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Sample records for susceptible brain areas

  1. Susceptibility weighted imaging of the neonatal brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meoded, A.; Poretti, A. [Division of Pediatric Radiology and Division of Neuroradiology, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Northington, F.J. [Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Tekes, A.; Intrapiromkul, J. [Division of Pediatric Radiology and Division of Neuroradiology, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Huisman, T.A.G.M., E-mail: thuisma1@jhmi.edu [Division of Pediatric Radiology and Division of Neuroradiology, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) is a well-established magnetic resonance technique, which is highly sensitive for blood, iron, and calcium depositions in the brain and has been implemented in the routine clinical use in both children and neonates. SWI in neonates might provide valuable additional diagnostic and prognostic information for a wide spectrum of neonatal neurological disorders. To date, there are few articles available on the application of SWI in neonatal neurological disorders. The purpose of this article is to illustrate and describe the characteristic SWI findings in various typical neonatal neurological disorders.

  2. Entanglement susceptibility: area laws and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanardi, Paolo; Campos Venuti, Lorenzo

    2013-04-01

    Generic quantum states in the Hilbert space of a many-body system are nearly maximally entangled whereas low-energy physical states are not; the so-called area laws for quantum entanglement are widespread. In this paper we introduce the novel concept of entanglement susceptibility by expanding the 2-Rényi entropy in the boundary couplings. We show how this concept leads to the emergence of area laws for bi-partite quantum entanglement in systems ruled by local gapped Hamiltonians. Entanglement susceptibility also captures quantitatively which violations one should expect when the system becomes gapless. We also discuss an exact series expansion of the 2-Rényi entanglement entropy in terms of connected correlation functions of a boundary term. This is obtained by identifying Rényi entropy with ground state fidelity in a doubled and twisted theory.

  3. 13 reasons why the brain is susceptible to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobley, James Nathan; Fiorello, Maria Luisa; Bailey, Damian Miles

    2018-01-28

    The human brain consumes 20% of the total basal oxygen (O 2 ) budget to support ATP intensive neuronal activity. Without sufficient O 2 to support ATP demands, neuronal activity fails, such that, even transient ischemia is neurodegenerative. While the essentiality of O 2 to brain function is clear, how oxidative stress causes neurodegeneration is ambiguous. Ambiguity exists because many of the reasons why the brain is susceptible to oxidative stress remain obscure. Many are erroneously understood as the deleterious result of adventitious O 2 derived free radical and non-radical species generation. To understand how many reasons underpin oxidative stress, one must first re-cast free radical and non-radical species in a positive light because their deliberate generation enables the brain to achieve critical functions (e.g. synaptic plasticity) through redox signalling (i.e. positive functionality). Using free radicals and non-radical derivatives to signal sensitises the brain to oxidative stress when redox signalling goes awry (i.e. negative functionality). To advance mechanistic understanding, we rationalise 13 reasons why the brain is susceptible to oxidative stress. Key reasons include inter alia unsaturated lipid enrichment, mitochondria, calcium, glutamate, modest antioxidant defence, redox active transition metals and neurotransmitter auto-oxidation. We review RNA oxidation as an underappreciated cause of oxidative stress. The complex interplay between each reason dictates neuronal susceptibility to oxidative stress in a dynamic context and neural identity dependent manner. Our discourse sets the stage for investigators to interrogate the biochemical basis of oxidative stress in the brain in health and disease. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Susceptibility analysis of landslide in Chittagong City Corporation Area, Bangladesh

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    Sourav Das

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In Chittagong city, landslide phenomena is the most burning issue which causes great problems to the life and properties and it is increasing day by day and becoming one of the main problems of city life. On 11 June 2007, a massive landslide happened in Chittagong City Corporation (CCC area, a large number of foothill settlements and slums were demolished; more than 90 people died and huge resource destruction took place. It is therefore essential to analyze the landslide susceptibility for CCC area to prepare mitigation strategies as well as assessing the impacts of climate change. To assess community susceptibility of landslide hazard, a landslide susceptibility index map has been prepared using analytical hierarchy process (AHP model based on geographic information system (GIS and remote sensing (RS and its susceptibility is analyzed through community vulnerability assessment tool (CVAT. The major findings of the research are 27% of total CCC area which is susceptible to landslide hazard and whereas 6.5 sq.km areas are found very highly susceptible. The landslide susceptible areas of CCC have also been analyzed in respect of physical, social, economic, environmental and critical facilities and it is found that the overall CCC area is highly susceptible to landslide hazard. So the findings of the research can be utilized to prioritize risk mitigation investments, measures to strengthen the emergency preparedness and response mechanisms for reducing the losses and damages due to future landslide events. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12635 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2 2015: 157-181

  5. Identification of seismically susceptible areas in western Himalaya ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Earthquakes cause tremendous loss of life and to the built environment. The amount of loss interms of life and infrastructure has been rising continuously due to significant increase in population andinfrastructure. This study is an attempt to identify seismically susceptible areas in western Himalaya,using pattern recognition ...

  6. Landslide Inventory and Susceptibility Mapping in Tropical Areas - Southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidzik, K.; Ramirez-Herrera, M. T.; Regmi, N. R.; Leshchinsky, B. A.

    2016-12-01

    Landslides are one of the common catastrophic phenomena in the world. In regions of humid-warm tropical climate they are triggered by extreme storms causing loss of life and economic devastation. In this study we mapped susceptibility to landslides in the tropical mountains of Guerrero (South Mexico) based on the inventory of landslide features triggered by the hurricane Manuel of September 2013. Landslide inventory was produced using interpretation of satellite images and automatic identification of landslides employing the Contour Connection Method (CCM). A map of susceptibility to landslides was developed by computing probability of landslide occurrence from statistical relationships of existing landslides using LiDAR elevation model and derived landslide-causing factors using a logistic regression method. Landslide inventory includes 419 features produced by the hurricane Manuel on the area of 22 km2, and > 1,000 older features, suggesting high landslide activity in this area. Most landslides in the region are small, but some large slides exist, such as the catastrophic landslide in La Pintada that caused 71 fatalities and destroyed a large part of the village. Our results indicate that the distance to streams, human activity, presence or absence of dense vegetation and orientation of slopes (on some areas) strongly influence the spatial distribution of landslides. Results showed high susceptibility zones encompass 30% of the study area and occur mostly along topographic convergence. Applied approach identified most of the landslides within the high susceptibility zone and suggested that it is a valid applicable method to map areas susceptible to landslides in southern Mexico but also on other humid-warm tropical regions.

  7. Spatially explicit shallow landslide susceptibility mapping over large areas

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    Bellugi, Dino; Dietrich, William E.; Stock, Jonathan D.; McKean, Jim; Kazian, Brian; Hargrove, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in downscaling climate model precipitation predictions now yield spatially explicit patterns of rainfall that could be used to estimate shallow landslide susceptibility over large areas. In California, the United States Geological Survey is exploring community emergency response to the possible effects of a very large simulated storm event and to do so it has generated downscaled precipitation maps for the storm. To predict the corresponding pattern of shallow landslide susceptibility across the state, we have used the model Shalstab (a coupled steady state runoff and infinite slope stability model) which susceptibility spatially explicit estimates of relative potential instability. Such slope stability models that include the effects of subsurface runoff on potentially destabilizing pore pressure evolution require water routing and hence the definition of upslope drainage area to each potential cell. To calculate drainage area efficiently over a large area we developed a parallel framework to scale-up Shalstab and specifically introduce a new efficient parallel drainage area algorithm which produces seamless results. The single seamless shallow landslide susceptibility map for all of California was accomplished in a short run time, and indicates that much larger areas can be efficiently modelled. As landslide maps generally over predict the extent of instability for any given storm. Local empirical data on the fraction of predicted unstable cells that failed for observed rainfall intensity can be used to specify the likely extent of hazard for a given storm. This suggests that campaigns to collect local precipitation data and detailed shallow landslide location maps after major storms could be used to calibrate models and improve their use in hazard assessment for individual storms.

  8. Brain Injury Lesion Imaging Using Preconditioned Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping without Skull Stripping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soman, S; Liu, Z; Kim, G; Nemec, U; Holdsworth, S J; Main, K; Lee, B; Kolakowsky-Hayner, S; Selim, M; Furst, A J; Massaband, P; Yesavage, J; Adamson, M M; Spincemallie, P; Moseley, M; Wang, Y

    2018-02-22

    Identifying cerebral microhemorrhage burden can aid in the diagnosis and management of traumatic brain injury, stroke, hypertension, and cerebral amyloid angiopathy. MR imaging susceptibility-based methods are more sensitive than CT for detecting cerebral microhemorrhage, but methods other than quantitative susceptibility mapping provide results that vary with field strength and TE, require additional phase maps to distinguish blood from calcification, and depict cerebral microhemorrhages as bloom artifacts. Quantitative susceptibility mapping provides universal quantification of tissue magnetic property without these constraints but traditionally requires a mask generated by skull-stripping, which can pose challenges at tissue interphases. We evaluated the preconditioned quantitative susceptibility mapping MR imaging method, which does not require skull-stripping, for improved depiction of brain parenchyma and pathology. Fifty-six subjects underwent brain MR imaging with a 3D multiecho gradient recalled echo acquisition. Mask-based quantitative susceptibility mapping images were created using a commonly used mask-based quantitative susceptibility mapping method, and preconditioned quantitative susceptibility images were made using precondition-based total field inversion. All images were reviewed by a neuroradiologist and a radiology resident. Ten subjects (18%), all with traumatic brain injury, demonstrated blood products on 3D gradient recalled echo imaging. All lesions were visible on preconditioned quantitative susceptibility mapping, while 6 were not visible on mask-based quantitative susceptibility mapping. Thirty-one subjects (55%) demonstrated brain parenchyma and/or lesions that were visible on preconditioned quantitative susceptibility mapping but not on mask-based quantitative susceptibility mapping. Six subjects (11%) demonstrated pons artifacts on preconditioned quantitative susceptibility mapping and mask-based quantitative susceptibility mapping

  9. Enduring deficits in brain reward function after chronic social defeat in rats: susceptibility, resilience, and antidepressant response.

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    Der-Avakian, Andre; Mazei-Robison, Michelle S; Kesby, James P; Nestler, Eric J; Markou, Athina

    2014-10-01

    Anhedonia, or diminished interest or pleasure in rewarding activities, characterizes depression and reflects deficits in brain reward circuitries. Social stress induces anhedonia and increases risk of depression, although the effect of social stress on brain reward function is incompletely understood. This study assessed the following: 1) brain reward function in rats (using the intracranial self-stimulation procedure) and protein levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and related signaling molecules in response to chronic social defeat, 2) brain reward function during social defeat and long-term treatment with the antidepressants fluoxetine (5 mg/kg/day) and desipramine (10 mg/kg/day), and 3) forced swim test behavior after social defeat and fluoxetine treatment. Social defeat profoundly and persistently decreased brain reward function, reflecting an enduring anhedonic response, in susceptible rats, whereas resilient rats showed no long-term brain reward deficits. In the ventral tegmental area, social defeat, regardless of susceptibility or resilience, decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor and increased phosphorylated AKT, whereas only susceptibility was associated with increased phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin. Fluoxetine and desipramine reversed lower, but not higher, stress-induced brain reward deficits in susceptible rats. Fluoxetine decreased immobility in the forced swim test, as did social defeat. These results suggest that the differential persistent anhedonic response to psychosocial stress may be mediated by ventral tegmental area signaling molecules independent of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and indicate that greater stress-induced anhedonia is associated with resistance to antidepressant treatment. Consideration of these behavioral and neurobiological factors associated with resistance to stress and antidepressant action may promote the discovery of novel targets to treat stress-related mood disorders. Copyright © 2014

  10. Sex differences in metabolic aging of the brain: insights into female susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liqin; Mao, Zisu; Woody, Sarah K; Brinton, Roberta D

    2016-06-01

    Despite recent advances in the understanding of clinical aspects of sex differences in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the underlying mechanisms, for instance, how sex modifies AD risk and why the female brain is more susceptible to AD, are not clear. The purpose of this study is to elucidate sex disparities in brain aging profiles focusing on 2 major areas-energy and amyloid metabolism-that are most significantly affected in preclinical development of AD. Total RNA isolated from hippocampal tissues of both female and male 129/C57BL/6 mice at ages of 6, 9, 12, or 15 months were comparatively analyzed by custom-designed Taqman low-density arrays for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction detection of a total of 182 genes involved in a broad spectrum of biological processes modulating energy production and amyloid homeostasis. Gene expression profiles revealed substantial differences in the trajectory of aging changes between female and male brains. In female brains, 44.2% of genes were significantly changed from 6 months to 9 months and two-thirds showed downregulation. In contrast, in male brains, only 5.4% of genes were significantly altered at this age transition. Subsequent changes in female brains were at a much smaller magnitude, including 10.9% from 9 months to 12 months and 6.1% from 12 months to 15 months. In male brains, most changes occurred from 12 months to 15 months and the majority were upregulated. Furthermore, gene network analysis revealed that clusterin appeared to serve as a link between the overall decreased bioenergetic metabolism and increased amyloid dyshomeostasis associated with the earliest transition in female brains. Together, results from this study indicate that: (1) female and male brains follow profoundly dissimilar trajectories as they age; (2) female brains undergo age-related changes much earlier than male brains; (3) early changes in female brains signal the onset of a hypometabolic phenotype at risk for AD. These

  11. Enhanced brain susceptibility to negative stimuli in adolescents: ERP evidences

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    Jiajin eYuan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: previous studies investigated neural substrates of emotional face processing in adolescents and its comparison with adults. As emotional faces elicit more of emotional expression recognition rather than direct emotional responding, it remains undetermined how adolescents are different from adults in brain susceptibility to emotionally stressful stimuli. Methods: Event-Related Potentials were recorded for highly negative (HN, moderately negative (MN and Neutral pictures in 20 adolescents and 20 adults while subjects performed a standard/deviant distinction task by pressing different keys, irrespective of the emotionality of deviant stimuli. Results: Adolescents exhibited more negative amplitudes for HN versus neutral pictures in N1 (100-150ms, P2 (130-190ms, N2 (210-290ms and P3 (360-440ms components. In addition, adolescents showed more negative amplitudes for MN compared to neutral pictures in N1, P2 and N2 components. By contrast, adults exhibited significant emotion effects for HN stimuli in N2 and P3 amplitudes but not in N1 and P2 amplitudes, and they did not exhibit a significant emotion effect for MN stimuli at all these components. In the 210-290ms time interval, the emotion effect for HN stimuli was significant across frontal and central regions in adolescents, while this emotion effect was noticeable only in the central region for adults. Conclusions: Adolescents are more emotionally sensitive to negative stimuli compared to adults, regardless of the emotional intensity of the stimuli, possibly due to the immature prefrontal control system over the limbic emotional inputs during adolescence. Keywords: Event-Related Potentials (ERPs; Adolescence; Emotion intensity; Negative pictures; Emotional Susceptibility

  12. Sources of energy for the brain and susceptibility to audiogenic seizures.

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    Schreiber, R A

    1979-04-01

    The onset of susceptibility to audiogenic seizures (AGS) coincides with the draining of the ear canal at about 14 to 16 days of age. This is also when the mouse brain has almost attained its maximal size and weight, and also about the time of weaning from the dam's high-fat milk to the beginning of dietary self-sufficiency. During suckling, the brain is primarily dependent on ketone-body utilization as a source for brain energy; weaned mice use glucose. It is suggested that in AGS-prone mice, there may be a developmental lag in the onset of a sufficient rate of glycolysis in brain to provide adequate immediately available energy reserves to last through a brief period of an external-stimulus-induced large energy expediture until energy repletion processes can begin. As a results, ATP levels might fall below an hypothesized lower limit to subserve organized neural activity in some inhibitory area of the brain, resulting in the onset of an AGS.

  13. Brain areas involved in spatial working memory.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselen, M. van; Kessels, R.P.C.; Neggers, S.F.W.; Kappelle, L.J.; Frijns, C.J.M.; Postma, A.

    2006-01-01

    Spatial working memory entails the ability to keep spatial information active in working memory over a short period of time. To study the areas of the brain that are involved in spatial working memory, a group of stroke patients was tested with a spatial search task. Patients and healthy controls

  14. Bjork-Shiley convexoconcave valves: Susceptibility artifacts at brain MR imaging and mechanical valve fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gorp, Maarten J.; van der Graaf, Yolanda; de Mol, Bas A. J. M.; Bakker, Chris J. G.; Witkamp, Theo D.; Ramos, Lino M. P.; Mali, Willem P. T. M.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the relationship between heart valve history and susceptibility artifacts at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the brain in patients with Bjork-Shiley convexoconcave (BSCC) valves. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MR images of the brain were obtained in 58 patients with prosthetic heart

  15. A distinct boundary between the higher brain's susceptibility to ischemia and the lower brain's resistance.

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    C Devin Brisson

    Full Text Available Higher brain regions are more susceptible to global ischemia than the brainstem, but is there a gradual increase in vulnerability in the caudal-rostral direction or is there a discrete boundary? We examined the interface between `higher` thalamus and the hypothalamus the using live brain slices where variation in blood flow is not a factor. Whole-cell current clamp recording of 18 thalamic neurons in response to 10 min O2/glucose deprivation (OGD revealed a rapid anoxic depolarization (AD from which thalamic neurons do not recover. Newly acquired neurons could not be patched following AD, confirming significant regional thalamic injury. Coinciding with AD, light transmittance (LT imaging during whole-cell recording showed an elevated LT front that initiated in midline thalamus and that propagated into adjacent hypothalamus. However, hypothalamic neurons patched in paraventricular nucleus (PVN, n= 8 magnocellular and 12 parvocellular neurons and suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN, n= 18 only slowly depolarized as AD passed through these regions. And with return to control aCSF, hypothalamic neurons repolarized and recovered their input resistance and action potential amplitude. Moreover, newly acquired hypothalamic neurons could be readily patched following exposure to OGD, with resting parameters similar to neurons not previously exposed to OGD. Thalamic susceptibility and hypothalamic resilience were also observed following ouabain exposure which blocks the Na(+/K(+ pump, evoking depolarization similar to OGD in all neuronal types tested. Finally, brief exposure to elevated [K(+]o caused spreading depression (SD, a milder, AD-like event only in thalamic neurons so SD generation is regionally correlated with strong AD. Therefore the thalamus-hypothalamus interface represents a discrete boundary where neuronal vulnerability to ischemia is high in thalamus (like more rostral neocortex, striatum, hippocampus. In contrast hypothalamic neurons are

  16. Large-area landslide susceptibility with optimized slope-units

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    Alvioli, Massimiliano; Marchesini, Ivan; Reichenbach, Paola; Rossi, Mauro; Ardizzone, Francesca; Fiorucci, Federica; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2017-04-01

    A Slope-Unit (SU) is a type of morphological terrain unit bounded by drainage and divide lines that maximize the within-unit homogeneity and the between-unit heterogeneity across distinct physical and geographical boundaries [1]. Compared to other terrain subdivisions, SU are morphological terrain unit well related to the natural (i.e., geological, geomorphological, hydrological) processes that shape and characterize natural slopes. This makes SU easily recognizable in the field or in topographic base maps, and well suited for environmental and geomorphological analysis, in particular for landslide susceptibility (LS) modelling. An optimal subdivision of an area into a set of SU depends on multiple factors: size and complexity of the study area, quality and resolution of the available terrain elevation data, purpose of the terrain subdivision, scale and resolution of the phenomena for which SU are delineated. We use the recently developed r.slopeunits software [2,3] for the automatic, parametric delineation of SU within the open source GRASS GIS based on terrain elevation data and a small number of user-defined parameters. The software provides subdivisions consisting of SU with different shapes and sizes, as a function of the input parameters. In this work, we describe a procedure for the optimal selection of the user parameters through the production of a large number of realizations of the LS model. We tested the software and the optimization procedure in a 2,000 km2 area in Umbria, Central Italy. For LS zonation we adopt a logistic regression model implemented in an well-known software [4,5], using about 50 independent variables. To select the optimal SU partition for LS zonation, we want to define a metric which is able to quantify simultaneously: (i) slope-unit internal homogeneity (ii) slope-unit external heterogeneity (iii) landslide susceptibility model performance. To this end, we define a comprehensive objective function S, as the product of three

  17. Lesion Analysis of the Brain Areas Involved in Language Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dronkers, Nina F.; Wilkins, David P.; Van Valin, Robert D., Jr.; Redfern, Brenda B.; Jaeger, Jeri J.

    2004-01-01

    The cortical regions of the brain traditionally associated with the comprehension of language are Wernicke's area and Broca's area. However, recent evidence suggests that other brain regions might also be involved in this complex process. This paper describes the opportunity to evaluate a large number of brain-injured patients to determine which…

  18. Restoring susceptibility induced MRI signal loss in rat brain at 9.4 T: A step towards whole brain functional connectivity imaging.

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    Rupeng Li

    Full Text Available The aural cavity magnetic susceptibility artifact leads to significant echo planar imaging (EPI signal dropout in rat deep brain that limits acquisition of functional connectivity fcMRI data. In this study, we provide a method that recovers much of the EPI signal in deep brain. Needle puncture introduction of a liquid-phase fluorocarbon into the middle ear allows acquisition of rat fcMRI data without signal dropout. We demonstrate that with seeds chosen from previously unavailable areas, including the amygdala and the insular cortex, we are able to acquire large scale networks, including the limbic system. This tool allows EPI-based neuroscience and pharmaceutical research in rat brain using fcMRI that was previously not feasible.

  19. Susceptibility of Aedes albopictus from dengue outbreak areas to temephos and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohiddin, Ahmad; Lasim, Asmalia Md; Zuharah, Wan Fatma

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To monitor the current duration of the application rates in vector programme and the level of Aedes albopictus larvae susceptibility from three selected areas in northeast district of Penang on two...

  20. Susceptibility of Aedes albopictus from dengue outbreak areas to temephos and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp.israelensis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ahmad Mohiddin Asmalia Md Lasim Wan Fatma Zuharah

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To monitor the current duration of the application rates in vector programme and the level of Aedes albopictus larvae susceptibility from three selected areas in northeast district of Penang on two...

  1. Background field removal using a region adaptive kernel for quantitative susceptibility mapping of human brain

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    Fang, Jinsheng; Bao, Lijun; Li, Xu; van Zijl, Peter C. M.; Chen, Zhong

    2017-08-01

    Background field removal is an important MR phase preprocessing step for quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). It separates the local field induced by tissue magnetic susceptibility sources from the background field generated by sources outside a region of interest, e.g. brain, such as air-tissue interface. In the vicinity of air-tissue boundary, e.g. skull and paranasal sinuses, where large susceptibility variations exist, present background field removal methods are usually insufficient and these regions often need to be excluded by brain mask erosion at the expense of losing information of local field and thus susceptibility measures in these regions. In this paper, we propose an extension to the variable-kernel sophisticated harmonic artifact reduction for phase data (V-SHARP) background field removal method using a region adaptive kernel (R-SHARP), in which a scalable spherical Gaussian kernel (SGK) is employed with its kernel radius and weights adjustable according to an energy ;functional; reflecting the magnitude of field variation. Such an energy functional is defined in terms of a contour and two fitting functions incorporating regularization terms, from which a curve evolution model in level set formation is derived for energy minimization. We utilize it to detect regions of with a large field gradient caused by strong susceptibility variation. In such regions, the SGK will have a small radius and high weight at the sphere center in a manner adaptive to the voxel energy of the field perturbation. Using the proposed method, the background field generated from external sources can be effectively removed to get a more accurate estimation of the local field and thus of the QSM dipole inversion to map local tissue susceptibility sources. Numerical simulation, phantom and in vivo human brain data demonstrate improved performance of R-SHARP compared to V-SHARP and RESHARP (regularization enabled SHARP) methods, even when the whole paranasal sinus regions

  2. Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping Reveals an Association between Brain Iron Load and Depression Severity

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    Shun Yao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have detected abnormal serum ferritin levels in patients with depression; however, the results have been inconsistent. This study used quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM for the first time to examine brain iron concentration in depressed patients and evaluated whether it is related to severity. We included three groups of age- and gender-matched participants: 30 patients with mild-moderate depression (MD, 14 patients with major depression disorder (MDD and 20 control subjects. All participants underwent MR scans with a 3D gradient-echo sequence reconstructing for QSM and performed the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS test. In MDD, the susceptibility value in the bilateral putamen was significantly increased compared with MD or control subjects. In addition, a significant difference was also observed in the left thalamus in MDD patients compared with controls. However, the susceptibility values did not differ between MD patients and controls. The susceptibility values positively correlated with the severity of depression as indicated by the HDRS scores. Our results provide evidence that brain iron deposition may be associated with depression and may even be a biomarker for investigating the pathophysiological mechanism of depression.

  3. Interleukin-1 Receptor in Seizure Susceptibility after Traumatic Injury to the Pediatric Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Bridgette D; O'Brien, Terence J; Gimlin, Kayleen; Wright, David K; Kim, Shi Eun; Casillas-Espinosa, Pablo M; Webster, Kyria M; Petrou, Steven; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J

    2017-08-16

    Epilepsy after pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with poor quality of life. This study aimed to characterize post-traumatic epilepsy in a mouse model of pediatric brain injury, and to evaluate the role of interleukin-1 (IL-1) signaling as a target for pharmacological intervention. Male mice received a controlled cortical impact or sham surgery at postnatal day 21, approximating a toddler-aged child. Mice were treated acutely with an IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra; 100 mg/kg, s.c.) or vehicle. Spontaneous and evoked seizures were evaluated from video-EEG recordings. Behavioral assays tested for functional outcomes, postmortem analyses assessed neuropathology, and brain atrophy was detected by ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging. At 2 weeks and 3 months post-injury, TBI mice showed an elevated seizure response to the convulsant pentylenetetrazol compared with sham mice, associated with abnormal hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting. A robust increase in IL-1β and IL-1 receptor were detected after TBI. IL-1Ra treatment reduced seizure susceptibility 2 weeks after TBI compared with vehicle, and a reduction in hippocampal astrogliosis. In a chronic study, IL-1Ra-TBI mice showed improved spatial memory at 4 months post-injury. At 5 months, most TBI mice exhibited spontaneous seizures during a 7 d video-EEG recording period. At 6 months, IL-1Ra-TBI mice had fewer evoked seizures compared with vehicle controls, coinciding with greater preservation of cortical tissue. Findings demonstrate this model's utility to delineate mechanisms underlying epileptogenesis after pediatric brain injury, and provide evidence of IL-1 signaling as a mediator of post-traumatic astrogliosis and seizure susceptibility. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Epilepsy is a common cause of morbidity after traumatic brain injury in early childhood. However, a limited understanding of how epilepsy develops, particularly in the immature brain, likely contributes to the lack of efficacious treatments

  4. Task-evoked brain functional magnetic susceptibility mapping by independent component analysis (χICA).

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    Chen, Zikuan; Calhoun, Vince D

    2016-03-01

    Conventionally, independent component analysis (ICA) is performed on an fMRI magnitude dataset to analyze brain functional mapping (AICA). By solving the inverse problem of fMRI, we can reconstruct the brain magnetic susceptibility (χ) functional states. Upon the reconstructed χ dataspace, we propose an ICA-based brain functional χ mapping method (χICA) to extract task-evoked brain functional map. A complex division algorithm is applied to a timeseries of fMRI phase images to extract temporal phase changes (relative to an OFF-state snapshot). A computed inverse MRI (CIMRI) model is used to reconstruct a 4D brain χ response dataset. χICA is implemented by applying a spatial InfoMax ICA algorithm to the reconstructed 4D χ dataspace. With finger-tapping experiments on a 7T system, the χICA-extracted χ-depicted functional map is similar to the SPM-inferred functional χ map by a spatial correlation of 0.67 ± 0.05. In comparison, the AICA-extracted magnitude-depicted map is correlated with the SPM magnitude map by 0.81 ± 0.05. The understanding of the inferiority of χICA to AICA for task-evoked functional map is an ongoing research topic. For task-evoked brain functional mapping, we compare the data-driven ICA method with the task-correlated SPM method. In particular, we compare χICA with AICA for extracting task-correlated timecourses and functional maps. χICA can extract a χ-depicted task-evoked brain functional map from a reconstructed χ dataspace without the knowledge about brain hemodynamic responses. The χICA-extracted brain functional χ map reveals a bidirectional BOLD response pattern that is unavailable (or different) from AICA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetic susceptibility to multiple sclerosis: Brain structure and cognitive function in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikram, Mohammad Arfan; Vernooij, Meike W; Roshchupkin, Gennady V; Hofman, Albert; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Uitterlinden, André G; Niessen, Wiro J; Hintzen, Rogier Q; Adams, Hieab Hh

    2017-11-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) affects brain structure and cognitive function and has a heritable component. Over a 100 common genetic risk variants have been identified, but most carriers do not develop MS. For other neurodegenerative diseases, risk variants have effects outside patient populations, but this remains uninvestigated for MS. To study the effect of MS-associated genetic variants on brain structure and cognitive function in the general population. We studied middle-aged and elderly individuals (mean age = 65.7 years) from the population-based Rotterdam Study. We determined 107 MS variants and additionally created a risk score combining all variants. Magnetic resonance imaging ( N = 4710) was performed to obtain measures of brain macrostructure, white matter microstructure, and gray matter voxel-based morphometry. A cognitive test battery ( N = 7556) was used to test a variety of cognitive domains. The MS risk score was associated with smaller gray matter volume over the whole brain (βstandardized = -0.016; p = 0.044), but region-specific analyses did not survive multiple testing correction. Similarly, no significant associations with brain structure were observed for individual variants. For cognition, rs2283792 was significantly associated with poorer memory (β = -0.064; p = 3.4 × 10-5). Increased genetic susceptibility to MS may affect brain structure and cognition in persons without disease, pointing to a "hidden burden" of MS.

  6. GIS and statistical analysis for landslide susceptibility mapping in the Daunia area, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, F.; Ceppi, C.; Ritrovato, G.

    2010-09-01

    This study focuses on landslide susceptibility mapping in the Daunia area (Apulian Apennines, Italy) and achieves this by using a multivariate statistical method and data processing in a Geographical Information System (GIS). The Logistic Regression (hereafter LR) method was chosen to produce a susceptibility map over an area of 130 000 ha where small settlements are historically threatened by landslide phenomena. By means of LR analysis, the tendency to landslide occurrences was, therefore, assessed by relating a landslide inventory (dependent variable) to a series of causal factors (independent variables) which were managed in the GIS, while the statistical analyses were performed by means of the SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) software. The LR analysis produced a reliable susceptibility map of the investigated area and the probability level of landslide occurrence was ranked in four classes. The overall performance achieved by the LR analysis was assessed by local comparison between the expected susceptibility and an independent dataset extrapolated from the landslide inventory. Of the samples classified as susceptible to landslide occurrences, 85% correspond to areas where landslide phenomena have actually occurred. In addition, the consideration of the regression coefficients provided by the analysis demonstrated that a major role is played by the "land cover" and "lithology" causal factors in determining the occurrence and distribution of landslide phenomena in the Apulian Apennines.

  7. Diminished brain resilience syndrome: A modern day neurological pathology of increased susceptibility to mild brain trauma, concussion, and downstream neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Wendy A; Seneff, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The number of sports-related concussions has been steadily rising in recent years. Diminished brain resilience syndrome is a term coined by the lead author to describe a particular physiological state of nutrient functional deficiency and disrupted homeostatic mechanisms leading to increased susceptibility to previously considered innocuous concussion. We discuss how modern day environmental toxicant exposure, along with major changes in our food supply and lifestyle practices, profoundly reduce the bioavailability of neuro-critical nutrients such that the normal processes of homeostatic balance and resilience are no longer functional. Their diminished capacity triggers physiological and biochemical 'work around' processes that result in undesirable downstream consequences. Exposure to certain environmental chemicals, particularly glyphosate, the active ingredient in the herbicide, Roundup(®), may disrupt the body's innate switching mechanism, which normally turns off the immune response to brain injury once danger has been removed. Deficiencies in serotonin, due to disruption of the shikimate pathway, may lead to impaired melatonin supply, which reduces the resiliency of the brain through reduced antioxidant capacity and alterations in the cerebrospinal fluid, reducing critical protective buffering mechanisms in impact trauma. Depletion of certain rare minerals, overuse of sunscreen and/or overprotection from sun exposure, as well as overindulgence in heavily processed, nutrient deficient foods, further compromise the brain's resilience. Modifications to lifestyle practices, if widely implemented, could significantly reduce this trend of neurological damage.

  8. Brain pericytes from stress-susceptible pigs increase blood-brain barrier permeability in vitro

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    Vandenhaute Elodie

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The function of pericytes remains questionable but with improved cultured technique and the use of genetically modified animals, it has become increasingly clear that pericytes are an integral part of blood–brain barrier (BBB function, and the involvement of pericyte dysfunction in certain cerebrovascular diseases is now emerging. The porcine stress syndrome (PSS is the only confirmed, homologous model of malignant hyperthermia (MH in veterinary medicine. Affected animals can experience upon slaughter a range of symptoms, including skeletal muscle rigidity, metabolic acidosis, tachycardia and fever, similar to the human syndrome. Symptoms are due to an enhanced calcium release from intracellular stores. These conditions are associated with a point mutation in ryr1/hal gene, encoding the ryanodine receptor, a calcium channel. Important blood vessel wall muscle modifications have been described in PSS, but potential brain vessel changes have never been documented in this syndrome. Methods In the present work, histological and ultrastructural analyses of brain capillaries from wild type and ryr1 mutated pigs were conducted to investigate the potential impairment of pericytes, in this pathology. In addition, brain pericytes were isolated from the three porcine genotypes (wild-type NN pigs; Nn and nn pigs, bearing one or two (n mutant ryr1/hal alleles, respectively, and tested in vitro for their influence on the permeability of BBB endothelial monolayers. Results Enlarged perivascular spaces were observed in ryr1-mutant samples, corresponding to a partial or total detachment of the astrocytic endfeet. These spaces were electron lucent and sometimes filled with lipid deposits and swollen astrocytic feet. At the ultrastructural level, brain pericytes did not seem to be affected because they showed regular morphology and characteristics, so we aimed to check their ability to maintain BBB properties in vitro. Our results indicated

  9. Susceptibility of Chinese Perch Brain (CPB Cell and Mandarin Fish to Red-Spotted Grouper Nervous Necrosis Virus (RGNNV Infection

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    Jiagang Tu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nervous necrosis virus (NNV is the causative agent of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER, a neurological disease responsible for high mortality of fish species worldwide. Taking advantage of our established Chinese perch brain (CPB cell line derived from brain tissues of Mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi, the susceptibility of CPB cell to Red-Spotted Grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV was evaluated. The results showed that RGNNV replicated well in CPB cells, resulting in cellular apoptosis. Moreover, the susceptibility of Mandarin fish to RGNNV was also evaluated. Abnormal swimming was observed in RGNNV-infected Mandarin fish. In addition, the cellular vacuolation and viral particles were also observed in brain tissues of RGNNV-infected Mandarin fish by Hematoxylin-eosin staining or electronic microscopy. The established RGNNV susceptible brain cell line from freshwater fish will pave a new way for the study of the pathogenicity and replication of NNV in the future.

  10. [The language area of the brain: a functional reassessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo; Bernal, Byron; Rosselli, Monica

    2016-02-01

    During the late 19th and early 20th century, a 'brain language area' was proposed corresponding to the peri-Sylvian region of the left hemisphere as concluded by clinical observations. This point of view has continued up today. Departing from contemporary neuroimaging studies, to re-analyze the location and extension the brain language area with regard to the different Brodmann areas. Using the method known as metaanalytic connectivity modeling seven meta-analytic studies of fMRI activity during the performance of different language tasks are analyzed. It was observed that two major brain systems can be distinguished: lexical/semantic, related with the Wernicke's area, that includes a core Wernicke's area (recognition of words) and an extended Wernicke's area (word associations); and grammatical system (language production and grammar) corresponding to the Broca's complex in the frontal lobe, and extending subcortically It is proposed that the insula plays a coordinating role in interconnecting these two brain language systems. Contemporary neuroimaging studies suggest that the brain language are is notoriously more extended than it was assumed one century ago based on clinical observations. As it was assumed during the 19th century, the insula seemingly plays a critical role in language.

  11. Desertification Susceptibility Mapping Using Logistic Regression Analysis in the Djelfa Area, Algeria

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    Farid Djeddaoui

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this work was to identify the areas that are most susceptible to desertification in a part of the Algerian steppe, and to quantitatively assess the key factors that contribute to this desertification. In total, 139 desertified zones were mapped using field surveys and photo-interpretation. We selected 16 spectral and geomorphic predictive factors, which a priori play a significant role in desertification. They were mainly derived from Landsat 8 imagery and Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission digital elevation model (SRTM DEM. Some factors, such as the topographic position index (TPI and curvature, were used for the first time in this kind of study. For this purpose, we adapted the logistic regression algorithm for desertification susceptibility mapping, which has been widely used for landslide susceptibility mapping. The logistic model was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve. The model accuracy was 87.8%. We estimated the model uncertainties using a bootstrap method. Our analysis suggests that the predictive model is robust and stable. Our results indicate that land cover factors, including normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and rangeland classes, play a major role in determining desertification occurrence, while geomorphological factors have a limited impact. The predictive map shows that 44.57% of the area is classified as highly to very highly susceptible to desertification. The developed approach can be used to assess desertification in areas with similar characteristics and to guide possible actions to combat desertification.

  12. Broca's Area: A Problem in Language-Brain Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, H. A.; Selnes, O. A.

    1975-01-01

    How significantly is Broca's Area related to speech? It is considered here to be definitely a component in the language mechanism of the brain. It is also stated that this area is unique to people and that it has no unitary function, yet it is specialized for certain expressive (motor) functions. (SCC)

  13. Enhanced Dentate Neurogenesis after Brain Injury Undermines Long-Term Neurogenic Potential and Promotes Seizure Susceptibility

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    Eric J. Neuberger

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal dentate gyrus is a focus of enhanced neurogenesis and excitability after traumatic brain injury. Increased neurogenesis has been proposed to aid repair of the injured network. Our data show that an early increase in neurogenesis after fluid percussion concussive brain injury is transient and is followed by a persistent decrease compared with age-matched controls. Post-injury changes in neurogenesis paralleled changes in neural precursor cell proliferation and resulted in a long-term decline in neurogenic capacity. Targeted pharmacology to restore post-injury neurogenesis to control levels reversed the long-term decline in neurogenic capacity. Limiting post-injury neurogenesis reduced early increases in dentate excitability and seizure susceptibility. Our results challenge the assumption that increased neurogenesis after brain injury is beneficial and show that early post-traumatic increases in neurogenesis adversely affect long-term outcomes by exhausting neurogenic potential and enhancing epileptogenesis. Treatments aimed at limiting excessive neurogenesis can potentially restore neuroproliferative capacity and limit epilepsy after brain injury.

  14. Pyrethroids susceptibility of Lutzmoyia verrucarum in endemic areas of Carrión disease from Ancash

    OpenAIRE

    Lucero, Jorge; Dirección Regional de Salud Ancash. Chimbote, Perú. Biólogo entomólogo.; Pachas, Paul P.; Dirección General de Epidemiología, Ministerio de Salud. Lima, Perú. Médico epidemiólogo.

    2008-01-01

    Carrion disease is an endemic vector-borne infection of Peru, the vector control of the Lutzomyia verrucarum with insecticides is one of the most commonly used to reduce morbidity. It was determined the susceptibility of this vector to the most pyrethroids widely used (cyfluthrin, alfacypermethrin and deltamethrin) in two endemic areas of highlands from Ancash (Llumpa: 3200 and Maya: 2600 meters above sea level), Peru in June 1999. Were exposed to 50 mosquitoes from each area and insectici...

  15. Brain areas impaired in oral and verbal apraxic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Yadegari, Fariba; Azimian, Mojtaba; Rahgozar, Mahdi; Shekarchi, Babak

    2014-01-01

    Background: As both oral and verbal apraxia are related to vocal orofacial musculature, this study aimed at identifying brain regions impaired in cases with oral and verbal apraxia. Methods: In this non-experimental study, 46 left brain damaged subjects (17 females) aged 23–84 years, were examined by oral and verbal apraxia tasks. Impaired and spared Broca’s area, insula, and middle frontal gyrus in the left hemisphere were checked from magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography scans...

  16. MRI estimates of brain iron concentration in normal aging using quantitative susceptibility mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgic, Berkin; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Rohlfing, Torsten; Sullivan, Edith V; Adalsteinsson, Elfar

    2012-02-01

    Quantifying tissue iron concentration in vivo is instrumental for understanding the role of iron in physiology and in neurological diseases associated with abnormal iron distribution. Herein, we use recently-developed Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping (QSM) methodology to estimate the tissue magnetic susceptibility based on MRI signal phase. To investigate the effect of different regularization choices, we implement and compare ℓ1 and ℓ2 norm regularized QSM algorithms. These regularized approaches solve for the underlying magnetic susceptibility distribution, a sensitive measure of the tissue iron concentration, that gives rise to the observed signal phase. Regularized QSM methodology also involves a pre-processing step that removes, by dipole fitting, unwanted background phase effects due to bulk susceptibility variations between air and tissue and requires data acquisition only at a single field strength. For validation, performances of the two QSM methods were measured against published estimates of regional brain iron from postmortem and in vivo data. The in vivo comparison was based on data previously acquired using Field-Dependent Relaxation Rate Increase (FDRI), an estimate of MRI relaxivity enhancement due to increased main magnetic field strength, requiring data acquired at two different field strengths. The QSM analysis was based on susceptibility-weighted images acquired at 1.5 T, whereas FDRI analysis used Multi-Shot Echo-Planar Spin Echo images collected at 1.5 T and 3.0 T. Both datasets were collected in the same healthy young and elderly adults. The in vivo estimates of regional iron concentration comported well with published postmortem measurements; both QSM approaches yielded the same rank ordering of iron concentration by brain structure, with the lowest in white matter and the highest in globus pallidus. Further validation was provided by comparison of the in vivo measurements, ℓ1-regularized QSM versus FDRI and ℓ2-regularized QSM

  17. Brain Microglial Cells Are Highly Susceptible to HIV-1 Infection and Spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenker, Jennifer J; Stultz, Ryan D; McDonald, David

    2017-11-01

    Macrophages are a target of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and may serve as an important reservoir of the virus in the body, particularly after depletion of CD4+ T cells in HIV/AIDS. Recently, sterile alpha motif and histidine/aspartic acid domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) was identified as the major restriction factor of HIV-1 infection in myeloid cells. SAMHD1 is targeted for proteolytic degradation by Vpx, a viral protein encoded by HIV-2 and many simian immunodeficiency viruses but not HIV-1. In this study, we assessed SAMHD1 restriction in in vitro differentiated macrophages and in freshly isolated macrophages from the lungs, abdomen, and brain. We found that infection and spread in in vitro cultured monocyte-derived macrophages were highly limited and that Vpx largely relieved the restriction to initial infection, as expected. We observed nearly identical infection and restriction profiles in freshly isolated peripheral blood monocytes, as well as lung (alveolar) and abdominal (peritoneal) macrophages. In contrast, under the same infection conditions, primary brain macrophages (microglia) were highly susceptible to HIV-1 infection despite levels of endogenous SAMHD1 comparable to the other macrophage populations. Addition of Vpx further increased HIV-1 infection under conditions of limiting virus input, and viral spread was robust whether or not SAMHD1 was depleted. These results suggest that HIV-1 infection of peripherally circulating macrophages is effectively restricted by SAMHD1; however, microglia are highly susceptible to infection despite SAMHD1 expression. These data may explain the long-standing observation that HIV-1 infection is often detected in macrophages in the brain, but seldom in other tissues of the body.

  18. A hybrid fuzzy weight of evidence method in landslide susceptibility analysis on the Wuyuan area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Haoyuan; Ilia, Ioanna; Tsangaratos, Paraskevas; Chen, Wei; Xu, Chong

    2017-08-01

    The present study proposed a hybrid fuzzy weight of evidence model for constructing a landslide susceptibility map in the Wuyuan area, China, where disastrous landslide events have occurred. The model combines the knowledge of experts obtained through a fuzzy logic approach and a hybrid weight of evidence method. The estimated knowledge-based fuzzy membership value of each environmental variable is combined with data-based conditional probabilities to derive fuzzy posterior probabilities and landslide susceptibility. The developed model was compared with a landslide susceptibility map produced using the data-driven weight of evidence method, based on 510 landslide and non-landslide sites. The sites were identified by analyzing airborne imagery, field investigation and previous studies. Landside susceptibility for these sites was analyzed using 10 geo-environmental variables: slope, aspect, lithology, soil, rainfall, plan curvature, the normalized difference vegetation index, distance to roads, distance to rivers and distance to faults. The resultant hybrid fuzzy weight of evidence method showed high predictive power, with the area under the success and predictive curves being 0.770 and 0.746, respectively. Additional analyses showed that the developed model could work effectively even with limited data.

  19. Susceptibility to mortality in weather extremes: effect modification by personal and small-area characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanobetti, Antonella; O'Neill, Marie S; Gronlund, Carina J; Schwartz, Joel D

    2013-11-01

    Extremes of temperature have been associated with short-term increases in daily mortality. We identified subpopulations with increased susceptibility to dying during temperature extremes, based on personal demographics, small-area characteristics, and preexisting medical conditions. We examined Medicare participants in 135 US cities and identified preexisting conditions based on hospitalization records before their deaths, from 1985 to 2006. Personal characteristics were obtained from the Medicare records, and area characteristics were assigned based on zip code of residence. We conducted a case-only analysis of over 11 million deaths and evaluated modification of the risk of dying associated with extremely hot days and extremely cold days, continuous temperatures, and water vapor pressure. Modifiers included preexisting conditions, personal characteristics, zip code-level population characteristics, and land cover characteristics. For each effect modifier, a city-specific logistic regression model was fitted and then an overall national estimate was calculated using meta-analysis. People with certain preexisting conditions were more susceptible to extreme heat, with an additional 6% (95% confidence interval = 4%-8%) increase in the risk of dying on an extremely hot day in subjects with previous admission for atrial fibrillation, an additional 8% (4%-12%) in subjects with Alzheimer disease, and an additional 6% (3%-9%) in subjects with dementia. Zip code level and personal characteristics were also associated with increased susceptibility to temperature. We identified several subgroups of the population who are particularly susceptible to temperature extremes, including persons with atrial fibrillation.

  20. Modelling of Source Areas and Runout for Debris Flow Susceptibility Assessment at Regional Scale (Norway)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchiorre, Caterina; Stalsberg, Knut; Horton, Pascal

    2010-05-01

    This contribution focuses on combined methods to map debris flow susceptibility at regional scale. Classification of watersheds and an index approach framework, based on topographic/hydrological characteristics, was used to discriminate debris flow source areas, whereas runout areas were assessed by means of an energy-limited model coupled with a routing algorithm based on the random walk concept. Those methods were tested at basin scale in the Balsfjord municipality in northern Norway, where debris flows frequently affect road transportation. For this area a DEM at 5 m, a quaternary map at 5:000, and a map of debris flow tracks and source areas at 5:000 are available. The classification of watersheds was performed first by extracting attributes related to sediment production and internal relief, and then by means of multivariate analysis. The selection of source area cells was done only on debris flow watersheds by following an index approach framework. The runout model was then executed on those cells. The model uses hydrological routines to calculate the runout path and empirical relationship of debris flow trajectories to assess the runout distance. A preliminary analysis of the results shows that circa 90% or the debris flow watersheds were correctly classified. A good correlation between mapped and modelled source and runout areas was found. Future work will consist of evaluating different strategies to quantitatively assess the quality of the obtained susceptibility map. A complete validation of the model is difficult due to the sparse information on debris flows in the area.

  1. Combined rock slope stability and shallow landslide susceptibility assessment of the Jasmund cliff area (Rügen Island, Germany

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    A. Günther

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution we evaluated both the structurally-controlled failure susceptibility of the fractured Cretaceous chalk rocks and the topographically-controlled shallow landslide susceptibility of the overlying glacial sediments for the Jasmund cliff area on Rügen Island, Germany. We employed a combined methodology involving spatially distributed kinematical rock slope failure testing with tectonic fabric data, and both physically- and inventory-based shallow landslide susceptibility analysis. The rock slope failure susceptibility model identifies areas of recent cliff collapses, confirming its value in predicting the locations of future failures. The model reveals that toppling is the most important failure type in the Cretaceous chalk rocks of the area. The shallow landslide susceptibility analysis involves a physically-based slope stability evaluation which utilizes material strength and hydraulic conductivity data, and a bivariate landslide susceptibility analysis exploiting landslide inventory data and thematic information on ground conditioning factors. Both models show reasonable success rates when evaluated with the available inventory data, and an attempt was made to combine the individual models to prepare a map displaying both terrain instability and landslide susceptibility. This combination highlights unstable cliff portions lacking discrete landslide areas as well as cliff sections highly affected by past landslide events. Through a spatial integration of the rock slope failure susceptibility model with the combined shallow landslide assessment we produced a comprehensive landslide susceptibility map for the Jasmund cliff area.

  2. Insecticide susceptibility of Anopheles stephensi to DDT and current insecticides in an elimination area in Iran

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    Mehdi Zare

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iran has recently initiated a malaria elimination program with emphasis on vector control strategies which are heavily reliant on indoor residual spraying and long-lasting insecticidal nets. Insecticide resistance seriously threatens the efficacy of vector control strategies. This study was conducted to determine the insecticide susceptibility of Anopheles stephensi to DDT and current insecticides in Jask county as an active malaria focus in southeastern Iran. Methods In this study, the anopheline larvae were collected from different aquatic habitats in Jask county and transported to insectarium, fed with sugar and then 3-day-old adults were used for susceptibility tests. WHO insecticide susceptibility tests were performed with DDT (4 %, malathion (5 %, lambda-cyhalothrin (0.05 %, deltamethrin (0.05 % and permethrin (0.75 %. Results The field strain of An. stephensi was found resistant to DDT and lambda-cyhalothrin. The LT50 values for DDT and lambda-cyhalothrin in this species were 130.25, and 37.71 min, respectively. Moreover, An. stephensi was completely susceptible to malathion and permethrin and tolerant to deltamethrin. Conclusion The present study results confirm the resistance of the major malaria vector, An. stephensi, to DDT and lambda-cyhalothrin, and tolerance to deltamethrin, which could gradually increase and spread into other malaria endemic areas. Thus, there is a need for regular monitoring of insecticide resistance in order to select suitable insecticides for vector control interventions towards malaria elimination.

  3. Increased susceptibility to amyloid-β toxicity in rat brain microvascular endothelial cells under hyperglycemic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Cristina; Katz, Paige S; Dutta, Somhrita; Katakam, Prasad V G; Moreira, Paula I; Busija, David W

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that hyperglycemia-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are closely associated with amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) toxicity in endothelial cells. Brain microvascular endothelial cells from rat (RBMEC) and mice (MBMEC) were isolated from adult Sprague-Dawley rats and homozygous db/db (Leprdb/Leprdb) and heterozygous (Dock7m/Leprdb) mice, and cultured under normo- and hyperglycemic conditions for 7 d followed by 24 h exposure to Aβ1-40. Some experiments were also performed with two mitochondrial superoxide (O2•-) scavengers, MitoTempo and Peg-SOD. Cell viability was measured by the Alamar blue assay and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) by confocal microscopy. Mitochondrial O2•- and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production was assessed by fluorescence microscopy and H2O2 production was confirmed by microplate reader. Hyperglycemia or Aβ1-40 alone did not affect cell viability in RBMEC. However, the simultaneous presence of high glucose and Aβ1-40 reduced cell viability and ΔΨm, and enhanced mitochondrial O2•- and H2O2 production. MitoTempo and PEG-SOD prevented Aβ1-40 toxicity. Interestingly, MBMEC presented a similar pattern of alterations with db/db cultures presenting higher susceptibility to Aβ1-40. Overall, our results show that high glucose levels increase the susceptibility of brain microvascular endothelial cells to Aβ toxicity supporting the idea that hyperglycemia is a major risk factor for vascular injury associated with AD.

  4. Utility of susceptibility-weighted imaging and arterial spin perfusion imaging in pediatric brain arteriovenous shunting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabavizadeh, Seyed Ali; Edgar, J.C.; Vossough, Arastoo [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-10-15

    The objectives of the study are to investigate the application of susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) and arterial spin labeling (ASL) imaging in the assessment of shunting and the draining veins in pediatric patients with arteriovenous shunting and compare the utility of SWI and ASL with conventional MR and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). This study is a retrospective study of 19 pediatric patients with arteriovenous shunting on brain MRI who were also evaluated with DSA. We assessed the ability of conventional MRI sequences, susceptibility magnitude images, phase-filtered SWI images, and pulsed ASL images in the detection of arteriovenous (AV) shunting, number of draining veins and drainage pathways in comparison to DSA. The mean number of detected draining veins on DSA (3.63) was significantly higher compared to SWI phase-filtered image (mean = 2.72), susceptibility magnitude image (mean = 2.92), ASL (mean = 1.76) and conventional MRI (2.47) (p < 0.05). Pairwise comparison of DSA difference scores (i.e., difference between MR modalities in the number of missed draining veins) revealed no difference between the MR modalities (p > 0.05). ASL was the only method that correctly identified superficial and deep venous drainage in all patients. Regarding detection of shunting, ASL, SWI phase-filtered, and magnitude images demonstrated shunting in 100, 83, and 84 % of patients, respectively. SWI depicts a higher number of draining vein compared to conventional MR pulse sequences. ASL is a sensitive approach in showing 100 % sensitivity in the detection of AV shunting and in the diagnosis of the pattern of venous drainage. The present findings suggest the added utility of both SWI and ASL in the assessment of AV shunting. (orig.)

  5. Characterizing Brain Iron Deposition in Patients with Subcortical Vascular Mild Cognitive Impairment Using Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping: A Potential Biomarker

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yawen; Ge, Xin; Han, Xu; Cao, Wenwei; Wang, Yao; Ding, Weina; Cao, Mengqiu; Zhang, Yong; Xu, Qun; Zhou, Yan; Xu, Jianrong

    2017-01-01

    The presence and pattern of iron accumulation in subcortical vascular mild cognitive impairment (svMCI) and their effects on cognition have rarely been investigated. We aimed to examine brain iron deposition in svMCI subjects using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). Moreover, we aimed to investigate the correlation between brain iron deposition and the severity of cognitive impairment as indicated by z-scores. We recruited 20 subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SIVD) patients who f...

  6. Comparative Assessment of Three Nonlinear Approaches for Landslide Susceptibility Mapping in a Coal Mine Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaomei Su

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Landslide susceptibility mapping is the first and most important step involved in landslide hazard assessment. The purpose of the present study is to compare three nonlinear approaches for landslide susceptibility mapping and test whether coal mining has a significant impact on landslide occurrence in coal mine areas. Landslide data collected by the Bureau of Land and Resources are represented by the X, Y coordinates of its central point; causative factors were calculated from topographic and geologic maps, as well as satellite imagery. The five-fold cross-validation method was adopted and the landslide/non-landslide datasets were randomly split into a ratio of 80:20. From this, five subsets for 20 times were acquired for training and validating models by GIS Geostatistical analysis methods, and all of the subsets were employed in a spatially balanced sample design. Three landslide models were built using support vector machine (SVM, logistic regression (LR, and artificial neural network (ANN models by selecting the median of the performance measures. Then, the three fitted models were compared using the area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC curves (AUC and the performance measures. The results show that the prediction accuracies are between 73.43% and 87.45% in the training stage, and 67.16% to 73.13% in the validating stage for the three models. AUCs vary from 0.807 to 0.906 and 0.753 to 0.944 in the two stages, respectively. Additionally, three landslide susceptibility maps were obtained by classifying the range of landslide probabilities into four classes representing low (0–0.02, medium (0.02–0.1, high (0.1–0.85, and very high (0.85–1 probabilities of landslides. For the distributions of landslide and area percentages under different susceptibility standards, the SVM model has more relative balance in the four classes compared to the LR and the ANN models. The result reveals that the SVM model possesses better

  7. Landslide susceptibility in the Tully Valley area, Finger Lakes region, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Stefan; Wieczorek, Gerald E.

    1994-01-01

    As a consequence of a large landslide in the Tully Valley, Onondaga County, New York, an investigation was undertaken to determine the factors responsible for the landslide in order to develop a model for regional landslide susceptibility. The April 27, 1993 Tully Valley landslide occurred within glacial lake clays overlain by till and colluvium on gentle slopes of 9-12 degrees. The landslide was triggered by extreme climatic events of prolonged heavy rainfall combined with rapid melting of a winter snowpack. A photoinventory and field checking of landslides within a 415 km2 study area, including the Tully Valley, revealed small recently-active landslides and other large dormant prehistoric landslides, probably Pleistocene in age. Similar to the larger Tully Valley landslide, the smaller recently-active landslides occurred in red, glacial lake clays very likely triggered by seasonal rainfall. The large dormant landslides have been stable for long periods as evidenced by slope denudational processes that have modified the landslides. These old and ancient landslides correspond with proglacial lake levels during the Pleistocene, suggesting that either inundation or rapid drainage was responsible for triggering these landslides. A logistic regression analysis was performed within a Geographic Information System (GIS) environment to develop a model of landslide susceptibility for the Tully Valley study area. Presence of glacial clays, slope angle, and glacial lake levels were used as explanatory variables for landslide incidence. The spatial probability of landsliding, categorized as low, moderate and high, is portrayed within 90-m square cells on the susceptibility map.

  8. Economic susceptibility of fire-prone landscapes in natural protected areas of the southern Andean Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Juan Ramón; Moreno, Roberto; Castillo, Miguel; Rodríguez Y Silva, Francisco

    2018-04-01

    Large fires are the most important disturbances at landscape-level due to their ecological and socioeconomic impacts. This study aimed to develop an approach for the assessment of the socio-economic landscape susceptibility to fire. Our methodology focuses on the integration of economic components of landscape management based on contingent valuation method (CVM) and net-value change (NVC). This former component has been estimated using depreciation rates or changes on the number of arrivals to different natural protected areas after a large fire occurrence. Landscape susceptibility concept has been motivated by the need to assist fire prevention programs and environmental management. There was a remarkable variation in annual economic value attributed to each protected area based on the CVM scenario, ranging from 40,189-46,887$/year ("Tolhuaca National Park") to 241,000-341,953$/year ("Conguillio National Park"). We added landscape susceptibility using depreciation rates or tourist arrival decrease which varied from 2.04% (low fire intensity in "Tolhuaca National Park") to 76.67% (high fire intensity in "Conguillio National Park"). The integration of this approach and future studies about vegetation resilience should seek management strategies to increase economic efficiency in the fire prevention activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A Brain Region-Based Deep Medullary Veins Visual Score on Susceptibility Weighted Imaging

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    Ruiting Zhang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral venous collagenosis played a role in the pathogenesis of white matter hyperintensities (WMHs through venous ischemia. Since pathological changes of veins from intramural stenosis to luminal occlusion is a dynamic process, we aimed to create a deep medullary veins (DMVs visual grade on susceptibility-weighted images (SWI and explore the relationship of DMVs and WMHs based on venous drainage regions. We reviewed clinical, laboratory and imaging data from 268 consecutive WMHs patients and 20 controls. SWI images were used to observe characteristics of DMVs and a brain region-based DMVs visual score was given by two experienced neuroradiologists. Fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR images were used to calculate WMHs volume. Logistic-regression analysis and partial Pearson’s correlation analysis were used to examine the association between the DMVs score and WMHs volume. We found that the DMVs score was significantly higher in WMHs patients than in controls (p < 0.001. Increased DMVs score was independently associated with higher WMHs volume after adjusting for total cholesterol level and number of lacunes (p < 0.001. Particularly, DMVs scores were correlated with regional PVHs volumes in the same brain region most. The newly proposed DMVs grading method allows the clinician to monitor the course of DMVs disruption. Our findings of cerebral venous insufficiency in WMHs patients may help to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms and progression of WMHs.

  10. Brain areas impaired in oral and verbal apraxic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadegari, Fariba; Azimian, Mojtaba; Rahgozar, Mahdi; Shekarchi, Babak

    2014-04-03

    As both oral and verbal apraxia are related to vocal orofacial musculature, this study aimed at identifying brain regions impaired in cases with oral and verbal apraxia. In this non-experimental study, 46 left brain damaged subjects (17 females) aged 23-84 years, were examined by oral and verbal apraxia tasks. Impaired and spared Broca's area, insula, and middle frontal gyrus in the left hemisphere were checked from magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography scans utilizing Talairach Atlas. Data were analyzed using chi-square test. Insula was significantly impaired in both forms of oral and verbal apraxia and different severities and prominent forms of both apraxias (P apraxia. As the damage of insula was more prominent in both forms of apraxias, it seems that oral and verbal apraxia may have commonalities regarding their underlying brain lesions.

  11. Prominent hypointense veins on susceptibility weighted image in the cat brain with acute infarction: DWI, SWI, and PWI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Woo; Kim, Hak Jin; Choi, Seon Hee; Kim, Dong Chan

    2014-10-01

    The multiple prominent hypointense veins on susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) have been found in the ischemic territory of patients with acute ischemic stroke. Venous side is the unknown area in the hemodynamics of brain infarction. To evaluate the venous aspect in acute brain infarction through an animal study. The acute infarction in cat brains was induced with a bolus infusion of 0.25 mL of triolein through one side of the common carotid artery. The magnetic resonance (MR) images, including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map, SW, and perfusion-weighted (PWI) images, were obtained serially at 2 h (n = 17), 1 day (n = 11), and 4 days (n = 4) after triolein infusion. The obtained MR images were evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively. For qualitative assessment, the signal intensity of the serial MR images was evaluated. The presence or absence and the location with serial changes of infarction were identified on DWI and ADC map images. The presence or absence of prominent hypointense veins and the serial changes of cortical veins were also evaluated on SWI. Quantitative assessment was performed by comparing the relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV), cerebral blood flow (rCBF), and mean transit times (MTT) of the lesions with those of the contralateral normal side calculated on PWI. The serial changes of rCBV, rCBF, and MTT ratio were also evaluated. Acute infarction in the first and second medial gyrus of lesion hemisphere was found by qualitative evaluation of DWI and ADC map images. On the serial evaluation of SWI, the cortical veins of cat brain with infarction were obscured at 2 h and then re-appeared at 1 day. The hemorrhage transformation and prominent hypointense veins were seen at 4 days on SWI. The quantitative evaluation revealed increased MTT ratios and decreased rCBV and rCBF ratios on PWIs in the acute infarction of cat brain. The prominent hypointense veins on SWI were seen in the half of the acute

  12. Investigating flood susceptible areas in inaccessible regions using remote sensing and geographic information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Joongbin; Lee, Kyoo-Seock

    2017-03-01

    Every summer, North Korea (NK) suffers from floods, resulting in decreased agricultural production and huge economic loss. Besides meteorological reasons, several factors can accelerate flood damage. Environmental studies about NK are difficult because NK is inaccessible due to the division of Korea. Remote sensing (RS) can be used to delineate flood inundated areas in inaccessible regions such as NK. The objective of this study was to investigate the spatial characteristics of flood susceptible areas (FSAs) using multi-temporal RS data and digital elevation model data. Such study will provide basic information to restore FSAs after reunification. Defining FSAs at the study site revealed that rice paddies with low elevation and low slope were the most susceptible areas to flood in NK. Numerous sediments from upper streams, especially streams through crop field areas on steeply sloped hills, might have been transported and deposited into stream channels, thus disturbing water flow. In conclusion, NK floods may have occurred not only due to meteorological factors but also due to inappropriate land use for flood management. In order to mitigate NK flood damage, reforestation is needed for terraced crop fields. In addition, drainage capacity for middle stream channel near rice paddies should be improved.

  13. Brain Susceptibility Changes in a Patient with Natalizumab-Related Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy: A Longitudinal Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping and Relaxometry Study

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    Giuseppe Pontillo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundBrain MRI plays an essential role in both diagnosis and follow-up of the JC virus infection of the brain. Recently, MR studies with susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI sequences have shown hypointensities in U-fibers adjacent to white matter (WM lesions of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML. This finding has been confirmed with the use of quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM, allowing to hypothesize a paramagnetic effect in these regions. Here, we report the first longitudinal assessment of QSM and R2* maps in natalizumab-associated PML to evaluate serial changes in susceptibility contrast images and their role in PML diagnosis and follow-up.Case presentationWe report the case of a 42-year-old woman with multiple sclerosis (MS who eventually developed, after the 28th natalizumab infusion, subacute cognitive decline and received a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of PML, leading to immediate drug discontinuation. Three months later, she suffered a new clinical exacerbation, with a brain scan revealing significant inflammatory activity compatible with the radiological diagnosis of an Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (IRIS. She was then treated with corticosteroids until the clinico-radiological spectrum became stable, with the final outcome of a severe functional impairment. Quantitative maps obtained in the early symptomatic stage clearly showed increased QSM and R2* values in the juxtacortical WM adjacent to PML lesions, which persisted during the subsequent disease course.Discussion and conclusionHigh QSM and R2* values in U-fibers adjacent to WM lesions were early and seemingly time-independent radiological findings in the presented PML case. This, coupled to the known absence of significant paramagnetic effect of new active MS lesions, could support the use of quantitative MRI as an additional tool in the diagnosis and follow-up of natalizumab-related PML in MS.

  14. Landslide susceptibility mapping in Mawat area, Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq: a comparison of different statistical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, A. A.; Gloaguen, R.; Andreani, L.; Rahnama, M.

    2015-03-01

    During the last decades, expansion of settlements into areas prone to landslides in Iraq has increased the importance of accurate hazard assessment. Susceptibility mapping provides information about hazardous locations and thus helps to potentially prevent infrastructure damage due to mass wasting. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare frequency ratio (FR), weight of evidence (WOE), logistic regression (LR) and probit regression (PR) approaches in combination with new geomorphological indices to determine the landslide susceptibility index (LSI). We tested these four methods in Mawat area, Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq, where landslides occur frequently. For this purpose, we evaluated 16 geomorphological, geological and environmental predicting factors mainly derived from the advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER) satellite. The available reference inventory includes 351 landslides representing a cumulative surface of 3.127 km2. This reference inventory was mapped from QuickBird data by manual delineation and partly verified by field survey. The areas under curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC), and relative landslide density (R index) show that all models perform similarly and that focus should be put on the careful selection of proxies. The results indicate that the lithology and the slope aspects play major roles for landslide occurrences. Furthermore, this paper demonstrates that using hypsometric integral as a prediction factor instead of slope curvature gives better results and increases the accuracy of the LSI.

  15. Insecticides susceptibility status of the bedbugs (Cimex lectularius in a rural area of Magugu, Northern Tanzania

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    Eliningaya J Kweka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent spread of bedbugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Heteroptera: Cimicidae, has received attention of the public health sector for designing of effective plan of action for control. Several studies have focused on determining the distribution and abundance of bedbug populations in tropical areas. This study establishes baseline information on deltamethrin, permethrin, alphacypermethrin, lambdacypermethrin and K-O tab susceptibility status in a bedbug population collected from Magugu area in northern Tanzania. The evolution of insecticide resistance could be a primary factor in explaining this resurgence of bedbugs in many areas, both rural and urban. Evaluation of the bedbug population from houses in Magugu indicates that the population of bedbugs is susceptible to pyrethroid insecticides, which are commonly used. Without the development of new tactics for bedbug resistance management, further escalation of this public health problem should be expected when resistant gene spreads within the population. These results suggest that although all concentrations kill bedbugs, more evaluations should be done using WHO kits and mechanisms involved in pyrethroid resistance should be evaluated, such as metabolic and knockdown resistance gene, to have a broad picture for better design of control methodologies.

  16. [Brain neuroplasticity in occipital areas in blind teenagers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, T; Poch-Broto, J; Requena, C; Santos, J M; Martínez, A; Barcia-Albacar, J A

    2010-03-03

    Neuroplasticity is a process by which neurons increase their connectivity with other neurons in a stable fashion as a consequence of experience, learning and both sensitive and cognitive stimulation. Different authors have shown a huge process of brain plasticity in blind subjects towards other sensorial areas, mainly auditive and visual ones. From an anatomical standpoint many data show significant differences in blind subjects brains, mainly in visual pathways and structures as a result of lack of activity on those areas. This brings a lesser neuroplasticity and, therefore, a decrease in structural volumes. They have also found differences in subcortical structures volumes related to vision, such as splenium or corpus callosum istmus. An adolescent was administered passive tactile stimulation with an 1,500 taxels stimulator. This was carried out daily for an hour, for three months, and stimulation consisted of vertical, horizontal and oblique lines. The results obtained in an adolescent indicate a clear progression of EEG activity from tactile sensory parietal areas to visual occipital ones as stimulation progresses. Therefore one can speculate if systematic and organized repetition of tactile stimuli in blind subjects leads to a greater neuroplasticity which expands towards occipital areas, largely responsible for human vision.

  17. Susceptibility-weighted imaging of the venous networks around the brain stem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Ming; Lin, Zhong-Xiao; Zhang, Nu [Wenzhou Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, The 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou (China); Zhang, Xiao-Fen; Qiao, Hui-Huang; Chen, Cheng-Chun [Wenzhou Medical University, Department of Human Anatomy, Wenzhou (China); Ren, Chuan-Gen; Li, Jian-Ce [Wenzhou Medical University, Department of Radiology, The 1nd Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou (China)

    2014-10-18

    The venous network of the brainstem is complex and significant. Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is a practical technique which is sensitive to veins, especially tiny veins. Our purpose of this study was to evaluate the visualization of the venous network of brainstem by using SWI at 3.0 T. The occurrence rate of each superficial veins of brainstem was evaluated by using SWI on a 3 T MR imaging system in 60 volunteers. The diameter of the lateral mesencephalic vein and peduncular vein were measured by SWI using the reconstructed mIP images in the sagittal view. And the outflow of the veins of brainstem were studied and described according to the reconstructed images. The median anterior pontomesencephalic vein, median anterior medullary vein, peduncular vein, right vein of the pontomesencephalic sulcus, and right lateral anterior pontomesencephalic vein were detected in all the subjects (100 %). The outer diameter of peduncular vein was 1.38 ± 0.26 mm (range 0.8-1.8 mm). The lateral mesencephalic vein was found in 75 % of the subjects and the mean outer diameter was 0.81 ± 0.2 mm (range 0.5-1.2 mm). The inner veins of mesencephalon were found by using SWI. The venous networks around the brain stem can be visualized by SWI clearly. This result can not only provide data for anatomical study, but also may be available for the surgical planning in the infratentorial region. (orig.)

  18. A Novel Human Body Area Network for Brain Diseases Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kai; Xu, Tianlang

    2016-10-01

    Development of wireless sensor and mobile communication technology provide an unprecedented opportunity for realizing smart and interactive healthcare systems. Designing such systems aims to remotely monitor the health and diagnose the diseases for users. In this paper, we design a novel human body area network for brain diseases analysis, which is named BABDA. Considering the brain is one of the most complex organs in the human body, the BABDA system provides four function modules to ensure the high quality of the analysis result, which includes initial data collection, data correction, data transmission and comprehensive data analysis. The performance evaluation conducted in a realistic environment with several criteria shows the availability and practicability of the BABDA system.

  19. Deep brain stimulation affects conditioned and unconditioned anxiety in different brain areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, A; Klanker, M; van Oorschot, N; Post, R; Hamelink, R; Feenstra, M G P; Denys, D

    2013-07-30

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) has proven to be an effective treatment for therapy refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder. Clinical observations show that anxiety symptoms decrease rapidly following DBS. As in clinical studies different regions are targeted, it is of principal interest to understand which brain area is responsible for the anxiolytic effect and whether high-frequency stimulation of different areas differentially affect unconditioned (innate) and conditioned (learned) anxiety. In this study, we examined the effect of stimulation in five brain areas in rats (NAc core and shell, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), internal capsule (IC) and the ventral medial caudate nucleus (CAU)). The elevated plus maze was used to test the effect of stimulation on unconditioned anxiety, the Vogel conflict test for conditioned anxiety, and an activity test for general locomotor behaviour. We found different anxiolytic effects of stimulation in the five target areas. Stimulation of the CAU decreased both conditioned and unconditioned anxiety, while stimulation of the IC uniquely reduced conditioned anxiety. Remarkably, neither the accumbens nor the BNST stimulation affected conditioned or unconditioned anxiety. Locomotor activity increased with NAc core stimulation but decreased with the BNST. These findings suggest that (1) DBS may have a differential effect on unconditioned and conditioned anxiety depending on the stimulation area, and that (2) stimulation of the IC exclusively reduces conditioned anxiety. This suggests that the anxiolytic effects of DBS seen in OCD patients may not be induced by stimulation of the NAc, but rather by the IC.

  20. In vitro antimalarial drug susceptibility in Thai border areas from 1998–2003

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    Mungthin Mathirut

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Thai-Myanmar and Thai-Cambodia borders have been historically linked with the emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum parasites resistant to antimalarial drugs. Indeed, the areas are often described as harbouring multi-drug resistant parasites. These areas of Thailand have experienced significant changes in antimalarial drug exposure patterns over the past decade. This study describes the in vitro antimalarial susceptibility patterns of 95 laboratory-adapted P. falciparum isolates, collected between 1998 and 2003,. Methods Ninety five P. falciparum isolates were collected from five sites in Thailand between 1998 and 2003. After laboratory adaptation to in vitro culture, the susceptibility of these parasites to a range of established antimalarial drugs (chloroquine [CQ], mefloquine [MQ], quinine [QN] and dihydroartemisinin [DHA] was determined by the isotopic microtest. Results Mefloquine (MQ sensitivity remained poorest in areas previously described as MQ-resistant areas. Sensitivity to MQ of parasites from this area was significantly lower than those from areas reported to harbour moderate (p = 0.002 of low level MQ resistance (p = 000001. Importantly for all drugs tested, there was a considerable range in absolute parasite sensitivities. There was a weak, but statistically positive correlation between parasite sensitivity to CQ and sensitivity to both QN and MQ and a positive correlation between MQ and QN. In terms of geographical distribution, parasites from the Thai-Cambodia were tended to be less sensitive to all drugs tested compared to the Thai-Myanmar border. Parasite sensitivity to all drugs was stable over the 6-year collection period with the exception of QN. Conclusion This study highlights the high degree of variability in parasite drug sensitivity in Thailand. There were geographical differences in the pattern of resistance which might reflect differences in drug usage in each area. In contrast to many

  1. Activated and deactivated functional brain areas in the Deqi state

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yong; Zeng, Tongjun; Zhang, Guifeng; Li, Ganlong; Lu, Na; Lai, Xinsheng; Lu, Yangjia; Chen, Jiarong

    2012-01-01

    We compared the activities of functional regions of the brain in the Deqi versus non-Deqi state, as reported by physicians and subjects during acupuncture. Twelve healthy volunteers received sham and true needling at the Waiguan (TE5) acupoint. Real-time cerebral functional MRI showed that compared with non-sensation after sham needling, true needling activated Brodmann areas 3, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 20, 21, 37, 39, 40, 43, and 47, the head of the caudate nucleus, the parahippocampal gyrus, th...

  2. How Localized are Language Brain Areas? A Review of Brodmann Areas Involvement in Oral Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo; Bernal, Byron; Rosselli, Monica

    2016-02-01

    The interest in understanding how language is "localized" in the brain has existed for centuries. Departing from seven meta-analytic studies of functional magnetic resonance imaging activity during the performance of different language activities, it is proposed here that there are two different language networks in the brain: first, a language reception/understanding system, including a "core Wernicke's area" involved in word recognition (BA21, BA22, BA41, and BA42), and a fringe or peripheral area ("extended Wernicke's area:" BA20, BA37, BA38, BA39, and BA40) involved in language associations (associating words with other information); second, a language production system ("Broca's complex:" BA44, BA45, and also BA46, BA47, partially BA6-mainly its mesial supplementary motor area-and extending toward the basal ganglia and the thalamus). This paper additionally proposes that the insula (BA13) plays a certain coordinating role in interconnecting these two brain language systems. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Neuronavigation using susceptibility-weighted venography: application to deep brain stimulation and comparison with gadolinium contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bériault, Silvain; Sadikot, Abbas F; Alsubaie, Fahd; Drouin, Simon; Collins, D Louis; Pike, G Bruce

    2014-07-01

    Careful trajectory planning on preoperative vascular imaging is an essential step in deep brain stimulation (DBS) to minimize risks of hemorrhagic complications and postoperative neurological deficits. This paper compares 2 MRI methods for visualizing cerebral vasculature and planning DBS probe trajectories: a single data set T1-weighted scan with double-dose gadolinium contrast (T1w-Gd) and a multi-data set protocol consisting of a T1-weighted structural, susceptibility-weighted venography, and time-of-flight angiography (T1w-SWI-TOF). Two neurosurgeons who specialize in neuromodulation surgery planned bilateral STN DBS in 18 patients with Parkinson's disease (36 hemispheres) using each protocol separately. Planned trajectories were then evaluated across all vascular data sets (T1w-Gd, SWI, and TOF) to detect possible intersection with blood vessels along the entire path via an objective vesselness measure. The authors' results show that trajectories planned on T1w-SWI-TOF successfully avoided the cerebral vasculature imaged by conventional T1w-Gd and did not suffer from missing vascular information or imprecise data set registration. Furthermore, with appropriate planning and visualization software, trajectory corridors planned on T1w-SWI-TOF intersected significantly less fine vasculature that was not detected on the T1w-Gd (p < 0.01 within 2 mm and p < 0.001 within 4 mm of the track centerline). The proposed T1w-SWI-TOF protocol comes with minimal effects on the imaging and surgical workflow, improves vessel avoidance, and provides a safe cost-effective alternative to injection of gadolinium contrast.

  4. GIS-based logistic regression for landslide susceptibility mapping of the Zhongxian segment in the Three Gorges area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shi-Biao; Wang, Jian; Lü, Guo-Nian; Zhou, Ping-Gen; Hou, Sheng-Shan; Xu, Su-Ning

    2010-02-01

    A detailed landslide susceptibility map was produced using a logistic regression method with datasets developed for a geographic information system (GIS). Known as one of the most landslide-prone areas in China, the Zhongxian-Shizhu segment in the Three Gorges Reservoir region of China was selected as a suitable case to evaluate the frequency and distribution of landslides. The site covered an area of 260.9 km 2 with a landslide area of 5.3 km 2. Four data domains were used in this study: remote sensing products, thematic maps, geological maps, and topographical maps, all with 25 × 25 m 2 pixels or cells. Statistical relationships for landslide susceptibility were developed using landslide and landslide causative factor databases. We extended the application of logistic regression approaches to use all continuous variables as they are, and the landslide density is used to transform these nominal variables to numeric variable. According to the map, 2.8% of the study area was identified as an area with very high-susceptibility, whereas very low-, low-, medium- and high-susceptibility zones covered 18.2%, 36.2%, 26.7%, and 16.1% of the area, respectively. The quality of susceptibility mapping was validated, and the correct classification percentage and root mean square error (RMSE) values for the validation data were 81.4% and 0.392, respectively.

  5. Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping using Structural Feature based Collaborative Reconstruction (SFCR) in the Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Congbo; Chen, Zhong; van Zijl, Peter C.M.

    2017-01-01

    The reconstruction of MR quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) from local phase measurements is an ill posed inverse problem and different regularization strategies incorporating a priori information extracted from magnitude and phase images have been proposed. However, the anatomy observed in magnitude and phase images does not always coincide spatially with that in susceptibility maps, which could give erroneous estimation in the reconstructed susceptibility map. In this paper, we develop a structural feature based collaborative reconstruction (SFCR) method for QSM including both magnitude and susceptibility based information. The SFCR algorithm is composed of two consecutive steps corresponding to complementary reconstruction models, each with a structural feature based l1 norm constraint and a voxel fidelity based l2 norm constraint, which allows both the structure edges and tiny features to be recovered, whereas the noise and artifacts could be reduced. In the M-step, the initial susceptibility map is reconstructed by employing a k-space based compressed sensing model incorporating magnitude prior. In the S-step, the susceptibility map is fitted in spatial domain using weighted constraints derived from the initial susceptibility map from the M-step. Simulations and in vivo human experiments at 7T MRI show that the SFCR method provides high quality susceptibility maps with improved RMSE and MSSIM. Finally, the susceptibility values of deep gray matter are analyzed in multiple head positions, with the supine position most approximate to the gold standard COSMOS result. PMID:27019480

  6. Diminished brain resilience syndrome: A modern day neurological pathology of increased susceptibility to mild brain trauma, concussion, and downstream neurodegeneration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wendy Morley; Stephanie Seneff

    2014-01-01

    .... Diminished brain resilience syndrome is a term coined by the lead author to describe a particular physiological state of nutrient functional deficiency and disrupted homeostatic mechanisms leading...

  7. Landslide Susceptibility Mapping in Vertical Distribution Law of Precipitation Area: Case of the Xulong Hydropower Station Reservoir, Southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Cao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on landslide susceptibility analysis mapping of the Xulong hydropower station reservoir, which is located in the upstream of Jinsha River, a rapidly uplifting region of the Tibetan Plateau region. Nine factors were employed as landslide conditioning factors in landslide susceptibility mapping. These factors included the slope angle, slope aspect, curvature, geology, distance-to-fault, distance-to-river, vegetation, bedrock uplift and annual precipitation. The rapid bedrock uplift factor was represented by the slope angle. The eight factors were processed with the information content model. Since this area has a significant vertical distribution law of precipitation, the annual precipitation factor was analyzed separately. The analytic hierarchy process weighting method was used to calculate the weights of nine factors. Thus, this study proposed a component approach to combine the normalized eight-factor results with the normalized annual precipitation distribution results. Subsequently, the results were plotted in geographic information system (GIS and a landslide susceptibility map was produced. The evaluation accuracy analysis method was used as a validation approach. The landslide susceptibility classes were divided into four classes, including low, moderate, high and very high. The results show that the four susceptibility class ratios are 12.9%, 35.06%, 34.11%and 17.92% of the study area, respectively. The red belt in the high elevation area represents the very high susceptibility zones, which followed the vertical distribution law of precipitation. The prediction accuracy was 85.74%, which meant that the susceptibility map was confirmed to be reliable and reasonable. This susceptibility map may contribute to averting the landslide risk in the future construction of the Xulong hydropower station.

  8. Two areas for familiar face recognition in the primate brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Sofia M; Freiwald, Winrich A

    2017-08-11

    Familiarity alters face recognition: Familiar faces are recognized more accurately than unfamiliar ones and under difficult viewing conditions when unfamiliar face recognition fails. The neural basis for this fundamental difference remains unknown. Using whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging, we found that personally familiar faces engage the macaque face-processing network more than unfamiliar faces. Familiar faces also recruited two hitherto unknown face areas at anatomically conserved locations within the perirhinal cortex and the temporal pole. These two areas, but not the core face-processing network, responded to familiar faces emerging from a blur with a characteristic nonlinear surge, akin to the abruptness of familiar face recognition. In contrast, responses to unfamiliar faces and objects remained linear. Thus, two temporal lobe areas extend the core face-processing network into a familiar face-recognition system. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  9. Individual differences in the brain are associated with resilience versus susceptibility to lipopolysaccharide-induced memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hui; Ji, Muhuo; Zong, Manman; Jia, Min; Luo, Dan; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Yang, Jianjun

    2018-01-01

    Sepsis impairs learning and memory function, yet marked interindividual variability exists in the degree to which sepsis compromises learning and memory function. Thus, testing resilience versus susceptibility to systemic inflammation induced-memory impairment and the underlying mechanism is needed. In the present study, we firstly used lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce memory impairment, and then evaluated cognitive function on days 4-7 after the first LPS challenge. Subjects' scores on both behavioral measures were subjected to a hierarchical cluster analysis, identifying two clusters that differed notably on the Y-maze and fear conditioning tests. This analysis divided these subjects into two groups, one cluster (13 of 34 subjects) displayed impaired working and associative memory, named "Susceptive". The remaining cluster (21 of 34 subjects) showed normal memory, named "Resilient". We have also included another group receiving normal saline to serve as the control group. The three groups underwent a battery of biochemical detections. In addition, we investigated whether the individual differences would disappear between the "Resilient" and "Susceptive" groups by using microglia inhibitor minocycline. We showed that as compared with the "Resilient" or control group, the "Susceptive" group was accompanied by increased tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), IL-6, and biomarkers of microglia activation ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule-1 and cluster of differentiation 68. Notably, after decreasing the activation of microglia, the differences in cognitive function between the "Resilient" and "Susceptive" groups disappeared. Collectively, our study suggests that individual differences in the brain are associated with resilience versus susceptibility to LPS-induced memory impairment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Flash Flood Hazard Susceptibility Mapping Using Frequency Ratio and Statistical Index Methods in Coalmine Subsidence Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Cao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on producing flash flood hazard susceptibility maps (FFHSM using frequency ratio (FR and statistical index (SI models in the Xiqu Gully (XQG of Beijing, China. First, a total of 85 flash flood hazard locations (n = 85 were surveyed in the field and plotted using geographic information system (GIS software. Based on the flash flood hazard locations, a flood hazard inventory map was built. Seventy percent (n = 60 of the flooding hazard locations were randomly selected for building the models. The remaining 30% (n = 25 of the flooded hazard locations were used for validation. Considering that the XQG used to be a coal mining area, coalmine caves and subsidence caused by coal mining exist in this catchment, as well as many ground fissures. Thus, this study took the subsidence risk level into consideration for FFHSM. The ten conditioning parameters were elevation, slope, curvature, land use, geology, soil texture, subsidence risk area, stream power index (SPI, topographic wetness index (TWI, and short-term heavy rain. This study also tested different classification schemes for the values for each conditional parameter and checked their impacts on the results. The accuracy of the FFHSM was validated using area under the curve (AUC analysis. Classification accuracies were 86.61%, 83.35%, and 78.52% using frequency ratio (FR-natural breaks, statistical index (SI-natural breaks and FR-manual classification schemes, respectively. Associated prediction accuracies were 83.69%, 81.22%, and 74.23%, respectively. It was found that FR modeling using a natural breaks classification method was more appropriate for generating FFHSM for the Xiqu Gully.

  11. From rainfall to slope instability: an automatic GIS procedure for susceptibility analyses over wide areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Federici

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes an automatic procedure in geographic information system (GIS for the analysis and prediction of landslides due to rainfall events over wide areas. It runs, for each unit cell, a hydrological balance based on the Curve Number method (USDA-SCS 1985–1986, computing the evolution of groundwater as a result of precipitation and then checks the overcoming, or not, of limit equilibrium conditions of the land in the domain of interest. The mathematical model was implemented in the free and open source GIS GRASS. For any sequence of consecutive days of rain, according to the conditions of soil moisture prior to the time history under study, the hydro-geotechnical model allows (1 the determination of the oscillations of the phreatic table, (2 the part of saturated soil and (3 the slope stability analysis, by taking into proper account the pore pressures buildup. The results of this procedure are returned in raster format, allowing an easy and intuitive interpretation of the land mass sensitivity to meteoric actions. The suggested procedure was applied on an extensive kinematic phenomenon surrounding the city of Santo Stefano d’Aveto (Liguria, Italy. The realized maps of landslide susceptibility are in excellent agreement with what is evident on site.

  12. Whole-Brain Susceptibility-Weighted Thrombus Imaging in Stroke: Fragmented Thrombi Predict Worse Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratz, P P; Schroth, G; Gralla, J; Mattle, H P; Fischer, U; Jung, S; Mordasini, P; Hsieh, K; Verma, R K; Weisstanner, C; El-Koussy, M

    2015-07-01

    The prevalence and clinical importance of primarily fragmented thrombi in patients with acute ischemic stroke remains elusive. Whole-brain SWI was used to detect multiple thrombus fragments, and their clinical significance was analyzed. Pretreatment SWI was analyzed for the presence of a single intracranial thrombus or multiple intracranial thrombi. Associations with baseline clinical characteristics, complications, and clinical outcome were studied. Single intracranial thrombi were detected in 300 (92.6%), and multiple thrombi, in 24 of 324 patients (7.4%). In 23 patients with multiple thrombi, all thrombus fragments were located in the vascular territory distal to the primary occluding thrombus; in 1 patient, thrombi were found both in the anterior and posterior circulation. Only a minority of thrombus fragments were detected on TOF-MRA, first-pass gadolinium-enhanced MRA, or DSA. Patients with multiple intracranial thrombi presented with more severe symptoms (median NIHSS scores, 15 versus 11; P = .014) and larger ischemic areas (median DWI ASPECTS, 5 versus 7; P = .006); good collaterals, rated on DSA, were fewer than those in patients with a single thrombus (21.1% versus 44.2%, P = .051). The presence of multiple thrombi was a predictor of unfavorable outcome at 3 months (P = .040; OR, 0.251; 95% CI, 0.067-0.939). Patients with multiple intracranial thrombus fragments constitute a small subgroup of patients with stroke with a worse outcome than patients with single thrombi. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  13. Georeferenced measurement of soil EC as a tool to detect susceptible areas to water erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian Sallesses, Leonardo; Aparicio, Virginia Carolina; Costa, Jose Luis

    2017-04-01

    areas presented the highest occurrence of clay dispersion and rill erosion. This would indicate that with one campaign of cultivation of potato under supplementary irrigation are given the conditions that facilitate erosive events. The georeferenced measurement of EC by contact ground sensors and their visualization through digital cartography could be an interesting tool to detect areas susceptible to erosive events. This information would help in decision making for a soil management that tends to avoid or reduce soil losses due to deterioration of physical and chemical properties by the incorporation of sodium by irrigation. Key words: Irrigation, soil sodium, erosion.

  14. Landslides susceptibility change over time according to terrain conditions in a mountain area of the tropic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, M C; Viloria, J; Martínez-Casasnovas, J A

    2016-04-01

    Susceptibility to landslides in mountain areas results from the interaction of various factors related to relief formation and soil development. The assessment of landslide susceptibility has generally taken into account individual events, or it has been aimed at establishing relationships between landslide-inventory maps and maps of environmental factors, without considering that such relationships can change in space and time. In this work, temporal and space changes in landslides were analysed in six different combinations of date and geomorphological conditions, including two different geological units, in a mountainous area in the north-centre of Venezuela, in northern South America. Landslide inventories from different years were compared with a number of environmental factors by means of logistic regression analysis. The resulting equations predicted landslide susceptibility from a range of geomorphometric parameters and a vegetation index, with diverse accuracy, in the study area. The variation of the obtained models and their prediction accuracy between geological units and dates suggests that the complexity of the landslide processes and their explanatory factors changed over space and time in the studied area. This calls into question the use of a single model to evaluate landslide susceptibility over large regions.

  15. Seroprevalence and susceptibility to hepatitis A in the European Union and European Economic Area: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Santisteve, Paloma; Tavoschi, Lara; Severi, Ettore; Bonfigli, Sandro; Edelstein, Michael; Byström, Emma; Lopalco, Pierluigi

    2017-10-01

    Most of the European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) is considered a region of very low hepatitis A virus (HAV) endemicity; however, geographical differences exist. We did a systematic review with the aim of describing seroprevalence and susceptibility in the general population or special groups in the EU and EEA. We searched databases and public health national institutes websites for HAV seroprevalence records published between Jan 1, 1975, and June 30, 2014, with no language restrictions. An updated search was done on Aug 10, 2016. We defined seroprevalence profiles (very low, low, and intermediate) as the proportion of the population with age-specific anti-HAV antibodies at age 15 and 30 years, and susceptibility profiles (low, moderate, high, and very high) as the proportion of susceptible individuals at age 30 and 50 years. We included 228 studies from 28 of 31 EU and EEA countries. For the period 2000-14, 24 countries had a very low seroprevalence profile, compared with five in 1975-89. The susceptibility among adults ranged between low and very high and had a geographical gradient, with three countries in the low susceptibility category. Since 1975, EU and EEA countries have shown decreasing seropositivity; however, considerable regional variability exists. The main limitations of this study are that the studies retrieved for analysis might not be representative of all EU and EEA publications about HAV and might have poor national representativeness. A large proportion of EU and EEA residents are now susceptible to HAV infection. Our Review supports the need to reconsider specific prevention and control measures, to further decrease HAV circulation while providing protection against the infection in the EU and EEA, and could be used to inform susceptible travellers visiting EU and EEA countries with different HAV endemicity levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Common genetic variations in cell cycle and DNA repair pathways associated with pediatric brain tumor susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahmideh, Maral Adel; Lavebratt, Catharina; Schüz, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    is based on the largest series of PBT cases to date. Saliva DNA from 245 cases and 489 controls, aged 7-19 years at diagnosis/reference date, was genotyped for 68 SNPs. Data were analyzed using unconditional logistic regression. The results showed EGFRrs730437 and EGFRrs11506105 may decrease susceptibility...

  17. The brain-specific factor FEZ1 is a determinant of neuronal susceptibility to HIV-1 infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Haedicke, Juliane

    2009-08-18

    Neurons are one of the few cell types in the human body that do not support HIV type-1 (HIV-1) replication. Although the lack of key receptors is a major obstacle to infection, studies suggest that additional functions inhibit virus replication to explain the exquisite resistance of neurons to HIV-1. However, specific neuronal factors that may explain this resistance remain to be discovered. In a screen for antiviral factors using a fibroblast line chemically mutagenized and selected for resistance to retroviral infection, we recently identified induction of rat FEZ1 (fasciculation and elongation protein zeta-1), a brain-specific protein, as the cause of this resistance. When exogenously expressed in nonneuronal cell lines rat FEZ1 blocked nuclear entry of retroviral DNA. Here, we demonstrate that among human brain cells, neurons naturally express high levels of FEZ1 compared to astrocytes or microglia cells and are correspondingly less susceptible to infection with pseudotyped HIV-1 that bypasses receptor-mediated viral entry. Demonstrating that endogenous FEZ1 was functionally important in the resistance of neurons to HIV-1 infection, siRNA-mediated knockdown of endogenous FEZ1 increased the infectivity of neurons while sensitive brain cell types like microglia became more resistant upon FEZ1 overexpression. In addition, FEZ1 expression was not induced in response to IFN treatment. As such, in contrast to other widely expressed, IFN-inducible antiviral factors, FEZ1 appears to represent a unique neuron-specific determinant of cellular susceptibility to infection in a cell type that is naturally resistant to HIV-1.

  18. Diabetes, markers of brain pathology and cognitive function: the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Chengxuan; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Zhang, Qian; Jonsdottir, Maria K; Kjartansson, Olafur; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Garcia, Melissa E; Harris, Tamara B; van Buchem, Mark A; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Launer, Lenore J

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether, and the extent to which, vascular and degenerative lesions in the brain mediate the association of diabetes with poor cognitive performance. This cross-sectional study included 4,206 participants (age > 65 years; 57.8% women) of the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study. Data were collected through interview, clinical examination, psychological testing, and laboratory tests. The composite scores on memory, information-processing speed, and executive function were derived from a cognitive test battery. Markers of cerebral macrovascular (cortical infarcts), microvascular (subcortical infarcts, cerebral microbleeds, and higher white matter lesion volume), and neurodegenerative (lower gray matter, normal white matter, and total brain tissue volumes) processes were assessed on magnetic resonance images. Mediation models were employed to test the mediating effect of brain lesions on the association of diabetes with cognitive performance controlling for potential confounders. There were 462 (11.0%) persons with diabetes. Diabetes was significantly associated with lower scores on processing speed and executive function, but not with memory function. Diabetes was significantly associated with all markers of brain pathology. All of these markers were significantly associated with lower scores on memory, processing speed, and executive function. Formal mediation tests suggested that markers of cerebrovascular and degenerative pathology significantly mediated the associations of diabetes with processing speed and executive function. Diabetes is associated with poor performance on cognitive tests of information-processing speed and executive function. The association is largely mediated by markers of both neurodegeneration and cerebrovascular disease. Older people with diabetes should be monitored for cognitive problems and brain lesions. © 2013 American Neurological Association.

  19. Susceptibility contrast imaging of CO2-induced changes in the blood volume of the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostrup, Egill; Larsson, H B; Toft, P B

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate changes in the regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) in human subjects during rest and hypercapnia by MR imaging, and to compare the results from contrast-enhanced and noncontrast-enhanced susceptibility-weighted imaging. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five healthy volunteers (aged...... in cerebral hemodynamics than noncontrast-enhanced imaging. The results of the deconvolution analysis suggested that perfusion calculation by conventional tracer kinetic methods may be impracticable because of nonlinear effects in contrast-enhanced MR imaging....

  20. Mechanism and Therapy for the Shared Susceptibility to Migraine and Epilepsy after Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Perform two-photon experiments 72 hours after lipopolysaccharide injection, acutely after hypotonic ACSF perfusion (Brennan, Months 18-30). To...cortical excitability of hypotonic ACSF perfusion, 10 animals were implanted acutely with microdialysis probes (PlasticsOne, 13 kD membrane, 1mm length...susceptibility to CSD after CCI, LPS, hypotonic ACSF; reportable outcomes. •Measuring post-traumatic headache-relevant pain metrics after TBI

  1. Antifungal susceptibility profiles of Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii from endemic and non-endemic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, Rama; Chaturvedi, Vishnu

    2007-06-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is a systemic fungal infection endemic in Southwestern United States, Mexico, Central and South America. The causal agents are Coccidioides immitis and C. posadasii. A large number of cases of coccidioidomycosis in New York State residents were identified. We compared susceptibility profiles of these isolates and of C. immitis isolates from California using mycelial phase inoculum and CLSI (NCCLS) M38-A broth microdilution protocol. Minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) were also determined. Results indicated that geometric mean MICs of amphotericin B (AMB, 0.06 microg/ml), fluconazole (FLC, 8.0 microg/ml), itraconazole (ITC, 0.07 microg/ml), ketoconazole (KTC, 0.04 microg/ml), voriconazole (VRC, 0.04 microg/ml), posaconazole (PSC, 0.17 microg/ml) and caspofungin (CSP, 0.15 microg/ml) were in susceptible range as per breakpoints published for pathogenic Candida species. However, geometric MFC for FLC was relatively higher (52.4 microg/ml). Also, no significant difference in MIC and MFC values was evident for C. immitis and C. posadasii isolates. In conclusion, current methods for antifungal susceptibility testing yield reproducible profiles for Coccidioides species, which appear to be highly susceptible to most antifungal agents.

  2. Mechanism and Therapy for the Shared Susceptibility to Migraine and Epilepsy After Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    impactor tip was pneumatically driven at a velocity of 4.0 m/s, depth of pentration 1.0 mm and duration of 100 msec to induce the traumatic brain... suspension is loaded in a glass pipette and pressure injected. The craniotomy is sealed with silicone elastomer and the skin reapposed with vetbond. The

  3. Prioritising watersheds on the basis of regional flood susceptibility and vulnerability in mountainous areas through the use of indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogelis, Carolina; Werner, Micha

    2013-04-01

    Settlements in peri-urban areas of many cities in mountainous areas such as in the Andes are susceptible to hazards such as flash floods and debris flows. Additionally these settlements are in many cases informal and thus vulnerable to such hazards, resulting in significant risk. Such watersheds are often quiet small, and generally there is little or no information from gauges to help characterise risk. To help identify watersheds in which flood management measures are to be targeted, a rapid assessment of risk is required. In this paper a novel approach is presented where indicators of susceptibility and vulnerability to flash floods were used to prioritize 106 mountain watersheds in Bogotá (Colombia). Variables recognized in literature to determine the dominant processes both in susceptibility and vulnerability to flash floods were used to construct the indicators. Susceptibility was considered to increase with flashiness and the possibility of debris flow events occurring. This was assessed through the use of an indicator composed of a morphometric indicator and a land use indicator. The former was constructed using morphological variables recognized in literature to significantly influence flashiness and occurrence of debris flows; the latter was constructed in terms of percentage of vegetation cover, urban area and bare soil. The morphometric indicator was compared with the results of a debris flow propagation algorithm to assess its capacity in indentifying the morphological conditions of a watershed that make it able to transport debris flows. Propagation was carried out through the use of the Modified Single Flow Direction algorithm, following previous identification of source areas by applying thresholds identified in the area-slope curve of the watersheds and empirical thresholds. Results show that the morphometric variables can be grouped in four categories: size, shape, hypsometry and energy, with the energy the component found to best explain the

  4. The role of dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced perfusion MR imaging in differentiating between infectious and neoplastic focal brain lesions: results from a cohort of 100 consecutive patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdeci Hélio Floriano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Differentiating between infectious and neoplastic focal brain lesions that are detected by conventional structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI may be a challenge in routine practice. Brain perfusion-weighted MRI (PWI may be employed as a complementary non-invasive tool, providing relevant data on hemodynamic parameters, such as the degree of angiogenesis of lesions. We aimed to employ dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced perfusion MR imaging (DSC-MRI to differentiate between infectious and neoplastic brain lesions by investigating brain microcirculation changes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DSC-MRI perfusion studies of one hundred consecutive patients with non-cortical neoplastic (n = 54 and infectious (n = 46 lesions were retrospectively assessed. MRI examinations were performed using a 1.5-T scanner. A preload of paramagnetic contrast agent (gadolinium was administered 30 seconds before acquisition of dynamic images, followed by a standard dose 10 seconds after starting imaging acquisitions. The relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV values were determined by calculating the regional cerebral blood volume in the solid areas of lesions, normalized to that of the contralateral normal-appearing white matter. Discriminant analyses were performed to determine the cutoff point of rCBV values that would allow the differentiation of neoplastic from infectious lesions and to assess the corresponding diagnostic performance of rCBV when using this cutoff value. RESULTS: Neoplastic lesions had higher rCBV values (4.28±2.11 than infectious lesions (0.63±0.49 (p<0.001. When using an rCBV value <1.3 as the parameter to define infectious lesions, the sensitivity of the method was 97.8% and the specificity was 92.6%, with a positive predictive value of 91.8%, a negative predictive value of 98.0%, and an accuracy of 95.0%. CONCLUSION: PWI is a useful complementary tool in distinguishing between infectious and neoplastic brain

  5. Communication between Brain Areas Based on Nested Oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnefond, Mathilde; Kastner, Sabine; Jensen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    Unraveling how brain regions communicate is crucial for understanding how the brain processes external and internal information. Neuronal oscillations within and across brain regions have been proposed to play a crucial role in this process. Two main hypotheses have been suggested for routing of information based on oscillations, namely communication through coherence and gating by inhibition. Here, we propose a framework unifying these two hypotheses that is based on recent empirical findings. We discuss a theory in which communication between two regions is established by phase synchronization of oscillations at lower frequencies (40 Hz). Our framework, consistent with numerous recent empirical findings, posits that cross-frequency interactions are essential for understanding how large-scale cognitive and perceptual networks operate.

  6. Field-based landslide susceptibility assessment in a data-scarce environment: the populated areas of the Rwenzori Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Liesbet; Dewitte, Olivier; Poesen, Jean; Sekajugo, John; Nobile, Adriano; Rossi, Mauro; Thiery, Wim; Kervyn, Matthieu

    2018-01-01

    The inhabited zone of the Ugandan Rwenzori Mountains is affected by landslides, frequently causing loss of life, damage to infrastructure and loss of livelihood. This area of ca. 1230 km2 is characterized by contrasting geomorphologic, climatic and lithological patterns, resulting in different landslide types. In this study, the spatial pattern of landslide susceptibility is investigated based on an extensive field inventory constructed for five representative areas within the region (153 km2) and containing over 450 landslides. To achieve a reliable susceptibility assessment, the effects of (1) using different topographic data sources and spatial resolutions and (2) changing the scale of assessment by comparing local and regional susceptibility models on the susceptibility model performances are investigated using a pixel-based logistic regression approach. Topographic data are extracted from different digital elevation models (DEMs) based on radar interferometry (SRTM and TanDEM-X) and optical stereophotogrammetry (ASTER DEM). Susceptibility models using the radar-based DEMs tend to outperform the ones using the ASTER DEM. The model spatial resolution is varied between 10, 20, 30 and 90 m. The optimal resolution depends on the location of the investigated area within the region but the lowest model resolution (90 m) rarely yields the best model performances while the highest model resolution (10 m) never results in significant increases in performance compared to the 20 m resolution. Models built for the local case studies generally have similar or better performances than the regional model and better reflect site-specific controlling factors. At the regional level the effect of distinguishing landslide types between shallow and deep-seated landslides is investigated. The separation of landslide types allows us to improve model performances for the prediction of deep-seated landslides and to better understand factors influencing the occurrence of shallow

  7. Regional susceptibility to dose-dependent white matter damage after brain radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Michael; Karunamuni, Roshan; McDonald, Carrie; Seibert, Tyler; White, Nathan; Moiseenko, Vitali; Bartsch, Hauke; Farid, Nikdokht; Kuperman, Joshua; Krishnan, Anitha; Dale, Anders; Hattangadi-Gluth, Jona A

    2017-05-01

    Regional differences in sensitivity to white matter damage after brain radiotherapy (RT) are not well-described. We characterized the spatial heterogeneity of dose-response across white matter tracts using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Forty-nine patients with primary brain tumors underwent MRI with DTI before and 9-12months after partial-brain RT. Maps of fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD) were generated. Atlas-based white matter tracts were identified. A secondary analysis using skeletonized tracts was also performed. Linear mixed-model analysis of the relationship between mean and max dose and percent change in DTI metrics was performed. Tracts with the strongest correlation of FA change with mean dose were the fornix (-0.46 percent/Gy), cingulum bundle (-0.44 percent/Gy), and body of corpus callosum (-0.23 percent/Gy), pchanges in MD and RD. In the skeletonized analysis, the fornix and cingulum bundle remained highly dose-sensitive. Maximum and mean dose were similarly predictive of DTI change. The corpus callosum, cingulum bundle, and fornix show the most prominent dose-dependent changes following RT. Future studies examining correlation with cognitive functioning and potential avoidance of critical white matter regions are warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Imaging and clinical characteristics of children with multiple foci of microsusceptibility changes in the brain on susceptibility-weighted MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niwa, Tetsu [Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Heidelberglaan 100, PO Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Aida, Noriko; Fujita, Kazutoshi; Shishikura, Ayako [Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan); Takahara, Taro; Kwee, Thomas C. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Heidelberglaan 100, PO Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Miyata, Daiki [Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Department of Circulation Medicine, Yokohama (Japan); Inoue, Tomio [Yokohama City University, Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    Microsusceptibility changes in the brain are well known to correspond with microbleeds or micrometal fragments in adults, but this phenomenon has not been explored well in children. To assess imaging and clinical characteristics of children with multiple foci of microsusceptibility changes using susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI). Between 2006 and 2008, 12 children with multiple foci of microsusceptibility on SWI without corresponding abnormal signal on conventional MRI were identified and were retrospectively assessed. The locations of foci of microsusceptibility included the cerebral white matter, basal ganglia, brainstem and cerebellar white matter, without any clear systematic anatomic distribution. CT (n = 5) showed no calcification at the locations corresponding to the microsusceptibility on SWI. Conventional MR imaging showed white matter volume loss (n = 5), delayed myelination (n = 2), acute infarction (n = 1), chronic infarction (n = 1), meningitis (n = 1), slight signal abnormality in the white matter (n = 1) and no abnormal findings (n = 1). Follow-up SWI (n = 3) showed no change of the microsusceptibility foci. Interestingly, all children had a history of heart surgery under extracorporeal circulation for congenital heart disease. Multiple foci of microsusceptibility can be seen in the brain on SWI in children with congenital heart disease who underwent heart surgery with extracorporeal circulation. (orig.)

  9. Area-specific migration and recruitment of new neurons in the adult songbird brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vellema, Michiel; Van der Linden, Annemie; Gahr, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    Neuron recruitment has been implicated in morphological and functional plasticity in the adult brain. Whereas mammals restrict neuron recruitment specifically to two regions of known plasticity, the hippocampus and olfactory bulb, newborn neurons are found throughout the forebrain of adult...... toward the olfactory bulb showed high specificity, similar to the mammalian rostral migratory stream. Thus, different mechanisms appear to organize area-specific neuron recruitment in different recipients of the adult songbird brain, unrelated to global plasticity of brain regions....

  10. Landslide susceptibility assessment by using a neuro-fuzzy model: a case study in the Rupestrian heritage rich area of Matera

    OpenAIRE

    F. Sdao; D. S. Lioi; S. Pascale; Caniani, D.; Mancini, I. M.

    2013-01-01

    The complete assessment of landslide susceptibility needs uniformly distributed detailed information on the territory. This information, which is related to the temporal occurrence of landslide phenomena and their causes, is often fragmented and heterogeneous. The present study evaluates the landslide susceptibility map of the Natural Archaeological Park of Matera (Southern Italy) (Sassi and area Rupestrian Churches sites). The assessment of the degree of "spatial hazard" or "susceptibility" ...

  11. Flood susceptibility assessment in Hengfeng area coupling adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system with genetic algorithm and differential evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Haoyuan; Panahi, Mahdi; Shirzadi, Ataollah; Ma, Tianwu; Liu, Junzhi; Zhu, A-Xing; Chen, Wei; Kougias, Ioannis; Kazakis, Nerantzis

    2017-10-23

    Floods are among Earth's most common natural hazards, and they cause major economic losses and seriously affect peoples' lives and health. This paper addresses the development of a flood susceptibility assessment that uses intelligent techniques and GIS. An adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was coupled with a genetic algorithm and differential evolution for flood spatial modelling. The model considers thirteen hydrologic, morphologic and lithologic parameters for the flood susceptibility assessment, and Hengfeng County in China was chosen for the application of the model due to data availability and the 195 total flood events. The flood locations were randomly divided into two subsets, namely, training (70% of the total) and testing (30%). The Step-wise Weight Assessment Ratio Analysis (SWARA) approach was used to assess the relation between the floods and influencing parameters. Subsequently, two data mining techniques were combined with the ANFIS model, including the ANFIS-Genetic Algorithm and the ANFIS-Differential Evolution, to be used for flood spatial modelling and zonation. The flood susceptibility maps were produced, and their robustness was checked using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve. The results showed that the area under the curve (AUC) for all models was >0.80. The highest AUC value was for the ANFIS-DE model (0.852), followed by ANFIS-GA (0.849). According to the RMSE and MSE methods, the ANFIS-DE hybrid model is more suitable for flood susceptibility mapping in the study area. The proposed method is adaptable and can easily be applied in other sites for flood management and prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Brain size and white matter content of cerebrospinal tracts determine the upper cervical cord area: evidence from structural brain MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engl, Christina; Arsic, Milan; Boucard, Christine C.; Biberacher, Viola; Nunnemann, Sabine; Muehlau, Mark [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Neurology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, TUM-Neuroimaging Center, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Schmidt, Paul [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Neurology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilians-University Muenchen, Department of Statistics, Munich (Germany); Roettinger, Michael [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Muenchner Institut fuer Neuroradiologie, Munich (Germany); Etgen, Thorleif [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Neurology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Klinikum Traunstein, Department of Neurology, Traunstein (Germany); Koutsouleris, Nikolaos; Meisenzahl, Eva M. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Munich (Germany); Reiser, Maximilian [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Department of Radiology, Munich (Germany)

    2013-08-15

    Measurement of the upper cervical cord area (UCCA) from brain MRI may be an effective way to quantify spinal cord involvement in neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis. However, knowledge on the determinants of UCCA in healthy controls (HCs) is limited. In two cohorts of 133 and 285 HCs, we studied the influence of different demographic, body-related, and brain-related parameters on UCCA by simple and partial correlation analyses as well as by voxel-based morphometry (VBM) across both cerebral gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM). First, we confirmed the known but moderate effect of age on UCCA in the older cohort. Second, we studied the correlation of UCCA with sex, body height, and total intracranial volume (TIV). TIV was the only variable that correlated significantly with UCCA after correction for the other variables. Third, we studied the correlation of UCCA with brain-related parameters. Brain volume correlated stronger with UCCA than TIV. Both volumes of the brain tissue compartments GM and WM correlated with UCCA significantly. WM volume explained variance of UCCA after correction for GM volume, whilst the opposite was not observed. Correspondingly, VBM did not yield any brain region, whose GM content correlated significantly with UCCA, whilst cerebral WM content of cerebrospinal tracts strongly correlated with UCCA. This latter effect increased along a craniocaudal gradient. UCCA is mainly determined by brain volume as well as by WM content of cerebrospinal tracts. (orig.)

  13. Sleep deprivation does not affect neuronal susceptibility to mild traumatic brain injury in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caron AM

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aimee M Caron, Richard Stephenson Department of Cell and Systems Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Abstract: Mild and moderate traumatic brain injuries (TBIs (and concussion occur frequently as a result of falls, automobile accidents, and sporting activities, and are a major cause of acute and chronic disability. Fatigue and excessive sleepiness are associated with increased risk of accidents, but it is unknown whether prior sleep debt also affects the pathophysiological outcome of concussive injury. Using the “dark neuron” (DN as a marker of reversible neuronal damage, we tested the hypothesis that acute (48 hours total sleep deprivation (TSD and chronic sleep restriction (CSR; 10 days, 6-hour sleep/day affect DN formation following mild TBI in the rat. TSD and CSR were administered using a walking wheel apparatus. Mild TBI was administered under anesthesia using a weight-drop impact model, and the acute neuronal response was observed without recovery. DNs were detected using standard bright-field microscopy with toluidine blue stain following appropriate tissue fixation. DN density was low under home cage and sleep deprivation control conditions (respective median DN densities, 0.14% and 0.22% of neurons, and this was unaffected by TSD alone (0.1%. Mild TBI caused significantly higher DN densities (0.76%, and this was unchanged by preexisting acute or chronic sleep debt (TSD, 0.23%; CSR, 0.7%. Thus, although sleep debt may be predicted to increase the incidence of concussive injury, the present data suggest that sleep debt does not exacerbate the resulting neuronal damage. Keywords: sleep deprivation, concussion, traumatic brain injury, dark neuron, neurodegeneration, rat cortex

  14. Language testing during awake "anesthesia" in a bilingual patient with brain lesion adjacent to Wernicke's area

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bilotta, Federico; Stazi, Elisabetta; Delfini, Roberto; Rosa, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    .... We describe intraoperative inducible selective English aphasia in a bilingual (English and Italian) patient undergoing awake anesthesia for excision of a brain lesion adjacent to Wernicke's area with no postoperative neurological sequelae...

  15. Insecticide Susceptibility Status of Wild-Caught Sand Fly Populations Collected from Two Leishmaniasis Endemic Areas in Western Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakus, Mehmet; Gocmen, Bayram; Özbel, Yusuf

    2017-03-01

    In Turkey, vector control programs are mainly based on indoor residual spraying with pyrethroids against mosquitoes. No special control program is available for sand flies. Most insecticide susceptibility tests were done for mosquitoes but not for sand flies. We therefore aimed to determine the insecticide susceptibility against two commonly used insecticides; deltamethrin and permethrin, on wild-caught sand fly populations collected in two geographically separated leishmaniasis endemic areas. Insecticide susceptibility of wild-caught sand flies to deltamethrin (0.05%) and permethrin (0.75%) using ready-to use impregnated insecticide papers of WHO was investigated in 2010 based on knockdown time using standard WHO tube-test kit and procedures. Sand flies used in this study were collected from villages of Aydin (Bascayır) and Mugla (Tepecik). The resistance and early resistance were detected on the sand fly population from Mugla province against deltamethrin and permethrin, respectively. However, populations from Aydin Province were sensitive to both insecticides. The resistance against deltamethrin and permethrin was detected on sand fly population in Mugla Province where both insecticides have been applied for long time while no resistance was found in the insecticide free area, Aydin Province. These findings can be an indicator for showing the ability for developing the insecticide resistance in sand flies. Because of the presence and dominancy of vector sand fly species of Leishmania infantum ( Phlebotomus neglectus , P. tobbi ) in both study areas, the systematic monitoring for resistance of sand fly populations and more attention are needed by the authorities involved in control programs for sand fly-borne diseases.

  16. Nonspatial intermodal selective attention is mediated by sensory brain brain areas: Evidence from event-related potential.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma, D.; Kok, A.

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the question of whether inter-and intramodal forms of attention are reflected in activation of the same or different brain areas. ERPs were recorded while Ss (aged 18-41 yrs) were presented a random sequence of visual and auditory stimuli. They were instructed to attend to nonspatial

  17. Integrated SSFP for functional brain mapping at 7 T with reduced susceptibility artifact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kaibao; Xue, Rong; Zhang, Peng; Zuo, Zhentao; Chen, Zhongwei; Wang, Bo; Martin, Thomas; Wang, Yi; Chen, Lin; He, Sheng; Wang, Danny J. J.

    2017-03-01

    Balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) offers an alternative and potentially important tool to the standard gradient-echo echo-planar imaging (GE-EPI) for functional MRI (fMRI). Both passband and transition band based bSSFP have been proposed for fMRI. The applications of these methods, however, are limited by banding artifacts due to the sensitivity of bSSFP signal to off-resonance effects. In this article, a unique case of the SSFP-FID sequence, termed integrated-SSFP or iSSFP, was proposed to overcome the obstacle by compressing the SSFP profile into the width of a single voxel. The magnitude of the iSSFP signal was kept constant irrespective of frequency shift. Visual stimulation studies were performed to demonstrate the feasibility of fMRI using iSSFP at 7 T with flip angles of 4° and 25°, compared to standard bSSFP and gradient echo (GRE) imaging. The signal changes for the complex iSSFP signal in activated voxels were 2.48 ± 0.53 (%) and 2.96 ± 0.87 (%) for flip angles (FA) of 4° and 25° respectively at the TR of 9.88 ms. Simultaneous multi-slice acquisition (SMS) with the CAIPIRIHNA technique was carried out with iSSFP scanning to detect the anterior temporal lobe activation using a semantic processing task fMRI, compared with standard 2D GE-EPI. This study demonstrates the feasibility of iSSFP for fMRI with reduced susceptibility artifacts, while maintaining robust functional contrast at 7 T.

  18. Spatial prediction of flood susceptible areas using rule based decision tree (DT) and a novel ensemble bivariate and multivariate statistical models in GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrany, Mahyat Shafapour; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Jebur, Mustafa Neamah

    2013-11-01

    Decision tree (DT) machine learning algorithm was used to map the flood susceptible areas in Kelantan, Malaysia.We used an ensemble frequency ratio (FR) and logistic regression (LR) model in order to overcome weak points of the LR.Combined method of FR and LR was used to map the susceptible areas in Kelantan, Malaysia.Results of both methods were compared and their efficiency was assessed.Most influencing conditioning factors on flooding were recognized.

  19. Increased susceptibility for white spot lesions by surplus orthodontic etching exceeding bracket base area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knösel, Michael; Bojes, Mariana; Jung, Klaus; Ziebolz, Dirk

    2012-05-01

    There is a paucity of information with regard to the susceptibility of iatrogenic white spot lesion formation after inattentive, surplus orthodontic etching with 30% phosphoric acid and the subsequent provision or absence of adequate oral hygiene. Ninety sound enamel specimens were randomly allocated to 6 trial groups (n = 15 each) for etching with 30% phosphoric acid for either 15 seconds and standardized daily enamel brushing or no brushing, etching for 30 seconds with daily brushing or no brushing, or nonetched controls with brushing or no brushing. Nutritive acidic assaults were simulated by demineralization cycles 3 times per day for 1 hour with interim storage in artificial saliva. Lesion depths in terms of percentage of fluorescence loss (delta F, delta Q) and lesion extension compared with the baseline were assessed by using quantitative light-induced fluorescence after 2, 7, 14, 21, and 42 days. Etching duration, trial time elapse, and oral hygiene, as well as the significance of factor interactions, were analyzed with 3-way analysis of variance (α = 5%). The impact of the factors of enamel brushing, trial time elapse, and etching each had a comparably significant effect on lesion progression. The effect of surplus etching on white spot lesion formation was significantly enhanced by the simultaneous absence of enamel brushing and also the progression of trial time. The combination of 30 seconds of surplus etching with inadequate oral hygiene was especially detrimental. Excessive surplus orthodontic etching of the complete labial enamel surface, instead of the bracket bases only, must be avoided to prevent iatrogenic white spot lesions. Etching times not exceeding 15 seconds are favorable. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Increased susceptibility for white spot lesions by surplus orthodontic etching exceeding bracket base area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knösel, Michael; Bojes, Mariana; Jung, Klaus; Ziebolz, Dirk; Renger, Stéphane

    2015-09-01

    There is a paucity of information with regard to the susceptibility of iatrogenic white spot lesion formation after inattentive, surplus orthodontic etching with 30% phosphoric acid and the subsequent provision or absence of adequate oral hygiene. Ninety sound enamel specimens were randomly allocated to 6 trial groups (N = 15 each) for etching with 30% phosphoric acid for either 15 seconds and standardized daily enamel brushing or no brushing, etching for 30 seconds with daily brushing or no brushing, or nonetched controls with brushing or no brushing. Nutritive acidic assaults were simulated by demineralization cycles 3 times per day for 1 hour with interim storage in artificial saliva. Lesion depths in terms of percentage of fluorescence loss (delta F, delta Q) and lesion extension compared with the baseline were assessed by using quantitative light-induced fluorescence after 2, 7, 14, 21, and 42 days. Etching duration, trial time elapse, and oral hygiene, as well as the significance of factor interactions, were analyzed with 3-way analysis of variance (α=5%). The impact of the factors of enamel brushing, trial time elapse, and etching each had a comparably significant effect on lesion progression. The effect of surplus etching on white spot lesion formation was significantly enhanced by the simultaneous absence of enamel brushing and also the progression of trial time. The combination of 30 seconds of surplus etching with inadequate oral hygiene was especially detrimental. Excessive surplus orthodontic etching of the complete labial enamel surface, instead of the bracket bases only, must be avoided to prevent iatrogenic white spot lesions. Etching times not exceeding 15 seconds are favorable. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2015.

  1. Functional connectivity between brain areas estimated by analysis of gamma waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheiri, Farshad; Bragin, Anatol; Engel, Jerome

    2013-04-15

    The goal of this study is to investigate functional connectivity between different brain regions by analyzing the temporal relationship of the maxima of gamma waves recorded in multiple brain areas. Local field potentials were recorded from motor cortex, hippocampus, entorhinal cortex and piriform cortex of rats. Gamma activity was filtered and separated into two bands; high (65-90Hz) and low (30-55Hz) gamma. Maxima for gamma activity waves were detected and functional connectivity between different brain regions was determined using Shannon entropy for perievent histograms for each pair channels. Significant Shannon entropy values were reported as connectivity factors. We defined a connectivity matrix based the connectivity factors between different regions. We found that maxima of low and high frequency gamma occur in strong temporal relationship between some brain areas, indicating the existence of functional connections between these areas. The spatial pattern of functional connections between brain areas was different for slow wave sleep and waking states. However for each behavioral state in the same animal the pattern of functional connections was stable over time within 30min of continuous analysis and over a 5 day period. With the same electrode montage the pattern of functional connectivity varied from one subject to another. Analysis of the temporal relationship of maxima of gamma waves between various brain areas could be a useful tool for investigation of functional connections between these brain areas. This approach could be applied for analysis of functional alterations occurring in these connections during different behavioral tasks and during processes related to learning and memory. The specificity in the connectivity pattern from one subject to another can be explained by the existence of unique functional networks for each subject. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Insecticide Susceptibility Status of Wild-Caught Sand Fly Populations Collected from Two Leishmaniasis Endemic Areas in Western Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Karakus

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Turkey, vector control programs are mainly based on indoor residual spraying with pyre­throids against mosquitoes. No special control program is available for sand flies. Most insecticide susceptibil­ity tests were done for mosquitoes but not for sand flies. We therefore aimed to determine the insecticide susceptibility against two commonly used insecticides; deltamethrin and permethrin, on wild-caught sand fly populations collected in two geographically separated leishmaniasis endemic areas.Methods: Insecticide susceptibility of wild-caught sand flies to deltamethrin (0.05% and permethrin (0.75% using ready-to use impregnated insecticide papers of WHO was investigated in 2010 based on knock­down time using standard WHO tube-test kit and procedures. Sand flies used in this study were col­lected from villages of Aydin (Bascayır and Mugla (Tepecik.Results: The resistance and early resistance were detected on the sand fly population from Mugla province against deltamethrin and permethrin, respectively. However, populations from Aydin Province were sensitive to both insecticides.Conclusion: The resistance against deltamethrin and permethrin was detected on sand fly population in Mugla Province where both insecticides have been applied for long time while no resistance was found in the insecticide free area, Aydin Province. These findings can be an indicator for showing the ability for develop­ing the insecticide resistance in sand flies. Because of the presence and dominancy of vector sand fly species of Leishmania infantum (Phlebotomus neglectus, P. tobbi in both study areas, the systematic monitoring for resistance of sand fly populations and more attention are needed by the authorities involved in control pro­grams for sand fly-borne diseases.

  3. Variable slice thickness (VAST) EPI for the reduction of susceptibility artifacts in whole-brain GE-EPI at 7 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunheim, Sascha; Johst, Sören; Pfaffenrot, Viktor; Maderwald, Stefan; Quick, Harald H; Poser, Benedikt A

    2017-07-10

    A new technique for 2D gradient-recalled echo echo-planar imaging (GE-EPI) termed 'variable slice thickness' (VAST) is proposed, which reduces signal losses caused by through-slice susceptibility artifacts, while keeping the volume repetition time (TR) manageable. The slice thickness is varied across the brain, with thinner slices being used in the inferior brain regions where signal voids are most severe. Various axial slice thickness schemes with identical whole-brain coverage were compared to regular EPI, which may either suffer from unfeasibly long TR if appropriately thin slices are used throughout, or signal loss if no counter-measures are taken. Evaluation is based on time-course signal-to-noise (tSNR) maps from resting state data and a statistical group-level region of interest (ROI) analysis on breath-hold fMRI measurements. The inferior brain region signal voids with static B0 inhomogeneities could be markedly reduced with VAST GE-EPI in contrast to regular GE-EPI. ROI-averaged event-related signal changes showed 48% increase in VAST compared to GE-EPI with regular "thick" slices. tSNR measurements proved the comparable signal robustness of VAST in comparison to regular GE-EPI with thin slices. A novel acquisition strategy for functional 2D GE-EPI at ultrahigh magnetic field is presented to reduce susceptibility-induced signal voids and keep TR sufficiently short for whole-brain coverage.

  4. Natural distribution of environmental radon daughters in the different brain areas of an Alzheimer Disease victim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momčilović Berislav

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radon is a ubiquitous noble gas in the environment and a primary source of harmful radiation exposure for humans; it decays in a cascade of daughters (RAD by releasing the cell damaging high energy alpha particles. Results We studied natural distribution of RAD 210Po and 210Bi in the different parts of the postmortem brain of 86-year-old woman who had suffered from Alzheimer's disease (AD. A distinct brain map emerged, since RAD distribution was different among the analyzed brain areas. The highest RAD irradiation (mSv·year-1 occurred in the decreasing order of magnitude: amygdale (Amy >> hippocampus (Hip > temporal lobe (Tem ~ frontal lobe (Fro > occipital lobe (Occ ~ parietal lobe (Par > substantia nigra (SN >> locus ceruleus (LC ~ nucleus basalis (NB; generally more RAD accumulated in the proteins than lipids of gray and white (gray > white brain matter. Amy and Hip are particularly vulnerable brain structure targets to significant RAD internal radiation damage in AD (5.98 and 1.82 mSv·year-1, respectively. Next, naturally occurring RAD radiation for Tem and Fro, then Occ and Par, and SN was an order of magnitude higher than that in LC and NB; the later was within RAD we observed previously in the healthy control brains. Conclusion Naturally occurring environmental RAD exposure may dramatically enhance AD deterioration by selectively targeting brain areas of emotions (Amy and memory (Hip.

  5. Comparison of dynamic expressions of Tim-3 and PD-1 in the brains between toxoplasmic encephalitis-resistant BALB/c and -susceptible C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Fu, Xiaoyin; Huang, Bo; Tong, Xinxin; Zheng, Huanqin; Huang, Shiguang; Lu, Fangli

    2014-04-01

    T cells and IFN-γ are essential for controlling the reactivation of toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE), regardless of whether mice are susceptible or resistant to TE. It has been demonstrated that CD8(+) T cells exhausted in chronic Toxoplasma gondii infection result in TE reactivation in C57BL/6 mice. However, this phenomenon had not been reported in genetically TE-resistant BALB/c mice. To explore the immune mechanism of TE in different backgrounds of mice, the dynamic expressions of Tim-3, programmed cell death 1 (PD-1), and their ligands (galectin-9, PD-L1, PD-L2) in brain tissues were compared between TE-resistant BALB/c and -susceptible C57BL/6 mice infected with Prugniaud (Pru, a type II strain) of T. gondii in this study. Compared with infected BALB/c mice, there were remarkable pathological changes with significantly higher histological scores in the brains of C57BL/6 mice at 14, 35, 50, and 70 days postinfection (p.i., P L1 in the brain of C57BL/6 mice than that in BALB/c mice at all the times p.i. (P L1 expressions may contribute to the different immune responses between TE-resistant BALB/c and -susceptible C57BL/6 mice infected with Pru strain of T. gondii.

  6. Thermodynamic analysis of unusually thermostable CutA1 protein from human brain and its protease susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagautdinov, Bagautdin; Matsuura, Yoshinori; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Sawano, Masahide; Ogasahara, Kyoko; Takehira, Michiyo; Kunishima, Naoki; Katoh, Etsuko; Yutani, Katsuhide

    2015-03-01

    Unusually stable proteins are a disadvantage for the metabolic turnover of proteins in cells. The CutA1 proteins from Pyrococcus horikoshii and from Oryza sativa (OsCutA1) have unusually high denaturation temperatures (Td) of nearly 150 and 100 °C, respectively, at pH 7.0. It seemed that the CutA1 protein from the human brain (HsCutA1) also has a remarkably high stability. Therefore, the thermodynamic stabilities of HsCutA1 and its protease susceptibility were examined. The Td was remarkably high, being over 95 °C at pH 7.0. The unfolding Gibbs energy (ΔG(0)H2O) was 174 kJ/mol at 37 °C from the denaturant denaturation. The thermodynamic analysis showed that the unfolding enthalpy and entropy values of HsCutA1 were considerably lower than those of OsCutA1 with a similar stability to HsCutA1, which should be related to flexibility of the unstructured properties in both N- and C-terminals of HsCutA1. HsCutA1 was almost completely digested after 1-day incubation at 37 °C by subtilisin, although OsCutA1 was hardly digested at the same conditions. These results indicate that easily available fragmentation of HsCutA1 with remarkably high thermodynamic stability at the body temperature should be important for its protein catabolism in the human cells. © The Authors 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Debris Flow Susceptibility Assessment in the Wudongde Dam Area, China Based on Rock Engineering System and Fuzzy C-Means Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Debris flows in the Wudongde dam area, China could pose a huge threat to the running of the power station. Therefore, it is of great significance to carry out a susceptibility analysis for this area. This paper presents an application of the rock engineering system and fuzzy C-means algorithm (RES_FCM for debris flow susceptibility assessment. The watershed of the Jinsha River close to the Wudongde dam site in southwest China was taken as the study area, where a total of 22 channelized debris flow gullies were mapped by field investigations. Eight environmental parameters were selected for debris flow susceptibility assessment, namely, lithology, watershed area, slope angle, stream density, length of the main stream, curvature of the main stream, distance from fault and vegetation cover ratio. The interactions among these parameters and their weightings were determined using the RES method. A debris flow susceptibility map was produced by dividing the gullies into three categories of debris flow susceptibility based on the susceptibility index (SI using the FCM algorithm. The results show that the susceptibility levels for nine of the debris flow gullies are high, nine are moderate and four are low, respectively. The RES based K-means algorithm (RES_KM was used for comparison. The results suggest that the RES_FCM method and the RES_KM method provide very close evaluation results for most of the debris flow gullies, which also agree well with field investigations. The prediction accuracy of the new method is 90.9%, larger than that obtained by the RES_KM method (86.4%. Therefore, the RES_FCM method performs better than the RES_KM method for assessing the susceptibility of debris flows.

  8. Liquefaction susceptibility assessment in fluvial plains using high-resolution airborne LiDAR data: the case of the 2012 Emilia earthquake sequence area (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civico, R.; Brunori, C. A.; De Martini, P. M.; Pucci, S.; Cinti, F. R.; Pantosti, D.

    2015-07-01

    We report a case study from the Po River plain region (northern Italy), where a significant liquefaction-related land and property damage occurred during the 2012 Emilia seismic sequence. We took advantage of a 1 m pixel LiDAR Digital Terrain Model (DTM) and of the 2012 Emilia coseismic liquefaction dataset to: (a) perform a detailed geomorphological study of the Po River plain area, (b) quantitatively define the liquefaction susceptibility of the geomorphologic features that experienced different frequency of liquefaction. One main finding is that linear topographic highs of fluvial origin, together with crevasse splays and abandoned riverbeds, acted as preferential location for the occurrence of liquefaction phenomena. Moreover, we quantitatively defined a hierarchy in terms of liquefaction susceptibility for fluvial environments. We observed that a very high liquefaction susceptibility is found in coincidence with fluvial landforms, a high-to-moderate liquefaction susceptibility within a buffer distance of 100 and 200 m from mapped fluvial landforms and a low liquefaction susceptibility outside fluvial landforms and relative buffer areas. LiDAR data allowed a significant improvement in mapping with respect to conventional available topographic data and/or aerial imagery. These results have significant implications for accurate hazard and risk assessment as well as for land-use planning. We propose a potentially simpler approach for liquefaction susceptibility assessment with respect to in situ geotechnical investigations. Our findings can be applied to areas beyond Emilia, characterized by similar fluvial-dominated environments and prone to significant seismic hazard.

  9. Strong Functional Connectivity among Homotopic Brain Areas Is Vital for Motor Control in Unilateral Limb Movement

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    Pengxu Wei

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism underlying brain region organization for motor control in humans remains poorly understood. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study, right-handed volunteers were tasked to maintain unilateral foot movements on the right and left sides as consistently as possible. We aimed to identify the similarities and differences between brain motor networks of the two conditions. We recruited 18 right-handed healthy volunteers aged 25 ± 2.3 years and used a whole-body 3T system for magnetic resonance (MR scanning. Image analysis was performed using SPM8, Conn toolbox and Brain Connectivity Toolbox. We determined a craniocaudally distributed, mirror-symmetrical modular structure. The functional connectivity between homotopic brain areas was generally stronger than the intrahemispheric connections, and such strong connectivity led to the abovementioned modular structure. Our findings indicated that the interhemispheric functional interaction between homotopic brain areas is more intensive than the interaction along the conventional top–down and bottom–up pathways within the brain during unilateral limb movement. The detected strong interhemispheric horizontal functional interaction is an important aspect of motor control but often neglected or underestimated. The strong interhemispheric connectivity may explain the physiological phenomena and effects of promising therapeutic approaches. Further accurate and effective therapeutic methods may be developed on the basis of our findings.

  10. Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms in Susceptibility to Tuberculosis in the Kazakh Population in Almaty and Almaty Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxat Zhabagin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vitamin D receptor (VDR plays an important role in activating the immune response against various infectious agents. It is known that the active metabolite of ligand receptor Vitamin D (1,25 – dihydroxyvitamin D is encoded by VDR and helps mononuclear phagocytes to suppress the intracellular growth of M. tuberculosis. The VDR gene harbors approximately 200 polymorphisms, some of which are linked to differences in receptor Vitamin D uptake and therefore can be considered as candidate disease risk variants. The relation between VDR gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to TB has been studied in different populations. There is not a great deal of information regarding the association of these SNPs with TB risk in the Kazakh population. The four most commonly investigated VDR polymorphisms in association with different diseases, including susceptibility to tuberculosis, are located in exon 2 (rs2228570 or FokI, intron 8 (rs1544410 or BsmI and rs7975232 or ApaI, and exon 9 (rs731236 or TaqI. The aim of our study was to determine whether these four VDR gene single nucleotide polymorphisms were associated with TB and whether they were a risk for the development of TB in the Kazakh Population in Almaty city and Almaty area. Methods: This study was a hospital-based case-control analysis of 283 individuals (99 TB patients and 184 healthy controls. Genotyping was performed by Taqman SNP allelic discrimination using commercial TaqMan SNP Genotyping assays.  Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS Version 19.0 software. Results: Genotype frequencies for the Kazakh population are close to world (HapMap data on Asian populations. FokI and ApaI polymorphisms genotypes tend to be associated with TB risk under the co-dominant model [OR=1.18; 95%CI: (0.68, 2.07, p=0.15] for FokI and [OR=1.33; 95%CI: (0.61, 2.91, p=0.6] for ApaI. No significant association between the disease and TaqI, BsmI genotypes was observed. Conclusions: In summary, we

  11. Decreased activation of subcortical brain areas in the motor fatigue state: an fMRI study

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    Lijuan Hou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available One aspect of motor fatigue is the exercise-induced reduction of neural activity to voluntarily drive the muscle or muscle group. Functional magnetic resonance imaging provides access to investigate the neural activation on the whole brain level and studies observed changes of activation intensity after exercise-induced motor fatigue in the sensorimotor cortex. However, in human, little evidence exists to demonstrate the role of subcortical brain regions in motor fatigue, which is contradict to abundant researches in rodent indicating that during simple movement, the activity of the basal ganglia is modulated by the state of motor fatigue. Thus, in present study, we explored the effect of motor fatigue on subcortical areas in human. A series of fMRI data were collected from 11 healthy subjects while they were executing simple motor tasks in two conditions: before and under the motor fatigue state. The results showed that in both conditions, movements evoked activation volumes in the sensorimotor areas, SMA, cerebellum, thalamus and basal ganglia. Of primary importance are the results that the intensity and size of activation volumes in the subcortical areas (i.e. thalamus and basal ganglia areas are significantly decreased during the motor fatigue state, implying that motor fatigue disturbs the motor control processing in a way that both sensorimotor areas and subcortical brain areas are less active. Further study is needed to clarify how subcortical areas contribute to the overall decreased activity of CNS during motor fatigue state.

  12. A GRASS GIS-based deterministic model for shallow and deep-seated landslide susceptibility analysis over large areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergili, Martin; Marchesini, Ivan; Rossi, Mauro; Guzzetti, Fausto; Fellin, Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    Various deterministic slope stability models, based on the assumption of an infinite slope with a plane, slope-parallel failure plane, have been proposed in the literature. These models are commonly implemented in a GIS environment and are mostly used to model shallow landslides. Other models consider the three-dimensional geometry of possible slope failures and assume an ellipsoidal sliding surface. Such models are best suited to investigate deep-seated landslides. The latter models rely on complex neighbourhood relationships and are difficult to implement in a GIS environment. Here, we present a GIS-based landslide modelling tool that considers the three-dimensional geometry of the sliding surfaces and is capable of dealing with shallow and deep-seated failures. The model is developed in the GRASS GIS software as the C-based raster module r.rotstab, and adopts a modification of the three-dimensional sliding surface model proposed by Hovland and revised and extended by Xie and co-workers. Given a Digital Elevation Model and a set of thematic layers, the model evaluates slope stability for a large number of randomly selected potential slip surfaces, ellipsoidal in shape. Truncated ellipsoids can be used to model the presence of shallow weak layers in the soil or the bedrock. Any single raster cell may be intersected by multiple sliding surfaces, each associated with a computed safety factor. For each grid cell, the lowest value of the safety factor and the depth of the associated slip surface are stored. This information can be used to obtain a spatial overview of the potentially unstable regions in the study area. In addition, a landslide susceptibility index in the range 0 - 1 is calculated. The index relates the number of unstable slip surfaces to the total number of slip surfaces simulated for each pixel. We tested the model in the Collazzone area, Umbria, Central Italy, which is susceptible to landslides of different types. The presence of both shallow

  13. Short- and long-term modulation of synaptic inputs to brain reward areas by nicotine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fagen, Z.M.; Mansvelder, H.D.; Keath, R.; McGehee, D.S.

    2003-01-01

    Dopamine signaling in brain reward areas is a key element in the development of drug abuse and dependence. Recent anatomical and electrophysiological research has begun to elucidate both complexity and specificity In synaptic connections between ventral tegmental neurons and their inputs.

  14. Nonspatial intermodal selective attention is mediated by sensory brain areas: Evidence from event-related potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma, D.; Kok, Albert

    2001-01-01

    The present study focuses on the question of whether inter- and intramodal forms of attention are reflected in activation of the same or different brain areas. ERPs were recorded while subjects were presented a random sequence of visual and auditory stimuli. They were instructed to attend to

  15. Nonspatial intermodal selective attention is mediated by sensory brain areas: Evidence from event-related potential.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma, D.; Kok, A.

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the question of whether inter-and intramodal forms of attention are reflected in activation of the same or different brain areas. ERPs were recorded while Ss (aged 18-41 yrs) were presented a random sequence of visual and auditory stimuli. They were instructed to attend to nonspatial

  16. Activity in human reward-sensitive brain areas in strongly context dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, S.T.; Heslenfeld, D.J.; Mars, R.B.; Alting von Geusau, N.J.; Holroyd, C.B.; Yeung, N.

    2005-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging research in humans has identified a number of brain areas that are activated by the delivery of primary and secondary reinforcers. The present study investigated how activity in these reward-sensitive regions is modulated by the context in which rewards and punishments are

  17. Low-grade astrocytoma: surgical outcomes in eloquent versus non-eloquent brain areas

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    André de Macedo Bianco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study of 81 patients with low-grade astrocytoma (LGA comparing the efficacy of aggressive versus less aggressive surgery in eloquent and non-eloquent brain areas was conducted. Extent of surgical resection was analyzed to assess overall survival (OS and progression- free survival (PFS. Degree of tumor resection was classified as gross total resection (GTR, subtotal resection (STR or biopsy. GTR, STR and biopsy in patients with tumors in non-eloquent areas were performed in 31, 48 and 21% subjects, whereas in patients with tumors in eloquent areas resections were 22.5, 35 and 42.5%. Overall survival was 4.7 and 1.9 years in patients with tumors in non-eloquent brain areas submitted to GTR/STR and biopsy (p=0.013, whereas overall survival among patients with tumors in eloquent area was 4.5 and 2.1 years (p=0.33. Improved outcome for adult patients with LGA is predicted by more aggressive surgery in both eloquent and non-eloquent brain areas.

  18. A Combination of Geographically Weighted Regression, Particle Swarm Optimization and Support Vector Machine for Landslide Susceptibility Mapping: A Case Study at Wanzhou in the Three Gorges Area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xianyu; Wang, Yi; Niu, Ruiqing; Hu, Youjian

    2016-05-11

    In this study, a novel coupling model for landslide susceptibility mapping is presented. In practice, environmental factors may have different impacts at a local scale in study areas. To provide better predictions, a geographically weighted regression (GWR) technique is firstly used in our method to segment study areas into a series of prediction regions with appropriate sizes. Meanwhile, a support vector machine (SVM) classifier is exploited in each prediction region for landslide susceptibility mapping. To further improve the prediction performance, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is used in the prediction regions to obtain optimal parameters for the SVM classifier. To evaluate the prediction performance of our model, several SVM-based prediction models are utilized for comparison on a study area of the Wanzhou district in the Three Gorges Reservoir. Experimental results, based on three objective quantitative measures and visual qualitative evaluation, indicate that our model can achieve better prediction accuracies and is more effective for landslide susceptibility mapping. For instance, our model can achieve an overall prediction accuracy of 91.10%, which is 7.8%-19.1% higher than the traditional SVM-based models. In addition, the obtained landslide susceptibility map by our model can demonstrate an intensive correlation between the classified very high-susceptibility zone and the previously investigated landslides.

  19. Mapping Forest Fire Susceptibility in Temperate Mountain Areas with Expert Knowledge. A Case Study from Iezer Mountains, Romanian Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihai, Bogdan; Savulescu, Ionut

    2014-05-01

    Forest fires in Romanian Carpathians became a frequent phenomenon during the last decade, although local climate and other environmental features did not create typical conditions. From 2004, forest fires affect in Romania more than 100 hectares/year of different forest types (deciduous and coniferous). Their magnitude and frequency are not known, since a historical forest fire inventory does not exist (only press papers and local witness for some selected events). Forest fires features the summer dry periods but there are dry autumns and early winter periods with events of different magnitudes. The application we propose is based on an empirical modeling of forest fire susceptibility in a typical mountain area from the Southern Carpathians, the Iezer Mountains (2462 m). The study area features almost all the altitudinal vegetation zones of the European temperate mountains, from the beech zone, to the coniferous zone, the subalpine and the alpine zones (Mihai et al., 2007). The analysis combines GIS and remote sensing models (Chuvieco et al., 2012), starting from the ideas that forest fires are featured by the ignition zones and then by the fire propagation zones. The first data layer (ignition zones) is the result of the crossing between the ignition factors: lightning - points of multitemporal occurence and anthropogenic activities (grazing, tourism and traffic) and the ignition zones (forest fuel zonation - forest stands, soil cover and topoclimatic factor zonation). This data is modelled from different sources: the MODIS imagery fire product (Hantson et al., 2012), detailed topographic maps, multitemporal orthophotos at 0.5 m resolution, Landsat multispectral imagery, forestry cadastre maps, detailed soil maps, meteorological data (the WorldClim digital database) as well as the field survey (mapping using GPS and local observation). The second data layer (fire propagation zones) is the result of the crossing between the forest fuel zonation, obtained with the

  20. Dynamics of brain activity in motor and frontal cortical areas during music listening: a magnetoencephalographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Mihai; Otsuka, Asuka; Ioannides, Andreas A

    2004-04-01

    There are formidable problems in studying how 'real' music engages the brain over wide ranges of temporal scales extending from milliseconds to a lifetime. In this work, we recorded the magnetoencephalographic signal while subjects listened to music as it unfolded over long periods of time (seconds), and we developed and applied methods to correlate the time course of the regional brain activations with the dynamic aspects of the musical sound. We showed that frontal areas generally respond with slow time constants to the music, reflecting their more integrative mode; motor-related areas showed transient-mode responses to fine temporal scale structures of the sound. The study combined novel analysis techniques designed to capture and quantify fine temporal sequencing from the authentic musical piece (characterized by a clearly defined rhythm and melodic structure) with the extraction of relevant features from the dynamics of the regional brain activations. The results demonstrated that activity in motor-related structures, specifically in lateral premotor areas, supplementary motor areas, and somatomotor areas, correlated with measures of rhythmicity derived from the music. These correlations showed distinct laterality depending on how the musical performance deviated from the strict tempo of the music score, that is, depending on the musical expression.

  1. Landslide susceptibility assessment by using a neuro-fuzzy model: a case study in the Rupestrian heritage rich area of Matera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sdao

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The complete assessment of landslide susceptibility needs uniformly distributed detailed information on the territory. This information, which is related to the temporal occurrence of landslide phenomena and their causes, is often fragmented and heterogeneous. The present study evaluates the landslide susceptibility map of the Natural Archaeological Park of Matera (Southern Italy (Sassi and area Rupestrian Churches sites. The assessment of the degree of "spatial hazard" or "susceptibility" was carried out by the spatial prediction regardless of the return time of the events. The evaluation model for the susceptibility presented in this paper is very focused on the use of innovative techniques of artificial intelligence such as Neural Network, Fuzzy Logic and Neuro-fuzzy Network. The method described in this paper is a novel technique based on a neuro-fuzzy system. It is able to train data like neural network and it is able to shape and control uncertain and complex systems like a fuzzy system. This methodology allows us to derive susceptibility maps of the study area. These data are obtained from thematic maps representing the parameters responsible for the instability of the slopes. The parameters used in the analysis are: plan curvature, elevation (DEM, angle and aspect of the slope, lithology, fracture density, kinematic hazard index of planar and wedge sliding and toppling. Moreover, this method is characterized by the network training which uses a training matrix, consisting of input and output training data, which determine the landslide susceptibility. The neuro-fuzzy method was integrated to a sensitivity analysis in order to overcome the uncertainty linked to the used membership functions. The method was compared to the landslide inventory map and was validated by applying three methods: a ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis, a confusion matrix and a SCAI method. The developed neuro-fuzzy method showed a good

  2. Landslide susceptibility assessment by using a neuro-fuzzy model: a case study in the Rupestrian heritage rich area of Matera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sdao, F.; Lioi, D. S.; Pascale, S.; Caniani, D.; Mancini, I. M.

    2013-02-01

    The complete assessment of landslide susceptibility needs uniformly distributed detailed information on the territory. This information, which is related to the temporal occurrence of landslide phenomena and their causes, is often fragmented and heterogeneous. The present study evaluates the landslide susceptibility map of the Natural Archaeological Park of Matera (Southern Italy) (Sassi and area Rupestrian Churches sites). The assessment of the degree of "spatial hazard" or "susceptibility" was carried out by the spatial prediction regardless of the return time of the events. The evaluation model for the susceptibility presented in this paper is very focused on the use of innovative techniques of artificial intelligence such as Neural Network, Fuzzy Logic and Neuro-fuzzy Network. The method described in this paper is a novel technique based on a neuro-fuzzy system. It is able to train data like neural network and it is able to shape and control uncertain and complex systems like a fuzzy system. This methodology allows us to derive susceptibility maps of the study area. These data are obtained from thematic maps representing the parameters responsible for the instability of the slopes. The parameters used in the analysis are: plan curvature, elevation (DEM), angle and aspect of the slope, lithology, fracture density, kinematic hazard index of planar and wedge sliding and toppling. Moreover, this method is characterized by the network training which uses a training matrix, consisting of input and output training data, which determine the landslide susceptibility. The neuro-fuzzy method was integrated to a sensitivity analysis in order to overcome the uncertainty linked to the used membership functions. The method was compared to the landslide inventory map and was validated by applying three methods: a ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis, a confusion matrix and a SCAI method. The developed neuro-fuzzy method showed a good performance in the

  3. Cortical plasticity catalyzed by prehabilitation enables extensive resection of brain tumors in eloquent areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Rivera, Paola A; Rios-Lago, Marcos; Sanchez-Casarrubios, Sandra; Salazar, Osman; Yus, Miguel; González-Hidalgo, Mercedes; Sanz, Ana; Avecillas-Chasin, Josué; Alvarez-Linera, Juan; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Oliviero, Antonio; Barcia, Juan A

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE The extent of resection is the most important prognostic factor following brain glioma surgery. However, eloquent areas within tumors limit the extent of resection and, thus, critically affect outcomes. The authors hypothesized that presurgical suppression of the eloquent areas within a tumor by continuous cortical electrical stimulation, coupled with appropriate behavioral training ("prehabilitation"), would induce plastic reorganization and enable a more extensive resection. METHODS The authors report on 5 patients harboring gliomas involving eloquent brain areas within tumors as identified on intraoperative stimulation mapping. A grid of electrodes was placed over the residual tumor, and continuous cortical electrical stimulation was targeted to the functional areas. The stimulation intensity was adjusted daily to provoke a mild functional impairment while the function was intensively trained. RESULTS The stimulation intensity required to impair function increased progressively in all patients, and all underwent another operation a mean of 33.6 days later (range 27-37 days), when the maximal stimulation voltage in all active contacts induced no functional deficit. In all cases, a substantially more extensive resection of the tumor was possible. Intraoperative mapping and functional MRI demonstrated a plastic reorganization, and most previously demonstrated eloquent areas within the tumor were silent, while there was new functional activation of brain areas in the same region or toward the contralateral hemisphere. CONCLUSIONS Prehabilitation with continuous cortical electrical stimulation and appropriate behavioral training prior to surgery in patients with WHO Grade II and III gliomas affecting eloquent areas accelerate plastic changes. This can help maximize tumor resection and, thus, improve survival while maintaining function.

  4. [Spectrofluorometric determination of dopamine in small areas of rat brain (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Novoa, J M; Martínez-Conde, E; Fraile, A

    1977-03-01

    A method for the extraction and quantification of Dopamine from small areas of rat brain has been developed. The extraction with solvents eliminates the column cromatography separations and allows the simultaneous processing of a good number of samples. Sample retrieval is quite high (70%) and very reproducible. The evaluation was made from areas with a minimal weight of 0.225 g. The quantification of Dopamine was obtained using spectrofluorometric techniques, reading the fluorescence of the trihydroxy indol derivate. The linear relation between the instrument readings and the concentration of Dopamine is from 0 to 0.5 microng/ml. The maximal concentration of Dopamine was found in the decorticated cerebral hemispheres (1.485 microng/g), the next highest values in the diencephalon (1.046 microng/), and the minimal concentration in the cerebellum (0.283 microng/g). The concentration of the whole brain was 0.701 microng/g.

  5. Preoperative functional MRI localization of language areas in Chinese patients with brain tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, HeChun; Huang, Wei; Wu, Liang; Ma, Hui; Wang, Xiaodong; Chen, Xuexin; Sun, Shengyu; Jia, Xiaoxiong

    2012-01-01

    Ten Chinese patients with brain tumors involving language regions were selected. Preoperative functional MRI was performed to locate Broca's or Wernicke's area, and the cortex that was essential for language function was determined by electrocortical mapping. A site-by-site comparison between functional MRI and electrocortical mapping was performed with the aid of a neuronavigation device. Results showed that the sensitivity and specificity of preoperative functional MRI were 80.0% and 85.0% ...

  6. Voxel-specific brain arterial input functions from dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI and blind deconvolution in a group of healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordli, Håkon; Taxt, Torfinn; Moen, Gunnar; Grüner, Renate

    2010-04-01

    Arterial input functions may differ between brain regions due to delay and dispersion effects in the vascular supply network. Unless corrected for, these differences may degrade quantitative estimations of cerebral blood flow in dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance perfusion imaging (DSC-MRI). To investigate in a healthy population (n=44) the properties of voxel-specific arterial input functions that were obtained using a recently published blind estimation approach. The voxel-specific arterial input functions were qualitatively and quantitatively assessed, through visual inspection or by comparing time-to-peak (delays) and peak amplitude (dispersion) values between eight regions of the brain. Furthermore, they were compared to arterial input functions selected manually in the middle cerebral artery (MCA), where normally no delay or dispersion of the contrast agent was expected. The estimated voxel-specific arterial input functions varied between brain regions. Differences in delays and dispersion were larger within one brain region among all participants than between regions in one participant. A good correlation was typically found between the estimated voxel-specific arterial input functions and the manually selected arterial input functions in the MCA region. Given knowledge of neurovascular anatomy, the current blind approach seemingly produced reasonable estimates of voxel-specific arterial input functions. In addition to potentially reducing quantification errors in DSC-MRI, these user-independent voxel-specific arterial input functions could be useful for visualizing abnormal blood supply patterns in patients.

  7. [Antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae in healthy carrier individuals in primary care in Barcelona area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llor, Carles; Boada, Albert; Pons-Vigués, Mariona; Grenzner, Elisabet; Juvé, Rosa; Almeda, Jesús

    2018-01-01

    The information available on antibiotic resistance patterns are generally based on specimens from hospitalised individuals. This study was aimed at evaluating the antibiotic resistance rate of nasal carriage strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae in healthy individuals, in accordance with age and gender, attended in Primary Care Centres (PCC). Cross-sectional study. Seven PCC in the Barcelona area. Healthy nasal carriers aged 4years or more who did not present with any sign of infectious disease, and had not taken any antibiotic or had been hospitalised in the previous 3months. A total of 3,969 nasal swabs valid for identification were collected between 2010 and 2011 and were sent to one central microbiological laboratory for isolation of both pathogens. Resistance to common antibiotics was determined on the basis of the current European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing guidelines on cut-off points. The prevalence of methicillin-resistant S.aureus was 1.3% (95%CI: 0.5-2.1%), with resistance rates of 87.1% to phenoxymethylpenicillin and 11.6% to azithromycin, with no significant differences with age and gender. A total of 2.4% (95CI%: 0.1-4.7%) of the pneumococcal strains were highly resistant to both phenoxymethylpenicillin and macrolides, whereas the highest resistance rates were to cefaclor (53.3%), followed by tetracycline (20%) and cefuroxime (12.1%). These pathogens have lower resistance rates in the community than in the hospital setting. Primary Care physicians must be more aware of the current antimicrobial resistance, in order to ensure prudent use of antibiotics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Patient-induced susceptibility effect on geometric distortion of clinical brain MRI for radiation treatment planning on a 3T scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Balter, J.; Cao, Y.

    2013-02-01

    Concerns about the geometric accuracy of MRI in radiation therapy (RT) have been present since its invention. Although modern scanners typically have system levels of geometric accuracy that meet requirements of RT, subject-specific distortion is variable, and methods to in vivo assess and control patient-induced geometric distortion are not yet resolved. This study investigated the nature and magnitude of the subject-induced susceptibility effect on geometric distortions in clinical brain MRI, and tested the feasibility of in vivo quality control using field inhomogeneity mapping. For 19 consecutive patients scanned on a dedicated 3T MR scanner, B0 field inhomogeneity maps were acquired and analyzed to determine subject-induced distortions. For 3D T1 weighted images frequency-encoded with a bandwidth of 180 Hz/pixel, 86.9% of the estimated displacements were 2 mm. The maximum displacement was maps in 17 patients revealed a within-subject standard deviation of 0.25 ppm, equivalent to 0.22 mm displacement in the frequency-encoding direction in the 3D T1 weighted images. Susceptibility-induced voxel displacements in the brain are generally small, but should be monitored for precision RT. These effects are manageable at 3T and lower fields, and the methods applied can be used to monitor for potential local errors in individual patients, as well as to correct for local distortions as needed.

  9. [Surgical treatment of eloquent brain area tumors using neurophysiological mapping of the speech and motor areas and conduction tracts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuev, A A; Korotchenko, E N; Ivanova, D S; Pedyash, N V; Teplykh, B A

    To evaluate the efficacy of intraoperative neurophysiological mapping in removing eloquent brain area tumors (EBATs). Sixty five EBAT patients underwent surgical treatment using intraoperative neurophysiological mapping at the Pirogov National Medical and Surgical Center in the period from 2014 to 2015. On primary neurological examination, 46 (71%) patients were detected with motor deficits of varying severity. Speech disorders were diagnosed in 17 (26%) patients. Sixteen patients with concomitant or isolated lesions of the speech centers underwent awake surgery using the asleep-awake-asleep protocol. Standard neurophysiological monitoring included transcranial stimulation as well as motor and, if necessary, speech mapping. The motor and speech areas were mapped with allowance for the preoperative planning data (obtained with a navigation station) synchronized with functional MRI. In this case, a broader representation of the motor and speech centers was revealed in 12 (19%) patients. During speech mapping, no speech disorders were detected in 7 patients; in 9 patients, stimulation of the cerebral cortex in the intended surgical area induced motor (3 patients), sensory (4), and amnesic (2) aphasia. In the total group, we identified 11 patients in whom the tumor was located near the internal capsule. Upon mapping of the conduction tracts in the internal capsule area, the stimulus strength during tumor resection was gradually decreased from 10 mA to 5 mA. Tumor resection was stopped when responses retained at a stimulus strength of 5 mA, which, when compared to the navigation data, corresponded to a distance of about 5 mm to the internal capsule. Completeness of tumor resection was evaluated (contrast-enhanced MRI) in all patients on the first postoperative day. According to the control MRI data, the tumor was resected totally in 60% of patients, subtotally in 24% of patients, and partially in 16% of patients. In the early postoperative period, the development or

  10. Defining Face Perception Areas in the Human Brain: A Large-Scale Factorial fMRI Face Localizer Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossion, Bruno; Hanseeuw, Bernard; Dricot, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    A number of human brain areas showing a larger response to faces than to objects from different categories, or to scrambled faces, have been identified in neuroimaging studies. Depending on the statistical criteria used, the set of areas can be overextended or minimized, both at the local (size of areas) and global (number of areas) levels. Here…

  11. AGING AND LIFE-STAGE SUSCEPTIBILITY: TOLUENE EFFECTS ON BRAIN OXIDATIVE STRESS PARAMETERS IN BROWN NORWAY RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental contaminants is poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to test whether oxidative stress (OS) is a potential toxicity pathway following toluene exposure and to determine if these effects are age-dependent. We ...

  12. Regional brain differences in cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volume in individuals with Williams syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashwath A Meda

    Full Text Available Williams syndrome (WS is a rare genetic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by increased non-social anxiety, sensitivity to sounds and hypersociability. Previous studies have reported contradictory findings with regard to regional brain variation in WS, relying on only one type of morphological measure (usually volume in each study. The present study aims to contribute to this body of literature and perhaps elucidate some of these discrepancies by examining concurrent measures of cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volume between WS subjects and typically-developing (TD controls. High resolution MRI scans were obtained on 31 WS subjects and 50 typically developing control subjects. We derived quantitative regional estimates of cortical thickness, cortical surface area, and subcortical volume using FreeSurfer software. We evaluated between-group ROI differences while controlling for total intracranial volume. In post-hoc exploratory analyses within the WS group, we tested for correlations between regional brain variation and Beck Anxiety Inventory scores. Consistent with our hypothesis, we detected complex patterns of between-group cortical variation, which included lower surface area in combination with greater thickness in the following cortical regions: post central gyrus, cuneus, lateral orbitofrontal cortex and lingual gyrus. Additional cortical regions showed between-group differences in one (but not both morphological measures. Subcortical volume was lower in the basal ganglia and the hippocampus in WS versus TD controls. Exploratory correlations revealed that anxiety scores were negatively correlated with gray matter surface area in insula, OFC, rostral middle frontal, superior temporal and lingual gyrus. Our results were consistent with previous reports showing structural alterations in regions supporting the socio-affective and visuospatial impairments in WS. However, we also were able to effectively capture novel and

  13. Brain functional network changes following Prelimbic area inactivation in a spatial memory extinction task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Couz, Marta; Conejo, Nélida M; Vallejo, Guillermo; Arias, Jorge L

    2015-01-01

    Several studies suggest a prefrontal cortex involvement during the acquisition and consolidation of spatial memory, suggesting an active modulating role at late stages of acquisition processes. Recently, we have reported that the prelimbic and infralimbic areas of the prefrontal cortex, among other structures, are also specifically involved in the late phases of spatial memory extinction. This study aimed to evaluate whether the inactivation of the prelimbic area of the prefrontal cortex impaired spatial memory extinction. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were implanted bilaterally with cannulae into the prelimbic region of the prefrontal cortex. Animals were trained during 5 consecutive days in a hidden platform task and tested for reference spatial memory immediately after the last training session. One day after completing the training task, bilateral infusion of the GABAA receptor agonist Muscimol was performed before the extinction protocol was carried out. Additionally, cytochrome c oxidase histochemistry was applied to map the metabolic brain activity related to the spatial memory extinction under prelimbic cortex inactivation. Results show that animals acquired the reference memory task in the water maze, and the extinction task was successfully completed without significant impairment. However, analysis of the functional brain networks involved by cytochrome oxidase activity interregional correlations showed changes in brain networks between the group treated with Muscimol as compared to the saline-treated group, supporting the involvement of the mammillary bodies at a the late stage in the memory extinction process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Testosterone depletion increases the susceptibility of brain tissue to oxidative damage in a restraint stress mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Seung-Wan; Lee, Jin-Seok; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Kim, Dong-Woon; Ahn, Yo-Chan; Son, Chang-Gue

    2016-01-01

    Among sex hormones, estrogen is particularly well known to act as neuroprotective agent. Unlike estrogen, testosterone has not been well investigated in regard to its effects on the brain, especially under psychological stress. To investigate the role of testosterone in oxidative brain injuries under psychological stress, we adapted an orchiectomy and restraint stress model. BALB/c mice were subjected to either an orchiectomy or sham operation. After allowing 15 days for recovery, mice were re-divided into four groups according to exposure of restraint stress: sham, sham plus stress, orchiectomy, and orchiectomy plus stress. Serum testosterone was undetectable in orchiectomized groups and restraint-induced stress significantly reduced testosterone levels in sham plus stress group. The serum levels of corticosterone and adrenaline were notably elevated by restraint stress, and these elevated hormones were markedly augmented by orchiectomy. Two oxidative stressors and biomarkers for lipid and protein peroxidation were significantly increased in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus by restraint stress, while the reverse pattern was observed in antioxidant enzymes. These results were supported by histopathological findings, with 4-hydroxynonenal staining for oxidative injury and Fluoro-Jade B staining showing the degenerating neurons. The aforementioned patterns of oxidative injury were accelerated by orchiectomy. These findings strongly suggest the conclusion that testosterone exerts a protective effect against oxidative brain damage, especially under stressed conditions. Unlike estrogen, the effects of testosterone on the brain have not been thoroughly investigated. In order to investigate the role of testosterone in oxidative brain injuries under psychological stress, we adapted an orchiectomy and restraint stress model. Orchiectomy markedly augmented the restraint stress-induced elevation of serum corticosterone and adrenaline levels as well as oxidative alterations

  15. Susceptibility-weighted imaging improves the diagnostic accuracy of 3T brain MRI in the work-up of parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, F J A; van Rumund, A; Fasen, B A C M; Titulaer, I; Aerts, M; Esselink, R; Bloem, B R; Verbeek, M M; Goraj, B

    2015-03-01

    The differentiation between Parkinson disease and atypical parkinsonian syndromes can be challenging in clinical practice, especially in early disease stages. Brain MR imaging can help to increase certainty about the diagnosis. Our goal was to evaluate the added value of SWI in relation to conventional 3T brain MR imaging for the diagnostic work-up of early-stage parkinsonism. This was a prospective observational cohort study of 65 patients presenting with parkinsonism but with an uncertain initial clinical diagnosis. At baseline, 3T brain MR imaging with conventional and SWI sequences was performed. After clinical follow-up, probable diagnoses could be made in 56 patients, 38 patients diagnosed with Parkinson disease and 18 patients diagnosed with atypical parkinsonian syndromes, including 12 patients diagnosed with multiple system atrophy-parkinsonian form. In addition, 13 healthy controls were evaluated with SWI. Abnormal findings on conventional brain MR imaging were grouped into disease-specific scores. SWI was analyzed by a region-of-interest method of different brain structures. One-way ANOVA was performed to analyze group differences. Receiver operating characteristic analyses were performed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of conventional brain MR imaging separately and combined with SWI. Disease-specific scores of conventional brain MR imaging had a high specificity for atypical parkinsonian syndromes (80%-90%), but sensitivity was limited (50%-80%). The mean SWI signal intensity of the putamen was significantly lower for multiple system atrophy-parkinsonian form than for Parkinson disease and controls (P parkinsonism by identifying severe putaminal hypointensity as a sign indicative of multiple system atrophy-parkinsonian form. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  16. Neural mechanisms of auditory categorization: from across brain areas to within local microcircuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joji eTsunada

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Categorization enables listeners to efficiently encode and respond to auditory stimuli. Behavioral evidence for auditory categorization has been well documented across a broad range of human and non-human animal species. Moreover, neural correlates of auditory categorization have been documented in a variety of different brain regions in the ventral auditory pathway, which is thought to underlie auditory-object processing and auditory perception. Here, we review and discuss how neural representations of auditory categories are transformed across different scales of neural organization in the ventral auditory pathway: from across different brain areas to within local microcircuits. We propose different neural transformations across different scales of neural organization in auditory categorization. Along the ascending auditory system in the ventral pathway, there is a progression in the encoding of categories from simple acoustic categories to categories for abstract information. On the other hand, in local microcircuits, different classes of neurons differentially compute categorical information.

  17. Tropical Forest Fire Susceptibility Mapping at the Cat Ba National Park Area, Hai Phong City, Vietnam, Using GIS-Based Kernel Logistic Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieu Tien Bui

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Cat Ba National Park area (Vietnam with its tropical forest is recognized as being part of the world biodiversity conservation by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO and is a well-known destination for tourists, with around 500,000 travelers per year. This area has been the site for many research projects; however, no project has been carried out for forest fire susceptibility assessment. Thus, protection of the forest including fire prevention is one of the main concerns of the local authorities. This work aims to produce a tropical forest fire susceptibility map for the Cat Ba National Park area, which may be helpful for the local authorities in forest fire protection management. To obtain this purpose, first, historical forest fires and related factors were collected from various sources to construct a GIS database. Then, a forest fire susceptibility model was developed using Kernel logistic regression. The quality of the model was assessed using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve, area under the ROC curve (AUC, and five statistical evaluation measures. The usability of the resulting model is further compared with a benchmark model, the support vector machine (SVM. The results show that the Kernel logistic regression model has a high level of performance in both the training and validation dataset, with a prediction capability of 92.2%. Since the Kernel logistic regression model outperforms the benchmark model, we conclude that the proposed model is a promising alternative tool that should also be considered for forest fire susceptibility mapping in other areas. The results of this study are useful for the local authorities in forest planning and management.

  18. Connectivity profiles reveal the relationship between brain areas for social cognition in human and monkey temporoparietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Rogier B; Sallet, Jérôme; Neubert, Franz-Xaver; Rushworth, Matthew F S

    2013-06-25

    The human ability to infer the thoughts and beliefs of others, often referred to as "theory of mind," as well as the predisposition to even consider others, are associated with activity in the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) area. Unlike the case of most human brain areas, we have little sense of whether or how TPJ is related to brain areas in other nonhuman primates. It is not possible to address this question by looking for similar task-related activations in nonhuman primates because there is no evidence that nonhuman primates engage in theory-of-mind tasks in the same manner as humans. Here, instead, we explore the relationship by searching for areas in the macaque brain that interact with other macaque brain regions in the same manner as human TPJ interacts with other human brain regions. In other words, we look for brain regions with similar positions within a distributed neural circuit in the two species. We exploited the fact that human TPJ has a unique functional connectivity profile with cortical areas with known homologs in the macaque. For each voxel in the macaque temporal and parietal cortex we evaluated the similarity of its functional connectivity profile to that of human TPJ. We found that areas in the middle part of the superior temporal cortex, often associated with the processing of faces and other social stimuli, have the most similar connectivity profile. These results suggest that macaque face processing areas and human mentalizing areas might have a similar precursor.

  19. Decreased brain venous vasculature visibility on susceptibility-weighted imaging venography in patients with multiple sclerosis is related to chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojnacki David

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential pathogenesis between the presence and severity of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI and its relation to clinical and imaging outcomes in brain parenchyma of multiple sclerosis (MS patients has not yet been elucidated. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between CCSVI, and altered brain parenchyma venous vasculature visibility (VVV on susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI in patients with MS and in sex- and age-matched healthy controls (HC. Methods 59 MS patients, 41 relapsing-remitting and 18 secondary-progressive, and 33 HC were imaged on a 3T GE scanner using pre- and post-contrast SWI venography. The presence and severity of CCSVI was determined using extra-cranial and trans-cranial Doppler criteria. Apparent total venous volume (ATVV, venous intracranial fraction (VIF and average distance-from-vein (DFV were calculated for various vein mean diameter categories: .9 mm. Results CCSVI criteria were fulfilled in 79.7% of MS patients and 18.2% of HC (p Conclusions MS patients with higher number of venous stenoses, indicative of CCSVI severity, showed significantly decreased venous vasculature in the brain parenchyma. The pathogenesis of these findings has to be further investigated, but they suggest that reduced metabolism and morphological changes of venous vasculature may be taking place in patients with MS.

  20. Thalamic Multisensory integration: Creating a neural network map of involved brain areas in music perception, processing and execution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaschke, A.C.; Scherder, E.J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Music activates a wide array of neural areas involved in different functions besides the perception, processing and execution of music itself. Understanding musical processes in the brain has had multiple implications in the neuro- and health sciences. Engaging the brain with a multisensory stimulus

  1. Corpus Callosum Area and Brain Volume in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Quantitative Analysis of Structural MRI from the ABIDE Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharsky Hiess, R.; Alter, R.; Sojoudi, S.; Ardekani, B. A.; Kuzniecky, R.; Pardoe, H. R.

    2015-01-01

    Reduced corpus callosum area and increased brain volume are two commonly reported findings in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We investigated these two correlates in ASD and healthy controls using T1-weighted MRI scans from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE). Automated methods were used to segment the corpus callosum and intracranial…

  2. Spatial distribution and insecticide susceptibility status of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in dengue affected urban areas of Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Ali; Rathor, Hamayun Rashid; Mukhtar, Muhammad Uzair; Mushtaq, Shumaila; Bhatti, Adil; Asif, Muhammad; Arshad, Israr; Ahmad, Jam Farooq

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is one of the most common arthropod-borne viral diseases which is transmitted mainly by two vector species, Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus 1762) and Ae. albopictus (Skuse, 1894) worldwide. As there is no effective medicine and vaccine available, vector control remains the most effective measure to prevent its transmission and outbreak. The aim of the study was to confirm the co-occurrence of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus populations in the different localities of Rawalpindi, Pakistan and examine their susceptibility status against different groups of insecticides. Ovitraps were randomly placed in the study localities. The number of eggs from all the ovitraps were counted and incubated for hatching in Medical Entomology and Disease Vector Control (MEDVC) insectarium for rearing up to adult stage. The adults were then identified by using the pictorial keys. Spatial distribution and aggregation of both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus populations was determined by using Index of dispersion or variance to mean ratio and k values of the negative binomial distribution. The susceptibility status of both the species against different insecticides was assessed by using the World Health Organization (WHO) standard bioassay tests. The results showed that there was coexistence among Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus populations and the aggregation of their eggs was also observed in all the localities studied in Rawalpindi. Larval bioassays of both the populations exhibited incipient resistance against temephos while adult susceptibility testing results showed that both the species were resistant to DDT, malathion, bendiocarb and permethrin. The results suggested that all the field populations of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus existed together and showed qualitative changes in their susceptibility status. Resistance against deltamethrin and lambdacyhalothrin was not confirmed and further investigation was recommended to confirm the change in their susceptibility status. This

  3. SPECT assessment of brain activation induced by caffeine: no effect on areas involved in dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehlig, Astrid; Armspach, Jean-Paul; Namer, Izzie J.

    2010-01-01

    Caffeine is not considered addictive, and in animals it does not trigger metabolic increases or dopamine release in brain areas involved in reinforcement and reward. Our objective was to measure caffeine effects on cerebral perfusion in humans using single photon emission computed tomography, with a specific focus on areas of reinforcement and reward. Two groups of nonsmoking subjects were studied, one with a low (8 subjects) and one with a high (6 subjects) daily coffee consumption. The subjects ingested 3 mg/kg caffeine or placebo in a raspberry-tasting drink, and scans were performed 45 min after ingestion. A control group of 12 healthy volunteers receiving no drink was also studied. Caffeine consumption led to a generalized, statistically nonsignificant perfusion decrease of 6% to 8%, comparable in low and high consumers. Compared with controls, low consumers displayed neuronal activation bilaterally in inferior frontal gyrusanterior insular cortex and uncus, left internal parietal cortex, right lingual gyrus, and cerebellum. In high consumers, brain activation occurred bilaterally only in hypothalamus. Thus, on a background of widespread low-amplitude perfusion decrease, caffeine activates a few regions mainly involved in the control of vigilance, anxiety, and cardiovascular regulation, but does not affect areas involved in reinforcing and reward. PMID:20623930

  4. Group independent component analysis and functional MRI examination of changes in language areas associated with brain tumors at different locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liya; Chen, Dandan; Yang, Xiaofeng; Olson, Jeffrey J; Gopinath, Kaundinya; Fan, Tianning; Mao, Hui

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of tumor location on alterations of language network by brain tumors at different locations using blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) fMRI and group independent component analysis (ICA). BOLD fMRI data were obtained from 43 right handed brain tumor patients. Presurgical mapping of language areas was performed on all 43 patients with a picture naming task. All data were retrospectively analyzed using group ICA. Patents were divided into three groups based on tumor locations, i.e., left frontal region, left temporal region or right hemisphere. Laterality index (LI) was used to assess language lateralization in each group. The results from BOLD fMRI and ICA revealed the different language activation patterns in patients with brain tumors located in different brain regions. Language areas, such as Broca's and Wernicke's areas, were intact in patients with tumors in the right hemisphere. Significant functional changes were observed in patients with tumor in the left frontal and temporal areas. More specifically, the tumors in the left frontal region affect both Broca's and Wernicke's areas, while tumors in the left temporal lobe affect mainly Wernicke's area. The compensated activation increase was observed in the right frontal areas in patients with left hemisphere tumors. Group ICA provides a model free alternative approach for mapping functional networks in brain tumor patients. Altered language activation by different tumor locations suggested reorganization of language functions in brain tumor patients and may help better understanding of the language plasticity.

  5. Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging Improves the Diagnostic Accuracy of 3T Brain MRI in the Work-Up of Parkinsonism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, F.J.A.; Rumund, A. van; Fasen, B.A.; Titulaer, I.; Aerts, M.B.; Esselink, R.A.; Bloem, B.R.; Verbeek, M.M.; Goraj, B.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The differentiation between Parkinson disease and atypical parkinsonian syndromes can be challenging in clinical practice, especially in early disease stages. Brain MR imaging can help to increase certainty about the diagnosis. Our goal was to evaluate the added value of SWI

  6. Brain Activity Changes in Somatosensory and Emotion-Related Areas With Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadowaki, Masaru; Tadenuma, Taku; Kumahashi, Nobuyuki; Uchio, Yuji

    2017-11-01

    Patellar instability with medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) deficiency is a common sports injury among young people. Although nonoperative and surgical treatment can provide stability of the patella, patients often have anxiety related to the knee. We speculate that neural dysfunction may be related to anxiety in these patients; however, the mechanism in the brain that generates this anxiety remains unknown. (1) How does brain activity in patients with MPFL deficiency change in the areas related to somatic sensation against lateral shift of the patella? (2) How does patella instability, which can lead to continuous fear or apprehension for dislocation, influence brain activity in the areas related to emotion? Nineteen patients with MPFL deficiency underwent surgical reconstruction in our hospital from April 2012 to March 2014. Excluding seven patients with osteochondral lesions, 12 patients (five males and seven females; mean age, 20 years) with MPFL deficiency were sequentially included in this study. Eleven control subjects (four males and seven females; mean age, 23 years) were recruited from medical students who had no history of knee injury. Diagnosis of the MPFL deficiency was made with MR images, which confirmed the rupture, and by proving the instability with a custom-made biomechanical device. Brain activity during passive lateral stress to the patella was assessed by functional MRI. Functional and anatomic images were analyzed using statistical parametric mapping. Differences in functional MRI outcome measures from the detected activated brain regions between the patients with MPFL deficiency and controls were assessed using t tests. Intergroup analysis showed less activity in several sensorimotor cortical areas, including the contralateral primary somatosensory areas (% signal change for MPFL group 0.49% versus 1.1% for the control group; p < 0.001), thalamus (0.2% versus 0.41% for the MPFL versus control, respectively; p < 0.001), ipsilateral

  7. Combining Functional Neuroimaging with Off-Line Brain Stimulation: Modulation of Task-Related Activity in Language Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andoh, Jamila; Paus, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    Repetitive TMS (rTMS) provides a noninvasive tool for modulating neural activity in the human brain. In healthy participants, rTMS applied over the language-related areas in the left hemisphere, including the left posterior temporal area of Wernicke (LTMP) and inferior frontal area of Broca, have been shown to affect performance on word…

  8. Brain responses to chronic social defeat stress: effects on regional oxidative metabolism as a function of a hedonic trait, and gene expression in susceptible and resilient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanarik, Margus; Alttoa, Aet; Matrov, Denis; Kõiv, Kadri; Sharp, Trevor; Panksepp, Jaak; Harro, Jaanus

    2011-01-01

    Chronic social defeat stress, a depression model in rats, reduced struggling in the forced swimming test dependent on a hedonic trait-stressed rats with high sucrose intake struggled less. Social defeat reduced brain regional energy metabolism, and this effect was also more pronounced in rats with high sucrose intake. A number of changes in gene expression were identified after social defeat stress, most notably the down-regulation of Gsk3b and Map1b. The majority of differences were between stress-susceptible and resilient rats. Conclusively, correlates of inter-individual differences in stress resilience can be identified both at gene expression and oxidative metabolism levels. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  9. High-resolution MEG source imaging approach to accurately localize Broca's area in patients with brain tumor or epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Charles W; Huang, Ming-Xiong; Ji, Zhengwei; Swan, Ashley Robb; Angeles, Anne Marie; Song, Tao; Huang, Jeffrey W; Lee, Roland R

    2016-05-01

    Localizing expressive language function has been challenging using the conventional magnetoencephalography (MEG) source modeling methods. The present MEG study presents a new accurate and precise approach in localizing the language areas using a high-resolution MEG source imaging method. In 32 patients with brain tumors and/or epilepsies, an object-naming task was used to evoke MEG responses. Our Fast-VESTAL source imaging method was then applied to the MEG data in order to localize the brain areas evoked by the object-naming task. The Fast-VESTAL results showed that Broca's area was accurately localized to the pars opercularis (BA 44) and/or the pars triangularis (BA 45) in all patients. Fast-VESTAL also accurately localized Wernicke's area to the posterior aspect of the superior temporal gyri in BA 22, as well as several additional brain areas. Furthermore, we found that the latency of the main peak of the response in Wernicke's area was significantly earlier than that of Broca's area. In all patients, Fast-VESTAL analysis established accurate and precise localizations of Broca's area, as well as other language areas. The responses in Wernicke's area were also shown to significantly precede those of Broca's area. The present study demonstrates that using Fast-VESTAL, MEG can serve as an accurate and reliable functional imaging tool for presurgical mapping of language functions in patients with brain tumors and/or epilepsies. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Landslide Susceptibility Mapping Based on Particle Swarm Optimization of Multiple Kernel Relevance Vector Machines: Case of a Low Hill Area in Sichuan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongliang Lin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a multiple kernel relevance vector machine (RVM method based on the adaptive cloud particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm to map landslide susceptibility in the low hill area of Sichuan Province, China. In the multi-kernel structure, the kernel selection problem can be solved by adjusting the kernel weight, which determines the single kernel contribution of the final kernel mapping. The weights and parameters of the multi-kernel function were optimized using the PSO algorithm. In addition, the convergence speed of the PSO algorithm was increased using cloud theory. To ensure the stability of the prediction model, the result of a five-fold cross-validation method was used as the fitness of the PSO algorithm. To verify the results, receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC and landslide dot density (LDD were used. The results show that the model that used a heterogeneous kernel (a combination of two different kernel functions had a larger area under the ROC curve (0.7616 and a lower prediction error ratio (0.28% than did the other types of kernel models employed in this study. In addition, both the sum of two high susceptibility zone LDDs (6.71/100 km2 and the sum of two low susceptibility zone LDDs (0.82/100 km2 demonstrated that the landslide susceptibility map based on the heterogeneous kernel model was closest to the historical landslide distribution. In conclusion, the results obtained in this study can provide very useful information for disaster prevention and land-use planning in the study area.

  11. Susceptibility of Different Populations of Nilaparvata lugens from Major Rice Growing Areas of Karnataka, India to Different Groups of Insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.S. BASANTH

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Susceptibility to insecticides was investigated by collecting field populations of brown planthopper from different locations of southern Karnataka, India (Gangavati, Kathalagere, Kollegala, Soraba and Mandya. All the field populations differed in their susceptibility to insecticides. In general, Soraba and Mandya populations were more susceptible to insecticides compared to Gangavati and Kathalagere populations. The resistance ratios varied greatly among the populations viz., chlorpyriphos (1.13- to 16.82-fold, imidacloprid (0.53- to 13.50-fold, acephate (1.34- to 5.32-fold, fipronil (1.13- to 4.06-fold, thiamethoxam (1.01- to 2.19-fold, clothianidin (1.92- to 4.86-fold, dinotefuran (0.82- to 2.22-fold, buprofezin (1.06- to 5.43-fold and carbofuran (0.41- to 2.17-fold. The populations from Gangavati, Kathalagere and Kollegala exhibited higher resistance to some of the old insecticides and low resistance to new molecules.

  12. Reading a suspenseful literary text activates brain areas related to social cognition and predictive inference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Lehne

    Full Text Available Stories can elicit powerful emotions. A key emotional response to narrative plots (e.g., novels, movies, etc. is suspense. Suspense appears to build on basic aspects of human cognition such as processes of expectation, anticipation, and prediction. However, the neural processes underlying emotional experiences of suspense have not been previously investigated. We acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data while participants read a suspenseful literary text (E.T.A. Hoffmann's "The Sandman" subdivided into short text passages. Individual ratings of experienced suspense obtained after each text passage were found to be related to activation in the medial frontal cortex, bilateral frontal regions (along the inferior frontal sulcus, lateral premotor cortex, as well as posterior temporal and temporo-parietal areas. The results indicate that the emotional experience of suspense depends on brain areas associated with social cognition and predictive inference.

  13. Reading a suspenseful literary text activates brain areas related to social cognition and predictive inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehne, Moritz; Engel, Philipp; Rohrmeier, Martin; Menninghaus, Winfried; Jacobs, Arthur M; Koelsch, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Stories can elicit powerful emotions. A key emotional response to narrative plots (e.g., novels, movies, etc.) is suspense. Suspense appears to build on basic aspects of human cognition such as processes of expectation, anticipation, and prediction. However, the neural processes underlying emotional experiences of suspense have not been previously investigated. We acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data while participants read a suspenseful literary text (E.T.A. Hoffmann's "The Sandman") subdivided into short text passages. Individual ratings of experienced suspense obtained after each text passage were found to be related to activation in the medial frontal cortex, bilateral frontal regions (along the inferior frontal sulcus), lateral premotor cortex, as well as posterior temporal and temporo-parietal areas. The results indicate that the emotional experience of suspense depends on brain areas associated with social cognition and predictive inference.

  14. [Progress of clinical application of functional MRI in the localization of brain language area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Lu, Junfeng; Wu, Jinsong

    2016-02-01

    For surgical operation in the functional area in the brain, it's commonly demanded to resect the lesion to the maximal extent on the basis of preserve the normal neural function, thus the precise localization of functional area is extremely important. As for the advantages of being widely available, easy to grasp and non-invasive, the functional MRI (fMRI) has come into wide use, while the application of language fMRI is still in the initial stage. It's important to choose appropriate fMRI task according to the individual condition of the subject, the commonly-adopted tasks include verb generation, picture naming, word recognition, word generation, etc. However, the effectiveness of using fMRI to localize language area is not totally satisfactory, adopting multiple task is an effective approach to improve the sensitivity of this technique. The application of resting state fMRI in the localization of language area and the further research of the role of fMRI in localizing the Chinese language area are the important future directions.

  15. Investigating the changes in Inhibitory Neurons following two different models of Traumatic Brain Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Carron, Simone Francina

    2017-01-01

    Different forms of Traumatic brain injury (TBI) disrupt brain excitation/inhibition balance. This thesis examined changes in brain inhibition following two different types of brain injury and its consequences on behaviour. A key finding of this thesis is that particular forms of inhibition are altered after trauma confirming that susceptibility of brain inhibitory cells to trauma is brain area specific, injury type and time dependent. These findings have important implicatio...

  16. Landslide susceptibility modeling in a landslide prone area in Mazandarn Province, north of Iran: a comparison between GLM, GAM, MARS, and M-AHP methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourghasemi, Hamid Reza; Rossi, Mauro

    2017-10-01

    Landslides are identified as one of the most important natural hazards in many areas throughout the world. The essential purpose of this study is to compare general linear model (GLM), general additive model (GAM), multivariate adaptive regression spline (MARS), and modified analytical hierarchy process (M-AHP) models and assessment of their performances for landslide susceptibility modeling in the west of Mazandaran Province, Iran. First, landslides were identified by interpreting aerial photographs, and extensive field works. In total, 153 landslides were identified in the study area. Among these, 105 landslides were randomly selected as training data (i.e. used in the models training) and the remaining 48 (30 %) cases were used for the validation (i.e. used in the models validation). Afterward, based on a deep literature review on 220 scientific papers (period between 2005 and 2012), eleven conditioning factors including lithology, land use, distance from rivers, distance from roads, distance from faults, slope angle, slope aspect, altitude, topographic wetness index (TWI), plan curvature, and profile curvature were selected. The Certainty Factor (CF) model was used for managing uncertainty in rule-based systems and evaluation of the correlation between the dependent (landslides) and independent variables. Finally, the landslide susceptibility zonation was produced using GLM, GAM, MARS, and M-AHP models. For evaluation of the models, the area under the curve (AUC) method was used and both success and prediction rate curves were calculated. The evaluation of models for GLM, GAM, and MARS showed 90.50, 88.90, and 82.10 % for training data and 77.52, 70.49, and 78.17 % for validation data, respectively. Furthermore, The AUC value of the produced landslide susceptibility map using M-AHP showed a training value of 77.82 % and validation value of 82.77 % accuracy. Based on the overall assessments, the proposed approaches showed reasonable results for landslide

  17. Inflammation decreases the level of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain mitochondria and makes them more susceptible to apoptosis induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykhmus, Olena; Gergalova, Galyna; Zouridakis, Marios; Tzartos, Socrates; Komisarenko, Sergiy; Skok, Maryna

    2015-11-01

    α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7 nAChRs) are involved in regulating inflammatory reactions, as well as the cell viability. They are expressed in both the plasma membrane and mitochondria of eukaryotic cells. Previously we found that neuroinflammation resulted in the decrease of α7 nAChR density in the brain of mice and was accompanied by accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides and memory impairment. In the present paper, it is shown that inflammation induced by either regular bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injections or immunizations with α7 nAChR extracellular domain (1-208) affected also the brain cell mitochondria. Using various modifications of sandwich ELISA, we observed the decrease of α7 nAChRs and accumulation of Aβ(1-40) and Aβ(1-42) in mitochondria of immunized or LPS-treated mice compared to control ones. Mitochondria of treated mice responded with cytochrome c release to lower Ca(2+) concentrations than mitochondria of control mice and were less sensitive to its attenuation with α7 nAChR agonist PNU282987. It is concluded that inflammation decreases α7 nAChR expression in both mitochondria and cell plasma membrane and makes mitochondria more susceptible to apoptosis induction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Dorsal and ventral working memory-related brain areas support distinct processes in contextual cueing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manginelli, Angela A; Baumgartner, Florian; Pollmann, Stefan

    2013-02-15

    Behavioral evidence suggests that the use of implicitly learned spatial contexts for improved visual search may depend on visual working memory resources. Working memory may be involved in contextual cueing in different ways: (1) for keeping implicitly learned working memory contents available during search or (2) for the capture of attention by contexts retrieved from memory. We mapped brain areas that were modulated by working memory capacity. Within these areas, activation was modulated by contextual cueing along the descending segment of the intraparietal sulcus, an area that has previously been related to maintenance of explicit memories. Increased activation for learned displays, but not modulated by the size of contextual cueing, was observed in the temporo-parietal junction area, previously associated with the capture of attention by explicitly retrieved memory items, and in the ventral visual cortex. This pattern of activation extends previous research on dorsal versus ventral stream functions in memory guidance of attention to the realm of attentional guidance by implicit memory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Soil magnetic susceptibility and contamination of soils from kindergartens areas by potentially toxic elements in Bratislava (Slovakia)

    OpenAIRE

    Ondrej Ďurža; Edgar Hiller; Lucia Lachká; Roman Tóth

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to verify the utilization of magnetic susceptibility measurements for the determination of contamination by potentially toxic elements (PTEs) of urban soils in kindergartens in the capital city of Slovakia, Bratislava, and to determine the concentrations of selected PTEs like As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn in the soils. The results showed that the urban soils were contaminated mainly by Pb, Zn, Hg, and Cu with the concentrations between 11–183 mg·kg-1, 33–551 mg·kg-1, 0...

  20. Mapping flood and flooding potential indices: a methodological approach to identifying areas susceptible to flood and flooding risk. Case study: the Prahova catchment (Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharia, Liliana; Costache, Romulus; Prăvălie, Remus; Ioana-Toroimac, Gabriela

    2017-04-01

    Given that floods continue to cause yearly significant worldwide human and material damages, flood risk mitigation is a key issue and a permanent challenge in developing policies and strategies at various spatial scales. Therefore, a basic phase is elaborating hazard and flood risk maps, documents which are an essential support for flood risk management. The aim of this paper is to develop an approach that allows for the identification of flash-flood and flood-prone susceptible areas based on computing and mapping of two indices: FFPI (Flash-Flood Potential Index) and FPI (Flooding Potential Index). These indices are obtained by integrating in a GIS environment several geographical variables which control runoff (in the case of the FFPI) and favour flooding (in the case of the FPI). The methodology was applied in the upper (mountainous) and middle (hilly) catchment of the Prahova River, a densely populated and socioeconomically well-developed area which has been affected repeatedly by water-related hazards over the past decades. The resulting maps showing the spatialization of the FFPI and FPI allow for the identification of areas with high susceptibility to flashfloods and flooding. This approach can provide useful mapped information, especially for areas (generally large) where there are no flood/hazard risk maps. Moreover, the FFPI and FPI maps can constitute a preliminary step for flood risk and vulnerability assessment.

  1. Seizure susceptibility and the brain regional sensitivity to oxidative stress in male and female rats in the lithium-pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peternel, Sandra; Pilipović, Kristina; Zupan, Gordana

    2009-04-30

    Several studies have shown the existence of sex differences in the sensitivity to various convulsants in animals and to the development of some epilepsy types in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there are sex differences in seizure susceptibility and sensitivity of different brain regions to oxidative stress in rats with status epilepticus (SE) induced by lithium-pilocarpine administration, that provides a common experimental model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) in humans. Latencies to isolated full limbic seizures or SE onset as well as the number of the animals presenting full limbic seizures, SE or full limbic seizures that progressed to SE were recorded for 2 h after pilocarpine administration. Number of animals which survived 24 h after SE onset was also monitored. Levels of lipid peroxidation as well as the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities in the piriform and entorhinal cortices, temporal neocortex, thalamus, and hippocampus in rats of both sexes, at 24 h after SE onset were determined. Results of our study showed that males developed full limbic seizures and SE more rapidly and in greater number than females. Levels of lipid peroxidation in all brain regions examined, the SOD activities in the piriform and entorhinal cortices, and temporal neocortex as well as the GSH-Px activities in the piriform and entorhinal cortices, and thalamus were significantly higher in rats with SE in comparison to the values of mentioned biochemical parameters in rats of the control groups. Lipid peroxidation level in the temporal neocortex as well as the GSH-Px activity in the hippocampus in male rats were significantly higher in comparison to the values registered in females. With the exception of the thalamus, where SOD activity in male rats with SE was significantly higher in relation to the respective control group and also to females with SE, sex differences in the response of other brain regions

  2. Defining functional areas in individual human brains using resting functional connectivity MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alexander L; Fair, Damien A; Dosenbach, Nico U F; Miezin, Francis M; Dierker, Donna; Van Essen, David C; Schlaggar, Bradley L; Petersen, Steven E

    2008-05-15

    The cerebral cortex is anatomically organized at many physical scales starting at the level of single neurons and extending up to functional systems. Current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies often focus at the level of areas, networks, and systems. Except in restricted domains, (e.g., topographically-organized sensory regions), it is difficult to determine area boundaries in the human brain using fMRI. The ability to delineate functional areas non-invasively would enhance the quality of many experimental analyses allowing more accurate across-subject comparisons of independently identified functional areas. Correlations in spontaneous BOLD activity, often referred to as resting state functional connectivity (rs-fcMRI), are especially promising as a way to accurately localize differences in patterns of activity across large expanses of cortex. In the current report, we applied a novel set of image analysis tools to explore the utility of rs-fcMRI for defining wide-ranging functional area boundaries. We find that rs-fcMRI patterns show sharp transitions in correlation patterns and that these putative areal boundaries can be reliably detected in individual subjects as well as in group data. Additionally, combining surface-based analysis techniques with image processing algorithms allows automated mapping of putative areal boundaries across large expanses of cortex without the need for prior information about a region's function or topography. Our approach reliably produces maps of bounded regions appropriate in size and number for putative functional areas. These findings will hopefully stimulate further methodological refinements and validations.

  3. Gut Taste Stimulants Alter Brain Activity in Areas Related to Working Memory: a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Gerspach, Anne Christin; Suenderhauf, Claudia; Bereiter, Lukas; Zanchi, Davide; Beglinger, Christoph; Borgwardt, Stefan; Wölnerhanssen, Bettina K

    2016-07-27

    Taste perception is one of the most important primary oral reinforcers, driving nutrient and energy intake as well as toxin avoidance. Taste receptors in the gastrointestinal tract might as well impact appetitive or aversive behavior and thus influence learning tasks and a close relation of neural taste processing and working memory networks seems plausible. In the present pilot study, we determined the effects of five taste qualities "bitter" (quinine), "sweet" (glucose), "sour" (citric acid), "salty" (NaCl) and "umami" (monosodium glutamate, MSG) on working memory processing using functional MRI and their effect on plasma insulin and glucose levels. On six separate occasions, subjects received one of the following test substances dissolved in 200 mL tap water via a nasogastric tube (to circumvent the oral cavity): 1) 2g citric acid corresponding to 52 mM, 2) 2g NaCl; 171 mM, 3) 0.017g quinine; 0.26 mM, 4) 1g monosodium glutamate; 30 mM, 5) 25g glucose; 694 mM and 6) 200 mL tap water (placebo). The taste qualities "bitter" and "umami" significantly altered brain activation patterns in the primary gustatory cortex as well as in subcortical structures, previously reported to be involved in emotional learning and memory. In contrast, glucose did not reveal any statistically significant brain activation difference. Working memory performance was not different over the six treatments. Plasma insulin and glucose levels were not affected by the different taste substances (MSG, quinine, NaCl and citric acid). in this pilot trial, we demonstrate that acute intragastric administration of different taste substances does not affect working memory performance in humans. However, "umami" and "bitter" have effects on brain areas involved in neural working memory, overpowering the effects of "sweet", "salty" and "sour" reception. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Using geographical information systems mapping to identify areas presenting high risk for traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colantonio Angela

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to show how geographical information systems (GIS can be used to track and compare hospitalization rates for traumatic brain injury (TBI over time and across a large geographical area using population based data. Results & Discussion Data on TBI hospitalizations, and geographic and demographic variables, came from the Ontario Trauma Registry Minimum Data Set for the fiscal years 1993-1994 and 2001-2002. Various visualization techniques, exploratory data analysis and spatial analysis were employed to map and analyze these data. Both the raw and standardized rates by age/gender of the geographical unit were studied. Data analyses revealed persistent high rates of hospitalization for TBI resulting from any injury mechanism between two time periods in specific geographic locations. Conclusions This study shows how geographic information systems can be successfully used to investigate hospitalizaton rates for traumatic brain injury using a range of tools and techniques; findings can be used for local planning of both injury prevention and post discharge services, including rehabilitation.

  5. Cooperation in mind: Motor imagery of joint and single actions is represented in different brain areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wriessnegger, S C; Steyrl, D; Koschutnig, K; Müller-Putz, G R

    2016-11-01

    In this study brain activity during motor imagery (MI) of joint actions, compared to single actions and rest conditions, was investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first neuroimaging study which directly investigated the neural correlates of joint action motor imagery. Twenty-one healthy participants imagined three different motor tasks (dancing, carrying a box, wiping). Each imagery task was performed at two kinds: alone (single action MI) or with a partner (joint action MI). We hypothesized that to imagine a cooperative task would lead to a stronger cortical activation in motor related areas due to a higher vividness and intensification of the imagery. This would be elicited by the integration of the action simulation of the virtual partner to one's own action. Comparing the joint action and the single action condition with the rest condition, we found significant activation in the precentral gyrus and precuneus respectively. Furthermore the joint action MI showed higher activation patterns in the premotor cortex (inferior and middle frontal gyrus) compared to the single action MI. The imagery of a more vivid and engaging task, like our joint action imagery, could improve rehabilitation processes since a more distributed brain activity is found. Furthermore, the joint action imagery compared to single action imagery might be an appropriate BCI task due to its clear spatial distinction of activation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Organochlorine Pesticides in Gonad, Brain, and Blood of Mice in Two Agricultural Areas of Sinaloa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Gonzalez, Ernestina; Osuna-Martinez, Ulises-Giovanni; Herrera-Moreno, Maria-Nancy; Rodriguez-Meza, Guadalupe-Durga; Gonzalez-Ocampo, Hector-A; Bucio-Pacheco, Marcos

    2017-04-01

    The adverse effect of pesticides on non-target wildlife and human health is a primary concern in the world, but in Mexico, we do not know which wildlife species are at the greatest risk. The aim of this study was to determine organochlorine pesticides in mice of two agricultural fields in Sinaloa, Culiacan and Guasave. Procedures of extraction, analysis, and quantification were followed according to the modified EPA 8081b method. In three mouse tissues (gonad, brain, and blood), γBHC and decachlorobiphenyl with a frequency higher than 50% and endosulfan sulfate with 43% were observed. The wildlife fauna living in agricultural areas are at great risk due to: (1) diversity of the chemicals used for pest control, like mice, and (2) variety of organochlorine pesticides in direct or indirect contact with non-target organisms, affecting the health of animals and humans (toxic effects and accumulation).

  7. Alzheimer's disease susceptibility genes APOE and TOMM40, and brain white matter integrity in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyall, Donald M; Harris, Sarah E; Bastin, Mark E; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Murray, Catherine; Lutz, Michael W; Saunders, Ann M; Roses, Allen D; Valdés Hernández, Maria del C; Royle, Natalie A; Starr, John M; Porteous, David J; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Deary, Ian J

    2014-06-01

    Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε genotype has previously been significantly associated with cognitive, brain imaging, and Alzheimer's disease-related phenotypes (e.g., age of onset). In the TOMM40 gene, the rs10524523 ("523") variable length poly-T repeat polymorphism has more recently been associated with similar ph/enotypes, although the allelic directions of these associations have varied between initial reports. Using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging tractography, the present study aimed to investigate whether there are independent effects of apolipoprotein E (APOE) and TOMM40 genotypes on human brain white matter integrity in a community-dwelling sample of older adults, the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (mean age = 72.70 years, standard deviation = 0.74, N approximately = 640-650; for most analyses). Some nominally significant effects were observed (i.e., covariate-adjusted differences between genotype groups at p white matter integrity. In all 4 of these tractography measures, carriers of the TOMM40 523 "short" allele showed lower white matter integrity when compared with carriers of the "long" and "very-long" alleles. Most of these effects survived correction for childhood intelligence test scores and vascular disease history, though only the effect of TOMM40 523 on the left ventral cingulum integrity survived correction for false discovery rate. The effects of APOE in this older population are more specific and restricted compared with those reported in previous studies, and the effects of TOMM40 on white matter integrity appear to be novel, although replication is required in large independent samples. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Brain response to a humanoid robot in areas implicated in the perception of human emotional gestures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaminade, Thierry; Zecca, Massimiliano; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Takanishi, Atsuo; Frith, Chris D; Micera, Silvestro; Dario, Paolo; Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Gallese, Vittorio; Umiltà, Maria Alessandra

    2010-07-21

    The humanoid robot WE4-RII was designed to express human emotions in order to improve human-robot interaction. We can read the emotions depicted in its gestures, yet might utilize different neural processes than those used for reading the emotions in human agents. Here, fMRI was used to assess how brain areas activated by the perception of human basic emotions (facial expression of Anger, Joy, Disgust) and silent speech respond to a humanoid robot impersonating the same emotions, while participants were instructed to attend either to the emotion or to the motion depicted. Increased responses to robot compared to human stimuli in the occipital and posterior temporal cortices suggest additional visual processing when perceiving a mechanical anthropomorphic agent. In contrast, activity in cortical areas endowed with mirror properties, like left Broca's area for the perception of speech, and in the processing of emotions like the left anterior insula for the perception of disgust and the orbitofrontal cortex for the perception of anger, is reduced for robot stimuli, suggesting lesser resonance with the mechanical agent. Finally, instructions to explicitly attend to the emotion significantly increased response to robot, but not human facial expressions in the anterior part of the left inferior frontal gyrus, a neural marker of motor resonance. Motor resonance towards a humanoid robot, but not a human, display of facial emotion is increased when attention is directed towards judging emotions. Artificial agents can be used to assess how factors like anthropomorphism affect neural response to the perception of human actions.

  9. Neural Processing of Calories in Brain Reward Areas Can be Modulated by Reward Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Inge; Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M

    2015-01-01

    A food's reward value is dependent on its caloric content. Furthermore, a food's acute reward value also depends on hunger state. The drive to obtain rewards (reward sensitivity), however, differs between individuals. Here, we assessed the association between brain responses to calories in the mouth and trait reward sensitivity in different hunger states. Firstly, we assessed this in data from a functional neuroimaging study (van Rijn et al., 2015), in which participants (n = 30) tasted simple solutions of a non-caloric sweetener with or without a non-sweet carbohydrate (maltodextrin) during hunger and satiety. Secondly, we expanded these analyses to regular drinks by assessing the same relationship in data from a study in which soft drinks sweetened with either sucrose or a non-caloric sweetener were administered during hunger (n = 18) (Griffioen-Roose et al., 2013). First, taste activation by the non-caloric solution/soft drink was subtracted from that by the caloric solution/soft drink to eliminate sweetness effects and retain activation induced by calories. Subsequently, this difference in taste activation was correlated with reward sensitivity as measured with the BAS drive subscale of the Behavioral Activation System (BAS) questionnaire. When participants were hungry and tasted calories from the simple solution, brain activation in the right ventral striatum (caudate), right amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex (bilaterally) correlated negatively with BAS drive scores. In contrast, when participants were satiated, taste responses correlated positively with BAS drive scores in the left caudate. These results were not replicated for soft drinks. Thus, neural responses to oral calories from maltodextrin were modulated by reward sensitivity in reward-related brain areas. This was not the case for sucrose. This may be due to the direct detection of maltodextrin, but not sucrose in the oral cavity. Also, in a familiar beverage, detection of calories per se may be

  10. Susceptibility of Cultivated Plants to Sumatran Elephant (Elephas maxi,us sumatranus in The Human Elephants Conflict Area in Aceh Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaniwa Berliani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Study on human-elephant conflict was conducted in Aceh Province in August 2013-April 2014 to assess susceptibility of farms by crop raiding elephants. The locations were determined by selected areas impacted by elephant conflict incuding Cot Girek, Mane, Meureudu, Sampoiniet, and Pantai Ceureumen. 150 respondents was interviewed to assess the variety of the commodity plants species cultivated by local community within study areas, species of damaged commodity plants, species of undamaged commodity plants, and the planting system. there were 29 species considered as commodity plants cultivated by farmers. Moreover, 5 commodity plants were considered as high risk plants damaged by elephant including areca, banana, oil palm, paddy, and rubber. on the other hand, species considered as low risk or undamaged consist of cacao, coffee, chili, candlenut, and patchioli. Those low risk or undemaged commodity plants species have a potential to be promoted as elephant-friendly crop commodities in area adjacent to elephant habitat based on the analysis and the categorization of susceptibility of cultivated plants against crop raiding elephant. One of the problem of humn-elephant conflict is crop raiding of village farms. it is a assumed that elephants might destroy a particular species therefore information on the species could assist farmers in selecting appropriate crop to be planted. there is a risk that current polyculture and monoculture planting system used by farmers will not prevent farms from crop raiding elephants.

  11. A split microdrive for simultaneous multi-electrode recordings from two brain areas in awake small animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansink, Carien S; Bakker, Mattijs; Buster, Wietze; Lankelma, Jan; van der Blom, Ruud; Westdorp, Rinus; Joosten, Ruud N J M A; McNaughton, Bruce L; Pennartz, Cyriel M A

    2007-05-15

    Complex cognitive operations such as memory formation and decision-making are thought to be mediated not by single, isolated brain structures but by multiple, connected brain areas. To facilitate studies on the neural communication between connected brain structures, we developed a multi-electrode microdrive for chronically recording ensembles of neurons in two different brain areas simultaneously. The "split drive" contains 14 independently movable microdrivers that were designed to hold tetrodes and to permit day-to-day adjustment of dorsoventral position in the brain. The limited weight of the drive allowed rats to adjust well to the headstage after recovering from surgery and permitted stable recording sessions across at least several weeks. In addition to describing the design and assembly of the split drive, we also discuss some important individual parts of microdrives used for tetrode recordings in general. Furthermore, the split drive was applied to two widely separated and connected brain structures, the hippocampus and ventral striatum. From these two areas, stable ensemble recordings were conducted in rats performing a reward-searching task on a triangular track, yielding group sizes of about 15 and 25 units in the dorsal hippocampus and ventral striatum, respectively.

  12. Neuroanatomic Differences Associated With Stress Susceptibility and Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacker, Christoph; Scholz, Jan; O'Donnell, Kieran J; Allemang-Grand, Rylan; Diorio, Josie; Bagot, Rosemary C; Nestler, Eric J; Hen, René; Lerch, Jason P; Meaney, Michael J

    2016-05-15

    We examined the neurobiological mechanisms underlying stress susceptibility using structural magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging to determine neuroanatomic differences between stress-susceptible and resilient mice. We also examined synchronized anatomic differences between brain regions to gain insight into the plasticity of neural networks underlying stress susceptibility. C57BL/6 mice underwent 10 days of social defeat stress and were subsequently tested for social avoidance. For magnetic resonance imaging, brains of stressed (susceptible, n = 11; resilient, n = 8) and control (n = 12) mice were imaged ex vivo at 56 µm resolution using a T2-weighted sequence. We tested for behavior-structure correlations by regressing social avoidance z-scores against local brain volume. For diffusion tensor imaging, brains were scanned with a diffusion-weighted fast spin echo sequence at 78 μm isotropic voxels. Structural covariance was assessed by correlating local volume between brain regions. Social avoidance correlated negatively with local volume of the cingulate cortex, nucleus accumbens, thalamus, raphe nuclei, and bed nucleus of the stria terminals. Social avoidance correlated positively with volume of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), habenula, periaqueductal gray, cerebellum, hypothalamus, and hippocampal CA3. Fractional anisotropy was increased in the hypothalamus and hippocampal CA3. We observed synchronized anatomic differences between the VTA and cingulate cortex, hippocampus and VTA, hippocampus and cingulate cortex, and hippocampus and hypothalamus. These correlations revealed different structural covariance between brain regions in susceptible and resilient mice. Stress-integrative brain regions shape the neural architecture underlying individual differences in susceptibility and resilience to chronic stress. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Functional brain areas associated with manipulation of a prehensile tool: a PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Hayato; Aoki, Tomoko; Oku, Naohiko; Kimura, Yasuyuki; Hatazawa, Jun; Kinoshita, Hiroshi

    2009-09-01

    Using PET, brain areas representing the use of a well-learned tool (chopsticks) were investigated in 10 normal common users. The experimental task was to hold the tool in their right hand and use it to pick up and transport a small pin from a table. Data for the same task performed using only the fingers were also obtained as a control. The results showed an extensive overlap in activated areas with and without the use of the tool. The tool-use prehension, compared to the finger prehension, was associated with higher activities in the caudal-ventral premotor, dorsal premotor, superior parietal, posterior intraparietal, middle temporal gyrus, and primary sensory, occipital cortices, and the cerebellum. These are thus considered to be the human cortical and subcortical substrates representing the use of the tool studied. The activity of the posterior intraparietal area was negatively correlated with the number of drops of the pin, whereas occipital activity was positively correlated with the same error parameter. The caudal-ventral premotor and posterior intraparietal areas are together known to be involved in tool use-related modulation in peripersonal space. The correlation results suggest that this modulation depends on the level of performance. The coactivated left middle temporal gyrus further suggests that familiarity with a tool as well as the knowledge about its usage plays a role in peripersonal space modulation. Superior parietal activation, along with occipital activation, indicates the involvement of visual-spatial attention in the tool use, possibly reflecting the effect of interaction between the prehension (task) and the tool. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Abnormal functional lateralization and activity of language brain areas in typical specific language impairment (developmental dysphasia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Guibert, Clément; Maumet, Camille; Jannin, Pierre; Ferré, Jean-Christophe; Tréguier, Catherine; Barillot, Christian; Le Rumeur, Elisabeth; Allaire, Catherine; Biraben, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Atypical functional lateralization and specialization for language have been proposed to account for developmental language disorders, yet results from functional neuroimaging studies are sparse and inconsistent. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study compared children with a specific subtype of specific language impairment affecting structural language (n=21), to a matched group of typically-developing children using a panel of four language tasks neither requiring reading nor metalinguistic skills, including two auditory lexico-semantic tasks (category fluency and responsive naming) and two visual phonological tasks based on picture naming. Data processing involved normalizing the data with respect to a matched pairs pediatric template, groups and between-groups analysis, and laterality indexes assessment within regions of interest using single and combined task analysis. Children with specific language impairment exhibited a significant lack of left lateralization in all core language regions (inferior frontal gyrus-opercularis, inferior frontal gyrus-triangularis, supramarginal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus), across single or combined task analysis, but no difference of lateralization for the rest of the brain. Between-group comparisons revealed a left hypoactivation of Wernicke’s area at the posterior superior temporal/supramarginal junction during the responsive naming task, and a right hyperactivation encompassing the anterior insula with adjacent inferior frontal gyrus and the head of the caudate nucleus during the first phonological task. This study thus provides evidence that this specific subtype of specific language impairment is associated with atypical lateralization and functioning of core language areas. PMID:21719430

  15. [Monoamine oxidase activity in rat pineal gland: comparison with brain areas, alteration during aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razygraev, A V; Taborskaya, K I; Volovik, K Yu; Bunina, A A; Petrosyan, M A

    Using benzylamine as a substrate, the amine oxidase activity was determined in the pineal gland of adult rats and compared with the same activity in brain areas and pituitary. Two groups of rats aged 6-8 and 14-15 months were also compared on the basis of this activity. Benzylamine deaminating activity in the pineal gland was significantly higher than in the area preoptica medialis, the corpus mamillare, the tuberculum olfactorium, and the hypophysis, and lower than in the eminentia mediana. The significant increase of the activity in the pineal gland in animals of age from 6-8 to 14-15-months was revealed. Benzylamine deaminating activity in the pineal gland was totally inhibited by 0,002 mM R deprenyl, indicating the B type monoamine oxidase (MAO B) activity. Age-associated increase of MAO B activity in the pineal gland accompanied by decrease of glutathione peroxidase activity, reported earlier, can promote the oxidative damage in the pineal gland during aging.

  16. Abnormal functional lateralization and activity of language brain areas in typical specific language impairment (developmental dysphasia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guibert, Clément; Maumet, Camille; Jannin, Pierre; Ferré, Jean-Christophe; Tréguier, Catherine; Barillot, Christian; Le Rumeur, Elisabeth; Allaire, Catherine; Biraben, Arnaud

    2011-10-01

    Atypical functional lateralization and specialization for language have been proposed to account for developmental language disorders, yet results from functional neuroimaging studies are sparse and inconsistent. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study compared children with a specific subtype of specific language impairment affecting structural language (n = 21), to a matched group of typically developing children using a panel of four language tasks neither requiring reading nor metalinguistic skills, including two auditory lexico-semantic tasks (category fluency and responsive naming) and two visual phonological tasks based on picture naming. Data processing involved normalizing the data with respect to a matched pairs paediatric template, groups and between-groups analysis, and laterality indices assessment within regions of interest using single and combined task analysis. Children with specific language impairment exhibited a significant lack of left lateralization in all core language regions (inferior frontal gyrus-opercularis, inferior frontal gyrus-triangularis, supramarginal gyrus and superior temporal gyrus), across single or combined task analysis, but no difference of lateralization for the rest of the brain. Between-group comparisons revealed a left hypoactivation of Wernicke's area at the posterior superior temporal/supramarginal junction during the responsive naming task, and a right hyperactivation encompassing the anterior insula with adjacent inferior frontal gyrus and the head of the caudate nucleus during the first phonological task. This study thus provides evidence that this subtype of specific language impairment is associated with atypical lateralization and functioning of core language areas.

  17. Antibiotic susceptibility profile of bacteria isolated from natural sources of water from rural areas of East Sikkim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubra Poonia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contamination of water, food, and environment with antibiotic-resistant bacteria poses a serious public health issue. Objective: The objective was to study the bacterial pollution of the natural sources of water in east Sikkim and to determine the antimicrobial profile of the bacterial isolates. Materials and Methods: A total of 225 samples, 75 each during winter, summer, and monsoon season were collected from the same source in every season for bacteriological analysis by membrane filtration method. Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed using standard disc diffusion method. Results: A total of 19 bacterial species of the genera Escherichia, Klebsiella, Proteus, Salmonella, Shigella, Enterobacter, Citrobacter, Morganella, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Flavobacterium, and Serratia were isolated and their antimicrobial sensitivity tested. Generally, most bacterial isolates except Salmonella and Shigella species were found resistant to commonly used antibiotics such as ampicillin (57.5%, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxaole (39.1%, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (37.4%, cefixime (34.5%, tetracycline (29.1%, ceftazidime (26.3%, ofloxacin (25.9%, amikacin (8.7%, and gentamicin (2.7% but sensitive to imipenem and piperacillin/tazobactam. Conclusion: Natural sources of water in east Sikkim are grossly contaminated with bacteria including enteropathogens. The consumption of untreated water from these sources might pose health risk to consumers.

  18. Gut Taste Stimulants Alter Brain Activity in Areas Related to Working Memory: a Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Christin Meyer-Gerspach

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Taste perception is one of the most important primary oral reinforcers, driving nutrient and energy intake as well as toxin avoidance. Taste receptors in the gastrointestinal tract might as well impact appetitive or aversive behavior and thus influence learning tasks and a close relation of neural taste processing and working memory networks seems plausible. Methods: In the present pilot study, we determined the effects of five taste qualities “bitter” (quinine, “sweet” (glucose, “sour” (citric acid, “salty” (NaCl and “umami” (monosodium glutamate, MSG on working memory processing using functional MRI and their effect on plasma insulin and glucose levels. On six separate occasions, subjects received one of the following test substances dissolved in 200 mL tap water via a nasogastric tube (to circumvent the oral cavity: 1 2g citric acid corresponding to 52 mM, 2 2g NaCl; 171 mM, 3 0.017g quinine; 0.26 mM, 4 1g monosodium glutamate; 30 mM, 5 25g glucose; 694 mM and 6 200 mL tap water (placebo. Results: The taste qualities “bitter” and “umami” significantly altered brain activation patterns in the primary gustatory cortex as well as in subcortical structures, previously reported to be involved in emotional learning and memory. In contrast, glucose did not reveal any statistically significant brain activation difference. Working memory performance was not different over the six treatments. Plasma insulin and glucose levels were not affected by the different taste substances (MSG, quinine, NaCl and citric acid. Conclusions: in this pilot trial, we demonstrate that acute intragastric administration of different taste substances does not affect working memory performance in humans. However, “umami” and “bitter” have effects on brain areas involved in neural working memory, overpowering the effects of “sweet”, “salty” and “sour” reception.

  19. Brain Response to a Humanoid Robot in Areas Implicated in the Perception of Human Emotional Gestures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaminade, Thierry; Zecca, Massimiliano; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Takanishi, Atsuo; Frith, Chris D.; Micera, Silvestro; Dario, Paolo; Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Gallese, Vittorio; Umiltà, Maria Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    Background The humanoid robot WE4-RII was designed to express human emotions in order to improve human-robot interaction. We can read the emotions depicted in its gestures, yet might utilize different neural processes than those used for reading the emotions in human agents. Methodology Here, fMRI was used to assess how brain areas activated by the perception of human basic emotions (facial expression of Anger, Joy, Disgust) and silent speech respond to a humanoid robot impersonating the same emotions, while participants were instructed to attend either to the emotion or to the motion depicted. Principal Findings Increased responses to robot compared to human stimuli in the occipital and posterior temporal cortices suggest additional visual processing when perceiving a mechanical anthropomorphic agent. In contrast, activity in cortical areas endowed with mirror properties, like left Broca's area for the perception of speech, and in the processing of emotions like the left anterior insula for the perception of disgust and the orbitofrontal cortex for the perception of anger, is reduced for robot stimuli, suggesting lesser resonance with the mechanical agent. Finally, instructions to explicitly attend to the emotion significantly increased response to robot, but not human facial expressions in the anterior part of the left inferior frontal gyrus, a neural marker of motor resonance. Conclusions Motor resonance towards a humanoid robot, but not a human, display of facial emotion is increased when attention is directed towards judging emotions. Significance Artificial agents can be used to assess how factors like anthropomorphism affect neural response to the perception of human actions. PMID:20657777

  20. Brain response to a humanoid robot in areas implicated in the perception of human emotional gestures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Chaminade

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The humanoid robot WE4-RII was designed to express human emotions in order to improve human-robot interaction. We can read the emotions depicted in its gestures, yet might utilize different neural processes than those used for reading the emotions in human agents.Here, fMRI was used to assess how brain areas activated by the perception of human basic emotions (facial expression of Anger, Joy, Disgust and silent speech respond to a humanoid robot impersonating the same emotions, while participants were instructed to attend either to the emotion or to the motion depicted.Increased responses to robot compared to human stimuli in the occipital and posterior temporal cortices suggest additional visual processing when perceiving a mechanical anthropomorphic agent. In contrast, activity in cortical areas endowed with mirror properties, like left Broca's area for the perception of speech, and in the processing of emotions like the left anterior insula for the perception of disgust and the orbitofrontal cortex for the perception of anger, is reduced for robot stimuli, suggesting lesser resonance with the mechanical agent. Finally, instructions to explicitly attend to the emotion significantly increased response to robot, but not human facial expressions in the anterior part of the left inferior frontal gyrus, a neural marker of motor resonance.Motor resonance towards a humanoid robot, but not a human, display of facial emotion is increased when attention is directed towards judging emotions.Artificial agents can be used to assess how factors like anthropomorphism affect neural response to the perception of human actions.

  1. TRPM2, a Susceptibility Gene for Bipolar Disorder, Regulates Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 Activity in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yongwoo; Lee, Sung Hoon; Lee, Byeongjun; Jung, Seungmoon; Khalid, Arshi; Uchida, Kunitoshi; Tominaga, Makoto; Jeon, Daejong; Oh, Uhtaek

    2015-08-26

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a psychiatric disease that causes mood swings between manic and depressed states. Although genetic linkage studies have shown an association between BD and TRPM2, a Ca(2+)-permeable cation channel, the nature of this association is unknown. Here, we show that D543E, a mutation of Trpm2 that is frequently found in BD patients, induces loss of function. Trpm2-deficient mice exhibited BD-related behavior such as increased anxiety and decreased social responses, along with disrupted EEG functional connectivity. Moreover, the administration of amphetamine in wild-type mice evoked a notable increase in open-field activity that was reversed by the administration of lithium. However, the anti-manic action of lithium was not observed in the Trpm2(-/-) mice. The brains of Trpm2(-/-) mice showed a marked increase in phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), a key element in BD-like behavior and a target of lithium. In contrast, activation of TRPM2 induced the dephosphorylation of GSK-3 via calcineurin, a Ca(2+)-dependent phosphatase. Importantly, the overexpression of the D543E mutant failed to induce the dephosphorylation of GSK-3. Therefore, we conclude that the genetic dysfunction of Trpm2 causes uncontrolled phosphorylation of GSK-3, which may lead to the pathology of BD. Our findings explain the long-sought etiologic mechanism underlying the genetic link between Trpm2 mutation and BD. Bipolar disorder (BD) is a mental disorder that causes changes in mood and the etiology is still unknown. TRPM2 is highly associated with BD; however, its involvement in the etiology of BD is still unknown. We show here that TRPM2 plays a central role in causing the pathology of BD. We found that D543E, a mutation of Trpm2 frequently found in BD patients, induces the loss of function. Trpm2-deficient mice exhibited mood disturbances and impairments in social cognition. TRPM2 actively regulates the phosphorylation of GSK-3, which is a main target of lithium

  2. The auditory and non-auditory brain areas involved in tinnitus. An emergent property of multiple parallel overlapping subnetworks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven eVanneste

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Tinnitus is the perception of a sound in the absence of an external sound source. It is characterized by sensory components such as the perceived loudness, the lateralization, the tinnitus type (pure tone, noise-like and associated emotional components, such as distress and mood changes. Source localization of qEEG data demonstrate the involvement of auditory brain areas as well as several non-auditory brain areas such as the anterior cingulate cortex (dorsal and subgenual, auditory cortex (primary and secondary, dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex, insula, supplementary motor area, orbitofrontal cortex (including the inferior frontal gyrus, parahippocampus, posterior cingulate cortex and the precuneus, in different aspects of tinnitus. Explaining these non-auditory brain areas as constituents of separable subnetworks, each reflecting a specific aspect of the tinnitus percept increases the explanatory power of the non-auditory brain areas involvement in tinnitus. Thus the unified percept of tinnitus can be considered an emergent property of multiple parallel dynamically changing and partially overlapping subnetworks, each with a specific spontaneous oscillatory pattern and functional connectivity signature.

  3. Prolonged Repeated Acupuncture Stimulation Induces Habituation Effects in Pain-Related Brain Areas: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuanfu; Yang, Jun; Park, Kyungmo; Wu, Hongli; Hu, Sheng; Zhang, Wei; Bu, Junjie; Xu, Chunsheng; Qiu, Bensheng; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2014-01-01

    Most previous studies of brain responses to acupuncture were designed to investigate the acupuncture instant effect while the cumulative effect that should be more important in clinical practice has seldom been discussed. In this study, the neural basis of the acupuncture cumulative effect was analyzed. For this experiment, forty healthy volunteers were recruited, in which more than 40 minutes of repeated acupuncture stimulation was implemented at acupoint Zhusanli (ST36). Three runs of acupuncture fMRI datasets were acquired, with each run consisting of two blocks of acupuncture stimulation. Besides general linear model (GLM) analysis, the cumulative effects of acupuncture were analyzed with analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to find the association between the brain response and the cumulative duration of acupuncture stimulation in each stimulation block. The experimental results showed that the brain response in the initial stage was the strongest although the brain response to acupuncture was time-variant. In particular, the brain areas that were activated in the first block and the brain areas that demonstrated cumulative effects in the course of repeated acupuncture stimulation overlapped in the pain-related areas, including the bilateral middle cingulate cortex, the bilateral paracentral lobule, the SII, and the right thalamus. Furthermore, the cumulative effects demonstrated bimodal characteristics, i.e. the brain response was positive at the beginning, and became negative at the end. It was suggested that the cumulative effect of repeated acupuncture stimulation was consistent with the characteristic of habituation effects. This finding may explain the neurophysiologic mechanism underlying acupuncture analgesia. PMID:24821143

  4. An attempt to correlate brain areas containing melatonin-binding sites with rhythmic functions: a study in five hibernator species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masson-Pévet, M.; George, D.; Kalsbeek, A.; Saboureau, M.; Lakhdar-Ghazal, N.; Pévet, P.

    1994-01-01

    High affinity melatonin-binding sites have been described, by means of autoradiography with 2-125I-melatonin as the ligand, in more than 60 brain areas of about 20 mammalian species, with dramatic variations in the nature and number of labelled structures among the different species studied. As

  5. FMRI study relevant to the Mozart effect: brain areas involved in spatial-temporal reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, M; Muftuler, L T; Nalcioglu, O; Shaw, G L

    2001-10-01

    Behavioral studies, motivated by columnar cortical model predictions, have given evidence for music causally enhancing spatial-temporal reasoning. A wide range of behavioral experiments showed that listening to a Mozart Sonata (K.448) gave subsequent enhancements. An EEG coherence study gave evidence for a carryover from that Mozart Sonata listening condition to the subsequent spatial-temporal task in specific cortical regions. Here we present fMRI studies comparing cortical blood flow activation by the Mozart Sonata vs. other music. In addition to expected temporal cortex activation, we report dramatic statistically significant differences in activation by the Mozart Sonata (in comparison to Beethoven's Fur Elise and 1930s piano music) in dorsolateral pre-frontal cortex, occipital cortex and cerebellum, all expected to be important for spatial-temporal reasoning. It would be of great interest to explicitly test this expectation. We propose an fMRI study comparing (subject by subject) brain areas activated in music listening conditions and in spatial-temporal tasks.

  6. Linguistic processing in visual and modality-nonspecific brain areas: PET recordings during selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobyev, Victor A; Alho, Kimmo; Medvedev, Svyatoslav V; Pakhomov, Sergey V; Roudas, Marina S; Rutkovskaya, Julia M; Tervaniemi, Mari; Van Zuijen, Titia L; Näätänen, Risto

    2004-07-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) was used to investigate the neural basis of selective processing of linguistic material during concurrent presentation of multiple stimulus streams ("cocktail-party effect"). Fifteen healthy right-handed adult males were to attend to one of three simultaneously presented messages: one presented visually, one to the left ear, and one to the right ear. During the control condition, subjects attended to visually presented consonant letter strings and ignored auditory messages. This paper reports the modality-nonspecific language processing and visual word-form processing, whereas the auditory attention effects have been reported elsewhere [Cogn. Brain Res. 17 (2003) 201]. The left-hemisphere areas activated by both the selective processing of text and speech were as follows: the inferior prefrontal (Brodmann's area, BA 45, 47), anterior temporal (BA 38), posterior insular (BA 13), inferior (BA 20) and middle temporal (BA 21), occipital (BA 18/30) cortices, the caudate nucleus, and the amygdala. In addition, bilateral activations were observed in the medial occipito-temporal cortex and the cerebellum. Decreases of activation during both text and speech processing were found in the parietal (BA 7, 40), frontal (BA 6, 8, 44) and occipito-temporal (BA 37) regions of the right hemisphere. Furthermore, the present data suggest that the left occipito-temporal cortex (BA 18, 20, 37, 21) can be subdivided into three functionally distinct regions in the posterior-anterior direction on the basis of their activation during attentive processing of sublexical orthography, visual word form, and supramodal higher-level aspects of language.

  7. Brain Arteriovenous Malformations Located in Language Area: Surgical Outcomes and Risk Factors for Postoperative Language Deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yuming; Lin, Fuxin; Wu, Jun; Li, Hao; Chen, Xin; Li, Zhicen; Ma, Ji; Cao, Yong; Wang, Shuo; Zhao, Jizong

    2017-09-01

    Case selection for surgical treatment of language-area brain arteriovenous malformations (L-BAVMs) remains difficult. This study aimed to determine the surgical outcomes and risk factors for postoperative language deficits (LDs) in patients with L-BAVMs. Patients with L-BAVMs who underwent microsurgical resection between September 2012 and June 2016 were reviewed. All patients had undergone preoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. Both functional and angioarchitectural factors were analyzed regarding the postoperative LD. Functional factors included the eloquence involved, the side of blood-oxygenation level-dependent signal activation and the white-matter fibers (anterior segment, long segment [LS], and posterior segment of arcuate fasciculus, and the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus) involved. Sixty-nine patients with L-BAVMs were reviewed. Postoperative short- and long-term LD was found in 32 (46.4%) and 14 (20.3%) patients, respectively. Twelve of the 14 patients with Geschwind's territory L-BAVMs (85.7%) had short-term LD, compared with 10 (34.5%) in Wernicke's and 10 (38.5%) in Broca's area. LS involvement (P = 0.001) and larger nidus size (P = 0.017) were independent risk factors for the short-term LD. Meanwhile, nidus size (P = 0.007), preoperative LD (P = 0.008), and LS involvement (P = 0.028) were independent risk factors for long-term LD. L-BAVMs located in Geschwind's territory can cause a high incidence of LD. LS involvement and larger nidus size are risk factors for postoperative short- and long-term LD, and preoperative LD is a risk factor for postoperative, long-term LD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Review article "Remarks on factors influencing shear wave velocities and their role in evaluating susceptibilities to earthquake-triggered slope instability: case study for the Campania area (Italy"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Paoletti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Shear wave velocities have a fundamental role in connection with the mitigation of seismic hazards, as their low values are the main causes of site amplification phenomena and can significantly influence the susceptibility of a territory to seismic-induced landslides. The shear wave velocity (Vs and modulus (G of each lithological unit are influenced by factors such as the degree of fracturing and faulting, the porosity, the clay amount and the precipitation, with the latter two influencing the unit water content. In this paper we discuss how these factors can affect the Vs values and report the results of different analyses that quantify the reduction in the rock Vs and shear modulus values connected to the presence of clay and water. We also show that significant results in assessing seismic-induced slope failure susceptibility for land planning targets could be achieved through a careful evaluation, based only on literature studies, of the geo-lithological and geo-seismic features of the study area.

  9. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Val66Met Gene Polymorphism Impacts on Migraine Susceptibility: A Meta-analysis of Case-Control Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrazzino, Salvatore; Cargnin, Sarah; Viana, Michele; Sances, Grazia; Tassorelli, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Inconclusive results have been reported in studies investigating the association between the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) rs6265 polymorphism and migraine. In the present study, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on the published data in order to quantitatively estimate the relationship between rs6265 and migraine susceptibility. A comprehensive search was performed through PubMed, Web of Knowledge, and Cochrane databases up to October 2016. The pooled odds ratio (OR) with the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated to estimate the strength of the association with rs6265 under an additive, dominant, or recessive model of inheritance. A total of five studies including 1,442 cases and 1,880 controls were identified for the meta-analysis. The pooled data showed an increased risk of migraine for the allelic (OR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.03-1.34, p = 0.014) or the dominant model of rs6265 (OR: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.05-1.41, p = 0.011). Statistical significance of rs6265 was lost when one single study was excluded from the analysis (dominant OR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.00-1.38, p = 0.054; allelic OR: 1.14, 95% CI: 0.99-1.31, p = 0.067), suggesting lack of robustness of pooled estimates. When stratified by migraine type, a similar trend of association was detected with both MA and MO, but a statistically significant association of rs6265 was reached only with the MA subtype in the dominant model (OR: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.00-1.47, p = 0.047). The present meta-analysis supports that BDNF rs6265 may act as a genetic susceptibility factor for migraine. Nevertheless, large-scale studies are required to confirm our findings and to assess potential modifiers of the relationship between rs6265 and migraine.

  10. HTLV-I associated myelopathy with multiple spotty areas in cerebral white matter and brain stem by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Yasuo; Takahashi, Mitsuo; Yoshikawa, Hiroo; Yorifuji, Shirou; Tarui, Seiichiro

    1988-01-01

    A 48-year-old woman was admitted with complaints of urinary incontinence and gait disturbance, both of which had progressed slowly without any sign of remission. Family history was not contributory. Neurologically, extreme spasticity was recoginized in the lower limbs. Babinski sign was positive bilaterally. Flower-like atypical lymphocytes were seen in blood. Positive anti-HTLV-I antibody was confirmed in serum and spinal fluid by western blot. She was diagnosed as having HTLV-I associated myelopathy (HAM). CT reveald calcification in bilateral globus pallidus, and MRI revealed multiple spotty areas in cerebral white matter and brain stem, but no spinal cord lesion was detectable. Electrophysiologically, brain stem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) suggested the presence of bilateral brain stem lesions. Neither median nor posterior tibial nerve somatosensory evoked potentials were evoked, a finding suggesting the existence of spinal cord lesion. In this case, the lesion was not confined to spinal cord, it was also observed in brain stem and cerebral white matter. Such distinct lesions in cerebral white matter and brain stem have not been reported in patients with HAM. It is suggested that HTLV-I is probably associated with cerebral white matter and brain stem.

  11. Automated Multi-Contrast Brain Pathological Area Extraction from 2D MR Images

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořák, Pavel; Bartušek, Karel; Kropatsch, W.G.; Smékal, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2015), s. 58-69 ISSN 1665-6423 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP102/12/1104 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Brain Pathology * Brain Tumor * MRI * Multi-contrast MRI * Symmetry Analysis Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.447, year: 2013

  12. Differentiation of brain abscesses from glioblastomas and metastatic brain tumors: comparisons of diagnostic performance of dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced perfusion MR imaging before and after mathematic contrast leakage correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Cheng Hong; Wei, Kuo-Chen; Chang, Chen-Nen; Ng, Shu-Hang; Wong, Ho-Fai; Lin, Ching-Po

    2014-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic performance of dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced perfusion MRI before and after mathematic contrast leakage correction in differentiating pyogenic brain abscesses from glioblastomas and/or metastatic brain tumors. Cerebral blood volume (CBV), leakage-corrected CBV and leakage coefficient K2 were measured in enhancing rims, perifocal edema and contralateral normal appearing white matter (NAWM) of 17 abscesses, 19 glioblastomas and 20 metastases, respectively. The CBV and corrected CBV were normalized by dividing the values in the enhancing rims or edema to those of contralateral NAWM. For each study group, a paired t test was used to compare the K2 of the enhancing rims or edema with those of NAWM, as well as between CBV and corrected CBV of the enhancing rims or edema. ANOVA was used to compare CBV, corrected CBV and K2 among three lesion types. The diagnostic performance of CBV and corrected CBV was assessed with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The CBV and correction CBV of enhancing rim were 1.45±1.17 and 1.97±1.01 for abscesses, 3.85±2.19 and 4.39±2.33 for glioblastomas, and 2.39±0.90 and 2.97±0.78 for metastases, respectively. The CBV and corrected CBV in the enhancing rim of abscesses were significantly lower than those of glioblastomas and metastases (P = 0.001 and P = 0.007, respectively). In differentiating abscesses from glioblastomas and metastases, the AUC values of corrected CBV (0.822) were slightly higher than those of CBV (0.792). Mathematic leakage correction slightly increases the diagnostic performance of CBV in differentiating pyogenic abscesses from necrotic glioblastomas and cystic metastases. Clinically, DSC perfusion MRI may not need mathematic leakage correction in differentiating abscesses from glioblastomas and/or metastases.

  13. Bilinguals use language-control brain areas more than monolinguals to perform non-linguistic switching tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pujadas, Aina; Sanjuán, Ana; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Román, Patricia; Martin, Clara; Barceló, Francisco; Costa, Albert; Avila, César

    2013-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that early bilinguals use language-control brain areas more than monolinguals when performing non-linguistic executive control tasks. We do so by exploring the brain activity of early bilinguals and monolinguals in a task-switching paradigm using an embedded critical trial design. Crucially, the task was designed such that the behavioural performance of the two groups was comparable, allowing then to have a safer comparison between the corresponding brain activity in the two groups. Despite the lack of behavioural differences between both groups, early bilinguals used language-control areas--such as left caudate, and left inferior and middle frontal gyri--more than monolinguals, when performing the switching task. Results offer direct support for the notion that, early bilingualism exerts an effect in the neural circuitry responsible for executive control. This effect partially involves the recruitment of brain areas involved in language control when performing domain-general executive control tasks, highlighting the cross-talk between these two domains.

  14. Reproducibility of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI in the study of brain gliomas: a comparison of data obtained using different commercial software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Gian Marco; Castellano, Antonella; Altabella, Luisa; Iadanza, Antonella; Cadioli, Marcello; Falini, Andrea; Anzalone, Nicoletta

    2017-04-01

    Dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI (DSC) and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE) are useful tools in the diagnosis and follow-up of brain gliomas; nevertheless, both techniques leave the open issue of data reproducibility. We evaluated the reproducibility of data obtained using two different commercial software for perfusion maps calculation and analysis, as one of the potential sources of variability can be the software itself. DSC and DCE analyses from 20 patients with gliomas were tested for both the intrasoftware (as intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility) and the intersoftware reproducibility, as well as the impact of different postprocessing choices [vascular input function (VIF) selection and deconvolution algorithms] on the quantification of perfusion biomarkers plasma volume (Vp), volume transfer constant (K trans ) and rCBV. Data reproducibility was evaluated with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman analysis. For all the biomarkers, the intra- and interobserver reproducibility resulted in almost perfect agreement in each software, whereas for the intersoftware reproducibility the value ranged from 0.311 to 0.577, suggesting fair to moderate agreement; Bland-Altman analysis showed high dispersion of data, thus confirming these findings. Comparisons of different VIF estimation methods for DCE biomarkers resulted in ICC of 0.636 for K trans and 0.662 for Vp; comparison of two deconvolution algorithms in DSC resulted in an ICC of 0.999. The use of single software ensures very good intraobserver and interobservers reproducibility. Caution should be taken when comparing data obtained using different software or different postprocessing within the same software, as reproducibility is not guaranteed anymore.

  15. Hand posture classification using electrocorticography signals in the gamma band over human sensorimotor brain areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chestek, Cynthia A.; Gilja, Vikash; Blabe, Christine H.; Foster, Brett L.; Shenoy, Krishna V.; Parvizi, Josef; Henderson, Jaimie M.

    2013-04-01

    Objective. Brain-machine interface systems translate recorded neural signals into command signals for assistive technology. In individuals with upper limb amputation or cervical spinal cord injury, the restoration of a useful hand grasp could significantly improve daily function. We sought to determine if electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals contain sufficient information to select among multiple hand postures for a prosthetic hand, orthotic, or functional electrical stimulation system.Approach. We recorded ECoG signals from subdural macro- and microelectrodes implanted in motor areas of three participants who were undergoing inpatient monitoring for diagnosis and treatment of intractable epilepsy. Participants performed five distinct isometric hand postures, as well as four distinct finger movements. Several control experiments were attempted in order to remove sensory information from the classification results. Online experiments were performed with two participants. Main results. Classification rates were 68%, 84% and 81% for correct identification of 5 isometric hand postures offline. Using 3 potential controls for removing sensory signals, error rates were approximately doubled on average (2.1×). A similar increase in errors (2.6×) was noted when the participant was asked to make simultaneous wrist movements along with the hand postures. In online experiments, fist versus rest was successfully classified on 97% of trials; the classification output drove a prosthetic hand. Online classification performance for a larger number of hand postures remained above chance, but substantially below offline performance. In addition, the long integration windows used would preclude the use of decoded signals for control of a BCI system. Significance. These results suggest that ECoG is a plausible source of command signals for prosthetic grasp selection. Overall, avenues remain for improvement through better electrode designs and placement, better participant training

  16. Single-station seismic noise measures, microgravity, and 3D electrical tomographies to assess the sinkhole susceptibility: the "Il Piano" area (Elba Island - Italy) case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzi, Veronica; Di Filippo, Michele; Di Nezza, Maria; Carlà, Tommaso; Bardi, Federica; Marini, Federico; Fontanelli, Katia; Intrieri, Emanuele; Fanti, Riccardo

    2017-04-01

    Sudden subsurface collapse, cavities, and surface depressions, regardless of shape and origin, as well as doline are currently indicate by means of the term "sinkhole". This phenomenon can be classified according to a large variety of different schemes, depending on the dominant formation processes (soluble rocks karstic processes, acidic groundwater circulation, anthropogenic caves, bedrock poor geomechanical properties), and on the geological scenario behind the development of the phenomenon. Considering that generally sinkholes are densely clustered in "sinkhole prone areas", detection, forecasting, early warning, and effective monitoring are key aspects in sinkhole susceptibility assessment and risk mitigation. Nevertheless, techniques developed specifically for sinkhole detection, forecasting and monitoring are missing, probably because of a general lack of sinkhole risk awareness, and an intrinsic difficulties involved in detecting precursory sinkhole deformations before collapse. In this framework, integration of different indirect/non-invasive geophysical methods is the best practice approach. In this paper we present the results of an integrated geophysical survey at "Il Piano" (Elba Island - Italy), where at least nine sinkholes occurred between 2008 and 2014. 120 single-station seismic noise measures, 17 3D electrical tomographies (min area 140.3 m2, max area 10,188.9 m2; min electrode spacing 2 m, max electrode spacing 5 m), 964 measurement of microgravity spaced in a grid of 6 m to 8 m were carried out at the study area. The most likely origin for these sinkholes was considered related to sediment net erosion from the alluvium, caused by downward water circulation between aquifers. Therefore, the goals of the study were: i) obtaining a suitable geological and hydrogeological model of the area; ii) detecting possible cavities which could evolve in sinkholes, and finally iii) assess the sinkhole susceptibility of the area. Among the results of the

  17. EEG Bands of Wakeful Rest, Slow-Wave and Rapid-Eye-Movement Sleep at Different Brain Areas in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wei

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidences have revealed that neuronal oscillations with various frequency bands in the brain have different physiological functions. However, the frequency band divisions in rats were typically based on empirical spectral distribution from limited channels information. In the present study, functionally relevant frequency bands across vigilance states and brain regions were identified using factor analysis based on 9 channels EEG signals recorded from multiple brain areas in rats. We found that frequency band divisions varied both across vigilance states and brain regions. In particular, theta oscillations during REM sleep were subdivided into two bands, 5-7 and 8-11 Hz corresponding to the tonic and phasic stages, respectively. The spindle activities of SWS are different along the anterior-posterior axis, lower oscillations (~16 Hz in frontal regions and higher in parietal (~21 Hz. The delta and theta activities were co-varied in the visual and auditory cortex during wakeful rest. In addition, power spectra of beta oscillations were significantly decreased in association cortex. These results provide us some new insights into understand the brain oscillations across vigilance states, and also indicate that the spatial factor should not be ignored when considering the frequency band divisions in rats.

  18. Residential radon exposure and brain cancer: an ecological study in a radon prone area (Galicia, Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; Aragon?s, Nuria; Kelsey, Karl T.; P?rez-R?os, M?nica; Pi?eiro-Lamas, Mar?a; L?pez-Abente, Gonzalo; Juan M. Barros-Dios

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to know if radon concentration is associated with municipal mortality due to brain cancer in Galicia, Spain. We designed an ecological study taking as study unit Galician municipalities. To be included, municipalities had to have at least three radon measurements. We correlated radon concentrations with municipal mortality due to these malignant tumors during the period 1999?2008. We calculated the relative risk of dying of brain cancers for each municipality and correlated this valu...

  19. An HPLC tracing of the enhancer regulation in selected discrete brain areas of food-deprived rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklya, I; Knoll, B; Knoll, J

    2003-05-09

    The recent discovery of the enhancer regulation in the mammalian brain brought a different perspective to the brain-organized realization of goal-oriented behavior, which is the quintessence of plastic behavioral descriptions such as drive or motivation. According to this new approach, 'drive' means that special endogenous enhancer substances enhance the impulse-propagation-mediated release of transmitters in a proper population of enhancer-sensitive neurons, and keep these neurons in the state of enhanced excitability until the goal is reached. However, to reach any goal needs the participation of the catecholaminergic machinery, the engine of the brain. We developed a method to detect the specific enhancer effect of synthetic enhancer substances [(-)-deprenyl, (-)-PPAP, (-)-BPAP] by measuring the release of transmitters from freshly isolated selected discrete brain areas (striatum, substantia nigra, tuberculum olfactorium, locus coeruleus, raphe) by the aid of HPLC with electrochemical detection. To test the validity of the working hypothesis that in any form of goal-seeking behavior the catecholaminergic and serotonergic neurons work on a higher activity level, we compared the amount of norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin released from selected discrete brain areas isolated from the brain of sated and food-deprived rats. Rats were deprived of food for 48 and 72 hours, respectively, and the state of excitability of their catecholaminergic and serotonergic neurons in comparison to that of sated rats was measured. We tested the orienting-searching reflex activity of the rats in a special open field, isolated thereafter selected discrete brain areas and measured the release of norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin from the proper tissue samples into the organ bath. The orienting-searching reflex activity of the rats increased proportionally to the time elapsed from the last feed and the amount of dopamine released from the striatum, substantia nigra and

  20. Brain cancer surgery in the language areas of Mandarin-Cantonese bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Gao

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: In proficient MBCs, areas specific to each language exist. Thus, performing intraoperative bilingual tasks to locate these language areas is necessary in order to preserve language function.

  1. Higher-order brain areas associated with real-time functional MRI neurofeedback training of the somato-motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Tibor; Dewiputri, Wan Ilma; Frahm, Jens; Schweizer, Renate

    2016-04-29

    Neurofeedback (NFB) allows subjects to learn self-regulation of neuronal brain activation based on information about the ongoing activation. The implementation of real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) for NFB training now facilitates the investigation into underlying processes. Our study involved 16 control and 16 training right-handed subjects, the latter performing an extensive rt-fMRI NFB training using motor imagery. A previous analysis focused on the targeted primary somato-motor cortex (SMC). The present study extends the analysis to the supplementary motor area (SMA), the next higher brain area within the hierarchy of the motor system. We also examined transfer-related functional connectivity using a whole-volume psycho-physiological interaction (PPI) analysis to reveal brain areas associated with learning. The ROI analysis of the pre- and post-training fMRI data for motor imagery without NFB (transfer) resulted in a significant training-specific increase in the SMA. It could also be shown that the contralateral SMA exhibited a larger increase than the ipsilateral SMA in the training and the transfer runs, and that the right-hand training elicited a larger increase in the transfer runs than the left-hand training. The PPI analysis revealed a training-specific increase in transfer-related functional connectivity between the left SMA and frontal areas as well as the anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC) for right- and left-hand trainings. Moreover, the transfer success was related with training-specific increase in functional connectivity between the left SMA and the target area SMC. Our study demonstrates that NFB training increases functional connectivity with non-targeted brain areas. These are associated with the training strategy (i.e., SMA) as well as with learning the NFB skill (i.e., aMCC and frontal areas). This detailed description of both the system to be trained and the areas involved in learning can provide valuable information

  2. Gamma Knife irradiation method based on dosimetric controls to target small areas in rat brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constanzo, Julie; Paquette, Benoit; Charest, Gabriel; Masson-Côté, Laurence; Guillot, Mathieu

    2015-05-01

    Targeted and whole-brain irradiation in humans can result in significant side effects causing decreased patient quality of life. To adequately investigate structural and functional alterations after stereotactic radiosurgery, preclinical studies are needed. The purpose of this work is to establish a robust standardized method of targeted irradiation on small regions of the rat brain. Euthanized male Fischer rats were imaged in a stereotactic bed, by computed tomography (CT), to estimate positioning variations relative to the bregma skull reference point. Using a rat brain atlas and the stereotactic bregma coordinates obtained from CT images, different regions of the brain were delimited and a treatment plan was generated. A single isocenter treatment plan delivering ≥ 100 Gy in 100% of the target volume was produced by Leksell GammaPlan using the 4 mm diameter collimator of sectors 4, 5, 7, and 8 of the Gamma Knife unit. Impact of positioning deviations of the rat brain on dose deposition was simulated by GammaPlan and validated with dosimetric measurements. The authors' results showed that 90% of the target volume received 100 ± 8 Gy and the maximum of deposited dose was 125 ± 0.7 Gy, which corresponds to an excellent relative standard deviation of 0.6%. This dose deposition calculated with GammaPlan was validated with dosimetric films resulting in a dose-profile agreement within 5%, both in X- and Z-axes. The authors' results demonstrate the feasibility of standardizing the irradiation procedure of a small volume in the rat brain using a Gamma Knife.

  3. Gamma Knife irradiation method based on dosimetric controls to target small areas in rat brains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constanzo, Julie; Paquette, Benoit; Charest, Gabriel [Center for Radiotherapy Research, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology, Université de Sherbrooke, 3001 12th Avenue Nord, Sherbrooke, Québec J1H 5N4 (Canada); Masson-Côté, Laurence; Guillot, Mathieu, E-mail: mathieu.guillot@usherbrooke.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke, 3001 12th Avenue Nord, Sherbrooke, Québec J1H 5N4, Canada and Center for Radiotherapy Research, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology, Université de Sherbrooke, 3001 12th Avenue Nord, Sherbrooke, Québec J1H 5N4 (Canada)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: Targeted and whole-brain irradiation in humans can result in significant side effects causing decreased patient quality of life. To adequately investigate structural and functional alterations after stereotactic radiosurgery, preclinical studies are needed. The purpose of this work is to establish a robust standardized method of targeted irradiation on small regions of the rat brain. Methods: Euthanized male Fischer rats were imaged in a stereotactic bed, by computed tomography (CT), to estimate positioning variations relative to the bregma skull reference point. Using a rat brain atlas and the stereotactic bregma coordinates obtained from CT images, different regions of the brain were delimited and a treatment plan was generated. A single isocenter treatment plan delivering ≥100 Gy in 100% of the target volume was produced by Leksell GammaPlan using the 4 mm diameter collimator of sectors 4, 5, 7, and 8 of the Gamma Knife unit. Impact of positioning deviations of the rat brain on dose deposition was simulated by GammaPlan and validated with dosimetric measurements. Results: The authors’ results showed that 90% of the target volume received 100 ± 8 Gy and the maximum of deposited dose was 125 ± 0.7 Gy, which corresponds to an excellent relative standard deviation of 0.6%. This dose deposition calculated with GammaPlan was validated with dosimetric films resulting in a dose-profile agreement within 5%, both in X- and Z-axes. Conclusions: The authors’ results demonstrate the feasibility of standardizing the irradiation procedure of a small volume in the rat brain using a Gamma Knife.

  4. Synaesthetic colour in the brain: beyond colour areas. A functional magnetic resonance imaging study of synaesthetes and matched controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa M van Leeuwen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In synaesthesia, sensations in a particular modality cause additional experiences in a second, unstimulated modality (e.g., letters elicit colour. Understanding how synaesthesia is mediated in the brain can help to understand normal processes of perceptual awareness and multisensory integration. In several neuroimaging studies, enhanced brain activity for grapheme-colour synaesthesia has been found in ventral-occipital areas that are also involved in real colour processing. Our question was whether the neural correlates of synaesthetically induced colour and real colour experience are truly shared. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: First, in a free viewing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI experiment, we located main effects of synaesthesia in left superior parietal lobule and in colour related areas. In the left superior parietal lobe, individual differences between synaesthetes (projector-associator distinction also influenced brain activity, confirming the importance of the left superior parietal lobe for synaesthesia. Next, we applied a repetition suppression paradigm in fMRI, in which a decrease in the BOLD (blood-oxygenated-level-dependent response is generally observed for repeated stimuli. We hypothesized that synaesthetically induced colours would lead to a reduction in BOLD response for subsequently presented real colours, if the neural correlates were overlapping. We did find BOLD suppression effects induced by synaesthesia, but not within the colour areas. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Because synaesthetically induced colours were not able to suppress BOLD effects for real colour, we conclude that the neural correlates of synaesthetic colour experience and real colour experience are not fully shared. We propose that synaesthetic colour experiences are mediated by higher-order visual pathways that lie beyond the scope of classical, ventral-occipital visual areas. Feedback from these areas, in which the left parietal

  5. Synaesthetic Colour in the Brain: Beyond Colour Areas. A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Synaesthetes and Matched Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Tessa M.; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Hagoort, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background In synaesthesia, sensations in a particular modality cause additional experiences in a second, unstimulated modality (e.g., letters elicit colour). Understanding how synaesthesia is mediated in the brain can help to understand normal processes of perceptual awareness and multisensory integration. In several neuroimaging studies, enhanced brain activity for grapheme-colour synaesthesia has been found in ventral-occipital areas that are also involved in real colour processing. Our question was whether the neural correlates of synaesthetically induced colour and real colour experience are truly shared. Methodology/Principal Findings First, in a free viewing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment, we located main effects of synaesthesia in left superior parietal lobule and in colour related areas. In the left superior parietal lobe, individual differences between synaesthetes (projector-associator distinction) also influenced brain activity, confirming the importance of the left superior parietal lobe for synaesthesia. Next, we applied a repetition suppression paradigm in fMRI, in which a decrease in the BOLD (blood-oxygenated-level-dependent) response is generally observed for repeated stimuli. We hypothesized that synaesthetically induced colours would lead to a reduction in BOLD response for subsequently presented real colours, if the neural correlates were overlapping. We did find BOLD suppression effects induced by synaesthesia, but not within the colour areas. Conclusions/Significance Because synaesthetically induced colours were not able to suppress BOLD effects for real colour, we conclude that the neural correlates of synaesthetic colour experience and real colour experience are not fully shared. We propose that synaesthetic colour experiences are mediated by higher-order visual pathways that lie beyond the scope of classical, ventral-occipital visual areas. Feedback from these areas, in which the left parietal cortex is likely to

  6. Portable Ultrasound Imaging of the Brain for Use in Forward Battlefield Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    vol. 115, no. 3, pp. 1356- 64, Mar. 2004. [6] S. W. Smith, O. T. von Ramm , J. A. Kisslo, and F. L. Thurstone, “Real time ultrasound tomography of...the adult brain,” Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 117-122, Apr. 1978. [7] D. Phillips, S. W. Smith, O. von Ramm , and F

  7. Neural Processing of Calories in Brain Reward Areas Can be Modulated by Reward Sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Inge; Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304817740

    A food's reward value is dependent on its caloric content. Furthermore, a food's acute reward value also depends on hunger state. The drive to obtain rewards (reward sensitivity), however, differs between individuals. Here, we assessed the association between brain responses to calories in the mouth

  8. Effect of dietary T-2 toxin on biogenic monoamines in discrete areas of the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Fitzpatrick, D W; Wilson, J R

    1993-03-01

    Acute T-2 toxin treatments alter biogenic monoamine concentrations in the brain; however, these perturbations have not been well documented or demonstrated in feeding trials. In this study, the effect of dietary T-2 toxin on regional brain concentrations of biogenic monoamines and their metabolites was investigated in male rats fed a semi-synthetic diet containing 0, 2.5 or 10 ppm T-2 toxin for either 7 or 14 days. Reduction in feed consumption, feed efficiency and weight gain was observed in rats fed either 2.5 or 10 ppm T-2 toxin. This effect was transient in animals fed the 10 ppm T-2 toxin diet, with feed consumption, feed efficiency and weight gain improving significantly during wk 2. T-2 toxin affected brain biogenic monoamine concentrations. In the nucleus raphe magnus, serotonin, 5-hydroxy-3-indoleacetic acid and norepinephrine increased in a dose-dependent manner, and dopamine increased transiently. In the substantia nigra of rats fed 10 ppm T-2, epinephrine increased after 7 days and norepinephrine decreased after 14 days, when compared with controls. Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid concentrations in the paraventricular nucleus and medial forebrain bundle were lower in T-2 toxin-treated rats than in control animals. The observed effects of T-2 toxin on brain monoamines and the resulting neurochemical imbalance may account for the physiological manifestation of trichothecene intoxication.

  9. Residential radon exposure and brain cancer: an ecological study in a radon prone area (Galicia, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; Aragonés, Nuria; Kelsey, Karl T; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Piñeiro-Lamas, María; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Barros-Dios, Juan M

    2017-06-15

    We aimed to know if radon concentration is associated with municipal mortality due to brain cancer in Galicia, Spain. We designed an ecological study taking as study unit Galician municipalities. To be included, municipalities had to have at least three radon measurements. We correlated radon concentrations with municipal mortality due to these malignant tumors during the period 1999-2008. We calculated the relative risk of dying of brain cancers for each municipality and correlated this value with municipal radon concentration using Spearman's Rho. 251 municipalities were included, with close to 3,500 radon measurements and an average of 14 radon measurements at each municipality. We observed a significant correlation between residential radon with brain cancer mortality for males and females and the intensity of the correlation was higher for females. These results were reinforced when the analysis was restricted to municipalities with more than 5 radon measurements: Spearman's Rho 0.286 (p-value < 0.001) and Spearman's Rho 0.509 (p-value < 0.001) for males and females, respectively. These results suggest an association between residential radon and brain cancer mortality. More research using more robust epidemiological designs is needed to confirm these findings.

  10. Increase in seizure susceptibility in sepsis like condition explained by spiking cytokines and altered adhesion molecules level with impaired blood brain barrier integrity in experimental model of rats treated with lipopolysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewal, Rakesh K; Modi, Manish; Saikia, Uma Nahar; Chakrabarti, Amitava; Medhi, Bikash

    2017-09-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. Sepsis is a condition which initiates a cascade of a surge of inflammatory mediators. Interplay between seizures and inflammation other than of brain origin is yet to be explored. The present study was designed to evaluate the seizure susceptibility in experimental models of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced sepsis. Experimental sepsis was induced using lipopolysaccharides in Wistar rats. Valproic acid, dexametasone were given to two different groups of animals along with LPS. Two groups of animals were subjected to administration of vehicle and LPS respectively with no other treatment. 24h later, animals were subjected to seizures by using either maximal electro shock or pentylenetetrazole. Seizures related parameters, oxidative stress and TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, ICAM-1, ICAM-2, VCAM-1, MMP-9 level in serum and brain samples were evaluated. Histopathological and blood brain barrier permeability studies were conducted. Seizures were decreased in valproic acid treated animals. Reduced oxidative stress was seen in dexamethasone plus valproic acid treated groups as compared to LPS alone treated group. TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, MMP-9 levels were found increased in LPS treated animals whereas a reverse observation was noted for ICAM-2 level in brain and serum. Histopathological findings confirmed the successful establishment of sepsis like state in animals. Blood brain barrier permeability was found increased in LPS treated groups of animals. Seizure susceptibility may escalate during the sepsis like inflammatory conditions and curbing the inflammatory state might reverse the phenomenon. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Age of second language acquisition in multilinguals has an impact on gray matter volume in language-associated brain areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Anelis; Eppenberger, Leila S; Smieskova, Renata; Borgwardt, Stefan; Kuenzli, Esther; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Nitsch, Cordula; Bendfeldt, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Numerous structural studies have established that experience shapes and reshapes the brain throughout a lifetime. The impact of early development, however, is still a matter of debate. Further clues may come from studying multilinguals who acquired their second language at different ages. We investigated adult multilinguals who spoke three languages fluently, where the third language was learned in classroom settings, not before the age of 9 years. Multilinguals exposed to two languages simultaneously from birth (SiM) were contrasted with multinguals who acquired their first two languages successively (SuM). Whole brain voxel based morphometry revealed that, relative to SuM, SiM have significantly lower gray matter volume in several language-associated cortical areas in both hemispheres: bilaterally in medial and inferior frontal gyrus, in the right medial temporal gyrus and inferior posterior parietal gyrus, as well as in the left inferior temporal gyrus. Thus, as shown by others, successive language learning increases the volume of language-associated cortical areas. In brains exposed early on and simultaneously to more than one language, however, learning of additional languages seems to have less impact. We conclude that - at least with respect to language acquisition - early developmental influences are maintained and have an effect on experience-dependent plasticity well into adulthood.

  12. Chronic wheel running affects cocaine-induced c-Fos expression in brain reward areas in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlebnik, Natalie E; Hedges, Valerie L; Carroll, Marilyn E; Meisel, Robert L

    2014-03-15

    Emerging evidence from human and animal studies suggests that exercise is a highly effective treatment for drug addiction. However, most work has been done in behavioral models, and the effects of exercise on the neurobiological substrates of addiction have not been identified. Specifically, it is unknown whether prior exercise exposure alters neuronal activation of brain reward circuitry in response to drugs of abuse. To investigate this hypothesis, rats were given 21 days of daily access to voluntary wheel running in a locked or unlocked running wheel. Subsequently, they were challenged with a saline or cocaine (15 mg/kg, i.p.) injection and sacrificed for c-Fos immunohistochemistry. The c-Fos transcription factor is a measure of cellular activity and was used to quantify cocaine-induced activation of reward-processing areas of the brain: nucleus accumbens (NAc), caudate putamen (CPu), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). The mean fold change in cocaine-induced c-Fos cell counts relative to saline-induced c-Fos cell counts was significantly higher in exercising compared to control rats in the NAc core, dorsomedial and dorsolateral CPu, the prelimbic area, and the OFC, indicating differential cocaine-specific cellular activation of brain reward circuitry between exercising and control animals. These results suggest neurobiological mechanisms by which voluntary wheel running attenuates cocaine-motivated behaviors and provide support for exercise as a novel treatment for drug addiction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Age of second language acquisition in multilinguals has an impact on grey matter volume in language-associated brain areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelis eKaiser

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous structural studies have established that experience shapes and reshapes the brain throughout a lifetime. The impact of early development, however, is still a matter of debate. Further clues may come from studying multilinguals who acquired their second language at different ages. We investigated adult multilinguals who spoke three languages fluently, where the third language was learned in classroom settings, not before the age of 9 years. Multilinguals exposed to 2 languages simultaneously from birth (SiM were contrasted with multinguals who acquired their first two languages successively (SuM. Whole brain voxel based morphometry revealed that, relative to SuM, SiM have significantly lower grey matter volume in several language-associated cortical areas in both hemispheres: bilaterally in medial and inferior frontal gyrus, in the right medial temporal gyrus and inferior posterior parietal gyrus, as well as in the left inferior frontal gyrus. Thus, as shown by others, successive language learning increases the volume of language-associated cortical areas. In brains exposed early on and simultaneously to more than one language, however, learning of additional languages seems to have less impact. We conclude that - at least with respect to language acquisition - early developmental influences are maintained and influence experience-dependent plasticity well into adulthood.

  14. Preoperative mapping of cortical language areas in adult brain tumour patients using PET and individual non-normalised SPM analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Philipp T. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen University of Technology, Aachen (Germany); Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Institute of Medicine, Research Centre Juelich, 52425, Juelich (Germany); Sturz, Laszlo; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Setani, Keyvan S.; Buell, Udalrich [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen University of Technology, Aachen (Germany); Spetzger, Uwe [Department of Neurosurgery, Aachen University of Technology, Aachen (Germany); Meyer, Georg F. [MacKay Institute of Communication and Neuroscience, Keele University (United Kingdom); Sabri, Osama [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen University of Technology, Aachen (Germany); Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    In patients scheduled for the resection of perisylvian brain tumours, knowledge of the cortical topography of language functions is crucial in order to avoid neurological deficits. We investigated the applicability of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) without stereotactic normalisation for individual preoperative language function brain mapping using positron emission tomography (PET). Seven right-handed adult patients with left-sided brain tumours (six frontal and one temporal) underwent 12 oxygen-15 labelled water PET scans during overt verb generation and rest. Individual activation maps were calculated for P<0.005 and P<0.001 without anatomical normalisation and overlaid onto the individuals' magnetic resonance images for preoperative planning. Activations corresponding to Broca's and Wernicke's areas were found in five and six cases, respectively, for P<0.005 and in three and six cases, respectively, for P<0.001. One patient with a glioma located in the classical Broca's area without aphasic symptoms presented an activation of the adjacent inferior frontal cortex and of a right-sided area homologous to Broca's area. Four additional patients with left frontal tumours also presented activations of the right-sided Broca's homologue; two of these showed aphasic symptoms and two only a weak or no activation of Broca's area. Other frequently observed activations included bilaterally the superior temporal gyri, prefrontal cortices, anterior insulae, motor areas and the cerebellum. The middle and inferior temporal gyri were activated predominantly on the left. An SPM group analysis (P<0.05, corrected) in patients with left frontal tumours confirmed the activation pattern shown by the individual analyses. We conclude that SPM analyses without stereotactic normalisation offer a promising alternative for analysing individual preoperative language function brain mapping studies. The observed right frontal activations agree with

  15. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility data bearing on the transport direction of mid-tertiary regional ignimbrites, Candelaria Hills area, West-Central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronis, Michael S.; Geissman, John W.

    2009-03-01

    In west-central Nevada, the Oligocene Candelaria pyroclastic sequence reaches a local thickness of up to 1.3 km, in what has been referred to as the Candelaria trough, but more generally the accumulation of ash-flow tuffs and related volcanic rocks is less than 300 m thick. Complete to near complete outcrops are scattered over about 3200 km2 in the Candelaria Hills and surrounding ranges of the Southern Walker Lane structural zone. Three regionally extensive compound cooling units within the overall sequence (25.8 Ma Metallic City, 24.1 Ma Belleville, and 23.7 Ma Candelaria Junction Tuffs) have distinguishing characteristics and are the focus of study. At 106 sites, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) data provide an estimate of transport direction of each tuff. Inferred transport directions based on the AMS data are corrected for a modest clockwise, yet variable magnitude, vertical axis rotation that affected these rocks in late Miocene to Pliocene time, as revealed by paleomagnetic studies. The AMS data show a somewhat orderly pattern of magnetic fabrics that we interpret to define unique transport directions for the Metallic City and Candelaria Junction Tuffs. The low susceptibility and degree of anisotropy of the Belleville Tuff limits our interpretation from this pyroclastic deposit. The Metallic City and Candelaria Junction Tuffs typically show gentle, south-southeast and southeast dipping magnetic fabric imbrication, respectively, and very gently plunging magnetic lineations. These AMS fabric elements indicate the tuffs were transported to the north-northwest and northwest, respectively. The AMS fabric data from the Metallic City and Candelaria Junction Tuffs suggest relatively unrestricted flow during emplacement. Evidence across the 3,200 km2 area to support more regionally controlled channelized flow into and/or flow along the east northeast-west southwest axis of the Candelaria trough is lacking. The ignimbrites clearly filled a topographic

  16. Functional connectivity of the human rostral and caudal cingulate motor areas in the brain resting state at 3T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habas, Christophe [CHNO des Quinze-Vingts, UPMC Paris 6, Service de NeuroImagerie, Paris (France)

    2010-01-15

    Three cingulate motor areas have been described in monkeys, the rostral, dorsal, and ventral cingulate motor areas, and would control limbic-related motor activity. However, little anatomical data are available in human about the functional networks these cingulate areas underlie. Therefore, networks anchored in the rostral and caudal cingulate motor areas (rCMA and cCMA, respectively) were studied in human using functional connectivity during the brain resting state. Since the rCMA and cCMA are located just under the pre-supplementary and supplementary motor areas (pre-SMA and SMA), the pre-SMA- and SMA-centered networks were also studied to ensure that these four circuits were correctly dissociated. Data from 14 right-handed healthy volunteers were acquired at rest and analyzed by region of interest (ROI)-based functional connectivity. The blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal fluctuations of separate ROIs located in rCMA, cCMA, pre-SMA, and SMA were successively used to identify significant temporal correlations with BOLD signal fluctuations of other brain regions. Low-frequency BOLD signal of the CMA was correlated with signal fluctuations in the prefrontal, cingulate, insular, premotor, motor, medial and inferior parietal cortices, putamen and thalamus, and anticorrelated with the default-mode network. rCMA was more in relation with prefrontal, orbitofrontal, and language-associated cortices than cCMA more related to sensory cortex. These cingulate networks were very similar to the pre-SMA- and SMA-centered networks, although pre-SMA and SMA showed stronger correlation with the prefrontal and inferior parietal cortices and with the cerebellum and the superior parietal cortex, respectively. The human cingulate motor areas constitute an interface between sensorimotor, limbic and executive systems, sharing common cortical, striatal, and thalamic relays with the overlying premotor medial areas. (orig.)

  17. Quantification of changes in language-related brain areas in autism spectrum disorders using large-scale network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goch, Caspar J; Stieltjes, Bram; Henze, Romy; Hering, Jan; Poustka, Luise; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Maier-Hein, Klaus H

    2014-05-01

    Diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is difficult, as symptoms vary greatly and are difficult to quantify objectively. Recent work has focused on the assessment of non-invasive diffusion tensor imaging-based biomarkers that reflect the microstructural characteristics of neuronal pathways in the brain. While tractography-based approaches typically analyze specific structures of interest, a graph-based large-scale network analysis of the connectome can yield comprehensive measures of larger-scale architectural patterns in the brain. Commonly applied global network indices, however, do not provide any specificity with respect to functional areas or anatomical structures. Aim of this work was to assess the concept of network centrality as a tool to perform locally specific analysis without disregarding the global network architecture and compare it to other popular network indices. We create connectome networks from fiber tractographies and parcellations of the human brain and compute global network indices as well as local indices for Wernicke's Area, Broca's Area and the Motor Cortex. Our approach was evaluated on 18 children suffering from ASD and 18 typically developed controls using magnetic resonance imaging-based cortical parcellations in combination with diffusion tensor imaging tractography. We show that the network centrality of Wernicke's area is significantly (palterations. This could reflect the reduced capacity for comprehension of language in ASD. The betweenness centrality could potentially be an important metric in the development of future diagnostic tools in the clinical context of ASD diagnosis. Our results further demonstrate the applicability of large-scale network analysis tools in the domain of region-specific analysis with a potential application in many different psychological disorders.

  18. Growth of language-related brain areas after foreign language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mårtensson, Johan; Eriksson, Johan; Bodammer, Nils Christian; Lindgren, Magnus; Johansson, Mikael; Nyberg, Lars; Lövdén, Martin

    2012-10-15

    The influence of adult foreign-language acquisition on human brain organization is poorly understood. We studied cortical thickness and hippocampal volumes of conscript interpreters before and after three months of intense language studies. Results revealed increases in hippocampus volume and in cortical thickness of the left middle frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, and superior temporal gyrus for interpreters relative to controls. The right hippocampus and the left superior temporal gyrus were structurally more malleable in interpreters acquiring higher proficiency in the foreign language. Interpreters struggling relatively more to master the language displayed larger gray matter increases in the middle frontal gyrus. These findings confirm structural changes in brain regions known to serve language functions during foreign-language acquisition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Reduced Apparent Diffusion Coefficient in Various Brain Areas following Low-Intensity Transcranial Ultrasound Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yuan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion of water molecules closely related to physiological and pathological information of brain tissue. Low-intensity transcranial ultrasound stimulation (TUS has advantages of noninvasive, high spatial resolution and penetration depth. Previous studies have demonstrate that TUS can modulate neuronal activity and alter cortical hemodynamic. However, how TUS affect diffusion of water molecules remain unclear. In this paper, in order to evaluate the effect of low-intensity TUS on the diffusion of water molecules in brain tissue, diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR imaging was performed in 19 healthy Sprague-Dawley rats in sham surgery group (six rats and TUS group (thirteen rats Subsequently, rats were stimulated by low-intensity transcranial ultrasound for 5 min in TUS group. Finally, rats of sham surgery group and TUS group were imaged again by diffusion-weighted MR imaging. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC was measured in caudate putamen region and middle brain motor-related region of each rat in sham surgery group and TUS group. Surgery-related and TUS-related changes were calculated using a statistical analysis. The mean ADC values of marked regions of six rats in sham surgery group were 0.743 ± 0.031 (pre-surgery and 0.745 ± 0.029 (post-surgery. The mean ADC values of marked regions of 13 rats in TUS group were 0.749 ± 0.032 (pre-TUS and 0.712 ± 0.033 (post-TUS Compared to the pre-TUS values, the mean ADC values of the rats decreased 4.9% (*P < 0.05 post-TUS. These results of this study demonstrate that low-intensity TUS can restrict the diffusion of water molecules in brain tissue.

  20. Genetic Labeling Reveals Novel Cellular Targets of Schizophrenia Susceptibility Gene: Distribution of GABA and Non-GABA ErbB4-Positive Cells in Adult Mouse Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Jonathan C.; Lin, Thiri W.; Sathyamurthy, Anupama; Liu, Fang; Yin, Dong-Min; Xiong, Wen-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) and its receptor ErbB4 are schizophrenia risk genes. NRG1-ErbB4 signaling plays a critical role in neural development and regulates neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. Nevertheless, its cellular targets remain controversial. ErbB4 was thought to express in excitatory neurons, although recent studies disputed this view. Using mice that express a fluorescent protein under the promoter of the ErbB4 gene, we determined in what cells ErbB4 is expressed and their identity. ErbB4 was widely expressed in the mouse brain, being highest in amygdala and cortex. Almost all ErbB4-positive cells were GABAergic in cortex, hippocampus, basal ganglia, and most of amygdala in neonatal and adult mice, suggesting GABAergic transmission as a major target of NRG1-ErbB4 signaling in these regions. Non-GABAergic, ErbB4-positive cells were present in thalamus, hypothalamus, midbrain, and hindbrain. In particular, ErbB4 is expressed in serotoninergic neurons of raphe nuclei but not in norepinephrinergic neurons of the locus ceruleus. In hypothalamus, ErbB4 is present in neurons that express oxytocin. Finally, ErbB4 is expressed in a group of cells in the subcortical areas that are positive for S100 calcium binding protein β. These results identify novel cellular targets of NRG1-ErbB4 signaling. PMID:25274830

  1. Neurotransmitter and their metabolite concentrations in different areas of the HPRT knockout mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschirner, Sarah K; Gutzki, Frank; Schneider, Erich H; Seifert, Roland; Kaever, Volkhard

    2016-06-15

    Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (LNS) is characterized by uric acid overproduction and severe neurobehavioral symptoms, such as recurrent self-mutilative behavior. To learn more about the pathophysiology of the disease, we quantified neurotransmitters and their metabolites in the cerebral hemisphere, cerebellum and the medulla oblongata of HPRT knockout mice, an animal model for LNS, in comparison to the corresponding wild-type. Our analyses included l-glutamate, 4-aminobutanoic acid (GABA), acetylcholine, serotonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), norepinephrine, l-normetanephrine, epinephrine and l-metanephrine and were conducted via high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Among these neurotransmitter systems, we did not find any abnormalities in the HPRT knockout mouse brains. On one side, this might indicate that HPRT deficiency most severely affects dopamine signaling, while brain functioning based on other neurotransmitters is more or less spared. On the other hand, our findings may reflect a compensating mechanism for impaired purine salvage that protects the brain in HPRT-deficient mice but not in LNS patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Correlates of smoking susceptibility among adolescents in a peri-urban area of Nepal: a population-based cross-sectional study in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Umesh R; Petzold, Max; Bondjers, Göran; Krettek, Alexandra

    2014-12-01

    Background Susceptibility to smoking is defined as an absence of firm commitment not to smoke in the future or when offered a cigarette by best friends. Susceptibility begins in adolescence and is the first step in the transition to becoming an established smoker. Many scholars have hypothesized and studied whether psychosocial risk factors play a crucial role in preventing adolescent susceptibility to smoking or discourage susceptible adolescents from becoming established smokers. Our study examined sociodemographic and family and childhood environmental factors associated with smoking susceptibility among adolescents in a peri-urban area of Nepal. Design We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study during October-November 2011 in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site (JD-HDSS) located in a peri-urban area near Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal, where tobacco products are easily available. Trained local enumerators conducted face-to-face interviews with 352 respondents aged 14-16. We used stepwise logistic regression to assess sociodemographic and family and childhood environmental factors associated with smoking susceptibility. Results The percentage of smoking susceptibility among respondents was 49.70% (95% CI: 44.49; 54.93). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that smoking susceptibility was associated with smoking by exposure of adolescents to pro-tobacco advertisements (AOR [adjusted odds ratio] =2.49; 95% CI: 1.46-4.24), the teacher (2.45; 1.28-4.68), adolescents attending concerts/picnics (2.14; 1.13-4.04), and smoking by other family members/relatives (1.76; 1.05-2.95). Conclusions Smoking susceptible adolescents are prevalent in the JD-HDSS, a peri-urban community of Nepal. Several family and childhood environmental factors increased susceptibility to smoking among Nepalese non-smoking adolescents. Therefore, intervention efforts need to be focused on family and childhood environmental factors with emphasis on impact of

  3. Correlates of smoking susceptibility among adolescents in a peri-urban area of Nepal: a population-based cross-sectional study in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Umesh R; Petzold, Max; Bondjers, Göran; Krettek, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Susceptibility to smoking is defined as an absence of firm commitment not to smoke in the future or when offered a cigarette by best friends. Susceptibility begins in adolescence and is the first step in the transition to becoming an established smoker. Many scholars have hypothesized and studied whether psychosocial risk factors play a crucial role in preventing adolescent susceptibility to smoking or discourage susceptible adolescents from becoming established smokers. Our study examined sociodemographic and family and childhood environmental factors associated with smoking susceptibility among adolescents in a peri-urban area of Nepal. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study during October-November 2011 in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site (JD-HDSS) located in a peri-urban area near Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal, where tobacco products are easily available. Trained local enumerators conducted face-to-face interviews with 352 respondents aged 14-16. We used stepwise logistic regression to assess sociodemographic and family and childhood environmental factors associated with smoking susceptibility. The percentage of smoking susceptibility among respondents was 49.70% (95% CI: 44.49; 54.93). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that smoking susceptibility was associated with smoking by exposure of adolescents to pro-tobacco advertisements (AOR [adjusted odds ratio] =2.49; 95% CI: 1.46-4.24), the teacher (2.45; 1.28-4.68), adolescents attending concerts/picnics (2.14; 1.13-4.04), and smoking by other family members/relatives (1.76; 1.05-2.95). Smoking susceptible adolescents are prevalent in the JD-HDSS, a peri-urban community of Nepal. Several family and childhood environmental factors increased susceptibility to smoking among Nepalese non-smoking adolescents. Therefore, intervention efforts need to be focused on family and childhood environmental factors with emphasis on impact of role models smoking, refusal skills in

  4. Fat intake modulates cerebral blood flow in homeostatic and gustatory brain areas in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Sabine; Linder, Katarzyna; Kullmann, Stephanie; Heni, Martin; Ketterer, Caroline; Cavusoglu, Mustafa; Krzeminski, Alina; Fritsche, Andreas; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Preissl, Hubert; Hinrichs, Jörg; Veit, Ralf

    2012-06-01

    The hypothalamus is the central homeostatic control region of the brain and, therefore, highly influenced by nutrients such as glucose and fat. Immediate and prolonged homeostatic effects of glucose ingestion have been well characterized. However, studies that used stimulation with fat have mainly investigated immediate perceptional processes. Besides homeostatic processes, the gustatory cortex, including parts of the insular cortex, is crucial for the processing of food items. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of high- compared with low-fat meals on the hypothalamus and the insular cortex. Eleven healthy men participated in a single-blinded, functional MRI study of high- and low-fat meals on 2 measurement days. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured before and 30 and 120 min after intake of high- and low-fat yogurts. Hunger was rated and blood samples were taken before each CBF measurement. High-fat yogurt induced a pronounced decrease in CBF in the hypothalamus, and the corresponding CBF change correlated positively with the insulin change. Furthermore, insular activity increased after 120 min in the low-fat condition only. The CBF change in both regions correlated positively in the high-fat condition. The decrease in hypothalamic activity and the interaction with the insular cortex elicited by fat may contribute to an efficient energy homeostasis. Therefore, fat might be a modulator of homeostatic and gustatory brain regions and their interaction. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01516021.

  5. Plasticity in unimodal and multimodal brain areas reflects multisensory changes in self-face identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apps, Matthew A J; Tajadura-Jiménez, Ana; Sereno, Marty; Blanke, Olaf; Tsakiris, Manos

    2015-01-01

    Nothing provides as strong a sense of self as seeing one's face. Nevertheless, it remains unknown how the brain processes the sense of self during the multisensory experience of looking at one's face in a mirror. Synchronized visuo-tactile stimulation on one's own and another's face, an experience that is akin to looking in the mirror but seeing another's face, causes the illusory experience of ownership over the other person's face and changes in self-recognition. Here, we investigate the neural correlates of this enfacement illusion using fMRI. We examine activity in the human brain as participants experience tactile stimulation delivered to their face, while observing either temporally synchronous or asynchronous tactile stimulation delivered to another's face on either a specularly congruent or incongruent location. Activity in the multisensory right temporo-parietal junction, intraparietal sulcus, and the unimodal inferior occipital gyrus showed an interaction between the synchronicity and the congruency of the stimulation and varied with the self-reported strength of the illusory experience, which was recorded after each stimulation block. Our results highlight the important interplay between unimodal and multimodal information processing for self-face recognition, and elucidate the neurobiological basis for the plasticity required for identifying with our continuously changing visual appearance. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Different protocols of treadmill exercise induce distinct neuroplastic effects in rat brain motor areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, Caroline C; Garcia, Priscila C; Britto, Luiz R G; Pires, Raquel S

    2015-10-22

    A variety of exercise protocols have been used to promote experimental neuroplasticity. However, the plastic brain responses generated by several aspects of training (types, frequency, regimens, duration) remain undetermined. The aim of this study was to compare the plastic changes in the glutamatergic system and synaptic proteins in motor cortex, striatum and cerebellum promoted by two different treadmill exercise regimens. The present study analyzed by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting the expression of the subunits of AMPA receptors (GluA1 and GluA2/3) and synaptic proteins (synapsin I and synaptophysin) in adult male Wistar rat brains. The animals were divided into animals subjected to two different frequencies of aerobic exercise groups and sedentary animals. The exercise groups were: intermittent treadmill exercise (ITE) - animals that exercised 3 times a week (every other day) during four weeks, and continuous treadmill exercise (CTE) - animals that exercised every day during four weeks. Our results reveal that different protocols of treadmill exercise were able to promote distinct synaptic reorganization processes among the exercised groups. In general, the intermittent exercise regimen induced a higher expression of presynaptic proteins, whereas the continuous exercise regimen increased postsynaptic GluA1 and GluA2/3 receptors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. rTMS stimulation to induce plastic changes at the language motor area in a patient with a left recidivant brain tumor affecting Broca's area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcia, Juan A; Sanz, Ana; González-Hidalgo, Mercedes; de Las Heras, Carmen; Alonso-Lera, Pedro; Díaz, Pedro; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Oliviero, Antonio; Ortiz, Tomás

    2012-01-01

    Extent of resection is one of the most powerful predictors of outcome in surgery of gliomas. Tumors located within areas governing eloquence may impede a total tumor resection. Functional plasticity may be induced by therapeutic means, such as cortical stimulation with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Thus, rTMS is a potential tool to induce an improvement of functions of eloquence menaced by brain tumors. We report a case of a 59-year-old woman operated for a left sided precentral oligodendroglioma with awake intraoperative stimulation, whose tumor could not be completely removed because it affected areas governing language. Nine months later the tumor progressed and the motor language functions worsened. We submitted the patient to rTMS directed to Broca's area, next to the anterior pole of the tumor, with the aim of improving motor language function before a new tumor resection attempt. We performed 12 daily sessions of theta-burst rTMS followed by intensive language rehabilitation for 10 minutes, and 5 different aspects of language were measured before, immediately after and 10 minutes after each session. Repetition and nomination worsened immediately after each rTMS session, and improved after 10 min of rehabilitation. However, basal values improved globally along the experiment. Also, the impact of rTMS on motor language was increasingly less along the procedure. rTMS induces changes in Broca's area and this effect can be potentially used to improve language function in tumors located at or close to eloquent cortical areas.

  8. [Language Functions in the Frontal Association Area: Brain Mechanisms That Create Language].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kayako; Sakai, Kuniyoshi L

    2016-11-01

    Broca's area is known to be critically involved in language processing for more than 150 years. Recent neuroimaging techniques, including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion MRI, enabled the subdivision of Broca's area based on both functional and anatomical aspects. Networks among the frontal association areas, especially the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and other cortical regions in the temporal/parietal association areas, are also important for language-related information processing. Here, we review how neuroimaging studies, combined with research paradigms based on theoretical linguistics, have contributed to clarifying the critical roles of the left IFG in syntactic processing and those of language-related networks, including cortical and cerebellar regions.

  9. Causal evidence for frontal involvement in memory target maintenance by posterior brain areas during distracter interference of visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feredoes, Eva; Heinen, Klaartje; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Ruff, Christian; Driver, Jon

    2011-10-18

    Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is recruited during visual working memory (WM) when relevant information must be maintained in the presence of distracting information. The mechanism by which DLPFC might ensure successful maintenance of the contents of WM is, however, unclear; it might enhance neural maintenance of memory targets or suppress processing of distracters. To adjudicate between these possibilities, we applied time-locked transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) during functional MRI, an approach that permits causal assessment of a stimulated brain region's influence on connected brain regions, and evaluated how this influence may change under different task conditions. Participants performed a visual WM task requiring retention of visual stimuli (faces or houses) across a delay during which visual distracters could be present or absent. When distracters were present, they were always from the opposite stimulus category, so that targets and distracters were represented in distinct posterior cortical areas. We then measured whether DLPFC-TMS, administered in the delay at the time point when distracters could appear, would modulate posterior regions representing memory targets or distracters. We found that DLPFC-TMS influenced posterior areas only when distracters were present and, critically, that this influence consisted of increased activity in regions representing the current memory targets. DLPFC-TMS did not affect regions representing current distracters. These results provide a new line of causal evidence for a top-down DLPFC-based control mechanism that promotes successful maintenance of relevant information in WM in the presence of distraction.

  10. Brain cancer surgery in the language areas of Mandarin-Cantonese bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Han; Bai, Hong-Min; Han, Li-Xin; Li, Tian-Dong; Wang, Guo-Liang; Wang, Wei-Min

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to study methods for protecting the language areas during tumor surgery in Mandarin-Cantonese bilinguals (MCBs). Eleven MCB patients were positioned for awake surgery with the purpose of preserving both of their language proficiencies. All the exposed cortices were electrically stimulated 1 cm x 1 cm with anelectrode, and all the positive sites of stimulation were recorded for analyses, the tumor resection point was limited by 1cm distant from the language areas identified by electrical stimulation. All patients had at least one language area identified; a total of 154 points were stimulated, with 22 positive points (14.3%), including five specific language areas, which all resulted in simple anomiain either language when stimulated. Among these, three were specific to Mandarin (1.9%), whereas two were specific to Cantonese (1.3%). In proficient MBCs, areas specific to each language exist. Thus, performing intraoperative bilingual tasks to locate these language areas is necessary in order to preserve language function.

  11. Functional connectivity between somatosensory and motor brain areas predicts individual differences in motor learning by observing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Heather R; Gribble, Paul L

    2017-08-01

    Action observation can facilitate the acquisition of novel motor skills; however, there is considerable individual variability in the extent to which observation promotes motor learning. Here we tested the hypothesis that individual differences in brain function or structure can predict subsequent observation-related gains in motor learning. Subjects underwent an anatomical MRI scan and resting-state fMRI scans to assess preobservation gray matter volume and preobservation resting-state functional connectivity (FC), respectively. On the following day, subjects observed a video of a tutor adapting her reaches to a novel force field. After observation, subjects performed reaches in a force field as a behavioral assessment of gains in motor learning resulting from observation. We found that individual differences in resting-state FC, but not gray matter volume, predicted postobservation gains in motor learning. Preobservation resting-state FC between left primary somatosensory cortex and bilateral dorsal premotor cortex, primary motor cortex, and primary somatosensory cortex and left superior parietal lobule was positively correlated with behavioral measures of postobservation motor learning. Sensory-motor resting-state FC can thus predict the extent to which observation will promote subsequent motor learning.NEW & NOTEWORTHY We show that individual differences in preobservation brain function can predict subsequent observation-related gains in motor learning. Preobservation resting-state functional connectivity within a sensory-motor network may be used as a biomarker for the extent to which observation promotes motor learning. This kind of information may be useful if observation is to be used as a way to boost neuroplasticity and sensory-motor recovery for patients undergoing rehabilitation for diseases that impair movement such as stroke. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  12. The Rat Homolog of the Schizophrenia Susceptibility Gene ZNF804A Is Highly Expressed during Brain Development, Particularly in Growth Cones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinna, Katja Hvid; Rich, Karen; Fex Svenningsen, Åsa

    2015-01-01

    it decreases towards adult levels. This time point is developmentally the equivalent to the second trimester of fetal development in humans. An exception to this expression pattern is the hippocampus where the expression of Zfp804A appears to increase again in the adult brain. Using laser capture......A single nucleotide polymorphism in the ZNF804A gene, rs1344706, is associated with schizophrenia. The polymorphism has been suggested to alter fetal expression of ZNF804A. It has also been reported to be associated with altered cortical functioning and neural connectivity in the brain. Since...... developmental mechanisms are suggested in the pathophysiology for schizophrenia, expression of Zfp804A, the rat homolog of ZNF804A, was investigated in the developing rat brain. We found that expression of Zfp804A in most brain regions is developmentally regulated and peaks around birth, where after...

  13. Visually guided grasping produces fMRI activation in dorsal but not ventral stream brain areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culham, Jody C; Danckert, Stacey L; DeSouza, Joseph F X; Gati, Joseph S; Menon, Ravi S; Goodale, Melvyn A

    2003-11-01

    Although both reaching and grasping require transporting the hand to the object location, only grasping also requires processing of object shape, size and orientation to preshape the hand. Behavioural and neuropsychological evidence suggests that the object processing required for grasping relies on different neural substrates from those mediating object recognition. Specifically, whereas object recognition is believed to rely on structures in the ventral (occipitotemporal) stream, object grasping appears to rely on structures in the dorsal (occipitoparietal) stream. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to determine whether grasping (compared to reaching) produced activation in dorsal areas, ventral areas, or both. We found greater activity for grasping than reaching in several regions, including anterior intraparietal (AIP) cortex. We also performed a standard object perception localizer (comparing intact vs. scrambled 2D object images) in the same subjects to identify the lateral occipital complex (LOC), a ventral stream area believed to play a critical role in object recognition. Although LOC was activated by the objects presented on both grasping and reaching trials, there was no greater activity for grasping compared to reaching. These results suggest that dorsal areas, including AIP, but not ventral areas such as LOC, play a fundamental role in computing object properties during grasping.

  14. Application of stereological methods to estimate post-mortem brain surface area using 3T MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furlong, Carolyn; García-Fiñana, Marta; Puddephat, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The Cavalieri and Vertical Sections methods of design based stereology were applied in combination with 3 tesla (i.e. 3T) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to estimate cortical and subcortical volume, area of the pial surface, area of the grey-white matter boundary, and thickness of the cerebral...... cortex. The material comprises eight human cadaveric cerebri which had been separated into sixteen cerebral hemisphere specimens prior to embedding in agar gel. The results from MRI were compared with corresponding 'gold standard' values subsequently obtained by application of the same methodology using...... physical sectioning of the specimens. 95% agreement intervals revealed poor agreement between MR imaging and physical sectioning, specially for pial surface and thickness, as well as cerebral cortex and subcortex volumes. On average, pial surface area was estimated to be almost half the extent using MRI...

  15. Verbal fluency deficits and altered lateralization of language brain areas in individuals genetically predisposed to schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhojraj, Tejas S; Francis, Alan N; Rajarethinam, Rajaprabhakaran; Eack, Shaun; Kulkarni, Shreedhar; Prasad, Konasale M; Montrose, Debra M; Dworakowski, Diana; Diwadkar, Vaibhav; Keshavan, Matcheri S

    2009-12-01

    Alterations of verbal fluency may correlate with deficits of gray matter volume and hemispheric lateralization of language brain regions like the pars triangularis (PT) in schizophrenia. Examining non-psychotic individuals at high genetic risk (HR) for schizophrenia may clarify if these deficits represent heritable trait markers or state dependent phenomena. We assessed adolescent and young adult HR subjects (N=60) and healthy controls (HC; N=42) using verbal fluency tests and Freesurfer to process T1-MRI scans. We hypothesized volumetric and lateralization alterations of the PT and their correlation with verbal fluency deficits. HR subjects had letter verbal fluency deficits (controlling for IQ), left PT deficits (p=.00), (controlling ICV) and reversal of the L>R PT asymmetry noted in HC. Right Heschl's (p=.00), left supramarginal (p=.00) and right angular gyrii (p=.02) were also reduced in HR subjects. The L>R asymmetry of the Heschl's gyrus seen in HC was exaggerated and asymmetries of L>R of supramarginal and R>L of angular gyri, seen in HC were attenuated in HR subjects. L>R asymmetry of the PT predicted better verbal fluency across the pooled HR and HC groups. Young relatives of schizophrenia patients have verbal fluency deficits, gray matter volume deficits and reversed asymmetry of the pars triangularis. A reversed structural asymmetry of the PT in HR subjects may impair expressive language abilities leading to verbal fluency deficits. Volumetric deficits and altered asymmetry in inferior parietal and Heschl's gyrii may accompany genetic liability to schizophrenia.

  16. Functional mapping–guided resection of low-grade gliomas in eloquent areas of the brain: improvement of long-term survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Edward F.; Clark, Aaron; Smith, Justin S.; Polley, Mei-Yin; Chang, Susan M.; Barbaro, Nicholas M.; Parsa, Andrew T.; McDermott, Michael W.; Berger, Mitchel S.

    2013-01-01

    Object Low-grade gliomas (LGGs) frequently infiltrate highly functional or “eloquent” brain areas. Given the lack of long-term survival data, the prognostic significance of eloquent brain tumor location and the role of functional mapping during resective surgery in presumed eloquent brain regions are unknown. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of 281 cases involving adults who underwent resection of a supratentorial LGG at a brain tumor referral center. Preoperative MR images were evaluated blindly for involvement of eloquent brain areas, including the sensorimotor and language cortices, and specific subcortical structures. For high-risk tumors located in presumed eloquent brain areas, long-term survival estimates were evaluated for patients who underwent intraoperative functional mapping with electrocortical stimulation and for those who did not. Results One hundred and seventy-four patients (62%) had high-risk LGGs that were located in presumed eloquent areas. Adjusting for other known prognostic factors, patients with tumors in areas presumed to be eloquent had worse overall and progression-free survival (OS, hazard ratio [HR] 6.1, 95% CI 2.6–14.1; PFS, HR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2–2.9; Cox proportional hazards). Confirmation of tumor overlapping functional areas during intraoperative mapping was strongly associated with shorter survival (OS, HR 9.6, 95% CI 3.6–25.9). In contrast, when mapping revealed that tumor spared true eloquent areas, patients had significantly longer survival, nearly comparable to patients with tumors that clearly involved only noneloquent areas, as demonstrated by preoperative imaging (OS, HR 2.9, 95% CI 1.0–8.5). Conclusions Presumed eloquent location of LGGs is an important but modifiable risk factor predicting disease progression and death. Delineation of true functional and nonfunctional areas by intraoperative mapping in high-risk patients to maximize tumor resection can dramatically improve long-term survival. PMID

  17. The effects of anaesthetic agents on cortical mapping during neurosurgical procedures involving eloquent areas of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikary, Sanjib D; Thiruvenkatarajan, Venkatesan; Babu, K Srinivasa; Tharyan, Prathap

    2011-11-09

    neurosurgery under general anaesthesia where cortical mapping was attempted to identify eloquent areas using either somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs), or direct cortical stimulation (DCS) triggered muscle motor evoked potentials (mMEPs), or both. We excluded patients from trials where the anaesthetic effects were evaluated during spinal cord surgery or where MEPs were recorded from modes other than direct cortical stimulation such as transcranial electrical stimulation (TcMEPs), MEPs derived from epidural electrodes (D waves) and magnetic stimulation and trials involving awake craniotomies or the asleep-awake-asleep technique during cortical mapping. Two review authors planned to independently apply the inclusion criteria and extract data. No RCTs were found for this study population. This review highlights the need for well-designed randomised controlled trials to assess the effect of anaesthetic agents on cortical mapping during neurosurgical procedures involving eloquent areas of the brain.

  18. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... control specific body functions such as sleep and speech. The brain continues maturing well into a person's ... as in areas of the brain that control movement. When electrical signals are abnormal, they can cause ...

  19. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it increases the chance that the neuron will fire. This enhances the electrical flow among brain cells ... This area of the brain also helps to control the amygdala during stressful events. Some research shows ...

  20. Global deprivation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the CNS reveals an area-specific requirement for dendritic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauskolb, Stefanie; Zagrebelsky, Marta; Dreznjak, Anita; Deogracias, Rubén; Matsumoto, Tomoya; Wiese, Stefan; Erne, Beat; Sendtner, Michael; Schaeren-Wiemers, Nicole; Korte, Martin; Barde, Yves-Alain

    2010-02-03

    Although brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is linked with an increasing number of conditions causing brain dysfunction, its role in the postnatal CNS has remained difficult to assess. This is because the bdnf-null mutation causes the death of the animals before BDNF levels have reached adult levels. In addition, the anterograde axonal transport of BDNF complicates the interpretation of area-specific gene deletion. The present study describes the generation of a new conditional mouse mutant essentially lacking BDNF throughout the CNS. It shows that BDNF is not essential for prolonged postnatal survival, but that the behavior of such mutant animals is markedly altered. It also reveals that BDNF is not a major survival factor for most CNS neurons and for myelination of their axons. However, it is required for the postnatal growth of the striatum, and single-cell analyses revealed a marked decreased in dendritic complexity and spine density. In contrast, BDNF is dispensable for the growth of the hippocampus and only minimal changes were observed in the dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons in mutant animals. Spine density remained unchanged, whereas the proportion of the mushroom-type spine was moderately decreased. In line with these in vivo observations, we found that BDNF markedly promotes the growth of cultured striatal neurons and of their dendrites, but not of those of hippocampal neurons, suggesting that the differential responsiveness to BDNF is part of a neuron-intrinsic program.

  1. Norepinephrine content in discrete brain areas and neurohypophysial vasopressin in rats after a 9-d spaceflight (SLS-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fareh, Jeannette; Cottet-Emard, Jean-Marie; Pequignot, Jean-Marc; Jahns, Gary; Meylor, John; Viso, Michel; Vassaux, Didier; Gauquelin, Guillemette; Gharib, Claude

    1993-01-01

    The norepinephrine (NE) content in discrete brain areas and the vasopressin content in the neurohypophysial system were assessed in rats after a 9-d spaceflight and after a recovery period. The NE content in the locus coeruleus decreased significantly in spaceflight rats, but showed no difference between control and flight animals after a 9-d recovery. These findings were probably due to an acute stress undergone during landing. The NE content was unchanged in the A2 and A5 cell groups. In rats flown aboard SLS-1, the vasopressin content was increased in the posterior pituitary, and was significantly decreased in the hypothalamus. We conclude that the NE depletion in the locus coeruleus and the alteration in vasopressin release were consistent with an acute stress, likely occurring during and/or after landing. These changes tend to mask the actual neuroendocrine modifications caused by microgravity.

  2. Permeability surface area product analysis in malignant brain edema prediction - A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volny, O; Cimflova, P; Lee, T-Y; Menon, B K; d'Esterre, C D

    2017-05-15

    Using an extended CT perfusion acquisition (150s), we sought to determine the association between perfusion parameters and malignant edema after ischemic stroke. Patients (from prospective study PROVE-IT, NCT02184936) with terminal internal carotid artery±proximal middle cerebral occlusion were involved. CTA was assessed for clot location and status of leptomeningeal collaterals. The following CTP parameters were calculated within the ischemic territory and contralaterally: permeability surface area product (PS), cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral blood volume (CBV). PS was calculated using the adiabatic approximation to the Johnson and Wilson model. Outcome was evaluated by midline shift and infarction volume on follow-up imaging. Of 200 patients enrolled, 7 patients (3.5%) had midline shift≥5mm (2 excluded for poor-quality scans). Five patients with midline shift and 5 matched controls were analysed. There was no significant difference in mean PS, CBF and CBV within the ischemic territory between the two groups. A CBV threshold of 1.7ml/100g had the highest AUC=0.72, 95% CI=0.54-0.90 for early midline shift prediction, sensitivity and specificity were 0.83 and 0.67 respectively. Our preliminary results did not show significant differences in permeability surface area analysis if analysed for complete ischemic region. CBV parameter had the highest accuracy and there was a trend for the mean PS values for midline shift prediction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition in cognition-relevant brain areas of mice treated with a nootropic Amazonian herbal (Marapuama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiró, M; Ilha, J; Pochmann, D; Porciúncula, L O; Xavier, L L; Achaval, M; Nunes, D S; Elisabetsky, E

    2010-10-01

    The goal of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) used to treat Alzheimer's patients is an improvement in cholinergic transmission. While currently available AChEIs have limited success, a huge impediment to the development of newer ones is access to the relevant brain areas. Promnesic, anti-amnesic and AChEI properties were identified in a standardized ethanol extract from Ptychopetalum olacoides (POEE), a medicinal plant favored by the elderly in Amazon communities. The purpose of this study was to provide conclusive evidence that orally given POEE induces AChE inhibition in brain areas relevant to cognition. Histochemistry experiments confirmed that the anticholinesterase compound(s) present in POEE are orally bioavailable, inducing meaningful AChE inhibition in the hippocampus CA1 (∼33%) and CA3 (∼20%), and striatum (∼17%). Ellman's colorimetric analysis revealed that G1 and G4 AChE isoforms activities were markedly inhibited (66 and 72%, respectively) in hippocampus and frontal cortex (50 and 63%, respectively), while G4 appeared to be selectively inhibited (72%) in the striatum. Western blotting showed that POEE did not induce significant changes in the AChE immunocontent suggesting that its synthesis is not extensively modified. This study provides definitive proof of meaningful anticholinesterase activity compatible with the observed promnesic and anti-amnesic effects of POEE in mice, reaffirming the potential of this extract for treating neurodegenerative conditions where a hypofunctioning cholinergic neurotransmission is prominent. Adequate assessment of the safety and efficacy of this extract and/or its isolated active compound(s) are warranted. 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Development traumatic brain injury computer user interface for disaster area in Indonesia supported by emergency broadband access network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutiono, Agung Budi; Suwa, Hirohiko; Ohta, Toshizumi; Arifin, Muh Zafrullah; Kitamura, Yohei; Yoshida, Kazunari; Merdika, Daduk; Qiantori, Andri; Iskandar

    2012-12-01

    Disasters bring consequences of negative impacts on the environment and human life. One of the common cause of critical condition is traumatic brain injury (TBI), namely, epidural (EDH) and subdural hematoma (SDH), due to downfall hard things during earthquake. We proposed and analyzed the user response, namely neurosurgeon, general doctor/surgeon and nurse when they interacted with TBI computer interface. The communication systems was supported by TBI web based applications using emergency broadband access network with tethered balloon and simulated in the field trial to evaluate the coverage area. The interface consisted of demography data and multi tabs for anamnesis, treatment, follow up and teleconference interfaces. The interface allows neurosurgeon, surgeon/general doctors and nurses to entry the EDH and SDH patient's data during referring them on the emergency simulation and evaluated based on time needs and their understanding. The average time needed was obtained after simulated by Lenovo T500 notebook using mouse; 8-10 min for neurosurgeons, 12-15 min for surgeons/general doctors and 15-19 min for nurses. By using Think Pad X201 Tablet, the time needed for entry data was 5-7 min for neurosurgeon, 7-10 min for surgeons/general doctors and 12-16 min for nurses. We observed that the time difference was depending on the computer type and user literacy qualification as well as their understanding on traumatic brain injury, particularly for the nurses. In conclusion, there are five data classification for simply TBI GUI, namely, 1) demography, 2) specific anamnesis for EDH and SDH, 3) treatment action and medicine of TBI, 4) follow up data display and 5) teleneurosurgery for streaming video consultation. The type of computer, particularly tablet PC was more convenient and faster for entry data, compare to that computer mouse touched pad. Emergency broadband access network using tethered balloon is possible to be employed to cover the communications systems in

  5. Brain tumor - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...

  6. Incidence of Brain Infarcts, Cognitive Change, and Risk of Dementia in the General Population: The AGES-Reykjavik Study (Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Aspelund, Thor; Kjartansson, Olafur; Gudmundsson, Elias F; Jonsdottir, Maria K; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Jonsson, Palmi V; van Buchem, Mark A; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Launer, Lenore J

    2017-09-01

    The differentiation of brain infarcts by region is important because their cause and clinical implications may differ. Information on the incidence of these lesions and association with cognition and dementia from longitudinal population studies is scarce. We investigated the incidence of infarcts in cortical, subcortical, cerebellar, and overall brain regions and how prevalent and incident infarcts associate with cognitive change and incident dementia. Participants (n=2612, 41% men, mean age 74.6±4.8) underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging for the assessment of infarcts and cognitive testing at baseline and on average 5.2 years later. Incident dementia was assessed according to the international guidelines. Twenty-one percent of the study participants developed new infarcts. The risk of incident infarcts in men was higher than the risk in women (1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-2.3). Persons with both incident and prevalent infarcts showed steeper cognitive decline and had almost double relative risk of incident dementia (1.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-2.2) compared with those without infarcts. Persons with new subcortical infarcts had the highest risk of incident dementia compared with those without infarcts (2.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.9-3.4). Men are at greater risk of developing incident brain infarcts than women. Persons with incident brain infarcts decline faster in cognition and have an increased risk of dementia compared with those free of infarcts. Incident subcortical infarcts contribute more than cortical and cerebellar infarcts to incident dementia which may indicate that infarcts of small vessel disease origin contribute more to the development of dementia than infarcts of embolic origin in larger vessels. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Brain-responsive neurostimulation in patients with medically intractable seizures arising from eloquent and other neocortical areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobst, Barbara C; Kapur, Ritu; Barkley, Gregory L; Bazil, Carl W; Berg, Michel J; Bergey, Gregory K; Boggs, Jane G; Cash, Sydney S; Cole, Andrew J; Duchowny, Michael S; Duckrow, Robert B; Edwards, Jonathan C; Eisenschenk, Stephan; Fessler, A James; Fountain, Nathan B; Geller, Eric B; Goldman, Alica M; Goodman, Robert R; Gross, Robert E; Gwinn, Ryder P; Heck, Christianne; Herekar, Aamr A; Hirsch, Lawrence J; King-Stephens, David; Labar, Douglas R; Marsh, W R; Meador, Kimford J; Miller, Ian; Mizrahi, Eli M; Murro, Anthony M; Nair, Dileep R; Noe, Katherine H; Olejniczak, Piotr W; Park, Yong D; Rutecki, Paul; Salanova, Vicenta; Sheth, Raj D; Skidmore, Christopher; Smith, Michael C; Spencer, David C; Srinivasan, Shraddha; Tatum, William; Van Ness, Paul; Vossler, David G; Wharen, Robert E; Worrell, Gregory A; Yoshor, Daniel; Zimmerman, Richard S; Skarpaas, Tara L; Morrell, Martha J

    2017-06-01

    Evaluate the seizure-reduction response and safety of brain-responsive stimulation in adults with medically intractable partial-onset seizures of neocortical origin. Patients with partial seizures of neocortical origin were identified from prospective clinical trials of a brain-responsive neurostimulator (RNS System, NeuroPace). The seizure reduction over years 2-6 postimplantation was calculated by assessing the seizure frequency compared to a preimplantation baseline. Safety was assessed based on reported adverse events. Additional analyses considered safety and seizure reduction according to lobe and functional area (e.g., eloquent cortex) of seizure onset. There were 126 patients with seizures of neocortical onset. The average follow-up was 6.1 implant years. The median percent seizure reduction was 70% in patients with frontal and parietal seizure onsets, 58% in those with temporal neocortical onsets, and 51% in those with multilobar onsets (last observation carried forward [LOCF] analysis). Twenty-six percent of patients experienced at least one seizure-free period of 6 months or longer and 14% experienced at least one seizure-free period of 1 year or longer. Patients with lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; 77% reduction, LOCF) and those with normal MRI findings (45% reduction, LOCF) benefitted, although the treatment response was more robust in patients with an MRI lesion (p = 0.02, generalized estimating equation [GEE]). There were no differences in the seizure reduction in patients with and without prior epilepsy surgery or vagus nerve stimulation. Stimulation parameters used for treatment did not cause acute or chronic neurologic deficits, even in eloquent cortical areas. The rates of infection (0.017 per patient implant year) and perioperative hemorrhage (0.8%) were not greater than with other neurostimulation devices. Brain-responsive stimulation represents a safe and effective treatment option for patients with medically intractable

  8. Vascular malformation mimicking multiple sclerosis active plaque: Usefulness of susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) to perform correct diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Marsecano, Claudia; Perri, Marco; Michelini, Giulia; Varrassi, Marco; Splendiani, Alessandra; Di Cesare, Ernesto; Masciocchi, Carlo; Gallucci, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Brain focal hyperdensity areas are common findings in computed tomography examinations, often further evaluated in magnetic resonance imaging exams. These are usually haemosiderin and calcified perivascular clusters known as cerebral microbleeds and may be secondary signs of brain disorders. Cerebral microbleeds are paramagnetic and ferromagnetic substances determining magnetic field inhomogeneity. Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) performed at 3T with phase post-processing is very useful...

  9. Cytopatholologic features of gliosarcoma with areas of primitive neuroepithelial differentiation of the brain in squash smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Toshitetsu; Kushida, Yoshio; Kadota, Kyuichi; Katsuki, Naomi; Bando, Kenji; Miyai, Yumi; Funamoto, Yasunobu; Haba, Reiji

    2009-12-01

    Gliosarcoma with areas of primitive neuroepithelial differentiation (GSPNED) is an extremely rare neoplasm. A case is presented here in which squash smears of a left temporal lobe tumor in a 76-year-old male demonstrated two distinct and easily recognizable cellular populations, i.e., densely hyperchromatic cells of a primitive nature in a fibrillary background and pleomorphic spindle-shaped cells. Occasional pseudo-rosette formations and nuclear cannibalism suggestive of neuroendocrine differentiation were also found. A cytologic diagnosis of a malignant tumor was suggested, and histochemical and immunohistochemical studies were conducted on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded material. Reticulin stain highlighted increased intercellular collagen and reticulin deposition within the spindled regions, whereas nodules with primitive cells were reticulin-poor. There was a diffuse and strong reactivity to neuron specific enolase, synaptophysin and CD56 immunostains. A stain for glial fibrillary acidic protein and S-100 protein demonstrated a subset of tumor cells including elongated cytoplasmic processes. The spindled component was positive for vimentin and smooth muscle actin, whereas the primitive-appearing tumor cells were negative. The diagnosis of GSPNED was confirmed based on cytopathologic, histopathological and immunohistochemical results. The cytomorphologic features of this distinctive tumor are illustrated, and the adjunctival value of squash smears for frozen-section diagnosis is also discussed. This is the first presentation of a cytopathologic analysis that provides an important clue to an accurate diagnosis of GSPNED.

  10. Iron Deposition Is Positively Related to Cognitive Impairment in Patients with Chronic Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Assessment with Susceptibility Weighted Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Liyan; Cao, Heli; Wei, Xiaoer; Li, Yuehua; Li, Wenbin

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the usability of SWI in assessment of brain iron to detect cognitive dysfunction in patients with chronic mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). 39 patients with mTBI and 37 normal controls were given the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and underwent SWI scanning at least 6 months after injury. Angle radian values were calculated with phase images. The angle radian values were compared between groups using analysis of covariance, and their association with MMSE scores was analyzed using Spearman correlations. Significantly higher angle radian values (p radian values in the right substantia nigra (r = -0.685, p radian values in the right substantia nigra, suggesting a role of SWI in the assessment of cognitive impairments of these patients.

  11. Survival and growth of neurons with enkephalin-like immunoreactivity in fetal brain areas grafted to the anterior chamber of the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björklund, H; Hoffer, B J; Palmer, M R; Seiger, A; Olson, L

    1983-12-01

    Areas of fetal rat brain and spinal cord known to contain enkephalin-like immunoreactive cell bodies and/or terminal fields were transplanted to the anterior chamber of the eye of adult rats. Enkephalin-like immunoreactive neurons survive and produce an enkephalin-like immunoreactive fiber network within grafts of spinal cord, ventral medulla oblongata, ventrolateral pons, tectum, locus coeruleus, substantia nigra and the areas containing columna fornicis and globus pallidus. Although single intraocular grafts of neocortex do not apparently contain enkephalin-like immunoreactive fibers, such grafts contain a variable amount of sparsely distributed enkephalin-like fibers when sequentially grafted in oculo with either locus coeruleus or spinal cord. Combinations of locus coeruleus and globus pallidus contained a rich enkephalin fiber network in the locus coeruleus part and a sparse innervation of the globus pallidus part. We conclude that enkephalin-like immunoreactive neurons in small areas of fetal rat brain can be successfully transplanted to the anterior chamber of the eye. They are able to survive and develop to maturity in complete isolation from the rest of the brain. In general, the enkephalin-like immunoreactive fiber density in the various single grafts approximated that of their brain counterparts in situ. Fiber formation can be reinitiated in mature enkephalin-like immunoreactive neurons by addition of new brain target areas. Thus, the technique permits establishment of isolated, defined enkephalin systems and pathways accessible to functional analysis.

  12. Fastidious anaerobe agar compared with Wilkins-Chalgren agar, brain heart infusion agar, and brucella agar for susceptibility testing of Fusobacterium species.

    OpenAIRE

    Brazier, J S; Goldstein, E J; Citron, D M; Ostovari, M I

    1990-01-01

    Fastidious anaerobe agar supported the growth of 82 strains of fusobacteria better than brain heart infusion agar, brucella agar, and Wilkins-Chalgren agar. Fastidious anaerobe agar showed less hazing and fewer tailing endpoints with beta-lactam antibiotics. Whole-blood supplementation improved the performance of all media. Wilkins-Chalgren agar without blood failed to support the growth of 17% of the strains. All Fusobacterium ulcerans strains were resistant to clindamycin.

  13. Effects of thyroid status on NEI concentration in specific brain areas related to reproduction during the estrous cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Carolina; Pennacchio, Gisela Erika; Soaje, Marta; Carreño, Norma Beatriz; Bittencourt, Jakson Cioni; Jahn, Graciela Alma; Celis, María Ester; Valdez, Susana Ruth

    2013-11-01

    We previously showed that short-term hypo- and hyperthyroidism induce changes in neuropeptide glutamic-acid-isoleucine-amide (NEI) concentrations in discrete brain areas in male rats. To investigate the possible effects of hypo- and hyperthyroidism on NEI concentrations mainly in hypothalamic areas related to reproduction and behavior, female rats were sacrificed at different days of the estrous cycle. Circulating luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol and progesterone concentrations were measured in control, hypothyroid (hypoT, treated with PTU during 7-9 days) and hyperthyroid (hyperT, l-T4 during 4-7 days) animals. Both treatments blunted the LH surge. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism increased estradiol concentrations during proestrus afternoon (P-PM), although hypoT rats showed lower values compared to control during proestrus morning (P-AM). Progesterone levels were higher in all groups at P-PM and in the hyperT during diestrus morning (D2). NEI concentrations were lower in hypoT rats during the estrous cycle except in estrus (E) in the peduncular part of the lateral hypothalamus (PLH). They were also reduced by both treatments in the perifornical part of the lateral hypothalamus (PeFLH) during P-PM. Hypothyroidism led to higher NEI concentrations during P-PM in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and anteroventral periventricular nucleus (OVLT+AVPV). The present results indicate that NEI concentration is regulated in a complex manner by hypo- and hyperthyroidism in the different areas studied, suggesting a correlation between NEI values and the variations of gonadal steroid levels during estrous cycle. These changes could be, in part, responsible for the alterations observed in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in these pathologies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... another important research tool in understanding how the brain functions. Another type of brain scan called magnetoencephalography, or ... highly developed area at the front of the brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as judgment, decision making and problem solving, ...

  15. Developmental differences in the brain response to unhealthy food cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van Floor; Laan, van der Laura N.; Charbonnier, Lisette; Viergever, Max A.; Adan, Roger A.H.; Smeets, Paul A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food cues are omnipresent and may trigger overconsumption. In the past 2 decades, the prevalence of childhood obesity has increased dramatically. Because children's brains are still developing, especially in areas important for inhibition, children may be more susceptible than adults

  16. Molecular evolution of the human SRPX2 gene that causes brain disorders of the Rolandic and Sylvian speech areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levasseur Anthony

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The X-linked SRPX2 gene encodes a Sushi Repeat-containing Protein of unknown function and is mutated in two disorders of the Rolandic/Sylvian speech areas. Since it is linked to defects in the functioning and the development of brain areas for speech production, SRPX2 may thus have participated in the adaptive organization of such brain regions. To address this issue, we have examined the recent molecular evolution of the SRPX2 gene. Results The complete coding region was sequenced in 24 human X chromosomes from worldwide populations and in six representative nonhuman primate species. One single, fixed amino acid change (R75K has been specifically incorporated in human SRPX2 since the human-chimpanzee split. The R75K substitution occurred in the first sushi domain of SRPX2, only three amino acid residues away from a previously reported disease-causing mutation (Y72S. Three-dimensional structural modeling of the first sushi domain revealed that Y72 and K75 are both situated in the hypervariable loop that is usually implicated in protein-protein interactions. The side-chain of residue 75 is exposed, and is located within an unusual and SRPX-specific protruding extension to the hypervariable loop. The analysis of non-synonymous/synonymous substitution rate (Ka/Ks ratio in primates was performed in order to test for positive selection during recent evolution. Using the branch models, the Ka/Ks ratio for the human branch was significantly different (p = 0.027 from that of the other branches. In contrast, the branch-site tests did not reach significance. Genetic analysis was also performed by sequencing 9,908 kilobases (kb of intronic SRPX2 sequences. Despite low nucleotide diversity, neither the HKA (Hudson-Kreitman-Aguadé test nor the Tajima's D test reached significance. Conclusion The R75K human-specific variation occurred in an important functional loop of the first sushi domain of SRPX2, indicating that this evolutionary

  17. Iron Deposition Is Positively Related to Cognitive Impairment in Patients with Chronic Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Assessment with Susceptibility Weighted Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyan Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study aimed to evaluate the usability of SWI in assessment of brain iron to detect cognitive dysfunction in patients with chronic mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI. Methods. 39 patients with mTBI and 37 normal controls were given the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and underwent SWI scanning at least 6 months after injury. Angle radian values were calculated with phase images. The angle radian values were compared between groups using analysis of covariance, and their association with MMSE scores was analyzed using Spearman correlations. Results. Significantly higher angle radian values (p<0.05 were found in the head of the caudate nucleus, the lenticular nucleus, the hippocampus, the thalamus, the right substantia nigra, the red nucleus, and the splenium of the corpus callosum (SCC in the mTBI group, compared to the control group. MMSE scores were negatively correlated with angle radian values in the right substantia nigra (r=-0.685, p<0.001. Conclusions. Patients with chronic mTBI might have abnormally high accumulations of iron, and their MMSE scores are negatively associated with angle radian values in the right substantia nigra, suggesting a role of SWI in the assessment of cognitive impairments of these patients.

  18. Brain and muscle Arnt-like protein-1 (BMAL1) controls circadian cell proliferation and susceptibility to UVB-induced DNA damage in the epidermis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyfman, Mikhail; Kumar, Vivek; Liu, Qiang; Ruiz, Rolando; Gordon, William; Espitia, Francisco; Cam, Eric; Millar, Sarah E.; Smyth, Padhraic; Ihler, Alexander; Takahashi, Joseph S.; Andersen, Bogi

    2012-01-01

    The role of the circadian clock in skin and the identity of genes participating in its chronobiology remain largely unknown, leading us to define the circadian transcriptome of mouse skin at two different stages of the hair cycle, telogen and anagen. The circadian transcriptomes of telogen and anagen skin are largely distinct, with the former dominated by genes involved in cell proliferation and metabolism. The expression of many metabolic genes is antiphasic to cell cycle-related genes, the former peaking during the day and the latter at night. Consistently, accumulation of reactive oxygen species, a byproduct of oxidative phosphorylation, and S-phase are antiphasic to each other in telogen skin. Furthermore, the circadian variation in S-phase is controlled by BMAL1 intrinsic to keratinocytes, because keratinocyte-specific deletion of Bmal1 obliterates time-of-day–dependent synchronicity of cell division in the epidermis leading to a constitutively elevated cell proliferation. In agreement with higher cellular susceptibility to UV-induced DNA damage during S-phase, we found that mice are most sensitive to UVB-induced DNA damage in the epidermis at night. Because in the human epidermis maximum numbers of keratinocytes go through S-phase in the late afternoon, we speculate that in humans the circadian clock imposes regulation of epidermal cell proliferation so that skin is at a particularly vulnerable stage during times of maximum UV exposure, thus contributing to the high incidence of human skin cancers. PMID:22753467

  19. Comparison of occupational exposure assessment methods in a case-control study of lead, genetic susceptibility and risk of adult brain tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Parveen; Stewart, Patricia A.; Linet, Martha S.; Blair, Aaron; Inskip, Peter D.; Rajaraman, Preetha

    2013-01-01

    Objectives There is great interest in evaluating gene-environment interactions with chemical exposures, but exposure assessment poses a unique challenge in case-control studies. Expert assessment of detailed work history data is usually considered the best approach, but it is a laborious and time-consuming process. We set out to determine if a less intensive method of exposure assessment (a job exposure matrix [JEM]) would produce similar results to a previous analysis that found evidence of effect modification between expert assessed-lead exposure and risk of brain tumors by a single nucleotide polymorphism in the ALAD gene (rs1800435). Methods We used data from a study of 355 patients with glioma, 151 patients with meningioma and 505 controls. Logistic regression models were used to examine associations between brain tumor risk and lead exposure and effect modification by genotype. We evaluated Cohen’s kappa, sensitivity and specificity for the JEM compared to the expert-assessed exposure metrics. Results Although effect estimates were imprecise and driven by a small number of cases, we found evidence of effect modification between lead exposure and ALAD genotype when using expert- but not JEM-derived lead exposure estimates. Kappa values indicated only modest agreement (exposure metrics, with the JEM indicating high specificity (~0.9) but poor sensitivity (~0.5). Disagreement between the two methods was generally due to having additional information in the detailed work history. Conclusion These results provide preliminary evidence suggesting that high quality exposure data are likely to improve the ability to detect genetic effect modification. PMID:20798009

  20. Regulation of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Exocytosis and Gamma-Aminobutyric Acidergic Interneuron Synapse by the Schizophrenia Susceptibility Gene Dysbindin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qiang; Yang, Feng; Xiao, Yixin; Tan, Shawn; Husain, Nilofer; Ren, Ming; Hu, Zhonghua; Martinowich, Keri; Ng, Julia S; Kim, Paul J; Han, Weiping; Nagata, Koh-Ichi; Weinberger, Daniel R; Je, H Shawn

    2016-08-15

    Genetic variations in dystrobrevin binding protein 1 (DTNBP1 or dysbindin-1) have been implicated as risk factors in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. The encoded protein dysbindin-1 functions in the regulation of synaptic activity and synapse development. Intriguingly, a loss of function mutation in Dtnbp1 in mice disrupted both glutamatergic and gamma-aminobutyric acidergic transmission in the cerebral cortex; pyramidal neurons displayed enhanced excitability due to reductions in inhibitory synaptic inputs. However, the mechanism by which reduced dysbindin-1 activity causes inhibitory synaptic deficits remains unknown. We investigated the role of dysbindin-1 in the exocytosis of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) from cortical excitatory neurons, organotypic brain slices, and acute slices from dysbindin-1 mutant mice and determined how this change in BDNF exocytosis transsynaptically affected the number of inhibitory synapses formed on excitatory neurons via whole-cell recordings, immunohistochemistry, and live-cell imaging using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. A decrease in dysbindin-1 reduces the exocytosis of BDNF from cortical excitatory neurons, and this reduction in BDNF exocytosis transsynaptically resulted in reduced inhibitory synapse numbers formed on excitatory neurons. Furthermore, application of exogenous BDNF rescued the inhibitory synaptic deficits caused by the reduced dysbindin-1 level in both cultured cortical neurons and slice cultures. Taken together, our results demonstrate that these two genes linked to risk for schizophrenia (BDNF and dysbindin-1) function together to regulate interneuron development and cortical network activity. This evidence supports the investigation of the association between dysbindin-1 and BDNF in humans with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Accuracy of magnetic resonance based susceptibility measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdevig, Hannah E.; Russek, Stephen E.; Carnicka, Slavka; Stupic, Karl F.; Keenan, Kathryn E.

    2017-05-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is increasingly used to map the magnetic susceptibility of tissue to identify cerebral microbleeds associated with traumatic brain injury and pathological iron deposits associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Accurate measurements of susceptibility are important for determining oxygen and iron content in blood vessels and brain tissue for use in noninvasive clinical diagnosis and treatment assessments. Induced magnetic fields with amplitude on the order of 100 nT, can be detected using MRI phase images. The induced field distributions can then be inverted to obtain quantitative susceptibility maps. The focus of this research was to determine the accuracy of MRI-based susceptibility measurements using simple phantom geometries and to compare the susceptibility measurements with magnetometry measurements where SI-traceable standards are available. The susceptibilities of paramagnetic salt solutions in cylindrical containers were measured as a function of orientation relative to the static MRI field. The observed induced fields as a function of orientation of the cylinder were in good agreement with simple models. The MRI susceptibility measurements were compared with SQUID magnetometry using NIST-traceable standards. MRI can accurately measure relative magnetic susceptibilities while SQUID magnetometry measures absolute magnetic susceptibility. Given the accuracy of moment measurements of tissue mimicking samples, and the need to look at small differences in tissue properties, the use of existing NIST standard reference materials to calibrate MRI reference structures is problematic and better reference materials are required.

  2. Functional Circuitry Effect of Ventral Tegmental Area Deep Brain Stimulation: Imaging and Neurochemical Evidence of Mesocortical and Mesolimbic Pathway Modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settell, Megan L; Testini, Paola; Cho, Shinho; Lee, Jannifer H; Blaha, Charles D; Jo, Hang J; Lee, Kendall H; Min, Hoon-Ki

    2017-01-01

    Background: The ventral tegmental area (VTA), containing mesolimbic and mesocortical dopaminergic neurons, is implicated in processes involving reward, addiction, reinforcement, and learning, which are associated with a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. Electrical stimulation of the VTA or the medial forebrain bundle and its projection target the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is reported to improve depressive symptoms in patients affected by severe, treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD) and depressive-like symptoms in animal models of depression. Here we sought to determine the neuromodulatory effects of VTA deep brain stimulation (DBS) in a normal large animal model (swine) by combining neurochemical measurements with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods: Animals (n = 8 swine) were implanted with a unilateral DBS electrode targeting the VTA. During stimulation (130 Hz frequency, 0.25 ms pulse width, and 3 V amplitude), fMRI was performed. Following fMRI, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in combination with carbon fiber microelectrodes was performed to quantify VTA-DBS-evoked dopamine release in the ipsilateral NAc. In a subset of swine, the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) percent change evoked by stimulation was performed at increasing voltages (1, 2, and 3 V). Results: A significant increase in VTA-DBS-evoked BOLD signal was found in the following regions: the ipsilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior and posterior cingulate, insula, premotor cortex, primary somatosensory cortex, and striatum. A decrease in the BOLD signal was also observed in the contralateral parahippocampal cortex, dorsolateral and anterior prefrontal cortex, insula, inferior temporal gyrus, and primary somatosensory cortex (Bonferroni-corrected modulation of the neural circuitry associated with VTA-DBS was characterized in a large animal. Our findings suggest that VTA-DBS could affect the activity of neural systems and brain regions implicated in

  3. Moderate exercise and chronic stress produce counteractive effects on different areas of the brain by acting through various neurotransmitter receptor subtypes: A hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saha Asit K

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular, "moderate", physical exercise is an established non-pharmacological form of treatment for depressive disorders. Brain lateralization has a significant role in the progress of depression. External stimuli such as various stressors or exercise influence the higher functions of the brain (cognition and affect. These effects often do not follow a linear course. Therefore, nonlinear dynamics seem best suited for modeling many of the phenomena, and putative global pathways in the brain, attributable to such external influences. Hypothesis The general hypothesis presented here considers only the nonlinear aspects of the effects produced by "moderate" exercise and "chronic" stressors, but does not preclude the possibility of linear responses. In reality, both linear and nonlinear mechanisms may be involved in the final outcomes. The well-known neurotransmitters serotonin (5-HT, dopamine (D and norepinephrine (NE all have various receptor subtypes. The article hypothesizes that 'Stress' increases the activity/concentration of some particular subtypes of receptors (designated nts for each of the known (and unknown neurotransmitters in the right anterior (RA and left posterior (LP regions (cortical and subcortical of the brain, and has the converse effects on a different set of receptor subtypes (designated nth. In contrast, 'Exercise' increases nth activity/concentration and/or reduces nts activity/concentration in the LA and RP areas of the brain. These effects may be initiated by the activation of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF (among others in exercise and its suppression in stress. Conclusion On the basis of this hypothesis, a better understanding of brain neurodynamics might be achieved by considering the oscillations caused by single neurotransmitters acting on their different receptor subtypes, and the temporal pattern of recruitment of these subtypes. Further, appropriately designed and planned experiments

  4. Landslide susceptibility assesssment in the Uttarakhand area (India) using GIS: a comparison study of prediction capability of naïve bayes, multilayer perceptron neural networks, and functional trees methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Binh Thai; Tien Bui, Dieu; Pourghasemi, Hamid Reza; Indra, Prakash; Dholakia, M. B.

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study is to make a comparison of the prediction performance of three techniques, Functional Trees (FT), Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks (MLP Neural Nets), and Naïve Bayes (NB) for landslide susceptibility assessment at the Uttarakhand Area (India). Firstly, a landslide inventory map with 430 landslide locations in the study area was constructed from various sources. Landslide locations were then randomly split into two parts (i) 70 % landslide locations being used for training models (ii) 30 % landslide locations being employed for validation process. Secondly, a total of eleven landslide conditioning factors including slope angle, slope aspect, elevation, curvature, lithology, soil, land cover, distance to roads, distance to lineaments, distance to rivers, and rainfall were used in the analysis to elucidate the spatial relationship between these factors and landslide occurrences. Feature selection of Linear Support Vector Machine (LSVM) algorithm was employed to assess the prediction capability of these conditioning factors on landslide models. Subsequently, the NB, MLP Neural Nets, and FT models were constructed using training dataset. Finally, success rate and predictive rate curves were employed to validate and compare the predictive capability of three used models. Overall, all the three models performed very well for landslide susceptibility assessment. Out of these models, the MLP Neural Nets and the FT models had almost the same predictive capability whereas the MLP Neural Nets (AUC = 0.850) was slightly better than the FT model (AUC = 0.849). The NB model (AUC = 0.838) had the lowest predictive capability compared to other models. Landslide susceptibility maps were final developed using these three models. These maps would be helpful to planners and engineers for the development activities and land-use planning.

  5. Human cerebral blood volume measurements using dynamic contrast enhancement in comparison to dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artzi, Moran [Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Functional Brain Center, The Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging, Tel Aviv (Israel); Tel Aviv University, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Liberman, Gilad; Vitinshtein, Faina; Aizenstein, Orna [Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Functional Brain Center, The Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging, Tel Aviv (Israel); Nadav, Guy [Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Functional Brain Center, The Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging, Tel Aviv (Israel); Tel Aviv University, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv (Israel); Blumenthal, Deborah T.; Bokstein, Felix [Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Neuro-Oncology Service, Tel Aviv (Israel); Bashat, Dafna Ben [Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Functional Brain Center, The Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging, Tel Aviv (Israel); Tel Aviv University, Sackler Faculty of Medicine and Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2015-07-15

    Cerebral blood volume (CBV) is an important parameter for the assessment of brain tumors, usually obtained using dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MRI. However, this method often suffers from low spatial resolution and high sensitivity to susceptibility artifacts and usually does not take into account the effect of tissue permeability. The plasma volume (v{sub p}) can also be extracted from dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE) MRI. The aim of this study was to investigate whether DCE can be used for the measurement of cerebral blood volume in place of DSC for the assessment of patients with brain tumors. Twenty-eight subjects (17 healthy subjects and 11 patients with glioblastoma) were scanned using DCE and DSC. v{sub p} and CBV values were measured and compared in different brain components in healthy subjects and in the tumor area in patients. Significant high correlations were detected between v{sub p} and CBV in healthy subjects in the different brain components; white matter, gray matter, and arteries, correlating with the known increased tissue vascularity, and within the tumor area in patients. This work proposes the use of DCE as an alternative method to DSC for the assessment of blood volume, given the advantages of its higher spatial resolution, its lower sensitivity to susceptibility artifacts, and its ability to provide additional information regarding tissue permeability. (orig.)

  6. Brain surface anatomy in adults with autism: the relationship between surface area, cortical thickness, and autistic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Christine; Ginestet, Cedric; Feng, Yue; Johnston, Patrick; Lombardo, Michael V; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Suckling, John; Palaniyappan, Lena; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Clodagh M; Williams, Steven C; Bullmore, Edward T; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Brammer, Michael; Murphy, Declan G M

    2013-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of brain anatomy in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have mostly been based on measures of cortical volume (CV). However, CV is a product of 2 distinct parameters, cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (SA), that in turn have distinct genetic and developmental origins. To investigate regional differences in CV, SA, and CT as well as their relationship in a large and well-characterized sample of men with ASD and matched controls. Multicenter case-control design using quantitative magnetic resonance imaging. Medical Research Council UK Autism Imaging Multicentre Study. A total of 168 men, 84 diagnosed as having ASD and 84 controls who did not differ significantly in mean (SD) age (26 [7] years vs 28 [6] years, respectively) or full-scale IQ (110 [14] vs 114 [12], respectively). Between-group differences in CV, SA, and CT investigated using a spatially unbiased vertex-based approach; the degree of spatial overlap between the differences in CT and SA; and their relative contribution to differences in regional CV. Individuals with ASD differed from controls in all 3 parameters. These mainly consisted of significantly increased CT within frontal lobe regions and reduced SA in the orbitofrontal cortex and posterior cingulum. These differences in CT and SA were paralleled by commensurate differences in CV. The spatially distributed patterns for CT and SA were largely nonoverlapping and shared only about 3% of all significantly different locations on the cerebral surface. Individuals with ASD have significant differences in CV, but these may be underpinned by (separable) variations in its 2 components, CT and SA. This is of importance because both measures result from distinct developmental pathways that are likely modulated by different neurobiological mechanisms. This finding may provide novel targets for future studies into the etiology of the condition and a new way to fractionate the disorder.

  7. Cortical and subcortical mapping of language areas: correlation of functional MRI and tractography in a 3T scanner with intraoperative cortical and subcortical stimulation in patients with brain tumors located in eloquent areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez de la Peña, M; Gil Robles, S; Recio Rodríguez, M; Ruiz Ocaña, C; Martínez de Vega, V

    2013-01-01

    To describe the detection of cortical areas and subcortical pathways involved in language observed in MRI activation studies and tractography in a 3T MRI scanner and to correlate the findings of these functional studies with direct intraoperative cortical and subcortical stimulation. We present a series of 14 patients with focal brain tumors adjacent to eloquent brain areas. All patients underwent neuropsychological evaluation before and after surgery. All patients underwent MRI examination including structural sequences, perfusion imaging, spectroscopy, functional imaging to determine activation of motor and language areas, and 3D tractography. All patients underwent cortical mapping through cortical and subcortical stimulation during the operation to resect the tumor. Postoperative follow-up studies were done 24 hours after surgery. The correlation of motor function and of the corticospinal tract determined by functional MRI and tractography with intraoperative mapping of cortical and subcortical motor areas was complete. The eloquent brain areas of language expression and reception were strongly correlated with intraoperative cortical mapping in all but two cases (a high grade infiltrating glioma and a low grade glioma located in the frontal lobe). 3D tractography identified the arcuate fasciculus, the lateral part of the superior longitudinal fasciculus, the subcallosal fasciculus, the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and the optic radiations, which made it possible to mark the limits of the resection. The correlation with the subcortical mapping of the anatomic arrangement of the fasciculi with respect to the lesions was complete. The best treatment for brain tumors is maximum resection without associated deficits, so high quality functional studies are necessary for preoperative planning. Copyright © 2011 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Holistic face categorization in higher-level cortical visual areas of the normal and prosopagnosic brain: towards a non-hierarchical view of face perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Rossion

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available How a visual stimulus is initially categorized as a face in a network of human brain areas remains largely unclear. Hierarchical neuro-computational models of face perception assume that the visual stimulus is first decomposed in local parts in lower order visual areas. These parts would then be combined into a global representation in higher order face-sensitive areas of the occipito-temporal cortex. Here we tested this view in fMRI with visual stimuli that are categorized as faces based on their global configuration rather than their local parts (2-tones Mooney figures and Arcimboldo’s facelike paintings. Compared to the same inverted visual stimuli that are not categorized as faces, these stimuli activated the right middle fusiform gyrus (Fusiform face area, FFA and superior temporal sulcus (pSTS, with no significant activation in the posteriorly located inferior occipital gyrus (i.e., no occipital face area, OFA. This observation is strengthened by behavioral and neural evidence for normal face categorization of these stimuli in a brain-damaged prosopagnosic patient (PS whose intact right middle fusiform gyrus and superior temporal sulcus are devoid of any potential face-sensitive inputs from the lesioned right inferior occipital cortex. Together, these observations indicate that face-preferential activation may emerge in higher order visual areas of the right hemisphere without any face-preferential inputs from lower order visual areas, supporting a non-hierarchical view of face perception in the visual cortex.

  9. Effects of insulin and leptin in the ventral tegmental area and arcuate hypothalamic nucleus on food intake and brain reward function in female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruijnzeel, Adrie W.; Corrie, Lu W.; Rogers, Jessica A.; Yamada, Hidetaka

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence for a role of insulin and leptin in food intake, but the effects of these adiposity signals on the brain reward system are not well understood. Furthermore, the effects of insulin and leptin on food intake in females are underinvestigated. These studies investigated the role of insulin and leptin in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the arcuate hypothalamic nucleus (Arc) on food intake and brain reward function in female rats. The intracranial self-stimulation procedure was used to assess the effects of insulin and leptin on the reward system. Elevations in brain reward thresholds are indicative of a decrease in brain reward function. The bilateral administration of leptin into the VTA (15–500 ng/side) or Arc (15–150 ng/side) decreased food intake for 72 h. The infusion of leptin into the VTA or Arc resulted in weight loss during the first 48 (VTA) or 24 h (Arc) after the infusions. The administration of insulin (0.005–5 mU/side) into the VTA or Arc decreased food intake for 24 h but did not affect body weights. The bilateral administration of low, but not high, doses of leptin (15 ng/side) or insulin (0.005 mU/side) into the VTA elevated brain reward thresholds. Neither insulin nor leptin in the Arc affected brain reward thresholds. These studies suggest that a small increase in leptin or insulin levels in the VTA leads to a decrease in brain reward function. A relatively large increase in insulin or leptin levels in the VTA or Arc decreases food intake. PMID:21255613

  10. Central serotonin depletion affects rat brain areas differently: a qualitative and quantitative comparison between different treatment schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Birgitte Rahbek; Licht, Cecilie Löe; Weikop, Pia

    2006-01-01

    Depletion of rat brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamin, 5-HT) has been widely used to study effects of serotonin and its interaction with other transmitter systems. Various treatment regimes for serotonin depletion have been applied, but the efficacy of these seems to vary considerably. So far...... and tyrosine hydroxylase immunocytochemistry. The schemes included repeated administration of fenfluramine (FEN) and/or p-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA). The most efficient treatment for rat brain 5-HT depletion was the combined treatment with one daily pCPA (200 mg/kg) injection for 3 days followed by one...... injection of d,l-FEN (20 mg/kg) on the fourth day, causing a 94.9% brain 5-HT depletion. Immunostaining revealed a distinct brain distribution of the remaining 5-HT, with an almost complete depletion of 5-HT in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and thalamus, while a substantial amount of 5-HT still was left...

  11. Synaesthetic Colour in the Brain: Beyond Colour Areas. A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Synaesthetes and Matched Controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, T.M. van; Petersson, K.M.; Hagoort, P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: In synaesthesia, sensations in a particular modality cause additional experiences in a second, unstimulated modality (e. g., letters elicit colour). Understanding how synaesthesia is mediated in the brain can help to understand normal processes of perceptual awareness and multisensory

  12. Creative Creativity: Some Strategies for Developing Specific Areas of the Brain and for Working Both Sides Together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Win

    1981-01-01

    The author describes three techniques for developing conscious awareness of the responses and behaviors of the right parietal lobe through describing a right brain related impression aloud in sensory image terms of color, shape, and texture. (CL)

  13. Organ distribution of quantum dots after intraperitoneal administration, with special reference to area-specific distribution in the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Shingo; Itoh, Kyoko; Yaoi, Takeshi; Tozawa, Takenori; Fushiki, Shinji [Department of Pathology and Applied Neurobiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Yoshikawa, Yutaka; Yasui, Hiroyuki [Department of Analytical and Bioinorganic Chemistry, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Kyoto (Japan); Kanamura, Narisato [Department of Dental Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Hoshino, Akiyoshi; Manabe, Noriyoshi; Yamamoto, Kenji, E-mail: sfushiki@koto.kpu-m.ac.jp [The International Clinical Research Center, Research Institute, International Medical Center of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-08-20

    Quantum dots (QDs) are well known for their potential application in biosensing, ex vivo live-cell imaging and in vivo animal targeting. The brain is a challenging organ for drug delivery, because the blood brain barrier (BBB) functions as a gatekeeper guarding the body from exogenous substances. Here, we evaluated the distribution of bioconjugated QDs, i.e., captopril-conjugated QDs (QDs-cap) following intraperitoneal injection into male ICR mice as a model system for determining the tissue localization of QDs, employing ICP-MS and confocal microscopy coupled with spectrometric analysis. We have demonstrated that intraperitoneally administered QDs-cap were delivered via systemic blood circulation into liver, spleen, kidney and brain at 6 h after injection. QDs-cap were located predominantly inside the blood vessels in the liver, kidney and brain, but a few were distributed in the parenchyma, especially noteworthy in the brain. Careful studies on acute as well as chronic toxicity of QDs in the brain are required prior to clinical application to humans.

  14. Organ distribution of quantum dots after intraperitoneal administration, with special reference to area-specific distribution in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shingo; Itoh, Kyoko; Yaoi, Takeshi; Tozawa, Takenori; Yoshikawa, Yutaka; Yasui, Hiroyuki; Kanamura, Narisato; Hoshino, Akiyoshi; Manabe, Noriyoshi; Yamamoto, Kenji; Fushiki, Shinji

    2010-08-20

    Quantum dots (QDs) are well known for their potential application in biosensing, ex vivo live-cell imaging and in vivo animal targeting. The brain is a challenging organ for drug delivery, because the blood brain barrier (BBB) functions as a gatekeeper guarding the body from exogenous substances. Here, we evaluated the distribution of bioconjugated QDs, i.e., captopril-conjugated QDs (QDs-cap) following intraperitoneal injection into male ICR mice as a model system for determining the tissue localization of QDs, employing ICP-MS and confocal microscopy coupled with spectrometric analysis. We have demonstrated that intraperitoneally administered QDs-cap were delivered via systemic blood circulation into liver, spleen, kidney and brain at 6 h after injection. QDs-cap were located predominantly inside the blood vessels in the liver, kidney and brain, but a few were distributed in the parenchyma, especially noteworthy in the brain. Careful studies on acute as well as chronic toxicity of QDs in the brain are required prior to clinical application to humans.

  15. Organ distribution of quantum dots after intraperitoneal administration, with special reference to area-specific distribution in the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shingo; Itoh, Kyoko; Yaoi, Takeshi; Tozawa, Takenori; Yoshikawa, Yutaka; Yasui, Hiroyuki; Kanamura, Narisato; Hoshino, Akiyoshi; Manabe, Noriyoshi; Yamamoto, Kenji; Fushiki, Shinji

    2010-08-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are well known for their potential application in biosensing, ex vivo live-cell imaging and in vivo animal targeting. The brain is a challenging organ for drug delivery, because the blood brain barrier (BBB) functions as a gatekeeper guarding the body from exogenous substances. Here, we evaluated the distribution of bioconjugated QDs, i.e., captopril-conjugated QDs (QDs-cap) following intraperitoneal injection into male ICR mice as a model system for determining the tissue localization of QDs, employing ICP-MS and confocal microscopy coupled with spectrometric analysis. We have demonstrated that intraperitoneally administered QDs-cap were delivered via systemic blood circulation into liver, spleen, kidney and brain at 6 h after injection. QDs-cap were located predominantly inside the blood vessels in the liver, kidney and brain, but a few were distributed in the parenchyma, especially noteworthy in the brain. Careful studies on acute as well as chronic toxicity of QDs in the brain are required prior to clinical application to humans.

  16. Connectivity in Language Areas of the Brain in Cochlear Implant Users as Revealed by fNIRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Colette M; Shah, Adnan; Seghouane, Abd-Krim; Zhou, Xin; Cross, William; Litovsky, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Many studies, using a variety of imaging techniques, have shown that deafness induces functional plasticity in the brain of adults with late-onset deafness, and in children changes the way the auditory brain develops. Cross modal plasticity refers to evidence that stimuli of one modality (e.g. vision) activate neural regions devoted to a different modality (e.g. hearing) that are not normally activated by those stimuli. Other studies have shown that multimodal brain networks (such as those involved in language comprehension, and the default mode network) are altered by deafness, as evidenced by changes in patterns of activation or connectivity within the networks. In this paper, we summarise what is already known about brain plasticity due to deafness and propose that functional near-infra-red spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an imaging method that has potential to provide prognostic and diagnostic information for cochlear implant users. Currently, patient history factors account for only 10 % of the variation in post-implantation speech understanding, and very few post-implantation behavioural measures of hearing ability correlate with speech understanding. As a non-invasive, inexpensive and user-friendly imaging method, fNIRS provides an opportunity to study both pre- and post-implantation brain function. Here, we explain the principle of fNIRS measurements and illustrate its use in studying brain network connectivity and function with example data.

  17. Is preoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging reliable for language areas mapping in brain tumor surgery? Review of language functional magnetic resonance imaging and direct cortical stimulation correlation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giussani, Carlo; Roux, Frank-Emmanuel; Ojemann, Jeffrey; Sganzerla, Erik Pietro; Pirillo, David; Papagno, Costanza

    2010-01-01

    Language functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been used extensively in the past decade for both clinical and research purposes. Its integration in the preoperative imaging assessment of brain lesions involving eloquent areas is progressively more diffused in neurosurgical practice. Nevertheless, the reliability of language fMRI is unclear. To understand the reliability of preoperative language fMRI in patients operated on for brain tumors, the surgical studies that compared language fMRI with direct cortical stimulation (DCS) were reviewed. Articles comparing language fMRI with DCS of language areas were reviewed with attention to the lesion pathology, the magnetic field, the language tasks used pre- and intraoperatively, and the validation modalities adopted to establish the reliability of language fMRI. We tried to explore the effectiveness of language fMRI in gliomas. Nine language brain mapping studies compared the findings of fMRI with those of DCS. The studies are not homogeneous for tumor types, magnetic fields, pre- and intraoperative language tasks, intraoperative matching criteria, and results. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated in 5 studies (respectively ranging from 59% to 100% and from 0% to 97%). The contradictory results of these studies do not allow consideration of language fMRI as an alternative tool to DCS in brain lesions located in language areas, especially in gliomas because of the pattern of growth of these tumors. However, language fMRI conducted with high magnet fields is a promising brain mapping tool that must be validated by DCS in methodological robust studies.

  18. An obesity-associated risk allele within the FTO gene affects human brain activity for areas important for emotion, impulse control and reward in response to food images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemerslage, Lyle; Nilsson, Emil K; Solstrand Dahlberg, Linda; Ence-Eriksson, Fia; Castillo, Sandra; Larsen, Anna L; Bylund, Simon B A; Hogenkamp, Pleunie S; Olivo, Gaia; Bandstein, Marcus; Titova, Olga E; Larsson, Elna-Marie; Benedict, Christian; Brooks, Samantha J; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2016-05-01

    Understanding how genetics influences obesity, brain activity and eating behaviour will add important insight for developing strategies for weight-loss treatment, as obesity may stem from different causes and as individual feeding behaviour may depend on genetic differences. To this end, we examined how an obesity risk allele for the FTO gene affects brain activity in response to food images of different caloric content via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Thirty participants homozygous for the rs9939609 single nucleotide polymorphism were shown images of low- or high-calorie food while brain activity was measured via fMRI. In a whole-brain analysis, we found that people with the FTO risk allele genotype (AA) had increased activity compared with the non-risk (TT) genotype in the posterior cingulate, cuneus, precuneus and putamen. Moreover, higher body mass index in the AA genotype was associated with reduced activity to food images in areas important for emotion (cingulate cortex), but also in areas important for impulse control (frontal gyri and lentiform nucleus). Lastly, we corroborate our findings with behavioural scales for the behavioural inhibition and activation systems. Our results suggest that the two genotypes are associated with differential neural processing of food images, which may influence weight status through diminished impulse control and reward processing. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Adolescent neurobiological susceptibility to social context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta A. Schriber

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence has been characterized as a period of heightened sensitivity to social contexts. However, adolescents vary in how their social contexts affect them. According to neurobiological susceptibility models, endogenous, biological factors confer some individuals, relative to others, with greater susceptibility to environmental influences, whereby more susceptible individuals fare the best or worst of all individuals, depending on the environment encountered (e.g., high vs. low parental warmth. Until recently, research guided by these theoretical frameworks has not incorporated direct measures of brain structure or function to index this sensitivity. Drawing on prevailing models of adolescent neurodevelopment and a growing number of neuroimaging studies on the interrelations among social contexts, the brain, and developmental outcomes, we review research that supports the idea of adolescent neurobiological susceptibility to social context for understanding why and how adolescents differ in development and well-being. We propose that adolescent development is shaped by brain-based individual differences in sensitivity to social contexts – be they positive or negative – such as those created through relationships with parents/caregivers and peers. Ultimately, we recommend that future research measure brain function and structure to operationalize susceptibility factors that moderate the influence of social contexts on developmental outcomes.

  20. Adolescent Neurobiological Susceptibility to Social Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schriber, Roberta A.; Guyer, Amanda E.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence has been characterized as a period of heightened sensitivity to social contexts. However, adolescents vary in how their social contexts affect them. According to neurobiological susceptibility models, endogenous, biological factors confer some individuals, relative to others, with greater susceptibility to environmental influences, whereby more susceptible individuals fare the best or worst of all individuals, depending on the environment they encounter (e.g., high vs. low parental warmth). Until recently, research guided by these theoretical frameworks has not incorporated direct measures of brain structure or function to index this sensitivity. Drawing on prevailing models of adolescent neurodevelopment and a growing number of neuroimaging studies on the interrelations among social contexts, the brain, and developmental outcomes, we review research that supports the idea of adolescent neurobiological susceptibility to social context for understanding why and how adolescents differ in development and well-being. We propose that adolescent development is shaped in part by brain-based individual differences in sensitivity to social contexts – be they positive or negative – such as those created through relationships with parents/caregivers and peers. As such, we recommend that future research measure brain function and structure to operationalize susceptibility factors that moderate the influence of social contexts on developmental outcomes. PMID:26773514

  1. Associations of DNA-repair gene polymorphisms with a genetic susceptibility to ionizing radiation in residents of areas with high radon (222Rn) concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinitsky, Maxim Y; Larionov, Aleksey V; Asanov, Maxim A; Druzhinin, Vladimir G

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the individual radiosensitivity of the human genome in long-term residents of areas with high radon concentration. The materials used for this investigation were venous blood samples extracted from children living in the boarding school of Tashtagol (Kemerovo Region, Russia). Cytogenetic damage assessment was performed using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN) on peripheral blood lymphocytes. PCR, gel electrophoresis and product detection using a transilluminator were used to determine polymorphisms in the genes ADPRT (rs 1136410), hOGG1 (rs 1052133), NBS1 (rs 1805794), XRCC1 (rs 25487), XpC (rs 2228001), XpD (rs 13181), and XpG (rs 17655). Statistical analysis was performed using nonparametric methods. To ensure accurate results, FDR-correction for multiple comparisons was performed. We discovered a significant increase in the frequency of binucleated lymphocytes with micronuclei (MN) in carriers of the His/His genotype of the XpG gene Asp1104His polymorphism in comparison to heterozygous and homozygous carriers of the Asp allele. In addition, the Ala/Ala genotype for the ADPRT gene Val762Ala polymorphism and the Glu/Gln genotype for the NBS1 gene Glu185Gln polymorphism were associated with the elevated frequency of binucleated lymphocytes with nucleoplasmic bridges (NPB). As a result of this study, the elevated frequency of cytogenetic damage in people with particular DNA-repair gene polymorphisms in response to chronic exposure to radon was demonstrated. It was shown that the genes and corresponding polymorphisms (the XpG gene Asp1104His polymorphism, the ADPRT gene Val762Ala polymorphism and the NBS1 gene Glu185Gln polymorphism) can be used as molecular genetic markers of increased individual radiosensitivity in long-term residents of areas with high concentrations of radon.

  2. Estrogen-induced neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects are dependent on the brain areas of middle-aged female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratap, Uday P; Patil, Anushree; Sharma, Himanshu R; Hima, Lalgi; Chockalingam, Ramanathan; Hariharan, Murali M; Shitoot, Sushrut; Priyanka, Hannah P; ThyagaRajan, Srinivasan

    2016-06-01

    Reproductive aging in females is characterized by fluctuations and precipitous decline in estrogen levels, which may lead to reduction in cognitive function and age-associated neurodegenerative disorders. The nature of estrogen-mediated neuronal plasticity is unknown during reproductive aging. We hypothesize that estrogen treatment of early middle-aged ovariectomized rats may exert specific effects in the brain by modulating signaling pathways regulating metabolic enzymes, inflammatory markers, antioxidant status, cholinergic function and survival signals. To investigate the mechanisms of estrogen-induced effects on neuroprotection and neuroinflammation through the involvement of intracellular signaling pathways in brain areas of ovariectomized (OVX) middle-aged (MA) female rats. Ovariectomized early MA female Sprague-Dawley rats (n=8/group) were implanted with 17β-estradiol (E2) 30-day release pellets (0.6μg and 300μg). At the end of the treatment period, frontal cortex (FC), striatum (STR), medial basal hypothalamus (MBH), and hippocampus (HP) were isolated and examined for the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (p-TH), nerve growth factor (NGF), p-NF-κB (p50 and p65)and p-ERK, p-CREB, p-Akt, and activities of cholinesterases and antioxidant enzymes, key regulatory enzymes of metabolic pathways, and nitric oxide production. E2 enhanced p-TH expression in FC and HP, reduced NGF expression in HP, and suppressed p-NF-κB expression in FC and STR. It also increased the expression of molecular markers (p-ERK, p-CREB and p-Akt), and nitric oxide production in various brain areas, while differentially regulating the activities of metabolic enzymes and cholinesterases. Estrogen modulates the neural and inflammatory factors, and intracellular markers depending on the brain areas that may influence differential remodeling of neuronal circuitry which can be used to develop therapeutic strategies in cognitive impairment and neurodegenerative disorders in aging. Copyright

  3. Synaesthetic colour in the brain : beyond colour areas: A functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging study of synaesthetes and matched controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, T.M. van; Petersson, K.M.; Hagoort, P.

    2010-01-01

    In synaesthesia, sensations in a particular modality cause additional experiences in a second, unstimulated modality (e.g., letters elicit colour). Understanding how synaesthesia is mediated in the brain can help to understand normal processes of perceptual awareness and multisensory integration. In

  4. Beneficial effect of fluoxetine treatment aganist psychological stress is mediated by increasing BDNF expression in selected brain areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gongying; Jing, Ping; Liu, Zhidong; Li, Zhiruo; Ma, Hongxia; Tu, Wenzhen; Zhang, Wei; Zhuo, Chuanjun

    2017-09-19

    SSRI antidepressant fluoxetine is widely used to treat psychological stress related disorders, however the underlying working mechanisms is not fully understood, as SSRIs can rapidly increase the extracellular serotonin levels but it normally takes weeks to reveal their therapeutic effect in the stress-related psychological disorders. Our previous study demonstrated that purely psychological stress without any physic stimuli induces a biphasic change in the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which immediately decrease and then gradually increase after the stress; and that the latter BDNF increase in response to the psychological stress involves the activation of serotonin system. To investigate the role of BDNF in the fluoxetine treatment for stress-related psychological disorders, we examined the mRNA and protein levels of BDNF in the brain of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, which were pretreated with fluoxetine at 10 mg/kg or vehicle solution for 14 days, over 24 hour after an acute psychological stress exposure. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were performed to detect the expression of BDNF at different time points in various brain regions after the psychological stress. We found that fluoxetine treatment completely blocked the BDNF decrease induced by the psychological stress, and also enhanced the gradual increase in the expression of BDNF in most of the brain regions except VTA after the psychological stress. The results suggest that the enhancement in BDNF levels induced by chronic fluoxetine treatment mediates the therapeutic effect against psychological stress.

  5. Effects of ractopamine feeding, gender and social rank on aggressiveness and monoamine concentrations in different brain areas of finishing pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated the effects of the feed additive ractopamine (RAC), gender and social rank on aggressiveness and brain monoamines levels of serotonin (5HT), dopamine (DA), their metabolites, norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EP) in finishing pigs. Thirty-two pigs (16 barrows/16 gilts) were a...

  6. Mean upper cervical cord area (MUCCA) measurement in long-standing multiple sclerosis: Relation to brain findings and clinical disability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daams, M.; Weiler, F.; Steenwijk, M.D.; Hahn, H.K.; Geurts, J.J.G.; Vrenken, H.; van Schijndel, R.A.; Balk, L.J.; Tewarie, P.; Tillema, J.M.; Killestein, J.; Uitdehaag, B.M.J.; Barkhof, F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The majority of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) present with spinal cord pathology. Spinal cord atrophy is thought to be a marker of disease severity, but in long-disease duration its relation to brain pathology and clinical disability is largely unknown. Objective: Our aim was to

  7. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and certain abilities, such as a good singing voice. A gene is a segment of DNA that ... as in areas of the brain that control movement. When electrical signals are abnormal, they can cause ...

  8. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... highly developed area at the front of the brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as ... component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Top

  9. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... illnesses, such as depression, can occur when this process does not work correctly. Communication between neurons can also be electrical, such as in areas of the brain that control movement. When electrical signals are abnormal, they can ...

  10. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... This area of the brain also helps to control the amygdala during stressful events. Some research shows that people who have PTSD or ADHD have reduced activity in their PFCs. Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) — the ...

  11. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and information that the cell needs for growth, metabolism, and repair. Cytoplasm is the substance that fills ... as in areas of the brain that control movement. When electrical signals are abnormal, they can cause ...

  12. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as in areas of the brain that control movement. When electrical signals are abnormal, they can cause ... normal mood functioning. Dopamine —mainly involved in controlling movement and aiding the flow of information to the ...

  13. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Labs at NIMH Home Research Areas Principal Investigators Administrative Oversight & Support Collaborations & Partnerships Join A Study News & ... unit of the brain and nervous system, which processes and transmits information. neurotransmitter —A chemical produced by ...

  14. Quantitative assessment of the synergistic and independent effects of estradiol and progesterone on ventromedial hypothalamic and preoptic-area proteins in female rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, K.J.; McEwen, B.S.; Pfaff, D.W.

    1987-12-01

    In this study, quantitative assessment of the synergistic and independent effects of estradiol and progesterone on protein synthesis in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMN) and the preoptic area (POA) was accomplished using in vitro 35S-methionine and 35S-cystein labeling, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and computerized densitometry. Ovariectomized (OVX) rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 was implanted with estradiol (E) capsules for 6 hr and injected with progesterone (P; 0.1 ml, 5 mg/ml propylene glycol) at 20 hr. Group 3 was sham-implanted for 6 hr and injected with 0.01 ml P at 20 hr. Group 4 was sham-planted for 6 hr and injected with vehicle alone at 20 hr. All animals were sacrificed at 24 hr. A number of proteins in both VMN and POA were found to be increased or decreased in labeling by E plus P, E alone, and P alone. Two important synergistic effects of the hormones were found. First, the effects of E on labeling of several proteins in both brain regions were countered by P, and conversely, the effects of P on labeling of several proteins in both brain regions were countered by E. Second, E priming increased the number of proteins affected in labeling by P in both brain regions. Comparison of the effects of E and P on proteins in the VMN and POA indicated that the populations of proteins affected in labeling were markedly different. These results begin to clarify the mechanism in which E and P affect neuronal functioning in two regions involved in the control of reproduction and lend support to the hypothesis that gonadal steroids accomplished their action on brain tissue via a mechanism that is partly unique to the brain region.

  15. A pilot study into the effects of music therapy on different areas of the brain of individuals with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhoff, Nikolaus; Heine, Astrid M.; Vogl, Julia; Weiss, Konrad; Aschraf, Asita; Hajek, Paul; Schnider, Peter; Tucek, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    The global cerebral network allows music “ to do to us what it does.” While the same music can cause different emotions, the basic emotion of happy and sad songs can, nevertheless, be understood by most people. Consequently, the individual experience of music and its common effect on the human brain is a challenging subject for research. Various activities such as hearing, processing, and performing music provide us with different pictures of cerebral centers in PET. In comparison to these simple acts of experiencing music, the interaction and the therapeutic relationship between the patient and the therapist in Music Therapy (MT) provide us with an additional element in need of investigation. In the course of a pilot study, these problems were approached and reduced to the simple observation of pattern alteration in the brains of four individuals with Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (UWS) during MT. Each patient had three PET investigations: (i) during a resting state, (ii) during the first exposure to MT, and (iii) during the last exposure to MT. Two patients in the MT group received MT for 5 weeks between the 2nd and the 3rd PET (three times a week), while two other patients in the control group had no MT in between. Tracer uptake was measured in the frontal, hippocampal, and cerebellar region of the brain. With certain differences in these three observed brain areas, the tracer uptake in the MT group was higher (34%) than in the control group after 5 weeks. The preliminary results suggest that MT activates the three brain regions described above. In this article, we present our approach to the neuroscience of MT and discuss the impact of our hypothesis on music therapy practice, neurological rehabilitation of individuals in UWS and additional neuroscientific research. PMID:26347603

  16. A pilot study into the effects of music therapy on different areas of the brain of individuals with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhoff, Nikolaus; Heine, Astrid M; Vogl, Julia; Weiss, Konrad; Aschraf, Asita; Hajek, Paul; Schnider, Peter; Tucek, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    The global cerebral network allows music " to do to us what it does." While the same music can cause different emotions, the basic emotion of happy and sad songs can, nevertheless, be understood by most people. Consequently, the individual experience of music and its common effect on the human brain is a challenging subject for research. Various activities such as hearing, processing, and performing music provide us with different pictures of cerebral centers in PET. In comparison to these simple acts of experiencing music, the interaction and the therapeutic relationship between the patient and the therapist in Music Therapy (MT) provide us with an additional element in need of investigation. In the course of a pilot study, these problems were approached and reduced to the simple observation of pattern alteration in the brains of four individuals with Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (UWS) during MT. Each patient had three PET investigations: (i) during a resting state, (ii) during the first exposure to MT, and (iii) during the last exposure to MT. Two patients in the MT group received MT for 5 weeks between the 2nd and the 3rd PET (three times a week), while two other patients in the control group had no MT in between. Tracer uptake was measured in the frontal, hippocampal, and cerebellar region of the brain. With certain differences in these three observed brain areas, the tracer uptake in the MT group was higher (34%) than in the control group after 5 weeks. The preliminary results suggest that MT activates the three brain regions described above. In this article, we present our approach to the neuroscience of MT and discuss the impact of our hypothesis on music therapy practice, neurological rehabilitation of individuals in UWS and additional neuroscientific research.

  17. A pilot study into the effects of music therapy on different areas of the brain of individuals with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaus eSteinhoff

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The global cerebral network allows music to do to us what it does. While the same music can cause different emotions, the basic emotion of happy and sad songs can, nevertheless, be understood by most people.Therefore, the individual experience of music and its common effect on the human brain is a challenging subject for research. Various activities such as hearing, processing and performing music provide us with different pictures of cerebral centers in PET. In comparison to these simple acts of experiencing music, the interaction and the therapeutic relationship between the patient and the therapist in Music Therapy (MT provide us with an additional element in need of investigation. In the course of a pilot study, these problems were approached and reduced to the simple observation of pattern alteration in the brains of four individuals with Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (UWS during MT. Each patient had three PET investigations: (i during a resting state, (ii during the first exposure to MT, and (iii during the last exposure to MT. Two patients in the MT group received MT for 5 weeks between the 2nd and the 3rd PET (three times a week, while two other patients in the control group had no MT in between. Tracer uptake was measured in the frontal, hippocampal, and cerebellar region of the brain. With certain differences in these three observed brain areas, the tracer uptake in the MT group was higher (34% than in the control group after five weeks. The preliminary results suggest that MT activates the three brain regions described above.In this article, we present our approach to the neuroscience of music therapy and discuss the impact of our hypothesis on music therapy practice, neurological rehabilitation of individuals in UWS and additional neuroscientific research.

  18. Faster scaling of visual neurons in cortical areas relative to subcortical structures in non-human primate brains

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, C. E.; Leitch, D. B.; Wong, P.; Kaas, J. H.; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2012-01-01

    Cortical expansion, both in absolute terms and in relation to subcortical structures, is considered a major trend in mammalian brain evolution with important functional implications, given that cortical computations should add complexity and flexibility to information processing. Here, we investigate the numbers of neurons that compose 4 structures in the visual pathway across 11 non-human primate species to determine the scaling relationships that apply to these structures and among them. We...

  19. Early Training-Induced Reduction of Angiotensinogen in Autonomic Areas-The Main Effect of Exercise on Brain Renin-Angiotensin System in Hypertensive Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laiali Jurdi Chaar

    Full Text Available Exercise training (T blunts functional deficits and renin-angiotensin system (RAS hyperactivity in hypertensive individuals. There is no information on T-induced temporal changes of brain RAS. We evaluate now the simultaneous effects of T on functional responses and time course changes in the expression/activity of brain RAS components in autonomic cardiovascular-controlling areas.Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR and age-matched normotensive controls (WKY were trained for 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Sedentary (S groups served as time-controls. After arterial pressure (AP and heart rate (HR recordings at rest, fresh and fixed brains were harvested for qPCR and immunofluorescence assays. SHR-S vs. WKY-S exhibited higher mean AP (MAP and HR, increased pressure variability and sympathetic activity, elevated AT1 receptor (AT1 expression in nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS and higher Mas receptor expression in the rostroventrolateral medulla (RVLM. In SHR, T promptly (T2 on reduced sympathetic variability to heart/vessels and largely decreased angiotensinogen expression in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN and NTS, with a late RVLM reduction (T4. AT1 expression was only reduced at T12 (PVN and NTS with transient, not maintained Mas receptor changes in PVN and RVLM. These responses were accompanied by baseline MAP and HR reduction in the SHR-T (from T4 on. In the SHR group, PVN angiotensinogen expression correlated positively with sympathetic activity, resting MAP and HR. In WKY-T, a precocious (T2-T12 RVLM AT1 decrease preceded the appearance of resting bradycardia (from T8 on.Early and maintained reduction of angiotensinogen content in autonomic areas of the SHR is the most prominent effect of training on brain RAS. Down-regulation of PVN RAS expression is an essential factor to drive cardiovascular benefits in SHR-T, while resting bradycardia in WKY-T is correlated to RVLM AT1 reduction.

  20. Early Training-Induced Reduction of Angiotensinogen in Autonomic Areas-The Main Effect of Exercise on Brain Renin-Angiotensin System in Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaar, Laiali Jurdi; Alves, Tatiana Pereira; Batista Junior, Alvaro Martins; Michelini, Lisete Compagno

    2015-01-01

    Exercise training (T) blunts functional deficits and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) hyperactivity in hypertensive individuals. There is no information on T-induced temporal changes of brain RAS. We evaluate now the simultaneous effects of T on functional responses and time course changes in the expression/activity of brain RAS components in autonomic cardiovascular-controlling areas. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and age-matched normotensive controls (WKY) were trained for 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Sedentary (S) groups served as time-controls. After arterial pressure (AP) and heart rate (HR) recordings at rest, fresh and fixed brains were harvested for qPCR and immunofluorescence assays. SHR-S vs. WKY-S exhibited higher mean AP (MAP) and HR, increased pressure variability and sympathetic activity, elevated AT1 receptor (AT1) expression in nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) and higher Mas receptor expression in the rostroventrolateral medulla (RVLM). In SHR, T promptly (T2 on) reduced sympathetic variability to heart/vessels and largely decreased angiotensinogen expression in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN) and NTS, with a late RVLM reduction (T4). AT1 expression was only reduced at T12 (PVN and NTS) with transient, not maintained Mas receptor changes in PVN and RVLM. These responses were accompanied by baseline MAP and HR reduction in the SHR-T (from T4 on). In the SHR group, PVN angiotensinogen expression correlated positively with sympathetic activity, resting MAP and HR. In WKY-T, a precocious (T2-T12) RVLM AT1 decrease preceded the appearance of resting bradycardia (from T8 on). Early and maintained reduction of angiotensinogen content in autonomic areas of the SHR is the most prominent effect of training on brain RAS. Down-regulation of PVN RAS expression is an essential factor to drive cardiovascular benefits in SHR-T, while resting bradycardia in WKY-T is correlated to RVLM AT1 reduction.

  1. Short-term effect of adrenalin on S-100b and N-CAM level in the different rat brain areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. P. Kovalchuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The level of adrenalin grows under stress conditions, sense of danger, anxiety, fear, trauma, burns and shock. In high concentrations adrenaline increases the speed of protein catabolism. Working through the circulatory system, adrenaline affects almost all the functions of organs, causing the body mobilization to counter stressful situations. Due to ELISA the astrocytes-specific protein (S-100b and neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM were studied. S-100b is produced mainly by astrocytes іn the brain and depending on the concentration it causes trophic or toxic effect on the neurons and glial cells.Strong stress and ischemia induce re-distribution of calcium-binding protein S-100b and elevation of its level. Quantitative changes of S-100b under the influence of various factors on the body which lead to the metabolic disorder in the brain are considered today as a sign of brain damage (cortical, ischemic one, etc.. Fluctuations in the concentration of S-100b in the brain are not always accompanied by marked deterioration of the physical condition of animals, but they can also lead to a number of violations of integrative functions of the brain depending on over-production of this protein. Most N-CAM are transmembrane proteins that cross the plasma membraneonce; intracellular domains have different size and it is thought they are involved in binding to cytoskeleton or cell signaling. Violation of N-CAM functions leads to disruption of nerve sprouts. Data obtained in our study showed no serious re-distribution of S-100b and N-CAM level in the different areas of rat brain (cerebral cortex, hippocampus and thalamus under effect of adrenalin administered to the animals (under skin in dosage of 0.45–0.60 mg per rat, 1 time per day during 10 days, probably because of the type of injection and/or short time of adrenalin action. Increased dosage of adrenaline 1 hour before decapitation leads to the decrease of level of total protein in membrane

  2. Characterization of a cerebral palsy-like model in rats: Analysis of gait pattern and of brain and spinal cord motor areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Adriana Souza; de Almeida, Wellington; Popik, Bruno; Sbardelotto, Bruno Marques; Torrejais, Márcia Miranda; de Souza, Marcelo Alves; Centenaro, Lígia Aline

    2017-08-01

    In an attempt to propose an animal model that reproduces in rats the phenotype of cerebral palsy, this study evaluated the effects of maternal exposure to bacterial endotoxin associated with perinatal asphyxia and sensorimotor restriction on gait pattern, brain and spinal cord morphology. Two experimental groups were used: Control Group (CTG) - offspring of rats injected with saline during pregnancy and Cerebral Palsy Group (CPG) - offspring of rats injected with lipopolysaccharide during pregnancy, submitted to perinatal asphyxia and sensorimotor restriction for 30days. At 29days of age, the CPG exhibited coordination between limbs, weight-supported dorsal steps or weight-supported plantar steps with paw rotation. At 45days of age, CPG exhibited plantar stepping with the paw rotated in the balance phase. An increase in the number of glial cells in the primary somatosensory cortex and dorsal striatum were observed in the CPG, but the corpus callosum thickness and cross-sectional area of lateral ventricle were similar between studied groups. No changes were found in the number of motoneurons, glial cells and soma area of the motoneurons in the ventral horn of spinal cord. The combination of insults in the pre, peri and postnatal periods produced changes in hindlimbs gait pattern of animals similar to those observed in diplegic patients, but motor impairments were attenuated over time. Besides, the greater number of glial cells observed seems to be related to the formation of a glial scar in important sensorimotor brain areas. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Isolation, characterization and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The swab sticks were inoculated into brain-heart infusion broth, transported to the laboratory and then inoculated on mannitol salt agar. Isolates with the characteristic colonial morphology of S. aureus were then identified microscopically and characterized biochemically. The susceptibility of S. aureus isolates to seven ...

  4. Biochemical characters and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Subhankari Prasad Chakraborty Santanu Kar Mahapatra Somenath Roy

    2011-01-01

    ... and sucrose.Antibiotic susceptibility were carried out by minimum inhibilory concentration test,minium bactericidal concentration test,disc agar diffusion test and brain heart infusion oxacillin screening...

  5. 28 June 2012 - Members of the European Brain Council led by President Mary Baker visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5 with Technology Department Group Leader L. Bottura and CMS experimental area with Run Coordinator M. Chamizo-Llatas.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2012-01-01

    28 June 2012 - Members of the European Brain Council led by President Mary Baker visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5 with Technology Department Group Leader L. Bottura and CMS experimental area with Run Coordinator M. Chamizo-Llatas.

  6. Physics of the Brain: Interaction of the Optical-Fiber-Guided Multi-Ultraviolet-Photon Beams with the Epilepsy Topion, (the Seizure Onset Area)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, V. Alexander

    A novel method for the possible prevention of epileptic seizures is proposed, based on the multi-ultraviolet-photon beam interaction with the epilepsy topion, (nonlinear coupling of an ultra high frequency mode to the brain beta phonons). It is hypothesized that epilepsy is a chaotic-dynamics phenomenon: small electrical changes in the epilepsy-topion lead, (within the 10s of milliseconds), to the onset of chaos, (seizure--excessive electrical discharge), and subsequent cascading into adjacent areas. The ultraviolet photons may control the imbalance of sodium and potassium ions and, consequently, may prove to be efficient in the prevention of epileptic seizures. Supported by Nikola Tesla Labs, Stefan University.

  7. Probabilistic fiber tracking of the language and motor white matter pathways of the supplementary motor area (SMA) in patients with brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenabi, Mehrnaz; Peck, Kyung K; Young, Robert J; Brennan, Nicole; Holodny, Andrei I

    2014-12-01

    Accurate localization of anatomically and functionally separate SMA tracts is important to improve planning prior to neurosurgery. Using fMRI and probabilistic DTI techniques, we assessed the connectivity between the frontal language area (Broca's area) and the rostral pre-SMA (language SMA) and caudal SMA proper (motor SMA). Twenty brain tumor patients completed motor and language fMRI paradigms and DTI. Peaks of functional activity in the language SMA, motor SMA and Broca's area were used to define seed regions for probabilistic tractography. fMRI and probabilistic tractography identified separate and unique pathways connecting the SMA to Broca's area - the language SMA pathway and the motor SMA pathway. For all subjects, the language SMA pathway had a larger number of voxels (Planguage and motor SMA pathways than in background pathways (Planguage SMA pathway (degree of connectivity: Planguage SMA and motor SMA to Broca's area. The language SMA is more significantly connected to Broca's area than is the motor subdivision of the SMA proper. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Evans blue staining reveals vascular leakage associated with focal areas of host-parasite interaction in brains of pigs infected with Taenia solium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzal, Miguel; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Paredes, Adriana; Cangalaya, Carla; Rivera, Andrea; Gonzalez, Armando E; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Garcia, Hector H; Nash, Theodore E

    2014-01-01

    Cysticidal drug treatment of viable Taenia solium brain parenchymal cysts leads to an acute pericystic host inflammatory response and blood brain barrier breakdown (BBB), commonly resulting in seizures. Naturally infected pigs, untreated or treated one time with praziquantel were sacrificed at 48 hr and 120 hr following the injection of Evans blue (EB) to assess the effect of treatment on larval parasites and surrounding tissue. Examination of harvested non encapsulated muscle cysts unexpectedly revealed one or more small, focal round region(s) of Evans blue dye infiltration (REBI) on the surface of otherwise non dye-stained muscle cysts. Histopathological analysis of REBI revealed focal areas of eosinophil-rich inflammatory infiltrates that migrated from the capsule into the tegument and internal structures of the parasite. In addition some encapsulated brain cysts, in which the presence of REBI could not be directly assessed, showed histopathology identical to that of the REBI. Muscle cysts with REBI were more frequent in pigs that had received praziquantel (6.6% of 3736 cysts; n = 6 pigs) than in those that were untreated (0.2% of 3172 cysts; n = 2 pigs). Similar results were found in the brain, where 20.7% of 29 cysts showed histopathology identical to muscle REBI cysts in praziquantel-treated pigs compared to the 4.3% of 47 cysts in untreated pigs. Closer examination of REBI infiltrates showed that EB was taken up only by eosinophils, a major component of the cellular infiltrates, which likely explains persistence of EB in the REBI. REBI likely represent early damaging host responses to T. solium cysts and highlight the focal nature of this initial host response and the importance of eosinophils at sites of host-parasite interaction. These findings suggest new avenues for immunomodulation to reduce inflammatory side effects of anthelmintic therapy.

  9. Higher education is not associated with greater cortical thickness in brain areas related to literacy or intelligence in normal aging or mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Jagan A; McEvoy, Linda K; Hagler, Donald J; Holland, Dominic; Dale, Anders M; Salmon, David P; Galasko, Douglas; Fennema-Notestine, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Education may reduce risk of dementia through passive reserve, by increasing neural substrate. We tested the hypotheses that education is associated with thicker cortex and reduced rates of atrophy in brain regions related to literacy and intellectual ability. Healthy older adults and those with mild cognitive impairment were categorized into high (≥18 years) and low (≤13 years) education groups. Higher education was associated with thinner cortices in several areas, but one-year atrophy rates in these areas did not differ by education group. These results do not support a passive reserve model in which early-life education protects against dementia by increasing cortical thickness. Connectivity and synaptic efficiency or other lifestyle factors may more directly reflect cognitive reserve.

  10. Connectivity profiles reveal the relationship between brain areas for social cognition in human and monkey temporoparietal cortex

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rogier B. Mars; Jérôme Sallet; Franz-Xaver Neubert; Matthew F. S. Rushworth

    2013-01-01

    The human ability to infer the thoughts and beliefs of others, often referred to as "theory of mind," as well as the predisposition to even consider others, are associated with activity in the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) area...

  11. The importance of the context in the hippocampus and brain related areas throughout the performance of a fear conditioning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Natalia; Méndez, Marta; Arias, Jorge L

    2015-11-01

    The importance context has been broadly studied in the management of phobias and in the drug addiction literature. The way in which changes to a context influence behavior after the simple acquisition of a passive avoidance task remains unclear. The hippocampus has long been implicated in the contextual and spatial processing required for contextual fear, but its role in encoding the aversive component of a contextual fear memory is still inconclusive. Our work tries to elucidate whether a change in context, represented as differences in the load of the stimuli, is critical for learning about the context-shock association and whether this manipulation of the context could be linked to any change in metabolic brain activity requirements. For this purpose, we used an avoidance conditioning task. Animals were divided into three different experimental conditions. In one group, acquisition was performed in an enriched stimuli environment and retention was performed in a typically lit chamber (the PA-ACQ-CONTX group). In another group, acquisition was performed in the typically lit chamber and retention was undertaken in the highly enriched chamber (the PA-RET-CONTX group). Finally, for the control group, PA-CN-CONTX, acquisition, and retention were performed in the enriched stimuli environment. Our results showed that the PA-ACQ-CONTX group had longer escape latencies and poorer retention than the PA-RET-CONTX and PA-CN-CONTX groups after 24 h of acquisition under contextual changes. To study metabolic brain activity, histochemical labelling of cytochrome c-oxidase (CO) was performed. CO results suggested a neural circuit including the hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, parahippocampal cortices, and mammillary nuclei that is involved in the learning and memory processes that enable context-dependent behavior. These results highlight how dysfunction in this network may be involved in the contextualization of fear associations that underlie several forms of psychopathology

  12. A greater involvement of posterior brain areas in interhemispheric transfer in autism: fMRI, DWI and behavioral evidences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeau, Elise B.; Lewis, John D.; Doyon, Julien; Benali, Habib; Zeffiro, Thomas A.; Mottron, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    A small corpus callosum (CC) is one of the most replicated neurobiological findings in autism spectrum (AS). However, its effect on interhemispheric (IH) communication is unknown. We combined structural (CC area and DWI), functional (task-related fMRI activation and connectivity analyses) as well as behavioral (Poffenberger and Purdue tasks) measures to investigate IH integration in adult AS individuals of typical intelligence. Despite similar behavioral IH transfer time and performances in bimanual tasks, the CC sub-regions connecting frontal and parietal cortical areas were smaller in AS than in non-AS individuals, while those connecting visual regions were similar. The activation of visual areas was lower in AS than in non-AS individuals during the presentation of visual stimuli. Behavioral IH performances were related to the properties of CC subregions connecting motor areas in non-AS individuals, but to the properties of posterior CC regions in AS individuals. Furthermore, there was greater functional connectivity between visual areas in the AS than in the non-AS group. Levels of connectivity were also stronger in visual than in motor regions in the autistic subjects, while the opposite was true for the non-autistic group. Thus, visual IH transfer plays an important role in visuo-motor tasks in AS individuals. These findings extend the well established enhanced role of perception in autistic cognition to visuo-motor IH information transfer. PMID:26106551

  13. A greater involvement of posterior brain areas in interhemispheric transfer in autism: fMRI, DWI and behavioral evidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise B. Barbeau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A small corpus callosum (CC is one of the most replicated neurobiological findings in autism spectrum (AS. However, its effect on interhemispheric (IH communication is unknown. We combined structural (CC area and DWI, functional (task-related fMRI activation and connectivity analyses as well as behavioral (Poffenberger and Purdue tasks measures to investigate IH integration in adult AS individuals of typical intelligence. Despite similar behavioral IH transfer time and performances in bimanual tasks, the CC sub-regions connecting frontal and parietal cortical areas were smaller in AS than in non-AS individuals, while those connecting visual regions were similar. The activation of visual areas was lower in AS than in non-AS individuals during the presentation of visual stimuli. Behavioral IH performances were related to the properties of CC subregions connecting motor areas in non-AS individuals, but to the properties of posterior CC regions in AS individuals. Furthermore, there was greater functional connectivity between visual areas in the AS than in the non-AS group. Levels of connectivity were also stronger in visual than in motor regions in the autistic subjects, while the opposite was true for the non-autistic group. Thus, visual IH transfer plays an important role in visuo-motor tasks in AS individuals. These findings extend the well established enhanced role of perception in autistic cognition to visuo-motor IH information transfer.

  14. The Role of Frontal Cortical and Medial-Temporal Lobe Brain Areas in Learning a Bayesian Prior Belief on Reversals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Anthony I; Costa, Vincent D; Rudebeck, Peter H; Chudasama, Yogita; Murray, Elisabeth A; Averbeck, Bruno B

    2015-08-19

    Reversal learning has been extensively studied across species as a task that indexes the ability to flexibly make and reverse deterministic stimulus-reward associations. Although various brain lesions have been found to affect performance on this task, the behavioral processes affected by these lesions have not yet been determined. This task includes at least two kinds of learning. First, subjects have to learn and reverse stimulus-reward associations in each block of trials. Second, subjects become more proficient at reversing choice preferences as they experience more reversals. We have developed a Bayesian approach to separately characterize these two learning processes. Reversal of choice behavior within each block is driven by a combination of evidence that a reversal has occurred, and a prior belief in reversals that evolves with experience across blocks. We applied the approach to behavior obtained from 89 macaques, comprising 12 lesion groups and a control group. We found that animals from all of the groups reversed more quickly as they experienced more reversals, and correspondingly they updated their prior beliefs about reversals at the same rate. However, the initial values of the priors that the various groups of animals brought to the task differed significantly, and it was these initial priors that led to the differences in behavior. Thus, by taking a Bayesian approach we find that variability in reversal-learning performance attributable to different neural systems is primarily driven by different prior beliefs about reversals that each group brings to the task. The ability to use prior knowledge to adapt choice behavior is critical for flexible decision making. Reversal learning is often studied as a form of flexible decision making. However, prior studies have not identified which brain regions are important for the formation and use of prior beliefs to guide choice behavior. Here we develop a Bayesian approach that formally characterizes learning

  15. Neurophysiological mechanisms of formation of non-chemical dependence through self-stimulation of positive emotiogenic areas of rats’ brains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Berchenko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our research was to study the limbic-neocortical mechanisms of addictive behaviour in rats formed throughthe arousal of intense emotions on the model of self-stimulation reaction of the brain. We carried out investigations by conducting a chronic experiment on 15 nonlinear laboratory male rats weighing 250 to 320 grams, at the ages of 5 to 6 months. As a model of receiving positive emotions we used the behaviour of animals held in a Skinner box which was formed through self stimulation of the positive emotional zones of the posterior ventrolateral hypothalamus. We registered the frequency of self-stimulation reactions of the ventrolateral hypothalamus daily for 4 days and on the 7th day after its ccessation (state of deprivation. We performed visual and spectral analysis of the electrical activity of the brain using "Neuron-spektr.net" software. We assessed the absolute spectral density of the power of rhythm signals of the following frequency bands: delta (0.5–4.0 Hz, theta (4.0–7.0 Hz, alpha (8.0–12.0 Hz and low frequency beta (14.0–20.0 Hz. The formation of behaviour dependent on receiving intense emotions as a result of self-stimulation of the positive zones of the ventrolateral hypothalamus is caused by the initial high level of need for positive emotional reinforcement and further growth in the implementation of desire and is associated with activation of emotional memory mechanisms, changes in electrogenesis in the hippocampus and the reticular formation in the form of decrease in the spectral power of rhythms of alpha and beta bands and increased spectral power of biopotentials of the delta range in the hippocampus and theta range in the reticular formation with severe manifestations of seizure and paroxysmal activity components and increased activity of the sympatho-adrenal system. The syndrome of withdrawal fromthe receiving of positive emotions in some rats with implementation of a programme of a phobic character

  16. Electroencephalographic (eeg coherence between visual and motor areas of the left and the right brain hemisphere while performing visuomotor task with the right and the left hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Brežan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unilateral limb movements are based on the activation of contralateral primary motor cortex and the bilateral activation of premotor cortices. Performance of a visuomotor task requires a visuomotor integration between motor and visual cortical areas. The functional integration (»binding« of different brain areas, is probably mediated by the synchronous neuronal oscillatory activity, which can be determined by electroencephalographic (EEG coherence analysis. We introduced a new method of coherence analysis and compared coherence and power spectra in the left and right hemisphere for the right vs. left hand visuomotor task, hypothesizing that the increase in coherence and decrease in power spectra while performing the task would be greater in the contralateral hemisphere.Methods: We analyzed 6 healthy subjects and recorded their electroencephalogram during visuomotor task with the right or the left hand. For data analysis, a special Matlab computer programme was designed. The results were statistically analysed by a two-way analysis of variance, one-way analysis of variance and post-hoc t-tests with Bonferroni correction.Results: We demonstrated a significant increase in coherence (p < 0.05 for the visuomotor task compared to control tasks in alpha (8–13 Hz in beta 1 (13–20 Hz frequency bands between visual and motor electrodes. There were no significant differences in coherence nor power spectra depending on the hand used. The changes of coherence and power spectra between both hemispheres were symmetrical.Conclusions: In previous studies, a specific increase of coherence and decrease of power spectra for the visuomotor task was found, but we found no conclusive asymmetries when performing the task with right vs. left hand. This could be explained in a way that increases in coherence and decreases of power spectra reflect symmetrical activation and cooperation between more complex visual and motor brain areas.

  17. The hippocampus and dorsal raphe nucleus are key brain areas associated with the antidepressant effects of lithium augmentation of desipramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cussotto, Sofia; Cryan, John F; O'Leary, Olivia F

    2017-05-01

    Approximately 50% of depressed individuals fail to achieve remission with first-line antidepressant drugs and a third remain treatment-resistant. When first-line antidepressant treatment is unsuccessful, second-line strategies include dose optimisation, switching to another antidepressant, combination with another antidepressant, or augmentation with a non-antidepressant medication. Much of the evidence for the efficacy of augmentation strategies comes from studies using lithium to augment the effects of tricyclic antidepressants. The neural circuitry underlying the therapeutic effects of lithium augmentation is not yet fully understood. Recently, we reported that chronic treatment with a combination of lithium and the antidepressant desipramine, exerted antidepressant-like behavioural effects in a mouse strain (BALB/cOLaHsd) that did not exhibit an antidepressant-like behavioural response to either drug alone. In the present study, we used this model in combination with ΔFosB/FosB immunohistochemistry to identify brain regions chronically affected by lithium augmentation of desipramine when compared to either treatment alone. The data suggest that the dorsal raphe nucleus and the CA3 regions of the dorsal hippocampus are key nodes in the neural circuitry underlying antidepressant action of lithium augmentation of desipramine. These data give new insight into the neurobiology underlying the mechanism of lithium augmentation in the context of treatment-resistant depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Behavioral effects of deep brain stimulation of different areas of the Papez circuit on memory- and anxiety-related functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hescham, Sarah; Jahanshahi, Ali; Meriaux, Céline; Lim, Lee Wei; Blokland, Arjan; Temel, Yasin

    2015-10-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has gained interest as a potential therapy for advanced treatment-resistant dementia. However, possible targets for DBS and the optimal stimulation parameters are not yet clear. Here, we compared the effects of DBS of the CA1 sub-region of the hippocampus, mammillothalamic tract, anterior thalamic nucleus, and entorhinal cortex in an experimental rat model of dementia. Rats with scopolamine-induced amnesia were assessed in the object location task with different DBS parameters. Moreover, anxiety-related side effects were evaluated in the elevated zero maze and open field. After sacrifice, we applied c-Fos immunohistochemistry to assess which memory-related regions were affected by DBS. When comparing all structures, DBS of the entorhinal cortex and CA1 sub-region was able to restore memory loss when a specific set of stimulation parameters was used. No anxiety-related side effects were found following DBS. The beneficial behavioral performance of CA1 DBS rats was accompanied with an activation of cells in the anterior cingulate gyrus. Therefore, we conclude that acute CA1 DBS restores memory loss possibly through improved attentional and cognitive processes in the limbic cortex. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Mercury pollution in two typical areas in Guizhou province, China and its neurotoxic effects in the brains of rats fed with local polluted rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jinping; Yuan, Tao; Wang, Wenhua; Jia, Jinping; Lin, Xueyu; Qu, Liya; Ding, Zhenhua

    2006-12-01

    Guizhou province, which located in southwestern of China, is an important mercury (Hg) production center. This study was to investigate the environmental levels and ecological effects of mercury in two typical Hg polluted areas in Guizhou province. In addition, to improve the understanding of the neurotoxic effects of Hg, a rats based laboratory study was also carried out in this study. Samples of water, soil, plants, crops and animals collected from Wanshan mercury mine area, Guzhou province, were analyzed by mercury analyzer. The effects of Hg contaminated rice on the expression of c-jun mRNA in rat's brain and the expression of c-JUN protein in cortex, hippocampus were observed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunocytochemical methods. The results showed that the mercury contents in most environmental samples of aquatics, soil, atmosphere and the biomass of corn, plant and animals, were higher than the national standard and the corresponding data from unpolluted area. It was found mercury pollutions were significant in soil and air. In the laboratory study, the expression of c-jun mRNA and its protein was significantly induced by Hg polluted rice collected from local area. Selenium could reduce the Hg accumulation in the body and had antagonist effect on Hg in terms of the expression of c-jun mRNA and c-JUN protein. The environmental data and Hg levels in different creatures collected in this study will facilitate the environmental and ecological risk assessment of Hg in the polluted areas. It was urged to be alert of mental health problem in human beings when any kind of Hg-polluted food was taken. More efforts should be performed to protect the local ecosystem and human health in the mercury polluted area of Wanshan, Guizhou province of China.

  20. Developmental differences in the brain response to unhealthy food cues : An fMRI study of children and adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meer, Floor|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/375286829; van der Laan, Laura N|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341735051; Charbonnier, Lisette|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/41364118X; Viergever, Max A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/108781828; Adan, Roger Ah|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/096757191; Smeets, Paul Am|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304817740

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Food cues are omnipresent and may trigger overconsumption. In the past 2 decades, the prevalence of childhood obesity has increased dramatically. Because children's brains are still developing, especially in areas important for inhibition, children may be more susceptible than adults to

  1. Toluene effects on Oxidative Stress in Brain regions of Young-adult, Middleage,and Senescent Brown Norway Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental contaminants is not well understood. To extend knowledge in this area, we examined effects in rat brain of the volatile organic compound toluene. The objective was to test whether oxidative stress plays a role in the adver...

  2. Lateral hypothalamic area deep brain stimulation for refractory obesity: a pilot study with preliminary data on safety, body weight, and energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Donald M; Tomycz, Nestor D; Bailes, Julian; de Jonge, Lilian; Lecoultre, Virgile; Wilent, Bryan; Alcindor, Dunbar; Prostko, E Richard; Cheng, Boyle C; Angle, Cynthia; Cantella, Diane; Whiting, Benjamin B; Mizes, J Scott; Finnis, Kirk W; Ravussin, Eric; Oh, Michael Y

    2013-07-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) has been suggested as a potential treatment for intractable obesity. The authors present the 2-year safety results as well as early efficacy and metabolic effects in 3 patients undergoing bilateral LHA DBS in the first study of this approach in humans. Three patients meeting strict criteria for intractable obesity, including failed bariatric surgery, underwent bilateral implantation of LHA DBS electrodes as part of an institutional review board- and FDA-approved pilot study. The primary focus of the study was safety; however, the authors also received approval to collect data on early efficacy including weight change and energy metabolism. No serious adverse effects, including detrimental psychological consequences, were observed with continuous LHA DBS after a mean follow-up of 35 months (range 30-39 months). Three-dimensional nonlinear transformation of postoperative imaging superimposed onto brain atlas anatomy was used to confirm and study DBS contact proximity to the LHA. No significant weight loss trends were seen when DBS was programmed using standard settings derived from movement disorder DBS surgery. However, promising weight loss trends have been observed when monopolar DBS stimulation has been applied via specific contacts found to increase the resting metabolic rate measured in a respiratory chamber. Deep brain stimulation of the LHA may be applied safely to humans with intractable obesity. Early evidence for some weight loss under metabolically optimized settings provides the first "proof of principle" for this novel antiobesity strategy. A larger follow-up study focused on efficacy along with a more rigorous metabolic analysis is planned to further explore the benefits and therapeutic mechanism behind this investigational therapy.

  3. Induced unilateral vocal fold paralysis and recovery rapidly modulate brain areas related to phonatory behavior: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Ashwini; Jiang, Yang; Stemple, Joseph C; Archer, Sanford M; Andreatta, Richard D

    2011-03-01

    Peripheral and behavioral effects of voice disorders are well documented in the literature; yet, there is little information regarding the central neural biomarkers and mechanisms underlying these disorders. Understanding the details of brain function changes in disordered voice production is a critical factor for developing better treatment strategies that result in more robust patient outcomes. To examine a model of induced unilateral vocal fold paralysis (iUVFP) to demonstrate and characterize the form of activity changes within central mappings of the larynx to the induced paralysis. The induced paralysis model allowed the participant to serve as his or her own control when comparing baseline results of normal voice with results during the paralysis and subsequent recovery. Prospective, case-study design. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine central laryngeal representations during three time points: pre-iUVFP, during iUVFP, and postrecovery from iUVFP. iUVFP was induced using a lidocaine with epinephrine nerve block unilaterally. Percent changes in blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) activity served as the dependent variable. Results indicated an overall reduced activity level in sensorimotor, subcortical, and cerebellar regions during paralysis. Recovery from paralysis led to augmented responses, particularly in sensory, association, and cerebellar zones. The decrease in activity during iUVFP and the significantly increased activity during the recovery phase likely represent immediate neuroplastic events occurring within minutes of nerve blockade. Recovery-related changes in the BOLD response are hypothesized to be associated with a recalibration of the system after return of normal laryngeal function. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism of the FKBP5 Gene and Childhood Maltreatment as Predictors of Structural Changes in Brain Areas Involved in Emotional Processing in Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, Leonardo; Carballedo, Angela; Wetterling, Friedrich; McCarthy, Hazel; O'Keane, Veronica; Gill, Michael; Morris, Derrek; Fahey, Ciara; Meaney, James; Frodl, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The gene expressing the FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP5) is involved in the regulation of glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity. The rs1360780 SNP in this gene (T allele vs C homozygous) has been found to be associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of our study was to investigate whether this polymorphism might be associated with altered brain structure and function in a cohort of 40 patients with MDD and 43 healthy controls. A functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) emotional attention task was employed. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was also conducted, extracting mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) from brain areas that showed functional differences between patients expressing the two alleles of the rs1360780 SNP. Finally, the effect of the interaction of childhood adversity as measured by the Childhood trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and rs1360780 allele status was analyzed in relation to DTI measures using a general linear model. All results presented are family-wise error (FWE) corrected. Functional interactions were found between genotype and diagnosis (pemotional perception and inhibition. The interaction between the T allele and childhood maltreatment explained our structural findings in these regions, suggesting that their altered maturation and function might be influenced by early chronic stress in the presence of this genetic trait.

  5. Susceptibility of domestic cats to chronic wasting disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiason, Candace K; Nalls, Amy V; Seelig, Davis M; Kraft, Susan L; Carnes, Kevin; Anderson, Kelly R; Hayes-Klug, Jeanette; Hoover, Edward A

    2013-02-01

    Domestic and nondomestic cats have been shown to be susceptible to feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE), almost certainly caused by consumption of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-contaminated meat. Because domestic and free-ranging nondomestic felids scavenge cervid carcasses, including those in areas affected by chronic wasting disease (CWD), we evaluated the susceptibility of the domestic cat (Felis catus) to CWD infection experimentally. Cohorts of 5 cats each were inoculated intracerebrally (i.c.) or orally (p.o.) with CWD-infected deer brain. At 40 and 42 months postinoculation, two i.c.-inoculated cats developed signs consistent with prion disease, including a stilted gait, weight loss, anorexia, polydipsia, patterned motor behaviors, head and tail tremors, and ataxia, and the cats progressed to terminal disease within 5 months. Brains from these two cats were pooled and inoculated into cohorts of cats by the i.c., p.o., and intraperitoneal and subcutaneous (i.p./s.c.) routes. Upon subpassage, feline CWD was transmitted to all i.c.-inoculated cats with a decreased incubation period of 23 to 27 months. Feline-adapted CWD (Fel(CWD)) was demonstrated in the brains of all of the affected cats by Western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed abnormalities in clinically ill cats, which included multifocal T2 fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) signal hyperintensities, ventricular size increases, prominent sulci, and white matter tract cavitation. Currently, 3 of 4 i.p./s.c.- and 2 of 4 p.o. secondary passage-inoculated cats have developed abnormal behavior patterns consistent with the early stage of feline CWD. These results demonstrate that CWD can be transmitted and adapted to the domestic cat, thus raising the issue of potential cervid-to-feline transmission in nature.

  6. A review of sleep deprivation studies evaluating the brain transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Alisa S; Huber, Jason D; O'Callaghan, James P; Rosen, Charles L; Miller, Diane B

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies show a positive association between adequate sleep and good health. Further, disrupted sleep may increase the risk for CNS diseases, such as stroke and Alzheimer's disease. However, there has been limited progress in determining how sleep is linked to brain health or how sleep disruption may increase susceptibility to brain insult and disease. Animal studies can aid in understanding these links. In reviewing the animal literature related to the effects of sleep disruption on the brain, we found most of the work was directed toward investigating and characterizing the role of various brain areas or structures in initiating and regulating sleep. In contrast, limited effort has been directed towards understanding how sleep disruption alters the brain's health or susceptibility to insult. We also note many current studies have determined the changes in the brain following compromised sleep by examining, for example, the brain transcriptome or to a more limited extent the proteome. However, these studies have utilized almost exclusively total sleep deprivation (e.g., 24 out of 24 hours) paradigms or single short periods of limited acute sleep deprivation (e.g., 3 out of 24 hours). While such strategies are beneficial in understanding how sleep is controlled, they may not have much translational value for determining links between sleep and brain health or for determining how sleep disruption may increase brain susceptibility to insult. Surprisingly, few studies have determined how the duration and recurrence of sleep deprivation influence the effects seen after sleep deprivation. Our aim in this review was to identify relevant rodent studies from 1980 through 2012 and analyze those that use varying durations of sleep deprivation or restriction in their effort to evaluate the effects of sleep deprivation on the brain transcriptome and to a more limited extent the proteome. We examined how differences in the duration of sleep deprivation affect

  7. [Application of functional MR-images acquired at low field in planning of neurosurgical operation close to an eloquent brain area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Tibor; Schwarcz, Attila; Janszky, József; Horváth, Zsolt; Kosztolányi, Péter; Dóczi, Tamás

    2007-01-20

    Presentation of functional MRI performed at low magnetic field (1 Tesla) for planning microsurgical operation in a patient suffering from tumor close to an eloquent brain area. Microsurgical removal navigated by frameless stereotaxy of an intrinsic tumor located in eloquent area is indicated if speech function is not damaged, i.e. exact localisation and relationship of the tumor and speech area can be defined. Before operation an optimized EPI based 2D sequence was applied to yield functional MR images. At the planning of the operation the paradigm used for the localization of the sensory language cortex contained passive listening to a text. Control investigations were performed one month postoperatively. A specific psychological test, as an additional investigation to estimate the accurate level of the sensory language function, was also conducted. Low resolution (matrix of 64x 64) functional MR images visualized sensory speech center and auditory cortex satisfactorily. The scans showed clearly that the Wernicke's region was situated just above the tumor (WHO grade II glioma), and this finding increased the safety of intraoperative localization and reduced the risk of morbidity. Control examinations revealed minimal decrease in sensory language function, however, it was not noticeable for either the patient or her surroundings. Optimized functional MR imaging performed at low magnetic field can support planning of neurosurgical operations and reduce the morbidity of microsurgical interventions.

  8. Testing promotes long-term learning via stabilizing activation patterns in a large network of brain areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keresztes, Attila; Kaiser, Daniel; Kovács, Gyula; Racsmány, Mihály

    2014-11-01

    The testing effect refers to the phenomenon that repeated retrieval of memories promotes better long-term retention than repeated study. To investigate the neural correlates of the testing effect, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging methods while participants performed a cued recall task. Prior to the neuroimaging experiment, participants learned Swahili-German word pairs, then half of the word pairs were repeatedly studied, whereas the other half were repeatedly tested. For half of the participants, the neuroimaging experiment was performed immediately after the learning phase; a 1-week retention interval was inserted for the other half of the participants. We found that a large network of areas identified in a separate 2-back functional localizer scan were active during the final recall of the word pair associations. Importantly, the learning strategy (retest or restudy) of the word pairs determined the manner in which the retention interval affected the activations within this network. Recall of previously restudied memories was accompanied by reduced activation within this network at long retention intervals, but no reduction was observed for previously retested memories. We suggest that retrieval promotes learning via stabilizing cue-related activation patterns in a network of areas usually associated with cognitive and attentional control functions. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Identifying non-toxic doses of manganese for manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging to map brain areas activated by operant behavior in trained rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálosi, Rita; Szalay, Csaba; Aradi, Mihály; Perlaki, Gábor; Pál, József; Steier, Roy; Lénárd, László; Karádi, Zoltán

    2017-04-01

    Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) offers unique advantages such as studying brain activation in freely moving rats, but its usefulness has not been previously evaluated during operant behavior training. Manganese in a form of MnCl 2 , at a dose of 20mg/kg, was intraperitoneally infused. The administration was repeated and separated by 24h to reach the dose of 40mg/kg or 60mg/kg, respectively. Hepatotoxicity of the MnCl 2 was evaluated by determining serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, total bilirubin, albumin and protein levels. Neurological examination was also carried out. The animals were tested in visual cue discriminated operant task. Imaging was performed using a 3T clinical MR scanner. T1 values were determined before and after MnCl 2 administrations. Manganese-enhanced images of each animal were subtracted from their baseline images to calculate decrease in the T1 value (ΔT1) voxel by voxel. The subtracted T1 maps of trained animals performing visual cue discriminated operant task, and those of naive rats were compared. The dose of 60mg/kg MnCl 2 showed hepatotoxic effect, but even these animals did not exhibit neurological symptoms. The dose of 20 and 40mg/kg MnCl 2 increased the number of omissions and did not affect the accuracy of performing the visual cue discriminated operant task. Using the accumulated dose of 40mg/kg, voxels with a significant enhanced ΔT1 value were detected in the following brain areas of the visual cue discriminated operant behavior performed animals compared to those in the controls: the visual, somatosensory, motor and premotor cortices, the insula, cingulate, ectorhinal, entorhinal, perirhinal and piriform cortices, hippocampus, amygdala with amygdalohippocampal areas, dorsal striatum, nucleus accumbens core, substantia nigra, and retrorubral field. In conclusion, the MEMRI proved to be a reliable method to accomplish brain activity mapping in correlation with the operant behavior

  10. Neuronal substrates underlying stress resilience and susceptibility in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Febbraro, Fabia; Svenningsen, Katrine; Thao Phuong Tran

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stress and stressful life events have repeatedly been shown as causally related to depression. The Chronic Mild Stress rat model is a valid model of stress-induced depression. Like humans, rats display great heterogeneity in their response to stress and adversity. Hence some individuals...... are stress-sensitive and prone to develop depression-like behaviour in response to modest stressors, while others are stress-resilient and remain essentially symptom free. OBJECTIVES: Compared to the large body of research, which describes stress-induced maladaptive neurobiological changes, relatively little...... attention has been devoted to understand resiliency to stress. The aim of the present study was to identify changes in neuronal activity, associated with stress-resilient and stress-susceptible chronic mild stress endophenotypes, by examining c-Fos expression in 13 different brain areas. Changes in c...

  11. Susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoeck, Marcus Matheus Johannes

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis the author studied the diagnostic procedures for susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia (MH), with special emphasis upon refining the biological diagnostic test and improving protocols and guidelines for investigation of MH susceptibility. MH is a pharmacogenetic disease of skeletal

  12. Vascular malformation mimicking multiple sclerosis active plaque: Usefulness of susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) to perform correct diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, Marco; Michelini, Giulia; Varrassi, Marco; Splendiani, Alessandra; di Cesare, Ernesto; Masciocchi, Carlo; Gallucci, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Brain focal hyperdensity areas are common findings in computed tomography examinations, often further evaluated in magnetic resonance imaging exams. These are usually haemosiderin and calcified perivascular clusters known as cerebral microbleeds and may be secondary signs of brain disorders. Cerebral microbleeds are paramagnetic and ferromagnetic substances determining magnetic field inhomogeneity. Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) performed at 3T with phase post-processing is very useful in evaluating this field variation. In fact in the past decade SWI has been increasingly reported for its clinical value in adults with neurologic disorders, traumas, arterial venous malformations, occult venous diseases, tumours and functional brain imaging. The occasional computed tomography findings of single or multiple focal hyperdense areas can mimic many of these brain disorders and lead to misinterpretations. For these reason it is useful to have a more detailed diagnosis with MRI brain examination. The authors highlight the role of SWI sequence in the differential diagnosis among active plaque, vascular malformation and haemorrhagic lesion in a case report of a 41-year-old woman suffering from multiple sclerosis with a focal hyperdense area reported in a computed tomography brain examination. PMID:26450102

  13. Absolute method of measuring magnetic susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, A.; Senftle, F.E.

    1959-01-01

    An absolute method of standardization and measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of small samples is presented which can be applied to most techniques based on the Faraday method. The fact that the susceptibility is a function of the area under the curve of sample displacement versus distance of the magnet from the sample, offers a simple method of measuring the susceptibility without recourse to a standard sample. Typical results on a few substances are compared with reported values, and an error of less than 2% can be achieved. ?? 1959 The American Institute of Physics.

  14. Functional brain measurements within the prefrontal area on pseudo-"blindsight" induced by extremely low frequency electromagnetic stimulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Hidenori; Ueno, Shoogo

    2015-05-01

    For evaluating the effects of phosphene as pseudo-blindsight closely, we used functional near-infrared spectroscopy to investigate whether or not the phosphene appearance itself substantially affects the hemodynamic responses of the prefrontal area. Seven healthy volunteers ranging in age from 22 to 72 participated in the visual stimulation experiments. First, we examined the influences of electromagnetic stimulations at around the threshold (10 mT) for a blindsight-like phosphene on the responses. According to the results of the aged volunteers, we found the possibility that the delay in the phosphene perception might be caused by aging beyond a certain age. In the results of our measurements using the stimulation of 50 mT, no significant difference in the perception delay for all the volunteers could be detected. When the field strength was decreased from 50 mT to the threshold in steps of 10 mT, the results obtained at the threshold are equivalent to that obtained at 50 mT. Our data strongly support the hypothesis that pseudo-blindsight induced by electromagnetic stimulation of above 50 mT is able to excite all the volunteers' retinal photoreceptor cells provisionally. Hence the continuous stimulations for a long period of time might gradually activate synaptic plasticity on the neural network of the retina.

  15. Parental Brain: Cerebral Areas Activated By Infant Cries And Faces. A Comparison Between Different Populations Of Parents And Not

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia ePiallini

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Literature about parenting traditionally focused on caring behaviors and parental representations. Nowadays, an innovative line of researches, interested in evaluating the neural areas and hormones implicated in the nurturing and caregiving responses, has developed. The only way to permit a newborn to survive and grow up is to respond to his needs and in order to succeed it is necessary, first of all, that the adults around him understand what his needs are. That’s why adults’ capacity of taking care of infants cannot disregard from some biological mechanisms, which allow them to be more responsive to the progeny and to infants in general. Many researches have proved that exist specific neural basis activating in response to infant evolutionary stimuli, such as infant cries and infant emotional facial expression. There is a sort of innate predisposition in human adults to respond to infants’ signals, in order to satisfy their need and allow them to survive and become young adults capable of taking care of themselves. This article focuses on those researches that have investigated, in the last decade, which are the neural circuits underlying parental behavioral responses.Moreover, the paper compares the results of those studies that investigated the neural responses to infant stimuli under different conditions: familiar versus unknown children, parents versus non-parents and normative versus clinical samples (depression, addiction, adolescence and PTSD.

  16. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain Brain ... called the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Brain Basics in Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life— ...

  17. Evidence that GABAergic neurons in the preoptic area of the rat brain are targets of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Linda E; Carpenter, Clifford D; Petersen, Sandra L

    2002-01-01

    Developmental exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) interferes with masculinization and defeminization of male sexual behaviors and gonadotropin release patterns. We previously demonstrated that the mRNA encoding the arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a protein that mediates TCDD effects, is found in brain regions that control reproductive functions, most notably in the preoptic area (POA). The pattern of distribution of the AhR gene closely overlaps that of an enzyme necessary for Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) synthesis, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 67. To test the hypothesis that GABAergic neurons in the POA are targets of TCDD during development, we used dual-label in situ hybridization histochemistry (ISHH) to co-localize GAD and AhR mRNAs in the region. In addition, we used ISHH to determine the effects of TCDD (1 microg/kg body weight, gestational day 15) on GAD 67 gene expression in POA regions in pups examined on postnatal day 3. We found that virtually all GABAergic neurons in the POA expressed the AhR gene. Furthermore, GAD 67 mRNA levels were higher in females than in males in the rostral POA/anteroventral periventricular nucleus (rPOA/AVPV) and in the rostral portion of the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN). TCDD abolished sex differences in the rPOA/AVPV but had no effect in the rostral MPN. In the caudal MPN, there were no sex differences in GAD 67 gene expression, but TCDD depressed expression specifically in males. Our findings demonstrate that GABAergic neurons in the brain are targets of TCDD and may mediate developmental effects of this contaminant on reproductive function. PMID:12060831

  18. Study of areas susceptible to mass movements in the Highway RS 486, Route of the Sun Estudo de áreas suscetíveis a movimentos de massa na Rodovia RS-486 – Rota do Sol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Monguilhott

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The development of new urban areas and the necessity of disposing of goods production and increased movement of people requires the intervention of man in areas previously not inhabited or preserved of the human interference. Infrastructural work sites have direct effects on ecosystems and RS/486 causes, beyond the visual impact on the landscape, a strong fragmentation in Atlantic forest. The removal of vegetation around the highway can facilitate the occurrence of natural disasters related to changes in geomorphology and weathering processes may result erosion and soil accommodation. To study the vulnerability and susceptibility the mass movements of the sub-watershed Três Forquilhas river along the highway RS 486 were employed techniques of GIS and remote sensing to produce maps of environmental vulnerability from employment of such variables as land use, geomorphology, geology, digital elevation model (DEM, slope and normalized digital vegetation index (NDVI by applying analytic hierarchy process method (AHP to support decision. The resulting maps matchie the purpose of defining priority areas for action of the Rio Grande do Sul State Civil Defense.

    doi: 10.4336/2010.pfb.30.61.61

    O desenvolvimento de novos aglomerados urbanos, bem como a necessidade de escoamento da produção de bens e a maior circulação de pessoas, exige a intervenção do homem em espaços antes não habitados ou preservados da interferência humana. Obras de infraestrutura têm efeito direto sobre os ecossistemas e a RS 486 provoca, além do impacto visual na paisagem, uma forte fragmentação no bioma Mata Atlântica. A retirada da vegetação no entorno da rodovia pode facilitar a ocorrência de desastres naturais relacionados com mudanças na geomorfologia e nos processos intempéricos, resultando em erosão e acomodação do solo. Com o objetivo de mapear áreas vulneráveis e suscetíveis a movimentos de massa na sub-bacia hidrográfica do Rio Tr

  19. Framing susceptibility in a risky choice game is altered by galvanic vestibular stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuss, Nora; Kalla, Roger; Müri, Rene; Mast, Fred W

    2017-06-07

    Recent research provides evidence that galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) has a modulating effect on somatosensory perception and spatial cognition. However, other vestibular stimulation techniques have induced changes in affective control and decision making. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of GVS on framing susceptibility in a risky-choice game. The participants were to decide between a safe and a risky option. The safe option was framed either positively or negatively. During the task, the participants were exposed to either left anodal/right cathodal GVS, right anodal/left cathodal GVS, or sham stimulation (control condition). While left anodal/right cathodal GVS activated more right-hemispheric vestibular brain areas, right anodal/left cathodal GVS resulted in more bilateral activation. We observed increased framing susceptibility during left anodal/right cathodal GVS, but no change in framing susceptibility during right anodal/left cathodal GVS. We propose that GVS results in increased reliance on the affect heuristic by means of activation of cortical and subcortical vestibular-emotional brain structures and that this effect is modulated by the lateralization of the vestibular cortex.

  20. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A highly developed area at the front of the brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as ... National Institutes of Health (NIH), a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Top

  1. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... like phobias or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) . Prefrontal cortex (PFC) —Seat of the brain's executive functions, such ... for growing, staying alive, and making new neurons. prefrontal cortex —A highly developed area at the front of ...

  2. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a cell that contains DNA and information the cell needs for growing, staying alive, and making new neurons. prefrontal cortex —A highly developed area at the front of the brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as ...

  3. c-Fos immunoreactivity in prefrontal, basal ganglia and limbic areas of the rat brain after central and peripheral administration of ethanol and its metabolite acetaldehyde.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen N. Segovia

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Considerable evidence indicates that the metabolite of ethanol (EtOH, acetaldehyde, is biologically active. Acetaldehyde can be formed from EtOH peripherally mainly by alcohol dehydrogenase, and also centrally by catalase. EtOH and acetaldehyde show differences in their behavioral effects depending upon the route of administration. In terms of their effects on motor activity and motivated behaviors, when administered peripherally acetaldehyde tends to be more potent than EtOH but shows very similar potency administered centrally. Since dopamine (DA rich areas have an important role in regulating both motor activity and motivation, the present studies were undertaken to compare the effects of central (intraventricular, ICV and peripheral (intraperitoneal, IP administration of EtOH and acetaldehyde on a cellular marker of brain activity, c-Fos immunoreactivity, in DA innervated areas. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received an IP injection of vehicle, EtOH (0.5 or 2.5 g/kg or acetaldehyde (0.1 or 0.5 g/kg or an ICV injection of vehicle, EtOH or acetaldehyde (2.8 or 14.0 µmoles. IP administration of EtOH minimally induced c-Fos in some regions of the prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia, mainly at the low dose (0.5 g/kg, while IP acetaldehyde induced c-Fos in virtually all the structures studied at both doses. Acetaldehyde administered centrally increased c-Fos in all areas studied, a pattern that was very similar to EtOH. Thus, IP administered acetaldehyde was more efficacious than EtOH at inducing c-Fos expression. However, the general pattern of c-Fos induction promoted by ICV EtOH and acetaldehyde was similar. These results are consistent with the pattern observed in behavioral studies in which both substances produced the same magnitude of effect when injected centrally, and produced differences in potency after peripheral administration.

  4. Brain Basics: Know Your Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... frontal lobes. Whether you appreciate symphonies or rock music, your brain responds through the activity of these lobes. At the top of each temporal lobe is an area responsible for receiving ... those associated with music. Other parts of this lobe seem to integrate ...

  5. Antimycotics susceptibility testing of dermatophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsić-Arsenijević Valentina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatophytes are moulds that produce infections of the skin, hair and nails of humans and animals. The most common forms among these infections are onychomycosis and tinea pedis affecting 20% of world population. These infections are usually chronic. The treatment of dermatophytoses tends to be prolonged partly because available treatments are not very effective. Antifungal drug consumption and public health expenditure are high worldwide, as well as in Serbia. For adequate therapy, it is necessary to prove infection by isolation of dermatophytes and to test the antifungal susceptibility of isolates. Susceptibility testing is important for the resistance monitoring, epidemiological research and to compare in vitro activities of new antifungal agents. The diffusion and dilution methods of susceptibility tests are used, and technical issues of importance for the proper performance and interpretation of test results are published in the document E.DEF 9.1 (EUCAST and M38-A2 (CLSI. The aim of our paper is to promptly inform the public about technical achievements in this area, as well as the new organization of laboratory for medical mycology in our country. The formation of laboratory networks coordinated by the National Reference Laboratory for the cause of mycosis need to enable interlaboratory studies and further standardization of methods for antifungal susceptibility testing of dermatophytes, reproducibility of tests and clinical correlation monitoring (MIK values and clinical outcome of dermatophytosis. The importance of the new organization is expected efficient improvement in the dermatophytosis therapy at home, better quality of patient's life and the reduction of the cost of treatment.

  6. Determination of fluoxetine and its metabolite norfluoxetine in serum and brain areas using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, J C; Bothua, D; Collignon, I; Advenier, C; Spreux-Varoquaux, O

    1998-04-10

    A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method using only 0.1 ml of serum or homogenate from brain areas has been developed for the determination of fluoxetine (FLU) and its metabolite, norfluoxetine (N-FLU), with ultraviolet detection at 227 nm. The small volume of sample required in this method allows studies in small animals, such as mouse. The method provides recoveries of up to 90% for both compounds. Acceptable coefficients of variation were found for both within-run and day-to-day assays. The limit of detection was 5.0 ng/ml. No interferences were found with tricyclic antidepressant drugs and benzodiazepines, which allows this method to be used in clinical studies, Pharmacokinetic parameters for the two compounds are reported in mouse serum, frontal cortex and caudate nucleus. We also report the values of FLU and N-FLU in serum from humans who were treated once daily with 20 mg of FLU, obtained after 1, 14 and 28 days of treatment.

  7. Intermittent general anesthesia with controlled ventilation for asleep-awake-asleep brain surgery: a prospective series of 140 gliomas in eloquent areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deras, Pauline; Moulinié, Gérard; Maldonado, Igor Lima; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Duffau, Hugues; Bertram, Luc

    2012-10-01

    Awake brain tumor surgery is a unique opportunity for mapping sensorimotor and cognitive functions, allowing the operator to optimize the resection while preserving the patient's quality of life. During this type of procedure, active participation of the patient is necessary. To assess the efficacy and safety of a method of intermittent general anesthesia with controlled ventilation for performing invasive cerebral mapping. We report our prospective and observational single-center study with an asleep-awake-asleep protocol. Aspects of feasibility, airway management, timing of each phase, and occurrence of adverse events were detailed. During a 35-month period, 140 patients underwent resection of a glioma in an eloquent area. During the asleep phases, controlled ventilation with a laryngeal mask was always efficient. Orotracheal intubation was performed for some patients for the second asleep period. The patients remained fully awake for a mean time of 98 minutes. Postural discomfort was reported in 17.8% of cases. There was 1 case of aspiration of gastric contents with a favorable outcome and no mortality. Intermittent general anesthesia with controlled ventilation for this type of neurosurgical procedure remains an anesthesiological challenge. However, the results of this study suggest that it may be feasible, reproducible, and relatively safe in the context of a standardized protocol involving members of both anesthesiology and surgery teams. Such a technique has a great potential to improve the surgical results, from both oncological and functional perspectives.

  8. Rethinking stimulation of the brain in stroke rehabilitation: why higher motor areas might be better alternatives for patients with greater impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plow, Ela B; Cunningham, David A; Varnerin, Nicole; Machado, Andre

    2015-06-01

    Stimulating the brain to drive its adaptive plastic potential is promising to accelerate rehabilitative outcomes in stroke. The ipsilesional primary motor cortex (M1) is invariably facilitated. However, evidence supporting its efficacy is divided, indicating that we may have overgeneralized its potential. Since the M1 and its corticospinal output are frequently damaged in patients with serious lesions and impairments, ipsilesional premotor areas (PMAs) could be useful alternates instead. We base our premise on their higher probability of survival, greater descending projections, and adaptive potential, which is causal for recovery across the seriously impaired. Using a conceptual model, we describe how chronically stimulating PMAs would strongly affect key mechanisms of stroke motor recovery, such as facilitating the plasticity of alternate descending output, restoring interhemispheric balance, and establishing widespread connectivity. Although at this time it is difficult to predict whether PMAs would be "better," it is important to at least investigate whether they are reasonable substitutes for the M1. Even if the stimulation of the M1 may benefit those with maximum recovery potential, while that of PMAs may only help the more disadvantaged, it may still be reasonable to achieve some recovery across the majority rather than stimulate a single locus fated to be inconsistently effective across all. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Transplanted hUCB-MSCs migrated to the damaged area by SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling to promote functional recovery after traumatic brain injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jianhua; Liu, Ning; Yi, Bo; Zhang, Xiaochong; Gao, Bing Bing; Zhang, Yesen; Xu, Ruxiang; Li, Xin; Dai, Yiwu

    2015-01-01

    Transplanted human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) have exhibited considerable therapeutic potential for traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, how hUC-MSCs migrating to the injury region and the mechanism of hUC-MSCs promoting functional recovery after TBI are still unclear. In this study, we investigated whether stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) was involved in the hUC-MSCs migration and the possible mechanisms that might be involved in the beneficial effect on functional recovery. In vitro experiments demonstrated that SDF-1 induces a concentration-dependent migration of hUC-MSCs. Furthermore, pre-treatment with the CXCR4-specific antagonist AMD3100 significantly prevented the migration of hUC-MSCs in vitro. We found that the expression of SDF-1 increased significantly around the damaged area. Transplanted hUC-MSCs were localized to regions where SDF-1 was highly expressed. Additionally, our results showed that hUC-MSCs-treated animals showed significantly improved functional recovery compared with controls. In hUC-MSCs-transplanted group, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells were decreased and BrdU-positive cells were significantly increased compared with control group, more of BrdU-positive cells co-localized with GFAP. These suggest that SDF-1 plays an important role in the migration of hUC-MSCs to the damaged area and hUC-MSCs are beneficial for functional recovery after TBI.

  10. Neuronal substrates underlying stress resilience and susceptibility in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabia Febbraro

    Full Text Available Stress and stressful life events have repeatedly been shown as causally related to depression. The Chronic Mild Stress rat model is a valid model of stress-induced depression. Like humans, rats display great heterogeneity in their response to stress and adversity. Hence some individuals are stress-sensitive and prone to develop depression-like behaviour in response to modest stressors, while others are stress-resilient and remain essentially symptom free.Compared to the large body of research, which describes stress-induced maladaptive neurobiological changes, relatively little attention has been devoted to understand resiliency to stress. The aim of the present study was to identify changes in neuronal activity, associated with stress-resilient and stress-susceptible chronic mild stress endophenotypes, by examining c-Fos expression in 13 different brain areas. Changes in c-Fos expression have been reported as associated to stressful conditions.Stress-induced modulation of neuronal activation patterns in response to the chronic mild stress paradigm was mapped using the immediate early gene expression c-Fos as a marker. Quantification of the c-Fos-like immunoreactivity responses was done by semi-automated profile counting procedures and design-based stereology.Exposure to chronic mild stress significantly altered c-Fos expression in a total of 6 out of 13 investigated areas. Chronic mild stress was found to suppress the c-Fos response within the magnocellular ventral lateral geniculate nucleus of both stress subgroups. In the the lateral and ventral orbital cortices of stress-resilient rats, the c-Fos like immunoreactivity response was also repressed by stress exposure. On the contrary the c-Fos response within the amygdala, medial habenula, and infralimbic cortex was increased selectively for the stress-susceptible rats.The study was initiated to characterize neuronal substrates associated with stress-coping mechanisms. Six areas, all of which

  11. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Research Glossary Brain Basics (PDF, 10 pages) Introduction Watch the Brain Basics video Welcome. Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses ...

  12. Brain Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  13. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Events About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  14. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... learning more about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development ...

  15. Quantitative assessment of susceptibility weighted imaging processing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ningzhi; Wang, Wen-Tung; Sati, Pascal; Pham, Dzung L.; Butman, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate different susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) phase processing methods and parameter selection, thereby improving understanding of potential artifacts, as well as facilitating choice of methodology in clinical settings. Materials and Methods Two major phase processing methods, Homodyne-filtering and phase unwrapping-high pass (HP) filtering, were investigated with various phase unwrapping approaches, filter sizes, and filter types. Magnitude and phase images were acquired from a healthy subject and brain injury patients on a 3T clinical Siemens MRI system. Results were evaluated based on image contrast to noise ratio and presence of processing artifacts. Results When using a relatively small filter size (32 pixels for the matrix size 512 × 512 pixels), all Homodyne-filtering methods were subject to phase errors leading to 2% to 3% masked brain area in lower and middle axial slices. All phase unwrapping-filtering/smoothing approaches demonstrated fewer phase errors and artifacts compared to the Homodyne-filtering approaches. For performing phase unwrapping, Fourier-based methods, although less accurate, were 2–4 orders of magnitude faster than the PRELUDE, Goldstein and Quality-guide methods. Conclusion Although Homodyne-filtering approaches are faster and more straightforward, phase unwrapping followed by HP filtering approaches perform more accurately in a wider variety of acquisition scenarios. PMID:24923594

  16. Imaging brain development: the adolescent brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2012-06-01

    The past 15 years have seen a rapid expansion in the number of studies using neuroimaging techniques to investigate maturational changes in the human brain. In this paper, I review MRI studies on structural changes in the developing brain, and fMRI studies on functional changes in the social brain during adolescence. Both MRI and fMRI studies point to adolescence as a period of continued neural development. In the final section, I discuss a number of areas of research that are just beginning and may be the subject of developmental neuroimaging in the next twenty years. Future studies might focus on complex questions including the development of functional connectivity; how gender and puberty influence adolescent brain development; the effects of genes, environment and culture on the adolescent brain; development of the atypical adolescent brain; and implications for policy of the study of the adolescent brain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Whole brain and brain regional coexpression network interactions associated with predisposition to alcohol consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren A Vanderlinden

    Full Text Available To identify brain transcriptional networks that may predispose an animal to consume alcohol, we used weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA. Candidate coexpression modules are those with an eigengene expression level that correlates significantly with the level of alcohol consumption across a panel of BXD recombinant inbred mouse strains, and that share a genomic region that regulates the module transcript expression levels (mQTL with a genomic region that regulates alcohol consumption (bQTL. To address a controversy regarding utility of gene expression profiles from whole brain, vs specific brain regions, as indicators of the relationship of gene expression to phenotype, we compared candidate coexpression modules from whole brain gene expression data (gathered with Affymetrix 430 v2 arrays in the Colorado laboratories and from gene expression data from 6 brain regions (nucleus accumbens (NA; prefrontal cortex (PFC; ventral tegmental area (VTA; striatum (ST; hippocampus (HP; cerebellum (CB available from GeneNetwork. The candidate modules were used to construct candidate eigengene networks across brain regions, resulting in three "meta-modules", composed of candidate modules from two or more brain regions (NA, PFC, ST, VTA and whole brain. To mitigate the potential influence of chromosomal location of transcripts and cis-eQTLs in linkage disequilibrium, we calculated a semi-partial correlation of the transcripts in the meta-modules with alcohol consumption conditional on the transcripts' cis-eQTLs. The function of transcripts that retained the correlation with the phenotype after correction for the strong genetic influence, implicates processes of protein metabolism in the ER and Golgi as influencing susceptibility to variation in alcohol consumption. Integration of these data with human GWAS provides further information on the function of polymorphisms associated with alcohol-related traits.

  18. The Bay Area Verbal Learning Test (BAVLT): Normative Data and the Effects of Repeated Testing, Simulated Malingering, and Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, David L.; Wyma, John M.; Herron, Timothy J.; Yund, E. William

    2017-01-01

    Verbal learning tests (VLTs) are widely used to evaluate memory deficits in neuropsychiatric and developmental disorders. However, their validity has been called into question by studies showing significant differences in VLT scores obtained by different examiners. Here we describe the computerized Bay Area Verbal Learning Test (BAVLT), which minimizes inter-examiner differences by incorporating digital list presentation and automated scoring. In the 10-min BAVLT, a 12-word list is presented on three acquisition trials, followed by a distractor list, immediate recall of the first list, and, after a 30-min delay, delayed recall and recognition. In Experiment 1, we analyzed the performance of 195 participants ranging in age from 18 to 82 years. Acquisition trials showed strong primacy and recency effects, with scores improving over repetitions, particularly for mid-list words. Inter-word intervals (IWIs) increased with successive words recalled. Omnibus scores (summed over all trials except recognition) were influenced by age, education, and sex (women outperformed men). In Experiment 2, we examined BAVLT test-retest reliability in 29 participants tested with different word lists at weekly intervals. High intraclass correlation coefficients were seen for omnibus and acquisition scores, IWIs, and a categorization index reflecting semantic reorganization. Experiment 3 examined the performance of Experiment 2 participants when feigning symptoms of traumatic brain injury. Although 37% of simulated malingerers showed abnormal (p primacy/recency effects, learning rate across acquisition trials, and IWIs) discriminated the two groups with 80% sensitivity and 80% specificity. Experiment 4 examined the performance of a small group of patients with mild or severe TBI. Overall, both patient groups performed within the normal range, although significant performance deficits were seen in some patients. The BAVLT improves the speed and replicability of verbal learning assessments

  19. Abnormal activity of the MAPK- and cAMP-associated signaling pathways in frontal cortical areas in postmortem brain in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Adam J; McCullumsmith, Robert E; Haroutunian, Vahram; Meador-Woodruff, James H

    2012-03-01

    Recent evidence suggests that schizophrenia may result from alterations of integration of signaling mediated by multiple neurotransmitter systems. Abnormalities of associated intracellular signaling pathways may contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Proteins and phospho-proteins comprising mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-associated signaling pathways may be abnormally expressed in the anterior cingulate (ACC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in schizophrenia. Using western blot analysis we examined proteins of the MAPK- and cAMP-associated pathways in these two brain regions. Postmortem samples were used from a well-characterized collection of elderly patients with schizophrenia (ACC=36, DLPFC=35) and a comparison (ACC=33, DLPFC=31) group. Near-infrared intensity of IR-dye labeled secondary antisera bound to targeted proteins of the MAPK- and cAMP-associated signaling pathways was measured using LiCor Odyssey imaging system. We found decreased expression of Rap2, JNK1, JNK2, PSD-95, and decreased phosphorylation of JNK1/2 at T183/Y185 and PSD-95 at S295 in the ACC in schizophrenia. In the DLPFC, we found increased expression of Rack1, Fyn, Cdk5, and increased phosphorylation of PSD-95 at S295 and NR2B at Y1336. MAPK- and cAMP-associated molecules constitute ubiquitous intracellular signaling pathways that integrate extracellular stimuli, modify receptor expression and function, and regulate cell survival and neuroplasticity. These data suggest abnormal activity of the MAPK- and cAMP-associated pathways in frontal cortical areas in schizophrenia. These alterations may underlie the hypothesized hypoglutamatergic function in this illness. Together with previous findings, these data suggest that abnormalities of intracellular signaling pathways may contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  20. Genetic susceptibility of periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laine, M.L.; Crielaard, W.; Loos, B.G.

    2012-01-01

    In this systematic review, we explore and summarize the peer-reviewed literature on putative genetic risk factors for susceptibility to aggressive and chronic periodontitis. A comprehensive literature search on the PubMed database was performed using the keywords ‘periodontitis’ or ‘periodontal

  1. Fourie susceptible.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    a number of cultivars exhibited field resistance to halo blight and bacterial brown spot, all cultivars were more or less susceptible to .... Cerillos. Alubia. I. 91. 57. Kranskop. Red speckled sugar. II. 97. 63. OPS-RS1. Red speckled sugar. II. 96. 63. OPS-RS2. Red speckled sugar. I. 100. 61. OPS-RS3. Red speckled sugar. II. 97.

  2. Landslide susceptibility map: from research to application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorucci, Federica; Reichenbach, Paola; Ardizzone, Francesca; Rossi, Mauro; Felicioni, Giulia; Antonini, Guendalina

    2014-05-01

    Susceptibility map is an important and essential tool in environmental planning, to evaluate landslide hazard and risk and for a correct and responsible management of the territory. Landslide susceptibility is the likelihood of a landslide occurring in an area on the basis of local terrain conditions. Can be expressed as the probability that any given region will be affected by landslides, i.e. an estimate of "where" landslides are likely to occur. In this work we present two examples of landslide susceptibility map prepared for the Umbria Region and for the Perugia Municipality. These two maps were realized following official request from the Regional and Municipal government to the Research Institute for the Hydrogeological Protection (CNR-IRPI). The susceptibility map prepared for the Umbria Region represents the development of previous agreements focused to prepare: i) a landslide inventory map that was included in the Urban Territorial Planning (PUT) and ii) a series of maps for the Regional Plan for Multi-risk Prevention. The activities carried out for the Umbria Region were focused to define and apply methods and techniques for landslide susceptibility zonation. Susceptibility maps were prepared exploiting a multivariate statistical model (linear discriminant analysis) for the five Civil Protection Alert Zones defined in the regional territory. The five resulting maps were tested and validated using the spatial distribution of recent landslide events that occurred in the region. The susceptibility map for the Perugia Municipality was prepared to be integrated as one of the cartographic product in the Municipal development plan (PRG - Piano Regolatore Generale) as required by the existing legislation. At strategic level, one of the main objectives of the PRG, is to establish a framework of knowledge and legal aspects for the management of geo-hydrological risk. At national level most of the susceptibility maps prepared for the PRG, were and still are obtained

  3. FROM BRAIN DRAIN TO BRAIN NETWORKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina BONCEA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Scientific networking is the most accessible way a country can turn the brain drain into brain gain. Diaspora’s members offer valuable information, advice or financial support from the destination country, without being necessary to return. This article aims to investigate Romania’s potential of turning brain drain into brain networking, using evidence from the medical sector. The main factors influencing the collaboration with the country of origin are investigated. The conclusions suggest that Romania could benefit from the diaspora option, through an active implication at institutional level and the implementation of a strategy in this area.

  4. Brain herniation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... herniation; Uncal herniation; Subfalcine herniation; Tonsillar herniation; Herniation - brain ... Brain herniation occurs when something inside the skull produces pressure that moves brain tissues. This is most ...

  5. GIS-based assessment of landslide susceptibility using certainty ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    lions of people still live under the high-risk threat of landslides (Liu et al. 2013). The main goal of landslide susceptibility analy- sis is to identify dangerous and high risk areas. Keywords. Landslide; susceptibility mapping ...... the decision makers, managers, urban planners, engineers, and land-use developers to manage.

  6. Genetic Susceptibility to Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Kovacic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a complex multifocal arterial disease involving interactions of multiple genetic and environmental factors. Advances in techniques of molecular genetics have revealed that genetic ground significantly influences susceptibility to atherosclerotic vascular diseases. Besides further investigations of monogenetic diseases, candidate genes, genetic polymorphisms, and susceptibility loci associated with atherosclerotic diseases have been identified in recent years, and their number is rapidly increasing. This paper discusses main genetic investigations fields associated with human atherosclerotic vascular diseases. The paper concludes with a discussion of the directions and implications of future genetic research in arteriosclerosis with an emphasis on prospective prediction from an early age of individuals who are predisposed to develop premature atherosclerosis as well as to facilitate the discovery of novel drug targets.

  7. Marijuana Usage and Hypnotic Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzini, Louis R.; McDonald, Roy D.

    1973-01-01

    Anonymous self-reported drug usage data and hypnotic susceptibility scores were obtained from 282 college students. Frequent marijuana users (more than 10 times) showed greater susceptibility to hypnosis than nonusers. (Author)

  8. Yoga May Boost Aging Brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_167693.html Yoga May Boost Aging Brains Changes seen in areas involved with attention ... benefits older adults' brain function. In a recent pilot study, her team tested the effects of weekly ...

  9. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... PDF, 10 pages) Introduction Watch the Brain Basics video Welcome. Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, and ongoing research that helps ...

  10. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Research Glossary Brain Basics (PDF, 10 pages) Introduction Watch the Brain Basics video Welcome. Brain Basics ... depression experience when starting treatment. Gene Studies ... medication. This information may someday make it possible to predict who ...

  11. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Research Glossary Brain Basics (PDF, 10 pages) Introduction Watch the Brain Basics video Welcome. Brain Basics ... fear hub," which activates our natural "fight-or-flight" response to confront or escape from a dangerous ...

  12. Brain Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Brain lesions By Mayo Clinic Staff A brain lesion is an abnormality seen on a brain-imaging test, such as ... tomography (CT). On CT or MRI scans, brain lesions appear as dark or light spots that don' ...

  13. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle- ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses ...

  14. Afasias e áreas cerebrais: argumentos prós e contras à perspectiva localizacionista Aphasias and brain areas: positive and negative aspects of the localization argument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia C. Vieira

    2011-01-01

    investigate how cortex areas compromised by Cerebral Vascular Accident (CVA are related to the classification of aphasia, since there are controversies about the location of the lesion in the brain and the characteristics related to variations in speech patterns. Through the Montreal-Toulose protocol, 26 right-handed persons who were affected by left cerebral-vascular lesion and have been showing aphasic symptoms have been evaluated. The Montreal-Toulose protocol, initial standard module - version alpha, includes nomination, repetition, oral comprehension, reading and writing comprehension tests as well as an interview, which allows an evaluation of the discourse fluency. The subjects were allocated into four sub-groups, according to the lesion sites: frontal, temporal, temporo-parietal and parieto-occipital. For the analysis of the data, a Multidimensional Similarity Structure Analysis (SSA was carried out along with an external variable method. The results show a high positive correlation between the lesion in the brain's frontal lobe and difficulties in the discourse fluency as well as a high positive correlation between the lesion in the brain's temporal lobe and hindrances in all abilities tested: nomination, repetition, oral comprehension, reading and writing comprehension. It is in accordance with localizational studies, since it highlights the fundamental role of the temporal lobe for the language and the importance of the frontal lobe for the speech praxis. However, in the remaining sub-groups (temporo-parietal and parieto-occipital there have been positive correlations only between oral comprehension and repetition, with the latter showing correlation only with the second group and presenting a low score. High negative correlations with the discourse fluency were observed. It suggests that this ability has remained preserved in those groups, which in turns weakens the localization argument.

  15. Evaluation of Clinical Contributions Provided by Addition of the Brain, Calvarium, and Scalp to the Limited Whole Body Imaging Area in FDG-PET/CT Tumor Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Tasdemir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to detect additional findings in whole body FDG-PET/CT scan including the brain, calvarium, and scalp (compared to starting from the base of the skull in cancer patients and to determine contributions of these results to tumor staging and treatment protocols. Materials and Methods. We noted whether the findings related to the brain, calvarium, and scalp in 1359 patients had a potential to modify staging of the disease, chemotherapy protocol, radiotherapy protocol, and surgical management. We identified rates of metastatic findings on the brain, calvarium, and scalp according to the tumor types on FDG-PET/CT scanning. Results. We found FDG-PET/CT findings for malignancy above the base of the skull in 42 patients (3.1%, one of whom was a patient with an unknown primary tumor. Twenty-two of the metastatic findings were in the brain, 16 were in the calvarium, and two were in the scalp. Conclusion. This study has demonstrated that addition of the brain to the limited whole body FDG-PET/CT scanning may provide important contributions to the patient’s clinical management especially in patients with lung cancer, bladder cancer, malignant melanoma, breast cancer, stomach cancer, and unknown primary tumor.

  16. Phase processing for quantitative susceptibility mapping of regions with large susceptibility and lack of signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, Véronique; Levesque, Ives R

    2017-11-11

    Phase processing impacts the accuracy of quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). Techniques for phase unwrapping and background removal have been proposed and demonstrated mostly in brain. In this work, phase processing was evaluated in the context of large susceptibility variations (Δχ) and negligible signal, in particular for susceptibility estimation using the iterative phase replacement (IPR) algorithm. Continuous Laplacian, region-growing, and quality-guided unwrapping were evaluated. For background removal, Laplacian boundary value (LBV), projection onto dipole fields (PDF), sophisticated harmonic artifact reduction for phase data (SHARP), variable-kernel sophisticated harmonic artifact reduction for phase data (V-SHARP), regularization enabled sophisticated harmonic artifact reduction for phase data (RESHARP), and 3D quadratic polynomial field removal were studied. Each algorithm was quantitatively evaluated in simulation and qualitatively in vivo. Additionally, IPR-QSM maps were produced to evaluate the impact of phase processing on the susceptibility in the context of large Δχ with negligible signal. Quality-guided unwrapping was the most accurate technique, whereas continuous Laplacian performed poorly in this context. All background removal algorithms tested resulted in important phase inaccuracies, suggesting that techniques used for brain do not translate well to situations where large Δχ and no or low signal are expected. LBV produced the smallest errors, followed closely by PDF. Results suggest that quality-guided unwrapping should be preferred, with PDF or LBV for background removal, for QSM in regions with large Δχ and negligible signal. This reduces the susceptibility inaccuracy introduced by phase processing. Accurate background removal remains an open question. Magn Reson Med, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  17. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Mental Illnesses Clinical Trials Outreach Research Priorities Funding Labs at NIMH News & Events About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain Brain Basics in Real Life Brain Research Glossary Brain Basics (PDF, 10 pages) ...

  18. Diagnostic examination performance by using microvascular leakage, cerebral blood volume, and blood flow derived from 3-T dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced perfusion MR imaging in the differentiation of glioblastoma multiforme and brain metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Server, Andres; Nakstad, Per H. [Oslo University Hospital-Ullevaal, Section of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo (Norway); University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Orheim, Tone E.D. [Oslo University Hospital, Interventional Centre, Oslo (Norway); Graff, Bjoern A. [Oslo University Hospital-Ullevaal, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo (Norway); Josefsen, Roger [Oslo University Hospital-Ullevaal, Department of Neurosurgery, Oslo (Norway); Kumar, Theresa [Oslo University Hospital-Ullevaal, Department of Pathology, Oslo (Norway)

    2011-05-15

    Conventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has limited capacity to differentiate between glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and metastasis. The purposes of this study were: (1) to compare microvascular leakage (MVL), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and blood flow (CBF) in the distinction of metastasis from GBM using dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced perfusion MR imaging (DSC-MRI), and (2) to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of perfusion and permeability MR imaging. A prospective study of 61 patients (40 GBMs and 21 metastases) was performed at 3 T using DSC-MRI. Normalized rCBV and rCBF from tumoral (rCBVt, rCBFt), peri-enhancing region (rCBVe, rCBFe), and by dividing the value in the tumor by the value in the peri-enhancing region (rCBVt/e, rCBFt/e), as well as MVL were calculated. Hemodynamic and histopathologic variables were analyzed statistically and Spearman/Pearson correlations. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed for each of the variables. The rCBVe, rCBFe, and MVL were significantly greater in GBMs compared with those of metastases. The optimal cutoff value for differentiating GBM from metastasis was 0.80 which implies a sensitivity of 95%, a specificity of 92%, a positive predictive value of 86%, and a negative predictive value of 97% for rCBVe ratio. We found a modest correlation between rCBVt and rCBFt ratios. MVL measurements in GBMs are significantly higher than those in metastases. Statistically, both rCBVe, rCBVt/e and rCBFe, rCBFt/e were useful in differentiating between GBMs and metastases, supporting the hypothesis that perfusion MR imaging can detect infiltration of tumor cells in the peri-enhancing region. (orig.)

  19. Does Somatosensory Discrimination Activate Different Brain Areas in Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy Compared to Typically Developing Children? An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Winckel, Ann; Verheyden, Geert; Wenderoth, Nici; Peeters, Ron; Sunaert, Stefan; Van Hecke, Wim; De Cock, Paul; Desloovere, Kaat; Eyssen, Maria; Feys, Hilde

    2013-01-01

    Aside from motor impairment, many children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP) experience altered tactile, proprioceptive, and kinesthetic awareness. Sensory deficits are addressed in rehabilitation programs, which include somatosensory discrimination exercises. In contrast to adult stroke patients, data on brain activation, occurring during…

  20. Accuracy of MRI-based Magnetic Susceptibility Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russek, Stephen; Erdevig, Hannah; Keenan, Kathryn; Stupic, Karl

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is increasingly used to map tissue susceptibility to identify microbleeds associated with brain injury and pathologic iron deposits associated with neurologic diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Field distortions with a resolution of a few parts per billion can be measured using MRI phase maps. The field distortion map can be inverted to obtain a quantitative susceptibility map. To determine the accuracy of MRI-based susceptibility measurements, a set of phantoms with paramagnetic salts and nano-iron gels were fabricated. The shapes and orientations of features were varied. Measured susceptibility of 1.0 mM GdCl3 solution in water as a function of temperature agreed well with the theoretical predictions, assuming Gd+3 is spin 7/2. The MRI susceptibility measurements were compared with SQUID magnetometry. The paramagnetic susceptibility sits on top of the much larger diamagnetic susceptibility of water (-9.04 x 10-6), which leads to errors in the SQUID measurements. To extract out the paramagnetic contribution using standard magnetometry, measurements must be made down to low temperature (2K). MRI-based susceptometry is shown to be as or more accurate than standard magnetometry and susceptometry techniques.

  1. The microbiota-gut-brain axis in gastrointestinal disorders: stressed bugs, stressed brain or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Palma, Giada; Collins, Stephen M; Bercik, Premysl; Verdu, Elena F

    2014-07-15

    The gut-brain axis is the bidirectional communication between the gut and the brain, which occurs through multiple pathways that include hormonal, neural and immune mediators. The signals along this axis can originate in the gut, the brain or both, with the objective of maintaining normal gut function and appropriate behaviour. In recent years, the study of gut microbiota has become one of the most important areas in biomedical research. Attention has focused on the role of gut microbiota in determining normal gut physiology and immunity and, more recently, on its role as modulator of host behaviour ('microbiota-gut-brain axis'). We therefore review the literature on the role of gut microbiota in gut homeostasis and link it with mechanisms that could influence behaviour. We discuss the association of dysbiosis with disease, with particular focus on functional bowel disorders and their relationship to psychological stress. This is of particular interest because exposure to stressors has long been known to increase susceptibility to and severity of gastrointestinal diseases. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  2. The microbiota–gut–brain axis in gastrointestinal disorders: stressed bugs, stressed brain or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Palma, Giada; Collins, Stephen M; Bercik, Premysl; Verdu, Elena F

    2014-01-01

    The gut–brain axis is the bidirectional communication between the gut and the brain, which occurs through multiple pathways that include hormonal, neural and immune mediators. The signals along this axis can originate in the gut, the brain or both, with the objective of maintaining normal gut function and appropriate behaviour. In recent years, the study of gut microbiota has become one of the most important areas in biomedical research. Attention has focused on the role of gut microbiota in determining normal gut physiology and immunity and, more recently, on its role as modulator of host behaviour (‘microbiota–gut–brain axis’). We therefore review the literature on the role of gut microbiota in gut homeostasis and link it with mechanisms that could influence behaviour. We discuss the association of dysbiosis with disease, with particular focus on functional bowel disorders and their relationship to psychological stress. This is of particular interest because exposure to stressors has long been known to increase susceptibility to and severity of gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:24756641

  3. Crazy-Quilt Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Julie Ann

    1987-01-01

    Describes some of the common principles underlying the operation of the cortex in an effort to understand the human brain. Discusses the structure of the cortex, its specific areas, and its map-making abilities. Describes some of the recent discoveries about brain operation, development and functioning. (TW)

  4. Magnetic susceptibilities of minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Sam; Brownfield, I.K.

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic separation of minerals is a topic that is seldom reported in the literature for two reasons. First, separation data generally are byproducts of other projects; and second, this study requires a large amount of patience and is unusually tedious. Indeed, we suspect that most minerals probably are never investigated for this property. These data are timesaving for mineralogists who concentrate mono-mineralic fractions for chemical analysis, age dating, and for other purposes. The data can certainly be used in the ore-beneficiation industries. In some instances, magnetic-susceptibility data may help in mineral identification, where other information is insufficient. In past studies of magnetic separation of minerals, (Gaudin and Spedden, 1943; Tille and Kirkpatrick, 1956; Rosenblum, 1958; Rubinstein and others, 1958; Flinter, 1959; Hess, 1959; Baker, 1962; Meric and Peyre, 1963; Rojas and others, 1965; and Duchesne, 1966), the emphasis has been on the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic ranges of extraction. For readers interested in the history of magnetic separation of minerals, Krumbein and Pettijohn (1938, p. 344-346) indicated nine references back to 1848. The primary purpose of this paper is to report the magnetic-susceptibility data on as many minerals as possible, similar to tables of hardness, specific gravity, refractive indices, and other basic physical properties of minerals. A secondary purpose is to demonstrate that the total and best extraction ranges are influenced by the chemistry of the minerals. The following notes are offered to help avoid problems in separating a desired mineral concentrate from mixtures of mineral grains.

  5. Alcohol increases hypnotic susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmens-Wheeler, Rebecca; Dienes, Zoltán; Duka, Theodora

    2013-09-01

    One approach to hypnosis suggests that for hypnotic experience to occur frontal lobe activity must be attenuated. For example, cold control theory posits that a lack of awareness of intentions is responsible for the experience of involuntariness and/or the subjective reality of hypnotic suggestions. The mid-dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex and the ACC are candidate regions for such awareness. Alcohol impairs frontal lobe executive function. This study examined whether alcohol affects hypnotisability. We administered 0.8 mg/kg of alcohol or a placebo to 32 medium susceptible participants. They were subsequently hypnotised and given hypnotic suggestions. All participants believed they had received some alcohol. Participants in the alcohol condition were more susceptible to hypnotic suggestions than participants in the placebo condition. Impaired frontal lobe activity facilitates hypnotic responding, which supports theories postulating that attenuation of executive function facilitates hypnotic response, and contradicts theories postulating that hypnotic response involves enhanced inhibitory, attentional or other executive function. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. The electricity sector susceptibility of European countries to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Daniel R.; Olonscheck, Mady; Walther, Carsten; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2014-05-01

    efforts on those areas. Furthermore, the relative nature of the susceptibility index allows countries to use less susceptible country electricity systems as a guide for the transformation of the electricity system to one with a considerably lower susceptibility.

  7. Post-focus expansion of ion beams for low fluence and large area MeV ion irradiation: Application to human brain tissue and electronics devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlow, Harry J.; Guibert, Edouard; Jeanneret, Patrick; Homsy, Alexandra; Roth, Joy; Krause, Sven; Roux, Adrien; Eggermann, Emmanuel; Stoppini, Luc

    2017-08-01

    Irradiation with ∼3 MeV proton fluences of 106-109 protons cm-2 have been applied to study the effects on human brain tissue corresponding to single-cell irradiation doses and doses received by electronic components in low-Earth orbit. The low fluence irradiations were carried out using a proton microbeam with the post-focus expansion of the beam; a method developed by the group of Breese [1]. It was found from electrophysiological measurements that the mean neuronal frequency of human brain tissue decreased to zero as the dose increased to 0-1050 Gy. Enhancement-mode MOSFET transistors exhibited a 10% reduction in threshold voltage for 2.7 MeV proton doses of 10 Gy while a NPN bipolar transistor required ∼800 Gy to reduce the hfe by 10%, which is consistent the expected values.

  8. Acupuncture at Waiguan (SJ5) and sham points influences activation of functional brain areas of ischemic stroke patients: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Ji; Chen, Junqi; Huang, Yong; Lai, Xinsheng; Tang, Chunzhi; Yang, Junjun; Chen, Hua; Qu, Shanshan

    2014-01-01

    Most studies addressing the specificity of meridians and acupuncture points have focused mainly on the different neural effects of acupuncture at different points in healthy individuals. This study examined the effects of acupuncture on brain function in a pathological context. Sixteen patients with ischemic stroke were randomly assigned to true point group (true acupuncture at right Waiguan (SJ5)) and sham point group (sham acupuncture). Results of functional magnetic resonance imaging revea...

  9. Carbon Tetrachloride Increases the Pro-inflammatory Cytokines Levels in Different Brain Areas of Wistar Rats: The Protective Effect of Acai Frozen Pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Machado, Fernanda; Marinho, Jéssica Pereira; Abujamra, Ana Lúcia; Dani, Caroline; Quincozes-Santos, André; Funchal, Cláudia

    2015-09-01

    Acai offers health benefits associated with its high antioxidante capacity, phytochemical composition, nutritional and sensory value. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of acai frozen pulp on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced damage via modulation of anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines in rat brain tissue. The rats were treated via oral (gavage) daily with water or acai frozen pulp for 14 days at a dose of 7 μL/g. On the 15th day, the animals in each group received a single intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 in a dose of 3.0 mL/kg or the same volume of mineral oil. After 4 h, the animals were euthanized by decapitation and the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum were dissected and homogenated to evaluate the levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 18 (IL-18), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin 10 (IL-10). Data were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance followed by the Tukey post hoc test. It was observed that CCl4 increased TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-18 levels in all brain tissues, and that acai frozen pulp was able to prevent this increase. IL-6 and IL-10 brain tissue levels remained unchanged during all treatments. CCl4 experimental model was suitable to investigate brain tissue anti and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Acai frozen pulp prevented an increase in IL-1β, IL-18 and TNF-α, while IL-6 and IL-10 levels remained unchanged. The precise pathway by which inflammation contribute to hepatic encephalopathy, as well as to how this pathway can be modulated, is still under investigation.

  10. Iron mapping using the temperature dependency of the magnetic susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkl, Christoph; Langkammer, Christian; Krenn, Heinz; Goessler, Walter; Ernst, Christina; Haybaeck, Johannes; Stollberger, Rudolf; Fazekas, Franz; Ropele, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    The assessment of iron content in brain white matter (WM) is of high importance for studying neurodegenerative diseases. While R2 * mapping and quantitative susceptibility mapping is suitable for iron mapping in gray matter, iron mapping in WM still remains an unsolved problem. We propose a new approach for iron mapping, independent of diamagnetic contributions of myelin by assessing the temperature dependency of the paramagnetic susceptibility. We used unfixed human brain slices for relaxometry and calculated R2 ' as a measure for microscopic susceptibility variations at several temperatures (4°C-37°C) at 3 Tesla. The temperature coefficient of R2 ' (TcR2p) was calculated by linear regression and related to the iron concentration found by subsequent superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry and by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. In line with SQUID measurements, R2 ' mapping showed a linear temperature dependency of the bulk susceptibility with the highest slope in gray matter. Even in WM, TcR2p yielded a high linear correlation with the absolute iron concentration. According to Curie's law, only paramagnetic matter exhibits a temperature dependency while the diamagnetism shows no effect. We have demonstrated that the temperature coefficient (TcR2p) can be used as a measure of the paramagnetic susceptibility despite of an unknown diamagnetic background. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Brain Facts: Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and resources during times of stress and arousal. Synapse A physical gap between two neurons that functions ... Area A brain region responsible for comprehension of language and production of meaningful speech. White Matter The ...

  12. Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  13. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Research Glossary Brain Basics (PDF, 10 pages) Introduction Watch the Brain Basics video Welcome. Brain Basics ... basic, working unit of the brain and nervous system, which processes and transmits information. neurotransmitter —A chemical produced by neurons that carries ...

  14. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... learning more about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development and function can go awry, leading to mental illnesses. Brain Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: ... of the brain communicate and work with each other How changes in the brain ...

  15. Bacteriological Analysis, Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Detection of 16S rRNA gene of Helicobacter pylori by PCR in Drinking Water Samples of Earthquake Affected Areas and Other Parts of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasheed, F.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In Pakistan, clean drinking water is not available to most of the population. Main source of drinking water in Hazara, Azad Jammu and Kashmir-Pakistan is underground and spring water, due to earthquake water reservoirs in these areas were immensely contaminated. Moreover, drinking water treatment and proper sanitary facilities were also lacking. This study was conducted to analyze the quality of drinking water available in most of the cities of Pakistan including earthquake hit areas. For this purpose, 112 water samples were collected and analyzed by membrane filtration method. Microbial isolates were identified using QTS-10 and biochemical tests. Almost all samples were found to be contaminated but in earthquake affected areas quality of drinking water was substandard than other areas of Pakistan. Results revealed the detection of following bacterial pathogens among the water samples: Enterobacter sp., Klebsiellasp., Stenotrophomonas sp., Salmonella sp., Proteus sp., Edwardsiella tarda, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumanii, Aeromonas hydrophila, Citrobacter freundii, Shigella dysenteriae, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus sp. and Streptococcus sp. Furthermore, these bacterial isolates were found to be resistant to ampicillin (32.1%, amoxicillin (30.4%, sulphometoxazole (20.5% and cefaclor (31.3%. All drinking water samples were analyzed for 16S rRNA gene of Helicobacter pylori by using PCR, however no positive result was found in these samples. Based on our results it is suggested that authorities should pay attention to supply safe water and proper sanitary facilities to avoid epidemics of infectious diseases in future.

  16. Graphene susceptibility in Holstein model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousavi, Hamze, E-mail: hamze.mousavi@gmail.co [Department of Physics, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nano Science and Nano Technology Research Center, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    We study the effects of the electron-phonon interaction on the temperature dependence of the orbital magnetic susceptibility of monolayer graphene. We use the linear response theory and Green's function formalism within the Holstein Hamiltonian model. The results show that the effects of the electron-phonon interaction on the susceptibility of graphene sheet have different behaviors in two temperature regions. In the low temperature region, susceptibility increases when the electron-phonon coupling strength increases. On the other hand, the susceptibility reduces with increasing the electron-phonon coupling strength in the high temperature region. - Highlights: Effect of electron-phonon interaction on the susceptibility of graphene is studied. Linear response theory and Green's function technique in Holstein model are used. Effect of electron-phonon on susceptibility has different behaviors in two temperature regions.

  17. IS MALE BRAIN DIFFERENT FROM FEMALE BRAIN?

    OpenAIRE

    Majdic, Gregor

    2009-01-01

    In 1959, exactly 50 years ago, was published a paper by Phoenix, Goy, Gerall and Young entitled “Organizing action of prenatally administered testosterone propionate on the tissues mediating mating behavior in the female guinea pig”. Before the publication of this paper, it was widely accepted that hormones do act upon brain. However, the general thought was that hormones, especially sex steroid hormones, directly activate certain brain areas when needed, i.e. at the time of mating, parental ...

  18. Topological susceptibility from slabs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bietenholz, Wolfgang [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-543, Distrito Federal, C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Forcrand, Philippe de [Institute for Theoretical Physics, ETH Zürich,CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); CERN, Physics Department, TH Unit, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Gerber, Urs [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-543, Distrito Federal, C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo,Edificio C-3, Apdo. Postal 2-82, Morelia, Michoacán, C.P. 58040 (Mexico)

    2015-12-14

    In quantum field theories with topological sectors, a non-perturbative quantity of interest is the topological susceptibility χ{sub t}. In principle it seems straightforward to measure χ{sub t} by means of Monte Carlo simulations. However, for local update algorithms and fine lattice spacings, this tends to be difficult, since the Monte Carlo history rarely changes the topological sector. Here we test a method to measure χ{sub t} even if data from only one sector are available. It is based on the topological charges in sub-volumes, which we denote as slabs. Assuming a Gaussian distribution of these charges, this method enables the evaluation of χ{sub t}, as we demonstrate with numerical results for non-linear σ-models.

  19. Topological Susceptibility from Slabs

    CERN Document Server

    Bietenholz, Wolfgang; Gerber, Urs

    2015-01-01

    In quantum field theories with topological sectors, a non-perturbative quantity of interest is the topological susceptibility chi_t. In principle it seems straightforward to measure chi_t by means of Monte Carlo simulations. However, for local update algorithms and fine lattice spacings, this tends to be difficult, since the Monte Carlo history rarely changes the topological sector. Here we test a method to measure chi_t even if data from only one sector are available. It is based on the topological charges in sub-volumes, which we denote as slabs. Assuming a Gaussian distribution of these charges, this method enables the evaluation of chi_t, as we demonstrate with numerical results for non-linear sigma-models.

  20. Brain Malformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most brain malformations begin long before a baby is born. Something damages the developing nervous system or causes it ... medicines, infections, or radiation during pregnancy interferes with brain development. Parts of the brain may be missing, ...

  1. Brain surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craniotomy; Surgery - brain; Neurosurgery; Craniectomy; Stereotactic craniotomy; Stereotactic brain biopsy; Endoscopic craniotomy ... cut depends on where the problem in the brain is located. The surgeon creates a hole in ...

  2. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... brain. DNA —The "recipe of life," containing inherited genetic information that helps to define physical and some ...

  3. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... brain's structure, studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as ... grow there are differences in brain development in children who develop bipolar disorder than children who do ...

  4. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... brain's structure, studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as they grow there are differences in brain development in children who develop bipolar disorder than children ...

  5. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures of the brain's structure, studies show that brain ... imaging technique that uses magnetic fields to take pictures of the brain's structure. mutation —A change in ...

  6. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of the brain ... specialized for the function of conducting messages. A neuron has three basic parts: Cell body which includes ...

  7. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... of the brain's structure, studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as they grow there are differences in brain development in children who develop bipolar disorder than children ...

  8. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic ... that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental cues both help to direct this ...

  9. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle-aged woman who seemed to have it all. She ... brain's structure, studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as ...

  10. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development and function ... chart how the brain develops over time in healthy people and are working to compare that with ...

  11. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle- ... unit of the brain and nervous system, which processes and transmits information. neurotransmitter —A chemical produced by ...

  12. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Mental Illnesses Clinical Trials Outreach Outreach Home Stakeholder Engagement Outreach Partnership Program Alliance for Research Progress Coalition ... Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ...

  13. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... in Real Life Brain Research Glossary Brain Basics (PDF, 10 pages) Introduction Watch the Brain Basics video ... and epigenetic changes can be passed on to future generations. Further understanding of genes and epigenetics may ...

  14. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... can lead to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits ... tailored treatments, and possibly prevention of such illnesses. The Working Brain Neurotransmitters Everything we do relies on ...

  15. The action of pulse-modulated GSM radiation increases regional changes in brain activity and c-Fos expression in cortical and subcortical areas in a rat model of picrotoxin-induced seizure proneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martín, E; Bregains, J; Relova-Quinteiro, J L; Cadarso-Suárez, C; Jorge-Barreiro, F J; Ares-Pena, F J

    2009-05-01

    The action of the pulse-modulated GSM radiofrequency of mobile phones has been suggested as a physical phenomenon that might have biological effects on the mammalian central nervous system. In the present study, GSM-exposed picrotoxin-pretreated rats showed differences in clinical and EEG signs, and in c-Fos expression in the brain, with respect to picrotoxin-treated rats exposed to an equivalent dose of unmodulated radiation. Neither radiation treatment caused tissue heating, so thermal effects can be ruled out. The most marked effects of GSM radiation on c-Fos expression in picrotoxin-treated rats were observed in limbic structures, olfactory cortex areas and subcortical areas, the dentate gyrus, and the central lateral nucleus of the thalamic intralaminar nucleus group. Nonpicrotoxin-treated animals exposed to unmodulated radiation showed the highest levels of neuronal c-Fos expression in cortical areas. These results suggest a specific effect of the pulse modulation of GSM radiation on brain activity of a picrotoxin-induced seizure-proneness rat model and indicate that this mobile-phone-type radiation might induce regional changes in previous preexcitability conditions of neuronal activation.

  16. Absence of IFN-γ increases brain pathology in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis-susceptible DRB1*0301.DQ8 HLA transgenic mice through secretion of proinflammatory cytokine IL-17 and induction of pathogenic monocytes/microglia into the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalam, Ashutosh K; Luo, Ningling; Luckey, David; Papke, Louisa; Hubbard, Alyssa; Wussow, Arika; Smart, Michele; Giri, Shailendra; Rodriguez, Moses; David, Chella

    2014-11-15

    Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the CNS of presumed autoimmune origin. Of all the genetic factors linked with multiple sclerosis, MHC class II molecules have the strongest association. Generation of HLA class II transgenic (Tg) mice has helped to elucidate the role of HLA class II genes in chronic inflammatory and demyelinating diseases. We have shown that the human HLA-DRB1*0301 gene predisposes to proteolipid protein (PLP)-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), whereas HLA-DQβ1*0601 (DQ6) was resistant. We also showed that the DQ6 molecule protects from EAE in DRB1*0301.DQ6 double-Tg mice by producing anti-inflammatory IFN-γ. HLA-DQβ1*0302 (DQ8) Tg mice were also resistant to PLP(91-110)-induced EAE, but production of proinflammatory IL-17 exacerbated disease in DRB1*0301.DQ8 mice. To further confirm the role of IFN-γ in protection, we generated DRB1*0301.DQ8 mice lacking IFN-γ (DRB1*0301.DQ8.IFN-γ(-/-)). Immunization with PLP(91-110) peptide caused atypical EAE in DRB1*0301.DQ8.IFN-γ(-/-) mice characterized by ataxia, spasticity, and dystonia, hallmarks of brain-specific disease. Severe brain-specific inflammation and demyelination in DRB1*0301.DQ8.IFN-γ(-/-) mice with minimal spinal cord pathology further confirmed brain-specific pathology. Atypical EAE in DRB1*0301.DQ8.IFN-γ(-/-) mice was associated with increased encephalitogenicity of CD4 T cells and their ability to produce greater levels of IL-17 and GM-CSF compared with DRB1*0301.DQ8 mice. Further, areas with demyelination showed increased presence of CD68(+) inflammatory cells, suggesting an important role for monocytes/microglia in causing brain pathology. Thus, our study supports a protective role for IFN-γ in the demyelination of brain through downregulation of IL-17/GM-CSF and induction of neuroprotective factors in the brain by monocytes/microglial cells. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  17. How age of acquisition influences brain architecture in bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Miao; Joshi, Anand A; Zhang, Mingxia; Mei, Leilei; Manis, Franklin R; He, Qinghua; Beattie, Rachel L; Xue, Gui; Shattuck, David W; Leahy, Richard M; Xue, Feng; Houston, Suzanne M; Chen, Chuansheng; Dong, Qi; Lu, Zhong-Lin

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, we explored how Age of Acquisition (AoA) of L2 affected brain structures in bilingual individuals. Thirty-six native English speakers who were bilingual were scanned with high resolution MRI. After MRI signal intensity inhomogeneity correction, we applied both voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and surface-based morphometry (SBM) approaches to the data. VBM analysis was performed using FSL's standard VBM processing pipeline. For the SBM analysis, we utilized a semi-automated sulci delineation procedure, registered the brains to an atlas, and extracted measures of twenty four pre-selected regions of interest. We addressed three questions: (1) Which areas are more susceptible to differences in AoA? (2) How do AoA, proficiency and current level of exposure work together in predicting structural differences in the brain? And (3) What is the direction of the effect of AoA on regional volumetric and surface measures? Both VBM and SBM results suggested that earlier second language exposure was associated with larger volumes in the right parietal cortex. Consistently, SBM showed that the cortical area of the right superior parietal lobule increased as AoA decreased. In contrast, in the right pars orbitalis of the inferior frontal gyrus, AoA, proficiency, and current level of exposure are equally important in accounting for the structural differences. We interpret our results in terms of current theory and research on the effects of L2 learning on brain structures and functions.

  18. Definition of a magnetic susceptibility of conglomerates with magnetite particles. Particularities of defining single particle susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandulyak, A. A.; Sandulyak, A. V.; Ershova, V.; Pamme, N.; Ngmasom, B.; Iles, A.

    2017-11-01

    Data of a magnetic susceptibility of ferro-and the ferrimagnetic particles of many technogenic, natural, special media are especially demanded for the solution of various tasks connected with purposeful magnetic impact on these particles. One of productive approaches to definition of a magnetic susceptibility χ of these particles consists in receiving experimental data of a susceptibility of disperse samples with a disperse phase of these particles. The paper expounds and analyses the results of experiments on defining (by Faraday method in a magnetic field with intensity H = 90-730 kA/m) the magnetic susceptibility of disperse samples (conglomerates) with a given volume ratio γ of magnetite particles (γ = 0.0065-0.25). The corresponding families of concentration and field dependences are provided alongside with discussing the applicability of linear and exponential functions to describe these dependences. We consider the possibility of defining single particles susceptibility χ (with simultaneous obtaining field dependence of this susceptibility) by the commonly used relation χ = /γ both at relatively small (preferable for accuracy reasons) values γ - to γ = 0.02…0.025, as well as at increased values γ - up to γ = 0.25. The data χ are provided depending on H and correlating with known data at H defined here value of constant-multiplier (0.8), it provides the grounds for obtaining valid data χ, employing the results of measuring for conglomerates with not obligatory small values of γ. It is demonstrated that being obtained by data χ, the calculated field dependence of the particle matter magnetic susceptibility χm (for the case when the particles are traditionally likened to balls with the characteristic for them demagnetising factor equalling 1/3) complies with the anticipated inverse function χm ∼ 1/H in the studied area H (where magnetization M expressed as M = χH reaches saturation M = Const).

  19. New Autopsy Findings in Different Brain Regions of a Preterm Neonate With Kernicterus: Neurovascular Alterations and Up-regulation of Efflux Transporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brito, Maria A.; Pereira, Pedro; Barroso, Cândida; Aronica, Eleonora; Brites, Dora

    2013-01-01

    Kernicterus is an irreversible brain damage caused by bilirubin deposition in selective brain regions. Sick and preterm infants with hyperbilirubinemia are particularly susceptible to the condition. We studied autopsied brain tissue from a premature female infant with kernicterus with a

  20. Social instigation and repeated aggressive confrontations in male Swiss mice: analysis of plasma corticosterone, CRF and BDNF levels in limbic brain areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Madeira Fortes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Agonistic behaviors help to ensure survival, provide advantage in competition, and communicate social status. The resident-intruder paradigm, an animal model based on male intraspecific confrontations, can be an ethologically relevant tool to investigate the neurobiology of aggressive behavior. Objectives: To examine behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms of aggressive behavior in male Swiss mice exposed to repeated confrontations in the resident intruder paradigm. Methods: Behavioral analysis was performed in association with measurements of plasma corticosterone of mice repeatedly exposed to a potential rival nearby, but inaccessible (social instigation, or to 10 sessions of social instigation followed by direct aggressive encounters. Moreover, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF were measured in the brain of these animals. Control mice were exposed to neither social instigation nor aggressive confrontations. Results: Mice exposed to aggressive confrontations exhibited a similar pattern of species-typical aggressive and non-aggressive behaviors on the first and the last session. Moreover, in contrast to social instigation only, repeated aggressive confrontations promoted an increase in plasma corticosterone. After 10 aggressive confrontation sessions, mice presented a non-significant trend toward reducing hippocampal levels of CRF, which inversely correlated with plasma corticosterone levels. Conversely, repeated sessions of social instigation or aggressive confrontation did not alter BDNF concentrations at the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Conclusion: Exposure to repeated episodes of aggressive encounters did not promote habituation over time. Additionally, CRF seems to be involved in physiological responses to social stressors.

  1. 5-HT(2C) antagonism blocks blood oxygen level-dependent pharmacological-challenge magnetic resonance imaging signal in rat brain areas related to feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Jennifer A; McKie, Shane; Davies, Karen E; Williams, Steve R; Luckman, Simon M

    2008-01-01

    In this study, pharmacological-challenge magnetic resonance imaging was used to further characterize the central action of serotonin on feeding. In both feeding and pharmacological-challenge magnetic resonance imaging experiments, we combined 5-HT(1B/2C) agonist m-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) challenge with pre-treatment with the selective 5-HT(1B) and 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonists, SB 224289 (2.5 mg/kg) and SB 242084 (2 mg/kg), respectively. Subcutaneous injection of mCPP (3 mg/kg) completely blocked fast-induced refeeding in freely behaving, non-anaesthetized male rats, an effect that was not modified by the 5-HT(1B) receptor antagonist but was partially reversed by the 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist. mCPP alone induced both positive and negative blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses in the brains of anaesthetized rats, including in the limbic system and basal ganglia. Overall, the 5-HT(2C) antagonist SB 242084 reversed the effects elicited by mCPP, whereas the 5-HT(1B) antagonist SB 224289 had virtually no impact. SB 242084 eliminated BOLD signal in nuclei associated with the limbic system and diminished activation in basal ganglia. In addition, BOLD signal was returned to baseline levels in the cortical regions and cerebellum. These results suggest that mCPP may reduce food intake by acting specifically on brain circuits that are modulated by 5-HT(2C) receptors in the rat.

  2. The role of nutrition on cognition and brain health in ageing: a targeted approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Jim M; Moulton, Christopher J; Cohen, Neal J

    2015-12-01

    Animal experiments and cross-sectional or prospective longitudinal research in human subjects suggest a role for nutrition in cognitive ageing. However, data from randomised controlled trials (RCT) that seek causal evidence for the impact of nutrients on cognitive ageing in humans often produce null results. Given that RCT test hypotheses in a rigorous fashion, one conclusion could be that the positive effects of nutrition on the aged brain observed in other study designs are spurious. On the other hand, it may be that the design of many clinical trials conducted thus far has been less than optimal. In the present review, we offer a blueprint for a more targeted approach to the design of RCT in nutrition, cognition and brain health in ageing that focuses on three key areas. First, the role of nutrition is more suited for the maintenance of health rather than the treatment of disease. Second, given that cognitive functions and brain regions vary in their susceptibility to ageing, those that especially deteriorate in senescence should be focal points in evaluating the efficacy of an intervention. Third, the outcome measures that assess change due to nutrition, especially in the cognitive domain, should not necessarily be the same neuropsychological tests used to assess gross brain damage or major pathological conditions. By addressing these three areas, we expect that clinical trials of nutrition, cognition and brain health in ageing will align more closely with other research in this field, and aid in revealing the true nature of nutrition's impact on the aged brain.

  3. Microwave susceptibility experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConaghy, C.

    1984-05-29

    In certain experimental environments, systems can be affected or damaged by microwave pulses. I have conducted tests at LLNL to understand the phenomenology of microwave susceptibility of system components and subsystem components. To date, my experiments have concentrated on bipolar transistors, similar to what might be used in discrete analog circuits, and on CMOS RAM chips, which might be used in a computer memory system. I observed a decrease in failure energies for both the transistor and the integrated curcuit as I shortened the microwave pulse width. An S band (2.86 GHz) transmit/receive (T/R) tube has also been tested both at S band and at X band (8.16 GHz). The S band pulse had limitations in rise-time from zero power, which had an effect on the amount of power that could be transmitted through the T/R tube, as much as 0.7% of the incident power passed through the tube. All tests were conducted in closed-waveguide or coax test-fixtures, in contrast to the anechoic chambers utilized by other experimenters. I have used both S band and X band Klystron generators. For very high power (greater than 1 MW), I used an additional pulse-compression cavity at S band. Other subsystem components such as an X band mixer and an X band T/R tube will be tested in the future. 8 references.

  4. [Antimicrobial susceptibility cumulative reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canut-Blasco, Andrés; Calvo, Jorge; Rodríguez-Díaz, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Martínez, Luis

    2016-10-01

    Cumulative reports on antimicrobial susceptibility tests data are important for selecting empirical treatments, as an educational tool in programs on antimicrobial use, and for establishing breakpoints defining clinical categories. These reports should be based on data validated by clinical microbiologists using diagnostic samples (not surveillance samples). In order to avoid a bias derived from including several isolates obtained from the same patient, it is recommended that, for a defined period, only the first isolate is counted. A minimal number of isolates per species should be presented: a figure of >=30 isolates is statistically acceptable. The report is usually presented in a table format where, for each cell, information on clinically relevant microorganisms-antimicrobial agents is presented. Depending on particular needs, multiple tables showing data related to patients, samples, services or special pathogens can be prepared. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  5. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Brain Basics in Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah ... axis —A brain-body circuit which plays a critical role in the body's response to stress. impulse — ...

  6. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... time in healthy people and are working to compare that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental ... the brain than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures ...

  7. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... of cells in the body, the results can affect many aspects of life. Scientists are continually learning more about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development and function can go awry, leading ... the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the brain ...

  8. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function of conducting messages. ... specialized brain systems. We have many specialized brain systems that work ... research are listed below. Amygdala —The brain's "fear hub," which ...

  9. [Neuroprotective and antiamnesic effects of GK-2h dipeptide HNGF mimetic on a model of experimental ischemic stroke of brain cortex prefrontal areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudasheva, T A; Romanova, G A; Shakova, F M; Kotel'nikova, S O; Barskov, I V; Stel'mashuk, E V; Seredenin, S B

    2012-01-01

    Neuroprotective and antiamnesic effects of human nerve growth factor (HNGF) synthetic dipeptide mimetic bis-(N-monosuccinyl-glycyl-lysine)hexamethylenediamide (GK-2h) has been studied on a model of bilateral photochemically induced focal ischemical brain injury in prefrontal cortex of rats. It is established that a single intraperitoneal injection of GK-2h (0.1 mg/kg) 1 h or 4 h after operation, followed by injections on the 2nd, 4th and 8th days after operation, results (on the 9th day) in reduction of the cortical infarction volume by 47 or 65%, and leads to restoration of the passive avoidance reflex (acquired before experimental ischemic insult) by 42 and 60%, respectively. It is concluded that GK-2h possesses significant neuroprotective properties.

  10. Representation of Linguistic Information Determines Its Susceptibility to Memory Interference

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey D. Wammes; Myra A. Fernandes; Janet H. Hsiao

    2013-01-01

    We used the dual-task paradigm to infer how linguistic information is represented in the brain by indexing its susceptibility to retrieval interference. We measured recognition memory, in bilingual Chinese-English, and monolingual English speakers. Participants were visually presented with simplified Chinese characters under full attention, and later asked to recognize them while simultaneously engaging in distracting tasks that required either phonological or visuo-spatial processing of audi...

  11. [Antimicrobial susceptibility in Chile 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes-D, Marcela; Silva, Francisco; García, Patricia; Bello, Helia; Briceño, Isabel; Calvo-A, Mario; Labarca, Jaime

    2014-04-01

    Bacteria antimicrobial resistance is an uncontrolled public health problem that progressively increases its magnitude and complexity. The Grupo Colaborativo de Resistencia, formed by a join of experts that represent 39 Chilean health institutions has been concerned with bacteria antimicrobial susceptibility in our country since 2008. In this document we present in vitro bacterial susceptibility accumulated during year 2012 belonging to 28 national health institutions that represent about 36% of hospital discharges in Chile. We consider of major importance to report periodically bacteria susceptibility so to keep the medical community updated to achieve target the empirical antimicrobial therapies and the control measures and prevention of the dissemination of multiresistant strains.

  12. Effects of prenatal stress on differentiation of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) of the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D K; Rhees, R W; Fleming, D E

    1985-04-15

    The present study was designed to determine the effects of prenatal malnutrition or environmental stress on the development of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA). Pregnant rats were divided into a control group and two treatment groups (immobilization-illumination-heat or environmental stress, and nutritional stress). The two forms of stress were administered during the third trimester of gestation (days 14-20). Male and female offspring were sacrificed at birth, 20, and 60 days postnatally. The cross-sectional area of the SDN-POA was identified under light microscopy and was measured. The data confirm previous studies by showing a significant sex difference in the SDN-POA between control male and female rats. Prenatally stressed males sacrificed 20 and 60 days after birth showed SDN-POA areas 50% smaller than the nuclear areas of control males. The size of the SDN-POA of female offspring, however, was not significantly altered by prenatal treatments.

  13. pso.ATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    isolates vere made using standard methods, Antibiotic susceptibility tests against commonly prescribed ... Acute otitis media is rapid with short .... sensitivity tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests: The antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of major Gram positive and negative bacterial isolates obtained from clinical specimens.

  14. Meta-analysis of diffusion tensor imaging studies shows altered fractional anisotropy occurring in distinct brain areas in association with depression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Melissa L

    2011-09-01

    Fractional anisotropy anomalies occurring in the white matter tracts in the brains of depressed patients may reflect microstructural changes underlying the pathophysiology of this disorder. We conducted a meta-analysis of fractional anisotropy abnormalities occurring in major depressive disorder using voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging studies. Using the Embase, PubMed and Google Scholar databases, 89 relevant data sets were identified, of which 7 (including 188 patients with major depressive disorder and 221 healthy controls) met our inclusion criteria. Authors were contacted to retrieve any additional data required. Coordinates were extracted from clusters of significant white matter fractional anisotropy differences between patients and controls. Relevant demographic, clinical and methodological variables were extracted from each study or obtained directly from authors. The meta-analysis was carried out using Signed Differential Mapping. Patients with depression showed decreased white matter fractional anisotropy values in the superior longitudinal fasciculus and increased fractional anisotropy values in the fronto-occipital fasciculus compared to controls. Using quartile and jackknife sensitivity analysis, we found that reduced fractional anisotropy in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus was very stable, with increases in the right fronto-occipital fasciculus driven by just one study. In conclusion, our meta-analysis revealed a significant reduction in fractional anisotropy values in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus, which may ultimately play an important role in the pathology of depression.

  15. Meta-analysis of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies shows altered fractional anisotropy occurring in distinct brain areas in association with depression

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Melissa L

    2011-09-27

    Abstract Fractional anisotropy anomalies occurring in the white matter tracts in the brains of depressed patients may reflect microstructural changes underlying the pathophysiology of this disorder. We conducted a meta-analysis of fractional anisotropy abnormalities occurring in major depressive disorder using voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging studies. Using the Embase, PubMed and Google Scholar databases, 89 relevant data sets were identified, of which 7 (including 188 patients with major depressive disorder and 221 healthy controls) met our inclusion criteria. Authors were contacted to retrieve any additional data required. Coordinates were extracted from clusters of significant white matter fractional anisotropy differences between patients and controls. Relevant demographic, clinical and methodological variables were extracted from each study or obtained directly from authors. The meta-analysis was carried out using Signed Differential Mapping. Patients with depression showed decreased white matter fractional anisotropy values in the superior longitudinal fasciculus and increased fractional anisotropy values in the fronto-occipital fasciculus compared to controls. Using quartile and jackknife sensitivity analysis, we found that reduced fractional anisotropy in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus was very stable, with increases in the right fronto-occipital fasciculus driven by just one study. In conclusion, our meta-analysis revealed a significant reduction in fractional anisotropy values in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus, which may ultimately play an important role in the pathology of depression.

  16. Hypnotic susceptibility and dream characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamore, N; Barrett, D

    1989-11-01

    This study examined the relationship of hypnotic susceptibility to a variety of dream characteristics and types of dream content. A Dream Questionnaire was constructed synthesizing Gibson's dream inventory and Hilgard's theoretical conceptions of hypnosis. Employing the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility and the Field Inventory for evaluating hypnotic response, several dream dimensions correlated significantly with hypnotizability. For subjects as a whole, the strongest correlates were the frequency of dreams which they believed to be precognitive and out-of-body dreams. Ability to dream on a chosen topic also correlated significantly with hypnotic susceptibility for both genders. For females only, there was a negative correlation of hypnotic susceptibility to flying dreams. Absorption correlated positively with dream recall, ability to dream on a chosen topic, reports of conflict resolution in dreams, creative ideas occurring in dreams, amount of color in dreams, pleasantness of dreams, bizarreness of dreams, flying dreams and precognitive dreams.

  17. Inadequate Brain Glycogen or Sleep Increases Spreading Depression Susceptibility

    KAUST Repository

    Kilic, Kivilcim

    2017-12-16

    Glycogen in astrocyte endfeet contributes to maintenance of low extracellular glutamate and K+ concentrations around synapses. Sleep deprivation (SD), a common migraine trigger induces transcriptional changes in astrocytes reducing glycogen breakdown. We hypothesize that when glycogen utilization cannot match synaptic energy demand, extracellular K+ can rise to levels that activate neuronal pannexin-1 channels and downstream inflammatory pathway, which might be one of the mechanisms initiating migraine headaches.We suppressed glycogen breakdown by inhibiting glycogen phosphorylation with 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-arabinitol (DAB) and by SD.DAB caused neuronal pannexin-1 large-pore opening and activation of the downstream inflammatory pathway as shown by procaspase-1 cleavage and HMGB1 release from neurons. Six-hour SD induced pannexin-1 mRNA. DAB and SD also lowered the cortical spreading depression (CSD) induction threshold, which was reversed by glucose or lactate supplement, suggesting that glycogen-derived energy substrates are needed to prevent CSD generation. Supporting this, knocking-down neuronal lactate transporter, MCT2 with an anti-sense oligonucleotide or inhibiting glucose transport from vessels to astrocytes with intracerebroventricularly given phloretin reduced the CSD threshold. In vivo recordings with a K+ -sensitive/selective fluoroprobe, APG-4 disclosed that DAB treatment or SD caused significant rise in extracellular K+ during whisker-stimulation, illustrating the critical role of glycogen in extracellular K+ clearance.Synaptic metabolic stress caused by insufficient glycogen-derived energy substrate supply can activate neuronal pannexin-1 channels as well as lowering the CSD threshold. Therefore, conditions that limit energy supply to synapse (e.g. SD) may predispose to migraine attacks as suggested by genetic studies associating glucose or lactate transporter deficiency with migraine. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Ancestral susceptibility to colorectal cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Huhn, S.; Pardini, Barbara; Naccarati, Alessio; Vodička, Pavel (ed.); Hemminki, K.; Försti, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2012), s. 197-204 ISSN 0267-8357 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/07/1430; GA ČR GAP304/10/1286 Grant - others:EU FP7(XE) HEALTH-F4-2007-200767 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : cancer susceptibility * molecular epidemiology * genetic susceptibility Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.500, year: 2012

  19. Telling true from false: cannabis users show increased susceptibility to false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riba, J; Valle, M; Sampedro, F; Rodríguez-Pujadas, A; Martínez-Horta, S; Kulisevsky, J; Rodríguez-Fornells, A

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies on the neurocognitive impact of cannabis use have found working and declarative memory deficits that tend to normalize with abstinence. An unexplored aspect of cognitive function in chronic cannabis users is the ability to distinguish between veridical and illusory memories, a crucial aspect of reality monitoring that relies on adequate memory function and cognitive control. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that abstinent cannabis users have an increased susceptibility to false memories, failing to identify lure stimuli as events that never occurred. In addition to impaired performance, cannabis users display reduced activation in areas associated with memory processing within the lateral and medial temporal lobe (MTL), and in parietal and frontal brain regions involved in attention and performance monitoring. Furthermore, cannabis consumption was inversely correlated with MTL activity, suggesting that the drug is especially detrimental to the episodic aspects of memory. These findings indicate that cannabis users have an increased susceptibility to memory distortions even when abstinent and drug-free, suggesting a long-lasting compromise of memory and cognitive control mechanisms involved in reality monitoring.

  20. Tobacco use increases susceptibility to bacterial infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demuth Donald R

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Active smokers and those exposed to secondhand smoke are at increased risk of bacterial infection. Tobacco smoke exposure increases susceptibility to respiratory tract infections, including tuberculosis, pneumonia and Legionnaires disease; bacterial vaginosis and sexually transmitted diseases, such as chlamydia and gonorrhoea; Helicobacter pylori infection; periodontitis; meningitis; otitis media; and post-surgical and nosocomial infections. Tobacco smoke compromises the anti-bacterial function of leukocytes, including neutrophils, monocytes, T cells and B cells, providing a mechanistic explanation for increased infection risk. Further epidemiological, clinical and mechanistic research into this important area is warranted.

  1. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Careers at NIMH Staff Directories Getting to NIMH Transforming the understanding and treatment of mental illnesses. Search ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses ...

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    Full Text Available ... early brain development, and may also assist in learning and memory. hippocampus —A portion of the brain involved in creating and filing new memories. hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) ...

  5. Brain Diseases

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    The brain is the control center of the body. It controls thoughts, memory, speech, and movement. It regulates the function of many organs. When the brain is healthy, it works quickly and automatically. However, ...

  6. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... may help improve treatments for anxiety disorders like phobias or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) . Prefrontal cortex ( ... brain. Using MEG, some scientists have found a specific pattern of brain activity that may help predict ...

  7. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, and ongoing research that helps us better understand and treat disorders. Mental disorders are common. You may have a ...

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    Full Text Available ... doctor that she had experienced long periods of deep sadness throughout her teenage years, but had never ... early brain development, and may also assist in learning and memory. hippocampus —A portion of the brain ...

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    Full Text Available ... but can still remember past events and learned skills, and carry on a conversation, all which rely ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses ...

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    Full Text Available ... Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is another important research tool in understanding how the brain functions. Another type of brain scan called magnetoencephalography, or MEG, can ...

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    Full Text Available ... front of the brain, which is linked to thought and emotion. It is also linked to reward ... little dopamine or problems using dopamine in the thinking and feeling regions of the brain may play ...

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    Full Text Available ... Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle- ... symptoms and family medical history. Epigenetic changes from stress or early-life experiences may have made it ...

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    Full Text Available ... all. She was happily married and successful in business. Then, after a serious setback at work, she ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses ...

  18. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... The basic structure of the brain How different parts of the brain communicate and work with each ... of conducting messages. A neuron has three basic parts: Cell body which includes the nucleus, cytoplasm, and ...

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    Full Text Available ... and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the brain How different parts of the ... for the cell to work properly including small structures called cell organelles. Dendrites branch off from the ...

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    Full Text Available ... Opportunities & Announcements Funding Strategy for Grants Application Process Managing Grants Clinical Research Training Labs at NIMH Labs ... normal brain development and function can go awry, leading to mental illnesses. Brain Basics will introduce you ...

  1. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... the brain How different parts of the brain communicate and work with each other How changes in ... communication signal sent between neurons by which neurons communicate with each other. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) mdash; ...

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    Full Text Available ... at the front of the brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as ... Grants BRAIN Cell Census Launched How DNA Shapes Human Gene Expression More General Health Information from NIH ...

  3. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... have been linked to many mental disorders, including autism , obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) , schizophrenia , and depression . Brain ... studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as they grow ...

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    Full Text Available ... the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions ... basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function ...

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    Full Text Available ... normal brain development and function can go awry, leading to mental illnesses. Brain Basics will introduce you ... of DNA. Sometimes this copying process is imperfect, leading to a gene mutation that causes the gene ...

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    Full Text Available ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses ... depression experience when starting treatment. Gene Studies Advanced technologies are also making it faster, easier, and more ...

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    Full Text Available ... The brain continues maturing well into a person's early 20s. Knowing how the brain is wired and ... for mental disorders. This could greatly help in early detection, more tailored treatments, and possibly prevention of ...

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    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... blues" from time to time. In contrast, major depression is a serious disorder that lasts for weeks. ...

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    Full Text Available ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses ... the body's response to stress. impulse —An electrical communication signal sent between neurons by which neurons communicate ...

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    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... in her life. She began to think of suicide because she felt like things weren't going ...

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    Full Text Available ... Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells ... A nerve cell that is the basic, working unit of the brain and nervous system, which processes ...

  18. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle- ... and her husband questions about Sarah's symptoms and family medical history. Epigenetic changes from stress or early- ...

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  7. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... to slow or stop them from progressing. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is another important research tool in understanding how the brain functions. Another type of brain scan called magnetoencephalography, ...