WorldWideScience

Sample records for susceptible area leaving

  1. Entanglement susceptibility: area laws and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanardi, Paolo; Campos Venuti, Lorenzo

    2013-04-01

    Generic quantum states in the Hilbert space of a many-body system are nearly maximally entangled whereas low-energy physical states are not; the so-called area laws for quantum entanglement are widespread. In this paper we introduce the novel concept of entanglement susceptibility by expanding the 2-Rényi entropy in the boundary couplings. We show how this concept leads to the emergence of area laws for bi-partite quantum entanglement in systems ruled by local gapped Hamiltonians. Entanglement susceptibility also captures quantitatively which violations one should expect when the system becomes gapless. We also discuss an exact series expansion of the 2-Rényi entanglement entropy in terms of connected correlation functions of a boundary term. This is obtained by identifying Rényi entropy with ground state fidelity in a doubled and twisted theory.

  2. Morphological and anatomical characters of apple leaves associated with cultivar susceptibility to spider mite infestation

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    Wojciech Warabieda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Morphological and anatomical chaIacters of apple leaves associated with cultivar susceptibility to two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae (Koch. infestation were investigated. The following six apple cultivars were selected for the research: Close, Lobo ( suceptible and Katja, Piros, Jester, Maivit (more resistant to mites infestation. The cultivars of a relatively lower susceptibility, (except Marvit were provided with a poorer pubescence on abaxial epidermis of foliage leaf than those susceptible. There was no strict correlation between stomata number per unit of the leaf surface and the susceptibility to T.urticae infestation. A tight cell arrangement in the spongy mesophyll was particularly characteristic for cv Marvit, whereas in the leaves of cvs Close and Lobo this tissue was definitely loose. It seems that loose spongy mesophyll structure may facilitate feeding of mites.The results regarding the analysis of the lower (abaxial epidermis of the leaves seem to suggest that the layout and thickness of cuticle, rather than the epidermal thickness itself could be a factor determining the susceptibility of apple cultivars to T.urcitae.

  3. Taxa-area relationship of aquatic fungi on deciduous leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Sofia; Cássio, Fernanda; Pascoal, Cláudia; Bärlocher, Felix

    2017-01-01

    One of the fundamental patterns in macroecology is the increase in the number of observed taxa with size of sampled area. For microbes, the shape of this relationship remains less clear. The current study assessed the diversity of aquatic fungi, by the traditional approach based on conidial morphology (captures reproducing aquatic hyphomycetes) and next generation sequencing (NGS; captures other fungi as well), on graded sizes of alder leaves (0.6 to 13.6 cm2). Leaves were submerged in two streams in geographically distant locations: the Oliveira Stream in Portugal and the Boss Brook in Canada. Decay rates of alder leaves and fungal sporulation rates did not differ between streams. Fungal biomass was higher in Boss Brook than in Oliveira Stream, and in both streams almost 100% of the reads belonged to active fungal taxa. In general, larger leaf areas tended to harbour more fungi, but these findings were not consistent between techniques. Morphospecies-based diversity increased with leaf area in Boss Brook, but not in Oliveira Stream; metabarcoding data showed an opposite trend. The higher resolution of metabarcoding resulted in steeper taxa-accumulation curves than morphospecies-based assessments (fungal conidia morphology). Fungal communities assessed by metabarcoding were spatially structured by leaf area in both streams. Metabarcoding promises greater resolution to assess biodiversity patterns in aquatic fungi and may be more accurate for assessing taxa-area relationships and local to global diversity ratios.

  4. Susceptibility analysis of landslide in Chittagong City Corporation Area, Bangladesh

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    Sourav Das

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In Chittagong city, landslide phenomena is the most burning issue which causes great problems to the life and properties and it is increasing day by day and becoming one of the main problems of city life. On 11 June 2007, a massive landslide happened in Chittagong City Corporation (CCC area, a large number of foothill settlements and slums were demolished; more than 90 people died and huge resource destruction took place. It is therefore essential to analyze the landslide susceptibility for CCC area to prepare mitigation strategies as well as assessing the impacts of climate change. To assess community susceptibility of landslide hazard, a landslide susceptibility index map has been prepared using analytical hierarchy process (AHP model based on geographic information system (GIS and remote sensing (RS and its susceptibility is analyzed through community vulnerability assessment tool (CVAT. The major findings of the research are 27% of total CCC area which is susceptible to landslide hazard and whereas 6.5 sq.km areas are found very highly susceptible. The landslide susceptible areas of CCC have also been analyzed in respect of physical, social, economic, environmental and critical facilities and it is found that the overall CCC area is highly susceptible to landslide hazard. So the findings of the research can be utilized to prioritize risk mitigation investments, measures to strengthen the emergency preparedness and response mechanisms for reducing the losses and damages due to future landslide events. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12635 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2 2015: 157-181

  5. Identification of seismically susceptible areas in western Himalaya ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Earthquakes cause tremendous loss of life and to the built environment. The amount of loss interms of life and infrastructure has been rising continuously due to significant increase in population andinfrastructure. This study is an attempt to identify seismically susceptible areas in western Himalaya,using pattern recognition ...

  6. Landslide Inventory and Susceptibility Mapping in Tropical Areas - Southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidzik, K.; Ramirez-Herrera, M. T.; Regmi, N. R.; Leshchinsky, B. A.

    2016-12-01

    Landslides are one of the common catastrophic phenomena in the world. In regions of humid-warm tropical climate they are triggered by extreme storms causing loss of life and economic devastation. In this study we mapped susceptibility to landslides in the tropical mountains of Guerrero (South Mexico) based on the inventory of landslide features triggered by the hurricane Manuel of September 2013. Landslide inventory was produced using interpretation of satellite images and automatic identification of landslides employing the Contour Connection Method (CCM). A map of susceptibility to landslides was developed by computing probability of landslide occurrence from statistical relationships of existing landslides using LiDAR elevation model and derived landslide-causing factors using a logistic regression method. Landslide inventory includes 419 features produced by the hurricane Manuel on the area of 22 km2, and > 1,000 older features, suggesting high landslide activity in this area. Most landslides in the region are small, but some large slides exist, such as the catastrophic landslide in La Pintada that caused 71 fatalities and destroyed a large part of the village. Our results indicate that the distance to streams, human activity, presence or absence of dense vegetation and orientation of slopes (on some areas) strongly influence the spatial distribution of landslides. Results showed high susceptibility zones encompass 30% of the study area and occur mostly along topographic convergence. Applied approach identified most of the landslides within the high susceptibility zone and suggested that it is a valid applicable method to map areas susceptible to landslides in southern Mexico but also on other humid-warm tropical regions.

  7. Spatially explicit shallow landslide susceptibility mapping over large areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellugi, Dino; Dietrich, William E.; Stock, Jonathan D.; McKean, Jim; Kazian, Brian; Hargrove, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in downscaling climate model precipitation predictions now yield spatially explicit patterns of rainfall that could be used to estimate shallow landslide susceptibility over large areas. In California, the United States Geological Survey is exploring community emergency response to the possible effects of a very large simulated storm event and to do so it has generated downscaled precipitation maps for the storm. To predict the corresponding pattern of shallow landslide susceptibility across the state, we have used the model Shalstab (a coupled steady state runoff and infinite slope stability model) which susceptibility spatially explicit estimates of relative potential instability. Such slope stability models that include the effects of subsurface runoff on potentially destabilizing pore pressure evolution require water routing and hence the definition of upslope drainage area to each potential cell. To calculate drainage area efficiently over a large area we developed a parallel framework to scale-up Shalstab and specifically introduce a new efficient parallel drainage area algorithm which produces seamless results. The single seamless shallow landslide susceptibility map for all of California was accomplished in a short run time, and indicates that much larger areas can be efficiently modelled. As landslide maps generally over predict the extent of instability for any given storm. Local empirical data on the fraction of predicted unstable cells that failed for observed rainfall intensity can be used to specify the likely extent of hazard for a given storm. This suggests that campaigns to collect local precipitation data and detailed shallow landslide location maps after major storms could be used to calibrate models and improve their use in hazard assessment for individual storms.

  8. EARLY SCHOOL LEAVING IN RURAL AREAS OF EUROPE AND SPAIN

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    Rogeli Santamaría Luna

    2015-12-01

    In this short article will present data and sources, but above all be evident that the low presence of rural factor in education and that the rural / urban divide still exists. Referencians Europe cited Spain and the start of the indicators of quality of life and early school leaving is estimated in Spain, rural or not, 2020 in relation to the proposed European Territorial Agenda 2020 target of 15%. Besides conclusions and proposals to be referred.

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination in an urban area assessed by Quercus ilex leaves and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nicola, F; Alfani, A; Maisto, G

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the PAH contamination of Naples urban area, densely populated and with high traffic flow, by analyses of environmental matrices: soil and Quercus ilex leaves. Being some PAHs demonstrated to have hazardous effects on human health, the accumulation of carcinogenic and toxic PAHs (expressed as B(a)Peq) was evaluated in the leaves and soil. The main sources of the PAHs were discriminated by the diagnostic ratios in the two matrices. The urban area appeared heavily contaminated by PAHs, showing in soil and leaves total PAH concentrations also fivefold higher than those from the remote area. The soil mainly accumulated heavy PAHs, whereas leaves the lightest ones. Median values of carcinogenic PAH concentrations were higher in soil (440 ng g(-1) d.w.) and leaves (340 ng g(-1) d.w.) from the urban than the remote area (60 and 70 ng g(-1) d.w., respectively, for soil and leaves). Also, median B(a)Peq concentrations were higher both in soil and leaves from the urban (137 and 63 ng g(-1) d.w., respectively) than those from the remote area (19 and 49 ng g(-1) d.w., respectively). Different from the soils, the diagnostic ratios found for the leaves discerned PAH sources in the remote and urban areas, highlighting a great contribution of vehicular traffic emission as main PAH source in the urban area.

  10. Comparison of susceptibility of leaves on short-term UV-B irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skórska, E.; Murkowski, A.

    2012-10-01

    The effects of short-time ultraviolet-B irradiation (0.74 kJ m-2 d-1) at light on cucumber and peppermint leaves were studied.Aconsiderable decrease of the most important chlorophyll fluorescence parameters values mainly in the cucumber leaves, compared to the control, was observed. It indicates damages as well as at a donor and acceptor side of photosystem II, specially in the oxygen evolving complex, electron transport and connected with the dark reactions. In the peppermint leaves these values were unchanged or slight decreased. After 24 h from disappearing of the applied UV-B stress, adverse changes became established, especially in the cucumber leaves show irreversible damages of photosystem II. Coefficient of nonphotochemical quenching increased by 50% in the peppermint leaves, while in cucumber remained unchanged. Chlorophyll delayed luminescence coefficient was decreased by 36% in the UV-B irradiated cucumber leaves and by 25% in the peppermint leaves. Content of ultraviolet-absorbing compounds was higher in peppermint leaves by 78% than in the cucumber. Generally, peppermint seemed to be more tolerant to the applied UV-B radiation compared to cucumber.

  11. Spatial distribution of anthropogoenic pollution acumulated on tree leaves, soil and street dust in the park area in the centre of Warsaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dytłow, Sylwia; Górka-Kostrubiec, Beata

    2015-04-01

    The magnetic method has been successfully used to evaluate and characterise the degree of air pollution. This method is based on investigation of properties of magnetic particles of pollution such as magnetic susceptibility, parameters of hysteresis loops and temperature-dependence of magnetic parameters etc. The motivation to undertake this study was to find the distribution of pollution emitted by traffic vehicles in a green area situated in urban environment. The investigated area is the oldest public park named Saxon Garden in the centre of Warsaw, Poland. The Saxon Garden is located between the very busy main road with tram line, two local streets (low traffic volume) and big plaza without car traffic and trees. In order to quantify the degree of pollution we measured magnetic susceptibility of pollution deposited on chestnut leaves (the most abundant tree species in the park), surface of the roads (street dust) and in soil from the park area. The highest values of magnetic susceptibility of pollution were observed on tree leaves located along the edges/borders of park area (190 [m3/kg]), directly adjacent to busy roads. The lowest values of magnetic susceptibility (20 [m3/kg]) were obtained for leave samples from the borders of park, directly adjacent to plaza and roads with low traffic volume. It was observed that the intensity of magnetic susceptibility decreases with the distance of pollution source i.e. main streets. A similar distribution of intensity of magnetic susceptibility was observed for the soil samples collected from park area. With the exception of a few samples, the magnetic susceptibility of soil samples were higher than for leave samples. Our study showed that the distribution of magnetic susceptibility of soil and leave samples correlate with the intensity of magnetic susceptibility of street dust taken from the road surfaces situated along the boundary of the park area. On the basis of the detailed research of the domain structure and

  12. Effects of essential oil from Cymbopogon citratus leaves and its susceptibility on the quality of fresh orange juice during storage

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    Euloge Adjou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to evaluate the effect of essential oil (EO from Cymbopogon citratus leaves against the spoilage flora of fresh orange juice. Thus, the EO was extracted by hydrodistillation from fresh leaves of Cymbopogon citratus collected in southern Benin and its chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography, coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Orange samples were collected from large production areas of South and Central Benin and juices were extracted by mechanical pressing. After identification of spoilage flora of fresh orange juice, antimicrobial tests were carried out with the EO of Cymbopogon citratus to evaluate its antimicrobial activity on spoilage flora of fresh orange juice.  Results indicate that the spoilage flora of fresh orange juice is mainly composed of fungi belonging to the genera of Cladosporium, Penicillium and Fusarium. Bacteria such as Enterobacter cloacae and Enterobacter aerogenes were also identified in some samples. The major compounds identified in the EO by GC/MS are Neral (33.0% and geranial (41.3% with a predominance of oxygenated monoterpenes (85.5%. Antimicrobial tests have revealed a high antibacterial activity of the EO, with minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC between 0.1 and 0.15 μL.mL-1. Antifungal tests revealed that fungi are also susceptible to this EO with minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC between 0.15 and 0.25 μL.mL-1. Results obtained during the evaluation of the physicochemical characteristics of the orange juice stored by adding EO, indicated a significant decrease in the pH and vitamin C content. However, with EO concentration of 0.250 μL.mL-1, the pH of stored juice was 6.4 ± 0.1 after 15 days of preservation, with a best vitamin C content of 28.06 ± 0.03 mg / 100mL. The EO of Cymbopogon citratus, with high antimicrobial activity, could be used as an alternative in the preservation of fruit juices, replacing antimicrobials from chemical synthesis.

  13. Discoloration of Moso-chiku (Phyllostachys pubescens) leaves in an area adjacent to an aluminium refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, H.; Ishida, N.; Iwatsubo, G.; Kitao, K.; Kitayama, S.

    1976-09-01

    Injury to plants due to air pollution is found in the ares adjacent to such chemical factories as aluminium refineries due to the gaseous fluoride compounds generated. The authors observed the gradual discoloration of Moso-chiku (Phyllostachys pubescens) leaves from tip to base in accordance with the degree of injury in the area adjacent to an aluminium refinery in Ehime Pref. The fluoride contents of the leaves were also determined. It was found that the closer to the factory, the more remarkable the discoloration of the leaves. The discoloration of Moso-chiku leaves was correlated to the fluoride contents of the leaves. The areal distribution of discolored Moso-chiku leaves showed the range of fluoride air pollution affecting the growth of the plant. For this reason, Moso-chiku is useful as an indicator plant of air pollution by fluoride.

  14. Exopolysaccharides Produced by Phytopathogenic Pseudomonas syringae Pathovars in Infected Leaves of Susceptible Hosts

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    Fett, William F.; Dunn, Michael F.

    1989-01-01

    Bacterial exopolysaccharide (EPS) was extracted from infected leaves of several host plants inoculated with phytopathogenic strains of Pseudomonas syringae pathovars. Extraction was by a facilitated diffusion procedure or by collection of intercellular fluid using a centrifugation method. The extracted EPS was purified and characterized. All bacterial pathogens which induced watersoaked lesions on their host leaves, a characteristic of most members of this bacterial group, were found to produce alginic acid (a polymer consisting of varying ratios of mannuronic and guluronic acids). Only trace amounts of bacterial EPS could be isolated from leaves inoculated with a pathovar (pv. syringae) which does not induce the formation of lesions with a watersoaked appearance. Guluronic acid was either present in very low amounts or absent in the alginic acid preparations. All bacterial alginates were acetylated (7-11%). Levan (a fructan) was apparently not produced as an EPS in vivo by any of the pathogens tested. PMID:16666545

  15. Large-area landslide susceptibility with optimized slope-units

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    Alvioli, Massimiliano; Marchesini, Ivan; Reichenbach, Paola; Rossi, Mauro; Ardizzone, Francesca; Fiorucci, Federica; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2017-04-01

    A Slope-Unit (SU) is a type of morphological terrain unit bounded by drainage and divide lines that maximize the within-unit homogeneity and the between-unit heterogeneity across distinct physical and geographical boundaries [1]. Compared to other terrain subdivisions, SU are morphological terrain unit well related to the natural (i.e., geological, geomorphological, hydrological) processes that shape and characterize natural slopes. This makes SU easily recognizable in the field or in topographic base maps, and well suited for environmental and geomorphological analysis, in particular for landslide susceptibility (LS) modelling. An optimal subdivision of an area into a set of SU depends on multiple factors: size and complexity of the study area, quality and resolution of the available terrain elevation data, purpose of the terrain subdivision, scale and resolution of the phenomena for which SU are delineated. We use the recently developed r.slopeunits software [2,3] for the automatic, parametric delineation of SU within the open source GRASS GIS based on terrain elevation data and a small number of user-defined parameters. The software provides subdivisions consisting of SU with different shapes and sizes, as a function of the input parameters. In this work, we describe a procedure for the optimal selection of the user parameters through the production of a large number of realizations of the LS model. We tested the software and the optimization procedure in a 2,000 km2 area in Umbria, Central Italy. For LS zonation we adopt a logistic regression model implemented in an well-known software [4,5], using about 50 independent variables. To select the optimal SU partition for LS zonation, we want to define a metric which is able to quantify simultaneously: (i) slope-unit internal homogeneity (ii) slope-unit external heterogeneity (iii) landslide susceptibility model performance. To this end, we define a comprehensive objective function S, as the product of three

  16. Susceptibility of Tetranychus urticae Koch to an ethanol extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaves under laboratory conditions.

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    Numa, S; Rodríguez, L; Rodríguez, D; Coy-Barrera, E

    2015-01-01

    One of the main pests of commercial rose crops in Colombia is the phytophagous mite Tetranychus urticae Koch. To manage this pest, synthetic chemicals have traditionally been used, some of which are well known to be potentially toxic to the environment and humans. Therefore, alternative strategies for pest management in greenhouse crops have been developed in recent years, including biological control with natural enemies such as parasitoids, predators and entomopathogenic microorganisms as well as chemical control using plant extracts. Such extracts have shown toxicity to insects, which has positioned them as a common alternative in programs of integrated pest management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of an unfractionated ethanolic extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaves on adult females of T. urticae under laboratory conditions. The extract was chemically characterized by recording its metabolic profile via liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, along with tentative metabolite identification. The immersion technique and direct application to rose leaves were used to evaluate the effects of seven doses (10-2,000 µg/mL) of the ethanol extract of C. aconitifolius leaves on T. urticae females under laboratory conditions. The mortality and oviposition of individuals were recorded at 24, 48 and 72 h. It was found that the C. aconitifolius leaf extract reduced fertility and increased mortality in a dose-dependent manner. The main metabolites identified included flavonoid- and sesquiterpene-type compounds, in addition to chromone- and xanthone-type compounds as minor constituents with potential acaricidal effects.

  17. Pretreatment of sugarcane top leaves by ozonation as a promotion of susceptibility to hydrolysis

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    Felipe Iwagaki Braga Ogando

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies about Ozone (O3 application in sugarcane residues for ethanol production are ongoing. This study was undertaken to evaluate the use of ozone as a pretreatment to facilitate hydrolysis of sugarcane top leaves. In the first experimentation, sugarcane top leaves were subjected to ozone (62.37 mg O3 min-1 over a three hour period and water only (control. Following ozonation, the material was separated into a liquid and solid fraction. The analysis of liquid fraction showed that phenolic concentration and soluble solids did not vary. However, there was a decrease in pH and an increase in reducing sugars. This treatment increased saccharification. During the second treatment, ozone was added by direct infusion in a suspension of sugarcane top leaves and distilled water at a ratio of 1:10 (w.v-1. Additionally, the lignocellulosic analysis showed a positive relationship between the dose of ozone and decomposition of lignin and an increase in the proportion of cellulose and hemicellulose in the material. All aspects are good signs for the use of ozone in pretreatment of lignocelullosic feedstocks.

  18. Estimation of leaf area in coffee leaves (Coffea arabica L. of the Castillo® variety

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    Carlos Andrés Unigarro-Muñoz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Allometric models based on measurements of single leaf dimensions or a combination there are useful tools for determining individual leaf area (LA because they are non-destructive, precise, simple and economical methods. The present study was carried out at the Central Station Naranjal of Cenicafé, located in the Department of Caldas (Colombia, four models were defined using the variables length (L and/or width (W to estimate LA in coffee leaves of the Castillo® variety (Coffea arabica L.. Estimation of regression coefficients was performed using information recorded from 6,441 leaves (group 1, and their validation was performed using records from another 992 leaves (group 2. Leaves were collected from all strata of the canopy and ranged from 0.76 to 140 cm2 in LA. In addition to exhibiting coefficients of variation differing from zero based on t-tests at 1%, the evaluated models possess coefficients of determination between 0.93 and 0.99. Four expressions have developed and adjusted to estimate leaf area in individual leaves, based on the measurement of simple variables and non-destructive.

  19. Susceptibility of Aedes albopictus from dengue outbreak areas to temephos and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohiddin, Ahmad; Lasim, Asmalia Md; Zuharah, Wan Fatma

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To monitor the current duration of the application rates in vector programme and the level of Aedes albopictus larvae susceptibility from three selected areas in northeast district of Penang on two...

  20. Susceptibility of Aedes albopictus from dengue outbreak areas to temephos and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp.israelensis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ahmad Mohiddin Asmalia Md Lasim Wan Fatma Zuharah

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To monitor the current duration of the application rates in vector programme and the level of Aedes albopictus larvae susceptibility from three selected areas in northeast district of Penang on two...

  1. Recognition and Quantification of Area Damaged by Oligonychus Perseae in Avocado Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Gloria; Romero, Eduardo; Boyero, Juan R.; Malpica, Norberto

    The measure of leaf damage is a basic tool in plant epidemiology research. Measuring the area of a great number of leaves is subjective and time consuming. We investigate the use of machine learning approaches for the objective segmentation and quantification of leaf area damaged by mites in avocado leaves. After extraction of the leaf veins, pixels are labeled with a look-up table generated using a Support Vector Machine with a polynomial kernel of degree 3, on the chrominance components of YCrCb color space. Spatial information is included in the segmentation process by rating the degree of membership to a certain class and the homogeneity of the classified region. Results are presented on real images with different degrees of damage.

  2. GIS and statistical analysis for landslide susceptibility mapping in the Daunia area, Italy

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    Mancini, F.; Ceppi, C.; Ritrovato, G.

    2010-09-01

    This study focuses on landslide susceptibility mapping in the Daunia area (Apulian Apennines, Italy) and achieves this by using a multivariate statistical method and data processing in a Geographical Information System (GIS). The Logistic Regression (hereafter LR) method was chosen to produce a susceptibility map over an area of 130 000 ha where small settlements are historically threatened by landslide phenomena. By means of LR analysis, the tendency to landslide occurrences was, therefore, assessed by relating a landslide inventory (dependent variable) to a series of causal factors (independent variables) which were managed in the GIS, while the statistical analyses were performed by means of the SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) software. The LR analysis produced a reliable susceptibility map of the investigated area and the probability level of landslide occurrence was ranked in four classes. The overall performance achieved by the LR analysis was assessed by local comparison between the expected susceptibility and an independent dataset extrapolated from the landslide inventory. Of the samples classified as susceptible to landslide occurrences, 85% correspond to areas where landslide phenomena have actually occurred. In addition, the consideration of the regression coefficients provided by the analysis demonstrated that a major role is played by the "land cover" and "lithology" causal factors in determining the occurrence and distribution of landslide phenomena in the Apulian Apennines.

  3. Determination of selected toxic elements in leaves of White Hawthorn grown in a remote area

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    Zeiner M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available One important plant of the Rosaceae family which is commonly used as phytopharmaceutical in Europe and North America is Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna. The fruits, the leaves together with their extracts are applied in patients suffering mild cardiac disorders or nervosity. Since the leaves as well as the berries act as diuretics a sufficient micronutrient supply has to be guaranteed. On the other the quantities of toxic elements present in the plant parts should be at levels without harmful effects on human health. For this purpose Hawthorn leaves and flowers were collected in a remote area in 2011 and 2012 and analysed for their elemental composition. The metals uptaken from the soil were supposed to be in a similar range, thus the impact of airborne contamination by heavy metal translocation could be studied. The elements investigated were Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, and Zn. After harvesting the samples were dried, homogenized, digested and then analysed by ICP-AES. The contents of all elements are in the μg/g range. In the samples of 2012 higher concentrations were found for Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn, lower concentrations were registered for Ba, Pb, and Sr. The amounts of Cd and Cr were statistically insignificantly lower in 2012 than 2011.

  4. Desertification Susceptibility Mapping Using Logistic Regression Analysis in the Djelfa Area, Algeria

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    Farid Djeddaoui

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this work was to identify the areas that are most susceptible to desertification in a part of the Algerian steppe, and to quantitatively assess the key factors that contribute to this desertification. In total, 139 desertified zones were mapped using field surveys and photo-interpretation. We selected 16 spectral and geomorphic predictive factors, which a priori play a significant role in desertification. They were mainly derived from Landsat 8 imagery and Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission digital elevation model (SRTM DEM. Some factors, such as the topographic position index (TPI and curvature, were used for the first time in this kind of study. For this purpose, we adapted the logistic regression algorithm for desertification susceptibility mapping, which has been widely used for landslide susceptibility mapping. The logistic model was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve. The model accuracy was 87.8%. We estimated the model uncertainties using a bootstrap method. Our analysis suggests that the predictive model is robust and stable. Our results indicate that land cover factors, including normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and rangeland classes, play a major role in determining desertification occurrence, while geomorphological factors have a limited impact. The predictive map shows that 44.57% of the area is classified as highly to very highly susceptible to desertification. The developed approach can be used to assess desertification in areas with similar characteristics and to guide possible actions to combat desertification.

  5. Pyrethroids susceptibility of Lutzmoyia verrucarum in endemic areas of Carrión disease from Ancash

    OpenAIRE

    Lucero, Jorge; Dirección Regional de Salud Ancash. Chimbote, Perú. Biólogo entomólogo.; Pachas, Paul P.; Dirección General de Epidemiología, Ministerio de Salud. Lima, Perú. Médico epidemiólogo.

    2008-01-01

    Carrion disease is an endemic vector-borne infection of Peru, the vector control of the Lutzomyia verrucarum with insecticides is one of the most commonly used to reduce morbidity. It was determined the susceptibility of this vector to the most pyrethroids widely used (cyfluthrin, alfacypermethrin and deltamethrin) in two endemic areas of highlands from Ancash (Llumpa: 3200 and Maya: 2600 meters above sea level), Peru in June 1999. Were exposed to 50 mosquitoes from each area and insectici...

  6. Temporal variations in PAH concentrations in Quercus ilex L. (holm oak) leaves in an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nicola, Flavia; Maisto, Giulia; Prati, Maria Vittoria; Alfani, Anna

    2005-10-01

    Temporal variations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in leaves of a Mediterranean evergreen oak, Quercus ilex L., were investigated in order to assess the suitability of this species to biomonitor PAH air contamination. Leaf samples were collected at six sites of the urban area of Naples (Italy) and at a control site in the Vesuvius National Park, in May and September 2001, and in January and May 2002. PAH extraction was conducted by sonication in dichloromethane-acetone and quantification by GC-MS. In winter, leaf total PAH concentrations showed, at all the urban sites, values 2-fold higher than in all the other samplings, reflecting the temporal trend reported for PAH air contamination in the Naples urban area. Moreover, leaf PAH concentrations showed, at all the urban sites, a decrease in May 2002 after the winter accumulation. At the control site leaf PAH concentrations showed lower values and smaller temporal variations than at the urban sites. The findings support the suitability of Q. ilex leaves to monitor temporal variations in PAH contamination. The highest winter concentrations of total PAHs were due to the medium molecular weight PAHs that increased with respect to both low and high molecular weight PAHs. The medium molecular weight PAHs showed the same temporal trend both at the urban and remote sites.

  7. A hybrid fuzzy weight of evidence method in landslide susceptibility analysis on the Wuyuan area, China

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    Hong, Haoyuan; Ilia, Ioanna; Tsangaratos, Paraskevas; Chen, Wei; Xu, Chong

    2017-08-01

    The present study proposed a hybrid fuzzy weight of evidence model for constructing a landslide susceptibility map in the Wuyuan area, China, where disastrous landslide events have occurred. The model combines the knowledge of experts obtained through a fuzzy logic approach and a hybrid weight of evidence method. The estimated knowledge-based fuzzy membership value of each environmental variable is combined with data-based conditional probabilities to derive fuzzy posterior probabilities and landslide susceptibility. The developed model was compared with a landslide susceptibility map produced using the data-driven weight of evidence method, based on 510 landslide and non-landslide sites. The sites were identified by analyzing airborne imagery, field investigation and previous studies. Landside susceptibility for these sites was analyzed using 10 geo-environmental variables: slope, aspect, lithology, soil, rainfall, plan curvature, the normalized difference vegetation index, distance to roads, distance to rivers and distance to faults. The resultant hybrid fuzzy weight of evidence method showed high predictive power, with the area under the success and predictive curves being 0.770 and 0.746, respectively. Additional analyses showed that the developed model could work effectively even with limited data.

  8. Susceptibility to mortality in weather extremes: effect modification by personal and small-area characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanobetti, Antonella; O'Neill, Marie S; Gronlund, Carina J; Schwartz, Joel D

    2013-11-01

    Extremes of temperature have been associated with short-term increases in daily mortality. We identified subpopulations with increased susceptibility to dying during temperature extremes, based on personal demographics, small-area characteristics, and preexisting medical conditions. We examined Medicare participants in 135 US cities and identified preexisting conditions based on hospitalization records before their deaths, from 1985 to 2006. Personal characteristics were obtained from the Medicare records, and area characteristics were assigned based on zip code of residence. We conducted a case-only analysis of over 11 million deaths and evaluated modification of the risk of dying associated with extremely hot days and extremely cold days, continuous temperatures, and water vapor pressure. Modifiers included preexisting conditions, personal characteristics, zip code-level population characteristics, and land cover characteristics. For each effect modifier, a city-specific logistic regression model was fitted and then an overall national estimate was calculated using meta-analysis. People with certain preexisting conditions were more susceptible to extreme heat, with an additional 6% (95% confidence interval = 4%-8%) increase in the risk of dying on an extremely hot day in subjects with previous admission for atrial fibrillation, an additional 8% (4%-12%) in subjects with Alzheimer disease, and an additional 6% (3%-9%) in subjects with dementia. Zip code level and personal characteristics were also associated with increased susceptibility to temperature. We identified several subgroups of the population who are particularly susceptible to temperature extremes, including persons with atrial fibrillation.

  9. Modelling of Source Areas and Runout for Debris Flow Susceptibility Assessment at Regional Scale (Norway)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchiorre, Caterina; Stalsberg, Knut; Horton, Pascal

    2010-05-01

    This contribution focuses on combined methods to map debris flow susceptibility at regional scale. Classification of watersheds and an index approach framework, based on topographic/hydrological characteristics, was used to discriminate debris flow source areas, whereas runout areas were assessed by means of an energy-limited model coupled with a routing algorithm based on the random walk concept. Those methods were tested at basin scale in the Balsfjord municipality in northern Norway, where debris flows frequently affect road transportation. For this area a DEM at 5 m, a quaternary map at 5:000, and a map of debris flow tracks and source areas at 5:000 are available. The classification of watersheds was performed first by extracting attributes related to sediment production and internal relief, and then by means of multivariate analysis. The selection of source area cells was done only on debris flow watersheds by following an index approach framework. The runout model was then executed on those cells. The model uses hydrological routines to calculate the runout path and empirical relationship of debris flow trajectories to assess the runout distance. A preliminary analysis of the results shows that circa 90% or the debris flow watersheds were correctly classified. A good correlation between mapped and modelled source and runout areas was found. Future work will consist of evaluating different strategies to quantitatively assess the quality of the obtained susceptibility map. A complete validation of the model is difficult due to the sparse information on debris flows in the area.

  10. Combined rock slope stability and shallow landslide susceptibility assessment of the Jasmund cliff area (Rügen Island, Germany

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    A. Günther

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution we evaluated both the structurally-controlled failure susceptibility of the fractured Cretaceous chalk rocks and the topographically-controlled shallow landslide susceptibility of the overlying glacial sediments for the Jasmund cliff area on Rügen Island, Germany. We employed a combined methodology involving spatially distributed kinematical rock slope failure testing with tectonic fabric data, and both physically- and inventory-based shallow landslide susceptibility analysis. The rock slope failure susceptibility model identifies areas of recent cliff collapses, confirming its value in predicting the locations of future failures. The model reveals that toppling is the most important failure type in the Cretaceous chalk rocks of the area. The shallow landslide susceptibility analysis involves a physically-based slope stability evaluation which utilizes material strength and hydraulic conductivity data, and a bivariate landslide susceptibility analysis exploiting landslide inventory data and thematic information on ground conditioning factors. Both models show reasonable success rates when evaluated with the available inventory data, and an attempt was made to combine the individual models to prepare a map displaying both terrain instability and landslide susceptibility. This combination highlights unstable cliff portions lacking discrete landslide areas as well as cliff sections highly affected by past landslide events. Through a spatial integration of the rock slope failure susceptibility model with the combined shallow landslide assessment we produced a comprehensive landslide susceptibility map for the Jasmund cliff area.

  11. Insecticide susceptibility of Anopheles stephensi to DDT and current insecticides in an elimination area in Iran

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    Mehdi Zare

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iran has recently initiated a malaria elimination program with emphasis on vector control strategies which are heavily reliant on indoor residual spraying and long-lasting insecticidal nets. Insecticide resistance seriously threatens the efficacy of vector control strategies. This study was conducted to determine the insecticide susceptibility of Anopheles stephensi to DDT and current insecticides in Jask county as an active malaria focus in southeastern Iran. Methods In this study, the anopheline larvae were collected from different aquatic habitats in Jask county and transported to insectarium, fed with sugar and then 3-day-old adults were used for susceptibility tests. WHO insecticide susceptibility tests were performed with DDT (4 %, malathion (5 %, lambda-cyhalothrin (0.05 %, deltamethrin (0.05 % and permethrin (0.75 %. Results The field strain of An. stephensi was found resistant to DDT and lambda-cyhalothrin. The LT50 values for DDT and lambda-cyhalothrin in this species were 130.25, and 37.71 min, respectively. Moreover, An. stephensi was completely susceptible to malathion and permethrin and tolerant to deltamethrin. Conclusion The present study results confirm the resistance of the major malaria vector, An. stephensi, to DDT and lambda-cyhalothrin, and tolerance to deltamethrin, which could gradually increase and spread into other malaria endemic areas. Thus, there is a need for regular monitoring of insecticide resistance in order to select suitable insecticides for vector control interventions towards malaria elimination.

  12. Comparative Assessment of Three Nonlinear Approaches for Landslide Susceptibility Mapping in a Coal Mine Area

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    Qiaomei Su

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Landslide susceptibility mapping is the first and most important step involved in landslide hazard assessment. The purpose of the present study is to compare three nonlinear approaches for landslide susceptibility mapping and test whether coal mining has a significant impact on landslide occurrence in coal mine areas. Landslide data collected by the Bureau of Land and Resources are represented by the X, Y coordinates of its central point; causative factors were calculated from topographic and geologic maps, as well as satellite imagery. The five-fold cross-validation method was adopted and the landslide/non-landslide datasets were randomly split into a ratio of 80:20. From this, five subsets for 20 times were acquired for training and validating models by GIS Geostatistical analysis methods, and all of the subsets were employed in a spatially balanced sample design. Three landslide models were built using support vector machine (SVM, logistic regression (LR, and artificial neural network (ANN models by selecting the median of the performance measures. Then, the three fitted models were compared using the area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC curves (AUC and the performance measures. The results show that the prediction accuracies are between 73.43% and 87.45% in the training stage, and 67.16% to 73.13% in the validating stage for the three models. AUCs vary from 0.807 to 0.906 and 0.753 to 0.944 in the two stages, respectively. Additionally, three landslide susceptibility maps were obtained by classifying the range of landslide probabilities into four classes representing low (0–0.02, medium (0.02–0.1, high (0.1–0.85, and very high (0.85–1 probabilities of landslides. For the distributions of landslide and area percentages under different susceptibility standards, the SVM model has more relative balance in the four classes compared to the LR and the ANN models. The result reveals that the SVM model possesses better

  13. Landslide susceptibility in the Tully Valley area, Finger Lakes region, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Stefan; Wieczorek, Gerald E.

    1994-01-01

    As a consequence of a large landslide in the Tully Valley, Onondaga County, New York, an investigation was undertaken to determine the factors responsible for the landslide in order to develop a model for regional landslide susceptibility. The April 27, 1993 Tully Valley landslide occurred within glacial lake clays overlain by till and colluvium on gentle slopes of 9-12 degrees. The landslide was triggered by extreme climatic events of prolonged heavy rainfall combined with rapid melting of a winter snowpack. A photoinventory and field checking of landslides within a 415 km2 study area, including the Tully Valley, revealed small recently-active landslides and other large dormant prehistoric landslides, probably Pleistocene in age. Similar to the larger Tully Valley landslide, the smaller recently-active landslides occurred in red, glacial lake clays very likely triggered by seasonal rainfall. The large dormant landslides have been stable for long periods as evidenced by slope denudational processes that have modified the landslides. These old and ancient landslides correspond with proglacial lake levels during the Pleistocene, suggesting that either inundation or rapid drainage was responsible for triggering these landslides. A logistic regression analysis was performed within a Geographic Information System (GIS) environment to develop a model of landslide susceptibility for the Tully Valley study area. Presence of glacial clays, slope angle, and glacial lake levels were used as explanatory variables for landslide incidence. The spatial probability of landsliding, categorized as low, moderate and high, is portrayed within 90-m square cells on the susceptibility map.

  14. Economic susceptibility of fire-prone landscapes in natural protected areas of the southern Andean Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Juan Ramón; Moreno, Roberto; Castillo, Miguel; Rodríguez Y Silva, Francisco

    2018-04-01

    Large fires are the most important disturbances at landscape-level due to their ecological and socioeconomic impacts. This study aimed to develop an approach for the assessment of the socio-economic landscape susceptibility to fire. Our methodology focuses on the integration of economic components of landscape management based on contingent valuation method (CVM) and net-value change (NVC). This former component has been estimated using depreciation rates or changes on the number of arrivals to different natural protected areas after a large fire occurrence. Landscape susceptibility concept has been motivated by the need to assist fire prevention programs and environmental management. There was a remarkable variation in annual economic value attributed to each protected area based on the CVM scenario, ranging from 40,189-46,887$/year ("Tolhuaca National Park") to 241,000-341,953$/year ("Conguillio National Park"). We added landscape susceptibility using depreciation rates or tourist arrival decrease which varied from 2.04% (low fire intensity in "Tolhuaca National Park") to 76.67% (high fire intensity in "Conguillio National Park"). The integration of this approach and future studies about vegetation resilience should seek management strategies to increase economic efficiency in the fire prevention activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Investigating flood susceptible areas in inaccessible regions using remote sensing and geographic information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Joongbin; Lee, Kyoo-Seock

    2017-03-01

    Every summer, North Korea (NK) suffers from floods, resulting in decreased agricultural production and huge economic loss. Besides meteorological reasons, several factors can accelerate flood damage. Environmental studies about NK are difficult because NK is inaccessible due to the division of Korea. Remote sensing (RS) can be used to delineate flood inundated areas in inaccessible regions such as NK. The objective of this study was to investigate the spatial characteristics of flood susceptible areas (FSAs) using multi-temporal RS data and digital elevation model data. Such study will provide basic information to restore FSAs after reunification. Defining FSAs at the study site revealed that rice paddies with low elevation and low slope were the most susceptible areas to flood in NK. Numerous sediments from upper streams, especially streams through crop field areas on steeply sloped hills, might have been transported and deposited into stream channels, thus disturbing water flow. In conclusion, NK floods may have occurred not only due to meteorological factors but also due to inappropriate land use for flood management. In order to mitigate NK flood damage, reforestation is needed for terraced crop fields. In addition, drainage capacity for middle stream channel near rice paddies should be improved.

  16. Correlations of leaf area with length and width measurements of leaves of black oak, white oak, and sugar maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. Wargo

    1978-01-01

    Correlations of leaf area with length, width, and length times width of leaves of black oak, white oak, and sugar maple were determined to see if length and/or width could be used as accurate estimators of leaf area. The correlation of length times width with leaf area was high (r > + .95) for all three species. The linear equation Y = a + bX, where X = length times...

  17. Landslide susceptibility mapping in Mawat area, Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq: a comparison of different statistical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, A. A.; Gloaguen, R.; Andreani, L.; Rahnama, M.

    2015-03-01

    During the last decades, expansion of settlements into areas prone to landslides in Iraq has increased the importance of accurate hazard assessment. Susceptibility mapping provides information about hazardous locations and thus helps to potentially prevent infrastructure damage due to mass wasting. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare frequency ratio (FR), weight of evidence (WOE), logistic regression (LR) and probit regression (PR) approaches in combination with new geomorphological indices to determine the landslide susceptibility index (LSI). We tested these four methods in Mawat area, Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq, where landslides occur frequently. For this purpose, we evaluated 16 geomorphological, geological and environmental predicting factors mainly derived from the advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER) satellite. The available reference inventory includes 351 landslides representing a cumulative surface of 3.127 km2. This reference inventory was mapped from QuickBird data by manual delineation and partly verified by field survey. The areas under curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC), and relative landslide density (R index) show that all models perform similarly and that focus should be put on the careful selection of proxies. The results indicate that the lithology and the slope aspects play major roles for landslide occurrences. Furthermore, this paper demonstrates that using hypsometric integral as a prediction factor instead of slope curvature gives better results and increases the accuracy of the LSI.

  18. Insecticides susceptibility status of the bedbugs (Cimex lectularius in a rural area of Magugu, Northern Tanzania

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    Eliningaya J Kweka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent spread of bedbugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Heteroptera: Cimicidae, has received attention of the public health sector for designing of effective plan of action for control. Several studies have focused on determining the distribution and abundance of bedbug populations in tropical areas. This study establishes baseline information on deltamethrin, permethrin, alphacypermethrin, lambdacypermethrin and K-O tab susceptibility status in a bedbug population collected from Magugu area in northern Tanzania. The evolution of insecticide resistance could be a primary factor in explaining this resurgence of bedbugs in many areas, both rural and urban. Evaluation of the bedbug population from houses in Magugu indicates that the population of bedbugs is susceptible to pyrethroid insecticides, which are commonly used. Without the development of new tactics for bedbug resistance management, further escalation of this public health problem should be expected when resistant gene spreads within the population. These results suggest that although all concentrations kill bedbugs, more evaluations should be done using WHO kits and mechanisms involved in pyrethroid resistance should be evaluated, such as metabolic and knockdown resistance gene, to have a broad picture for better design of control methodologies.

  19. Patterns of diversity in leaves from canopies of Ginkgo biloba are revealed using Specific Leaf Area as a morphological character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, Michael L; Niklas, Karl J

    2011-07-01

    The difference reported in the literature for the Specific Leaf Area (SLA, cm(2)/g) of leaves on short- and long-shoots of Acer rubrum could mean that SLA can serve as a quantitative morphological trait. Our survey of SLA in canopies of Ginkgo biloba sampled a different clade of seed plants to investigate this morphological phenomenon. Such a survey in this dioecious taxon, and one in which a single canopy may have juvenile and reproductive portions, as well as one where canopies bear leaves of several shapes, examine these additional morphological factors as well as any long-shoot short-shoot differences. We measured SLA for a set of 642 dried leaves, a sampling across all morphological levels in canopies of large landscape specimens. The tabulated values were analyzed as distributions. Populations of leaves of G. biloba, sorted by morphological features of canopy structure, differ between long- and short-shoots (175%), on the two genders of tree (131%), in the juvenile and reproductive portions of a canopy (183%), and with the presence or absence of seed on short-shoots in the reproductive portion of megasporangiate canopies (114%). Basipetal leaves of long-shoots and leaves of short-shoots have similar values of SLA. With the exception of the acropetal decrease in SLA along long-shoots, the differences among the several classes of leaf seem to reflect local sink strength, even though the sink itself develops after leaves mature. The large overall range in the values of SLA in Ginkgo underscores the relevance of the details of canopy structure to parsing ecological phenomena.

  20. In vitro antimalarial drug susceptibility in Thai border areas from 1998–2003

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    Mungthin Mathirut

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Thai-Myanmar and Thai-Cambodia borders have been historically linked with the emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum parasites resistant to antimalarial drugs. Indeed, the areas are often described as harbouring multi-drug resistant parasites. These areas of Thailand have experienced significant changes in antimalarial drug exposure patterns over the past decade. This study describes the in vitro antimalarial susceptibility patterns of 95 laboratory-adapted P. falciparum isolates, collected between 1998 and 2003,. Methods Ninety five P. falciparum isolates were collected from five sites in Thailand between 1998 and 2003. After laboratory adaptation to in vitro culture, the susceptibility of these parasites to a range of established antimalarial drugs (chloroquine [CQ], mefloquine [MQ], quinine [QN] and dihydroartemisinin [DHA] was determined by the isotopic microtest. Results Mefloquine (MQ sensitivity remained poorest in areas previously described as MQ-resistant areas. Sensitivity to MQ of parasites from this area was significantly lower than those from areas reported to harbour moderate (p = 0.002 of low level MQ resistance (p = 000001. Importantly for all drugs tested, there was a considerable range in absolute parasite sensitivities. There was a weak, but statistically positive correlation between parasite sensitivity to CQ and sensitivity to both QN and MQ and a positive correlation between MQ and QN. In terms of geographical distribution, parasites from the Thai-Cambodia were tended to be less sensitive to all drugs tested compared to the Thai-Myanmar border. Parasite sensitivity to all drugs was stable over the 6-year collection period with the exception of QN. Conclusion This study highlights the high degree of variability in parasite drug sensitivity in Thailand. There were geographical differences in the pattern of resistance which might reflect differences in drug usage in each area. In contrast to many

  1. Differences in the scaling of area and mass of Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgoaceae) leaves and their relevance to the study of specific leaf area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, Karl J; Christianson, Michael L

    2011-08-01

    The manner in which the area of the leaf lamina (A) scales with respect to the dry mass of the lamina (M) is an important functional trait that is correlated with whole-plant growth rates and habitat preferences across diverse species. However, the extent to which the scaling between these two variables differs among leaves collected from different types of shoots within the canopy of a tree is poorly understood. Should they exist, significant differences in the A vs. M scaling relationship within canopies would raise a number of important questions, in particular what constitutes an adequate sampling procedure to determine the whole-canopy A vs. M relationship. To address this issue, we used a large data set representing 13 biologically distinct categories of leaves sampled from mega- and microsporangiate trees of the dioecious gymnosperm Ginkgo biloba. Analyses of the data for these 13 categories of leaves identify seven statistically significantly different modes of A vs. M scaling that result in significant differences in how specific leaf area (SLA) changes as M varies within the canopies of Ginkgo. These results indicate that the protocols used to sample leaves for the analysis of foliar functional traits such as specific leaf area need to acknowledge and cope with the effects of leaf and shoot polymorphisms on the quantification of functional traits (and on the construction and testing of hypotheses about these traits).

  2. GIS-based logistic regression for landslide susceptibility mapping of the Zhongxian segment in the Three Gorges area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shi-Biao; Wang, Jian; Lü, Guo-Nian; Zhou, Ping-Gen; Hou, Sheng-Shan; Xu, Su-Ning

    2010-02-01

    A detailed landslide susceptibility map was produced using a logistic regression method with datasets developed for a geographic information system (GIS). Known as one of the most landslide-prone areas in China, the Zhongxian-Shizhu segment in the Three Gorges Reservoir region of China was selected as a suitable case to evaluate the frequency and distribution of landslides. The site covered an area of 260.9 km 2 with a landslide area of 5.3 km 2. Four data domains were used in this study: remote sensing products, thematic maps, geological maps, and topographical maps, all with 25 × 25 m 2 pixels or cells. Statistical relationships for landslide susceptibility were developed using landslide and landslide causative factor databases. We extended the application of logistic regression approaches to use all continuous variables as they are, and the landslide density is used to transform these nominal variables to numeric variable. According to the map, 2.8% of the study area was identified as an area with very high-susceptibility, whereas very low-, low-, medium- and high-susceptibility zones covered 18.2%, 36.2%, 26.7%, and 16.1% of the area, respectively. The quality of susceptibility mapping was validated, and the correct classification percentage and root mean square error (RMSE) values for the validation data were 81.4% and 0.392, respectively.

  3. Landslide Susceptibility Mapping in Vertical Distribution Law of Precipitation Area: Case of the Xulong Hydropower Station Reservoir, Southwestern China

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    Chen Cao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on landslide susceptibility analysis mapping of the Xulong hydropower station reservoir, which is located in the upstream of Jinsha River, a rapidly uplifting region of the Tibetan Plateau region. Nine factors were employed as landslide conditioning factors in landslide susceptibility mapping. These factors included the slope angle, slope aspect, curvature, geology, distance-to-fault, distance-to-river, vegetation, bedrock uplift and annual precipitation. The rapid bedrock uplift factor was represented by the slope angle. The eight factors were processed with the information content model. Since this area has a significant vertical distribution law of precipitation, the annual precipitation factor was analyzed separately. The analytic hierarchy process weighting method was used to calculate the weights of nine factors. Thus, this study proposed a component approach to combine the normalized eight-factor results with the normalized annual precipitation distribution results. Subsequently, the results were plotted in geographic information system (GIS and a landslide susceptibility map was produced. The evaluation accuracy analysis method was used as a validation approach. The landslide susceptibility classes were divided into four classes, including low, moderate, high and very high. The results show that the four susceptibility class ratios are 12.9%, 35.06%, 34.11%and 17.92% of the study area, respectively. The red belt in the high elevation area represents the very high susceptibility zones, which followed the vertical distribution law of precipitation. The prediction accuracy was 85.74%, which meant that the susceptibility map was confirmed to be reliable and reasonable. This susceptibility map may contribute to averting the landslide risk in the future construction of the Xulong hydropower station.

  4. Antidiabetic Activity of Cocor Bebek Leaves (Kalanchoe pinnata Lam.Pers. Ethanolic Extract from Various Areas

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    Indah Dwiatmi Dewiyanti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Antidiabetic activity of Cocor Bebek leaves (Kalanchoe pinnata Lam.Pers. ethanolic extract from Bogor city, kabupaten Bogor and south of Tangerang city has been studied. The study was conducted in vitro using α glucosidase inhibitor method. The results of the study showed that IC50 of the extract from Bogor city, kabupaten Bogor, and Tangerang Selatan city is 40.94 ppm, 33.58 ppm and 16.12 ppm respectively. Meanwhile, IC50 of quersetin which has antidiabetic activity is 10.22 ppm. The results showed that Cocor Bebek leaves (Kalanchoe pinnata Lam.Pers. ethanolic extract had antidiabetic activity with IC50 less than 100 ppm. However, the activity is lesser than quercetin.

  5. Flash Flood Hazard Susceptibility Mapping Using Frequency Ratio and Statistical Index Methods in Coalmine Subsidence Areas

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    Chen Cao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on producing flash flood hazard susceptibility maps (FFHSM using frequency ratio (FR and statistical index (SI models in the Xiqu Gully (XQG of Beijing, China. First, a total of 85 flash flood hazard locations (n = 85 were surveyed in the field and plotted using geographic information system (GIS software. Based on the flash flood hazard locations, a flood hazard inventory map was built. Seventy percent (n = 60 of the flooding hazard locations were randomly selected for building the models. The remaining 30% (n = 25 of the flooded hazard locations were used for validation. Considering that the XQG used to be a coal mining area, coalmine caves and subsidence caused by coal mining exist in this catchment, as well as many ground fissures. Thus, this study took the subsidence risk level into consideration for FFHSM. The ten conditioning parameters were elevation, slope, curvature, land use, geology, soil texture, subsidence risk area, stream power index (SPI, topographic wetness index (TWI, and short-term heavy rain. This study also tested different classification schemes for the values for each conditional parameter and checked their impacts on the results. The accuracy of the FFHSM was validated using area under the curve (AUC analysis. Classification accuracies were 86.61%, 83.35%, and 78.52% using frequency ratio (FR-natural breaks, statistical index (SI-natural breaks and FR-manual classification schemes, respectively. Associated prediction accuracies were 83.69%, 81.22%, and 74.23%, respectively. It was found that FR modeling using a natural breaks classification method was more appropriate for generating FFHSM for the Xiqu Gully.

  6. Ozone injury and infection of potato leaves by Botrytis cinerea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, W.J.; Feder, W.A.; Perkins, I.; Glickman, M.

    1969-09-01

    Symptoms of ozone injury were observed on older leaves of potato cultivars Norland and Katahdin under experimental conditions. This symptom expression closely resembled flecks observed on potato leaves also blighted by Botrytis cinerea in the field. Inoculation of ozone-injured and noninjured potato leaves with B. cinerea showed that infection was more rapid and disease development more severe on ozone-injured leaves. Infection was frequently observed to originate in ozone-injured leaf areas. Ozone injury, under experimental conditions, appeared to increase the susceptibility of potato leaves to infection by B. cinerea. 6 references.

  7. From rainfall to slope instability: an automatic GIS procedure for susceptibility analyses over wide areas

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    Bianca Federici

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes an automatic procedure in geographic information system (GIS for the analysis and prediction of landslides due to rainfall events over wide areas. It runs, for each unit cell, a hydrological balance based on the Curve Number method (USDA-SCS 1985–1986, computing the evolution of groundwater as a result of precipitation and then checks the overcoming, or not, of limit equilibrium conditions of the land in the domain of interest. The mathematical model was implemented in the free and open source GIS GRASS. For any sequence of consecutive days of rain, according to the conditions of soil moisture prior to the time history under study, the hydro-geotechnical model allows (1 the determination of the oscillations of the phreatic table, (2 the part of saturated soil and (3 the slope stability analysis, by taking into proper account the pore pressures buildup. The results of this procedure are returned in raster format, allowing an easy and intuitive interpretation of the land mass sensitivity to meteoric actions. The suggested procedure was applied on an extensive kinematic phenomenon surrounding the city of Santo Stefano d’Aveto (Liguria, Italy. The realized maps of landslide susceptibility are in excellent agreement with what is evident on site.

  8. Georeferenced measurement of soil EC as a tool to detect susceptible areas to water erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian Sallesses, Leonardo; Aparicio, Virginia Carolina; Costa, Jose Luis

    2017-04-01

    areas presented the highest occurrence of clay dispersion and rill erosion. This would indicate that with one campaign of cultivation of potato under supplementary irrigation are given the conditions that facilitate erosive events. The georeferenced measurement of EC by contact ground sensors and their visualization through digital cartography could be an interesting tool to detect areas susceptible to erosive events. This information would help in decision making for a soil management that tends to avoid or reduce soil losses due to deterioration of physical and chemical properties by the incorporation of sodium by irrigation. Key words: Irrigation, soil sodium, erosion.

  9. Landslides susceptibility change over time according to terrain conditions in a mountain area of the tropic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, M C; Viloria, J; Martínez-Casasnovas, J A

    2016-04-01

    Susceptibility to landslides in mountain areas results from the interaction of various factors related to relief formation and soil development. The assessment of landslide susceptibility has generally taken into account individual events, or it has been aimed at establishing relationships between landslide-inventory maps and maps of environmental factors, without considering that such relationships can change in space and time. In this work, temporal and space changes in landslides were analysed in six different combinations of date and geomorphological conditions, including two different geological units, in a mountainous area in the north-centre of Venezuela, in northern South America. Landslide inventories from different years were compared with a number of environmental factors by means of logistic regression analysis. The resulting equations predicted landslide susceptibility from a range of geomorphometric parameters and a vegetation index, with diverse accuracy, in the study area. The variation of the obtained models and their prediction accuracy between geological units and dates suggests that the complexity of the landslide processes and their explanatory factors changed over space and time in the studied area. This calls into question the use of a single model to evaluate landslide susceptibility over large regions.

  10. Morphometric characteristics of black poplar (Populus nigra L. leaves in the area of Great War Island

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    Maksimović Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an analysis of the morphometric characteristics of the leaves of 14 test black poplar (Populus nigra L. trees, from the region of Great War Island, indicating a satisfactory degree of intrapopulation genetic variability. The knowledge of the extent and nature of variability in natural populations is a starting point for the breeding and conservation of genetic resources of forest trees. To this end, it is necessary to begin with the implementation of appropriate measures of in situ and ex situ conservation that will enable long-term preservation and enhancement of the ecological adaptability and the evolutionary potential of the populations of black poplar on Great War Island.

  11. Fatty acid composition and antibacterial potential of Cassia tora (leaves and stem collected from different geographic areas of India

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    Shipra Shukla

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of the fatty acid composition of Cassia tora (leaves and stem was determined using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Twenty-seven fatty acids were identified in C. tora (leaves and stem which was collected from three different geographical areas of India: Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh, Nainital (Uttarakhand, and Bhavnagar (Gujarat, coded as CT-1, CT-2, and CT-3, respectively. The gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis showed the presence of various saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. The major fatty acids found were palmitic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, margaric acid, melissic acid, and behenic acid. The highest amounts of saturated fatty acids were found in leaves of C. tora collected from Bhavnagar (Gujarat (60.7% ± 0.5%. Thus, the study reveals that C. tora has a major amount of nutritionally important fatty acids, along with significant antimicrobial potential. Fatty acids play a significant role in the development of fat products with enhanced nutritional value and clinical application. Remarkable differences were found in the present study between fatty acid profiles of C. tora collected from different locations in India. To the best of our knowledge there is no previously reported comparative study of the fatty acids of C. tora.

  12. Variability of morphometric characteristics of the leaves of European white elm from the area of Great War Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devetaković Jovana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The European White Elm (Ulmus effusa Willd. is indicated as a rare and endangered species in the growing stock of the Republic of Serbia. In the area of Great War Island, its natural populations were reduced to 56 registered trees, which occur in three spatially isolated subpopulations. On the basis of the research conducted on the level of variability of adaptible morphometric characteristics of leaves from 14 selected test trees of European White Elm, it can be concluded that the degree of interpopulation variability is satisfactory, which is a good basis for the conservation of the available gene pool.

  13. Growth Inhibitory, Bactericidal, and Morphostructural Effects of Dehydrocostus Lactone from Magnolia sieboldii Leaves on Antibiotic-Susceptible and -Resistant Strains of Helicobacter pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Kyung; Song, Ha Eun; Lee, Haeng-Byung; Kim, Cheol-Soo; Koketsu, Mamoru; Thi My Ngan, Luong; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is associated with various diseases of the upper gastrointestinal tract, such as gastric inflammation and duodenal and gastric ulcers. The aim of the study was to assess anti-H. pylori effects of the sesquiterpene lactone dehydrocostus lactone (DCL) from Magnolia sieboldii leaves, compared to commercial pure DCL, two previously known sesquiterpene lactones (costunolide and parthenolide), (–)-epigallocatechin gallate, and four antibiotics. The antibacterial activity of natural DCL toward antibiotic-susceptible H. pylori ATCC 700392 and H. pylori ATCC 700824 strains (MIC, 4.9 and 4.4 mg/L) was similar to that of commercial DCL and was more effective than costunolide, parthenolide, and EGCG. The activity of DCL was slightly lower than that of metronidazole (MIC, 1.10 and 1.07 mg/L). The antibacterial activity of DCL was virtually identical toward susceptible and resistant strains, even though resistance to amoxicillin (MIC, 11.1 mg/L for PED 503G strain), clarithromycin (49.8 mg/L for PED 3582GA strain), metronidazole (21.6 mg/L for H. pylori ATCC 43504 strain; 71.1 mg/L for 221 strain), or tetracycline (14.2 mg/L for B strain) was observed. This finding indicates that DCL and the antibiotics do not share a common mode of action. The bactericidal activity of DCL toward H. pylori ATCC 43504 was not affected by pH values examined (4.0–7.0). DCL caused considerable conversion to coccoid form (94 versus 49% at 8 and 4 mg/L of DCL for 48 h). The Western blot analysis revealed that urease subunits (UreA and UreB) of H. pylori ATCC 43504 were not affected by 10 mM of DCL, whereas UreA monomer band completely disappeared at 0.1 mM of (–)-epigallocatechin gallate. Global efforts to reduce the level of antibiotics justify further studies on M. sieboldii leaf-derived materials containing DCL as potential antibacterial products or a lead molecule for the prevention or eradication of drug-resistant H. pylori. PMID:24747984

  14. Seroprevalence and susceptibility to hepatitis A in the European Union and European Economic Area: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Santisteve, Paloma; Tavoschi, Lara; Severi, Ettore; Bonfigli, Sandro; Edelstein, Michael; Byström, Emma; Lopalco, Pierluigi

    2017-10-01

    Most of the European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) is considered a region of very low hepatitis A virus (HAV) endemicity; however, geographical differences exist. We did a systematic review with the aim of describing seroprevalence and susceptibility in the general population or special groups in the EU and EEA. We searched databases and public health national institutes websites for HAV seroprevalence records published between Jan 1, 1975, and June 30, 2014, with no language restrictions. An updated search was done on Aug 10, 2016. We defined seroprevalence profiles (very low, low, and intermediate) as the proportion of the population with age-specific anti-HAV antibodies at age 15 and 30 years, and susceptibility profiles (low, moderate, high, and very high) as the proportion of susceptible individuals at age 30 and 50 years. We included 228 studies from 28 of 31 EU and EEA countries. For the period 2000-14, 24 countries had a very low seroprevalence profile, compared with five in 1975-89. The susceptibility among adults ranged between low and very high and had a geographical gradient, with three countries in the low susceptibility category. Since 1975, EU and EEA countries have shown decreasing seropositivity; however, considerable regional variability exists. The main limitations of this study are that the studies retrieved for analysis might not be representative of all EU and EEA publications about HAV and might have poor national representativeness. A large proportion of EU and EEA residents are now susceptible to HAV infection. Our Review supports the need to reconsider specific prevention and control measures, to further decrease HAV circulation while providing protection against the infection in the EU and EEA, and could be used to inform susceptible travellers visiting EU and EEA countries with different HAV endemicity levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 2D FTIR correlation spectroscopy and EPR analysis of Urtica dioica leaves from areas of different environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskal, Paulina; Wesełucha-Birczyńska, Aleksandra; Łabanowska, Maria; Kurdziel, Magdalena; Filek, Maria

    2018-01-15

    Leaves of Urtica dioica collected from two areas of different environmental pollution were analysed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Analysis of FTIR spectra allows to describe main component of plant like proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. Although the FTIR spectra of plants from these two geographical locations of different environmental pollution appear to be relatively similar, 2D correlation shows completely different patterns. Synchronous and asynchronous correlation maps showed sequences of changes occurring during development of plant, manly in Amide I and Amide II, lignin, lipids and cellulose. In addition, 2D analysis revealed another sequence of changes as the function of plant growth depending on the degree of the environmental pollution. Two various kinds of paramagnetic species, transition metal ions (Mn(II), Fe(III)) and stable organic radicals (chlorophyll, semiquinone, tyrosyl and carbon centered) were found in leaves of nettle collected at different stages of development and growing in clean and polluted environment. In plants growing in polluted area the injuries of protein molecules bonding metal ions and the disturbances of photosynthesis and redox equilibrium in cells, as well as instability of polysaccharide structure of cell walls were observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. 2D FTIR correlation spectroscopy and EPR analysis of Urtica dioica leaves from areas of different environmental pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskal, Paulina; Wesełucha-Birczyńska, Aleksandra; Łabanowska, Maria; Kurdziel, Magdalena; Filek, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Leaves of Urtica dioica collected from two areas of different environmental pollution were analysed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Analysis of FTIR spectra allows to describe main component of plant like proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. Although the FTIR spectra of plants from these two geographical locations of different environmental pollution appear to be relatively similar, 2D correlation shows completely different patterns. Synchronous and asynchronous correlation maps showed sequences of changes occurring during development of plant, manly in Amide I and Amide II, lignin, lipids and cellulose. In addition, 2D analysis revealed another sequence of changes as the function of plant growth depending on the degree of the environmental pollution. Two various kinds of paramagnetic species, transition metal ions (Mn(II), Fe(III)) and stable organic radicals (chlorophyll, semiquinone, tyrosyl and carbon centered) were found in leaves of nettle collected at different stages of development and growing in clean and polluted environment. In plants growing in polluted area the injuries of protein molecules bonding metal ions and the disturbances of photosynthesis and redox equilibrium in cells, as well as instability of polysaccharide structure of cell walls were observed.

  17. The ultrastructure of proplastids in the leaves of five species of Orchids. II. Intraplastid inclusions and DNA-containing areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Damsz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the stroma of leaves proplastids of all investigated species of orchids: Paphiopedilum, Stanhopea, Cymbium, Coleogyne and Orchis occur starch grains of different shape, size and electron density. The number of starch grains vary from one to several. The proplasitids from cells of the vascular bundle sheath are completely filled with numerous starch grains and the stroma is strongly reduced. The formation of protein crystaloids was observed only in the proplastids of Paphiopedilum. In the stroma of proplastids in investigated species the DNA-containing areas are present. A tendency of their peripheral situation and of the formation of contacts between DNA fibirils and the inner surrounding membrane or with rare thylakoid's membranes was observed. In these areas in priopastids of Stanhopea, Cymbidium, Coelogyne and Orchis starch grains of different size, shape and electron density occur.

  18. Antifungal susceptibility profiles of Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii from endemic and non-endemic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, Rama; Chaturvedi, Vishnu

    2007-06-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is a systemic fungal infection endemic in Southwestern United States, Mexico, Central and South America. The causal agents are Coccidioides immitis and C. posadasii. A large number of cases of coccidioidomycosis in New York State residents were identified. We compared susceptibility profiles of these isolates and of C. immitis isolates from California using mycelial phase inoculum and CLSI (NCCLS) M38-A broth microdilution protocol. Minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) were also determined. Results indicated that geometric mean MICs of amphotericin B (AMB, 0.06 microg/ml), fluconazole (FLC, 8.0 microg/ml), itraconazole (ITC, 0.07 microg/ml), ketoconazole (KTC, 0.04 microg/ml), voriconazole (VRC, 0.04 microg/ml), posaconazole (PSC, 0.17 microg/ml) and caspofungin (CSP, 0.15 microg/ml) were in susceptible range as per breakpoints published for pathogenic Candida species. However, geometric MFC for FLC was relatively higher (52.4 microg/ml). Also, no significant difference in MIC and MFC values was evident for C. immitis and C. posadasii isolates. In conclusion, current methods for antifungal susceptibility testing yield reproducible profiles for Coccidioides species, which appear to be highly susceptible to most antifungal agents.

  19. Prioritising watersheds on the basis of regional flood susceptibility and vulnerability in mountainous areas through the use of indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogelis, Carolina; Werner, Micha

    2013-04-01

    Settlements in peri-urban areas of many cities in mountainous areas such as in the Andes are susceptible to hazards such as flash floods and debris flows. Additionally these settlements are in many cases informal and thus vulnerable to such hazards, resulting in significant risk. Such watersheds are often quiet small, and generally there is little or no information from gauges to help characterise risk. To help identify watersheds in which flood management measures are to be targeted, a rapid assessment of risk is required. In this paper a novel approach is presented where indicators of susceptibility and vulnerability to flash floods were used to prioritize 106 mountain watersheds in Bogotá (Colombia). Variables recognized in literature to determine the dominant processes both in susceptibility and vulnerability to flash floods were used to construct the indicators. Susceptibility was considered to increase with flashiness and the possibility of debris flow events occurring. This was assessed through the use of an indicator composed of a morphometric indicator and a land use indicator. The former was constructed using morphological variables recognized in literature to significantly influence flashiness and occurrence of debris flows; the latter was constructed in terms of percentage of vegetation cover, urban area and bare soil. The morphometric indicator was compared with the results of a debris flow propagation algorithm to assess its capacity in indentifying the morphological conditions of a watershed that make it able to transport debris flows. Propagation was carried out through the use of the Modified Single Flow Direction algorithm, following previous identification of source areas by applying thresholds identified in the area-slope curve of the watersheds and empirical thresholds. Results show that the morphometric variables can be grouped in four categories: size, shape, hypsometry and energy, with the energy the component found to best explain the

  20. Specific leaf area and dry matter content estimate thickness in laminar leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vile, Denis; Garnier, Eric; Shipley, Bill; Laurent, Gérard; Navas, Marie-Laure; Roumet, Catherine; Lavorel, Sandra; Díaz, Sandra; Hodgson, John G; Lloret, Francisco; Midgley, Guy F; Poorter, Hendrik; Rutherford, Mike C; Wilson, Peter J; Wright, Ian J

    2005-11-01

    Leaf thickness plays an important role in leaf and plant functioning, and relates to a species' strategy of resource acquisition and use. As such, it has been widely used for screening purposes in crop science and community ecology. However, since its measurement is not straightforward, a number of estimates have been proposed. Here, the validity of the (SLA x LDMC)(-1) product is tested to estimate leaf thickness, where SLA is the specific leaf area (leaf area/dry mass) and LDMC is the leaf dry matter content (leaf dry mass/fresh mass). SLA and LDMC are two leaf traits that are both more easily measurable and often reported in the literature. The relationship between leaf thickness (LT) and (SLA x LDMC)(-1) was tested in two analyses of covariance using 11 datasets (three original and eight published) for a total number of 1039 data points, corresponding to a wide range of growth forms growing in contrasted environments in four continents. The overall slope and intercept of the relationship were not significantly different from one and zero, respectively, and the residual standard error was 0.11. Only two of the eight datasets displayed a significant difference in the intercepts, and the only significant difference among the most represented growth forms was for trees. LT can therefore be estimated by (SLA x LDMC)(-1), allowing leaf thickness to be derived from easily and widely measured leaf traits.

  1. Decreasing seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in Germany leaves many people susceptible to genital infection: time to raise awareness and enhance control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korr, Gerit; Thamm, Michael; Czogiel, Irina; Poethko-Mueller, Christina; Bremer, Viviane; Jansen, Klaus

    2017-07-06

    Herpes simplex infections (HSV1/2) are characterized by recurrent symptoms, a risk of neonatal herpes, and the facilitation of HIV transmission. In Germany, HSV1/2 infections are not notifiable and data are scarce. A previous study found higher HSV1/2 seroprevalences in women in East Germany than in women in West Germany. We assessed changes in the HSV1/2 seroprevalences over time and investigated determinants associated with HSV1/2 seropositivity to guide prevention and control. The study was based on the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS; 2008-2011) and the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey (GNHIES; 1997-1999). We tested serum samples from DEGS participants for HSV1 and HSV2 immunoglobulin G. We used Pearson's χ 2 test to compare the HSV1/HSV2 seroprevalences in terms of sex, age, and region of residence (East/West Germany) and investigated potential determinants by calculating prevalence ratios (PR) with log-binomial regression. All statistical analyses included survey weights. In total, 6627 DEGS participants were tested for HSV1, and 5013 were also tested for HSV2. Overall, HSV1 seroprevalence decreased significantly from 1997-1999 (82.1%; 95%CI 80.6-83.6) to 2008-2011 (78.4%; 95%CI 77.8-79.7). In the same period, overall HSV2 seroprevalence decreased significantly from 13.3% (95%CI 11.9-14.9) to 9.6% (95%CI 8.6-10.8), notably in 18-24-year-old men (10.4 to 0%) in East Germany. Women were more likely than men to be seropositive for HSV1 (PR 1.1) or HSV2 (PR 1.6). A lower level of education, smoking, and not speaking German were associated with HSV1 in both sexes. Women of older age, who smoked, or had a history of abortion and men of older age or who had not attended a nursery school during childhood were more often seropositive for HSV2. The reduced seroprevalences of HSV1 and HSV2 leave more people susceptible to genital HSV1/2 infections. Practitioners should be aware of HSV infection as a differential

  2. [Species-area relationship at different succession stages of monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest in south subtropical area of Yunnan Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wan-De; Su, Jian-Rong; Li, Shuai-Feng; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Lang, Xue-Dong

    2011-02-01

    Based on the investigation data of monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest at its different succession stages (primary, CP; 15 years of succession, CF; and 30 years of succession, CT) in Pu' er of Yunnan Province, this paper studied the species-area relationship of this forest at each succession stage. It was found that in the communities at each succession stage, the number of total species, trees, shrubs, and lianas had a significant correlation with sampling area, with the area explained over 94% of the total variation. The Z value of the total species (0.334) and trees (0.394) was the lowest at CT, whereas that of shrubs (0.437) and lianas (0.326) was the lowest at CF. No significant differences were observed in the intercepts of the species-area curve of total species, trees, shrubs, and lianas among different succession stages, but the coefficient of determination (R2) of the species-area curve of total species and lianas was the highest at CP. The richness of trees and shrubs at CF explained 99.9% of the variance of Z value, but the richness of total species, trees, shrubs, and lianas at CP and CT had no significant correlations with the Z value.

  3. A Wavelet-Based Area Parameter for Indirectly Estimating Copper Concentration in Carex Leaves from Canopy Reflectance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the absence of evident absorption features and low concentrations, the copper (Cu concentration in plant leaves has rarely been estimated from hyperspectral remote sensing data. The capability of remotely-sensed estimation of foliar Cu concentrations largely depends on its close relation to foliar chlorophyll concentration. To enhance the subtle spectral changes related to chlorophyll concentration under Cu stress, this study described a wavelet-based area parameter (SWT (605−720, the sum of reconstructed detail reflectance at fourth decomposition level over 605−720 nm using discrete wavelet transform from the canopy hyperspectral reflectance (350−2500 nm, N = 71 of Carex (C. cinerascens. The results showed that Cu concentrations had negative and strong correlation with chlorophyll concentrations (r = -0.719, p < 0.001. Based on 1000 random dataset partitioning experiments, the 1000 linear calibration models provided a mean R2Val (determination coefficient of validation value of 0.706 and an RPD (residual prediction deviation value of 1.75 for Cu estimation. The bootstrapping and ANOVA test results showed that SWT (605−720 significantly (p < 0.05 outperformed published chlorophyll-related and wavelet-based spectral parameters. It was concluded here that the wavelet-based area parameter (i.e., SWT (605−720 has potential ability to indirectly estimate Cu concentrations in Carex leaves through the strong correlation between Cu and chlorophyll. The method presented in this pilot study may be used to estimate the concentrations of other heavy metals. However, further research is needed to test its transferability and robustness for estimating Cu concentrations on other plant species in different biological and environmental conditions.

  4. Field-based landslide susceptibility assessment in a data-scarce environment: the populated areas of the Rwenzori Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Liesbet; Dewitte, Olivier; Poesen, Jean; Sekajugo, John; Nobile, Adriano; Rossi, Mauro; Thiery, Wim; Kervyn, Matthieu

    2018-01-01

    The inhabited zone of the Ugandan Rwenzori Mountains is affected by landslides, frequently causing loss of life, damage to infrastructure and loss of livelihood. This area of ca. 1230 km2 is characterized by contrasting geomorphologic, climatic and lithological patterns, resulting in different landslide types. In this study, the spatial pattern of landslide susceptibility is investigated based on an extensive field inventory constructed for five representative areas within the region (153 km2) and containing over 450 landslides. To achieve a reliable susceptibility assessment, the effects of (1) using different topographic data sources and spatial resolutions and (2) changing the scale of assessment by comparing local and regional susceptibility models on the susceptibility model performances are investigated using a pixel-based logistic regression approach. Topographic data are extracted from different digital elevation models (DEMs) based on radar interferometry (SRTM and TanDEM-X) and optical stereophotogrammetry (ASTER DEM). Susceptibility models using the radar-based DEMs tend to outperform the ones using the ASTER DEM. The model spatial resolution is varied between 10, 20, 30 and 90 m. The optimal resolution depends on the location of the investigated area within the region but the lowest model resolution (90 m) rarely yields the best model performances while the highest model resolution (10 m) never results in significant increases in performance compared to the 20 m resolution. Models built for the local case studies generally have similar or better performances than the regional model and better reflect site-specific controlling factors. At the regional level the effect of distinguishing landslide types between shallow and deep-seated landslides is investigated. The separation of landslide types allows us to improve model performances for the prediction of deep-seated landslides and to better understand factors influencing the occurrence of shallow

  5. Landslide susceptibility assessment by using a neuro-fuzzy model: a case study in the Rupestrian heritage rich area of Matera

    OpenAIRE

    F. Sdao; D. S. Lioi; S. Pascale; Caniani, D.; Mancini, I. M.

    2013-01-01

    The complete assessment of landslide susceptibility needs uniformly distributed detailed information on the territory. This information, which is related to the temporal occurrence of landslide phenomena and their causes, is often fragmented and heterogeneous. The present study evaluates the landslide susceptibility map of the Natural Archaeological Park of Matera (Southern Italy) (Sassi and area Rupestrian Churches sites). The assessment of the degree of "spatial hazard" or "susceptibility" ...

  6. Flood susceptibility assessment in Hengfeng area coupling adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system with genetic algorithm and differential evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Haoyuan; Panahi, Mahdi; Shirzadi, Ataollah; Ma, Tianwu; Liu, Junzhi; Zhu, A-Xing; Chen, Wei; Kougias, Ioannis; Kazakis, Nerantzis

    2017-10-23

    Floods are among Earth's most common natural hazards, and they cause major economic losses and seriously affect peoples' lives and health. This paper addresses the development of a flood susceptibility assessment that uses intelligent techniques and GIS. An adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was coupled with a genetic algorithm and differential evolution for flood spatial modelling. The model considers thirteen hydrologic, morphologic and lithologic parameters for the flood susceptibility assessment, and Hengfeng County in China was chosen for the application of the model due to data availability and the 195 total flood events. The flood locations were randomly divided into two subsets, namely, training (70% of the total) and testing (30%). The Step-wise Weight Assessment Ratio Analysis (SWARA) approach was used to assess the relation between the floods and influencing parameters. Subsequently, two data mining techniques were combined with the ANFIS model, including the ANFIS-Genetic Algorithm and the ANFIS-Differential Evolution, to be used for flood spatial modelling and zonation. The flood susceptibility maps were produced, and their robustness was checked using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve. The results showed that the area under the curve (AUC) for all models was >0.80. The highest AUC value was for the ANFIS-DE model (0.852), followed by ANFIS-GA (0.849). According to the RMSE and MSE methods, the ANFIS-DE hybrid model is more suitable for flood susceptibility mapping in the study area. The proposed method is adaptable and can easily be applied in other sites for flood management and prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. HEAVY METALS IN MAPLE AND DANDELION LEAVES FROM DIFERENT LAND-USE AREAS IN MOSCOW ’S EASTERN DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry V. Vlasov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on extensive biogeochemical research conducted in Moscow’s Eastern Administrative District, where motor-vehicle traffic and heavy industry have resulted in some of the highest levels of pollution in the city. For this study, 26 samples of maple leaves (Acer platanoides and 49 samples of dandelion leaves (Taraxacum officinalewere collected on a regular grid at 500–700 m intervals. Concentrations of Fe, Mn, Mo, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, As and Sb in these plants were measured using atomic absorption spectrometry after washing, drying and HNO3 + H2O2 digestion. Maples accumulated Sb9,7As4,6Mo2,2Fe2,0Zn1,5 Pb1,4Cu1,2, while dandelions accumulated Mo12,7Pb4,9Cd4,4Fe4,3As3,9Sb2,7Cu1,4 — normalized to concentrations in background samples from an unpolluted site west from Moscow. The plants’ geochemical specialization was detected and compared in the following land-use areas: industrial, traffic, recreational, agricultural, and high-, mid-, and low-rise residential development. For maples, the highest concentration factor levels were found in industrial areas, with accumulations of Sb19As2,4Mo1,7Zn1,7Fe1,5Cu1,4Pb1,4. These levels were 2–5 timeslower for maples in other land-use areas. Dandelions and maples do not accumulate Mnbecause of antagonism between Zn, Mo and Mn in soils. Copper is not concentrated byherbaceous species because of antagonism between Mo and Cu. Differences in  eochemical specialization were shown using the Sb/Mo ratio: in dandelions this was 5 times lower than in background samples, while in maples it was 4.5 times higher. A Zv ratio was used to evaluate the intensity of biogeochemical transformation in urban plants. The highest Zv ratios were found in plants near industrial zones and large roads.

  8. Trace metals, peroxidase activity, PAHs contents and ecophysiological changes in Quercus ilex leaves in the urban area of Caserta (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, S; Bartoli, G; Nacca, F; D'Abrosca, B; Cembrola, E; Pellegrino, A; Fiorentino, A; Fuggi, A; Fioretto, A

    2012-12-30

    Trace metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, severely affecting human, animal and plants health, highly contribute to the air pollution in urban areas mainly due to car traffic. In this study the air biomonitoring of the city of Caserta (South Italy) has been performed by using Quercus ilex L., a widespread ornamental plant in parks, gardens and avenues. The plant leaves from different sites within the urban area were collected and used to determine the concentrations of V, Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni, Cu, and PAHs as well as the free amino acid content and peroxidase enzyme activity as indices of the leaf physiological conditions. All the tested trace metals showed concentrations higher than the control site. Lead was positively correlated to Cd and Cr and showed, also, a positive trend with Ni and Cu that, in their turn, were highly correlated between them. Positive and significant correlations were evidenced between total PAHs and carcinogenic PAHs and negative correlations between those and all trace metals assayed except V. Cu and Cd contents evidence negative correlations with peroxidase activity, and the free amino acid contents. The PAHs, in particular Carc-PAHs, were negatively correlated to the tested heavy metals. POD was positively correlated only with V and negatively correlated with Cu and Cd. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Insecticide Susceptibility Status of Wild-Caught Sand Fly Populations Collected from Two Leishmaniasis Endemic Areas in Western Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakus, Mehmet; Gocmen, Bayram; Özbel, Yusuf

    2017-03-01

    In Turkey, vector control programs are mainly based on indoor residual spraying with pyrethroids against mosquitoes. No special control program is available for sand flies. Most insecticide susceptibility tests were done for mosquitoes but not for sand flies. We therefore aimed to determine the insecticide susceptibility against two commonly used insecticides; deltamethrin and permethrin, on wild-caught sand fly populations collected in two geographically separated leishmaniasis endemic areas. Insecticide susceptibility of wild-caught sand flies to deltamethrin (0.05%) and permethrin (0.75%) using ready-to use impregnated insecticide papers of WHO was investigated in 2010 based on knockdown time using standard WHO tube-test kit and procedures. Sand flies used in this study were collected from villages of Aydin (Bascayır) and Mugla (Tepecik). The resistance and early resistance were detected on the sand fly population from Mugla province against deltamethrin and permethrin, respectively. However, populations from Aydin Province were sensitive to both insecticides. The resistance against deltamethrin and permethrin was detected on sand fly population in Mugla Province where both insecticides have been applied for long time while no resistance was found in the insecticide free area, Aydin Province. These findings can be an indicator for showing the ability for developing the insecticide resistance in sand flies. Because of the presence and dominancy of vector sand fly species of Leishmania infantum ( Phlebotomus neglectus , P. tobbi ) in both study areas, the systematic monitoring for resistance of sand fly populations and more attention are needed by the authorities involved in control programs for sand fly-borne diseases.

  10. Leaves from banana (Musa nana) and maize (Zea mays) have no phyto-prophylactic effects on the susceptibility of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) to Aeromonas hydrophila infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrhofer, Richard; Menanteau-Ledouble, Simon; Pucher, Johannes; Focken, Ulfert; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2017-11-10

    The ubiquitous and opportunistic bacterial pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila has been associated with ulcerative dermatitis in fish, especially under stressful conditions. It can cause severe losses in fresh water aquaculture and is particularly prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions. Fresh leaves from maize and bananas have been used as feed supplement by fish farmers in Vietnam and it has been reported that they may have phyto-prophylactic benefits. In the present study, a feeding trial was conducted to investigate the benefits of providing maize and banana leaves as feed supplement: to determine if they were taken up and digested by grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), if this uptake resulted in improved growth performance, and if leaf supplementation protected fish when challenged with A. hydrophila by intramuscular injection. All fish were fed an identical ratio of commercial pelleted feed relative to biomass. However, in 12/18 tanks, this diet was supplemented with either fresh banana leaves or fresh maize leaves; offered ad libitum. Addition of leaves increased the overall feed conversion ratio (FCR) significantly. However, if only the pellet were taken into account, then no difference was found between treatments. Changes to the isotopic composition of the fish showed leaf nutrient uptake occurred. No prophylactic effects of feeding banana or maize leaves were detected against infection with A. hydrophila, and the diet did not induce changes in the fish haematocrit. However, addition of the maize leaves was associated with significantly reduced severity of the skin lesions, which could improve the market value of the fish. Addition of the leaf supplement did not result in significantly improved growth performance. Similarly, the effect of the supplement on the fish survival to infection was not significant.

  11. Spatial prediction of flood susceptible areas using rule based decision tree (DT) and a novel ensemble bivariate and multivariate statistical models in GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrany, Mahyat Shafapour; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Jebur, Mustafa Neamah

    2013-11-01

    Decision tree (DT) machine learning algorithm was used to map the flood susceptible areas in Kelantan, Malaysia.We used an ensemble frequency ratio (FR) and logistic regression (LR) model in order to overcome weak points of the LR.Combined method of FR and LR was used to map the susceptible areas in Kelantan, Malaysia.Results of both methods were compared and their efficiency was assessed.Most influencing conditioning factors on flooding were recognized.

  12. Increased susceptibility for white spot lesions by surplus orthodontic etching exceeding bracket base area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knösel, Michael; Bojes, Mariana; Jung, Klaus; Ziebolz, Dirk

    2012-05-01

    There is a paucity of information with regard to the susceptibility of iatrogenic white spot lesion formation after inattentive, surplus orthodontic etching with 30% phosphoric acid and the subsequent provision or absence of adequate oral hygiene. Ninety sound enamel specimens were randomly allocated to 6 trial groups (n = 15 each) for etching with 30% phosphoric acid for either 15 seconds and standardized daily enamel brushing or no brushing, etching for 30 seconds with daily brushing or no brushing, or nonetched controls with brushing or no brushing. Nutritive acidic assaults were simulated by demineralization cycles 3 times per day for 1 hour with interim storage in artificial saliva. Lesion depths in terms of percentage of fluorescence loss (delta F, delta Q) and lesion extension compared with the baseline were assessed by using quantitative light-induced fluorescence after 2, 7, 14, 21, and 42 days. Etching duration, trial time elapse, and oral hygiene, as well as the significance of factor interactions, were analyzed with 3-way analysis of variance (α = 5%). The impact of the factors of enamel brushing, trial time elapse, and etching each had a comparably significant effect on lesion progression. The effect of surplus etching on white spot lesion formation was significantly enhanced by the simultaneous absence of enamel brushing and also the progression of trial time. The combination of 30 seconds of surplus etching with inadequate oral hygiene was especially detrimental. Excessive surplus orthodontic etching of the complete labial enamel surface, instead of the bracket bases only, must be avoided to prevent iatrogenic white spot lesions. Etching times not exceeding 15 seconds are favorable. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Increased susceptibility for white spot lesions by surplus orthodontic etching exceeding bracket base area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knösel, Michael; Bojes, Mariana; Jung, Klaus; Ziebolz, Dirk; Renger, Stéphane

    2015-09-01

    There is a paucity of information with regard to the susceptibility of iatrogenic white spot lesion formation after inattentive, surplus orthodontic etching with 30% phosphoric acid and the subsequent provision or absence of adequate oral hygiene. Ninety sound enamel specimens were randomly allocated to 6 trial groups (N = 15 each) for etching with 30% phosphoric acid for either 15 seconds and standardized daily enamel brushing or no brushing, etching for 30 seconds with daily brushing or no brushing, or nonetched controls with brushing or no brushing. Nutritive acidic assaults were simulated by demineralization cycles 3 times per day for 1 hour with interim storage in artificial saliva. Lesion depths in terms of percentage of fluorescence loss (delta F, delta Q) and lesion extension compared with the baseline were assessed by using quantitative light-induced fluorescence after 2, 7, 14, 21, and 42 days. Etching duration, trial time elapse, and oral hygiene, as well as the significance of factor interactions, were analyzed with 3-way analysis of variance (α=5%). The impact of the factors of enamel brushing, trial time elapse, and etching each had a comparably significant effect on lesion progression. The effect of surplus etching on white spot lesion formation was significantly enhanced by the simultaneous absence of enamel brushing and also the progression of trial time. The combination of 30 seconds of surplus etching with inadequate oral hygiene was especially detrimental. Excessive surplus orthodontic etching of the complete labial enamel surface, instead of the bracket bases only, must be avoided to prevent iatrogenic white spot lesions. Etching times not exceeding 15 seconds are favorable. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2015.

  14. Insecticide Susceptibility Status of Wild-Caught Sand Fly Populations Collected from Two Leishmaniasis Endemic Areas in Western Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Karakus

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Turkey, vector control programs are mainly based on indoor residual spraying with pyre­throids against mosquitoes. No special control program is available for sand flies. Most insecticide susceptibil­ity tests were done for mosquitoes but not for sand flies. We therefore aimed to determine the insecticide susceptibility against two commonly used insecticides; deltamethrin and permethrin, on wild-caught sand fly populations collected in two geographically separated leishmaniasis endemic areas.Methods: Insecticide susceptibility of wild-caught sand flies to deltamethrin (0.05% and permethrin (0.75% using ready-to use impregnated insecticide papers of WHO was investigated in 2010 based on knock­down time using standard WHO tube-test kit and procedures. Sand flies used in this study were col­lected from villages of Aydin (Bascayır and Mugla (Tepecik.Results: The resistance and early resistance were detected on the sand fly population from Mugla province against deltamethrin and permethrin, respectively. However, populations from Aydin Province were sensitive to both insecticides.Conclusion: The resistance against deltamethrin and permethrin was detected on sand fly population in Mugla Province where both insecticides have been applied for long time while no resistance was found in the insecticide free area, Aydin Province. These findings can be an indicator for showing the ability for develop­ing the insecticide resistance in sand flies. Because of the presence and dominancy of vector sand fly species of Leishmania infantum (Phlebotomus neglectus, P. tobbi in both study areas, the systematic monitoring for resistance of sand fly populations and more attention are needed by the authorities involved in control pro­grams for sand fly-borne diseases.

  15. Debris Flow Susceptibility Assessment in the Wudongde Dam Area, China Based on Rock Engineering System and Fuzzy C-Means Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Debris flows in the Wudongde dam area, China could pose a huge threat to the running of the power station. Therefore, it is of great significance to carry out a susceptibility analysis for this area. This paper presents an application of the rock engineering system and fuzzy C-means algorithm (RES_FCM for debris flow susceptibility assessment. The watershed of the Jinsha River close to the Wudongde dam site in southwest China was taken as the study area, where a total of 22 channelized debris flow gullies were mapped by field investigations. Eight environmental parameters were selected for debris flow susceptibility assessment, namely, lithology, watershed area, slope angle, stream density, length of the main stream, curvature of the main stream, distance from fault and vegetation cover ratio. The interactions among these parameters and their weightings were determined using the RES method. A debris flow susceptibility map was produced by dividing the gullies into three categories of debris flow susceptibility based on the susceptibility index (SI using the FCM algorithm. The results show that the susceptibility levels for nine of the debris flow gullies are high, nine are moderate and four are low, respectively. The RES based K-means algorithm (RES_KM was used for comparison. The results suggest that the RES_FCM method and the RES_KM method provide very close evaluation results for most of the debris flow gullies, which also agree well with field investigations. The prediction accuracy of the new method is 90.9%, larger than that obtained by the RES_KM method (86.4%. Therefore, the RES_FCM method performs better than the RES_KM method for assessing the susceptibility of debris flows.

  16. Liquefaction susceptibility assessment in fluvial plains using high-resolution airborne LiDAR data: the case of the 2012 Emilia earthquake sequence area (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civico, R.; Brunori, C. A.; De Martini, P. M.; Pucci, S.; Cinti, F. R.; Pantosti, D.

    2015-07-01

    We report a case study from the Po River plain region (northern Italy), where a significant liquefaction-related land and property damage occurred during the 2012 Emilia seismic sequence. We took advantage of a 1 m pixel LiDAR Digital Terrain Model (DTM) and of the 2012 Emilia coseismic liquefaction dataset to: (a) perform a detailed geomorphological study of the Po River plain area, (b) quantitatively define the liquefaction susceptibility of the geomorphologic features that experienced different frequency of liquefaction. One main finding is that linear topographic highs of fluvial origin, together with crevasse splays and abandoned riverbeds, acted as preferential location for the occurrence of liquefaction phenomena. Moreover, we quantitatively defined a hierarchy in terms of liquefaction susceptibility for fluvial environments. We observed that a very high liquefaction susceptibility is found in coincidence with fluvial landforms, a high-to-moderate liquefaction susceptibility within a buffer distance of 100 and 200 m from mapped fluvial landforms and a low liquefaction susceptibility outside fluvial landforms and relative buffer areas. LiDAR data allowed a significant improvement in mapping with respect to conventional available topographic data and/or aerial imagery. These results have significant implications for accurate hazard and risk assessment as well as for land-use planning. We propose a potentially simpler approach for liquefaction susceptibility assessment with respect to in situ geotechnical investigations. Our findings can be applied to areas beyond Emilia, characterized by similar fluvial-dominated environments and prone to significant seismic hazard.

  17. Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms in Susceptibility to Tuberculosis in the Kazakh Population in Almaty and Almaty Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxat Zhabagin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vitamin D receptor (VDR plays an important role in activating the immune response against various infectious agents. It is known that the active metabolite of ligand receptor Vitamin D (1,25 – dihydroxyvitamin D is encoded by VDR and helps mononuclear phagocytes to suppress the intracellular growth of M. tuberculosis. The VDR gene harbors approximately 200 polymorphisms, some of which are linked to differences in receptor Vitamin D uptake and therefore can be considered as candidate disease risk variants. The relation between VDR gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to TB has been studied in different populations. There is not a great deal of information regarding the association of these SNPs with TB risk in the Kazakh population. The four most commonly investigated VDR polymorphisms in association with different diseases, including susceptibility to tuberculosis, are located in exon 2 (rs2228570 or FokI, intron 8 (rs1544410 or BsmI and rs7975232 or ApaI, and exon 9 (rs731236 or TaqI. The aim of our study was to determine whether these four VDR gene single nucleotide polymorphisms were associated with TB and whether they were a risk for the development of TB in the Kazakh Population in Almaty city and Almaty area. Methods: This study was a hospital-based case-control analysis of 283 individuals (99 TB patients and 184 healthy controls. Genotyping was performed by Taqman SNP allelic discrimination using commercial TaqMan SNP Genotyping assays.  Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS Version 19.0 software. Results: Genotype frequencies for the Kazakh population are close to world (HapMap data on Asian populations. FokI and ApaI polymorphisms genotypes tend to be associated with TB risk under the co-dominant model [OR=1.18; 95%CI: (0.68, 2.07, p=0.15] for FokI and [OR=1.33; 95%CI: (0.61, 2.91, p=0.6] for ApaI. No significant association between the disease and TaqI, BsmI genotypes was observed. Conclusions: In summary, we

  18. A GRASS GIS-based deterministic model for shallow and deep-seated landslide susceptibility analysis over large areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergili, Martin; Marchesini, Ivan; Rossi, Mauro; Guzzetti, Fausto; Fellin, Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    Various deterministic slope stability models, based on the assumption of an infinite slope with a plane, slope-parallel failure plane, have been proposed in the literature. These models are commonly implemented in a GIS environment and are mostly used to model shallow landslides. Other models consider the three-dimensional geometry of possible slope failures and assume an ellipsoidal sliding surface. Such models are best suited to investigate deep-seated landslides. The latter models rely on complex neighbourhood relationships and are difficult to implement in a GIS environment. Here, we present a GIS-based landslide modelling tool that considers the three-dimensional geometry of the sliding surfaces and is capable of dealing with shallow and deep-seated failures. The model is developed in the GRASS GIS software as the C-based raster module r.rotstab, and adopts a modification of the three-dimensional sliding surface model proposed by Hovland and revised and extended by Xie and co-workers. Given a Digital Elevation Model and a set of thematic layers, the model evaluates slope stability for a large number of randomly selected potential slip surfaces, ellipsoidal in shape. Truncated ellipsoids can be used to model the presence of shallow weak layers in the soil or the bedrock. Any single raster cell may be intersected by multiple sliding surfaces, each associated with a computed safety factor. For each grid cell, the lowest value of the safety factor and the depth of the associated slip surface are stored. This information can be used to obtain a spatial overview of the potentially unstable regions in the study area. In addition, a landslide susceptibility index in the range 0 - 1 is calculated. The index relates the number of unstable slip surfaces to the total number of slip surfaces simulated for each pixel. We tested the model in the Collazzone area, Umbria, Central Italy, which is susceptible to landslides of different types. The presence of both shallow

  19. Aerosol deposition on plant leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    James B. Wedding; Roger W. Carlson; James J. Stukel; Fakhri A. Bazzaz

    1976-01-01

    An aerosol generator and wind tunnel system designed for use in aerosol deposition is described. Gross deposition on rough pubescent leaves was nearly 7 times greater than on smooth, waxy leaves. Results suggest that aerosol deposition, on a per unit area basis, for single horizontal streamlining leaves is similar to that for arrays of leaves under similar flow...

  20. A Combination of Geographically Weighted Regression, Particle Swarm Optimization and Support Vector Machine for Landslide Susceptibility Mapping: A Case Study at Wanzhou in the Three Gorges Area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xianyu; Wang, Yi; Niu, Ruiqing; Hu, Youjian

    2016-05-11

    In this study, a novel coupling model for landslide susceptibility mapping is presented. In practice, environmental factors may have different impacts at a local scale in study areas. To provide better predictions, a geographically weighted regression (GWR) technique is firstly used in our method to segment study areas into a series of prediction regions with appropriate sizes. Meanwhile, a support vector machine (SVM) classifier is exploited in each prediction region for landslide susceptibility mapping. To further improve the prediction performance, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is used in the prediction regions to obtain optimal parameters for the SVM classifier. To evaluate the prediction performance of our model, several SVM-based prediction models are utilized for comparison on a study area of the Wanzhou district in the Three Gorges Reservoir. Experimental results, based on three objective quantitative measures and visual qualitative evaluation, indicate that our model can achieve better prediction accuracies and is more effective for landslide susceptibility mapping. For instance, our model can achieve an overall prediction accuracy of 91.10%, which is 7.8%-19.1% higher than the traditional SVM-based models. In addition, the obtained landslide susceptibility map by our model can demonstrate an intensive correlation between the classified very high-susceptibility zone and the previously investigated landslides.

  1. Mapping Forest Fire Susceptibility in Temperate Mountain Areas with Expert Knowledge. A Case Study from Iezer Mountains, Romanian Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihai, Bogdan; Savulescu, Ionut

    2014-05-01

    Forest fires in Romanian Carpathians became a frequent phenomenon during the last decade, although local climate and other environmental features did not create typical conditions. From 2004, forest fires affect in Romania more than 100 hectares/year of different forest types (deciduous and coniferous). Their magnitude and frequency are not known, since a historical forest fire inventory does not exist (only press papers and local witness for some selected events). Forest fires features the summer dry periods but there are dry autumns and early winter periods with events of different magnitudes. The application we propose is based on an empirical modeling of forest fire susceptibility in a typical mountain area from the Southern Carpathians, the Iezer Mountains (2462 m). The study area features almost all the altitudinal vegetation zones of the European temperate mountains, from the beech zone, to the coniferous zone, the subalpine and the alpine zones (Mihai et al., 2007). The analysis combines GIS and remote sensing models (Chuvieco et al., 2012), starting from the ideas that forest fires are featured by the ignition zones and then by the fire propagation zones. The first data layer (ignition zones) is the result of the crossing between the ignition factors: lightning - points of multitemporal occurence and anthropogenic activities (grazing, tourism and traffic) and the ignition zones (forest fuel zonation - forest stands, soil cover and topoclimatic factor zonation). This data is modelled from different sources: the MODIS imagery fire product (Hantson et al., 2012), detailed topographic maps, multitemporal orthophotos at 0.5 m resolution, Landsat multispectral imagery, forestry cadastre maps, detailed soil maps, meteorological data (the WorldClim digital database) as well as the field survey (mapping using GPS and local observation). The second data layer (fire propagation zones) is the result of the crossing between the forest fuel zonation, obtained with the

  2. Using the value of Lin's concordance correlation coefficient as a criterion for efficient estimation of areas of leaves of eelgrass from noisy digital images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echavarría-Heras, Héctor; Leal-Ramírez, Cecilia; Villa-Diharce, Enrique; Castillo, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Eelgrass is a cosmopolitan seagrass species that provides important ecological services in coastal and near-shore environments. Despite its relevance, loss of eelgrass habitats is noted worldwide. Restoration by replanting plays an important role, and accurate measurements of the standing crop and productivity of transplants are important for evaluating restoration of the ecological functions of natural populations. Traditional assessments are destructive, and although they do not harm natural populations, in transplants the destruction of shoots might cause undesirable alterations. Non-destructive assessments of the aforementioned variables are obtained through allometric proxies expressed in terms of measurements of the lengths or areas of leaves. Digital imagery could produce measurements of leaf attributes without the removal of shoots, but sediment attachments, damage infringed by drag forces or humidity contents induce noise-effects, reducing precision. Available techniques for dealing with noise caused by humidity contents on leaves use the concepts of adjacency, vicinity, connectivity and tolerance of similarity between pixels. Selection of an interval of tolerance of similarity for efficient measurements requires extended computational routines with tied statistical inferences making concomitant tasks complicated and time consuming. The present approach proposes a simplified and cost-effective alternative, and also a general tool aimed to deal with any sort of noise modifying eelgrass leaves images. Moreover, this selection criterion relies only on a single statistics; the calculation of the maximum value of the Concordance Correlation Coefficient for reproducibility of observed areas of leaves through proxies obtained from digital images. Available data reveals that the present method delivers simplified, consistent estimations of areas of eelgrass leaves taken from noisy digital images. Moreover, the proposed procedure is robust because both the optimal

  3. Landslide susceptibility assessment by using a neuro-fuzzy model: a case study in the Rupestrian heritage rich area of Matera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sdao

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The complete assessment of landslide susceptibility needs uniformly distributed detailed information on the territory. This information, which is related to the temporal occurrence of landslide phenomena and their causes, is often fragmented and heterogeneous. The present study evaluates the landslide susceptibility map of the Natural Archaeological Park of Matera (Southern Italy (Sassi and area Rupestrian Churches sites. The assessment of the degree of "spatial hazard" or "susceptibility" was carried out by the spatial prediction regardless of the return time of the events. The evaluation model for the susceptibility presented in this paper is very focused on the use of innovative techniques of artificial intelligence such as Neural Network, Fuzzy Logic and Neuro-fuzzy Network. The method described in this paper is a novel technique based on a neuro-fuzzy system. It is able to train data like neural network and it is able to shape and control uncertain and complex systems like a fuzzy system. This methodology allows us to derive susceptibility maps of the study area. These data are obtained from thematic maps representing the parameters responsible for the instability of the slopes. The parameters used in the analysis are: plan curvature, elevation (DEM, angle and aspect of the slope, lithology, fracture density, kinematic hazard index of planar and wedge sliding and toppling. Moreover, this method is characterized by the network training which uses a training matrix, consisting of input and output training data, which determine the landslide susceptibility. The neuro-fuzzy method was integrated to a sensitivity analysis in order to overcome the uncertainty linked to the used membership functions. The method was compared to the landslide inventory map and was validated by applying three methods: a ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis, a confusion matrix and a SCAI method. The developed neuro-fuzzy method showed a good

  4. Landslide susceptibility assessment by using a neuro-fuzzy model: a case study in the Rupestrian heritage rich area of Matera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sdao, F.; Lioi, D. S.; Pascale, S.; Caniani, D.; Mancini, I. M.

    2013-02-01

    The complete assessment of landslide susceptibility needs uniformly distributed detailed information on the territory. This information, which is related to the temporal occurrence of landslide phenomena and their causes, is often fragmented and heterogeneous. The present study evaluates the landslide susceptibility map of the Natural Archaeological Park of Matera (Southern Italy) (Sassi and area Rupestrian Churches sites). The assessment of the degree of "spatial hazard" or "susceptibility" was carried out by the spatial prediction regardless of the return time of the events. The evaluation model for the susceptibility presented in this paper is very focused on the use of innovative techniques of artificial intelligence such as Neural Network, Fuzzy Logic and Neuro-fuzzy Network. The method described in this paper is a novel technique based on a neuro-fuzzy system. It is able to train data like neural network and it is able to shape and control uncertain and complex systems like a fuzzy system. This methodology allows us to derive susceptibility maps of the study area. These data are obtained from thematic maps representing the parameters responsible for the instability of the slopes. The parameters used in the analysis are: plan curvature, elevation (DEM), angle and aspect of the slope, lithology, fracture density, kinematic hazard index of planar and wedge sliding and toppling. Moreover, this method is characterized by the network training which uses a training matrix, consisting of input and output training data, which determine the landslide susceptibility. The neuro-fuzzy method was integrated to a sensitivity analysis in order to overcome the uncertainty linked to the used membership functions. The method was compared to the landslide inventory map and was validated by applying three methods: a ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis, a confusion matrix and a SCAI method. The developed neuro-fuzzy method showed a good performance in the

  5. [Antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae in healthy carrier individuals in primary care in Barcelona area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llor, Carles; Boada, Albert; Pons-Vigués, Mariona; Grenzner, Elisabet; Juvé, Rosa; Almeda, Jesús

    2018-01-01

    The information available on antibiotic resistance patterns are generally based on specimens from hospitalised individuals. This study was aimed at evaluating the antibiotic resistance rate of nasal carriage strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae in healthy individuals, in accordance with age and gender, attended in Primary Care Centres (PCC). Cross-sectional study. Seven PCC in the Barcelona area. Healthy nasal carriers aged 4years or more who did not present with any sign of infectious disease, and had not taken any antibiotic or had been hospitalised in the previous 3months. A total of 3,969 nasal swabs valid for identification were collected between 2010 and 2011 and were sent to one central microbiological laboratory for isolation of both pathogens. Resistance to common antibiotics was determined on the basis of the current European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing guidelines on cut-off points. The prevalence of methicillin-resistant S.aureus was 1.3% (95%CI: 0.5-2.1%), with resistance rates of 87.1% to phenoxymethylpenicillin and 11.6% to azithromycin, with no significant differences with age and gender. A total of 2.4% (95CI%: 0.1-4.7%) of the pneumococcal strains were highly resistant to both phenoxymethylpenicillin and macrolides, whereas the highest resistance rates were to cefaclor (53.3%), followed by tetracycline (20%) and cefuroxime (12.1%). These pathogens have lower resistance rates in the community than in the hospital setting. Primary Care physicians must be more aware of the current antimicrobial resistance, in order to ensure prudent use of antibiotics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Taking Leave?

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Planning a holiday? Then if you're a member of the personnel, you'll need to use the Laboratory's new leave system that will be put in place on 1 October. Leave allocations don't change - you are entitled to just as much holiday as before - but instead of being credited annually, your leave will be credited on a monthly basis, and this information will be communicated on your salary slip. The reason for the change is that with the various new leave schemes such as Recruitment by Saved Leave (RSL) and the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP), a streamlined procedure was required for dealing with all kinds of leave. In the new system, each member of the personnel will have leave accounts to which leave will be credited monthly from the payroll and debited each time an absence is registered in the CERN Electronic Document Handling system (EDH). Leave balances will appear on monthly pay slips, and full details of leave transactions and balances will be available through EDH at all times. As the leave will be c...

  7. Hg contents in soils and olive-tree (Olea Europea, L.) leaves from an area affected by elemental mercury pollution (Jódar, SE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Berdonces, Miguel Angel; María Esbrí, José; Amorós, José Angel; Lorenzo, Saturnino; Fernández-Calderón, Sergio; Higueras, Pablo; Perez-de-los-Reyes, Caridad

    2014-05-01

    Data from soil and olive tree leaves around a decommissioned chlor-alkali plant are presented in this communication. The factory was active in the period 1977-1991, producing during these years a heavily pollution of Guadalquivir River and hydrargyrism in more than local 45 workers. It is located at 7 km South of Jódar, a locality with some 12,120 inhabitants. Mercury usage was general in this type of plants, but at present it is being replaced by other types of technologies, due to the risks of mercury usage in personal and environment. A soil geochemistry survey was carried out in the area, along with the analysis of olive-tree leaves (in the plots with this culture) from the same area. 73 soil samples were taken at two different depths (0-15 cm and 15-30 cm), together with 41 olive tree samples. Mercury content of geologic and biologic samples was determined by means of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with Zeeman Effect, using a Lumex RA-915+ device with the RP-91C pyrolysis attachment. Air surveys were carried our using a RA-915M Lumex portable analytical device. Soil mercury contents were higher in topsoil than in the deeper soil samples, indicating that incorporation of mercury was due to dry and wet deposition of mercury vapors emitted from the plant. Average content in topsoil is 564.5 ng g-1. Hg contents in olive-tree leaves were in the range 46 - 453 ng g-1, with an average of 160.6 ng g-1. This level is slightly lower than tolerable level for agronomic crops established by Kabata-Pendias (2001) in 200 ng g-1. We have also compared soil and leaf contents for each sampling site, finding a positive and significant correlation (R=0.49), indicating that Hg contents in the leaves are linked to Hg contents in the soils. BAC (Bioaccumulation Absorption Coefficient, calculated as ratio between soil and leaf concentration) is 0.28 (consistent with world references, BAC = 0.7), considered "medium" in comparison with other mineral elements. Main conclusions of this

  8. Tropical Forest Fire Susceptibility Mapping at the Cat Ba National Park Area, Hai Phong City, Vietnam, Using GIS-Based Kernel Logistic Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieu Tien Bui

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Cat Ba National Park area (Vietnam with its tropical forest is recognized as being part of the world biodiversity conservation by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO and is a well-known destination for tourists, with around 500,000 travelers per year. This area has been the site for many research projects; however, no project has been carried out for forest fire susceptibility assessment. Thus, protection of the forest including fire prevention is one of the main concerns of the local authorities. This work aims to produce a tropical forest fire susceptibility map for the Cat Ba National Park area, which may be helpful for the local authorities in forest fire protection management. To obtain this purpose, first, historical forest fires and related factors were collected from various sources to construct a GIS database. Then, a forest fire susceptibility model was developed using Kernel logistic regression. The quality of the model was assessed using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve, area under the ROC curve (AUC, and five statistical evaluation measures. The usability of the resulting model is further compared with a benchmark model, the support vector machine (SVM. The results show that the Kernel logistic regression model has a high level of performance in both the training and validation dataset, with a prediction capability of 92.2%. Since the Kernel logistic regression model outperforms the benchmark model, we conclude that the proposed model is a promising alternative tool that should also be considered for forest fire susceptibility mapping in other areas. The results of this study are useful for the local authorities in forest planning and management.

  9. Abbreviated atovaquone-proguanil prophylaxis regimens in travellers after leaving malaria-endemic areas: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savelkoel, Jelmer; Binnendijk, Klaas Hendrik; Spijker, Rene; van Vugt, Michèle; Tan, Kathrine; Hänscheid, Thomas; Schlagenhauf, Patricia; Grobusch, Martin Peter

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated existing data on the prophylactic efficacy of atovaquone-proguanil (AP) in order to determine whether prophylaxis in travellers can be discontinued on the day of return from a malaria-endemic area instead of seven days after return as per currently recommended post-travel schedule.

  10. Spatial distribution and insecticide susceptibility status of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in dengue affected urban areas of Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Ali; Rathor, Hamayun Rashid; Mukhtar, Muhammad Uzair; Mushtaq, Shumaila; Bhatti, Adil; Asif, Muhammad; Arshad, Israr; Ahmad, Jam Farooq

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is one of the most common arthropod-borne viral diseases which is transmitted mainly by two vector species, Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus 1762) and Ae. albopictus (Skuse, 1894) worldwide. As there is no effective medicine and vaccine available, vector control remains the most effective measure to prevent its transmission and outbreak. The aim of the study was to confirm the co-occurrence of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus populations in the different localities of Rawalpindi, Pakistan and examine their susceptibility status against different groups of insecticides. Ovitraps were randomly placed in the study localities. The number of eggs from all the ovitraps were counted and incubated for hatching in Medical Entomology and Disease Vector Control (MEDVC) insectarium for rearing up to adult stage. The adults were then identified by using the pictorial keys. Spatial distribution and aggregation of both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus populations was determined by using Index of dispersion or variance to mean ratio and k values of the negative binomial distribution. The susceptibility status of both the species against different insecticides was assessed by using the World Health Organization (WHO) standard bioassay tests. The results showed that there was coexistence among Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus populations and the aggregation of their eggs was also observed in all the localities studied in Rawalpindi. Larval bioassays of both the populations exhibited incipient resistance against temephos while adult susceptibility testing results showed that both the species were resistant to DDT, malathion, bendiocarb and permethrin. The results suggested that all the field populations of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus existed together and showed qualitative changes in their susceptibility status. Resistance against deltamethrin and lambdacyhalothrin was not confirmed and further investigation was recommended to confirm the change in their susceptibility status. This

  11. Radiocarbon as a biomarker of urban pollution in leaves of evergreen species sampled in Rome and in rural areas (Lazio—Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessio, M.; Anselmi, S.; Conforto, L.; Improta, S.; Manes, F.; Manfra, L.

    The aim of the present study is the use of 14C, sampled in leaves of evergreen species, as a natural geochemical marker to estimate the contribution of artificial sources (heating plants, vehicles, etc.) to the complex of atmospheric gases in an urban environment. Leaves were chosen due to sampling easiness and their reliability: in particular the evergreen species, being exposed all the year round to pollutants are especially indicated for bioindication and biomonitoring studies. The response to atmospheric pollutants has been studied of two plant species ( Quercus ilex L., Pinus pinea L.) measuring isotopic ( 14r, δ13C), chemical (Pb concentration) and ecophysiological (gaseous exchange and leaf fluorescence of chlorophyll a) parameters. Leaves of holm-oaks and stone pine needles collected over a 3-year time span in an urban park in Rome (Villa Ada) and in reference localities outside the city on the Tyrrhenian coast and in the pre-Appennine area have been analysed. In Villa Ada measurements were carried out along a transect from the road bordering the park towards the interior; all the parameters, together in agreement, showed a decreasing pollution gradient towards the inner park. It was possible to estimate a 5.5±0.3% contribution of CO 2 from fossil fuels close to the road, decreasing to 1.7±0.3% at pollution from fossil fuels, while δ13C appears to be conditioned mainly by the interspecific difference, and also by many other environmental factors that affect the plant functionality. Results confirmed that radiocarbon is a useful tool in environmental studies, allowing to quantify the contributions of CO 2 of anthropic origin: this parameter, together with appropriate isotopic, chemical and ecophysiological analyses, could provide a good indication of the "air quality" in urban and rural contexts.

  12. From leaves to landscape: A multiscale approach to assess fire hazard in wildland-urban interface areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghermandi, Luciana; Beletzky, Natacha A; de Torres Curth, Mónica I; Oddi, Facundo J

    2016-12-01

    The overlapping zone between urbanization and wildland vegetation, known as the wildland urban interface (WUI), is often at high risk of wildfire. Human activities increase the likelihood of wildfires, which can have disastrous consequences for property and land use, and can pose a serious threat to lives. Fire hazard assessments depend strongly on the spatial scale of analysis. We assessed the fire hazard in a WUI area of a Patagonian city by working at three scales: landscape, community and species. Fire is a complex phenomenon, so we used a large number of variables that correlate a priori with the fire hazard. Consequently, we analyzed environmental variables together with fuel load and leaf flammability variables and integrated all the information in a fire hazard map with four fire hazard categories. The Nothofagus dombeyi forest had the highest fire hazard while grasslands had the lowest. Our work highlights the vulnerability of the wildland-urban interface to fire in this region and our suggested methodology could be applied in other wildland-urban interface areas. Particularly in high hazard areas, our work could help in spatial delimitation policies, urban planning and development of plans for the protection of human lives and assets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Indicators of environmental contamination by heavy metals in leaves of Taraxacum officinale in two zones of the metropolitan area of Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Barba-García, Arisbel; Arenas-Huertero, Francisco; Cortés-Eslava, Josefina; de la Mora, Michel Grutter; García-Martínez, Rocío

    2017-12-02

    The present study was designed to detect the effect of heavy metals in two zones of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC), the Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera (CCA), and the Altzomoni station in the Iztaccíhuatl-Popocatépetl National Park. Taraxacum officinale was selected as the indicator organism of responses to atmospheric contamination by heavy metals. Determinations of heavy metals were performed, and total mRNA was extracted to quantify the expression of microRNA398 (miR398), superoxide dismutase 2 (CSD2), and the amounts of free radicals using the bromide of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-ilo)-2,5-diphenyltetrazole (MTT) salts reduction assay. Results from the Altzomoni station showed high concentrations of five heavy metals, especially Aluminum, while three heavy metals were identified in the CCA-UNAM zone, most importantly, Vanadium, both in the dry season; miR398 expression presented subtle changes but was greater in the leaves from the stations with higher concentrations of heavy metals. Observations included a significant expression of CSD2, mainly in the dry season in both study zones, where levels were significant with respect to controls (p heavy metals on the leaves of Taraxacum officinale induces increased expression of the CSD2 gene and reduced MTT; thus, they can be used as indicators for biomonitoring heavy metal concentrations.

  14. Landslide Susceptibility Mapping Based on Particle Swarm Optimization of Multiple Kernel Relevance Vector Machines: Case of a Low Hill Area in Sichuan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongliang Lin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a multiple kernel relevance vector machine (RVM method based on the adaptive cloud particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm to map landslide susceptibility in the low hill area of Sichuan Province, China. In the multi-kernel structure, the kernel selection problem can be solved by adjusting the kernel weight, which determines the single kernel contribution of the final kernel mapping. The weights and parameters of the multi-kernel function were optimized using the PSO algorithm. In addition, the convergence speed of the PSO algorithm was increased using cloud theory. To ensure the stability of the prediction model, the result of a five-fold cross-validation method was used as the fitness of the PSO algorithm. To verify the results, receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC and landslide dot density (LDD were used. The results show that the model that used a heterogeneous kernel (a combination of two different kernel functions had a larger area under the ROC curve (0.7616 and a lower prediction error ratio (0.28% than did the other types of kernel models employed in this study. In addition, both the sum of two high susceptibility zone LDDs (6.71/100 km2 and the sum of two low susceptibility zone LDDs (0.82/100 km2 demonstrated that the landslide susceptibility map based on the heterogeneous kernel model was closest to the historical landslide distribution. In conclusion, the results obtained in this study can provide very useful information for disaster prevention and land-use planning in the study area.

  15. Susceptibility of Different Populations of Nilaparvata lugens from Major Rice Growing Areas of Karnataka, India to Different Groups of Insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.S. BASANTH

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Susceptibility to insecticides was investigated by collecting field populations of brown planthopper from different locations of southern Karnataka, India (Gangavati, Kathalagere, Kollegala, Soraba and Mandya. All the field populations differed in their susceptibility to insecticides. In general, Soraba and Mandya populations were more susceptible to insecticides compared to Gangavati and Kathalagere populations. The resistance ratios varied greatly among the populations viz., chlorpyriphos (1.13- to 16.82-fold, imidacloprid (0.53- to 13.50-fold, acephate (1.34- to 5.32-fold, fipronil (1.13- to 4.06-fold, thiamethoxam (1.01- to 2.19-fold, clothianidin (1.92- to 4.86-fold, dinotefuran (0.82- to 2.22-fold, buprofezin (1.06- to 5.43-fold and carbofuran (0.41- to 2.17-fold. The populations from Gangavati, Kathalagere and Kollegala exhibited higher resistance to some of the old insecticides and low resistance to new molecules.

  16. Is mass-based metabolism rate proportional to surface area in plant leaves? A data re-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Dongmei; Dai, Yiqiang; Sun, Li; Sun, Shucun

    2008-06-01

    We re-analyzed two large published databases on leaf traits of plant species from seven different biomes, and determined the scaling relationship between leaf metabolism rate (mass-based photosynthesis capacity, A(mass), and mass-based dark respiration, Rd(mass)) and specific leaf area (SLA) across biomes, using a standardized major axis (SMA) method. Overall pooled data produced a scaling exponent of 1.33 for the relationship between A(mass) and SLA, significantly larger than 1.0; and 1.04 between Rd(mass) and SLA. The scaling exponent of the relationship between A(mass) and SLA ranged between 1.23 (in tropical forest) and 1.66 (in alpine biome), and it was significantly larger in alpine (1.66) and grass/meadow (1.52) biomes than in tropical forest (1.23) and wetland (1.27). The exponent of the relationship between Rd(mass) and SLA, however, was much smaller in wetland (1.05) than in temperate forest (1.29) and tropical rainforest (1.65). In general, the predicated universal scaling relationship that the mass-based metabolism rate should be proportional to surface area in organisms is not applicable at the leaf-level in plants. Rather, the large slope difference of the relationship between leaf metabolism rate and SLA found among biomes indicates that the strength of the selective forces driving the scaling relationship is different among the biomes. The result basically suggests the importance of increasing SLA to plant carbon gain in stressful environments and to carbon loss in favorable habitats, and therefore has an important implication for survival strategies of plants in different biomes.

  17. Landslide susceptibility modeling in a landslide prone area in Mazandarn Province, north of Iran: a comparison between GLM, GAM, MARS, and M-AHP methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourghasemi, Hamid Reza; Rossi, Mauro

    2017-10-01

    Landslides are identified as one of the most important natural hazards in many areas throughout the world. The essential purpose of this study is to compare general linear model (GLM), general additive model (GAM), multivariate adaptive regression spline (MARS), and modified analytical hierarchy process (M-AHP) models and assessment of their performances for landslide susceptibility modeling in the west of Mazandaran Province, Iran. First, landslides were identified by interpreting aerial photographs, and extensive field works. In total, 153 landslides were identified in the study area. Among these, 105 landslides were randomly selected as training data (i.e. used in the models training) and the remaining 48 (30 %) cases were used for the validation (i.e. used in the models validation). Afterward, based on a deep literature review on 220 scientific papers (period between 2005 and 2012), eleven conditioning factors including lithology, land use, distance from rivers, distance from roads, distance from faults, slope angle, slope aspect, altitude, topographic wetness index (TWI), plan curvature, and profile curvature were selected. The Certainty Factor (CF) model was used for managing uncertainty in rule-based systems and evaluation of the correlation between the dependent (landslides) and independent variables. Finally, the landslide susceptibility zonation was produced using GLM, GAM, MARS, and M-AHP models. For evaluation of the models, the area under the curve (AUC) method was used and both success and prediction rate curves were calculated. The evaluation of models for GLM, GAM, and MARS showed 90.50, 88.90, and 82.10 % for training data and 77.52, 70.49, and 78.17 % for validation data, respectively. Furthermore, The AUC value of the produced landslide susceptibility map using M-AHP showed a training value of 77.82 % and validation value of 82.77 % accuracy. Based on the overall assessments, the proposed approaches showed reasonable results for landslide

  18. Soil magnetic susceptibility and contamination of soils from kindergartens areas by potentially toxic elements in Bratislava (Slovakia)

    OpenAIRE

    Ondrej Ďurža; Edgar Hiller; Lucia Lachká; Roman Tóth

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to verify the utilization of magnetic susceptibility measurements for the determination of contamination by potentially toxic elements (PTEs) of urban soils in kindergartens in the capital city of Slovakia, Bratislava, and to determine the concentrations of selected PTEs like As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn in the soils. The results showed that the urban soils were contaminated mainly by Pb, Zn, Hg, and Cu with the concentrations between 11–183 mg·kg-1, 33–551 mg·kg-1, 0...

  19. Mapping flood and flooding potential indices: a methodological approach to identifying areas susceptible to flood and flooding risk. Case study: the Prahova catchment (Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharia, Liliana; Costache, Romulus; Prăvălie, Remus; Ioana-Toroimac, Gabriela

    2017-04-01

    Given that floods continue to cause yearly significant worldwide human and material damages, flood risk mitigation is a key issue and a permanent challenge in developing policies and strategies at various spatial scales. Therefore, a basic phase is elaborating hazard and flood risk maps, documents which are an essential support for flood risk management. The aim of this paper is to develop an approach that allows for the identification of flash-flood and flood-prone susceptible areas based on computing and mapping of two indices: FFPI (Flash-Flood Potential Index) and FPI (Flooding Potential Index). These indices are obtained by integrating in a GIS environment several geographical variables which control runoff (in the case of the FFPI) and favour flooding (in the case of the FPI). The methodology was applied in the upper (mountainous) and middle (hilly) catchment of the Prahova River, a densely populated and socioeconomically well-developed area which has been affected repeatedly by water-related hazards over the past decades. The resulting maps showing the spatialization of the FFPI and FPI allow for the identification of areas with high susceptibility to flashfloods and flooding. This approach can provide useful mapped information, especially for areas (generally large) where there are no flood/hazard risk maps. Moreover, the FFPI and FPI maps can constitute a preliminary step for flood risk and vulnerability assessment.

  20. Radiocarbon as a bio marker of urban pollution in leaves of evergreen species sampled in Rome and in rural areas (Lazio-Central Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alessio, M.; Improta, S. [La Sapienza University, Rome (Italy). Department of Physics; Anselmi, S. [University of Molise, Isernia (Italy). Department of Sciences and Technologies for the Environment; Conforto, L.; Manfra, L. [La Sapienza University, Rome (Italy). Department of Earth Sciences; Manes, F. [La Sapienza University, Rome (Italy). Department of Plant Biology

    2002-11-01

    The aim of the present study is the use of {sup 14}C, sampled in leaves of evergreen species, as a natural geochemical marker to estimate the contribution of artificial sources (heating plants, vehicles, etc.) to the complex of atmospheric gases in an urban environment. Leaves were chosen due to sampling easiness and their reliability: in particular the evergreen species, being exposed all the year round to pollutants are especially indicated for bioindication and biomonitoring studies. The response to atmospheric pollutants has been studied of two plant species (Quercus ilex L., Pinus pinea L.) measuring isotopic ({sup 14}r, {delta}{sup 13}C), chemical (Pb concentration) and ecophysiological (gaseous exchange and leaf fluorescence of chlorophyll a) parameters. Leaves of holm-oaks and stone pine needles collected over a 3-year time span in an urban park in Rome (Villa Ada) and in reference localities outside the city on the Tyrrhenian coast and in the pre-Appennine area have been analysed. In Villa Ada measurements were carried out along a transect from the road bordering the park towards the interior; all the parameters, together in agreement, showed a decreasing pollution gradient towards the inner park. It was possible to estimate a 5.5{+-}0.3% contribution of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuels close to the road, decreasing to 1.7{+-}0.3% at <300 m from it towards the inner park. The isotopic analyses conducted on stone pines and holm-oaks show that {sup 14}C provides indications on the degree of pollution from fossil fuels, while {delta}{sup 13}C appears to be conditioned mainly by the interspecific difference, and also by many other environmental factors that affect the plant functionality. Results confirmed that radiocarbon is a useful tool in environmental studies, allowing to quantify the contributions of CO{sub 2} of anthropic origin: this parameter, together with appropriate isotopic, chemical and ecophysiological analyses, could provide a good indication of the

  1. Susceptibility of Cultivated Plants to Sumatran Elephant (Elephas maxi,us sumatranus in The Human Elephants Conflict Area in Aceh Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaniwa Berliani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Study on human-elephant conflict was conducted in Aceh Province in August 2013-April 2014 to assess susceptibility of farms by crop raiding elephants. The locations were determined by selected areas impacted by elephant conflict incuding Cot Girek, Mane, Meureudu, Sampoiniet, and Pantai Ceureumen. 150 respondents was interviewed to assess the variety of the commodity plants species cultivated by local community within study areas, species of damaged commodity plants, species of undamaged commodity plants, and the planting system. there were 29 species considered as commodity plants cultivated by farmers. Moreover, 5 commodity plants were considered as high risk plants damaged by elephant including areca, banana, oil palm, paddy, and rubber. on the other hand, species considered as low risk or undamaged consist of cacao, coffee, chili, candlenut, and patchioli. Those low risk or undemaged commodity plants species have a potential to be promoted as elephant-friendly crop commodities in area adjacent to elephant habitat based on the analysis and the categorization of susceptibility of cultivated plants against crop raiding elephant. One of the problem of humn-elephant conflict is crop raiding of village farms. it is a assumed that elephants might destroy a particular species therefore information on the species could assist farmers in selecting appropriate crop to be planted. there is a risk that current polyculture and monoculture planting system used by farmers will not prevent farms from crop raiding elephants.

  2. Antibiotic susceptibility profile of bacteria isolated from natural sources of water from rural areas of East Sikkim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubra Poonia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contamination of water, food, and environment with antibiotic-resistant bacteria poses a serious public health issue. Objective: The objective was to study the bacterial pollution of the natural sources of water in east Sikkim and to determine the antimicrobial profile of the bacterial isolates. Materials and Methods: A total of 225 samples, 75 each during winter, summer, and monsoon season were collected from the same source in every season for bacteriological analysis by membrane filtration method. Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed using standard disc diffusion method. Results: A total of 19 bacterial species of the genera Escherichia, Klebsiella, Proteus, Salmonella, Shigella, Enterobacter, Citrobacter, Morganella, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Flavobacterium, and Serratia were isolated and their antimicrobial sensitivity tested. Generally, most bacterial isolates except Salmonella and Shigella species were found resistant to commonly used antibiotics such as ampicillin (57.5%, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxaole (39.1%, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (37.4%, cefixime (34.5%, tetracycline (29.1%, ceftazidime (26.3%, ofloxacin (25.9%, amikacin (8.7%, and gentamicin (2.7% but sensitive to imipenem and piperacillin/tazobactam. Conclusion: Natural sources of water in east Sikkim are grossly contaminated with bacteria including enteropathogens. The consumption of untreated water from these sources might pose health risk to consumers.

  3. Leaves, stem

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-03

    Dec 3, 2008 ... leaves pale yellowish green in colour with greenish cream scented flower and yellow fruits oval in shape ... When an herbal product is ingested the body interacts with it in an attempt to get rid of any harmful toxins, especially if the body cannot convert the foreign subs- tances into cellular components. In this ...

  4. The generation of free radicals in the development of grey mould on poinsettia leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Kułek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Participation of superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical as well as lipoxygenase (LOX activity and chemiluminescence in the development of grey mould on poinsettia leaves of the cvs.: Coco White - moderately resistant and Malibu Red - susceptible to Botryotinia fuckeliana (B. cinerea were investigated. In both poinsettia cultivars, the level of superoxide anion radical increased with the disease development. On later dates following inoculation, the content of O2.- in the diseased leaf areas of the susceptible cultivar was 2 - fold larger than in grey mould symptom areas of the moderately resistant cultivar. The postinfection generation of a strongly reactive hydroxyl radical was found in the cultivar susceptible to the pathogen. The level of .- OH in the last hours afier inoculation was 10 fold higher in grey mould spots than in healthy senescing leaves of that cultivar. Tlie activity of LOX exhibited opposite tendencies of changes in the both genotypes examined after the infection. In the first hours after inoculation, the enzyme activity was Low, whereas after 3rt day it significantly increased in diseased leaf areas and in their surroundings. However, in the moderately resistant cultivar the activity of lipoxygenase thoughout the first 3 days of the disease activity was relatively high and then decreased. Poinsettia leaves infected with B.cinerea emitted chemiluminescence. Kinetics and the intensity of ultraweak chemiluminescence depended on the cultivars of poinsettia and on the degree of the disease development. The postinfection increase of chemiluminescence was particularly visible in the zone surrounding diseased areas in the susceptible cultivar.

  5. Review article "Remarks on factors influencing shear wave velocities and their role in evaluating susceptibilities to earthquake-triggered slope instability: case study for the Campania area (Italy"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Paoletti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Shear wave velocities have a fundamental role in connection with the mitigation of seismic hazards, as their low values are the main causes of site amplification phenomena and can significantly influence the susceptibility of a territory to seismic-induced landslides. The shear wave velocity (Vs and modulus (G of each lithological unit are influenced by factors such as the degree of fracturing and faulting, the porosity, the clay amount and the precipitation, with the latter two influencing the unit water content. In this paper we discuss how these factors can affect the Vs values and report the results of different analyses that quantify the reduction in the rock Vs and shear modulus values connected to the presence of clay and water. We also show that significant results in assessing seismic-induced slope failure susceptibility for land planning targets could be achieved through a careful evaluation, based only on literature studies, of the geo-lithological and geo-seismic features of the study area.

  6. ABA and GA3 increase carbon allocation in different organs of grapevine plants by inducing accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates in leaves, enhancement of phloem area and expression of sugar transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murcia, Germán; Pontin, Mariela; Reinoso, Herminda; Baraldi, Rita; Bertazza, Gianpaolo; Gómez-Talquenca, Sebastián; Bottini, Rubén; Piccoli, Patricia N

    2016-03-01

    Grape quality for winemaking depends on sugar accumulation and metabolism in berries. Abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellins (GAs) have been reported to control sugar allocation in economically important crops, although the mechanisms involved are still unknown. The present study tested if ABA and gibberellin A3 (GA3) enhance carbon allocation in fruits of grapevines by modifying phloem loading, phloem area and expression of sugar transporters in leaves and berries. Pot-grown Vitis vinifera cv. Malbec plants were sprayed with ABA and GA3 solutions. The amount of soluble sugars in leaves and berries related to photosynthesis were examined at three points of berry growth: pre-veraison, full veraison and post-veraison. Starch levels and amylase activity in leaves, gene expression of sugar transporters in leaves and berries and phloem anatomy were examined at full veraison. Accumulation of glucose and fructose in berries was hastened in ABA-treated plants at the stage of full veraison, which was correlated with enhancement of Vitis vinifera HEXOSE TRANSPORTER 2 (VvHT2) and Vitis vinifera HEXOSE TRANSPORTER 6 (VvHT6) gene expression, increases of phloem area and sucrose content in leaves. On the other hand, GA3 increased the quantity of photoassimilates delivered to the stem thus increasing xylem growth. In conclusion, stimulation of sugar transport by ABA and GA3 to berries and stems, respectively, was due to build-up of non-structural carbohydrates in leaves, modifications in phloem tissue and modulation in gene expression of sugar transporters. © 2015 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  7. Single-station seismic noise measures, microgravity, and 3D electrical tomographies to assess the sinkhole susceptibility: the "Il Piano" area (Elba Island - Italy) case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzi, Veronica; Di Filippo, Michele; Di Nezza, Maria; Carlà, Tommaso; Bardi, Federica; Marini, Federico; Fontanelli, Katia; Intrieri, Emanuele; Fanti, Riccardo

    2017-04-01

    Sudden subsurface collapse, cavities, and surface depressions, regardless of shape and origin, as well as doline are currently indicate by means of the term "sinkhole". This phenomenon can be classified according to a large variety of different schemes, depending on the dominant formation processes (soluble rocks karstic processes, acidic groundwater circulation, anthropogenic caves, bedrock poor geomechanical properties), and on the geological scenario behind the development of the phenomenon. Considering that generally sinkholes are densely clustered in "sinkhole prone areas", detection, forecasting, early warning, and effective monitoring are key aspects in sinkhole susceptibility assessment and risk mitigation. Nevertheless, techniques developed specifically for sinkhole detection, forecasting and monitoring are missing, probably because of a general lack of sinkhole risk awareness, and an intrinsic difficulties involved in detecting precursory sinkhole deformations before collapse. In this framework, integration of different indirect/non-invasive geophysical methods is the best practice approach. In this paper we present the results of an integrated geophysical survey at "Il Piano" (Elba Island - Italy), where at least nine sinkholes occurred between 2008 and 2014. 120 single-station seismic noise measures, 17 3D electrical tomographies (min area 140.3 m2, max area 10,188.9 m2; min electrode spacing 2 m, max electrode spacing 5 m), 964 measurement of microgravity spaced in a grid of 6 m to 8 m were carried out at the study area. The most likely origin for these sinkholes was considered related to sediment net erosion from the alluvium, caused by downward water circulation between aquifers. Therefore, the goals of the study were: i) obtaining a suitable geological and hydrogeological model of the area; ii) detecting possible cavities which could evolve in sinkholes, and finally iii) assess the sinkhole susceptibility of the area. Among the results of the

  8. Caracterização anatômica de folhas de cafeeiros resistentes e suscetíveis ao bicho-mineiro Anatomical characterization of leaves from coffee plants resistant and susceptible to leaf miner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Alves Ramiro

    2004-12-01

    reduction of the photosynthetic area. The Coffee Breeding Program of the Agronomic Institute (IAC has transferred through crossing genes that confer resistance to leaf miner from Coffea racemosa to the susceptible species C. arabica. The main objective of this study was to characterize leaf tissues, at histological level, from the parental species C. racemosa and C. arabica, and also from hybrids exhibiting different resistance levels. Histological analyses were performed in leaf transversal sections, and included measurements of cuticles and epidermis thickness, total palisade and spongy parenchyma, total leaf thickness, and percentage of the palisade parenchyma from total mesophyll. Results revealed that there were significant differences in leaf thickness between parental species C. arabica and C. racemosa. However, in hybrids no such difference could be observed between resistant and susceptible progenies, suggesting that the anatomical differences of parental genotypes are not related to resistance mechanisms to L. coffeella. When leaf lesions caused by insect attack were measured one and four days after larvae eclosion a slow insect development was observed in resistant plants, which could be related to a presence of specific chemicals in the palisade parenchyma.

  9. A comparative study of heavy metal accumulation and antioxidant responses in Vaccinium myrtillus L. leaves in polluted and non-polluted areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandziora-Ciupa, Marta; Ciepał, Ryszard; Nadgórska-Socha, Aleksandra; Barczyk, Gabriela

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore a possible relationship between the availability of metals in soil (Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn) and their concentrations in leaves of Vaccinium myrtillus L. as a species which has been reported to be a successful colonist of acid-and-heavy metal-contaminated soil. Analysis also concerned the antioxidant response of plants from three heavily polluted (immediate vicinity of: zinc smelter, iron smelter and power plant) and three relatively clean sites (nature reserve, ecological site and unprotected natural forest community) in southern Poland. The contents of glutathione, non-protein thiols, protein, proline and activity of guaiacol peroxidase in leaves of bilberry were measured. Generally, the concentrations of metals in the HNO3 and CaCl2 extracants of the soil from the polluted sites were higher. Moreover, the antioxidant responses were also elevated in bilberries in the polluted sites. Significant positive relationships between Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations in soil and in the plants were found. In the leaves of V. myrtillus from the polluted sites, higher concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn were noted (In Miasteczko Śląskie respectively 6.26, 157.09 and 207.17 mg kg(-1) d.w.). We found a positive correlation between the increase in the NPTs and protein contents as well as the Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations in V. myrtillus. Cd, Pb and Zn also decreased guaiacol peroxidase activity. However, the activity of this enzyme increased under Fe. A decreasing trend in glutathione contents was observed with increasing iron and manganese concentrations in bilberry leaves. Parameters such as protein, non-protein -SH groups and changes in GPX activity seem to be universal, sensitive and correlated well with heavy metal stress.

  10. Metabolic Profiling with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Capillary Electrophoresis-Mass Spectrometry Reveals the Carbon-Nitrogen Status of Tobacco Leaves Across Different Planting Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jieyu; Zhao, Yanni; Hu, Chunxiu; Zhao, Chunxia; Zhang, Junjie; Li, Lili; Zeng, Jun; Peng, Xiaojun; Lu, Xin; Xu, Guowang

    2016-02-05

    The interaction between carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) metabolism can reflect plant growth status and environmental factors. Little is known regarding the connections between C-N metabolism and growing regions under field conditions. To comprehensively investigate the relationship in mature tobacco leaves, we established metabolomics approaches based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and capillary electrophoresis-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (CE-TOF-MS). Approximately 240 polar metabolites were determined. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that the growing region greatly influenced the metabolic profiles of tobacco leaves. A metabolic correlation network and related pathway maps were used to reveal the global overview of the alteration of C-N metabolism across three typical regions. In Yunnan, sugars and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates were closely correlated with amino acid pools. Henan tobacco leaves showed positive correlation between the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) intermediates and C-rich secondary metabolism. In Guizhou, the proline and asparagine had significant links with TCA cycle intermediates and urea cycle, and antioxidant accumulation was observed in response to drought. These results demonstrate that combined analytical approaches have great potential to detect polar metabolites and provide information on C-N metabolism related to planting regional characteristics.

  11. Leaving liza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futcher, Jane

    2004-01-01

    Abstract This is Chapter Thirteen of Leaving Liza, a novel about life, death, love, friendship, jealousy and lesbian ex-lovers. In the novel, six women are spending the weekend at a beach house in Long Island's Hamptons, where they have gathered to be with their friend Liza, who is battling terminal ovarian cancer. Liza's lover, Jill, has agreed to the house party and helped plan the guest list. But, as she smolders with resentment at the attention Liza is getting and the depth of the women's friendships, she begins to come unraveled. After a severe asthma attack that requires an emergency room visit the day before, Jill conducts a seance, purporting to have contacted another of Liza's ex-lovers, who died a few months earlier. Now, on this last night of the house party, she lets Liza and her friends know what she's really feeling. The editors have asked me to add some "commentary" on the questions this story raises about the roles of ex-lovers. I would hope the scene reflects some of the tensions that can occur when ex-lovers choose to remain friends, particularly when those bonds provoke profound jealousy in both current and ex-lovers. For many of us, the job of assuaging and reassuring the current lover while maintaining intimate friendships with an ex-lover is simply too exhausting and prickly to endure. For others, it is worth the struggle. Liza and her friends clearly think it is. But at what point, they all wonder at this house party, does their hunger for honesty and their anger at being insulted and manipulated become more important than keeping the peace, and possibly their friendship with Liza? Perhaps only Liza's death will free them from this compromising coexistence.

  12. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility data bearing on the transport direction of mid-tertiary regional ignimbrites, Candelaria Hills area, West-Central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronis, Michael S.; Geissman, John W.

    2009-03-01

    In west-central Nevada, the Oligocene Candelaria pyroclastic sequence reaches a local thickness of up to 1.3 km, in what has been referred to as the Candelaria trough, but more generally the accumulation of ash-flow tuffs and related volcanic rocks is less than 300 m thick. Complete to near complete outcrops are scattered over about 3200 km2 in the Candelaria Hills and surrounding ranges of the Southern Walker Lane structural zone. Three regionally extensive compound cooling units within the overall sequence (25.8 Ma Metallic City, 24.1 Ma Belleville, and 23.7 Ma Candelaria Junction Tuffs) have distinguishing characteristics and are the focus of study. At 106 sites, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) data provide an estimate of transport direction of each tuff. Inferred transport directions based on the AMS data are corrected for a modest clockwise, yet variable magnitude, vertical axis rotation that affected these rocks in late Miocene to Pliocene time, as revealed by paleomagnetic studies. The AMS data show a somewhat orderly pattern of magnetic fabrics that we interpret to define unique transport directions for the Metallic City and Candelaria Junction Tuffs. The low susceptibility and degree of anisotropy of the Belleville Tuff limits our interpretation from this pyroclastic deposit. The Metallic City and Candelaria Junction Tuffs typically show gentle, south-southeast and southeast dipping magnetic fabric imbrication, respectively, and very gently plunging magnetic lineations. These AMS fabric elements indicate the tuffs were transported to the north-northwest and northwest, respectively. The AMS fabric data from the Metallic City and Candelaria Junction Tuffs suggest relatively unrestricted flow during emplacement. Evidence across the 3,200 km2 area to support more regionally controlled channelized flow into and/or flow along the east northeast-west southwest axis of the Candelaria trough is lacking. The ignimbrites clearly filled a topographic

  13. Correlates of smoking susceptibility among adolescents in a peri-urban area of Nepal: a population-based cross-sectional study in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Umesh R; Petzold, Max; Bondjers, Göran; Krettek, Alexandra

    2014-12-01

    Background Susceptibility to smoking is defined as an absence of firm commitment not to smoke in the future or when offered a cigarette by best friends. Susceptibility begins in adolescence and is the first step in the transition to becoming an established smoker. Many scholars have hypothesized and studied whether psychosocial risk factors play a crucial role in preventing adolescent susceptibility to smoking or discourage susceptible adolescents from becoming established smokers. Our study examined sociodemographic and family and childhood environmental factors associated with smoking susceptibility among adolescents in a peri-urban area of Nepal. Design We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study during October-November 2011 in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site (JD-HDSS) located in a peri-urban area near Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal, where tobacco products are easily available. Trained local enumerators conducted face-to-face interviews with 352 respondents aged 14-16. We used stepwise logistic regression to assess sociodemographic and family and childhood environmental factors associated with smoking susceptibility. Results The percentage of smoking susceptibility among respondents was 49.70% (95% CI: 44.49; 54.93). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that smoking susceptibility was associated with smoking by exposure of adolescents to pro-tobacco advertisements (AOR [adjusted odds ratio] =2.49; 95% CI: 1.46-4.24), the teacher (2.45; 1.28-4.68), adolescents attending concerts/picnics (2.14; 1.13-4.04), and smoking by other family members/relatives (1.76; 1.05-2.95). Conclusions Smoking susceptible adolescents are prevalent in the JD-HDSS, a peri-urban community of Nepal. Several family and childhood environmental factors increased susceptibility to smoking among Nepalese non-smoking adolescents. Therefore, intervention efforts need to be focused on family and childhood environmental factors with emphasis on impact of

  14. Correlates of smoking susceptibility among adolescents in a peri-urban area of Nepal: a population-based cross-sectional study in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Umesh R; Petzold, Max; Bondjers, Göran; Krettek, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Susceptibility to smoking is defined as an absence of firm commitment not to smoke in the future or when offered a cigarette by best friends. Susceptibility begins in adolescence and is the first step in the transition to becoming an established smoker. Many scholars have hypothesized and studied whether psychosocial risk factors play a crucial role in preventing adolescent susceptibility to smoking or discourage susceptible adolescents from becoming established smokers. Our study examined sociodemographic and family and childhood environmental factors associated with smoking susceptibility among adolescents in a peri-urban area of Nepal. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study during October-November 2011 in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site (JD-HDSS) located in a peri-urban area near Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal, where tobacco products are easily available. Trained local enumerators conducted face-to-face interviews with 352 respondents aged 14-16. We used stepwise logistic regression to assess sociodemographic and family and childhood environmental factors associated with smoking susceptibility. The percentage of smoking susceptibility among respondents was 49.70% (95% CI: 44.49; 54.93). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that smoking susceptibility was associated with smoking by exposure of adolescents to pro-tobacco advertisements (AOR [adjusted odds ratio] =2.49; 95% CI: 1.46-4.24), the teacher (2.45; 1.28-4.68), adolescents attending concerts/picnics (2.14; 1.13-4.04), and smoking by other family members/relatives (1.76; 1.05-2.95). Smoking susceptible adolescents are prevalent in the JD-HDSS, a peri-urban community of Nepal. Several family and childhood environmental factors increased susceptibility to smoking among Nepalese non-smoking adolescents. Therefore, intervention efforts need to be focused on family and childhood environmental factors with emphasis on impact of role models smoking, refusal skills in

  15. Rhubarb leaves poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002876.htm Rhubarb leaves poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Rhubarb leaves poisoning occurs when someone eats pieces of leaves ...

  16. The effects of foliar fertilization with iron sulfate in chlorotic leaves are limited to the treated area. A study with peach trees (Prunus persica L. Batsch) grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) grown in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jendoubi, Hamdi; Vázquez, Saúl; Calatayud, Angeles; Vavpetič, Primož; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Pelicon, Primož; Abadía, Javier; Abadía, Anunciación; Morales, Fermín

    2014-01-01

    Crop Fe deficiency is a worldwide problem. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of foliar Fe applications in two species grown in different environments: peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) trees grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. cv. "Orbis") grown in hydroponics. The distal half of Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves was treated with Fe sulfate by dipping and using a brush in peach trees and sugar beet plants, respectively. The re-greening of the distal (Fe-treated) and basal (untreated) leaf areas was monitored, and the nutrient and photosynthetic pigment composition of the two areas were also determined. Leaves were also studied using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, low temperature-scanning electron microscopy microanalysis, scanning transmission ion microscopy-particle induced X-ray emission and Perls Fe staining. The distal, Fe-treated leaf parts of both species showed a significant increase in Fe concentrations (across the whole leaf volume) and marked re-greening, with significant increases in the concentrations of all photosynthetic pigments, as well as decreases in de-epoxidation of xanthophyll cycle carotenoids and increases in photochemical efficiency. In the basal, untreated leaf parts, Fe concentrations increased slightly, but little re-greening occurred. No changes in the concentrations of other nutrients were found. Foliar Fe fertilization was effective in re-greening treated leaf areas both in peach trees and sugar beet plants. Results indicate that the effects of foliar Fe-sulfate fertilization in Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves were minor outside the leaf surface treated, indicating that Fe mobility within the leaf is a major constraint for full fertilizer effectiveness in crops where Fe-deficiency is established and leaf chlorosis occurs.

  17. The effects of foliar fertilization with iron sulfate in chlorotic leaves are limited to the treated area. A study with peach trees (Prunus persica L. Batsch grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. grown in hydroponics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi eEl-Jendoubi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Crop Fe deficiency is a worldwide problem. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of foliar Fe applications in two species grown in different environments: peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch trees grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. cv. ‘Orbis’ grown in hydroponics. The distal half of Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves was treated with Fe sulfate by dipping and using a brush in peach trees and sugar beet plants, respectively. The re-greening of the distal (Fe-treated and basal (untreated leaf areas was monitored, and the nutrient and photosynthetic pigment composition of the two areas were also determined. Leaves were also studied using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, low temperature-scanning electron microscopy microanalysis, scanning transmission ion microscopy-particle induced X-ray emission and Perls Fe staining. The distal, Fe-treated leaf parts of both species showed a significant increase in Fe concentrations (across the whole leaf volume and marked re-greening, with significant increases in the concentrations of all photosynthetic pigments, as well as decreases in de-epoxidation of xanthophyll cycle carotenoids and increases in photochemical efficiency. In the basal, untreated leaf parts, Fe concentrations increased slightly, but little re-greening occurred. No changes in the concentrations of other nutrients were found. Foliar Fe fertilization was effective in re-greening treated leaf areas both in peach trees and sugar beet plants. Results indicate that the effects of foliar Fe-sulfate fertilization in Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves were minor outside the leaf surface treated, indicating that Fe mobility within the leaf is a major constraint for full fertilizer effectiveness in crops where Fe-deficiency is established and leaf chlorosis occurs.

  18. The effects of foliar fertilization with iron sulfate in chlorotic leaves are limited to the treated area. A study with peach trees (Prunus persica L. Batsch) grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) grown in hydroponics

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jendoubi, Hamdi; Vázquez, Saúl; Calatayud, Ángeles; Vavpetič, Primož; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Pelicon, Primož; Abadía, Javier; Abadía, Anunciación; Morales, Fermín

    2014-01-01

    Crop Fe deficiency is a worldwide problem. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of foliar Fe applications in two species grown in different environments: peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) trees grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. cv. “Orbis”) grown in hydroponics. The distal half of Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves was treated with Fe sulfate by dipping and using a brush in peach trees and sugar beet plants, respectively. The re-greening of the distal (Fe-treated) and basal (untreated) leaf areas was monitored, and the nutrient and photosynthetic pigment composition of the two areas were also determined. Leaves were also studied using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, low temperature-scanning electron microscopy microanalysis, scanning transmission ion microscopy-particle induced X-ray emission and Perls Fe staining. The distal, Fe-treated leaf parts of both species showed a significant increase in Fe concentrations (across the whole leaf volume) and marked re-greening, with significant increases in the concentrations of all photosynthetic pigments, as well as decreases in de-epoxidation of xanthophyll cycle carotenoids and increases in photochemical efficiency. In the basal, untreated leaf parts, Fe concentrations increased slightly, but little re-greening occurred. No changes in the concentrations of other nutrients were found. Foliar Fe fertilization was effective in re-greening treated leaf areas both in peach trees and sugar beet plants. Results indicate that the effects of foliar Fe-sulfate fertilization in Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves were minor outside the leaf surface treated, indicating that Fe mobility within the leaf is a major constraint for full fertilizer effectiveness in crops where Fe-deficiency is established and leaf chlorosis occurs. PMID:24478782

  19. Parental Leave in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Tine; Christoffersen, Mogens; Weise, Hanne

    This artcle considders the political aims for different leave schemes and reviews studies af these schemes. The use of parental leave is sensitive to the financial loss involved in taking leave: a decrease in the benefit payments has had a significant influence on take-up, while, in general......, families'' loss of income is less if leave is taken up by the mothers. Only few fathers participate in parental leave....

  20. Relationship between Symptom Development and Actual Sites of Infection in Leaves of Anthurium Inoculated with a Bioluminescent Strain of Xanthomonas campestris pv. dieffenbachiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, R; Fukui, H; McElhaney, R; Nelson, S C; Alvarez, A M

    1996-03-01

    The infection process of bacterial blight of anthurium was monitored with a bioluminescent strain of Xanthomonas campestris pv. dieffenbachiae. The relationship between symptom expression on infected leaves (assessed visually) and the extent of bacterial movement within tissues (evaluated by bioluminescence emission) varied among anthurium cultivars. In several cultivars previously considered susceptible on the basis of symptom development alone, bacterial invasion of leaves extended far beyond the visually affected areas. In other cultivars previously considered resistant, bacterial invasion was restricted to areas with visible symptoms. In three cultivars previously considered resistant, leaves were extensively invaded by the bacterium, and yet few or no symptoms were seen on infected leaves. The pathogen was consistently recovered from leaf sections emitting bioluminescence but not from sections emitting no light. At an early stage of infection, no significant differences in the percentages of infected areas as determined by visual assessment were observed in any of the cultivars. However, differences among cultivars were detected by bioluminescence as the disease progressed, because bacterial invasion was not always accompanied by symptom expression. In susceptible cultivars, the advancing border of infection was 5 to 10 cm inward from the margins of the visible symptoms and often reached to the leaf petiole even when symptoms were visible in anthurium cultivars in which a nondestructive method was used to quantify the severity of leaf infection by a bioluminescent pathogen have enabled us to evaluate susceptibility and resistance to bacterial blight accurately. Such evaluations will be of importance in breeding resistant cultivars for disease control.

  1. Leaving home in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Skovgaard

    2015-01-01

    The paper focuses on ethnic differences in the timing and patterns of leaving the parental home. Leaving home is a key transition in the life course of the individual, and extensive research has been conducted on the timing and patterns of leaving it. However, ethnic differences in these patterns...... of leaving home. Results showed that while some differences disappeared when controlling for covariates, others persisted, thus indicating ethnic differences in home-leaving patterns. A strong link between leaving home and marriage was substantiated for Turks, but not for Somalis. The home-leaving patterns...... of Somalis were much more similar to those of Danes. Overall, Turkish descendants were similar to Turkish immigrants but with some differentiation. The analyses identified the existence of ethnic differences in home-leaving patterns but also found evidence of a shift towards less traditional patterns, i...

  2. Leaving an Abusive Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... restraining order Leaving an abusive relationship Effects of domestic violence on children Sexual assault and rape Sexual assault Rape Sexual ... restraining order Leaving an abusive relationship Effects of domestic violence on children Sexual assault and rape Other types of violence ...

  3. SAVED LEAVE BONUS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des ressources humaines

    2000-01-01

    Staff members participating in the RSL programme are entitled to one additional day of saved leave for each full period of 20 days remaining in their saved leave account on 31 December 1999.Allowing some time for all concerned to make sure that their periods of leave taken in 1999 are properly registered, HR division will proceed with the crediting of the appropriate number of days in the saved leave accounts from 25 January 2000.Human Resources DivisionTel.73359

  4. Distributions of fossil fuel originated CO{sub 2} in five metropolitan areas of Korea (Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Daejeon, and Gwangju) according to the {Delta}{sup 14}C in ginkgo leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.H.; Hong, W. [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, 124 Gwahang-no Yuseong, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Park, G., E-mail: junghun@kigam.re.kr [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, 124 Gwahang-no Yuseong, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Sung, K.S.; Lee, K.H.; Kim, Y.E.; Kim, J.K.; Choi, H.W.; Kim, G.D.; Woo, H.J. [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, 124 Gwahang-no Yuseong, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    We collected a batch of ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba Linnaeus) leaf samples at five metropolitan areas of Korea (Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Daejeon, and Gwangju) in 2009 to obtain the regional distribution of fossil fuel originated CO{sub 2} (fossil fuel CO{sub 2}) in the atmosphere. Regions assumed to be free of fossil fuel CO{sub 2} were also selected, namely Mt. Chiak, Mt. Kyeryong, Mt. Jiri, Anmyeon Island, and Jeju Island and ginkgo leaf samples were collected in those areas during the same period. The {Delta}{sup 14}C values of the samples were measured using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and the fossil fuel CO{sub 2} ratios in the atmosphere were obtained in the five metropolitan areas. The average ratio of fossil fuel CO{sub 2} in Seoul was higher than that in the other four cities. The leaves from the Sajik Tunnel in Seoul recorded the highest FFCTC (fossil fuel CO{sub 2} over total CO{sub 2} in atmosphere), 13.9 {+-} 0.5%, as the air flow of the surrounding neighborhood of the Sajik Tunnel was blocked.

  5. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1Â September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply. Â Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30Â September and/or 31Â December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates i...

  6. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1 September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply.  Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30 September and/or 31 December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates in or...

  7. The Temporary Leave Dilemma -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Lone mothers have to take care of a sick child with little or no help from the child’s other parent and have to carry all costs connected to leave-taking. This paper empirically tests whether lone mothers take more temporary parental leave to care for sick children than partnered mothers...... and whether parental leave is associated with a signaling cost. The results from this study of Swedish mothers show that lone mothers use more temporary parental leave than partnered mothers. Further, within the group of lone mothers, those with higher socioeconomic status take less temporary parental leave...... than those with lower socioeconomic status, whereas no such differences are found within the group of partnered mothers. One possible interpretation is that signaling costs negatively influence the utilization of temporary parental leave for lone mothers....

  8. Landslide susceptibility assesssment in the Uttarakhand area (India) using GIS: a comparison study of prediction capability of naïve bayes, multilayer perceptron neural networks, and functional trees methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Binh Thai; Tien Bui, Dieu; Pourghasemi, Hamid Reza; Indra, Prakash; Dholakia, M. B.

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study is to make a comparison of the prediction performance of three techniques, Functional Trees (FT), Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks (MLP Neural Nets), and Naïve Bayes (NB) for landslide susceptibility assessment at the Uttarakhand Area (India). Firstly, a landslide inventory map with 430 landslide locations in the study area was constructed from various sources. Landslide locations were then randomly split into two parts (i) 70 % landslide locations being used for training models (ii) 30 % landslide locations being employed for validation process. Secondly, a total of eleven landslide conditioning factors including slope angle, slope aspect, elevation, curvature, lithology, soil, land cover, distance to roads, distance to lineaments, distance to rivers, and rainfall were used in the analysis to elucidate the spatial relationship between these factors and landslide occurrences. Feature selection of Linear Support Vector Machine (LSVM) algorithm was employed to assess the prediction capability of these conditioning factors on landslide models. Subsequently, the NB, MLP Neural Nets, and FT models were constructed using training dataset. Finally, success rate and predictive rate curves were employed to validate and compare the predictive capability of three used models. Overall, all the three models performed very well for landslide susceptibility assessment. Out of these models, the MLP Neural Nets and the FT models had almost the same predictive capability whereas the MLP Neural Nets (AUC = 0.850) was slightly better than the FT model (AUC = 0.849). The NB model (AUC = 0.838) had the lowest predictive capability compared to other models. Landslide susceptibility maps were final developed using these three models. These maps would be helpful to planners and engineers for the development activities and land-use planning.

  9. Watch out for the leaves!

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    Now that autumn is here, dead leaves falling from the trees form a colourful carpet that is pleasing to the eye. However, the reality is less pleasant for pedestrians, since these leaves increase the risk of slipping and falling, especially when the ground is wet.   These conditions are also hazardous for two- and four-wheeled vehicles, whose grip on the ground can be severely reduced, thereby increasing the risk of them skidding out of control. Cyclists are among the most vulnerable road users when faced with these hazards. It is therefore essential to be alert to the dangers, which can be lessened by taking a few simple precautions such as moderating your speed and wearing suitable shoes. We also invite you to notify the Service Desk if you notice a road or pavement where there is a high concentration of dead leaves. The CERN Roads and Drainage Service will then ensure that the leaves are cleared in order to reduce the risk of accidents in the area.

  10. Associations of DNA-repair gene polymorphisms with a genetic susceptibility to ionizing radiation in residents of areas with high radon (222Rn) concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinitsky, Maxim Y; Larionov, Aleksey V; Asanov, Maxim A; Druzhinin, Vladimir G

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the individual radiosensitivity of the human genome in long-term residents of areas with high radon concentration. The materials used for this investigation were venous blood samples extracted from children living in the boarding school of Tashtagol (Kemerovo Region, Russia). Cytogenetic damage assessment was performed using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN) on peripheral blood lymphocytes. PCR, gel electrophoresis and product detection using a transilluminator were used to determine polymorphisms in the genes ADPRT (rs 1136410), hOGG1 (rs 1052133), NBS1 (rs 1805794), XRCC1 (rs 25487), XpC (rs 2228001), XpD (rs 13181), and XpG (rs 17655). Statistical analysis was performed using nonparametric methods. To ensure accurate results, FDR-correction for multiple comparisons was performed. We discovered a significant increase in the frequency of binucleated lymphocytes with micronuclei (MN) in carriers of the His/His genotype of the XpG gene Asp1104His polymorphism in comparison to heterozygous and homozygous carriers of the Asp allele. In addition, the Ala/Ala genotype for the ADPRT gene Val762Ala polymorphism and the Glu/Gln genotype for the NBS1 gene Glu185Gln polymorphism were associated with the elevated frequency of binucleated lymphocytes with nucleoplasmic bridges (NPB). As a result of this study, the elevated frequency of cytogenetic damage in people with particular DNA-repair gene polymorphisms in response to chronic exposure to radon was demonstrated. It was shown that the genes and corresponding polymorphisms (the XpG gene Asp1104His polymorphism, the ADPRT gene Val762Ala polymorphism and the NBS1 gene Glu185Gln polymorphism) can be used as molecular genetic markers of increased individual radiosensitivity in long-term residents of areas with high concentrations of radon.

  11. Viability and susceptibility of propagation material from coffee plants to Colletotrichum sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Ogoshi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to verify the viability of propagation material from coffee plants descended from germplasm susceptible to blister spot disease as well as its susceptibility to Colletotrichum sp. relative to commercial coffee cultivars. In the first experiment, fruits were harvested from plants with and without symptoms of blister spot and sowed in trays containing a commercial sterilized substrate. The percentages of germinated seeds, viable plantlets and seedlings were evaluated. In diseased tissues, pathogens were isolated and identified though a pathogenicity test. In the second experiment, ten commercial cultivars and one cultivar originating from plants with blister spot were inoculated with the pathogens to assess the severity of anthracnose. Significant differences were not observed with respect to seed germination. However, the viability of plantlets and seedlings was reduced in the cultivar originating from plants with blister spot (Genotype Originated from Diseased Plants-GODP. These plants showed characteristic symptoms of blister spot, including necrosis in the leaves and hypocotyls, wilting and death. In the necrotic lesions, we observed characteristic sporulation of Colletotrichum sp. The cultivar most susceptible to anthracnose in cotyledonary leaves was Catuaí Vermelho (GODP, which presented the highest area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC. In conclusion, the viability of propagation material from coffee plants that had descended from plants with symptoms of blister spot (GODP was reduced compared with plants from other genotypes, although seed germination was not affected. Moreover, GODP species are more susceptible to Anthracnose on the cotyledonary leaves relative to the other analyzed commercial cultivars. This work is the first to report on different symptoms exhibited by seedlings originating from the seeds of plants with symptoms of blister spot..

  12. Ozone injury increases infection of geranium leaves by Botrytis cinerea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, W.J.; Feder, W.A.; Perkins, I.

    1970-04-01

    Detached and attached, inoculated and noninoculated, ozone-injured and noninjured leaves from the lower, middle, and terminal regions of plants of geranium cultivars Enchantress and White Mountain were observed for infection by Botrytis cinerea. Previous exposure to ozone did not appreciably influence the susceptibility of leaves of either geranium cultivar to infection by B. cinerea, unless there was visible ozone injury. Ozone-injured, necrotic tissues on older attached and detached geranium leaves of both cultivars served as infection courts for B. cinerea. 14 references, 1 table.

  13. Anatomical structure of moss leaves and their photosynthetic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krupa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The photosynthetic activity of the leaf area unit increases depending on the degree of differentiation of the anatomical structure of the leaves of six chosen moss species. There is a correlation between the leaf area and the degree of differentiation of the anatomical structure resulting in enlargement of the area of contact of the assimilating cells with air. The leaves of Catharinea undulata having a one-layer blade and provided with several lamellae show a higher photosynthesis per 1 cm2 of their surface than the one-layer leaves of Mniurnm or Funaria. Aloina leaves are the smallest in area among those of the moss species discussed, however, their photosynthetic rate is almost 4.5 times higher than in Funaria leaves. By analogy to the structure of leaves and their function in vascular, plants, these changes and correlations may be considered as attempts of primeval adaptation of mosses to terrestrial conditions of living.

  14. TRAVEL AND HOME LEAVE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    Administrative procedures for : Travel to the home station and home leave (hl) Additional travel to the home station (at) Travel to the home station and home leave for family reasons (hlf) As part of the process of simplifying administrative procedures, HR and AS Divisions have devised a new, virtually automatic procedure for payment of travel expenses to the home station. The changes are aimed at rationalising administrative procedures and not at reducing benefits. The conditions of eligibility are unchanged. The new procedure, which will be operational with effect from 1st June 2002, will greatly simplify the administrative processing of claims for travel expenses and the recording of home leaves. Currently, requests for payment are introduced manually into the Advances and Claims system (AVCL) by divisional secretariats. All travel to the home station starting prior to 1st June 2002 will be processed according to the existing system whereas that starting on 1st June and after will be processed accordi...

  15. A HRTEM/EDX approach to identification of the source of dust particles on urban tree leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, S. G.; Zheng, Y. W.; Bai, S. Q.

    Dust on tree leaves in the urban area of Hangzhou, China, was analyzed in terms of heavy metal contents and magnetic properties. Morphological and chemical composition of the dust particles were analyzed using a high resolution transmission electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray analyzer (HRTEM/EDX). Results indicated that the dusts contained high concentrations of Cd (mean 2.62), Cu (63.7), Zn (535.9) and Pb (150.9 mg kg -1). Magnetic susceptibility of the dusts was in a range of (16-856) × 10 -8 m 3 kg -1. It was shown that the dusts close to industrial area and busy road intersection had higher heavy metal contents and magnetic susceptibility. The dusts showed a strong positive inter-correlation for the concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cr, Zn, Pb, and Cu in addition to magnetic susceptibility, which suggests that the dusts had a common source for the heavy metals and magnetic carriers. We found that the dust particles were composed mainly of Fe-rich near-spherical, plate and agglomerate particles, and Ca-rich, S-rich and silicate particles, and that iron oxide spherules (0.2-0.5 μm in diameter) and larger iron-bearing particles were the magnetic carriers. Ca in the dusts was present in the forms of CaCO 3 and CaCO 3/CaSO 4 internal mixture. The Fe-rich, Ca-rich and S-rich particles in dusts could be directly related to nearby polluting activities, such as coal combustion, traffic emission and industrial activity. The identification of the main sources of dusts on tree leaves can help in controlling the polluting sources in urban areas. The close correlation between magnetic susceptibility and heavy metal concentration makes it possible to use the magnetic technique as a non-destructive and time-efficient tool for biomonitoring of the atmospheric dust pollutants.

  16. Leaves: Nature's Solar Collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabelle, Aaron D.; de Groot, Cornelis

    2009-01-01

    One of the most captivating things about plants is the way they capture the Sun's energy, but this can be a difficult topic to cover with elementary students. Therefore, to help students to make a concrete connection to this abstract concept, this series of solar-energy lessons focuses on leaves and how they act as "solar collectors." As students…

  17. Does Leave Work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heleen van Luijn; Saskia Keuzenkamp

    2004-01-01

    More and more people have to combine work and care responsibilities, and work part-time or use daycare and after-school care facilities to help them do so. The Work and Care Act, which came into force on 1 December 2001, combined all the existing schemes - such as parental and maternity leave -

  18. REMINDER: Saved Leave Scheme (SLS)

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Transfer of leave to saved leave accounts Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'* annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No 22B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). We remind you that unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave year accounts is transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. Therefore, staff members have no administrative steps to take. In addition, the transfer, which eliminates the risk of omitting to request leave transfers and rules out calculation errors in transfer requests, will be clearly shown in the list of leave transactions that can be consulted in EDH from October 2003 onwards. Furthermore, this automatic leave transfer optimizes staff members' chances of benefiting from a saved leave bonus provided that they ar...

  19. Visual and electronic comparisons of detached strawberry leaves inoculated with two Colletotrichum species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoculation of detached strawberry leaves with Colletotrichum species may provide an accurate, rapid, non-destructive method of identifying anthracnose resistant germplasm. The purpose of this study was to compare two methods for screening anthracnose resistance. Detached leaves of 60 susceptible an...

  20. Structural characteristics of hospitals and nurse-reported care quality, work environment, burnout and leaving intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, Rikard; Smeds Alenius, Lisa; Griffiths, Peter; Runesdotter, Sara; Tishelman, Carol

    2015-03-01

    To investigate whether hospital characteristics not readily susceptible to change (i.e. hospital size, university status, and geographic location) are associated with specific self-reported nurse outcomes. Research often focuses on factors within hospitals (e.g. work environment), which are susceptible to change, rather than on structural factors in their own right. However, numerous assumptions exist about the role of structural factors that may lead to a sense of pessimism and undermine efforts at constructive change. Data was derived from survey questions on assessments of work environment and satisfaction, intention to leave, quality of care and burnout (measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory), from a population-based sample of 11 000 registered nurses in Sweden. Mixed model regressions were used for analysis. Registered nurses in small hospitals were slightly more likely to rank their working environment and quality of nursing care better than others. For example 23% of staff in small hospitals were very satisfied with the work environment compared with 20% in medium-sized hospitals and 21% in large hospitals. Registered nurses in urban areas, who intended to leave their job, were more likely to seek work in another hospital (38% vs. 32%). While some structural factors were related to nurse-reported outcomes in this large sample, the associations were small or of questionable importance. The influence of structural factors such as hospital size on nurse-reported outcomes is small and unlikely to negate efforts to improve work environment. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. A compositional study of Moringa stenopetala leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuye, C; Urga, K; Knapp, H; Selmar, D; Omwega, A M; Imungi, J K; Winterhalter, P

    2003-05-01

    To investigate nutrient composition in moringa leaves and compare with those of kale (Brassica carinata) and Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris). Laboratory based study, nutrient composition of fresh and cooked leaves of M. stenopetala were analyzed. Gama-Gofa, south-western Ethiopia. Raw M. stenopetala leaves contain 9% dry matter as crude protein, about 3-fold lower than in kale and swiss chard. M. stenopetala leaves contain higher percentage of carbohydrate, crude fiber and calcium compared to both raw and cooked kale and swiss chard. Vitamins are present at nutritionally significant levels averaging 28 mg/100g of vitamin C and 160 microg/100g of beta-carotene. Minerals such as potassium, iron, zinc, phosphorus and calcium also exist in significant concentrations with the average values of 3.08 mg/100g iron and 792.8 mg/100g calcium. Although the nutrient composition of M. stenopetala leaves in most cases is lower compared to kale and swiss chard they can be a good source of nutrients in dry season potentially when other vegetables are scarce. However, the presence of small amount of cyanogenic glucosides in M. stenopetala leaves may have a health risk in areas of high incidence of endemic goitre as an exacerbating factor if consumed more for a long period of time.

  2. The prevalence of sick leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backhausen, Mette; Damm, Peter; Bendix, Jane

    2018-01-01

    Objective We aimed to investigate the prevalence of sick leave and self-reported reasons given for sick leave during pregnancy. Furthermore, we aimed to estimate the frequency of long-term sick leave during pregnancy in relation to pre-baseline maternal characteristics and to identify predictors...... on sick leave and the associated reasons. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were applied. Results The prevalence of sick leave was 56% of employed pregnant women in the first 32 weeks of gestation and more than one in four reported long-term sick leave (>20 days, continuous...... was a negative predictor. Conclusions The prevalence of sick leave was 56% in the first 32 weeks of gestation and more than one in four women reported long-term sick leave. The majority of reasons for sick leave were pregnancy-related and low back pain was the most frequently given reason....

  3. [Poisoning with oleander leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, G A; Mombelli, G

    1990-04-21

    After ingestion of seven leaves of oleander (Nerium oleander) in a suicide attempt, a 37-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with symptoms of digitalis intoxication. The serum digoxin level on arrival was 5.69 nmol/l. The course was uneventful. The usefulness of digoxin radioimmunoassay to demonstrate poisoning with oleander (but not to predict the degree of toxicity) and the potential use of digoxin-specific Fab-antibody fragments in this situation are discussed.

  4. REMINDER Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2002-01-01

    Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'*) annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No. 22B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). We remind you that, since last year, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave-year accounts is transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. Therefore, staff members have no administrative steps to take. In addition, the transfer, which eliminates the risk of omitting to request leave transfers and rules out calculation errors in transfer requests, will be clearly shown in the list of leave transactions that can be consulted in EDH from October 2002 onwards. Furthermore, this automatic leave transfer optimizes staff members' chances of benefiting from a saved leave bonus provided that they are still participants in the schem...

  5. Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Simplified procedure for the transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    As part of the process of streamlining procedures, the HR and AS Divisions have jointly developed a system whereby annual and compensatory leave will henceforth be automatically transferred1) to saved leave accounts. Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'2) annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No. 22 B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). Previously, every person taking part in the scheme has been individually issued with a form for the purposes of requesting the transfer of leave to the leave account and the transfer has then had to be done manually by HR Division. To streamline the procedure, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of of the leave-year accounts will henceforth be transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. This simplification is in the ...

  6. Sabbatical Leaves in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, August W.; Thompson, Robert E.

    This document presents a status report of various sabbatical leave policies and plans at 386 higher education institutions across the U.S. The report provides information that can serve as a guide for institutions that do not presently provide sabbatical leaves of absence or that can be compared with existing sabbatical leave plans. It was found…

  7. Susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoeck, Marcus Matheus Johannes

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis the author studied the diagnostic procedures for susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia (MH), with special emphasis upon refining the biological diagnostic test and improving protocols and guidelines for investigation of MH susceptibility. MH is a pharmacogenetic disease of skeletal

  8. Absolute method of measuring magnetic susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, A.; Senftle, F.E.

    1959-01-01

    An absolute method of standardization and measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of small samples is presented which can be applied to most techniques based on the Faraday method. The fact that the susceptibility is a function of the area under the curve of sample displacement versus distance of the magnet from the sample, offers a simple method of measuring the susceptibility without recourse to a standard sample. Typical results on a few substances are compared with reported values, and an error of less than 2% can be achieved. ?? 1959 The American Institute of Physics.

  9. Compensatory and susceptive responses of cowpea genotypes to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cowpea seedlings of the second trial were infested with five four-day-old aphids per seedling two weeks after planting. The aphids were allowed to form colonies and fed on the seedlings until symptoms of damage were observed. When the susceptible seedlings became stunted with distorted leaves and yellowing of ...

  10. Study of areas susceptible to mass movements in the Highway RS 486, Route of the Sun Estudo de áreas suscetíveis a movimentos de massa na Rodovia RS-486 – Rota do Sol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Monguilhott

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The development of new urban areas and the necessity of disposing of goods production and increased movement of people requires the intervention of man in areas previously not inhabited or preserved of the human interference. Infrastructural work sites have direct effects on ecosystems and RS/486 causes, beyond the visual impact on the landscape, a strong fragmentation in Atlantic forest. The removal of vegetation around the highway can facilitate the occurrence of natural disasters related to changes in geomorphology and weathering processes may result erosion and soil accommodation. To study the vulnerability and susceptibility the mass movements of the sub-watershed Três Forquilhas river along the highway RS 486 were employed techniques of GIS and remote sensing to produce maps of environmental vulnerability from employment of such variables as land use, geomorphology, geology, digital elevation model (DEM, slope and normalized digital vegetation index (NDVI by applying analytic hierarchy process method (AHP to support decision. The resulting maps matchie the purpose of defining priority areas for action of the Rio Grande do Sul State Civil Defense.

    doi: 10.4336/2010.pfb.30.61.61

    O desenvolvimento de novos aglomerados urbanos, bem como a necessidade de escoamento da produção de bens e a maior circulação de pessoas, exige a intervenção do homem em espaços antes não habitados ou preservados da interferência humana. Obras de infraestrutura têm efeito direto sobre os ecossistemas e a RS 486 provoca, além do impacto visual na paisagem, uma forte fragmentação no bioma Mata Atlântica. A retirada da vegetação no entorno da rodovia pode facilitar a ocorrência de desastres naturais relacionados com mudanças na geomorfologia e nos processos intempéricos, resultando em erosão e acomodação do solo. Com o objetivo de mapear áreas vulneráveis e suscetíveis a movimentos de massa na sub-bacia hidrográfica do Rio Tr

  11. Leave and professional development benefits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martyniak, Cathleen; Keith, Brian

    2009-01-01

    ...; and professional development leaves such as dedicated research time and sabbaticals. Other professional development topics include financial support and relief from duties for conference attendance...

  12. Parental Leave Policies and Parents' Employment and Leave-Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wen-Jui; Ruhm, Christopher; Waldfogel, Jane

    2009-01-01

    We describe trends in maternal employment and leave-taking after birth of a newborn and analyze the extent to which these behaviors are influenced by parental leave policies. Data are from the June Current Population Survey (CPS) Fertility Supplements, merged with other months of the CPS, and cover the period 1987 to 1994. This time span is one…

  13. Antimycotics susceptibility testing of dermatophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsić-Arsenijević Valentina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatophytes are moulds that produce infections of the skin, hair and nails of humans and animals. The most common forms among these infections are onychomycosis and tinea pedis affecting 20% of world population. These infections are usually chronic. The treatment of dermatophytoses tends to be prolonged partly because available treatments are not very effective. Antifungal drug consumption and public health expenditure are high worldwide, as well as in Serbia. For adequate therapy, it is necessary to prove infection by isolation of dermatophytes and to test the antifungal susceptibility of isolates. Susceptibility testing is important for the resistance monitoring, epidemiological research and to compare in vitro activities of new antifungal agents. The diffusion and dilution methods of susceptibility tests are used, and technical issues of importance for the proper performance and interpretation of test results are published in the document E.DEF 9.1 (EUCAST and M38-A2 (CLSI. The aim of our paper is to promptly inform the public about technical achievements in this area, as well as the new organization of laboratory for medical mycology in our country. The formation of laboratory networks coordinated by the National Reference Laboratory for the cause of mycosis need to enable interlaboratory studies and further standardization of methods for antifungal susceptibility testing of dermatophytes, reproducibility of tests and clinical correlation monitoring (MIK values and clinical outcome of dermatophytosis. The importance of the new organization is expected efficient improvement in the dermatophytosis therapy at home, better quality of patient's life and the reduction of the cost of treatment.

  14. REMINDER Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Simplified procedure for the transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    As part of the process of streamlining procedures, the HR and AS Divisions have jointly developed a system whereby annual and compensatory leave will henceforth be automatically transferred1) to saved leave accounts. Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'2)Previously, every person taking part in the scheme has been individually issued with a form for the purposes of requesting the transfer of leave to the leave account and the transfer has then had to be done manually by HR Division. To streamline the procedure, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave-year accounts will henceforth be transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. This simplification is in the interest of all parties concerned. This automatic transfer procedure has a number of advantages for participants in the SLS scheme. First, staff members will no longer have to take any administrative steps. Secondly, the new proced...

  15. Synthetic Leaves: Pumping at Negative Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Tobias; Stroock, Abraham; Havenstrite, Karen

    2004-03-01

    A common process that is rarely considered in detail is the circulation of fluid in trees. As with most multi-cellular organisms, the internal convective transport of nutrients and the evacuation of waste are essential to their survival. What is unique to flowering plants is that the convectively transported fluid (water) is under tension. According to the Cohesion-Tension Theory (Dixon & Joly), this tension is induced by siphoning: capillary forces replenish water lost to evaporation at the air-water interface in leaves. Intermolecular forces between water molecules ensure that the column of water suspended from the air-water interface remains continuous. Integral to this passive pumping is a dynamic meniscus, which changes curvature and thereby the capillary pressure at the interface to allow the leaf to pump against variable loads as environmental conditions (convection, relative humidity) change. I will present our efforts to harness the capabilities of dynamic menisci in a synthetic system. We use hydraulic resistances as loads to assess the pumping ability of these systems and their susceptibility to cavitation. The goal is to understand the physico-chemical aspects of pumping in plants and the design constraints of vascular networks of leaves.

  16. Laser Microdissection of Grapevine Leaves Reveals Site-Specific Regulation of Transcriptional Response to Plasmopara viticola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzi, Luisa; Caruso, Carla; Bianchedi, Pier Luigi; Pertot, Ilaria; Perazzolli, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine is one of the most important fruit crops in the world, and it is highly susceptible to downy mildew caused by the biotrophic oomycete Plasmopara viticola. Gene expression profiling has been used extensively to investigate the regulation processes of grapevine-P. viticola interaction, but all studies to date have involved the use of whole leaves. However, only a small fraction of host cells is in contact with the pathogen, so highly localized transcriptional changes of infected cells may be masked by the large portion of non-infected cells when analyzing the whole leaf. In order to understand the transcriptional regulation of the plant reaction at the sites of pathogen infection, we optimized a laser microdissection protocol and analyzed the transcriptional changes in stomata cells and surrounding areas of grapevine leaves at early stages of P. viticola infection. The results indicate that the expression levels of seven P. viticola-responsive genes were greater in microdissected cells than in whole leaves, highlighting the site-specific transcriptional regulation of the host response. The gene modulation was restricted to the stomata cells and to the surrounding areas of infected tissues, indicating that the host response is mainly located at the infection sites and that short-distance signals are implicated. In addition, due to the high sensitivity of the laser microdissection technique, significant modulations of three genes that were completely masked in the whole tissue analysis were detected. The protocol validated in this study could greatly increase the sensitivity of further transcriptomic studies of the grapevine-P. viticola interaction. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Family Leave: It's the Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Jean B.

    1993-01-01

    The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) gives employees the right to take up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave a year for medical or family reasons. Provides key provisions of FMLA as they apply to schools and advises districts to consult school attorneys to help ensure compliance with the act and with the interim regulations issued last summer. (MLF)

  18. [Chemical components from essential oil of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Kai; Ge, Fa-Huan

    2014-04-01

    To analyze the chemical compositions of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves essential oil extracted by steam distillation. The essential oil of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrum, and the relative content of each component was determined by area normalization method. 128 peaks were separated and 95 compounds were identified, which weighed 97.75%. The main chemical components of the essential oil were phytol (42.15%), squalene (16.81%), what's more pentadecanal (6.17%), pentadecanoic acid (4.49%), 3, 7, 11, 15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol (3.83%), phytone (2.05%) and the other 74 chemical compositions were firstly identified from the essential oil of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves. The chemical compositions of Pandanu samaryllifolius leaves essential oil was systematically, deeply isolated and identified for the first time. This experiment has provided scientific foundation for further utilization of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves.

  19. 5 CFR 630.1003 - Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishing leave banks and leave bank... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1003 Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards. (a) Each agency that participates in the voluntary leave bank program shall, in accordance with...

  20. Effect of the air pollution by heavy metals in the tree leaves in the metropolitan area of Toluca Valley; Efecto de la contaminacion atmosferica por metales pesados en las hojas de los arboles de la zona metropolitana del Valle de Toluca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledesma O, C. I.

    2014-07-01

    Leaves of two tree species: Juniperus sp and Ligustrum sp were studied as indicators of pollution heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb) in the atmosphere of the Metropolitan Area of the Toluca Valley. Bio markers of catalase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol, proteins and pigments were measured in order to determine the effects to atmospheric stress caused by heave metals during two periods in the year (December 2012 and May 2013). Metals were quantified in dry deposit and tissue on trees tissue leaves using the technique of Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy respectively. The results show greater response of enzyme inhibition in Juniperus sp. species, with decreased protein content and increased lipid peroxidation at sites with higher content of metals in tissue belonging to urban areas with increased industrial activity and traffic flow. In dry deposit bioavailability factor of metals was Fe>Mn> Zn> Cu>Pb for the first time of sampling and Fe>Mn> Cu> Zn>Pb for the second sampling period. (Author)

  1. Don’t leave your baggage unattended

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    “Don’t leave your baggage unattended” is a familiar request to anyone who travels by air, but it’s good advice wherever you may be.    At CERN, if an unattended bag is found anywhere on the site, the Fire and Rescue service will be called to evacuate the area, maintain a security perimeter for as long as necessary, and attempt to identify the owner. If the owner cannot be found in a reasonable amount of time, there’s a very strong chance that the bag will be destroyed. You can take two simple steps to avoid this fate: Don’t leave your baggage unattended;   Make sure that your contact details are clearly visible on the bag or suitcase so that, should you find yourself separated from it, you can easily be reunited.

  2. New statement of leave format

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Following the communication of the Standing Concertation Committee published in Weekly Bulletin No. 18-19 of 27 April 2009, the current statement of leave on monthly pay slips has been replaced with the EDH Leave Transactions report that displays the up-to-date situation of individual leave balances at all times. The report is available on EDH. Additionally, the layout of the pay slip has been modernised. The new version of the pay slip will be send out from September 2009 onwards. Finance and Purchasing Department, Personnel Accounting Human Resources Department, Organisation and Procedures General Infrastructure Services Department, Administrative Information Services

  3. Key Obama officials leave administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-01-01

    Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar is one of the latest members of the Obama administration to announce that he is leaving his position near the start of President Obama's second term in office. Salazar, who has served as interior secretary since January 2009, intends to leave the department by the end of March, the department noted on 16 January. Salazar joins a number of other key officials who are planning to leave the administration. They include Environmental Protection Agency administrator Lisa Jackson, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration administrator Jane Lubchenco, and U.S. Geological Survey director Marcia McNutt.

  4. The analysis of a large Danish family supports the presence of a susceptibility locus for adenoma and colorectal cancer on chromosome 11q24

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudkjøbing, Laura Aviaja; Eiberg, Hans; Mikkelsen, Hanne Birte

    2015-01-01

    benefit from prophylactic screening. Consequently, all family members are asked to follow a screening program. The purpose of this study was to localize a new gene which causes colorectal cancer. We performed a linkage analysis using data from a SNP6.0 chip in one large family with 12 affected family....... Major rearrangements were excluded after karyotyping. The linkage analysis with SNP6 data revealed three candidate areas, on chromosome 2, 6 and 11 respectively, with a LOD score close to two and no negative LOD scores. After extended linkage analysis, the area on chromosome 6 was excluded, leaving...... areas on chromosome 2 and chromosome 11 with the highest possible LOD scores of 2.6. Two other studies have identified 11q24 as a candidate area for colorectal cancer susceptibility and this area is supported by our results....

  5. Genetic susceptibility of periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laine, M.L.; Crielaard, W.; Loos, B.G.

    2012-01-01

    In this systematic review, we explore and summarize the peer-reviewed literature on putative genetic risk factors for susceptibility to aggressive and chronic periodontitis. A comprehensive literature search on the PubMed database was performed using the keywords ‘periodontitis’ or ‘periodontal

  6. Fourie susceptible.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    a number of cultivars exhibited field resistance to halo blight and bacterial brown spot, all cultivars were more or less susceptible to .... Cerillos. Alubia. I. 91. 57. Kranskop. Red speckled sugar. II. 97. 63. OPS-RS1. Red speckled sugar. II. 96. 63. OPS-RS2. Red speckled sugar. I. 100. 61. OPS-RS3. Red speckled sugar. II. 97.

  7. The effects of fixed-bed drying on the yield and composition of essential oil from long pepper (Piper hispidinervium C. DC leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Braga

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Piper hispidinervium C.DC (Piperaceae is popularly known as long pepper. It grows in degraded areas of natural fields in the state of Acre, Brazil. Its leaves are 3 to 4 % essential oil rich in safrole, within the range of 90 to 94 %. In the chemical industry, safrole is an important raw material, mainly due to two of its derivatives: heliotropin, which is widely used as a fragrance and flavoring agent, and piperonyl butoxide (PBO, a vital ingredient of pyrethroid insecticides. Natural pyrethrum in particular would not be an economical insecticide without the synergistic effect of PBO; therefore, its industrial future is linked to the continued availability of PBO. As a fragrance, safrole has many applications in household products such as floor waxes, polishes, soaps, detergents and cleaning agents. In this work, leaves were dried in a fixed-bed dryer using different drying-air temperatures (35, 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60 ºC and drying times (900, 2700 and 3600 seconds. Essential oil was extracted by cohobation (meaning that the condensed water that comes out of the flask is recycled from both raw and dried leaves. The essential oil yield and safrole content are susceptible to rapid loss of moisture by Piper hispidinervium C. DC leaves. It was observed that the essential oil yield increased twice after the drying process. However, safrole content decreased about 20 percent when temperature was above 50 ºC and drying times were more than 2700 minutes.

  8. Biomagnetic monitoring of particulate matter (PM through leaves of an invasive alien plant Lantana camara in an Indo-Burma hot spot region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat Kumar Rai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Present study was performed in urban forests of Aizawl, Mizoram, North East India falling under an Indo-Burma hot spot region of existing ecological relevance and pristine environment. Phyto-sociolology of invasive weeds has been performed and results revealed that Lantana camara was the most dominant invasive weed. Further, the air quality studies revealed high suspended particulate matter (SPM as well as respirable suspended particulate matter (RSPM in ambient air of Aizawl, Mizoram, North East India. Bio-magnetic monitoring through plant leaves has been recognised as recent thrust area in the field of particulate matter (PM science. We aimed to investigate that whether magnetic properties of Lantana camara leaves may act as proxy of PM pollution and hence an attempt towards it's sustainable management. Magnetic susceptibility (χ, Anhyste reticremanent magnetization (ARM and Saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM of Lantana camara plant leaves were assessed and concomitantly correlated these magnetic properties with ambient PM in order to screen this invasive plant which may act as proxy for ambient PM concentrations. Results revealed high χ, ARM, SIRM of Lantana camara leaves and moreover, these parameters were having significant and positive correlation with ambient SPM as well as RSPM. Therefore, present study recommended the use of Lantana camara as bio-magnetic monitor which may further have sustainable management implications of an invasive plant.

  9. Landslide susceptibility map: from research to application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorucci, Federica; Reichenbach, Paola; Ardizzone, Francesca; Rossi, Mauro; Felicioni, Giulia; Antonini, Guendalina

    2014-05-01

    Susceptibility map is an important and essential tool in environmental planning, to evaluate landslide hazard and risk and for a correct and responsible management of the territory. Landslide susceptibility is the likelihood of a landslide occurring in an area on the basis of local terrain conditions. Can be expressed as the probability that any given region will be affected by landslides, i.e. an estimate of "where" landslides are likely to occur. In this work we present two examples of landslide susceptibility map prepared for the Umbria Region and for the Perugia Municipality. These two maps were realized following official request from the Regional and Municipal government to the Research Institute for the Hydrogeological Protection (CNR-IRPI). The susceptibility map prepared for the Umbria Region represents the development of previous agreements focused to prepare: i) a landslide inventory map that was included in the Urban Territorial Planning (PUT) and ii) a series of maps for the Regional Plan for Multi-risk Prevention. The activities carried out for the Umbria Region were focused to define and apply methods and techniques for landslide susceptibility zonation. Susceptibility maps were prepared exploiting a multivariate statistical model (linear discriminant analysis) for the five Civil Protection Alert Zones defined in the regional territory. The five resulting maps were tested and validated using the spatial distribution of recent landslide events that occurred in the region. The susceptibility map for the Perugia Municipality was prepared to be integrated as one of the cartographic product in the Municipal development plan (PRG - Piano Regolatore Generale) as required by the existing legislation. At strategic level, one of the main objectives of the PRG, is to establish a framework of knowledge and legal aspects for the management of geo-hydrological risk. At national level most of the susceptibility maps prepared for the PRG, were and still are obtained

  10. 29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and Medical Leave Act § 825.202 Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule. (a) Definition. FMLA... period of six months, such as for chemotherapy. A pregnant employee may take leave intermittently for...

  11. Source identification of heavy metals in atmospheric dust using Platanus orientalis L. leaves as bioindicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Norouzi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies on atmospheric dust have been limited by the high cost of instrumental monitoring methods and also sampling difficulties. The use of organisms acting as bioaccumulators has recently been proposed. In this study, the leaves of Platanus orientalis L., as a possible biomonitor of heavy metals in atmospheric dust, were evaluated to understand the likely source(s of pollution in Isfahan, Iran. Concentration of Zn, Cu, Ni and Mn and Magnetic susceptibility (χlf were determined in washed (WL and unwashed leaves (UL, monthly sampled from May to Nov., 2012. By subtracting the amount of metal concentrations and χlf in UL and WL, the amount of these parameters in dust deposited on the leaves (UL-WL were calculated. Enrichment factor analysis (EF, correlation coeficient, principal component analysis (PCA and cluster analysis (CA on the UL-WL data were employed to trace the heavy metals sources. Results showed that the metal concentration in UL and WL in primary sampling times was not statistically different. As time passed, this difference became more noticeable. Seasonal accumulation trends of elements concentration in UL-WL, referred to as accumulative biomonitors showing the accumulation of dust on the leaves are considerable and the contamination of plants by metal occurs mainly by retention of particulate matter. All the heavy metals are well correlated with χlf, indicating the potential of magnetic measurement as an inexpensive and less laborious method to estimate heavy metals. Cu and Zn exhibited a very strong correlation with each other and the highest correlation with χlf, suggesting an anthropogenic nature of these two metals. High EF of Cu and Zn showed that anthropogenic sources contribute a substantial amount of these metals to dust deposited on leaves. Whereas, less EF for Mn and Ni shows that natural source and local polluted soils might be the main origins of these metals. PCA results showed 2 principal components. Factor 1 with

  12. GIS-based assessment of landslide susceptibility using certainty ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    lions of people still live under the high-risk threat of landslides (Liu et al. 2013). The main goal of landslide susceptibility analy- sis is to identify dangerous and high risk areas. Keywords. Landslide; susceptibility mapping ...... the decision makers, managers, urban planners, engineers, and land-use developers to manage.

  13. 5 CFR 630.1204 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule. 630.1204 Section 630.1204 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1204 Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule...

  14. Women's Reasons for Leaving the Engineering Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Nadya A; Chang, Wen-Hsin; Wan, Min; Singh, Romila

    2017-01-01

    Among the different Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math fields, engineering continues to have one of the highest rates of attrition (Hewlett et al., 2008). The turnover rate for women engineers from engineering fields is even higher than for men (Frehill, 2010). Despite increased efforts from researchers, there are still large gaps in our understanding of the reasons that women leave engineering. This study aims to address this gap by examining the reasons why women leave engineering. Specifically, we analyze the reasons for departure given by national sample of 1,464 women engineers who left the profession after having worked in the engineering field. We applied a person-environment fit theoretical lens, in particular, the Theory of Work Adjustment (TWA) (Dawis and Lofquist, 1984) to understand and categorize the reasons for leaving the engineering field. According to the TWA, occupations have different "reinforcer patterns," reflected in six occupational values, and a mismatch between the reinforcers provided by the work environment and individuals' needs may trigger departure from the environment. Given the paucity of literature in this area, we posed research questions to explore the reinforcer pattern of values implicated in women's decisions to leave the engineering field. We used qualitative analyses to understand, categorize, and code the 1,863 statements that offered a glimpse into the myriad reasons that women offered in describing their decisions to leave the engineering profession. Our results revealed the top three sets of reasons underlying women's decision to leave the jobs and engineering field were related to: first, poor and/or inequitable compensation, poor working conditions, inflexible and demanding work environment that made work-family balance difficult; second, unmet achievement needs that reflected a dissatisfaction with effective utilization of their math and science skills, and third, unmet needs with regard to lack of recognition

  15. [Disability leave and sick leave in Spain. 2016 legislative update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Herrero, María Teófila; Terradillos-García, María Jesús; Capdevila-García, Luisa M; Ramírez-Íñiguez de la Torre, María Victoria; Aguilar-Jiménez, Encarna; Aguado-Benedí, María José; López-González, Angel Arturo; Torres-Alberich, José Ignacio

    2018-01-01

    In Spanish, the concepts of discapacidad (disability leave) and incapacidad (sick leave) jointly refer to the impairment of a person due to injuries, diseases or deficiencies that limit their activity in a social, personal or occupational field. However, this common link does not imply that both concepts are the same. Statistical data from INE (Instituto Nacional de Estadística: Statistic National Institute) show that Spain had in 2015 3.85 million persons with a disability (59.8% were women). Statistical data from 2015 from INSS (Instituto Nacional de Seguridad Social: Social Security National Institute) show high levels in the number of processes and in workers affected by temporary sick leave, with social costs to the social security system. Both concepts have been updated: about disability leave, Law 39/2006 adjusted terminology by avoiding the use of concepts with discriminating or pejorative connotation. Regarding sick leave, the Ley General de Seguridad Social (General Social Security Law)has been amended and came into effect in January, 2016. It is necessary to know and distinguish these aspects for a better administrative management, and a more oriented information to the affected patient.

  16. Genetic Susceptibility to Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Kovacic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a complex multifocal arterial disease involving interactions of multiple genetic and environmental factors. Advances in techniques of molecular genetics have revealed that genetic ground significantly influences susceptibility to atherosclerotic vascular diseases. Besides further investigations of monogenetic diseases, candidate genes, genetic polymorphisms, and susceptibility loci associated with atherosclerotic diseases have been identified in recent years, and their number is rapidly increasing. This paper discusses main genetic investigations fields associated with human atherosclerotic vascular diseases. The paper concludes with a discussion of the directions and implications of future genetic research in arteriosclerosis with an emphasis on prospective prediction from an early age of individuals who are predisposed to develop premature atherosclerosis as well as to facilitate the discovery of novel drug targets.

  17. Progress report on the evaluation of the susceptibility of the holm oak (Quercus ilex) forest ecosystem to Phytophthora ramorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eduardo Moralejo; Enrique Descals

    2006-01-01

    In preliminary studies on the susceptibility of plant members of the holm oak (Quercus ilex) forest, detached leaves of several woody species were highly susceptible when inoculated with zoospore suspensions of local isolates of Phytophthora ramorum (Moralejo and Hernández 2002). Since then, there have been reports of natural...

  18. Marijuana Usage and Hypnotic Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzini, Louis R.; McDonald, Roy D.

    1973-01-01

    Anonymous self-reported drug usage data and hypnotic susceptibility scores were obtained from 282 college students. Frequent marijuana users (more than 10 times) showed greater susceptibility to hypnosis than nonusers. (Author)

  19. Why People Leave Their Jobs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis R. Domínguez A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to show the results of the review of literature of relevant studies of the causal elements of intention to leave in the last five years (2009-2013. The method used to evaluate the literature was based on the seven steps for research synthesis: problem formulation, literature search, obtaining information from studies, quality assessment studies, analysis and integration of results, interpretation of evidence and presentation of results. 48 studies from 15 different countries with a sample of 35804 employees of different companies were evaluated. The findings suggest the existence of 89 different variables influencing the intention to leave of employees in an organization. The results of this study will allow researchers to better understand the variables that can be studied to verify the impact of variables such as causal elements, but also see those that have a mediating effect between them for predicting intention to leave as an element of employee turnover. This study makes three important contributions to literature of turnover. First, in this study all the parameters associated with the intention to leave were checked. Second, this study categorizes and displays in proportion relevant interests to the scientific community whom studying employee turnover across the intention to leave. And thirdly provides clues organizations to improve some of its structural and contextual features to control turnover.

  20. Quantificação da área e do teor de clorofilas em folhas de plantas jovens de videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon' mediante métodos não destrutivos Non-destructive quantification of area and chlorophyll content in the leaves of young 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapevines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido visando a desenvolver métodos não destrutivos para estimar a área foliar e o conteúdo de clorofilas em folhas de plantas jovens de videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. Para a estimativa da área foliar, foram tomadas medidas de comprimento da nervura principal e das duas maiores nervuras secundárias em folhas representando uma grande amplitude de áreas foliares, seguindo-se da leitura em um integrador de área foliar. Para a quantificação de clorofilas, folhas com tonalidades variando de verde-amareladas (folha clorótica a verde-escuras foram avaliadas individualmente com um medidor de clorofila (Minolta SPAD-502 e um colorímetro (Minolta CR-400, no espaço de cores L, C e hº, nas faces abaxial (inferior e adaxial (superior, seguido de quantificações destrutivas de clorofilas a, b e totais. A quantificação do comprimento da nervura principal proporcionou boa estimativa da área foliar, sendo que a soma do comprimento das duas nervuras secundárias, bem como do somatório destes comprimentos com o comprimento da nervura principal, resultou em aumento muito pequeno na capacidade de estimativa da área foliar. Os valores das leituras do medidor de clorofila e da relação hº/(LxC do colorímetro, avaliados em ambas as faces das folhas, aumentaram com o incremento nos teores de clorofilas. Os modelos ajustados entre os teores de clorofilas e as leituras do medidor de clorofila e da relação hº/(LxC do colorímetro apresentaram valores de R² similares. Todavia, a medição da relação hº/(LxC do colorímetro, feita na face adaxial da folha, mostrou melhor estimativa do teor de clorofila, expresso em unidade de área (µg.cm-2 de folha.This work was carried out to develop non destructive methods to estimate the area and chlorophylls content in the leaves of young grapevines 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. For leaf area estimation, the lengths of main and two secondary leaf veins were measured, in leaves ranging from

  1. Environmental pollution at Linfen and its change - magnetic monitoring of leaves and soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, L.; Appel, E.; Hu, S. Y.; Yin, G.; Rösler, W.

    2012-04-01

    Linfen city (Shanxi Province, China) is one of the world's most polluted city due to coal mining, refineries and other industries. During recent years the local government took enormous efforts to improve the environmental standard. In this study, we are testing the efficiency of magnetic susceptibility (MS) measurements for the assessment of this pollution "hot spot" where the environmental issues dictate the questions and up turning methodical obstacles have to be mastered. In particular we are testing to which extent the combination of MS results from soil and dust-loaded tree leaves allow to discriminate in between historical and present pollution. MS signals in the large abandoned industrial area and in new industrial areas are strongly enhanced with surface soil mass-specific MS (χ) between (232-3126)×10-8m3kg-1, while in the agricultural areas they range from (88-179)×10-8m3kg-1. Temperature dependence of MS identifies magnetite as the major magnetic phase in all topsoil samples; additionally a variable content of a harder coercive phase indicated by S-ratios of 0.82-0.99. Low χfd% (magnetic parameters again identify a dominance of PSD+MD low-coercivity magnetite. Strong enhancement of MS occurs in the new urban industrial area and in the southern part of city, which is also controlled by the prevailing wind direction and the typical basin topography. XRF results show an enrichment of heavy metals for topsoils and leaves, which were outlined as highly polluted by MS mapping. Concentrations of Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb are clearly higher at the old and new industrial areas compared to the agricultural non-industrial area. Other heavy metals not arising from anthropogenic sources, such as Ti, were similar at all study areas. The distribution of heavy metals and MS values at high and low polluted sites indicates that the extra magnetic particles accumulated in the industrial areas were neither inherited from soil parent materials nor from pedogenic processes, but

  2. Seasonal variation of defense-related gene expression in leaves from Bois noir affected and recovered grapevines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Lucia; Romanazzi, Gianfranco

    2011-06-22

    Although Bois noir is one of the main phytoplasma diseases of grapevine, the gene expression and enzyme activities that underlie physiological changes occurring in symptomatic and recovered (with spontaneous or induced symptom remission) plants are mostly unknown. Bois noir symptomatic leaves (September 2006, 2007) and symptomless leaves from infected symptomatic plants (September 2007) of Sangiovese (moderately susceptible) and Chardonnay (highly susceptible) cultivars were collected. Moreover, leaves from infected symptomless plants of both cultivars were harvested in June 2007. Leaves from recovered plants were also collected in the same periods. In recovered plants of both cultivars, class III chitinase and almost every time phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone synthase expression were increased for all collection periods. In symptomatic leaves of both cultivars, the expressions of the same genes were up-regulated and also those of β-1,3-glucanase and flavanone 3-hydroxylase. The activities of chitinase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, β-1,3-glucanase, and superoxide dismutase generally correlated with gene expression. For the moderately susceptible Sangiovese, the defense genes were generally up-regulated in both symptomatic and symptomless leaves (for all collection periods). This behavior was not observed in the highly susceptible Chardonnay, in which changes in gene expression were linked to evident symptom display. Therefore, the physiological response of the plants to this pathogen infection appear to be the reason for the resistance of the cultivar to the disease.

  3. Maternity leave, what about Paternity leave?: child care and social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, it is noteworthy that in child development and care, the roles of both parents are important. Analysis of the paper is done with the review of literatures and interviews conducted randomly among working women and men in Abeokuta on their experiences and views about maternity and paternity leaves respectively.

  4. 76 FR 60701 - Absence and Leave; Qualifying Exigency Leave

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... parent-teacher conference to submit a signed statement of the need for the exigency leave, along with a... measures, parent-teacher conferences, or meetings with school counselors, for a child when such meetings... arise when the spouse, son, daughter, or parent of an employee is on covered active duty in the Armed...

  5. Impact of Ozone Gradient on Grapevine Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alebic-Juretic, Ana; Bokan-Vucelic, Itana; Mifka, Boris; Zatezalo, Marija; Zubak, Velimir

    2017-04-01

    Due to complex orography and air mass circulation, the Rijeka Bay area is characterized by O3 gradient, with concentrations risen with the altitude (1). Therefore AOT40 values were often exceeded and should result in harmful effects on vegetation. Based on previous controlled experiments (2), we examined the possible effect of atmospheric ozone on grape leaves under natural O3 gradient. Grapevine leaves (2-5) were collected from May to September 2016 at two sampling points in the proximity of two AQM stations: Site 1 in the city centre (20m asl) and Site 2 (186m asl) in the suburban settlement. Subsequent to weighing and determination of surface area, the leaves (0,5 g) were extracted in 95% ethanol and analysed on chlorophyl a (Chla), chlorophyl b (Chlb) and carotene (Car) content by UV-VIS spectrometry on 3 wavelengths (664, 649, 470 nm) (3) In summer 2016 O3 gradient was not that pronounced as usual (1), but stil the concentrations differed by approx. 20%, exceeding national AOT40 value at both sites (22.360 and 28.061 μg m-3 h, respectively, at Sites 1 and 2). The concentrations of other pollutants were bellow limit values (LV). The Cha and Chb in a sample leaves collected at the end of May at Site 2 are equal to that with filtered O3 in control experiment (2), i.e. without damage caused by ozone, while the Car content is lower approx. 50% and is kept at the same level. The con-centrations of pigments obtained in July prooved the possible damage by O3, while in subsequent months could speed up natural ageing. This is the first evidence of O3 damage on plants in the Rijeka Bay area, in spite of weaker O3 gradient and lacking visible signs of damage. Preliminary results indicate the need for more frequent sampling, particularly in the period included in AOT40 (May-July). References: 1. Alebić-Juretić A (2012) Int J Remote Sensing, 33(2): 335-345 2. Britvec M, Reichenauer T, Soja G., Ljubešić N, Pećina M (2001) Biologia (Bratislava),56/4: 417-424 3. Sumanata

  6. [Sick leave and nursing personnel management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estorce, Thiago Puliesi; Kurcgant, Paulina

    2011-10-01

    Sick leaves in the nursing team demand immediate managerial actions when health care has quality as a goal. This descriptive-exploratory, quantitative study was performed with the purpose of characterizing that phenomenon in a university hospital between 2003 and 2007. The medical leaves added up to 3,207 leaves and 32,022 days lost. Leaves lasting up to two days accounted for 54% of the total leaves and to 7% of the days lost; leaves of more than 15 days, 5% of the total, and 66% of the lost days. Hence, sick leaves consist of an important tool in nursing personnel management.

  7. Effects of light, temperature and canopy position on net photosynthesis and isoprene emission from sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, P.; Guenther, A.; Zimmerman, P.

    1996-01-01

    In June 1993, net photosynthetic rates, stomatal conductance and isoprene emission rates of sweetgum leaves (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) were measured at the top of the forest canopy (sun leaves) and within the canopy at a height of 8-10 m above ground level (shade leaves). Large differences in net photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance were found between sun and shade leaves. Mean rates of isoprene emission, expressed on a leaf area basis, were significantly lower in shade leaves than in sun leaves (4.1 versus 17.1 nmol m(-2) s(-1)); however, because specific leaf area of sun leaves was lower than that of shade leaves (0.0121 versus 0.0334 m(2) g(-1)), the difference between sun and shade leaves was less, though still significant, when isoprene emissions were expressed on a dry mass basis (45.5 versus 29.0 micro g C g(-1) h(-1)). Saturation of both net photosynthesis and isoprene emission occurred at lower PPFDs in shade leaves than in sun leaves. The effect of leaf temperature on isoprene emissions also differed between sun and shade leaves. Sun leaves lost a significantly greater percentage of fixed carbon as isoprene than shade leaves. The leaf-level physiological measurements were used to derive parameters for a canopy-level isoprene flux model. The importance of incorporating differences between sun- and shade-leaf properties into existing models is discussed.

  8. Nutrient resorption from seagrass leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stapel, J.; Hemminga, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The resorption of nutrients (C, N and P) from senescent leaves of six seagrass species from nine different locations in tropical (Indonesia and Kenya), Mediterranean (Spain) and temperate (The Netherlands) regions has been investigated. Resorption was quantitatively assessed by calculating the

  9. Magnetic susceptibilities of minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Sam; Brownfield, I.K.

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic separation of minerals is a topic that is seldom reported in the literature for two reasons. First, separation data generally are byproducts of other projects; and second, this study requires a large amount of patience and is unusually tedious. Indeed, we suspect that most minerals probably are never investigated for this property. These data are timesaving for mineralogists who concentrate mono-mineralic fractions for chemical analysis, age dating, and for other purposes. The data can certainly be used in the ore-beneficiation industries. In some instances, magnetic-susceptibility data may help in mineral identification, where other information is insufficient. In past studies of magnetic separation of minerals, (Gaudin and Spedden, 1943; Tille and Kirkpatrick, 1956; Rosenblum, 1958; Rubinstein and others, 1958; Flinter, 1959; Hess, 1959; Baker, 1962; Meric and Peyre, 1963; Rojas and others, 1965; and Duchesne, 1966), the emphasis has been on the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic ranges of extraction. For readers interested in the history of magnetic separation of minerals, Krumbein and Pettijohn (1938, p. 344-346) indicated nine references back to 1848. The primary purpose of this paper is to report the magnetic-susceptibility data on as many minerals as possible, similar to tables of hardness, specific gravity, refractive indices, and other basic physical properties of minerals. A secondary purpose is to demonstrate that the total and best extraction ranges are influenced by the chemistry of the minerals. The following notes are offered to help avoid problems in separating a desired mineral concentrate from mixtures of mineral grains.

  10. Alcohol increases hypnotic susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmens-Wheeler, Rebecca; Dienes, Zoltán; Duka, Theodora

    2013-09-01

    One approach to hypnosis suggests that for hypnotic experience to occur frontal lobe activity must be attenuated. For example, cold control theory posits that a lack of awareness of intentions is responsible for the experience of involuntariness and/or the subjective reality of hypnotic suggestions. The mid-dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex and the ACC are candidate regions for such awareness. Alcohol impairs frontal lobe executive function. This study examined whether alcohol affects hypnotisability. We administered 0.8 mg/kg of alcohol or a placebo to 32 medium susceptible participants. They were subsequently hypnotised and given hypnotic suggestions. All participants believed they had received some alcohol. Participants in the alcohol condition were more susceptible to hypnotic suggestions than participants in the placebo condition. Impaired frontal lobe activity facilitates hypnotic responding, which supports theories postulating that attenuation of executive function facilitates hypnotic response, and contradicts theories postulating that hypnotic response involves enhanced inhibitory, attentional or other executive function. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Detached leaf culture: viability to evaluate 2,4-D toxicity symptoms in cotton apex leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da C Centurion, Maria Aparecida P; Correia, Núbia M; Sanches, Vivaldo César R

    2005-01-01

    To study the viability of detached leaf culture technique, studies were carried out with detached leaves from cotton apex (true trilobed leaves). The prepared leaves were sprayed with 2,4-D amine and ester, at rates of 10, 30, 70, and 100% of the recommended doses. Detached leaves without herbicide spray were used as controls. Simultaneously, a greenhouse experiment was conducted with the same treatments as used for the detached leaves experiment. Toxicity was measured through a 0-to-5 grading according to the percentage of affected leaf area in the detached leaves experiment or examining the affected rate of whole plant as indicated in the greenhouse. Results showed that the ester form of the herbicide induced earlier and more severe toxicity symptoms in detached leaves and greenhouse grown plants. Positive and significant correlations (p cotton plants grown in the greenhouse (r= - 0.92 and -0.92, respectively).

  12. The electricity sector susceptibility of European countries to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Daniel R.; Olonscheck, Mady; Walther, Carsten; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2014-05-01

    efforts on those areas. Furthermore, the relative nature of the susceptibility index allows countries to use less susceptible country electricity systems as a guide for the transformation of the electricity system to one with a considerably lower susceptibility.

  13. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF NERIUM OLEANDER LEAVES AND MOMORDICA CHARANTIA LEAVES

    OpenAIRE

    Santhi R; Lakshmi G; Priyadharshini A.M; Anandaraj L

    2011-01-01

    The developing countries mostly rely on traditional medicines. The traditional medicine involves the use of different plant extracts or the bioactive constituents. This type of study provides the health application at affordable cost. This study such as ethnomedicine keenly represents one of the best avenues in searching new economic plants for medicine. In keeping this view in mind the present investigation is carried out in Nerium oleander and Momordica charantia leaves. Qualitative ph...

  14. Magnetic biomonitoring of roadside pollution in the restricted Midagahara area of Mt. Tateyama, Toyama, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Kazuo; Horikawa, Keiji; Sakai, Hideo

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic biomonitoring techniques and in situ topsoil magnetic susceptibility measurements have been shown to be rapid, cost-effective, and useful methods for investigating roadside pollution. However, combustible vegetation in samples makes it very difficult to use them in high-temperature magnetic experiments although the thermal alteration of spontaneous magnetization is a fundamental magnetic property and can be used to identify reliably the magnetic minerals. Here, we report the first magnetic biomonitoring results of dust deposited on plant leaves along the Tateyama-Kurobe Alpine route at the highly protected Midagahara wetland areas of Mt. Tateyama in Toyama, Japan. In-field magnetic susceptibility from 15 sites (161 points) shows higher susceptibilities near the roadside. Dust deposited on the leaves of Sasa kurilensis, or dwarf bamboo, has been wiped off at 12 sites (64 samples) with a commercial ethanol wipe sheet or silica wool damped in ethanol and subjected to rock magnetic analyses. Thermomagnetic remanence curves and low-temperature behaviors for samples collected near the roadside using silica wool show clearly that the main magnetic mineral in the dust is partially oxidized magnetite. Further, detailed rock magnetic analyses and elemental analyses of leaves in the study area indicate that (a) the magnetic mineralogy on leaves' surface is consistent throughout the study area and (b) higher saturation isothermal remanent magnetization intensities as well as higher concentrations of Pb, Fe, Cr, and Y are observed near the roadside, i.e., the closer to the roadside, the more anthropogenic materials, including partially oxidized magnetite, are present. Also, microscopic observations show the lack of spherical grains, indicating that dust on the roadside leaves is derived from passing vehicle rather than industrial process. Both rock magnetic and geochemical results show that S. kurilensis would be an excellent candidate for investigating air pollution

  15. Bacteriological Analysis, Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Detection of 16S rRNA gene of Helicobacter pylori by PCR in Drinking Water Samples of Earthquake Affected Areas and Other Parts of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasheed, F.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In Pakistan, clean drinking water is not available to most of the population. Main source of drinking water in Hazara, Azad Jammu and Kashmir-Pakistan is underground and spring water, due to earthquake water reservoirs in these areas were immensely contaminated. Moreover, drinking water treatment and proper sanitary facilities were also lacking. This study was conducted to analyze the quality of drinking water available in most of the cities of Pakistan including earthquake hit areas. For this purpose, 112 water samples were collected and analyzed by membrane filtration method. Microbial isolates were identified using QTS-10 and biochemical tests. Almost all samples were found to be contaminated but in earthquake affected areas quality of drinking water was substandard than other areas of Pakistan. Results revealed the detection of following bacterial pathogens among the water samples: Enterobacter sp., Klebsiellasp., Stenotrophomonas sp., Salmonella sp., Proteus sp., Edwardsiella tarda, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumanii, Aeromonas hydrophila, Citrobacter freundii, Shigella dysenteriae, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus sp. and Streptococcus sp. Furthermore, these bacterial isolates were found to be resistant to ampicillin (32.1%, amoxicillin (30.4%, sulphometoxazole (20.5% and cefaclor (31.3%. All drinking water samples were analyzed for 16S rRNA gene of Helicobacter pylori by using PCR, however no positive result was found in these samples. Based on our results it is suggested that authorities should pay attention to supply safe water and proper sanitary facilities to avoid epidemics of infectious diseases in future.

  16. Graphene susceptibility in Holstein model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousavi, Hamze, E-mail: hamze.mousavi@gmail.co [Department of Physics, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nano Science and Nano Technology Research Center, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    We study the effects of the electron-phonon interaction on the temperature dependence of the orbital magnetic susceptibility of monolayer graphene. We use the linear response theory and Green's function formalism within the Holstein Hamiltonian model. The results show that the effects of the electron-phonon interaction on the susceptibility of graphene sheet have different behaviors in two temperature regions. In the low temperature region, susceptibility increases when the electron-phonon coupling strength increases. On the other hand, the susceptibility reduces with increasing the electron-phonon coupling strength in the high temperature region. - Highlights: Effect of electron-phonon interaction on the susceptibility of graphene is studied. Linear response theory and Green's function technique in Holstein model are used. Effect of electron-phonon on susceptibility has different behaviors in two temperature regions.

  17. Topological susceptibility from slabs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bietenholz, Wolfgang [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-543, Distrito Federal, C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Forcrand, Philippe de [Institute for Theoretical Physics, ETH Zürich,CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); CERN, Physics Department, TH Unit, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Gerber, Urs [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-543, Distrito Federal, C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo,Edificio C-3, Apdo. Postal 2-82, Morelia, Michoacán, C.P. 58040 (Mexico)

    2015-12-14

    In quantum field theories with topological sectors, a non-perturbative quantity of interest is the topological susceptibility χ{sub t}. In principle it seems straightforward to measure χ{sub t} by means of Monte Carlo simulations. However, for local update algorithms and fine lattice spacings, this tends to be difficult, since the Monte Carlo history rarely changes the topological sector. Here we test a method to measure χ{sub t} even if data from only one sector are available. It is based on the topological charges in sub-volumes, which we denote as slabs. Assuming a Gaussian distribution of these charges, this method enables the evaluation of χ{sub t}, as we demonstrate with numerical results for non-linear σ-models.

  18. Topological Susceptibility from Slabs

    CERN Document Server

    Bietenholz, Wolfgang; Gerber, Urs

    2015-01-01

    In quantum field theories with topological sectors, a non-perturbative quantity of interest is the topological susceptibility chi_t. In principle it seems straightforward to measure chi_t by means of Monte Carlo simulations. However, for local update algorithms and fine lattice spacings, this tends to be difficult, since the Monte Carlo history rarely changes the topological sector. Here we test a method to measure chi_t even if data from only one sector are available. It is based on the topological charges in sub-volumes, which we denote as slabs. Assuming a Gaussian distribution of these charges, this method enables the evaluation of chi_t, as we demonstrate with numerical results for non-linear sigma-models.

  19. Proteome Analysis of Pathogen-Responsive Proteins from Apple Leaves Induced by the Alternaria Blotch Alternaria alternata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cai-xia; Tian, Yi; Cong, Pei-hua

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the defence mechanisms used by apple leaves against Alternaria alternate pathogen infection is important for breeding purposes. To investigate the ultrastructural differences between leaf tissues of susceptible and resistant seedlings, in vitro inoculation assays and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis were conducted with two different inoculation assays. The results indicated that the resistant leaves may have certain antifungal activity against A. alternate that is lacking in susceptible leaves. To elucidate the two different host responses to A. alternate infection in apples, the proteomes of susceptible and resistant apple leaves that had or had not been infected with pathogen were characterised using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF MS). MS identified 43 differentially expressed proteins in two different inoculation assays. The known proteins were categorised into 5 classes, among these proteins, some pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins, such as beta-1,3-glucanase, ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and mal d1, were identified in susceptible and resistant hosts and were associated with disease resistance of the apple host. In addition, the different levels of mal d1 in susceptible and resistant hosts may contribute to the outstanding anti-disease properties of resistant leaves against A. alternate. Taken together, the resistance mechanisms of the apple host against A. alternate may be a result of the PR proteins and other defence-related proteins. Given the complexity of the biology involved in the interaction between apple leaves and the A. alternate pathogen, further investigation will yield more valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms of suppression of the A. alternate pathogen. Overall, we outline several novel insights into the response of apple leaves to pathogen attacks. These findings

  20. Studies on Antibacterial Effect of The Leaves Of Phyllanthus Niruri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    The plant is indigenous to the rain forests in the Amazon and tropical areas including Bahamas, India, Pakistan and China (Jones and Kenneth, 1995; Grewal, 2000). The plant has several tribal names based on it uses or the arrangement of the flower on the leaves. Chanca piedra is the Spanish name meaning “stone ...

  1. severe damage of moringa oleifera lam. leaves by ulopeza

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... ABSTRACT. The work was carried out at a location (110 58`N and 8026`E) in Ungogo Local Government area of. Kano State, Nigeria with objective of identifying an unfamiliar larva feeding on Moringa leaves and to describe its nature of damage. The leaf feeding larvae were sampled and reared through to.

  2. Carnivorous leaves from Baltic amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Eva-Maria; Seyfullah, Leyla J; Sadowski, Friederike; Fleischmann, Andreas; Behling, Hermann; Schmidt, Alexander R

    2015-01-06

    The fossil record of carnivorous plants is very scarce and macrofossil evidence has been restricted to seeds of the extant aquatic genus Aldrovanda of the Droseraceae family. No case of carnivorous plant traps has so far been reported from the fossil record. Here, we present two angiosperm leaves enclosed in a piece of Eocene Baltic amber that share relevant morphological features with extant Roridulaceae, a carnivorous plant family that is today endemic to the Cape flora of South Africa. Modern Roridula species are unique among carnivorous plants as they digest prey in a complex mutualistic association in which the prey-derived nutrient uptake depends on heteropteran insects. As in extant Roridula, the fossil leaves possess two types of plant trichomes, including unicellular hairs and five size classes of multicellular stalked glands (or tentacles) with an apical pore. The apices of the narrow and perfectly tapered fossil leaves end in a single tentacle, as in both modern Roridula species. The glandular hairs of the fossils are restricted to the leaf margins and to the abaxial lamina, as in extant Roridula gorgonias. Our discovery supports current molecular age estimates for Roridulaceae and suggests a wide Eocene distribution of roridulid plants.

  3. Definition of a magnetic susceptibility of conglomerates with magnetite particles. Particularities of defining single particle susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandulyak, A. A.; Sandulyak, A. V.; Ershova, V.; Pamme, N.; Ngmasom, B.; Iles, A.

    2017-11-01

    Data of a magnetic susceptibility of ferro-and the ferrimagnetic particles of many technogenic, natural, special media are especially demanded for the solution of various tasks connected with purposeful magnetic impact on these particles. One of productive approaches to definition of a magnetic susceptibility χ of these particles consists in receiving experimental data of a susceptibility of disperse samples with a disperse phase of these particles. The paper expounds and analyses the results of experiments on defining (by Faraday method in a magnetic field with intensity H = 90-730 kA/m) the magnetic susceptibility of disperse samples (conglomerates) with a given volume ratio γ of magnetite particles (γ = 0.0065-0.25). The corresponding families of concentration and field dependences are provided alongside with discussing the applicability of linear and exponential functions to describe these dependences. We consider the possibility of defining single particles susceptibility χ (with simultaneous obtaining field dependence of this susceptibility) by the commonly used relation χ = /γ both at relatively small (preferable for accuracy reasons) values γ - to γ = 0.02…0.025, as well as at increased values γ - up to γ = 0.25. The data χ are provided depending on H and correlating with known data at H defined here value of constant-multiplier (0.8), it provides the grounds for obtaining valid data χ, employing the results of measuring for conglomerates with not obligatory small values of γ. It is demonstrated that being obtained by data χ, the calculated field dependence of the particle matter magnetic susceptibility χm (for the case when the particles are traditionally likened to balls with the characteristic for them demagnetising factor equalling 1/3) complies with the anticipated inverse function χm ∼ 1/H in the studied area H (where magnetization M expressed as M = χH reaches saturation M = Const).

  4. 20 CFR 638.532 - Annual leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... regardless of the date of enrollment provided that the student was not AWOL or on administrative leave... shall be suspended only when the student is AWOL or on administrative leave without allowances. (c...

  5. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticle using Bambusa arundinacea leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, Bharat; Shyam, Vasvani; Kaushik, Babiya; Vasoya, Jaydeep; Joseph, Joyce; Savaliya, Chirag; Kumar, Sumit; Parikh, Sachin P.; Thakar, C. M.; Pandya, D. D.; Ravalia, A. B.; Markna, J. H.; Shah, N. A.

    2017-05-01

    The synthesis of nanoparticles using ecofriendly way is an interesting area in advance nanotechnology. Silver (Ag) nanoparticles are usually synthesized by chemicals route, which are quite flammable and toxic in nature. This study deals with a biosynthesis process (environment friendly) of silver nanoparticles using Bambusa arundinacea leaves for its antibacterial activity. The formation and characterization of AgNPs was confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized from AgNO3 through a simple green route using the latex of Bambusa arundinacea leaves as reducing as well as capping agent. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) study indicates the formation of grains (particles) with different size and shape.

  6. Older leaves of lettuce (Lactuca spp.) support higher levels of Salmonella enterica ser. Senftenberg attachment and show greater variation between plant accessions than do younger leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Paul J; Shaw, Robert K; Berger, Cedric N; Frankel, Gad; Pink, David; Hand, Paul

    2015-06-01

    Salmonella can bind to the leaves of salad crops including lettuce and survive for commercially relevant periods. Previous studies have shown that younger leaves are more susceptible to colonization than older leaves and that colonization levels are dependent on both the bacterial serovar and the lettuce cultivar. In this study, we investigated the ability of two Lactuca sativa cultivars (Saladin and Iceberg) and an accession of wild lettuce (L. serriola) to support attachment of Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg, to the first and fifth to sixth true leaves and the associations between cultivar-dependent variation in plant leaf surface characteristics and bacterial attachment. Attachment levels were higher on older leaves than on the younger ones and these differences were associated with leaf vein and stomatal densities, leaf surface hydrophobicity and leaf surface soluble protein concentrations. Vein density and leaf surface hydrophobicity were also associated with cultivar-specific differences in Salmonella attachment, although the latter was only observed in the older leaves and was also associated with level of epicuticular wax. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Monocot leaves are eaten less than dicot leaves in tropical lowland rain forests: correlations with toughness and leaf presentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grubb, P.J.; Jackson, R.V.; Barberis, I.M.

    2008-01-01

    . It was hypothesized that (a) losses of leaf area to herbivorous invertebrates are generally greatest during leaf expansion and smaller for monocots than for dicots, and (b) where losses after expansion are appreciable any difference between monocots and dicots then is smaller than that found during expansion. Methods......: At six sites on four continents, estimates were made of lamina area loss from the four most recently mature leaves of focal monocots and of the nearest dicot shoot. Measurements of leaf mass per unit area, and the concentrations of water and nitrogen were made for many of the species. In Panama......, the losses from monocots (palms) and dicots were also measured after placing fully expanded palm leaflets and whole dicot leaves on trails of leaf-cutter ants. Key Results: At five of six sites monocots experienced significantly smaller leaf area loss than dicots. The results were not explicable in terms...

  8. Sugar beet leaves for functional ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamayo Tenorio, Angelica

    2017-01-01

    Plant leaves are recognised as a potential source for food applications based on their nutritional profile and interesting technological properties of leaf components, and based on the large availability of plant leaves in agricultural waste streams. Besides proteins, leaves have a rich nutritional

  9. Officer Sabbaticals. Analysis of Extended Leave Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    in a nonmilitary job market (e.g., working in a family business for a year). • Social service leaves, or longer leaves with a specific purpose, such...education or gain experience in a nonmilitary job market (e.g., work in a family business for a year). These leaves would be granted on an individual basis

  10. Microwave susceptibility experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConaghy, C.

    1984-05-29

    In certain experimental environments, systems can be affected or damaged by microwave pulses. I have conducted tests at LLNL to understand the phenomenology of microwave susceptibility of system components and subsystem components. To date, my experiments have concentrated on bipolar transistors, similar to what might be used in discrete analog circuits, and on CMOS RAM chips, which might be used in a computer memory system. I observed a decrease in failure energies for both the transistor and the integrated curcuit as I shortened the microwave pulse width. An S band (2.86 GHz) transmit/receive (T/R) tube has also been tested both at S band and at X band (8.16 GHz). The S band pulse had limitations in rise-time from zero power, which had an effect on the amount of power that could be transmitted through the T/R tube, as much as 0.7% of the incident power passed through the tube. All tests were conducted in closed-waveguide or coax test-fixtures, in contrast to the anechoic chambers utilized by other experimenters. I have used both S band and X band Klystron generators. For very high power (greater than 1 MW), I used an additional pulse-compression cavity at S band. Other subsystem components such as an X band mixer and an X band T/R tube will be tested in the future. 8 references.

  11. [Antimicrobial susceptibility cumulative reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canut-Blasco, Andrés; Calvo, Jorge; Rodríguez-Díaz, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Martínez, Luis

    2016-10-01

    Cumulative reports on antimicrobial susceptibility tests data are important for selecting empirical treatments, as an educational tool in programs on antimicrobial use, and for establishing breakpoints defining clinical categories. These reports should be based on data validated by clinical microbiologists using diagnostic samples (not surveillance samples). In order to avoid a bias derived from including several isolates obtained from the same patient, it is recommended that, for a defined period, only the first isolate is counted. A minimal number of isolates per species should be presented: a figure of >=30 isolates is statistically acceptable. The report is usually presented in a table format where, for each cell, information on clinically relevant microorganisms-antimicrobial agents is presented. Depending on particular needs, multiple tables showing data related to patients, samples, services or special pathogens can be prepared. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  12. Phenolic compounds of apple cultivars resistant or susceptible to Venturia inaequalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arici, Serife Evrim; Kafkas, Ebru; Kaymak, Suat; Koc, Namik Kemal

    2014-07-01

    Phenolic compounds play an important role in the plant defense mechanism and are responsible for antioxidant capacity in fruits and vegetables. It is known that the phenolics can determine in the leaves of plants which are resistant/susceptible to fungal infections. This study investigated the total phenolic compounds, content of shikimic acid from 33 different apple cultivars leaves infected with Venturia inaequalis [(Cke). Wint.] cultured in Fruit Research Station, in Egirdir, Isparta, Turkey. Leaves of apple cultivars were collected three times in an interval of 30 d from July to September in 2010, and analyzed using HPLC methods to detect changes in the amount of the phenolic compounds and shikimic acid. Total phenolic compounds and shikimic acid in resistant/moderate susceptible apple cultivars were higher than susceptible apple cultuvars, although not statistically different between resistant and susceptible apples. The content of shikimic acid was statistically higher only in the leaves of the domestic cultivar Ankara güzeli on all three dates. Recently, there have been increased studies trying to explain the resistance mechanism in plants. Natural resistance genes are investigated in some apple cultivars and new resistance varieties which have resistant genes are identified daily. Our study hold to determine the relationship between the phenolic compounds and the expression of resistance seems to be promising.

  13. Mangrove leaves (Rhizophora mangle) as environmental contamination biomonitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Vivianne L.B. de; Santos, Suzana O.; Fonseca, Cassia K.L.; Paiva, Ana Claudia de; Silva, Waldecy A. da, E-mail: vlsouza@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: suzirecifeusa@hotmail.com, E-mail: cassia.kellen@hotmail.com, E-mail: acpaiva@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: waldecy@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Sometimes, plants growing in contaminated sediments by trace metals can not avoid absorption of these metals, but only to limit its translocation, so that the accumulated metals in their tissues will have different levels of concentrations. Some trace metals (copper, zinc, manganese, among others) are essential for plants, although they are toxic at high concentrations, damaging its growth, production or quality. The aim of this work from is to verify the presence of metals such as copper, manganese and iron in mangrove leaves (Rhizophora mangle) collected in some beaches of the Northeast of Brazil (such as: Maceio, Sao Jose da Coroa Grande, Japaratinga, Croa do Gore, Ponta das Pedras). Leaves' metals content (extracted by adding acids) were determined by a fast sequential atomic absorption spectrometer (SpectrAA-220FS/VARIAN). The results showed that there are more Fe and Mn in mangrove leaves than in other metals comparing with all study areas (Fe > Mn > Co > Zn > Cu). (author)

  14. Leaving a joint audit system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus; Thinggaard, Frank

    2014-01-01

    with the auditors than in a equally shared joint audit, and that the auditors' incentives to offer an initial fee discount are bigger. Research limitations/implications: The number of observations is constrained by the small Danish capital market. Future research could take a more qualitative research approach...... deciding to switch to single auditors. Fee discounts do not seem to reflect long-lasting efficiency gains on the part of the audit firm. Orginality/value: Denmark is the first country to leave a mandatory joint audit system, so this is the first time that it is possible to study fee effects related to this....

  15. Resource capture by single leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, S.P.

    1992-05-01

    Leaves show a variety of strategies for maximizing CO{sub 2} and light capture. These are more meaningfully explained if they are considered in the context of maximizing capture relative to the utilization of water, nutrients and carbohydrates reserves. There is considerable variation between crops in their efficiency of CO{sub 2} and light capture at the leaf level. Understanding of these mechanisms indicate some ways in which efficiency of resource capture could be level cannot be meaningfully considered without simultaneous understanding of implications at the canopy level. 36 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Antioxidant Activity of Leaves and Fruits of Iranian Conifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Emami

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cupressus semipervirens var. horizontalis, Cupressus semipervirens var. semipervirens, Cupressus semipervirens cv. Cereifeormis, Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica, Juniperus excelsa subsp. excelsa, Juniperus excelsa subsp. polycarpos, Juniperus foetidissima, Juniperus oblonga, Juniperus sabina, Platycladus orientalis and Taxus baccata are Iranian conifers. The antioxidant activity of leaves and fruits of these 11 different taxons were evaluated. The leaves of both male and female, and fruits of these plants were collected from different areas of the country. Methanol extract of leaves and fruits of these taxons were prepared. Antioxidant activity of each extracts was measured using two different tests of the ferric thiocyanate method and thiobarbituric acid. Results indicated that the methanol extracts of leaves, of male and female, and fruits of all these species (27 samples possessed antioxidant activity when tested with both methods. The antioxidant activity was then compared with those of α-tocopherol (a natural antioxidant and butylated hydroxytoluene (a synthetic antioxidant. Methanol extract of fruits of C. semipervirens cv. Cereifeormis showed the highest antioxidant activity while the methanol extract of leaves of C. semipervirens var. semipervirens possessed the lowest antioxidant activity. However, our finding showed that most of the tested extracts were showing strong antioxidant activity even higher than α-tocopherol.

  17. On the Sharing of Temporary Parental Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna

    2007-01-01

    This paper views temporary parental leave (leave from work to take care of a sick child) as a household public good, produced with time inputs of the parents as the only input. Assuming equal productivities in the production of temporary parental leave and equal utility functions of the spouses......-point of the female is found to push the intra household allocation of temporary parental leave towards greater sharing between the spouses. In addition, an increase in the insurance ceiling will further sharing of temporary parental leave in some families, while reducing it in others....

  18. Temperature and water relations for sun and shade leaves of a desert broadleaf, Hyptis emoryi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, W.K.; Nobel, P.S.

    1977-02-01

    The temperature and water relations of sun versus shade leaves of Hyptis emoryi Torr. were evaluated from field measurements made in late summer. Throughout most of the day sun leaves had higher temperatures and higher resistances to water vapor diffusion, but lower transpiration rates and lower stem water potentials, than did shade leaves. Leaf absorptivity to solar irradiation was less for 1.5-cm-long sun leaves (0.44) than for 4.0-cm shade leaves (0.56). For both leaf types the stomatal resistance increased as the water vapor concentration drop from the leaf to the air increased. Energy balance equations were used together with the measured temperature dependence of photosynthesis to predict the effect of variations in leaf absorptivity, length, and resistance on net photosynthesis. The influence of leaf dimorphism on whole plants was determined by calculating daily photosynthesis and transpiration for plants with various percentages of sun and shade leaves. A hypothetical plant with all sun leaves in the sun had about twice the photosynthesis and half the transpiration ratio as did plants with sun leaves in the shade or shade leaves in the sun or shade. Plants with both sun and shade leaves had the highest predicted photosynthesis per unit ground area. The possible adaptive significance of the seasonal variation in sun and shade leaf percentages observed for individual H. emoryi bushes is discussed in terms of water economy and photosynthesis.

  19. Nondestructive, stereological estimation of canopy surface area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulfsohn, Dvora-Laio; Sciortino, Marco; Aaslyng, Jesper M.

    2010-01-01

    a canopy using the smooth fractionator, (ii) sampling of leaves from the selected plants using the fractionator, and (iii) area estimation of the sampled leaves using point counting. We apply this procedure to estimate the total area of a chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium L.) canopy and evaluate both...

  20. Phytic acid in green leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi Alkarawi, H; Zotz, G

    2014-07-01

    Phytic acid or phytate, the free-acid form of myo-inositolhexakiphosphate, is abundant in many seeds and fruits, where it represents the major storage form of phosphorus. Although also known from other plant tissues, available reports on the occurrence of phytic acid, e.g. in leaves, have never been compiled, nor have they been critically reviewed. We found 45 published studies with information on phytic acid content in leaves. Phytic acid was almost always detected when studies specifically tried to detect it, and accounted for up to 98% of total P. However, we argue that such extreme values, which rival findings from storage organs, are dubious and probably result from measurement errors. Excluding these high values from further quantitative analysis, foliar phytic acid-P averaged 2.3 mg·g(-1) , and represented, on average, 7.6% of total P. Remarkably, the ratio of phytic acid-P to total P did not increase with total P, we even detected a negative correlation of the two variables within one species, Manihot esculenta. This enigmatic finding warrants further attention. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  1. [Antimicrobial susceptibility in Chile 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes-D, Marcela; Silva, Francisco; García, Patricia; Bello, Helia; Briceño, Isabel; Calvo-A, Mario; Labarca, Jaime

    2014-04-01

    Bacteria antimicrobial resistance is an uncontrolled public health problem that progressively increases its magnitude and complexity. The Grupo Colaborativo de Resistencia, formed by a join of experts that represent 39 Chilean health institutions has been concerned with bacteria antimicrobial susceptibility in our country since 2008. In this document we present in vitro bacterial susceptibility accumulated during year 2012 belonging to 28 national health institutions that represent about 36% of hospital discharges in Chile. We consider of major importance to report periodically bacteria susceptibility so to keep the medical community updated to achieve target the empirical antimicrobial therapies and the control measures and prevention of the dissemination of multiresistant strains.

  2. pso.ATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    isolates vere made using standard methods, Antibiotic susceptibility tests against commonly prescribed ... Acute otitis media is rapid with short .... sensitivity tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests: The antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of major Gram positive and negative bacterial isolates obtained from clinical specimens.

  3. RECRUITMENT FINANCED BY SAVED LEAVE (RSL PROGRAMME)

    CERN Multimedia

    Division du Personnel; Tel. 73903

    1999-01-01

    Transfer to the saved leave account and saved leave bonusStaff members participating in the RSL programme may opt to transfer up to 10 days of unused annual leave or unused compensatory leave into their saved leave account, at the end of the leave year, i.e. 30 September (as set out in the implementation procedure dated 27 August 1997).A leave transfer request form, which you should complete, sign and return, if you wish to use this possibility, has been addressed you. To allow the necessary time for the processing of your request, you should return it without delay.As foreseen in the implementation procedure, an additional day of saved leave will be granted for each full period of 20 days remaining in the saved leave account on 31 December 1999, for any staff member participating in the RSL programme until that date.For part-time staff members participating in the RSL programme, the above-mentioned days of leave (annual, compensatory and saved) are adjusted proportionally to their contractual working week as...

  4. Hypnotic susceptibility and dream characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamore, N; Barrett, D

    1989-11-01

    This study examined the relationship of hypnotic susceptibility to a variety of dream characteristics and types of dream content. A Dream Questionnaire was constructed synthesizing Gibson's dream inventory and Hilgard's theoretical conceptions of hypnosis. Employing the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility and the Field Inventory for evaluating hypnotic response, several dream dimensions correlated significantly with hypnotizability. For subjects as a whole, the strongest correlates were the frequency of dreams which they believed to be precognitive and out-of-body dreams. Ability to dream on a chosen topic also correlated significantly with hypnotic susceptibility for both genders. For females only, there was a negative correlation of hypnotic susceptibility to flying dreams. Absorption correlated positively with dream recall, ability to dream on a chosen topic, reports of conflict resolution in dreams, creative ideas occurring in dreams, amount of color in dreams, pleasantness of dreams, bizarreness of dreams, flying dreams and precognitive dreams.

  5. Ancestral susceptibility to colorectal cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Huhn, S.; Pardini, Barbara; Naccarati, Alessio; Vodička, Pavel (ed.); Hemminki, K.; Försti, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2012), s. 197-204 ISSN 0267-8357 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/07/1430; GA ČR GAP304/10/1286 Grant - others:EU FP7(XE) HEALTH-F4-2007-200767 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : cancer susceptibility * molecular epidemiology * genetic susceptibility Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.500, year: 2012

  6. RESPONSE OF OXIDATIVE STRESS DEFENSE SYSTEMS IN RICE (ORYZA SATIVA) LEAVES WITH SUPPLEMENTAL UV-B RADIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of elevated ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 280-320 nm) on membrane systems and lipid peroxidation, and possible involvement of active oxygen radicals was investigated in leaves of two UV-B susceptible rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L. cvs IR74 and Dular). Rice seedlings ...

  7. Tobacco use increases susceptibility to bacterial infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demuth Donald R

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Active smokers and those exposed to secondhand smoke are at increased risk of bacterial infection. Tobacco smoke exposure increases susceptibility to respiratory tract infections, including tuberculosis, pneumonia and Legionnaires disease; bacterial vaginosis and sexually transmitted diseases, such as chlamydia and gonorrhoea; Helicobacter pylori infection; periodontitis; meningitis; otitis media; and post-surgical and nosocomial infections. Tobacco smoke compromises the anti-bacterial function of leukocytes, including neutrophils, monocytes, T cells and B cells, providing a mechanistic explanation for increased infection risk. Further epidemiological, clinical and mechanistic research into this important area is warranted.

  8. [Magnetic Response of Dust-loaded Leaves in Parks of Shanghai to Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Chu, Hui-min; Zheng, Xiang-min

    2015-12-01

    To reveal the magnetic response to the atmospheric heavy metal pollution in leaves along urban parks, Camphor leaf samples, widely distributed at urban parks, were collected along the year leading wind direction of Shanghai, by setting two vertical and horizontal sections, using rock magnetic properties and heavy metal contents analysis. The results showed that the magnetic minerals of samples were predominated by ferromagnetic minerals, and both the concentration and grain size of magnetite particles gradually decreased with the winter monsoon direction from the main industrial district. A rigorous cleaning of leaves using ultrasonic agitator washer could remove about 63%-90% of low-field susceptibility values of the leaves, and this strongly indicated that the intensity of magnetic signal was mainly controlled by the PMs accumulated on the leaves surfaces. Moreover, there was a significant linear relationship between heavy metals contents (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cr, V and Pb) and magnetic parameters (0.442 ≤ R ≤ 0.799, P park leaves could be used as a proxy for atmospheric heavy metal pollution. The results of multivariate statistical analysis showed that the content of magnetic minerals and heavy metal indust-loaded tree leaves was affected by associated pollution of industry and traffic.

  9. Development of Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex Fr. on leaves of common poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Kułek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of Botrytis cinerea was assessed on six cultivars of common poinsettia, differing in the colour of bracts, and being in great demand among buyers of these ornamental plants. Resistance to this pathogen differed in the investigated poinsettias. Cultivar 'Malibu Red' (red bracts turned out to be most susceptible, while cv. 'Marblestar' (cream-pink and cv. 'Coco White' (white - relatively resistant to this fungus. After application of various inoculation methods (leaf discs, cut off leaves, whole plants the differences in resistance to B. cinerea were confirmed for two extreme cultivars - susceptible ('Malibu Red' and resistant ('Coco White', which indicated genetic background of this polymorphism. The rate of disease development on poinsettia leaves was affected by the amount of spores used for inoculation (optimum density of 3.5·105 B. cinerea conidia / ml suspension and the addition of stimulants (0.1 M glucose with 0.05 M KH2PO4, which facilitated germination and infection of the host tissue. The inoculated poinsettia leaves showed high stability of plasma membranes. In the susceptible cultivar, in spite of the development of necrotic spots, a significant increase in the membrane damage index (by 13% was found only on day 7 of the disease development.

  10. Paid Sick Leave and Job Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Heather D.

    2013-01-01

    A compelling, but unsubstantiated, argument for paid sick leave legislation is that workers with leave are better able to address own and family member health needs without risking a voluntary or involuntary job separation. This study tests that claim using the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and regression models controlling for a large set of worker and job characteristics, as well as with propensity score techniques. Results suggest that paid sick leave decreases the probability of job separation by at least 2.5 percentage points, or 25%. The association is strongest for workers without paid vacation leave and for mothers. PMID:24235780

  11. Fathers on Parental Leave in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinicke, Kenneth; Cybulski, Franz Wilhelm; Drews, Lea Vedel

    2005-01-01

    In the article it is argued that contemporary fatherhood and masculinity differ increasingly from hegemonic masculinity according to which men are primarily responsible for ensuring the financial basis of the family. The article “Fathers on Parental Leave in Denmark”, based on interviews with 15......, parental leave and domestic affairs. The article also demonstrates that the issue of parental leave may cause a conflict of interest between an employer and en employee although the majority of employers in this study emphasize that parental leave is unproblematic for them....

  12. MAPEAMENTO DAS ÁREAS SUSCETÍVEIS À EROSÃO HÍDRICA NOS MUNICÍPIOS DE CALDAS NOVAS, NOVA AMÉRICA E RIO QUENTE (GO MAPPING THE EROSION SUSCEPTIBLE AREAS OF CALDAS NOVAS, NOVA AMÉRICA AND RIO QUENTE, GOIÁS - BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Coutinho de Oliveira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A importância de mapear as áreas suscetíveis à erosão hídrica nos municípios de Caldas Novas, Nova América e Rio Quente deve-se ao fato de que eles apresentaram os maiores índices de precipitação pluviométrica e pelo potencial que os mesmos representam para o estado de Goiás, principalmente o turístico. Na elaboração desses mapas, estabeleceram-se preliminarmente os planos de informação referentes às classes de solo, à declividade e ao uso do solo através de digitalização, empregando o software SGI/INPE, e a espacialização da intensidade de precipitação com duração de 30 minutos sobre a base cartográfica dos municípios, obtendo assim os mapas temáticos. Através do cruzamento dos mapas temáticos, foram classificadas e mapeadas as áreas suscetíveis à erosão hídrica. A metodologia empregada mostrou-se satisfatória, permitindo gerar os mapas temáticos das áreas suscetíveis à erosão hídrica nos municípios estudados que servirão de orientação para os trabalhos de campo.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Erosão; sistema de informação geográfica; conservação do solo.

    The importance of mapping the erosion susceptible areas of Caldas Novas, Nova América and Rio Quente is that these municipalities present high rainfall rates and the potential they represent for the Goiás state, mostly for tourism. As a preliminary to elaborate these maps the soil type, slope and use of classes information were planned through digitalization using the SGI/INPE software, and a spatialization of the 30 minutes rainfall intensity over the municipalities cartographic base, obtaining the thematic maps. Through thematic maps crossing, the erosion susceptible areas were classified and mapped. The methodology used was considered satisfactory and generated the thematic

  13. Over-expression in the nucleotide-binding site-leucine rich repeat gene DEPG1 increases susceptibility to bacterial leaf streak disease in transgenic rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lijia; Li, Min; Wang, Wujing; Wang, Lijuan; Hao, Guojing; Guo, Chiming; Chen, Liang

    2012-04-01

    Bacterial leaf streak of rice (BLS) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc) is a widely-spread disease in the main rice-producing areas of the world. Investigating the genes that play roles in rice-Xoc interactions helps us to understand the defense signaling pathway in rice. Here we report a differentially expressed protein gene (DEPG1), which regulates susceptibility to BLS. DEPG1 is a nucleotide-binding site (NBS)-leucine rich repeat (LRR) gene, and the deduced protein sequence of DEPG1 has approximately 64% identity with that of the disease resistance gene Pi37. Phylogenetic analysis of DEPG1 and the 18 characterized NBS-LRR genes revealed that DEPG1 is more closely related to Pi37. DEPG1 protein is located to the cytoplasm, which was confirmed by transient expression of DEPG1-GFP (green fluorescent protein) fusion construct in onion epidermal cells. Semi-quantitative PCR assays showed that DEPG1 is widely expressed in rice, and is preferentially expressed in internodes, leaf blades, leaf sheaths and flag leaves. Observation of cross sections of leaves from the transgenic plants with a DEPG1-promoter::glucuronidase (GUS) fusion gene revealed that DEPG1 is also highly expressed in mesophyll tissues where Xoc mainly colonizes. Additionally, Xoc negatively regulates expression of DEPG1 at the early stage of the pathogen infection, and so do the three defense-signal compounds including salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic-acid (ACC). Transgenic rice plants overexpressing DEPG1 exhibit enhanced susceptibility to Xoc compared to the wild-type controls. Moreover, enhanced susceptibility to Xoc may be mediated by inhibition of the expression of some SA biosynthesis-related genes and pathogenesis-related genes that may contribute to the disease resistance. Taken together, DEPG1 plays roles in the interactions between rice and BLS pathogen Xoc.

  14. Multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria on fluted pumpkin leaves, a herb of therapeutic value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbeneghu, Oluwatoyin A; Abdu, Abdulrasheed B

    2014-06-01

    Fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) is a minimally-processed green leafy vegetable traditionally used for its antianaemic properties in the form of leaf juice without a heating or inactivation step before consumption. The aim of the study was to assess the presence of surface microbiota on T. occidentalis leaves and also to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolated organisms. Bacterial contaminants on 50 samples of T. occidentalis leaves were isolated and characterized using standard biochemical methods and the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolated organisms was determined using the antibiotic disc diffusion assay. The results obtained show that the leaves of T. occidentalis is contaminated with organisms which included Enterobacter agglomerans (25.9%), Proteus vulgaris (24.9%), Klebsiella spp. (2.6%), and Serratia liquefaciens (2.1%). Other bacterial isolates recovered in order of frequency included: Staphylococcus spp. (33.7%), Bacillus spp. (8.3%), and Pseudomonas fluorescens (2.6%). Of the 193 bacterial isolates from the leaves of T. occidentalis samples tested for antimicrobial resistance, all (100%) were found to be resistant to ampicillin, cloxacillin, augmentin, erythromycin, and tetracycline while 96% of the isolates were resistant to cephalothin. Resistance to trimethoprim (93%) and gentamicin (83%) was also observed. Approximately, 22% of the isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin; however, only 11 (5.8%) were resistant to ofloxacin. Thus, uncooked T. occidentalis is a potential source of highly-resistant epiphytic bacteria which could be opportunistic pathogens in consumers.

  15. Leaf Gas Exchange and Chlorophyll a Fluorescence in Maize Leaves Infected with Stenocarpella macrospora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez-Cardona, Maria Bianney; Wordell Filho, João Américo; Rodrigues, Fabrício Ávila

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of macrospora leaf spot (MLS), caused by Stenocarpella macrospora, on photosynthetic gas exchange parameters and chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters determined in leaves of plants from two maize cultivars ('ECVSCS155' and 'HIB 32R48H') susceptible and highly susceptible, respectively, to S. macrospora. MLS severity was significantly lower in the leaves of plants from ECVSCS155 relative to the leaves of plants from HIB 32R48H. In both cultivars, net CO2 assimilation rate, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate significantly decreased, while the internal to ambient CO2 concentration ratio increased in inoculated plants relative to noninoculated plants. The initial fluorescence and nonphotochemical quenching significantly increased in inoculated plants of ECVSCS155 and HIB 32R48H, respectively, relative to noninoculated plants. The maximum fluorescence, maximum PSII quantum efficiency, coefficient for photochemical quenching, and electron transport rate significantly decreased in inoculated plants relative to noninoculated plants. For both cultivars, concentrations of total chlorophyll (Chl) (a+b) and carotenoids and the Chl a/b ratio significantly decreased in inoculated plants relative to noninoculated plants. In conclusion, the results from the present study demonstrate, for the first time, that photosynthesis in the leaves of maize plants is dramatically affected during the infection process of S. macrospora, and impacts are primarily associated with limitations of a diffusive and biochemical nature.

  16. Clay mineralogy and magnetic susceptibility of Oxisols in geomorphic surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Arantes Camargo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies analyzing the variability of clay minerals and magnetic susceptibility provide data for the delineation of site-specific management areas since many of their attributes are important to agronomy and the environment. This study aimed to evaluate the spatial variability of clay minerals, magnetic susceptibility, adsorbed phosphorus and physical attributes in Oxisols of sandstones in different geomorphic surfaces. For that purpose, soil samples were collected every 25 m along a transect located within the area where the geomorphic surfaces were identified and mapped. The transect occupied the central portion of 500 ha, where it was also sampled for density purposes with one sample per six hectares. Soil samples were collected at a depth of 0.0-0.2 m. The results of the physical, chemical, mineralogical and magnetic susceptibility analyses were subjected to statistical and geostatistical analyses. The nature of the clay minerals and magnetic susceptibility was dependent on the variation of the soil parent material. High values of magnetic susceptibility were associated with the presence of maghemite and magnetite of coarse size. The spatial variability of crystallinity and the content of Fe oxides, as well as magnetic susceptibility, were dependent on the age of the geomorphic surfaces. The youngest surface had greater spatial variability of these attributes. The iron (goethite and hematite and aluminum (gibbsite oxides in the youngest geomorphic surface influenced the low values of soil density and high values of total pore volume, micropores and P adsorption. The characterization of the spatial variability of Fe oxides and susceptibility allowed for the delineation of homogeneous areas.

  17. Identification of seismically susceptible areas in western Himalaya ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Forty-seven villages and one urban center with. 32.4% of the total population of Narendrana- gar were at higher risk due to seismotectonics of the region. Hypocenter of ..... (2011) observed five spa- tial clusters in the vicinity of MCT in the entire. Himalayan arc, and put forward the hypothesis that MCT is seismically active in ...

  18. Comparative Life Tables of the Potato Tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella, on Leaves and Tubers of Different Potato Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golizadeh, Ali; Esmaeili, Nader; Razmjou, Jabraeil; Rafiee-Dastjerdi, Hooshang

    2014-01-01

    The potato tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a serious pest of the potato, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), in both fields and stores in tropical and subtropical regions. In the present study, the susceptibility of different potato cultivars to P. operculella was evaluated by measuring life table parameters. Tests were undertaken with leaves and tubers of 10 potato cultivars in the laboratory: Agria, Agata, Almera, Arinda, Baneba, Fiana, Marfona, Ramus, Satina, and Volvox. All parameters showed significant differences among tested cultivars. The longest mean generation times were observed on Marfona and Satina cultivars in the experiments on potato leaves and tubers, respectively. The lowest reproductive rate was observed on leaves and tubers of Marfona cultivar. Correspondingly, the lowest values of intrinsic rate of increase and the lowest finite rate of increase were also obtained on Marfona cultivar in tests on potato leaves and tubers. The highest intrinsic rate of incrase values were observed on Arinda and Baneba in the tests on leaves and tubers, respectively. The intrinsic rates of increase were significantly higher on potato leaves than on potato tubers. The lower performance of P. operculella on Marfona cultivar indicated that this cultivar is relatively less susceptible this pest and could be used in integrated pest management programs of P. operculella.

  19. Susceptibility Genes in Thyroid Autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Ban

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD are complex diseases which are caused by an interaction between susceptibility genes and environmental triggers. Genetic susceptibility in combination with external factors (e.g. dietary iodine is believed to initiate the autoimmune response to thyroid antigens. Abundant epidemiological data, including family and twin studies, point to a strong genetic influence on the development of AITD. Various techniques have been employed to identify the genes contributing to the etiology of AITD, including candidate gene analysis and whole genome screening. These studies have enabled the identification of several loci (genetic regions that are linked with AITD, and in some of these loci, putative AITD susceptibility genes have been identified. Some of these genes/loci are unique to Graves' disease (GD and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT and some are common to both the diseases, indicating that there is a shared genetic susceptibility to GD and HT. The putative GD and HT susceptibility genes include both immune modifying genes (e.g. HLA, CTLA-4 and thyroid specific genes (e.g. TSHR, Tg. Most likely, these loci interact and their interactions may influence disease phenotype and severity.

  20. Estimating chlorophyll content from Eucalyptus dunnii leaves by reflectance values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Alexandre Lopes Dranski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate photosynthetic pigments contents from leaves of Eucalyptus dunni Maiden based on values of reflectance spectra of red, green and blue colors obtained with a digital color analyzer. We collected fifty leaves from the lower third of the crown of twenty trees including young as well as mature leaves. From each leaf an area of 14 cm2 of the leaf blade was cut in which we measured reflectance values on the red, green and blue spectra with a portable digital colorimeter, obtained relative index of chlorophyll with a SPAD – 502 and determined the content of the chlorophyll a, b, and a + b by classic method of solvent extraction. We submitted the data to multiple linear regression and nonlinear analysis at 5% of error probability. It was evaluated the occurrence of multicollinearity. The negative exponential model resulted in good fit when data from red spectrum was used for chlorophyll a, green spectrum for chlorophyll b and a + b, making possible correlation coefficients between the estimated values and the extracted above 0.85. Except for the chlorophyll a content, the accuracy in estimates of photosynthetic pigments were higher than estimated by the chlorophyll meter, even with linearity between methods. Therefore, it is possible to estimate photosynthetic pigments on E. dunni leaves through values of red and green wavelengths from a digital color analyser.

  1. FLOOD SUSCEPTIBILITY ASSESSMENT IN THE NIRAJ BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANDA ROŞCA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Flood susceptibility assessment in the Niraj basin. In the context of global warming and the increasing frequency of extreme weather events, it becomes evident that we have to face natural hazards, such as floods. In the area of Niraj basin this phenomenon is specific both in the spring, because of the snow melting and of the precipitations which come along with the season, and then in the summer because of the torrential precipitations but rarely in autumn and winter. The aim of this paper is to determinate the susceptibility of the zone and obtain a map which will take into consideration the possibility of a flooding. Defining vulnerability can help us understand this type of natural disasters and find the best ways to reduce it. For this purpose we use thematic layers, morphological characteristics (slope and depth fragmentation, hydrological characteristics, geology, pedology (permeability and soil texture, landuse, precipitation data, and human interventions because in this way we have the possibility to use data mining for this purpose. Data mining will allow us to extract new information based on the existing sets of data.The final result will be a thematic map that highlights the areas which are exposed to the flood. Therefore, this map can be used as a support decision for local government or business purposes.

  2. Developing an Alternative Sabbatical Leave Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleman, John J.

    A study was conducted at Vista College to compare the sabbatical leave policy of the Peralta Community College District with those of other districts and to develop alternative policies that would permit a greater number of faculty to obtain sabbatical leaves. Policy statements were received from nine of the twelve districts surveyed, and…

  3. Resilience and Young People Leaving Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Mike

    2008-01-01

    How do we promote the resilience of young people leaving care? This article explores this question by bringing together research findings on the resilience of young people from disadvantaged family backgrounds with research studies on young people leaving care. These findings are applied to young people during their journey to adulthood: their…

  4. Recovery of protein from green leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamayo Tenorio, Angelica; Gieteling, Jarno; Jong, De Govardus A.H.; Boom, Remko M.; Goot, Van Der Atze J.

    2016-01-01

    Plant leaves are a major potential source of novel food proteins. Till now, leaf protein extraction methods mainly focus on the extraction of soluble proteins, like rubisco protein, leaving more than half of all protein unextracted. Here, we report on the total protein extraction from sugar beet

  5. INTRODUCTION OF A NEW LEAVE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    CERN Multimedia

    DIVISION HR

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of new leave rules (arising from the RSL, PRP and other programs) has made the present leave management system rather complicated and difficult to manage. It has therefore been decided to replace it with a more flexible and adaptable system, which will come into force on 1st October 2000. Henceforth, days of leave will be credited monthly instead of annually. Members of the personnel will have round-the-clock direct access to more detailed, confidential information regarding their various kinds of leave. They will also receive a personal monthly statement with their pay slips. The new system does not require any amendment of the regulations, except with respect to the frequency of leave calculations (monthly instead of annual). I. Main characteristics of the new leave system1. The main feature of the new system is the creation of accounts to which leave will be credited or debited as appropriate. Depending on their circumstances, members of the personnel may have up to four individual leave a...

  6. INTRODUCTION OF A NEW LEAVE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of new leave rules (arising from the RSL, PRP and other programmes) has made the present leave management system rather complicated and difficult to manage. It has therefore been decided to replace it with a more flexible and adaptable system, which will come into force on 1st October 2000. Henceforth, days of leave will be credited monthly instead of annually. Members of the personnel will have round-the-clock direct access to more detailed, confidential information regarding their various kinds of leave.They will also receive a personal monthly statement with their pay slips. The new system does not require any amendment of the regulations, except with respect to the frequency of leave calculations (monthly instead of annual). I. Main characteristics of the new leave system 1. The main feature of the new system is the creation of accounts to which leave will be credited or debited as appropriate. Depending on their circumstances, members of the personnel may have up to four individual leave...

  7. A Feminist Perspective on Parental Leave Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallee, Margaret W.

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the ways that three feminist theories--liberal feminism, cultural feminism, and feminist poststructuralism--might be used to craft parental leave policies. After examining each theory in detail, the article concludes by offering one example of an ideal parental leave policy that combines the best features of each theory to…

  8. Inherited susceptibility and radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, J.B. [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States)

    1997-03-01

    There is continuing concern that some people in the general population may have genetic makeups that place them at particularly high risk for radiation-induced cancer. The existence of such a susceptible subpopulation would have obvious implications for the estimation of risks of radiation exposure. Although it has been long known that familial aggregations of cancer do sometimes occur, recent evidence suggests that a general genetic predisposition to cancer does not exist; most cancers occur sporadically. On the other hand, nearly 10% of the known Mendelian genetic disorders are associated with cancer. A number of these involve a familial predisposition to cancer, and some are characterized by an enhanced susceptibility to the induction of cancer by various physical and chemical carcinogens, including ionizing radiation. Such increased susceptibility will depend on several factors including the frequency of the susceptibility gene in the population and its penetrance, the strength of the predisposition, and the degree to which the cancer incidence in susceptible individuals may be increased by the carcinogen. It is now known that these cancer-predisposing genes may be responsible not only for rare familial cancer syndromes, but also for a proportion of the common cancers. Although the currently known disorders can account for only a small fraction of all cancers, they serve as models for genetic predisposition to carcinogen-induced cancer in the general population. In the present report, the author describes current knowledge of those specific disorders that are associated with an enhanced predisposition to radiation-induced cancer, and discusses how this knowledge may bear on the susceptibility to radiation-induced cancer in the general population and estimates of the risk of radiation exposure.

  9. Automated sliding susceptibility mapping of rock slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Günther

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a suite of extensions for ARCVIEW GIS™ (ESRI that allows to map the spatial distribution of first-order mechanical slope-properties in hard rock terrain, e.g. for large slope areas like water reservoir slopes. Besides digital elevation data, this expert-system includes regional continuous grid-based data on geological structures that might act as potential sliding or cutoff planes for rockslides. The system allows rapid automated mapping of geometrical and kinematical slope properties in hard rock, providing the basis for spatially distributed deterministic sliding-susceptibility evaluations on a pixel base. Changing hydrostatic slope conditions and rock mechanical parameters can be implemented and used for simple predictive static stability calculations. Application is demonstrated for a study area in the Harz Mts., Germany.

  10. pitting corrosion susceptibility pitting corrosion susceptibility of aisi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Abstract. The susceptibility of austenitic (AISI 301) stainless steel to pitting corrosion was evaluated in sodium chloride. (NaCl) solutions ... AISI 301 steel suffers from pitting corrosion in all the investigated solutions. AISI 301 steel suffers from ..... [1] Ijeomah, M.N.C. Elements of Corrosion and Protection. Theory, Auto Century ...

  11. Magnetic Susceptability Measurements in Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jason; Mallory, Kendall; Seim, Ryan

    2000-04-01

    A new undergraduate research facility in magnetic susceptability measurements on superconductors is being developed at the University of Northern Colorado. Initial data measurements of the magnetic susceptability of various superconductors will be presented. These measurements were obtained with a liquid helium/nitrogen dewar that was reassembled for use in this project. The cryostat consists of two separate dewars, the first of which contains liquid nitrogen, the second, liquid helium. The liquid nitrogen dewar is used to keep the helium bath from evaporating off too quickly. Data on the evaporation rates of the two liquids will also be presented.

  12. In vitro susceptibilities of Brucella melitensis isolates to eleven antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loukaides Feidias

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis is an endemic disease present in many countries worldwide, but it is rare in Europe and North America. Nevertheless brucella is included in the bacteria potentially used for bioterrorism. The aim of this study was the investigation of the antibiotic susceptibility profile of brucella isolates from areas of the eastern Mediterranean where it has been endemic. Methods The susceptibilities of 74 Brucella melitensis isolates derived from clinical samples (57 and animal products (17 were tested in vitro. The strains originate from Crete (59, Cyprus (10, and Syria (5. MICs of tetracycline, rifampicin, streptomycin, gentamicin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, and erythromycin were detected by E-test method. The NCCLS criteria for slow growing bacteria were considered to interpret the results. Results All the isolates were susceptible to tetracycline, streptomycin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and levofloxacin. Two isolates presented reduced susceptibility to rifampicin (MIC value: 1.5 mg/l and eight to SXT (MIC values: 0.75–1.5 mg/l. Erythromycin had the highest (4 mg/l MIC90value and both norfloxacin and erythromycin the highest (1.5 mg/l MIC50 value. Conclusion Brucella isolates remain susceptible in vitro to most antibiotics used for treatment of brucellosis. The establishment of a standardized antibiotic susceptibility method for Brucella spp would be useful for resistance determination in these bacteria and possible evaluation of bioterorism risks.

  13. Effects of Inventory Bias on Landslide Susceptibility Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, T. A.; Kirschbaum, D. B.

    2017-01-01

    Many landslide inventories are known to be biased, especially inventories for large regions such as Oregon's SLIDO or NASA's Global Landslide Catalog. These biases must affect the results of empirically derived susceptibility models to some degree. We evaluated the strength of the susceptibility model distortion from postulated biases by truncating an unbiased inventory. We generated a synthetic inventory from an existing landslide susceptibility map of Oregon, then removed landslides from this inventory to simulate the effects of reporting biases likely to affect inventories in this region, namely population and infrastructure effects. Logistic regression models were fitted to the modified inventories. Then the process of biasing a susceptibility model was repeated with SLIDO data. We evaluated each susceptibility model with qualitative and quantitative methods. Results suggest that the effects of landslide inventory bias on empirical models should not be ignored, even if those models are, in some cases, useful. We suggest fitting models in well-documented areas and extrapolating across the study region as a possible approach to modeling landslide susceptibility with heavily biased inventories.

  14. Effects of Inventory Bias on Landslide Susceptibility Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Thomas; Kirschbaum, Dalia B.

    2017-01-01

    Many landslide inventories are known to be biased, especially inventories for large regions such as Oregons SLIDO or NASAs Global Landslide Catalog. These biases must affect the results of empirically derived susceptibility models to some degree. We evaluated the strength of the susceptibility model distortion from postulated biases by truncating an unbiased inventory. We generated a synthetic inventory from an existing landslide susceptibility map of Oregon, then removed landslides from this inventory to simulate the effects of reporting biases likely to affect inventories in this region, namely population and infrastructure effects. Logistic regression models were fitted to the modified inventories. Then the process of biasing a susceptibility model was repeated with SLIDO data. We evaluated each susceptibility model with qualitative and quantitative methods. Results suggest that the effects of landslide inventory bias on empirical models should not be ignored, even if those models are, in some cases, useful. We suggest fitting models in well-documented areas and extrapolating across the study region as a possible approach to modelling landslide susceptibility with heavily biased inventories.

  15. Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Andreas P.M.

    2008-04-25

    Transitory starch builds up in photosynthesizing leaves during the day and is then degraded each night. It has recently been shown through mutant analysis and genetically engineered plants that transitory starch is required for maximal rates of photosynthesis, especially in high carbon dioxide atmospheres. Understanding the pathway by which carbon is exported from chloroplasts at night is limited. Previous work has shown that starch conversion to sucrose at night involves maltose export from chloroplasts. This pathway for carbon export from chloroplasts normally does not occur during the day. The regulation of maltose formation, the transporters that allow export of maltose from the chloroplast, and the cytosolic reactions by which maltose is converted to sucrose remain obscure. Genomic and biochemical approaches are proposed here to address maltose metabolism and transport. The research will cover three areas (1) how are hydrolytic and phosphorylytic starch degradation regulated, (2) how is maltose exported from chloroplasts, and (3) how is maltose converted to sucrose in the cytosol? It is expected that this research will lead to new insights about photosynthesis at high carbon dioxide levels, how carbon is partitioned in plants, and how partitioning can be altered to adapt plants to human needs.

  16. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND SUSCEPTIBILITY OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    In recent years, the problem of multiple drug resistance is growing and the outlook for the use ... The plant leaves and twigs were air-dried for two weeks. They were pulverized into powder with a mechanical blender and sieved with 0.50mm mesh. ... Phytochemical Analysis: The extracts of Evolvulus alsinoides were tested ...

  17. Towards a Remote Sensing Based Assessment of Land Susceptibility to Degradation: Examining Seasonal Variation in Land Use-Land Cover for Modelling Land Degradation in a Semi-Arid Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashame, Gofamodimo; Akinyemi, Felicia

    2016-06-01

    Land degradation (LD) is among the major environmental and anthropogenic problems driven by land use-land cover (LULC) and climate change worldwide. For example, poor LULC practises such as deforestation, livestock overstocking, overgrazing and arable land use intensification on steep slopes disturbs the soil structure leaving the land susceptible to water erosion, a type of physical land degradation. Land degradation related problems exist in Sub-Saharan African countries such as Botswana which is semi-arid in nature. LULC and LD linkage information is still missing in many semi-arid regions worldwide.Mapping seasonal LULC is therefore very important in understanding LULC and LD linkages. This study assesses the impact of seasonal LULC variation on LD utilizing Remote Sensing (RS) techniques for Palapye region in Central District, Botswana. LULC classes for the dry and rainy seasons were classified using LANDSAT 8 images at Level I according to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) International Organization of Standardization (ISO) code 19144. Level I consists of 10 LULC classes. The seasonal variations in LULC are further related to LD susceptibility in the semi-arid context. The results suggest that about 985 km² (22%) of the study area is susceptible to LD by water, major LULC types affected include: cropland, paved/rocky material, bare land, built-up area, mining area, and water body. Land degradation by water susceptibility due to seasonal land use-land cover variations is highest in the east of the study area where there is high cropland to bare land conversion.

  18. TOWARDS A REMOTE SENSING BASED ASSESSMENT OF LAND SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DEGRADATION: EXAMINING SEASONAL VARIATION IN LAND USE-LAND COVER FOR MODELLING LAND DEGRADATION IN A SEMI-ARID CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mashame

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Land degradation (LD is among the major environmental and anthropogenic problems driven by land use-land cover (LULC and climate change worldwide. For example, poor LULC practises such as deforestation, livestock overstocking, overgrazing and arable land use intensification on steep slopes disturbs the soil structure leaving the land susceptible to water erosion, a type of physical land degradation. Land degradation related problems exist in Sub-Saharan African countries such as Botswana which is semi-arid in nature. LULC and LD linkage information is still missing in many semi-arid regions worldwide.Mapping seasonal LULC is therefore very important in understanding LULC and LD linkages. This study assesses the impact of seasonal LULC variation on LD utilizing Remote Sensing (RS techniques for Palapye region in Central District, Botswana. LULC classes for the dry and rainy seasons were classified using LANDSAT 8 images at Level I according to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO International Organization of Standardization (ISO code 19144. Level I consists of 10 LULC classes. The seasonal variations in LULC are further related to LD susceptibility in the semi-arid context. The results suggest that about 985 km² (22% of the study area is susceptible to LD by water, major LULC types affected include: cropland, paved/rocky material, bare land, built-up area, mining area, and water body. Land degradation by water susceptibility due to seasonal land use-land cover variations is highest in the east of the study area where there is high cropland to bare land conversion.

  19. Bacteriology and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Otitis Media at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    In Ethiopia, although studies on bacteriology and microbial susceptibility of otitis media have been conducted in children (13-15), no recent data have been reported from adults particularly in the study area. This study was undertaken to determine bacterial pathogens and their antimicrobial resistance profile from children.

  20. effect of municipal liquid waste on corrosion susceptibility

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. This investigation studied the effect of municipal liquid waste discharged into the environment within Kano municipal area on the corrosion susceptibility of galvanized steel pipe burial underground. Six stagnant and six moving municipal liquid waste samples were used for the investigation. The corrosion rate of ...

  1. Effect of municipal liquid waste on corrosion susceptibility of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This investigation studied the effect of municipal liquid waste discharged into the environment within Kano municipal area on the corrosion susceptibility of galvanized steel pipe burial underground. Six stagnant and six moving municipal liquid waste samples were used for the investigation. The corrosion rate of the ...

  2. Susceptibility of Algerian pepper cultivars (Capsicum annuum L) to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilisateur

    2015-11-04

    Nov 4, 2015 ... Susceptibility of Algerian pepper cultivars (Capsicum annuum L) to Phytophthora capsici strains from different geographic areas. Benabdelkader Messaouda, Guechi Abdelhadi and Mézaache-Aichour Samia*. Laboratory of Applied Microbiology (phytopathology team), Department of Microbiology, Faculty ...

  3. Multiscale/multiresolution landslides susceptibility mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grozavu, Adrian; Cătălin Stanga, Iulian; Valeriu Patriche, Cristian; Toader Juravle, Doru

    2014-05-01

    Within the European strategies, landslides are considered an important threatening that requires detailed studies to identify areas where these processes could occur in the future and to design scientific and technical plans for landslide risk mitigation. In this idea, assessing and mapping the landslide susceptibility is an important preliminary step. Generally, landslide susceptibility at small scale (for large regions) can be assessed through qualitative approach (expert judgements), based on a few variables, while studies at medium and large scale requires quantitative approach (e.g. multivariate statistics), a larger set of variables and, necessarily, the landslide inventory. Obviously, the results vary more or less from a scale to another, depending on the available input data, but also on the applied methodology. Since it is almost impossible to have a complete landslide inventory on large regions (e.g. at continental level), it is very important to verify the compatibility and the validity of results obtained at different scales, identifying the differences and fixing the inherent errors. This paper aims at assessing and mapping the landslide susceptibility at regional level through a multiscale-multiresolution approach from small scale and low resolution to large scale and high resolution of data and results, comparing the compatibility of results. While the first ones could be used for studies at european and national level, the later ones allows results validation, including through fields surveys. The test area, namely the Barlad Plateau (more than 9000 sq.km) is located in Eastern Romania, covering a region where both the natural environment and the human factor create a causal context that favor these processes. The landslide predictors were initially derived from various databases available at pan-european level and progressively completed and/or enhanced together with scale and the resolution: the topography (from SRTM at 90 meters to digital

  4. Topological susceptibility from the overlap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Debbio, Luigi; Pica, Claudio

    2003-01-01

    The chiral symmetry at finite lattice spacing of Ginsparg-Wilson fermionic actions constrains the renormalization of the lattice operators; in particular, the topological susceptibility does not require any renormalization, when using a fermionic estimator to define the topological charge. Theref...

  5. Transmission of Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus from Frozen Infected Leaves to Healthy Rice Plants by Small Brown Planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Tong; Wu, Li-juan; Wang, Ying; Cheng, Zhao-Bang; Ji, Ying-Hua; Yong-jian FAN; Zhou, Yi-Jun

    2011-01-01

    In order to preserve virus for identifying the resistance of rice varieties against rice black-streaked dwarf disease, a simple and reliable method was developed, through which virus-free small brown planthopper (SBPH) acquired rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) from frozen infected leaves and the virus was transmitted to healthy rice plants. The experimental results showed that SBPH could obtain RBSDV from frozen infected rice leaves and the virus could be transmitted to a susceptible r...

  6. Influence of pesticides on yeasts colonizing leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadkertiová, Renata; Sláviková, Elena

    2011-01-01

    The effect of nine different pesticides on the growth of yeasts isolated from the leaves of fruit and forest trees was investigated. Four insecticides (with the active ingredients: thiacloprid, deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, and thiamethoxam) and five fungicides (with the effective substances: bitertanol, kresoxim-methyl, mancozeb, trifloxystrobin, and cupric oxychloride) were tested. The concentrations of chemicals were those recommended by the manufacturers for the spraying of trees. The yeast strains isolated from the leaves of fruit trees were not sensitive to any of the insecticides. The majority of yeast strains isolated from the leaves of forest trees were either not sensitive or only to a small extent. While Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Pichia anomala were not affected by any insecticide, the strains of Cryptococcus laurentii and Rhodotorula glutinis showed the highest sensitivity. The effects of fungicides on the growth of isolated yeasts were more substantial. The fungicide Dithane DG (mancozeb) completely inhibited the growth of all yeasts. All strains isolated from fruit tree leaves were more resistant to the tested fungicides than those isolated from the leaves of forest trees. The most resistant strains from the leaves of fruit trees belonged to the species Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia anomala, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whereas Cryptococcus albidus and C. laurentii, originating from the leaves of forest trees, showed the highest sensitivity to fungicides.

  7. Resistance and susceptibility of mandarins and their hybrids to Alternaria alternata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla de Andrade Pacheco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Caused by Alternaria alternata, Alternaria brown spot (ABS is a major fungal disease of mandarins in Brazil, causing serious losses in commercial orchards of Ponkan tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco and Murcott tangor [C. sinensis (L. Osbeck × C. reticulata Blanco]. The response of 31 accessions/genotypes of mandarins and their hybrids to A. alternata, was evaluated in São Paulo state, Brazil. The incidence and severity of the disease in fruit were evaluated in the field, using diagrammatic scale, four times during 2008 and 2009. Based on these data, the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC was calculated. In parallel, in vivo and in vitro inoculations with A. alternata were made on leaves to confirm field results. Resistance and susceptibility was evaluated in controlled experiments by counting the number of lesions per leaf using a diagrammatic scale. Most of the genotypes were symptomatic after inoculation with A. alternata with disease most severe on the hybrids Nova, África do Sul, Ponkan and Murcott. Cultivars like Cravo, Nules and Ortanique that have excellent fruit quality and had lower AUDPCs, whereas Fremont and Thomas were highly resistant to the fungus and did not show any symptoms in the field or in controlled inoculations. The attractiveness and pronounced flavor of Fremont and Thomas fruit make them new options for the citriculture.

  8. Inventory and recently increasing GLOF susceptibility of glacial lakes in Sikkim, Eastern Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Suruchi; Rai, S. C.; Thakur, P. K.; Emmer, Adam

    2017-10-01

    Climatic changes alter the climate system, leading to a decrease of glacier mass volumes and swelling glacial lakes. This study provides a new inventory of glacial and high-altitude lakes for Sikkim, Eastern Himalaya, and evaluates the susceptibility of lakes to Glacial Lake Outburst Flood (GLOF). By using satellite data of high spatial resolution (5 m), we obtain 1104 glacial and high-altitude lakes with total area 30.498 km2, of which 472 have an area > 0.01 km2. Applying pre-defined GLOF susceptibility criteria on these 472 lakes yields 21 lakes susceptible to GLOF, which all increased in area from 1972-2015. Using Analytic Hierarchy Processes (AHP), the pairwise comparison matrix further reveals that 5 of these glacial lakes have low, 14 have medium and 2 have high GLOF susceptibility. Especially these 16 glacial lakes with high and medium GLOF susceptibility may threaten downstream communities and infrastructure and need further attention.

  9. Structural analysis of Castanea sativa Mill. leaves from different regions in the tree top

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Maria Pinto

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to perform the histological characterization of the C. sativa leaves of three Portuguese cultivars to establish comparison among the leaves of the different quadrants in accord and with the cardinal points of the tree top and among different cultivars of this species, using light microscopy (OM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Measurements were also carried out for the leaf tissue thickness, stomatal density, leaf area in the four tree top quadrants. The leaves turned to the North had lesser thickness of mesophyll mainly due to lower amount of palisade parenchyma. The stomatal density was significantly lower in these leaves, unlike the leaf area that has the highest expression.

  10. 38 CFR 21.6340 - Leaves of absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leaves of absence. 21... Recipients Leaves of Absence § 21.6340 Leaves of absence. (a) General. VA may approve leaves of absence under vertain conditions. During approved leaves of absence, a ceteran shall be considered to be pursuing...

  11. Rainfall-induced landslide susceptibility zonation of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiara Lepore; Sameer A. Kamal; Peter Shanahan; Rafael L. Bras

    2011-01-01

    Landslides are a major geologic hazard with estimated tens of deaths and $1–2 billion in economic losses per year in the US alone. The island of Puerto Rico experiences one or two large events per year, often triggered in steeply sloped areas by prolonged and heavy rainfall. Identifying areas susceptible to landslides thus has great potential value for Puerto Rico and...

  12. Tomato susceptibility to Alternaria stem canker : Parameters involved in host-specific toxin-induced leaf necrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witsenboer, Hanneke M.A.; Kloosterziel, Karen M.; Hateboer, Guus; Nijkamp, H. John J.; Hille, Jacques

    1992-01-01

    AAL-toxin causes severe necrosis in leaves of susceptible tomato cultivars at nanomolar concentrations. In resistant tomato cultivars harbouring the semi-dominant Alternaria stem canker resistance locus necrosis is also observed, however at much higher toxin concentrations, in both lines the

  13. A Quaternary Ammonium Disinfectant Containing Germinants Reduces Clostridium difficile Spores on Surfaces by Inducing Susceptibility to Environmental Stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerandzic, Michelle M; Donskey, Curtis J

    2016-10-01

    Exposing Clostridium difficile spores to germinants in a quaternary ammonium matrix was an effective method to reduce environmental contamination by sensitizing the spores, leaving them susceptible to ambient conditions and enhancing killing by acid, high-intensity visible light, and radiation.

  14. A Quaternary Ammonium Disinfectant Containing Germinants Reduces Clostridium difficile Spores on Surfaces by Inducing Susceptibility to Environmental Stressors

    OpenAIRE

    Nerandzic, Michelle M.; Donskey, Curtis J.

    2016-01-01

    Exposing Clostridium difficile spores to germinants in a quaternary ammonium matrix was an effective method to reduce environmental contamination by sensitizing the spores, leaving them susceptible to ambient conditions and enhancing killing by acid, high-intensity visible light, and radiation.

  15. Hilly grasses and leaves: a promising unconventional feed resource for livestock.

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain M.E.; Karim M.H.; Ahmed M.I.; Sultana S.A.

    2016-01-01

    The study was undertaken to find out the chemical composition of different hilly grasses and leaves available in Bandarban areas of Bangladesh. Total 10 different hilly grasses and leaves such as Bottle gourd leaf (Lagenaria siceraria), Castor bean leaf (Ricinus communis), Cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica), Dhol kolmi (Ipomoea carnea), Giant reed leaf (Arundo donax), Hilly grass (Cynodon dactylon), Pithraj leaf (Aphanamixis polystachya), Sal leaf (Shorea robusta), Shegun leaf (Tectona grandis...

  16. Genetic Susceptibility to Vitiligo: GWAS Approaches for Identifying Vitiligo Susceptibility Genes and Loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Changbing; Gao, Jing; Sheng, Yujun; Dou, Jinfa; Zhou, Fusheng; Zheng, Xiaodong; Ko, Randy; Tang, Xianfa; Zhu, Caihong; Yin, Xianyong; Sun, Liangdan; Cui, Yong; Zhang, Xuejun

    2016-01-01

    Vitiligo is an autoimmune disease with a strong genetic component, characterized by areas of depigmented skin resulting from loss of epidermal melanocytes. Genetic factors are known to play key roles in vitiligo through discoveries in association studies and family studies. Previously, vitiligo susceptibility genes were mainly revealed through linkage analysis and candidate gene studies. Recently, our understanding of the genetic basis of vitiligo has been rapidly advancing through genome-wide association study (GWAS). More than 40 robust susceptible loci have been identified and confirmed to be associated with vitiligo by using GWAS. Most of these associated genes participate in important pathways involved in the pathogenesis of vitiligo. Many susceptible loci with unknown functions in the pathogenesis of vitiligo have also been identified, indicating that additional molecular mechanisms may contribute to the risk of developing vitiligo. In this review, we summarize the key loci that are of genome-wide significance, which have been shown to influence vitiligo risk. These genetic loci may help build the foundation for genetic diagnosis and personalize treatment for patients with vitiligo in the future. However, substantial additional studies, including gene-targeted and functional studies, are required to confirm the causality of the genetic variants and their biological relevance in the development of vitiligo. PMID:26870082

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the leaves of twelve plant species along an urbanization gradient in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jing; Fang, Hailan; Zhang, Taolin; Wang, Xingxiang

    2017-04-01

    Plants, particularly their leaves, play an important role in filtering both gas-phase and particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). However, many studies have focused on the accumulation and adsorption functions of plant leaves, possibly underestimating the effects that plants have on air quality. Therefore, eight tree species from different locations in Shanghai were selected to assess PAH filtering (via adsorption and capture) using washed and unwashed plant leaves. The differences in the total PAH contents in the washed leaves were constant for the different species across the different sampling sites. The PAH levels decreased in the following order: industrial areas > traffic areas > urban areas > background area. The PAH compositions in the different plant leaves were dominated by fluorene (Fle), phenanthrene (Phe), anthracene (Ant), chrysene (Chr), fluoranthene (Flu), and pyrene (Pyr); notably, Phe accounted for 49.4-76.7% of the total PAHs. By comparing the PAH contents in the washed leaves with the PAH contents in the unwashed leaves, Pittosporum tobira (P. tobira), Ginkgo biloba (G. biloba), and Platanus acerifolia (P. acerifolia) were found to be efficient species for adsorbing PAHs, while Osmanthus fragrans (O. fragrans), Magnolia grandiflora (M. grandiflora), and Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. (P. cerasifera Ehrh.) were efficient species for capturing PAHs. The efficiencies of the plant leaves for the removal of PAHs from air occurred in the order of low molecular weight > medium molecular weight > high molecular weight PAHs.

  18. Assessing the Optimal Length of Parental Leave for Child and Parental Well-Being: How Can Research Inform Policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galtry, Judith; Callister, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Parental leave is a complex area of public policy. Concerns include health protection for working mothers, equal employment opportunities for women, access to adequate antenatal and birthing care, maternal recovery, optimal nutrition for infants, and gender equality within families. Given this complexity, the design of parental leave schemes,…

  19. Anthelmintic activity of leaves of justicia beddomei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa, U; Rao, J Venkateshwara; Krupanidhi, A M; Shanmukhappa, S

    2007-01-01

    Ethanolic and Chloroform extract of leaves of Justicia beddomei were evaluated separately for anthelmintic activity on adult Indian earthworms Pheretima posthuma, using Piperazine citrate as reference standard. The results indicated that ethanolic extract was more potent than the chloroform extract.

  20. Occupational exposures and sick leave during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Lausten; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Juhl, Mette

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate associations between work postures, lifting at work, shift work, work hours, and job strain and the risk of sick leave during pregnancy from 10-29 completed pregnancy weeks in a large cohort of Danish pregnant women. METHODS: Data from 51 874 pregnancies...... episode of sick leave as the primary outcome. RESULTS: We found statistically significant associations between all the predictors and risk of sick leave; for non-sitting work postures (HRrange 1.55-2.79), cumulative lifting HRtrend 1.29, 95% CI 1.26-1.31, shift work (HRevening 1.90, 95% CI 1...... previous findings and suggest that initiatives to prevent sick leave during pregnancy could be based on work conditions. Preventive measures may have important implications for pregnant women and workplaces....

  1. Early School Leaving: Reasons and Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika GYÖNÖS

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Early school leaving represents a loss of potential that has effects on both social and economic scale (reduced social cohesion, lower financial incomes, increase of social allocations. Early school leaving has various reasons that can be either social or economic. Due to the average statistics of the 27 countries of the European Union, in 2008 78,5% of the populations of these countries went to school regularly, whereas the same statistics applied for Romania showed an extent of 78,3%. The statistics of early school leaving showed some 14, 9% in the countries of the EU, whereas in Romania this index was higher (15, 9%. Sequel to some analyses we can state that there is a strong relationship between the variables named participation in education and early school leaving; more than that, there is a strong relationship between the extent of school studies completion and the rate of unemployment.

  2. Maternity Leave: Tips for Returning to Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... day your maternity leave ends? Don't despair. Working mothers face many challenges, but with some planning you ... there is no such thing as a perfect mother. Working outside the home doesn't make you a ...

  3. Auxin level and regeneration of Begonia leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heide, O M

    1968-06-01

    As previously found, both the level of ether-extractable auxin (presumably indole-3-acetic acid) and the root-forming ability of B.xcheimantha leaves are increased under long-day conditions by high temperature, whereas the capacity for adventitious bud formation is reduced. However, this relation is present under relatively high light intensity only. Under the low light intensities in late fall neither auxin level nor regeneration ability were significantly affected by temperature.Dark treatment of detached leaves for 2 to 16 days greatly counteracted the inhibitory effect of high temperature on bud formation and reduced both the auxin level and the root-forming ability of the leaves.The great seasonal changes in the regeneration ability of Begonia leaves seem to be the result of a complex interaction of temperature, day-length, and daily light energy on the level of endogenous auxin and other growth regulators.

  4. Fathers, Parental Leave and Gender Norms

    OpenAIRE

    Unterhofer, Ulrike; Wrohlich, Katharina

    2017-01-01

    Social norms and attitudes towards gender roles have been shown to have a large effect on economic outcomes of men and women. Many countries have introduced policies that aim at changing gender stereotypes, for example fathers' quota in parental leave schemes. In this paper, we analyze whether the introduction of the fathers' quota in Germany in 2007, that caused a sharp increase in the take-up of parental leave by fathers, has changed the attitudes towards gender roles in the grandparents' g...

  5. Peer effects in parental leave decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Welteke, Clara; Wrohlich, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes to what extent parental leave decisions of mothers with young children depend on the decisions made by their coworkers. The identification of peer effects, which are defined as indirect effects of the behavior of a social reference group on individual outcomes, bears various challenges due to correlated characteristics within social groups and endogenous group membership. We overcome these challenges by exploiting quasi-random variation in the costs of parental leave durin...

  6. The susceptibility of dental plaque bacteria to the herbs included in Longo Vital®

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T.; Fiehn, N. E.; Østergaard, E.

    1996-01-01

    the in vitro susceptibility of 12 dental plaque bacteria to six individual herbs included in Longo Vital® was determined by a broth dilution method. Paprika, rosemary leaves and peppermint inhibited two thirds of the tested bacteria at 2.8-45 mg/ml, 0.75-12 mg/ml and 3-24 mg/ml corresponding to 0.8-12.5 per...

  7. Reducing Susceptibility to Courtesy Stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachleda, Catherine L; El Menzhi, Leila

    2017-04-19

    In light of the chronic shortage of health professionals willing to care for HIV/AIDS patients, and rising epidemics in many Muslim countries, this qualitative study examined susceptibility and resistance to courtesy stigma as experienced by nurses, doctors, and social workers in Morocco. Forty-nine in-depth interviews provided rich insights into the process of courtesy stigma and how it is managed, within the context of interactions with Islam, interactions within the workplace (patients, other health professionals), and interactions outside the workplace (the general public, friends, and family). Theoretically, the findings extend understanding of courtesy stigma and the dirty work literature. The findings also offer practical suggestions for the development of culturally appropriate strategies to reduce susceptibility to courtesy stigmatization. This study represents the first to explore courtesy stigma as a process experienced by health professionals providing HIV/AIDS care in an Islamic country.

  8. Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new im-plementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme ...

  9. Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new implementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme a...

  10. Office design's impact on sick leave rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin Danielsson, Christina; Chungkham, Holendro Singh; Wulff, Cornelia; Westerlund, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    The effect of office type on sickness absence among office employees was studied prospectively in 1852 employees working in (1) cell-offices; (2) shared-room offices; (3) small, (4) medium-sized and (5) large open-plan offices; (6) flex-offices and (7) combi-offices. Sick leaves were self-reported two years later as number of (a) short and (b) long (medically certified) sick leave spells as well as (c) total number of sick leave days. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used, with adjustment for background factors. A significant excess risk for sickness absence was found only in terms of short sick leave spells in the three open-plan offices. In the gender separate analysis, this remained for women, whereas men had a significantly increased risk in flex-offices. For long sick leave spells, a significantly higher risk was found among women in large open-plan offices and for total number of sick days among men in flex-offices. A prospective study of the office environment's effect on employees is motivated by the high rates of sick leaves in the workforce. The results indicate differences between office types, depending on the number of people sharing workspace and the opportunity to exert personal control as influenced by the features that define the office types.

  11. Controlled human exposures to ambient pollutant particles in susceptible populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghio Andrew J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Epidemiologic studies have established an association between exposures to air pollution particles and human mortality and morbidity at concentrations of particles currently found in major metropolitan areas. The adverse effects of pollution particles are most prominent in susceptible subjects, including the elderly and patients with cardiopulmonary diseases. Controlled human exposure studies have been used to confirm the causal relationship between pollution particle exposure and adverse health effects. Earlier studies enrolled mostly young healthy subjects and have largely confirmed the capability of particles to cause adverse health effects shown in epidemiological studies. In the last few years, more studies involving susceptible populations have been published. These recent studies in susceptible populations, however, have shown that the adverse responses to particles appear diminished in these susceptible subjects compared to those in healthy subjects. The present paper reviewed and compared control human exposure studies to particles and sought to explain the "unexpected" response to particle exposure in these susceptible populations and make recommendations for future studies. We found that the causes for the discrepant results are likely multifactorial. Factors such as medications, the disease itself, genetic susceptibility, subject selection bias that is intrinsic to many controlled exposure studies and nonspecificity of study endpoints may explain part of the results. Future controlled exposure studies should select endpoints that are more closely related to the pathogenesis of the disease and reflect the severity of particle-induced health effects in the specific populations under investigation. Future studies should also attempt to control for medications and genetic susceptibility. Using a different study design, such as exposing subjects to filtered air and ambient levels of particles, and assessing the improvement in

  12. [Changes in eco-morphological parameters of alpine plants' leaves as an effect of fertilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmetzhanova, A A; Onipchenko, V G; Él'kanova, M Kh; Stogova, A V; Tekeev, D K

    2011-01-01

    Plants growing on rich soil usually have thin leaves with large specific leaf area. On the other hand, at intraspecific level; soil fertilization results in leaves size increasing which, in turn, can lead to reduction in specific leaf area. To what extent soil fertilization implies only leaves increasing in size and does not affect other eco-morphological characteristics is a question that is still open. To assess coherence between plants intraspecific reactions to changes in soil richness and general tendencies in changes of leaves parameters in communities with different productivity, an experiment has been conducted in alpine plant communities of the north-western Caucasus. Changes in leaf traits are studied in four types of alpine plant communities after long term application of mineral nutrients (NP and lime treatment). It is shown that in all species, except legume Hedysarum caucasicum, fertilization results in size leaf characteristics (leaf area, wet and dry mass) increase. Specific leaf area appears to decrease in plants inhabiting alpine heathlands and increase in plants inhabiting alpine snow beds and in dominant species of Geranium-Hedysarum meadows, Geranium gymnocaulon. After correction of specific leaf area that accounts for changes in leaf size, it becomes discernable that in most species the increase in leaf area per se results in specific leaf area reduction while changes in leaf structure under influence of fertilization leads to this trait increasing. Those species demonstrating the increase in specific leaf area as an effect of fertilization, also gain more in terms of biomass.

  13. Antibiotic susceptibility of Atopobium vaginae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verschraegen Gerda

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have indicated that a recently described anaerobic bacterium, Atopobium vaginae is associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV. Thus far the four isolates of this fastidious micro-organism were found to be highly resistant to metronidazole and susceptible for clindamycin, two antibiotics preferred for the treatment of BV. Methods Nine strains of Atopobium vaginae, four strains of Gardnerella vaginalis, two strains of Lactobacillus iners and one strain each of Bifidobacterium breve, B. longum, L. crispatus, L. gasseri and L. jensenii were tested against 15 antimicrobial agents using the Etest. Results All nine strains of A. vaginae were highly resistant to nalidixic acid and colistin while being inhibited by low concentrations of clindamycin (range: G. vaginalis strains were also susceptible for clindamycin ( 256 μg/ml but susceptible to clindamycin (0.023 – 0.125 μg/ml. Conclusion Clindamycin has higher activity against G. vaginalis and A. vaginae than metronidazole, but not all A. vaginae isolates are metronidazole resistant, as seemed to be a straightforward conclusion from previous studies on a more limited number of strains.

  14. Characterization of Citrus-Associated Alternaria Species in Mediterranean Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garganese, Francesca; Schena, Leonardo; Siciliano, Ilenia; Prigigallo, Maria Isabella; Spadaro, Davide; De Grassi, Anna; Ippolito, Antonio; Sanzani, Simona Marianna

    2016-01-01

    Alternaria brown spot is one of the most important diseases of tangerines and their hybrids worldwide. Recently, outbreaks in Mediterranean areas related to susceptible cultivars, refocused attention on the disease. Twenty representatives were selected from a collection of 180 isolates of Alternaria spp. from citrus leaves and fruit. They were characterized along with reference strains of Alternaria spp. Micro- and macroscopic characteristics separated most Alternaria isolates into six morphotypes referable to A. alternata (5) and A. arborescens (1). Phylogenetic analyses, based on endopolygalacturonase (endopg) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS), confirmed this finding. Moreover, a five-gene phylogeny including two anonymous genomics regions (OPA 1-3 and OPA 2-1), and the beta-tubulin gene (ß-tub), produced a further clustering of A. alternata into three clades. This analysis suggested the existence of intra-species molecular variability. Investigated isolates showed different levels of virulence on leaves and fruit. In particular, the pathogenicity on fruit seemed to be correlated with the tissue of isolation and the clade. The toxigenic behavior of Alternaria isolates was also investigated, with tenuazonic acid (TeA) being the most abundant mycotoxin (0.2-20 mg/L). Isolates also synthesized the mycotoxins alternariol (AOH), its derivate alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), and altenuene (ALT), although to a lesser extent. AME production significantly varied among the six morphotypes. The expression of pksJ/pksH, biosynthetic genes of AOH/AME, was not correlated with actual toxin production, but it was significantly different between the two genotypes and among the four clades. Finally, ten isolates proved to express the biosynthetic genes of ACTT1 phytotoxin, and thus to be included in the Alternaria pathotype tangerine. A significant correlation between pathogenicity on leaves and ACTT1 gene expression was recorded. The latter was significantly dependent on

  15. Characterization of Citrus-Associated Alternaria Species in Mediterranean Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garganese, Francesca; Schena, Leonardo; Siciliano, Ilenia; Prigigallo, Maria Isabella; Spadaro, Davide; De Grassi, Anna; Ippolito, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Alternaria brown spot is one of the most important diseases of tangerines and their hybrids worldwide. Recently, outbreaks in Mediterranean areas related to susceptible cultivars, refocused attention on the disease. Twenty representatives were selected from a collection of 180 isolates of Alternaria spp. from citrus leaves and fruit. They were characterized along with reference strains of Alternaria spp. Micro- and macroscopic characteristics separated most Alternaria isolates into six morphotypes referable to A. alternata (5) and A. arborescens (1). Phylogenetic analyses, based on endopolygalacturonase (endopg) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS), confirmed this finding. Moreover, a five-gene phylogeny including two anonymous genomics regions (OPA 1–3 and OPA 2–1), and the beta-tubulin gene (ß-tub), produced a further clustering of A. alternata into three clades. This analysis suggested the existence of intra-species molecular variability. Investigated isolates showed different levels of virulence on leaves and fruit. In particular, the pathogenicity on fruit seemed to be correlated with the tissue of isolation and the clade. The toxigenic behavior of Alternaria isolates was also investigated, with tenuazonic acid (TeA) being the most abundant mycotoxin (0.2–20 mg/L). Isolates also synthesized the mycotoxins alternariol (AOH), its derivate alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), and altenuene (ALT), although to a lesser extent. AME production significantly varied among the six morphotypes. The expression of pksJ/pksH, biosynthetic genes of AOH/AME, was not correlated with actual toxin production, but it was significantly different between the two genotypes and among the four clades. Finally, ten isolates proved to express the biosynthetic genes of ACTT1 phytotoxin, and thus to be included in the Alternaria pathotype tangerine. A significant correlation between pathogenicity on leaves and ACTT1 gene expression was recorded. The latter was significantly

  16. A Heuristic Approach to Global Landslide Susceptibility Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Thomas; Kirschbaum, Dalia B.

    2017-01-01

    Landslides can have significant and pervasive impacts to life and property around the world. Several attempts have been made to predict the geographic distribution of landslide activity at continental and global scales. These efforts shared common traits such as resolution, modeling approach, and explanatory variables. The lessons learned from prior research have been applied to build a new global susceptibility map from existing and previously unavailable data. Data on slope, faults, geology, forest loss, and road networks were combined using a heuristic fuzzy approach. The map was evaluated with a Global Landslide Catalog developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, as well as several local landslide inventories. Comparisons to similar susceptibility maps suggest that the subjective methods commonly used at this scale are, for the most part, reproducible. However, comparisons of landslide susceptibility across spatial scales must take into account the susceptibility of the local subset relative to the larger study area. The new global landslide susceptibility map is intended for use in disaster planning, situational awareness, and for incorporation into global decision support systems.

  17. Women’s Reasons for Leaving the Engineering Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Nadya A.; Chang, Wen-Hsin; Wan, Min; Singh, Romila

    2017-01-01

    Among the different Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math fields, engineering continues to have one of the highest rates of attrition (Hewlett et al., 2008). The turnover rate for women engineers from engineering fields is even higher than for men (Frehill, 2010). Despite increased efforts from researchers, there are still large gaps in our understanding of the reasons that women leave engineering. This study aims to address this gap by examining the reasons why women leave engineering. Specifically, we analyze the reasons for departure given by national sample of 1,464 women engineers who left the profession after having worked in the engineering field. We applied a person-environment fit theoretical lens, in particular, the Theory of Work Adjustment (TWA) (Dawis and Lofquist, 1984) to understand and categorize the reasons for leaving the engineering field. According to the TWA, occupations have different “reinforcer patterns,” reflected in six occupational values, and a mismatch between the reinforcers provided by the work environment and individuals’ needs may trigger departure from the environment. Given the paucity of literature in this area, we posed research questions to explore the reinforcer pattern of values implicated in women’s decisions to leave the engineering field. We used qualitative analyses to understand, categorize, and code the 1,863 statements that offered a glimpse into the myriad reasons that women offered in describing their decisions to leave the engineering profession. Our results revealed the top three sets of reasons underlying women’s decision to leave the jobs and engineering field were related to: first, poor and/or inequitable compensation, poor working conditions, inflexible and demanding work environment that made work-family balance difficult; second, unmet achievement needs that reflected a dissatisfaction with effective utilization of their math and science skills, and third, unmet needs with regard to lack of

  18. Women’s Reasons for Leaving the Engineering Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadya A. Fouad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the different Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math fields, engineering continues to have one of the highest rates of attrition (Hewlett et al., 2008. The turnover rate for women engineers from engineering fields is even higher than for men (Frehill, 2010. Despite increased efforts from researchers, there are still large gaps in our understanding of the reasons that women leave engineering. This study aims to address this gap by examining the reasons why women leave engineering. Specifically, we analyze the reasons for departure given by national sample of 1,464 women engineers who left the profession after having worked in the engineering field. We applied a person-environment fit theoretical lens, in particular, the Theory of Work Adjustment (TWA (Dawis and Lofquist, 1984 to understand and categorize the reasons for leaving the engineering field. According to the TWA, occupations have different “reinforcer patterns,” reflected in six occupational values, and a mismatch between the reinforcers provided by the work environment and individuals’ needs may trigger departure from the environment. Given the paucity of literature in this area, we posed research questions to explore the reinforcer pattern of values implicated in women’s decisions to leave the engineering field. We used qualitative analyses to understand, categorize, and code the 1,863 statements that offered a glimpse into the myriad reasons that women offered in describing their decisions to leave the engineering profession. Our results revealed the top three sets of reasons underlying women’s decision to leave the jobs and engineering field were related to: first, poor and/or inequitable compensation, poor working conditions, inflexible and demanding work environment that made work-family balance difficult; second, unmet achievement needs that reflected a dissatisfaction with effective utilization of their math and science skills, and third, unmet needs with

  19. Measurements of temperature dependence of 'localized susceptibility'

    CERN Document Server

    Shiozawa, H; Ishii, H; Takayama, Y; Obu, K; Muro, T; Saitoh, Y; Matsuda, T D; Sugawara, H; Sato, H

    2003-01-01

    The magnetic susceptibility of some rare-earth compounds is estimated by measuring magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) of rare-earth 3d-4f absorption spectra. The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility obtained by the MCD measurement is remarkably different from the bulk susceptibility in most samples, which is attributed to the strong site selectivity of the core MCD measurement.

  20. Zinc deficiency affects physiological and anatomical characteristics in maize leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiello, Edson M; Ruiz, Hugo A; Neves, Julio C L; Ventrella, Marília C; Araújo, Wagner L

    2015-07-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential microelement involved in several plant physiological processes. Therefore, it is important to identify Zn deficiencies promptly--before extensive damage occurs to the plant. The diagnostic tools that are used to identify Zn deficiencies are very important in areas where Zn deficiencies occur. Such diagnostic tools are vital for nutritional management and fertilizer recommendations. The current study investigated the effects of Zn deficiency on maize plants by recording a number of physiological and anatomical parameters. A Zn omission trial (from 0 to 22 days) was carried out to produce plants that had varying degrees of Zn deficiency. Typical symptoms of Zn deficiency (e.g. chlorotic stripes and purple shades on the edges and leaf sheath) appeared 16 days after the omission of Zn from nutrient solutions. As the time of Zn omission increased, there were significant decreases in net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, maximal efficiency of photosystem I (evaluated by Fv/Fm), biomass (dry weight) and Zn concentrations in plants. Zinc-deficient plants also had a lower vascular bundle proportion coupled with a higher stomata density. These physiological and anatomical changes negatively impacted plant growth. Moreover, they occurred before visible symptoms of Zn deficiency were observed. Zinc concentrations were recorded for younger leaves, rather than for more mature leaves, which is usually recommended for plant analysis. The results demonstrate that the analysis of Zn in young leaves of maize is a very sensitive indicator of Zn status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. [Indoor simulation on dew formation on plant leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhi-Yong; Wang, You-Ke; Wei, Xin-Guang; Liu, Shou-Yang; He, Zi-Li; Zhou, Yu-Hong

    2014-03-01

    Dew forming on plant leaves through water condensation plays a significant ecological role in arid and semi-arid areas as an ignorable fraction of water resources. In this study, an artificial intelligent climate chamber and an automatic temperature-control system for leaves were implemented to regulate the ambient temperature, the leaf surface temperature and the leaf inclination for dew formation. The impact of leaf inclination, ambient temperature and dew point-leaf temperature depression on the rate and quantity of dew accumulation on leaf surface were analyzed. The results indicated that the accumulation rate and the maximum volume of dew on leaves decreased with increasing the leaf inclination while increased with the increment of dew point-leaf temperature depression, ambient temperature and relative humidity. Under the horizontal configuration, dew accumulated linearly on leaf surface over time until the maximum volume (0.80 mm) was reached. However, dew would fall down after reaching the maximum volume when the leaf inclination existed (45 degrees or 90 degrees), significantly slowing down the accumulative rate, and the zigzag pattern for the dynamic of dew accumulation appeared.

  2. [Extraction and determination of essential oils in Indocalamus latifolius leaves and Indocalamus tessellatus leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuifang; Wen, Ruizhi; Zeng, Dong; Li, Zhonghai

    2007-01-01

    Indocalamus leaves are the generic name of the leaves of Indocalamus (Graminales) plants. The essential oils in Indocalamus latifolius leaves and Indocalamus tessellatus leaves were extracted by steam distillation method. Ether was used as the solvent to extract volatile compounds many times. Both the volatile compounds in Indocalamus latifolius leaves and Indocalamus tessellatus leaves were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that thirty-seven compounds were identified for the essential oils extracted from Indocalamus latifolius leaves, and its main components were found to be 3-hexen-1-ol, (Z)-; 1-hexanol; benzyl alcohol; hexanal; furan, 2-ethyl-; 3-buten-2-one, 4-(2,6, 6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexen-1-yl), (E)-; etc. Forty-nine components were identified for the essential oils extracted from Indocalamus tessellatus leaves, and its main components were found to be 3-hexen-1-ol, (Z)-; benzyl alcohol; 3-buten-2-one, 4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexen-1-yl)-, (E)-; 2-hexenal; phenylethyl alcohol, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol; furan, 2-ethyl-; etc. 3-Hexen-1-ol, (Z)- was the most abundant compound in the essential oils from both Indocalamus leaves. There were ketone, aldehyde, alcohol, phenol and ester in them. The contents of ketones, aldehydes, and alcohols were found higher than those of other compounds in the two essential oils.

  3. BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES OF THE LAURUS NOBILIS LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Nasukhova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Laurus nobilis L. is an evergreen dioecious, rarely monecious plant up to 12-15 m high. The plant’s name is devoted to an Ancient Greek God of Sun Apollo and is a symbol of peace and victory. It was used in making up wreaths for emperors, generals, and poets. Its natural area includes Mediterranean countries with high level of annual precipitation. It is actively cultivated as a decorative plant in Europe, Russia, USA and other countries. It is cultivated in Turkey, Algeria, Morocco, Portugal, Spain, Italy, France, Russia, and Mexico. The aim of the study is the review of available literature about isolation, identification, quantitative determination of biologically active compounds of the Laurus nobilis leaves in the established species and their pharmacological activity. Materialsand methods. The study was carried out using searching (PubMed, CiteSeer, arXiv, library databases (eLibrary, Cyberleninka, and ResearchGate free social network. Results and discussion. We have established that Laurus nobilis leaves have components of essential oil, phenolic compounds, and sesquiterpenic lactones as the principal active substances. Qualitative composition and quantitative content of these compound groups in these raw materials varies depending on the ecological and geographical, edaphic, climatic factors, phase of the plant growth, cultivation technology, drying method etc. The results of the pharmacological studies of the extracts, summary fractions, and individual compounds of Laurus nobilis leaves characterize this type of raw materials as a perspective source for a more profound study. Conclusion. As the available open review data showed, the essential oil components, phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, flavonoids, etc, sesquiterpenic lactones of Laurus nobilis exhibit a diverse spectrum of pharmacological activity. Antimicrobial (widely, anti-virus, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, and cytoxic (anticancer activities, established in extracts

  4. Cytotoxic and antioxidant constituents from the leaves of Psidium guajava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiao-He; Wang, Zi-Hao; Meng, Da-Li; Li, Xian

    2015-01-01

    Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae) is an evergreen shrub growing extensively throughout the tropical and subtropical areas. Four new compounds, guavinoside C, D, E and F (1-3, 10) were isolated from the leaves of P. guajava, along with six known ones (4-9). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 1, 4 and 10 showed significant cytotoxic activities on HeLa, SGC-7901 and A549 cell lines, respectively. Compounds 1 and 4-10 showed antioxidant activities in DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays, and five of them (1, 4-6, 10) exhibited stronger activities than that of vitamin C. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The extraction of characteristic wavebands for radish leaves and rice leaves based on LCTF imaging method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Peng-fei; Feng, Jie; Li, Hong-ning

    2013-08-01

    In order to identify and classify horticultural crops rapidly, it is great importance of selecting effective characteristic wavebands from a large number of imaging data. Extracting effective characteristic wavebands can nearly represent holistic information of the research target from rich imaging spectral data, mainly used for rapid characteristic identification, cluster analysis and establishing database, especially in high spectral sensing to recognize targets for a long distance. The experiment chooses radish leaves and rice leaves as research samples so as to obtain spectral information from the surface of samples by interval of 5nm based on LCTF imaging; then, the standard deviation and correlation coefficient of the gray images are calculated for these two kinds of leaves; next, we calculate the value of waveband index according to standard deviation and correlation coefficient, and extract the effective characteristic wavebands for radish leaves and rice leaves through the sorting of waveband index. By those, the experimental results show there are six ideal wavebands at 530nm, 550nm, 555nm, 715nm, 510nm and 565nm for radish leaves, 645nm, 675nm, 685nm, 670nm, 690nm and 660nm for rice leaves separately. Further, according to the principle of Euclidean distance, we also give an assessment of classification accuracy for these two samples by comparing characteristic wavebands with full wavebands, and the classification accuracy of radish leaves and rice leaves is 80.00% and 86.67% respectively. Therefore, choosing these wavebands can be used as effective characteristic wavebands for radish leaves and rice leaves.

  6. Comparison of take-it-or-leave-it and take-it-or-leave-it with follow-up elicitation formats – case study of Czech national parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Antoušková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on comparison of two different elicitation formats commonly used in the Willingness-to-pay method. It compares the difference in influence of chosen respondents’ characteristics on their willingness to pay for evaluated non-market good applying the take-it-or-leave-it (single-bounded choice and take-it-it-or-leave-it with follow-up (double-bounded choice elicitation formats. The good evaluated in the presented article is recreation in nature-based areas. The research is conducted in two primer nature-based recreational areas in the Czech Republic (National Park Sumava, National Park Podyji. The data sources are gathered from a tourist survey carried out in both the studied areas. A logistic regression is used for evaluation of the results. Based on the analysed method, two models are developed. The binary model elaborates the take-it-or-leave-it approach and the ordinal model elaborates the extended approach – take-it-it-or-leave-it with follow-up. The influence of personal and socioeconomic tourists’ characteristics on their willingness to pay is predicted in both models and consequently compared. The predictors analysed include sex, age, education, frequency of visitation of studied areas, and total costs spent during the actual visit.

  7. The Urban Environment Can Modify Drought Stress of Small-Leaved Lime (Tilia cordata Mill. and Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Moser

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The urban environment characterized by various stresses poses challenges to trees. In particular, water deficits and high temperatures can cause immense drought stress to urban trees, resulting in reduced growth and die-off. Drought-tolerant species are expected to be resilient to these conditions and are therefore advantageous over other, more susceptible species. However, the drought tolerance of urban trees in relation to the specific growth conditions in urban areas remains poorly researched. This study aimed to analyze the annual growth and drought tolerance of two common urban tree species, namely small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata Mill. (T. cordata and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. (R. pseudoacacia, in two cities in southern Germany in relation to their urban growing conditions. Marked growth reductions during drought periods and subsequent fast recovery were found for R. pseudoacacia, whereas T. cordata exhibited continued reduced growth after a drought event, although these results were highly specific to the analyzed city. We further show that individual tree characteristics and environmental conditions significantly influence the growth of urban trees. Canopy openness and other aspects of the surrounding environment (water supply and open surface area of the tree pit, tree size, and tree species significantly affect urban tree growth and can modify the ability of trees to tolerate the drought stress in urban areas. Sustainable tree planting of well adapted tree species to their urban environment ensures healthy trees providing ecosystem services for a high quality of life in cities.

  8. Overlapping Leaves Covering Flowers in the Alpine Species Eriophyton wallichii (Lamiaceae: Key Driving Factors and Their Potential Impact on Pollination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Li Peng

    Full Text Available Extrafloral structures are supposed to have evolved to protect flowers from harsh physical environments but might have effects on pollination. Overlapping leaves cover flowers in Eriophyton wallichii, an alpine perennial endemic to the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains. In previous study, it has showed that these extrafloral leaves can protect interior flowers from temperature fluctuations caused by drastic solar radiation fluctuations, but these leaves may also protect interior flowers from rain wash and UVB damage, and we do not know which one is the main function. In this study, we investigated whether rain and UVB protection are the main functions of overlapping leaves covering flowers and their potential impact on pollination. We first measured the intensities of UVB radiation in open air, beneath leaves and corollas, and then examined pollen susceptibility to different intensities of UVB and rain in the laboratory to estimate whether corollas per se protect interior pollen from UVB and rain damage. We also carried out pollination treatments and observed pollinator visitation of flowers with and without leaves in the field to assess whether the overlapping leaves covering flowers impair pollinator attraction. Our results showed that (1 water and strong UVB significantly decreased pollen germinability, but corollas per se could protect pollen from UVB and rain damage; (2 no autonomous self-pollination and apomixis occurred, and pollinators were essential for the reproduction of E. wallichii; however, flower coverage by overlapping leaves did not limit pollination. We suggested that rain and UVB protection was not the main function of overlapping leaves covered flowers, given that this protection can be provided by corollas per se. Alternatively, this extrafloral structure in E. wallichii may have evolved in response to extreme high temperatures associated with the strong solar radiation fluctuations. This indicates that, even in alpine plants

  9. Overlapping Leaves Covering Flowers in the Alpine Species Eriophyton wallichii (Lamiaceae): Key Driving Factors and Their Potential Impact on Pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, De-Li; Song, Bo; Yang, Yang; Niu, Yang; Sun, Hang

    2016-01-01

    Extrafloral structures are supposed to have evolved to protect flowers from harsh physical environments but might have effects on pollination. Overlapping leaves cover flowers in Eriophyton wallichii, an alpine perennial endemic to the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains. In previous study, it has showed that these extrafloral leaves can protect interior flowers from temperature fluctuations caused by drastic solar radiation fluctuations, but these leaves may also protect interior flowers from rain wash and UVB damage, and we do not know which one is the main function. In this study, we investigated whether rain and UVB protection are the main functions of overlapping leaves covering flowers and their potential impact on pollination. We first measured the intensities of UVB radiation in open air, beneath leaves and corollas, and then examined pollen susceptibility to different intensities of UVB and rain in the laboratory to estimate whether corollas per se protect interior pollen from UVB and rain damage. We also carried out pollination treatments and observed pollinator visitation of flowers with and without leaves in the field to assess whether the overlapping leaves covering flowers impair pollinator attraction. Our results showed that (1) water and strong UVB significantly decreased pollen germinability, but corollas per se could protect pollen from UVB and rain damage; (2) no autonomous self-pollination and apomixis occurred, and pollinators were essential for the reproduction of E. wallichii; however, flower coverage by overlapping leaves did not limit pollination. We suggested that rain and UVB protection was not the main function of overlapping leaves covered flowers, given that this protection can be provided by corollas per se. Alternatively, this extrafloral structure in E. wallichii may have evolved in response to extreme high temperatures associated with the strong solar radiation fluctuations. This indicates that, even in alpine plants, extreme high

  10. Effects of CO2 enrichment on the photosynthetic light response of sun and shade leaves of canopy sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) in a forest ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick; Thomas

    1999-10-01

    To investigate whether sun and shade leaves respond differently to CO2 enrichment, we examined photosynthetic light response of sun and shade leaves in canopy sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) trees growing at ambient and elevated (ambient + 200 microliters per liter) atmospheric CO2 in the Brookhaven National Laboratory/Duke University Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiment. The sweetgum trees were naturally established in a 15-year-old forest dominated by loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). Measurements were made in early June and late August 1997 during the first full year of CO2 fumigation in the Duke Forest FACE experiment. Sun leaves had a 68% greater leaf mass per unit area, 63% more leaf N per unit leaf area, 27% more chlorophyll per unit leaf area and 77% greater light-saturated photosynthetic rates than shade leaves. Elevated CO2 strongly stimulated light-saturated photosynthetic rates of sun and shade leaves in June and August; however, the relative photosynthetic enhancement by elevated CO2 for sun leaves was more than double the relative enhancement of shade leaves. Elevated CO2 stimulated apparent quantum yield by 30%, but there was no interaction between CO2 and leaf position. Daytime leaf-level carbon gain extrapolated from photosynthetic light response curves indicated that sun leaves were enhanced 98% by elevated CO2, whereas shade leaves were enhanced 41%. Elevated CO2 did not significantly affect leaf N per unit area in sun or shade leaves during either measurement period. Thus, the greater CO2 enhancement of light-saturated photosynthesis in sun leaves than in shade leaves was probably a result of a greater amount of nitrogen per unit leaf area in sun leaves. A full understanding of the effects of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations on forest ecosystems must take account of the complex nature of the light environment through the canopy and how light interacts with CO2 to affect photosynthesis.

  11. Debris-flow runout susceptibility mapping for the French Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Alexandre; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Remaître, Alexandre

    2014-05-01

    Debris-flows are one of the most important gravity-driven hazards in mountainous areas mainly due to their high velocity and long travel distance. Estimation of potential initiation areas and delineation of the down-slope endangered zones possibly affected by debris-flow deposits are crucial. The objective of this work is to propose a first delineation of debris flow susceptibility for the French Alps by combining information from a debris flow catalogue and runout analyses with a large scale debris flow model. The landslide source areas are estimated from statistics of recorded events in catchments and the dominant lithology, landcover and slope conditions observed in the catchments. The runout areas are estimated from a probabilistic approach using multiple flow routing algorithms and the angle of reach concept. Since the reliability of such an approach is closely linked to the accuracy of the topography, a digital elevation model at 25m resolution is used. The susceptibility analysis is carried out for each catchment and the reliability of the results (i.e. number of pixels as sources, etc.) is assessed by comparison with the landslide catalogues. Results indicate the most susceptible catchments where further detailed assessments are needed at smaller spatial scales.

  12. University Students Leaving Relationships (USLR): Scale Development and Gender Differences in Decisions to Leave Romantic Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendy, Helen M.; Can, S. Hakan; Joseph, Lauren J.; Scherer, Cory R.

    2013-01-01

    The University Students Leaving Relationships scale was developed to identify student concerns when contemplating dissolution of romantic relationships. Participants included 1,106 students who rated the importance of issues when deciding to leave relationships. Factor analysis produced three dimensions: Missing the Relationship, Social…

  13. Leaving home and leaving the state: evidence from the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, C.H.; Clark, W.A.V.

    2000-01-01

    Leaving the parental home is an important first step in a long-term housing career. We extend the previous research on this topic by examining the impact of housing market factors on the risks of leaving with or without a partner in the United States. We also re-examine the role of the income of the

  14. [Chemical Constituents from Leaves of Liquidambar formosana].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yuan-yue; Fu, Hui-zheng; Zhou, Guo-ping; Zhong, Rui-jian; Yuan, Hui; Guo, Qing; Yan, Qing-wei

    2014-12-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the leaves of Liquidambarformosana. The chemical constituents were isolated and purified by column chromatography on silicagel, Sephadex LH-20 and MPLC. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and special analysis. Eight compounds were isolated from the leaves of Liquidambar formosana, whose structures were elucidated as gallic acid (1), p-hydroxy-benzoic acid (2), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-benzoic acid (3), 3,5-dihydroxy-4-methoxy-benzoic acid (4) kaempferol (5), 3,4-dihydroxy-benzoic acid (6), 3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxy-benzoic acid (7) and 3β,23,29-trihydroxy-olean-12-en-28-oic acid-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (8). Compounds 1-8 are isolated from the leaves of Liquidambar formosana for the first time.

  15. Walnut (Juglans regia L.) leaves: phenolic compounds, antibacterial activity and antioxidant potential of different cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, José Alberto; Oliveira, Ivo; Sousa, Anabela; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Ferreres, Federico; Bento, Albino; Seabra, Rosa; Estevinho, Letícia

    2007-11-01

    Different cultivars of walnut (Juglans regia L.) leaves (Cv. Lara, Franquette, Mayette, Marbot, Mellanaise and Parisienne) grown in Portugal, were investigated in what concerns phenolic compounds and antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Phenolics analysis was performed by reversed-phase HPLC/DAD and 10 compounds were identified and quantified: 3- and 5-caffeoylquinic acids, 3- and 4-p-coumaroylquinic acids, p-coumaric acid, quercetin 3-galactoside, quercetin 3-pentoside derivative, quercetin 3-arabinoside, quercetin 3-xyloside and quercetin 3-rhamnoside. The antimicrobial capacity was screened against Gram positive (Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae) and fungi (Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans). Walnut leaves selectively inhibited the growth of Gram positive bacteria, being B. cereus the most susceptible one (MIC 0.1mg/mL). Gram negative bacteria and fungi were resistant to the extracts at 100mg/mL. Lara walnut leaves were also submitted to antibacterial assays using 18 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus sp. Antioxidant activity was accessed by the reducing power assay, the scavenging effect on DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radicals and beta-carotene linoleate model system. In a general way, all of the studied walnut leaves cultivars presented high antioxidant activity (EC(50) values lower than 1mg/mL), being Cv. Lara the most effective one.

  16. Broader leaves result in better performance of indica rice under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, M; Kobayashi, N; Ito, O; Wahid, A; Serraj, R

    2010-09-01

    Leaf growth is one of the first physiological processes affected by changes in plant water status under drought. A decrease in leaf expansion rate usually precedes any reduction in stomatal conductance or photosynthesis. Changes in leaf size and stomatal opening are potential adaptive mechanisms, which may help avoid drought by reducing transpiration rate, and can be used to improve rice genotypes in water-saving cultivation. The indica rice cultivar IR64 and four of its near-isogenic lines (NILs; BC(3)-derived lines) unique for leaf size traits, YTK 124 (long leaves), YTK 127 (broad leaves), YTK 205 (short leaves) and YTK 214 (narrow leaves), were compared in this study for changes in leaf growth and its water status. The plants were subjected to two soil water regimes, well-watered and progressive soil drying measured by the fraction of transpirable soil water (FTSW). Applied drought reduced leaf number, total leaf area, specific leaf area, plant biomass, tiller number, plant height, stomatal conductance, amount of water transpired, leaf relative water content, and leaf water potential more in IR64 and the NILs than in the respective controls; nonetheless, transpiration efficiency (TE) was slightly higher under drought than in the well-watered controls. NILs with broader leaves had higher biomass (and its individual components), less stomatal conductance, and higher TE under drought than NILs with narrow and shorter leaves. Under drought, leaf number was positively correlated with tiller number and plant height; nonetheless, root weight and total biomass, water transpired and TE, and plant height and TE were positively correlated with each other. However, a negative correlation was observed between stomatal conductance and the FTSW threshold at which normalized transpiration started to decline during soil drying. Overall, the IR64-derived lines with broader leaves performed better than NILs with narrow and short leaves under drought. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Gmb

  17. 38 CFR 21.8340 - Leaves of absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leaves of absence. 21... Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Leaves of Absence § 21.8340 Leaves of absence. (a... absence. The VR&E case manager may grant the child leaves of absence for periods during which the child...

  18. Research and Literature on the Sabbatical Leave: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boening, Carl H.; Miller, Michael T.

    This paper reviews the literature on college faculty sabbatical leave and sabbatical leave programs often described as 'paid vacations' with no accountability. The literature indicates that sabbatical leave was an important part of any faculty development program. Those who took sabbatical leaves overwhelmingly reported the experience as a…

  19. Constituents of Kawal , fermented Cassia obtusifolia leaves, a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Examination of the protein fraction from leaves indicated 20.2% in the crude leaves and 12.9% in the fermented leaves. The participation of 10 g of fermented C. obtusifolia leaves to the daily requirements in essential amino acids of an adult is from 13 to 25% of needed amount. Moreover this traditional food had a high ...

  20. 38 CFR 21.342 - Leave accounting policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leave accounting policy. 21.342 Section 21.342 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS.... Chapter 31 Leaves of Absence § 21.342 Leave accounting policy. (a) Amount of leave. A veteran pursuing one...

  1. [Considerations on a room for leave taking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drlicek, M; Kraml, P

    2006-05-01

    Many patients die in hospitals and care centers. It is therefore necessary to create an environment for the dying person, as well as for relatives, which allows death to occur with dignity while also permitting a dignified farewell. A special room should be available for taking leave of the loved one and for the mourning of the relatives. This room should, as far as possible, be neutrally decorated while at the same time it should be appropriate for various cultures and religious requirements. In order to be able to take leave symbolically, it is necessary to place the departed in the light, for example from a window.

  2. Landslide Susceptibility Assessment Using Spatial Multi-Criteria Evaluation Model in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Baptiste Nsengiyumva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Landslides susceptibility assessment has to be conducted to identify prone areas and guide risk management. Landslides in Rwanda are very deadly disasters. The current research aimed to conduct landslide susceptibility assessment by applying Spatial Multi-Criteria Evaluation Model with eight layers of causal factors including: slope, distance to roads, lithology, precipitation, soil texture, soil depth, altitude and land cover. In total, 980 past landslide locations were mapped. The relationship between landslide factors and inventory map was calculated using the Spatial Multi-Criteria Evaluation. The results revealed that susceptibility is spatially distributed countrywide with 42.3% of the region classified from moderate to very high susceptibility, and this is inhabited by 49.3% of the total population. In addition, Provinces with high to very high susceptibility are West, North and South (40.4%, 22.8% and 21.5%, respectively. Subsequently, the Eastern Province becomes the peak under low susceptibility category (87.8% with no very high susceptibility (0%. Based on these findings, the employed model produced accurate and reliable outcome in terms of susceptibility, since 49.5% of past landslides fell within the very high susceptibility category, which confirms the model’s performance. The outcomes of this study will be useful for future initiatives related to landslide risk reduction and management.

  3. Neuroanatomic Differences Associated With Stress Susceptibility and Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacker, Christoph; Scholz, Jan; O'Donnell, Kieran J; Allemang-Grand, Rylan; Diorio, Josie; Bagot, Rosemary C; Nestler, Eric J; Hen, René; Lerch, Jason P; Meaney, Michael J

    2016-05-15

    We examined the neurobiological mechanisms underlying stress susceptibility using structural magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging to determine neuroanatomic differences between stress-susceptible and resilient mice. We also examined synchronized anatomic differences between brain regions to gain insight into the plasticity of neural networks underlying stress susceptibility. C57BL/6 mice underwent 10 days of social defeat stress and were subsequently tested for social avoidance. For magnetic resonance imaging, brains of stressed (susceptible, n = 11; resilient, n = 8) and control (n = 12) mice were imaged ex vivo at 56 µm resolution using a T2-weighted sequence. We tested for behavior-structure correlations by regressing social avoidance z-scores against local brain volume. For diffusion tensor imaging, brains were scanned with a diffusion-weighted fast spin echo sequence at 78 μm isotropic voxels. Structural covariance was assessed by correlating local volume between brain regions. Social avoidance correlated negatively with local volume of the cingulate cortex, nucleus accumbens, thalamus, raphe nuclei, and bed nucleus of the stria terminals. Social avoidance correlated positively with volume of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), habenula, periaqueductal gray, cerebellum, hypothalamus, and hippocampal CA3. Fractional anisotropy was increased in the hypothalamus and hippocampal CA3. We observed synchronized anatomic differences between the VTA and cingulate cortex, hippocampus and VTA, hippocampus and cingulate cortex, and hippocampus and hypothalamus. These correlations revealed different structural covariance between brain regions in susceptible and resilient mice. Stress-integrative brain regions shape the neural architecture underlying individual differences in susceptibility and resilience to chronic stress. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. The inhibition of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by essential oils isolated from leaves and fruits of Schinus areira depending on their chemical compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celaya, Liliana S; Alabrudzińska, Marta H; Molina, Ana C; Viturro, Carmen I; Moreno, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Schinus areira L. is a native plant from South America used for centuries in traditional medicine. Here, we investigate the antimicrobial activity of four essential oils extracted from leaves and fruits of S. areira exhibiting different chemical profiles. The antibacterial activity against the human pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus susceptible as well as methicillin resistant strain was assessed by the broth microdilution assay. The results showed that the limonene-rich oil extracted from the leaves and fruits have potent antibacterial effect on S. aureus ATCC 25923, while the α-phellandrene-rich fruit oil having a lower content of limonene showed the lowest antibacterial efficacy. In this work, for the first time, we demonstrated the bactericidal activity of essential oils isolated from fruits and leaves of S. areira against susceptible and methicillin resistant S. aureus strains. All results point out the potential use of the S. areira oils as antimicrobial agents to be used, at least against Staphylococcal infections.

  5. An integrated mass wasting susceptibility assesment by geographical information systems and remote sensing applications: Example from North Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgün, Aykut

    2016-04-01

    The Northern part of Turkey have been suffering from both landslides and snow avalanches due to the steep topography and climatological characteristics triggering the processes. In order to manage these natural hazard phenomenons, regional hazards assessments are both crucial and essential for the region. In this context, an integrated hazard assesment including landslide and snow avalanche was carried out for a selected area at North Turkey. Caykara (Trabzon) district was one of the most suitable areas for such a purpose, because several landslide and snow avalanche cases occured in the area during the last two decades. To inspect the landslide and snow avalanche susceptibility of the area, geographical information systems and remote sensing based assessments were applied to the area. To produce a landslide susceptibility map, logistic regression model was used by using lithological, topographical and environmental data set. To obtain a snow avalanche susceptibility map, topograhical data such as slope gradient, slope aspect and slope curvature, environmental data such as normaliazed vegetation index (NDVI), snow accumlation areas and landcover were taken into account, and these data set were analyzed by a 2D modelling tool, called as CONEFALL. By obtaining the landslide and snow avalanche susceptibility maps, five susceptibility classes from very low to very high were differentiated in the area. The both susceptibility maps were also verified by the actual field data as well, and it was determined that the obtained maps were successful. Then, the both susceptibility maps were overlaid, and finally an integrated mass wasting susceptibility map was created. In this final map, total susceptible areas to both landslide and snow avalanche occurrence were determined. The final susceptibility map is believed and expected to be used by the govermental and local authorities as a decision makers to mitigate the landslide and snow avalanche based hazards in the area.

  6. Risk of sick leave associated with outdoor air supply rate, humidification, and occupant complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, D K; Glencross, P M; Walters, M D

    2000-12-01

    We analyzed 1994 sick leave for 3,720 hourly employees of a large Massachusetts manufacturer, in 40 buildings with 115 independently ventilated work areas. Corporate records identified building characteristics and IEQ complaints. We rated ventilation as moderate (approximately 25 cfm/person, 12 ls-1) or high (approximately 50 cfm/person, 24 ls-1) outdoor air supply based on knowledge of ventilation systems and CO2 measurements on a subset of work areas, and used Poisson regression to analyze sick leave controlled for age, gender, seniority, hours of non-illness absence, shift, ethnicity, crowding, and type of job (office, technical, or manufacturing worker). We found consistent associations of increased sick leave with lower levels of outdoor air supply and IEQ complaints. Among office workers, the relative risk for short-term sick leave was 1.53 (95% confidence 1.22-1.92) with lower ventilation, and 1.52 (1.18-1.97) in areas with IEQ complaints. The effect of ventilation was independent of IEQ complaints and among those exposed to lower outdoor air supply rates the attributable risk of short-term sick leave was 35%. The cost of sick leave attributable to ventilation at current recommended rates was estimated as $480 per employee per year at Polaroid. These findings suggest that net savings of $400 per employee per year may be obtained with increased ventilation. Thus, currently recommended levels of outdoor air supply may be associated with significant morbidity, and lost productivity on a national scale could be as much as $22.8 billion per year. Additional studies of IEQ impacts on productivity and sick leave, and the mechanisms underlying the apparent association are needed.

  7. Parameters Symptomatic for Boron Toxicity in Leaves of Tomato Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Cervilla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of boron (B toxicity has risen in areas of intensive agriculture close to the Mediterranean sea. The objective of this research was to study the how B toxicity (0.5 and 2 mM B affects the time course of different indicators of abiotic stress in leaves of two tomato genotypes having different sensitivity to B toxicity (cv. Kosaco and cv. Josefina. Under the treatments of 0.5 and 2 mM B, the tomato plants showed a loss of biomass and foliar area. At the same time, in the leaves of both cultivars, the B concentration increased rapidly from the first day of the experiment. These results were more pronounced in the cv. Josefina, indicating greater sensitivity than in cv. Kosaco with respect to excessive B in the environment. The levels of O2 •− and anthocyanins presented a higher correlation coefficient (r>0.9 than did the levels of B in the leaf, followed by other indicators of stress, such as GPX, chlorophyll b and proline (r>0.8. Our results indicate that these parameters could be used to evaluate the stress level as well as to develop models that could help prevent the damage inflicted by B toxicity in tomato plants.

  8. Paid maternity and paternity leave: rights and choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Claire

    2007-01-01

    From April 2007 onwards, maternity leave will be raised to nine months Paid maternity leave is associated with significant health benefits for babies, including reduced infant mortality The Government proposes to increase paid maternity leave to one year and introduce additional paternity leave by around 2009 The U.K's provision for maternity leave and child care is more generous than the U.S.A. or Australia but less than in the Scandinavian countries

  9. Ontogenic resistance of leaves and fruit, and how leaf folding influences the distribution of powdery mildew on strawberry plants colonized by Podosphaera aphanis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asalf, Belachew; Gadoury, David M; Tronsmo, Anne Marte; Seem, Robert C; Dobson, Andrew; Peres, Natalia A; Stensvand, Arne

    2014-09-01

    Ontogenic or age-related resistance has been noted in many pathosystems but is less often quantified or expressed in a manner that allows the concept to be applied in disease management programs. Preliminary studies indicated that leaves and fruit of three strawberry cultivars rapidly acquired ontogenic resistance to the powdery mildew pathogen, Podosphaera aphanis. In the present study, we quantify the development of ontogenic resistance in controlled inoculations of 10 strawberry cultivars using diverse isolates of P. aphanis in New York and Florida, USA, and in Norway. We report the differential and organ-specific development of ontogenic resistance in the receptacle and externally borne strawberry achenes. We further report that rapid development of ontogenic resistance prior to unfolding of emergent leaves, rather than differential susceptibility of adaxial versus abaxial leaf surfaces, may explain the commonly observed predominance of powdery mildew on the lower leaf surfaces. Susceptibility of leaves and fruit declined exponentially with age. Receptacle tissue of berries inoculated at four phenological stages from bloom to ripe fruit became nearly immune to infection approximately 10 to 15 days after bloom, as fruit transitioned from the early green to the late green or early white stage of berry development, although the achenes remained susceptible for a longer period. Leaves also acquired ontogenic resistance early in their development, and they were highly resistant shortly after unfolding and before the upper surface was fully exposed. No significant difference was found in the susceptibility of the adaxial versus abaxial surfaces. The rapid acquisition of ontogenic resistance by leaves and fruit revealed a narrow window of susceptibility to which management programs might be advantageously adapted.

  10. GRAPE LEAVES AND METHODS OF CONSERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Terentyeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a study of different varieties of grape leaves showing its morphological data and physico-chemical parameters. Studying shows canned grape leaf in various ways for the food industry.

  11. ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS OF THE LEAVES OF VERNONIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elemental analysis of the leaves of Vernonia amygdalina Del., revealed adequate concentrations of some elements, such as iron (1500+111 ppm) and calcium 10100+895 ppm) that are believed to be essential for normal growth. The plant was evaluated in relation to tissue damage, in sixteen male rats (Wistar strains) with ...

  12. Tomato leaves methanol extract possesses anti- inflammatory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... and antioxidant (lycopene) (Junichiro, 2006). Since S. lycopersicum has long been used for the treatment of variety of disease, the present study aimed to investigate the inhibitory activity of tomato leaves against PGE2 using. RAW264.7 macrophages cells and introduce a new potential of anti-inflammatory ...

  13. How does Phytophthora ramorum infect Rhododendron leaves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabine Werres; Marko Riedel

    2013-01-01

    In most parts of Europe, rhododendron is the most important host for the spread of Phytophthora ramorum. To get a better knowledge of leaf infection and capacity for sporulation, infection studies were carried out. Detached leaves of the Rhododendron cultivar 'Catawbiense Grandiflorum' (CG) and the R. insigne hybrid `...

  14. Pharmacognostic standardisation of the leaves of Sansevieria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chromatographic fingerprints of both water and ethanol extracts of the leaves were obtained using analytical thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and the retardation factors (Rf-values) of the individual spots were calculated. Macroscopic examination showed dark green coloration on the upper surface and pale green on the ...

  15. Leaving the hospital - your discharge plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000867.htm Leaving the hospital - your discharge plan To use the sharing features on this ... need any special equipment or supplies, such as: Hospital bed Wheelchair Walker or cane Shower ... Checklist Your discharge planner will give you a ...

  16. Utilization of bitter vegetable leaves ( Gongronema latifolium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilization of bitter vegetable leaves ( Gongronema latifolium , Vernonia amygdalina ) and Garcinia kola extracts as substitutes for hops in sorghum beer production. ... titratable acidity (0.107 - 0.328%), volatile acidity (0.003 - 0.103%), soluble solids (0.12 - 0.97%), moisture content (95.71 - 98.37%), protein (0.17 - 0.85%), ...

  17. Sabbatical Leave: Who Gains and How Much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Oranit B.; Eden, Dov; Westman, Mina; Cohen-Charash, Yochi; Hammer, Leslie B.; Kluger, Avraham N.; Krausz, Moshe; Maslach, Christina; O'Driscoll, Michael; Perrewe, Pamela L.; Quick, James Campbell; Rosenblatt, Zehava; Spector, Paul E.

    2010-01-01

    A rigorous quasi-experiment tested the ameliorative effects of a sabbatical leave, a special case of respite from routine work. We hypothesized that (a) respite increases resource level and well-being and (b) individual differences and respite features moderate respite effects. A sample of 129 faculty members on sabbatical and 129 matched controls…

  18. Early school leaving and lifelong guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Peter; Oomen, Annemarie

    Early school leaving (ESL) is costly for the individual, for society and for the economy. Not just in economic terms, but also in terms of low self esteem, and the risk of social exclusion. More, and, in particular, better education can lead to positive outcomes, in relation to employment, level...

  19. Comparative morphology on leaves of Daphniphyllum (Daphniphyllaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, M.-S.; Yang, Y.-P.; Sheue, C.-R.

    2009-01-01

    A comparative anatomical study on the leaves of nine out of 29 species of the genus Daphniphyllum was performed to seek support for the present infrageneric classification. Daphniphyllum is composed of two sections, Lunata (with one subsection Lunata) and Daphniphyllum (with two subsections,

  20. Institutional Practices and Faculty Who Leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Carl V.

    1983-01-01

    A variety of incentives offered to faculty to leave an institution in difficult financial circumstances are outlined. They include: liberalizing the actuarial pension reduction, lump-sum severance payments, annuity enhancements, phased retirement, retirement perquisites, retraining for outplacement, paid retraining, and earnings supplements during…

  1. Paid Educational Leave in Five European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttringer, Jean-Marie; Pasquier, Bernard

    1980-01-01

    Examining and comparing the features of paid educational leave in Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, and Sweden, the authors conclude that it remains a marginal institution. But as a means of achieving social justice and industrial change, it deserves an adequate financing system and institutional base. (Author/SK)

  2. Leaving Care: The Need to Make Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Deirdre; Pinkerton, John

    2012-01-01

    For too many years the phrase "after care, an after thought" summed up the lack of attention given to preparing young people in care for adult life and to the development of leaving-care and aftercare services. That stance has changed in the United Kingdom, however, and indeed has shifted positively and dramatically over the last decade.…

  3. Thaumatococcus daniellii leaves: its chemical compositions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methanol extract of the plant exhibited low 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity with IC50 of 615.14 μg/ml. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) characterization of n-hexane, ethylacetate and methanol extracts of T. daniellii leaves identified , thirteen and fifteen compounds, with ...

  4. Isolation of chlorophyll a from spinach leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.D. Dikio

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available An efficient method for separating chlorophyll a from spinach leaves by column chromatography and solvent extraction techniques has been developed. The purity and identity of the chlorophyll a have been confirmed by UV-Vis, IR and mass spectrometry. Yields from 100 g of freeze-dried spinach were 23 – 24 mg of chlorophyll a.

  5. Antinociceptive effect of Hyptis pectinata leaves extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisboa, Ana C C D; Mello, Iderjane C M; Nunes, Rogeria S; Dos Santos, Marquês A; Antoniolli, Angelo R; Marçal, Rosilene M; Cavalcanti, Sócrates C de H

    2006-09-01

    Oral administration of hexanes, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts of the leaves of Hyptis pectinata significantly reduced the number of writhing induced by acetic acid and increased the response to thermal stimuli in hot-plate test. Such effect was completely reversed by the opioid antagonist naloxone.

  6. Fathers' Leave, Fathers' Involvement and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Carmen Huerta, Maria; Lausten, Mette; Baxter, Jennifer

    Previous research has shown that fathers taking some time off work around childbirth, especially periods of leave of 2 or more weeks, are more likely to be involved in childcare related activities than fathers who do not do so. Furthermore, evidence suggests that children with fathers who are ‘mo...

  7. Percepção ambiental das artesãs que usam as folhas de carnaúba (Copernicia prunifera H.E.Moore, Arecaceae na Área de Proteção Ambiental Delta do Parnaíba, Piauí, Brasil / Environmental perception of the artisans that work with leaves of carnauba palm (Copernicia prunifera H.E.Moore, Arecaceae in Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, Piauí, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irlaine Rodrigues Vieira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the socioeconomic aspects and environmental perception of artisans that subsists making handicrafts of the leaves of carnauba palm (Copernicia prunifera H. E. Moore in the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, located in Paranaíba municipality, Piauí state. We interviewed 36 artisans belonging to communities Fazendinha, Vazantinha and Pedra do Sal, using semi-structured questionnaires. In parallel, the plant management was followed. The crafts are made by women with age ranging from 20 to 60 years and low education. They live deprived of basic sanitation, schools and public health of quality. The perception about the plant is attributed to carnauba utilitarian features. In the three communities damage to plant involves estate speculation. The artisans of Fazendinha and Vazantinha did not express a conservationist conscience, prevailing capitalist perception. In the community of Pedra do Sal, the artisans promote an environmental conservation. They contact environmental agencies and protest against the devastation of carnauba forest. It was observed that although artisans share the same activity, they have different perceptions of the environment and resource explored. Especially in the Fazendinha community is necessary construction of environmental education to promote a sustainable extraction.

  8. Conformational changes in spinach (Spinacia oleracea leaves chloroplasts in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Godziemba-Czyż

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the surface area of chloroplasts from intact cells of spinach leaves (\tSpinacia oleracea induced by blue (370—500 nm and red (600- 850 nm light of various intensity (102 - 5x105 erg cm-1s-1 were investigated. The changes are deseribed in terms of mean surface area in , μm2 and frequency of oocurrence of surface size classes. Low intensity blue light caused enlargement of the chloroplast surface (as compared with that in darkness, whereas high intensity light markedly reduced it. Exposure of chloroplasts to red light produces an increase of the surface in proportion to the intensity of the light and irradiation time.

  9. Genetic susceptibility to environmental toxicants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    The toxicological challenges to the chemical industry have in recent years been greatly affected by the rapid innovation and development of analytical, molecular and genetic technologies. ECETOC recognises the importance of developing the technical and intellectual skill bases in academia...... and industrial based laboratories to meet the rapid development of the science base of toxicology. As the technology to determine genetic susceptibility develops, so scientist will be able to describe altered gene expression provoked by chemicals long before they are able to offer valid interpretations...... of their meaning. A potential for inadvertently raising concerns over the effect of chemicals in experimental animals or man, or even the intentional misrepresentation of results to suggest chemicals are “playing” with our genes is enormous. History has shown that some individuals and groups in society are willing...

  10. Causes and Consequences of a Father's Child Leave: Evidence from a Reform of Leave Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    are the most progressive when it comes to family-friendly policies. An extensive reform of child leave schemes in Denmark affected couples differently depending on whether the parents where employed in the same or in different parts of the public sector. Based on a difference-in-differences strategy, I find...... that economic incentives are very important for intra-household leave-sharing. Increasing the couples' after tax income by $9 per day of leave which is transferred from the mother to the father is found to lead to a one day transfer. This corresponds to a supply elasticity close to unity....

  11. Juvenile Rhus glabra leaves have higher temperatures and lower gas exchange rates than mature leaves when compared in the field during periods of high irradiance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, John L; Choinski, John S; Wise, Robert R

    2009-05-01

    We sought to test the hypothesis that stomatal development determines the timing of gas exchange competency, which then influences leaf temperature through transpirationally driven leaf cooling. To test this idea, daily patterns of gas exchange and leaflet temperature were obtained from leaves of two distinctively different developmental stages of smooth sumac (Rhus glabra) grown in its native habitat. Juvenile and mature leaves were also sampled for ultrastructural studies of stomatal development. When plants were sampled in May-June, the hypothesis was supported: juvenile leaflets were (for part of the day) from 1.4 to 6.0 degrees C warmer than mature leaflets and as much as 2.0 degrees C above ambient air temperature with lower stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rates than mature leaflets. When measurements were taken from July to October, no significant differences were observed, although mature leaflet gas exchange rates declined to the levels of the juvenile leaves. The gas exchange data were supported by the observations that juvenile leaves had approximately half the number of functional stomata on a leaf surface area basis as did mature leaves. It was concluded that leaf temperature and stage of leaf development in sumac are strongly linked with the higher surface temperatures observed in juvenile leaflets in the early spring possibly being involved in promoting photosynthesis and leaf expansion when air temperatures are cooler.

  12. Control Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This feature class represents electric power Control Areas. Control Areas, also known as Balancing Authority Areas, are controlled by Balancing Authorities, who are...

  13. Properties and susceptibility of papaya (Carica papaya L. in postharvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana Marin Darias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The papaya (Carica papaya L. is an important crop due to its nutritious and medical properties and flavor. Therefore, an investigation was carried out for evaluating physical and chemical properties, as well as parameters of Post harvest fruit susceptibility. A sample fruit of Red Maradol variety was selected. The analyses were carried out in the laboratories of the Faculty of Chemistry – Pharmacy and in the Center for the study of Applied Chemistry, both located in the Central University "Marta Abreu" of Las Villas. The physical properties, weight of the sample, polar and equatorial diameter, and density, were determined. The chemical properties, total regular acidity, pH and total soluble solids (0Brix, were analyzed. The parameters of susceptibility, diameter and depth of the impacts, area and volume of bruise and the fruit susceptibility to the impacts, were also evaluated. Among the main reached results, stand out that the changes in the physical properties were not decisive in the postharvest. The chemical properties analyzed as total regular acidity, pH, and total soluble solids showed significant changes at postharvest phase. Finally, the parameters of susceptibility were increased in a significant way starting from the 6 days of postharvest.

  14. Agar dilution method for susceptibility testing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta C de Castillo

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The antibiotic susceptibilities of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates obtained from patients attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases in Tucumán, Argentina, were determined by the agar dilution method (MIC. 3.5% of the isolates produced ²-lactamase. A total of 96.5% of ²-lactamase negative isolates tested were susceptible to penicillin (MIC < 2 µgml-1; 14.03% of the tested isolates were resistant to tetracycline (MIC < 2 µgml-1, and 98% of the tested isolates were susceptible to spectinomycin (MIC < 64 µgml-1. The MICs for 95% of the isolates, tested for other drugs were: < 2 µgml-1 for cefoxitin, < 0.06 µgml-1 for cefotaxime, < 0.25 µgml-1 for norfloxacin, < 10 µgml-1 for cephaloridine, < 10 µgml-1 for cephalexin, and < 50 µgml-1 for kanamycin. Antibiotic resistance among N. gonorrhoeae isolates from Tucumán, Argentina, appeared to be primarily limited to penicillin and tetracycline, which has been a general use against gonorrhoeae in Tucumán since 1960. Periodic monitoring of the underlying susceptibility profiles of the N. gonorrhoeae strains prevalent in areas of frequent transmission may provide clues regarding treatment options and emerging of drug resistance.

  15. Soil susceptibility to compaction under use conditions in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mazurana

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The degree of soil compaction is intensified by its inadequate management, compaction being variable depending on soil type since even under identical management conditions, different types have different abilities to withstand load. The objective of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility to compaction of different classes of soils under no-tillage (NT croping system compared to the original condition. Thus, i soils with the same source material have distinct resistance to compression with increased NT adoption time; ii the most sensitive indicators of this change are the ratios mass:volume and volume:volume and; iii there is a relationship between resistance and compaction susceptibility with the amount and type of oxide. Soil samples were collected in areas under NT and under natural condition in order to assess the impact imposed by the NT on the attributes density and porosity, precompression stress and compressibility index and relate them to the oxide type of, and content in, the soils under study. The results show that the density and macroporosity were those most affected by the NT agricultural use, regardless of soil type, that is, its dynamic is related more to soil use and less to mineralogical characteristics. The soil resistance and compaction susceptibility were higher in soil developed in basalt, followed by those developed in sandstone and granite. Both the organic matter content and type and concentration of iron oxides were related to the soil resistance and susceptibility to compaction.

  16. Candida and candidaemia. Susceptibility and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2013-11-01

    In our part of the world invasive fungal infections include invasive yeast infections with Candida as the absolutely dominating pathogen and invasive mould infections with Aspergillus as the main organism. Yeasts are part of our normal micro-flora and invasive infections arise only when barrier leakage or impaired immune function occurs. On the contrary, moulds are ubiquitous in the nature and environment and their conidia inhaled at a daily basis. Hence invasive mould infections typically arise from the airways whereas invasive yeast infections typically enter the bloodstream causing fungaemia. Candida is by far the most common fungal blood stream pathogen; hence this genus has been the main focus of this thesis. As neither the Danish epidemiology nor the susceptibility of fungal pathogens was well described when we initiated our studies we initially wanted to be able to include animal models in our work. Therefore, a comprehensive animal study was undertaken comparing the virulence in a haematogenous mouse model of eight different Candida species including the five most common ones in human infections (C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis and in addition three rarer species C. guilliermondii, C. lusitaniae and C. kefyr). We found remarkable differences in the virulence among these species and were able to group the species according to decreasing virulence in three groups I: C. albicans and C. tropicalis, II: C. glabrata, C. lusitaniae and C. kefyr, and III: C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. guilliermondii. Apart from being necessary for our subsequent animal experiments exploring in vivo antifungal susceptibility, these findings also helped us understand at least part of the reason for the differences in the epidemiology and the pitfalls associated with the establishment of genus rather than species specific breakpoints. In example, it was less surprising that C. albicans has been the dominant pathogen and associated with a

  17. GIS Supported Landslide Susceptibility Modeling at Regional Scale: An Expert-Based Fuzzy Weighting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Chalkias

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is landslide susceptibility assessment using fuzzy expert-based modeling. Factors that influence landslide occurrence, such as elevation, slope, aspect, lithology, land cover, precipitation and seismicity were considered. Expert-based fuzzy weighting (EFW approach was used to combine these factors for landslide susceptibility mapping (Peloponnese, Greece. This method produced a landslide susceptibility map of the investigated area. The landslides under investigation have more or less same characteristics: lateral based and downslope shallow movement of soils or rocks. The validation of the model reveals, that predicted susceptibility levels are found to be in good agreement with the past landslide occurrences. Hence, the obtained landslide susceptibility map could be acceptable, for landslide hazard prevention and mitigation at regional scale.

  18. Accuracy of magnetic resonance based susceptibility measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdevig, Hannah E.; Russek, Stephen E.; Carnicka, Slavka; Stupic, Karl F.; Keenan, Kathryn E.

    2017-05-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is increasingly used to map the magnetic susceptibility of tissue to identify cerebral microbleeds associated with traumatic brain injury and pathological iron deposits associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Accurate measurements of susceptibility are important for determining oxygen and iron content in blood vessels and brain tissue for use in noninvasive clinical diagnosis and treatment assessments. Induced magnetic fields with amplitude on the order of 100 nT, can be detected using MRI phase images. The induced field distributions can then be inverted to obtain quantitative susceptibility maps. The focus of this research was to determine the accuracy of MRI-based susceptibility measurements using simple phantom geometries and to compare the susceptibility measurements with magnetometry measurements where SI-traceable standards are available. The susceptibilities of paramagnetic salt solutions in cylindrical containers were measured as a function of orientation relative to the static MRI field. The observed induced fields as a function of orientation of the cylinder were in good agreement with simple models. The MRI susceptibility measurements were compared with SQUID magnetometry using NIST-traceable standards. MRI can accurately measure relative magnetic susceptibilities while SQUID magnetometry measures absolute magnetic susceptibility. Given the accuracy of moment measurements of tissue mimicking samples, and the need to look at small differences in tissue properties, the use of existing NIST standard reference materials to calibrate MRI reference structures is problematic and better reference materials are required.

  19. Proteochemometric modeling of HIV protease susceptibility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lapins, Maris; Eklund, Martin; Spjuth, Ola; Prusis, Peteris; Wikberg, Jarl E S

    2008-01-01

    .... Therefore, we used proteochemometrics to model the susceptibility of HIV to protease inhibitors in current use, utilizing descriptions of the physico-chemical properties of mutated HIV proteases...

  20. Tropospheric ozone effects on chemical composition and decomposition rate of Quercus ilex L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldantoni, Daniela; Fagnano, Massimo; Alfani, Anna

    2011-02-01

    We determined the effects of tropospheric ozone on the chemical composition of Quercus ilex L. leaves and their decomposition, with a view to assessing the influence of ozone on nutrient cycling and the sustainability of Mediterranean holm oak forests. Forming one of the most widespread thermophilous vegetation communities in the area, Q. ilex is a dominant and widespread evergreen oak in the Mediterranean, where concentrations of tropospheric ozone are particularly high. The dynamics of carbon, nitrogen, lignin and cellulose concentrations were monitored for six months during the decomposition of leaves from plants subjected to controlled ozone exposure in open-top chambers. Ozone-exposed leaves, compared to unexposed leaves, showed no significant differences in C, N, lignin and cellulose concentrations prior to the incubation in mesocosms. However, during decomposition, leaves from plants exposed to ozone lost C significantly more slowly and showed a higher C/N ratio than unexposed leaves. Ozone exposure significantly slowed down the decomposition rate, indicating a negative effect of tropospheric ozone on nutrient cycling, which may reduce long-term sustainability of the holm oak forest. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Predictors of Physician Assistant Faculty Intent to Leave Academia: A Rasch Regression Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltyukova, Svetlana; Graham, Karen

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate whether a previously developed and validated measure of intention to stay in academia for physician assistant (PA) faculty could also be used to inform PA faculty intent to leave academia and return to full-time clinical practice. A secondary analysis of the national survey data of PA faculty (n = 427) was conducted using a Rasch regression model. The 19 items from the previously validated Supportive Environment Scale were examined as potential predictors of the dichotomous outcome of intent to leave academia. In this analysis, PA faculty who were somewhat or very likely to leave academia were compared with those who were not at all likely to leave academia. Five items from the Supportive Environment Scale emerged as a linear meaningful measure that predicted intent to leave. These predictors included the following: recognition by administration, support for scholarly work, a fair promotion process, a sense of institutional community, and support of the PA program by administration. Rasch prediction maps were produced that allowed for powerful visualization of prediction and identification of areas for intervention. The intent of PA faculty to leave academia and return to clinical practice can be meaningfully predicted by 5 items. Importantly, these items are in the purview of institutional administrators and can be used to target PA faculty retention efforts.

  2. Weed Interference Effects on Leaves, Internode and Harvest Index of Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein GHAMARI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of appropriate weed management strategies and efficient use of herbicides relies upon understanding weed-crop interactions. A field study was carried out to assess the effect of weed interference on leaves, internode and harvest index of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. The experiment was established under a randomized complete block design with two types of weed interference treatments: plots with weeds and plots without weeds at different time intervals (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 days after crop emergence. The sigmoid Boltzmann model was used to quantify the crop traits as influenced by weed interference. Prolonged delays in weed removal reduced gradually the number of leaves of the crop. Weed interference decreased dry weight of leaves as well, so that the lowest value of it (33.49 g plant-1 was observed in full season during weed-infested treatment. Infestation of weeds affected the length of the crop internodes. While the weed interference duration increased, the length of the internodes decreased. Harvest index was also sensitive to weed competition. As the crop was kept weed-infested from the emergence for increasing periods of time, harvest index decreased to a value of 28.01%. A significant negative correlation between total biomass of weeds and dry bean traits (number of leaves, leaves dry weight, internode length and harvest index was observed. Therefore, weeds are able to adversely affect dry bean growth through constraining environmental resources and impairing leaves as the photosynthetic areas.

  3. Plant Photosynthetic Responses During Insect Effector-Triggered Plant Susceptibility and Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramig, Greta G; Harris, Marion O

    2015-06-01

    Gall-inducing insects are known for altering source-sink relationships within plants. Changes in photosynthesis may contribute to this phenomenon. We investigated photosynthetic responses in wheat [Triticum aestivum L. (Poaceae: Triticeae)] seedlings attacked by the Hessian fly [Mayetiola destructor (Say) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae], which uses a salivary effector-based strategy to induce a gall nutritive tissue in susceptible plants. Resistant plants have surveillance systems mediated by products of Resistance (R) genes. Detection of a specific salivary effector triggers downstream responses that result in a resistance that kills neonate larvae. A 2 × 2 factorial design was used to study maximum leaf photosynthetic assimilation and stomatal conductance rates. The plant treatments were-resistant or susceptible wheat lines expressing or not expressing the H13 resistance gene. The insect treatments were-no attack (control) or attack by larvae killed by H13 gene-mediated resistance. Photosynthesis was measured for the second and third leaves of the seedling, the latter being the only leaf directly attacked by larvae. We predicted effector-based attack would trigger increases in photosynthetic rates in susceptible but not resistant plants. For susceptible plants, attack was associated with increases (relative to controls) in photosynthesis for the third but not the second leaf. For resistant plants, attack was associated with increases in photosynthesis for both the second and third leaves. Mechanisms underlying the increases appeared to differ. Resistant plants exhibited responses suggesting altered source-sink relationships. Susceptible plants exhibited responses suggesting a mechanism other than altered source-sink relationships, possibly changes in water relations that contributed to increased stomatal conductance. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please

  4. Photosynthetic rates of sun versus shade leaves of Hyptis emoryi Torr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S.

    1976-08-01

    Leaves on a bush of Hyptis emoryi Torr, varied in length from less than 1 cm when development occurred in full sunlight (e.g. 40 Mjoules m/sup -2/) to over 7 cm when the total daily solar irradiance was less than 3 Mjoules m/sup -2/. The 1-cm sun leaves were 3-fold higher than the 7-cm shade leaves in chlorophyll per unit area, mesophyll thickness, and the internal to external leaf area ratio (A/sup mes//A). The higher A/sup mes//A caused a 1.2-cm leaf to have a 3-fold lower CO/sub 2/ liquid phase resistance than did a 7.1-cm leaf. Large thin shade leaves captured photosynthetically active radiation effectively (less than 7 percent passed through), but were not adapted to full sunlight. Specifically, when a 6.9-cm leaf was placed at 910 w m/sup -2/ for 30 min, its temperature exceeded that of the air by nearly 8/sup 0/C. For the common daytime air temperatures above 30/sup 0/C for this desert shrub, large shade leaves would have temperatures far in excess of that optimum for photosynthesis for H. emoryi, 29 to 32/sup 0/C.

  5. Photosynthetic Rates of Sun versus Shade Leaves of Hyptis emoryi Torr. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobel, Park S.

    1976-01-01

    Leaves on a bush of Hyptis emoryi Torr. varied in length from less than 1 cm when development occurred in full sunlight (e.g. 40 Mjoules m−2) to over 7 cm when the total daily solar irradiance was less than 3 Mjoules m−2. The 1-cm sun leaves were 3-fold higher than the 7-cm shade leaves in chlorophyll per unit area, mesophyll thickness, and the internal to external leaf area ratio (Ames/A). The higher Ames/A caused a 1.2-cm leaf to have a 3-fold lower CO2 liquid phase resistance than did a 7.1-cm leaf. Large thin shade leaves captured photosynthetically active radiation effectively (less than 7% passed through), but were not adapted to full sunlight. Specifically, when a 6.9-cm leaf was placed at 910 w m−2 for 30 min, its temperature exceeded that of the air by nearly 8 C. For the common daytime air temperatures above 30 C for this desert shrub, large shade leaves would have temperatures far in excess of that optimum for photosynthesis for H. emoryi, 29 to 32 C. PMID:16659651

  6. Fine-scale mercury trends in temperate deciduous tree leaves from Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwik, Eden I H; Campbell, Linda M; Mierle, Gregory

    2009-12-01

    This study focused on the value of deciduous leaves as biomonitors of total mercury (THg). Leaf samples were collected from a range of deciduous species from five sampling sites in the province of Ontario, Canada. These included a site in the northwest (the Experimental Lakes Area, ELA), two sites in central Ontario (the town of Dorset and the Centre for Atmospheric Research Experiments, CARE), and two sites in the southeast (Sandbanks Provincial Park, SBPP and the City of Kingston). The sampled species exhibited distinctive species-specific differences with red oaks consistently having lower leaf THg concentrations than all maple species, while black and white ash leaves had the highest concentrations. Spatially, leaves collected across the distance between ELA and SBPP (approximately 1500 km apart) had overlapping THg concentrations between 20 and 40 ng/g. Unexpectedly, leaves from urban parks of Kingston had considerably lower THg concentrations (wind turbulence and sunlight. Within any single leaf, THg concentrations were highest in the leaf tissue, and consistently distributed, while the vein and petiole tissue had lower THg concentrations. There was no relationship between THg concentrations and leaf area. Using deciduous tree leaves as regional temporal monitors of bioavailable mercury may be feasible, but careful selection of leaf sampling sites on the tree itself and the timing is of utmost importance for ensuring consistent and high quality biomonitoring data.

  7. A prediction rule for shoulder pain related sick leave: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Heijden Geert JMG

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shoulder pain is common in primary care, and has an unfavourable outcome in many patients. Information about predictors of shoulder pain related sick leave in workers is scarce and inconsistent. The objective was to develop a clinical prediction rule for calculating the risk of shoulder pain related sick leave for individual workers, during the 6 months following first consultation in general practice. Methods A prospective cohort study with 6 months follow-up was conducted among 350 workers with a new episode of shoulder pain. Potential predictors included the results of a physical examination, sociodemographic variables, disease characteristics (duration of symptoms, sick leave in the 2 months prior to consultation, pain intensity, disability, comorbidity, physical activity, physical work load, psychological factors, and the psychosocial work environment. The main outcome measure was sick leave during 6 months following first consultation in general practice. Results Response rate to the follow-up questionnaire at 6 months was 85%. During the 6 months after first consultation 30% (89/298 of the workers reported sick leave. 16% (47 reported 10 days sick leave or more. Sick leave during this period was predicted in a multivariable model by a longer duration of sick leave prior to consultation, more shoulder pain, a perceived cause of strain or overuse during regular activities, and co-existing psychological complaints. The discriminative ability of the prediction model was satisfactory with an area under the curve of 0.70 (95% CI 0.64–0.76. Conclusion Although 30% of all workers with shoulder pain reported sick leave during follow-up, the duration of sick leave was limited to a few days in most workers. We developed a prediction rule and a score chart that can be used by general practitioners and occupational health care providers to calculate the absolute risk of sick leave in individual workers with shoulder pain, which

  8. The acclimation of carnivorous round-leaved sundew (Drosera rotundifolia L.) to solar radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tkalec, Mirta; Doboš, Marko; Babić, Marija; Jurak, Edita

    2015-01-01

    Round-leaved sundew (Drosera rotundifolia L.) is a carnivorous plant which inhabits nutrient-poor, moist, and sun-exposed areas such as peat bogs and sandpits. These habitats are threatened by succession which could lead to substantial shading of sundews. Nevertheless, D. rotundifolia can also

  9. Study of associative effects of date palm leaves mixed with Aristida ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The description of the fermentation profile of in vitro gas production showed that Sandoval model was poor and not appropriate for the characteristic varieties of arid and semi-arid areas in Algeria and the multiple regression models revealed a good linear regression for both mixtures. Keywords: Date palm leaves, forage, ...

  10. Antifertility effect of aqueous and ethanol extracts of the leaves and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Asparagus africanus is claimed to have use in reproductive related health problems in some areas of Ethiopia. Objective: To study the potential antifertility effect of the aqueous and ethanol extracts of the leaves and roots of Asparagus africanus in rats. Methods: Water and ethanol extracts were given by ...

  11. Magazines as wilderness information sources: assessing users' general wilderness knowledge and specific leave no trace knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    John J. Confer; Andrew J. Mowen; Alan K. Graefe; James D. Absher

    2000-01-01

    The Leave No Trace (LNT) educational program has the potential to provide wilderness users with useful minimum impact information. For LNT to be effective, managers need to understand who is most/least aware of minimum impact practices and how to expose users to LNT messages. This study examined LNT knowledge among various user groups at an Eastern wilderness area and...

  12. Transmission of Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus from Frozen Infected Leaves to Healthy Rice Plants by Small Brown Planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong ZHOU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to preserve virus for identifying the resistance of rice varieties against rice black-streaked dwarf disease, a simple and reliable method was developed, through which virus-free small brown planthopper (SBPH acquired rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV from frozen infected leaves and the virus was transmitted to healthy rice plants. The experimental results showed that SBPH could obtain RBSDV from frozen infected rice leaves and the virus could be transmitted to a susceptible rice variety. For the ability to acquire RBSDV and transmit the virus to healthy plants by SBPH, there was no significant difference between frozen infected leaves and in vitro infected leaves. The novel method could be applied to identification of rice variety resistance to rice black-streaked dwarf disease, facilitating the breeding process for rice black-streaked dwarf disease resistance.

  13. Search for new breast cancer susceptibility genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenburg, Rogier Abel

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the search for new high-risk breast cancer susceptibility genes by linkage analysis. To date 20-25% of familial breast cancer is explained by mutations in the high-risk BRCA1 and BRCA2 breast cancer susceptibility genes. For the remaining families the genetic etiology is

  14. Mapping markers linked to porcine salmonellosis susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galina-Pantoja, L.; Siggens, K.; Schriek, van M.G.M.; Heuven, H.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify pig chromosomal regions associated with susceptibility to salmonellosis. Genomic DNA from pig reference populations with differences in susceptibility to Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis as quantified by spleen and liver bacterial colonization at day 7

  15. Crystal morphology change by magnetic susceptibility force

    OpenAIRE

    Katsuki, Aiko; Aibara, Shigeo; Tanimoto, Yoshifumi

    2006-01-01

    We found a change in morphology when lysozyme crystals were grown in a magnetic field. The phenomenon was caused by the magnetic force derived from the magnetic susceptibility gradient. We propose that this force should be called the “magnetic susceptibility force".

  16. 'Dew nucleation' by hygroscopic particles on leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, J.; Hunsche, M.; Pariyar, S.

    2010-07-01

    Theoretical explanations of dew formation usually consider a pure, plain surface and do not include any contributions of hygroscopic material present on this surface. A significant amount of hygroscopic material, however, is present on most real leaves, due to accumulated deposited aerosols, salt exudations, leached ions, or agricultural sprays. Similarly to cloud nucleation, hygroscopic material on leaves leads to a significant reduction of saturation vapor pressure and enables 'dew nucleation', where the condensation of minute amounts of water is still too small to be visible without a microscope. This may happen at humidities far below saturation, dependent on the composition and deliquescence point of the particles; additionally plant transpiration often raises the humidity on the leaf surface. While the amounts of water involved are not significant in terms of the energy or water balance, the ecological consequences of such condensation mechanisms on leaves may be considerable. Highly concentrated but mobile solutions are formed by the deliquescence of hygroscopic particles, which may provide important nutrients for the plant. Their chemistry differs considerably from dilute solutions. When viewed by an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), oscillating humidity led to the expansion of salts even on hydrophobic leaf surfaces. This may lead to the ’hydraulic activation of stomata (HAS)’, a process leading to the extension of liquid water films into the plant and subsequent transport of liquid water and solutes on the stomatal pathway, a meanwhile well-proven contradiction to previous concepts. Apart from the nutritional aspects, hygroscopic substances on leaves will interact with plant water relations. Depending on the degree of stomatal activation, this may trigger useful hydraulic signaling or provoke deleterious wicking and reduced drought tolerance of the plant.

  17. The Antidiabetic Potential Of Jatropha tanjorensis Leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Southwest Nigeria, infusion of Jatropha tanjorensisi leaves is taken orally for the treatment of diabetic symptoms. The hypoglycemic effect of EtOH/H2O (1:1) leaf extract was evaluated in fasted and glucose-loaded rats at the doses of 1 and 2g/kg in-vivo, while three fractions of the extract were assessed for their ...

  18. A new sesquiterpene lactone from yacon leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ying; Win Aung, Khin Khin; Ran, Xiao-Ku; Wang, Xiao-Tong; Dou, De-Qiang; Dong, Feng

    2017-01-01

    The chemical constituents of 60% EtOH extract of yacon leaves were separated to yield a new compound, together with four known compounds, which were isolated for the first time from yacon. The new compound was characterised and named as chlorodalin (1) on the basis of NMR (1D and 2D), HR-MS and other spectral methods. The cytotoxic activities of 1-5 were evaluated on two human tumour cell lines and the new compound showed significant cytotoxic activity.

  19. Research of photoinduced potentials of pepper leaves

    OpenAIRE

    D. V. Chernetchenko; MOTSNYJ M.P.; N. P. Botsva; О. V. Elina

    2015-01-01

    Bioelectrical potentials of the plants during photostimulation with various intensity values and wave lengths are studied. Such stimulation provides light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis. The universal scheme of registration of bioelectric potentials, which allows to carry out the experimental study of light stimuli effect on the plant is proposed. All registrations of potentials are observed on the pepper leaves. Photoinduced stimuli are different with intensity changed from 150 to 450...

  20. Newbouldia laevis leaves extract: Nutritive value, Phytochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were collected on weekly performance and faecal egg count of experimental rams. The Newbouldia laevis leaves extract contained 55% moisture, 5.68% crude protein, 5.61% crude fat, 10.54% crude fibre, 2.15% total ash, 21.02% NFE and 20.22% NDF. It also had 0.00015 %, 0.00229 %, 39.2 %, 2.5 %, 0.00296 % ...

  1. Application of Physically based landslide susceptibility models in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho Vieira, Bianca; Martins, Tiago D.

    2017-04-01

    Shallow landslides and floods are the processes responsible for most material and environmental damages in Brazil. In the last decades, some landslides events induce a high number of deaths (e.g. Over 1000 deaths in one event) and incalculable social and economic losses. Therefore, the prediction of those processes is considered an important tool for land use planning tools. Among different methods the physically based landslide susceptibility models having been widely used in many countries, but in Brazil it is still incipient when compared to other ones, like statistical tools and frequency analyses. Thus, the main objective of this research was to assess the application of some Physically based landslide susceptibility models in Brazil, identifying their main results, the efficiency of susceptibility mapping, parameters used and limitations of the tropical humid environment. In order to achieve that, it was evaluated SHALSTAB, SINMAP and TRIGRS models in some studies in Brazil along with the Geotechnical values, scales, DEM grid resolution and the results based on the analysis of the agreement between predicted susceptibility and the landslide scar's map. Most of the studies in Brazil applied SHALSTAB, SINMAP and to a lesser extent the TRIGRS model. The majority researches are concentrated in the Serra do Mar mountain range, that is a system of escarpments and rugged mountains that extends more than 1,500 km along the southern and southeastern Brazilian coast, and regularly affected by heavy rainfall that generates widespread mass movements. Most part of these studies used conventional topographic maps with scales ranging from 1:2000 to 1:50000 and DEM-grid resolution between 2 and 20m. Regarding the Geotechnical and hydrological values, a few studies use field collected data which could produce more efficient results, as indicated by international literature. Therefore, even though they have enormous potential in the susceptibility mapping, even for comparison

  2. Spatially varying prediction uncertainties and their implications on landslide susceptibility maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petschko, Helene; Brenning, Alexander; Goetz, Jason; Bell, Rainer; Glade, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Statistical methods for landslide susceptibility modelling are popular methods assessing the landslide susceptibility of a region (e.g. countries, province, municipalities), as they operate with less data compared to physically-based models. With statistical methods an overview over the region can be provided to identify areas where more detailed analysis (e.g. using geotechnical site investigation) is necessary to learn more about the slope stability. As with any model, statistical models are riddled with epistemic and aleatory uncertainties. As one model uncertainty spatially varying prediction uncertainties arise from the usage of a statistical model. The output of a statistical model is an individual value for each grid cell or terrain unit giving an estimated conditional mean value of the predicted probability. Therefore, there is a possible range to this value, a prediction uncertainty, as determined by the spatially varying standard error of the predicted probabilities conditional on the selected model form. Our objective is to assess and visualize the prediction uncertainties and their implications on a landslide susceptibility map with three susceptibility classes in a case study in Lower Austria. We performed the statistical landslide susceptibility modelling with generalized additive models (GAM). The standard error of the prediction for each grid cell in the prediction map was assessed using a lookup table. The resulting standard error map aided to estimate the upper and lower limit of a 95% confidence interval of the predicted probability. The comparison of the classified maps of the upper and lower confidence limits and the map showing the predicted probability of landslide susceptibility revealed the spatially varying prediction uncertainties shown by overlaps of different susceptibility classes (high, medium or low). While seven types of overlaps of different susceptibility classes were found, the most frequent overlap occurred between the low and

  3. A Novel Technique for Performing PID Susceptibility Screening during the Solar Cell Fabrication Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jaewon; Dahal, Som; Dauksher, Bill; Bowden, Stuart; Tamizhmani, Govindasamy; Hacke, Peter

    2016-11-21

    Various characterization techniques have historically been developed in order to screen potential induced degradation (PID)-susceptible cells, but those techniques require final solar cells. We present a new characterization technique for screening PID-susceptible cells during the cell fabrication process. Illuminated Lock-In Thermography (ILIT) was used to image PID shunting of the cell without metallization and clearly showed PID-affected areas. PID-susceptible cells can be screened by ILIT, and the sample structure can advantageously be simplified as long as the sample has the silicon nitride antireflection coating and an aluminum back surface field.

  4. Regional sinkhole susceptibility maps: The Latium Region case (central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Vigna, F.; Teoli, P.; Mazza, R.; Leoni, G.; Capelli, G.

    2012-04-01

    Several and frequent studies were internationally presented about landslide susceptibility, meanwhile in literature is missing a broad diffusion of studies regarding sinkhole susceptibility. That's why sinkhole recurrence depends on several geological conditions related to specific geological and hydrogeological context (sinkhole prone area) that vary case by case. Notwithstanding this regionalization problem of sinkhole recurrence, in the central Appenine sedimentary basins (Italy) a certain number of geological, geomorphologic and hydrogeological conditions (sinkhole predisposing issues) can be considered in common between the surveyed sinkholes. Eventually this could be compared with similar geological conditions and sinkhole occurrence in the rest of Italy or in other countries. In this case study is presented a probabilistic approach regarding the Latium Region deriving from the comparison between the regional sinkhole inventory realized during a precedent project and the dataset of the new Hydrogeological Map of Latium Region (scale 1:100.000). Indexed elements, chosen because associated to the majority of sinkhole phenomena, are: outcropping lithologies, water table depth, main faults (even if buried), hydrothermal springs, land use and the epicentres of recent earthquakes. These indexed elements were weighted and combined in a matrix which preliminary result is the sinkhole susceptibility map of Latium Region. When definitively validated, this approach could be suitable for local authorities to planning more targeted studies in major hazard areas.

  5. Acute Toxicity of Justicia gendarussa Burm. Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juheini Amin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Acute Toxicity of Justicia gendarussa Burm. Leaves. Preminelary experiment showed that ethanolic extract ofgandarusa leaves (Justicia gendarussa Burm. could decreased uric acid blood level on rats. The aim of this experimentwas to determine of the value LD50 and liver function based on activities of aminotransferase. Animals test which wereused in this experiment were 50 males and 50 females white mice. They were divided into 5 groups. Group 1 as controlgroup was given aquadest. Group 2-5 were treated by ethanolic extract of gandarusa leaves with dosage 4, 8, 16, and 32g/kg bw. The LD50 value was determined by the amount of death in group during 24 hours after giving a single dose oftest substance. The result showed that the highest dose was practically non toxic with LD50 value of 31.99 g/kg bw(male groups and 27.85 g/kg bw (female groups. Measurement of aminotransferase activity was done by usingcolorimetric method. The result of ANOVA analysis for liver function showed that the giving test substance 4 g/kg bw–16 g/kg bw was not significantly different between treated groups and control group.

  6. Genetic susceptibility to pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Alison P

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in both men and women in the United States. However, it has the poorest prognosis of any major tumor type, with a 5-yr survival rate of approximately 5%. Cigarette smoking, increased body mass index, heavy alcohol consumption, and a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus have all been demonstrated to increase risk of pancreatic cancer. A family history of pancreatic cancer has also been associated with increased risk suggesting inherited genetic factors also play an important role, with approximately 5-10% of pancreatic cancer patients reporting family history of pancreatic cancer. While the genetic basis for the majority of the familial clustering of pancreatic cancer remains unclear, several important pancreatic cancer genes have been identified. These consist of high penetrance genes including BRCA2 or PALB2, to more common genetic variation associated with a modest increase risk of pancreatic cancer such as genetic variation at the ABO blood group locus. Recent advances in genotyping and genetic sequencing have accelerated the rate at which novel pancreatic cancer susceptibility genes have been identified with several genes identified within the past few years. This review addresses our current understanding of the familial aggregation of pancreatic cancer, established pancreatic cancer susceptablity genes and how this knowledge informs risk assessment and screening for high-risk families. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Genetic Susceptibility to Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Alison P.

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in both men and women in the United States. However, it has the poorest prognosis of any major tumor type, with a 5-yr survival rate of approximately 5%. Cigarette smoking, increased body mass index, heavy alcohol consumption, and a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus have all been demonstrated to increase risk of pancreatic cancer. A family history of pancreatic cancer has also been associated with increased risk suggesting inherited genetic factors also play an important role, with approximately 5–10% of pancreatic cancer patients reporting family history of pancreatic cancer. While the genetic basis for the majority of the familial clustering of pancreatic cancer remains unclear, several important pancreatic cancer genes have been identified. These consist of high penetrance genes including BRCA2 or PALB2, to more common genetic variation associated with a modest increase risk of pancreatic cancer such as genetic variation at the ABO blood group locus. Recent advances in genotyping and genetic sequencing have accelerated the rate at which novel pancreatic cancer susceptibility genes have been identified with several genes identified within the past few years. This review addresses our current understanding of the familial aggregation of pancreatic cancer, established pancreatic cancer susceptablity genes and how this knowledge informs risk assessment and screening for high-risk families. PMID:22162228

  8. Comparison of protein profiles of beech bark disease-resistant or beech bark disease-susceptible American beech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary E. Mason; Marek Krasowski; Judy Loo; Jennifer. Koch

    2011-01-01

    Proteomic analysis of beech bark proteins from trees resistant and susceptible to beech bark disease (BBD) was conducted. Sixteen trees from eight geographically isolated stands, 10 resistant (healthy) and 6 susceptible (diseased/infested) trees, were studied. The genetic complexity of the sample unit, the sampling across a wide geographic area, and the complexity of...

  9. Natural Hazard Susceptibility Assessment for Road Planning Using Spatial Multi-Criteria Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Caroline S J; Kalantari, Zahra; Mörtberg, Ulla; Olofsson, Bo; Lyon, Steve W

    2017-08-18

    Inadequate infrastructural networks can be detrimental to society if transport between locations becomes hindered or delayed, especially due to natural hazards which are difficult to control. Thus determining natural hazard susceptible areas and incorporating them in the initial planning process, may reduce infrastructural damages in the long run. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of expert judgments for assessing natural hazard susceptibility through a spatial multi-criteria analysis approach using hydrological, geological, and land use factors. To utilize spatial multi-criteria analysis for decision support, an analytic hierarchy process was adopted where expert judgments were evaluated individually and in an aggregated manner. The estimates of susceptible areas were then compared with the methods weighted linear combination using equal weights and factor interaction method. Results showed that inundation received the highest susceptibility. Using expert judgment showed to perform almost the same as equal weighting where the difference in susceptibility between the two for inundation was around 4%. The results also showed that downscaling could negatively affect the susceptibility assessment and be highly misleading. Susceptibility assessment through spatial multi-criteria analysis is useful for decision support in early road planning despite its limitation to the selection and use of decision rules and criteria. A natural hazard spatial multi-criteria analysis could be used to indicate areas where more investigations need to be undertaken from a natural hazard point of view, and to identify areas thought to have higher susceptibility along existing roads where mitigation measures could be targeted after in-situ investigations.

  10. Natural Hazard Susceptibility Assessment for Road Planning Using Spatial Multi-Criteria Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Caroline S. J.; Kalantari, Zahra; Mörtberg, Ulla; Olofsson, Bo; Lyon, Steve W.

    2017-11-01

    Inadequate infrastructural networks can be detrimental to society if transport between locations becomes hindered or delayed, especially due to natural hazards which are difficult to control. Thus determining natural hazard susceptible areas and incorporating them in the initial planning process, may reduce infrastructural damages in the long run. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of expert judgments for assessing natural hazard susceptibility through a spatial multi-criteria analysis approach using hydrological, geological, and land use factors. To utilize spatial multi-criteria analysis for decision support, an analytic hierarchy process was adopted where expert judgments were evaluated individually and in an aggregated manner. The estimates of susceptible areas were then compared with the methods weighted linear combination using equal weights and factor interaction method. Results showed that inundation received the highest susceptibility. Using expert judgment showed to perform almost the same as equal weighting where the difference in susceptibility between the two for inundation was around 4%. The results also showed that downscaling could negatively affect the susceptibility assessment and be highly misleading. Susceptibility assessment through spatial multi-criteria analysis is useful for decision support in early road planning despite its limitation to the selection and use of decision rules and criteria. A natural hazard spatial multi-criteria analysis could be used to indicate areas where more investigations need to be undertaken from a natural hazard point of view, and to identify areas thought to have higher susceptibility along existing roads where mitigation measures could be targeted after in-situ investigations.

  11. Fidelity susceptibility in the quantum Rabi model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Bo-Bo; Lv, Xiao-Chen

    2018-01-01

    Quantum criticality usually occurs in many-body systems. Recently it was shown that the quantum Rabi model, which describes a two-level atom coupled to a single model cavity field, presents quantum phase transitions from a normal phase to a superradiate phase when the ratio between the frequency of the two-level atom and the frequency of the cavity field extends to infinity. In this work, we study quantum phase transitions in the quantum Rabi model from the fidelity susceptibility perspective. We found that the fidelity susceptibility and the generalized adiabatic susceptibility present universal finite-size scaling behaviors near the quantum critical point of the Rabi model if the ratio between frequency of the two-level atom and frequency of the cavity field is finite. From the finite-size scaling analysis of the fidelity susceptibility, we found that the adiabatic dimension of the fidelity susceptibility and the generalized adiabatic susceptibility of fourth order in the Rabi model are 4 /3 and 2, respectively. Meanwhile, the correlation length critical exponent and the dynamical critical exponent in the quantum critical point of the Rabi model are found to be 3 /2 and 1 /3 , respectively. Since the fidelity susceptibility and the generalized adiabatic susceptibility are the moments of the quantum noise spectrum which are directly measurable by experiments in linear response regime, the scaling behavior of the fidelity susceptibility in the Rabi model could be tested experimentally. The simple structure of the quantum Rabi model paves the way for experimentally observing the universal scaling behavior of the fidelity susceptibility at a quantum phase transition.

  12. Changing the content of phenolic compounds as the response of blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) leaves after blackcurrant leaf midge (Dasineura tetensi Rübs.) infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Wojciech; Oszmiański, Jan; Wojdyło, Aneta; Łabanowska, Barbara H

    2016-09-01

    Blackcurrant leaf midge (Dasineura tetensi) is one of the most common pests of blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum). The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the content of phenolic compounds in the leaves damaged by the larvae of this pest. Additionally, susceptibility of different blackcurrant cultivars to the midge attack was investigated. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of control and pest-infested blackcurrant leaves were performed using LC-PDA-QTOF/MS and UPLC-PDA-FL systems. A total of 39 types of phenolic compounds were identified in blackcurrant leaf extracts and they included 3 flavan-3-ols, 14 hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, and 22 flavonols. Feeding of blackcurrant leaf midge on blackcurrant leaves lowered the content of leaf polyphenolic compounds. The greatest differences in polyphenolics between control and infected leaves were observed in 'Ruben', 'Fariegh', 'Foxendown', 'Ores', 'Ben Hope', 'Ben Connan' and 'Tisel' cultivars that were probably highly susceptible to the pest attack. In the other cultivars: 'Ben Finlay', 'Polares', 'Tiben', and 'Gofert' the differences in phenolics content were less pronounced, so they were probably less susceptible to D. tetensi attack. Plant polyphenolic compounds was strongly involved in pathogen-plant interaction, and their accumulation significantly decreased as a result of the pathogen attack. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) leaves in Northern Europe following foliar development and along environmental gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, Françoise; Jaakola, Laura; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Stark, Sari

    2010-09-01

    Bilberry is a characteristic field layer species in the boreal forests and is an important forage plant for herbivores of the North European ecosystem. Bilberry leaves contain high levels of phenolic compounds, especially hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols, catechins, and proanthocyanidins. We investigated the phenolic composition of bilberry leaves in two studies, one following foliar development in forest and open areas, and the other along a wide geographical gradient from south to north boreal forests in Finland. An analysis of bilberry leaves collected in open and forest areas showed that major phenolic changes appeared in the first stages of leaf development, but, most importantly, synthesis and accumulation of flavonoids was delayed in the forest compared to the high light sites. Sampling along a geographical gradient in the boreal zone indicated that leaves from higher latitudes and higher altitudes had greater soluble phenolic and flavonol levels, higher antioxidant capacity, and lower contents of chlorogenic acid derivatives. The ecological significance of the results is discussed.

  14. Waterborne outbreak of gastroenteritis: effects on sick leaves and cost of lost workdays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaana I Halonen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2007, part of a drinking water distribution system was accidentally contaminated with waste water effluent causing a gastroenteritis outbreak in a Finnish town. We examined the acute and cumulative effects of this incidence on sick leaves among public sector employees residing in the clean and contaminated areas, and the additional costs of lost workdays due to the incidence. METHODS: Daily information on sick leaves of 1789 Finnish Public Sector Study participants was obtained from employers' registers. Global Positioning System-coordinates were used for linking participants to the clean and contaminated areas. Prevalence ratios (PR for weekly sickness absences were calculated using binomial regression analysis. Calculations for the costs were based on prior studies. RESULTS: Among those living in the contaminated areas, the prevalence of participants on sick leave was 3.54 (95% confidence interval (CI 2.97-4.22 times higher on the week following the incidence compared to the reference period. Those living and working in the clean area were basically not affected, the corresponding PR for sick leaves was 1.12, 95% CI 0.73-1.73. No cumulative effects on sick leaves were observed among the exposed. The estimated additional costs of lost workdays due to the incidence were 1.8-2.1 million euros. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of sickness absences among public sector employees residing in affected areas increased shortly after drinking water distribution system was contaminated, but no long-term effects were observed. The estimated costs of lost workdays were remarkable, thus, the cost-benefits of better monitoring systems for the water distribution systems should be evaluated.

  15. Why Patients Leave the Hospital Against Doctor's Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166746.html Why Patients Leave the Hospital Against Doctor's Orders It's a growing ... are much more likely than older patients to leave the hospital against the advice of their doctor. ...

  16. Assessing Degree of Susceptibility to Landslide Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, M. F.; Cordoba, G. A.; Delgado, H.; Stefanescu, R.

    2013-05-01

    The modeling of hazardous mass flows, both dry and water saturated, is currently an area of active research and several stable models have now emerged that have differing degrees of physical and mathematical fidelity. Models based on the early work of Savage and Hutter (1989) assume that very large dense granular flows could be modeled as incompressible continua governed by a Coulomb failure criterion. Based on this concept, Patra et al. (2005) developed a code for dry avalanches, which proposes a thin layer mathematical model similar to shallow-water equations. This concept was implemented in the widely-used TITAN2D program, which integrates the shock-capturing Godunov solution methodology for the equation system. We propose a method to assess the susceptibility of specific locations susceptible to landslides following heavy tephra fall using the TIATN2D code. Successful application requires that the range of several uncertainties must be framed in the selection of model input data: 1) initial conditions, like volume and location of origin of the landslide, 2) bed and internal friction parameters and 3) digital elevation model (DEM) uncertainties. Among the possible ways of coping with these uncertainties, we chose to use Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS). This statistical technique reduces a computationally intractable problem to such an extent that is it possible to apply it, even with current personal computers. LHS requires that there is only one sample in each row and each column of the sampling matrix, where each row (multi-dimensional) corresponds to each uncertainty. LHS requires less than 10% of the sample runs needed by Monte Carlo approaches to achieve a stable solution. In our application LHS output provides model sampling for 4 input parameters: initial random volumes, UTM location (x and y), and bed friction. We developed a simple Octave script to link the output of LHS with TITAN2D. In this way, TITAN2D can run several times with successively different

  17. Vitis Resistance to Pierce's Disease Is Characterized by Differential Xylella fastidiosa Populations in Stems and Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivanek, A F; Walker, M A

    2005-01-01

    ABSTRACT The pattern of Xylella fastidiosa infection in resistant and susceptible grapevines representing a diverse selection of Vitis spp. was characterized through measurements of X. fastidiosa bacterial movement and accumulation in artificially inoculated greenhouse-grown grapevines. A double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was optimized for quantification of X. fastidiosa populations and tested on known amounts of X. fastidiosa added to grape tissue extracts. Predicted versus known X. fastidiosa concentrations proved to be highly correlated (R(2) = 0.99). Populations of X. fastidiosa in stem internode, stem node, petiole, and leaf blade samples from the genotypes in this study were measured at 12 weeks postinoculation using the optimized ELISA procedure. Samples from each plant part were taken at eight positions along the inoculated shoots. Systemic infection was detected in both susceptible and resistant genotypes. Resistant genotypes were characterized by significant differences in X. fastidiosa populations between stem internodes and leaves (1.0 x 10(6) and 1.1 x 10(7) cells/g of sample, respectively). In contrast, the susceptible genotypes were characterized by high mean X. fastidiosa populations in both stems and leaves (5.6 x 10(7) and 4.8 x 10(7) cells/g, respectively) the latter of which were not significantly different from the resistant genotypes. A high correlation (R(2) = 0.97) between stem X. fastidiosa numbers to previously characterized field Pierce's disease (PD) performance indicates that the quantitative ELISA measurements of X. fastidiosa in greenhouse-grown grapevines should be a useful tool for predicting PD resistance under field conditions.

  18. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability by combining drastic and susceptibility index: Application to Annaba superficial aquifer (Algeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedrati, Nassima; Djabri, Larbi; Chaffai, Hicham; Bougherira, Nabil

    2016-07-01

    Groundwater pollution due to anthropogenic activities is one of the major environmental problems in urban and industrial areas. The aim of this work is to propose a new integrated methodology to assess actual and forecasted groundwater vulnerability by combining Drastic and susceptibility index. The contamination susceptibility index (SI) at a given location was calculated by taking the product of the vulnerability DRASTIC index (VI) and the quality index (QI): SI=VI x QI. The superficial aquifer of Annaba plain was the study case proposed for the application of this methodology. The study revealed that the area with Very High vulnerability would increase 73 % in this superficial layer. This result can be explained by the susceptibility index map shows both hydrogeological and hydrochemical data related to the contamination problem including areas that should be taken into consideration during water management planning. The index map indicates that the most susceptible groundwater is occupies the majority of the study area. The validity of the DRASTIC and the susceptibility index methods, verified by comparing the distribution of some pollutants (Daouad, 2013) in the groundwater and the different vulnerability classes, shows a high contamination that affect the water quality in study areas.

  19. Susceptibility of Shallow Landslide in Fraser Hill Catchment, Pahang Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Nor Azmin Sulaiman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In tropical areas especially during monsoon seasons intense precipitation is the main caused that trigger the natural shallow landslide phenomena. This phenomenon can be disastrous and widespread in occurrence even in undisturbed forested catchment. In this paper, an attempt has been made to evaluate the susceptibility of natural hill slopes to failure for a popular hill resort area, the Fraser Hill Catchment under different rainfall regimes and soil thickness. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM was prepared for the 8.2 km2 catchment. A GIS based deterministic model was then applied to predict the spatial landslide occurrence within catchment. Model input parameters include bulk density, friction angle, cohesion and hydraulic conductivity were gathered through in situ and lab analysis as well as from previous soil analysis records. Landslides locations were recorded using GPS as well as previous air photos and satellite imagery to establish landslide source areas inventory. The landslide susceptibility map was produced under different precipitation event’s simulation to see the effects of precipitation to stability of the hill slopes of the catchment. The results were categorized into naturally unstable (Defended, Upper Threshold, Lower Threshold, marginal instability (Quasi Stable and stable area (Moderately Stable and Stable. Results of the simulation indicated notable change in precipitation effect on Defended area is between 10mm to 40mm range in a single storm event. However, when storm event is exceeded 120mm, the result on Defended area produced by the model tends to be constant further on. For area categorized as naturally unstable (Factor of Safety, SF<1, with 110 mm of precipitation in a single storm event and soil depth at 2 meters and 4 meters could affect 69.51% and 69.88% respectively of the catchment area fall under that class. In addition, the model was able to detect 4% more of the landslide inventory under shallower soil depth of

  20. Can elemental composition data of crop leaves be used to estimate radionuclide transfer to tree leaves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2010-11-01

    Estimation of radionuclide concentrations in trees may be required to estimate their radiation exposure. However, concentration ratios of radionuclides from soil to tree species are limited for many radionuclide-tree combinations. To fill this gap, it is investigated in the present paper whether stable element concentration data for leafy vegetables are representative of those for wild tree leaves, and consequently, if these stable element data for leafy vegetables can be used as analogues to describe radionuclides transfer from soil to trees. Data for stable elements in leafy vegetables collected in Japan were compared with those in leaves of about 20 tree species worldwide. The correlation coefficients of element concentrations between leafy vegetables and tree leaves were higher than 0.90 with p elements were within the range of data for leafy vegetables. Thus, transfer parameters derived from stable element data for leafy vegetables could generally be used to estimate concentrations in tree leaves if data for the latter are not available. However, some trees accumulate a few elements (e.g., Al, Co, Mn and Si) in their leaves to higher concentrations than observed for leafy vegetables.

  1. 78 FR 8833 - The Family and Medical Leave Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... leave to family members of members of the Regular Armed Forces for qualifying exigencies arising out of... leave provision to include leave for eligible family members of members of the Regular Armed Forces and... FY 2008 NDAA, is expanded to include family members of members of the Regular Armed Forces. The...

  2. Early School Leaving and the Cultural Geography of High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, John; Hattam, Robert

    2002-01-01

    States early school leaving is a protracted educational problem throughout the world. Examines early school leaving from the position of young Australians (n=209) who left school or were considering leaving. Provides tentative theorizing traversing aspects of the cultural geography of high school as partial explanation of what is occurring. (BT)

  3. Determinants of sick-leave duration : A tool for managers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flach, P.A.; Krol, B.; Groothoff, J.W.

    AIMS: To provide managers with tools to manage episodes of sick-leave of their employees, the influence of factors such as age, gender, duration of tenure, working full-time or part-time, cause and history of sick-leave, salary and education on sick-leave duration was studied. METHOD: In a

  4. Utilization of Cassava Leaves as a Vegetable in Rwanda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prices of leaves at farm gate and retail levels were highly different (p= 0.0016), averaging 32 and 65 Frw by bunch in the rainy season, respectively. Despite the high consumption and trade of cassava leaves, post-harvest losses were high, especially in the rainy season. Cassava leaves were mainly cooked fresh, but 15.4 ...

  5. Manifestation of a neuro-fuzzy model to produce landslide susceptibility map using remote sensing data derived parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Biswajeet; Lee, Saro; Buchroithner, Manfred

    Landslides are the most common natural hazards in Malaysia. Preparation of landslide suscep-tibility maps is important for engineering geologists and geomorphologists. However, due to complex nature of landslides, producing a reliable susceptibility map is not easy. In this study, a new attempt is tried to produce landslide susceptibility map of a part of Cameron Valley of Malaysia. This paper develops an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) based on a geographic information system (GIS) environment for landslide susceptibility mapping. To ob-tain the neuro-fuzzy relations for producing the landslide susceptibility map, landslide locations were identified from interpretation of aerial photographs and high resolution satellite images, field surveys and historical inventory reports. Landslide conditioning factors such as slope, plan curvature, distance to drainage lines, soil texture, lithology, and distance to lineament were extracted from topographic, soil, and lineament maps. Landslide susceptible areas were analyzed by the ANFIS model and mapped using the conditioning factors. Furthermore, we applied various membership functions (MFs) and fuzzy relations to produce landslide suscep-tibility maps. The prediction performance of the susceptibility map is checked by considering actual landslides in the study area. Results show that, triangular, trapezoidal, and polynomial MFs were the best individual MFs for modelling landslide susceptibility maps (86

  6. Anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility of gallium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankey, T.

    1960-01-01

    The bulk magnetic susceptibilities of single gallium crystals and polycrystalline gallium spheres were measured at 25??C. The following anisotropic diamagnetic susceptibilities were found: a axis (-0.119??0. 001)??10-6 emu/g, b axis (-0.416??0.002)??10 -6 emu/g, and c axis (-0.229??0.001) emu/g. The susceptibility of the polycrystalline spheres, assumed to be the average value for the bulk susceptibility of gallium, was (-0.257??0.003)??10-6 emu/g at 25??C, and (-0.299??0.003)??10-6 emu/g at -196??C. The susceptibility of liquid gallium was (0.0031??0.001) ??10-6 emu/g at 30??C and 100??C. Rotational diagrams of the susceptibilities in the three orthogonal planes of the unit cell were not sinusoidal. The anisotropy in the single crystals was presumably caused by the partial overlap of Brillouin zone boundaries by the Fermi-energy surface. The large change in susceptibility associated with the change in state was attributed to the absence of effective mass influence in the liquid state. ?? 1960 The American Institute of Physics.

  7. Assessing landslide susceptibility by applying fuzzy sets, possibility evidence-based theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibsen Chivatá Cárdenas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A landslide susceptibility model was developed for the city of Manizales, Colombia; landslides have been the city’s main environmental problem. Fuzzy sets and possibility and evidence-based theories were used to construct the mo-del due to the set of circumstances and uncertainty involved in the modelling; uncertainty particularly concerned the lack of representative data and the need for systematically coordinating subjective information. Susceptibility and the uncertainty were estimated via data processing; the model contained data concerning mass vulnerability and uncer-tainty. Output data was expressed on a map defined by linguistic categories or uncertain labels as having low, me-dium, high and very high susceptibility; this was considered appropriate for representing susceptibility. A fuzzy spec-trum was developed for classifying susceptibility levels according to perception and expert opinion. The model sho-wed levels of susceptibility in the study area, ranging from low to high susceptibility (medium susceptibility being mo-re frequent. This article shows the details concerning systematic data processing by presenting theories and tools regarding uncertainty. The concept of fuzzy parameters is introduced; this is useful in modelling phenomena regar-ding uncertainty, complexity and nonlinear performance, showing that susceptibility modelling can be feasible. The paper also shows the great convenience of incorporating uncertainty into modelling and decision-making. However, quantifying susceptibility is not suitable when modelling identified uncertainty because incorporating model output information cannot be reduced into exact or real numerical quantities when the nature of the variables is particularly uncertain. The latter concept is applicable to risk assessment.

  8. Uptake and translocation of radiocesium in cedar leaves following the Fukushima nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikiori, Tatsuhiro [Center for Regional Environment Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Watanabe, Mirai, E-mail: watanabe.mirai@nies.go.jp [Center for Regional Environment Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Koshikawa, Masami K.; Takamatsu, Takejiro; Ishii, Yumiko; Ito, Shoko [Center for Regional Environment Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Takenaka, Akio [Center for Environmental Biology and Ecosystem Studies, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Watanabe, Keiji [Center for Regional Environment Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Center for Environmental Science in Saitama, 914 Kamitanadare, Kazo, Saitama 347-0115 (Japan); Hayashi, Seiji [Center for Regional Environment Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan)

    2015-01-01

    Cryptomeria japonica trees in the area surrounding Fukushima, Japan, intercepted {sup 137}Cs present in atmospheric deposits soon after the Fukushima nuclear accident in March 2011. To study the uptake and translocation of {sup 137}Cs in C. japonica leaves, we analyzed activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and the concentration ratios of {sup 137}Cs to {sup 133}Cs ({sup 137}Cs/{sup 133}Cs) in old and new leaves of C. japonica collected from a forest on Mount Tsukuba between 9 and 15 months after the accident. Both isotopes were also analyzed in throughfall, bulk precipitation and soil extracts. Water of atmospheric and soil origin were used as proxies for deciphering the absorption from leaf surfaces and root systems, respectively. Results indicate that 20–40% of foliar {sup 137}Cs existed inside the leaf, while 60–80% adhered to the leaf surface. The {sup 137}Cs/{sup 133}Cs ratios inside leaves that had sprouted before the accident were considerably higher than that of the soil extract and lower than that of throughfall and bulk precipitation. Additionally, more than 80% of {sup 137}Cs in throughfall and bulk precipitation was present in the dissolved form, which is available for foliar uptake, indicating that a portion of the {sup 137}Cs inside old leaves was presumably absorbed from the leaf surface. New leaves that sprouted after the accident had similar {sup 137}Cs/{sup 133}Cs ratios to that of the old leaves, suggesting that internal {sup 137}Cs was translocated from old to new leaves. For 17 species of woody plants other than C. japonica, new leaves that sprouted after the accident also contained {sup 137}Cs, and their {sup 137}Cs/{sup 133}Cs ratios were equal to or higher than that of the soil extract. These results suggested that foliar uptake and further translocation of {sup 137}Cs is an important vector of contamination in various tree species during or just after radioactive fallout. - Highlights: • {sup 137}Cs was absorbed into cedar leaves

  9. Terrestrial Laser Scanner for assessing rockfall susceptibility in the Cilento rocky coast (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrentino, Valerio; Matasci, Battista; Abellan, Antonio; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Marino, Ermanno; Pignalosa, Antonio; Santo, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Rockfalls and other types of landslides are the dominant processes causing a retreat of sea cliffs. The coastal areas constitute an important tourist attraction and a large number of people rest beneath the cliffs on a daily basis, considerably increasing the risk associated to rockfalls. We present an approach to assess rockfall susceptibility at the cliff scale based on terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) point clouds. The test area is a coastal cliff situated in the southern part of the Cilento (Centola Municipality, Campania Region), in which a natural arch was formed. This cliff is constituted by heavy fractured carbonate rock mass with a strong structural control. In June 2015 TLS data were acquired with long-range scanner RIEGL VZ1000®. The structural analysis of the cliff was performed in the field and using Coltop 3D software on the point cloud. As a result, 10 discontinuity sets (joint, faults and bedding planes) were individuated and the different characteristics such as orientation, spacing and persistence were measured. The kinematically unstable areas were highlighted using a script that computes an index of susceptibility to rockfalls based on the spatial distribution of failure mechanisms. The susceptibility index computation is based on the average surface that every joint set (or combinations of two joint sets in the case of wedge failure) forms on the topography according to its spacing, trace length, and incidence angle. This susceptibility index also depends on the steepness of the joint set (or of the intersection line in the case of wedge failure). As a result the most important discontinuity sets in terms of potential planar failure, wedge failure and toppling were individuated and an assessment of rockfall susceptibility at the cliff scale was achieved. Results show that the kinematically feasible failures are not equally distributed along the cliff but concentrated on certain areas. The most susceptible areas for planar failure are related to

  10. Seasonal variability of interception and water wettability of common oak leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Klamerus-Iwan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Wettability of leaves and the resulting amount of interception loss of tree crowns is an important component of the atmosphere-tree stand-soil system balance. In the study, we hypothesized that changes occurring in leaves during the vegetation period can significantly affect the amount of rainwater retained by plants and wettability of leaves which is expressed by the contact angle between drops and leaves. We evaluated the hypothesis based on measurement series, which combined direct spraying of leaves with water at different stages of development at a constant temperature with observations made with an electron scanner which was used to determine changes occurring within a leaf, while the photographic method was used to analyze the contact angle of drops. The study involved common oak (Quercus robur. Samples of twigs derived from this species were collected in the area of Przedbórz (Poland forest district, in particular from the trees with well-developed crowns. Twigs were collected from 10 trees of similar age (35–40 years. The resulting database contained experimental data on changes of raindrop adhesion on oak leaves throughout the growing season. The internal contact angle of drops was within the range of 150° on the upper side of the leaf and 160° on the underside in May, up to 15° and 35° in November on the upper and underside of the leaves. Loss of interception was established at 6% at the beginning of the growing season up to 22% in autumn. It was concluded that the wettability and the level of interception increases in line with the age of a leaf.

  11. The influence of weather and climate on the reliability of magnetic properties of tree leaves as proxies for air pollution monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Germade, Isabel; Mohamed, Kais Jacob; Rey, Daniel; Rubio, Belén; García, Alvaro

    2014-01-15

    Monthly monitoring of magnetic properties of Platanus hispanica tree leaves was used to assess atmospheric pollution in Madrid (Spain) and its suburban town of Pozuelo de Alarcón. Magnetic susceptibility, isothermal remanent magnetisation and metal concentrations were analysed to study the sources of atmospheric pollutants and their spatial and temporal evolution. In addition to urban dust, our results indicated that lithogenic dust and incorporation of trace metals in the leaf tissue also control the magnetic susceptibility of tree leaves. Global comparisons with cities of different climatic regimes suggest that air humidity is the key factor controlling the relative influence of pollutants, lithogenic dust and biological effects on the magnetic properties of tree leaves. Interaction of the atmosphere and tree leaves depends not only on local meteorology but also on climate. Climate, especially air humidity, and meteorology need to be considered when interpreting the magnetic properties of tree leaves as an atmospheric pollution tool. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Morphometric differences of Microgramma squamulosa (Kaulf. de la Sota (Polypodiaceae leaves in environments with distinct atmospheric air quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEDYANE D. ROCHA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Plants growing in environments with different atmospheric conditions may present changes in the morphometric parameters of their leaves. Microgramma squamulosa (Kaulf. de la Sota is a neotropical epiphytic fern found in impacted environments. The aims of this study were to quantitatively compare structural characteristics of leaves in areas with different air quality conditions, and to identify morphometric parameters that are potential indicators of the effects of pollution on these plants. Fertile and sterile leaves growing on isolated trees were collected from an urban (Estância Velha and a rural (Novo Hamburgo environment, in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. For each leaf type, macroscopic and microscopic analyses were performed on 192 samples collected in each environment. The sterile and fertile leaves showed significantly greater thickness of the midrib and greater vascular bundle and leaf blade areas in the rural environment, which is characterized by less air pollution. The thickness of the hypodermis and the stomatal density of the fertile leaves were greater in the urban area, which is characterized by more air pollution. Based on the fact that significant changes were found in the parameters of both types of leaves, which could possibly be related to air pollutants, M. squamulosa may be a potential bioindicator.

  13. Health issues and the practicing radiologist: defining concepts and developing recommendations for leave options and policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbrun, Marta E; Bender, Claire E; Truong, Hang B; Bluth, Edward I

    2013-09-01

    Radiologists today are faced with the challenges of maintaining and balancing individual and family health needs and the demands of the workplace. To provide the highest quality and safest care of our patients, a corresponding ethos of support for a healthy workforce is required. There is a paucity of targeted information describing protections for and maintenance of the health of the practicing radiologist, in both private and academic settings. However, a review of existing family and medical leave policies may be helpful to practice leaders and practicing radiologists as a platform for the development of strategic workforce plans. This writing, by members of the ACR Commission on Human Resources, addresses the following areas: (1) medical leave, (2) maternity and/or paternity leave, and (3) disability. Copyright © 2013 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Combination of statistical and physically based methods to assess shallow slide susceptibility at the basin scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sérgio C.; Zêzere, José L.; Lajas, Sara; Melo, Raquel

    2017-07-01

    Approaches used to assess shallow slide susceptibility at the basin scale are conceptually different depending on the use of statistical or physically based methods. The former are based on the assumption that the same causes are more likely to produce the same effects, whereas the latter are based on the comparison between forces which tend to promote movement along the slope and the counteracting forces that are resistant to motion. Within this general framework, this work tests two hypotheses: (i) although conceptually and methodologically distinct, the statistical and deterministic methods generate similar shallow slide susceptibility results regarding the model's predictive capacity and spatial agreement; and (ii) the combination of shallow slide susceptibility maps obtained with statistical and physically based methods, for the same study area, generate a more reliable susceptibility model for shallow slide occurrence. These hypotheses were tested at a small test site (13.9 km2) located north of Lisbon (Portugal), using a statistical method (the information value method, IV) and a physically based method (the infinite slope method, IS). The landslide susceptibility maps produced with the statistical and deterministic methods were combined into a new landslide susceptibility map. The latter was based on a set of integration rules defined by the cross tabulation of the susceptibility classes of both maps and analysis of the corresponding contingency tables. The results demonstrate a higher predictive capacity of the new shallow slide susceptibility map, which combines the independent results obtained with statistical and physically based models. Moreover, the combination of the two models allowed the identification of areas where the results of the information value and the infinite slope methods are contradictory. Thus, these areas were classified as uncertain and deserve additional investigation at a more detailed scale.

  15. Combination of statistical and physically based methods to assess shallow slide susceptibility at the basin scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Oliveira

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Approaches used to assess shallow slide susceptibility at the basin scale are conceptually different depending on the use of statistical or physically based methods. The former are based on the assumption that the same causes are more likely to produce the same effects, whereas the latter are based on the comparison between forces which tend to promote movement along the slope and the counteracting forces that are resistant to motion. Within this general framework, this work tests two hypotheses: (i although conceptually and methodologically distinct, the statistical and deterministic methods generate similar shallow slide susceptibility results regarding the model's predictive capacity and spatial agreement; and (ii the combination of shallow slide susceptibility maps obtained with statistical and physically based methods, for the same study area, generate a more reliable susceptibility model for shallow slide occurrence. These hypotheses were tested at a small test site (13.9 km2 located north of Lisbon (Portugal, using a statistical method (the information value method, IV and a physically based method (the infinite slope method, IS. The landslide susceptibility maps produced with the statistical and deterministic methods were combined into a new landslide susceptibility map. The latter was based on a set of integration rules defined by the cross tabulation of the susceptibility classes of both maps and analysis of the corresponding contingency tables. The results demonstrate a higher predictive capacity of the new shallow slide susceptibility map, which combines the independent results obtained with statistical and physically based models. Moreover, the combination of the two models allowed the identification of areas where the results of the information value and the infinite slope methods are contradictory. Thus, these areas were classified as uncertain and deserve additional investigation at a more detailed scale.

  16. Utilisation of vegetable leaves for carp production

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, A.K.; Rai, S.P.; Datta, A.K.; Das, C.R.; Ghosh, J.K.

    1996-01-01

    The results of two sets of experiments on mono-culture of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and mixed culture of carps (grass carp 50 : catla 20 : rohu 15 : mrigal 15) fed exclusively with vegetable leaves are reported. The experiments were conducted with two replicates each in 0.02 ha ponds of Wastewater Aquaculture Division of the Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, Rahara during 1991-93. Monoculture of grass carp stocked at 1000/ha demonstrated an average net production of 21.0...

  17. [Xanthones from leaves of Calophyllum inophyllum Linn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Li, Zhan-Lin; Liu, Ming-Sheng; Li, Dan-Yi; Zhang, Hui; Hua, Hui-Ming

    2009-02-01

    To study the xanthones from the leaves of Calophyllum inophyllum Linn., several chromatography methods were employed to isolate the constituents. Investigation on the CHCl3 extract led to the isolation of a new xanthone named inophyxanthone A (1) and four known compounds, which were pancixanthone A (2), gerontoxanthone B (3), jacareubin (4) and pyranojacareubin (5). Among them, compound 2 was obtained from this plant firstly, and compound 3 was obtained for the first time from this genus. The structure of inophyxanthone A (1) was identified as 1, 3, 5-trihydroxy-2-(1, 1-dimethylallyl)xanthone by spectral analysis.

  18. IS POLARIS LEAVING THE CEPHEID INSTABILITY STRIP?

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, D. G.

    2017-01-01

    Although Polaris is generally regarded as an overtone pulsator that may soon switch to pulsation in the fundamental mode, it is argued that the variable is actually crossing the instability strip for the first time and is in the process of leaving the instability strip altogether. The luminosity of Polaris inferred from its optical F3 V companion, as well as from A, F, and G-type stars lying within a few degrees of it and populating a group main sequence coincident with that for Polaris B...

  19. Take It, Leave It, Fold It

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, Camelia

    2008-01-01

    This introduction to the volume sets the tone for a reading experience of Federman's works. Since the early 60s, Raymond Federman has been one of the most important American writers. In his highly experimental fictions, in works that bear such titles as Take It or Leave It, Double or Nothing......, and The Twofold Vibrations, he has explored cultural and personal memory, invented intricate narrative strategies, and above all has given readers an experience that exceeds the ordinary. Creating situations that make one really think and really laugh is a tall order for any writer. But Federman did it. He is one...

  20. Gender codes why women are leaving computing

    CERN Document Server

    Misa, Thomas J

    2010-01-01

    The computing profession is facing a serious gender crisis. Women are abandoning the computing field at an alarming rate. Fewer are entering the profession than anytime in the past twenty-five years, while too many are leaving the field in mid-career. With a maximum of insight and a minimum of jargon, Gender Codes explains the complex social and cultural processes at work in gender and computing today. Edited by Thomas Misa and featuring a Foreword by Linda Shafer, Chair of the IEEE Computer Society Press, this insightful collection of essays explores the persisting gender imbalance in computing and presents a clear course of action for turning things around.

  1. Chemical constituents of Breynia glauca leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butsarakham Supudompol

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available From the leaves of Breynia glauca, eight compounds including friedelin (1, 3-oxo- 4,5-sitosterone (2, friedelan-3β-ol (3, β-sitosterol (4, kaempferol (5, arbutin (6, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (7 and quercetion-3-O-glucoside (8 were isolated. The presence of these compounds supports the traditional use of this plant as a detoxifying agent. In addition, all of these chemical constituents were tested for antiviral potential against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, but were found to be inactive at 50 μg/ml.

  2. Terpenoid constituents from leaves of Guarea kunthiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcez, Fernanda R.; Garcez, Walmir S.; Bazzo, Rita de Cassia [Mato Grosso do Sul Univ., Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: frgarcez@nin.ufms.br; Silva, Ana Francisca G. da [Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul, Mundo Novo, MS (Brazil). Unidade Universitaria de Mundo Novo; Resende, Ubirazilda M. [Mato Grosso do Sul Univ., Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia

    2004-10-01

    From leaves of Guarea kunthiana one new kaurene diterpene (ent-kaur-16-en-2-one) was isolated along with eight known diterpenes (ent-kaur-16-ene, ent-3{alpha}- and 3{beta}-hydroxykaur-16-ene, kolavelool, kolavenol, kolavenal, ent-13-epi-manoyloxide and (-)-nephthenol), four sesquiterpenes (alismol, alismoxide, spathulenol and 4{beta},10{alpha}-aromadendranediol), polyprenol-12 and {alpha}- and {delta}-tocopherols. Kolavenal is reported for the first time as a natural product, as well as the occurrence of cembrane- and ent-kaurane-type diterpenes in the Meliaceae. (author)

  3. Antioxidant lignoids from leaves of Ribes nigrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tatsunori; Li, Wei; Zaike, Shinnosuke; Asada, Yoshihisa; Li, Qin; Ma, Fenghua; Zhang, Qingbo; Koike, Kazuo

    2013-11-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the leaves of Ribes nigrum resulted in the isolation of fourteen compounds, including four 7,7'-epoxylignans, three tetrahydrofuran-type sesquilignans, and a spirocyclic dilignan. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses and by chemical transformations. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their antioxidant activities using superoxide anion scavenging assay and DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Ribesin D and ribesin G showed the most potent superoxide anion scavenging activity with EC50 values of 1.24 and 1.12 μM, respectively, and the structure-activity relationship was discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Adsorption characteristics of Pb(II) from aqueous solutions onto a natural biosorbent, fallen arborvitae leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jie; Zhao, Zhiwei; Liang, Zhijie; Sun, Tianyi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the potential of the oriental arborvitae leaves for the adsorption of Pb(II) from aqueous solutions was evaluated. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis showed that the surface area of arborvitae leaves was 29.52 m(2)/g with pore diameter ranging from 2 to 50 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed C-C or C-H, C-O, and O-C=O were the main groups on the arborvitae leaves, which were the main sites for surface complexation. Finally, effects of adsorbent dose, initial pH, contact time, and coexisting natural organic matters (humic acid (HA)) on the adsorption of Pb(II) were investigated. The results indicated that the pHZPC (adsorbents with zero point charge at this pH) was 5.3 and the adsorption reached equilibrium in 120 min. Isotherm simulations revealed that the natural arborvitae leaves exhibit effective adsorption for Pb(II) in aqueous solution, giving adsorptive affinity and capacity in an order of 'no HA' > 5 mg/L HA > 10 mg/L HA, and according to the Langmuir models, the maximum adsorptions of Pb(II) were 43.67 mg/g, 38.61 mg/g and 35.97 mg/g, respectively. The results demonstrated that the oriental arborvitae leaves showed high potentials for the adsorption of Pb(II) from aqueous solutions.

  5. Migration Monitoring of Blackcurrant Gall Mite (Cecidophyopsis ribis Westw. from Buds to Leaves on Several Blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotrowski Wojciech

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The blackcurrant gall mite (Cecidophyopsis ribis is the most important pest of blackcurrant crops. Over recent years withdrawal from plant protection programmes of chemical products (endosulfan and amitraz used for the control of this pest in Poland, has led to an observed increase in population numbers. In 2013, fenpiroxymate (Ortus 05 SC became registered for control of this pest. It is deemed best that chemical protection should be used during the migration period; when big gall mites emerge from buds in search of new buds. The studies were carried out in a plantation of blackcurrants during 2011-2013. The assessment of migration of the blackcurrant gall mite was carried out on the cultivars ‘Ben Hope’, ‘Ben Alde’r, ‘Ojeby’n and ‘Ruben’. Every year, from selected cultivars buds were collected. They were then placed on blackcurrant leaves within Petri dishes. After one, three and five days of placing buds on the leaves, the estimated number of eriophyid mites on the leaves was calculated. The data has shown a very useful method for monitoring blackcurrant gall mite, which can be used in calculating the treatment dates for this pest. Also, the data has shown that differences in the periods of migration of the mite are dependent on the cultivar and time of flowering. Among the cultivars observed the least susceptible to colonization by the blackcurrant gall mite was a Polish cultivar ‘Ruben’, while the most susceptible cultivar was ‘Ben Hope’.

  6. Bark Beetles as Significant Forest Disturbances: Estimating Susceptibility Based On Stand Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicke, J. A.; Jenkins, J. C.

    2007-12-01

    In the western United States, bark beetle outbreaks affect millions of hectares of forests. These disturbances have multiple effects on ecosystems, including modifications to biogeochemical cycles, interactions with fire, and changes in land cover type and species composition. In recent years, extensive outbreaks have occurred in multiple forest ecosystems in the West, thought to be caused by climate variability and stand structure. In this study, we focus on epidemics of mountain pine beetle. We used USDA Forest Service inventories and a model to estimate lodgepole pine susceptibility to mountain pine beetle attack in the West. The model considers stand age, stem density, and percentage of large lodgepole pine to estimate stand susceptibility. Over 150,000 trees in 4454 plots across the western United States were used to compute susceptibility at the plot scale as well as map susceptibility at the county scale. We found that regional susceptibility was high (estimated potential of losses of 34% of stand basal area) for 2.8 Mha, or 46%, of lodgepole pine forests. The highest susceptibility occurred in the Rocky Mountains, with lower susceptibility in coastal states. This study reveals that a substantial fraction of lodgepole pine forest could be subjected to bark beetle outbreaks under current climate conditions. Because climate and weather affect beetle populations, projected future warming will influence outbreak regimes. Thus, forest ecosystems in the West may experience more frequent, extensive, and/or severe disturbances than in recent decades due to current stand structure, and these disturbances may be intensified under climate change.

  7. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Extended Spectrum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lactamase (ESBL) producing gram-negative uropathogens in Sokoto, Nigeria. ... Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was determined using the modified Kirby Bauer method. Confirmation of ESBL phenotype was performed by Double-Disc Synergy Test ...

  8. antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of extended spectrum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JAMILU

    ABSTRACT. The emergence of resistant strains of urogenital extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing ... antimicrobial susceptibility test using CLSI recommended, WHO modified Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. ... Keywords: Extended Spectrum Beta-lactamases, Prevalence, Gram-negative urogenital isolates,.

  9. antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of salmonella species in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Empirical treatment for enteric fevers should, therefore, be discouraged while quinolones, cefepime, carbapenem, azithromycin and third generation cephalosporins be given preference. KEY WORDS: Susceptibility, Antimicrobial, Salmonella species, Enteric fever. INTRODUCTION. In the 21st century, enteric fever in the.

  10. Human genetic susceptibility to Candida infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, T.S.; Johnson, M.D.; Scott, W.K.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Meer, J.W. van der; Perfect, J.R.; Kullberg, B.J.; Netea, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    Infections with Candida spp. have different manifestations in humans, ranging from mucosal to bloodstream and deep-seated disseminated infections. Immunocompromised patients have increased susceptibility to these types of infections, due to reduced capacity to elicit effective innate or adaptive

  11. Real-Time Optical Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredborg, Marlene; Andersen, Klaus R; Jørgensen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing is in highly demand in health-care fields as antimicrobial resistant bacterial strains emerge and spread. Here we describe an optical screening system (oCelloScope), which based on time-lapse imaging of 96 bacteria-antibiotic combinations at a time, introdu......Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing is in highly demand in health-care fields as antimicrobial resistant bacterial strains emerge and spread. Here we describe an optical screening system (oCelloScope), which based on time-lapse imaging of 96 bacteria-antibiotic combinations at a time......, introduces real-time detection of bacterial growth and antimicrobial susceptibility, with imaging material to support the automatically generated graphs. Automated antibiotic susceptibility tests of a monoculture showed statistically significant antibiotic effect within 6 minutes and within 30 minutes...

  12. Physical and mechanical of breadfruit leaves-polyethylene composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoto, R.; Rohmah, S.; Suhandi, A.

    2017-03-01

    A degradable polymeric composite was prepared from polyethylene (PE) and breadfruit leaves tree powders. Breadfruit leaves tree powders were mixed with PE in an internal mixer at a temperature above the glass transition of PE without additives. Formulations were based on PE/leaves ratio of 100/0, 90/10, 85/15, 80/20 and 75/25 on a dry weight basis. The effect of leaves powders of 140 and 100 meshon the composite mechanical properties was evaluated by means of universal testing machine (UTM) and hardness Rockwell tester. The results showed increases of elastic modulus and flexural modulus of the composites with increasing leaves powders. Tensile strength, yield strength, yield strain, and hardness decreased with increasing percentage of leaves powders in the composites. Flexural strength was slightly decreased with the presence of the leaves powders but independent on the percentage of the leaves powders. In general, the composite properties of 140 mesh leaves powders were more enhanced compare with that of 100 mesh. PE/leaves composites increased water absorption and caused the bulk composite surface more porous. Hence, oxo-biodegradation processes will more easily take place in the PE/leaves composites.

  13. Hyperspectral Reflectance and Fluorescence Imaging to Detect Scab Induced Stress in Apple Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Keulemans

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Apple scab causes significant losses in the production of this fruit. A timely and more site-specific monitoring and spraying of the disease could reduce the number of applications of fungicides in the fruit industry. The aim of this leaf-scale study therefore lies in the early detection of apple scab infections in a non-invasive and non-destructive way. In order to attain this objective, fluorescence- and hyperspectral imaging techniques were used. An experiment was conducted under controlled environmental conditions, linking hyperspectral reflectance and fluorescence imaging measurements to scab infection symptoms in a susceptible apple cultivar (Malus x domestica Borkh. cv. Braeburn. Plant stress was induced by inoculation of the apple plants with scab spores. The quantum efficiency of Photosystem II (PSII photochemistry was derived from fluorescence images of leaves under light adapted conditions. Leaves inoculated with scab spores were expected to have lower PSII quantum efficiency than control (mock leaves. However, besides scab-induced, also immature leaves exhibited low PSII quantum efficiency. Therefore, this study recommends the simultaneous use of fluorescence imaging and hyperspectral techniques. A shortwave infrared narrow-waveband ratio index (R1480/R2135 is presented in this paper as a promising tool to identify scab stress before symptoms become visible to the naked eye. Low PSII quantum efficiency attended by low narrow waveband R1480/R2135 index values points out scab stress in an early stage. Apparent high PSII quantum efficiency together with high overall reflectance in VIS and SWIR spectral domains indicate a severe, well-developed scab infection.

  14. Broad-range potential of Asphodelus microcarpus leaves extract for drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Petrillo, Amalia; Fais, Antonella; Pintus, Francesca; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; González-Paramás, Ana M; Piras, Vincenzo; Orrù, Germano; Mameli, Antonello; Tramontano, Enzo; Frau, Aldo

    2017-07-14

    Many plants have been used in traditional medicine for their antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antiviral, antidiarrhoeal, analgesic, antimalarial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. In order to find novel antimicrobial and antiviral agents, the aim of the present study was the evaluation of the antibacterial and antibiofilm susceptibility of Asphodelus microcarpus leaves extract. Moreover, the antiviral activity and the phytochemical composition of the active extract were also determined. Antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of leaves ethanol extract of A. microcarpus were evaluated on 13 different microbial strains. We selected three different sets of microorganisms: (i) Gram-positive bacteria, (ii) Gram-negative bacteria and (iii) yeasts. The potential antiviral activity of A. microcarpus leaves ethanol extract was evaluated with a luciferase reporter gene assay in which the dsRNA-dependent RIG-I-mediated IFN-β activation was inducted or inhibited by the Ebola virus VP35 protein. HPLC-DAD-MS was used to identify phenolic profile of the active extract. A. microcarpus leaves extract showed a potent inhibitory activity on Gram-positive bacteria while only a reduced inhibition was observed on Gram-negative bacteria. No activity was detected against Yeasts. The extract also showed an interesting antibiofilm motif on various bacterial strains (E. coli, S. aureus, S. haemolyticus and B. clausii). Moreover, this extract significantly affected the Ebola virus VP35 inhibition of the viral RNA (vRNA) induced IFN response. The overall results provide supportive data on the use of A. microcarpus as antimicrobial agent and a potential source of anti-viral natural products. Data collected set the bases for further studies for the identification of single active components and the development of new pharmaceuticals.

  15. Human genetic susceptibility and infection with Leishmania peruviana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, M.A.; Davis, C.R.; Collins, A. [and others

    1995-11-01

    Racial differences, familial clustering, and murine studies are suggestive of host genetic control of Leishmania infections. Complex segregation analysis has been carried out by use of the programs POINTER and COMDS and data from a total population survey, comprising 636 nuclear families, from an L. perurviana endemic area. The data support genetic components controlling susceptibility to clinical leishmaniasis, influencing severity of disease and resistance to disease among healthy individuals. A multifactorial model is favored over a sporadic model. Two-locus models provided the best fit to the data, the optimal model being a recessive gene (frequency .57) plus a modifier locus. Individuals infected at an early age and with recurrent lesions are genetically more susceptible than those infected with a single episode of disease at a later age. Among people with no lesions, those with a positive skin-test response are genetically less susceptible than those with a negative response. The possibility of the involvement of more than one gene together with environmental effects has implications for the design of future linkage studies. 31 refs., 7 tabs.

  16. Biophotonic in situ sensor for plant leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conejo, Elian; Frangi, Jean-Pierre; Rosny, Gilles de

    2010-04-01

    Knowledge of the water concentration of plants can be helpful in several environmental and agricultural domains. There are many methods for the determination of water content in plant leaves; however, most of them give a relative moisture level or an analytical measure after a previous calibration procedure. Even for other biochemical compounds such as dry matter or chlorophyll, the measurement techniques could be destructive. For this reason, a nondestructive method has been developed to measure the biochemical compounds of a plant leaf, using an infrared spectroscopy technique. One important advantage is the simplicity of the device (RAdiometre portatif de Mesure In Situ, RAMIS) and its capability to perform measurements in situ. The prototype is a leaf-clip configuration and is made of LEDs at five wavelengths (656, 721, 843, 937, and 1550 nm), and a silicon/germanium photosensor. To compute the water content of vegetative leaves, the radiative transfer model PROSPECT was implemented. This model can accurately predict spectral transmittances in the 400 nm to 2500 nm spectral region as a function of the principal leaf biochemical contents: water, dry matter, and chlorophyll. Using the transmittance measured by RAMIS into an inversion procedure of PROSPECT: A Model of Leaf Optical Properties Spectra, we are able to compute the values of water contents that show an agreement with the water contents measured directly using dry weight procedures. This method is presented as a possibility to estimate other leaf biochemical compounds using appropriate wavelengths.

  17. Interactions of Salmonella enterica with lettuce leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroupitski, Y; Pinto, R; Brandl, M T; Belausov, E; Sela, S

    2009-06-01

    To investigate the interactions of Salmonella enterica with abiotic and plant surfaces and their effect on the tolerance of the pathogen to various stressors. Salmonella strains were tested for their ability to form biofilm in various growth media using a polystyrene plate model. Strong biofilm producers were found to attach better to intact Romaine lettuce leaf tissue compared to weak producers. Confocal microscopy and viable count studies revealed preferential attachment of Salmonella to cut-regions of the leaf after 2 h at 25 degrees C, but not for 18 h at 4 degrees C. Storage of intact lettuce pieces contaminated with Salmonella for 9 days at 4 degrees C resulted only in small changes in population size. Exposure of lettuce-associated Salmonella cells to acidic conditions (pH 3.0) revealed increased tolerance of the attached vs planktonic bacteria. Biofilm formation on polystyrene may provide a suitable model to predict the initial interaction of Salmonella with cut Romaine lettuce leaves. Association of the pathogen with lettuce leaves facilitates its persistence during storage and enhances its acid tolerance. Understanding the interactions between foodborne pathogens and lettuce might be useful in developing new approaches to prevent fresh produce-associated outbreaks.

  18. Antiamnesic potential of Murraya koenigii leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Mani; Parle, Milind

    2009-03-01

    Murraya koenigii leaves commonly known as curry patta are added routinely to Indian gravy and vegetarian dishes as a favorite condiment. The effects of Murraya koenigii leaves (MKL) on cognitive functions, total serum cholesterol level and brain cholinesterase activity in young and aged mice fed orally with a diet containing 2%, 4% and 8% w/w of MKL for 30 days consecutively, were investigated. The memory scores were measured using various exteroceptive and interoceptive behavioral models. The MKL diets produced a significant dose-dependent improvement in the memory scores of young and aged mice and significantly reduced the amnesia induced by scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, i.p.) and diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.). Also, brain cholinesterase activity and total cholesterol levels were reduced by the MKL diets. The underlying mechanism of action for the observed nootropic effect may be attributed to pro-cholinergic activity and a cholesterol lowering property. Therefore, it would be worthwhile to investigate specifically the therapeutic potential of MKL in the management of Alzheimer patients. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Research of photoinduced potentials of pepper leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Chernetchenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioelectrical potentials of the plants during photostimulation with various intensity values and wave lengths are studied. Suchstimulation provides light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis. The universal scheme of registration of bioelectric potentials, which allowsto carry out the experimental study of light stimuli effect on the plant is proposed. All registrations of potentials are observed on the pepper leaves. Photoinduced stimuli are different with intensity changed from 150 to 450 lux and different spectrums of white light and red light with wave length 690 nm. Different parameters of stimuli drive to different types of biopotentials of the plant, quantitative and qualitative relationships of this process are obtained. It is also found that bioelectrical reaction of the leaves is quantitatively different in various spectral ranges of light, but the quality remains the same for all cases, as shown in the study of bioelectric responses during exposure to the light in red spectrum range. The explanation of the additional depolarization phase that occurs during the running of dark reparative process of photosynthesis is given. Light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis are accompanied by significant changes in the electrical potential of chloroplasts’ membrane. Besides, the dependence of bioelectrical reaction of the plant on different spectra of light is found. By this way, biophysical relation of plant potentials to the intracellular biophysical mechanisms during photo stimulation is obtained.

  20. Bioactivities examination of Cinchona leaves ethanol extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artanti, Nina; Udin, Linar Z.; Hanafi, M.; Jamilah, Kurniasih, Ida Rahmi; Primahana, Gian; Anita, Yulia; Sundowo, Andini; Kandace, Yoice Sri

    2017-01-01

    Cinchona species especially the barks are commonly known for commercial production of quinine as antimalarial. Although it is also reported for treatment of depurative, whooping cough, influenza and dysentery. In this paper we reported in vitro examination of other bioactivities (antidiabetes, antioxidant and in vitro cytotoxicity) of 70% ethanol extract of Cinchona ledgeriana and C. succirubra leaves as well as qunine, quinidine, and cinchonine the major alkaloids found in Cinchona species. Antidiabetes was conducted using α-glucosidase inhibitory activity assay. Antioxidant was conducted using DPPH free radical scavenging activity assay. In vitro cytotoxic activity was concucted by microscopic observation on growth of breast cancer cell line MCF-7. The results showed that at concentration of 100 µg/ml, C. ledgeriana leaves ethanol extracts showed the best activity as antidiabetes (98% inhibitory of α-glucosidase activity) and antioxidant (92% DPPH free radical scavenging activity), whereas at the same concentration C. succirubra, quinine, quinidine and cinchonine showed very low activities of antidiabetes and antioxidant. Microscopic observation of in vitro cytotoxicity showed that C. ledgeriana also has excellent cytotoxicity to breast cancer cell line MCF-7 which better than quinine, quinidine and cinchonine, whereas C. succirubra showed low cytotoxicity. These results suggest that cinchona species have many potential as the source of drugs discovery and development other than just for malaria treatment. Therefore it is important to conduct further studies and to maintain the available Cinchona plantation in Indonesia.

  1. Landslide susceptibility assessment and validation in the framework of municipal planning in Portugal: the case of Loures Municipality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillard, Clemence; Zezere, Jose

    2012-10-01

    The legislation that demands the evaluation of landslide susceptibility in Portugal at the municipal level is the National Ecological Reserve (NER). A methodology for the evaluation of landslide susceptibility to be used in municipal planning is applied in Loures Municipality (169.3 km²) located north of Lisbon (Portugal). A landslide inventory was made for the whole area interpreting orthophoto maps and aerial photographs and using standard geomorphologic techniques in field work. It consists of 686 polygons, each polygon representing a rotational, a deep translational or a shallow translational slide, and is integrated into a GIS database. Landslide susceptibility is evaluated using algorithms based on statistical/probabilistic analysis (Information Value Method) over unique-condition terrain units in a raster basis. Three susceptibility models are elaborated independently according to the type of slide (rotational, deep translational, shallow translational). The landslide susceptibility maps are prepared by sorting all pixels according to the pixel susceptibility value in descending order. The robustness and accuracy of the landslide susceptibility models are evaluated by prediction-rate curves, which are used for the quantitative interpretation of the landslide susceptibility maps. Unstable slopes that have to be included into the National Ecological Reserve are extracted from the three susceptibility maps following the general rules to draw the NER that state that the area to be included in the NER should guarantee the inclusion of at least 70 % of the landslides identified in the landslide inventory. The obtained results allow us to conclude that 70 % of the future landslides should occur in these areas, classified as most susceptible to landslides corresponding to 20.3 % of the total area of Municipality. Thus, the consideration of these 20.3 % as regards prevention and protection of landslide risk could potentially reduce damage resulting from 70

  2. Quantitative spatial analysis of rockfalls from road inventories: a combined statistical and physical susceptibility model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhme, M.; Derron, M.-H.; Jaboyedoff, M.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative spatial analyses and statistical susceptibility assessments based on road inventories are often complicated due to the registration of impacts instead of source areas. A rockfall inventory from the Norwegian Directorate of Public Roads is analysed spatially in order to investigate potential controlling parameters in the Norwegian county Sogn and Fjordane. Quantitative spatial relationships are then used to model rockfall susceptibility with the help of the Weights-of-Evidence method. The controlling parameters tectono-stratigraphic position, quaternary geology, geological lineament density, relative relief and slope aspect resulted in the best performing model and thus yielded the basis for the statistical susceptibility map for the entire county of Sogn and Fjordane. Due to registered impacts instead of sources, the important parameter slope angle could not be included in the statistical models. Combining the statistical susceptibility model with a physically based model, restricts the susceptibility map to areas that are steep enough to represent a potential rockfall source. This combination makes it possible to use road inventories, with registered impacts instead of sources, for susceptibility modelling.

  3. Atmospheric Humidity Influences Oviposition Rate of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) Through Morphological Responses of Host Cucumis sativus Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, T; Itagaki, K; Ueyama, S; Hirai, N; Endo, R

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the effects of morphology of host cucumber, Cucumis sativus L., leaves acclimatized to different atmospheric humidity levels on oviposition by adult females of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch. Cucumber seedlings were grown at a vapor pressure deficit (VPD) of 0.4, 1.9, or 3.0 kPa at 28°C (90%, 50%, or 20% relative humidity, respectively) in growth chambers until the second true leaves had expanded. Adult females of T. urticae were released on the adaxial surfaces of leaf squares cut from first and second true leaves in each treatment group, and held in the same humidity condition. Eggs were counted 2 d after release. The lower acclimatization humidity (higher VPD) increased trichome (leaf hair) density of the host leaves and oviposition rate, but the relationship between the trichome and oviposition differed between leaf positions. The leaf mass per area (LMA) was greater in first true leaves than in second true leaves, but was not influenced by VPD. A linear regression model with oviposition rate as the dependent variable and trichome density and LMA as independent variables showed that both variables influenced the oviposition rate approximately equally. We conclude that oviposition was accelerated under low humidity (high VPD) conditions indirectly probably through an increase in the trichome density of host leaves. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Nutritional Characterization and Phenolic Profiling of Moringa oleifera Leaves Grown in Chad, Sahrawi Refugee Camps, and Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Alessandro; Fiorillo, Giovanni; Criscuoli, Franca; Ravasenghi, Stefano; Santagostini, Laura; Fico, Gelsomina; Spadafranca, Angela; Battezzati, Alberto; Schiraldi, Alberto; Pozzi, Federica; di Lello, Sara; Filippini, Sandro; Bertoli, Simona

    2015-08-12

    Moringa oleifera is a plant that grows in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Its leaves are rich of nutrients and bioactive compounds. However, several differences are reported in the literature. In this article we performed a nutritional characterization and a phenolic profiling of M. oleifera leaves grown in Chad, Sahrawi refugee camps, and Haiti. In addition, we investigated the presence of salicylic and ferulic acids, two phenolic acids with pharmacological activity, whose presence in M. oleifera leaves has been scarcely investigated so far. Several differences were observed among the samples. Nevertheless, the leaves were rich in protein, minerals, and β-carotene. Quercetin and kaempferol glycosides were the main phenolic compounds identified in the methanolic extracts. Finally, salicylic and ferulic acids were found in a concentration range of 0.14-0.33 and 6.61-9.69 mg/100 g, respectively. In conclusion, we observed some differences in terms of nutrients and phenolic compounds in M. oleifera leaves grown in different countries. Nevertheless, these leaves are a good and economical source of nutrients for tropical and sub-tropical countries. Furthermore, M. oleifera leaves are a source of flavonoids and phenolic acids, among which salicylic and ferulic acids, and therefore they could be used as nutraceutical and functional ingredients.

  5. Nutritional Characterization and Phenolic Profiling of Moringa oleifera Leaves Grown in Chad, Sahrawi Refugee Camps, and Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Leone

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera is a plant that grows in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Its leaves are rich of nutrients and bioactive compounds. However, several differences are reported in the literature. In this article we performed a nutritional characterization and a phenolic profiling of M. oleifera leaves grown in Chad, Sahrawi refugee camps, and Haiti. In addition, we investigated the presence of salicylic and ferulic acids, two phenolic acids with pharmacological activity, whose presence in M. oleifera leaves has been scarcely investigated so far. Several differences were observed among the samples. Nevertheless, the leaves were rich in protein, minerals, and β-carotene. Quercetin and kaempferol glycosides were the main phenolic compounds identified in the methanolic extracts. Finally, salicylic and ferulic acids were found in a concentration range of 0.14–0.33 and 6.61–9.69 mg/100 g, respectively. In conclusion, we observed some differences in terms of nutrients and phenolic compounds in M. oleifera leaves grown in different countries. Nevertheless, these leaves are a good and economical source of nutrients for tropical and sub-tropical countries. Furthermore, M. oleifera leaves are a source of flavonoids and phenolic acids, among which salicylic and ferulic acids, and therefore they could be used as nutraceutical and functional ingredients.

  6. Diagnostic Value of Direct Antibiotic Susceptibility Test for Faster BacterialSusceptibility Reporting in Bacteremia

    OpenAIRE

    Rebriarina Hapsari; Vincentia Rizke Ciptaningtyas; Masfiyah Masfiyah

    2012-01-01

    Background: Rapid and accurate information on susceptibility of bacteria causing bacteraemia is very helpful in sepsis management. Blood culture is the gold standard for bacteraemia diagnosis. Standard antibiotic susceptibility testing needs at least three days for completion while direct method can give the result a day earlier. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of direct antibiotic susceptibility testing in blood culture. Methods: Bloods from positive BACTEC b...

  7. Statistical analysis for assessing shallow-landslide susceptibility in South Tyrol (south-eastern Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentini, Daniela; Troiani, Francesco; Soldati, Mauro; Notarnicola, Claudia; Savelli, Daniele; Schneiderbauer, Stefan; Strada, Claudia

    2012-05-01

    This paper conducts a statistical analysis to determine shallow-landslide susceptibility in an approximately 7500-km2 region of the south-eastern Alps (South Tyrol, Italy). The study applies the weight of evidence (WofE) method, which is useful in determining landslide susceptibility in large areas with complex geological and geomorphological settings. The statistical analysis and landslide susceptibility mapping are based on 882 past landslides, three geometric/topographic factors and two anthropogenic factors, which are the most relevant landslide predisposing factors. The quality of the proposed model, particularly the fitting performance, was assessed; the landslide database was divided into a training set to obtain the model and a validation set to estimate the model quality. The results show that the developed susceptibility model predicts an acceptable percentage (75%) of landslides. Therefore, the model can be useful and reliable for land planners and decision makers also due to its cost-effectiveness ratio.

  8. System-level analysis of single event upset susceptibility in RRAM architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Barnaby, Hugh J.; Yu, Shimeng

    2016-12-01

    In this work, the single event upset susceptibility of a resistive random access memory (RRAM) system with 1-transistor-1-resistor (1T1R) and crossbar architectures to heavy ion strikes is investigated from the circuit-level to the system-level. From a circuit-level perspective, the 1T1R is only susceptible to single-bit-upset (SBU) due to the isolation of cells, while in the crossbar, multiple-bit-upsets may occur because ion-induced voltage spikes generated on drivers may propagate along rows or columns. Three factors are considered to evaluate system-level susceptibility: the upset rate, the sensitive area, and the vulnerable time window. Our analysis indicates that the crossbar architecture has a smaller maximum bit-error-rate per day as compared to the 1T1R architecture for a given sub-array size, I/O width and susceptible time window.

  9. [Study of the relationship between incidence of sick leave due to mental health failure and work rules about sick leave].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Naoki; Sasahara, Shin-ichiro; Tomotsune, Yusuke; Doki, Sho-taro; Ohi, Yuichi; Haoka, Takeshi; Sho, Naoaki; Umeda, Tadahiro; Yoshino, Satoshi; Matsuzaki, Ichiyo

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among the support system for return to work, work rules about sick leave, and incidence of sick leave due to mental health failure. A questionnaire was distributed to 150 workplaces with a history of use of the occupational health promotion center of a certain prefecture. The questionnaire asked about the number and duration of sick leaves due to mental health failure, the support system for return to work, and work rules about sick leave. A significant correlation between the number of permanent staff and maximum period of sick leave was found (r=0.489, pmonetary compensation during sick leave (r=0.315, p=0.031). In addition, in 9 workplaces with more than 1,000 permanent staff, a significant correlation between the period of monetary compensation period during sick leave and incidence of sick leave was found (r=0.670, p=0.048), as well as a significant correlation between the period of monetary compensation during sick leave and the average length of sick leave (r=0.866, pmonetary compensation is associated with the duration of sick leave due to mental health failure. Hereafter, to construct a support system for mental health, consideration of the effect of monetary compensation appears to be required.

  10. Characterization of iron deficiency symptoms in grapevine (Vitis spp.) leaves by reflectance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustioni, Laura; Grossi, Daniele; Brancadoro, Lucio; Failla, Osvaldo

    2017-09-01

    The work aims at the description of the iron deficiency symptoms in grapevine leaves by reflectance spectroscopy at the plant and leaf levels. 5 genotypes of Vitis spp. were selected and grown in hydroponic conditions with and without iron supply. 450 spectra were collected among basal, young and apical leaves, as well as veins and interveinal areas. Iron deficiency produced significant and characteristic modifications in the pigment accumulation, proportion and distribution in plants. Basal leaves resulted to have higher concentrations of photosynthetic pigments in stressed plants with respect to the control, probably due to compensation effects. Iron deficient plants had lower chlorophyll concentrations in young and apical leaves. In the apical zone, also the relative composition of pigments appeared to be modified, explaining the reddish-yellowish apex appearance of iron deficient vines. Finally, the pigment distribution along the shoot characterized the symptoms, as well as the spectral variations among veins and interveinal areas. These results could support future applications in vineyard management (e.g.: symptom identification and detection; precision fertilization) as well as breeding programs for new rootstock selections (e.g.: fast screenings of seedlings). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Extract of Moringa oleifera leaves ameliorates streptozotocin-induced Diabetes mellitus in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassa, Hanan Dawood; Tohamy, Adel Fathy

    2014-06-01

    Medicinal plants attract growing interest in the therapeutic management of Diabetes mellitus. Moringa oleifera is a remarkably nutritious vegetable with several antioxidant properties. The present study assessed the possible antioxidant and antidiabetic effects of an aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves in treating streptozotocin-induced diabetic albino rats. The antidiabetic effects of aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves were assessed histomorphometrically, ultrastructurally and biochemically. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was monitored and morphometric measurements of β-cells of islets of Langerhans (modified Gomori's stain) and collagen fibers (Mallory's trichrome stain) were performed. The antioxidant effects of M. oleifera leaves were determined by measuring the reduced glutathione and lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde, in pancreatic tissue. M. oleifera treatment significantly ameliorated the altered FPG (from 380% to 145%), reduced glutathione (from 22% to 73%) and malondialdehyde (from 385% to 186%) compared to control levels. The histopathological damage of islet cells was also markedly reversed. Morphometrically, M. oleifera significantly increased the areas of positive purple modified Gomori stained β-cells (from 60% to 91%) and decreased the area percentage of collagen fibers (from 199% to 120%) compared to control values. Experimental findings clearly indicate the potential benefits of using the aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves as a potent antidiabetic treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Home leaving trajectories in Canada: exploring cultural and gendered dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell, Barbara A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishIn this exploratory study, we profile variations in home leaving, homereturning,and home staying behaviour among four ethnocultural groups in Canada -British, Chinese, Indian, and South European. Data collected in a 1999-2000survey of 1,907 young adults (ages 19-35 residing in the Vancouver area areused. Our principal foci are ethnocultural and gendered aspects of home leavingtrajectories, specifically: ages at home leaving and returning, and reasons forhome leaving, home returning and home staying. Special attention is paid toreturners/boomerangers, given an increasing overall trend in home returning inCanada. We find that: (a both ethnocultural origin and gender are importantdeterminants of home leaving trajectory, (b there is a distinct (but far from tidydifference between European-origin and Asian-origin groups in home leavingtrajectory, (c British-Canadians leave home at the youngest ages and Indo-Canadians at the oldest ages, (d the main reason for home leaving isindependence for British-Canadians; schooling for Chinese-Canadians, andmarriage for Indo-Canadians, (e among all four groups, home returners leavehome initially at younger ages and, with the exception of Indo-Canadian youngmen, who typically leave home for school, and (f gender differences in homeleaving trajectory are larger among the Chinese and Indo-Canadians than amongpersons of European origins. Overall, we conclude that the theorized trend of theindividualized family life course holds for only some ethnocultural groups inCanada. We conclude with suggestions for future research directions on thetopic of ethnicity and the home leaving life course transitions.FrenchDans cette étude préliminaire, nous donnons le profil de plusieurscomportements relatifs au fait de quitter la maison, d’y retourner et d’y rester dequatre groupes ethnoculturels au Canada, notamment les Britanniques, lesChinois, les Indiens et les ressortissants du sud de l’Europe. On s’est servi

  13. Insecticide susceptibility of Aedes aegypti populations from Senegal and Cape Verde Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dia Ibrahima

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two concomitant dengue 3 (DEN-3 epidemics occurred in Cape Verde Archipelago and Senegal between September and October 2009. Aedes aegypti was identified as the vector of these epidemics as several DEN-3 virus strains were isolated from this species in both countries. The susceptibility to pyrethroids, organochlorine, organophosphates and carbamate was investigated in two field strains of Aedes aegypti from both countries using WHO diagnostic bioassay kits in order to monitor their the current status of insecticide susceptibility. Findings The two tested strains were highly resistant to DDT. The Cape Verde strain was found to be susceptible to all others tested insecticides except for propoxur 0.1%, which needs further investigation. The Dakar strain was susceptible to fenitrothion 1% and permethrin 0.75%, but displayed reduced susceptibility to deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and propoxur. Conclusions As base-line results, our observations stress a careful management of insecticide use for the control of Ae. aegypti. Indeed, they indicate that DDT is no longer efficient for the control of Ae. aegypti populations in Cape Verde and Dakar and further suggest a thorough follow-up of propoxur susceptibility status in both sites and that of deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin in Ae. aegypti populations in Dakar. Thus, regular monitoring of susceptibility is greatly needed as well as the knowing if this observed resistance/susceptibility is focal or not and for observed resistance, the use of biochemical methods is needed with detailed comparison of resistance levels over a large geographic area. Keywords Aedes aegypti, Insecticides, Susceptibility, Cape Verde, Senegal

  14. Insecticide susceptibility of Aedes aegypti populations from Senegal and Cape Verde Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dia, Ibrahima; Diagne, Cheikh Tidiane; Ba, Yamar; Diallo, Diawo; Konate, Lassana; Diallo, Mawlouth

    2012-10-22

    Two concomitant dengue 3 (DEN-3) epidemics occurred in Cape Verde Archipelago and Senegal between September and October 2009. Aedes aegypti was identified as the vector of these epidemics as several DEN-3 virus strains were isolated from this species in both countries. The susceptibility to pyrethroids, organochlorine, organophosphates and carbamate was investigated in two field strains of Aedes aegypti from both countries using WHO diagnostic bioassay kits in order to monitor their the current status of insecticide susceptibility. The two tested strains were highly resistant to DDT. The Cape Verde strain was found to be susceptible to all others tested insecticides except for propoxur 0.1%, which needs further investigation. The Dakar strain was susceptible to fenitrothion 1% and permethrin 0.75%, but displayed reduced susceptibility to deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and propoxur. As base-line results, our observations stress a careful management of insecticide use for the control of Ae. aegypti. Indeed, they indicate that DDT is no longer efficient for the control of Ae. aegypti populations in Cape Verde and Dakar and further suggest a thorough follow-up of propoxur susceptibility status in both sites and that of deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin in Ae. aegypti populations in Dakar. Thus, regular monitoring of susceptibility is greatly needed as well as the knowing if this observed resistance/susceptibility is focal or not and for observed resistance, the use of biochemical methods is needed with detailed comparison of resistance levels over a large geographic area. Aedes aegypti, Insecticides, Susceptibility, Cape Verde, Senegal.

  15. Radiative Susceptibility of Cloudy Atmospheres to Droplet Number Perturbations: 2. Global analysis from MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Platnick, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Global distributions of albedo susceptibility for areas covered by liquid clouds are presented for 4 months in 2005. The susceptibility estimates are based on expanded definitions presented in a companion paper and include relative cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) changes, perturbations in cloud droplet asymmetry parameter and single-scattering albedo, atmospheric/surface effects, and incorporation of the full solar spectrum. The cloud properties (optical thickness and effective radius) used as input in the susceptibility calculations come from MODIS Terra and Aqua Collection 5 gridded data. Geographical distributions of susceptibility corresponding to absolute ( absolute cloud susceptibility ) and relative ( relative cloud susceptibility ) CDNC changes are markedly different indicating that the detailed nature of the cloud microphysical perturbation is important for determining the radiative forcing associated with the first indirect aerosol effect. However, both types of susceptibility exhibit common characteristics such as significant reductions when perturbations in single-scattering properties are omitted, significant increases when atmospheric absorption and surface albedo effects are ignored, and the tendency to decrease with latitude, to be higher over ocean than over land, and to be statistically similar between the morning and afternoon MODIS overpasses. The satellite-based susceptibility analysis helps elucidate the role of present-day cloud and land surface properties in indirect aerosol forcing responses. Our realistic yet moderate CDNC perturbations yield forcings on the order of 1-2 W/sq m for cloud optical property distributions and land surface spectral albedos observed by MODIS. Since susceptibilities can potentially be computed from model fields, these results have practical application in assessing the reasonableness of model-generated estimates of the aerosol indirect radiative forcing.

  16. Chemical characterisation of particle emissions from burning leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidl, Christoph; Bauer, Heidi; Dattler, Astrid; Hitzenberger, Regina; Weissenboeck, Gerlinde; Marr, Iain L.; Puxbaum, Hans

    Particulate matter emissions (PM10) from open-air burning of dry leaves were sampled and analysed for a series of organic and inorganic species, including carbon fractions, anhydrosugars, humic-like substances (HULIS), water-soluble ions, metals and organic trace components. The study was performed to investigate whether open-air burning of leaves in rural areas is a potential source of high amounts of unexplained organic matter (OM) in ambient PM. Results of the carbon analysis indicated that the amount of OM, more than 90% of emitted PM10, is significantly higher in smoke from leaves than from wood burning [Schmidl, C., Marr, I.L., Caseiro, A., Kotianova, P., Berner, A., Bauer, H., Kasper-Giebl, A., Puxbaum, H., 2008. Chemical characterization of fine particle emissions from wood stove combustion of common woods growing in mid-European Alpine regions. Atmospheric Environment 42, 126-141, till now considered as the main combustion source of organic PM used in source apportionment. While the proportion of total carbon (TC), 67% of PM10, is very similar to that in wood smoke, the make-up of the total carbon is different. In wood smoke, levels of elemental carbon (EC) equivalent to soot, of around 20% were found, however in leaf smoke EC was very low, between 0 and 10% depending on the analytical methodology. In addition chemical markers were identified that permit the discrimination of wood smoke from leaf smoke in ambient PM samples. In particular the levels of anhydrosugars, sugar alcohols, PAH and n-alkanes in leaf smoke differ significantly from those in wood smoke. The ratios of levoglucosan to galactosan and benzo[a]pyrene to tetracosane differ by an order of magnitude between smoke of leaf burning and that of typical mid-European firewood (Schmidl et al., 2008). Furthermore sugar alcohols were found in notable concentrations in leaf burning samples, which were not found in wood smoke. Complete chemical profiles for leaf burning as a particulate matter source

  17. Environmental controls over methanol emission from leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Harley

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Methanol is found throughout the troposphere, with average concentrations second only to methane among atmospheric hydrocarbons. Proposed global methanol budgets are highly uncertain, but all agree that at least 60% of the total source arises from the terrestrial biosphere and primary emissions from plants. However, the magnitude of these emissions is also highly uncertain, and the environmental factors which control them require further elucidation.

    Using a temperature-controlled leaf enclosure, we measured methanol emissions from leaves of six plant species by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, with simultaneous measurements of leaf evapotranspiration and stomatal conductance. Rates of emission at 30°C varied from 0.2 to 38 μg g (dry mass−1 h−1, with higher rates measured on young leaves, consistent with the production of methanol via pectin demethylation in expanding foliage. On average, emissions increased by a factor of 2.3 for each 10°C increase in leaf temperature. At constant temperature, emissions were also correlated with co-varying incident photosynthetic photon flux density and rates of stomatal conductance. The data were analyzed using the emission model developed by Niinemets and Reichstein (2003a, b, with the incorporation of a methanol production term that increased exponentially with temperature. It was concluded that control of emissions, during daytime, was shared by leaf temperature and stomatal conductance, although rates of production may also vary diurnally in response to variations in leaf growth rate in expanding leaves. The model, which generally provided reasonable simulations of the measured data during the day, significantly overestimated emissions on two sets of measurements made through the night, suggesting that production rates of methanol were reduced at night, perhaps because leaf growth was reduced or possibly through a direct effect of light on production

  18. Assimilative branches and leaves of the desert plant Alhagi sparsifolia Shap. possesses a different adaptation mechanism to shade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Li; Xiang-yi, Li; Xin-wen, Xu; Li-sha, Lin; Fan-jiang, Zeng; Feng-li, Chen

    2014-01-01

    Leaves and assimilative branches are crucial to the life cycle of Alhagi sparsifolia Shap. (Fabaceae), which grows in high-irradiance environments and is the main vegetation in the forelands of the Taklamakan Desert. This plant has an important role in wind protection and sand fixation at the oasis-desert transition zone. The morphology, physiology, and photosynthesis of A. sparsifolia leaves growing under low-light conditions have been extensively investigated. However, whether the plant's assimilative branches adapt similarly to low light levels is unclear, as are its specific light adaptation mechanisms. In this report, we characterized the biomass allocation, morphology, and chlorophyll a fluorescence of leaves and assimilative branches of A. sparsifolia. The results indicated that low-light conditions limited the normal growth of A. sparsifolia. The fraction of biomass allocated to leaves increased, whereas that to assimilative branches decreased. In addition, leaf thickness and assimilative branch diameter decreased, resulting in higher specific leaf area, specific assimilative branch length, and area for higher light absorbing and higher efficiency of light-usage. The assimilative branches and leaves were responded oppositely under low-light conditions in that leaves had lower photosystem II activity and assimilative branches had higher light-use efficiency to maximize light energy absorption for growth of A. sparsifolia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. [Analysis of sick leaves due to mental and behavioral problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Gonzalo H; Alvarado, Sergio O; Kaufman, Jay S

    2012-02-01

    In Chile, the number of sick leaves due to mental health problems has systematically increased in recent years. To perform an analysis of sick leaves due to mental problems managed by the Fondo Nacional de Salud (FONASA) during 2008. Analysis of all sick leaves awarded during 2008 for mental or behavioral problems, that were managed at FONASA. A negative binomial regression, was performed to predict the effects of different variables on the total duration of sick leaves. A total of 546,477 sick leaves were awarded to 198,752 individuals (2.27 per subject). The mean duration of each leave was 15.6 days. Summing all leaves, the lapse off work was 98 ± 96 days (median 65 days). Women had longer leaves than men. The type of medical leave, occupation, working for private or public institutions, economic activity and diagnosis were significantly associated with duration of time off work. Sick leaves for mental problems are prolonged and related to gender and socioeconomic variables.

  20. Comparative Analysis of Chrysanthemum Stunt Viroid Accumulation and Movement in Two Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Cultivars with Differential Susceptibility to the Viroid Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Nabeshima

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd was inoculated into two chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium cultivars, the CSVd-susceptible cultivar Piato and the CSVd-resistant cultivar Mari Kazaguruma. For CSVd inoculation, grafting and Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation were used. In grafting experiments, CSVd was detectable in Mari Kazaguruma after grafting onto infected Piato, but after removal of infected rootstocks, CSVd could not be detected in the uppermost leaves. In agroinfection experiments, CSVd systemic infection was observed in Piato but not in Mari Kazaguruma. However, agro-inoculated leaves of Mari Kazaguruma accumulated circular CSVd RNA to levels equivalent to those in Piato at 7 days post-inoculation. In situ detection of CSVd in inoculated leaves revealed that CSVd was absent in phloem of Mari Kazaguruma, while CSVd strongly localized to this site in Piato. We hypothesize that CSVd resistance in Mari Kazaguruma relates not to CSVd replication but to CSVd movement in leaves.

  1. Fuzzy rule-based landslide susceptibility mapping in Yığılca Forest District (Northwest of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrahim Aydın

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Landslide susceptibility map of Yığılca Forest District was formed based on developed fuzzy rules using GIS-based FuzzyCell software. An inventory of 315 landslides was updated through fieldworks after inventory map previously generated by the authors. Based on the landslide susceptibility mapping study previously made in the same area, for the comparison of two maps, same 8 landslide conditioning parameters were selected and then fuzzified for the landslide susceptibility mapping: land use, lithology, elevation, slope, aspect, distance to streams, distance to roads, and plan curvature. Mamdani model was selected as fuzzy inference system. After fuzzy rules definition, Center of Area (COA was selected as defuzzification method in model. The output of developed model was normalized between 0 and 1, and then divided five classes such as very low, low, moderate, high, and very high. According to developed model based 8 conditioning parameters, landslide susceptibility in Yığılca Forest District varies between 32 and 67 (in range of 0-100 with 0.703 Area Under the Curve (AUC value. According to classified landslide susceptibility map, in Yığılca Forest District, 32.89% of the total area has high and very high susceptibility while 29.59% of the area has low and very low susceptibility and the rest located in moderate susceptibility. The result of developed fuzzy rule based model compared with previously generated landslide map with logistic regression (LR. According to comparison of the results of two studies, higher differences exist in terms of AUC value and dispersion of susceptibility classes. This is because fuzzy rule based model completely depends on how parameters are classified and fuzzified and also depends on how truly the expert composed the rules. Even so, GIS-based fuzzy applications provide very valuable facilities for reasoning, which makes it possible to take into account inaccuracies and uncertainties.

  2. Comparative life history and fecundity of Phthorimaea operculella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) on leaves and tubers of different potato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golizadeh, A; Esmaeili, N

    2012-10-01

    The potato tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a noxious pest of the potato crop (Solanum tuberosum L.) in both field and storage in tropical and subtropical regions. Survival, development and reproduction of the potato tuberworm was compared on leaves and tubers of 10 common cultivated potato cultivars including Agria, Agata, Almera, Arinda, Baneba, Fiana, Marfona, Ramus, Satina, and Volvox at 25 +/- 1 degree C, 65 +/- 5% RH and a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h. The results indicated that there were significant differences in the larval, pupal, and total developmental periods on the various potato cultivars. The total developmental periods varied from 26.6 (on Baneba) to 29.5 d (on Marfona),and ranged from 27.9 (on Marfona) to 30.5 d (on Agria) in the experiments on potato leaves and tubers, respectively. Immature survival rates were lowest on Agria (44.1%) and Marfona (40.6%) on potato leaves and tubers, respectively. The highest total fecundity was observed on Arinda (78.3 eggs) and Ramus (154.8 egg) on potato leaves and tubers, respectively. Significantly fewer eggs were laid on Marfona cultivar's leaves (44.6 eggs) and tubers (72.9 eggs) than any of the other tested potato cultivars. The female reproduction potential on potato leaves was significantly lower than on potato tubers. Cluster analysis of the biological parameters of P. operculella on different potato cultivars demonstrated that Marfona is partially resistant to potato tuberworm. The findings on the susceptibility or resistance of potato cultivars could be a fundamental component of integrated pest management programs for potato tuberworm.

  3. Optical spectral characterization of leaves for endemic species from La Primavera forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragán, R. C.; Strojnik, Marija; Rodríguez-Rivas, Antonio; Garcia-Torales, G.; González, Francisco Javier

    2017-09-01

    La Primavera forest is the main climate regulator in the metropolitan area of Guadalajara, the second most populated megalopolis in Mexico with approximately 4.4 million people. This forest area has been a focus of fires in the last decade and it is deteriorating the quality of life of the inhabitants. Leaves from the endemic forest provide information about their biochemical composition and physiology. This information is enclosed in the spectral range of the visible band to the middle infrared (400 nm at 2500 nm). In this paper we examine the reflectance of six endemic species leaves of La Primavera forest, considering the measurement in fresh and dry samples. Measurements will be obtained with a Vis-NIR spectrometer that uses a calibrated light source. A formal collection of the optical properties of tree leaves in La Primavera forest does not exist, but it is important to classify about the type of vegetation in the area. In addition, it will provide information to generate vegetation inventories, provide data to the forest fire prevention systems, pest control and erosion in the area.

  4. Xyloglucan from the leaves of Hymenaea courbaril.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busato, A P; Vargas-Rechia, C G; Reicher, F

    2001-10-01

    A fucosylated xyloglucan was isolated from the leaves of Hymenaea courbaril by alkaline extraction, followed by ethanol precipitation and ion-exchange chromatography. The isolated polysaccharide showed Glc:Xyl:Gal:Fuc in molar ratio of 8:5:2.5:1 and (D)(25) +40.5 degrees. Composition and linkage analyses, supported by NMR spectroscopic measurements, showed that the polysaccharide has a glucan backbone which is highly substituted at O-6 with D-xylopyranose residues, about a half of which are substituted at O-2 by D-galactopyranosyl units. Some of the galactose residues are further substituted by L-fucopyranose at O-2. The M(r), as determined by HPSEC, was 49,500.

  5. Phytochemical study of Juglans regia L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwindl, Sebastian; Kraus, Birgit; Heilmann, Jörg

    2017-12-01

    A methanolic extract of Juglans regia L. leaves was fractioned by various chromatographic techniques yielding a total of 40 metabolites belonging to megastigmane, tetralone, phenylpropanoid, neolignane and juglone glycosides. Ten unknown megastigmane glucoside derivatives (juglanionosides A-K, 1-10) and six unknown tetralone glucoside derivatives (juglanosides J-O, 11-16) together with 24 known compounds - among them 16 described for the first time in Juglans - were isolated. As characteristic structural feature, the previously undescribed compounds showed acylation of the sugar units with sinapic, ferulic, coumaric, benzoic or salicylic acid. Their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR techniques, HRESIMS as well as CD spectroscopy. Absolute stereochemistry was revealed by mild alkaline hydrolysis and comparison of CD and polarimetric data to literature values. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Medicinal properties of neem leaves: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subapriya, R; Nagini, S

    2005-03-01

    Azadirachta indica, commonly known as neem, has attracted worldwide prominence in recent years, owing to its wide range of medicinal properties. Neem has been extensively used in Ayurveda, Unani and Homoeopathic medicine and has become a cynosure of modern medicine. Neem elaborates a vast array of biologically active compounds that are chemically diverse and structurally complex. More than 140 compounds have been isolated from different parts of neem. All parts of the neem tree- leaves, flowers, seeds, fruits, roots and bark have been used traditionally for the treatment of inflammation, infections, fever, skin diseases and dental disorders. The medicinal utilities have been described especially for neem leaf. Neem leaf and its constituents have been demonstrated to exhibit immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antihyperglycaemic, antiulcer, antimalarial, antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, antioxidant, antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties. This review summarises the wide range of pharmacological activities of neem leaf.

  7. Leaving and entering a career in physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Shobhana; Tajima, Setsuko; Yoon, Jin-Hee

    2013-03-01

    Although a continuous research career is desirable for physicists, women often face situations that force them to interrupt their careers. Concerning the career-break problem, we discussed four issues. First, we analyzed the factors that force women to leave physics. Second, we discussed the effects of an interruption in a physics career. Should women continue to work as scientists without any break, at all costs? Or is it possible (and perhaps even better) to choose a more flexible career path? Third, we discussed the ways to retain women in physics. As an example, we focused on one of the most difficult problems: dual-career couples. Finally, we also discussed some possible ways in which one could support and facilitate women returning to a physics career after a break.

  8. Zeatin-binding proteins in barley leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanov, G.A.; Kulaeva, O.N.; Taryan, V.Y.

    1986-01-01

    Highly labelled tritium-zeatin was used in the work to clarify for the first time a protein factor that is present in cytokinin-sensitive vegetative organs of plants (barley leaves) and which possesses the properties of a cytokinin receptor. Aliquots of tritium-zeatin were mixed with a solution of protein and incubated for several hours in buffer. Following incubation, protein was precipitated by ammonium sulfate at 90% of saturation, and radioactivity of the precipitate was checked in a dioxane scintillator with an efficiency of about 35%. It is shown that the characteristics of interaction of the clarified specific protein sites with cytokinins in regard to a number of criteria correspond to the characteristics expected of receptors of these phytohormones.

  9. THE JOY SAD TO LEAVE THE COUNTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edita de Nobrega

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This research study was established with the purpose of reflecting on the Sorrowful Joy Leave the Country, ie relate the phenomenon of migration toward Venezuelans abroad, especially destined to the United States. Regarding the research methodology used was qualitative in nature and implemented the method was phenomenological, which took into account the views of some Venezuelans who are abroad. Among the most important findings: that migration in the world is not a new phenomenon , however , migration in Venezuela began slowly in the eighties , but over time has grown significantly , the people who migrate do so in search of better pay and conditions for quality of life. In addition to the above, hundreds of Venezuelans have gone abroad without the possibility of return in the short or medium term the country, contributing to the deterioration of economic development in Venezuela.

  10. Pressurized liquid extraction of mate tea leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Rosângela Assis; Dariva, Cláudio; de Oliveira, José Vladimir; Caramão, Elina Bastos

    2008-09-05

    The objective of this work is to investigate the influence of process parameters on the pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of Ilex paraguariensis leaves. A factorial 2(6-2) experimental design was employed using responses as the extraction yield and the chromatographic profile of the extracts. The extraction time, polarity of solvent, amount of sample, numbers of PLE cycles, flushing volume and extraction temperature were selected as independent variables (factors). Results obtained indicated that the solvent polarity was the most significant variable in the study, while the amount of sample and extraction temperature also showed significant effect. The other variables did not present significant influence in the yield of extraction. GC/MS analysis of the extract enabled the identification of saturated hydrocarbons, fatty acids, fatty acid methyl esters, phytosterols and theobromine in the extracts. Quantitative analysis of four compounds presented in the extracts (caffeine, phytol, vitamin E and squalene) was performed by the GC/MS in the SIM mode.

  11. Volatile compounds from leaves of the African spider plant (Gynandropsis gynandra) with bioactivity against spider mite (Tetranychus urticae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyalala, Samuel Odeyo; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin; Grout, Brian William Wilson

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that Gynandropsis gynandra emits acetonitrile as a foliar volatile from intact plants and isolated leaves, and that this compound is an effective spider mite repellent. This study has used gas chromatography–mass spectrometry to investigate volatile compounds...... emitted from homogenised G. gynandra leaves to evaluate their tissue acetonitrile content and to look for other compounds that might be exploited for the management of spider mites. Acetonitrile was absent from the homogenised tissues of five lines of G. gynandra, studied over two seasons. Thirteen...... volatile compounds were emitted by G. gynandra at significantly higher levels than mite-susceptible pot roses, including isothiocyanates, aldehydes, esters, alcohols and terpenes. Six representative compounds were selected to assess bioactivity. Spider mite populations were completely inactive after a 2¿h...

  12. An in vitro evaluation of the antibacterial activity of the non-volatile phenolic fraction from rosemary leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, C; Bellumori, M; Santomauro, F; Donato, R; Capei, R; Innocenti, M; Mulinacci, N

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the aim was to evaluate the antimicrobial action of the non-volatile phenols of rosemary leaves against two Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and two Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis). Three extracts with different phenolic compositions were tested. By the agar disc diffusion method, Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to the extracts, and S. epidermidis showed the highest inhibition zones. Overall, all the extracts tested by the broth dilution method showed higher activity than results from the agar disc diffusion method. The minimal bactericidal concentration values indicated that E. coli was the most susceptible strain. This study demonstrated that the flavonoidic fraction of rosemary leaves does not play a crucial role as antimicrobial agents against these microorganisms. The most active extract was characterised by the highest amount of non-volatile terpenoidic compounds.

  13. Landslide susceptibility mapping & prediction using Support Vector Machine for Mandakini River Basin, Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Thakur, Manoj; Dubey, Chandra S.; Shukla, Dericks P.

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, various machine learning techniques have been applied for landslide susceptibility mapping. In this study, three different variants of support vector machine viz., SVM, Proximal Support Vector Machine (PSVM) and L2-Support Vector Machine - Modified Finite Newton (L2-SVM-MFN) have been applied on the Mandakini River Basin in Uttarakhand, India to carry out the landslide susceptibility mapping. Eight thematic layers such as elevation, slope, aspect, drainages, geology/lithology, buffer of thrusts/faults, buffer of streams and soil along with the past landslide data were mapped in GIS environment and used for landslide susceptibility mapping in MATLAB. The study area covering 1625 km2 has merely 0.11% of area under landslides. There are 2009 pixels for past landslides out of which 50% (1000) landslides were considered as training set while remaining 50% as testing set. The performance of these techniques has been evaluated and the computational results show that L2-SVM-MFN obtains higher prediction values (0.829) of receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-area under the curve) as compared to 0.807 for PSVM model and 0.79 for SVM. The results obtained from L2-SVM-MFN model are found to be superior than other SVM prediction models and suggest the usefulness of this technique to problem of landslide susceptibility mapping where training data is very less. However, these techniques can be used for satisfactory determination of susceptible zones with these inputs.

  14. Effects of age-related increases in sapwood area, leaf area, and xylem conductivity on height-related hydraulic costs in two contrasting coniferous species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Christophe Domec; Barbara Lachenbruch; Michele L. Pruyn; Rachel Spicer

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Knowledge of vertical variation in hydraulic parameters would improve our understanding of individual trunk functioning and likely have important implications for modeling water movement to the leaves. Specifically, understanding how foliage area (Al), sapwood area (As), and hydraulic specific...

  15. The heterogeneity and spatial patterning of structure and physiology across the leaf surface in giant leaves of Alocasia macrorrhiza.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Li

    Full Text Available Leaf physiology determines the carbon acquisition of the whole plant, but there can be considerable variation in physiology and carbon acquisition within individual leaves. Alocasia macrorrhiza (L. Schott is an herbaceous species that can develop very large leaves of up to 1 m in length. However, little is known about the hydraulic and photosynthetic design of such giant leaves. Based on previous studies of smaller leaves, and on the greater surface area for trait variation in large leaves, we hypothesized that A. macrorrhiza leaves would exhibit significant heterogeneity in structure and function. We found evidence of reduced hydraulic supply and demand in the outer leaf regions; leaf mass per area, chlorophyll concentration, and guard cell length decreased, as did stomatal conductance, net photosynthetic rate and quantum efficiency of photosystem II. This heterogeneity in physiology was opposite to that expected from a thinner boundary layer at the leaf edge, which would have led to greater rates of gas exchange. Leaf temperature was 8.8°C higher in the outer than in the central region in the afternoon, consistent with reduced stomatal conductance and transpiration caused by a hydraulic limitation to the outer lamina. The reduced stomatal conductance in the outer regions would explain the observed homogeneous distribution of leaf water potential across the leaf surface. These findings indicate substantial heterogeneity in gas exchange across the leaf surface in large leaves, greater than that reported for smaller-leafed species, though the observed structural differences across the lamina were within the range reported for smaller-leafed species. Future work will determine whether the challenge of transporting water to the outer regions can limit leaf size for plants experiencing drought, and whether the heterogeneity of function across the leaf surface represents a particular disadvantage for large simple leaves that might explain their

  16. Elemental concentrations in deposited dust on leaves along an urbanization gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Edina, E-mail: edina.simon@gmail.com [Department of Ecology, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 71 (Hungary); Baranyai, Edina [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 21 (Hungary); Agilent Atomic Spectroscopy Partner Laboratory, University of Debrecen, Egyetem tér 1, H-4032 Debrecen (Hungary); Braun, Mihály [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Herteleni Laboratory of Environmental Studies, 4026 Debrecen, Bem tér 18/C (Hungary); Cserháti, Csaba [Department of Solid State Physics, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 2 (Hungary); Fábián, István [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 21 (Hungary); Tóthmérész, Béla [HAS-UD Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services Research Group, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 71 (Hungary)

    2014-08-15

    Environmental health is an essential component of the quality of life in modern societies. Monitoring of environmental quality and the assessment of environmental risks are often species based on the elemental concentration of deposited dust. Our result suggested that stomata size and distribution were the most important factors influencing the accumulation of air contaminants in leaves. We found that the leaves' surfaces of Acer negundo and Celtis occidentalis were covered by a large number of trichomes, and these species have proven to be suitable biomonitors for atmospheric pollution difficult; these can be overcome using bioindicator species. Leaves of Padus serotina, Acer campestre, A. negundo, Quercus robur and C. occidentalis were used to assess the amount of deposited dust and the concentration of contaminants in deposited dust in and around the city of Debrecen, Hungary. Samples were collected from an urban, suburban and rural area along an urbanization gradient. The concentrations of Ba, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, S, Sr and Zn were determined in deposited dust using ICP–OES. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to explore the morphological structure and dust absorbing capacity of leaves. We found significant differences in dust deposition among species, and dust deposition correlated with trichomes' density. Principal component analysis (PCA) also showed a total separation of tree. - Highlights: • Dust is used as indicators of the accumulation of inorganic pollutants. • Scanning EM was used to explore the morphological structure of leaves. • Amount of dust deposited of leaves correlated with trichomes' density. • A. negundo, C. occidentalis and Q. robur are suitable to indicate air contaminants. • A. negundo and C. occidentalis are suitable to decrease the amount of dust in air.

  17. Study of features of the biochemical composition of red vine leaves of autochthonous varieties in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oganesyants Lev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the fields of processing industries’ activities is the use of secondary resources. The use the vegetative parts of grape plants may become an important component in solving this task. Such vegetative parts, first of all, include red grape leaves, which provide a large reserve of antioxidants and other biologically useful substances. The Russian Research Institute of Brewing and Wine Industry has carried out the detailed study of the features of the biochemical composition of red vine leaves of autochthonous varieties cultivated in the Rostov region of Russia. Cold winters are considered to be the major stress for the grape plants. Under these conditions, leaves accumulate large amount of biologically active substances, including trans-resveratrol, which provide significant advantage compared with the harvest from grapes cultivated in areas where the plants are not protected during winter. Comparative studies on the biochemical composition of red vine leaves of autochthonous and European varieties were conducted, including on the use of bioassay systems in vitro. It was found that extracts of red vine leaves of autochthonous varieties have a marked effect on the rate of glutathione reductase and pyruvate kinase reactions that are demonstrating their angioprotective and energizing properties. The increase in the rate of the catalase reaction indicates the manifestation of antioxidant properties. The technology of CO2 – and highly concentrated hydrophilic extracts production from red vine leaves that preserves biologically active compounds to the maximum extent possible. The extracts are used for the manufacture of soft drinks that have the venomotor action and may be applied in the process of the manufacture of fat products with extended shelf life, as well as the main raw material for the preparations with the pronounced angioprotective effect.

  18. The comparative analysis of anatomical traits of four largefruited hazelnut cultivars showing different susceptibility to filbert aphid (Myzocallis coryli Goetze feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations related to morphological and anatomical traits of leaves of four largefruited hazelnut (Corylus L. cultivars characterised by different susceptibility to filbert aphid (Myzocallis coryli Goetze feeding. The following parameters were measured: the thickness of leaf blade, the number of stomata, the length of secretory and mechanical hairs and their density on the leaf, the thickness of adaxial and abaxial epidermis and the thickness of their external cell walls. Observations of cross sections of the leaves were made in a light microscope and the surface of the adaxial epidermis was analysed in a scanning electron microscope. It was shown that leaves of the cultivars susceptible to M. coryli feeding had the thinnest leaf blade, especially in the main vein, and many more stomata. Besides, the cultivar most resistant to filbert aphid feeding, White Filbert, was marked by the largest height of the adaxial epidermis cells and the strongest striation of the cuticle in abaxial epidermis. On leaves of this cultivar, the number of mechanical hairs was the highest, while the lowest number of them was noted on Wonder from Bollwiller, the most susceptible cultivar.

  19. Work-family balance after childbirth: the association between employer-offered leave characteristics and maternity leave duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guendelman, Sylvia; Goodman, Julia; Kharrazi, Martin; Lahiff, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    Early return to work after childbirth has been increasing among working mothers in the US. We assessed the relationship between access to employer-offered maternity leave (EOML) (both paid and unpaid) and uptake and duration of maternity leave following childbirth in a socio-economically diverse sample of full-time working women. We focus on California, a state that has long provided more generous maternity leave benefits than those offered by federal maternity leave policies through the State Disability Insurance program. The sample included 691 mothers who gave birth in Southern California in 2002-2003. Using weighted logistic regression, we examined the EOML-maternity leave duration relationship, controlling for whether the leave was paid, as well as other occupational, personality and health-related covariates. Compared with mothers who were offered more than 12 weeks of maternity leave, mothers with maternity leave significantly determine timing of return to work following childbirth, potentially affecting work-family balance. Policy makers should recognize the pivotal role of employers in offering job security during and after maternity leave and consider widening the eligibility criteria of the Family and Medical Leave Act.

  20. Adolescent neurobiological susceptibility to social context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta A. Schriber

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence has been characterized as a period of heightened sensitivity to social contexts. However, adolescents vary in how their social contexts affect them. According to neurobiological susceptibility models, endogenous, biological factors confer some individuals, relative to others, with greater susceptibility to environmental influences, whereby more susceptible individuals fare the best or worst of all individuals, depending on the environment encountered (e.g., high vs. low parental warmth. Until recently, research guided by these theoretical frameworks has not incorporated direct measures of brain structure or function to index this sensitivity. Drawing on prevailing models of adolescent neurodevelopment and a growing number of neuroimaging studies on the interrelations among social contexts, the brain, and developmental outcomes, we review research that supports the idea of adolescent neurobiological susceptibility to social context for understanding why and how adolescents differ in development and well-being. We propose that adolescent development is shaped by brain-based individual differences in sensitivity to social contexts – be they positive or negative – such as those created through relationships with parents/caregivers and peers. Ultimately, we recommend that future research measure brain function and structure to operationalize susceptibility factors that moderate the influence of social contexts on developmental outcomes.

  1. Adolescent Neurobiological Susceptibility to Social Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schriber, Roberta A.; Guyer, Amanda E.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence has been characterized as a period of heightened sensitivity to social contexts. However, adolescents vary in how their social contexts affect them. According to neurobiological susceptibility models, endogenous, biological factors confer some individuals, relative to others, with greater susceptibility to environmental influences, whereby more susceptible individuals fare the best or worst of all individuals, depending on the environment they encounter (e.g., high vs. low parental warmth). Until recently, research guided by these theoretical frameworks has not incorporated direct measures of brain structure or function to index this sensitivity. Drawing on prevailing models of adolescent neurodevelopment and a growing number of neuroimaging studies on the interrelations among social contexts, the brain, and developmental outcomes, we review research that supports the idea of adolescent neurobiological susceptibility to social context for understanding why and how adolescents differ in development and well-being. We propose that adolescent development is shaped in part by brain-based individual differences in sensitivity to social contexts – be they positive or negative – such as those created through relationships with parents/caregivers and peers. As such, we recommend that future research measure brain function and structure to operationalize susceptibility factors that moderate the influence of social contexts on developmental outcomes. PMID:26773514

  2. A MODELING METHOD OF FLUTTERING LEAVES BASED ON POINT CLOUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaves falling gently or fluttering are common phenomenon in nature scenes. The authenticity of leaves falling plays an important part in the dynamic modeling of natural scenes. The leaves falling model has a widely applications in the field of animation and virtual reality. We propose a novel modeling method of fluttering leaves based on point cloud in this paper. According to the shape, the weight of leaves and the wind speed, three basic trajectories of leaves falling are defined, which are the rotation falling, the roll falling and the screw roll falling. At the same time, a parallel algorithm based on OpenMP is implemented to satisfy the needs of real-time in practical applications. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is amenable to the incorporation of a variety of desirable effects.

  3. Kinetic properties of cell wall bound superoxide dismutase in leaves of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) following stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthir, Bavita; Koundal, A; Bains, N S

    2011-10-01

    Stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici) is the most devastating disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accounting huge economical losses to the industry worldwide. HD 2329 was a widely grown wheat cultivar which had become highly susceptible to stripe rust and was used to understand the biochemical aspects of the host pathogen interaction through characterization of superoxide dismutase (SOD). In the present study, two types of SOD, ionically or covalently bound to the particulate fraction were found in the stripe rust infected and uninfected wheat leaves of susceptible cultivar HD 2329. Cell walls of leaves contained a high level of SOD, of which 41-44% was extractable by 2 M NaCl and 10-13% by 0.5% EDTA in infected and uninfected leaves. The NaCl-released SOD constituted the predominant fraction. It exhibited maximum activity at pH 9.0, had a Km value of 1.82-2.51 for uninfected and 1.77-2.37 mM for infected, respectively with pyrogallol as the substrate, and a Vmax of 9.55-21.4 and 12.4-24.1 delta A min(-1)g(-1)FW. A temperature optimum of 20 degrees C was observed for SOD of both uninfected and infected leaves. SOD showed differential response to metal ions, suggesting their distinctive nature. Inhibition of wall bound SOD by iodine and its partial regeneration of activity by mercaptoethanol suggested the involvement of cysteine in active site of the enzyme. These two forms showed greater differences with respect to thermodynamic properties like energy of activation (Ea) and enthalpy change (delta H), while entropy change (delta S) and free energy change (delta G) were similar. The results further showed that pathogen infection of the leaves of susceptible wheat cultivar induced a decrease in the SOD activity and kinetics which might be critical during the response of plant cells to the infection.

  4. Susceptible-infected-susceptible epidemics on the complete graph and the star graph : Exact analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cator, E.A.; Van Mieghem, P.

    2013-01-01

    Since mean-field approximations for susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) epidemics do not always predict the correct scaling of the epidemic threshold of the SIS metastable regime, we propose two novel approaches: (a) an ?-SIS generalized model and (b) a modified SIS model that prevents the

  5. Age-Dependent Decrease of Nucleoside Pools in Cereal Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Axel, Sawert; Anke I., Backer; Karl G., Wagner; Ag. Enzymologie, Gesellschaft fur Biotechnologische Forschung

    1988-01-01

    The amounts of nucleosides, the nucleobase adenine, and the adenine-containing nucleotides were determined in leaves of barley and wheat using recently developed methods of extract purification and HPLC analysis. There were large amounts of nucleosides in the flag leaves but markedly lower amounts in the older leaves. Their role as nucleotide precursors in grain development or transport vehicles in leaf senescence is discussed. The adenine nucleotide concentration slightly increased with leaf...

  6. EVALUATION OF ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF LEAVES EXTRACT OF POPULUS DELTOIDES

    OpenAIRE

    Rajeev Jha, *, Nagalakshmi N.C., Shiva Kumar Swamy , Bishnu Adhikari

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The study was designed to evaluate the Antidiabetic activity of ethanolic leaves extract of P. deltoides. Method: The P. deltoides ethanolic leaves extract was tested for the presence of various phytoconstituents using standard procedure. The leaves extract was tested for its hypoglycaemic property in healthy albino rats and glucose loaded rats. The effect of extract was evaluated for its antidiabetic action in alloxan induced rats. The effect of extract on heart and kidney was determine...

  7. The evolution, morphology, and development of fern leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandra eVasco; Robbin C. Moran; Ambrose, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    Leaves are lateral determinate structures formed in a predictable sequence (phyllotaxy) on the flanks of an indeterminate shoot apical meristem. The origin and evolution of leaves in vascular plants has been widely debated. Being the main conspicuous organ of nearly all vascular plants and often easy to recognize as such, it seems surprising that leaves have had multiple origins. For decades, morphologists, anatomists, paleobotanists, and systematists have contributed data to this debate. Mor...

  8. Combined landslide inventory and susceptibility assessment based on different mapping units: an example from the Flemish Ardennes, Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Van Den Eeckhaut

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available For a 277 km2 study area in the Flemish Ardennes, Belgium, a landslide inventory and two landslide susceptibility zonations were combined to obtain an optimal landslide susceptibility assessment, in five classes. For the experiment, a regional landslide inventory, a 10 m × 10 m digital representation of topography, and lithological and soil hydrological information obtained from 1:50 000 scale maps, were exploited. In the study area, the regional inventory shows 192 landslides of the slide type, including 158 slope failures occurred before 1992 (model calibration set, and 34 failures occurred after 1992 (model validation set. The study area was partitioned in 2.78×106 grid cells and in 1927 topographic units. The latter are hydro-morphological units obtained by subdividing slope units based on terrain gradient. Independent models were prepared for the two terrain subdivisions using discriminant analysis. For grid cells, a single pixel was identified as representative of the landslide depletion area, and geo-environmental information for the pixel was obtained from the thematic maps. The landslide and geo-environmental information was used to model the propensity of the terrain to host landslide source areas. For topographic units, morphologic and hydrologic information and the proportion of lithologic and soil hydrological types in each unit, were used to evaluate landslide susceptibility, including the depletion and depositional areas. Uncertainty associated with the two susceptibility models was evaluated, and the model performance was tested using the independent landslide validation set. An heuristic procedure was adopted to combine the landslide inventory and the susceptibility zonations. The procedure makes optimal use of the available landslide and susceptibility information, minimizing the limitations inherent in the inventory and the susceptibility maps. For the established susceptibility classes, regulations to

  9. In Vitro Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Pathogenic Leptospira Biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinod Kumar, Kirubakaran; Lall, Chandan; Raj, Ratchagadasse Vimal; Vedhagiri, Kumaresan; Sunish, Ittoop Pulikkottil; Vijayachari, Paluru

    2016-10-01

    Pathogenic Leptospira spp. are the causative agent of leptospirosis. Biofilm formation in leptospires is a new area of study, and its role in pathogenesis is not fully explored. As in other biofilm-forming bacteria, Leptospira biofilm may play a significant role in antibiotic resistance. In this study, the antimicrobial susceptibility of Leptospira biofilm was investigated by 96-well plate assay using Alamar Blue. Leptospira biofilm showed five to sixfold increase in resistance in all the strains used. The range of minimal bactericidal concentrations for penicillin G, ampicillin, tetracycline, and doxycycline was 1,600 U/ml, 800-1,600 μg/ml, 800-1,600 μg/ml, and 800-1,600 μg/ml, respectively. In agar substrate, the biofilm showed six- to sevenfold increase in resistance to antibiotics compared to planktonic cell. The present study emphasizes the importance of biofilm formation and its antibiotic susceptibility patterns. This could pave the way for devising appropriate strategy to prevent the occurrence of potential chronic leptospirosis in endemic areas and also during an outbreak situation.

  10. Responce of leaves of three plant species to aluminium stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Konarska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Water culture experiments were undertaken for 14 days to examine the effect of increasing aluminum level (0, 10, 20 40 mg·dm-3 AlCl3·6 H2O on growth of sunflower, red pepper and radish leaves. The early stage of Al toxicity was characterized by curling or rolling of young leaves, marginal and veinal chlorosis, dark green leaves as soon as purpling of margins and veins of leaves. Reduction of leaf size and increased stomata density were observed with increasing Al concentration. Additionally, length of stomata cells decreased after Al-treatment.

  11. GPs' negotiation strategies regarding sick leave for subjective health complaints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsen, Stein Tore; Malterud, Kirsti; Werner, Erik L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To explore general practitioners ’(GPs’) specific negotiation strategies regarding sick-leave issues with patientssuffering from subjective health complaints. Design: Focus-group study. Setting: Nine focus-group interviews in three citiesin different regions of Norway. Participants: 48...... to sick leave. Conclusions and implications: GPs seem to have a conscious approach to negotiations of sickness certification, as they report applying specific strategies to limit the duration of sick leave due to subjective health complaints. This give-and-take way of handling sick leave negotiations has...

  12. The Length of Maternity Leave and Family Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beuchert-Pedersen, Louise Voldby; Humlum, Maria Knoth; Vejlin, Rune Majlund

    of maternity leave on a range of health indicators including the number of hospital admissions for both mother and child and the probability of the mother receiving antidepressants. The reform led to an increase in average post-birth maternity leave matters for child or maternal health outcomes and thus we...... complement the existing evidence on maternity leave expansions that tends to find limited effects on children's later deveopmental, educational, and labor market outcomes. Our results suggest that any beneficial effects of increasing the lenght of maternity leave are greater for low-resource families....

  13. A Wound- and Systemin-Inducible Polygalacturonase in Tomato Leaves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniel R. Bergey; Martha Orozco-Cardenas; Daniel S. De Moura; Clarence A. Ryan

    1999-01-01

    Oligogalacturonide fragments that activate defensive genes in plant leaves heretofore have been thought to be generated only by pathogen-derived pectin-degrading enzymes, because polygalacturonase (PG...

  14. Physicians' intention to leave direct patient care: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degen, Christiane; Li, Jian; Angerer, Peter

    2015-09-08

    In light of the growing shortage of physicians worldwide, the problem of physicians who intend to leave direct patient care has become more acute, particularly in terms of quality of care and health-care costs. A literature search was carried out following Cooper's five-stage model for conducting an integrative literature review. Database searches were made in MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Web of Science in May 2014. A total of 17 studies from five countries were identified and the study results synthesized. Measures and percentages of physicians' intention to leave varied between the studies. Variables associated with intention to leave were demographics, with age- and gender-specific findings, family or personal domain, working time and psychosocial working conditions, job-related well-being and other career-related aspects. Gender differences were identified in several risk clusters. Factors such as long working hours and work-family conflict were particularly relevant for female physicians' intention to leave. Health-care managers and policy-makers should take action to improve physicians' working hours and psychosocial working conditions in order to prevent a high rate of intention to leave and limit the number of physicians actually leaving direct patient care. Further research is needed on gender-specific needs in the workplace, the connection between intention to leave and actually leaving and measures of intention to leave as well as using qualitative methods to gain a deeper understanding and developing validated questionnaires.

  15. Father's Rights to Paid Parental Leave in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Tine; Haas, L.

    2011-01-01

    European Union policy encourages men and women to share parental leave to balance work and family life and promote gender equality in the labor market. A new directive extends parental leave to four months and introduces a quota, so one month is reserved for each parent. This article explores...... time between men and women. Findings contribute to the conceptual as well as empirical understanding of whether fathers' rights and use of parental leave can help bring about an egalitarian division of leave between mothers and fathers, often thought to be the foundation for gender equality....

  16. Plant pathogen-induced water-soaking promotes Salmonella enterica growth on tomato leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potnis, Neha; Colee, James; Jones, Jeffrey B; Barak, Jeri D

    2015-12-01

    Plant pathogen infection is a critical factor for the persistence of Salmonella enterica on plants. We investigated the mechanisms responsible for the persistence of S. enterica on diseased tomato plants by using four diverse bacterial spot Xanthomonas species that differ in disease severities. Xanthomonas euvesicatoria and X. gardneri infection fostered S. enterica growth, while X. perforans infection did not induce growth but supported the persistence of S. enterica. X. vesicatoria-infected leaves harbored S. enterica populations similar to those on healthy leaves. Growth of S. enterica was associated with extensive water-soaking and necrosis in X. euvesicatoria- and X. gardneri-infected plants. The contribution of water-soaking to the growth of S. enterica was corroborated by an increased growth of populations on water-saturated leaves in the absence of a plant pathogen. S. enterica aggregates were observed with bacterial spot lesions caused by either X. euvesicatoria or X. vesicatoria; however, more S. enterica aggregates formed on X. euvesicatoria-infected leaves as a result of larger lesion sizes per leaf area and extensive water-soaking. Sparsely distributed lesions caused by X. vesicatoria infection do not support the overall growth of S. enterica or aggregates in areas without lesions or water-soaking; S. enterica was observed as single cells and not aggregates. Thus, pathogen-induced water-soaking and necrosis allow S. enterica to replicate and proliferate on tomato leaves. The finding that the pathogen-induced virulence phenotype affects the fate of S. enterica populations in diseased plants suggests that targeting of plant pathogen disease is important in controlling S. enterica populations on plants. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Neuronal substrates underlying stress resilience and susceptibility in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabia Febbraro

    Full Text Available Stress and stressful life events have repeatedly been shown as causally related to depression. The Chronic Mild Stress rat model is a valid model of stress-induced depression. Like humans, rats display great heterogeneity in their response to stress and adversity. Hence some individuals are stress-sensitive and prone to develop depression-like behaviour in response to modest stressors, while others are stress-resilient and remain essentially symptom free.Compared to the large body of research, which describes stress-induced maladaptive neurobiological changes, relatively little attention has been devoted to understand resiliency to stress. The aim of the present study was to identify changes in neuronal activity, associated with stress-resilient and stress-susceptible chronic mild stress endophenotypes, by examining c-Fos expression in 13 different brain areas. Changes in c-Fos expression have been reported as associated to stressful conditions.Stress-induced modulation of neuronal activation patterns in response to the chronic mild stress paradigm was mapped using the immediate early gene expression c-Fos as a marker. Quantification of the c-Fos-like immunoreactivity responses was done by semi-automated profile counting procedures and design-based stereology.Exposure to chronic mild stress significantly altered c-Fos expression in a total of 6 out of 13 investigated areas. Chronic mild stress was found to suppress the c-Fos response within the magnocellular ventral lateral geniculate nucleus of both stress subgroups. In the the lateral and ventral orbital cortices of stress-resilient rats, the c-Fos like immunoreactivity response was also repressed by stress exposure. On the contrary the c-Fos response within the amygdala, medial habenula, and infralimbic cortex was increased selectively for the stress-susceptible rats.The study was initiated to characterize neuronal substrates associated with stress-coping mechanisms. Six areas, all of which

  18. Differential susceptibility in steelhead trout populations to an emergent MD strain of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyta, R.; Jones, Amelia; Kurath, Gael

    2014-01-01

    A significant emergence of trout-adapted MD subgroup infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) began in the coastal region of Washington State, USA, in 2007. This emergence event lasted until 2011 and caused both asymptomatic adult fish infection and symptomatic epidemic disease and mortality in juvenile fish. Incidence of virus during this emergence demonstrated a heterogeneous distribution among rivers of the coastal region, leaving fish populations of some rivers apparently untouched while others suffered significant and recurrent infection and mortality (Breyta et. al. 2013; Dis Aquat Org 104:179-195). In this study, we examined the possible contribution of variations in susceptibility of fish populations, age-related resistance, and virus virulence to the observed landscape heterogeneity. We found that the most significant variable was host susceptibility: by controlled experimental challenge studies steelhead trout populations with no history of IHNV infection were 1 to 3 orders of magnitude more sensitive than a fish population with a long history of IHNV infection. In addition, 2 fish populations from the same river, which descended relatively recently from a common ancestral population, demonstrated 1 to 2 orders of magnitude difference in susceptibility. Fish age-related development of resistance was most evident in the more susceptible of 2 related fish populations. Finally, the strain of virus involved in the 2007 coastal Washington emergence had high virulence but was within the range of other known M group viruses tested. These results suggest that one major driver of landscape heterogeneity in the 2007 coastal Washington IHNV emergence was variation in fish population susceptibility and that this trait may have a heritable component.

  19. Partial structural characterization of pectin cell wall from Argania spinosa leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Hachem, Kadda; Benabdesslem, Yasmina; Ghomari, Samia; Hasnaoui, Okkacha; Kaid-Harche, Meriem

    2016-01-01

    The pectin polysaccharides from leaves of Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels, collected from Stidia area in the west coast of northern Algeria, were investigated by using sequential extractions and the resulting fractions were analysed for monosaccharide composition and chemical structure. Water-soluble pectic (ALS-WSP) and chelating-soluble pectic (ALS-CSP) fractions were obtained, de-esterified and fractionated by anion-exchange chromatography and characterized by sugar analysis combined with meth...

  20. Chemodiversity of the Essential Oil from Leaves of Abies nebrodensis (Lojac.) Mattei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schicchi, Rosario; Geraci, Anna; Rosselli, Sergio; Maggio, Antonella; Bruno, Maurizio

    2017-02-01

    Abies nebrodensis (Lojac.) Mattei (Pinaceae) is a species occurring in a very small population only in a restricted area of Sicily. Its taxonomic classification as different species has been object of discussion. In this work the chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves is presented for the first time and compared to the essential oils from other euroasiatic species reported in literature. Peculiar characteristics of the essential oil of A. nebrodensis are highlighted. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.