hospital Onitsha, Nigeria with symptoms suggestive of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis (VVC). Materials and Methods: Eight hundred and seventy six female ...

  13. Susceptibility to DDT and pyrethroids, and detection of knockdown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Newly emerged female mosquitoes of two to five days old were selected and exposed to DDT 4%, Permethrin 1% and Deltamethrin 0.05%, the WHO diagnostic doses. These adult mosquitoes were from larvae of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato collected from rural and urban settings and reared in an insectary. A susceptible ...

  14. Gender Differences in Cancer Susceptibility: An Inadequately Addressed Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorak, M. Tevfik; Karpuzoglu, Ebru

    2012-01-01

    The gender difference in cancer susceptibility is one of the most consistent findings in cancer epidemiology. Hematologic malignancies are generally more common in males and this can be generalized to most other cancers. Similar gender differences in non-malignant diseases including autoimmunity, are attributed to hormonal or behavioral differences. Even in early childhood, however, where these differences would not apply, there are differences in cancer incidence between males and females. In childhood, few cancers are more common in females, but overall, males have higher susceptibility. In Hodgkin lymphoma, the gender ratio reverses toward adolescence. The pattern that autoimmune disorders are more common in females, but cancer and infections in males suggests that the known differences in immunity may be responsible for this dichotomy. Besides immune surveillance, genome surveillance mechanisms also differ in efficiency between males and females. Other obvious differences include hormonal ones and the number of X chromosomes. Some of the differences may even originate from exposures during prenatal development. This review will summarize well-documented examples of gender effect in cancer susceptibility, discuss methodological issues in exploration of gender differences, and present documented or speculated mechanisms. The gender differential in susceptibility can give important clues for the etiology of cancers and should be examined in all genetic and non-genetic association studies. PMID:23226157

  15. The etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of urinary tract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of urinary tract infections at a private Nigerian teaching hospital in South West Nigeria. ... The risk factors for UTI were female gender (p = 0.00), Diabetes mellitus (p = 0.03) and genitourinary surgery (p = 0.04). Effective antibiotics in-vitro to Escherichia coli were ...

  16. Where are the men? Targeting male partners in preventing mother-to-child HIV transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Kevin; Makin, Jennifer D; Forsyth, Brian W C

    2013-01-01

    Involvement of male partners may increase adherence to and improve outcomes of programs to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT). Greater understanding of factors impeding male voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT) is needed. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Tshwane, South Africa. Semi-structured interviews were completed with men whose partners had recently been pregnant. Of 124 men who participated, 94% believed male HIV testing was important, but 40% had never been tested. Of those tested, 32% were tested during the pregnancy, while 37% were tested afterward. Fifty-eight percent of men reported that their female partners had disclosed their test results during pregnancy. A man's likelihood of testing during pregnancy was associated with prior discussion of testing in PMTCT, knowing the female partner had tested, and her disclosure of the test result (all ptesting rates, 74% of the men reported they would respond favorably to a written invitation for VCT from their partners. Based on themes that emerged during the interviews, six partner invitation cards to encourage male involvement in PMTCT were designed. Responses to the cards were elicited from 158 men and 409 women. One invitation card framed by the themes of fatherhood and the baby was selected by 41% of men and 31% of women as the most likely for women undergoing PMTCT to bring to their male partners and the most successful at encouraging men to be tested. In conclusion, this study found that a substantial proportion of men whose partners were recently pregnant had never been tested themselves; of those who had tested, most had done so only after the pregnancy. Encouraging partner communication and clinic attendance using an invitation card could facilitate increased male testing and participation in PMTCT.

  17. Prioritizing partners across the continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maly, Mary Beth; Lawrence, Susan; Jordan, M Kim; Davies, William J; Weiss, Michael J; Deitrick, Lynn; Salas-Lopez, Debbie

    2012-11-01

    With the advent of accountable care organizations, bundled payments, value-based purchasing, and penalties for preventable hospital readmission, tight connections and collaboration across the care continuum will become critical to achieve successful patient outcomes and to reduce the cost of care delivery. Lehigh Valley Health Network (LVHN), the largest provider of health services in eastern Pennsylvania, set out on a journey to build collaborative relationships with skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) in their eastern Pennsylvania community. LVHN desired SNF partners with mutual interests in improving quality of care and lowering costs of delivery where possible. Recognizing that not all SNFs are alike, LVHN developed a Collaborative Partner Prioritization Tool to assess and prioritize skilled nursing facilities in an effort to determine those that would make the best collaborators. SNFs were reviewed based on their volume of mutual patients, quality of care delivery, and their perceived willingness to align with LVHN. Six variables were used to assess these facilities, including (1) patient discharge destination volume by SNF; (2) 30-day all-cause readmission rate to an LVHN hospital; (3) Medicare's Nursing Home Compare 5-Star Overall Rating; (4) the health network affiliation of the SNF's medical director; (5) the level of LVHN-employed or -affiliated physician presence at the SNF; and (6) the SNF's current participation in LVHN-sponsored programs and meetings. Through use of the Collaborative Partner Prioritization Tool, it was discovered that roughly 70% of LVHN patients who required skilled nursing care following their inpatient stay received care at 1 of 20 SNFs. Of these, 5 facilities performed well on the 6-variable assessment, deeming them the "Tier 1 Facilities" to initially focus collaborative efforts. LVHN has strategically deployed physician resources and has increased physician presence at these "Tier 1 SNFs." These facilities have also gained remote

  18. Gender Differences in Susceptibility to Smoking among Patients with Lung Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeong Seon Ryu; ; Sang Hoon Jeon; Jung Soo Kim; Jung Hwan Lee; Seong Hyun Kim; Ji Taek Hong; Ju Hong Jeong; Ji Joong Jeong; Myung Dong Lee; Sang Joon Min; Hae Seong Nam; Jae Hwa Cho; Seung Min Kw

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims: To determine whether female smokers are more or less susceptible to the detrimental pulmonaryfunction effects of smoking when compared to male smokers among patients with lung cancer. Methods...

  19. Magnetic susceptibilities of minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Sam; Brownfield, I.K.

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic separation of minerals is a topic that is seldom reported in the literature for two reasons. First, separation data generally are byproducts of other projects; and second, this study requires a large amount of patience and is unusually tedious. Indeed, we suspect that most minerals probably are never investigated for this property. These data are timesaving for mineralogists who concentrate mono-mineralic fractions for chemical analysis, age dating, and for other purposes. The data can certainly be used in the ore-beneficiation industries. In some instances, magnetic-susceptibility data may help in mineral identification, where other information is insufficient. In past studies of magnetic separation of minerals, (Gaudin and Spedden, 1943; Tille and Kirkpatrick, 1956; Rosenblum, 1958; Rubinstein and others, 1958; Flinter, 1959; Hess, 1959; Baker, 1962; Meric and Peyre, 1963; Rojas and others, 1965; and Duchesne, 1966), the emphasis has been on the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic ranges of extraction. For readers interested in the history of magnetic separation of minerals, Krumbein and Pettijohn (1938, p. 344-346) indicated nine references back to 1848. The primary purpose of this paper is to report the magnetic-susceptibility data on as many minerals as possible, similar to tables of hardness, specific gravity, refractive indices, and other basic physical properties of minerals. A secondary purpose is to demonstrate that the total and best extraction ranges are influenced by the chemistry of the minerals. The following notes are offered to help avoid problems in separating a desired mineral concentrate from mixtures of mineral grains.

  20. Alcohol increases hypnotic susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmens-Wheeler, Rebecca; Dienes, Zoltán; Duka, Theodora

    2013-09-01

    One approach to hypnosis suggests that for hypnotic experience to occur frontal lobe activity must be attenuated. For example, cold control theory posits that a lack of awareness of intentions is responsible for the experience of involuntariness and/or the subjective reality of hypnotic suggestions. The mid-dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex and the ACC are candidate regions for such awareness. Alcohol impairs frontal lobe executive function. This study examined whether alcohol affects hypnotisability. We administered 0.8 mg/kg of alcohol or a placebo to 32 medium susceptible participants. They were subsequently hypnotised and given hypnotic suggestions. All participants believed they had received some alcohol. Participants in the alcohol condition were more susceptible to hypnotic suggestions than participants in the placebo condition. Impaired frontal lobe activity facilitates hypnotic responding, which supports theories postulating that attenuation of executive function facilitates hypnotic response, and contradicts theories postulating that hypnotic response involves enhanced inhibitory, attentional or other executive function. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. CHD's Impact on Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sexual partners because they don't protect against sexually transmitted diseases, which can result in endocarditis. In addition, women with complex heart disease, cyanosis or pulmonary hypertension ...

  2. Partner notification in the management of sexually transmitted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Barriers to partner notification included partners being out of town (44.6%) fear of quarrels and violence from partners (32.5%) and casual partners (15.1%) whose sex partners were unknown. Conclusion: Counseling and understanding of STIs patients on the need to treat all sexual partners is pivotal to the success of ...

  3. Sexual Communication Between Early Adolescents and Their Dating Partners, Parents, and Best Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widman, Laura; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Helms, Sarah W.; Golin, Carol E.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed early adolescents' sexual communication with dating partners, parents, and best friends about six sexual health topics: condoms, birth control, STDs, HIV/AIDS, pregnancy, and abstinence/waiting. Using a school-based sample of 603 youth (ages = 12–15; 57% female; 46% Caucasian), we examined communication differences across demographic and developmental factors, tested whether communication with parents and best friends was associated with greater communication with partners, and examined associations between communication and condom use. Over half of participants had not discussed any sexual topics with their dating partners (54%), and many had not communicated with parents (29%) or best friends (25%). On average, communication was more frequent among adolescents who were female, African American, older, and sexually active, despite some variation in subgroups across partner, parent, and friend communication. Importantly, communication with parents and friends – and the interaction between parent and friend communication – was associated with increased communication with dating partners. Further, among sexually active youth, increased sexual communication with partners was associated with more frequent condom use. Results highlight the importance of understanding the broader family and peer context surrounding adolescent sexual decision-making and suggest a possible need to tailor sexual communication interventions. PMID:24354655

  4. Sexual communication between early adolescents and their dating partners, parents, and best friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widman, Laura; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Helms, Sarah W; Golin, Carol E; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed early adolescents' sexual communication with dating partners, parents, and best friends about six sexual health topics: condoms, birth control, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), pregnancy, and abstinence/waiting. Using a school-based sample of 603 youth (ages 12 to 15; 57% female; 46% Caucasian), we examined communication differences across demographic and developmental factors, tested whether communication with parents and best friends was associated with greater communication with partners, and examined associations between communication and condom use. More than half of participants had not discussed any sexual topics with their dating partners (54%), and many had not communicated with parents (29%) or best friends (25%). On average, communication was more frequent among adolescents who were female, African American, older, and sexually active, despite some variation in subgroups across partner, parent, and friend communication. Importantly, communication with parents and friends--and the interaction between parent and friend communication--was associated with increased communication with dating partners. Further, among sexually active youth, increased sexual communication with partners was associated with more frequent condom use. Results highlight the importance of understanding the broader family and peer context surrounding adolescent sexual decision making and suggest a possible need to tailor sexual communication interventions.

  5. Trichostatin A (TSA) facilitates formation of partner preference in male prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclot, F; Wang, H; Youssef, C; Liu, Y; Wang, Z; Kabbaj, M

    2016-05-01

    In the socially monogamous prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster), the development of a social bonding is indicated by the formation of partner preference, which involves a variety of environmental and neurochemical factors and brain structures. In a most recent study in female prairie voles, we found that treatment with the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) facilitates the formation of partner preference through up-regulation of oxytocin receptor (OTR) and vasopressin V1a receptor (V1aR) genes expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that TSA treatment also facilitates partner preference formation and alters OTR and V1aR genes expression in the NAcc in male prairie voles. We thus observed that central injection of TSA dose-dependently promoted the formation of partner preference in the absence of mating in male prairie voles. Interestingly, TSA treatment up-regulated OTR, but not V1aR, gene expression in the NAcc similarly as they were affected by mating - an essential process for naturally occurring partner preference. These data, together with others, not only indicate the involvement of epigenetic events but also the potential role of NAcc oxytocin in the regulation of partner preference in both male and female prairie voles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Sexual intimate partner violence as a form of MST: An initial investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Rowena; Foynes, Melissa Ming; Carpenter, S Louisa; Iverson, Katherine M

    2015-11-01

    Military sexual trauma (MST) is known to impact women's health, but little is known about the occurrence of MST perpetrated by a past or current intimate partner. This study identified the occurrence of intimate partner violence (IPV)-related MST in a sample of female veterans. We also examined the associations between MST history (no MST history, IPV-related MST, and MST by a nonintimate partner) and mental and physical health symptoms. Participants were 369 female veteran patients of Department of Veteran Affairs (VA) facilities in the New England region of the United States who completed a larger 2012 mail survey that included validated assessments of MST, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD Checklist) and depressive symptoms (CES-D), and general physical and mental health functioning (Short Form-36). Approximately half (49%) of the women in this sample reported a history of MST, of which 27 (15%) were categorized as IPV-related MST. Few differences in health measures were observed among women with IPV-related MST compared with women who experienced MST by a nonintimate partner or women with no MST history. However, women who experienced IPV-related MST had similarly severe health symptoms as women who reported MST by a nonintimate partner and more severe PTSD symptoms than women without a history of MST. Some women veterans have experienced MST at the hands of an intimate partner and face health impacts. This topic warrants additional attention in clinical and research efforts. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Male and Female Differences in Nonconscious Mimicry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehane, Christine Marie

    2015-01-01

    Previous research on nonconscious mimicry suggests that females mimic their communication partners more often than males. Many studies have investigated the association between mimicry, emotion recognition, and empathy. However, there is a trend in this research area to recruit same-sex samples......, thus neglecting a discussion regarding the role of sex or gender as a moderator of nonconscious mimicry. This article reviews the research on nonconscious mimicry – facial, behavioural, and verbal, in order to identify whether or not there are male and female differences. The results indicate...

  8. Mating modifies female life history in a haplodiploid spider mite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macke, Emilie; Magalhães, Sara; Do-Thi Khanh, Hong; Frantz, Adrien; Facon, Benoît; Olivieri, Isabelle

    2012-05-01

    Mating usually modifies females' resource allocation pattern, often as a result of conflicts between male and female partners. Can such a switch occur even in the absence of sexual conflicts? We addressed this issue in the haplodiploid spider mite Tetranychus urticae, whose biology and population structure considerably reduce conflicts between males and females over reproductive decisions. Comparing virgin and mated females, we tested the hypothesis that mated females modify their allocation pattern so as to maximize their probability of producing daughters. Mated females produced fewer but larger eggs, resulting in an overall similar reproductive effort but an increased probability of producing daughters, since in this species larger eggs are more likely to be fertilized and thus to become female. Moreover, mated females concentrated their reproduction early in life. Again, this might be a way to produce more daughters, since sperm is more abundant early in life. For virgins, spreading reproductive investment might be a way to save resources to extend life span, thus increasing their probability of encountering a sexual partner. Females with multiple opportunities for mating produced fewer eggs and a less female-biased sex ratio than once-mated females, raising the question of why multiple mating often occurs in this species.

  9. Intimate partner violence in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Doris Williams; Sharps, Phyllis W; Gary, Faye A; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Lopez, Loretta M

    2002-01-01

    Violence against African American women, specifically intimate partner abuse, has a significant impact on their health and well being. Intimate partner femicide and near fatal intimate partner femicide are the major causes of premature death and disabling injuries for African American women. Yet, despite this, there is a paucity of research and interventions specific and culturally relevant for these women. This article focuses on issues relevant to intimate partner violence and abuse against African American women by examining existing empirical studies of prevalence and health outcomes of intimate partner violence against women in general, plus what limited research there is about African American women, specifically. It includes a discussion of specific recommendations for research, practice, education, and policy to reduce and prevent intimate partner violence against African American women.

  10. What makes a nest-building male successful? Male behavior and female care in penduline tits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szentirmai, [No Value; Komdeur, J; Szekely, T; Szentirmai, István

    2005-01-01

    Why do females increase parental effort when caring for the offspring of attractive males? First, attractive males may be poor fathers so that their females are compelled to increase their own contribution in order to fledge some young (the partner-compensation hypothesis). Second, females mated to

  11. Binge drinking and violence against intimate partners in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysova, Aleksandra V; Hines, Denise A

    2008-01-01

    This study is the first to provide information on the association between intimate partner violence (IPV) and binge drinking among Russian university students. Using data from 500 (58% female) university students from the four Russian sites of the International Dating Violence Study, we found gender differences in rates of IPV perpetration and in the association between binge drinking and IPV. Specifically, more females than males perpetrated IPV, and the associations between binge drinking and IPV were stronger for the female students than for the male students. In addition, antisocial traits and behavior (ATSB) were significantly related to both binge drinking and IPV perpetration for males and females. For males, the relatively weak associations between binge drinking and IPV perpetration disappeared once ASTB was accounted for. For females, the relationship decreased but remained significant when ATSB was statistically controlled. Path analyses confirmed that this pattern of relationships would be consistent with ATSB serving as a partial mediator between binge drinking and IPV perpetration. However, other alternative mediation and moderation models for the relationships between binge drinking, IPV perpetration, and ATSB could not be ruled out with this one-wave correlational study.

  12. Are there different types of female orgasm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Robert; Belsky, Jay; Mah, Kenneth; Binik, Yitzchak

    2011-10-01

    In attempt to identify and validate different types of orgasms which females have during sex with a partner, data collected by Mah and Binik (2002) on the dimensional phenomenology of female orgasm were subjected to a typological analysis. A total of 503 women provided adjectival descriptions of orgasms experienced either with a partner (n = 276) or while alone (n = 227). Latent-class analysis revealed four orgasm types which varied systematically in terms of pleasure and sensations engendered. Two types, collectively labelled "good-sex orgasms," received higher pleasure and sensation ratings than solitary-masturbatory ones, whereas two other types, collectively labelled "not-as-good-sex orgasms," received lower ratings. These two higher-order groupings differed on a number of psychological, physical and relationship factors examined for purposes of validating the typology. Evolutionary thinking regarding the function of female orgasm informed discussion of the findings. Future research directions were outlined, especially the need to examine whether the same individual experiences different types of orgasms with partners with different characteristics, as evolutionary theorizing predicts should be the case.

  13. Graphene susceptibility in Holstein model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousavi, Hamze, E-mail: hamze.mousavi@gmail.co [Department of Physics, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nano Science and Nano Technology Research Center, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    We study the effects of the electron-phonon interaction on the temperature dependence of the orbital magnetic susceptibility of monolayer graphene. We use the linear response theory and Green's function formalism within the Holstein Hamiltonian model. The results show that the effects of the electron-phonon interaction on the susceptibility of graphene sheet have different behaviors in two temperature regions. In the low temperature region, susceptibility increases when the electron-phonon coupling strength increases. On the other hand, the susceptibility reduces with increasing the electron-phonon coupling strength in the high temperature region. - Highlights: Effect of electron-phonon interaction on the susceptibility of graphene is studied. Linear response theory and Green's function technique in Holstein model are used. Effect of electron-phonon on susceptibility has different behaviors in two temperature regions.

  14. Find Recycling Facilities Servicing RAD Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    RAD partners help protect the ozone layer and reduce emissions of greenhouse gases by disposing of older, inefficient refrigerated appliances using the best environmental practices and technologies available.

  15. Topological susceptibility from slabs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bietenholz, Wolfgang [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-543, Distrito Federal, C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Forcrand, Philippe de [Institute for Theoretical Physics, ETH Zürich,CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); CERN, Physics Department, TH Unit, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Gerber, Urs [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-543, Distrito Federal, C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo,Edificio C-3, Apdo. Postal 2-82, Morelia, Michoacán, C.P. 58040 (Mexico)

    2015-12-14

    In quantum field theories with topological sectors, a non-perturbative quantity of interest is the topological susceptibility χ{sub t}. In principle it seems straightforward to measure χ{sub t} by means of Monte Carlo simulations. However, for local update algorithms and fine lattice spacings, this tends to be difficult, since the Monte Carlo history rarely changes the topological sector. Here we test a method to measure χ{sub t} even if data from only one sector are available. It is based on the topological charges in sub-volumes, which we denote as slabs. Assuming a Gaussian distribution of these charges, this method enables the evaluation of χ{sub t}, as we demonstrate with numerical results for non-linear σ-models.

  16. Topological Susceptibility from Slabs

    CERN Document Server

    Bietenholz, Wolfgang; Gerber, Urs

    2015-01-01

    In quantum field theories with topological sectors, a non-perturbative quantity of interest is the topological susceptibility chi_t. In principle it seems straightforward to measure chi_t by means of Monte Carlo simulations. However, for local update algorithms and fine lattice spacings, this tends to be difficult, since the Monte Carlo history rarely changes the topological sector. Here we test a method to measure chi_t even if data from only one sector are available. It is based on the topological charges in sub-volumes, which we denote as slabs. Assuming a Gaussian distribution of these charges, this method enables the evaluation of chi_t, as we demonstrate with numerical results for non-linear sigma-models.

  17. An update on female-controlled methods for HIV prevention: Female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For instance, the female reproductive tract is more susceptible to HIV infection than the male reproductive system, and young women are at highest risk of HIV infection due to an immature physiology. Further, sexual violence and gender inequalities frequently play a role in women\\'s and girls\\' ability to practise safer sex.6

  18. Intimate partner femicide-suicides in Ghana: victims, offenders, and incident characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinkrah, Mensah

    2014-09-01

    The present study investigated the scope, nature, and determinants of intimate partner femicide-suicides (IPFS) that occurred in Ghana during 1990 to 2009. All 35 reported cases of intimate partner homicide-suicides with female homicide victims that occurred during the study period were extracted from a major Ghanaian daily newspaper. Findings indicate that offenders were of lower socioeconomic background and tended to be older than their victims. The results further show that shooting with a firearm and hacking with a machete were the primary homicide methods, whereas self-inflicted gunshots and hanging were the dominant suicide methods. Results showed that suspicion of infidelity and sexual jealousy were core contributing factors in arguments, disputes, and altercations that preceded the femicide-suicides. Furthermore, estrangement and threatened divorce or separation by the female intimate partner was a major precipitant of femicide-suicides. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Gender differences in the risk of HIV infection among persons reporting abstinence, monogamy, and multiple sexual partners in northern Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keren Z Landman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Monogamy, together with abstinence, partner reduction, and condom use, is widely advocated as a key behavioral strategy to prevent HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined the association between the number of sexual partners and the risk of HIV seropositivity among men and women presenting for HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT in northern Tanzania. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Clients presenting for HIV VCT at a community-based AIDS service organization in Moshi, Tanzania were surveyed between November 2003 and December 2007. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, reasons for testing, sexual behaviors, and symptoms were collected. Men and women were categorized by number of lifetime sexual partners, and rates of seropositivity were reported by category. Factors associated with HIV seropositivity among monogamous males and females were identified by a multivariate logistic regression model. Of 6,549 clients, 3,607 (55% were female, and the median age was 30 years (IQR 24-40. 939 (25% females and 293 (10% males (p<0.0001 were HIV seropositive. Among 1,244 (34% monogamous females and 423 (14% monogamous males, the risk of HIV infection was 19% and 4%, respectively (p<0.0001. The risk increased monotonically with additional partners up to 45% (p<0.001 and 15% (p<0.001 for women and men, respectively with 5 or more partners. In multivariate analysis, HIV seropositivity among monogamous women was most strongly associated with age (p<0.0001, lower education (p<0.004, and reporting a partner with other partners (p = 0.015. Only age was a significant risk factor for monogamous men (p = 0.0004. INTERPRETATION: Among women presenting for VCT, the number of partners is strongly associated with rates of seropositivity; however, even women reporting lifetime monogamy have a high risk for HIV infection. Partner reduction should be coupled with efforts to place tools in the hands of sexually active women to reduce their risk

  20. Recruiting patients as partners in health research: a qualitative descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vat, Lidewij Eva; Ryan, Devonne; Etchegary, Holly

    2017-01-01

    representative from a national patient organization (7 female) completed semi-structured interviews. Results Recruitment infrastructures available to respondents varied, but could be categorized into three models including the traditional, third-party and directory models. Four categories of recruitment strategies were identified, representing multiple ways of recruiting patient partners: social marketing recruitment, community outreach recruitment, health system recruitment, and partnering recruitment. Conclusions Multiple recruitment strategies were identified for engaging patient partners in research, and some common factors influenced recruitment. Study findings contribute to the evidence base in patient engagement and provide guidance for research teams to help identify potential recruitment methods for their patient partners.

  1. The Role of Depression in the Relationship Between Psychological and Physical Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros-Gomes, Patrícia; Kimmes, Jonathan; Smith, Erika; Cafferky, Bryan; Stith, Sandra; Durtschi, Jared; McCollum, Eric

    2016-10-01

    Physical and psychological intimate partner violence (IPV) are significant public health concerns often associated with negative consequences for individuals, families, and society. Because IPV occurs within an interpersonal relationship, it is important to better understand how each partner's depressive symptoms, marital satisfaction, and psychological and physical IPV are interlinked. The purpose of this study was to identify actor and partner effects in a dyadic data analysis association between marital satisfaction and depressive symptoms, its links to psychological IPV, and then to physical IPV. Guided by the social information processing model, this study has implications for understanding the processes leading to various types of IPV in people seeking couples therapy. Using cross-sectional data from 126 heterosexual couples, we conducted an actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) to test actor and partner effects. Indirect actor and partner effects were also assessed. More depressive symptoms were associated with lower marital satisfaction. More depressive symptoms were generally linked with increased perpetration of psychological and physical IPV. Psychological IPV was associated with an individual's use of physical IPV. Effect sizes were moderate to large in magnitude. Four specific indirect effects were identified from depressive symptoms to psychological IPV to physical IPV. Depressive symptoms may be an important factor related to psychological and physical IPV for males and females. Implications include assessing for and treating depression in both partners, and discussing preferred ways of supporting each other that do not include psychological or physical IPV.

  2. The relationships of college students with their parents, friends and romantic partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatka Cugmas

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study, which included 180 college students from the first three years of study on different faculties, was to investigate the correlations between their relationships (trust, open communication and alienation with their mothers, fathers, friends and romantic partners; correlations between these relationships, attachment style on romantic partners, characteristics of past romantic relationships and openness towards parents and romantic partners. For the purpose of study the relationships with parents, friends and romantic partners we translated and adapted Inventory of parent and peer attachment IPPA (Armsden & Greenberg, 1987. Attachment styles were measured using their descriptions. We developed the scales of characteristics of the subjects' romantic relationships and openness towards their parents and partners. The results showed significant positive relations between subject's quality relationships with his/her partner, secure attachment style, and quality relationships with friends and parent. Subjects with different attachment styles significantly differed in the characteristics of their romantic relationships. The results showed some significant gender differences. Female subjects had more quality relationships with their mothers, friends and partners than male subjects.

  3. Latent Class Analysis of Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration and Victimization among Latino Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grest, Carolina Villamil; Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Gilreath, Tamika; Unger, Jennifer B

    2018-03-01

    While there are known developmental consequences and correlates of intimate partner violence perpetration and victimization, research focused on bidirectional and multiple forms of partner violence among Latino emerging adults is needed. This longitudinal study identified latent classes of intimate partner violence perpetration and victimization patterns among emerging adult Latinos (N = 1060; 60.6% female). A second aim examined acculturation and cumulative substance use correlates in high school, as predictors of intimate partner violence perpetration and victimization classes in emerging adulthood. Average age of participants was 15.5 years in 10th grade and 22.7 years in emerging adulthood. We identified four distinct subgroups of intimate partner violence perpetration and victimization, with 22% of individuals identified in a violence perpetration and victimization subgroup. Cumulative heavy episodic drinking and marijuana use in high school predicted belonging to the psychological bidirectional intimate partner violence group rather than the group with no violence. Cumulative marijuana use in high school, predicted belonging to the sexual bidirectional partner violence group compared to the no violence group. Our study extends the literature across developmental periods among Latino youth. The findings have implications for early adolescent prevention strategies and promotion of healthy intimate relationships.

  4. Sexual Networking and Partner Characteristics Among Single, African, Caribbean, and Black Youth in Windsor, Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jelani; Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor; Bynum, Shalanda; Mihan, Robert

    2017-10-01

    The disproportionate HIV burden shared by African, Caribbean, and Black (ACB) populations in Canada has not been explained by unique sexual behaviors in this population. This study investigates partner selection and sexual networking as potential contributors to HIV vulnerability. The study examines variations in the characteristics of sexual partners and sexual networking across groups based on differences in ethno-religious identity, gender, and length of Canadian residency among single, 16- to 27-year old, heterosexual-identified, ACB individuals living in Windsor, Ontario, Canada. Respondent-driven sampling maximized the representativeness of the sample of 250 (45 % male; 55 % female) youth with penile-vaginal intercourse experience who completed surveys. Logistic regression and analysis of variance compared groups with respect to number of lifetime partners, concurrency of sexual relationships, non-relational and age disparate partnering, and intra-ethnic sexual networking. For vulnerability associated with number of partners, concurrency and non-relational sex, women, newcomers to Canada, and African-Muslim participants were at lower vulnerability for HIV infection than their comparator groups. For vulnerability associated with sexual networking within a group with higher HIV prevalence, women and newcomers to Canada were at higher vulnerability to HIV infection than their comparator groups. There were insufficient data on age disparate partnering to support analysis. These results point to the importance of considering characteristics of partners and sexual networking both in further research and in developing policies and programs to curtail the spread of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.

  5. Differential processing of social chemosignals obtained from potential partners in regards to gender and sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübke, Katrin T; Hoenen, Matthias; Pause, Bettina M

    2012-03-17

    On an individual level, human body odors carry information about whether a person is an eligible mate. The current studies investigate if body odors also transmit information about individuals being potential partners in more general terms, namely in regards to gender and sexual orientation. In study 1, 14 gay and 14 heterosexual men were presented with body odors obtained from potential partners (gay male and heterosexual female body odors, respectively) and heterosexual male body odor as a control. In study 2, 14 lesbian and 14 heterosexual women were presented with lesbian female and heterosexual male body odors representing body odors of potential partners, and heterosexual female body odor as a control. Central nervous processing was analyzed using chemosensory event-related potentials and current source density analysis (64-channel EEG recording). Gay and heterosexual men responded with shorter P2 latencies to the body odors of their preferred sexual partners, and lesbian women responded with shorter P2 latencies to body odors of their preferred gender. In response to heterosexual male body odors, lesbian women displayed the most pronounced P3 amplitude, and distinct neuronal activation in medial frontal and parietal neocortical areas. A similar pattern of neuronal activation was observed in gay men when presented with heterosexual male body odor. Both the early processing advantage (P2) for desirable partners' body odors as well as the enhanced evaluative processing (P3, CSD) of undesirable partners' body odors suggest that human body odors indeed carry information about individuals being potential partners in terms of gender and sexual orientation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Individual, partner, and partnership level correlates of anal sex among youth in Baltimore City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Luciana E; Lilleston, Pamela S; Jennings, Jacky M; Sherman, Susan G

    2015-04-01

    Anal sex is an efficient mode of STI transmission and studies indicate that anal sex is common among heterosexuals, including adolescents. We examined the association between individual, partner, and sexual partnership-level characteristics with anal sex among a household survey of 263 individuals aged 15-24 years in Baltimore City, Maryland. We used weighted multiple logistic regression to examine correlates of anal sex in a heterosexual partnership by gender. Twenty-nine percent of males and 15% of females reported anal sex in a partnership in the past 6 months. For males, anal sex was associated with having two or more partners in the past 3 months (AOR = 13.93, 95% CI 3.87-50.12), having been tested for HIV (AOR = 0.30, 95% CI 0.12-0.72), and oral sex with a partner (AOR = 8.79, 95% CI 1.94-39.78). For females, anal sex was associated with reporting having a main partner (AOR = 6.74, 95% CI 1.74-23.65), partner meeting place (AOR = 3.03, 95% CI 1.04-8.82), partner history of STI (AOR = 0.20, 95% CI 0.05-0.85), and oral sex with a partner (AOR = 8.47, 95% CI 1.08-66.25). Anal sex was associated with inconsistent condom use for both males (OR = 5.77, 95% CI 1.68-19.79) and females (OR = 5.16, 95% CI 1.46-18.30). We conclude that anal sex is a prevalent risk behavior among heterosexual youth and is associated with a range of factors at the individual and partnership levels. These findings provide support for comprehensive sex education that includes information about anal sex; findings from this study can inform public health campaigns targeting youth at risk for STIs.

  7. Mental representation of subjective pleasure of partnered experiences in women's brain conveyed through event-related fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco; Ortigue, Stephanie

    2009-11-01

    Functional neuroimaging demonstrates a combined role of central and peripheral mechanisms in human sexual response. Nevertheless, inter-individual subjective differences remain unresolved. Since Freud, controversy remains regarding the similarity of each type of partnered sexual pleasure experience. The authors hypothesized that the neural networks sustaining the memory of all types of subjective partnered sexual pleasure experiences might interact with the insula, a key brain area for integrating somatic experiences. Using a 3T Phillips MRI scanner, brain activity elicited when 29 healthy female volunteers were exposed to subliminal presentation of their sexual partner's names, an approach to investigating the brain network sustaining the mental representation of their partner, was assessed. This brain activity was compared with scores from the Female Sexual Functioning Index on satisfaction and the typologies of their partnered orgasmic experiences. No orgasmic responses were recorded during fMRI. This approach allowed the investigation of the memory of the different types of stored partnered orgasmic experiences. The memory of partnered pleasure obtained by clitoral stimulation correlated with brain responses in the left insula only, while that of partnered pleasure by sexual intercourse correlated with the left insula and also with the right superior temporal gyrus, thalamus, and right inferior prefrontal gyrus. The results suggest that the memory of sexual experiences is integrated a posteriori at different levels (i.e. by different neural networks) in a woman's brain. The authors believe these findings will open a new avenue towards understanding inter- and intra-individual differences in woman's sexual mind.

  8. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Sociodemographic Factors Prospectively Associated with Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration Among South African Heterosexual Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelman, Anne M; Bellamy, Scarlett L; Jemmott, John B; Icard, Larry; O'Leary, Ann; Ali, Samira; Ngwane, Zolani; Makiwane, Monde

    2017-04-01

    Intimate partner violence directed at women by men continues to be a global concern. However, little is known about the factors associated with perpetrating intimate partner violence among heterosexual men. History of childhood sexual abuse and other sociodemographic variables were examined as potential factors associated with severe intimate partner violence perpetration toward women in a sample of heterosexual men in South Africa. Longitudinal logistic generalized estimating equations examined associations of childhood sexual abuse and sociodemographic variables at baseline with intimate partner violence perpetration at subsequent time points. Among participants with a steady female partner, 21.81 % (190/ 871) reported perpetrating intimate partner violence in the past year at baseline. Having a history of childhood sexual abuse (p violence perpetration in the past year at subsequent time points. With high levels of recent severe physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence perpetration in South Africa, comprehensive interventions are urgently needed. To more fully address gender-based violence, it is important to address associated factors, including exposure to childhood sexual abuse that could impact behavior later in life and that have long-lasting and deleterious effects on men and their female partners.

  9. Gender-Specific Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Homicide: A Nationwide Register-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Gronroos, Matti; Putkonen, Hanna; Eronen, Markku; Lindberg, Nina; Hakkanen-Nyholm, Helina

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined gender differences in intimate partner homicide (IPH) and offender characteristics with the focus on putative gender-specific risk factors in a nationwide consecutive sample of homicide offenders. Data on all offenders (N = 642; 91 females, 551 males) convicted of homicide and subjected to a forensic psychiatric…

  10. Influence of Parents, Peers, and Partners on the Contraceptive Use of College Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Linda; Spanier, Graham B.

    1978-01-01

    This study investigates the relative influences of parents, peers, and partners on the contraceptive use of college men and women. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by a nonprobability, purposive sample of 434 never-married, sexually active males and females between the ages of 17 and 22 years. (Author)

  11. Prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence Reported by Homeless Youth in Columbus, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesnick, Natasha; Erdem, Gizem; Collins, Jennifer; Patton, Rikki; Buettner, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    No study to date has reported intimate partner violence (IPV) experiences among homeless youth. This study sought to uncover lifetime prevalence estimates of physical, sexual, and emotional IPV among a nonprobability sample of 180 homeless male and female youth in Columbus, Ohio. To that aim, self-reported IPV and the association between IPV and…

  12. Intimate Partner Violence in Young Adult Dating, Cohabitating, and Married Drinking Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersma, Jacquelyn D.; Cleveland, H. Harrington; Herrera, Veronica; Fischer, Judith L.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examined intimate partner violence (IPV) and drinking partnerships in 741 young adults in male-female dating, cohabitating, and married relationships. Cluster analyses revealed four similar kinds of drinking partnerships: (a) congruent light and infrequent, (b)…

  13. Women's finger sensitivity correlates with partnered sexual behavior but not solitary masturbation frequencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brody, S.; Fischer, A.H.; Hess, U.

    2008-01-01

    In a sample of 97 healthy Dutch female university students, women with greater finger tactile sensitivity (von Frey-type filaments) engaged more in partnered (but not solitary masturbation) sexual behavior. Orgasmic responses in the past 30 days were not correlated with finger sensitivity. Results

  14. Coaching Communication Partners: A Preliminary Investigation of Communication Intervention during Mealtime in Rett Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolotta, Theresa E.; Remshifski, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) occurs primarily in females and is characterized by deficits in cognition, communication, hand use and ambulation. This quasi-experimental study explored the use of a coaching program to increase communicative interactions between girls with RTT and their communication partners. Communication coaching strategies were provided…

  15. Mates of Competitive Females: The Relationships between Female Aggression, Mate Quality, and Parental Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristal E. Cain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Though rarely mate-limited, females in a wide variety of species express traits commonly associated with mate competition in males. Recent research has shown that these competitive traits (ornaments, armaments, and intense aggression often function in the context of female-female competition for nonsexual reproductive resources and are often positively related to reproductive success. Increased success could occur because competitive females acquire limited ecological resources (nest sites, territories, etc. or because they pair with high quality males, that is, older, more ornamented, or more parental males. Further, males paired with aggressive/low care females may compensate by increasing their paternal efforts. Here, I examined patterns of social pairing and parental care in free-living dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis, a biparental songbird. I found no detectable relationship between female competitive behavior (aggression and male quality (age, size, or ornamentation or male provisioning. Thus, neither of the mate choice hypotheses (females compete for males or males prefer aggressive females was supported. Instead, these results suggest that females compete for nonsexual resources and mate quality is a secondary consideration. I also found a negative relationship between male and female provisioning rates, suggesting that partners adjust their level of parental effort in response to their partner’s efforts.

  16. Physiological and perceptual responses to Latin partnered social dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domene, Pablo A; Moir, Hannah J; Pummell, Elizabeth; Easton, Chris

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological and perceptual responses to Latin partnered social dance to salsa music when performed as a self-selected activity within an ecologically valid setting. Eighteen non-professional adult Latin dancers undertook a laboratory-based graded exercise test for determination of maximal oxygen uptake and maximal heart rate. The dancers then attended two Latin partnered social dance sessions in established salsa venues in London, UK over a 2 wk period. Physiological data were collected using a wrist-worn ActiGraph wGT3X+ accelerometer with accompanying heart rate monitor. Perceived benefits of dance were assessed via the Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale, and measurement of state intrinsic motivation during dance was undertaken using the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory. Total step count during 2h of dance was not different (t16 = -.39, p = .71) between females and males (9643 ± 1735 step); however, women expended a significantly lower (t16 = -2.57, p dance was psychological outlook. Latin partnered social dance to salsa music demands moderate to vigorous physical activity intensity levels, and further, fosters interest, enjoyment, and a positive psychological outlook among novice to advanced adult Latin dancers taking part primarily for leisure purposes. These findings may be of use for those interested in the efficacy of Latin social dancing as an expressive medium for the promotion of community health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Experiences of physical violence by women living with intimate partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C. Madzimbalale

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Intimate partner violence directed towards females by male partners is a common significant global public health problem. Most victims of physical aggression such as women and children are subjected to multiple acts of violence over extended periods of time, suffering from more than one type of abuse, for example physical which is more symbolic and evidenced by scars. The purpose of this study is to increase understanding of the symbols of physical violence as experienced by women who live with intimate partners in the Vhembe district of the Limpopo Province. The research design of this study was qualitative, exploratory and descriptive in nature. The accessible population was those participants who used the trauma unit A in a particular hospital. Seven women comprised the sample of the study. In-depth individual interviews were conducted exploring the women’s experiences in the context of physical violence. From the data collected all seven participants experienced some form of physical violence which resulted in permanent deformity. They experienced some form of battering such as kicking, stabbing, burning, fracturing, strangling and choking. Recommendations were made that health care providers are encouraged to implement screening for physical violence, to provide appropriate interventions if assault is identified and to provide appropriate education regarding, employment opportunities, legal literacy, and rights to inheritance. Human rights education and information regarding domestic violence should be provided to them because this is their absolute right (UNICEF, 2000:14.

  18. Alcoholism and intimate partner violence: effects on children's psychosocial adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klostermann, Keith; Kelley, Michelle L

    2009-12-01

    It is widely recognized that alcoholism and relationship violence often have serious consequences for adults; however, children living with alcoholic parents are susceptible to the deleterious familial environments these caregivers frequently create. Given the prevalence of IPV among patients entering substance abuse treatment, coupled with the negative familial consequences associated with these types of behavior, this review explores what have been, to this point, two divergent lines of research: (a) the effects of parental alcoholism on children, and (b) the effects of children's exposure to intimate partner violence. In this article, the interrelationship between alcoholism and IPV is examined, with an emphasis on the developmental impact of these behaviors (individually and together) on children living in the home and offers recommendations for future research directions.

  19. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x756 ... Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing ...

  20. [Health status and intimate partner violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Barbero, Belén; Rey, Lourdes; Otero-García, Laura

    2014-01-01

    To describe the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Spain in the last year and at some point during the lifetime, to determine health status in women according to whether they had experienced IPV or not, and to analyze the individual variables associated with IPV in Spain. A cross-sectional study was performed of the database, Macrosurvey on Gender Violence in Spain 2011. This database includes data on 7,898 women older than 18 years old. The dependent variables were IPV-last year, IPV-ever in life. Covariates consisted of sociodemographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, maternal experience of IPV, social support, and self-care. The measure of association used was the OR with its 95% confidence interval (95% CI). A total of 3.6% of women had experienced IPV-last year and 12.2% ever in life. Female victims of IPV had poorer health than women who had not experienced IPV. Immigrant women living in Spain for 6 years or more were more likely to experience IPV-ever in life than Spanish women [OR (95% CI): 1.95 (1.50, 2.53)]. An interaction was found between nationality and the existence of children under 18 years old. Among women with children under 18 years old, immigrant women were more likely to experience IPV-last year than Spanish women [OR (95% CI): 1.99 (1.25, 3.17)]. Other variables associated with IPV were age, low socioeconomic status, low social support and having a mother who had experienced IPV. In Spain, some women have a higher probability of experiencing IPV. The variables associated with greater vulnerability to IPV should be taken into account when implementing measures to prevent or alleviate IPV. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Human nonindependent mate choice: is model female attractiveness everything?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakirtzis, Antonios; Roberts, S Craig

    2012-05-06

    Following two decades of research on non-human animals, there has recently been increased interest in human nonindependent mate choice, namely the ways in which choosing women incorporate information about a man's past or present romantic partners ('model females') into their own assessment of the male. Experimental studies using static facial images have generally found that men receive higher desirability ratings from female raters when presented with attractive (compared to unattractive) model females. This phenomenon has a straightforward evolutionary explanation: the fact that female mate value is more dependent on physical attractiveness compared to male mate value. Furthermore, due to assortative mating for attractiveness, men who are paired with attractive women are more likely to be of high mate value themselves. Here, we also examine the possible relevance of model female cues other than attractiveness (personality and behavioral traits) by presenting video recordings of model females to a set of female raters. The results confirm that the model female's attractiveness is the primary cue. Contrary to some earlier findings in the human and nonhuman literature, we found no evidence that female raters prefer partners of slightly older model females. We conclude by suggesting some promising variations on the present experimental design.

  2. Involving Support Partners in Obesity Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorin, Amy; Phelan, Suzanne; Tate, Deborah; Sherwood, Nancy; Jeffery, Robert; Wing, Rena

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined whether the number or success of weight loss partners influences participants' outcomes in behavioral weight loss treatment. Overweight participants (n=109) assigned to an exercise intensive group in a larger trial were encouraged to invite up to 3 partners to attend treatment. Weight losses at 6, 12, and 18…

  3. THE PHYSICAL HEALTH CONSEQUENCES OF INTIMATE PARTNER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the physical health consequences of intimate partner violence against women and the coping mechanisms in Agaro town, Southwest Ethiopia. METHODS: - This community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 510 ever-partnered women in. Agaro town from ...

  4. Partners in Science. [CD-ROM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    Partners in Science students, aided by community professionals, learn science by designing and conducting their own research. Partners in Science brings the community and schools closer together through a mentorship program. Scientists, in fields ranging from wildlife biology to space physics, are in frequent contact with classes and home-schooled…

  5. Intimate Partner Violence Victimization and Associated Factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Abstract. The study aimed at investigating the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) and its associated factors among male and ... Keywords: partner violence, undergraduate students, sociodemographic factors, risk factors, protective factors, multi-country. Résumé ...... Masculinity 2007; 8(4): 225-239. 31. Gelaye B ...

  6. Increasing HIV testing among male partners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orne-Gliemann, Joanna; Balestre, Eric; Tchendjou, Patrice; Miric, Marija; Darak, Shrinivas; Butsashvili, Maia; Perez-Then, Eddy; Eboko, Fred; Plazy, Melanie; Kulkarni, Sanjeevani; du Lou, Annabel Desgrees; Dabis, Francois

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Couple-oriented posttest HIV counselling (COC) provides pregnant women with tools and strategies to invite her partner to HIV counselling and testing. We conducted a randomized trial of the efficacy of COC on partner HIV testing in low/medium HIV prevalence settings (Cameroon, Dominican

  7. Oral and genital HPV genotypic concordance between sexual partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beder Ribeiro, Camila Maria; Ferrer, Iracema; Santos de Farias, Andreza Barkokebas; Fonseca, Débora Diniz; Morais Silva, Igor Henrique; Monteiro Gueiros, Luiz Alcino; Carvalho, Alessandra Tavares; Porter, Stephen Ross; Leao, Jair Carneiro

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify human papillomavirus (HPV) transmission and genotype concordance among heterosexual couples. Thirty-one married couples were evaluated. All male subjects presented with clinically diagnosed HPV-related malignant or potentially malignant lesions and underwent peniscopy and penile swab. Their female counterparts underwent swabs of the uterine cervix and oral mucosa. HPV-DNA detection was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. HPV-DNA was detected in the penis, vagina/cervix, and oral cavity of 16 couples (51.61%). Of these, HPV-DNA concordance was observed in 14 couples (87.5%). HPV-DNA was amplified in penile and oral sites of 14 couples. Of these, 13 couples reported fellatio (92.85%), most of them (10 couples, 76.9%) without condom use. HPV-DNA concordance was observed in 7/10 of these couples (70%). The three couples (100%) who reported use of condom during fellatio were HPV-DNA discordant (p = 0.025). Lifetime number of female sexual partners and detection of HPV-DNA in the penile mucosa are surrogate markers of exposure to HPV during marriage. Consistent use of condoms may reduce the risk of HPV transmission. Oral acquisition of HPV from oro-genital contact is influenced by lack of condom use and previous sexual behavior of the male partner. In addition, oral transmission of the virus due to fellatio is as common as genital transmission.

  8. Perceived discrimination and depression among low-income Latina male-to-female transgender women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bazargan, Mohsen; Galvan, Frank

    2012-01-01

    This study examines exposure to perceived discrimination and its association with depression among low-income, Latina male-to-female transgender women as well as evaluates the impact of sexual partner...

  9. Sex Differences in Attitudes toward Partner Infidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Tagler

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences in reactions to partner infidelity have often been studied by comparing emotional reactions to scenarios of sexual versus emotional infidelity. Men, relative to women, tend to react with more distress to partner sexual infidelity than to emotional infidelity. Evolutionary theorists interpret this difference as evidence of sexually dimorphic selection pressures. In contrast, focusing only on the simple effects within each sex, social-cognitive theorists suggest that men and women do not differ in their reactions to partner infidelity. As evidenced by recent rival meta-analytic reports, these diverging perspectives remain largely unresolved and contentious. The present study was designed to take a new approach by measuring attitudes toward partner infidelity. Results were consistent with the evolutionary perspective: Men, to a significantly larger degree than women, evaluated partner sexual infidelity more negatively than emotional infidelity.

  10. Sex differences in attitudes toward partner infidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagler, Michael J; Jeffers, Heather M

    2013-08-06

    Sex differences in reactions to partner infidelity have often been studied by comparing emotional reactions to scenarios of sexual versus emotional infidelity. Men, relative to women, tend to react with more distress to partner sexual infidelity than to emotional infidelity. Evolutionary theorists interpret this difference as evidence of sexually dimorphic selection pressures. In contrast, focusing only on the simple effects within each sex, social-cognitive theorists suggest that men and women do not differ in their reactions to partner infidelity. As evidenced by recent rival meta-analytic reports, these diverging perspectives remain largely unresolved and contentious. The present study was designed to take a new approach by measuring attitudes toward partner infidelity. Results were consistent with the evolutionary perspective: Men, to a significantly larger degree than women, evaluated partner sexual infidelity more negatively than emotional infidelity.

  11. Advice from working women with retired partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Eileen L; Adorno, Gail

    2016-01-01

    in the 21st century, as more women are employed full-time and couples increasingly share egalitarian values, more women continue employment after their partners have voluntarily retired. However, we know very little about the experiences of this growing population of women. We asked working women with retired partners to share their advice for other women who may face this developmental transition. Open-ended responses from 97 women were analyzed to identify pertinent issues and themes. Four primary content areas were identified: time management, division of household labor, financial planning, and communication. Communication between partners was both a topic of concern as well as the solution suggested to resolve conflicts or differences that may arise when women live with a retired partner. It is expected that future changes in the workforce and improvements in the gender balance within relationships will continue to impact experiences for working women with retired partners.

  12. Distress Resulting from Perceivers' Own Intimate Partner Violence Experiences Predicts Culpability Attributions toward a Battered Woman on Trial for Killing Her Abuser: A Path Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Michelle L.; Miller, Audrey K.

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) constitutes the majority of assaults against women in the United States, and greater than one third of female homicide victims are murdered by an intimate partner. In a small percentage of cases, battered women kill their abusers, and evidence of battering and its effects may be used to support a plea of…

  13. Microwave susceptibility experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConaghy, C.

    1984-05-29

    In certain experimental environments, systems can be affected or damaged by microwave pulses. I have conducted tests at LLNL to understand the phenomenology of microwave susceptibility of system components and subsystem components. To date, my experiments have concentrated on bipolar transistors, similar to what might be used in discrete analog circuits, and on CMOS RAM chips, which might be used in a computer memory system. I observed a decrease in failure energies for both the transistor and the integrated curcuit as I shortened the microwave pulse width. An S band (2.86 GHz) transmit/receive (T/R) tube has also been tested both at S band and at X band (8.16 GHz). The S band pulse had limitations in rise-time from zero power, which had an effect on the amount of power that could be transmitted through the T/R tube, as much as 0.7% of the incident power passed through the tube. All tests were conducted in closed-waveguide or coax test-fixtures, in contrast to the anechoic chambers utilized by other experimenters. I have used both S band and X band Klystron generators. For very high power (greater than 1 MW), I used an additional pulse-compression cavity at S band. Other subsystem components such as an X band mixer and an X band T/R tube will be tested in the future. 8 references.

  14. [Antimicrobial susceptibility cumulative reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canut-Blasco, Andrés; Calvo, Jorge; Rodríguez-Díaz, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Martínez, Luis

    2016-10-01

    Cumulative reports on antimicrobial susceptibility tests data are important for selecting empirical treatments, as an educational tool in programs on antimicrobial use, and for establishing breakpoints defining clinical categories. These reports should be based on data validated by clinical microbiologists using diagnostic samples (not surveillance samples). In order to avoid a bias derived from including several isolates obtained from the same patient, it is recommended that, for a defined period, only the first isolate is counted. A minimal number of isolates per species should be presented: a figure of >=30 isolates is statistically acceptable. The report is usually presented in a table format where, for each cell, information on clinically relevant microorganisms-antimicrobial agents is presented. Depending on particular needs, multiple tables showing data related to patients, samples, services or special pathogens can be prepared. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  15. A typological approach to testing the evolutionary functions of human female orgasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Robert; Belsky, Jay

    2012-10-01

    Building on previous work that identified different types of orgasm in women (King, Belsky, Mah, & Binik, 2011), the goal of the present study was to extend such typological work and determine whether female orgasmic variability tracked potentially evolutionarily salient sexual partner characteristics (e.g., those displaying possible immune-system compatibility). A total of 265 females completed an Internet survey about their orgasmic experience-achieved either with partners or alone. For partnered orgasms, they also provided details of partner characteristics and sexual behaviors. Latent class analysis revealed two orgasm types which were meaningfully distinguishable in terms of sensations and location-either centered on the surface of genitalia or deep inside. Deep orgasms were associated with internal sensations consistent with proposed functions of female orgasm in terms of differential sperm insuck. Such orgasms were associated with partners who were perceived as considerate, dominant, with a noticeably attractive smell, and as providing firm penetration. However, some hypothesized reproductively significant partner characteristics were not differentially associated with deep orgasms (i.e., muscularity, aggression, masculinity). Results were discussed and future research directions outlined. In particular, it is suggested that sexual passion between partners is a non-accidental component of sexual functioning and that this has too frequently been missing in sex research involving humans. Direct physiological measures of the results of female orgasm need to be undertaken. Additionally, the intriguing phenomenon of female ejaculation deserves scientific attention.

  16. Gender difference in acquired seizure susceptibility in adult rats after early complex febrile seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yun-Jian; Xu, Zheng-Hao; Feng, Bo; Xu, Ceng-Lin; Zhao, Hua-Wei; Wu, Deng-Chang; Hu, Wei-Wei; Chen, Zhong

    2014-12-01

    Gender differences are involved in many neurological disorders including epilepsy. However, little is known about the effect of gender difference on the risk of epilepsy in adults with a specific early pathological state such as complex febrile seizures (FSs) in infancy. Here we used a well-established complex FS model in rats and showed that: (1) the susceptibility to seizures induced by hyperthermia, pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), and maximal electroshock (MES) was similar in male and female rat pups, while males were more susceptible to PTZ- and MES-induced seizures than age-matched females in normal adult rats; (2) adult rats with complex FSs in infancy acquired higher seizure susceptibility than normal rats; importantly, female FS rats were more susceptible to PTZ and MES than male FS rats; and (3) the protein expression of interleukin-1β, an inflammatory factor associated with seizure susceptibility, was higher in adult FS females than in males, which may reflect a gender-difference phenomenon of seizure susceptibility. Our results provide direct evidence that the acquired seizure susceptibility after complex FSs is gender-dependent.

  17. When Is Helping your Partner with Chronic Pain a Burden? The Relation Between Helping Motivation and Personal and Relational Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindt, Sara; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Loeys, Tom; Cano, Annmarie; Lauwerier, Emelien; Verhofstadt, Lesley L; Goubert, Liesbet

    2015-09-01

    Self-determination theory (SDT) may be a useful framework to understand why chronic pain affects partners. SDT postulates that individuals can engage in helping behaviors for different motives varying from more autonomous or volitional motives to more controlled or pressured motives. This article examines the relationship between partners' type of motivation to help (i.e., autonomous vs controlled) and their personal and relational functioning. Furthermore, mechanisms underlying this relationship (i.e., helping exhaustion and relationship-based need satisfaction) were examined. In a sample of 48 couples, of which one partner had chronic pain (36 female patients), questionnaires measuring life satisfaction, positive and negative affect, anxiety and depressive feelings, relationship quality and relationship-based need satisfaction were filled out. Individuals with chronic pain (ICPs) also reported on pain intensity and disability whereas partners were requested to report on motives for helping and helping exhaustion. Data analysis with Structural Equation Modeling revealed that autonomous, relative to controlled, motives for helping among partners related positively to partners' well-being and relationship quality, and negatively to distress. The experience of helping exhaustion and relationship-based need satisfaction mediated these associations. Moreover, partners' autonomous helping motivation related positively to patient-reported relationship quality among ICPs high in pain intensity. Applying SDT in a context of pain provides new insights into why chronic pain affects partners and how partners impact patient outcome. Directions for future research are outlined. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Partner quality of life in the antiarrhythmics versus implantable defibrillators trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Louise S; Powell, Judy L; Schron, Eleanor B; McBurnie, Mary Ann; Bosworth-Farrell, Susan; Moore, Richard; Exner, Derek V

    2007-01-01

    The quality of life (QOL) of patients with ventricular dysrhythmias is well studied, but less is known about the QOL of their partners. This study describes the QOL of partners of patients with serious ventricular dysrhythmias enrolled in the Antiarrhythmics Versus Implantable Defibrillators trial. A convenience sample of 124 partners of patients randomized to antiarrhythmic drugs (n = 59) or an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (n = 65) in the Antiarrhythmics versus Implantable Defibrillators trial was obtained. The Short Form-36 and Quality of Life Index were assessed at baseline (postrandomization) and at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up. The mean age of the partners was 62 years. Most were white and female. Their mean Short Form-36 scores were comparable to a normative age group. Partner and participant mean Short Form-36 and Quality of Life Index scores correlated modestly (range 0.25-0.36). The physical summary scores of partners using the Short Form-36 declined over time, whereas their mental summary scores remained stable. Partner concerns related to death, dysrhythmia recurrence, and the impact of dysrhythmias on enjoyment of life lessened from baseline to 12 months. Concern about implantable cardioverter defibrillator function remained stable over time. Although the sample size of this study was relatively small and limited by missing data for some assessments, it is the largest prospective study of QOL in partners of patients with serious dysrhythmias. The results offer a foundation for future research of the partners of patients with serious dysrhythmias in terms of identifying their needs, offering support, and maximizing QOL.

  19. Male-female and female-female mounting in Japanese macaques: a comparative study of posture and movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasey, Paul L; Foroud, Afra; Duckworth, Nadine; Kovacovsky, Stefani D

    2006-04-01

    Mounting is generally considered to be a male-typical behavior. Female Japanese macaques, in certain populations, are unusual, in that they routinely mount other females. In this study, we examined to what extent female Japanese macaques mount same-sex partners in a male-typical manner. We compared the mount postures males and females adopt and their rate of pelvic thrusting. In addition, we employed a modified form of Laban Movement Analysis (LMA) to compare patterns of pelvic movement during mounts. LMA is a universal language for movement that describes quantitative features of movement, such as changes in the relation of the body segments, as well as qualitative features, such as the style of movements. Our results indicate that female Japanese macaques do not mount in a male-typical manner. Females exhibited a much greater variety of mount postures than did males. Some of the most common types of mount postures employed by females were never exhibited by males. Females performed fewer pelvic thrusts per mount than males, but they executed more pelvic movements per mount, as well as, greater variety and complexity of movement. In addition, the qualitative style of pelvic mounting that females employed differed, in general, from that of males. We argue that these sex differences in mounting can be explained by the fact that both sexes sought sexual reward via genital stimulation during mounting, but they did so in different ways owing to the constraints imposed by their genital architecture. This study raises the larger question as to what constitutes a male-typical or female-typical behavior.

  20. Male partners' attachment styles as predictors of women's coerced first sexual intercourse in Chinese college students' dating relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shanshan; Tsang, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Attachment theory has great potential to help our understanding of the apparent contradiction between violence and intimacy. Yet very few studies applied this theory to explain or predict sexual coercion in the context of intimate relationships. This study examined the relation between male partners' attachment styles and women's coerced first sexual intercourse in dating relationships. There were 927 valid questionnaires collected by purposive snowball sampling in five main cities in China to college students who were currently in a romantic relationship. Results showed that in both male and female samples, male partners' anxious attachment style were significantly and positively predicted emotional manipulation coercive tactics. In the female sample, male partners' two attachment styles (anxious and avoidant) positively predicted violence threat tactics, and male partners' avoidant attachment style positively predicted defection threat tactics. The research hypothesis of this study has been successfully supported, and implications and limitations were discussed.

  1. Partner Human Papillomavirus Viral Load and Incident Human Papillomavirus Detection in Heterosexual Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Mary K; Kong, Xiangrong; Gray, Ronald H; Serwadda, David; Kigozi, Godfrey; Gravitt, Patti E; Nalugoda, Fred; Reynolds, Steven J; Wawer, Maria J; Redd, Andrew D; Watya, Stephen; Quinn, Thomas C; Tobian, Aaron A R

    2016-03-15

    The association between partner human papillomavirus (HPV) viral load and incident HPV detection in heterosexual couples is unknown. HPV genotypes were detected in 632 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative couples followed for 2 years in a male circumcision trial in Rakai, Uganda, using the Roche HPV Linear Array. This assay detects 37 genotypes and provides a semiquantitative measure of viral load based on the intensity (graded 1-4) of the genotype-specific band; a band intensity of 1 indicates a low genotype-specific HPV load, whereas an intensity of 4 indicates a high load. Using Poisson regression with generalized estimating equations, we measured the association between partner's genotype-specific viral load and detection of that genotype in the HPV-discordant partner 1 year later. Incident detection of HPV genotypes was 10.6% among men (54 of 508 genotype-specific visit intervals) and 9.0% among women (55 of 611 genotype-specific visit intervals). Use of male partners with a baseline genotype-specific band intensity of 1 as a reference yielded adjusted relative risks (aRRs) of 1.14 (95% confidence interval [CI], .58-2.27]) for incident detection of that genotype among women whose male partner had a baseline band intensity of 2, 1.75 (95% CI, .97-3.17) among those whose partner had an intensity of 3, and 2.52 (95% CI, 1.40-4.54) among those whose partner had an intensity of 4. Use of female partners with a baseline genotype-specific band intensity of 1 as a reference yielded an aRR of 2.83 (95% CI, 1.50-5.33) for incident detection of that genotype among men whose female partner had a baseline band intensity of 4. These associations were similar for high-risk and low-risk genotypes. Male circumcision also was associated with significant reductions in incident HPV detection in men (aRR, 0.53 [95% CI, .30-.95]) and women (aRR, 0.42 [95% CI, .23-.76]). In heterosexual couples, the genotype-specific HPV load in one partner is associated with the risk of new

  2. Prevalence, frequency, and associations of masturbation with partnered sexual behaviors among US adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Cynthia L; Schick, Vanessa; Reece, Michael; Herbenick, Debra; Sanders, Stephanie A; Dodge, Brian; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2011-12-01

    To assess masturbation prevalence, frequency, and associations with partnered sexual behaviors. Cross-sectional survey. The United States of America. Nationally representative samples of adolescents aged 14 to 17 years. Solo masturbation, partnered sexual behaviors, and condom use. Across age groups, more males (73.8%) reported masturbation than females (48.1%). Among males, masturbation occurrence increased with age: at age 14 years, 62.6% of males reported at least 1 prior occurrence, whereas 80% of 17-year-old males reported ever having masturbated. Recent masturbation also increased with age in males: 67.6% of 17-year-olds reported masturbation in the past month, compared with 42.9% of 14-year-olds. In females, prior masturbation increased with age (58% at age 17 years compared with 43.3% at age 14 years), but recent masturbation did not. Masturbation was associated with numerous partnered sexual behaviors in both males and females. In males, masturbation was associated with condom use, but in females it was not. Sexual development is a dynamic process during adolescence, and masturbation is an enduring component of sexuality. Fundamental differences appear to exist between male and female sexual expression. Health care providers should recognize that many teens masturbate and discuss masturbation with patients because masturbation is integral to normal sexual development.

  3. Husband/Partner Intoxication and Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerridge, Bradley T; Tran, Phu

    2016-09-01

    This study examined husband/partner intoxication and experience with physical, sexual, and emotional intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) using data derived from a nationally representative survey conducted in the Philippines in 2013. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between intoxication and 3 different types of intimate partner violence against women. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine intoxication and severity of violence. In this sample, 28.8% of women reported experiencing any form of intimate partner violence and 92.9% of women reported their partner being intoxicated at least sometimes. Intoxication was significantly associated with all 3 types of intimate partner violence, while the odds of experiencing one form of IPVAW versus no form of IPVAW and 2 forms of IPVAW versus 1 form of IPVAW was greater among women reporting frequency of husband/partner intoxication as often. © 2016 APJPH.

  4. Alcohol Use, Partner Type, and Risky Sexual Behavior Among College Students: Findings from an Event-Level Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer L. Brown; Vanable, Peter A.

    2007-01-01

    Alcohol use is prevalent among college students and may contribute to elevated rates of sexual risk taking. Using event-level data, the hypothesis that partner type would moderate the effect of alcohol consumption on condom use was tested. Sexually active college students (N = 330; 67% female) reported on characteristics of their most recent sexual encounter, including partner type, alcohol use, and condom use, along with measures of sex-related alcohol expectancies, sensation seeking, and ty...

  5. Strategic Sexual Signals: Women's Display versus Avoidance of the Color Red Depends on the Attractiveness of an Anticipated Interaction Partner

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Niesta Kayser; Maria Agthe; Maner, Jon K.

    2016-01-01

    The color red has special meaning in mating-relevant contexts. Wearing red can enhance perceptions of women's attractiveness and desirability as a potential romantic partner. Building on recent findings, the present study examined whether women's (N = 74) choice to display the color red is influenced by the attractiveness of an expected opposite-sex interaction partner. Results indicated that female participants who expected to interact with an attractive man displayed red (on clothing, acces...

  6. Influence of partner support on an employed mother's intention to breastfeed after returning to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Su-Ying

    2014-05-01

    Despite the increasing number of large companies complying with the demands for a breastfeeding-friendly workplace, providing on-site lactation support, some mothers still find continuing to breastfeed a challenge. We postulated that greater support and encouragement from the partner would be independently predictive of whether the mother would take advantage of workplace milk expression breaks and lactation rooms and continue to breastfeed after returning to work. To evaluate this hypothesis, we conducted a survey at a female labor-intensive electronics manufacturer in Taiwan. Six hundred eight working mothers in an electronics manufacturing plant in Tainan Science Park in Southern Taiwan who had access to dedicated lactation rooms at the workplace were interviewed. Questionnaire content included female employee demographics, employment characteristics, partner-related characteristics, and breastfeeding behavior after returning to work following the birth of their most recently born child. The partner's initial support of the choice to breastfeed and encouragement to use the lactation room and milk expression breaks and the mother's perception of the partner's support for baby care were significant predictors of the intention to continue to breastfeed after returning to work, after adjusting for the employed mother's demographics and employment characteristics, supporting our hypothesis. These findings suggest that antenatal education or activities provided by the workplace should include the partner, which may improve workplace breastfeeding rates.

  7. Influence of Partner Support on an Employed Mother's Intention to Breastfeed After Returning to Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Despite the increasing number of large companies complying with the demands for a breastfeeding-friendly workplace, providing on-site lactation support, some mothers still find continuing to breastfeed a challenge. We postulated that greater support and encouragement from the partner would be independently predictive of whether the mother would take advantage of workplace milk expression breaks and lactation rooms and continue to breastfeed after returning to work. To evaluate this hypothesis, we conducted a survey at a female labor-intensive electronics manufacturer in Taiwan. Subjects and Methods: Six hundred eight working mothers in an electronics manufacturing plant in Tainan Science Park in Southern Taiwan who had access to dedicated lactation rooms at the workplace were interviewed. Questionnaire content included female employee demographics, employment characteristics, partner-related characteristics, and breastfeeding behavior after returning to work following the birth of their most recently born child. Results: The partner's initial support of the choice to breastfeed and encouragement to use the lactation room and milk expression breaks and the mother's perception of the partner's support for baby care were significant predictors of the intention to continue to breastfeed after returning to work, after adjusting for the employed mother's demographics and employment characteristics, supporting our hypothesis. Conclusions: These findings suggest that antenatal education or activities provided by the workplace should include the partner, which may improve workplace breastfeeding rates. PMID:24650363

  8. Prioritized Identification of Attractive and Romantic Partner Faces in Rapid Serial Visual Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Koyo; Arai, Shihoko; Kawabata, Hideaki

    2017-11-01

    People are sensitive to facial attractiveness because it is an important biological and social signal. As such, our perceptual and attentional system seems biased toward attractive faces. We tested whether attractive faces capture attention and enhance memory access in an involuntary manner using a dual-task rapid serial visual presentation (dtRSVP) paradigm, wherein multiple faces were successively presented for 120 ms. In Experiment 1, participants (N = 26) were required to identify two female faces embedded in a stream of animal faces as distractors. The results revealed that identification of the second female target (T2) was better when it was attractive compared to neutral or unattractive. In Experiment 2, we investigated whether perceived attractiveness affects T2 identification (N = 27). To this end, we performed another dtRSVP task involving participants in a romantic partnership with the opposite sex, wherein T2 was their romantic partner's face. The results demonstrated that a romantic partner's face was correctly identified more often than was the face of a friend or unknown person. Furthermore, the greater the intensity of passionate love participants felt for their partner (as measured by the Passionate Love Scale), the more often they correctly identified their partner's face. Our experiments indicate that attractive and romantic partners' faces facilitate the identification of the faces in an involuntary manner.

  9. Human Nonindependent Mate Choice: Is Model Female Attractiveness Everything?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios Vakirtzis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Following two decades of research on non-human animals, there has recently been increased interest in human nonindependent mate choice, namely the ways in which choosing women incorporate information about a man's past or present romantic partners (‘model females’ into their own assessment of the male. Experimental studies using static facial images have generally found that men receive higher desirability ratings from female raters when presented with attractive (compared to unattractive model females. This phenomenon has a straightforward evolutionary explanation: the fact that female mate value is more dependent on physical attractiveness compared to male mate value. Furthermore, due to assortative mating for attractiveness, men who are paired with attractive women are more likely to be of high mate value themselves. Here, we also examine the possible relevance of model female cues other than attractiveness (personality and behavioral traits by presenting video recordings of model females to a set of female raters. The results confirm that the model female's attractiveness is the primary cue. Contrary to some earlier findings in the human and nonhuman literature, we found no evidence that female raters prefer partners of slightly older model females. We conclude by suggesting some promising variations on the present experimental design.

  10. Diagnostic laparoscopy in the evaluation of female factor infertility

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok Kumar K.; Priyanka Jogi Y.; Bharathi Anjanappa

    2017-01-01

    Background: Infertility is a global problem, with more than 70 million couples suffering every year. In India 10-15% of populations are suffering from infertility. All these people need accurate diagnosis and treatment. Among the many investigations available to evaluate the female partner of the infertile couples, laparoscopy is relatively recent and considered gold standard for pelvis evaluation. The objective of the study was to study the different causes of female factor infertility with ...

  11. Adolescent Susceptibility to Peer Influence in Sexual Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widman, Laura; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Helms, Sarah W.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose One consistent predictor of adolescents’ engagement in sexual risk behavior is their belief that peers are engaging in similar behavior; however, not all youth are equally susceptible to these peer influence effects. Understanding individual differences in susceptibility to peer influence is critical to identifying adolescents at risk for negative health outcomes. The purpose of this project was to identify predictors of susceptibility to peer influence using a novel performance-based measure of sexual risk-taking. Methods Participants were 300 early adolescents (Mage=12.6; 53% female; 44% Caucasian) who completed 1) a pretest assessment of demographics, sexual attitudes, and hypothetical scenarios measuring the likelihood of engaging in sexual risk behavior, and 2) a subsequent experimental procedure that simulated an internet chat room in which youth believed they were communicating with peers regarding these same hypothetical scenarios. In reality, these “peers” were computer-programmed e-confederates. Changes in responses to the sexual scenarios in the private pretest versus during the public chat room provided a performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility. Results In total, 78% of youth provided more risky responses in the chat room than in pretest. The most robust predictor of this change was gender, with boys significantly more susceptible to peer influence than girls. Significant interactions also were noted, with greater susceptibility among boys with later pubertal development and African American boys. Conclusion Results confirm that not all youth are equally susceptible to peer influence. Consistent with sexual script theory, boys evidence greater susceptibility to social pressure regarding sexual behavior than girls. PMID:26794431

  12. Adolescent Susceptibility to Peer Influence in Sexual Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widman, Laura; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Helms, Sarah W; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2016-03-01

    One consistent predictor of adolescents' engagement in sexual risk behavior is their belief that peers are engaging in similar behavior; however, not all youth are equally susceptible to these peer influence effects. Understanding individual differences in susceptibility to peer influence is critical to identifying adolescents at risk for negative health outcomes. The purpose of this project was to identify predictors of susceptibility to peer influence using a novel performance-based measure of sexual risk taking. Participants were 300 early adolescents (Mage = 12.6 years; 53% female; 44% Caucasian) who completed (1) a pretest assessment of demographics, sexual attitudes, and hypothetical scenarios measuring the likelihood of engaging in sexual risk behavior and (2) a subsequent experimental procedure that simulated an Internet chat room in which youth believed that they were communicating with peers regarding these same hypothetical scenarios. In reality, these "peers" were computer-programmed e-confederates. Changes in responses to the sexual scenarios in the private pretest versus during the public chat room provided a performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility. In total, 78% of youth provided more risky responses in the chat room than those in pretest. The most robust predictor of this change was gender, with boys significantly more susceptible to peer influence than girls. Significant interactions also were noted, with greater susceptibility among boys with later pubertal development and African-American boys. Results confirm that not all youth are equally susceptible to peer influence. Consistent with sexual script theory, boys evidence greater susceptibility to social pressure regarding sexual behavior than girls. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Sexual quality of life in women partnered with men using intracavernous alprostadil injections after radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiou, René; Ebrahiminia, Vahid; Mouracade, Pascal; Lingombet, Odile; Abbou, Claude

    2013-05-01

    The effects of intracavernous alprostadil injection (IAI), a primary treatment for post-radical prostatectomy (RP) erectile dysfunction (ED) (pRPED), on the sex life of women partnered with men who have undergone RP have received little attention. The aim of this study is to investigate the sexual quality of life in female partners of men receiving IAIs for pRPED. We retrospectively studied the sex lives of 152 women partnered with men who were being treated for pRPED with IAI and previously had normal erectile function. Women completed the Index of Sexual Life (ISL) questionnaire 1 year after their partner's RP. Male patients completed the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-15), the Erection Hardness Score (EHS) questionnaire, the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire (ICIQ), and the UCLA Prostate Cancer Index (UCLA-PCI) urinary function questionnaire. Penile pain was assessed using the visual analog scale (VAS). Statistical analysis was performed using t-tests, Spearman correlation, and multiple linear regression. Female sexual life satisfaction (SLS), sexual drive (SD), and general life satisfaction (GLS) were assessed using the ISL questionnaire. Mean ages for the 104 couples included were 62.3 and 59.8 years for the men and women, respectively. Mean ISL, SD, SLS, and GLS scores at 12 months were 25.4, 3.8, 14.1, and 7.5, respectively. ISL scores were strongly correlated with IIEF-15 domains, mainly erectile function (r > 0.41, P  0.27, P sexual quality of life were low overall but were highly correlated with the partner's response level to IAI treatment. IAI-related pain, increased age, and poor urinary function of the male partner appear to negatively impact female sex life. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  14. Prevalence and characteristics of sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence victimization--national intimate partner and sexual violence survey, United States, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiding, Matthew J; Smith, Sharon G; Basile, Kathleen C; Walters, Mikel L; Chen, Jieru; Merrick, Melissa T

    2014-09-05

    prevalence estimate. An estimated 43.9% of women and 23.4% of men experienced other forms of sexual violence during their lifetimes, including being made to penetrate, sexual coercion, unwanted sexual contact, and noncontact unwanted sexual experiences. The percentages of women and men who experienced these other forms of sexual violence victimization in the 12 months preceding the survey were an estimated 5.5% and 5.1%, respectively. An estimated 15.2% of women and 5.7% of men have been a victim of stalking during their lifetimes. An estimated 4.2% of women and 2.1% of men were stalked in the 12 months preceding the survey. With respect to sexual violence and stalking, female victims reported predominantly male perpetrators, whereas for male victims, the sex of the perpetrator varied by the specific form of violence examined. Male rape victims predominantly had male perpetrators, but other forms of sexual violence experienced by men were either perpetrated predominantly by women (i.e., being made to penetrate and sexual coercion) or split more evenly among male and female perpetrators (i.e., unwanted sexual contact and noncontact unwanted sexual experiences). In addition, male stalking victims also reported a more even mix of males and females who had perpetrated stalking against them. The lifetime and 12-month prevalences of rape by an intimate partner for women were an estimated 8.8% and 0.8%, respectively; an estimated 0.5% of men experienced rape by an intimate partner during their lifetimes, although the case count for men reporting rape by an intimate partner in the preceding 12 months was too small to produce a statistically reliable prevalence estimate. An estimated 15.8% of women and 9.5% of men experienced other forms of sexual violence by an intimate partner during their lifetimes, whereas an estimated 2.1% of both men and women experienced these forms of sexual violence by a partner in the 12 months before taking the survey. Severe physical violence by an

  15. Fertility Treatments for Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD Research Information Find a Study More Information Pharmacology Condition Information NICHD Research Information Find a Study ... National Center for Medical Rehabilitation Research (NCMRR) Center History Funding Opportunity Announcements (FOAs) for NCMRR Partners Training & ...

  16. [Antimicrobial susceptibility in Chile 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes-D, Marcela; Silva, Francisco; García, Patricia; Bello, Helia; Briceño, Isabel; Calvo-A, Mario; Labarca, Jaime

    2014-04-01

    Bacteria antimicrobial resistance is an uncontrolled public health problem that progressively increases its magnitude and complexity. The Grupo Colaborativo de Resistencia, formed by a join of experts that represent 39 Chilean health institutions has been concerned with bacteria antimicrobial susceptibility in our country since 2008. In this document we present in vitro bacterial susceptibility accumulated during year 2012 belonging to 28 national health institutions that represent about 36% of hospital discharges in Chile. We consider of major importance to report periodically bacteria susceptibility so to keep the medical community updated to achieve target the empirical antimicrobial therapies and the control measures and prevention of the dissemination of multiresistant strains.

  17. Heterosexual experience prevents the development of conditioned same-sex partner preference in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Rodríguez, Rodrigo; Tecamachaltzi-Silvaran, Miriam B; Díaz-Estrada, Victor X; Chena-Becerra, Florencia; Herrera-Covarrubias, Deissy; Paredes-Ramos, Pedro; Manzo, Jorge; Garcia, Luis I; Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2017-03-01

    Sexual partner preferences can be strengthened, weakened or even drastically modified via Pavlovian conditioning. For example, conditioned same-sex partner preference develops in sexually-naïve male rats that undergo same-sex cohabitation under the effects of quinpirole (QNP, D2 agonist). Here, we assessed the effect of prior heterosexual experience on the probability to develop a conditioned same-sex preference. Naïve or Sexually-experienced males received either Saline or QNP and cohabited during 24h with a male partner that bore almond scent on the back as conditioned stimulus. This was repeated every 4days for a total of three trials and resulted in four groups (Saline-naïve, Saline-experienced, QNP-naïve, QNP-experienced). Social and sexual preference were assessed four days after the last conditioning trial in a drug-free test in which experimental males chose between the scented familiar male and a novel sexually receptive female. Results showed that Saline-naïve, Saline-experienced and QNP-experienced displayed a clear preference for the female (opposite-sex). By contrast, only QNP-naïve males displayed a same-sex preference. Accordingly, QNP-experienced males were not affected by the conditioning process and continued to prefer females. We discuss the effects of copulation and D2 agonists on the facilitation and/or disruption of conditioned partner preferences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Humility, Forgiveness, and Emerging Adult Female Romantic Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Chance A; Fincham, Frank D

    2017-10-26

    Among a sample of emerging adult females (N = 152) we empirically examined the role of humility and forgiveness in romantic relationships. We specifically tested a model linking perceived humility to relationship satisfaction with self-forgiveness and partner-forgiveness. Participants in a romantic relationship completed measures of self-reported humility, self-forgiveness, partner-forgiveness, and relationship satisfaction. Serial mediation analyses were conducted using path analysis to test the following sequence, humility self-forgiveness partner-forgiveness relationship satisfaction. Findings indicate that humility was related to relationship satisfaction via a serially mediated path of self-forgiveness and partner-forgiveness, which was not reducible to impression management. We consider implications for research and clinical practice. © 2017 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  19. No preference for novel mating partners in the polyandrous nuptial-feeding spider Pisaura mirabilis (Araneae: Pisauridae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuni, Cristina; Bilde, T.

    2010-01-01

    Polyandrous females may gain genetic benefits for their offspring through postmating sexual selection. To facilitate postcopulatory choice for males of superior genetic quality females are expected to bias precopulatory mate choice towards novel males (i.e. genetically novel sources). Preference...... for novel partners is also expected to maximize male lifetime reproductive success by allowing males to increase the number of mates. We investigated male and female preference for novel or former mating partners in the spider Pisaura mirabilis by offering females novel males (polyandry) or the same male...... (monogamy). Precopulatory (mate acceptance) and prefertilization (latency to copulation, mating interruption and copulation duration) behaviours were compared between the two treatments. Males provide females with a nuptial prey gift during courtship. Because of the direct benefit associated with nuptial...

  20. Setting the scene: locations for meeting sex partners among behaviorally bisexual men in Vientiane, Laos, and opportunities for health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowring, Anna L; van Gemert, Caroline; Vongsaiya, Kongchay; Hughes, Chad; Sihavong, Amphoy; Phimphachanh, Chansy; Chanlivong, Niramonh; Agius, Paul A; Toole, Mike; Hellard, Margaret

    2014-12-01

    Behaviorally bisexual men (BBM) in Vientiane, Laos report high-risk sexual behaviors. We explore settings for meeting sex partners and associated risk behaviors among BBM in Laos. BBM and their sexual partners were recruited in Vientiane Capital using modified snowball sampling (2010). Settings for usually meeting sex partners and associations with risk behaviors were assessed. Among 88 BBM, the most common settings for men meeting male, kathoey, and female sex partners were private residences (48%, 37%, 51%, respectively) and hospitality settings (39%, 31%, 40%, respectively). Hospitality settings were more commonly reported by heterosexual-identifying BBM, and private residences more commonly reported by bisexual/homosexual-identifying BBM. Inconsistent condom use was high across partners and settings. Meeting partners in hospitality settings was associated with reporting a high number of female sex partners and frequently drinking alcohol before sex. Our results suggest that targeted health promotion initiatives in bars, clubs, and beer-shops could reach a high proportion of high-risk bisexual men, particularly heterosexual-identifying BBM.

  1. Condom refusal and young Black men: the influence of pleasure, sexual partners, and friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geter, Angelica; Crosby, Richard

    2014-06-01

    The study investigated pleasure-related, partner-related, and social normative correlates of recent condom refusal in young Black men (YBM). A cross-sectional study of YBM (N = 561) attending clinics treating sexually transmitted diseases in three cities was conducted. Mean age was 19.6 years (SD = 1.87). Nearly one of every two young men (46.8 %) indicated recent refusal to use a condom after a request from their partner. Significant findings included the following: partner-related beliefs "I feel closer to my partner without a condom" (OR = 2.52, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.65-3.83) and "condoms make sex hurt for the female partner" (OR = 1.69, 95 % CI = 1.14-2.52), a scale measure of pleasure-related beliefs (OR = 2.58, 95 % CI = 1.73-3.84), and a scale measure of negative social beliefs associated with condom usage (OR = 1.05, 95 % CI = 1.00-1.10). Interventions addressing pleasure-related, partner-related, and social normative beliefs as barriers to condom use are warranted for YBM.

  2. Longitudinal Predictors of Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration and Victimization in Latino Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grest, Carolina Villamil; Amaro, Hortensia; Unger, Jennifer

    2018-03-01

    Despite the prevalence of intimate partner violence in emerging adulthood, literature focused on this life stage among Latinos remains limited. This longitudinal study examined acculturation; traditional gender role attitudes; use of alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco; and depressive symptoms in 10th grade as predictors of intimate partner violence perpetration and victimization among Latino emerging adults (N = 823; 58% female). Average age of participants was 15.5 years in 10th grade and 22.7 years in emerging adulthood. The results indicate important gender differences in intimate partner violence outcomes for Latino emerging adults. Higher U.S. acculturation predicted physical intimate partner violence perpetration among young men. More traditional gender role attitudes were significantly associated with psychological and physical intimate partner violence perpetration among male Latino emerging adults. Among Latinas, alcohol use in 10th grade predicted psychological perpetration and victimization in emerging adulthood. The findings have implications for developing gender- and ethnic-relevant prevention interventions focused on intimate partner violence among Latino adolescents and emerging adults.

  3. The Long-Term Effects of Stress on Partner Weight Characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M Fletcher

    Full Text Available Recent experimental evidence suggests that stressed males find heavier women more attractive than non-stressed males. The aim of this study is to examine whether these results also appear in actual mating patterns of adults from a national sample.Regression analysis linking partner weight measures to own measures of childhood stress, as measured by mistreatment. Cross-sectional data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, Romantic Partners Sample is used to measure partner weight, childhood stressful events, and socio-demographic characteristics. Childhood experiences of adult mistreatment are retrospectively collected.Men who experienced childhood mistreatment are more likely to have obese female partners during young adulthood. The results are strongest for interactions with social services, adult neglect and physical abuse. We also present novel evidence of the opposite association in similarly stressed women whose male partners are more likely to be thin.These results suggest that preferences for partner characteristics are sensitive to histories of stress and that previously hypothesized patterns occur outside the experimental setting.

  4. Fertilization in Flowering Plants: 1. Bringing the Male and Female ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In reality all pre-fertilization events involved in screening and selection of the partners, so familiar in animals, take place in a subtle way in floweringplants also. As plants lack mobility, they cannot perform, ontheir own, the most important and primary requirement ofbringing the male (pollen grain) and the female (pistil) ...

  5. Curbing Female Genital Mutilation: The Role of Information and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Popularizing the danger of female genital mutilation, partnering with NGOs, media campaign, organizing workshops & seminars, briefing & debriefing and mounting billboards were identified as some of the roles libraries and information can play in eradicating this injustice against women. The paper concluded by charging ...

  6. From Client to Pimp: Male Violence against Female Sex Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karandikar, Sharvari; Prospero, Moises

    2010-01-01

    The present study explores intimate partner violence (IPV) among female sex workers from the red-light area based in Mumbai, India. Using a grounded theory approach, in-depth interviews were conducted with ten sex workers to explore their experiences of IPV in the context of commercial sex work. Narratives were analyzed and themes constructed. A…

  7. Females and Social Occupations: Forced or Free Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Gertrude

    1978-01-01

    This article suggests that many females select social occupations as a means of asylum from anxiety which is caused by competing in male-dominated fields. The attempt to reconcile societal expectations of woman as marriage partner with high achievement motivation denies her the full realization of her intellectual capabilities. (Author)

  8. Doing more harm than good: negative health effects of intimate-partner violence campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Jean Jaymes

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates unintended negative effects of health communication campaigns surrounding intimate-partner violence. Major health organizations have identified this issue as an urgent health problem for women, but the effects of these campaigns have rarely been tested with the target audience most affected by the issue. Using qualitative methodology, 10 focus groups were conducted with female survivors of intimate-partner violence. It was found that this group viewed the campaigns as emotionally harmful, inaccurate, and misleading. The results of this research suggest these campaigns may do more harm than good for the audience most severely affected by this issue.

  9. Establishing the Prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence Among Hair Salon Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Rebecca F; DiVietro, Susan C; Dunn, Maureen; Bentivegna, Kathryn; Clough, Meghan E; Lapidus, Garry D; Joseph, D'Andrea K

    2017-09-27

    This study determined prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization among female clients at three hair salons in Connecticut using an anonymous tablet based screening tool. While many may assume that women receive services at hair salons, victims of IPV are often isolated by their partners and unable to access help. Of the 203 clients who participated, 40 (20%) had experienced IPV in her lifetime. In identifying the prevalence of IPV within the salon setting, this study provides support for community-based programs and supports their legitimacy as an important locus for identifying women experiencing IPV and connecting them to resources.

  10. pso.ATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    isolates vere made using standard methods, Antibiotic susceptibility tests against commonly prescribed ... Acute otitis media is rapid with short .... sensitivity tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests: The antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of major Gram positive and negative bacterial isolates obtained from clinical specimens.

  11. Comparison of male reproductive success in malaria-refractory and susceptible strains of Anopheles gambiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voordouw Maarten J

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In female mosquitoes that transmit malaria, the benefits of being refractory to the Plasmodium parasite are balanced by the immunity costs in the absence of infection. Male mosquitoes, however, gain no advantage from being refractory to blood-transmitted parasites, so that any costs associated with an enhanced immune system in the males limit the evolution of female refractoriness and has practical implications for the release of transgenic males. Methods Aspects of the male cost of carrying Plasmodium-refractory genes were estimated by comparing the males' immune response and reproductive success among strains of Anopheles gambiae that had been selected for refractoriness or extreme susceptibility to the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis. The refractory males had a stronger melanization response than males from the susceptible line. Four traits were used as correlates of a male's reproductive success: the proportion of females that were inseminated by a fixed number of males in a cage within a fixed time frame, the proportion of females with motile sperm in their spermathecae, the proportion of ovipositing females, and the mean number of eggs per batch. Results Although there were significant differences among groups of males in sperm motility and oviposition success, these differences in male reproductive success were not associated with the refractory or susceptible male genotypes. Contrary to expectation, females mated to early emerging refractory males laid significantly more eggs per batch than females mated to later emerging susceptible males. Sperm motility and oviposition success were strongly correlated suggesting that variation in sperm motility influences female oviposition and ultimately male reproductive success. Conclusion An increased melanization response in male A. gambiae does not diminish male reproductive success under the experimental protocol used in this study. That refractory

  12. Pesticide Advisory Committees and Regulatory Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    This site will provide all stakeholders, including the general public, with access to information about meetings of advisory committees, and how we work with state, territory, and tribal government partners.

  13. Partnering with the PESP Landscaping Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Landscaping Initiative works with its partners to educate do-it-yourself homeowners, lawn care customers, retailers and consumers at point-of-sale, and schools and school districts about pest management alternatives and proper pesticide use.

  14. Inferring interaction partners from protein sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Bitbol, Anne-Florence; Colwell, Lucy J; Wingreen, Ned S

    2016-01-01

    Specific protein-protein interactions are crucial in the cell, both to ensure the formation and stability of multi-protein complexes, and to enable signal transduction in various pathways. Functional interactions between proteins result in coevolution between the interaction partners. Hence, the sequences of interacting partners are correlated. Here we exploit these correlations to accurately identify which proteins are specific interaction partners from sequence data alone. Our general approach, which employs a pairwise maximum entropy model to infer direct couplings between residues, has been successfully used to predict the three-dimensional structures of proteins from sequences. Building on this approach, we introduce an iterative algorithm to predict specific interaction partners from among the members of two protein families. We assess the algorithm's performance on histidine kinases and response regulators from bacterial two-component signaling systems. The algorithm proves successful without any a pri...

  15. Climate Ready Estuaries Partner Projects Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    CRE partners with the National Estuary Program to develop climate change projects in coastal U.S. areas, such as bays and harbors; to develop adaptation action plans, identify climate impacts and indicators, and more. This map shows project locations.

  16. Featured Partner: Saddle Creek Logistics Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EPA fact sheet spotlights Saddle Creek Logistics as a SmartWay partner committed to sustainability in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution caused by freight transportation, partly by growing its compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles for

  17. Heterosexual men's attitudes toward the female condom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, D W; Ehrhardt, A A

    1999-04-01

    This article addresses heterosexual men's familiarity with the female condom and their attitudes toward this barrier method. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 71 ethnically diverse and heterosexually active men who were recruited in sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics or through word of mouth in communities with high HIV/STD seroprevalence in New York City during fall 1994 to fall 1995. Only one man reported previous experience with the female condom. The large majority of men had no or limited knowledge of the female condom. Men's reactions to learning about this method ranged from positive to negative, although most men reported willingness to have sex with a partner who wanted to use the female condom. Positive reactions included: endorsement of a woman-controlled condom and her right to use it, the potential for enhancing one's sexual pleasure, and an eagerness to have a new sexual experience. Negative reactions centered on the "strangeness" and "bigness" of the female condom, concerns about prevention efficacy, and concerns about reductions in sexual pleasure. Our findings highlight the need for HIV prevention programs that target heterosexual men and promote the use of the female condom.

  18. Ancestral susceptibility to colorectal cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Huhn, S.; Pardini, Barbara; Naccarati, Alessio; Vodička, Pavel (ed.); Hemminki, K.; Försti, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2012), s. 197-204 ISSN 0267-8357 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/07/1430; GA ČR GAP304/10/1286 Grant - others:EU FP7(XE) HEALTH-F4-2007-200767 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : cancer susceptibility * molecular epidemiology * genetic susceptibility Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.500, year: 2012

  19. Social partners and gender equality in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Tilly, Pierre; Weber, Tina

    2014-01-01

    The growing participation of women in the labour market has prompted changes in the way European social partner organisations tackle gender issues. Their organisational and collective bargaining structures – historically dominated by men – have had to adapt to include gender equality issues. This report examines the extent to which gender equality is incorporated by the social partners in their organisations and in their policymaking at European and national level. It explores the differences...

  20. Do aphids actively search for ant partners?

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Christophe; Vanderplanck, Maryse; Lognay, Georges; Detrain, Claire; Verheggen, François

    2015-01-01

    The aphid–ant mutualistic relationships are not necessarily obligate for neither partners but evidence is that such interactions provide them strong advantages in terms of global fitness. While it is largely assumed that ants actively search for their mutualistic partners namely using volatile cues; whether winged aphids (i.e. aphids’ most mobile form) are able to select ant-frequented areas had not been investigated so far. Ant-frequented sites would indeed offer several advantages for these...

  1. Partner Caregiving in Older Cohabiting Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. Despite the rapidly increasing prevalence of cohabitation among older adults, the caregiving literature has exclusively focused on formally married individuals. Extending prior work on intra-couple care, this study contrasts frail cohabitors’ patterns of care receipt from a partner to that of frail spouses. Methods. Using nationally representative panel data from the Health and Retirement Study (2000, 2002, 2004, and 2006), we estimate random effects cross-sectional times series models predicting frail cohabitors’ likelihood of receiving partner care compared with their married counterparts’. Conditional on the receipt of intra-couple care, we also examine differences in marital and nonmarital partners’ caregiving hours and caregiving involvement relative to other helpers. Results. Net of sociodemographic, disability, and comorbidity factors, we find that cohabitors are less likely to receive partner care than married individuals. However, caregiving nonmarital partners provide as many hours of care as spouses while providing a substantially larger share of disabled respondents’ care than marital partners. Discussion. Cohabitation and marriage have distinct implications for older adults’ patterns of partner care receipt. This study adds weight to a growing body of research emphasizing the importance of accounting for older adults’ nontraditional union forms and of examining the ramifications of cohabitation for older adults’ well-being. PMID:21482588

  2. Partner choice creates fairness in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debove, Stéphane; André, Jean-Baptiste; Baumard, Nicolas

    2015-06-07

    Many studies demonstrate that partner choice has played an important role in the evolution of human cooperation, but little work has tested its impact on the evolution of human fairness. In experiments involving divisions of money, people become either over-generous or over-selfish when they are in competition to be chosen as cooperative partners. Hence, it is difficult to see how partner choice could result in the evolution of fair, equal divisions. Here, we show that this puzzle can be solved if we consider the outside options on which partner choice operates. We conduct a behavioural experiment, run agent-based simulations and analyse a game-theoretic model to understand how outside options affect partner choice and fairness. All support the conclusion that partner choice leads to fairness only when individuals have equal outside options. We discuss how this condition has been met in our evolutionary history, and the implications of these findings for our understanding of other aspects of fairness less specific than preferences for equal divisions of resources. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Disclosure of HIV status to sexual partners by people living with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria T. Tshweneagae

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Disclosure of one’s HIV status to a sexual partner can have significant health implications. From a health promotion point of view, disclosure is seen as a cornerstone for the prevention of HIV transmission between partners. Despite its importance as a strategy for controlling the spread of HIV, there are challenges that inhibit voluntary disclosure.Objectives: In exploring factors associated with disclosure of HIV status, the study had two complementary objectives related to: (1 investigation of participants’ views about HIV-positive status disclosure to sexual partners; and (2 a broader identification of factors that influence disclosure of HIV-positive status.Method: The study explored factors associated with disclosure of the HIV status of people living with HIV to their sexual partners. Purposive sampling was used to select 13 participants living with HIV who attended a wellness clinic. Primary data were collected via an in-depth interview with each of the participants.Results: The exploration showed that male participants were notably more reluctant to disclose to their sexual partners for fear of rejection; and secrecy was commonly reported around sexual matters. Female participants (who were in the majority were relatively more willing to disclose their HIV status to their sexual partners. Despite the complexity of disclosure, all participants understood the importance of disclosure to their sexual partners.Conclusion: There is a need for HIV prevention strategies to focus on men in particular, so as to strengthen disclosure counselling services provided to people living with HIV and to advocate strongly for partner testing.

  4. Daily associations between partner responses and sexual and relationship satisfaction in couples coping with provoked vestibulodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Natalie O; Muise, Amy; Bergeron, Sophie; Delisle, Isabelle; Baxter, Mary Lou

    2015-04-01

    Women with provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) experience a recurrent vulvo-vaginal pain triggered primarily during sexual intercourse. Although affected couples report adverse effects on their sexual and global romantic relationships, few studies have examined interpersonal factors that may influence their sexual and relationship satisfaction. Cross-sectional studies have shown that greater partner solicitous and negative responses and lower facilitative responses are associated with poorer sexual and relationship satisfaction in women with PVD. The aim of this study was to investigate the within-person associations between partner responses to painful intercourse and the sexual and relationship satisfaction of affected couples. In a dyadic daily experience study, 69 women (M(age) = 28.46, SD = 6.66) diagnosed with PVD and their cohabitating male partners (M(age) = 30.29, SD = 8.13) reported on male partner responses, as well as sexual and relationship satisfaction on sexual intercourse days (M = 6.81; SD = 5.40) over 8 weeks. Dependent measures were the (i) Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale and (ii) Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction Scale. On sexual intercourse days when women perceived more facilitative partner responses than usual and on days when they perceived lower negative partner responses than usual, they reported higher sexual and relationship satisfaction. On sexual intercourse days when men reported more solicitous responses than usual, both they and their female partners reported lower sexual satisfaction. Interventions aimed at improving the day-to-day sexual and relationship satisfaction of couples with PVD should target increasing facilitative and decreasing negative and solicitous partner responses. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  5. Alcohol consumption and partner violence among women entering substance use disorder treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Vyga G; O'Farrell, Timothy J; Murphy, Christopher M; Murphy, Marie M; Muchowski, Patrice

    2014-06-01

    To test the hypothesized role of alcohol consumption as a proximal risk factor for partner violence, a within-subjects analysis compared levels of alcohol consumption in violent versus nonviolent conflict events among substance-abusing women and their male partners. Participants were married or cohabiting women (N = 145) who had recently begun a substance abuse treatment program and reported both a violent and a nonviolent relationship conflict event with their male partner in the prior 6 months. The average age was 38, and 83% were White. Male partners did not participate in the study. The female participant provided information about the male partner. Women were interviewed regarding a violent conflict event in which physical violence occurred and a nonviolent conflict event in which psychological aggression occurred without physical violence. The interview assessed quantity of alcohol consumed and use of other drugs prior to each conflict. Alcohol consumption was significantly greater prior to violent versus nonviolent conflict events for all measures of women's alcohol consumption examined: any drinking, heavy drinking, number of drinks in the 12 hr preceding the conflict event, and estimated blood alcohol concentration at time of the event. Male partners' alcohol consumption showed similar results. Use of other drugs in women, but not men, was significantly more likely prior to physical conflicts. These within-subject comparisons help to rule out individual difference explanations for the alcohol-violence association and indicate that the quantity of alcohol consumption is an important proximal risk factor for partner violence in substance-abusing women and their male partners. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Working models of attachment to parents and partners: implications for emotional behavior between partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Neera; Cowan, Philip A; Cowan, Carolyn P

    2009-12-01

    This study examined whether working models of attachment are associated with observed positive emotion, sadness, and anger during marital conflict. Individuals (n = 176) from a longitudinal study of families participated in the current cross-sectional study. Narrative interviews assessed the unique and combined contribution of attachment representations based on parents (adult attachment) and partner (couple attachment). The influence of partner's attachment, depression symptoms, and sex of participant was also examined. Hierarchical linear models demonstrated that one's couple attachment security predicts one's observed positive emotion, whereas the partner's couple attachment security predicts one's observed negative emotion. Partner's depression symptoms moderated the effects of partner's couple attachment. Adult attachment was not related to observed emotional behavior between partners. These findings have important clinical implications for individual, couple, and family therapy.

  7. Partner-Level Factors Associated with Insertive and Receptive Condomless Anal Intercourse Among Transgender Women in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satcher, Milan F; Segura, Eddy R; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Sanchez, Jorge; Lama, Javier R; Clark, Jesse L

    2017-08-01

    Condomless anal intercourse among transgender women (TW) in Peru has been shown to vary by the type of partner involved (e.g. primary vs. casual vs. transactional sex partner), but no previous studies have explored variations in partner-level patterns of condom use according to type of anal intercourse. We evaluated the relationship between partnership characteristics and condom use during insertive (IAI) versus receptive anal intercourse (RAI) among TW with recent, non-female partners. Condomless IAI was more common with transactional and casual sex partners and by TW who self-reported HIV-uninfected serostatus (p sex. Condomless RAI was more common with primary partners and by TW who described their HIV serostatus as unknown (p < 0.05). Examining partner-level differences between condomless IAI and RAI reveals distinct patterns of HIV/STI risk among TW, suggesting a need for HIV prevention strategies tailored to the specific contexts of partners, practices, and networks.

  8. Missed opportunities for HIV control: Gaps in HIV testing for partners of people living with HIV in Lima, Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L Vasquez

    Full Text Available Based on the hypothesis that HIV programs struggle to deliver health services that harmonize necessities of treatment and prevention, we described the outcomes of routinely provided HIV testing to partners of people living with HIV (PLWH through a secondary analysis of routine data collected at a public hospital in Lima, Peru.Among PLWH enrolled in the study center's HIV program between 2005 and 2014, we identified index cases (IC: PLWH who reported a unique partner not previously enrolled. We grouped partners according to their HIV status as reported by IC and collected data on HIV testing, clinical characteristics and admissions. The main outcome was the frequency of HIV testing among partners with reported unknown/seronegative HIV status.Out of 1586 PLWH who reported a unique partner at enrollment, 171 had a previously enrolled partner, leaving 1415 (89% IC. HIV status of the partner was reported as unknown in 571 (40%, seronegative in 325 (23% and seropositive in 519 (37%. Out of 896 partners in the unknown/seronegative group, 72 (8% had HIV testing, 42/72 (58% tested within three months of IC enrollment. Among the 49/72 (68% who tested positive for HIV, 33 (67% were enrolled in the HIV program. The proportion in WHO clinical stage IV was lower in enrolled partners compared to IC (37% vs 9%, p = 0.04. Non-tested partners (824 were likely reachable by the hospital, as 297/824 (36% of their IC were admitted in the study center at least once, 51/243 (21% female IC had received pregnancy care at the study center, and 401/692 (64% of IC on antiretroviral therapy had achieved viral suppression, implying frequent visits to the hospital for pill pick-up.In this setting, HIV testing of partners of PLWH was suboptimal, illustrating missed opportunities for HIV control. Integration of HIV strategies in primarily clinical-oriented services is a challenging need.

  9. Testing the mate-choice hypothesis of the female orgasm: disentangling traits and behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Sherlock

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The evolution of the female orgasm in humans and its role in romantic relationships is poorly understood. Whereas the male orgasm is inherently linked to reproduction, the female orgasm is not linked to obvious reproductive or survival benefits. It also occurs less consistently during penetrative sex than does the male orgasm. Mate-choice hypotheses posit that the wide variation in female orgasm frequency reflects a discriminatory mechanism designed to select high-quality mates. Objective: We aimed to determine (1 whether women report that their orgasm frequency varies between partners, (2 whether this variation reflects mates' personal characteristics, and (3 whether this variation reflects own and partner sexual behaviour during intercourse. Design: We collected survey data from 103 women who rated (1 the extent to which their orgasm frequency varied between partners, (2 the characteristics of previous sexual partners who induced high-orgasm frequency and those who induced low-orgasm frequency, and (3 the specific behaviours during sex with those partners. This is the first study to test within-woman variation in orgasm and partner traits. Results: Overall, women reported variation in their orgasm rates with different partners. Partners who induced high-orgasm rates were rated as more humorous, creative, warm, faithful, and better smelling than partners who induced low-orgasm rates, and also engaged in greater efforts to induce partner orgasm. Conclusions: Some assumptions and predictions of mate-choice hypotheses of female orgasm were supported, while other aspects of our findings provide reasons to remain sceptical.

  10. Sustainable development: women as partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dem, M

    1993-02-01

    The economic recession and the structural adjustment programs imposed y the International Monetary Fund have caused sluggish or no economic growth and a decline in living conditions in sub-Saharan Africa. Senegal's New Agricultural Policy has eliminated subsidies for agricultural inputs, worsening the already declining living conditions. Population growth in Senegal exceeds food production; it is very rapid in cities (urban growth rate, 2.7%). Women, especially, suffer from the economic crisis; it increases the burden on women for income generation, but the increased workload does not equate more income. This workload restricts women's opportunities to improve their physical environment and does not improve their status within society. Women still face discrimination daily; power lies with men. Oxfam supports urban women financially and technically as they organize and pursue income generation activities to institute change leading to sustainable development. It has helped a Serere women's group in Dakar to organize and provided credit funds to support their trading activities and family planning sensitization training. Oxfam also finances rural women coming to Dakar during the dry season to pound millet to sell. Problems which have to be overcome to achieve sustainable development acceptable to women are numerous. Women need access to the ways and means of food production. Resources are insufficient and inaccessible to women because women are excluded from the decision-making process. Women generally do not have access to information and training which would help them make their own choices and manage their own lives. Political and sociocultural environments, especially those of the poor, do not easily allow women opportunities for independent reflection and expression. Grassroots women's groups provide the best base to develop female solidarity and women's representation, leading to sustainable development. Development organizations must take up a new dynamic

  11. Female Sexual Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medically as female sexual dysfunction. Many women experience problems with sexual function at some point. Female sexual dysfunction can occur at any stage of life. It can be lifelong or be acquired later in life. It can ...

  12. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...

  13. Fertility Treatments for Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Females Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Fertility Treatments for Females Once a woman is diagnosed ... The presence or absence of male factor infertility Fertility treatments are most likely to benefit women whose ...

  14. Nanotoxicity Overview: Nano-Threat to Susceptible Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing applications of nanomaterials and nanotechnology, potential danger of nanoparticle exposure has become a critical issue. However, recent nanotoxicity studies have mainly focused on the health risks to healthy adult population. The nanotoxicity effects on susceptible populations (such as pregnant, neonate, diseased, and aged populations have been overlooked. Due to the alterations in physiological structures and functions in susceptible populations, they often suffer more damage from the same exposure. Thus, it is urgent to understand the effects of nanoparticle exposure on these populations. In order to fill this gap, the potential effects of nanoparticles to pregnant females, neonate, diseased, and aged population, as well as the possible underlying mechanisms are reviewed in this article. Investigations show that responses from susceptible population to nanoparticle exposure are often more severe. Reduced protection mechanism, compromised immunity, and impaired self-repair ability in these susceptible populations may contribute to the aggravated toxicity effects. This review will help minimize adverse effects of nanoparticles to susceptible population in future nanotechnology applications.

  15. Sevoflurane-induced pica in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kouichi; Yamamoto, Emiri; Sugimoto, Toru; Sagakami, Takuya; Yamatodani, Atsushi

    2016-05-01

    We examined the effects of volatile anesthetics on pica, which can be used to assess nausea and vomiting in rats. We found that inhalation anesthesia with sevoflurane significantly induced pica in female but not male rats. Among the female rats, young rats (8 weeks old) were more susceptible to its induction than adult rats (20 weeks old) with ovariectomy or sham-surgery. Anti-emetic drugs that are used to prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) inhibited the pica. These results suggest that sevoflurane-induced pica in young female rats has the potential to be an animal model of PONV in humans. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The preoperative sexual functioning and quality of sexual life in colorectal cancer: a study among patients and their partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traa, Marjan Johanna; De Vries, Jolanda; Roukema, Jan Anne; Den Oudsten, Brenda Leontine

    2012-12-01

    Even though the body of literature on sexual functioning is growing, information on the preoperative sexual functioning and the quality of sexual life after colorectal cancer is lacking. Research focusing on female patients and on partners is also rather scarce. This cross-sectional study aimed to describe the preoperative sexual functioning, quality of sexual life, and relationship functioning for male and female colorectal cancer patients and their partners. In addition, the mean scores of the patients and partners were compared with mean norm scores. Patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer (N = 136) and their partners (N = 106) were recruited before surgical treatment in six Dutch hospitals. Men completed the International Index of Erectile Functioning, while women completed the Female Sexual Function Index. All partnered participants completed the Golombok-Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction and the Maudsley Marital Questionnaire. The mean scores were compared with mean norm scores derived from the manuals of the questionnaires. All participants were in a heterosexual relationship. Female patients reported a lower quality of sexual life compared with male patients. Male partners reported a lower sexual functioning and a lower quality of sexual life compared with male patients. Colorectal cancer patients and partners (both sexes) reported a lower sexual functioning and a lower quality of sexual life compared with norm populations but scored similar on relationship functioning. A lower sexual functioning and a lower quality of sexual life are already reported preoperatively; however, relationship functioning was comparable with a norm population. Therefore, all the impairment seen after treatment should not be solely attributed to the effects of treatment. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  17. [Factors associated with intimate partner violence against Brazilian women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Oliveira, Ana Flávia Pires Lucas; Schraiber, Lilia Blima; França-Junior, Ivan; Ludermir, Ana Bernarda; Portella, Ana Paula; Diniz, Carmen Simone; Couto, Márcia Thereza; Valença, Otávio

    2009-04-01

    To estimate the prevalence of physical and/or sexual violence by intimate partners and factors associated with this, in different sociocultural contexts. This cross-sectional study formed part of the 'WHO Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence against Women'. It consisted of representative samples of women from the municipality of São Paulo (Southeastern Brazil) and from the Zona da Mata of Pernambuco (Northeastern Brazil), this latter is a region with more traditional gender norms. Interviews were conducted in the homes of 940 women in São Paulo and 1,188 in the Zona da Mata, in the years 2000-1. The women were aged 15 to 49 years and had all had at least one affective-sexual partnership with a man during their lifetimes. Three sets of factors were constructed, corresponding to hierarchically organized categories: sociodemographic, family and female autonomy/submission characteristics. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to analyze factors associated with intimate partner violence at each location. A prevalence of 28.9% was found in Sao Paulo (95% CI 26.0;31.8) and 36.9% (95% CI 34.1;39.6) in Zona da Mata. Up to eight years of schooling, conjugal physical violence between the women's parents, sexual abuse during childhood, five or more pregnancies and drinking problems were associated with intimate partner violence at both locations. Financial autonomy for the woman, informal partnership, age and consent to the first sexual intercourse were associated with higher rates only in Zona da Mata. The socioeconomic characteristics that presented associations in the first category were mediated by other factors in the final model. The findings show the relativization of socioeconomic factors in relation to other factors, particularly those representing gender attributes. Sociocultural differences were found between the two locations, and these were reflected in the associated factors.

  18. Social Perception through Gender Stereotypes of Partner Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor M. Cantera

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The overall goal of this research was to assess the degree of social attachment of certain stereotypes about gender (male provider; female caregiver and violence (violent, peaceful woman and is framed in the context of a debate about the extent and limits of a gender approach when it comes to understanding and preventing violence in different types of partner. 741 people were involved in the research, two thirds of them women, living in Spain, Mexico, Puerto Rico and El Salvador. In each country, they agreed to a stratified convenience sample according to criteria of gender, age, education level, occupational status and sexual orientation. In one session lasting between 35 and 60 minutes, the participants first answered an IAT (Implicit Association Test and then a series of items in a questionnaire with closed and open ended questions. One section includes 48 items referring to “activities” that the person must categorize numerically on a scale of 1-7, with a semantic differential format, and whose poles are “male” and “woman.” In this series two scales of 24 items each are mixed: hardness and tenderness. From the information obtained it is seen that samples from all countries organize their perception of partner violence according to gender stereotypes. Men and women both perceived attributes of the hardness scale to be masculine, and those of tenderness to be feminine, with these perceived differences in terms of gender role behaviors being even more enhanced and further polarized by the women. The socio-cultural anchor of the gender violence stereotype has theoretical and social implications in that it visualizes abuse from a man to a woman in the heterosexual couple and blurs that which occurs in other forms of partner. This raises topics which should be urgently addressed in the research agenda.

  19. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...... disruptions warrant evaluation of the impact of EDCs on female reproductive health....

  20. Female Prisoners in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Yik Koon

    2006-01-01

    This is a study on 422 female prisoners in peninsular Malaysia. More than half of the female prisoners are foreigners, mainly from Indonesia and Thailand. This study surveys the background of the respondents and identifies factors that may have influenced them to commit the offences. Female prisoners in Malaysia, particularly those who are…