WorldWideScience

Sample records for susceptible animal species

  1. Longevity of animals under reactive oxygen species stress and disease susceptibility due to global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paital, Biswaranjan; Panda, Sumana Kumari; Hati, Akshaya Kumar; Mohanty, Bobllina; Mohapatra, Manoj Kumar; Kanungo, Shyama; Chainy, Gagan Bihari Nityananda

    2016-01-01

    The world is projected to experience an approximate doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentration in the next decades. Rise in atmospheric CO2 level as one of the most important reasons is expected to contribute to raise the mean global temperature 1.4 °C-5.8 °C by that time. A survey from 128 countries speculates that global warming is primarily due to increase in atmospheric CO2 level that is produced mainly by anthropogenic activities. Exposure of animals to high environmental temperatures is mostly accompanied by unwanted acceleration of certain biochemical pathways in their cells. One of such examples is augmentation in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent increase in oxidation of lipids, proteins and nucleic acids by ROS. Increase in oxidation of biomolecules leads to a state called as oxidative stress (OS). Finally, the increase in OS condition induces abnormality in physiology of animals under elevated temperature. Exposure of animals to rise in habitat temperature is found to boost the metabolism of animals and a very strong and positive correlation exists between metabolism and levels of ROS and OS. Continuous induction of OS is negatively correlated with survivability and longevity and positively correlated with ageing in animals. Thus, it can be predicted that continuous exposure of animals to acute or gradual rise in habitat temperature due to global warming may induce OS, reduced survivability and longevity in animals in general and poikilotherms in particular. A positive correlation between metabolism and temperature in general and altered O2 consumption at elevated temperature in particular could also increase the risk of experiencing OS in homeotherms. Effects of global warming on longevity of animals through increased risk of protein misfolding and disease susceptibility due to OS as the cause or effects or both also cannot be ignored. Therefore, understanding the physiological impacts of global warming in relation to

  2. Longevity of animals under reactive oxygen species stress and disease susceptibility due to global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paital, Biswaranjan; Panda, Sumana Kumari; Hati, Akshaya Kumar; Mohanty, Bobllina; Mohapatra, Manoj Kumar; Kanungo, Shyama; Chainy, Gagan Bihari Nityananda

    2016-02-26

    The world is projected to experience an approximate doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentration in the next decades. Rise in atmospheric CO2 level as one of the most important reasons is expected to contribute to raise the mean global temperature 1.4 °C-5.8 °C by that time. A survey from 128 countries speculates that global warming is primarily due to increase in atmospheric CO2 level that is produced mainly by anthropogenic activities. Exposure of animals to high environmental temperatures is mostly accompanied by unwanted acceleration of certain biochemical pathways in their cells. One of such examples is augmentation in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent increase in oxidation of lipids, proteins and nucleic acids by ROS. Increase in oxidation of biomolecules leads to a state called as oxidative stress (OS). Finally, the increase in OS condition induces abnormality in physiology of animals under elevated temperature. Exposure of animals to rise in habitat temperature is found to boost the metabolism of animals and a very strong and positive correlation exists between metabolism and levels of ROS and OS. Continuous induction of OS is negatively correlated with survivability and longevity and positively correlated with ageing in animals. Thus, it can be predicted that continuous exposure of animals to acute or gradual rise in habitat temperature due to global warming may induce OS, reduced survivability and longevity in animals in general and poikilotherms in particular. A positive correlation between metabolism and temperature in general and altered O2 consumption at elevated temperature in particular could also increase the risk of experiencing OS in homeotherms. Effects of global warming on longevity of animals through increased risk of protein misfolding and disease susceptibility due to OS as the cause or effects or both also cannot be ignored. Therefore, understanding the physiological impacts of global warming in relation to

  3. Variable antibiotic susceptibility patterns among Streptomyces species causing actinomycetoma in man and animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Mohamed E

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug therapy is recommended in conjunction with surgery in treatment of actinomycetoma. The specific prescription depends on the type of bacteria (actinomycetoma or fungi (eumycetoma causing the disease and their in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility. Objectives To investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility among isolates of Streptomyces spp. isolated from cases of actinomycetoma in man and animals in Sudan. Methods Streptomyces strains (n = 18 isolated from cases of actinomycetoma were tested in vitro against 15 commonly prescribed antibacterial agents using MIC agar dilution method as per standard guidelines. Results Streptomyces strains isolated from actinomycetoma fall into various phenotypic groups. All of the strains were inhibited by novobiocin (8 μg/mL, gentamycin (8, 32 μg/mL and doxycycline (32 μg/mL. Fusidic acid (64 μg/mL inhibited 94.4% of the strains; bacitracin, streptomycin, cephaloridine, clindamycin, ampicillin, rifampicin and tetracycline (64 μg/mL inhibited between 61.1 and 77.8% of the strains. All strains were found resistant to amphotericin B (64 μg/mL, penicillin (20 μg/mL and sulphamethoxazole (64 μg/mL. Conclusions Saprophytic Streptomyces spp. cause actinomycetoma in man and animal belong to separate phenotypes and have a wide range of susceptibility patterns to antimicrobial agents, which pose a lot of difficulties in selecting effective in vivo treatment for actinomycetoma.

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens isolated from domestic and wild animal species in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto de Oliveira Júnior

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens is a microorganism commonly found in the microbiota of humans and animals and a potential cause of enteric, muscle or nervous diseases. The treatment of these diseases is based on antimicrobial therapy and it is extremely important to know the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the strains present in the region. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of C. perfringens isolated from domestic and wild animals in Brazil against seven different antimicrobials. Forty-one strains from the stool samples of cattle (n = 12, buffalo (n = 2, goat (n = 3, dogs (n = 12 and wild carnivores (n = 12 were examined. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by the agar dilution method using Brucella agar supplemented with 5% of sheep blood, 0.1% of vitamin K, 0.1% of hemin and concentrations ranging from 0,25 to 256,0 mg L-1 of the following antibiotics: erythromycin, florfenicol, metronidazole, oxytetracycline, penicillin, tylosin, and vancomycin. All C. perfringens strains were susceptible to florfenicol, metronidazole, penicillin and vancomycin. Two strains (4.9% were resistant to erythromycin and tylosin, while five (12.2% were resistant to oxytetracycline, one of which (2.4% from an ocelot.

  5. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of listeria species from ready-to-eat foods of animal origin in Gondar Town, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Garedew, Legesse; Taddese, Ayele; Biru, Tigist; Nigatu, Seleshe; Kebede, Elias; Ejo, Mebrat; Fikru, Abraham; Birhanu, Tamiru

    2015-01-01

    Background Listeriosis, mostly caused by Listeria monocytogenes species, has become a major concern to public health authorities due to its clinical severity and high mortality rate, particularly in high risk groups. Currently, there is limited information regarding the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of listeria species in ready-to-eat foods of animal origin in Gondar town, Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility p...

  6. Susceptibility of different bacterial species isolated from food animals to copper sulphate, zinc chloride and antimicrobial substances used for disinfection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Hasman, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    A total of 569 different bacterial isolates (156 Salmonella, 202 E. coli, 43 S. aureus, 38 S. hyicus, 52 E. faecalis, 78 E faecium) were tested for susceptibility to copper sulphate, benzalkonium chloride, hydrogen peroxide and chlorhexidine using MIC determinations. A total of 442 isolates were ...... bacterial species to these compounds, and Salmonella especially seems intrinsically less susceptible than the other bacterial species, which might have human health implications. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  7. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of listeria species from ready-to-eat foods of animal origin in Gondar Town, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garedew, Legesse; Taddese, Ayele; Biru, Tigist; Nigatu, Seleshe; Kebede, Elias; Ejo, Mebrat; Fikru, Abraham; Birhanu, Tamiru

    2015-05-12

    Listeriosis, mostly caused by Listeria monocytogenes species, has become a major concern to public health authorities due to its clinical severity and high mortality rate, particularly in high risk groups. Currently, there is limited information regarding the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of listeria species in ready-to-eat foods of animal origin in Gondar town, Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Listeria species isolated from ready-to-eat food of animal origin from public dinning places in Gondar town, Ethiopia. A cross sectional study on ready-toeat foods of animal origin sampled from major supermarkets, butcher shops, pastry shops, restaurants and hotels was carried out. Culture, biochemical and sugar tests were conducted for listeria species identification and disc diffusion test was performed to study the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of the isolates. Out of 384 food samples examined, 96 (25%) were positive for Listeria species. Listeria monocytogenes was detected in 24 (6.25%) of the samples. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from cake, raw meat, ice cream, minced beef, fish, unpasteurized milk and pizza in that order from higher to lower rate. Assessment of antimicrobial susceptibility profile of L. monocytogenes revealed the presence of four multi-drug resistant isolates. The higher resistance rate was recorded for penicillin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline and chloramphenicol, in decreasing order. All L. monocytogenes identified in the current study were sensitive to amoxicillin, cephalothin, cloxacillin, sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin and vancomycin. The presence of L. monocytogenes including drug resistant and multidrug resistant isolates in some ready-to-eat food items is an indicator of the presence of public health hazards to the consumer, particularly to the high-risk groups. Hence awareness creation on food safety and implementation of regulations

  8. Why do animals differ in their susceptibility to geometrical illusions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lynna C; Chouinard, Philippe A; Howell, Tiffani J; Bennett, Pauleen C

    2017-04-01

    In humans, geometrical illusions are thought to reflect mechanisms that are usually helpful for seeing the world in a predictable manner. These mechanisms deceive us given the right set of circumstances, correcting visual input where a correction is not necessary. Investigations of non-human animals' susceptibility to geometrical illusions have yielded contradictory results, suggesting that the underlying mechanisms with which animals see the world may differ across species. In this review, we first collate studies showing that different species are susceptible to specific illusions in the same or reverse direction as humans. Based on a careful assessment of these findings, we then propose several ecological and anatomical factors that may affect how a species perceives illusory stimuli. We also consider the usefulness of this information for determining whether sight in different species might be more similar to human sight, being influenced by contextual information, or to how machines process and transmit information as programmed. Future testing in animals could provide new theoretical insights by focusing on establishing dissociations between stimuli that may or may not alter perception in a particular species. This information could improve our understanding of the mechanisms behind illusions, but also provide insight into how sight is subjectively experienced by different animals, and the degree to which vision is innate versus acquired, which is difficult to examine in humans.

  9. Collective behaviour across animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLellis, Pietro; Polverino, Giovanni; Ustuner, Gozde; Abaid, Nicole; Macrì, Simone; Bollt, Erik M; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2014-01-16

    We posit a new geometric perspective to define, detect, and classify inherent patterns of collective behaviour across a variety of animal species. We show that machine learning techniques, and specifically the isometric mapping algorithm, allow the identification and interpretation of different types of collective behaviour in five social animal species. These results offer a first glimpse at the transformative potential of machine learning for ethology, similar to its impact on robotics, where it enabled robots to recognize objects and navigate the environment.

  10. Collective behaviour across animal species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delellis, Pietro; Polverino, Giovanni; Ustuner, Gozde; Abaid, Nicole; Macrì, Simone; Bollt, Erik M.; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    We posit a new geometric perspective to define, detect, and classify inherent patterns of collective behaviour across a variety of animal species. We show that machine learning techniques, and specifically the isometric mapping algorithm, allow the identification and interpretation of different types of collective behaviour in five social animal species. These results offer a first glimpse at the transformative potential of machine learning for ethology, similar to its impact on robotics, where it enabled robots to recognize objects and navigate the environment.

  11. antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of salmonella species in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Empirical treatment for enteric fevers should, therefore, be discouraged while quinolones, cefepime, carbapenem, azithromycin and third generation cephalosporins be given preference. KEY WORDS: Susceptibility, Antimicrobial, Salmonella species, Enteric fever. INTRODUCTION. In the 21st century, enteric fever in the.

  12. Antimicrobial susceptibility of staphylococci species from cow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus species isolated from foremilk samples. Setting: Milk was collected from five farms within a 70 km radius of Gaborone, Botswana. Subjects: Two hundred and twenty five staphylococci isolates from foremilk samples. Main outcome measures: ...

  13. Species identification and antifungal susceptibility pattern of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dalia Saad ElFeky

    2015-10-23

    Oct 23, 2015 ... Species identification and antifungal susceptibility pattern of Candida isolates in cases of vulvovaginal candidiasis. Dalia Saad ElFeky a,. *, Noha Mahmoud Gohar a. , Eman Ahmad El-Seidi a. ,. Mona Mahmoud Ezzat a. , Somaia Hassan AboElew b a Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, ...

  14. Sequence Alignment to Predict Across Species Susceptibility ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation of a molecular target across species can be used as a line-of-evidence to predict the likelihood of chemical susceptibility. The web-based Sequence Alignment to Predict Across Species Susceptibility (SeqAPASS) tool was developed to simplify, streamline, and quantitatively assess protein sequence/structural similarity across taxonomic groups as a means to predict relative intrinsic susceptibility. The intent of the tool is to allow for evaluation of any potential protein target, so it is amenable to variable degrees of protein characterization, depending on available information about the chemical/protein interaction and the molecular target itself. To allow for flexibility in the analysis, a layered strategy was adopted for the tool. The first level of the SeqAPASS analysis compares primary amino acid sequences to a query sequence, calculating a metric for sequence similarity (including detection of candidate orthologs), the second level evaluates sequence similarity within selected domains (e.g., ligand-binding domain, DNA binding domain), and the third level of analysis compares individual amino acid residue positions identified as being of importance for protein conformation and/or ligand binding upon chemical perturbation. Each level of the SeqAPASS analysis provides increasing evidence to apply toward rapid, screening-level assessments of probable cross species susceptibility. Such analyses can support prioritization of chemicals for further ev

  15. Lactobacillus species: taxonomic complexity and controversial susceptibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Ellie J C; Tyrrell, Kerin L; Citron, Diane M

    2015-05-15

    The genus Lactobacillus is a taxonomically complex and is composed of over 170 species that cannot be easily differentiated phenotypically and often require molecular identification. Although they are part of the normal human gastrointestinal and vaginal flora, they can also be occasional human pathogens. They are extensively used in a variety of commercial products including probiotics. Their antimicrobial susceptibilities are poorly defined in part because of their taxonomic complexity and are compounded by the different methods recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute and International Dairy Foundation. Their use as probiotics for prevention of Clostridium difficile infection is prevalent among consumers worldwide but raises the question of will the use of any concurrent antibiotic effect their ability to survive. Lactobacillus species are generally acid resistant and are able to survive ingestion. They are generally resistant to metronidazole, aminoglycosides and ciprofloxacin with L. acidophilus being susceptible to penicillin and vancomycin, whereas L. rhamnosus and L. casei are resistant to metronidazole and vancomycin. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Understanding Adolescents’ Categorisation of Animal Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Connor

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Categorisations are a means of investigating cognitive maps. The present study, for the first time, investigates adolescents’ spontaneous categorisation of 34 animal species. Furthermore, explicit evaluations of 16 selected animals in terms of their perceived utility and likeability were analysed. 105 British adolescents, 54% female, mean age 14.5 (SD = 1.6 participated in the study. Results of multidimensional scaling (MDS techniques indicate 3-dimensional data representation regardless of gender or age. Property fittings show that affect and perceived utility of animals explain two of the MDS dimensions, and hence partly explain adolescents’ categorisation. Additionally, hierarchical cluster analyses show a differentiation between farm animals, birds, pet animals, and wild animals possibly explaining MDS dimension 3. The results suggest that utility perceptions predominantly underlie adolescents’ categorisations and become even more dominant in older adolescents, which potentially has an influence on attitudes to animals with implications for animal welfare, conservation, and education.

  17. Caspofungin Etest susceptibility testing of Candida species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Pfaller, Michael A; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of caspofungin Etest and the recently revised CLSI breakpoints. A total of 497 blood isolates, of which 496 were wild-type isolates, were included. A total of 65/496 susceptible isolates (13.1%) were misclassified as intermediate (I) or re...

  18. Antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial species identified from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twelve different antibiotics were used against bacterial species to record their sensitivity. The antibiotics were amikacin, amoxicillin, ampicillin, cephalexin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, gentamycin, kanamycin, neomycin, ofloxacin, sulphamethoxazole trimethoprim and tetracycline. The species that showed sensitivity to ...

  19. Susceptibility levels of Rhododendron species and hybrids to Phytophthora ramorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabelle De Dobbelaere; Kurt Heungens; Martine Maes

    2006-01-01

    Until now there has been little scientific information available about the susceptibility of different Rhododendron species and cultivars to Phytophthora ramorum. However, growers could use this knowledge as part of their control strategy. In our susceptibility screening we first optimized different inoculation methods on stem and...

  20. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Listeria species isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antimicrobial susceptibility profile of L. monocytogenes and other Listeria species isolated from some ready-to-eat (RTE) foods sold in Kano metropolis, north-western Nigeria was carried out using disc-diffusion method. The results obtained showed that L. monocytogenes was moderately susceptible to all the ...

  1. Antibiotic susceptibilities of Salmonella species prevalent among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of Salmonella species among children having diarrhea in Katsina State, Nigeria. A total of 220 diarrhea stool samples of children aged five years and below (0-5 years) were collected and screened for Salmonella species using culture technique. Presumptively positive ...

  2. Species identification and antifungal susceptibility pattern of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) remains one of the most common infections of the female genital tract. Correct identification of the isolated Candida species is essential to direct the empirical antifungal therapy. Objectives: This local study was conducted to identify the spectrum of Candida species associated with VVC using ...

  3. Species distribution and antifungal susceptibility profile of Candida ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 51 isolates of Candida species were recovered from 122 urine samples. Candida albicans was the most prevalent species 41.2% (21 isolates), followed by C. parapsilosis (27.5%), C. glabrata (17.6%), C. krusei (7.8%) and C. tropicalis (5.9%). Antifungal susceptibility test indicated that 100% and 96.1% of the ...

  4. Pigmentary switches in domestic animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klungland, H; Vage, D I

    2003-06-01

    Although homogeneous pigmentation usually is observed in wild animals, most domestic animal species display a wide variety of coat colors. In fur animals, the coat color is an important production trait, and in other species such as cattle and sheep, the coat color is a major breed characteristic. Variability in coat color is seen both within and between breeds, and makes domesticated species unique for studying gene function and gene regulation of loci affecting pigmentation. In several species, mutations in the MC1-R gene have been shown to cause the dominant expression of black pigment. In fox, alleles of both the agouti and the MC1-R gene could cause eumelanin synthesis. In addition, a nonepistatic interaction between MC1-R and agouti has been observed, resulting in several different coat color phenotypes expressing a mixture of red and black pigmentation. Also in cattle and sheep, amino acid substitutions within the MC1-R explain the dominant inheritance of black pigmentation. Unlike the constitutively activated MC1-R found in the Alaska silver fox, dominant variants of the MC1-R found in cattle and sheep seem to be completely dominant with no antagonizing effect of agouti. MC1-R variants with premature stop codons are widespread in several cattle populations, indicating that this well-conserved gene has no other fundamental function beside pigmentation. Other well-established breed characteristics include distinct coat color patterns in which the distribution of melanocytes, partly regulated by the c-kit gene, seems to be involved.

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibilities and clinical sources of Facklamia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaClaire, L; Facklam, R

    2000-08-01

    Facklamia spp. are gram-positive cocci, arranged in short chains or diplos, and resemble viridans streptococci on 5% sheep blood agar. Eighteen strains representing four species of Facklamia were isolated from blood cultures, an abscess, bone, cerebrospinal fluid, gall bladder, vaginal swab, and one unknown source. Cultures were tested against 15 antimicrobial agents by using the broth microdilution MIC method. Reduced susceptibilities to the beta lactams, erythromycin, clindamycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline were found. These results indicate that the susceptibilities of the Facklamia species are varied and that some strains have resistance patterns which may present difficulty in managing systemic infections in patients.

  6. Antifungal susceptibility and test for cure of candida species among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to determine the antifungal susceptibility pattern and test for cure of Candida species among women of child bearing age who visited the General Hospital Onitsha, Nigeria with symptoms suggestive of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis (VVC). Materials and Methods: Eight hundred and seventy six female ...

  7. The Impact of Fusarium Mycotoxins on Human and Animal Host Susceptibility to Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonissen, Gunther; Martel, An; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Verbrugghe, Elin; Vandenbroucke, Virginie; Li, Shaoji; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Van Immerseel, Filip; Croubels, Siska

    2014-01-01

    Contamination of food and feed with mycotoxins is a worldwide problem. At present, acute mycotoxicosis caused by high doses is rare in humans and animals. Ingestion of low to moderate amounts of Fusarium mycotoxins is common and generally does not result in obvious intoxication. However, these low amounts may impair intestinal health, immune function and/or pathogen fitness, resulting in altered host pathogen interactions and thus a different outcome of infection. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge about the impact of Fusarium mycotoxin exposure on human and animal host susceptibility to infectious diseases. On the one hand, exposure to deoxynivalenol and other Fusarium mycotoxins generally exacerbates infections with parasites, bacteria and viruses across a wide range of animal host species. Well-known examples include coccidiosis in poultry, salmonellosis in pigs and mice, colibacillosis in pigs, necrotic enteritis in poultry, enteric septicemia of catfish, swine respiratory disease, aspergillosis in poultry and rabbits, reovirus infection in mice and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus infection in pigs. However, on the other hand, T-2 toxin has been shown to markedly decrease the colonization capacity of Salmonella in the pig intestine. Although the impact of the exposure of humans to Fusarium toxins on infectious diseases is less well known, extrapolation from animal models suggests possible exacerbation of, for instance, colibacillosis and salmonellosis in humans, as well. PMID:24476707

  8. Economic Valuation of Wild Animal Species in Odeda Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on economic values of wild animal species was conducted to investigate the species of animals commonly hunted and the respondents' willingness to pay (WTP) for conservation of the wild animals. The study was conducted at Odeda Local government area of Ogun state, Nigeria. Two hundred (200) structured ...

  9. Public decisions on animal species : does body size matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegtering, Edo; van der Windt, Henny J.; Schoot Uiterkamp, Anton J. M.

    Systematic knowledge about factors affecting the willingness of societies to conserve biodiversity is still scarce. This study investigates the role of body size in national decisions on wild animal species by analysing the average body sizes of the animal species subject to species-specific

  10. Susceptibility of domestic animals to a pseudotype virus bearing RD-114 virus envelope protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaho, Rie Nakaoka; Nakagawa, So; Hashimoto-Gotoh, Akira; Nakaya, Yuki; Shimode, Sayumi; Sakaguchi, Shoichi; Yoshikawa, Rokusuke; Takahashi, Mahoko Ueda; Miyazawa, Takayuki

    2015-08-10

    Retroviral vectors are used for gene transduction into cells and have been applied to gene therapy. Retroviral vectors using envelope protein (Env) of RD-114 virus, a feline endogenous retrovirus, have been used for gene transduction. In this study, we investigated the susceptibility to RD-114 Env-pseudotyped virus in twelve domestic animals including cattle, sheep, horse, pig, dog, cat, ferret, mink, rabbit, rat, mouse, and quail. Comparison of nucleotide sequences of ASCT2 (SLC1A5), a receptor of RD-114 virus, in 10 mammalian and 2 avian species revealed that insertion and deletion events at the region C of ASCT2 where RD-114 viral Env interacts occurred independently in the mouse and rat lineage and in the chicken and quail lineage. By the pseudotype virus infection assay, we found that RD-114 Env-pseudotyped virus could efficiently infect all cell lines except those from mouse and rat. Furthermore, we confirmed that bovine ASCT2 (bASCT2) functions as a receptor for RD-114 virus infection. We also investigated bASCT2 mRNA expression in cattle tissues and found that it is expressed in various tissues including lung, spleen and kidney. These results indicate that retrovirus vectors with RD-114 virus Env can be used for gene therapy in large domestic animals in addition to companion animals such as cat and dog. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Salmonella species and serotypes isolated from farm animals, animal feed, sewage, and sludge in Saudi Arabia*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabbut, N. H.; Barbour, E. K.; Al-Nakhli, H. M.

    1982-01-01

    A total of 264 salmonellae representing 65 different species and serotypes were isolated for the first time in Saudi Arabia, from various animal species, animal feed, sewage, and sludge. The six most frequently isolated Salmonella species or serotypes were: livingstone, concord, “S. schottmuelleri” (invalid), lille, S. typhimurium, and cerro. PMID:6983931

  12. Species Identification, Strain Differentiation, and Antifungal Susceptibility of Dermatophyte Species Isolated From Clinically Infected Arabian Horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Damaty, Hend M; Tartor, Yasmine H; Mahmmod, Yasser Saadeldien Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Arabian horses, the eldest equine breeds, have great economic and social significance for its long, unique, and storied history. Molecular characterization of dermatophyte species affecting Arabian horses is a crucial necessity for epidemiologic and therapeutic purposes. The objective of this study...... was to identify and differentiate isolates of dermatophytes isolated from naturally infected Arabian horses at species and strains levels using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and DNA sequencing. Additionally, antifungal susceptibility testing using broth microdilution method was performed...

  13. Biobanking genetic material for agricultural animal species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biobanking animal germplasm and tissues is a major component of conserving genetic resources. Effectively constructing such gene banks requires an understanding and evaluation of genetic resources, the ability to conserve various tissues through cryopreservation, and a robust information technology ...

  14. Species distribution and susceptibility profile of Candida species in a Brazilian public tertiary hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montelli Augusto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Species identification and antifungal susceptibility tests were carried out on 212 Candida isolates obtained from bloodstream infections, urinary tract infections and dialysis-associated peritonitis, from cases attended at a Brazilian public tertiary hospital from January 1998 to January 2005. Findings Candida albicans represented 33% of the isolates, Candida parapsilosis 31.1%, Candida tropicalis 17.9%,Candida glabrata 11.8%, and others species 6.2%. In blood culture, C. parapsilosis was the most frequently encountered species (48%. The resistance levels to the antifungal azoles were relatively low for the several species, except for C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. Amphotericin B resistance was observed in 1 isolate of C. parapsilosis. Conclusions The species distribution and antifungal susceptibility herein observed presented several epidemiological features common to other tertiary hospitals in Latin American countries. It also exhibited some peculiarity, such as a very high frequency of C. parapsilosis both in bloodstream infections and dialysis-associated peritonitis. C. albicans also occurred in an important number of case infections, in all evaluated clinical sources. C. glabrata presented a high proportion of resistant isolates. The data emphasize the necessity to carry out the correct species identification accompanied by the susceptibility tests in all tertiary hospitals.

  15. Terrestrial animals as invasive species and as species at risk from invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Dean Pearson; Joseph Wunderle; Wayne Arendt

    2010-01-01

    Including terrestrial animal species in the invasive species strategy plan is an important step in invasive species management. Invasions by nonindigenous species threaten nearly 50 percent of imperiled native species in the United States and are the Nation's second leading cause of species endangerment. Invasion and conversion of native habitats by exotic species...

  16. Ocular infections caused by Candida species: Type of species, in vitro susceptibility and treatment outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S R Motukupally

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report clinical and microbiological profile of patients with ocular candidiasis. Materials and Methods: Patients with ocular candidiasis were retrospectively identified from microbiology records. Significant isolates of Candida species were identified by Vitek 2 compact system. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of antifungal agents such as amphotericin B, itraconazole, voriconazole, fluconazole and caspofungin was determined by E test and of natamycin by microbroth dilution assay. Data on treatment and outcome were collected from medical records. Results: A total of 42 isolates of Candida were isolated from patients with keratitis-29, endophthalmitis-12 and orbital cellulitis-1. The most common species isolated was Candida albicans (12-keratitis, 4-endophthalmitis, 1-orbital cellulitis. All except one isolate were susceptible to amphotericin B. MIC of caspofungin was in the susceptible range in 28 (96.5% corneal isolates while 12 out of 29 (41.3% corneal isolates were sensitive to fluconazole. Resistance to voriconazole was seen in four corneal isolates. All isolates were susceptible to natamycin and all except two isolates were resistant or susceptible dose-dependent to itraconazole. Outcome of healed ulcer was achieved in 12/18 (66.6% patients treated medically, while surgical intervention was required in 11 patients. Among the isolates from endophthalmitis patients, 11/12 were susceptible to amphotericin B, 6/12 to voriconazole and all to natamycin. Ten out of 11 patients (one patient required evisceration with endophthalmitis were given intravitreal amphotericin B injection with variable outcome. Conclusions: Ocular candidiasis needs early and specific treatment for optimal results. Candida species continue to be susceptible to most commonly available antifungals including amphotericin B, voriconazole and natamycin.

  17. [Candidemia in Pediatrics: Species distribution and antifungal susceptibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzetti, Luciana B; Vescina, Cecilia M; Gil, M Florencia; Gatti, Blanca M

    2017-07-19

    Serious infections caused by Candida yeasts are frequent in the hospital population. Due to differences in species distribution and antifungal susceptibility testing depending on the geographic area and the type of patient, it is important to study the epidemiology of each institution. For this purpose, we conducted a retrospective, descriptive study on the occurrence of candidemia in the Children's Hospital "Superiora Sor María Ludovica" of the city of La Plata. In a 6-year period (2010-2015), 177 candidemia episodes were recorded. The predominant species were Candida albicans (45%) and Candida parapsilosis (28%). The hospital wards with the highest number of candidemia episodes were the pediatric, neonatal and cardiovascular intensive care units (58%). No resistance to amphotericin B was observed throughout the period whereas resistance to azoles was limited to 4 strains of less frequent species. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Species distribution and antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp. isolated from superficial candidiasis in outpatients in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaghi-Abyaneh, M; Sadeghi, G; Zeinali, E; Alirezaee, M; Shams-Ghahfarokhi, M; Amani, A; Mirahmadi, R; Tolouei, R

    2014-06-01

    Candidiasis is the most prevalent fungal infection affecting human and animals all over the world. This study represents the epidemiological aspects of superficial candidiasis in outpatients and in vitro antifungal susceptibility of etiologic Candida species. Clinical samples were taken from 173 patients including skin and nail scrapings (107; 61.8%), vaginal discharge (28; 16.2%), sputum (20; 11.6%), oral swabs (7; 4.0%), bronchoalveolar lavage (6; 3.5%) and 1 specimen (0.6%) of each eye tumor, gastric juice, urine, biopsy and urinary catheter and confirmed as candidiasis by direct microscopy, culture and histopathology. Susceptibility patterns of the isolated Candida species were determined using the disk diffusion and broth microdilution methods. Among 173 Candida isolates, C. albicans (72.3%) was the most prevalent species followed by C. parapsilosis (11.5%). Other identified species were C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. guilliermondii, C. intermedia and C. sake. Majority of the Candida isolates were susceptible to fluconazole (95.4%) followed by 5-flucytosine (89.6%), voriconazole (78.6%) itraconazole (48.0%) and ketoconazole (42.8%). Caspofungin was the most potent antifungal drug against C. albicans (MICs; 0.062-1 μg/mL), ketoconazole for C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis (MICs; 0.031-0.25 μg/mL) and itraconazole for C. krusei, C. glabrata and C. guilliermondii (MICs; 0.031-1 μg/mL). This study reinforces the significance of superficial candidiasis as an important fungal infection with multiple clinical presentations. Our results further indicate that susceptibility testing to commonly used antifungals is crucial in order to select the appropriate therapeutic strategies which minimize complications while improving patients' life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Species identity cues in animal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ord, Terry J; Stamps, Judy A

    2009-10-01

    Researchers have suggested that animals should respond more strongly to conspecific than to heterospecific communication signals used in territorial or courtship contexts. We tested this prediction by reviewing studies that appeared in six prominent journals over the past 10 years. A meta-analysis based on these empirical studies revealed that overall support for this hypothesis was weaker than anticipated. To help clarify the extent to which experimental design might contribute to equivocal findings, we performed playback experiments in the field, using robotic lizards. We examined whether male tropical lizards, Anolis gundlachi, responded more strongly to robots producing conspecific territorial advertisement displays than to robots producing equivalent displays of a novel heterospecific. Although this experiment was conducted under natural conditions in the field, at signaler-receiver distances typical for animals at this locality, and with high statistical power, we found that lizards responded just as aggressively to a simulated rival performing a display they had never seen before as to the same rival performing a conspecific display. Our findings suggest that predicting how animals will respond to conspecific versus heterospecific signals is more complicated than has generally been anticipated.

  20. Threatened and Endangered Terrestrial Animal Species Richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    These data represent predicted current distributions of all U.S. listed threatened and endangered mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians in the Middle-Atlantic region. The data are available for both 8-digit HUCs and EMAP hexagons and represent total species counts for each spatial unit. More information about these resources, including the variables used in this study, may be found here: https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/NERL/ReVA/ReVA_Data.zip.

  1. Endurance Exercise Training Reduces Cardiac Sodium/Calcium Exchanger Expression in Animals Susceptible to Ventricular Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica eKukielka

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Increased sodium/calcium exchanger activity (NCX1, an important regulator of cardiomyocyte cystolic calcium may provoke arrhythmias. Exercise training can decrease NCX1 expression in animals with heart failure improving cytosolic calcium regulation, and could thereby reduce the risk for ventricular fibrillation (VF. Methods: To test this hypothesis, a 2-min coronary occlusion was made during the last min. of exercise in dogs with healed myocardial infarctions; 23 had VF (S, susceptible and 13 did not (R, resistant. The animals were randomly assigned to either 10-wk exercise training (progressively increasing treadmill running (S n = 9; R n = 8 or 10-wk sedentary (S n = 14; R n = 5 groups. At the end of the 10-wk period, the exercise + ischemia test provoked VF in sedentary but not trained susceptible dogs. On a subsequent day, cardiac tissue was harvested and NCX1 protein expression was determined by Western blot. Results: In the sedentary group, NCX1 expression was significantly (ANOVA, P<0.05 higher in susceptible compared to resistant dogs. In contrast, NCX1 levels were similar in the exercise trained resistant and susceptible animals. Conclusion: These data suggest that exercise training can restore a more normal NCX1 level in dogs susceptible to ventricular fibrillation, improving cystolic calcium regulation and could thereby reduce the risk for sudden death following myocardial infarction.

  2. VT Biodiversity Project - Plant and Animal Species Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This database contains town-level totals of documented species records for several plant and animal taxa including vascular plants, trees,...

  3. Rotavirus in various animal species in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Rotaviruses have a wide host range, infecting many animal species as well as humans. The segmented nature of the genome suggests that rotaviruses are able to form new strains by a mechanism of reassortment. Animal rotaviruses are regarded as a potential reservoir for genetic diversity of human rotaviruses.

  4. Use of animal species data in environmental impact assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegtering, E; Drees, JM; Geertsema, P; Huitema, HJ; Uiterkamp, AJMS; Huitema, Hans J.; Schoot Uiterkamp, Anton J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) should ideally help minimize adverse effects on biological diversity by considering impacts of projects on wide ranges of species. This paper investigates how recent Dutch EIAs included the species comprising animal diversity. We present results of two studies

  5. Detection of Different DNA Animal Species in Commercial Candy Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Colmenero, Marta; Martínez, Jose Luis; Roca, Agustín; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2016-03-01

    Candy products are consumed all across the world, but there is not much information about their composition. In this study we have used a DNA-based approach for determining the animal species occurring in 40 commercial candies of different types. We extracted DNA and performed PCR amplification, cloning and sequencing for obtaining species-informative DNA sequences. Eight species were identified including fish (hake and anchovy) in 22% of the products analyzed. Bovine and porcine were the most abundant appearing in 27 samples each one. Most products contained a mixture of species. Marshmallows (7), jelly-types, and gummies (20) contained a significantly higher number of species than hard candies (9). We demonstrated the presence of DNA animal species in candy product which allow consumers to make choices and prevent allergic reaction. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Use of animal species data in environmental impact assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Knegtering, E; Drees, JM; Geertsema, P; Huitema, HJ; Uiterkamp, AJMS; Huitema, Hans J.; Schoot Uiterkamp, Anton J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) should ideally help minimize adverse effects on biological diversity by considering impacts of projects on wide ranges of species. This paper investigates how recent Dutch EIAs included the species comprising animal diversity. We present results of two studies on fauna data used in the EIAs. Objectives were to determine for different taxa (a) the relative representation of species in Environmental Impact Statements (EISs); (b) the extent to which EISs r...

  7. Phylogeny of the clinically relevant species of the emerging fungus Trichoderma and their antifungal susceptibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Denis, Marcelo; Sutton, Deanna A; Cano-Lira, José F; Gené, Josepa; Fothergill, Annette W; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Guarro, Josep

    2014-06-01

    A set of 73 isolates of the emerging fungus Trichoderma isolated from human and animal clinical specimens were characterized morphologically and molecularly using a multilocus sequence analysis that included the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the nuclear ribosomal DNA and fragments of the translation elongation factor 1 alpha (Tef1), endochitinase CHI18-5 (Chi18-5), and actin 1 (Act1) genes. The most frequent species was Trichoderma longibrachiatum (26%), followed by Trichoderma citrinoviride (18%), the Hypocrea lixii/Trichoderma harzianum species complex (15%), the newly described species Trichoderma bissettii (12%), and Trichoderma orientale (11%). The most common anatomical sites of isolation in human clinical specimens were the respiratory tract (40%), followed by deep tissue (30%) and superficial tissues (26%), while all the animal-associated isolates were obtained from superficial tissue samples. Susceptibilities of the isolates to eight antifungal drugs in vitro showed mostly high MICs, except for voriconazole and the echinocandins. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Reduced noise susceptibility in littermate offspring from heterozygous animals of the German waltzing guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjönsberg, Åsa; Mannström, Paula

    2015-07-08

    The German waltzing guinea pig is a spontaneously mutated strain with severe auditory and vestibular impairment caused by a so far unknown genetic mutation. The animals are born deaf and show a circling behavior. The heterozygote animals of this guinea pig strain have functionally normal hearing and balance. However, these animals have, in earlier studies, shown an increased resistance to noise compared with normal wild-type guinea pigs. In the present study, we explored the functional hearing with auditory brainstem response thresholds before and at different time points after noise exposure. Symptom-free littermates from heterozygote couples of the German waltzing guinea pigs were exclusively used for the study, which, after the hearing test, were sent back for breeding to confirm their genotype (i.e. heterozygote or normal). The aim of this paper was to ascertain that the previously shown reduced susceptibility to noise trauma in the heterozygote animals of the German waltzing guinea pig was also evident when littermates were used as control animals. The findings are important for further analysis of the heterozygote animals of this strain and for future investigations of the underlying mechanisms behind the diverse susceptibility to exposures of loud sound.

  9. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium difficile isolated from animals and humans in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility in Clostridium difficile strains isolated from animals and humans in Brazil. The 54 C. difficile strains used were isolated from stool samples from piglets (n=16, dogs (n=13, humans (n=13, foals (n=8 calves (n=2, an ocelot (n=1 and a maned wolf (n=1. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using the serial plate agar dilution method for penicillin, florfenicol, oxytetracycline, erythromycin, vancomycin, metronidazole and tylosin. The C. difficile strains assessed were susceptible to metronidazole and vancomycin. Florfenicol resistance was rarely observed; 52 (96.4% strains were sensitive to this antimicrobial. Five (9.3%, five (9.3%, 14 (25.9% and 20 (37.0% strains were resistant to oxytetracycline, penicillin, tylosin and erythromycin respectively.

  10. Taxonomy and antifungal susceptibility of clinically important Rasamsonia species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houbraken, J.; Giraud, S.; Meijer, M.

    2013-01-01

    reported clinical isolates from animal or human patients. Susceptibility tests showed that the antifungal susceptibility profiles of the four members of the R. argillacea complex are similar, and caspofungin showed significant activity in vitro, followed by amphotericin B and posaconazole. Voriconazole...

  11. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bordetella bronchiseptica Isolates from Swine and Companion Animals and Detection of Resistance Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Prüller

    Full Text Available Bordetella bronchiseptica causes infections of the respiratory tract in swine and other mammals and is a precursor for secondary infections with Pasteurella multocida. Treatment of B. bronchiseptica infections is conducted primarily with antimicrobial agents. Therefore it is essential to get an overview of the susceptibility status of these bacteria. The aim of this study was to comparatively analyse broth microdilution susceptibility testing according to CLSI recommendations with an incubation time of 16 to 20 hours and a longer incubation time of 24 hours, as recently proposed to obtain more homogenous MICs. Susceptibility testing against a panel of 22 antimicrobial agents and two fixed combinations was performed with 107 porcine isolates from different farms and regions in Germany and 43 isolates obtained from companion animals in Germany and other European countries. Isolates with increased MICs were investigated by PCR assays for the presence of resistance genes. For ampicillin, all 107 porcine isolates were classified as resistant, whereas only a single isolate was resistant to florfenicol. All isolates obtained from companion animals showed elevated MICs for β-lactam antibiotics and demonstrated an overall low susceptibility to cephalosporines. Extension of the incubation time resulted in 1-2 dilution steps higher MIC50 values of porcine isolates for seven antimicrobial agents tested, while isolates from companion animals exhibited twofold higher MIC50/90 values only for tetracycline and cefotaxime. For three antimicrobial agents, lower MIC50 and MIC90 values were detected for both, porcine and companion animal isolates. Among the 150 isolates tested, the resistance genes blaBOR-1 (n = 147, blaOXA-2, (n = 4, strA and strB (n = 17, sul1 (n = 10, sul2 (n = 73, dfrA7 (n = 3 and tet(A (n = 8 were detected and a plasmid localisation was identified for several of the resistance genes.

  12. Species belonging to the "Streptococcus milleri" group: antimicrobial susceptibility and comparative prevalence in significant clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantar, C; Fernandez Canigia, L; Relloso, S; Lanza, A; Bianchini, H; Smayevsky, J

    1996-01-01

    The association between the three species belonging to the "Streptococcus milleri" group and different sites of isolation was examined for 73 successive strains recovered from clinically significant, purulent infections. Susceptibility testing was performed on 64 of these strains. The present study supports the association of particular species with different clinical sources. Susceptibility data suggest that emerging penicillin resistance among Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus intermedius isolates may represent a potential clinical problem in the therapeutic management of infections caused by these species. PMID:8818904

  13. EVALUATION OF VITEK 2 SYSTEM FOR CLINICAL IDENTIFICATION OF CANDIDA SPECIES AND THEIR ANTIFUNGAL SUSCEPTIBILITY TEST

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan; Ram Murugan

    2016-01-01

    BJECTIVES 1. To evaluate the Vitek 2 system for clinical identification of Candida species and their antifungal susceptibility test; 2. To study the incidence of various types of Candida species in this part of Tamilnadu. METHODS Samples collected from different wards were subjected for culture, isolation and identification of Candida Species and Antifungal Susceptibility testing by Vitek System. Vitek 2 test was carried out in Apollo Specialty Hospital Lab Services, Madurai....

  14. Induced pluripotent stem cell technology and aquatic animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temkin, Alexis M; Spyropoulos, Demetri D

    2014-06-01

    Aquatic animal species are the overall leaders in the scientific investigation of tough but important global health issues, including environmental toxicants and climate change. Historically, aquatic animal species also stand at the forefront of experimental biology, embryology and stem cell research. Over the past decade, intensive and high-powered investigations principally involving mouse and human cells have brought the generation and study of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to a level that facilitates widespread use in a spectrum of species. A review of key features of these investigations is presented here as a primer for the use of iPSC technology to enhance ongoing aquatic animal species studies. iPSC and other cutting edge technologies create the potential to study individuals from "the wild" closer to the level of investigation applied to sophisticated inbred mouse models. A wide variety of surveys and hypothesis-driven investigations can be envisioned using this new capability, including comparisons of organism-specific development and exposure response and the testing of fundamental dogmas established using inbred mice. However, with these new capabilities, also come new criteria for rigorous baseline assessments and testing. Both the methods for inducing pluripotency and the source material can negatively impact iPSC quality and bourgeoning applications. Therefore, more rigorous strategies not required for inbred mouse models will have to be implemented to approach global health issues using individuals from "the wild" for aquatic animal species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetic predictions of prion disease susceptibility in carnivore species based on variability of the prion gene coding region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Stewart

    Full Text Available Mammalian species vary widely in their apparent susceptibility to prion diseases. For example, several felid species developed prion disease (feline spongiform encephalopathy or FSE during the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE epidemic in the United Kingdom, whereas no canine BSE cases were detected. Whether either of these or other groups of carnivore species can contract other prion diseases (e.g. chronic wasting disease or CWD remains an open question. Variation in the host-encoded prion protein (PrP(C largely explains observed disease susceptibility patterns within ruminant species, and may explain interspecies differences in susceptibility as well. We sequenced and compared the open reading frame of the PRNP gene encoding PrP(C protein from 609 animal samples comprising 29 species from 22 genera of the Order Carnivora; amongst these samples were 15 FSE cases. Our analysis revealed that FSE cases did not encode an identifiable disease-associated PrP polymorphism. However, all canid PrPs contained aspartic acid or glutamic acid at codon 163 which we propose provides a genetic basis for observed susceptibility differences between canids and felids. Among other carnivores studied, wolverine (Gulo gulo and pine marten (Martes martes were the only non-canid species to also express PrP-Asp163, which may impact on their prion diseases susceptibility. Populations of black bear (Ursus americanus and mountain lion (Puma concolor from Colorado showed little genetic variation in the PrP protein and no variants likely to be highly resistant to prions in general, suggesting that strain differences between BSE and CWD prions also may contribute to the limited apparent host range of the latter.

  16. Genetic predictions of prion disease susceptibility in carnivore species based on variability of the prion gene coding region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Paula; Campbell, Lauren; Skogtvedt, Susan; Griffin, Karen A; Arnemo, Jon M; Tryland, Morten; Girling, Simon; Miller, Michael W; Tranulis, Michael A; Goldmann, Wilfred

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian species vary widely in their apparent susceptibility to prion diseases. For example, several felid species developed prion disease (feline spongiform encephalopathy or FSE) during the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic in the United Kingdom, whereas no canine BSE cases were detected. Whether either of these or other groups of carnivore species can contract other prion diseases (e.g. chronic wasting disease or CWD) remains an open question. Variation in the host-encoded prion protein (PrP(C)) largely explains observed disease susceptibility patterns within ruminant species, and may explain interspecies differences in susceptibility as well. We sequenced and compared the open reading frame of the PRNP gene encoding PrP(C) protein from 609 animal samples comprising 29 species from 22 genera of the Order Carnivora; amongst these samples were 15 FSE cases. Our analysis revealed that FSE cases did not encode an identifiable disease-associated PrP polymorphism. However, all canid PrPs contained aspartic acid or glutamic acid at codon 163 which we propose provides a genetic basis for observed susceptibility differences between canids and felids. Among other carnivores studied, wolverine (Gulo gulo) and pine marten (Martes martes) were the only non-canid species to also express PrP-Asp163, which may impact on their prion diseases susceptibility. Populations of black bear (Ursus americanus) and mountain lion (Puma concolor) from Colorado showed little genetic variation in the PrP protein and no variants likely to be highly resistant to prions in general, suggesting that strain differences between BSE and CWD prions also may contribute to the limited apparent host range of the latter.

  17. Ethical and Animal Welfare Considerations in Relation to Species Selection for Animal Experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, John

    2014-12-03

    Ethical principles governing the conduct of experiments with animals are reviewed, especially those relating to the choice of species. Legislation requires that the potential harm to animals arising from any procedure should be assessed in advance and justified in terms of its possible benefit to society. Potential harms may arise both from the procedures and the quality of the animals' lifetime experience. The conventional approach to species selection is to use animals with the "lowest degree of neurophysiological sensitivity". However; this concept should be applied with extreme caution in the light of new knowledge. The capacity to experience pain may be similar in mammals, birds and fish. The capacity to suffer from fear is governed more by sentience than cognitive ability, so it cannot be assumed that rodents or farm animals suffer less than dogs or primates. I suggest that it is unethical to base the choice of species for animal experimentation simply on the basis that it will cause less distress within society. A set of responsibilities is outlined for each category of moral agent. These include regulators, operators directly concerned with the conduct of scientific experiments and toxicology trials, veterinarians and animal care staff; and society at large.

  18. Fauna Europaea - all European animal species on the web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Y.; Verbeek, M.; Michelsen, V.; De Place Bjørn, P.; Los, W.; Steeman, F.; Bailly, N.; Basire, C.; Chylarecki, P.; Stloukal, E.; Hagedorn, G.; Wetzel, F.T.; Glöckler, F.; Kroupa, A.; Korb, G.; Hoffmann, A.; Häuser, C.; Kohlbecker, A.; Müller, A.; Güntsch, A.; Stoev, P.; Penev, L.

    2014-01-01

    Fauna Europaea is Europe's main zoological taxonomic index, making the scientific names and distributions of all living, currently known, multicellular, European land and freshwater animals species integrally available in one authoritative database. Fauna Europaea covers about 260,000 taxon names,

  19. Ethical and Animal Welfare Considerations in Relation to Species Selection for Animal Experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Webster

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethical principles governing the conduct of experiments with animals are reviewed, especially those relating to the choice of species. Legislation requires that the potential harm to animals arising from any procedure should be assessed in advance and justified in terms of its possible benefit to society. Potential harms may arise both from the procedures and the quality of the animals’ lifetime experience. The conventional approach to species selection is to use animals with the “lowest degree of neurophysiological sensitivity”. However; this concept should be applied with extreme caution in the light of new knowledge. The capacity to experience pain may be similar in mammals, birds and fish. The capacity to suffer from fear is governed more by sentience than cognitive ability, so it cannot be assumed that rodents or farm animals suffer less than dogs or primates. I suggest that it is unethical to base the choice of species for animal experimentation simply on the basis that it will cause less distress within society. A set of responsibilities is outlined for each category of moral agent. These include regulators, operators directly concerned with the conduct of scientific experiments and toxicology trials, veterinarians and animal care staff; and society at large.

  20. Domestic animals as carriers of Bordetella species in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngom, Abdoulaye; Boulanger, Denis; Ndiaye, Tofène; Mboup, Souleymane; Bada-Alambedji, Rianatou; Simondon, François; Ayih-Akakpo, Ayayi Justin

    2006-01-01

    Despite intense efforts to maintain a high level of vaccine coverage against human whooping cough, rural senegalese areas are still endemic for Bordetella pertussis. One explanation being the potential existence of animal reservoirs, the objective of this work was to precise the carriage by domestic animals of bacteria belonging to the genus Bordetella in Senegal. Bacteriological samples (swabs and aspirates) were obtained from various domestic animals living in different parts of the country. No B. pertussis nor B. parapertussis were isolated. However, for the first time to our knowledge, B. bronchiseptica was identified from small ruminants located in Africa. The positive animals were two goats and two sheep from Dakar slaughterhouse together with a goat living in a rural compound. The fact that it was identified in goats and sheep underlines the potential zoonotic of that bacterial species in countries where small ruminants are of economical and cultural relevance.

  1. Sex differences in PTSD resilience and susceptibility: Challenges for animal models of fear learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Shansky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available PTSD occurs in only a small fraction of trauma-exposed individuals, but risk is twice as high in women as in men. The neurobiological basis for this discrepancy is not known, but the identification of biological determinants of resilience and susceptibility in each sex could lead to more targeted preventions and treatments. Animal models are a useful tool for dissecting the circuits and mechanisms that underlie the brain's response to stress, but the vast majority of this work has been developed and conducted in males. The limited work that does incorporate female animals is often inconsistent across labs and does not broadly reflect human populations in terms of female susceptibility to PTSD-like behaviors. In this review, we suggest that interpreting male vs. female comparisons in these models be approached carefully, since common behavioral outcome measures may in fact reflect distinct neural processes. Moreover, since the factors that determine resilience and susceptibility are likely at least in part distinct in men and women, models that take a within-sex approach to response variability may be more useful in identifying critical mechanisms for manipulation.

  2. In vitro susceptibility patterns of clinically important Trichophyton and Epidermophyton species against nine antifungal drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badali, Hamid; Mohammadi, Rasoul; Mashedi, Olga; de Hoog, G Sybren; Meis, Jacques F

    Despite the common, worldwide, occurrence of dermatophytes, little information is available regarding susceptibility profiles against currently available and novel antifungal agents. A collection of sixty-eight clinical Trichophyton species and Epidermophyton floccosum were previously identified and

  3. Comparative susceptibility of five species of Toxorhynchites mosquitoes to parenteral infection with dengue and other flaviviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, L; Shroyer, D A

    1985-07-01

    Five species of colonized Toxorhynchites mosquitoes were compared for relative susceptibility to parenteral infection with the four dengue serotypes and St. Louis and Japanese encephalitis viruses. Tx. amboinensis, Tx. brevipalpis, Tx. rutilus, and Tx. splendens were equally susceptible to infection with the dengue viruses, while Tx. theobaldi was relatively resistant to infection with those viruses. All five mosquito species were equally susceptible to infection with the encephalitis viruses. The intensity of immunofluorescence in head squashes was slightly less in Tx. brevipalpis infected with the dengue viruses as compared to the other three mosquito species susceptible to those viruses. Immunofluorescence was also less in Tx. theobaldi infected with the encephalitis viruses as compared with all the other mosquito species.

  4. Species identification of processed animal proteins (PAPs) in animal feed containing feed materials from animal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axmann, Sonja; Adler, Andreas; Brandstettner, Agnes Josephine; Spadinger, Gabriela; Weiss, Roland; Strnad, Irmengard

    2015-01-01

    Since June 2013 the total feed ban of processed animal proteins (PAPs) was partially lifted. Now it is possible to mix fish feed with PAPs from non-ruminants (pig and poultry). To guarantee that fish feed, which contains non-ruminant PAPs, is free of ruminant PAPs, it has to be analysed with a ruminant PCR assay to comply with the total ban of feeding PAPs from ruminants. However, PCR analysis cannot distinguish between ruminant DNA, which originates from proteins such as muscle and bones, and ruminant DNA, which comes from feed materials of animal origin such as milk products or fat. Thus, there is the risk of obtaining positive ruminant PCR signals based on these materials. The paper describes the development of the combination of two analysis methods, micro-dissection and PCR, to eliminate the problem of 'false-positive' PCR signals. With micro-dissection, single particles can be isolated and subsequently analysed with PCR.

  5. Mass spectrometry and animal science: protein identification strategies and particularities of farm animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Renata; Franco, Catarina; Pires, Elisabete; Ventosa, Miguel; Palhinhas, Rui; Koci, Kamila; Martinho de Almeida, André; Varela Coelho, Ana

    2012-07-19

    Proteomic approaches are gaining increasing importance in the context of all fields of animal and veterinary sciences, including physiology, productive characterization, and disease/parasite tolerance, among others. Proteomic studies mainly aim the proteome characterization of a certain organ, tissue, cell type or organism, either in a specific condition or comparing protein differential expression within two or more selected situations. Due to the high complexity of samples, usually total protein extracts, proteomics relies heavily on separation procedures, being 2D-electrophoresis and HPLC the most common, as well as on protein identification using mass spectrometry (MS) based methodologies. Despite the increasing importance of MS in the context of animal and veterinary science studies, the usefulness of such tools is still poorly perceived by the animal science community. This is primarily due to the limited knowledge on mass spectrometry by animal scientists. Additionally, confidence and success in protein identification is hindered by the lack of information in public databases for most of farm animal species and their pathogens, with the exception of cattle (Bos taurus), pig (Sus scrofa) and chicken (Gallus gallus). In this article, we will briefly summarize the main methodologies available for protein identification using mass spectrometry providing a case study of specific applications in the field of animal science. We will also address the difficulties inherent to protein identification using MS, with particular reference to experiments using animal species poorly described in public databases. Additionally, we will suggest strategies to increase the rate of successful identifications when working with farm animal species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The nuclear question: rethinking species importance in multi-species animal groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Umesh; Raza, Rashid Hasnain; Quader, Suhel

    2010-09-01

    1. Animals group for various benefits, and may form either simple single-species groups, or more complex multi-species associations. Multi-species groups are thought to provide anti-predator and foraging benefits to participant individuals. 2. Despite detailed studies on multi-species animal groups, the importance of species in group initiation and maintenance is still rated qualitatively as 'nuclear' (maintaining groups) or 'attendant' (species following nuclear species) based on species-specific traits. This overly simplifies and limits understanding of inherently complex associations, and is biologically unrealistic, because species roles in multi-species groups are: (i) likely to be context-specific and not simply a fixed species property, and (ii) much more variable than this dichotomy indicates. 3. We propose a new view of species importance (measured as number of inter-species associations), along a continuum from 'most nuclear' to 'least nuclear'. Using mixed-species bird flocks from a tropical rainforest in India as an example, we derive inter-species association measures from randomizations on bird species abundance data (which takes into account species 'availability') and data on 86 mixed-species flocks from two different flock types. Our results show that the number and average strength of inter-species associations covary positively, and we argue that species with many, strong associations are the most nuclear. 4. From our data, group size and foraging method are ecological and behavioural traits of species that best explain nuclearity in mixed-species bird flocks. Parallels have been observed in multi-species fish shoals, in which group size and foraging method, as well as diet, have been shown to correlate with nuclearity. Further, the context in which multi-species groups occur, in conjunction with species-specific traits, influences the role played by a species in a multi-species group, and this highlights the importance of extrinsic factors in

  7. Methods for broth dilution susceptibility testing of bacteria isolated from aquatic animals; approved guideline-second edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antimicrobial susceptibility testing is recommended to determine which antimicrobial agents should be considered for treating a bacterial pathogen. Many bacteria that cause disease in aquatic animals require growth conditions that vary substantially from routine terrestrial pathogens. It has thus ...

  8. Expression Systems and Species Used for Transgenic Animal Bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transgenic animal bioreactors can produce therapeutic proteins with high value for pharmaceutical use. In this paper, we compared different systems capable of producing therapeutic proteins (bacteria, mammalian cells, transgenic plants, and transgenic animals and found that transgenic animals were potentially ideal bioreactors for the synthesis of pharmaceutical protein complexes. Compared with other transgenic animal expression systems (egg white, blood, urine, seminal plasma, and silkworm cocoon, the mammary glands of transgenic animals have enormous potential. Compared with other mammalian species (pig, goat, sheep, and cow that are currently being studied as bioreactors, rabbits offer many advantages: high fertility, easy generation of transgenic founders and offspring, insensitivity to prion diseases, relatively high milk production, and no transmission of severe diseases to humans. Noticeably, for a small- or medium-sized facility, the rabbit system is ideal to produce up to 50 kg of protein per year, considering both economical and hygienic aspects; rabbits are attractive candidates for the mammary-gland-specific expression of recombinant proteins. We also reviewed recombinant proteins that have been produced by targeted expression in the mammary glands of rabbits and discussed the limitations of transgenic animal bioreactors.

  9. Expression systems and species used for transgenic animal bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanli; Zhao, Sihai; Bai, Liang; Fan, Jianglin; Liu, Enqi

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic animal bioreactors can produce therapeutic proteins with high value for pharmaceutical use. In this paper, we compared different systems capable of producing therapeutic proteins (bacteria, mammalian cells, transgenic plants, and transgenic animals) and found that transgenic animals were potentially ideal bioreactors for the synthesis of pharmaceutical protein complexes. Compared with other transgenic animal expression systems (egg white, blood, urine, seminal plasma, and silkworm cocoon), the mammary glands of transgenic animals have enormous potential. Compared with other mammalian species (pig, goat, sheep, and cow) that are currently being studied as bioreactors, rabbits offer many advantages: high fertility, easy generation of transgenic founders and offspring, insensitivity to prion diseases, relatively high milk production, and no transmission of severe diseases to humans. Noticeably, for a small- or medium-sized facility, the rabbit system is ideal to produce up to 50 kg of protein per year, considering both economical and hygienic aspects; rabbits are attractive candidates for the mammary-gland-specific expression of recombinant proteins. We also reviewed recombinant proteins that have been produced by targeted expression in the mammary glands of rabbits and discussed the limitations of transgenic animal bioreactors.

  10. Catalogue of alien animal species in the Czech Republic

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    Hana Šefrová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The catalogue of alien animal species registered in the Czech Republic, with data on their origin, date on the first observation, way of introduction (accidental, deliberate, spontaneous, invasive status (casual, non-invasive, post-invasive, invasive, habitat (eusynanthropic, urban, agricultural, natural, trophic requirements and possible influences (plant or stored-product pest, biodiversity influence. In total 595 species are listed, i.e. 1.8% of the fauna of this country; of these, 22 species of molluscs (8.8% of the local fauna, 451 spp. of arthropods (1.5%, 383 spp. of insects (1.4%, and 55 spp. of vertebrates (9.2%. Among the registered species, 248 spp. (41.8% are confined to closed and heated spaces by their occurrence, and 287 spp. have become naturalized (48.2%. Of these 113 spp. are considered invasive (19% of alien spp.. 65 spp. (10.9% of aliens are pests of stored products, 84 spp. (14.1% are parasites of important animals, 53 spp. (8.9% are pests of plants grown in heated rooms (above all, glasshouses, 28 ssp. (4.7% are agricultural or forest pests, and 39 spp. (6.6% may influence local biodiversity. The origin of the naturalized alien species is mostly in North America (70; 24.4%, the Mediterranean (61; 21.3%, E Asia (44; 15.4%, Central and SW Asia (43; 15%, and S or SE Asia (30; 10.5%.

  11. Zoonotic Cryptosporidium Species in Animals Inhabiting Sydney Water Catchments.

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    Alireza Zahedi

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium is one of the most common zoonotic waterborne parasitic diseases worldwide and represents a major public health concern of water utilities in developed nations. As animals in catchments can shed human-infectious Cryptosporidium oocysts, determining the potential role of animals in dissemination of zoonotic Cryptosporidium to drinking water sources is crucial. In the present study, a total of 952 animal faecal samples from four dominant species (kangaroos, rabbits, cattle and sheep inhabiting Sydney's drinking water catchments were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium using a quantitative PCR (qPCR and positives sequenced at multiple loci. Cryptosporidium species were detected in 3.6% (21/576 of kangaroos, 7.0% (10/142 of cattle, 2.3% (3/128 of sheep and 13.2% (14/106 of rabbit samples screened. Sequence analysis of a region of the 18S rRNA locus identified C. macropodum and C. hominis in 4 and 17 isolates from kangaroos respectively, C. hominis and C. parvum in 6 and 4 isolates respectively each from cattle, C. ubiquitum in 3 isolates from sheep and C. cuniculus in 14 isolates from rabbits. All the Cryptosporidium species identified were zoonotic species with the exception of C. macropodum. Subtyping using the 5' half of gp60 identified C. hominis IbA10G2 (n = 12 and IdA15G1 (n = 2 in kangaroo faecal samples; C. hominis IbA10G2 (n = 4 and C. parvum IIaA18G3R1 (n = 4 in cattle faecal samples, C. ubiquitum subtype XIIa (n = 1 in sheep and C. cuniculus VbA23 (n = 9 in rabbits. Additional analysis of a subset of samples using primers targeting conserved regions of the MIC1 gene and the 3' end of gp60 suggests that the C. hominis detected in these animals represent substantial variants that failed to amplify as expected. The significance of this finding requires further investigation but might be reflective of the ability of this C. hominis variant to infect animals. The finding of zoonotic Cryptosporidium species in these

  12. Phylogeny, diagnostics and antifungal susceptibility of clinically relevant Fusarium species

    OpenAIRE

    Al Hatmi, A.M.S.

    2016-01-01

    During the last decades, human infections by Fusarium species (Fungi) have shown global increase, both in immunocompromised and in immunocompetent patients. These infections can be classified in four classes: (1) superficial infections of skin and nails, (2) keratitis of the cornea, and (3) deep localized and (4) disseminated infections. In this PhD project we addressed some of the major problems connected to human fusarioses. (1) We first identified and delimited the species that are etiolog...

  13. Fauna Europaea - all European animal species on the web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Jong, Yde; Verbeek, Melina; Michelsen, Verner

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Fauna Europaea is Europe's main zoological taxonomic index, making the scientific names and distributions of all living, currently known, multicellular, European land and freshwater animals species integrally available in one authoritative database. Fauna Europaea covers about 260...... and provides a unique taxonomic reference for many user-groups such as scientists, governments, industries, nature conservation communities and educational programs. Fauna Europaea was formally accepted as an INSPIRE standard for Europe, as part of the European Taxonomic Backbone established in PESI. Fauna...

  14. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Brachyspira Species Isolated from Swine Herds in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirajkar, Nandita S; Davies, Peter R; Gebhart, Connie J

    2016-08-01

    Outbreaks of swine dysentery, caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and the recently discovered "Brachyspira hampsonii," have reoccurred in North American swine herds since the late 2000s. Additionally, multiple Brachyspira species have been increasingly isolated by North American diagnostic laboratories. In Europe, the reliance on antimicrobial therapy for control of swine dysentery has been followed by reports of antimicrobial resistance over time. The objectives of our study were to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility trends of four Brachyspira species originating from U.S. swine herds and to investigate their associations with the bacterial species, genotypes, and epidemiological origins of the isolates. We evaluated the susceptibility of B. hyodysenteriae, B. hampsonii, Brachyspira pilosicoli, and Brachyspira murdochii to tiamulin, valnemulin, doxycycline, lincomycin, and tylosin by broth microdilution and that to carbadox by agar dilution. In general, Brachyspira species showed high susceptibility to tiamulin, valnemulin, and carbadox, heterogeneous susceptibility to doxycycline, and low susceptibility to lincomycin and tylosin. A trend of decreasing antimicrobial susceptibility by species was observed (B. hampsonii > B. hyodysenteriae > B. murdochii > B. pilosicoli). In general, Brachyspira isolates from the United States were more susceptible to these antimicrobials than were isolates from other countries. Decreased antimicrobial susceptibility was associated with the genotype, stage of production, and production system from which the isolate originated, which highlights the roles of biosecurity and husbandry in disease prevention and control. Finally, this study also highlights the urgent need for Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute-approved clinical breakpoints for Brachyspira species, to facilitate informed therapeutic and control strategies. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Do parasitic trematode cercariae demonstrate a preference for susceptible host species?

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    Brittany F Sears

    Full Text Available Many parasites are motile and exhibit behavioural preferences for certain host species. Because hosts can vary in their susceptibility to infections, parasites might benefit from preferentially detecting and infecting the most susceptible host, but this mechanistic hypothesis for host-choice has rarely been tested. We evaluated whether cercariae (larval trematode parasites prefer the most susceptible host species by simultaneously presenting cercariae with four species of tadpole hosts. Cercariae consistently preferred hosts in the following order: Anaxyrus ( = Bufo terrestris (southern toad, Hyla squirella (squirrel tree frog, Lithobates ( = Rana sphenocephala (southern leopard frog, and Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban tree frog. These host species varied in susceptibility to cercariae in an order similar to their attractiveness with a correlation that approached significance. Host attractiveness to parasites also varied consistently and significantly among individuals within a host species. If heritable, this individual-level host variation would represent the raw material upon which selection could act, which could promote a Red Queen "arms race" between host cues and parasite detection of those cues. If, in general, motile parasites prefer to infect the most susceptible host species, this phenomenon could explain aggregated distributions of parasites among hosts and contribute to parasite transmission rates and the evolution of virulence. Parasite preferences for hosts belie the common assumption of disease models that parasites seek and infect hosts at random.

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Acinetobacter species isolated from infected wounds at a tertiary care hospital

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    Rosić Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria of the genus Acinetobacter, especially species Acinetobacter baumanii, is one of the most important causes of infection in immunocompromised patients in hospital. The aim of this study was to determine susceptibility of Acinetobacter species isolated from swabs of inflamed wounds to antibiotics. The study was conducted in several departments of the Clinical Centre 'Kragujevac' through retrospective analysis of 220 Acinetobacter species isolates from surgical wounds in 2011. The isolates of Acinetobaster species were mostly sensitive to ampicillin-sulbactam, colistin and tigecycline in all hospital departments that were surveyed. Only minority of the isolated Acinetobacter species were susceptible to cotrimoxazole, amikacin, imipenem and/or meropenem. Antibiotics with the highest in vitro efficacy against Acinetobacter species were ampicillinsulbactam, colistin and tigecycline. Highly resistant Acinetobacter species were more frequently isolated from patients in Intensive Care Unit.

  17. prevalence and antifungal susceptibility of candida species isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    19, 48.7%), Can- dida glabrata (n=7, 17.9%), Candida tropicalis (n=4, 10.3%) and Candida dubliniensis (n=4,. 10.3%). Other species isolated were Candida sake (n=2, 5.1%), Candida krusei (n=2, 5.1%) and. Candida parapsilosis (n=1, 2.6%).

  18. Woody species susceptibility to forest herbicides applied by ground machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    James H. Miller; M. Boyd Edwards

    1996-01-01

    Abstract. This study used a simple approach of post-treatment observations to colleot data on hexbicide effectiveness for common southeastern hardwoods and shrub species, and for loblolly pine. Both site preparation and release herbicides labeled for loblolly pine were examiued.

  19. Phylogeny, diagnostics and antifungal susceptibility of clinically relevant Fusarium species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Hatmi, A.M.S.

    2016-01-01

    During the last decades, human infections by Fusarium species (Fungi) have shown global increase, both in immunocompromised and in immunocompetent patients. These infections can be classified in four classes: (1) superficial infections of skin and nails, (2) keratitis of the cornea, and (3) deep

  20. Identification and antifungal susceptibility of Candida species isolated from bloodstream infections in Konya, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagi, Hatice Turk; Findik, Duygu; Senkeles, Cigdem; Arslan, Ugur

    2016-05-31

    In this study, our aim was to identify Candida species isolated from bloodstream infections and to determine their susceptibilities to various antifungal agents to demonstrate the local resistance profiles and to guide empirical treatment for clinicians. Two hundred Candida isolates (95 Candida albicans, 105 non-albicans Candida strains) were included in the study. Candida species were identified by conventional, biochemical and molecular methods. Antifungal susceptibility tests for amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, caspofungin and anidulafungin were performed with broth microdilution method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M27-A3 document. Of the 200 Candida strains, the most prevalent species were C. albicans (47.5 %), Candida glabrata (18.0 %) and Candida parapsilosis complex (14.0 %). All Candida species except for three (1.5 %) Candida kefyr strains were susceptible to amphotericin B. Only one (2.8 %) C. glabrata was resistant to fluconazole (MIC ≥ 64 μg/ml), and the others (97.2 %) exhibited dose-dependent susceptibility. All species, but C. glabrata strains, were susceptible to fluconazole. Resistance to voriconazole, posaconazole, caspofungin and anidulafungin was not detected in any strain. Candida albicans were susceptible to all antifungal drugs. Three C. kefyr strains were resistant to amphotericin B. Only one C. glabrata was resistant to fluconazole. All the strains were susceptible to voriconazole, posaconazole, caspofungin and anidulafungin. In vitro antifungal susceptibility tests should be performed to select of appropriate and effective antifungal therapy, and monitor the development of resistance.

  1. Epidemiology of candidemia and antifungal susceptibility in invasive Candida species in the Asia-Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, He; Xu, Ying-Chun; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2016-10-01

    In the Asia-Pacific region, Candida albicans is the predominant Candida species causing invasive candidiasis/candidemia in Australia, Japan, Korea, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand whereas C. tropicalis is the most frequently encountered Candida species in Pakistan and India. Invasive isolates of C. albicans, C. parapsilosis complex and C. tropicalis remain highly susceptible to fluconazole (>90% susceptible). Fluconazole resistance (6.8-15%), isolates with the non-wild-type phenotype for itraconazole susceptibility (3.9-10%) and voriconazole (5-17.8%), and echinocandin resistance (2.1-2.2% in anidulafungin and 2.2% in micafungin) among invasive C. glabrata complex isolates are increasing in prevalence. Moreover, not all isolates of C. tropicalis have been shown to be susceptible to fluconazole (nonsusceptible rate, 5.7-11.6% in China) or voriconazole (nonsusceptible rate, 5.7-9.6% in China).

  2. Genetic diversity and antimicrobial susceptibility of Nocardia species among patients with nocardiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi-Shahraki, Abodolrazagh; Heidarieh, Parvin; Bostanabad, Saeed Zaker; Hashemzadeh, Mohamad; Feizabadi, Mohamad Mehdi; Schraufnagel, Dean; Mirsaeidi, Mehdi

    2015-12-07

    The aim of this multicenter study was to determine the genetic diversity and antibiotic susceptibility of clinically isolated Nocardia species. One hundred twenty-seven patients with nocardiosis were randomly selected from 5 provinces of Iran. Molecular diagnosis of Nocardia species was performed using multilocus sequence analysis of gyrase B of the β subunit of DNA topoisomerase (gyrB), and 16S rRNA and subunit A of SecA preproteintranslocase (secA1). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed following the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations. Thirty-five N. cyriacigeorgica, 30 N. asteroides, 26 N. farcinica, 12 N. otitidiscaviarum, and 10 N. abscessus cultures were studied. All isolates were susceptible to linezolid. All isolates of N. cyriacigeorgica, N. asteroides, N. abscessus, and N. otitidiscaviarum were susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, while 8% of N. farcinica isolates were resistant to this drug. All N. otitidiscaviarum isolates were highly resistant to imipenem, but N. cyriacigeorgica, N. asteroides, N. farcinica, and N. abscessus were only moderate resistant. The susceptibility patterns vary with different species of Nocardia. Resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in Iran is low and this drug should be first line therapy, unless drug susceptibility testing shows resistance. Linezolid also covers Nocardia well and could be a second line agent.

  3. Species distribution & antifungal susceptibility pattern of oropharyngeal Candida isolates from human immunodeficiency virus infected individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Pratim Das

    2016-01-01

    Results: From the 59 culture positive HIV seropositive cases, 61 Candida isolates were recovered; Candidaalbicans (n=47, 77.0%, C. dubliniensis (n=9, 14.7%, C. parapsilosis (n=2, 3.2%, C. glabrata (n=2, 3.2%, and C. famata (n=1, 1.6%. Candida colonization in HIV-seropositive individuals was significantly higher than that of HIV-seronegative (control group. Antifungal susceptibility testing revealed (n=6, 9.3% C. albicans isolates resistant to voriconazole and fluconazole by disk-diffusion method whereas no resistance was seen by Fungitest method. Interpretation & conclusions: C. albicans was the commonest Candida species infecting or colonizing HIV seropositive individuals. Oropharyngeal Candida isolates had high level susceptibility to all the major antifungals commonly in use. Increased level of immunosuppression in HIV-seropositives and drug resistance of non-albicans Candida species makes identification and susceptibility testing of Candida species necessary in different geographical areas of the country.

  4. Chronic effects of an invasive species on an animal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doody, J Sean; Rhind, David; Green, Brian; Castellano, Christina; McHenry, Colin; Clulow, Simon

    2017-08-01

    Invasive species can trigger trophic cascades in animal communities, but published cases involving their removal of top predators are extremely rare. An exception is the invasive cane toad (Rhinella marina) in Australia, which has caused severe population declines in monitor lizards, triggering trophic cascades that facilitated dramatic and sometimes unexpected increases in several prey of the predators, including smaller lizards, snakes, turtles, crocodiles, and birds. Persistence of isolated populations of these predators with a decades-long sympatry with toads suggests the possibility of recovery, but alternative explanations are possible. Confirming predator recovery requires longer-term study of populations with both baseline and immediate post-invasion densities. Previously, we quantified short-term impacts of invasive cane toads on animal communities over seven years at two sites in tropical Australia. Herein, we test the hypothesis that predators have begun to recover by repeating the study 12 yr after the initial toad invasion. The three predatory lizards that experienced 71-97% declines in the short-term study showed no sign of recovery, and indeed a worse fate: two of the three species were no longer detectable in 630 km of river surveys, suggesting local extirpation. Two mesopredators that had increased markedly in the short term due to these predator losses showed diverse responses in the medium term; a small lizard species increased by ~500%, while populations of a snake species showed little change. Our results indicate a system still in ecological turmoil, having not yet reached a "new equilibrium" more than a decade after the initial invasion; predator losses due to this toxic invasive species, and thus downstream effects, were not transient. Given that cane toads have proven too prolific to eradicate or control, we suggest that recovery of impacted predators must occur unassisted by evolutionary means: dispersal into extinction sites from

  5. Susceptibility of species within the Sporothrix schenckii complex to a panel of killer yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopiglia, Cheila Denise Ottonelli; Heidrich, Daiane; Sorrentino, Julia Medeiros; Vieira, Fabiane Jamono; Landell, Melissa Fontes; Valente, Patrícia; Scroferneker, Maria Lúcia

    2014-06-01

    The Sporothrix schenckii complex is the etiologic agent of sporotrichosis, a subacute or chronic mycosis which can affect humans and animals. Killer yeasts have been used in the medical field for development of novel antimycotics and biotyping of pathogenic fungi. The action of 18 killer yeasts on the growth of 88 characterized S. schenckii, Sporothrix globosa, Sporothrix brasiliensis, and Sporothrix mexicana clinical and environmental isolates was evaluated. Killer studies were performed on Petri dishes containing cheese black starch agar. The yeasts Candida catenulata (QU26, QU31, QU127, LV102); Trichosporon faecale (QU100); Trichosporon japonicum (QU139); Kluyveromyces lactis (QU30, QU99, QU73); Kazachstania unispora (QU49), Trichosporon insectorum (QU89), and Kluyveromyces marxianus (QU103) showed activity against all strains of the S. schenckii complex tested. Observation by optical microscopy of S. brasiliensis 61 within the inhibition haloes around the colonies of the killer yeasts QU100, QU139, and LV102 showed that there was no conidiation, but there was hyphal proliferation. The toxins were fungistatic against S. brasiliensis 61. There was no difference in susceptibility to the toxins among the S. schenckii species complex. Further investigations are necessary to clearly establish the mechanism of action of the toxins. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Histological features of oral epithelium in seven animal species: As a reference for selecting animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Guoliang; Xiong, Xuepeng; Wu, Tianfu; Yang, Jincheng; He, Sangang; Zhao, Yifang

    2016-01-01

    Several animals have been used as models for basic and clinical research on oral mucosa. Few studies have focused on the selection of an appropriate animal model. This study aimed to provide histological references for selecting a potential model. Histological features were assessed by exploring 6 morphological characteristics and 2 immunohistochemical markers. The morphological characteristics included keratinization, basal membrane appearance, epithelial thickness, rete ridge length, adjacent rete ridge distance, and regional variation; the immunohistochemical markers included Ki67 (a proliferative marker) and Cytokeratin 19 (CK19; a stemness marker). The histological similarity of each species compared to humans was calculated according to the designated scoring criteria. The results showed that the buccal mucosae from dog and pig were non-keratinized, with similar rete ridge length and distance, compared to that of humans. The dog, rat, and cavy mucosae had analogous gross appearances in the basal membrane. The dog oral mucosae shared similar epithelial thickness with human oral mucosae. Compared to the human mucosa, the dog, pig, rat, and rabbit mucosae exhibited corresponding regional variations. The Ki67-positive cells in human and canine mucosae were predominantly localized in the suprabasal layers, whereas most of the proliferative cells were in the basal layer in other species. CK19 immunoreactivities were detected only in human and canine mucosae. The canine mucosae gained the highest point value (14), whereas the scores for the pig, rat, rabbit, cavy, sheep, and buffalo mucosae were 8, 6, 5, 5, 5, and 2, respectively. The histological variations in the oral epithelium of diverse animal species are considerable; the mucosae from dogs are most similar to human mucosae, implicating its histological basis as an animal model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Acremonium species: new emerging fungal opportunists--in vitro antifungal susceptibilities and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarro, J; Gams, W; Pujol, I; Gené, J

    1997-11-01

    We provide an overview of opportunistic fungal infections caused by Acremonium (Cephalosporium) species and discuss the classification of these species as well as the diagnosis and treatment of acremonium infections. We used a microdilution broth method to compare in vitro susceptibilities and minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum fungicidal concentrations of amphotericin B, miconazole, itraconazole, 5-fluorocytosine, fluconazole, and ketoconazole for 33 clinical and environmental isolates of Acremonium. In general, the isolates tested displayed little susceptibility to the antifungals tested. Fluconazole and 5-fluorocytosine were ineffective in all cases. The efficacy of the remaining drugs was dependent on the strain. Amphotericin B showed the best results.

  8. Migratory status is not related to the susceptibility to HPAIV H5N1 in an insectivorous passerine species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donata Kalthoff

    Full Text Available Migratory birds have evolved elaborate physiological adaptations to travelling, the implications for their susceptibility to avian influenza are however unknown. Three groups of stonechats (Saxicola torquata from (I strongly migrating, (II weakly migrating and (III non-migrating populations were experimentally infected with HPAIV H5N1. The different bird groups of this insectivorous passerine species were infected in autumn, when the migrating populations clearly exhibit migratory restlessness. Following infection, all animals succumbed to the disease from 3 through 7 days post inoculation. Viral shedding, antigen distribution in tissues, and survival time did not differ between the three populations. However, notably, endothelial tropism of the HPAIV infection was exclusively seen in the group of resident birds. In conclusion, our data document for the first time the high susceptibility of an insectivorous passerine species to H5N1 infection, and the epidemiological role of these passerine birds is probably limited due to their high sensitivity to HPAIV H5N1 infection. Despite pronounced inherited differences in migratory status, the groups were generally indistinguishable in their susceptibility, survival time, clinical symptoms and viral shedding. Nevertheless, the migratory status partly influenced pathogenesis in the way of viral tropism.

  9. Species distribution and antifungal susceptibility profile of Candida isolates from bloodstream infections in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, B; Martins, M A; Bonfietti, L X; Szeszs, M W; Jacobs, J; Garcia, C; Melhem, M S C

    2014-06-01

    Yeast identification and in vitro susceptibility testing provide helpful information for appropriate administration of antifungal treatments; however, few reports from the Latin American region have been published. The aim of this study was to identify the species present in isolates from bloodstream infections diagnosed in nine hospitals in Lima, Peru and to determine their in vitro susceptibility to four antifungal drugs. We tested and identified 153 isolates collected between October 2009 and August 2011 using standard methods. PCR and PCR-RFLP assays were performed to distinguish Candida albicans from Candida dubliniensis and to identify species of the Candida parapsilosis and Candida glabrata complexes. Antifungal susceptibility testing for fluconazole, anidulafungin and voriconazole was performed using the CSLI M27-A3 method, and amphotericin B susceptibility was determined using the Etest method. The most frequently isolated species were: C. albicans (61; 39.9 %), C. parapsilosis (43; 28.1 %), C. tropicalis (36; 23.5%) and C. glabrata (8; 5.2 %). The overall susceptibility rates were 98.0 %, 98.7 %, 98.0 % and 97.4 % for amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole and anidulafungin, respectively. No isolate was resistant to more than one drug. These results showed that the rate of resistance to four antifungal drugs was low among Candida bloodstream isolates in Lima, Peru. © 2014 The Authors.

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibility among clinical Nocardia species identified by multilocus sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTaggart, Lisa R; Doucet, Jennifer; Witkowska, Maria; Richardson, Susan E

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of 112 clinical isolates, 28 type strains, and 9 reference strains of Nocardia were determined using the Sensititre Rapmyco microdilution panel (Thermo Fisher, Inc.). Isolates were identified by highly discriminatory multilocus sequence analysis and were chosen to represent the diversity of species recovered from clinical specimens in Ontario, Canada. Susceptibility to the most commonly used drug, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, was observed in 97% of isolates. Linezolid and amikacin were also highly effective; 100% and 99% of all isolates demonstrated a susceptible phenotype. For the remaining antimicrobials, resistance was species specific with isolates of Nocardia otitidiscaviarum, N. brasiliensis, N. abscessus complex, N. nova complex, N. transvalensis complex, N. farcinica, and N. cyriacigeorgica displaying the traditional characteristic drug pattern types. In addition, the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of a variety of rarely encountered species isolated from clinical specimens are reported for the first time and were categorized into four additional drug pattern types. Finally, MICs for the control strains N. nova ATCC BAA-2227, N. asteroides ATCC 19247(T), and N. farcinica ATCC 23826 were robustly determined to demonstrate method reproducibility and suitability of the commercial Sensititre Rapmyco panel for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Nocardia spp. isolated from clinical specimens. The reported values will facilitate quality control and standardization among laboratories. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Species variation in susceptibility to the fungus Neonectria neomacrospora in the genus Abies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Braüner; Xu, Jing; Nielsen, Knud Nor

    2017-01-01

    ; significant differences were seen between taxa, that is, species, and between some species and their subspecies. The Greek fir, Abies cephalonica, was the only species without damage. An inoculation experiment on detached twigs with mycelium plugs from a N. neomacrospora culture showed that all species could......The fungus Neonectria neomacrospora has recently caused an epidemic outbreak in conifer species within the genus Abies in Denmark and Norway. Christmas tree producers in Europe and North America rely, to a large extent, on Abies species. The damage caused by N. neomacrospora, including dead shoot...... be infected. The damage observed in the inoculation experiment could explain 30% of the variation in the field observations based on species mean values. The epidemic outbreak and the high number of species susceptible to this fungus indicate that N. neomacrospora requires attention in the cultivation...

  12. Clinical significance, antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular identification of Nocardia species isolated from children with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betrán, Ana; Villuendas, M Cruz; Rezusta, Antonio; Pereira, Javier; Revillo, M José; Rodríguez-Nava, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia is an opportunistic pathogen that causes respiratory infections in immunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to analyze the epidemiology, clinical significance and antimicrobial susceptibility of Nocardia species isolated from eight children with cystic fibrosis. The isolated species were identified as Nocardia farcinica, Nocardia transvalensis, Nocardia pneumoniae, Nocardia veterana and Nocardia wallacei. N. farcinica was isolated in three patients and all of them presented lung affectation with a chronic colonization and pneumonia. N. farcinica showed resistance against gentamicin, tobramycin, cefotaxime, but was susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and amikacin. N. transvalensis, which was isolated from two patients, showed an association with chronic colonization. N. transvalensis was resistant to tobramycin and amikacin, but susceptible to ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and cefotaxime. N. veterana, N. pneumoniae and N. wallacei were isolated from three different patients and appeared in transitory lung colonization. N. veterana and N. pneumoniae were susceptible to imipenem, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, amikacin, tobramycin, and cefotaxime. N. wallacei was resistant to amikacin, tobramycin, imipenem, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and susceptible to ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime. All the isolates were identified up to species level by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The presence of Nocardia in the sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis is not always an indication of an active infection; therefore, the need for a treatment should be evaluated on an individual basis. The detection of multidrug-resistant species needs molecular identification and susceptibility testing, and should be performed for all Nocardia infections. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Susceptibility of several floriculture crops to three common species of meloidogyne in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current and pending restriction on the use of soil fumigants and other nematicides effective in controlling nematodes in field grown floriculture crops has increased the importance of determining the relative susceptibility of these crops to important species of root-knot nematodes. Greenhouse ...

  14. Characterization of Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Its Association with Virulence Genes Related to Adherence, Invasion, and Cytotoxicity in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolates from Animals, Meat, and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Lisette; Gatica, María A; Riquelme, Víctor; Vergara, Constanza; Yañez, José Manuel; San Martín, Betty; Sáenz, Leonardo; Vidal, Maricel; Martínez, María Cristina; Araya, Pamela; Flores, Roberto; Duery, Oscar; Vidal, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this research was to statistically analyze the association between antimicrobial susceptibility/resistance to erythromycine, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and tetracycline and 11 virulence genes associated with adherence, invasion, and cytotoxicity in 528 isolates of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni obtained from retail meat and fecal samples from food-producing animals and human patients. A high percentage of Campylobacter strains were resistant to antimicrobials, specifically ciprofloxacin and tetracycline. Moreover, we observed a wide distribution of virulence genes within the analyzed strains. C. jejuni strains were more susceptible to antimicrobials, and showed greater number of virulence genes than C. coli strains. Genes related to invasion capability, such as racR, ciaB, and pldA, were associated with antimicrobial-susceptible strains in both species. The genes cdtA and dnaJ, a citotoxin unit and an adherence-related gene, respectively, were associated with antimicrobial-resistant strains in both species. In conclusion, Campylobacter strains show a statistically significant association between antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of virulence genes.

  15. Antifungal susceptibility profile of diferent yeasts isolates from wild animals, cow’s milk with subclinical mastitis and hospital environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Mendes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Yeast infections have acquired great importance due to increasing frequency in immunocompromised patients or patients undergoing invasive diagnostic and therapeutic techniques, and also because of its high morbidity and mortality. At the same time, it has been seen an increase in the emergence of new pathogenic species difficult to diagnose and treat. The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro susceptibility of 89 yeasts from different sources against the antifungals amphotericin B, voriconazole, fluconazole and flucytosine, using the VITEK® 2 Compact system. The antifungal susceptibility was performed automatically by the Vitek® 2 Compact system. The origin of the yeasts was: Group 1 - microbiota of wild animals (W (26/89, 2 - cow’s milk with subclinical mastitis (M (27/89 and 3 - hospital enviorment (H (36/89. Of the 89 yeasts submitted to the Vitek® 2 test, 25 (20.9% were resistant to fluconazole, 11 (12.36% to amphotericin B, 3 (3.37% to voriconazole, and no sample was resistant to flucytosine. Regarding the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, fluconazole showed an MIC between 1 and 64 mg/mL for the three groups, voriconazole had an MIC between 0.12 and 8 mg/mL, amphotericin B had an MIC between 0.25 and 4 mg/mL for group H and group W respectively, between 0.25 and 16 mg/mL for group M and flucytosine had an MIC equal to 1μg/mL for all groups. The yeasts isolated from the H group showed the highest resistance to fluconazole 12/89 (13.49%, followed by group W (7.87% and group M (5.62%. The more resistant group to voriconazole was followed by the M and H groups, the W group showed no resistance to this antifungal. Group H was the least resistant (2.25% to amphotericin.

  16. Fauna Europaea – all European animal species on the web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Melina; Michelsen, Verner; Bjørn, Per de Place; Los, Wouter; Steeman, Fedor; Bailly, Nicolas; Basire, Claire; Chylarecki, Przemek; Stloukal, Eduard; Hagedorn, Gregor; Wetzel, Florian Tobias; Glöckler, Falko; Kroupa, Alexander; Korb, Günther; Hoffmann, Anke; Häuser, Christoph; Kohlbecker, Andreas; Müller, Andreas; Güntsch, Anton; Stoev, Pavel; Penev, Lyubomir

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Fauna Europaea is Europe's main zoological taxonomic index, making the scientific names and distributions of all living, currently known, multicellular, European land and freshwater animals species integrally available in one authoritative database. Fauna Europaea covers about 260,000 taxon names, including 145,000 accepted (sub)species, assembled by a large network of (>400) leading specialists, using advanced electronic tools for data collations with data quality assured through sophisticated validation routines. Fauna Europaea started in 2000 as an EC funded FP5 project and provides a unique taxonomic reference for many user-groups such as scientists, governments, industries, nature conservation communities and educational programs. Fauna Europaea was formally accepted as an INSPIRE standard for Europe, as part of the European Taxonomic Backbone established in PESI. Fauna Europaea provides a public web portal at faunaeur.org with links to other key biodiversity services, is installed as a taxonomic backbone in wide range of biodiversity services and actively contributes to biodiversity informatics innovations in various initiatives and EC programs. PMID:25349527

  17. Fauna Europaea - all European animal species on the web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Yde; Verbeek, Melina; Michelsen, Verner; Bjørn, Per de Place; Los, Wouter; Steeman, Fedor; Bailly, Nicolas; Basire, Claire; Chylarecki, Przemek; Stloukal, Eduard; Hagedorn, Gregor; Wetzel, Florian Tobias; Glöckler, Falko; Kroupa, Alexander; Korb, Günther; Hoffmann, Anke; Häuser, Christoph; Kohlbecker, Andreas; Müller, Andreas; Güntsch, Anton; Stoev, Pavel; Penev, Lyubomir

    2014-01-01

    Fauna Europaea is Europe's main zoological taxonomic index, making the scientific names and distributions of all living, currently known, multicellular, European land and freshwater animals species integrally available in one authoritative database. Fauna Europaea covers about 260,000 taxon names, including 145,000 accepted (sub)species, assembled by a large network of (>400) leading specialists, using advanced electronic tools for data collations with data quality assured through sophisticated validation routines. Fauna Europaea started in 2000 as an EC funded FP5 project and provides a unique taxonomic reference for many user-groups such as scientists, governments, industries, nature conservation communities and educational programs. Fauna Europaea was formally accepted as an INSPIRE standard for Europe, as part of the European Taxonomic Backbone established in PESI. Fauna Europaea provides a public web portal at faunaeur.org with links to other key biodiversity services, is installed as a taxonomic backbone in wide range of biodiversity services and actively contributes to biodiversity informatics innovations in various initiatives and EC programs.

  18. Species distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of staphylococci isolated from canine otitis externa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, Bruno; Varges, Renato; Medeiros, Luciana; Martins, Gabriel M; Martins, Rodrigo R; Lilenbaum, Walter

    2010-06-01

    The diversity of species of the genus Staphylococcus sp. and the antimicrobial resistance of isolates from 151 unmedicated dogs of both sexes with a clinical diagnosis of otitis were recorded. Ninety-one isolates of Staphylococcus spp. were identified by biochemical reactions and tested for susceptibility to 15 antimicrobials. Coagulase-positive species were most common; S. pseudintermedius (38.4%), S. schleiferi schleiferi (15.4%), S. aureus (14.3%), S. epidermidis (11%), S. simulans (11%), S. schleiferi coagulans (8.8%) and S. saprophyticus (1.1%). All the isolates showed resistance to at least one drug and 89% were multiresistant. Amoxicillin combined with clavulanic acid and oxacillin were the most effective, while resistance was widely observed for neomycin and erythromycin. The results highlight the recognition and the potential need for bacterial culture with species identification and antimicrobial susceptibility tests for appropriate antimicrobial therapy.

  19. Providing cross-species comparisons of animal welfare with a scientific basis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.

    2006-01-01

    Animal welfare issues may involve different species and require decision-makers to compare welfare across species. Up to now applied ethologists have largely ignored questions involving cross-species comparisons. This paper discusses the question whether cross-species comparisons about animal

  20. Expression Systems and Species Used for Transgenic Animal Bioreactors

    OpenAIRE

    Yanli Wang; Sihai Zhao; Liang Bai; Jianglin Fan; Enqi Liu

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic animal bioreactors can produce therapeutic proteins with high value for pharmaceutical use. In this paper, we compared different systems capable of producing therapeutic proteins (bacteria, mammalian cells, transgenic plants, and transgenic animals) and found that transgenic animals were potentially ideal bioreactors for the synthesis of pharmaceutical protein complexes. Compared with other transgenic animal expression systems (egg white, blood, urine, seminal plasma, and silkworm ...

  1. Biological invasions: economic and environmental costs of alien plant, animal, and microbe species

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pimentel, David

    2011-01-01

    ...: Economic and Environmental Costs of Alien Plant, Animal, and Microbe Species, this reference discusses how non-native species invade new ecosystems and the subsequent economic and environmental effects of these species...

  2. Managing livestock using animal behavior: Mixed-species stocking and flerds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixed-species stocking can foster sound landscape management while offering economic and ecological advantages compared to mono-species stocking. Producers contemplating a mixed-species enterprise should reflect on several considerations before implementing this animal management strategy. Factors...

  3. Sequence Alignment to Predict Across Species Susceptibility (SeqAPASS): A web-based tool for addressing the challenges of cross-species extrapolation of chemical toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation of a molecular target across species can be used as a line-of-evidence to predict the likelihood of chemical susceptibility. The web-based Sequence Alignment to Predict Across Species Susceptibility (SeqAPASS) tool was developed to simplify, streamline, and quantitat...

  4. Antibiotic susceptibility of Acinetobacter species in intensive care unit in Montenegro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijovic, Gordana; Pejakov, Ljubica; Vujosevic, Danijela

    2016-08-01

    The global increase in multidrug resistance of Acinetobacter has created widespread problems in the treatment of patients in intensive care units (ICUs). The aim of this study was to assess the current level of antimicrobial susceptibility of Acinetobacter species in ICU of Clinical Centre of Montenegro and determine their epidemiology. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested in 70 isolates of Acinetobacter collected from non-repeating samples taken from 40 patients. The first nine isolates were genotyped by repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR). Tigecycline was found to be the most active antimicrobial agent with 80.6% of susceptibility. All the isolates were multidrug resistant with fully resistance to cefalosporinas, piperacillin and piperacillin/tazobactam. More than half of them (58.5%) were probably extensively resistant. Seven out of nine examined strains were clonally related by rep-PCR. Our results showed extremely high rate of multidrug resistance (MDR) of Acinetobacter isolates and high percentage of its clonally spreading.

  5. Comparison of species-level identification and antifungal susceptibility results from diagnostic and reference laboratories for bloodstream Candida surveillance isolates, South Africa, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naicker, Serisha D; Govender, Nevashan; Patel, Jaymati; Zietsman, Inge L; Wadula, Jeannette; Coovadia, Yacoob; Kularatne, Ranmini; Seetharam, Sharona; Govender, Nelesh P

    2016-11-01

    From February 2009 through August 2010, we compared species-level identification of bloodstream Candida isolates and susceptibility to fluconazole, voriconazole, and caspofungin between diagnostic and reference South African laboratories during national surveillance for candidemia. Diagnostic laboratories identified isolates to genus/species level and performed antifungal susceptibility testing, as indicated. At a reference laboratory, viable Candida isolates were identified to species-level using automated systems, biochemical tests, or DNA sequencing; broth dilution susceptibility testing was performed. Categorical agreement (CA) was calculated for susceptibility results of isolates with concordant species identification. Overall, 2172 incident cases were detected, 773 (36%) by surveillance audit. The Vitek 2 YST system (bioMérieux Inc, Marcy l'Etoile, France) was used for identification (360/863, 42%) and susceptibility testing (198/473, 42%) of a large proportion of isolates. For the five most common species (n = 1181), species-level identification was identical in the majority of cases (Candida albicans: 98% (507/517); Candida parapsilosis: 92% (450/488); Candida glabrata: 89% (89/100); Candida tropicalis: 91% (49/54), and Candida krusei: 86% (19/22)). However, diagnostic laboratories were significantly less likely to correctly identify Candida species other than C. albicans versus C. albicans (607/664, 91% vs. 507/517, 98%; P albicans (36/362, 10% vs. 3/362, 0.8%; P Candida species other than C. albicans, under-reported fluconazole resistance for C. parapsilosis and over-reported fluconazole resistance for C. albicans. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Experimental infection of Aphanomyces invadans and susceptibility in seven species of tropical fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh F. Afzali

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS causes by aquatic oomycete fungus, Aphanomyces invadans is a dangerous fish disease of a wide range of fresh and brackish water, wild and farmed fish throughout the world. The objective of the present study was to determine the susceptibility of a number of tropical fish species to the EUS and compare the severity of infection between experimental groups. Materials and Methods: Snakehead, Channa striata (Bloch, 1793; snakeskin gourami, Trichopodus pectoralis (Regan, 1910; koi carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758; broadhead catfish, Clarias macrocephalus (Günther, 1864; goldfish, Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758; climbing perch, Anabas testudineus (Bloch, 1792; and Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 were challenged by intramuscular injection using zoospores of Aphanomyces invadans (NJM9701. The infected fish skins and muscles were examined for EUS histopathological characteristics, and the results on the severity of lesions and mortality were analyzed using SPSS program. Results: All zoospore-injected fish were shown to be susceptible to the EUS infection except Nile tilapia. Although, the general histopathological pattern was similar in the zoospore-injected group, but there were some variation in granulomatous reaction, that is the presence or absence of giant cells, and time of mortality were detected. The result of statistical analysis showed that there was a significant difference between species, (c2=145.11 and p<0.01. Conclusion: Gourami, koi carp, and catfish were demonstrated to be highly susceptible while goldfish and climbing perch were found to be moderately susceptible to the EUS infection. These findings suggested that the cellular response of fish to mycotic infection and granulomatous reaction varied in different fish species, which could not be an indicator of susceptibility or resistant to the EUS itself, although it was shown that the granulation rate and the level of

  7. Molecular Identification and Antifungal Susceptibility Pattern of Non-albicans Candida Species Isolated from Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi Nejat, Ziba; Farahyar, Shirin; Falahati, Mehraban; Ashrafi Khozani, Mahtab; Hosseini, Aga Fateme; Faiazy, Azamsadat; Ekhtiari, Masoome; Hashemi-Hafshenjani, Saeideh

    2017-07-09

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an important health problem caused by Candida spp. The aim of this study was molecular identification, phylogenetic analysis, and evaluation of antifungal susceptibility of non-albicans Candida isolates from VVC. Vaginal secretion samples were collected from 550 vaginitis patients at Sayyad Shirazi Medical and Educational Center of Gorgan (Golestan Province, Iran) from May to October 2015. Samples were analyzed using conventional mycological and molecular approaches. Clinical isolates were analyzed with specific PCR using CGL primers, and the internal transcribed spacer region and the D1-D2 domain of the large-subunit rRNA gene were amplified and sequenced. Susceptibility to amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, and clotrimazole was determined by the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute. In total, 35 non-albicans Candida isolates were identified from VVC patients. The isolates included 27 strains of Candida glabrata (77.1%), 5 Candida krusei (Pichia kudriavzevii; 14.3%), 2 Candida kefyr (Kluyveromyces marxianus; 5.7%), and 1 Candida lusitaniae (Clavispora lusitaniae; 2.9%). The fungicides itraconazole and amphotericin B were effective against all species. One isolate of C. glabrata showed resistance to fluconazole and clotrimazole, and 26 isolates of C. glabrata indicated dose-dependent susceptibility to fluconazole. C. lusitaniae was susceptible in a dose-dependent manner to fluconazole and resistant to clotrimazole. Non-albicans Candida spp. are common agents of vulvovaginitis, and C. glabrata is the most common species in the tested patients.

  8. Antifungal susceptibilities and identification of species of the Sporothrix schenckii complex isolated in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottonelli Stopiglia, Cheila Denise; Magagnin, Cibele Massotti; Castrillón, Mauricio Ramírez; Mendes, Sandra Denise Camargo; Heidrich, Daiane; Valente, Patricia; Scroferneker, Maria Lúcia

    2014-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is a subacute or chronic mycosis caused worldwide by the dimorphic species complex, Sporothrix schenckii. We studied 85 isolates recovered in Brazil to verify their identification and evaluate their in vitro antifungal susceptibility patterns. Based on phenotypic tests (microscopic features, ability to grow at 30°C and 37°C, colony diameters, as well as assimilation of sucrose and raffinose) and molecular assays (amplification of a fragment of the calmodulin gene), the strains were identified as S. schenckii, S. brasiliensis and S. globosa, with a predominance of S. schenckii isolates. There was 37.7% disagreement between the phenotypic and genotypic identification methodologies. In general, terbinafine was the most active drug, followed by ketoconazole and itraconazole, and the less active fluconazole and voriconazole. Five isolates (one S. globosa and four S. schenckii) were found to be itraconazole-resistant strains but, in general, there were no differences in the in vitro antifungal susceptibility profiles among the Sporothrix species.

  9. Differential susceptibility of species of slugs to metaldehyde/bran and to methiocarb baits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford-Sidebotham, T J

    1970-12-01

    Laboratory experiments were designed to study differential susceptibility of nine species of slugs to metaldehyde/bran and to methiocarb baits. Differential susceptibility was found between some of the species for each type of bait, both immediately after baiting and also after a 48 h recovery period. Thus neither type of bait is suitable for use in ecological investigations. This conclusion was supported by evidence that interspecific behavioural interactions occurred when metaldehyde, but not methiocarb, baits were used.At the same time the relative efficiency of the two types of baits as molluscicides was estimated. Methiocarb was shown to be a better molluscicide because, not only did it initially poison more slugs than did metaldehyde, but also a number of the slugs initially poisoned by metaldehyde recovered during the following 48 h period, whereas this did not happen with methiocarb. The similarity between these results and those obtained from field experiments by other workers is discussed.

  10. Comparison of the VITEK 2 antifungal susceptibility system with Etest using clinical isolates of Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfouzan, Wadha; Al-Enezi, Tahani; AlRoomi, Ebteehal; Sandhya, Vayalil; Chandy, Rachel; Khan, Zia Uddin

    Candida species are part of the normal human microbiota. However, in recent years, nosocomial bloodstream Candida infections have emerged as a significant problem ranking the fourth common cause of fungemia in intensive care units. Although microdilution methods are the ones recommended for susceptibility testing, they are difficult to undertake in the clinical practice. Thus, an automated commercially available test is ideal. To compare minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) obtained with the recently introduced Vitek 2 yeast susceptibility system card (AST-YS01) with Etest. 263 clinical Candida isolates representing six species were included in the study. Categorical agreements (CA) were assessed as described elsewhere. Irrespective of the Candida species tested, the overall CA between Vitek 2 and Etest ranged between 66.7% and 100%. In general, Etest yielded lower MICs than Vitek 2. For Candida albicans, the CA between Vitek 2 and Etest was >95% for amphotericin B, voriconazole and flucytosine, but only 89% for fluconazole. With respect to Candida glabrata, the CA was between 97% and 100%. The major errors were with Candida krusei and flucytosine and Candida kefyr and amphotericin B. Candida tropicalis susceptibility for fluconazole by Vitek 2 reported more SDD and resistant strains than Etest. Candida parapsilosis showed 100% CA against all the four antifungals tested. No very major errors were detected between the two methods. Vitek 2 provided comparable results to Etest with quick turnaround for the testing of Candida species susceptibilities. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. [Epidemiology, risk factors and in vitro susceptibility in candidaemia due to non-Candida albicans species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín Martínez, Elena M; Aller García, Ana Isabel; Martín-Mazuelos, Estrella

    Invasive fungal infection (IFI) has increased in recent years due to there being a greater number of risk factors. IFI caused by Candida is the most frequent, and although Candida albicans is the most isolated species, there is currently a decrease of C. albicans and an increase of other species of the genus. To analyse the epidemiology, risk factors, and antifungal susceptibility of blood culture isolates of non-C.albicans Candida species in our hospital in the last 12years. A retrospective study was conducted on 107 patients with candidaemia admitted to our hospital. Candida isolates susceptibility to fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, amphotericinB, 5-fluorocytosine, caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin was determined by means of a microdilution technique (Sensititre Yeast One; Izasa, Spain). From a total of 109 strains, 59 belonged to non-C. albicans Candida species: 25 Candida parapsilosis complex, 14 Candida glabrata complex, 13 Candida tropicalis, 4 Candida krusei, 1 Candida lipolytica, 1 Candida membranaefaciens, and 1 Candida pulcherrima. The most common risk factor in adults and children was catheter use. It was observed that 8.5% of those non-C.albicans strains were resistant to fluconazole. The results of this work confirm that it is necessary to know the epidemiology of non-C.albicans Candida species, the in vitro susceptibility of the species involved, and the main risk factors, especially in patients with predisposing conditions. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Bloodstream infections caused by Acinetobacter species with reduced susceptibility to tigecycline: clinical features and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ga Eun; Kang, Cheol-In; Cha, Min Kyeong; Cho, Sun Young; Seok, Hyeri; Lee, Ji Hye; Kim, Ji Yeon; Ha, Young Eun; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Peck, Kyong Ran; Lee, Nam Yong; Song, Jae-Hoon

    2017-09-01

    During recent decades, the rates of multidrug resistance, including resistance to carbapenems, have increased dramatically among Acinetobacter species. Tigecycline has activity against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter spp, including carbapenem-resistant isolates. However, reports of tigecycline-resistant Acinetobacter spp are emerging from different parts of the world. The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential risk factors associated with tigecycline non-susceptible Acinetobacter bacteremia. The medical records of 152 patients with Acinetobacter bacteremia attending Samsung Medical Center between January 2010 and December 2014 were reviewed. Non-susceptibility to tigecycline was defined as a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of tigecycline ≥4μg/ml. Cases were patients with tigecycline non-susceptible Acinetobacter bacteremia and controls were those with tigecycline-susceptible Acinetobacter bacteremia. Of the 152 patients included in the study, 61 (40.1%) had tigecycline non-susceptible Acinetobacter bacteremia (case group). These patients were compared to 91 patients with tigecycline-susceptible Acinetobacter bacteremia (control group). The case group showed high resistance to other antibiotics (>90%) except colistin (6.6%) and minocycline (9.8%) when compared to the control group, which exhibited relatively low resistance to other antibiotics (<50%). Multivariate analysis showed that recent exposure to corticosteroids (minimum 20mg per day for more than 5 days within 2 weeks) (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.887, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.170-7.126) and carbapenems (within 2 weeks) (adjusted OR 4.437, 95% CI 1.970-9.991) were significantly associated with tigecycline non-susceptible Acinetobacter bacteremia. Although prior exposure to tigecycline was more common in the case group than in the control group (9.8%, 6/61 vs. 2.2%, 2/91; p=0.046), this variable was found not to be a significant factor associated with tigecycline non-susceptibility

  13. Termite-Susceptible Species of Wood for Inclusion as a Reference in Indonesian Standardized Laboratory Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arinana; Tsunoda, Kunio; Herliyana, Elis N; Hadi, Yusuf S

    2012-03-28

    Standardized laboratory testing of wood and wood-based products against subterranean termites in Indonesia (SNI 01.7207-2006) (SNI) has no requirement for the inclusion of a comparative reference species of wood (reference control). This is considered a weakness of the Indonesian standard. Consequently, a study was undertaken to identify a suitable Indonesian species of community wood that could be used as a reference control. Four candidate species of community woods: Acacia mangium, Hevea brasiliensis, Paraserianthes falcataria and Pinus merkusii were selected for testing their susceptibility to feeding by Coptotermes formosanus. Two testing methods (SNI and the Japanese standard method JIS K 1571-2004) were used to compare the susceptibility of each species of wood. Included in the study was Cryptomeria japonica, the reference control specified in the Japanese standard. The results of the study indicated that P. merkusii is a suitable reference species of wood for inclusion in laboratory tests against subterranean termites, conducted in accordance with the Indonesian standard (SNI 01.7207-2006).

  14. Generic amyloidogenicity of mammalian prion proteins from species susceptible and resistant to prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Sofie; Hammarström, Per

    2015-05-11

    Prion diseases are lethal, infectious diseases associated with prion protein (PrP) misfolding. A large number of mammals are susceptible to both sporadic and acquired prion diseases. Although PrP is highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed in all mammals, not all species exhibit prion disease. By employing full length recombinant PrP from five known prion susceptible species (human, cattle, cat, mouse and hamster) and two species considered to be prion resistant (pig and dog) the amyloidogenicity of these PrPs has been delineated. All the mammalian PrPs, even from resistant species, were swiftly converted from the native state to amyloid-like structure when subjected to a native condition conversion assay. The PrPs displayed amyloidotypic tinctorial and ultrastructural hallmarks. Self-seeded conversion of the PrPs displayed significantly decreased lag phases demonstrating that nucleation dependent polymerization is a dominating mechanism in the fibrillation process. Fibrils from Aβ1-40, Aβ1-42, Lysozyme, Insulin and Transthyretin did not accelerate conversion of HuPrP whereas fibrils from HuPrP90-231 and HuPrP121-231 as well as full length PrPs of all PrPs efficiently seeded conversion showing specificity of the assay requiring the C-terminal PrP sequence. Our findings have implications for PrP misfolding and could have ramifications in the context of prion resistant species and silent carriers.

  15. 7 CFR 650.22 - Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., to be critical.” The Act also: (i) Defines endangered species as any species in danger of extinction... animals. 650.22 Section 650.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Related Environmental Concerns § 650.22 Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and animals. (a...

  16. Species identification and antifungal susceptibility pattern of Candida isolates in cases of vulvovaginal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Saad ElFeky

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC remains one of the most common infections of the female genital tract. Correct identification of the isolated Candida species is essential to direct the empirical antifungal therapy. Objectives: This local study was conducted to identify the spectrum of Candida species associated with VVC using different phenotypic and genotypic methods and assess their antifungal susceptibility pattern. Materials and methods: High vaginal swabs were collected from 125 patients presenting with a clinical picture suggestive of VVC. Swabs were subjected to Gram-stain and culture on Sabouraud dextrose agar. Species identification of Candida isolates was done using phenotypic methods including germ tube test, Rice Tween-80 agar, Chrom ID (CAN2 agar and API 20C AUX, while PCR-RFLP was used as the gold standard method. Antifungal susceptibility testing was done using the disk diffusion method. Results: Vaginal swab cultures yielded Candida growth in 63 cases (50.4%. Candida albicans was the predominant isolated species (60.3% while the most common non-albicans species was Candida glabrata (12.7%. Forty-five (71.4% and fifty-five (87.3% Candida isolates were correctly speciated by Rice Tween-80 Agar and API 20C AUX, respectively, while fifty-seven isolates (90.5% were correctly assigned into the 3 groups of yeasts identified by CAN2 agar. Amphotericin B was more effective than azoles against vaginal Candida isolates. Conclusion: C. albicans is the most common species associated with VVC. API 20C AUX was the most accurate phenotypic method for the proper identification of most Candida species whereas PCR-RFLP could properly confirm Candida species identification genotypically.

  17. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern and genotyping of campylobacter species isolated from children suffering from gastroenteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R M Abd El-Baky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the prevalence and the antimicrobial resistance of campylobacter species isolated from children suffering from gastroenteritis . Materials and Methods: A total of 125 stool samples were collected from children with gastroenteritis. The identification of isolates was performed with conventional methods as well as with molecular methods based on 16SrRNA species-specific gene amplification by PCR and product analysis. Resistance pattern of the isolated strains was determined using agar dilution method. Results: Conventional methods including sodium hippurate hydrolysis revealed that 12 (9.6% samples were positive for Campylobacter species. Ten out of 12 Campylobacter spp. were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 2 as Campylobacter coli but PCR assay revealed that five samples only were positive for Campylobacter and all were C. jejuni. Antimicrobial susceptibility to 10 antimicrobials was performed and all isolates (five isolates of C. jejuni were susceptible to chloramphenicol, gentamicin and amikacin but all were resistant to ceftriaxone. Conclusion: PCR assay method allows reliable detection of C. jejuni. C. jejuni was the most prevalent Campylobacter species. Gentamicin, amikacin and chloramphenicol were the most effective antibiotic.

  18. Molecular identification, antifungal susceptibility profile, and biofilm formation of clinical and environmental Rhodotorula species isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Jorge Meneses; Bizerra, Fernando César; Ferreira, Renata Carmona E; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes

    2013-01-01

    Rhodotorula species are emergent fungal pathogens capable of causing invasive infections, primarily fungemia. They are particularly problematic in immunosuppressed patients when using a central venous catheter. In this study, we evaluated the species distribution of 51 clinical and 8 environmental Rhodotorula species isolates using the ID32C system and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing. Antifungal susceptibility testing and biofilm formation capability using a crystal violet staining assay were performed. Using ITS sequencing as the gold standard, the clinical isolates were identified as follows: 44 R. mucilaginosa isolates, 2 R. glutinis isolates, 2 R. minuta isolates, 2 R. dairenensis isolates, and 1 Rhodosporidium fluviale isolate. The environmental isolates included 7 R. mucilaginosa isolates and 1 R. slooffiae isolate. Using the ID32C system, along with a nitrate assimilation test, only 90.3% of the isolates tested were correctly identified. In the biofilm formation assay, R. mucilaginosa and R. minuta exhibited greater biofilm formation ability compared to the other Rhodotorula species; the clinical isolates of R. mucilaginosa showed greater biofilm formation compared to the environmental isolates (P = 0.04). Amphotericin B showed good in vitro activity (MIC ≤ 1 μg/ml) against planktonic cells, whereas voriconazole and posaconazole showed poor activity (MIC(50)/MIC(90), 2/4 μg/ml). Caspofungin and fluconazole MICs were consistently high for all isolates tested (≥64 μg/ml and ≥ 4 μg/ml, respectively). In this study, we emphasized the importance of molecular methods to correctly identify Rhodotorula species isolates and non-R. mucilaginosa species in particular. The antifungal susceptibility profile reinforces amphotericin B as the antifungal drug of choice for the treatment of Rhodotorula infections. To our knowledge, this is the first study evaluating putative differences in the ability of biofilm formation among different Rhodotorula

  19. Epidemiology and susceptibility to antimicrobial agents of the main Nocardia species in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdezate, Sylvia; Garrido, Noelia; Carrasco, Gema; Medina-Pascual, María J; Villalón, Pilar; Navarro, Ana M; Saéz-Nieto, Juan A

    2017-03-01

    The aims of this study were to explore the clinical distribution, by species, of the genus Nocardia and to assess the antimicrobial susceptibilities of the 10 most prevalent species identified in Spain. Over a 10 year period (2005-14), 1119 Nocardia strains were molecularly identified and subjected to the Etest. The distribution and resistance trends over the sub-periods 2005-09 and 2010-14 were also examined. Of the strains examined, 82.9% belonged to the following species: Nocardia cyriacigeorgica (25.3%), Nocardia nova (15.0%), Nocardia abscessus (12.7%), Nocardia farcinica (11.4%), Nocardia carnea (4.3%), Nocardia brasiliensis (3.5%), Nocardia otitidiscaviarum (3.1%), Nocardia flavorosea (2.6%), Nocardia rhamnosiphila (2.6%) and Nocardia transvalensis (2.4%). Their prevalence values were similar during 2005-09 and 2010-14, except for those of N. abscessus , N. farcinica and N. transvalensis , which fell significantly in the second sub-period ( P ≤  0.05). The major location of isolation was the respiratory tract (∼86%). Half (13/27) of all strains from the CNS were N. farcinica . Significant differences in MIC results were recorded for some species between the two sub-periods. According to the CLSI's breakpoints, low resistance rates (≤15%) were recorded for seven species with respect to cefotaxime, imipenem and tobramycin; five species showed similar rates with respect to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Linezolid and amikacin were the most frequently active agents. The accurate identification of the infecting species and the determination of its susceptibility to antimicrobial agents, given the large number of strains with atypical patterns, are crucial if patients with nocardiosis are to be successfully treated.

  20. Animal Related Activities as Determinants of Species Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randler, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Previous work has established a relationship between knowledge and environmental concern. Different factors may contribute to this knowledge and animal-related leisure activities may also contribute to this knowledge. 390 participants in Leipzig, Germany were interviewed to assess their animal-related leisure activities, their demographic status…

  1. Predicting animal production on sourveld: a species-based approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Presents a simulation model which was developed to predict average daily gain in cattle and sheep grazing different species and swards of different species composition on Dohne Sourveld. The model was based upon measured ingestive and digestive characteristics of different grass species and incorporates an explicit ...

  2. Miltefosine and Antimonial Drug Susceptibility of Leishmania Viannia Species and Populations in Regions of High Transmission in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Olga Lucía; Diaz-Toro, Yira; Muvdi, Sandra; Rodríguez, Isabel; Gomez, María Adelaida; Saravia, Nancy Gore

    2014-01-01

    Background Pentavalent antimonials have been the first line treatment for dermal leishmaniasis in Colombia for over 30 years. Miltefosine is administered as second line treatment since 2005. The susceptibility of circulating populations of Leishmania to these drugs is unknown despite clinical evidence supporting the emergence of resistance. Methodology/Principal Findings In vitro susceptibility was determined for intracellular amastigotes of 245 clinical strains of the most prevalent Leishmania Viannia species in Colombia to miltefosine (HePC) and/or meglumine antimoniate (SbV); 163, (80%) were evaluated for both drugs. Additionally, susceptibility to SbV was examined in two cohorts of 85 L. V. panamensis strains isolated between 1980–1989 and 2000–2009 in the municipality of Tumaco. Susceptibility to each drug differed among strains of the same species and between species. Whereas 68% of L. V. braziliensis strains presented in vitro resistance to HePC, 69% were sensitive to SbV. Resistance to HePC and SbV occurred respectively, in 20% y 21% of L. panamensis strains. Only 3% of L. V. guyanensis were resistant to HePC, and none to SbV. Drug susceptibility differed between geographic regions and time periods. Subpopulations having disparate susceptibility to SbV were discerned among L. V. panamensis strains isolated during 1980–1990 in Tumaco where resistant strains belonged to zymodeme 2.3, and sensitive strains to zymodeme 2.2. Conclusions/Significance Large scale evaluation of clinical strains of Leishmania Viannia species demonstrated species, population, geographic, and epidemiologic differences in susceptibility to meglumine antimoniate and miltefosine, and provided baseline information for monitoring susceptibility to these drugs. Sensitive and resistant clinical strains within each species, and zymodeme as a proxy marker of antimony susceptibility for L. V. panamensis, will be useful in deciphering factors involved in susceptibility and the distribution

  3. Susceptibility of leguminous green manure species to Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trazilbo José de Paula Júnior

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the susceptibility of species used as green manure in common bean fields to root rot (Rhizoctonia solani and southern blight (Sclerotium rolfsii. Seeds of Crotalaria breviflora, Canavalia ensiformis, Cajanus cajan, Dolichos lablab, Stizolobium cinereum, S. aterrimum, and the bean cvs. "Pérola", "Valente" and "Carnaval" were sown in soil infested by either R. solani AG-4 or S. rolfsii in greenhouse. The emergence of D. lablab seedlings in soil infested by R. solani dropped to 62%. C. breviflora, C. ensiformis and cv. "Valente" presented the lowest root rot severity. The pathogen S. rolfsii drastically reduced seedling emergence in all species; no C. cajan and S. cinereum seedling emerged. All plant species presented high southern blight severity. We conclude that leguminous crops are not suitable as green manure for areas of bean cultivation with high R. solani and S. rolfsii populations.

  4. Animal species endangerment: The role of environmental pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattee, Oliver H.; Fellows, Valerie L.; Bounds, Dixie L.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John

    2003-01-01

    Multiple factors contribute to the decline of species. Habitat destruction is the primary factor that threatens species. affecting 73 % of endangered species. The second major factor causing species decline is the introduction of nonnative species. affecting 68% of endangered species. Pollution and overharvesting were identified as impacting, respectively, 38 and 15% of endangered species. Other factors affecting species decline include hybridization, competition, disease, and other interspecific interactions. Once a species is reduced to a remnant of its former population size and distribution, its vulnerability to catastrophic pollution events increases, frequently exceeding or replacing the factors responsible for the initial decline. Small, isolated populations are particularly vulnerable to catastrophic loss by an acute event. such as a chemical spill or pesticide application. However, when it comes to surviving a single disaster, widespread subpopulations of a species are far more resilient and ensure genetic survival. Hypothesizing theoretical concerns of potential factors that could affect an endangered species could predispose the scientific and political communities to jeopardizing threats. The user of recovery plans as a data source must be aware of the bias within the data set. These data should be used with the caveat that the source of information in recovery plans is not always based on scientific research and rigorous data collection. Over 58% of the information identifying species threats is based on estimates or personal communication. while only 42% is based on peer reviewed literature, academic research. or government reports. Many recovery plans were written when a species was initially listed in the 1970s or 1980s. Politics, human disturbance, and habitat demand issues evolve over a 20- to 30-year period. leaving much of the threats facing endangered species outdated and inadequate. These data are most valuable when used to facilitate reviews

  5. Waterborne Exophiala species causing disease in cold-blooded animals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    de Hoog, G S; Vicente, V A; Najafzadeh, M J; Harrak, M J; Badali, H; Seyedmousavi, S

    2011-01-01

    ...) belong to a single clade judging from SSU rDNA data. Most taxa are also found to cause cutaneous or disseminated infections in cold-blooded, water animals, occasionally reaching epidemic proportions...

  6. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  7. How do species, population and active ingredient influence insecticide susceptibility in Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) of veterinary importance?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Venail, Roger; Lhoir, Jonathan; Fall, Moussa; del Río, Ricardo; Talavera, Sandra; Labuschagne, Karien; Miranda, Miguel; Pagès, Nonito; Venter, Gert; Rakotoarivony, Ignace; Allène, Xavier; Scheid, Bethsabée; Gardès, Laëtitia; Gimonneau, Geoffrey; Lancelot, Renaud; Garros, Claire; Cêtre-Sossah, Catherine; Balenghien, Thomas; Carpenter, Simon; Baldet, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    .... The objective of the present study is to determine baseline susceptibility of multiple Culicoides vector species and populations in Europe and Africa to the most commonly used insecticide active ingredients...

  8. Species distribution and antifungal susceptibility pattern of Candida causing oral candidiasis among hospitalized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faseela Taivalap Shafi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral candidiasis is increasingly seen among hospitalized patients and is usually treated empirically. It can be the marker of systemic infection. Antifingal resistance is one of the emerging problems in candidiasis. Aim and Objectives: To study the distribution pattern of various Candida species among hospitalised patients with oral candidiasis, to detect the antifungal resistance among Candida and to assess the possible risk factors associated with those patients. Methods: Out of 300 patients screened, oral thrush material was collected from 36 patients having oral candidiasis. Candida spp. were isolated and identified. Antifungal susceptibility test was performed by disk diffusion method. Results: Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated species (64%. Highest resistance was seen with ketoconazole (18%. Except one C. tropicalis, all the isolates were sensitive to amphotericin B. All the patients were on broad spectrum antibiotic treatment. Diabetes mellitus was seen in 50 % of the patients. Other predisposing factors include tuberculosis, COPD, cancer and steroid treatment. Conclusion: Eventhough there is progressive shift from a predominance of C. albicans to non-albicans Candida species in candidiasis, C. albicans remains as the most important pathogen in oral candidiasis. Since azole resistance is increasing, accurate identification of Candida spp. and antifungal susceptibility testing is crucial for patient management and for facilitating hospital control measures.

  9. Isolation and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Campylobacter Species among Diarrheic Children at Jimma, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belay Tafa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Campylobacter is one of the leading bacterial causes of food-borne disease. The prevalence of Campylobacter species resistant to antimicrobial agents is increasing. This study is intended to determine prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Campylobacter species among under-five children with diarrhea. Methodology. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 227 under-five children with diarrhea from July to October 2012 at Jimma town. Isolation and identification of Campylobacter species were performed using standard bacteriological techniques. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed following standard protocol. Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests were used for analysis. Results. From 227 under-five children, 16.7% were positive for Campylobacter spp.; isolates, C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari, accounted for 71.1%, 21.1%, and 7.9%, respectively. Higher rate of resistance was observed to ampicillin 76.3%, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (68.4%, tetracycline (39.5%, chloramphenicol (31.6%, clindamycin (26.3%, and doxycycline (23.7%. Erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, norfloxacin, and nalidixic acid were effective for more than 80% of the isolates. Multiple drug resistance was observed among 78.9% of all the three spp. Conclusions. Isolation rate of Campylobacter spp. was high. C. lari was reported for the first time at this study area. Higher rate of resistance was observed to the commonly used drugs.

  10. Candida Species From Eye Infections: Drug Susceptibility, Virulence Factors, and Molecular Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjith, Konduri; Sontam, Bhavani; Sharma, Savitri; Joseph, Joveeta; Chathoth, Kanchana N; Sama, Kalyana C; Murthy, Somasheila I; Shivaji, Sisinthy

    2017-08-01

    To determine the type of Candida species in ocular infections and to investigate the relationship of antifungal susceptibility profile to virulence factors. Fifty isolates of yeast-like fungi from patients with keratitis, endophthalmitis, and orbital cellulitis were identified by Vitek-2 compact system and DNA sequencing of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 regions of the rRNA gene, followed by phylogenetic analysis for phenotypic and genotypic identification, respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentration of six antifungal drugs was determined by E test/microbroth dilution methods. Phenotypic and genotypic methods were used to determine the virulence factors. Phylogenetic analysis showed the clustering of all isolates into eight distinct groups with a major cluster formed Candida parapsilosis (n = 21), which was the most common species by both Vitek 2 and DNA sequencing. Using χ2 test no significant difference was noted between the techniques except that Vitek 2 did not identify C. viswanathii, C. orthopsilosis, and two non-Candida genera. Of 43 tested Candida isolates high susceptibility to amphotericin B (39/43, 90.6%) and natamycin (43/43, 100%) was noted. While none of the isolates produced coagulase, all produced esterase and catalase. The potential to form biofilm was detected in 23/43 (53.4%) isolates. Distribution of virulence factors by heat map analysis showed difference in metabolic activity of biofilm producers from nonbiofilm producers. Identified by Vitek 2 and DNA sequencing methods C. parapsilosis was the most common species associated with eye infections. Irrespective of the virulence factors elaborated, the Candida isolates were susceptible to commonly used antifungal drugs such as amphotericin B and natamycin.

  11. Automated identification of animal species in camera trap images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, X.; Wang, J.; Kays, R.; Jansen, P.A.; Wang, T.; Huang, T.

    2013-01-01

    Image sensors are increasingly being used in biodiversity monitoring, with each study generating many thousands or millions of pictures. Efficiently identifying the species captured by each image is a critical challenge for the advancement of this field. Here, we present an automated species

  12. Susceptibility of Japanese Cyprininae fish species to cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takafumi; Maeno, Yukio

    2014-03-14

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) is known as the causative agent of herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis (HVHN) of goldfish (Carassius auratus). Recently, the virus has also been detected from Prussian carp (C. gibelio) and crucian carp (C. carassius) from European and Asian countries. To analyze the risk of spreading to new host species, the susceptibility of other fish species to the virus is essential. In this study experimental infections of indigenous Cyprininae species in Japan were performed by immersion in and intraperitoneal injection of a CyHV-2 isolate. Although Edonishiki, a variety of goldfish, immersed with the virus showed a cumulative mortality of 90%, no mortality was observed in ginbuna C. auratus langsdorfii, nagabuna C. auratus buergeri, nigorobuna C. auratus grandoculis and common carp Cyprinus carpio. Cumulative mortality was 100, 20 and 10% in intraperitoneally injected Edonishiki, ginbuna and nagabuna, respectively. Furthermore all Edonishiki immersed with the virus died. However, even after stimuli of sudden temperature changes, the immersed ginbuna and nagabuna did not die. Moreover no mortality was observed in co-reared Ranchu, another variety of goldfish, with immersed ginbuna and nagabuna although all three Ranchu co-reared with immersed Edonishiki died. CyHV-2 DNA was detected and the virus was re-isolated from all dead fish. Moreover CyHV-2 DNA was detected from some of the surviving Carassius spp. These results revealed that susceptibility of Japanese indigenous Cyprininae fish species to CyHV-2 is much lower than for goldfish. In addition, ability of replication of CyHV-2 might be different among Carassius fish species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Transdermal Permeation of Drugs in Various Animal Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todo, Hiroaki

    2017-09-06

    Excised human skin is utilized for in vitro permeation experiments to evaluate the safety and effect of topically-applied drugs by measuring its skin permeation and concentration. However, ethical considerations are the major problem for using human skin to evaluate percutaneous absorption. Moreover, large variations have been found among human skin specimens as a result of differences in age, race, and anatomical donor site. Animal skins are used to predict the in vivo human penetration/permeation of topically-applied chemicals. In the present review, skin characteristics, such as thickness of skin, lipid content, hair follicle density, and enzyme activity in each model are compared to human skin. In addition, intra- and inter-individual variation in animal models, permeation parameter correlation between animal models and human skin, and utilization of cultured human skin models are also descried. Pig, guinea pig, and hairless rat are generally selected for this purpose. Each animal model has advantages and weaknesses for utilization in in vitro skin permeation experiments. Understanding of skin permeation characteristics such as permeability coefficient ( P ), diffusivity ( D ), and partition coefficient ( K ) for each skin model would be necessary to obtain better correlations for animal models to human skin permeation.

  14. Optimization and evaluation of Flexicult® Vet for detection, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial uropathogens in small animal veterinary practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardabassi, Luca; Hedberg, Sandra; Jessen, Lisbeth Rem; Damborg, Peter

    2015-10-26

    shortcomings regarding species identification by clinical staff and β-lactam susceptibility testing of E. coli, Flexicult Vet B (commercial name Flexicult(®) Vet) is a time- and cost-effective point-of-care test to guide antimicrobial choice and facilitate implementation of antimicrobial use guidelines for treatment of UTIs in small animals, provided that clinical staff is adequately trained to interpret the results and that clinics meet minimum standards to operate in-house culture.

  15. 21 CFR 516.125 - Investigational use of minor species new animal drugs to support indexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... drugs to support indexing. 516.125 Section 516.125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Species § 516.125 Investigational use of minor species new animal drugs to support indexing. (a) The... Investigational Exemption for a New Animal Drug for Index Listing” and each request for indexing shall be examined...

  16. Susceptibility of Representative Great Lakes Fish Species to the North Carolina Strain of Spring Viremia of Carp Virus (SVCV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonthai, Traimat; Loch, Thomas P; Standish, Isaac; Faisal, Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    Spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) is a notifiable pathogen of the World Organization of Animal Health. Since SVCV was isolated in Lake Ontario in 2007, concern has grown about its spread in the Great Lakes basin and its potential negative impacts on fish species of importance in stock enhancement programs basinwide. The susceptibility of representative fish species from the families Cyprinidae (Fathead Minnow Pimephales promelas, Golden Shiner Notemigonus crysoleucas, Spotfin Shiner Cyprinella spiloptera, and Creek Chub Semotilus atromaculatus), Centrarchidae (Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides), Percidae (Walleye Sander vitreus), Salmonidae (Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss), and Esocidae (Muskellunge Esox masquinongy) to SVCV was evaluated by experimental infection under laboratory conditions. Morbidity and mortality were recorded, and virus re-isolation, seminested reverse transcription PCR, and histopathological assessments were performed. Using intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection, Fathead Minnows and Golden Shiners were highly susceptible to SVCV (40-70% mortality). All dead or moribund and apparently healthy surviving Fathead Minnows and Golden Shiners were SVCV positive. The SVCV was also detected in challenged but healthy Spotfin Shiners (30%) and Creek Chub (5%). However, noncyprinid species exhibited no morbidity or mortality and were free of SVCV following an observation period of 30 d. In a follow-up experimental challenge, Fathead Minnows and Golden Shiners were SVCV challenged at 10 3 and 10 5 PFU/mL by means of waterborne immersion. After immersion, Fathead Minnows and Golden Shiners exhibited characteristic SVCV disease signs, but mortality was less (30% and 10% mortality, respectively) than that in fish with i.p. injections. The SVCV was detected in all mortalities and a subset of healthy Fathead Minnows and Golden Shiners. Necrotic changes were observed in the kidneys, liver, spleen, ovaries, and heart, and other histopathological lesions also

  17. Like will to like: abundances of closely related species can predict susceptibility to intestinal colonization by pathogenic and commensal bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bärbel Stecher

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal ecosystem is formed by a complex, yet highly characteristic microbial community. The parameters defining whether this community permits invasion of a new bacterial species are unclear. In particular, inhibition of enteropathogen infection by the gut microbiota ( = colonization resistance is poorly understood. To analyze the mechanisms of microbiota-mediated protection from Salmonella enterica induced enterocolitis, we used a mouse infection model and large scale high-throughput pyrosequencing. In contrast to conventional mice (CON, mice with a gut microbiota of low complexity (LCM were highly susceptible to S. enterica induced colonization and enterocolitis. Colonization resistance was partially restored in LCM-animals by co-housing with conventional mice for 21 days (LCM(con21. 16S rRNA sequence analysis comparing LCM, LCM(con21 and CON gut microbiota revealed that gut microbiota complexity increased upon conventionalization and correlated with increased resistance to S. enterica infection. Comparative microbiota analysis of mice with varying degrees of colonization resistance allowed us to identify intestinal ecosystem characteristics associated with susceptibility to S. enterica infection. Moreover, this system enabled us to gain further insights into the general principles of gut ecosystem invasion by non-pathogenic, commensal bacteria. Mice harboring high commensal E. coli densities were more susceptible to S. enterica induced gut inflammation. Similarly, mice with high titers of Lactobacilli were more efficiently colonized by a commensal Lactobacillus reuteri(RR strain after oral inoculation. Upon examination of 16S rRNA sequence data from 9 CON mice we found that closely related phylotypes generally display significantly correlated abundances (co-occurrence, more so than distantly related phylotypes. Thus, in essence, the presence of closely related species can increase the chance of invasion of newly incoming species into

  18. Exotic and invasive terrestrial and freshwater animal species in the Dutch Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurt, van G.; Debrot, A.O.

    2011-01-01

    An overview of 72 invasive animals of the terrestrial and freshwater environments of the Dutch Caribbean, eleven of which are no longer present. All invasive animals that are principally agricultural pests and or animal and plant diseases (46 species) are excluded as these are discussed separately

  19. Human preferences for species conservation: Animal charisma trumps endangered status

    OpenAIRE

    Colléony, Agathe,; Clayton, Susan; Couvet, Denis; Saint Jalme, Michel; Prévot, Anne-Caroline

    2016-01-01

    International audience; A good deal of research has recently focused on people's commitment to biodiversity conservation by investigating their “willingness-to-pay” (WTP). Because of the public's self-reported preferences for species that are more charismatic or similar to humans, conservation programs are often biased toward these species. Our study aimed to explore the determinants of WTP among 10066 participants in a zoo conservation program. The program aims to raise money to support cons...

  20. Preschool Children's Taxonomic Knowledge of Animal Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Although taxonomic proficiency is a prerequisite for understanding ideas central to biology, previous research has established that learners frequently misclassify animals by not following the tenets of accepted taxonomic rubrics. This has immediate relevance with the recently revised English National Curriculum now requiring concepts of animal…

  1. Active versus sedentary lifestyle from childhood to adult and susceptibility to ozone: An animal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pattern of sedentary lifestyle beginning in childhood is associated with obesity and related disorders such as type 2 diabetes. Obesity is associated with increased susceptibility to air pollutants and initiating regular exercise early in life should impact positively on respir...

  2. Susceptibility of Clostridium difficile Toward Antimicrobial Agents Used as Feed Additives for Food Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Tvede, Michael

    2011-01-01

    A total of 65 toxigenic Clostridium difficile strains isolated from patients with antibiotic-associated diarrhea were tested for susceptibility to avilamycin, flavomycin, monensin, and salinomycin. Except for flavomycin the substances showed in vitro efficacy comparable to reports of the currently...

  3. Antibiotic Susceptibility Profile of Aeromonas Species Isolated from Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isoken H. Igbinosa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Aeromonas species isolated from Alice and Fort Beaufort wastewater treatment plant in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined using the disc diffusion method, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay was employed for the detection of antibiotics resistance genes. Variable susceptibilities were observed against ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, gentamicin, minocycline, among others. Aeromonas isolates from both locations were 100% resistant to penicillin, oxacillin, ampicillin, and vancomycin. Higher phenotypic resistance was observed in isolates from Fort Beaufort compared to isolates from Alice. Class A pse1 β-lactamase was detected in 20.8% of the isolates with a lower detection rate of 8.3% for blaTEM gene. Class 1 integron was present in 20.8% of Aeromonas isolates while class 2 integron and TetC gene were not detected in any isolate. The antibiotic resistance phenotypes observed in the isolates and the presence of β-lactamases genes detected in some isolates are of clinical and public health concern as this has consequences for antimicrobial chemotherapy of infections associated with Aeromonas species. This study further supports wastewater as potential reservoirs of antibiotic resistance determinants in the environment.

  4. Identification of animal species in skin clothing from museum collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Anne Lisbeth; Gilbert, Tom; Cappellini, Enrico

    Since the birth of museums, the identification of the materials from which objects are made has been a highly respected academic discipline, often yielding significant quantities of information about object provenance, traditional use of special materials, access to commodities, trade, hunting tr...... tradition, etc. This paper introduces methods that enable identification of animal sources in prehistoric and historic skin clothing, using the tools of microscopy, genetic profiling, and mass spectrometry-based protein sequencing of subsamples of hair and skin....

  5. Candida species diversity and antifungal susceptibility patterns in oral samples of HIV/AIDS patients in Baja California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark-Ordóñez, Isadora; Callejas-Negrete, Olga A; Aréchiga-Carvajal, Elva T; Mouriño-Pérez, Rosa R

    2017-04-01

    Candidiasis is the most common opportunistic fungal infection in HIV patients. The aims of this study were to identify the prevalence of carriers of Candida, Candida species diversity, and in vitro susceptibility to antifungal drugs. In 297 HIV/AIDS patients in Baja California, Mexico, Candida strains were identified by molecular methods (PCR-RFLP) from isolates of oral rinses of patients in Tijuana, Mexicali, and Ensenada. 56.3% of patients were colonized or infected with Candida. In Tijuana, there was a significantly higher percentage of carriers (75.5%). Out of the 181 strains that were isolated, 71.8% were Candida albicans and 28.2% were non-albicans species. The most common non-albicans species was Candida tropicalis (12.2%), followed by Candida glabrata (8.3%), Candida parapsilosis (2.2%), Candida krusei (1.7%), and Candida guilliermondii (1.1%). Candida dubliniensis was not isolated. Two associated species were found in 11 patients. In Mexicali and Ensenada, there was a lower proportion of Candida carriers compared to other regions in Mexico and worldwide, however, in Tijuana, a border town with many peculiarities, a higher carrier rate was found. In this population, only a high viral load was associated with oral Candida carriers. Other factors such as gender, use of antiretroviral therapy, CD4+ T-lymphocyte levels, time since diagnosis, and alcohol/ tobacco consumption, were not associated with Candida carriers. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Species used for drug testing reveal different inhibition susceptibility for 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1.

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    Gabriele Möller

    Full Text Available Steroid-related cancers can be treated by inhibitors of steroid metabolism. In searching for new inhibitors of human 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17beta-HSD 1 for the treatment of breast cancer or endometriosis, novel substances based on 15-substituted estrone were validated. We checked the specificity for different 17beta-HSD types and species. Compounds were tested for specificity in vitro not only towards recombinant human 17beta-HSD types 1, 2, 4, 5 and 7 but also against 17beta-HSD 1 of several other species including marmoset, pig, mouse, and rat. The latter are used in the processes of pharmacophore screening. We present the quantification of inhibitor preferences between human and animal models. Profound differences in the susceptibility to inhibition of steroid conversion among all 17beta-HSDs analyzed were observed. Especially, the rodent 17beta-HSDs 1 were significantly less sensitive to inhibition compared to the human ortholog, while the most similar inhibition pattern to the human 17beta-HSD 1 was obtained with the marmoset enzyme. Molecular docking experiments predicted estrone as the most potent inhibitor. The best performing compound in enzymatic assays was also highly ranked by docking scoring for the human enzyme. However, species-specific prediction of inhibitor performance by molecular docking was not possible. We show that experiments with good candidate compounds would out-select them in the rodent model during preclinical optimization steps. Potentially active human-relevant drugs, therefore, would no longer be further developed. Activity and efficacy screens in heterologous species systems must be evaluated with caution.

  7. 9 CFR 53.6 - Disinfection of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disinfection of animals. 53.6 Section 53.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... of animals. Animals of species not susceptible to the disease for which a quarantine has been...

  8. Distribution, animal preference and nutritive value of browse species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Browse species serve as the main feed sources for pastoralists' livestock especially during the dry season when herbaceous feed sources are exhausted. The study was conducted in Aba'ala District, Afar Regional State of Ethiopia to assess the indigenous knowledge on browse ecology and use and to investigate the ...

  9. Susceptibility of five forest species to Coptotermes gestroi Suscetibilidade de cinco essencias florestais a Coptotermes gestroi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Hildefonso de Souza

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Termites are well known for their ability to damage wood and various types of wood-derived products. This study was performed in the municipality of Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, with the objective of evaluating the susceptibility of the wood of five different forest species to the activity of the Asian subterranean termite, Coptotermes gestroi. Wood stakes from the following forest species were used as specimens: pine (Pinus sp., Pinaceae, Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa, Lecythidaceae, cabbage angelin (Andira inermis, Leguminosae-Papilionoideae, maçaranduba (Manilkara huberi, Sapotaceae and pink ipê (Tabebuia avellanedae, Bignoniaceae. The stakes, with dimensions of 2 cm x 2 cm x 16 cm, were subjected to the activity of C. gestroi from September 2, 2006 to June 2, 2007. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks with four replications in an 11 x 5 x 3 factorial arrangement. Twelve stakes of each of the five forest species were installed at each of eleven sites, totaling 660 stakes. Three evaluations were performed, at 90, 180 and 270 days after stake installation. The results indicated that the pine, Brazil nut and cabbage angelin stakes were more susceptible to C. gestroi attack, while the pink ipê and maçaranduba stakes suffered no significant damage from this termite. There was a significant negative correlation between the wood consumption rate and the wood density of the species studied. The woods most susceptible to C. gestroi attack presented moderate to low densities and therefore less resistance, as in the case of pine and cabbage angelin.Os térmitas são bem conhecidos por sua capacidade de danificar madeira e vários tipos de produtos derivados. O estudo foi realizado no município de Seropédica, RJ, com o objetivo de avaliar a susceptibilidade da madeira de cinco essências florestais à ação do cupim subterrâneo asiático, Coptotermes gestroi. Como corpos-de-prova foram utilizados estacas de

  10. Significance of different animal species in experimental models for in vivo investigations of hematopoiesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević-Filipović Milica

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous discoveries in medicine are results of experiments on different animal species. The most frequently used animals in hematopoiesis investigations are laboratory mice and rats, but so-called big animals, such as pigs, sheep, cats, dogs, and monkeys, evolution-wise closer to humans have a place in experimental hematology as well. The specific problematics of a certain animal specie can lead to fundamental knowledge on certain aspects of the process of hematopoiesis end the biology of stem cells in hematopoiesis. Furthermore, comparative investigations of certain phenomena in different species help in the recognition of the general rules in the living world. In the area f preclinicalinvesti- gations, animal models are an inevitable step in studies of transplantation biology of stem cells in hematopoiesis, as well as in studies of biologically active molecules which have an effect on the hematopoietic system. Knowledge acquired on animal models is applied in both human and veterinary medicine.

  11. Salmonella species isolated from animal feed in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hindawi, N; Taha, R R

    1979-01-01

    Of 700 animal feed samples, 32 (4.5%) harbored Salmonella. The highest percentage of contamination was found in sheep feed and local protein. A total of 17 Salmonella serotypes were identified. The most frequent serotypes were Salmonella meleagridis. S. bornum, S. montevideo, and S. drypool. S. bornum was isolated for the first time in Iraq and from both local feed and its ingredients. The common somatic group found was that of Salmonella group C; then came groups E, G, B, and D. Three serotypes (S. enteritidis, S. california, and S. muenchen) seemed to form a link of infection among feed, food, patients, and carriers. PMID:453836

  12. Molecular identification and antifungal susceptibility profiles of Candida parapsilosis complex species isolated from culture collection of clinical samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Silvestre Ataides

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractINTRODUCTION:Candida parapsilosis is a common yeast species found in cases of onychomycosis and candidemia associated with infected intravascular devices. In this study, we differentiated Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis , and Candida metapsilosis from a culture collection containing blood and subungual scraping samples. Furthermore, we assessed the in vitro antifungal susceptibility of these species to fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, amphotericin B, and caspofungin.METHODS:Differentiation of C. parapsilosis complex species was performed by amplification of the secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (SADH gene and digestion by the restriction enzyme Ban I. All isolates were evaluated for the determination of minimal inhibitory concentrations using Etest, a method for antifungal susceptibility testing.RESULTS:Among the 87 isolates, 78 (89.7% were identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto , five (5.7% were identified as C. orthopsilosis , and four (4.6% were identified as C. metapsilosis . Analysis of antifungal susceptibility showed that C. parapsilosis sensu strictoisolates were less susceptible to amphotericin B and itraconazole. One C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolate was resistant to amphotericin B and itraconazole. Moreover, 10.2% of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolates were resistant to caspofungin. Two C. parapsilosis sensu strictoisolates and one C. metapsilosis isolate were susceptible to fluconazole in a dose-dependent manner.CONCLUSIONS:We reported the first molecular identification of C. parapsilosiscomplex species in State of Goiás, Brazil. Additionally, we showed that although the three species exhibited differences in antifungal susceptibility profiles, the primary susceptibility of this species was to caspofungin.

  13. Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Campylobacter species Isolated From Chicken and Beef Meat

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    Hossein Dabiri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: To study prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken and beef meat, and determine the drug susceptibility of strains, 450 samples in Tehran, Iran were investigated. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and the antimicrobial resistance of entropathogenic Campylobacter strains ,especially C. jejuni isolated from raw chicken and beef meat in Tehran- Iran. Materials and Methods: Out of 250 chickens and 200 beef meats, 121(26.8 % contaminated cases with Campylobacter strains were isolated. Campylobacter was isolated from a significantly larger number of chickens (44% than beef meats (5.5 % (P < 0.05. Results: From all isolated Campylobacter organisms, 93 (76.8% species were identified as C. jejuni and 28 cases (23.1% as C. coli. Susceptibilities of 121 strains (93 C. jejuni and 28 C. coli were determined against 12 antimicrobial drugs using the disk agar diffusion method. Resistance to nalidixic acid (75% and ciprofloxacin (50% was an alarming finding, moreover, 32.6% of isolates was resistant to tetracycline, 10.8% to ampicillin, 29.3% to colisitin and 26.1% to amoxicillin. The highest sensitivity was seen to erythromycin (95 % and gentamicin (96%. Conclusions: These results showed that a high proportion of chicken and beef meat in Iran is contaminated with Campylobacter, particularly with Campylobacter jejuni. The high rate of contamination, especially chicken is a significant public health concern. Most of the isolates were resistant; therefore, human infection with Campylobacter spp. via consumption of these products is possible.

  14. Elevated Chitin Content Reduces the Susceptibility of Candida Species to Caspofungin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Louise A.; Gow, Neil A. R.

    2013-01-01

    The echinocandin antifungal drugs inhibit synthesis of the major fungal cell wall polysaccharide β(1,3)-glucan. Echinocandins have good efficacy against Candida albicans but reduced activity against other Candida species, in particular Candida parapsilosis and Candida guilliermondii. Treatment of Candida albicans with a sub-MIC level of caspofungin has been reported to cause a compensatory increase in chitin content and to select for sporadic echinocandin-resistant FKS1 point mutants that also have elevated cell wall chitin. Here we show that elevated chitin in response to caspofungin is a common response in various Candida species. Activation of chitin synthesis was observed in isolates of C. albicans, Candida tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, and C. guilliermondii and in some isolates of Candida krusei in response to caspofungin treatment. However, Candida glabrata isolates demonstrated no exposure-induced change in chitin content. Furthermore, isolates of C. albicans, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, and C. guilliermondii which were stimulated to have higher chitin levels via activation of the calcineurin and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathways had reduced susceptibility to caspofungin. Isolates containing point mutations in the FKS1 gene generally had higher chitin levels and did not demonstrate a further compensatory increase in chitin content in response to caspofungin treatment. These results highlight the potential of increased chitin synthesis as a potential mechanism of tolerance to caspofungin for the major pathogenic Candida species. PMID:23089748

  15. Genotyping of TRIM5 locus in northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina, a primate species susceptible to Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Xue-Long

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pig-tailed macaques are the only Old World monkeys known to be susceptible to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection. We have previously reported that the TRIM5-Cyclophilin A (TRIMCyp fusion in pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina is dysfunctional in restricting HIV-1, which may explain why pig-tailed macaques are susceptible to HIV-1 infection. Similar results have also been reported by other groups. However, according to the current primate taxonomy, the previously reported M. nemestrina are further classified into three species, which all belong to the Macaca spp. This calls for the need to look into the previous studies in more details. Results The local species Northern pig-tailed macaque (M. leonina was analyzed for the correlation of TRIM5 structure and HIV-1 infection. Eleven M. leonina animals were analyzed, and all of them were found to possess TRIM5-CypA fusion at the TRIM5 locus. The transcripts encoding the dysfunctional TRIM5-CypA should result from the G-to-T mutation in the 3'-splicing site of intron 6. Polymorphism in the putative TRIMCyp recognition domain was observed. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of M. leonina were susceptible to HIV-1 infection. Consistent with the previous results, expression of the M. leonina TRIMCyp in HeLa-T4 cells rendered the cells resistant to HIV-2ROD but not to SIVmac239 infection. Conclusion The susceptibility of M. leonina to HIV-1 infection is due to the dysfunctional TRIM5-CypA fusion in the TRIM5 locus. This finding should broaden our perspective in developing better HIV/AIDS non-human primate animal models.

  16. Antibiotic Susceptibility of Bifidobacterium thermophilum and Bifidobacterium pseudolongum Isolates from Animal Sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayrhofer, S.; Konrad, J.D.; Amtmann, E.; Hoek, van A.H.A.M.; Petersson, A.; Mair, C.; Mayer, H.K.; Kneifel, W.

    2007-01-01

    The widespread use of antimicrobial substances has led to resistant populations of microorganisms in several ecosystems. In animal husbandry, the application of antibiotics has contributed to resistance development in pathogenic and commensal bacteria. These strains or their resistance genes can be

  17. Isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira species from feces of layer chickens in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Werner; Willems, Hermann; Heuser, Jörg; Ewers, Christa

    2017-11-03

    Anaerobic spirochetes of the genus Brachyspira are important pathogens causing swine dysentery (Brachyspira [B.] hyodysenteriae) and porcine intestinal spirochetosis (B. pilosicoli, PIS). In addition, avian intestinal spirochetosis (AIS) is caused by B. pilosicoli, B. intermedia and B. alvinipulli. Despite the economic impact of AIS, the disease has not received appropriate attention in Germany. This study was aimed at identifying Brachyspira spp. in Germany and determining their antimicrobial susceptibility. From 2009 to 2013, a total of 71 fecal swabs were obtained from clinically healthy layer hens from eight different commercial flocks. Brachyspira spp. culture was performed in trypticase soybean agar added with 5% sheep blood. Species determination was conducted by PCRs targeting the NADH-gen and the 16S rDNA or by nox-gene sequencing. Antimicrobial susceptibility to macrolides, lincosamides and pleuromutilins was tested by a microdilution assay. Brachyspira spp. were isolated from 40 (56.3%) swabs distributed over all eight flocks. In 26 cases, the following species were determined by PCR: B. pilosicoli (n = 16), B. intermedia (2), B. innocens (3), B. murdochii (1), mixtures of B. pilosicoli/B. intermedia (2), B. innocens/B. intermedia (1), B. innocens/B. murdochii (1). Remaining isolates were characterized by nox-gene sequencing as B. "pulli" (n = 9), B. alvinipulli (3), B. intermedia (1) and as not identifiable (1). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 37 isolates revealed minimal inhibitory concentrations 90 (MIC90) of > 128 mg/l (tylosin), 64 mg/l (lincomycin), 8 mg/l (tiamulin) and 4 mg/l (valnemulin), respectively. Comparing to breakpoints applied to pigs, these values lie within the range of resistance. The demonstration of different Brachyspira spp., particularly B. pilosicoli, intermedia and alvinipulli in commercial layers, indicates the need of further research to assess their potential role in causing AIS in German poultry flocks. The

  18. Susceptibility of some Lycopersicon species and varieties to cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and tobacco mosaic virus (TMV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, A P; Horváth, J; Kazinczi, G; Gáborjányi, R

    2005-01-01

    Susceptibility of 33 Lycopersicon species and varieties to Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) were studied. Plants were mechanically inoculated with the C/U1 strain of TMV and U/246 strain of CMV. Virus infection was checked by symptomatology, DAS ELISA and back inoculation (biotest). All the studied Lycopersicon species and varieties were susceptible to TMV-C/U1. L. esculentum Mill. convar. infiniens Lehm. var. flammatum Lehm., L. esculentum Mill. convar. fruticosum Lehm. var. speciosum Lehm. and L. esculentum Mill. convar. infiniens Lehm. var. validum Bail. showed extreme resistance to CMV-U/246. The other 30 species and varieties were susceptible to CMV-U/246. New compatible and incompatible host-virus relations have been reported. The extreme resistant Lycopersicon varieties could be used as resistance sources in tomato breeding.

  19. Mud crab susceptibility to disease from white spot syndrome virus is species-dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sritunyalucksana Kallaya

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on a report for one species (Scylla serrata, it is widely believed that mud crabs are relatively resistant to disease caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. We tested this hypothesis by determining the degree of susceptibility in two species of mud crabs, Scylla olivacea and Scylla paramamosain, both of which were identified by mitochondrial 16 S ribosomal gene analysis. We compared single-dose and serial-dose WSSV challenges on S. olivacea and S. paramamosain. Findings In a preliminary test using S. olivacea alone, a dose of 1 × 106 WSSV copies/g gave 100% mortality within 7 days. In a subsequent test, 17 S. olivacea and 13 S. paramamosain were divided into test and control groups for challenge with WSSV at 5 incremental, biweekly doses starting from 1 × 104 and ending at 5 × 106 copies/g. For 11 S. olivacea challenged, 3 specimens died at doses between 1 × 105 and 5 × 105 copies/g and none died for 2 weeks after the subsequent dose (1 × 106 copies/g that was lethal within 7 days in the preliminary test. However, after the final challenge on day 56 (5 × 106 copies/g, the remaining 7 of 11 S. olivacea (63.64% died within 2 weeks. There was no mortality in the buffer-injected control crabs. For 9 S. paramamosain challenged in the same way, 5 (55.56% died after challenge doses between 1 × 104 and 5 × 105 copies/g, and none died for 2 weeks after the challenge dose of 1 × 106 copies/g. After the final challenge (5 × 106 copies/g on day 56, no S. paramamosain died during 2 weeks after the challenge, and 2 of 9 WSSV-infected S. paramamosain (22.22% remained alive together with the control crabs until the end of the test on day 106. Viral loads in these survivors were low when compared to those in the moribund crabs. Conclusions S. olivacea and S. paramamosain show wide variation in response to challenge with WSSV. S. olivacea and S. paramamosain are susceptible to white spot disease, and S. olivacea is more

  20. Mud crab susceptibility to disease from white spot syndrome virus is species-dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somboonna, Naraporn; Mangkalanan, Seksan; Udompetcharaporn, Attasit; Krittanai, Chartchai; Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya; Flegel, Tw

    2010-11-20

    Based on a report for one species (Scylla serrata), it is widely believed that mud crabs are relatively resistant to disease caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). We tested this hypothesis by determining the degree of susceptibility in two species of mud crabs, Scylla olivacea and Scylla paramamosain, both of which were identified by mitochondrial 16 S ribosomal gene analysis. We compared single-dose and serial-dose WSSV challenges on S. olivacea and S. paramamosain. In a preliminary test using S. olivacea alone, a dose of 1 × 106 WSSV copies/g gave 100% mortality within 7 days. In a subsequent test, 17 S. olivacea and 13 S. paramamosain were divided into test and control groups for challenge with WSSV at 5 incremental, biweekly doses starting from 1 × 104 and ending at 5 × 106 copies/g. For 11 S. olivacea challenged, 3 specimens died at doses between 1 × 105 and 5 × 105 copies/g and none died for 2 weeks after the subsequent dose (1 × 106 copies/g) that was lethal within 7 days in the preliminary test. However, after the final challenge on day 56 (5 × 106 copies/g), the remaining 7 of 11 S. olivacea (63.64%) died within 2 weeks. There was no mortality in the buffer-injected control crabs. For 9 S. paramamosain challenged in the same way, 5 (55.56%) died after challenge doses between 1 × 104 and 5 × 105 copies/g, and none died for 2 weeks after the challenge dose of 1 × 106 copies/g. After the final challenge (5 × 106 copies/g) on day 56, no S. paramamosain died during 2 weeks after the challenge, and 2 of 9 WSSV-infected S. paramamosain (22.22%) remained alive together with the control crabs until the end of the test on day 106. Viral loads in these survivors were low when compared to those in the moribund crabs. S. olivacea and S. paramamosain show wide variation in response to challenge with WSSV. S. olivacea and S. paramamosain are susceptible to white spot disease, and S. olivacea is more susceptible than S. paramamosain. Based on our single

  1. Candidaemia with uncommon Candida species: predisposing factors, outcome, antifungal susceptibility, and implications for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S C A; Marriott, D; Playford, E G; Nguyen, Q; Ellis, D; Meyer, W; Sorrell, T C; Slavin, M

    2009-07-01

    The risk factors for and clinical features of bloodstream infection with uncommon Candida spp. (species other than C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicals and C. krusei) are incompletely defined. To identify clinical variables associated with these species that might guide management, 57 cases of candidaemia resulting from uncommon Candida spp. were analysed in comparison with 517 episodes of Candida albicans candidaemia (2001-2004). Infection with uncommon Candida spp. (5.3% of candidaemia cases), as compared with C. albicans candidaemia, was significantly more likely to be outpatient-acquired than inpatient-acquired (15 of 57 vs. 65 of 517 episodes, p 0.01). Prior exposure to fluconazole was uncommon (n=1). Candida dubliniensis was the commonest species (n=22, 39%), followed by Candida guilliermondii (n=11, 19%) and Candida lusitaniae (n=7, 12%).C. dubliniensis candidaemia was independently associated with recent intravenous drug use (p 0.01) and chronic liver disease (p 0.03), and infection with species other than C. dubliniensis was independently associated with age<65 years (p 0.02), male sex (p 0.03) and human immunodeficiency virus infection (p 0.05). Presence of sepsis at diagnosis and crude 30-day mortality rates were similar for C. dubliniensis-related, non-C. dubliniensis-related and C. albicans-related candidaemia. Haematological malignancy was the commonest predisposing factor in C. guilliermondii (n=3, 27%) and C. lusitaniae (n=3, 43%) candidaemia. The 30-day mortality rate of C. lusitaniae candidaemia was higher than the overall death rate for all uncommon Candida spp. (42.9% vs. 25%, p not significant). All isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B, voriconazole, posaconazole, and caspofungin; five strains (9%) had fluconazole MIC values of 16-32 mg/L. Candidaemia due to uncommon Candida spp. is emerging among hospital outpatients; certain clinical variables may assist in recognition of this entity.

  2. Molecular identification, genotyping, and antifungal susceptibility testing of clinically relevant Trichosporon species from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverna, Constanza Giselle; Córdoba, Susana; Murisengo, Omar Alejandro; Vivot, Walter; Davel, Graciela; Bosco-Borgeat, María Eugenia

    2014-05-01

    Trichosporon species are emerging causative agents of mycoses; most are documented in immunocompromised patients. Species identification is important for epidemiological purposes in order to better define species clinical associations and to improve antifungal treatment. Here, we studied a collection of 41 Trichosporon strains recovered from hospitalized patients in Argentina. All strains were identified by sequencing the D1/D2 domain of 26S, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions, and intergenic spacer 1 (IGS1) region. In addition, we determined the IGS1 region genotypes of the suspected T. asahii strains. Antifungal susceptibility of all strains was investigated. Thirty-eight of the 41 strains in this study were identified as follows: 29 T. asahii, 3 T. inkin, 3 T. montevideense, 2 T. faecale, and 1 T. dermatis. The identity of the three remaining strains could not be confirmed. Strain DMic 114126 (Culture collection of the Mycology Department (DMic), National Institute of Infectious Diseases "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán".) may represent a T. asahii subspecies or a new Trichosporon species, strain DMic 94750 was identified as T. cf. guehoae and strain DMic 114132 as T. cf. akiyoshidainum. The distribution of T. asahii genotypes was as follows: 12 genotype 3, 9 genotype 1, 4 genotype 4, 2 genotype 5, and 2 genotype 7. Amphotericin B minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were ≤1 mg/l for 78% (32/41) of the strains. Fluconazole MICs were ≥2 mg/l for 90% of the strains. However, itraconazole, voriconazole, ketoconazole, and posaconazole MICs were ≤1 mg/l for 100% of the strains. Terbinafine MICs were ≤1 mg/l for 98% 40/41 of the strains.

  3. Molecular characterization of Trichinella species from wild animals in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erster, Oran; Roth, Asael; King, Roni; Markovics, Alex

    2016-11-15

    Trichinellosis is a worldwide disease caused by nematode worms of the genus Trichinella, frequently diagnosed in Israel. However, the identity of the Israeli isolates have not been studied. Here we describe the molecular characterization of 58 isolates collected from jackals (Canis aureus), wild boar (Sus scrofa), foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and a wolf (Canis lupus) in central and northern Israel. Isolates were analyzed using the multiplex PCR analysis encompassing expansion segment V (ESV) and internal sequence 1 (ITS-1) markers, which identified 52 of the 58 samples. Out of the six unidentified samples, four were successfully identified using extended PCR assays for ESV and ITS-1, developed in this study. Our analysis identified 44 isolates as T. britovi, 8 as T. spiralis, four mixed infections, and two isolates were not identified. Clonal analysis of the ITS-1 sequences from six isolates confirmed the initial identification of four mixed infections. These results show that the prevalent species in Israel are T. britovi and T. spiralis, with nearly 7% (4 of 58) incidence of mixed infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Environmental isolation, biochemical identification, and antifungal drug susceptibility of Cryptococcus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Luis Iost Teodoro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The incidence of opportunistic fungal infections has increased in recent years and is considered an important public health problem. Among systemic and opportunistic mycoses, cryptococcosis is distinguished by its clinical importance due to the increased risk of infection in individuals infected by human immunodeficiency virus. Methods To determine the occurrence of pathogenic Cryptococcus in pigeon excrement in the City of Araraquara, samples were collected from nine environments, including state and municipal schools, abandoned buildings, parks, and a hospital. The isolates were identified using classical tests, and susceptibility testing for the antifungal drugs (fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, and amphotericin B independently was also performed. After collection, the excrement samples were plated on Niger agar and incubated at room temperature. Results A total of 87 bird dropping samples were collected, and 66.6% were positive for the genus Cryptococcus. The following species were identified: Cryptococcus neoformans (17.2%, Cryptococcus gattii (5.2%, Cryptococcus ater (3.5%, Cryptococcus laurentti (1.7%, and Cryptococcus luteolus (1.7%. A total of 70.7% of the isolates were not identified to the species level and are referred to as Cryptococcus spp. throughout the manuscript. Conclusions Although none of the isolates demonstrated resistance to antifungal drugs, the identification of infested areas, the proper control of birds, and the disinfection of these environments are essential for the epidemiological control of cryptococcosis.

  5. Susceptibility of Two Sitophilus species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae to Essential Oils from Foeniculum vulgare and Satureja hortensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asgar Ebadollahi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the insecticidal activity of essential oils from Fennel, Foeniculum vulgare (Apiaceae, and Summer savory, Satureja hortensis (Lamiaceae, against two stored-product insects. Essential oils from two species of plants were obtained by Clevenger-type water distillation and their fumigant toxicities were tested against adults of the wheat weevil, Sitophilus granarius and rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (Curculionidae. The mortality was determined after 24 and 48 hrs from beginning of exposure. LC50 values of each essential oil were estimated for each insect species. Fumigation bioassays revealed that essential oils from two plants had strong insecticidal activity on experimental insects. LC50 values indicated that S. granarius was more susceptible than S. oryzae to essential oils at the exposure time 24 and 48 hrs. The mortality effect of S. hortensis oil was lower than F. vulgare oil. The LC50 values decreased with the duration of exposure to the essential oil concentrations. In all case, responses varied according to plant material, concentration, and exposure time. These results indicated that essential oils from S. hortensis and F. vulgare could be applicable to the management of stored product insects to decrease ecologically detrimental effects of utilization synthetic insecticides.

  6. Aeromonas trota sp. nov., an ampicillin-susceptible species isolated from clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnahan, A M; Chakraborty, T; Fanning, G R; Verma, D; Ali, A; Janda, J M; Joseph, S W

    1991-06-01

    Previous DNA hybridization studies established 12 Aeromonas genospecies, from which nine phenotypic species have been proposed: Aeromonas hydrophila, A. sobria, A. caviae, A. media, A. veronii, A. schubertii, A. salmonicida, A. eucrenophila, and A. jandaei. We have delineated a new Aeromonas genospecies, A. trota, on the basis of 13 strains isolated primarily from fecal specimens from southern and southeastern Asia. All strains were highly related to the proposed type strain, AH2 (ATCC 49657T): 51 to 100% (60 degrees C) and 49 to 99% (75 degrees C), with 0.2 to 2.2 divergence. AH2 was only 16 to 41% (60 degrees C) related to all other Aeromonas type strains and DNA group definition strains. The unique profile of A. trota includes negative reactions for esculin hydrolysis, arabinose fermentation, and the Voges-Proskauer test, positive reactions for cellobiose fermentation, lysine decarboxylation, and citrate utilization, and susceptibility to ampicillin, as determined by the broth microdilution MIC method and the Bauer-Kirby disk diffusion method (10 micrograms). Nine of the A. trota strains were from a single study of 165 geographically diverse aeromonads. This finding questions the efficacy of screening fecal specimens for Aeromonas spp. with ampicillin-containing media and suggests a previously unrecognized prevalence of this new species.

  7. The trend of susceptibilities to amphotericin B and fluconazole of Candida species from 1999 to 2002 in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Hsiao-Hsu

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Candida species have various degrees of susceptibility to common antifungal drugs. The extent of resistance to amphotericin B and fluconazole of Candida glabrata isolates causing candidemia has been reported. Active surveillance may help us to monitor the trend of susceptibility to antifungal drugs and to determine if there is an emerging co-resistance to both drugs of Candida species, specifically, of C. glabrata in Taiwan. Methods The susceptibilities to amphotericin B and fluconazole of Candida species collected in 1999 and 2002 of the Taiwan Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance of Yeasts (TSARY were determined by the microdilution method. Results The antifungal susceptibilities of 342 and 456 isolates collected from 11 hospitals participating in both TSARY 1999 and TSARY 2002, respectively, have been determined. The resistance rate to amphotericin B has increased from 0.3% in the TSARY1999 to 2.2% in the TSARY 2002. In contrast, the resistance rate to fluconazole has decreased from 8.8% to 2.2%. Nevertheless, significantly more C. glabrata isolates were not susceptible to fluconazole in the TSARY 2002 (47.4% than that in the TSARY 1999 (20.8%. There were 9.8% and 11% of C. glabrata isolates having susceptible-dose dependent and resistant phenotype to fluconazole in the TSARY 1999, verse 45.3% and 2.1% in the TSARY 2002. Conclusion There was an increase of resistance rate to amphotericin B in C. glabrata. On the other hand, although the resistance rate to fluconazole has decreased, almost half of C. glabrata isolates were not susceptible to this drug. Hence, continuous monitoring the emerging of co-resistance to both amphotericin B and fluconazole of Candida species, specifically, of C. glabrata, will be an important early-warning system.

  8. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage in different free-living wild animal species in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porrero, M Concepción; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Sánchez, Sergio; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Gómez-Barrero, Susana; Navarro-Gonzalez, Nora; Serrano, Emmanuel; Casas-Díaz, Encarna; Marco, Ignasi; Fernández-Garayzabal, José-Francisco; Mateos, Ana; Vidal, Dolors; Lavín, Santiago; Domínguez, Lucas

    2013-10-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a life-threatening pathogen in humans and its presence in animals is a public health concern. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of MRSA in free-living wild animals. Samples from red deer (n=273), Iberian ibex (n=212), Eurasian Griffon vulture (n=40) and wild boar (n=817) taken from different areas in Spain between June 2008 and November 2011 were analyzed. Characterization of the isolates was performed by spa typing, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A low prevalence of MRSA was found with 13 isolates obtained from 12 animals (0.89%; 95% CI: 0.46-1.56). All MRSA sequence types belonged to ST398 (t011 and t1451) and ST1 (t127). Genotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns (tetracycline resistance in ST398 and clindamycin-erythromycin-tetracycline resistance in ST1) suggest that the MRSA found probably originated in livestock (ST398) or humans (ST1). This is the first report of MRSA carriers in free-living wild animals in Europe. Although our data showed that MRSA prevalence is currently low, free-living wild animals might act as reservoir and represent a potential risk for human health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Abundance and phenotypic diversity of Escherichia coli isolates with diminished susceptibility to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins in faeces from healthy food animals after slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Miguel A; Teshager, Tirushet; Porrero, M A Concepción; García, María; Escudero, Esther; Torres, Carmen; Domínguez, Lucas

    2007-03-10

    Antimicrobial resistance (AR) is an increasing phenomenon but its quantitative estimation remains controversial. The classical resistance percentage approach is not well suited to detect either emergence or low levels resistance. One option is to shift the focus from strains to hosts. This approach is applied to test for phenotypic diversity associated with diminished susceptibility to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins (DSESC) in faecal Escherichia coli from healthy food animals in Spain. We performed E. coli enumeration in faecal samples of broilers (82 pooled samples) and pigs (80 pooled samples) at the slaughterhouse level, using Coli-ID plates alone and supplemented with cefotaxime at two levels (1 and 8 microg/ml). Antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates was tested by the agar diffusion method. Clustering was carried out using these numerical values and Ward and UPGMA methods. When using plates supplemented with 1 microg/ml of cefotaxime for DSESC E. coli detection, 93% (76/82) of broiler pooled samples and 36% (29/80) pig pooled samples tested positive. When using 8 microg/ml of cefotaxime, 67% (55/82) of broilers and 13% (10/80) of pigs were positive. Nevertheless, the relative abundance of this phenotype was low in both animal species (range 0-4.3%). Irrespective of the clustering method (Ward or UPGMA), a noticeable phenotypic diversity was detected, especially from the plates containing 1 microg/ml of cefotaxime. We concluded that: (a) E. coli with phenotype DSESC are common in broilers and pigs but are less frequent in pigs, and (b) the host approach is the most appropriate method for antimicrobial resistance assessment when null or very low levels of antimicrobial resistant bacteria are expected.

  10. Candida in the oral cavity of HIV-infected patients: Identification of species and susceptibility to fluconazole in Cali, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro, Luz Ángela

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Candida albicans is the most frequently isolated yeast from the oral cavity of HIV-infected individuals. The use of fluconazole has increased the number of resistant or less-sensitive Candida species different from C. albicans, to this antifungal agent. Objective: To establish the Candida species present in the oral cavity of HIV-infected individuals at a hospital in Cali (Colombia, their population densities, and the susceptibility to fluconazole of species different from C. albicans. Materials and methods: Samples were cultured in CHROMagar Candida and the number of colony forming units (CFU was counted. Yeast identification was done with API 20C Aux, and the susceptibility tests to fluconazole, by Etest. Results: 230 patients were studied, and 202 isolates were obtained: 106 single and 96 mixed. C. albicans predominated, followed by C. dubliniensis and C. glabrata. Candida species other than C. albicans predominated in counts lower than 400 CFU/mL. Susceptibility study to fluconazole of species different from C. albicans showed that 14 (40 % of the isolates were susceptible dose-dependent and 7 (20 %, resistant. Conclusion: In the studied population, the oral cavity was colonized by non-wild type isolates that represent a risk for the development of oropharyngeal candidiasis resistant to fluconazole treatment.

  11. In vitro antifungal susceptibility of clinical species belonging to Aspergillus genus and Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachuei, R; Khodavaisy, S; Rezaie, S; Sharifynia, S

    2016-03-01

    Among filamentous fungal pathogens, Aspergillus spp. and zygomycetes account for highest rates of morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised patients. Recently developed antifungal drugs offer the potential to improve management and therapeutic outcomes of fungal infections. The aim of this study was to analyse the in vitro activities of voriconazole, itraconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin against clinical isolates of Aspergillus spp. and Rhizopus oryzae. The in vitro antifungal susceptibility of 54 isolates belonging to different clinical isolates of Aspergillus spp. and R. oryzae was tested for four antifungal agents using a microdilution reference method (CLSI, M38-A2). All isolates were identified by typical colony and microscopic characteristics, and also characterized by molecular methods. Caspofungin (MEC range: 0.008-0.25 and MEC50: 0.0023μg/mL) was the most active drug in vitro against Aspergillus spp., followed by voriconazole (MIC range: 0.031-8 and MIC50: 0.5μg/mL), itraconazole (MIC range: 0.031-16 and MIC50: 0.25μg/mL), and amphotericin B (MIC range: 0.125-4 and MIC50: 0.5μg/mL), in order of decreasing activity. The caspofungin, voriconazole, and itraconazole demonstrated poor in vitro activity against R. oryzae isolates evaluated, followed by amphotericin B. This study demonstrates that caspofungin had good antifungal activity and azole agents had better activity than amphotericin B against Aspergillus species. Although, azole drugs are considered ineffective against R. oryzae. This result is just from a small scale in vitro susceptibility study and we did not take other factors into consideration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Climate change, animal species, and habitats: Adaptation and issues (Chapter 5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; D. Max Smith; Olivia LeDee; Jean-Luc E. Cartron; Mark A. Rumble

    2012-01-01

    Because the rate of anthropogenic climate change exceeds the adaptive capacity of many animal and plant species, the scientific community anticipates negative consequences for ecosystems. Changes in climate have expanded, contracted, or shifted the climate niches of many species, often resulting in shifting geographic ranges. In the Great Basin, for example, projected...

  13. [Molecular identification and in vitro antifungal susceptibility of blood isolates of the Candida parapsilosis species complex in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Xiomara; Reviakina, Vera; Panizo, María M; Ferrara, Giusseppe; García, Nataly; Alarcón, Víctor; Garcés, María F; Dolande, Maribel

    Candida parapsilosis is a species complex consisting of Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis. Studies worldwide have described its epidemiology and susceptibility to antifungal agents. The aims of this study were to carry out the molecular identification of blood isolates belonging to the Candida parapsilosis species complex, and to determine their in vitro susceptibility to antifungals of systemic use. A study of 86 strains of C. parapsilosis species complex collected in 2008-2011 and obtained from the Candidaemia Surveillance Network of Mycology Department of the Rafael Rangel National Institute of Hygiene, was made. Secondary alcohol-dehydrogenase gene amplification was performed using polymerase chain reaction, and the products were analysed by restriction fragments length polymorphisms using the enzyme BanI. Susceptibility tests were performed using Etest(®), following the manufacturer's instructions with modifications. Of the 86 isolates studied, 81 (94.2%) were C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, 4 (4.6%) C. orthopsilosis, and one (1.2%) C. metapsilosis. C. parapsilosis isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B and caspofungin, showing low rates of resistance to fluconazole and voriconazole. C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis were susceptible to all the antifungals tested. The results obtained in Venezuela provide for the first time important information about the distribution of C. parapsilosis species complex in cases of candidaemia, and support the need for continuing surveillance programs, including molecular discrimination of species and antifungal susceptibility tests, which may guide specific therapy. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Habitat availability does not explain the species richness patterns of European lentic and lotic freshwater animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehling, D.M.; Hof, C.; Brandle, M.

    2010-01-01

    Aim In Europe, the relationships between species richness and latitude differ for lentic (standing water) and lotic (running water) species. Freshwater animals are highly dependent on suitable habitat, and thus the distribution of available habitat should strongly influence large-scale patterns...... of species richness. We tested whether habitat availability can account for the differences in species richness patterns between European lentic and lotic freshwater animals. Location Europe. Methods We compiled occurrence data of 1959 lentic and 2445 lotic species as well as data on the amount of lentic...... and lotic habitats across 25 pre-defined biogeographical regions of European freshwaters. We used the range of elevation of each region as a proxy for habitat diversity. We investigated the relationships between species richness, habitat availability and habitat diversity with univariate and multiple...

  15. Comparison of agar dilution and antibiotic gradient strip test with broth microdilution for susceptibility testing of swine Brachyspira species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirajkar, Nandita S; Gebhart, Connie J

    2016-03-01

    Production-limiting diseases in swine caused by Brachyspira are characterized by mucohemorrhagic diarrhea (B. hyodysenteriae and "B. hampsonii") or mild colitis (B. pilosicoli), while B. murdochii is often isolated from healthy pigs. Emergence of novel pathogenic Brachyspira species and strains with reduced susceptibility to commonly used antimicrobials has reinforced the need for standardized susceptibility testing. Two methods are currently used for Brachyspira susceptibility testing: agar dilution (AD) and broth microdilution (BMD). However, these tests have primarily been used for B. hyodysenteriae and rarely for B. pilosicoli. Information on the use of commercial susceptibility testing products such as antibiotic gradient strips is lacking. Our main objective was to validate and compare the susceptibility results, measured as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), of 6 antimicrobials for 4 Brachyspira species (B. hyodysenteriae, "B. hampsonii", B. pilosicoli, and B. murdochii) by BMD and AD (tiamulin, valnemulin, lincomycin, tylosin, and carbadox) or antibiotic gradient strip (doxycycline) methods. In general, the results of a high percentage of all 4 Brachyspira species differed by ±1 log2 dilution or less by BMD and AD for tiamulin, valnemulin, lincomycin, and tylosin, and by BMD and antibiotic gradient strip for doxycycline. The carbadox MICs obtained by BMD were 1-5 doubling dilutions different than those obtained by AD. BMD for Brachyspira was quicker to perform with less ambiguous interpretation of results when compared with AD and antibiotic gradient strip methods, and the results confirm the utility of BMD in routine diagnostics. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. Signs Observed Among Animal Species Infected with Raccoon Rabies Variant Virus, Massachusetts, USA, 1992–2010

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    Linda L. Han

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed signs occurring among domestic and wild terrestrial animal species infected with raccoon rabies variant virus (RRV in Massachusetts, 1992–2010. The clinical sign of aggression was significantly associated with rabid stray cats (odds ratio, OR = 2.3 and RRV affected major wild terrestrial animal species individually, which included raccoons (OR = 2.8, skunks (OR = 8.0, gray foxes (OR = 21.3, red foxes (OR = 10.4, woodchucks (OR = 4.7 and coyotes (OR = 27.6. While aggression is a useful predictor of rabies among wild animals, combinations of other signs such as ataxia, disorientation, and salivation are useful predictors of rabies among domestic animals. Pets reported with multiple clinical signs had significantly higher rabies positive testing result than those reported with single clinical sign (p < 0.001. The result suggested the importance of avoiding aggressive terrestrial wild animals and giving additional attention to pets with multiple clinical signs.

  17. MALDI-TOF MS analysis of human and animal Brachyspira species and benefits of database extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderaro, Adriana; Piccolo, Giovanna; Montecchini, Sara; Buttrini, Mirko; Gorrini, Chiara; Rossi, Sabina; Arcangeletti, Maria Cristina; De Conto, Flora; Medici, Maria Cristina; Chezzi, Carlo

    2013-01-14

    Spirochaetes belonging to the genus Brachyspira are anaerobic bacteria that colonize the large intestine of humans and animals, mainly pigs. The main species are namely, B. hyodysenteriae, the etiological agent of swine dysentery, B. pilosicoli, a zoonotic agent causing colonic spirochaetosis both in humans and different animal species, B. aalborgi, exclusively infecting humans causing colonic spirochaetosis, B. intermedia, a potential animal pathogen, B. innocens and B. murdochii, generally commensal of pigs, and B. alvinipulli, found in egg laying hens with diarrhea. In this study, for the first time, MALDI-TOF MS was applied on Brachyspira strains of human and animal origins, supplementing the existing database, limited to the species B. murdochii only, with spirochaetal protein profiles and demonstrating its usefulness in the rapid, cheap and reliable identification of Brachyspira strains at the species level, overcoming the problems previously encountered in the identification of these spirochaetes when using biochemical and genetic-based methods. Moreover, a dendrogram based on protein profiles of the different spirochaetal species was generated reflecting their host spectrum, showing in the same branch the only two species able to infect humans (B. aalborgi and B. pilosicoli) and in the other branch the spirochaetes infecting exclusively animals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Susceptibility of 7 freshwater gastropod species in Zimbabwe to infection with Gastrodiscus aegyptiacus (Cobbold, 1876) Looss, 1896 : short communication

    OpenAIRE

    S. Mukaratirwa; I.F. Munjere; M. Takawira; G. Chingwena

    2004-01-01

    Gastrodiscosis outbreaks due to Gastrodiscus aegyptiacus were recorded in horses in the vicinity of Harare, Zimbabwe, in the absence of Bulinus forskalii, B. senegalensis and Cleopatra sp. which are considered to be the only intermediate host snails. This suggested the possibility of other snail species acting as intermediate hosts in the life cycle of the trematode. A study was carried out to determine the susceptibility of 7 freshwater snail species to infection with G. aegyptiacus. First g...

  19. In vitro drug susceptibility of 2275 clinical non-tuberculous Mycobacterium isolates of 49 species in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingen, J. van; Laan, T. van der; Dekhuijzen, R.; Boeree, M.J.; Soolingen, D. van

    2010-01-01

    In this study, 2275 clinical isolates of 49 species of non-tuberculous mycobacteria isolated in The Netherlands were subjected to standardised drug susceptibility testing using the Middlebrook 7H10 agar dilution method. Clarithromycin and rifabutin were most active, with 87% and 83% of all isolates,

  20. Effect of environmental and seasonal factors on the susceptibility of different rhododendron species and hybrids to Phytophthora ramorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabelle De Dobbelaere; Kurt Heungens; Martine Maes

    2008-01-01

    Although Rhododendron is the most important host of Phytophthora ramorum. in Europe, there is little scientific information about the susceptibility levels of different Rhododendron species and cultivars. Increasing this knowledge would help nurseries in the management of the disease and could be used by plant protection services to target their...

  1. The enigma of soil animal species diversity revisited: the role of small-scale heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Uffe N; Osler, Graham H R; Campbell, Colin D; Neilson, Roy; Burslem, David F R P; van der Wal, René

    2010-07-13

    "The enigma of soil animal species diversity" was the title of a popular article by J. M. Anderson published in 1975. In that paper, Anderson provided insights on the great richness of species found in soils, but emphasized that the mechanisms contributing to the high species richness belowground were largely unknown. Yet, exploration of the mechanisms driving species richness has focused, almost exclusively, on above-ground plant and animal communities, and nearly 35 years later we have several new hypotheses but are not much closer to revealing why soils are so rich in species. One persistent but untested hypothesis is that species richness is promoted by small-scale environmental heterogeneity. To test this hypothesis we manipulated small-scale heterogeneity in soil properties in a one-year field experiment and investigated the impacts on the richness of soil fauna and evenness of the microbial communities. We found that heterogeneity substantially increased the species richness of oribatid mites, collembolans and nematodes, whereas heterogeneity had no direct influence on the evenness of either the fungal, bacterial or archaeal communities or on species richness of the large and mobile mesostigmatid mites. These results suggest that the heterogeneity-species richness relationship is scale dependent. Our results provide direct evidence for the hypothesis that small-scale heterogeneity in soils increase species richness of intermediate-sized soil fauna. The concordance of mechanisms between above and belowground communities suggests that the relationship between environmental heterogeneity and species richness may be a general property of ecological communities.

  2. Epizootic to enzootic transition of a fungal disease in tropical Andean frogs: Are surviving species still susceptible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Catenazzi

    Full Text Available The fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd, which causes the disease chytridiomycosis, has been linked to catastrophic amphibian declines throughout the world. Amphibians differ in their vulnerability to chytridiomycosis; some species experience epizootics followed by collapse while others exhibit stable host/pathogen dynamics where most amphibian hosts survive in the presence of Bd (e.g., in the enzootic state. Little is known about the factors that drive the transition between the two disease states within a community, or whether populations of species that survived the initial epizootic are stable, yet this information is essential for conservation and theory. Our study focuses on a diverse Peruvian amphibian community that experienced a Bd-caused collapse. We explore host/Bd dynamics of eight surviving species a decade after the mass extinction by using population level disease metrics and Bd-susceptibility trials. We found that three of the eight species continue to be susceptible to Bd, and that their populations are declining. Only one species is growing in numbers and it was non-susceptible in our trials. Our study suggests that some species remain vulnerable to Bd and exhibit ongoing population declines in enzootic systems where Bd-host dynamics are assumed to be stable.

  3. Investigation into the animal species contents of popular wet pet foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine, Isabella R; Atterbury, Robert; Chang, Kin-Chow

    2015-03-10

    The use of the generic term "meat and animal derivatives" in declared ingredient lists of pet foods in the European Union is virtually universal. In the wake of the 2013 "horse meat scandal" in the human food chain, we examined the presence and authenticity of animal sources (cow, chicken, pig and horse) of proteins in a range of popular wet pet foods in the United Kingdom. Seventeen leading dog and cat foods were sampled for the relative presence of DNA from each of the four animal species by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. No horse DNA was detected. However, there was detection at substantial levels of unspecified animal species in most products tested. In 14 out of 17 samples, bovine, porcine and chicken DNA were found in various proportions and combinations but were not explicitly identified on the product labels. Of the 7 products with prominent headline descriptions containing the term "with beef", only 2 were found to contain more bovine DNA (>50%) than pig and chicken DNA combined. There is a need for the pet food industry to show greater transparency to customers in the disclosure of the types of animal proteins (animal species and tissue types) in their products. Full disclosure of animal contents will (a) allow more informed choices to be made on purchases which are particularly important for pets with food allergies, (b) reduce the risk of product misinterpretation by shoppers, and (c) avoid potential religious concerns.

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility and minimal inhibitory concentration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibiotic susceptibility profile of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from different animal species with septic ocular surface disease. Sixteen strains of P. aeruginosa were isolated from different species of animals (dog, cat, horse, penguin and brown bear) with ocular surface ...

  5. Minipig and beagle animal model genomes aid species selection in pharmaceutical discovery and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vamathevan, Jessica J., E-mail: jessica.j.vamathevan@gsk.com [Computational Biology, Quantitative Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage (United Kingdom); Hall, Matthew D.; Hasan, Samiul; Woollard, Peter M. [Computational Biology, Quantitative Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage (United Kingdom); Xu, Meng; Yang, Yulan; Li, Xin; Wang, Xiaoli [BGI-Shenzen, Shenzhen (China); Kenny, Steve [Safety Assessment, PTS, GlaxoSmithKline, Ware (United Kingdom); Brown, James R. [Computational Biology, Quantitative Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline, Collegeville, PA (United States); Huxley-Jones, Julie [UK Platform Technology Sciences (PTS) Operations and Planning, PTS, GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage (United Kingdom); Lyon, Jon; Haselden, John [Safety Assessment, PTS, GlaxoSmithKline, Ware (United Kingdom); Min, Jiumeng [BGI-Shenzen, Shenzhen (China); Sanseau, Philippe [Computational Biology, Quantitative Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-15

    Improving drug attrition remains a challenge in pharmaceutical discovery and development. A major cause of early attrition is the demonstration of safety signals which can negate any therapeutic index previously established. Safety attrition needs to be put in context of clinical translation (i.e. human relevance) and is negatively impacted by differences between animal models and human. In order to minimize such an impact, an earlier assessment of pharmacological target homology across animal model species will enhance understanding of the context of animal safety signals and aid species selection during later regulatory toxicology studies. Here we sequenced the genomes of the Sus scrofa Göttingen minipig and the Canis familiaris beagle, two widely used animal species in regulatory safety studies. Comparative analyses of these new genomes with other key model organisms, namely mouse, rat, cynomolgus macaque, rhesus macaque, two related breeds (S. scrofa Duroc and C. familiaris boxer) and human reveal considerable variation in gene content. Key genes in toxicology and metabolism studies, such as the UGT2 family, CYP2D6, and SLCO1A2, displayed unique duplication patterns. Comparisons of 317 known human drug targets revealed surprising variation such as species-specific positive selection, duplication and higher occurrences of pseudogenized targets in beagle (41 genes) relative to minipig (19 genes). These data will facilitate the more effective use of animals in biomedical research. - Highlights: • Genomes of the minipig and beagle dog, two species used in pharmaceutical studies. • First systematic comparative genome analysis of human and six experimental animals. • Key drug toxicology genes display unique duplication patterns across species. • Comparison of 317 drug targets show species-specific evolutionary patterns.

  6. Maintaining animal assemblages through single-species management: the case of threatened caribou in boreal forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichet, Orphé; Dupuch, Angélique; Hébert, Christian; Le Borgne, Hélène Le; Fortin, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    With the intensification of human activities, preserving animal populations is a contemporary challenge of critical importance. In this context, the umbrella species concept is appealing because preserving a single species should result in the protection of multiple co-occurring species. Practitioners, though, face the task of having to find suitable umbrellas to develop single-species management guidelines. In North America, boreal forests must be managed to facilitate the recovery of the threatened boreal caribou (Rangifer tarandus). Yet, the effect of caribou conservation on co-occurring animal species remains poorly documented. We tested if boreal caribou can constitute an effective umbrella for boreal fauna. Birds, small mammals, and insects were sampled along gradients of post-harvest and post-fire forest succession. Predictive models of occupancy were developed from the responses of 95 species to characteristics of forest stands and their surroundings. We then assessed the similarity of species occupancy expected between simulated harvested landscapes and a 90 000-km2 uncut landscape. Managed landscapes were simulated based on three levels of disturbance, two timber-harvest rotation cycles, and dispersed or aggregated cut-blocks. We found that management guidelines that were more likely to maintain caribou populations should also better preserve animal assemblages. Relative to fragmentation or harvest cycle, we detected a stronger effect of habitat loss on species assemblages. Disturbing 22%, 35%, and 45% of the landscape should result, respectively, in 80%, 60%, and 40% probability for caribou populations to be sustainable; in turn, this should result in regional species assemblages with Jaccard similarity indices of 0.86, 0.79, and 0.74, respectively, relative to the uncut landscape. Our study thus demonstrates the value of single-species management for animal conservation. Our quantitative approach allows for the evaluation of management guidelines prior

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus species isolated from clinical mastitis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin-Faublée, Véronique; Tardy, Florence; Bouveron, Clarisse; Carret, Gérard

    2002-03-01

    The antimicrobial susceptibility was determined for 50 Streptococcus uberis, 42 S. dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae and eight S. agalactiae strains isolated from cow mastitis. Only 27% of the strains were susceptible to all antimicrobial compounds tested. Resistance to tetracycline was most frequent (particularly for S. dysgalactiae strains), then macrolide and/or lincomycin resistance. High level resistance to streptomycin and kanamycin was detected. All S. dysgalactiae and S. agalactiae strains were susceptible to beta-lactams but 44% of the S. uberis strains showed an elevated penicillin G MIC. All strains were susceptible to chloramphenicol and rifampicin.

  8. Enterococcus Species in the Oral Cavity: Prevalence, Virulence Factors and Antimicrobial Susceptibility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Komiyama, Edson Yukio; Lepesqueur, Laura Soares Souto; Yassuda, Cinthia Gomes; Samaranayake, Lakshman P; Parahitiyawa, Nipuna B; Balducci, Ivan; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Yumi

    2016-01-01

    .... faecalis isolates, in particular, were evaluated for virulence attributes such as their biofilm formation potential, and susceptibility to antimicrobials and an antiseptic, chlorhexidine gluconate...

  9. Identification of Candida species and susceptibility testing with Sensititre YeastOne microdilution panel to 9 antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukates, Emine; Gultekin, Nuh N; Alisan, Zeynep; Hondur, Nur; Ozturk, Recep

    2016-07-01

    To determine the species incidence and susceptibility pattern to 9 antifungal agents of yeasts isolated from various clinical specimens of colonized or infected patients treated in the coronary and surgical intensive care units (ICU).  A total of 421 ICU patients were treated at the Cardiology Institute, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey between June 2013 and May 2014, and 44 Candida species were isolated from blood, urine, endotracheal aspiration fluid, sputum, and wounds of 16 ICU patients. Identification of Candida was performed using CHROMagar. Antifungal susceptibility was determined by a Sensititre YeastOne colorimetric microdilution panel.  Candida albicans (C. albicans) was the most commonly observed microorganism 23 (54%); the other microorganisms isolated were Candida tropicalis 12 (27%), Candida glabrata 5 (11%), Candida parapsilosis 1 (2%), Candida lusitaniae 1 (2%), Candida sake 1 (2%), and Geotrichum capitatum 1 (2%). All isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B and 5-flucytosine. Geotrichum capitatum excepted, the other isolates were also susceptible to anidulafungin, micafungin, and caspofungin. Candida parapsilosis was found to be susceptible to all the studied antifungals. High MIC rates for azole group of antifungal drugs were found for C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. glabrata. The rate of colonisation was 3.8% (16/421). Only 0.7% (3/421) patients out of a total of 421 developed candidemia.  We found that the yeast colonization and infection rates of patients in our ICUs are very low. Candida albicans is still the most common species. We detected a decreasing susceptibility to azole compounds.

  10. Differential cell line susceptibility to the emerging Zika virus: implications for disease pathogenesis, non-vector-borne human transmission and animal reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; Yip, Cyril Chik-Yan; Tsang, Jessica Oi-Ling; Tee, Kah-Meng; Cai, Jian-Piao; Chik, Kenn Ka-Heng; Zhu, Zheng; Chan, Chris Chung-Sing; Choi, Garnet Kwan-Yue; Sridhar, Siddharth; Zhang, Anna Jinxia; Lu, Gang; Chiu, Kin; Lo, Amy Cheuk-Yin; Tsao, Sai-Wah; Kok, Kin-Hang; Jin, Dong-Yan; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2016-08-24

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is unique among human-pathogenic flaviviruses by its association with congenital anomalies and trans-placental and sexual human-to-human transmission. Although the pathogenesis of ZIKV-associated neurological complications has been reported in recent studies, key questions on the pathogenesis of the other clinical manifestations, non-vector-borne transmission and potential animal reservoirs of ZIKV remain unanswered. We systematically characterized the differential cell line susceptibility of 18 human and 15 nonhuman cell lines to two ZIKV isolates (human and primate) and dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2). Productive ZIKV replication (⩾2 log increase in viral load, ZIKV nonstructural protein-1 (NS1) protein expression and cytopathic effects (CPE)) was found in the placental (JEG-3), neuronal (SF268), muscle (RD), retinal (ARPE19), pulmonary (Hep-2 and HFL), colonic (Caco-2),and hepatic (Huh-7) cell lines. These findings helped to explain the trans-placental transmission and other clinical manifestations of ZIKV. Notably, the prostatic (LNCaP), testicular (833KE) and renal (HEK) cell lines showed increased ZIKV load and/or NS1 protein expression without inducing CPE, suggesting their potential roles in sexual transmission with persistent viral replication at these anatomical sites. Comparatively, none of the placental and genital tract cell lines allowed efficient DENV-2 replication. Among the nonhuman cell lines, nonhuman primate (Vero and LLC-MK2), pig (PK-15), rabbit (RK-13), hamster (BHK21) and chicken (DF-1) cell lines supported productive ZIKV replication. These animal species may be important reservoirs and/or potential animal models for ZIKV. The findings in our study help to explain the viral shedding pattern, transmission and pathogenesis of the rapidly disseminating ZIKV, and are useful for optimizing laboratory diagnostics and studies on the pathogenesis and counter-measures of ZIKV.

  11. Susceptibility to Campylobacter infection is associated with the species composition of the human fecal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicksved, Johan; Ellström, Patrik; Engstrand, Lars; Rautelin, Hilpi

    2014-09-16

    The gut microbiota is essential for human health, but very little is known about how the composition of this ecosystem can influence and respond to bacterial infections. Here we address this by prospectively studying the gut microbiota composition before, during, and after natural Campylobacter infection in exposed poultry abattoir workers. The gut microbiota composition was analyzed with 16S amplicon sequencing of fecal samples from poultry abattoir workers during the peak season of Campylobacter infection in Sweden. The gut microbiota compositions were compared between individuals who became culture positive for Campylobacter and those who remained negative. Individuals who became Campylobacter positive had a significantly higher abundance of Bacteroides (P = 0.007) and Escherichia (P = 0.002) species than those who remained culture negative. Furthermore, this group had a significantly higher abundance of Phascolarctobacterium (P = 0.017) and Streptococcus (P = 0.034) sequences than the Campylobacter-negative group, which had an overrepresentation of Clostridiales (P = 0.017), unclassified Lachnospiraceae (P = 0.008), and Anaerovorax (P = 0.015) sequences. Intraindividual comparisons of the fecal microbiota compositions yielded small differences over time in Campylobacter-negative participants, but significant long-term changes were found in the Campylobacter-positive group (P microbiota reduces resistance to Campylobacter colonization in humans and that Campylobacter infection can have long-term effects on the composition of the human fecal microbiota. Studies using mouse models have made important contributions to our understanding of the role of the gut microbiota in resistance to bacterial enteropathogen colonization. The relative abundances of Escherichia coli and Bacteroides species have been pointed out as important determinants of susceptibility to Gram-negative pathogens in general and Campylobacter infection in particular. In this study, we assessed the

  12. Unexpected effects of azole transporter inhibitors on antifungal susceptibility in Candida glabrata and other pathogenic Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayoshi, Yohsuke; Miyazaki, Taiga; Shimamura, Shintaro; Nakayama, Hironobu; Minematsu, Asuka; Yamauchi, Shunsuke; Takazono, Takahiro; Nakamura, Shigeki; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Kohno, Shigeru; Mukae, Hiroshi; Izumikawa, Koichi

    2017-01-01

    The pathogenic fungus Candida glabrata is often resistant to azole antifungal agents. Drug efflux through azole transporters, such as Cdr1 and Cdr2, is a key mechanism of azole resistance and these genes are under the control of the transcription factor Pdr1. Recently, the monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) inhibitor clorgyline was shown to inhibit the azole efflux pumps, leading to increased azole susceptibility in C. glabrata. In the present study, we have evaluated the effects of clorgyline on susceptibility of C. glabrata to not only azoles, but also to micafungin and amphotericin B, using wild-type and several mutant strains. The addition of clorgyline to the culture media increased fluconazole susceptibility of a C. glabrata wild-type strain, whereas micafungin and amphotericin B susceptibilities were markedly decreased. These phenomena were also observed in other medically important Candida species, including Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei. Expression levels of CDR1, CDR2 and PDR1 mRNAs and an amount of Cdr1 protein in the C. glabrata wild-type strain were highly increased in response to the treatment with clorgyline. However, loss of Cdr1, Cdr2, Pdr1, and a putative clorgyline target (Fms1), which is an ortholog of human MAO-A, or overexpression of CDR1 did not affect the decreased susceptibility to micafungin and amphotericin B in the presence of clorgyline. The presence of other azole efflux pump inhibitors including milbemycin A4 oxime and carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone also decreased micafungin susceptibility in C. glabrata wild-type, Δcdr1, Δcdr2, and Δpdr1 strains. These findings suggest that azole efflux pump inhibitors increase azole susceptibility but concurrently induce decreased susceptibility to other classes of antifungals independent of azole transporter functions.

  13. Animal culture impacts species' capacity to realise climate-driven range shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keith, Sally A.; Bull, Joseph William

    2017-01-01

    Ecological predictions of how species will shift their geographical distributions under climate change generally consider individuals as machines that respond optimally to changing environmental conditions. However, animals frequently make active behavioural decisions based on imperfect information...... (within generations) can encourage innovation and so facilitate dynamic responses to a changing environment. We believe that the time is right to unite recent advances in ecological modelling and behavioural understanding to explicitly incorporate the influence of animal culture into future predictions...

  14. Predicting rarity and decline in animals, plants, and mushrooms based on species attributes and indicator groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musters, C J M; Kalkman, Vincent; van Strien, Arco

    2013-09-01

    In decisions on nature conservation measures, we depend largely on knowledge of the relationship between threats and environmental factors for a very limited number of species groups, with relevant environmental factors often being deduced from the relationship between threat and species traits. But can relationships between traits and levels of threats be identified across species from completely different taxonomic groups; and how accurately do well-known taxonomic groups indicate levels of threat in other species groups? To answer these questions, we first made a list of 152 species attributes of morphological and demographic traits and habitat requirements. Based on these attributes we then grew random forests of decision trees for 1183 species in the 18 different taxonomic groups for which we had Red Lists available in the Netherlands, using these to classify animals, plants, and mushrooms according to their rarity and decline. Finally, we grew random forests for four species groups often used as indicator groups to study how well the relationship between attribute and decline within these groups reflected that relationship within the larger taxonomic group to which these groups belong. Correct classification of rarity based on all attributes was as high as 88% in animals, 85% in plants, and 94% in mushrooms and correct classification of decline was 78% in animals, 69% in plants, and 70% in mushrooms. Vertebrates indicated decline in all animals well, as did birds for all vertebrates and vascular plants for all plants. However, butterflies poorly indicated decline in all insects. Random forests are a useful tool to relate rarity and decline to species attributes thereby making it possible to generalize rarity and decline to a wider set of species groups. Random forests can be used to estimate the level of threat to complete faunas and floras of countries or regions. In regions like the Netherlands, conservation policy based on attributes known to be relevant

  15. Potential arsenic exposures in 25 species of zoo animals living in CCA-wood enclosures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gress, J. [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Jiangsu 201146 (China); Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Silva, E.B. da; Oliveira, L.M. de [Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Zhao, Di [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Jiangsu 201146 (China); Anderson, G. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Heard, D. [Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Stuchal, L.D. [Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Department of Environmental and Global Health, College of Public Health and Health Professions, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Ma, L.Q., E-mail: lqma@ufl.edu [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Jiangsu 201146 (China); Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Animal enclosures are often constructed from wood treated with the pesticide chromated copper arsenate (CCA), which leaches arsenic (As) into adjacent soil during normal weathering. This study evaluated potential pathways of As exposure in 25 species of zoo animals living in CCA-wood enclosures. We analyzed As speciation in complete animal foods, dislodgeable As from CCA-wood, and As levels in enclosure soils, as well as As levels in biomarkers of 9 species of crocodilians (eggs), 4 species of birds (feathers), 1 primate species (hair), and 1 porcupine species (quills). Elevated soil As in samples from 17 enclosures was observed at 1.0–110 mg/kg, and enclosures housing threatened and endangered species had As levels higher than USEPA's risk-based Eco-SSL for birds and mammals of 43 and 46 mg/kg. Wipe samples of CCA-wood on which primates sit had dislodgeable As residues of 4.6–111 μg/100 cm{sup 2}, typical of unsealed CCA-wood. Inorganic As doses from animal foods were estimated at 0.22–7.8 μg/kg bw/d. Some As levels in bird feathers and crocodilian eggs were higher than prior studies on wild species. However, hair from marmosets had 6.37 mg/kg As, 30-fold greater than the reference value, possibly due to their inability to methylate inorganic As. Our data suggested that elevated As in soils and dislodgeable As from CCA-wood could be important sources of As exposure for zoo animals. - Highlights: • Daily inorganic As dose from zoo animal foods was 0.22–7.8 μg/kg bw/day. • Total As concentrations in soils of zoo animal enclosures were 1.0–110 mg/kg. • Endangered zoo animals live in soils with As above USEPA Eco-SSLs for avian and mammal species. • Dislodgeable As on CCA-wood beams where primates sit was 4.6–111 μg/100 cm{sup 2}. • Marmoset hair had 6.37 mg/kg As compared to a reference value of 0.21 mg/kg.

  16. Potential arsenic exposures in 25 species of zoo animals living in CCA-wood enclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gress, J; da Silva, E B; de Oliveira, L M; Zhao, Di; Anderson, G; Heard, D; Stuchal, L D; Ma, L Q

    2016-05-01

    Animal enclosures are often constructed from wood treated with the pesticide chromated copper arsenate (CCA), which leaches arsenic (As) into adjacent soil during normal weathering. This study evaluated potential pathways of As exposure in 25 species of zoo animals living in CCA-wood enclosures. We analyzed As speciation in complete animal foods, dislodgeable As from CCA-wood, and As levels in enclosure soils, as well as As levels in biomarkers of 9 species of crocodilians (eggs), 4 species of birds (feathers), 1 primate species (hair), and 1 porcupine species (quills). Elevated soil As in samples from 17 enclosures was observed at 1.0-110mg/kg, and enclosures housing threatened and endangered species had As levels higher than USEPA's risk-based Eco-SSL for birds and mammals of 43 and 46mg/kg. Wipe samples of CCA-wood on which primates sit had dislodgeable As residues of 4.6-111μg/100cm(2), typical of unsealed CCA-wood. Inorganic As doses from animal foods were estimated at 0.22-7.8μg/kg bw/d. Some As levels in bird feathers and crocodilian eggs were higher than prior studies on wild species. However, hair from marmosets had 6.37mg/kg As, 30-fold greater than the reference value, possibly due to their inability to methylate inorganic As. Our data suggested that elevated As in soils and dislodgeable As from CCA-wood could be important sources of As exposure for zoo animals. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Virulence gene profiles of Arcobacter species isolated from animals, foods of animal origin, and humans in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, M Soma; Tumati, S R; Chinnam, B K; Kothapalli, V S; Sharif, N Mohammad

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to detect putative virulence genes in Arcobacter species of animal and human origin. A total of 41 Arcobacter isolates (16 Arcobacter butzleri, 13 Arcobacter cryaerophilus, and 12 Arcobacter skirrowii) isolated from diverse sources such as fecal swabs of livestock (21), raw foods of animal origin (13), and human stool samples (7) were subjected to a set of six uniplex polymerase chain reaction assays targeting Arcobacter putative virulence genes (ciaB, pldA, tlyA, mviN, cadF, and cj1349). All the six virulence genes were detected among all the 16 A. butzleri isolates. Among the 13 A. cryaerophilus isolates, cadF, ciaB, cj1349, mviN, pldA, and tlyA genes were detected in 61.5, 84.6, 76.9, 76.9, 61.5, and 61.5% of isolates, respectively. Among the 12 A. skirrowii isolates, cadF, ciaB, cj1349, mviN, pldA, and tlyA genes were detected in 50.0, 91.6, 83.3, 66.6, 50, and 50% of isolates, respectively. Putative virulence genes were detected in majority of the Arcobacter isolates examined. The results signify the potential of Arcobacter species as an emerging foodborne pathogen.

  18. Virulence gene profiles of Arcobacter species isolated from animals, foods of animal origin, and humans in Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Soma Sekhar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to detect putative virulence genes in Arcobacter species of animal and human origin. Materials and Methods: A total of 41 Arcobacter isolates (16 Arcobacter butzleri, 13 Arcobacter cryaerophilus, and 12 Arcobacter skirrowii isolated from diverse sources such as fecal swabs of livestock (21, raw foods of animal origin (13, and human stool samples (7 were subjected to a set of six uniplex polymerase chain reaction assays targeting Arcobacter putative virulence genes (ciaB, pldA, tlyA, mviN, cadF, and cj1349. Results: All the six virulence genes were detected among all the 16 A. butzleri isolates. Among the 13 A. cryaerophilus isolates, cadF, ciaB, cj1349, mviN, pldA, and tlyA genes were detected in 61.5, 84.6, 76.9, 76.9, 61.5, and 61.5% of isolates, respectively. Among the 12 A. skirrowii isolates, cadF, ciaB, cj1349, mviN, pldA, and tlyA genes were detected in 50.0, 91.6, 83.3, 66.6, 50, and 50% of isolates, respectively. Conclusion: Putative virulence genes were detected in majority of the Arcobacter isolates examined. The results signify the potential of Arcobacter species as an emerging foodborne pathogen.

  19. Expression of fibrosis-related molecules in the oral mucosa of six animal species: A reference for selecting animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Guoliang; Xiong, Xuepeng; Ren, Jiangang; Zhao, Yifang; He, Sangang

    2017-01-01

    Several animal models have been used in studies associated with oral submucous fibrosis (OSF); however, an appropriate model based on the histopathological characteristics of OSF is still needed. This study aimed to provide histological references for selecting a potential model. The expression intensities of collagen type I (Col I), type III (Col III), type IV (Col IV), fibronectin (FN), transforming growth factors β (TGF-β), and connective tissue growth factor (CCN2) in the oral mucosa of the human and six non-human animal species were measured by immunohistochemistry. There was little variation in the expression intensity of Col I while the expression of Col III, Col IV, and FN showed differences. The expression intensities of TGF-β in dog, rat, sheep, and pig oral mucosae, and those of CCN2 in dog, minipig, rat, and buffalo oral mucosae were equivalent to the expression intensities in human mucosa. The expression of fibrosis-related molecules in the dog oral mucosa optimally mimics the human condition, suggesting its suitability with regard to histopathology as an animal model for the study of OSF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Screening low fire blight susceptible Crataegus species for host suitability to hawthorn leaf-curling aphids (Dysaphis spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bribosia, E; Bylemans, D; Van Impe, G; Migon, M

    2002-01-01

    The group of hawthorn leaf-curling aphids (Dysaphis spp.) hosted by the common hawthorn Crataegus monogyna Jacq. may play an important role in the biological control of the rosy apple aphid, Dysaphis plantaginea (Passerini), by increasing reproduction opportunities for the indigenous hymenopteran parasitoid Ephedrus persicae Froggatt. Unfortunately, most fruitgrowers hesitate to introduce the common hawthorn in their orchards because they fear fire blight infections which may be transmitted by this highly susceptible hawthron species. This potential hazard led us to investigate the suitability to leaf-curling aphids of alternative Crataegus species. As representative for these closely-related aphids, the species Dysaphis apiifolia petroselini (Börner) was used in the trials. Ten Crataegus species characterized by their very low susceptibility to fire blight were examined from two angles. Firstly, aphid sexuals were introduced in autumn onto the different species to verify whether egg laying could take place. Secondly, the development of fundatrices and gall formation were followed the next spring. Although eggs and mature fundatrices could be obtained on almost all species, no fundatrice-hosting galls were recorded in spring. The possible causes of these negative results with respect to the geographical origin of the particular Crataegus species involved in this work are discussed.

  1. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance pattern of Campylobacter species in foods of animal origin

    OpenAIRE

    Pallavi; Ashok Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to determine the prevalence and evaluation of antibiotic resistance pattern and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Campylobacter species isolated from foods of animal origin. Materials and Methods: A total of 280 samples (comprising 150 chicken meat, 50 chevon and 80 milk) were collected from retail meat markets, slaughter houses and dairy farms and analyzed for isolation of Campylobacter species. A total of 29 isolates comprising 23 Campylobacter jejuni and 6 Campy...

  2. Molecular identification and in-vitro antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida species isolated from patients with onychomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyvan Pakshir

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Candida species are the most opportunistic fungi affecting the nails and resulting in onychomycosis. In this study, we identified and evaluated in-vitro susceptibility of the recovered isolates against fluconazole (FLC, voriconazole (VRC, and clotrimazole (CLT using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI M27-A3 document. Materials and Methods: From patients with either clinically or mycologically proven onychomycosis, 97 isolates comprising of seven Candida species were isolated, which were identified by both conventional and molecular techniques such as polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. In addition, Candida dubliniensis was confirmed by restriction endonuclease analysis. Antifungal susceptibility of each isolate against the three azoles applied in this study was determined using the CLSI microdilution reference method M27-A3. Results: Candida parapsilosis (C. parapsilosis was the most frequently isolated species (n=44, followed by C. albicans (n=23, C. tropicalis (n=13, C. glabrata (n=7, C. krusei (n=6, C. guilliermondii (n=3, and C. dubliniensis (n=1. All the isolates were susceptible to CLT. VRC had lower minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values for the isolates compared to FLC. Geometric mean MIC values of VRC, FLC, and CLT for C. parapsilosis isolates were 0.07 µg/ml, 0.8 µg/ml, and 0.35 µg/ml, respectively. Collectively, all species exhibited greater susceptibility to VRC in comparison to C. albicans (P≤0.001. Conclusion: This study showed that non-albicans Candida species were the most common etiologic agents of non-dermatophyte onychomycosis. The major antifungal agents used in clinics to empirically treat yeast onychomycosis are FLC and CLT. Our data suggested that CLT is a better choice for the treatment of Candida onychomycosis, especially in drug resistant cases.

  3. In vitro resistance of clinical Fusarium species to amphotericin B and voriconazole using the EUCAST antifungal susceptibility method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taj-Aldeen, Saad J; Salah, Husam; Al-Hatmi, Abdullah M S; Hamed, Manal; Theelen, Bart; van Diepeningen, Anne D; Boekhout, Teun; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia

    2016-08-01

    Susceptibility testing using the EUCAST-AFST method against 39 clinical Fusarium strains consecutively collected from local and invasive infections during the last 10years assessed the in vitro activities of amphotericin B (AmB) and triazole antifungal agents. In addition, the susceptibility pattern of 12 reference strains from the CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre (CBS) was evaluated. In particular Fusarium petroliphilum and F. solani sensu lato were involved in disseminated infections and known for treatment failure. AmB displayed the lowest MICs followed by voriconazole VRC, posaconazole (POC). Itraconazole (ITC) showed high MIC values, displaying in vitro resistance. Clinical isolates were significantly (P antifungal therapy. Resistant profiles to AmB and VRC, which are the currently recommended agents in the guidelines for treatments, and a late diagnosis may be associated with high mortality rate in immunocompromised patients. The present antifungal susceptibility profiles showed that species- and strain-specific differences in antifungal susceptibility exist within Fusarium and that susceptibility testing is important and may improve the prognosis of these infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification and antifungal susceptibility of Candida species isolated from the urine of patients in a university hospital in Brazil

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    Gláucia Moreira Espíndola Lima

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to identify Candida spp. isolated from candiduria episodes at a tertiary hospital in the Midwest region of Brazil, and to determine their susceptibility profiles to antifungal compounds. From May 2011 to April 2012, Candida spp. isolated from 106 adult patients with candiduria admitted to the University Hospital of the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul were evaluated. Both, species identification and susceptibility testing with fluconazole-FLC, voriconazole-VRC, and amphotericin B-AmB were carried out using the Vitek 2. To discriminate species of the C. parapsilosis complex, a RAPD-PCR technique using the RPO2 primer was performed. From the total of 106 isolates, 42 (39.6% C. albicans and 64 (60.4% Candida non-albicans (CNA - 33 C. tropicalis, 18 C. glabrata, 5 C. krusei, 4 C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, 2 C. kefyr, 1 C. lusitaniae, and 1 C. guilliermondii were identified. All isolates were susceptible to AmB and VRC, whereas all C. glabrata isolates presented either resistance (5.6% or dose-dependent susceptibility (94.4% to FLC. The study of Candida spp. and their resistance profiles may help in tailoring more efficient therapeutic strategies for candiduria.

  5. 77 FR 18685 - New Animal Drugs for Minor Use and Minor Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES DEPARTMENT Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 516 New Animal Drugs for Minor Use and Minor Species CFR... of the sponsor's primary contact person and/or permanent-resident U.S. agent including title, address...

  6. Development and validation of a universal primer pair for the simultaneous detection of eight animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Chaobo; Wang, Pingya; Zhao, Jin; Xu, Aichun; Guan, Feng

    2017-04-15

    In the present study, we developed a novel simplex PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of eight animal species, including goat, sheep, deer, buffalo, cattle, yak, pig and camel. A unique pair of universal primers was designed to target mitochondrial DNA variable regions in the eight animal species, generating, 787, 763, 563, 512, 507, 491, 455 and 385bp long fragments for goat, sheep, deer, buffalo, cattle, yak, pig and camel, respectively. The assay showed no cross-reactivity with other common domestic animals, and was validated by sequencing and enzyme digestion. Detection limit for DNA samples from the eight animal species varied between 6 and 20pg in a 20μl PCR mixture. Interestingly, the newly developed method successfully identified 170 commercial meat products, and is simple, fast, sensitive, specific, and cost-effective. Therefore, it could be used for the detection of goat, sheep, deer, buffalo, cattle, yak, pig, and camel species in foodstuffs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Verification of animal species in ham and salami by dna microarray and real time pcr methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Drdolová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer protection and detecting of adulteration is very important and has a wide societal impact in the economic sphere. Detection of animal species in meat products and the use of combining different methods is one of the means to achieve relevant product status. The aim of this study was to reveal whether or not the products label clearly meets the content declared by producer. In our study, 29 samples of meat products such as salami and ham obtained from stores and supermarkets in Slovakia were analyzed to detect the existing animal species according to the product label the use of Chipron LCD Array Analysis System, Meat 5.0. Products in which the presence of non-declared animal species has been detected were subjected to testing by the innuDETECT PCR Real-Time Kit, repeatedly. The results showed that 20 (68.96% samples were improperly labeled. From in total 14 tested ham samples 11 (78.57% products exhibited non-conformity with declared composition. Tested salami samples (15 revealed 9 (60% incorrectly labelled products. The results obtained by DNA Microarray and Real Time PCR methods were identical, and both methods should be extensively promoted for the detection of animal species in the meat and meat products. Normal 0 21 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE

  8. Presence and metabolism of the anabolic steroid boldenone in various animal species: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brabander, H.F. de; Poelmans, S.; Schilt, R.; Stephany, R.W.; Bizec, B. le; Draisci, R.; Sterk, S.S.; Ginkel, L.A. van; Courtheyn, D.; Hoof, N. van; Macrì, A.; Wasch, K. de

    2004-01-01

    The review summarizes current knowledge on the possible illegal use of the anabolic steroid boldenone. The presence of boldenone and metabolites in different animal species and the possibility of the occurrence of endogenous boldenone and metabolites is assessed, as are the methods of analysis used

  9. Rare & Endangered Species: Understanding Our Disappearing Plants and Animals. Activities Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. Educational Services.

    About 464 plants and animals found in the United States and its territories are listed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service as threatened or endangered. Another 3900 are candidates for protection. The activities in this guide are designed to help teachers and students understand the issue of endangered species. It includes ideas for several…

  10. [The popular zootherapy in Bahia State: registration of new animal species used as medicinal resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Eraldo Medeiros Costa

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with the use of animals as medicinal resources in Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil. The data come from a processional evaluation of academic performance, since it was an exercise requested by the professor of the discipline Ethnobiology (2007.2 semester) to the students of the course Bahia State Teachers' Undergraduation of Feira de Santana State University. They were asked to make a brief survey, in their respective cities, on the use of animals as medicines. Forty-one students, from 21 cities of the country of Bahia State, have participated with data. A total of 95 animals (common names) were recorded, from which 17 are new additions to the list of medicinal animal species already published. The recording of the use of animals as folk medicines in the state of Bahia provides a significant contribution to the phenomenon of zootherapy, because it opens a space to debate about conservation biology, health public policies, sustainable management of natural resources, bioprospection, and patent. It is necessary to carry out more ethnozoological studies both to comprehend the true importance of zootherapy to the traditional communities and to develop some strategies of sustainable management and use of animal species, especially for those under risk of extinction.

  11. The enigma of soil animal species diversity revisited: the role of small-scale heterogeneity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uffe N Nielsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: "The enigma of soil animal species diversity" was the title of a popular article by J. M. Anderson published in 1975. In that paper, Anderson provided insights on the great richness of species found in soils, but emphasized that the mechanisms contributing to the high species richness belowground were largely unknown. Yet, exploration of the mechanisms driving species richness has focused, almost exclusively, on above-ground plant and animal communities, and nearly 35 years later we have several new hypotheses but are not much closer to revealing why soils are so rich in species. One persistent but untested hypothesis is that species richness is promoted by small-scale environmental heterogeneity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To test this hypothesis we manipulated small-scale heterogeneity in soil properties in a one-year field experiment and investigated the impacts on the richness of soil fauna and evenness of the microbial communities. We found that heterogeneity substantially increased the species richness of oribatid mites, collembolans and nematodes, whereas heterogeneity had no direct influence on the evenness of either the fungal, bacterial or archaeal communities or on species richness of the large and mobile mesostigmatid mites. These results suggest that the heterogeneity-species richness relationship is scale dependent. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide direct evidence for the hypothesis that small-scale heterogeneity in soils increase species richness of intermediate-sized soil fauna. The concordance of mechanisms between above and belowground communities suggests that the relationship between environmental heterogeneity and species richness may be a general property of ecological communities.

  12. Candida species distribution and fluconazole susceptibility of blood isolates at a regional hospital in Passo Fundo, RS, Brazil

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    Maira Giseli C. Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Candidemia is a bloodstream infection produced by Candida genus yeasts. Objective: The purpose of this study was to characterize the epidemiology and the fluconazole susceptibility in Candida species isolated from patients at a regional hospital in Passo Fundo, RS. Methods: Records from the laboratory were used to identify patients with positive blood cultures for Candida between 2010 and 2011. The in vitro activity of fluconazole was determined using the disk diffusion method. Results: Were analyzed 24 positive blood cultures for Candida and found a 54.16% mortality rate. C. albicans was the most prevalent species, followed by C. parapsilosis and C. krusei. For susceptibility to fluconazole, C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis showed 100% sensitivity. However, C. krusei was 100% resistant; and C. glabrata, 50% resistant. Conclusion: The high mortality and fluconazole resistance rates emphasize the importance of the diagnosis of candidemia in a hospital environment.

  13. Estimating rates of local species extinction, colonization and turnover in animal communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, James D.; Boulinier, T.; Hines, J.E.; Pollock, K.H.; Sauer, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Species richness has been identified as a useful state variable for conservation and management purposes. Changes in richness over time provide a basis for predicting and evaluating community responses to management, to natural disturbance, and to changes in factors such as community composition (e.g., the removal of a keystone species). Probabilistic capture-recapture models have been used recently to estimate species richness from species count and presence-absence data. These models do not require the common assumption that all species are detected in sampling efforts. We extend this approach to the development of estimators useful for studying the vital rates responsible for changes in animal communities over time; rates of local species extinction, turnover, and colonization. Our approach to estimation is based on capture-recapture models for closed animal populations that permit heterogeneity in detection probabilities among the different species in the sampled community. We have developed a computer program, COMDYN, to compute many of these estimators and associated bootstrap variances. Analyses using data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) suggested that the estimators performed reasonably well. We recommend estimators based on probabilistic modeling for future work on community responses to management efforts as well as on basic questions about community dynamics.

  14. Animal personality meets community ecology: founder species aggression and the dynamics of spider communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, John L

    2015-11-01

    Silken web-reef created by the spider Anelosimus studiosus (main picture) and close-up (insert picture) of multi-female, adult colony of the same species. (photographs: T. Jones, J. Pruitt and A. Wild) In Focus: Pruitt, J.N. & Modlmeier, A.P. (2015) Animal personality in a foundation species drives community divergence and collapse in the wild. Journal of Animal Ecology, 84 Interspecific interactions form the cornerstone of niche theory in community ecology. The 7-year study In Focus here supports the view that variation within species could also be crucially important. Spider communities created experimentally in the wild, with either aggressive or docile individuals of the same founder species, were highly divergent in patterns of community succession for several years. Eventually, they converged on the same community composition only to collapse entirely shortly after, apparently because of the specific mix of aggression phenotypes within and between species just before collapse. These results suggest numerous avenues of research for behavioural ecology and evolutionary community ecology in metapopulations, and could help to resolve differences between competing theories. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2015 British Ecological Society.

  15. Cuticle Fatty Acid Composition and Differential Susceptibility of Three Species of Cockroaches to the Entomopathogenic Fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycota, Hypocreales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Alejandra C; Gołębiowski, Marek; Pennisi, Mariana; Peterson, Graciela; García, Juan J; Manfrino, Romina G; López Lastra, Claudia C

    2015-04-01

    Differences in free fatty acids (FFAs) chemical composition of insects may be responsible for susceptibility or resistance to fungal infection. Determination of FFAs found in cuticular lipids can effectively contribute to the knowledge concerning insect defense mechanisms. In this study, we have evaluated the susceptibility of three species of cockroaches to the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin by topical application. Mortality due to M. anisopliae was highly significant on adults and nymphs of Blattella germanica L. (Blattodea: Blattellidae). However, mortality was faster in adults than in nymphs. Adults of Blatta orientalis L. (Blattodea: Blattidae) were not susceptible to the fungus, and nymphs of Blaptica dubia Serville (Blattodea: Blaberidae) were more susceptible to the fungus than adults. The composition of cuticular FFAs in the three species of cockroaches was also studied. The analysis indicated that all of the fatty acids were mostly straight-chain, long-chain, saturated or unsaturated. Cuticular lipids of three species of cockroaches contained 19 FFAs, ranging from C14:0 to C24:0. The predominant fatty acids found in the three studied species of cockroaches were oleic, linoleic, palmitic, and stearic acid. Only in adults of Bl. orientalis, myristoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, arachidic acid, dihomolinoleic acid, and behenic acid were identified. Lignoceric acid was detected only in nymphs of Bl. orientalis. Heneicosylic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were identified in adults of Ba. dubia. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Reactive oxygen species-dependent wound responses in animals and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Nobuhiro; Mittler, Ron

    2012-12-15

    Animals and plants evolved sophisticated mechanisms that regulate their responses to mechanical injury. Wound response in animals mainly promotes wound healing processes, nerve cell regeneration, and immune system responses at the vicinity of the wound site. In contrast, wound response in plants is primarily directed at sealing the wound site via deposition of various compounds and generating systemic signals that activate multiple defense mechanisms in remote tissues. Despite these differences between animals and plants, recent studies have shown that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play very common signaling and coordination roles in the wound responses of both systems. This review provides an update on recent findings related to ROS-regulated coordination of intercellular communications and signal transduction during wound response in plants and animals. In particular, differences and similarities in H2O2-dependent long-distance signaling between zebrafish and Arabidopsis thaliana are discussed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Insecticide susceptibility of Nezara viridula (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) and three other stink bug species composing a soybean pest complex in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Endo, Nobuyuki

    2012-06-01

    The susceptibility of the stink bug species Nezara viridula (L.), Nezara antennata Scott, Piezodorus hybneri (Gmelin), and Riptortus pedestris (F.) to insecticides was tested, establishing their 50% lethal dose (LD50) values as baseline data. Third instars and adults of the four species were treated by topical application with seven insecticides: fenitrothion, fenthion, etofenprox, silafluofen, dinotefuran, clothianidin, and ethiprole. The weight of the stink bug and weight of the insecticide applied to each bug were used as explanatory variables in the probit regression analysis. The effect of the body weight on the dose-response relationship, the proportional model, was not uniform among the tested insecticide-stink bug combinations. However, the basic model fit all combinations and could estimate LD50 values successfully. Therefore, LD50 values at the medium (average) weight estimated by the basic model were selected to describe the susceptibility of the stink bugs. The LD50 value of silafluofen for N. viridula adults, and that of silafluofen and etofenprox for N. antennata adults, was at least 2,338 ng greater than the other species exposed to each insecticide. Almost all of the LD50 values for adults were over 10 times greater than those of the same species' nymphs treated with the same insecticide. Thus monitoring of occurring species and their developmental stages is important for controlling effectively the stink bug pest complex by insecticides, especially by silafluofen or etofenprox. The estimated LD50 values can be used as baseline data to compare the susceptibility of the species collected in another year or location.

  18. Molecular identification and susceptibility pattern of clinical Nocardia species: Emergence of Nocardia crassostreae as an agent of invasive nocardiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taj-Aldeen, Saad J; Deshmukh, Anand; Doiphode, Sanjay; Wahab, Atqah Abdul; Allangawi, Mona; AlMuzrkchi, Ahmed; Klaassen, Corné H; Meis, Jacques F

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nocardia species are rare, opportunistic organisms that cause disease in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical presentations of various Nocardia infections based on the 16S ribosomal RNA gene of the isolate, as well as related risk factors and susceptibility patterns to antimicrobial agents METHODS: Thirteen patients with a diagnosis of nocardiosis were included in the present study. Seven Nocardia species were identified by 16S ribosomal RNA. Susceptibility testing was performed using six antimicrobial agents. RESULTS: Five patients were immunocompromised, and eight were immunocompetent with predisposing factors including cystic fibrosis, tuberculosis and ophthalmic infections. Nocardia caused pulmonary infections in eight patients (61.5%), invasive systemic infections in three patients (23%) and local (ophthalmic) infections in two patients (15.4%). In the patients with pulmonary disease, nocardiosis was caused by six species (Nocardia cyriacigeorgica, Nocardia otitidiscaviarum, Nocardia farcinica, Nocardia carnea, Nocardia testacea and Nocardia asiatica). The seventh species identified in the present study was Nocardia crassostreae. DISCUSSION: N crassostreae is a multidrug-resistant organism that was reported to be an emerging human pathogen causing invasive nocardiosis in a patient with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. N farcinica was isolated from blood in a patient with breast cancer. None of the Nocardia isolates were resistant to linezolid. One N otitidiscaviarum isolate was a multidrug-resistant organism. All patients in the present study were treated with the appropriate antibiotics and their condition resolved without further sequelae. CONCLUSIONS: The present study is the first report on N crassostreae as a human pathogen. The detection of multidrug-resistant species necessitate molecular identification and susceptibility testing, and should be performed for all Nocardia infections

  19. Epidemiology, species distribution, antifungal susceptibility and outcome of candidemia among Internal Medicine Wards of community hospitals of Udine province, Italy

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    Federico Silvestri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Candidemia is an emerging problem among patients hospitalized in Internal Medicine Wards (IMW. We performed a retrospective study to assess the epidemiology, species distribution, antifungal susceptibility and outcome of candidaemia recorded over a 3-year period (2010-2012 among IMW of community hospitals of Udine province in Italy: forty-eight patients were identified, with an overall incidence of 1.44 cases/1000 hospital admissions/year. Candida albicans was the most frequent species, followed by Candida parapsilosis that accounted for 42.9% of Tolmezzo cases. All isolates were susceptible to amphotericin and caspofungin, while 11.4% of strains were not-susceptible to voriconazole and 14.3% to fluconazole. Crude mortality was 41.7%. In conclusion, in community hospitals overall incidence of candidemia is similar to tertiary care hospitals, but 80% of cases are detected in IMW. Candida species distribution is overlapping, but differences in local epidemiology were found and should be taken into consideration. No resistance to amphotericin and caspofungin was found while resistance to azoles was observed. Knowledge of this data might be useful when planning the best therapeutic strategy.

  20. An Annotated Checklist of the Human and Animal Entamoeba (Amoebida: Endamoebidae) Species- A Review Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    HOOSHYAR, Hossein; ROSTAMKHANI, Parvin; REZAEIAN, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Background: The number of valid of pathogen and non-pathogen species of Entamoeba has continuously increased in human and animals. This review is performed to provide an update list and some summarized information on Entamoeba species, which were identified up to the 2014. Methods: We evaluated the Entamoeba genus with a broad systematic review of the literature, books and electronic databases until February 2014. The synonyms, hosts, pathogenicity and geographical distribution of valid species were considered and recorded. Repeated and unrelated cases were excluded. Results: Totally 51 defined species of Entamoeba were found and arranged by the number of nuclei in mature cyst according to Levin’s grouping. Seven of these species within the 4 nucleate mature cysts group and 1 species with one nucleate mature cyst are pathogen. E. histolytica, E. invadence, E. rananrum and E. anatis causes lethal infection in human, reptiles, amphibians and brides respectively, four species causes non-lethal mild dysentery. The other species were non-pathogen and are important to differential diagnosis of amoebiasis. Conclusion: There are some unknown true species of Entamoeba that available information on the morphology, hosts, pathogenicity and distribution of them are still very limited and more considerable investigation will be needed in order to clarify the status of them. PMID:26246811

  1. Standardized broth microdilution antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica strains from Europe and rare Francisella species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgi, Enrico; Schacht, Erik; Scholz, Holger C; Splettstoesser, Wolf D

    2012-10-01

    Tularaemia is a widespread zoonosis in Europe caused by Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica. Because of a lack of standardized CLSI-approved antibiotic susceptibility data from European Francisella strains, the antibiotic susceptibilities of a selection of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica isolates originating from Germany, Austria, France, Spain and other European countries were determined. Rarely isolated species and subspecies of Francisella such as Francisella philomiragia, F. tularensis subsp. novicida and F. tularensis subsp. mediasiatica as well as the type strain of Francisella hispaniensis were included in this study. MIC data were obtained using cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth with a 2% growth supplement. The broth microdilution testing system comprised 14 antibiotics, including gentamicin, streptomycin, ciprofloxacin and tetracycline. All of the 91 strains tested were susceptible to aminoglycosides, quinolones, tetracycline and chloramphenicol. The antimicrobial susceptibility of rare Francisellae was similar to the antibiotic profile of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica strains. For erythromycin, we detected two geographically distinct groups of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica isolates in western Europe. One group was resistant and the other one was susceptible. Both groups overlapped in a small region in Germany. Being performed in accordance with CLSI criteria, this study provides reliable data on antibiotic susceptibility patterns of European Francisella isolates. The standardized methodology of this study can be used for testing of suspicious colonies from clinical specimens for therapeutic guidance. Based on the results, aminoglycosides or quinolones are recommended as first-choice antibiotics for the therapy of F. hispaniensis, F. philomiragia or F. tularensis subsp. novicida infections in immunocompromised patients.

  2. Susceptibility and detoxifying enzyme activity in two spider mite species (Acari: Tetranychidae) after selection with three insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuemei; Buschman, Lawrent L; Zhu, Kun Yan; Margolies, David C

    2002-04-01

    Changes in the susceptibility and detoxifying enzyme activity were measured in laboratory strains of Banks grass mite, Oligonychus pratensis (Banks), and twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, that were repeatedly exposed to three insecticides. Three strains of each mite species were exposed to one of two pyrethroids, bifenthrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin, or an organophosphate, dimethoate, for 10 selection cycles at the LC60 for each insecticide. A reference or nonselected strain of each mite species was not exposed to insecticides. After 10 cycles of exposure, susceptibility to the corresponding insecticides, bifenthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and dimethoate, decreased 4.5-, 5.9-, and 289.2-fold, respectively, relative to the reference strain in the respective O. pratensis strains, and 14.8-, 5.7-, and 104.7-fold, respectively, relative to the reference strain in the respective T. urticae strains. In the bifenthrin-exposed O. pratensis strain, there was a 88.9-fold cross-resistance to dimethoate. In the dimethoate-exposed T. urticae strain, there was a 15.9-fold cross-resistance to bifenthrin. These results suggest that there may be cross-resistance between dimethoate and bifenthrin. The reduced susceptibility to dimethoate remained stable for three months in the absence of selection pressure in both mites. The decrease in susceptibility in the O. pratensis strains exposed to bifenthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and dimethoate was associated with a 4.7-, 3.0-, and 3.6-fold increase in general esterase activity, respectively. The decrease in susceptibility in the T. urticae strains exposed to bifenthrin and lambda-cyhalothrin was associated with a 1.3- and 1.1-fold increase in general esterase activity, respectively. The mean general esterase activity was significantly higher in the pyrethroid-exposed O. pratensis and T. urticae strains than in the nonselected strain. There was no significant increase in esterase activity in the dimethoate-exposed T. urticae

  3. Stimulation of flower nectar replenishment by removal: A survey of eleven animal-pollinated plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Y Luo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the interaction between reward-seeking flower feeding animals and plants requires consideration of the dynamic nature of nectar secretion. Studies on several plants suggest that nectar secretion may increase in response to its removal, but it is not clear whether the phenomenon is widespread. We determined whether 11 species of Colorado mountain wildflowers showed removal-enhanced nectar replenishment (RENR. We measured floral phenology, nectar volumes, rate of replenishment, and compared the cumulative nectar produced following five hourly removals with that accumulated after five hours. Nectar replenishment occurred rapidly, within minutes; statistically significant RENR was observed in 9 of our 11 study species, with the strongest effects in bee-pollinated species. We discuss the implications of RENR in plant species on the measurement of nectar, the adaptive advantage of RENR, and the energetic costs of RENR.

  4. To eat and not be eaten: modelling resources and safety in multi-species animal groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Srinivasan

    Full Text Available Using mixed-species bird flocks as an example, we model the payoffs for two types of species from participating in multi-species animal groups. Salliers feed on mobile prey, are good sentinels and do not affect prey capture rates of gleaners; gleaners feed on prey on substrates and can enhance the prey capture rate of salliers by flushing prey, but are poor sentinels. These functional types are known from various animal taxa that form multi-species associations. We model costs and benefits of joining groups for a wide range of group compositions under varying abundances of two types of prey-prey on substrates and mobile prey. Our model predicts that gleaners and salliers show a conflict of interest in multi-species groups, because gleaners benefit from increasing numbers of salliers in the group, whereas salliers benefit from increasing gleaner numbers. The model also predicts that the limits to size and variability in composition of multi-species groups are driven by the relative abundance of different types of prey, independent of predation pressure. Our model emphasises resources as a primary driver of temporal and spatial group dynamics, rather than reproductive activity or predation per se, which have hitherto been thought to explain patterns of multi-species group formation and cohesion. The qualitative predictions of the model are supported by empirical patterns from both terrestrial and marine multi-species groups, suggesting that similar mechanisms might underlie group dynamics in a range of taxa. The model also makes novel predictions about group dynamics that can be tested using variation across space and time.

  5. A colorimetric and spectrophotometric method for in vitro susceptibility testing of Aspergillus species against caspofungin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorsthorst, D.T.A. te; Zwaaftink, R.B.; Rijs, A.J.M.M.; Meletiadis, J.; Verweij, P.E.

    2007-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibility of 45 Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus terreus isolates against caspofungin (CAS) was assessed by the CLSI reference method with spectrophotometric reading and by a colorimetric method that employed the dye MTT. Perfect agreement was found between

  6. Human-animal chimeras for vaccine development: an endangered species or opportunity for the developing world?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daar Abdallah S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, the field of vaccines for diseases such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV which take a heavy toll in developing countries has faced major failures. This has led to a call for more basic science research, and development as well as evaluation of new vaccine candidates. Human-animal chimeras, developed with a 'humanized' immune system could be useful to study infectious diseases, including many neglected diseases. These would also serve as an important tool for the efficient testing of new vaccine candidates to streamline promising candidates for further trials in humans. However, developing human-animal chimeras has proved to be controversial. Discussion Development of human-animal chimeras for vaccine development has been slowed down because of opposition by some philosophers, ethicists and policy makers in the west-they question the moral status of such animals, and also express discomfort about transgression of species barriers. Such opposition often uses a contemporary western world view as a reference point. Human-animal chimeras are often being created for diseases which cause significantly higher morbidity and mortality in the developing world as compared to the developed world. We argue in our commentary that given this high disease burden, we should look at socio-cultural perspectives on human-animal chimera like beings in the developing world. On examination, it's clear that such beings have been part of mythology and cultural descriptions in many countries in the developing world. Summary To ensure that important research on diseases afflicting millions like malaria, HIV, Hepatitis-C and dengue continues to progress, we recommend supporting human-animal chimera research for vaccine development in developing countries (especially China and India which have growing technical expertise in the area. The negative perceptions in some parts of the west about human-animal chimeras can be used as an

  7. Human-animal chimeras for vaccine development: an endangered species or opportunity for the developing world?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhan, Anant; Singer, Peter A; Daar, Abdallah S

    2010-05-19

    In recent years, the field of vaccines for diseases such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) which take a heavy toll in developing countries has faced major failures. This has led to a call for more basic science research, and development as well as evaluation of new vaccine candidates. Human-animal chimeras, developed with a 'humanized' immune system could be useful to study infectious diseases, including many neglected diseases. These would also serve as an important tool for the efficient testing of new vaccine candidates to streamline promising candidates for further trials in humans. However, developing human-animal chimeras has proved to be controversial. Development of human-animal chimeras for vaccine development has been slowed down because of opposition by some philosophers, ethicists and policy makers in the west-they question the moral status of such animals, and also express discomfort about transgression of species barriers. Such opposition often uses a contemporary western world view as a reference point. Human-animal chimeras are often being created for diseases which cause significantly higher morbidity and mortality in the developing world as compared to the developed world. We argue in our commentary that given this high disease burden, we should look at socio-cultural perspectives on human-animal chimera like beings in the developing world. On examination, it's clear that such beings have been part of mythology and cultural descriptions in many countries in the developing world. To ensure that important research on diseases afflicting millions like malaria, HIV, Hepatitis-C and dengue continues to progress, we recommend supporting human-animal chimera research for vaccine development in developing countries (especially China and India which have growing technical expertise in the area). The negative perceptions in some parts of the west about human-animal chimeras can be used as an opportunity for nurturing important vaccine development

  8. Susceptibility of 7 freshwater gastropod species in Zimbabwe to infection with Gastrodiscus aegyptiacus (Cobbold, 1876) Looss, 1896.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaratirwa, S; Munjere, I F; Takawira, M; Chingwena, G

    2004-12-01

    Gastrodiscosis outbreaks due to Gastrodiscus aegyptiacus were recorded in horses in the vicinity of Harare, Zimbabwe, in the absence of Bulinus forskalii, B. senegalensis and Cleopatra sp. which are considered to be the only intermediate host snails. This suggested the possibility of other snail species acting as intermediate hosts in the life cycle of the trematode. A study was carried out to determine the susceptibility of 7 freshwater snail species to infection with G. aegyptiacus. First generation (F-1) of 5 freshwater pulmonate snail species, Bulinus tropicus, Bulinus globosus, Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Helisoma dyuri and Physa acuta that were bred in the laboratory, and 2 prosobranch snail species, Melanoides tuberculata and Cleopatra sp. that were collected from the field were used in this study. Data pertaining to mortalities and cercariae shedding were recorded throughout the experimental period. The prosobranch snails, M. tuberculata and Cleopatra sp. were susceptible to G. aegyptiacus with a minimum prepatent period of 45 days and 54 days, respectively. Bulinus tropicus, P. acuta and H. duryi were susceptible as evidenced by the presence of different generations of rediae and mature cercariae on dissection at 59 days post-infection although attempts to induce the snails to shed from 28 days post-infection did not produce cercariae. Bulinus globosus and Bio. pfeifferi were refractory to infection. The results revealed the ability of G. aegyptiacus to infect M. tuberculata, Cleopatara sp., B. tropicus, P. acuta and H. duryi under experimental conditions and this may explain the recorded outbreaks of gastrodiscosis in equine populations in Zimbabwe in the absence of the known intermediate hosts. Bulinus tropicus is considered as the most likely major intermediate host of G. aegyptiacus because of its wide distribution in Zimbabwe and is well adapted to a wide variety of environments.

  9. Susceptibility of 7 freshwater gastropod species in Zimbabwe to infection with Gastrodiscus aegyptiacus (Cobbold, 1876 Looss, 1896 : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mukaratirwa

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Gastrodiscosis outbreaks due to Gastrodiscus aegyptiacus were recorded in horses in the vicinity of Harare, Zimbabwe, in the absence of Bulinus forskalii, B. senegalensis and Cleopatra sp. which are considered to be the only intermediate host snails. This suggested the possibility of other snail species acting as intermediate hosts in the life cycle of the trematode. A study was carried out to determine the susceptibility of 7 freshwater snail species to infection with G. aegyptiacus. First generation (F-1 of 5 freshwater pulmonate snail species, Bulinus tropicus, Bulinus globosus, Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Helisoma dyuri and Physa acuta that were bred in the laboratory, and 2 prosobranch snail species, Melanoides tuberculata and Cleopatra sp. that were collected from the field were used in this study. Data pertaining to mortalities and cercariae shedding were recorded throughout the experimental period. The prosobranch snails, M. tuberculata and Cleopatra sp. were susceptible to G. aegyptiacus with a minimum prepatent period of 45 days and 54 days, respectively. Bulinus tropicus, P. acuta and H. duryi were susceptible as evidenced by the presence of different generations of rediae and mature cercariae on dissection at 59 days post-infection although attempts to induce the snails to shed from 28 days post-infection did not produce cercariae. Bulinus globosus and Bio. Pfeifferi were refractory to infection. The results revealed the ability of G. aegyptiacus to infect M. tuberculata, Cleopatara sp., B. tropicus, P. acuta and H. duryi under experimental conditions and this may explain the recorded outbreaks of gastrodiscosis in equine populations in Zimbabwe in the absence of the known intermediate hosts. Bulinus tropicus is considered as the most likely major intermediate host of G. aegyptiacus because of its wide distribution in Zimbabwe and is well adapted to a wide variety of environments.

  10. Analysis of hair samples using microscopical and molecular techniques to ascertain claims of rare animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafarina, Zainuddin; Panneerchelvam, Sundararajulu

    2009-07-01

    An unidentified animal species named the Jenglot and claimed to be a rare living animal species was recently found in the deep jungle of Irian Jaya, Indonesia; brought to Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia by a businessman; and exhibited in a local museum. The owner of the Jenglot carcasses had made a request to perform DNA analysis on the Jenglot to ascertain its species. Because the muscle appeared very dry and recovery of DNA was extremely difficult, we therefore used the animals' hair for further analysis. Hair samples were collected from three different Jenglots that were different in colour and physical appearance. The samples were labelled as A, B, C and D, respectively. Microscopic characteristics indicated that all four hair samples were of human origin, with a medullary index less than 1/3 and pigment distribution towards the periphery. The scale pattern on the hair samples was of the imbricate type, adding certainty to the hypothesis of human origin. A dried root sheath was found in samples B and C, which was contrary to expectations since the sample collection method left a few cm of hair on the body of the Jenglots. Sample D had black dye granules over the cuticular surface. Sequencing of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hypervariable segment I (HVS-I) region showed polymorphisms at positions 16140, 16182C, 16183C, 16189, 16217 and 16274 and heteroplasmy at positions 16112, 16232 and 16251, a human-specific mtDNA haplotype that was consistent across all the samples. Based on these findings, it was concluded that it is unlikely that the samples of Jenglot hair originated from an animal species.

  11. Animal herpesviruses and their zoonotic potential for cross-species infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Woźniakowski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Herpesviruses of humans and animals cause severe diseases that influence not only the health and epidemiological status but are also economically important in the context of food production. The members of Herpesviridae are host specific agents that also share many properties that potentially make them capable of crossing the species barriers. The objective of presented review paper was to summarize the relationship between herpesviruses of animals and humans and their zoonotic potential. In humans, the most epidemiologically important herpesviruses are represented by Human herepesvirus-1 and Human herpesvirus-2, which are commonly known as herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2, varicella-zooster virus (VZV, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, Kaposi’s Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, cytomegalovirus (CMV, as well as Human herpesviruses: HHV-6A, HHV-6B, and HHV-7. However, in terms of the potential to cross the species barrier, there are a few herpesviruses, including B virus disease (CeHV-1, Marek’s disease virus (MDV, Equid herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1 or pseudorabies virus (PRV, which are potentially able to infect different hosts. To summarize, in advantageous conditions the host specific herpesviruses may pose a threat for public health but also may exert a negative impact on the economical aspects of animal production. The most probable of these are zoonotic infections caused by B virus disease; however, close contact between infected animal hosts and humans may lead to transmission and replication of other Herpesviridae members.

  12. Methods of detection, species identification and quantification of processed animal proteins in feedingstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumière O.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The ban of processed animal proteins (PAPs in feed for farmed animals led to a significant reduction of the number of bovine spongiform encephalopathy cases. Presently, optical microscopy remains the only reference method for the detection of PAPs to be applied for official control as required by Commission Directive 2003/126/EC. The legislation also foresees that other methods may be applied in addition to classical microscopy, if – for instance – they provide more information about the origin of the animal constituents. Therefore, alternative and complementary techniques were developed as such or in combination. The most promising ones seem to be PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction, near infrared microscopy and imaging, as well as immunology. Within the framework of a PAP ban regardless of its species origin (total feed ban, most of the studies were mainly focused on the ability of the techniques to detect the presence of PAPs at 0.1% (mass percentage of constituents of animal origin in feed as indicated as limit of detection in the official method protocol. A possible modification of the legislation requires that the techniques are also able to determine their species origin and to quantify them. The present paper gives a state of the art of the different methods.

  13. Animal herpesviruses and their zoonotic potential for cross-species infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Woźniakowski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Herpesviruses of humans and animals cause severe diseases that influence not only the health and epidemiological status but are also economically important in the context of food production. The members of[i] Herpesviridae[/i] are host specific agents that also share many properties that potentially make them capable of crossing the species barriers. The objective of presented review paper was to summarize the relationship between herpesviruses of animals and humans and their zoonotic potential. In humans, the most epidemiologically important herpesviruses are represented by Human herepesvirus-1 and Human herpesvirus-2, which are commonly known as herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2, varicella-zooster virus (VZV, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, Kaposi’s Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, cytomegalovirus (CMV, as well as Human herpesviruses: HHV-6A, HHV-6B, and HHV-7. However, in terms of the potential to cross the species barrier, there are a few herpesviruses, including B virus disease (CeHV-1, Marek’s disease virus (MDV, Equid herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1 or pseudorabies virus (PRV, which are potentially able to infect different hosts. To summarize, in advantageous conditions the host specific herpesviruses may pose a threat for public health but also may exert a negative impact on the economical aspects of animal production. The most probable of these are zoonotic infections caused by B virus disease; however, close contact between infected animal hosts and humans may lead to transmission and replication of other [i]Herpesviridae[/i] members.

  14. Colostrum from Different Animal Species – A Product for Health Status Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Ahmadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The first milk after birth is also known as colostrum. The composition of animal and human colostrum depends very much on different factors such as: animal species, animal breed and genetical characteristics, feeding program, diet. Bovine colostrum is used in different therapies due to its composition in nutraceuticals, but also because the cow gives high quantity colostrum compared to other animal species (goats or ewes. The immunological properties of colostrum are acknowledged in various studies. Due to its immunoglobiline content, it is an alternative therapy in immunity enhancement. Colostrum is also used in athletes’ supplementation plan with very good results in their competition performance. Dry matter composition of cow, goat and ewe’s colostrum can give very good information about the nutritional composition, especially proteins. Thus, proteins, lipids, minerals, vitamins are significantly higher in colostrum right after parturition and decrease very much in time in mature milk. Lactose – in most of the studies – presents an increase in concentration from colostrum to milk. Our study reflects the highest content of dry matter in ewe colostrum, with significant decrease in goat and cow. Total lipid content was highest also in ewe’s colostrum, lower in cow’s, and the lowest in goat colostrum. In most samples, minerals (copper, manganese, zinc had – the highest concentration in colostrum milking with a decrese from the 6 hour colostrum to the 48 hour colostrum collected after parturition. Iron composition increases in ewe colostrum from the 6 hours to 48 hours.

  15. Species Diversity, Antifungal Susceptibility, and Virulence Attributes of Candida Colonising the Oral Cavities of Adult Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Anil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral candidiasis is a common occurrence in diabetic patients. Species of Candida isolated from these infections and their virulence pattern undergo changes over time and require periodic assessments. Objective of this study was to determine changes in the spectrum of Candida species colonizing oral cavity, their antifungal susceptibility patterns, and virulence attributes, in adult diabetic patients. Oral swabs were collected from 100 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM and an equal number of healthy controls. Specimens were cultured for Candida and species were identified, according to standard protocols. Of 100 diabetic patients, 42 were colonized by yeasts with C. albicans as the predominant species (51%. Non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC species accounted for 47% of the specimens, with C. tropicalis being the commonest. Among healthy controls, 23 were colonized by Candida species, of which C. albicans was predominant. Results obtained indicate that C. albicans continues to be the predominant species in oral cavities of diabetic patients. Candidal carriage was significantly associated with duration of diabetes and fasting blood sugar levels. Virulence attributes, proteinase and phospholipase secretion, and biofilm formation were significantly higher in DM group.

  16. Nosocomial bloodstream infections due to Candida spp. in the USA: species distribution, clinical features and antifungal susceptibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisplinghoff, Hilmar; Ebbers, Jenny; Geurtz, Lea; Stefanik, Danuta; Major, Yvette; Edmond, Michael B; Wenzel, Richard P; Seifert, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Candida spp. are among the most frequent nosocomial pathogens, contributing significantly to morbidity and mortality. Longitudinal data on the epidemiology of Candida bloodstream infections (BSIs) are still limited. Isolates and clinical data from 1218 episodes of Candida BSI were prospectively collected from patients in 52 hospitals in the USA between 1998 and 2006. Susceptibilities to amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, anidulafungin, caspofungin and micafungin were determined for 1077 Candida isolates by the CLSI reference broth microdilution method using the recently published species-specific clinical breakpoints. Candida albicans was the most prevalent species (50.7%), followed by Candida parapsilosis (17.4%), Candida glabrata (16.7%) and Candida tropicalis (10.2%). The prevalence of non-albicans Candida spp. increased over time. Patients had a mean age of 51 years and a mean length of hospital stay prior to BSI of 22 days. The main underlying conditions were gastrointestinal (20.1%) and pulmonary (13.0%) diseases. Intravenous catheters (19.1%) and the urinary tract (8.0%) were the most frequently determined likely sources, whilst in the majority of patients (61.1%) no source could be identified. Overall mortality was 38.1%. Of the isolates studied, 0.8% of C. albicans, 100.0% of C. glabrata, 2.9% of C. parapsilosis and 4.9% of C. tropicalis were non-susceptible to fluconazole, and 0.6% of C. albicans, 5.0% of Candida krusei, 7.6% of C. parapsilosis and 9.8% of C. tropicalis were non-susceptible to voriconazole. All echinocandins showed good activity against most Candida spp., including the majority of C. parapsilosis isolates, but only 38.1% of C. glabrata tested susceptible to caspofungin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  17. Behavioral Ecology of Captive Species: Using Behavioral Adaptations to Assess and Enhance Welfare of Nonhuman Zoo Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, P.

    2013-01-01

    This project aimed to estimate a species' adaptations in nature and in captivity, assess welfare, suggest environmental changes, and find species characteristics that underlie welfare problems in nonhuman animals in the zoo. First, the current status of zoo animal welfare assessment was reviewed,

  18. Choosing the best animal species to mimic clinical colon anastomotic leakage in humans: a qualitative systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, H C; Rosenberg, J; Schumacher-Petersen, Camilla

    2011-01-01

    Animal models are valuable for studying pathogenic factors and preventive measures for colon anastomotic leakage. The suitability of the species as models varies greatly; however, no consensus exists on which species to use. The aim of this review was to evaluate different experimental animals fo...

  19. Antifungal susceptibility of Candida species isolated from patients with candidemia in southern Taiwan, 2007-2012: impact of new antifungal breakpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Chun; Kuo, Shu-Fang; Chen, Fang-Ju; Lee, Chen-Hsiang

    2017-02-01

    The Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) revised the clinical breakpoints (CBPs) for the azoles and echinocandins against Candida species in 2012. We aimed to report the epidemiology of candidemia and antifungal susceptibility of Candida species and evaluate the impact of new CBPs on antifungal susceptibility in our region. All blood isolates of Candida species were obtained from 2007 to 2012. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of fluconazole, voriconazole, echinocandins and flucytosine against Candida isolates were determined by Sensititre YeastOne system. Differences in susceptibility rates between the CBPs of previous and revised versions of CLSI were examined. Of 709 Candida isolates, the fluconazole-susceptible rate was 96.5% in Candida albicans, 85.8% in Candida tropicalis and 92.1% in Candida parapsilosis by the revised CBPs. Compared with the susceptibility results by previous CBPs, the marked reductions in susceptibility of C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis to fluconazole, that of C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis to voriconazole, that of C. tropicalis and Candida glabrata to anidulafungin and that of C. tropicalis, C. glabrata and Candida krusei to caspofungin by revised CBPs were found. In conclusion, Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis remain highly susceptible to fluconazole. The non-susceptible rates of Candida species to azoles and echinocandins increase with interpretation by the revised CBPs. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Identification of drug susceptibility pattern and mycobacterial species in sputum smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients with and without HIV co-infection in north west Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mekonen, Mekdem; Abate, Ebba; Aseffa, Abraham

    2010-01-01

    Ethiopia is among the high-burden countries of tuberculosis (TB) in the world Since mycobacterial culture and susceptibility testing are not routinely performed in Ethiopia, recent data on susceptibility patterns and the mycobacterial species cultured from sputum smear positive patients are limited....

  1. Use of DNA from bite marks can determine species and individual animals that attack humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Sean; Talbot, Sandra L.; Sage, George K.; Sinnott, Rick; Coltrane, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    During the summer of 2008, 6 documented attacks and close encounters with brown bears (Ursus arctos) occurred in the greater Anchorage, Alaska (USA) area. We discuss findings from 2 incidents in which people were mauled within 2 km of each other over a 6-week period and in which it was assumed that a single animal was responsible. To ensure public safety, authorities killed a brown bear implicated in the attacks by circumstantial evidence, though it was not known a priori that the animal was responsible. We extracted DNA from hairs and bite sites on the clothing of both victims and determined species and individual identity of the animal(s) involved in both incidents. Genetic data indicated the brown bear killed by authorities was responsible for one of the maulings, but not both. This research demonstrates that DNA-based techniques, with appropriate sampling, can provide unambiguous identification of animals involved in attacks, as well as provide reasonable justification for excluding others. Because DNA-based techniques can unequivocally identify individual bears carrying out attacks, they should be considered a standard method employed in wildlife attack investigations.

  2. Clinical Isolates of Aspergillus Species Remain Fully Susceptible to Voriconazole in the Post-Voriconazole Era▿

    OpenAIRE

    Guinea, Jesús; Recio, Sandra; Peláez, Teresa; Torres-Narbona, Marta; Bouza, Emilio

    2008-01-01

    We studied the activity of voriconazole against 400 clinical strains of Aspergillus from the pre-voriconazole (1999 to 2002) and post-voriconazole (2003 to 2007) periods. Although the mean MICs of strains from the post-voriconazole period were slightly higher (0.39 versus 0.57 μg/ml; P < 0.001), all strains were susceptible to voriconazole and presented an MIC of ≤2 μg/ml.

  3. Bloodstream infections caused by Acinetobacter species with reduced susceptibility to tigecycline: clinical features and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ga Eun Park

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: These data suggest that tigecycline non-susceptible Acinetobacter spp have emerged and disseminated in the hospital in association with a recent exposure to carbapenems and an immunosuppressed state. This indicates that the rational use of antibiotics through a comprehensive antimicrobial stewardship program, especially in immunosuppressed patients, may be essential in limiting the emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant organisms such as tigecycline-resistant Acinetobacter spp, which are difficult to treat.

  4. Comparison of European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) and Etest methods with the CLSI broth microdilution method for echinocandin susceptibility testing of Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, M A; Castanheira, M; Diekema, D J; Messer, S A; Moet, G J; Jones, R N

    2010-05-01

    The antifungal broth microdilution (BMD) method of the European Committee on Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) and the Etest agar diffusion method were compared with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) BMD method M27-A3 for anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin susceptibility testing of 133 clinical isolates of Candida species. The isolates were characterized for the presence or absence of fks1 and/or fks2 gene mutations and included 34 isolates of C. glabrata (4 mutant strains), 32 of C. albicans (1 mutant strain), 25 of C. parapsilosis, 19 of C. guilliermondii, 12 of C. tropicalis (2 mutant strains), and 11 of C. krusei. Excellent essential agreement (EA; within 2 dilutions) between the CLSI and EUCAST and CLSI and Etest MIC results was observed. The overall EA between the EUCAST and CLSI results ranged from 89.5% (caspofungin) to 99.2% (micafungin), whereas the EA between the Etest and CLSI results ranged from 90.2% (caspofungin) to 93.2% (anidulafungin). The categorical agreement (CA) between methods for each antifungal agent was assessed using previously determined epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs). Excellent CA (>90%) was observed for all comparisons between the EUCAST and CLSI results with the exceptions of C. glabrata and caspofungin (85.3%) and C. krusei and caspofungin (54.5%). The CA between the Etest and CLSI results was also excellent for all comparisons, with the exception of C. krusei and caspofungin (81.8%). All three methods were able to differentiate wild-type (WT) strains from those with fks mutations. With anidulafungin as the test reagent, the CLSI method identified 5 of 7 mutant strains, whereas the EUCAST method and the Etest identified 6 of 7 mutant strains. With either caspofungin or micafungin as the test reagent, the CLSI method identified all 7 mutant strains and the EUCAST method identified 6 of 7 mutant strains. The Etest identified all 7 mutant strains using caspofungin as the reagent. All three

  5. Molecular detection of meat animal species targeting MT 12S rRNA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, M V; Gadekar, Y P; Dighe, V D; Kokane, R D; Bannalikar, A S

    2011-05-01

    The efficacy of PCR-RFLP analysis of mt 12S rRNA gene in identification of animal species from meat samples of known and unknown origin and adulterated meat samples was evaluated. In PCR, all the samples generated an amplicon of 456 bp. Restriction enzyme digestion of the PCR product with AluI, HhaI, BspTI and ApoI revealed characteristic RFLP patterns. Of the samples of unknown origin few were identified as cattle, few as buffalo and some were admixtures of two, suggesting adulteration. The RFLP pattern of one did not match any of species included in the study, which on sequencing was confirmed as camel meat. Application of this technique on adulterated meat samples could detect both animal species in proportion of 50:50 and 75:25 (except in case of goat+cattle). The technique however could not detect any of the two species when proportion of mixture was 90:10 (except in case of cattle+buffalo). Copyright © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Antifungal susceptibilities of Candida species isolated from the patients with vaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Masahito; Yamagishi, Yuka; Mikamo, Hiroshige

    2016-02-01

    There have been the current Japanese data on susceptibility testing for Candida isolates from vaginal candidiasis. The in vitro activities of therapeutic antifungal drugs for vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC); miconazole (MCZ), itraconazole (ITCZ), fluconazole (FLCZ), clotrimazole (CTZ), oxiconazole (OCZ), isoconazole (ICZ) and bifonazole (BFZ) against vaginal isolates. Fifty-four strains Candida albicans and 19 strains of Candida glabrata were evaluated using a broth microdilution method specified by Clinical Laboratories Standard Institute (CLSI) document M27-A3. The MIC90 of each drug, MCZ, ITCZ, FLCZ, CTZ, OCZ, ICZ and BFZ, against C. albicans and C. glabrata isolates were 0.25, 0.12, 1, 0.06, 0.12, 0.12 and 1 μg/ml and 1, 1, 8, 0.5, 0.25, 0.5 and 1 μg/ml respectively. The activities of these drugs, except for BFZ, against C. glabrata were lower than that of C. albicans. There was one azole-resistant isolate in C. glabrata of which MIC of FLCZ is > 64 μg/ml and this isolate had cross resistance to other antifungal drugs tested. These results suggest that antifungal drugs for treatment of VVC continues to have potent antifungal activities against C. albicans and C. glabrata isolates from vaginitis. CTZ, OCZ and ICZ susceptibility of FLCZ low susceptibility C. glabrata are relatively higher than MCZ, ITCZ and FLCZ. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Contrasting Susceptibilities to Flavescence Dorée in Vitis vinifera, Rootstocks and Wild Vitis Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eveillard, Sandrine; Jollard, Camille; Labroussaa, Fabien; Khalil, Dima; Perrin, Mireille; Desqué, Delphine; Salar, Pascal; Razan, Frédérique; Hévin, Cyril; Bordenave, Louis; Foissac, Xavier; Masson, Jean E.; Malembic-Maher, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Flavescence dorée (FD) is a quarantine disease of grapevine, involving interactions between the plants, leafhopper vectors, and FD phytoplasma. Characterizing the susceptibility of vine varieties could limit disease propagation. After extensive surveys in vineyards, we showed that Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) is highly susceptible, with a high proportion of symptomatic branches and phytoplasma titers, in contrast to Merlot (M). Localized insect transmissions and grafting showed that phytoplasma circulate in the whole plant in the CS cultivar, but in M they are restricted to the transmission point. Insect-mediated transmission under high confinement mimicking natural conditions confirmed these phenotypes and allowed the classification of 28 Vitis accessions into three distinct categories, according to the percentage of infected plants and their phytoplasma titers. Reduced symptoms, low phytoplasma titers, and low percentages of infected plants were found to be associated in the Vitis vinifera cultivars tested. Interestingly, the low susceptibility of M was observed for one of its parents, i.e., Magdeleine Noire des Charentes. Rootstocks and their Vitis parents, although having high percentages of infected plants and intermediate to high phytoplasma titers, shared a symptomless response. This is troubling, because rootstocks can constitute a silent reservoir of contamination in mother plants or when they grow wild nearby vineyards. Altogether, data suggest distribution of genetic traits within the Vitis genus involved in insect-mediated phytoplasma transmission, multiplication, circulation, and symptom development. PMID:27965681

  8. A Comparison of Non-Typhoidal Salmonella from Humans and Food Animals Using Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandt, Carol H.; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J.; Tewari, Deepanker; Ostroff, Stephen; Joyce, Kevin; M’ikanatha, Nkuchia M.

    2013-01-01

    Salmonellosis is one of the most important foodborne diseases affecting humans. To characterize the relationship between Salmonella causing human infections and their food animal reservoirs, we compared pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of non-typhoidal Salmonella isolated from ill humans in Pennsylvania and from food animals before retail. Human clinical isolates were received from 2005 through 2011 during routine public health operations in Pennsylvania. Isolates from cattle, chickens, swine and turkeys were recovered during the same period from federally inspected slaughter and processing facilities in the northeastern United States. We found that subtyping Salmonella isolates by PFGE revealed differences in antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and, for human Salmonella, differences in sources and invasiveness that were not evident from serotyping alone. Sixteen of the 20 most common human Salmonella PFGE patterns were identified in Salmonella recovered from food animals. The most common human Salmonella PFGE pattern, Enteritidis pattern JEGX01.0004 (JEGX01.0003ARS), was associated with more cases of invasive salmonellosis than all other patterns. In food animals, this pattern was almost exclusively (99%) found in Salmonella recovered from chickens and was present in poultry meat in every year of the study. Enteritidis pattern JEGX01.0004 (JEGX01.0003ARS) was associated with susceptibility to all antimicrobial agents tested in 94.7% of human and 97.2% of food animal Salmonella isolates. In contrast, multidrug resistance (resistance to three or more classes of antimicrobial agents) was observed in five PFGE patterns. Typhimurium patterns JPXX01.0003 (JPXX01.0003 ARS) and JPXX01.0018 (JPXX01.0002 ARS), considered together, were associated with resistance to five or more classes of antimicrobial agents: ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamides and tetracycline (ACSSuT), in 92% of human and 80% of food

  9. Candida glabrata species complex prevalence and antifungal susceptibility testing in a culture collection: First description of Candida nivariensis in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-López, Soraya Eugenia; Taverna, Constanza G; Bosco-Borgeat, María Eugenia; Maldonado, Ivana; Vivot, Walter; Szusz, Wanda; Garcia-Effron, Guillermo; Córdoba, Susana B

    2016-12-01

    The presence of the cryptic species belonging to the Candida glabrata complex has not been studied in Argentina. We analyzed a collection of 117 clinical isolates of C. glabrata complex belonging to a National Culture Collection of Instituto Nacional de Microbiología "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán" from Argentina (40 isolates from blood samples, 18 from other normally sterile sites, 20 from vagina, 14 from urine, 7 from oral cavity, 3 from catheter, 1 from a stool sample and 14 isolates whose clinical origin was not recorded). The aims of this work were to determine the prevalence of the cryptic species Candida nivariensis and Candida bracarensis and to evaluate the susceptibility profile of isolates against nine antifungal drugs. Identification was carried out by using classical phenotypic tests, CHROMagar™ Candida, PCR and MALDI-TOF. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of amphotericin B, 5-fluorocytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, ketoconazole, posaconazole, caspofungin and anidulafungin were determined according to the EDef 7.3 (EUCAST) reference document. Of the 117 isolates, 114 were identified as C. glabrata and three as C. nivariensis by using PCR and MALDI-TOF. There were no major differences between C. nivariensis and C. glabrata susceptibility profiles. No resistant strains were found to echinocandins. We have found that the percentage of C. nivariensis in our culture collection was 2.56. This is the first description of C. nivariensis in Argentina, and data obtained could contribute to the knowledge of the epidemiology of this cryptic species.

  10. LC-MS/MS Identification of Species-Specific Muscle Peptides in Processed Animal Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchis, Daniela; Altomare, Alessandra; Gili, Marilena; Ostorero, Federica; Khadjavi, Amina; Corona, Cristiano; Ru, Giuseppe; Cappelletti, Benedetta; Gianelli, Silvia; Amadeo, Francesca; Rumio, Cristiano; Carini, Marina; Aldini, Giancarlo; Casalone, Cristina

    2017-12-06

    An innovative analytical strategy has been applied to identify signature peptides able to distinguish among processed animal proteins (PAPs) derived from bovine, pig, fish, and milk products. Proteomics was first used to elucidate the proteome of each source. Starting from the identified proteins and using a funnel based approach, a set of abundant and well characterized peptides with suitable physical-chemical properties (signature peptides) and specific for each source was selected. An on-target LC-ESI-MS/MS method (MRM mode) was set up using standard peptides and was then applied to selectively identify the PAP source and also to distinguish proteins from bovine carcass and milk proteins. We believe that the method described meets the request of the European Commission which has developed a strategy for gradually lifting the "total ban" toward "species to species ban", therefore requiring official methods for species-specific discrimination in feed.

  11. Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Salmonella species Isolated from Beef and its Related Samples in Techiman Municipality of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Adzitey

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella species are important foodborne pathogens that have been implicated in a number of foodborne outbreaks. A total of 240 beef and its related samples obtained from the Techiman Municipality of Ghana were screened using the conventional method in the Food and Drug Administration-Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA-BAM-USA. The overall prevalence of Salmonella species was 57.08%. The prevalence of Salmonella species ranged from 33.30% to 75.00% in the meat and its related samples (table, knife and apron, and 6.30% to 93.80% at the various meat sale points (locations where meat is sold. Prevalence of Salmonella species was significantly higher in meat (75.00%, table (60.00% and knife (60.00%, than apron (33.33%. The most contaminated meat sale point was Kenten and Main markets (93.75% and the least contaminated sale point was Sansema junction (6.25%. All the Salmonella species were susceptible to ciprofloxacin but resistant to vancomycin. Intermediate resistances occur for all the antibiotics except ciprofloxacin and vancomycin. The Salmonella species also exhibited 23 antibiotic resistant patterns with the pattern EVa (erythromycin and vancomycin being the commonest (exhibited by nine different isolates. Multiple antibiotic index (MAR index ranged from 0.11 to 0.67. This study revealed that beef and its related samples in Techiman markets are contaminated with Salmonella.

  12. A DNA-based registry for all animal species: the barcode index number (BIN system.

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    Sujeevan Ratnasingham

    Full Text Available Because many animal species are undescribed, and because the identification of known species is often difficult, interim taxonomic nomenclature has often been used in biodiversity analysis. By assigning individuals to presumptive species, called operational taxonomic units (OTUs, these systems speed investigations into the patterning of biodiversity and enable studies that would otherwise be impossible. Although OTUs have conventionally been separated through their morphological divergence, DNA-based delineations are not only feasible, but have important advantages. OTU designation can be automated, data can be readily archived, and results can be easily compared among investigations. This study exploits these attributes to develop a persistent, species-level taxonomic registry for the animal kingdom based on the analysis of patterns of nucleotide variation in the barcode region of the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI gene. It begins by examining the correspondence between groups of specimens identified to a species through prior taxonomic work and those inferred from the analysis of COI sequence variation using one new (RESL and four established (ABGD, CROP, GMYC, jMOTU algorithms. It subsequently describes the implementation, and structural attributes of the Barcode Index Number (BIN system. Aside from a pragmatic role in biodiversity assessments, BINs will aid revisionary taxonomy by flagging possible cases of synonymy, and by collating geographical information, descriptive metadata, and images for specimens that are likely to belong to the same species, even if it is undescribed. More than 274,000 BIN web pages are now available, creating a biodiversity resource that is positioned for rapid growth.

  13. Epidemiology, species distribution and in vitro antifungal susceptibility of fungaemia in a Spanish multicentre prospective survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pemán, Javier; Cantón, Emilia; Quindós, Guillermo; Eraso, Elena; Alcoba, Julia; Guinea, Jesús; Merino, Paloma; Ruiz-Pérez-de-Pipaon, María Teresa; Pérez-del-Molino, Luisa; Linares-Sicilia, María José; Marco, Francesc; García, Julio; Roselló, Eva María; Gómez-G-de-la-Pedrosa, Elia; Borrell, Nuria; Porras, Aurelio; Yagüe, Genoveva

    2012-01-01

    .... Episodes were identified prospectively over 13 months at 44 hospitals. Molecular methods were used to determine the cryptic species inside the Candida parapsilosis and Candida glabrata complexes...

  14. Antibiotic susceptibility of enterobacteriaceae species isolated from mastitic milk in Algeria

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    R Saidi

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: We conclude that Enterobacteriaceae species from bovine milk presented significantly distinct antimicrobial resistance profiles, evaluated by phenotypic test, which has implications for treatment and management decisions.

  15. Evaluation of Cover Crops with Potential for Use in Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation (ASD) for Susceptibility to Three Species of Meloidogyne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokalis-Burelle, Nancy; Butler, David M; Rosskopf, Erin N

    2013-12-01

    Several cover crops with potential for use in tropical and subtropical regions were assessed for susceptibility to three common species of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica. Crops were selected based on potential use as organic amendments in anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) applications. Nematode juvenile (J2) numbers in soil and roots, egg production, and host plant root galling were evaluated on arugula (Eruca sativa, cv. Nemat), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, cv. Iron & Clay), jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis, cv. Comum), two commercial mixtures of Indian mustard and white mustard (Brassica juncea & Sinapis alba, mixtures Caliente 61 and Caliente 99), pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum, cv. Tifleaf III), sorghum-sudangrass hybrid (Sorghum bicolor × S. bicolor var. sudanense, cv. Sugar Grazer II), and three cultivars of sunflower (Helianthus annuus, cvs. 545A, Nusun 660CL, and Nusun 5672). Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, cv. Rutgers) was included in all trials as a susceptible host to all three nematode species. The majority of cover crops tested were less susceptible than tomato to M. arenaria, with the exception of jack bean. Sunflower cv. Nusun 5672 had fewer M. arenaria J2 isolated from roots than the other sunflower cultivars, less galling than tomato, and fewer eggs than tomato and sunflower cv. 545A. Several cover crops did not support high populations of M. incognita in roots or exhibit significant galling, although high numbers of M. incognita J2 were isolated from the soil. Arugula, cowpea, and mustard mixture Caliente 99 did not support M. incognita in soil or roots. Jack bean and all three cultivars of sunflower were highly susceptible to M. javanica, and all sunflower cultivars had high numbers of eggs isolated from roots. Sunflower, jack bean, and both mustard mixtures exhibited significant galling in response to M. javanica. Arugula, cowpea, and sorghum-sudangrass consistently had low numbers of all three

  16. Intersecting Spaces and Species: Women´s Bodies and the Domestic Sphere in Animal Rights Activism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Alonso Recarte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of this article is to explore how current animal rights activism draws on images of women-animal corporeal hybrids to articulate a plight for animals, and how the domestic setting used in such campaigns is strategically conveyed to either instill sympathy or abhorrence at the ‘miscegenation’ of species within a single bodily space. I begin with a few observations on the matter of animal ontology in accordance with the muchdebated notion of commonness with humans (and in particular women. I then make a comparative analysis between video campaigns by two major animal rights organizations, the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA and People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA to evaluate how their rhetoric of species hybridism conveys different assumptions regarding womanhood, and how domestic settings serve as instrumental tools through which to strengthen their rhetoric of animal liberation.

  17. Susceptibility of inbred mouse strains to infection with three species of Metagonimus prevalent in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guk, Sang-Mee; Park, Jin-Young; Seo, Min; Han, Eun-Taek; Kim, Jae-Lip; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2005-02-01

    Susceptibility of inbred mouse strains to Metagonimus yokogawai, Metagonimus miyatai, and Metagonimus takahashii infections was studied using BALB/c, ddY, C57BL/6J, C3H/HeN, and A/J mice, with H-2 haplotypes d, s, b, k, and a, respectively. Two hundred metacercariae were orally fed to each mouse, and the worm recovery rates (WRR), worm dimensions, and intrauterine egg numbers were measured at days 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 postinfection (PI). On day 14 PI, the WRR of M. yokogawai was highest in ddY mice (average, 62.2%); those of M. miyatai and M. takahashii were highest in ddY (19.5%) and BALB/c mice (10.4%), respectively; worm maturation was best in C3H/HeN (M. yokogawai), C57BL/6J (M. miyatai), and ddY mice (M. takahashii). All mouse strains showed higher susceptibility to infection with M. yokogawai than with M. miyatai or M. takahashii. The results show that susceptibility of mice to Metagonimus infection varies according to mouse strain and parasite species but is suggested to be independent of the mouse H-2 haplotype.

  18. [Antifungal susceptibility profiles of Candida species to triazole: application of new CLSI species-specific clinical breakpoints and epidemiological cutoff values for characterization of antifungal resistance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabıçak, Nilgün; Alem, Nihal

    2016-01-01

    The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) Subcommittee on Antifungal Susceptibility Testing has newly introduced species-specific clinical breakpoints (CBPs) for fluconazole and voriconazole. When CBPs can not be determined, wild-type minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) distributions are detected and epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) provide valuable means for the detection of emerging resistance. The aim of this study is to determine triazole resistance patterns in Candida species by the recently revised CLSI CBPs. A total of 140 Candida strains isolated from blood cultures of patients with invasive candidiasis hospitalized in various intensive care units in Turkey and sent to our reference laboratory between 2011-2012, were included in the study. The isolates were identified by conventional methods, and susceptibility testing was performed against fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole, by the 24-h CLSI broth microdilution (BMD) method. Azole resistance rates for all Candida species were determined using the new species-specific CLSI CBPs and ECVs criteria, when appropriate. The species distribution of the isolates were as follows; C.parapsilosis (n= 31 ), C.tropicalis (n= 26 ), C.glabrata (n= 21), C.albicans (n= 18), C.lusitaniae (n= 16), C.krusei (n= 16), C.kefyr (n= 9), C.guilliermondii (n= 2), and C.dubliniensis (n= 1). According to the newly determined CLSI CBPs for fluconazole and C.albicans, C.parapsilosis, C.tropicalis [susceptible (S), ≤ 2 µg/ml; dose-dependent susceptible (SDD), 4 µg/ml; resistant (R), ≥ 8 µg/ml], and C.glabrata (SDD, ≤ 32 µg/ml; R≥ 64 µg/ml) and for voriconazole and C.albicans, C.parapsilosis, C.tropicalis (S, ≤ 0.12 µg/ml; SDD, 0.25-0.5 µg/ml; R, ≥ 1 µg/ml), and C.krusei (S, ≤ 0.5 µg/ml; SDD, 1 µg/ml; R, ≥ 2 µg/ml), it was found that three of C.albicans, one of C.parapsilosis and one of C.glabrata isolates were resistant to fluconazole, while two of C.albicans and two of C

  19. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance pattern of Campylobacter species in foods of animal origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to determine the prevalence and evaluation of antibiotic resistance pattern and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of Campylobacter species isolated from foods of animal origin. Materials and Methods: A total of 280 samples (comprising 150 chicken meat, 50 chevon and 80 milk were collected from retail meat markets, slaughter houses and dairy farms and analyzed for isolation of Campylobacter species. A total of 29 isolates comprising 23 Campylobacter jejuni and 6 Campylobacter coli were recovered, characterized biochemically and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. These isolates were then tested for antibiotic resistance pattern through disc diffusion method, and MIC was assessed by MIC strips. The antibiotic resistance assessment was performed against 8 antibiotics viz. ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, erythromycin, levofloxacin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, and norfloxacin. Results: The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken meat, chevon and milk samples were observed 17.33%, 6% and 0%, respectively. All the isolates were resistant to co-trimoxazole but sensitive to erythromycin. All the isolates showed different resistance pattern for the rest of the antibiotics. MIC results revealed that all the isolates were within prescribed concentrations for sensitivity for the antibiotics tested. Conclusions: The foods of animal origin are source of Campylobacter infections to human beings. Thus, the development of antibiotic-resistant strains emphasizes the requirement of better surveillance and monitoring of the foods of animal origin and the use of antimicrobials in veterinary and human medicine require careful regulation.

  20. Effect of water activity and temperature on the growth of Eurotium species isolated from animal feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Mariana; Pardo, Alejandro; Pose, Graciela; Patriarca, Andrea

    Xerophilic fungi represent a serious problem due to their ability to grow at low water activities causing the spoiling of low and intermediate moisture foods, stored goods and animal feeds, with the consequent economic losses. The combined effect of water activity and temperature of four Eurotium species isolated from animal feeds was investigated. Eurotium amstelodami, Eurotium chevalieri, Eurotium repens and Eurotium rubrum were grown at 5, 15, 25, 37 and 45°C on malt extract agar adjusted with glycerol in the range 0.710-0.993 of water activities. The cardinal model proposed by Rosso and Robinson (2001) was applied to fit growth data, with the variable water activity at fixed temperatures, obtaining three cardinal water activities (a wmin , a wmax , a wopt ) and the specific growth rate at the optimum a w (μ opt ). A probabilistic model was also applied to define the interface between growth and no-growth. The cardinal model provided an adequate estimation of the optimal a w to grow and the maximum growth rate. The probabilistic model showed a good performance to fit growth/no-growth cases in the predicted range. The results presented here could be applied to predict Eurotium species growth in animal feeds. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. In vivo activity of Sapindus saponaria against azole-susceptible and -resistant human vaginal Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damke, Edílson; Tsuzuki, Joyce K; Cortez, Diógenes A G; Ferreira, Izabel C P; Bertoni, Thâmara A; Batista, Márcia R; Donati, Lucélia; Svidzinski, Terezinha I E; Consolaro, Márcia E L

    2011-05-04

    Study of in vivo antifungal activity of the hydroalcoholic extract (HE) and n-BuOH extract (BUTE) of Sapindus saponaria against azole-susceptible and -resistant human vaginal Candida spp. The in vitro antifungal activity of HE, BUTE, fluconazole (FLU), and itraconazole (ITRA) was determined by the broth microdilution method. We obtained values of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicide concentration (MFC) for 46 strains of C. albicans and 10 of C. glabrata isolated from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). VVC was induced in hyperestrogenic Wistar rats with azole-susceptible C. albicans (SCA), azole-resistant C. albicans (RCA), and azole-resistant C. glabrata (RCG). The rats were treated intravaginally with 0.1 mL of HE or BUTE at concentrations of 1%, 2.5% and 5%; 100 μg/mL of FLU (treatment positive control); or distilled water (negative control) at 1, 24, and 48 h after induction of the infection, and the progress of VVC was monitored by culturing and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The toxicity was evaluated in cervical cells of the HeLa cell line. The extracts showed in vitro inhibitory and fungicidal activity against all the isolates, and the MIC and MFC values for the C. glabrata isolates were slightly higher. In vivo, the SCA, RCA, and RCG infections were eliminated by 21 days post-infection, with up to 5% HE and BUTE, comparable to the activity of FLU. No cytotoxic action was observed for either extract. Our results demonstrated that HE and BUTE from S. saponaria show inhibitory and fungicidal activity in vitro, in addition to in vivo activity against azole-resistant vaginal isolates of C. glabrata and azole-susceptible and resistant isolates of C. albicans. Also considering the lack of cytotoxicity and the low concentrations of the extracts necessary to eliminate the infection in vivo, HE and BUTE show promise for continued studies with purified antifungal substances in VVC yeast isolates.

  2. Silver and Nitrate Oppositely Modulate Antimony Susceptibility through Aquaglyceroporin 1 in Leishmania (Viannia) Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Juvana M; Baba, Elio H; Machado-de-Avila, Ricardo A; Chavez-Olortegui, Carlos; Demicheli, Cynthia P; Frézard, Frédéric; Monte-Neto, Rubens L; Murta, Silvane M F

    2016-08-01

    Antimony (Sb) resistance in leishmaniasis chemotherapy has become one of the major challenges to the control of this spreading worldwide public health problem. Since the plasma membrane pore-forming protein aquaglyceroporin 1 (AQP1) is the major route of Sb uptake in Leishmania, functional studies are relevant to characterize drug transport pathways in the parasite. We generated AQP1-overexpressing Leishmania guyanensis and L. braziliensis mutants and investigated their susceptibility to the trivalent form of Sb (Sb(III)) in the presence of silver and nitrate salts. Both AQP1-overexpressing lines presented 3- to 4-fold increased AQP1 expression levels compared with those of their untransfected counterparts, leading to an increased Sb(III) susceptibility of about 2-fold. Competition assays using silver nitrate, silver sulfadiazine, or silver acetate prior to Sb(III) exposure increased parasite growth, especially in AQP1-overexpressing mutants. Surprisingly, Sb(III)-sodium nitrate or Sb(III)-potassium nitrate combinations showed significantly enhanced antileishmanial activities compared to those of Sb(III) alone, especially against AQP1-overexpressing mutants, suggesting a putative nitrate-dependent modulation of AQP1 activity. The intracellular level of antimony quantified by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry showed that the concomitant exposure to Sb(III) and nitrate favors antimony accumulation in the parasite, increasing the toxicity of the drug and culminating with parasite death. This is the first report showing evidence of AQP1-mediated Sb(III) susceptibility modulation by silver in Leishmania and suggests the potential antileishmanial activity of the combination of nitrate salts and Sb(III). Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. A comparative review of Toll-like receptor 4 expression and functionality in different animal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline eVAURE

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptors (TLRs belong to the pattern recognition receptor (PRR family, a key component of the innate immune system. TLRs detect invading pathogens and initiate an immediate immune response to them, followed by a long-lasting adaptive immune response. Activation of TLRs leads to the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and the expression of co-stimulatory molecules. TLR4 specifically recognizes bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, along with several other components of pathogens and endogenous molecules produced during abnormal situations, such as tissue damage. Evolution across species can lead to substantial diversity in the TLR4’s affinity and specificity to its ligands, the TLR4 gene and cellular expression patterns and tissue distribution. Consequently, TLR4 functions vary across different species. In recent years, the use of synthetic TLR agonists as adjuvants has emerged as a realistic therapeutic goal, notably for the development of vaccines against poorly immunogenic targets. Given that an adjuvanted vaccine must be assessed in pre-clinical animal models before being tested in humans, the extent to which an animal model represents and predicts the human condition is of particular importance. This review focuses on the current knowledge on the critical points of divergence between human and the mammalian species commonly used in vaccine research and development (non-human primate, mouse, rat, rabbit, swine and dog, in terms of molecular, cellular and functional properties of TLR4.

  4. Proteomic analysis and cross species comparison of casein fractions from the milk of dairy animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaxia; Zhao, Xiaowei; Huang, Dongwei; Pan, Xiaocheng; Qi, Yunxia; Yang, Yongxin; Zhao, Huiling; Cheng, Guanglong

    2017-01-01

    Casein micelles contribute to the physicochemical properties of milk and may also influence its functionality. At present, however, there is an incomplete understanding of the casein micelle associated proteins and its diversity among the milk obtained from different species. Therefore, milk samples were collected from seven dairy animals groups, casein fractions were prepared by ultracentrifugation and their constituent proteins were identified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 193 distinct proteins were identified among all the casein micelle preparations. Protein interaction analysis indicated that caseins could interact with major whey proteins, including β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, and serum albumin, and then whey proteins interacted with other proteins. Pathway analysis found that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway is shared among the studied animals. Additionally, galactose metabolism pathway is also found to be commonly involved for proteins derived from camel and horse milk. According to the similarity of casein micelle proteomes, two major sample clusters were classified into ruminant animals (Holstein and Jersey cows, buffaloes, yaks, and goats) and non-ruminants (camels and horses). Our results provide new insights into the protein profile associated with casein micelles and the functionality of the casein micelle from the studied animals. PMID:28240229

  5. Multisite reproducibility of the broth microdilution method for susceptibility testing of Nocardia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conville, Patricia S; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Wallace, Richard J; Witebsky, Frank G; Koziol, Deloris; Hall, Geraldine S; Killian, Scott B; Knapp, Cindy C; Warshauer, David; Van, Tam; Wengenack, Nancy L; Deml, Sharon; Woods, Gail L

    2012-04-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of clinical isolates of Nocardia is recommended to detect resistance to commonly used antimicrobial agents; such testing is complicated by difficulties in inoculum preparation and test interpretation. In this study, six laboratories performed repetitive broth microdilution testing on single strains of Nocardia brasiliensis, Nocardia cyriacigeorgica, Nocardia farcinica, Nocardia nova, and Nocardia wallacei. For each isolate, a total of 30 microdilution panels from three different lots were tested at most sites. The goal of the study was to determine the inter- and intralaboratory reproducibility of susceptibility testing of this group of isolates. Acceptable agreement (>90% agreement at ±1 dilution of the MIC mode) was found for amikacin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, and moxifloxacin. After eliminating MIC values from single laboratories whose results showed the greatest deviation from those of the remaining laboratories, acceptable agreement was also found for amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, linezolid, minocycline, and tobramycin. Results showed unsatisfactory reproducibility of broth microdilution testing of ceftriaxone with N. cyriacigeorgica and N. wallacei, tigecycline with N. brasiliensis and N. cyriacigeorgica, and sulfonamides with N. farcinica and N. wallacei. N. nova ATCC BAA-2227 is proposed as a quality control organism for AST of Nocardia sp., and the use of a disk diffusion test for sulfisoxazole is proposed as a check of the adequacy of the inoculum and to confirm sulfonamide MIC results.

  6. Multisite Reproducibility of the Broth Microdilution Method for Susceptibility Testing of Nocardia Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Elliott, Barbara A.; Wallace, Richard J.; Witebsky, Frank G.; Koziol, Deloris; Hall, Geraldine S.; Killian, Scott B.; Knapp, Cindy C.; Warshauer, David; Van, Tam; Wengenack, Nancy L.; Deml, Sharon; Woods, Gail L.

    2012-01-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of clinical isolates of Nocardia is recommended to detect resistance to commonly used antimicrobial agents; such testing is complicated by difficulties in inoculum preparation and test interpretation. In this study, six laboratories performed repetitive broth microdilution testing on single strains of Nocardia brasiliensis, Nocardia cyriacigeorgica, Nocardia farcinica, Nocardia nova, and Nocardia wallacei. For each isolate, a total of 30 microdilution panels from three different lots were tested at most sites. The goal of the study was to determine the inter- and intralaboratory reproducibility of susceptibility testing of this group of isolates. Acceptable agreement (>90% agreement at ±1 dilution of the MIC mode) was found for amikacin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, and moxifloxacin. After eliminating MIC values from single laboratories whose results showed the greatest deviation from those of the remaining laboratories, acceptable agreement was also found for amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, linezolid, minocycline, and tobramycin. Results showed unsatisfactory reproducibility of broth microdilution testing of ceftriaxone with N. cyriacigeorgica and N. wallacei, tigecycline with N. brasiliensis and N. cyriacigeorgica, and sulfonamides with N. farcinica and N. wallacei. N. nova ATCC BAA-2227 is proposed as a quality control organism for AST of Nocardia sp., and the use of a disk diffusion test for sulfisoxazole is proposed as a check of the adequacy of the inoculum and to confirm sulfonamide MIC results. PMID:22219309

  7. Campylobacter species in animal, food, and environmental sources, and relevant testing programs in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongsheng; Brooks, Brian W; Lowman, Ruff; Carrillo, Catherine D

    2015-10-01

    Campylobacter species, particularly thermophilic campylobacters, have emerged as a leading cause of human foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide, with Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari responsible for the majority of human infections. Although most cases of campylobacteriosis are self-limiting, campylobacteriosis represents a significant public health burden. Human illness caused by infection with campylobacters has been reported across Canada since the early 1970s. Many studies have shown that dietary sources, including food, particularly raw poultry and other meat products, raw milk, and contaminated water, have contributed to outbreaks of campylobacteriosis in Canada. Campylobacter spp. have also been detected in a wide range of animal and environmental sources, including water, in Canada. The purpose of this article is to review (i) the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in animals, food, and the environment, and (ii) the relevant testing programs in Canada with a focus on the potential links between campylobacters and human health in Canada.

  8. General and species-specific transcriptional responses to downy mildew infection in a susceptible (Vitis vinifera) and a resistant (V. riparia) grapevine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Downy mildew is a destructive grapevine disease caused by Plasmopara viticola (Berk. and Curt.) Berl. and de Toni, which can only be controlled by intensive fungicide treatments. Natural sources of resistance from wild grapevine (Vitis) species are used in conventional breeding approaches, but the signals and effectors involved in resistance in this important crop species are not well understood. Results Early transcriptional changes associated with P. viticola infection in susceptible V. vinifera and resistant V. riparia plants were analyzed using the Combimatrix microarray platform. Transcript levels were measured 12 and 24 h post-inoculation, reflecting the time points immediately preceding the onset of resistance in V. riparia, as determined by microscopic analysis. Our data indicate that resistance in V. riparia is induced after infection, and is not based on differences in basal gene expression between the two species. The strong and rapid transcriptional reprogramming involves the induction of pathogenesis-related proteins and enzymes required for the synthesis of phenylpropanoid-derived compounds, many of which are also induced, albeit to a lesser extent, in V. vinifera. More interestingly, resistance in V. riparia also involves the specific modulation of numerous transcripts encoding components of signal transduction cascades, hypersensitive reaction markers and genes involved in jasmonate biosynthesis. The limited transcriptional modulation in V. vinifera represents a weak attempted defense response rather than the activation of compatibility-specific pathways. Conclusions Several candidate resistance genes were identified that could be exploited in future biotechnological approaches to increase disease resistance in susceptible grapevine species. Measurements of jasmonic acid and methyl jasmonate in infected leaves suggest that this hormone may also be involved in V. riparia resistance to P. viticola. PMID:20167053

  9. Three-locus identification, genotyping, and antifungal susceptibilities of medically important Trichosporon species from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Li-Na; Xiao, Meng; Kong, Fanrong; Chen, Sharon C-A; Wang, He; Sorrell, Tania C; Jiang, Wei; Dou, Hong-Tao; Li, Ruo-Yu; Xu, Ying-Chun

    2011-11-01

    Three reference and 45 clinical isolates of Trichosporon were analyzed by conventional phenotypic and molecular methods to determine the species and genotypes of Trichosporon isolates from China. Target loci for molecular methods included the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene, and the intergenic spacer 1 (IGS1) region. Identification of eight Trichosporon species was achieved, of which Trichosporon asahii was the most common. Of the sequence-based molecular methods, the one targeting the D1/D2 domain assigned 97.9% (47/48) of isolates (seven species) correctly, while tests targeting both the ITS and IGS1 regions correctly identified all 48 isolates. The commercial API 20C AUX and Vitek 2 Compact YST systems correctly identified 91.9% and 73% of isolates when their biochemical profiles were queried against those of species contained in the databases, respectively, and misidentified 63.6% and 36.4% of isolates of species that were unclaimed by the databases, respectively. The predominant genotype among T. asahii clinical isolates, genotype 4 (51.4%), is rarely found in other countries. Voriconazole and itraconazole were the most active drugs in vitro against all the Trichosporon species tested, while caspofungin and amphotericin B demonstrated poor activity.

  10. Distribution pattern of dorsal root ganglion neurons synthesizing nitric oxide synthase in different animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesár, Dalibor; Kolesárová, Mária; Kyselovič, Ján

    2017-04-01

    The main aim of the present review is to provide at first a short survey of the basic anatomical description of sensory ganglion neurons in relation to cell size, conduction velocity, thickness of myelin sheath, and functional classification of their processes. In addition, we have focused on discussing current knowledge about the distribution pattern of neuronal nitric oxide synthase containing sensory neurons especially in the dorsal root ganglia in different animal species; hence, there is a large controversy in relation to interpretation of the results dealing with this interesting field of research.

  11. Rotavirus strains in neglected animal species including lambs, goats and camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Hajnalka; Malik, Yashpal S; Farkas, Szilvia L; Jakab, Ferenc; Martella, Vito; Bányai, Krisztián

    2014-01-01

    Surveillance of rotavirus infections and circulating strains in small ruminants (i.e. lambs, goats and camelids) has been a neglected research area in the past. However, recent years that have seen an intensification of surveillance in humans and livestock animals, where vaccines to reduce disease burden caused by Rotavirus A (RVA) are available, led to the efforts to better understand the epidemiology, ecology and evolution of RVA strains in other hosts, including lambs, goats and camelids. The aim of this review is to provide an update of the epidemiology and strain diversity of RV strains in these species through searching for relevant information in public data bases.

  12. In vivo activity of Sapindus saponaria against azole-susceptible and -resistant human vaginal Candida species

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    Svidzinski Terezinha IE

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Study of in vivo antifungal activity of the hydroalcoholic extract (HE and n-BuOH extract (BUTE of Sapindus saponaria against azole-susceptible and -resistant human vaginal Candida spp. Methods The in vitro antifungal activity of HE, BUTE, fluconazole (FLU, and itraconazole (ITRA was determined by the broth microdilution method. We obtained values of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicide concentration (MFC for 46 strains of C. albicans and 10 of C. glabrata isolated from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC. VVC was induced in hyperestrogenic Wistar rats with azole-susceptible C. albicans (SCA, azole-resistant C. albicans (RCA, and azole-resistant C. glabrata (RCG. The rats were treated intravaginally with 0.1 mL of HE or BUTE at concentrations of 1%, 2.5% and 5%; 100 μg/mL of FLU (treatment positive control; or distilled water (negative control at 1, 24, and 48 h after induction of the infection, and the progress of VVC was monitored by culturing and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The toxicity was evaluated in cervical cells of the HeLa cell line. Results The extracts showed in vitro inhibitory and fungicidal activity against all the isolates, and the MIC and MFC values for the C. glabrata isolates were slightly higher. In vivo, the SCA, RCA, and RCG infections were eliminated by 21 days post-infection, with up to 5% HE and BUTE, comparable to the activity of FLU. No cytotoxic action was observed for either extract. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that HE and BUTE from S. saponaria show inhibitory and fungicidal activity in vitro, in addition to in vivo activity against azole-resistant vaginal isolates of C. glabrata and azole-susceptible and resistant isolates of C. albicans. Also considering the lack of cytotoxicity and the low concentrations of the extracts necessary to eliminate the infection in vivo, HE and BUTE show promise for continued studies with purified antifungal substances

  13. Epidemiology of candidemia in Qatar, the Middle East: performance of MALDI-TOF MS for the identification of Candida species, species distribution, outcome, and susceptibility pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taj-Aldeen, S J; Kolecka, A; Boesten, R; Alolaqi, A; Almaslamani, M; Chandra, P; Meis, J F; Boekhout, T

    2014-04-01

    Bloodstream infections (BSIs) due to Candida spp. constitute the predominant group of hospital-based fungal infections worldwide. A retrospective study evaluated the performance of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for the identification of BSI Candida isolates. The epidemiology, risk factors, demographic features, species distribution, and clinical outcome associated with candidemia in patients admitted to a single tertiary-care hospital in Qatar, were analyzed. A single-center, retrospective analysis covering the period from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2010 was performed. Molecular identification used sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit ribosomal DNA (LSU rDNA) and the ITS1/2 regions of the rDNA. MALDI-TOF MS-based identification of all yeast isolates was performed with the ethanol/formic acid extraction protocol according to Bruker Daltonics (Bremen, Germany). The susceptibility profiles of 201 isolates to amphotericin B, itraconazole, fluconazole, voriconazole, anidulafungin, caspofungin, posaconazole, and isavuconazole were tested using CLSI standard broth microdilution method (M27-A3 and M27 S4) guidelines. Statistical analyses were performed with the statistical package SPSS 19.0. A total of 187 patients with 201 episodes of candidemia were identified. Candida albicans was the most common species isolated (33.8 %; n = 68), whereas non-albicans Candida species represented 66.2 % (n = 133) of the episodes. The species distribution and outcome of candidemia showed a difference in the crude mortality between patients infected with C. albicans (n = 30; 45.5 %) and non-albicans Candida species. For example, C. parapsilosis candidemia was associated with the lowest mortality rate (40.6 %), and patients with other non-albicans species had the highest mortality rate (68-71.4 %). High mortality rates were observed among pediatric (60 years of age). All strains showed low minimum

  14. A checklist of plant and animal species at Los Alamos National Laboratory and surrounding areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinojosa, H. [comp.

    1998-02-01

    Past and current members of the Biology Team (BT) of the Ecology Group have completed biological assessments (BAs) for all of the land that comprises Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Within these assessments are lists of plant and animal species with the potential to exist on LANL lands and the surrounding areas. To compile these lists, BT members examined earlier published and unpublished reports, surveys, and data bases that pertained to the biota of this area or to areas that are similar. The species lists that are contained herein are compilations of the lists from these BAs, other lists that were a part of the initial research for the performance of these BAs, and more recent surveys.

  15. Symbiotic germination of three species of epiphytic orchids susceptible to genetic erosion, from Soconusco (Chiapas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Bertolini

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Soconusco region of southeast Mexico has almost a quarter of the orchid species registered in Mexico and 37 threatened species (NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2001, many with severely reduced and non-viable populations. We chose two of the most threatened species, Rossioglossum grande (Lindl. Garay and G. C. Kenn. and Cuitlauzina convallarioides (Schltr. Dressler and N. H. Williams and a rare species recently discovered in the region, Rhynchostele bictoniensis (Bateman Soto Arenas and Salazar, to study the mycorrhizal fungi associated with the roots, isolate them and use them to induce seed germination and promote development in asymbiotically produced protocorms, in the laboratory. We isolated ten strains of Rhizoctonia-like orchid mycorrhizal fungi from Rossioglossum grande and three from Cuitlauzina convallarioides. Using selected fungal strains from the same species, we tested for the promotion of further development of asymbiotically pre-germinated protocorms of R. grande and the promotion of seed germination of C. convallarioides. In the case of R. bictoniensis, we studied the effects on seed germination of nine strains of Rhizoctonia-like fungi isolated from other orchid species. For R. grande, after 10 months, one strain of Rhizoctonia promoted development of the pre-germinated protocorms, and almost 90% of the protocorms produced rhizoids. For C. convallarioides, after 3 months, one fungal strain promoted protocorm development to the stage where they produced green tissue under illumination, suggesting the onset of photosynthesis. For R. bictoniensis three of the fungal strains (from other orchid species promoted germination and, after 4 months, autotrophic protocorms.

  16. Interactions of warming and exposure affect susceptibility to parasite infection in a temperate fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheath, Danny J; Andreou, Demetra; Britton, J Robert

    2016-09-01

    Predicting how elevated temperatures from climate change alter host-parasite interactions requires understandings of how warming affects host susceptibility and parasite virulence. Here, the effect of elevated water temperature and parasite exposure level was tested on parasite prevalence, abundance and burden, and on fish growth, using Pomphorhynchus laevis and its fish host Squalius cephalus. At 60 days post-exposure, prevalence was higher at the elevated temperature (22 °C) than ambient temperature (18 °C), with infections achieved at considerably lower levels of exposure. Whilst parasite number was significantly higher in infected fish at 22 °C, both mean parasite weight and parasite burden was significantly higher at 18 °C. There were, however, no significant relationships between fish growth rate and temperature, parasite exposure, and the infection parameters. Thus, whilst elevated temperature significantly influenced parasite infection rates, it also impacted parasite development rates, suggesting warming could have complex implications for parasite dynamics and host resistance.

  17. Determination of Isavuconazole Susceptibility of Aspergillus and Candida Species by the EUCAST Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Susan J.; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Gomez-Lopez, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    Isavuconazole is a novel expanded-spectrum triazole, which has recently been approved by the FDA as an orphan drug to treat invasive aspergillosis and is currently being studied in phase III clinical trials for invasive candidiasis. The susceptibility of relatively few clinical isolates has been reported. In this study, the isavuconazole susceptibilities of 1,237 Aspergillus and 2,010 Candida geographically diverse clinical isolates were determined by EUCAST methodology at four European mycology laboratories, producing the largest multicenter data set thus far for this compound. In addition, a blinded collection of 30 cyp51A mutant Aspergillus fumigatus clinical isolates and 10 wild-type isolates was tested. From these two data sets, the following preliminary epidemiological cutoff (ECOFF) values were suggested: 2 mg/liter for Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus terreus, and Aspergillus flavus; 4 mg/liter for Aspergillus niger; 0.25 mg/liter for Aspergillus nidulans; and 0.03 mg/liter for Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida tropicalis. Unfortunately, ECOFFs could not be determined for Candida glabrata or Candida krusei due to an unexplained interlaboratory MIC variation. For the blinded collection of A. fumigatus isolates, all MICs were ≤2 mg/liter for wild-type isolates. Differential isavuconazole MICs were observed for triazole-resistant A. fumigatus isolates with different cyp51A alterations: TR34/L98H mutants had elevated isavuconazole MICs, whereas isolates with G54 and M220 alterations had MICs in the wild-type range, suggesting that the efficacy of isavuconazole may not be affected by these alterations. This study will be an aid in interpreting isavuconazole MICs for clinical care and an important step in the future process of setting official clinical breakpoints. PMID:23959309

  18. The complete mitochondrial genomes for three Toxocara species of human and animal health significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xiang-Yun

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studying mitochondrial (mt genomics has important implications for various fundamental areas, including mt biochemistry, physiology and molecular biology. In addition, mt genome sequences have provided useful markers for investigating population genetic structures, systematics and phylogenetics of organisms. Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati and Toxocara malaysiensis cause significant health problems in animals and humans. Although they are of importance in human and animal health, no information on the mt genomes for any of Toxocara species is available. Results The sizes of the entire mt genome are 14,322 bp for T. canis, 14029 bp for T. cati and 14266 bp for T. malaysiensis, respectively. These circular genomes are amongst the largest reported to date for all secernentean nematodes. Their relatively large sizes relate mainly to an increased length in the AT-rich region. The mt genomes of the three Toxocara species all encode 12 proteins, two ribosomal RNAs and 22 transfer RNA genes, but lack the ATP synthetase subunit 8 gene, which is consistent with all other species of Nematode studied to date, with the exception of Trichinella spiralis. All genes are transcribed in the same direction and have a nucleotide composition high in A and T, but low in G and C. The contents of A+T of the complete genomes are 68.57% for T. canis, 69.95% for T. cati and 68.86% for T. malaysiensis, among which the A+T for T. canis is the lowest among all nematodes studied to date. The AT bias had a significant effect on both the codon usage pattern and amino acid composition of proteins. The mt genome structures for three Toxocara species, including genes and non-coding regions, are in the same order as for Ascaris suum and Anisakis simplex, but differ from Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus and Caenorhabditis elegans only in the location of the AT-rich region, whereas there are substantial differences when compared with Onchocerca volvulus

  19. A brief and critical review on hydrofluorosis in diverse species of domestic animals in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubisa, Shanti Lal

    2018-02-01

    -induced toxicosis in different species of animals but will also be helpful in the making of health policy for domestic animals at state and national level for the mitigation of hydrofluorosis in India.

  20. A comparative study of iron-related metabolic parameters in the eye of three animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Quiñones, Luis E; García-Castiñeiras, Sixto

    2007-12-01

    In order to obtain a wider perspective of iron homeostasis in the eye, a comparative study was undertaken of several iron-related parameters (Total Iron, TI; Total Iron Binding Capacity, TIBC; Transferrin, Tf; and saturation of Tf) both in blood serum and in ocular tissues (lens, cornea, iris-ciliary body, retina) and fluids (vitreous body, aqueous humor) of several animal species (pig, cow and rat). The relative degree of oxidative stress of tissues and fluids was evaluated based on the criteria that high values of TI and Tf saturation, and low values of TIBC and Tf, would promote iron-related oxidative stress. The inclusion of both diurnal (pig, cow) and nocturnal (rat) animal species in this comparative work provided the opportunity to explore if iron homeostasis parameters are in some way influenced by the higher oxidative stress level expected in animals with diurnal living habits. This project involved also the design of new and very sensitive methods of analyses, given the fact that in many cases very small amounts of sample (i.e., aqueous humor), and/or low concentration of analytes (i.e., transferrin) are available. All results were expressed as concentration relative to mg protein as determined with the Bradford method (microplate assay). When analyzing TI/TIBC it was possible to define a loosely bound iron pool (LBIP) in ocular tissues that was proportional to the degree of vascularization of the tissues analyzed. The comparison of iron related parameters patterns within the eye and among species allowed us to reach the following conclusions: (1) The aqueous humor and vitreous body of cow and pig exhibited highest concentration of Tf and a very low saturation of Tf, while the lowest value of Tf was detected in all species in the lens; (2) TI showed the tendency to be highest in the vitreous body of cow and pig, and lowest in the lens of all three species. The very low iron concentration in the lens may effectively counteract the risk of having a low Tf

  1. Species distribution and drug susceptibility of candida in clinical isolates from a tertiary care centre at Indore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Pahwa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of fungal infections has increased significantly, contributing to morbidity and mortality. This is caused by an alarming increase in infections with multi-drug resistant bacteria leading to overuse of broad-spectrum antimicrobials, which lead to overgrowth of Candida, thus enhancing its opportunity to cause disease. Candida are major human fungal pathogens that cause both mucosal and deep tissue infections. Objective : The aim of our study was to identify the distribution of Candida species among clinical isolates and their sensitivity pattern for common antifungal drugs. Materials and Methods : Two hundred and thirty-seven different clinical isolates of Candida were collected from patients visiting to a tertiary care centre of Indore from 2010 to 2012. Identification of Candida species as well as antifungal sensitivity testing was performed with Vitek2 Compact (Biomerieux France using vitek 2 cards for identification of yeast and yeast like organisms (ID-YST cards. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed with Vitek2 "Fungal Susceptibility Card (AST YS01 kits respectively. Results : We found that the non-albicans Candida were more prevalent than Candida albicans in paediatric (60 year patients than other age group (4-18, 19-60 years patients and also in intensive care unit (ICU patients as compared to out patient department (OPD patients. Resistance rates for amphotericin B, fluconazole, flucytosine, itraconazole, and voriconazole were 2.9%, 5.9%, 0.0%, 4.2% and 2.5%%, respectively. All the strains of C. krusei were found resistant to fluconazole with intermediate sensitivity to flucytosine. Conclusion: Species-level identification of Candida and their antifungal sensitivity testing should be performed to achieve better clinical results.

  2. Ethanol and reactive species increase basal sequence heterogeneity of hepatitis C virus and produce variants with reduced susceptibility to antivirals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Seronello

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV exhibits a high level of genetic variability, and variants with reduced susceptibility to antivirals can occur even before treatment begins. In addition, alcohol decreases efficacy of antiviral therapy and increases sequence heterogeneity of HCV RNA but how ethanol affects HCV sequence is unknown. Ethanol metabolism and HCV infection increase the level of reactive species that can alter cell metabolism, modify signaling, and potentially act as mutagen to the viral RNA. Therefore, we investigated whether ethanol and reactive species affected the basal sequence variability of HCV RNA in hepatocytes. Human hepatoma cells supporting a continuous replication of genotype 1b HCV RNA (Con1, AJ242652 were exposed to ethanol, acetaldehyde, hydrogen peroxide, or L-buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine (BSO that decreases intracellular glutathione as seen in patients. Then, NS5A region was sequenced and compared with genotype 1b HCV sequences in the database. Ethanol and BSO elevated nucleotide and amino acid substitution rates of HCV RNA by 4-18 folds within 48 hrs which were accompanied by oxidative RNA damage. Iron chelator and glutathione ester decreased both RNA damage and mutation rates. Furthermore, infectious HCV and HCV core gene were sufficient to induce oxidative RNA damage even in the absence of ethanol or BSO. Interestingly, the dn/ds ratio and percentage of sites undergoing positive selection increased with ethanol and BSO, resulting in an increased detection of NS5A variants with reduced susceptibility to interferon alpha, cyclosporine, and ribavirin and others implicated in immune tolerance and modulation of viral replication. Therefore, alcohol is likely to synergize with virus-induced oxidative/nitrosative stress to modulate the basal mutation rate of HCV. Positive selection induced by alcohol and reactive species may contribute to antiviral resistance.

  3. Dinucleotide Composition in Animal RNA Viruses Is Shaped More by Virus Family than by Host Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giallonardo, Francesca; Schlub, Timothy E; Shi, Mang; Holmes, Edward C

    2017-04-15

    Viruses use the cellular machinery of their hosts for replication. It has therefore been proposed that the nucleotide and dinucleotide compositions of viruses should match those of their host species. If this is upheld, it may then be possible to use dinucleotide composition to predict the true host species of viruses sampled in metagenomic surveys. However, it is also clear that different taxonomic groups of viruses tend to have distinctive patterns of dinucleotide composition that may be independent of host species. To determine the relative strength of the effect of host versus virus family in shaping dinucleotide composition, we performed a comparative analysis of 20 RNA virus families from 15 host groupings, spanning two animal phyla and more than 900 virus species. In particular, we determined the odds ratios for the 16 possible dinucleotides and performed a discriminant analysis to evaluate the capability of virus dinucleotide composition to predict the correct virus family or host taxon from which it was isolated. Notably, while 81% of the data analyzed here were predicted to the correct virus family, only 62% of these data were predicted to their correct subphylum/class host and a mere 32% to their correct mammalian order. Similarly, dinucleotide composition has a weak predictive power for different hosts within individual virus families. We therefore conclude that dinucleotide composition is generally uniform within a virus family but less well reflects that of its host species. This has obvious implications for attempts to accurately predict host species from virus genome sequences alone. IMPORTANCE Determining the processes that shape virus genomes is central to understanding virus evolution and emergence. One question of particular importance is why nucleotide and dinucleotide frequencies differ so markedly between viruses. In particular, it is currently unclear whether host species or virus family has the biggest impact on dinucleotide frequencies and

  4. Detection of carotenoids present in blood of various animal species using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaqat, Maryam; Younus, Ayesha; Saleem, Muhammad; Rashid, Imaad; Yaseen, Maria; Jabeen, Saher

    Raman spectroscopy is simple stable powerful diagnostic tool for body fluids, tissues and other biomolecules. Human blood possesses different kind of carotenoids that play a key role for protecting the cells from damaging by different viral and bacterial diseases. Carotenoids are antioxidative components which are capable to overcome the attack of different free radicals and reactive oxygen species. Carotenoids are not prepared by human body, therefore it is recommended to eat carotenoids enrich vegetable foods. No standard data is available on the concentration of useful carotenoids component in non-vegetable consumed items. In present research work, Raman spectroscopy is used to compare various blood components like plasma, serum, carotenoids present in blood of different animal species like goat, sheep, cow and buffalo consumed by human. Especially beta carotene is investigated. The Raman shift ranges from 600-1700 cm-1 for samples. Different characteristic peaks of the blood components are found which are not characterized before in animal samples. Doctrate Student in Photonics Deparatment of Electrical Engineering.

  5. Obtaining Human Ischemic Stroke Gene Expression Biomarkers from Animal Models: A Cross-species Validation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingying; Cai, Yunpeng

    2016-07-13

    Recent studies have revealed the systematic altering of gene expression in human peripheral blood during the early stages of ischemic stroke, which suggests a new potential approach for the rapid diagnosis or prediction of stroke onset. Nevertheless, due to the difficulties of collecting human samples during proper disease stages, related studies are rather restricted. Many studies have instead been performed on manipulated animal models for investigating the regulation patterns of biomarkers during different stroke stages. An important inquiry is how well the findings of animal models can be replicated in human cases. Here, a method is proposed based on PageRank scores of miRNA-mRNA interaction network to select ischemic stroke biomarkers derived from rat brain samples, and biomarkers are validated with two human peripheral blood gene expression datasets. Hierarchical clustering results revealed that the achieved biomarkers clearly separate the blood gene expression of stroke patients and healthy people. Literature searches and functional analyses further validated the biological significance of these biomarkers. Compared to the traditional methods, such as differential expression, the proposed approach is more stable and accurate in detecting cross-species biomarkers with biological relevance, thereby suggesting an efficient approach of re-using gene biomarkers obtained from animal-model studies for human diseases.

  6. Molecular Evidence of Bartonella Species in Ixodid Ticks and Domestic Animals in Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ereqat, Suheir; Nasereddin, Abdelmajeed; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Abdelkader, Ahmad; Al-Jawabreh, Amer; Zaid, Taher; Azmi, Kifaya; Abdeen, Ziad

    2016-01-01

    Ticks play an important role in disease transmission as vectors for human and animal pathogens, including the Gram-negative pathogen Bartonella. Here, we evaluated the presence of Bartonella in ixodid ticks and domestic animals from Palestine. We tested 633 partly engorged ticks and 139 blood samples from domestic animals (dogs, sheep and camels) for Bartonella using ITS-PCR. Bartonella DNA was detected in 3.9% of the tested ticks. None of the ticks collected from sheep and goats were positive for Bartonella. Seventeen R. sanguineus ticks (17/391; 4.3%) collected from dogs were infected with B. rochalimae (n = 10), B. chomelii (n = 6), and B. koehlerae (n = 1). Four H. dromedarri ticks (4/63; 6.3%) obtained from camels were infected with B. bovis (n = 2) and B. rochalimae (n = 2). Among canine blood samples (n = 110), we found one asymptomatic female dog to be infected with B. rochalimae (0.9%). The detection of zoonotic Bartonella species in this study should raise awareness of these vector-borne diseases among physicians, veterinarians and public health workers and highlight the importance of surveillance and preventive measures in the region.

  7. Effect of serum from various animal species on erythrocyte attachment of endotoxins and other bacterial antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praino, M; Neter, E

    1977-12-01

    Lipopolysaccharide O antigens (endotoxins) and other bacterial antigens readily attach to erythrocytes in vitro. This attachment is prevented by certain mammalian and avian sera. In this study, the inhibitory capacity of sera from lower animals was compared with that of higher animals for a total of 30 species. Antigens and the corresponding antisera included both crude O antigens and purified lipopolysaccharide preparations, the common enterobacterial antigen from Escherichia coli O14, the Vi antigen from Citrobacter ballerup, the polyribose-phosphate antigen from Haemophilus influenzae type b, and the crude teichoic acid antigen from Staphylococcus aureus. Antigen and serum mixtures were incubated at 37 degrees C for 30 min and used for erythrocyte modification; failure of hemagglutination by homologous bacterial antiserum provided evidence of inhibitory capacity. Sera from the classes Mammalia and Aves were very strong inhibitors; those of Reptilia and Osteichthyes were moderate in activity, displaying variation within the classes; those of Amphibia and Chondrichthyes were minimal inhibitors; and those of Merostomata, Crustacea, and Lamellibranchiata displayed questionable or no inhibitory capacity. Inhibitory sera were active with all antigens tested. The findings suggest evolution of inhibitory factors consistent with the theory of two diverging lines of animal phylogeny based on embryological criteria and closely parallel the observations of an endotoxin-altering capacity in vertebrate sera that is not found in invertebrate sera or hemolymph.

  8. Genotyping of Fusarium Isolates from Onychomycoses in Colombia: Detection of Two New Species Within the Fusarium solani Species Complex and In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara-Suarez, Marcela; Cano-Lira, José Francisco; de García, María Caridad Cepero; Sopo, Leticia; De Bedout, Catalina; Cano, Luz Elena; García, Ana María; Motta, Adriana; Amézquita, Adolfo; Cárdenas, Martha; Espinel-Ingroff, Ana; Guarro, Josep; Restrepo, Silvia; Celis, Adriana

    2016-04-01

    Fusariosis have been increasing in Colombia in recent years, but its epidemiology is poorly known. We have morphologically and molecularly characterized 89 isolates of Fusarium obtained between 2010 and 2012 in the cities of Bogotá and Medellín. Using a multi-locus sequence analysis of rDNA internal transcribed spacer, a fragment of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha (Tef-1α) and of the RNA-dependent polymerase subunit II (Rpb2) genes, we identified the phylogenetic species and circulating haplotypes. Since most of the isolates studied were from onychomycoses (nearly 90 %), we carried out an epidemiological study to determine the risk factors associated with such infections. Five phylogenetic species of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC), i.e., F. falciforme, F. keratoplasticum, F. lichenicola, F. petroliphilum, and FSSC 6 as well as two of the Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC), i.e., FOSC 3 and FOSC 4, were identified. The most prevalent species were FOSC 3 (38.2%) followed by F. keratoplasticum (33.7%). In addition, our isolates were distributed into 23 haplotypes (14 into FOSC and nine into FSSC). Two of the FSSC phylogenetic species and two haplotypes of FSSC were not described before. Our results demonstrate that recipients of pedicure treatments have a lower probability of acquiring onychomycosis than those not receiving such treatments. The antifungal susceptibility of all the isolates to five clinically available agents showed that amphotericin B was the most active drug, while the azoles exhibited lower in vitro activity.

  9. Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae) in wild animals: report of new host species and ecological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otranto, Domenico; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Mallia, Egidio; DiGeronimo, Peter M; Brianti, Emanuele; Testini, Gabriella; Traversa, Donato; Lia, Riccardo P

    2009-12-23

    Thelazia callipaeda infects the eyes of carnivores and humans in Far Eastern Asiatic and European countries. Studies have demonstrated the occurrence of T. callipaeda in foxes from areas where canine thelaziosis is endemic. However, there is little information on the role of wild carnivores as hosts of this nematode. From May 2003 to May 2009, a total of 130 carcasses of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes; n=75), wolves (Canis lupus; n=2), beech martens (Martes foina; n=22), brown hares (Lepus europaeus; n=13), Eurasian badgers (Meles meles; n=10), and wild cats (Felis silvestris; n=8) were examined in an area of southern Italy where canine thelaziosis is highly prevalent. At necropsy, animals were examined and nematodes were collected from the conjunctival sacs of both eyes. All nematodes were morphologically identified and at least five specimens from each of the five host species were molecularly processed by PCR amplification and sequencing of a partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1). Five out of the six wild animal species examined were found to be infected with eyeworms. The overall infection rate, excluding the Eurasian badgers that were all negative, was 39.1%. All the 189 adult nematodes collected (intensity of infection=4+/-2.2) were morphologically identified as T. callipaeda. The molecular analysis confirmed that the only haplotype of T. callipaeda circulating in Europe (i.e., haplotype 1) is present in that area. The competence of red foxes, wolves, beech martens, brown hares, and wild cats as definitive hosts for T. callipaeda is discussed in relationship to their ecology and their likely exposure to the vector Phortica variegata in the study area. The role the wild fauna plays in maintaining and spreading eyeworm infection in humans and domestic animals is also discussed.

  10. People's familiarity with and attitudes towards native and exotic plant and animal species - case studies from Argentina, Colombia and China

    OpenAIRE

    Nates Jimenez, Juliana

    2014-01-01

    This thesis studied people’s familiarity with and attitudes towards native and exotic species in Argentina, Colombia and China with a focus on amphibians and the effect of a workshop on perception and appreciation of local plants and animals.

  11. Interference of melanin in the susceptibility profile of Sporothrix species to amphotericin B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mario, Débora Alves Nunes; Santos, Roberto Christ Vianna; Denardi, Laura Bedin; Vaucher, Rodrigo de Almeida; Santurio, Janio Morais; Alves, Sydney Hartz

    2016-01-01

    The presence of melanin in the fungal cell is a major virulence factor of the genus Sporothrix since it protects the fungal cells against the defense systems. The present study aimed to investigate the interference of melanin in the susceptibility of Sporothrix brasiliensis and Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto to amphotericin B and itraconazole, drugs recommended as therapy for disseminated and subcutaneous sporotrichosis, respectively. Yeast cells were cultivated in minimal medium with or without l-DOPA in order to induce the production of melanin. Microdilution and killing assay methods were used to determine the antifungal activity against yeast cells with different amounts of melanin. The killing assay showed that melanization protected isolates within the S. schenckii complex from amphotericin B, particularly in the lower concentrations tested. Studies combining amphotericin B and inhibitors of melanin are required in order to avoid this effect. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Species and tissues specific differentiation of processed animal proteins in aquafeeds using proteomics tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasinger, J D; Marbaix, H; Dieu, M; Fumière, O; Mauro, S; Palmblad, M; Raes, M; Berntssen, M H G

    2016-09-16

    The rapidly growing aquaculture industry drives the search for sustainable protein sources in fish feed. In the European Union (EU) since 2013 non-ruminant processed animal proteins (PAP) are again permitted to be used in aquafeeds. To ensure that commercial fish feeds do not contain PAP from prohibited species, EU reference methods were established. However, due to the heterogeneous and complex nature of PAP complementary methods are required to guarantee the safe use of this fish feed ingredient. In addition, there is a need for tissue specific PAP detection to identify the sources (i.e. bovine carcass, blood, or meat) of illegal PAP use. In the present study, we investigated and compared different protein extraction, solubilisation and digestion protocols on different proteomics platforms for the detection and differentiation of prohibited PAP. In addition, we assessed if tissue specific PAP detection was feasible using proteomics tools. All work was performed independently in two different laboratories. We found that irrespective of sample preparation gel-based proteomics tools were inappropriate when working with PAP. Gel-free shotgun proteomics approaches in combination with direct spectral comparison were able to provide quality species and tissue specific data to complement and refine current methods of PAP detection and identification. To guarantee the safe use of processed animal protein (PAP) in aquafeeds efficient PAP detection and monitoring tools are required. The present study investigated and compared various proteomics workflows and shows that the application of shotgun proteomics in combination with direct comparison of spectral libraries provides for the desired species and tissue specific classification of this heat sterilized and pressure treated (≥133°C, at 3bar for 20min) protein feed ingredient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Determining the Ratio of Animal Species in the Herd of Pre-Class Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stegantsev Mark A.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the methodology of research of domestic animals herd composition in ancient societies, based on the materials of Late Bronze and Early Iron Age sites located in the Western part of forest-steppe and steppe of Western Siberia and Northern Kazakhstan. The theoretical portion of the article demonstrates that percentage composition of the ancient herd can be restored only by taking into account the early maturation of the domestic ungulates forming its component part. The values of their early maturation depend on the distribution of animals by age. The formulas, derived through herd models developed, make it possible to determine the required distribution, based on the number of animal units of different ages in osteological collections. They are not affected by the type of herd reproduction. The application of the derived formulas in order to determine the early maturation of large and small cattle, and horses in the settlements of certain cultures in forest, forest-steppe and steppe zones, has confirmed the adequacy of the model in explaining the archaeological data. It has also been shown that economic specialization of successive Late Bronze and Early Iron Age cultures in the region was determined mainly by the horse. The study of different methods of determining ancient herd composition has made it possible to come to the following conclusion. The method of transition from identifiable bones in the excavation to the number of animal units corresponding to them, and then, by determining early maturation of different species, to their ratio in the ancient herd, has an absolute priority as compared to the method of transition from the identifiable bones directly to herd composition.

  14. Animal personality in a foundation species drives community divergence and collapse in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, Jonathan N; Modlmeier, Andreas P

    2015-11-01

    Despite thousands of papers on the topic, precious few of the studies on animal personality have considered the role of personality in shaping community-level processes. Here, we test the effect of individual variation on the long-term trajectories of biological communities, from initiation to their demise. The spider Anelosimus studiosus builds webs that serve as habitat for >50 species of spider, which together construct a species-rich silken reef. This species also exhibits a temporally consistent behavioural polymorphism where females exhibit either an aggressive or docile phenotype (personality). In this study, we established incipient colonies of either two docile or two aggressive females and then tracked community succession and persistence over 7 years in the field. In particular, we noted the community compositions associated with colony extinction/collapse events, which are common in this species. The community composition of webs founded by different phenotypes diverged rapidly in their early successional stages. However, this period of divergence was ephemeral and all communities eventually converged on a similar composition; communities founded by aggressive females merely took longer to reach it. This secondary stage of community convergence was itself short-lived and independent of founders' personality; all communities collapsed within a year of achieving it. Experimentally imposing this fatal climax composition on colonies caused 80% of communities to collapse within a year, suggesting that this climax composition actually causes the collapse of the community. Community collapse was characterized by a complete die-off of the foundation species and the dispersal of all other spiders. Thus, the behavioural traits of the founding, foundational individuals of these communities dictate their path of succession and longevity in the wild. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Brachyspira Species Isolated from Swine Herds in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Mirajkar, Nandita S.; Davies, Peter R.; Gebhart, Connie J.

    2016-01-01

    Outbreaks of swine dysentery, caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and the recently discovered “Brachyspira hampsonii,” have reoccurred in North American swine herds since the late 2000s. Additionally, multiple Brachyspira species have been increasingly isolated by North American diagnostic laboratories. In Europe, the reliance on antimicrobial therapy for control of swine dysentery has been followed by reports of antimicrobial resistance over time. The objectives of our study were to determi...

  16. The Janus face of reactive oxygen species in resistance and susceptibility of plants to necrotrophic and biotrophic pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barna, B; Fodor, J; Harrach, B D; Pogány, M; Király, Z

    2012-10-01

    Plant pathogens can be divided into biotrophs and necrotrophs according to their different life styles; biotrophs prefer living, while necrotrophs prefer dead cells for nutritional purposes. Therefore tissue necrosis caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) during pathogen infection increases host susceptibility to necrotrophic, but resistance to biotrophic pathogen. Consequently, elevation of antioxidant capacity of plants enhances their tolerance to development of necroses caused by necrotrophic pathogens. Plant hormones can strongly influence induction of ROS and antioxidants, thereby influencing susceptibility or resistance of plants to pathogens. Pathogen-induced ROS themselves are considered as signaling molecules. Generally, salicylic acid (SA) signaling induces defense against biotrophic pathogens, whereas jasmonic acid (JA) against necrotrophic pathogens. Furthermore pathogens can modify plant's defense signaling network for their own benefit by changing phytohormone homeostasis. On the other hand, ROS are harmful also to the pathogens, consequently they try to defend themselves by elevating antioxidant activity and secreting ROS scavengers in the infected tissue. The Janus face nature of ROS and plant cell death on biotrophic and on necrotrophic pathogens is also supported by the experiments with BAX inhibitor-1 and the mlo mutation of Mlo gene in barley. It was found that ROS and elevated plant antioxidant activity play an important role in systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and induced systemic resistance (ISR), as well as in mycorrhiza induced abiotic and biotic stress tolerance of plants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Shapes of Differential Pulse Voltammograms and Level of Metallothionein at Different Animal Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Metallothioneins play a key role in maintaining homeostasis of essential metalsand in protecting of cells against metal toxicity as well as oxidative damaging. Exceptinghumans, blood levels of metallothionein have not yet been reported from any animalspecies. Blood plasma samples of 9 animal species were analysed by the adsorptive transferstripping technique to obtain species specific voltammograms. Quite distinct records wereobtained from the Takin (Budorcas taxicolor, while other interesting records were observedin samples from the European Bison (Bison bonasus bonasus and the Red-eared Slider(Trachemys scripta elegans. To quantify metallothionein the catalytic peak Cat2 was used,well developed in the Domestic Fowl (Gallus gallus f. domestica and showing a very lowsignal in the Red Deer (Cervus elaphus. The highest levels of metallothionein reachingover 20 μM were found in the Domestic Fowl. High levels of MT were also found in theBearded Dragon (Pogona vitticeps and the Grey Wolf (Canis lupus lupus. The lowestvalues of about 1-3 μM were determined in the Red-eared Slider, Takin and Red Deer. Employing a simple electrochemical detection it was possible to examine variation in blood metallothionein in different species of vertebrates.

  18. Frequency and antimicrobial susceptibility of Shigella species isolated in Children Medical Center Hospital, Tehran, Iran, 2001-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Pourakbari

    Full Text Available Appropriate antimicrobial treatment of shigellosis depends on identifying its changing resistance pattern over time. We evaluated 15,255 stool culture submitted from July 2001 to June 2006 to the Laboratory of Children Medical Center Hospital. Specimen culture, bacterial identification, and disk diffusion susceptibility testing were performed according to National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines. From 15,255 stool samples, 682 (4.5% were positive for Shigella species. The most common species of Shigella were S. flexneri (48% and S. sonnei (45%; other results were S. dysenteriae (5% and S. boydii (2%. The rate of Sensitivity to ceftriaxone (95%, ceftizoxime (94%, and nalidixic acid (84% were among our isolates. Resistance to co-trimoxazole and ampicillin was 87% and 86%, respectively. S. flexneri was more multiresistant than other species (47.9%. Our isolates are overall most sensitive to ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, and nalidixic acid (> 84%. They were most resistant to co-trimoxazole and ampicillin (> 86%. Because resistance varies according to specific location, continuous local monitoring of resistance patterns is necessary for the appropriate selection of empirical antimicrobial therapy.

  19. Field observations of fish species susceptible to epizootic ulcerative syndrome in the Zambezi River basin in Sesheke District of Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songe, Mwansa M; Hang'ombe, Mudenda B; Phiri, Harris; Mwase, Maxwell; Choongo, Kennedy; Van der Waal, Ben; Kanchanakhan, Somkiat; Reantaso, Melba B; Subasinghe, Rohana P

    2012-01-01

    A field investigation was conducted in the Sesheke District of Zambia along the Zambezi River to determine the fish species susceptible to epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS), a newly confirmed disease in Southern Africa. A total of 2,132 fishes were inspected for gross EUS-like lesions, of which 188 (8.82%; 95% CI=7.67-10.1%) were found with typical characteristic lesions of EUS. Of these 188 samples, 156 were found to have mycotic granulomas on histopathological analysis, representing 83.0% (95% CI=76.7-87.9%) of the initially identified in the laboratory through gross examination. The following 16 species of fish were examined and found with EUS lesions; Clarias ngamensis, Clarias gariepinus, Barbus poechii, Tilapia sparrmanii, Serranochromis angusticeps, Brycinus lateralis, Micralestes acutidens, Sargochromis carlottae, Hydrocynus vittatus, Phryngochromis acuticeps, Schilbe intermedius, Hepsetus odoe, Labeo lunatus, Oreochromis andersonii, Barbus unitaeniatus, and Barbus paludinosus. T. sparrmanii did not show any lesions, while the Clarias species were found to be the most afflicted with EUS. These results could be useful to fish farmers and organizations interested in improving aquaculture in the area.

  20. Reduced Multidrug Susceptibility Profile Is a Common Feature of Opportunistic Fusarium Species: Fusarium Multi-Drug Resistant Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taj-Aldeen, Saad J.

    2017-01-01

    The resistance among various opportunistic Fusarium species to different antifungal agents has emerged as a cause of public health problems worldwide. Considering the significance of multi-drug resistant (MDR), this paper emphasizes the problems associated with MDR and the need to understand its clinical significance to combat microbial infections. The search platform PubMed/MEDLINE and a review of 32 cases revealed a common multidrug-resistant profile exists, and clinically relevant members of Fusarium are intrinsically resistant to most currently used antifungals. Dissemination occurs in patients with prolonged neutropenia, immune deficiency, and especially hematological malignancies. Amphotericin B displayed the lowest minimum inhibitory concentrarions (MICs) followed by voriconazole, and posaconazole. Itraconazole and fluconazole showed high MIC values, displaying in vitro resistance. Echinocandins showed the highest MIC values. Seven out of ten (70%) patients with neutropenia died, including those with fungemia that progressed to skin lesions. Clinical Fusarium isolates displayed a common MDR profile and high MIC values for the most available antifungal agents with species- and strain-specific differences in antifungal susceptibility. Species identification of Fusarium infections is important. While the use of natamycin resulted in a favorable outcome in keratitis, AmB and VRC are the most used agents for the treatment of fusariosis in clinical settings.

  1. Reduced Multidrug Susceptibility Profile Is a Common Feature of Opportunistic Fusarium Species: Fusarium Multi-Drug Resistant Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad J. Taj-Aldeen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The resistance among various opportunistic Fusarium species to different antifungal agents has emerged as a cause of public health problems worldwide. Considering the significance of multi-drug resistant (MDR, this paper emphasizes the problems associated with MDR and the need to understand its clinical significance to combat microbial infections. The search platform PubMed/MEDLINE and a review of 32 cases revealed a common multidrug-resistant profile exists, and clinically relevant members of Fusarium are intrinsically resistant to most currently used antifungals. Dissemination occurs in patients with prolonged neutropenia, immune deficiency, and especially hematological malignancies. Amphotericin B displayed the lowest minimum inhibitory concentrarions (MICs followed by voriconazole, and posaconazole. Itraconazole and fluconazole showed high MIC values, displaying in vitro resistance. Echinocandins showed the highest MIC values. Seven out of ten (70% patients with neutropenia died, including those with fungemia that progressed to skin lesions. Clinical Fusarium isolates displayed a common MDR profile and high MIC values for the most available antifungal agents with species- and strain-specific differences in antifungal susceptibility. Species identification of Fusarium infections is important. While the use of natamycin resulted in a favorable outcome in keratitis, AmB and VRC are the most used agents for the treatment of fusariosis in clinical settings.

  2. Species-specificity of equine and porcine Lawsonia intracellularis isolates in laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, Francesca; Vannucci, Fabio A; Allen, Andrew L; Pusterla, Nicola; Antonopoulos, Aphroditi J; Ball, Katherine R; Thompson, Julie; Dowling, Patricia M; Hamilton, Don L; Gebhart, Connie J

    2013-10-01

    Lawsonia intracellularis infection causes proliferative enteropathy (PE) in many mammalian species, with porcine and equine proliferative enteropathy (PPE and EPE) known worldwide. Hamsters are a well-published animal model for PPE infection studies in pigs. There is no laboratory animal model for EPE infection studies and it is not known whether there is species-specificity for equine or porcine isolates of L. intracellularis in animal models. The objective of this study was to determine whether it is possible to generate typical EPE lesions in hamsters after inoculation with an equine strain of L. intracellularis (EPE strain) and whether it is comparatively possible to generate PPE lesions in rabbits after inoculation with a porcine strain of L. intracellularis (PPE strain). In 2 separate trials, 4-week-old and 3-week-old weanling golden Syrian hamsters were challenged with EPE strains and compared to uninfected (both trials) and PPE-infected controls (Trial 2 only). Concurrently, 6 female New Zealand white juvenile rabbits were infected with PPE strain and observed concomitantly to 8 similar rabbits infected with EPE strain for a different experiment. Hamsters and rabbits were observed for 21 to 24 days post-infection (DPI), depending on the experiment. Neither infected species developed clinical signs. The presence of disease was assessed with diagnostic techniques classically used for pigs and horses: immune-peroxidase monolayer assay on sera; quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) detection of molecular DNA in feces; and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain and immunohistochemistry (IHC) on intestinal tissues. Our results showed that EPE-challenged hamsters do not develop infection when compared with PPE controls (IHC, P = 0.009; qPCR, P = 0.0003). Conversely, PPE-challenged rabbits do not develop typical intestinal lesions in comparison to EPE-challenged rabbits, with serological response at 14 DPI being significantly lower (P = 0.0023). In conclusion

  3. QnrS1- and Aac(6’-Ib-cr-producing Escherichia coli among isolates from animals of different sources: susceptibility and genomic characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela eJones-Dias

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli can inhabit humans and animals from multiple origins. These bacteria are often associated with gastroenteritis in animals, being a frequent cause of resistant zoonotic infections. In fact, bacteria from animals can be transmitted to humans through the food chain and direct contact. In this study, we aimed to assess the antibiotic susceptibility of a collection of S. enterica and E. coli recovered from animals of different sources, performing a genomic comparison of the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR-producing isolates detected.Antibiotic susceptibility testing revealed a high number of non wild-type isolates for fluoroquinolones among S. enterica recovered from poultry isolates. In turn, the frequency of non-wild-type E. coli to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin was higher in food-producing animals than in companion or zoo animals. Globally, we detected two qnrS1 and two aac(6’-Ib-cr in E. coli isolates recovered from animals of different origins. The genomic characterization of QnrS1-producing E. coli showed high genomic similarity (O86:H12 and ST2297, although they have been recovered from a healthy turtle dove from a Zoo Park, and from a dog showing symptoms of infection. The qnrS1 gene was encoded in a IncN plasmid, also carrying blaTEM-1-containing Tn3. Isolates harboring aac(6’-Ib-cr were detected in two captive bottlenose dolphins, within a time span of two years. The additional antibiotic resistance genes of the two aac(6’-Ib-cr-positive isolates (blaOXA-1, blaTEM-1, blaCTX-M-15, catB3, aac(3-IIa and tetA were enclosed in IncFIA plasmids that differed in a single transposase and 60 single nucleotide variants. The isolates could be assigned to the same genetic sublineage – ST131 fimH30-Rx (O25:H4, confirming clonal spread. PMQR-producing isolates were associated with symptomatic and asymptomatic hosts, which highlight the aptitude of E. coli to act as silent vehicles, allowing

  4. Distribution of Clinical Isolates at Species Level and Their Antibiotic Susceptibilities in Intensive Care Units Patients

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    Ayşe Barış

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Intensive care units are a hospital’s section where hospital infections and resistant microorganisms are most commonly seen. In this study it was aimed to determine the microorganisms which were isolated from various clinical specimens of the patients in intensive care units for a year and antibiotic susceptibility of the microorganisms. Materials and Methods: MALDI TOF MS and BD Phoenix system were used for the identification of bacteria, antibiotic sensitivities were evaluated by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method and BD Phoenix system in accordance with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations. Results: In this study, a total of 1163 microorganisms were obtained; 575 (49.4% gram-negative bacteria (GNB, 556 (47.8% gram-positive bacteria (GPB and 32 Candida spp. (2.7%. Strains were produced from blood (488, urine (233, respiratory tract (224, sterile body fluid (88, wounds (68 and catheter samples (62. The most frequently isolated GNBs were found to be Acinetobacter baumannii 131 (11.2%, Klebsiella pneumoniae 109 (9.3%, Escherichia coli 91 (7.8% in order of frequency. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production was observed in 16 E. coli, 29 Klebsiella spp. Carbapenem resistance was identified in 132 Acinetobacter spp., 27 Pseudomonas spp., 14 K. pneumoniae, 1 E. coli. For Pseudomonas strains, ciprofloxacin and amikacin; for Acinetobacter strains, amikacin and colistin; for Escherichia and Klebsiella strains, amikacin and imipenem were determined as the most effective antibiotics. The most frequently isolated GPBs were 351 (30% coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS (192 S. epidermidis, 111 (9.5% Enterococcus spp. (67 Enterococcus faecalis, 55 Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. While Methicillin resistance was determined in 7 S. aureus and 191 CNS; vancomycin resistance was detected in 3 Enterococcus faecium strains. The most effective antibiotics against S. aureus and Enterococcus spp. strains were

  5. Detection and species identification of Campylobacter in stool samples of children and animals from Vellore, south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Rajendran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. are an important cause of bacterial gastroenteritis frequently isolated from animal, poultry and environmental samples. In this study, we investigated the zoonotic potential of Campylobacter spp. by comparing prevalence rates and species in 394 children with diarrhoea and 652 animals in Vellore using PCR-based tools. Eighteen children (4.5% had campylobacteriosis, a majority of whom had co-pathogens (15/18 and most were infected with Campylobacter jejuni (16/18. A few C. coli and mixed infections with both species were also seen. Among the animal samples, 16/25 chicken samples (64% were positive and all were found to be C. jejuni.

  6. Declaration of the Javan hawk eagle Spizaetus bartelsi as Indonesia's National Rare Animal impedes conservation of the species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, V.; Shepherd, C.R.; van Balen, S.

    2009-01-01

    The endangered Javan hawk eagle Spizaetus bartelsi is threatened in part by the illegal pet trade. In 1993 the species was declared Indonesia's National Rare/Precious Animal, by former President Soeharto. Trade in the species and keeping it as a pet are illegal. We consolidated data about the

  7. Mental representations of animal and plant species in their social contexts: Results from a survey across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, A.; Langers, F.; Bednar-Friedl, B.; Geamana, N.; Skogen, K.

    2011-01-01

    Despite a growing body of literature on public views on biodiversity and nature, our understanding of public attitudes towards animal and plant species is still rudimentary. This study investigates mental representations, constituted by beliefs, of three types of species (a large mammal, a spider

  8. A framework for the development of STR genotyping in domestic animal species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Asch, Barbara; Pinheiro, Raquel; Pereira, Rui

    2010-01-01

    This study reports the methodology used to search, select and characterize STR loci on the canine X chromosome using publicly available genome resources and following the current guidelines for human and non-human forensic testing. After several rounds of selection, 12 X-STR markers were optimized...... offspring. Its use may complement the information obtained by autosomal STR analysis and contribute to the resolution of complex cases of kinship in dogs. The presented methodology for the de novo construction of an STR multiplex may also provide a helpful framework for analogous work in other animal...... species. As an increasing number of reference genomes become available, convenient tools for individual identification and parentage testing based on STR loci selected from autosomes or sex chromosomes' sequences may be created following this strategy....

  9. THE EFFECTS OF METAL NANOPARTICLES ON EMBRYOS OF DIFFERENT ANIMAL SPECIES. A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. TEUŞAN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Today nanotechnology represents a domain that is rapidly developing because nanoparticles are being used in a very large range of products with biomedical applications. Every year, new products, containing nanoparticles (NP appear on the market. Most of the products containing such nanomaterials come to be used by consumers without a previous and careful testing. Therefore, the effects they may have upon human health should be thoroughly investigated, the toxicological potential of NP upon the reproduction function (nanoreprotoxicity in particular, as any possible noxious effect will be reflected in the new generation. Most of the research papers that exist refer on the effects of silver, gold and titanium dioxide NP on embryo development. In this review paper we present the effects of less studied metal NP (platinum, aluminium, cerium oxide, tin oxide, nickel and indium on different species of animal embryos (Gallus domesticus – different hybrids, Danio rerio and Xenopus laevis

  10. A rapid method for selecting suitable animal species for studying pathogen interactions with plasma protein ligands in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudin, Clément; Schumski, Ariane; Salo-Ahen, Outi M H; Herwald, Heiko; Smeds, Emanuel

    2017-05-01

    Species tropism constitutes a serious problem for developing relevant animal models of infection. Human pathogens can express virulence factors that show specific selectivity to human proteins, while their affinity for orthologs from other species can vary significantly. Suitable animal species must be used to analyse whether virulence factors are potential targets for drug development. We developed an assay that rapidly predicts applicable animal species for studying virulence factors binding plasma proteins. We used two well-characterized Staphylococcus aureus proteins, SSL7 and Efb, to develop an ELISA-based inhibition assay using plasma from different animal species. The interaction between SSL7 and human C5 and the binding of Efb to human fibrinogen and human C3 was studied. Affinity experiments and Western blot analyses were used to validate the assay. Human, monkey and cat plasma interfered with binding of SSL7 to human C5. Binding of Efb to human fibrinogen was blocked in human, monkey, gerbil and pig plasma, while human, monkey, gerbil, rabbit, cat and guinea pig plasma inhibited the binding of Efb to human C3. These results emphasize the importance of choosing correct animal models, and thus, our approach is a rapid and cost-effective method that can be used to prevent unnecessary animal experiments. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. MTL genotypes, phenotypic switching, and susceptibility profiles of Candida parapsilosis species group compared to Lodderomyces elongisporus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylin Döğen

    Full Text Available Reference isolates of Candida parapsilosis (n = 8, Candida metapsilosis (n = 6, Candida orthopsilosis (n = 7, and Lodderomyces elongisporus (n = 11 were analyzed to gain insight into their pathobiology and virulence mechanisms. Initial evaluation using BBL Chromagar Candida medium misidentified L. elongisporus isolates as C. albicans. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of isolate MTL idiomorphs revealed that all C. parapsilosis isolates were MTLa homozygous and no MTL α1, α2, a1, or a2 gene was detected in L. elongisporus isolates. For C. orthopsilosis, two isolates were MTLa homozygous and five were MTL-heterozygous. Similarly, one C. metapsilosis isolate was MTLα homozygous whereas five were MTL-heterozygous. Isolate phenotypic switching analysis revealed potential phenotypic switching in the MTLα homozygous C. metapsilosis isolate, resulting in concomitant elongated cell formation. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of fluconazole (FLC and FK506, alone or in combination, were determined by checkerboard assay, with data analyzed using the fractional inhibitory concentration index model. Synergistic or additive effects of these compounds were commonly observed in C. parapsilosis and L. elongisporus isolates. No killer activity was observed in the studied isolates, as determined phenotypically. No significant difference in virulence was seen for the four species in a Galleria mellonella model (P > 0.05. In conclusion, our results demonstrated phenotypic switching of C. metapsilosis CBS 2315 and that FLC and FK506 represent a promising drug combination against C. parapsilosis and L. elongisporus. The findings of the present study contribute to our understanding of the biology, diagnosis, and new possible treatments of the C. parapsilosis species group and L. elongisporus.

  12. MTL genotypes, phenotypic switching, and susceptibility profiles of Candida parapsilosis species group compared to Lodderomyces elongisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döğen, Aylin; Metin, Banu; Ilkit, Macit; de Hoog, G Sybren; Heitman, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Reference isolates of Candida parapsilosis (n = 8), Candida metapsilosis (n = 6), Candida orthopsilosis (n = 7), and Lodderomyces elongisporus (n = 11) were analyzed to gain insight into their pathobiology and virulence mechanisms. Initial evaluation using BBL Chromagar Candida medium misidentified L. elongisporus isolates as C. albicans. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of isolate MTL idiomorphs revealed that all C. parapsilosis isolates were MTLa homozygous and no MTL α1, α2, a1, or a2 gene was detected in L. elongisporus isolates. For C. orthopsilosis, two isolates were MTLa homozygous and five were MTL-heterozygous. Similarly, one C. metapsilosis isolate was MTLα homozygous whereas five were MTL-heterozygous. Isolate phenotypic switching analysis revealed potential phenotypic switching in the MTLα homozygous C. metapsilosis isolate, resulting in concomitant elongated cell formation. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of fluconazole (FLC) and FK506, alone or in combination, were determined by checkerboard assay, with data analyzed using the fractional inhibitory concentration index model. Synergistic or additive effects of these compounds were commonly observed in C. parapsilosis and L. elongisporus isolates. No killer activity was observed in the studied isolates, as determined phenotypically. No significant difference in virulence was seen for the four species in a Galleria mellonella model (P > 0.05). In conclusion, our results demonstrated phenotypic switching of C. metapsilosis CBS 2315 and that FLC and FK506 represent a promising drug combination against C. parapsilosis and L. elongisporus. The findings of the present study contribute to our understanding of the biology, diagnosis, and new possible treatments of the C. parapsilosis species group and L. elongisporus.

  13. Species distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of gram-negative aerobic bacteria in hospitalized cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sharif Amany

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nosocomial infections pose significant threats to hospitalized patients, especially the immunocompromised ones, such as cancer patients. Methods This study examined the microbial spectrum of gram-negative bacteria in various infection sites in patients with leukemia and solid tumors. The antimicrobial resistance patterns of the isolated bacteria were studied. Results The most frequently isolated gram-negative bacteria were Klebsiella pneumonia (31.2% followed by Escherichia coli (22.2%. We report the isolation and identification of a number of less-frequent gram negative bacteria (Chromobacterium violacum, Burkholderia cepacia, Kluyvera ascorbata, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, and Salmonella arizona. Most of the gram-negative isolates from Respiratory Tract Infections (RTI, Gastro-intestinal Tract Infections (GITI, Urinary Tract Infections (UTI, and Bloodstream Infections (BSI were obtained from leukemic patients. All gram-negative isolates from Skin Infections (SI were obtained from solid-tumor patients. In both leukemic and solid-tumor patients, gram-negative bacteria causing UTI were mainly Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, while gram-negative bacteria causing RTI were mainly Klebsiella pneumoniae. Escherichia coli was the main gram-negative pathogen causing BSI in solid-tumor patients and GITI in leukemic patients. Isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas, and Acinetobacter species were resistant to most antibiotics tested. There was significant imipenem -resistance in Acinetobacter (40.9%, Pseudomonas (40%, and Enterobacter (22.2% species, and noticeable imipinem-resistance in Klebsiella (13.9% and Escherichia coli (8%. Conclusion This is the first study to report the evolution of imipenem-resistant gram-negative strains in Egypt. Mortality rates were higher in cancer patients with nosocomial Pseudomonas infections than any other bacterial infections

  14. Animal tracking meets migration genomics: transcriptomic analysis of a partially migratory bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Paolo; Irisarri, Iker; Fudickar, Adam; Schmidt, Andreas; Meyer, Axel; Wikelski, Martin; Partecke, Jesko

    2017-06-01

    Seasonal migration is a widespread phenomenon, which is found in many different lineages of animals. This spectacular behaviour allows animals to avoid seasonally adverse environmental conditions to exploit more favourable habitats. Migration has been intensively studied in birds, which display astonishing variation in migration strategies, thus providing a powerful system for studying the ecological and evolutionary processes that shape migratory behaviour. Despite intensive research, the genetic basis of migration remains largely unknown. Here, we used state-of-the-art radio-tracking technology to characterize the migratory behaviour of a partially migratory population of European blackbirds (Turdus merula) in southern Germany. We compared gene expression of resident and migrant individuals using high-throughput transcriptomics in blood samples. Analyses of sequence variation revealed a nonsignificant genetic structure between blackbirds differing by their migratory phenotype. We detected only four differentially expressed genes between migrants and residents, which might be associated with hyperphagia, moulting and enhanced DNA replication and transcription. The most pronounced changes in gene expression occurred between migratory birds depending on when, in relation to their date of departure, blood was collected. Overall, the differentially expressed genes detected in this analysis may play crucial roles in determining the decision to migrate, or in controlling the physiological processes required for the onset of migration. These results provide new insights into, and testable hypotheses for, the molecular mechanisms controlling the migratory phenotype and its underlying physiological mechanisms in blackbirds and other migratory bird species. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Image-based red blood cell counter for multiple species of wild and domestic animals

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    C.R.M. Mauricio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT RBC count plays an important role in animal diagnosis. Despite the many technologies available in different automated hematology analyzers, when it comes to the blood of wild animals it is still difficult to find an easy and affordable solution for multiple species. This study aims to evaluate the proposed automatic red blood cell counter. Blood samples (1 ocelot - Leopardus pardalis, 1 monkey - Cebus apella, 1 coati - Nasua nasua, 62 dogs - Canis familiaris, and 5 horses - Equus caballus were analyzed using three methods: 1-manual count, 2-automatic count by image, and 3-semi-automatic count by image; blood from dogs and horses were also analyzed by a fourth method: 4-automatic count by impedance. The counts in methods 2 and 3 were produced by the proposed red blood cell counter. Results were compared using Pearson's correlation and plots with different methods as the criterion standard. RBC counts in methods 1, 2, and 3 correlated very well with those in the method 4 (r ≥ 0.94. RBC counts produced by method 2 were highly correlated with method 3 (r = 0.998. The results indicate that the proposed method can be used as an automatic or semi-automatic counting method in clinics that are currently using the manual method for RBC assessment.

  16. The etiology of oxidative stress in the various species of animals, a review.

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    Puppel, Kamila; Kapusta, Aleksandra; Kuczyńska, Beata

    2015-08-30

    Oxidative stress is the consequence of an imbalance of pro-oxidants and antioxidants leading to cell damage and tissue injury. The exhaustion of antioxidant systems is one of the reasons for the occurrence of oxidative stress, which results in avalanche production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) or free radicals. High oxidative stress is common in organs and tissues with high metabolic and energy demands, including skeletal and heart muscle, liver and blood cells. Stress arises in animals in response to unavoidable or adverse environmental conditions. In the external environment, which affects the body of the cow, there are four main groups of stressors: physical, chemical, biological and psychological. Physical stressors include fluctuations in ambient temperature as well as mechanical injuries. High ambient temperature is one of the factors affecting the productivity of cows. Biological stressors are conditioned by errors and irregularities in habits. Both of these phenomena have an adverse impact on both the resistance of animals and fertility and are the etiological agent of oxidative stress. Various mechanisms may be responsible for metal-induced oxidative stress: direct or indirect generation of ROS, depletion of glutathione and inhibition of antioxidant enzymes are well known for all redox-active and redox-inactive metals. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Toxoplasmosis in dogs: first report of Toxoplasma gondii infection in any animal species in Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Granada, Sara; Oliveira, Ana Cristina; Brancal, Hugo; Dubey, Jitender P; Cardoso, Luís; Vilhena, Hugo

    2014-10-01

    Despite the worldwide importance of zoonotic parasite Toxoplasma gondii, nothing is known of toxoplasmosis in animals in Angola. The present study aimed at estimating the seroprevalence and also at assessing correlates of T. gondii infection in pet dogs from Luanda, Angola. Dogs (n = 103) brought to a veterinary clinic in the city of Luanda were investigated. Serum samples were tested for antibodies to T. gondii with a modified agglutination test (MAT) commercial kit, at serial dilutions of 1∶20 to 1∶160. In accordance with the established cutoff value (MAT ≧20), 16 dogs [15·5%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 9·2-24·0%] had antibodies to T. gondii: 10 had a titer of 20, two had a titer of 40, and four had a titer of 80. Age (≧12 months) was found to be a risk factor for infection [odds ratio (OR) = 9·23; 95% CI: 1·16-73·27). For each 1-year increase in age, the risk of a dog being found seropositive significantly increased by an OR of 1·18 (95% CI: 1·02-1·36). The present study, which represents the first serological survey of T. gondii in any animal species from Angola, reveals a 15·5% seroprevalence of infection in pet dogs in Luanda. Further studies are needed to better understand the epidemiology of zoonotic T. gondii infection in Luanda and also in Angola.

  18. Species distribution and in vitro antifungal susceptibility of oral yeast isolates from Tanzanian HIV-infected patients with primary and recurrent oropharyngeal candidiasis

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    Rijs Antonius JMM

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Tanzania, little is known on the species distribution and antifungal susceptibility profiles of yeast isolates from HIV-infected patients with primary and recurrent oropharyngeal candidiasis. Methods A total of 296 clinical oral yeasts were isolated from 292 HIV-infected patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis at the Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Identification of the yeasts was performed using standard phenotypic methods. Antifungal susceptibility to fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole, clotrimazole, amphotericin B and nystatin was assessed using a broth microdilution format according to the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI; M27-A2. Results Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated species from 250 (84.5% patients followed by C. glabrata from 20 (6.8% patients, and C. krusei from 10 (3.4% patients. There was no observed significant difference in species distribution between patients with primary and recurrent oropharyngeal candidiasis, but isolates cultured from patients previously treated were significantly less susceptible to the azole compounds compared to those cultured from antifungal naïve patients. Conclusion C. albicans was the most frequently isolated species from patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis. Oral yeast isolates from Tanzania had high level susceptibility to the antifungal agents tested. Recurrent oropharyngeal candidiasis and previous antifungal therapy significantly correlated with reduced susceptibility to azoles antifungal agents.

  19. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLIV. Fleas (Insecta : Siphonaptera : Pulicidae collected from 15 carnivore species

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    I.G. Horak

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Fleas were collected from 61 wild carnivores belonging to 13 species in various nature reserves and on farms, two feral domestic cats in a nature reserve and a domestic dog in the city of Johannesburg. Eleven flea species, including two subspecies of one of these, belonging to six genera were recovered. Amongst these only Ctenocephalides felis felis and Ctenocephalides felis strongylus are considered specific parasites of carnivores. The remaining ten species normally infest the prey animals of the various carnivores.

  20. The susceptibility of Asian, European and North American Fraxinus species to the ash dieback pathogen Hymenoscyphus fraxineus reflects their phylogenetic history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Rostgaard; McKinney, Lea Vig; Hietala, Ari M.

    2017-01-01

    In Europe, common ash (Fraxinus excelsior) is being decimated because of the invasive fungus Hymenoscyphus fraxineus. In its native range in Asia this ascomycete is considered a harmless leaf associate of F. mandshurica and F. chinensis subsp. rhynchophylla. Field observations from Europe suggest...... that there is species-specific variation in disease susceptibility among European and North American Fraxinus species, but a wider comparison at the genus level has been missing so far. We assessed disease symptoms and pathogen apothecium development in 17 Fraxinus species from Asia, Europe and North America exposed...... susceptibility where closely related Asian, European and North American species in section Fraxinus had relatively high levels of H. fraxineus DNA in the leaves and supported high production of apothecia. Leaves from some North American species also contained relatively high levels of H. fraxineus DNA, supported...

  1. A changing picture of shigellosis in southern Vietnam: shifting species dominance, antimicrobial susceptibility and clinical presentation

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    Parry Christopher

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shigellosis remains considerable public health problem in some developing countries. The nature of Shigellae suggests that they are highly adaptable when placed under selective pressure in a human population. This is demonstrated by variation and fluctuations in serotypes and antimicrobial resistance profile of organisms circulating in differing setting in endemic locations. Antimicrobial resistance in the genus Shigella is a constant threat, with reports of organisms in Asia being resistant to multiple antimicrobials and new generation therapies. Methods Here we compare microbiological, clinical and epidemiological data from patients with shigellosis over three different periods in southern Vietnam spanning14 years. Results Our data demonstrates a shift in dominant infecting species (S. flexneri to S. sonnei and resistance profile of the organisms circulating in southern Vietnam. We find that there was no significant variation in the syndromes associated with either S. sonnei or S. flexneri, yet the clinical features of the disease are more severe in later observations. Conclusions Our findings show a change in clinical presentation of shigellosis in this setting, as the disease may be now more pronounced, this is concurrent with a change in antimicrobial resistance profile. These data highlight the socio-economic development of southern Vietnam and should guide future vaccine development and deployment strategies. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN55945881

  2. High-Resolution Melting Curve Analysis for Identification of Pasteurellaceae Species in Experimental Animal Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Manuel; Zorn, Julia; Brielmeier, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Pasteurellaceae are among the most prevalent bacterial pathogens isolated from mice housed in experimental animal facilities. Reliable detection and differentiation of Pasteurellaceae are essential for high-quality health monitoring. In this study, we combined a real-time PCR assay amplifying a variable region in the 16S rRNA sequence with high-resolution melting curve analysis (HRM) to identify and differentiate among the commonly isolated species Pasteurella pneumotropica biotypes "Jawetz" and "Heyl", Actinobacillus muris, and Haemophilus influenzaemurium. We used a set of six reference strains for assay development, with the melting profiles of these strains clearly distinguishable due to DNA sequence variations in the amplicon. For evaluation, we used real-time PCR/HRM to test 25 unknown Pasteurellaceae isolates obtained from an external diagnostic laboratory and found the results to be consistent with those of partial 16S rRNA sequencing. The real-time PCR/HRM method provides a sensitive, rapid, and closed-tube approach for Pasteurellaceae species identification for health monitoring of laboratory mice.

  3. High-Resolution Melting Curve Analysis for Identification of Pasteurellaceae Species in Experimental Animal Facilities.

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    Manuel Miller

    Full Text Available Pasteurellaceae are among the most prevalent bacterial pathogens isolated from mice housed in experimental animal facilities. Reliable detection and differentiation of Pasteurellaceae are essential for high-quality health monitoring. In this study, we combined a real-time PCR assay amplifying a variable region in the 16S rRNA sequence with high-resolution melting curve analysis (HRM to identify and differentiate among the commonly isolated species Pasteurella pneumotropica biotypes "Jawetz" and "Heyl", Actinobacillus muris, and Haemophilus influenzaemurium. We used a set of six reference strains for assay development, with the melting profiles of these strains clearly distinguishable due to DNA sequence variations in the amplicon. For evaluation, we used real-time PCR/HRM to test 25 unknown Pasteurellaceae isolates obtained from an external diagnostic laboratory and found the results to be consistent with those of partial 16S rRNA sequencing. The real-time PCR/HRM method provides a sensitive, rapid, and closed-tube approach for Pasteurellaceae species identification for health monitoring of laboratory mice.

  4. Relative resistance or susceptibility of maple (Acer) species, hybrids and cultivars to six arthropod pests of production nurseries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seagraves, Bonny L; Redmond, Carl T; Potter, Daniel A

    2013-01-01

    Maples (Acer spp.) in production nurseries are vulnerable to numerous arthropod pests that can stunt or even kill the young trees. Seventeen cultivars representing various Acer species and hybrids were evaluated for extent of infestation or injury by shoot and trunk borers (Proteoteras aesculana, Chrysobothris femorata), potato leafhopper (Empoasca fabae), Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica), maple spider mite (Oligonychus aceris) and calico scale (Eulecanium cerasorum). Evaluations were done in replicated field plots in central and western Kentucky. All of the maples were susceptible, to varying degrees, to one or more key pest(s). Red maples (A. rubrum) were relatively vulnerable to potato leafhopper injury and borers but nearly free of Japanese beetle feeding and spider mites. Sugar maples sustained conspicuous Japanese beetle damage but had very low mite populations, whereas the opposite was true for Freeman maples (A. × freemanii). A. campestre was heavily infested by calico scale. Within each species or hybrid there were cultivar differences in degree of infestation or damage by particular pests. The results should help growers to focus pest management efforts on those plantings at greatest risk from particular pests, and to choose cultivars requiring fewer insecticide inputs to produce a quality tree. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. [Evaluation of the VITEK 2 system (AST-YSO1 cards) for antifungal susceptibility testing against different Candida species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiuzzi, María E; Arechavala, Alicia; Guelfand, Liliana; Maldonado, Ivana; Soloaga, Rolando

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the results of antifungal susceptibility for various Candida species using the Vitek 2 semi-automated system (AST-YSO1 cards, bioMérieux), and to compare them with those obtained by the CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute) broth microdilution reference method (Document M27-A3,2008). The essential agreement (EA) was > 90%, except for Candida glabrata against voriconazole (VCZ); and for Candida krusei against fluconazole (FCZ). The overall categorical agreement (CA) was > 90% when FCZ was evaluated and 89.5% at 24h and 80.7% at 48 h for VCZ. The average time for obtaining results was 15.5h. Minor errors were 7.8% at 24h and 6.1% at 48 h for FCZ, and 10.5% at 24h and 19.3% at 48 h for VCZ. There was only one very major error for FCZ against Candida parapsilosis and no major errors were observed. For amphotericin B, only three isolates showed MICs ≥ 2 μg/ml. The Vitek 2 system detected the MIC value for various Candida species and showed excellent agreement with the reference method proposed by the CLSI. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. Cordia verbenacea and secretion of mast cells in different animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Déborah Mara Costa; Luchini, Ana Carolina; Seito, Leonardo Noboru; Gomes, José Carlos; Crespo-López, María Elena; Di Stasi, Luiz Claudio

    2011-05-17

    Different plant species from Cordia genera are used in folk medicine as anti-inflammatory medication throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In Brazil, Cordia verbenacea is a medicinal plant known as "erva-baleeira". The alcoholic extracts, decoctions and infusions with leaves of C. verbenacea are used in Brazilian traditional medicine for treatment of cough, pneumonia, parasitic diseases and, especially, the inflammatory processes. Anti-inflammatory activity was already demonstrated; however, molecular mechanisms of action are not completely understood. Considering the importance of histamine in early events of inflammation and in allergic diseases, we evaluated the effect of ethanol extract of leaves of C. verbenacea on histamine release (in vitro and in vivo studies) from different types of mast cells induced by chemical agents using several species of rodents. The extraction and quantification of histamine were performed by using an automatic fluorometric continuous flow system. The extract of C. verbenacea (30 μg/ml) reduced the in vitro secretion of histamine from rat mast cells induced by ionophore A23187, concanavalin A and compound 48/80, respectively, to 22.1 ± 2.2%, 24.3 ± 2.5% and 21.4 ± 2.1%. At the same concentration, the extract also inhibited the secretion of histamine from mast cells of guinea pig induced by ionophore A23187 to 33.3 ± 2.2%, and mast cells of hamster induced by ionophore A23187 and concanavalin A to 15.8 ± 2.5% and 10.8 ± 2.6%, respectively. The oral treatment with the extract (300 mg/kg) also inhibited the secretion of histamine induced by A23187 about to 36.3 ± 3.2% in rats. C. verbenacea inhibits the in vitro secretion of histamine from mast cells of different animal species, as well as the secretion of mast cells from animals treated with the extract, which gives not only the proven anti-inflammatory effect of the plant, but also anti-allergic effect, opening new possibilities for future anti

  7. Comparative microbial diversity in the gastrointestinal tracts of food animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Joyce M; Kocherginskaya, Svetlana A; Aminov, Roustam I; Skerlos, Laura T; Bradley, Terence M; Mackie, Roderick I; White, Bryan A

    2002-04-01

    Molecular tools based on small subunit (SSU) rDNA gene sequences offer a powerful and rapid tool for the analysis of complex microbial communities found in the gastrointestinal tracts (GIT) of food animal species. Extensive comparative sequence analysis of SSU rRNA molecules representing a wide diversity of organisms shows that different regions of the molecule vary in sequence conservation. Oligonucleotides complementing regions of universally conversed SSU rRNA sequences are used as universal probes, while those complementing more variable regions of sequence are useful as selective probes targeting species, genus, or phylogenetic groups. Different approaches derive different information and this is highly dependent on the type of target nucleic acid employed and the conceptual and technical basis used for nucleic acid probe design. Generally these approaches can be divided into DNA-based methods employing empirically characterized probes and rRNA-based methods based on comparative sequence analysis for design and interpretation of "rational" probes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based techniques can also be applied to the analysis of microbial communities in the GIT. Direct cloning of SSU rDNA genes amplified from these complex communities can be used to determine the extent of diversity in these GIT communities. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) is another powerful tool for profiling microbial diversity of microbial communities in GI tracts. Sequence analysis of the excised DGGE amplicons can then be used to presumptively identify predominant bacterial species. Examples of how these molecular approaches are being used to study the microbial diversity of communities from steers fed different diets, swine fed probiotics, and Atlantic salmon fed aquaculture diets are presented.

  8. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility in clinical isolates of Enterococcus species Susceptibilidad antimicrobiana in vitro en aislamientos clínicos de Enterococcus species

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    Ernesto Calderón-Jaimes

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the antimicrobial activity of several antimicrobial agents against 97 clinical significant isolates of Enterococcus spp. MATHERIAL AND METHODS: During a 2-year prospective study at Instituto Nacional de Pediatria (National Institute of Pediatrics in Mexico City. Ninety seven strains of Enterococcus spp. (60 E. faecalis and 37 E. faecium were tested against 11 antibiotics. Susceptibility tests were performed with agar, according to the standards of the sNational Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS. Isolates were screened for high-level resistance (HLR to beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, glycopeptides and other antibiotics, as well as for vancomycin-phenotypes. Differences between proportions were evaluated with chi2 of Fisher exact fest. RESULTS: Overall resistance rates to the antibiotics tested were: 17/97 (17.5% to penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate and imipenem. There was neither HLR nor beta-lactamase production; 74/97 (48.4% were resistant to erythromycin; 60% to ciprofloxacin; 31/97 (32% to gentamicin, and 55/97 (56.7% to streptomycin. Seven strains were vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE, all of them identified as E. faecium; 5/7 with Van A and 2/7 with Van B phenotypes. All the isolates were susceptible to linezolid. The difference in susceptibility among species was significant. CONCLUSIONS: Mutidrug-resistant enterococci is a real problem and continuous surveillance is necessary. The microbiology laboratory is the first line of defense against the spread of multiantibiotic-resistan enterococci in the hospital environment . All the strains recovered should be tested for susceptibility to ampicillin, streptomycin, gentamicin and glycopeptides.OBJECTIVO: Describir la actividad antimicrobiana de varios antibióticos, contra 97 cepas de Enterococcus spp., consideradas como aislamientos clínicamente significativos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: En un estudio prospectivo de dos años, (enero de 1998

  9. Bone quantitative susceptibility mapping using a chemical species-specific R2* signal model with ultrashort and conventional echo data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimov, Alexey V; Liu, Zhe; Spincemaille, Pascal; Prince, Martin R; Du, Jiang; Wang, Yi

    2017-03-05

    To develop quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) of bone using an ultrashort echo time (UTE) gradient echo (GRE) sequence for signal acquisition and a bone-specific effective transverse relaxation rate ( R2*) to model water-fat MR signals for field mapping. Three-dimensional radial UTE data (echo times ≥ 40 μs) was acquired on a 3 Tesla scanner and fitted with a bone-specific signal model to map the chemical species and susceptibility field. Experiments were performed ex vivo on a porcine hoof and in vivo on healthy human subjects (n = 7). For water-fat separation, a bone-specific model assigning R2* decay mostly to water was compared with the standard models that assigned the same decay for both fat and water. In the ex vivo experiment, bone QSM was correlated with CT. Compared with standard models, the bone-specific R2* method significantly reduced errors in the fat fraction within the cortical bone in all tested data sets, leading to reduced artifacts in QSM. Good correlation was found between bone CT and QSM values in the porcine hoof (R(2)  = 0.77). Bone QSM was successfully generated in all subjects. The QSM of bone is feasible using UTE with a conventional echo time GRE acquisition and a bone-specific R2* signal model. Magn Reson Med 000:000-000, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  10. Extracellular talaporfin sodium-induced photosensitization reaction with various albumin animal species on myocardial cells in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Emiyu; Arai, Tsunenori

    2017-02-01

    It is reported that the albumin has different structure among animal species. We have proposed a new methodology of cardiac ablation using talaporfin sodium-induced photosensitization reaction with short drug-light interval to realize immediate and permanent therapeutic effect by singlet oxygen production mainly in the interstitial space. The photosensitization reaction efficacy with different animal species should be investing to consider the optimal animal therapeutic model to evaluate the therapeutic effect of new cardiac ablation methodology. We studied the cell-killing efficacy of extracellular talaporfin sodium-induced photosensitization reaction using talaporfin sodium on myocardial cells in vitro with different albumin animal species: human, canine, bovine, and porcine serum albumin. We obtained that the albumin concentration tendency on the binding ratio and cell lethality was different among the animal species but there was no correlation between binding ratio and cell lethality. We found that the cell lethality dependence on albumin concentration showed 2 different groups, human-canine and bovine-porcine. We think that the canine might be useful as a therapeutic animal model since the cytotoxicity tendency on albumin concentration was similar with that of human albumin. These cell lethality tendency difference would be suggested to explain by the existence of the diazepam site that talaporfin sodium binds mainly.

  11. The susceptibility of five African Anopheles species to Anabaena PCC 7120 expressing Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis mosquitocidal cry genes

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    Ketseoglou Irene

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria, one of the leading causes of death in Africa, is transmitted by the bite of an infected female Anopheles mosquito. Problems associated with the development of resistance to chemical insecticides and concerns about the non-target effects and persistence of chemical insecticides have prompted the development of environmentally friendly mosquito control agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of a genetically engineered cyanobacterium, Anabaena PCC 7120#11, against five African Anopheles species in laboratory bioassays. Findings There were significant differences in the susceptibility of the anopheline species to PCC 7120#11. The ranking of the larvicidal activity of PCC 7120#11 against species in the An. gambiae complex was: An. merus An. arabiensis An. gambiae An. quadriannulatus, where 50. The LC50 of PCC 7120#11 against the important malaria vectors An. gambiae and An. arabiensis was 12.3 × 105 cells/ml and 8.10 × 105 cells/ml, respectively. PCC 7120#11 was not effective against An. funestus, with less than 50% mortality obtained at concentrations as high as 3.20 × 107 cells/ml. Conclusions PCC 7120#11 exhibited good larvicidal activity against larvae of the An. gambiae complex, but relatively weak larvicidal activity against An. funestus. The study has highlighted the importance of evaluating a novel mosquitocidal agent against a range of malaria vectors so as to obtain a clear understanding of the agent’s spectrum of activity and potential as a vector control agent.

  12. Healthy rabbits are susceptible to Epstein-Barr virus infection and infected cells proliferate in immunosuppressed animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Gulfaraz; Ahmed, Waqar; Philip, Pretty S; Ali, Mahmoud H; Adem, Abdu

    2015-02-18

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an oncogenic virus implicated in the pathogenesis of several human malignancies. However, due to the lack of a suitable animal model, a number of fundamental questions pertaining to the biology of EBV remain poorly understood. Here, we explore the potential of rabbits as a model for EBV infection and investigate the impact of immunosuppression on viral proliferation and gene expression. Six healthy New Zealand white rabbits were inoculated intravenously with EBV and blood samples collected prior to infection and for 7 weeks post-infection. Three weeks after the last blood collection, animals were immunosuppressed with daily intramuscular injections of cyclosporin A at doses of 20 mg/kg for 15 days and blood collected twice a week from each rabbit. The animals were subsequently sacrificed and tissues from all major organs were collected for subsequent analysis. Following intravenous inoculation, all 6 rabbits seroconverted with raised IgG and IgM titres to EBV, but viral DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) could only be detected intermittently. Following immunosuppression however, EBV DNA could be readily detected in PBMCs from all 4 rabbits that survived the treatment. Quantitative PCR indicated an increase in EBV viral load in PBMCs as the duration of immunosuppression increased. At autopsy, splenomegaly was seen in 3/4 rabbits, but spleens from all 4 rabbit were EBV PCR positive. EBER-in situ hybridization and immunoshistochemistry revealed the presence of a large number of EBER-positive and LMP-1 positive lymphoblasts in the spleens of 3/4 rabbits. To a lesser extent, EBER-positive cells were also seen in the portal tract regions of the liver of these rabbits. Western blotting indicated that EBNA-1 and EBNA-2 were also expressed in the liver and spleen of infected animals. EBV can infect healthy rabbits and the infected cells proliferate when the animals are immunocompromised. The infected cells expressed several EBV

  13. Investigation of susceptibility of Staphylococcus species to some antibacterial drugs by disk diffusion and broth microdilution

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    Ašanin Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to identify isolated Staphylococcus species and to investigate their sensitivity to some antibacterial drugs. The material used for these investigations were Staphylococcus isolates originating from milk samples. A total of 25 strains of Staphylococcus isolates were examined, including 24 from milk samples from cows with mastitis, and one strain was isolated from a milk sample from a cow following treatment for mastitis. For primary identification, catalase and oxidase tests were used, as well as the free coagulase test. Following the preliminary tests, the isolated strains were identified using commercial systems ID32 STAPH (bioMérieux, France and the BBL Crystal Gram-Positive ID Kit (Becton Dickinson, USA according to the enclosed instructions. The Staphylococcus isolates were examined for sensitivity to the following: oxacillin, penicillin, cefoxitin, gentamicin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, sulfametoxazol/trimetoprim, and vacomycin using the disk diffusion method and the broth microdilution method as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Strandards Institute - CLSI(2003, and the results were interpreted according to CLSI recommendations from 2008 and 2010. Antibiogram disks manufactured by Becton Dickinson (USA were used, and the broth microdilution method was applied using pure antibiotic substances from different manufacturers: erythromycin, chloramphenicol, cefoxitin, gentamicin, oxacillin, tetracycline (Sigma Aldrich, USA, sulfametoxazol (Fluka, USA, penicillin (Calbiochem, Germany, vancomycin (Abbott laboratories, USA, ciprofloxacin and trimetoprim (Zdravlje A.D., Serbia. All 25 strains were catalase positive and oxidase negative. Of the 25 strains, 19 were coagulase positive and 6 were coagulase negative.With the implementation of the disk diffusion method on 19 strains of S. aureus, 17 were established to be resistant to penicillin (89.5%, and 2 strains to gentamicin

  14. Aeromonas species isolated from PINTADO fish (Pseudoplatystoma sp: virulence factors and drug susceptibility

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    Vera Lúcia Mores Rall

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas has been described as an emergent foodborne pathogen of increasing importance. In this study, we report that 48% of 50 Pintado fish samples collected at the retail market of São Paulo city were positive for Aeromonas sp, as detected by the direct plating method. When the presence/absence method was used, the positivity was 42%. A. caviae was the most frequent species, followed by A. hydrophila and A. sobria. Production of cytotoxic enterotoxin, observed in suckling mouse assay, was detected in 67% of A. sobria strains, in 60% of A. hydrophila strains and in 40% of A. caviae strains. In vitro tests, performed with HEp-2 cells, showed that 88% of A. hydrophila, 27% of A. sobria and 13% of A. caviae strains were positive for this toxin. The in vivo production of cytotonic enterotoxin, tested after heating the filtrates at 56ºC for 20 minutes, was detected in 17% of A. sobria, in 10% of A. caviae and in none of A. hydrophila strains in vivo. All analyzed strains did not alter HEp-2 cells. 20% and 16% of A. sobria and A. caviae isolates, respectively, presented capacity to adhere to HEp-2 cells. In counterpart, invasion of HEp-2 cells was not observed in any isolate. The Aeromonas isolates were sensitive to the majority of the antimicrobiol agents tested.Bactérias do gênero Aeromonas têm sido descritas como patógenos emergentes de importância crescente em alimentos. Neste estudo, relatamos que 48% das amostras de peixe "Pintado" coletado no comércio de São Paulo, foram positivas para Aeromonas sp quando isoladas pelo método de plaqueamento direto. Quando o método Presença/Ausência foi utilizado, a porcentagem de positividade foi de 42%. A. caviae foi a espécie mais freqüente, seguida por A. hydrophila e A. sobria. Produção de enterotoxina citotóxica, determinada em camundongos recém-nascidos, foi observada em 67% das cepas de A. sobria, em 60% das de A. hydrophila e em 40% das de A. caviae. No teste in vitro em c

  15. Non-Helicobacter pylori helicobacters detected in the stomach of humans comprise several naturally occurring Helicobacter species in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baele, Margo; Pasmans, Frank; Flahou, Bram; Chiers, Koen; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2009-04-01

    Besides the well-known gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori, other Helicobacter species with a spiral morphology have been detected in a minority of human patients who have undergone gastroscopy. The very fastidious nature of these non-Helicobacter pylori helicobacters (NHPH) makes their in vitro isolation difficult. These organisms have been designated 'Helicobacter heilmannii'. However, sequencing of several genes detected in NHPH-infected tissues has shown that the 'H. heilmannii' group comprises at least five different Helicobacter species, all of them known to colonize the stomach of animals. Recent investigations have indicated that Helicobacter suis is the most prevalent NHPH species in human. This species has only recently been isolated in vitro from porcine stomach mucosa. Other NHPH that colonize the human stomach are Helicobacter felis, Helicobacter bizzozeronii, Helicobacter salomonis and 'Candidatus Helicobacter heilmannii'. In numerous case reports of human gastric NHPH infections, no substantial information is available about the species status of the infecting strain, making it difficult to link the species with certain pathologies. This review aims to clarify the complex nomenclature of NHPH species associated with human gastric disease and their possible animal origin. It is proposed to use the term 'gastric NHPH' to designate gastric spirals that are morphologically different from H. pylori when no identification is available at the species level. Species designations should be reserved for those situations in which the species is defined.

  16. Antifungal susceptibility testing of Aspergillus species complex in the Clinical Laboratory: how to do it, when to do it, and how to interpret it

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    Esther Manso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of drug resistance in fungal pathogens has a profound impact on human health given limited number of antifungal drugs. Antifungal resistance in Aspergillus spp. infection can be encountered in the antifungal drug-exposed patient due to selection of intrinsically resistant species or isolates with acquired resistance belonging to species that are normally susceptible. Resistance to triazoles is not common in Aspergillus spp., however, triazole resistance in A. fumigatus appears to be increasing in several European countries in recent years and can be clinically relevant. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing have developed breakpoints and epidemiological cutoff values that are now established for Aspergillus spp. Clinical microbiology laboratories will be employed commercial susceptibility assays, rather than reference broth microdilution methods and comparative studies are particularly important.

  17. Species distribution and antifungal susceptibility patterns of Candida isolates from a public tertiary teaching hospital in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnge, P; Okeleye, B I; Vasaikar, S D; Apalata, T

    2017-05-15

    Candida species are the leading cause of invasive fungal infections, and over the past decade there has been an increased isolation of drug resistant Candida species. This study aimed to identify the species distribution of Candida isolates and to determine their unique antifungal susceptibility and resistance patterns. During a cross-sectional study, 209 Candida isolates (recovered from 206 clinical samples) were collected and their species distribution was determined using ChromAgar Candida. The Vitek-2 system (Biomerieux, South Africa) was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to azoles (fluconazole, voriconazole), echinocandins (caspofungin, micafungin), polyenes (amphotericin B) and flucytosine. Four species of Candida were isolated, of which C. albicans was the most frequent, isolated in 45.4% (95/209) of the isolates, followed by C. glabrata: 31.1% (65/209). The MICs of the different antifungal drugs varied amongst the species of Candida. From the 130 isolates tested for MICs, 90.77% (112/130) were susceptible to all antifungal drugs and 6.9% (9/130) of the isolates were multi-drug resistant. C. dubliniensis (n=2) isolates were susceptible to all the above mentioned antifungal drugs. There was no significant difference in species distribution amongst clinical specimens and between patients' genders (P>0.05). An increase in MIC values for fluconazole and flucytosine towards the resistance range was observed. To our knowledge, this is the first report on surveillance of Candida species distribution and antifungal susceptibility at a public tertiary teaching hospital in Eastern Cape, South Africa.

  18. Susceptibility Testing of Common and Uncommon Aspergillus Species against Posaconazole and Other Mold-Active Antifungal Azoles Using the Sensititre Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mello, E.; Posteraro, B.; Vella, A.; Carolis, E. De; Torelli, R.; D'Inzeo, T.; Verweij, P.E.; Sanguinetti, M.

    2017-01-01

    We tested 59 common and 27 uncommon Aspergillus species isolates for susceptibility to the mold-active azole antifungal agents itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole using the Sensititre method. The overall essential agreement with the CLSI reference method was 96.5% for itraconazole and

  19. Species distribution and in vitro antifungal susceptibility of oral yeast isolates from Tanzanian HIV-infected patients with primary and recurrent oropharyngeal candidiasis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamza, O.J.M.; Matee, M.I.N.; Moshi, M.J.; Simon, E.N.; Mugusi, F.; Mikx, F.H.M.; Palenstein Helderman, W.H. van; Rijs, A.J.M.M.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der; Verweij, P.E.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Tanzania, little is known on the species distribution and antifungal susceptibility profiles of yeast isolates from HIV-infected patients with primary and recurrent oropharyngeal candidiasis. METHODS: A total of 296 clinical oral yeasts were isolated from 292 HIV-infected patients

  20. Characterization of Salmonella isolates from municipal sewage, patients, foods, and animals in Greece using antimicrobial susceptibility testing and pulsed field gel electrophoresis

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    Theofilos Papadopoulos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims: We aimed to compare Salmonella isolates from different sources using molecular and phenotypic methods, targeting better possibility of understanding the epidemiology of this organism in the Greek context with emphasis in municipal wastewater. Materials and Methods: In this study, we used pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE in combination with antimicrobial susceptibility testing to analyze a total of 88 Salmonella Enterica isolates from municipal sewage (n=25, humans (n=36, animals (n=24, and foods (n=3 in Greece. Results: The higher resistance rates were found to the following antimicrobials: streptomycin (59.1%, tetracycline (47.7%, nalidixic acid (46.6%, ampicillin (37.5%, and oxolinic acid (35.2%. Resistance to ciprofloxacin was not observed; 22 isolates (25% were sensitive to all 9 antimicrobials, 36%, 25% and 12% of human, animal and wastewater origin, respectively, showing a significant difference. Salmonella ser. Hadar was the serovar with the highest resistance rates followed by Salmonella ser. Anatum and Salmonella ser. Typhimurium; Salmonella ser. Infantis strains were almost pansusceptible. Cluster analysis did not reveal close genetic relationship between human animal food and wastewater strains belonging to the same serovars. In most of the cases, distinct clusters were observed between human and non-human isolates indicating diversity and no epidemiological connection. Conclusion: This study indicates that municipal wastewater would be of interest to further monitor the community’s prevalence of subclinical or non-reported S. Enterica infections.

  1. Species distribution and susceptibility profile of yeasts isolated from blood cultures: results of a multicenter active laboratory-based surveillance study in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba, Susana; Vivot, Walter; Bosco-Borgeat, Maria E; Taverna, Constanza; Szusz, Wanda; Murisengo, Omar; Isla, Guillermina; Davel, Graciela

    2011-01-01

    The Mycology Department of the Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Infecciosas "Dr. C. Malbrán", conducted the Second National Multicenter Survey on Fungemia due to Yeasts in Argentina. The aim was to obtain updated data of the frequency of the causative species encountered and their in vitro susceptibility to seven antifungal agents. Yeast species were identified by micromorphological and biochemical studies. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed by the reference microdilution method E.Def 7.1 of the European Committee on Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). A total of 461 viable yeasts were identified. The most frequent species were: Candida albicans (38.4 %), Candida parapsilosis (26 %), Candida tropicalis (15.4 %) and Candida glabrata (4.3 %). Other uncommon species, such as Candida viswanathii (0.6 %), Candida haemulonii (0.4 %), Candida inconspicua (0.2 %) and Candida fermentati (0.2 %) were also isolated. Among the Candida spp., 5.4 % and 1.6 % were resistant to fluconazole and voriconazole, respectively. Itraconazole and caspofungin were the most efficient agents against all Candida spp. tested (MIC 8 mg/l), 75 % of Trichosporon spp., and 100 % of Rhodotorula spp., Geotrichum candidum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The global percentage of mortality was 20 %. The presence of uncommon species reinforces the need for performing continuous laboratory surveillance in order to monitor possible changes, not only in the epidemiological distribution of species, but also in the resistance to antifungal drugs.

  2. Occurrence of Listeria species in different captive wild animals of Nandankanan Zoo, Baranga, Odisha, India

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    L.N. Sarangi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Listeria species were isolated from faecal samples collected from different captive wild animals of Nandankanan Zoo, Baranga, Odisha, using selective enrichment medium. The isolates were characterized based on their cell morphology, biochemical and sugar fermentation characteristics as well as culture morphology. Further, in vitro and in vivo pathogenicity tests were carried out to assess the pathogenic potential of the isolates. Listeria were found in 24 (23.07% of the total 104 faecal samples. Listeria were isolated from the samples of tiger, bear, hyena, leopard, zebra, elephant, jackal, lion, barking deer, porcupine, chital, monkey and wild boar. Out of the 24 Listeria isolates 11 were confirmed as L. monocytogenes. The other 13 isolates included L. innocua, L. seeligeri, L. welshimeri and L. ivanovii. The pathogenicity study revealed that only four isolates were pathogenic. Three of these were L. monocytogenes isolated from tiger, hyena and elephant and one was L. ivanovii isolated from leopard. Antibiotic sensitivity of the 24 isolates was high towards ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, amoxicillin, azithromycin and enrofloxacin. The isolates showed resistance towards oxytetracyclin, gentamicin, cephadroxil, penicillin- G and nalidixic acid.

  3. A unified approach to model peripheral nerves across different animal species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stornelli, Maria Rita

    2017-01-01

    Peripheral nerves are extremely complex biological structures. The knowledge of their response to stretch is crucial to better understand physiological and pathological states (e.g., due to overstretch). Since their mechanical response is deterministically related to the nature of the external stimuli, theoretical and computational tools were used to investigate their behaviour. In this work, a Yeoh-like polynomial strain energy function was used to reproduce the response of in vitro porcine nerve. Moreover, this approach was applied to different nervous structures coming from different animal species (rabbit, lobster, Aplysia) and tested for different amount of stretch (up to extreme ones). Starting from this theoretical background, in silico models of both porcine nerves and cerebro-abdominal connective of Aplysia were built to reproduce experimental data (R2 > 0.9). Finally, bi-dimensional in silico models were provided to reduce computational time of more than 90% with respect to the performances of fully three-dimensional models. PMID:29142788

  4. Comparative meta-analysis of the effect of Lactobacillus species on weight gain in humans and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Million, Matthieu; Angelakis, Emmanouil; Paul, Mical; Armougom, Fabrice; Leibovici, Leonard; Raoult, Didier

    2012-08-01

    Obesity is associated with alteration of the gut microbiota. In order to clarify the effect of Lactobacillus-containing probiotics (LCP) on weight we performed a meta-analysis of clinical studies and experimental models. We intended to assess effects by Lactobacillus species. A broad search with no date or language restriction was performed. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and comparative clinical studies in humans and animals or experimental models assessing the effect of Lactobacillus-containing probiotics on weight. We primarily attempted to extract and use change from baseline values. Data were extracted independently by two authors. Results were pooled by host and by Lactobacillus species and are summarized in a meta-analysis of standardized difference in means (SMDs). We identified and included 17 RCTs in humans, 51 studies on farm animals and 14 experimental models. Lactobacillus acidophilus administration resulted in significant weight gain in humans and in animals (SMD 0.15; 95% confidence intervals 0.05-0.25). Results were consistent in humans and animals. Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus ingluviei were associated with weight gain in animals. Lactobacillus plantarum was associated with weight loss in animals and Lactobacillus gasseri was associated with weight loss both in obese humans and in animals. Different Lactobacillus species are associated different effects on weight change that are host-specific. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of Lactobacillus species in the human energy harvest and weight regulation. Attention should be drawn to the potential effects of commonly marketed lactobacillus-containing probiotics on weight gain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Susceptibility of freshwater snails to the amphistome Calicophoron microbothrium and the influence of the species on susceptibility of Bulinus tropicus to Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mattheei infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chingwena, Givemore; Mukaratirwa, Samson; Kristensen, Thomas K; Chimberi, Moses

    2002-10-01

    The susceptibility of Bulinus tropicus, B. globosus, Biomphalana pfeifferi, Lymnaea natalensis, and Melanoides tuberculata to Calicophoron microbothrium was examined. Bulinus tropicus had the highest prevalence (65.0%), followed by B. pfeifferi (37.5%), B. globosus (6.8%), and M. tuberculata (5.9%). Lymnaea natalensis was refractory to infection. Bulinus tropicus snails infected with C. microbothrium alone or coinfected with either Schistosoma haematobium or S. mattheei 0, 7, 14, and 21 days after exposure to C. microbothrium produced C. microbothrium cercariae only.

  6. Beta-lactamase characterization in Escherichia coli isolates with diminished susceptibility or resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins recovered from sick animals in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briñas, Laura; Moreno, Miguel Angel; Teshager, Tirushet; Zarazaga, Myriam; Sáenz, Yolanda; Porrero, Concepción; Dominguez, Lucas; Torres, Carmen

    2003-01-01

    A total of 1439 Escherichia coli isolates from sick animals were received from the Spanish Network of Veterinary Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (VAV) from 1997 to 2001. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed and diminished susceptibility to cefotaxime and ceftazidime was identified in 2.5% and 2.8% of the isolates, respectively. Beta-lactamase characterization was carried out in the group of 20 E. coli isolates with both characteristics. The MIC ranges of different beta-lactams showed by these 20 isolates were as follows (in microg/ml): ampicillin (64-->256), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (4-64), ticarcillin (8-->128), cefazolin (32-->256), cefoxitin (4-->128), cefotaxime (1-64), ceftazidime (2-->64), ceftriaxone (0.5-64), imipenem (32). TEM, SHV, CMY, and FOX beta-lactamase genes were analyzed by PCR and sequencing. The beta-lactamase genes detected were the following ones (number of isolates): bla(TEM-1b) (3), bla(TEM-1a) (1), bla(TEM-30f) (2), bla(TEM-1b) + bla(CMY-2) (2), and bla(SHV-12) (1). Sequences of the promoter and/or attenuator region of the chromosomal ampC gene were studied in all the 20 isolates. Mutations at position -42 or -32 were detected in 16 isolates and these mutations were associated with the presence of a TEM type beta-lactamase in 6 isolates. Besides, a high variety of plasmidic beta-lactamases was detected including TEM-30 and CMY-2. To our knowledge, this is the first time that TEM-30 beta-lactamase has been detected in E. coli isolates of animal origin.

  7. In Vitro Activities of Novel Azole Compounds ATTAF-1 and ATTAF-2 against Fluconazole-Susceptible and -Resistant Isolates of Candida Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhim, Hamed; Emami, Saeed; Vaezi, Afsane; Hashemi, Seyedeh Mahdieh; Faeli, Leila; Diba, Kambiz; Dannaoui, Eric; Badali, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    The in vitro activities of two novel azole compounds (aryl-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthio analogues of fluconazole [ATTAFs]) and five comparator antifungal agents against 52 clinical Candida isolates from 5 different species were determined. The novel azole compounds had the lowest geometric mean MICs, followed by fluconazole. Moreover, combinations of these compounds with fluconazole exhibited synergistic effects against fluconazole-susceptible (22 of 23 isolates), fluconazole-susceptible dose-dependent (10 of 13 isolates), and fluconazole-resistant (1 of 16 isolates) Candida isolates. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. Susceptibility Testing of Common and Uncommon Aspergillus Species against Posaconazole and Other Mold-Active Antifungal Azoles Using the Sensititre Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Enrica; Posteraro, Brunella; Vella, Antonietta; De Carolis, Elena; Torelli, Riccardo; D'Inzeo, Tiziana; Verweij, Paul E.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We tested 59 common and 27 uncommon Aspergillus species isolates for susceptibility to the mold-active azole antifungal agents itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole using the Sensititre method. The overall essential agreement with the CLSI reference method was 96.5% for itraconazole and posaconazole and was 100% for voriconazole. By the Sensititre method as well as the CLSI reference method, all of 10 A. fumigatus isolates with a cyp51 mutant genotype were classified as being non-wild-type isolates (MIC > epidemiological cutoff value [ECV]) with respect to triazole susceptibility. PMID:28416538

  9. Animal Welfare in Air Transport

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    Boris Popović

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Animal welfare is becoming an evermore-important factorfor air carriers from the economical viewpoint, due to its importantimpact on the carrier public image. High standard care hasto be taken of animals during transport in order to satisfy an importantsegment of airline customers, either the Business/Firstclass passengers travelling with pets, or influential shippers ofracing horses, dogs, Zoo species etc.Air transp011 of animals, disregarding other advantages,may pose a threat to their health and welfare being a significantmultifactorial stressor. Along with cardiovascular, endocrineand metabolic abe1mtions, it affects the immune response ofan animal and increases susceptibility to infection. Therefore,strict conditions for air transport of eve1y animal species havebeen imposed. Transport of only healthy animals is approved,as it is necessG/y to prevent the spread of disease during transportand to provide satisfactOJy environment for animals to betransported.

  10. Evaluation of antibiotic susceptibility of Bacteroides, Prevotella and Fusobacterium species isolated from patients of the N. N. Blokhin Cancer Research Center, Moscow, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilnikova, Irina I; Dmitrieva, Natalia V

    2015-02-01

    In total 122 non-duplicate Bacteroides, Prevotella and Fusobacterium spp isolated from cancer patients between 2004 and 2014 were involved in this study. Most of the strains belonged to the B. fragilis group (55%), followed by Prevotella strains (34.4%) and Fusobacterium spp (10.6%). The species identification was carried out by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and they were identified on species level with a log (score) >2.0. The most common isolates were B. fragilis, B. thetaiotaomicron, B. ovatus and B. vulgatus. Among Prevotella species, the most frequently isolated species were P. buccae, P. buccalis, P. oris, P. denticola and P. nigrescens, and most of the Fusobacterium spp. were F. nucleatum. Susceptibilities of the strains were determined by the E-test methodology. The percentage of the susceptibility of B. fragilis group isolates were: metronidazole (MIC ≤4 μg/ml), 97%; imipenem (MIC ≤2 μg/ml), 95.5%; amoxicillin/clavulanate (MIC ≤4 μg/ml), 95.5% and clindamycin (MIC ≤4 μg/ml), 77.6%. Three B. fragilis isolates proved to be multidrug-resistant (parallel resistance to imipenem, amoxicillin/clavulanate and metronidazole or clindamycin was observed). All Prevotella strains tested were susceptible to imipenem and amoxicillin/clavulanate, whereas 78.6% of the pigmented Prevotella species and 46.4% of the non-pigmented species were resistant to penicillin (MIC >0.5 μg/ml). The susceptibility to metronidazole and clindamycin were 93% and 88%, respectively. All Fusobacterium strains were sensitive to all tested antibiotics, including penicillin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida species isolated from the immunocompromised patients admitted to ten university hospitals in Iran: comparison of colonizing and infecting isolates

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    Parisa Badiee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antifungal susceptibility testing is a subject of interest in the field of medical mycology. The aim of the present study were the distributions and antifungal susceptibility patterns of various Candida species isolated from colonized and infected immunocompromised patients admitted to ten university hospitals in Iran. Methods In totally, 846 Candida species were isolated from more than 4000 clinical samples and identified by the API 20 C AUX system. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution method according to CLSI. Results The most frequent Candida species isolated from all patients was Candida albicans (510/846. The epidemiological cutoff value and percentage of wild-type species for amphotericin B and fluconazole in Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata and Candida krusei were 0.5 μg/ml (95% and 4 μg/ml (96%; 1 μg/ml (95% and 8 μg/ml (95%; 0.5 μg/ml (99% and 19 μg/ml (98%; and 4 μg/ml (95% and 64 μg/ml (95%, respectively. The MIC90 and epidemiological cutoff values to posaconazole in Candida krusei were 0.5 μg/ml. There were significant differences between infecting and colonizing isolates of Candida tropicalis in MIC 90 values of amphotericin B, and isolates of Candida glabrata in values of amphotericin B, caspofungin, and voriconazole (P < 0.05. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the susceptibility patterns of Candida species (colonizing and infecting isolates in immunocompromised patients are not the same and acquired resistance was seen in some species.

  12. In vitro resistance of clinical Fusarium species to amphotericin B and voriconazole using the EUCAST antifungal susceptibility method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taj-Aldeen, Saad J; Salah, Husam; Al-Hatmi, Abdullah M S; Hamed, Manal; Theelen, Bart; van Diepeningen, Anne D; Boekhout, Teun; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia

    Susceptibility testing using the EUCAST-AFST method against 39 clinical Fusarium strains consecutively collected from local and invasive infections during the last 10years assessed the in vitro activities of amphotericin B (AmB) and triazole antifungal agents. In addition, the susceptibility pattern

  13. Prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility and virulotyping of Listeria species and Listeria monocytogenes isolated from open-air fish markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, Hossein; Paydar, Mohammadjavad; Ismail, Salmah; Looi, Chung Yeng; Wong, Won Fen; Radmehr, Behrad; Abedini, Atefeh

    2015-07-25

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and characterization of Listeria species and Listeria monocytogenes isolated from raw fish and open-air fish market environments. Eight hundred and sixty two samples including raw fish and fish market environments (samples from workers' hands, workers' knives, containers and work surface) were collected from the open-air fish markets in the Northern region of Iran. Listeria spp. was isolated from 104/488 (21.3%) raw fish and 29/374 (7.8%) of samples from open-air fish market environment. The isolates of Listeria spp. included L. innocua (35.3%), L. monocytogenes (32.3%), L. seeligeri (18%), and L. ivanovii (14.3%). Of the 43 L. monocytogenes isolates, 31 (72.1%), 10 (23.3%) and 2 (4.7%) belonged to serovars 1/2a, 4b, and 1/2b, respectively. The inlA, inlB, inlC, inlJ, actA, hlyA, iap, plcA, and prfA virulence-associated genes were detected in almost all of the L. monocytogenes isolates. The Listeria spp. isolates showed high resistance against tetracycline (23.3%), penicillin G, and cephalothin (each 16.5%). Besides, we observed significant resistance level to tetracycline (27.9%), ampicillin (20.9%), cephalothin, penicillin G, and streptomycin (each 16.3%) in the L. monocytogenes isolates. All of the isolates were susceptible to cefotaxime, gentamicin, kanamycin, and pefloxacin. We found that tetM (25.6%), tetA (23.3%), ampC (14%), and penA (11.6%) were the most prevalent antibiotic resistance genes in the L. monocytogenes isolates. Recovery of potentially pathogenic L. monocytogenes from raw fish and environment of open-air fish market samples in this study is a convincing evidence for the zoonotic potential of listeriosis.

  14. Colorado animal-based plague surveillance systems: relationships between targeted animal species and prediction efficacy of areas at risk for humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, Jennifer L; Eisen, Rebecca J; Schotthoefer, Anna M; Xiaocheng, Liang; Montenieri, John A; Tanda, Dale; Pape, John; Schriefer, Martin E; Antolin, Michael F; Gage, Kenneth L

    2009-06-01

    Human plague risks (Yersinia pestis infection) are greatest when epizootics cause high mortality among this bacterium's natural rodent hosts. Therefore, health departments in plague-endemic areas commonly establish animal-based surveillance programs to monitor Y. pestis infection among plague hosts and vectors. The primary objectives of our study were to determine whether passive animal-based plague surveillance samples collected in Colorado from 1991 to 2005 were sampled from high human plague risk areas and whether these samples provided information useful for predicting human plague case locations. By comparing locations of plague-positive animal samples with a previously constructed GIS-based plague risk model, we determined that the majority of plague-positive Gunnison's prairie dogs (100%) and non-prairie dog sciurids (85.82%), and moderately high percentages of sigmodontine rodents (71.4%), domestic cats (69.3%), coyotes (62.9%), and domestic dogs (62.5%) were recovered within 1 km of the nearest area posing high peridomestic risk to humans. In contrast, the majority of white-tailed prairie dog (66.7%), leporid (cottontailed and jack rabbits) (71.4%), and black-tailed prairie dog (93.0%) samples originated more than 1 km from the nearest human risk habitat. Plague-positive animals or their fleas were rarely (one of 19 cases) collected within 2 km of a case exposure site during the 24 months preceding the dates of illness onset for these cases. Low spatial accuracy for identifying epizootic activity prior to human plague cases suggested that other mammalian species or their fleas are likely more important sources of human infection in high plague risk areas. To address this issue, epidemiological observations and multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analyses (MLVA) were used to preliminarily identify chipmunks as an under-sampled, but potentially important, species for human plague risk in Colorado.

  15. COMPLEMENTARY APPROACHES TO THE DETERMINATION OF ARSENIC SPECIES RELEVANT TO CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion-exchange chromatography is the most often used analytical approach for arsenicspeciation, due to the weak-acid nature of several of its species. However, no singletechnique can determine all potentially occurring arsenic species, especially in complexe...

  16. Rapid Diversity Loss of Competing Animal Species in Well-Connected Landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schippers

    Full Text Available Population viability of a single species, when evaluated with metapopulation based landscape evaluation tools, always increases when the connectivity of the landscape increases. However, when interactions between species are taken into account, results can differ. We explore this issue using a stochastic spatially explicit meta-community model with 21 competing species in five different competitive settings: (1 weak, coexisting competition, (2 neutral competition, (3 strong, excluding competition, (4 hierarchical competition and (5 random species competition. The species compete in randomly generated landscapes with various fragmentation levels. With this model we study species loss over time. Simulation results show that overall diversity, the species richness in the entire landscape, decreases slowly in fragmented landscapes whereas in well-connected landscapes rapid species losses occur. These results are robust with respect to changing competitive settings, species parameters and spatial configurations. They indicate that optimal landscape configuration for species conservation differs between metapopulation approaches, modelling species separately and meta-community approaches allowing species interactions. The mechanism behind this is that species in well-connected landscapes rapidly outcompete each other. Species that become abundant, by chance or by their completive strength, send out large amounts of dispersers that colonize and take over other patches that are occupied by species that are less abundant. This mechanism causes rapid species loss. In fragmented landscapes the colonization rate is lower, and it is difficult for a new species to establish in an already occupied patch. So, here dominant species cannot easily take over patches occupied by other species and higher diversity is maintained for a longer time. These results suggest that fragmented landscapes have benefits for species conservation previously unrecognized by the

  17. Assessing the human-animal relationship in farmed species: a critical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waiblinger, S.; Boivin, X.; Pedersen, V.; Tosi, M.; Janczak, A.M.; Visser, E.K.; Jones, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    The present paper focuses on six main issues. First, we briefly explain why an increased understanding of the human¿animal relationship (HAR) is an essential component of any strategy intended to improve the welfare of farmed animals and their stockpersons. Second, we list the main internal and

  18. Emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in different animal species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuny, Christiane; Friedrich, Alexander; Kozytska, Svetlana; Layer, Franziska; Nübel, Ulrich; Ohlsen, Knut; Strommenger, Birgit; Walther, Birgit; Wieler, Lothar; Witte, Wolfgang

    The emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in animals such as horses, pet animals and productive livestock has raised questions of a probable human origin and in more general of host specificity of S. aureus. Particular clonal lineages are obviously specific for humans (e.g.

  19. Terrestrial animal species in the Hoosier-Shawnee ecological assessment area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark D. McCreedy; Kelly A. Reynolds; Cynthia M. Basile; Matthew C. Nicholson; Katie M. Dugger; Megan E. Gross; Gary M., Jr. Mohr

    2004-01-01

    We reviewed the current status of amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals, and selected invertebrates within the Hoosier-Shawnee Ecological Assessment Area. Species selected for this evaluation included those most commonly considered with respect to land management, namely threatened and endangered species, those species with viability concerns, the unique community of...

  20. Antibiotic susceptibility of body surface and gut micro flora of two aquatic leech species (Hirudinaria manillensis and Hirudinaria javanica in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parimannan Sivachandran

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To elucidate the antibiotic susceptibility of body surface and gut associated microflora of two local aquatic leech species Hirudinaria manillensis and Hirudinaria javanica. Methods: Four commercially available antibiotics (doxycycline, chloramphenicol, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin were used in this study. A total of 13 isolated gut and two surface micro flora from Hirudinaria manillensis and two gut and two surface micro flora from Hirudinaria javanica were tested for their antibiotic susceptibility. Results: Based on the susceptibility, it was observed that all the isolated bacteria were found to be susceptible to at least three of the antibiotics except Microbacterium resistens, Serratia marcescens and Morganella morganii. This study also found that the bacterial species Bacillus fusiformis has displayed resistance against tetracycline and Tsukamurella inchonensis against chloramphenicol. Conclusions: Among all the antibiotics tested, ciprofloxacin was found to be the best bactericidal agent. The immersion of leeches in ciprofloxacin before the application to the patient may be beneficial to prevent invasive infection of the patient. Further study is needed to sterilize the live leech by immersion/oral mode of administration for the tested antibiotics.

  1. Detection of Mycoplasma species in raw milk of lactating animals in Assiut and Qena city of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N M Saad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of Mycoplasma Species in raw milk of different animal species was determined. A total of 240 random raw milk samples were collected from cows, buffaloes, sheep and goats in Assiut and Qena cities, Egypt (30 samples each. Fifteen strains of Mycoplasma were isolated from raw milk. The strains were biochemically characterized followed by PCR assay for confirmation. On the basis of biochemical characterization the strains were divided into 5 species as follow M. arginini, M. bovirhinis, M. bovis, M. species group 7, and M. dispar. M. bovis could not be detected. The most prevalent isolated species was M. bovirhinis which was isolated from 6.67% of cow's milk samples collected from Assiut City. Whereas M. arginini, was the most prevalent species in the examined milk samples collected from Qena City. None of the five M. bovirhinis strains that were identified biochemically were confirmed by PCR assay through amplification of 16S rRNA region of the gene that was amplified at 316 bp. Efforts should be made to protect animals against mycoplasma infection. [Vet. World 2012; 5(2.000: 80-85

  2. Interspecies allometric meta-analysis of the comparative pharmacokinetics of 85 drugs across veterinary and laboratory animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Q; Gehring, R; Tell, L A; Li, M; Riviere, J E

    2015-06-01

    Allometric scaling is widely used for the determination of first dosage regimen and the interpolation or extrapolation of pharmacokinetic parameters across many animal species during drug development. In this article, 85 drugs used in veterinary medicine obtained from the Food Animal Residue Avoidance Databank database were selected for allometric scaling analysis. Outlier species were identified by statistical methods. The results showed that 77% and 88% of drugs displayed significant correlations between total systemic clearance (CL) and volume of distribution at steady status (Vss) vs. body weight (P allometric exponent b for CL and Vss displays approximate normal distribution, with means (0.87 and 0.99) and standard deviations (0.143 and 0.157) for CL and Vss, respectively. Twelve drugs were identified to have at least one outlier species for CL and ten drugs for Vss. The human CL and Vss were predicted for selected drugs by the obtained allometric equations. The predicted CL and Vss were within a threefold error compared to observed values, except the predicted CL values for antipyrine, warfarin and diazepam. The results can be used to estimate cross-species pharmacokinetic profiles for predicting drug dosages in veterinary species, and to identify those species for which interpolation or extrapolation of pharmacokinetics properties may be problematic. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Approaches for quantifying antimicrobial consumption per animal species based on national sales data: a Swiss example, 2006 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, Luís P; Schüpbach-Regula, Gertraud; Müntener, Cedric; Chevance, Anne; Moulin, Gérard; Magouras, Ioannis

    2017-02-09

    Antimicrobial use in animals is known to contribute to the global burden of antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, it is critical to monitor antimicrobial sales for livestock and pets. Despite the availability of veterinary antimicrobial sales data in most European countries, surveillance currently lacks consumption monitoring at the animal species level. In this study, alternative methods were investigated for stratifying antimicrobial sales per species using Swiss data (2006-2013). Three approaches were considered: (i) Equal Distribution (ED) allocated antimicrobial sales evenly across all species each product was licensed for; (ii) Biomass Distribution (BMD) stratified antimicrobial consumption, weighting the representativeness of each species' total biomass; and (iii) Longitudinal Study Extrapolation (LSE) assigned antimicrobial sales per species based on a field study describing prescription patterns in Switzerland. LSE is expected to provide the best estimates because it relies on field data. Given the Swiss example, BMD appears to be a reliable method when prescription data are not available, whereas ED seems to underestimate consumption in species with larger populations and higher treatment intensity. These methods represent a valuable tool for improving the monitoring systems of veterinary antimicrobial consumption across Europe. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  4. Effect of Dietary Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability in Animals Susceptible or Resistant to Ventricular Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E Billman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs has been reported to reduce cardiac mortality following myocardial infarction as well as to decrease resting heart rate (HR and increase heart rate variability (HRV. However, it has not been established whether n-3 PUFAs exhibit the same actions on HR and HRV in individuals known to be either susceptible or resistant to ventricular fibrillation (VF. Therefore, HR and HRV (high frequency and total R-R interval variability were evaluated before and 3 months after n-3 PUFA treatment in dogs with healed myocardial infarction that were either susceptible (VF+, n = 31 or resistant (VF-, n = 31 to ventricular tachyarrhythmias induced by a 2 min coronary artery occlusion during the last minute of a submaximal exercise test. HR and HRV were evaluated at rest, during submaximal exercise and in response to acute myocardial ischemia at rest before and after either placebo (1 g/day, corn oil, VF+, n = 9; VF- n = 8 or n-3 PUFA (docosahexaenoic acid + eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl esters, 1-4g/day, VF+, n = 22; VF-, n = 23 treatment for 3 months. The n-3 PUFA treatment elicited similar increases in red blood cell membrane, right atrial, and left ventricular n-3 PUFA levels in both the VF+ and VF- dogs. The n-3 PUFA treatment also provoked similar reductions in baseline HR and increases in baseline HRV in both groups that resulted in parallel shifts in the response to either exercise or acute myocardial ischemia (that is, the change in these variables induced by physiological challenges was not altered after n-3 PUFA treatment. These data demonstrate that dietary n-3 PUFA decreased HR and increased HRV to a similar extent in animals known to be prone to or resistant to malignant cardiac tachyarrhythmias.

  5. Occurrence, species distribution and antimicrobial resistance of thermophilic Campylobacter isolates from farm and laboratory animals in Morogoro, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick V. G. Komba

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the carriage and antimicrobial resistance of Thermophilic Campylobacter species in the gastrointestinal tracts of farm and laboratory animals in Morogoro, Tanzania Materials and Methods: Faecal samples were collected from farm (n=244 and laboratory (n=466 animals and were subjected to the Cape Town protocol for isolation of Campylobacter. Isolates were preliminarily identified based on potassium hydroxide string and hippurate hydrolysis tests. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was employed for confirmation of isolates. Antimicrobial resistance testing was done using disc diffusion method. Results: Of the laboratory animals 26.7% of guinea pigs (n=30 and 1.2% of rats (n=242 were colonized with Campylobacter. Four isolates from guinea pigs were Campylobacter jejuni and the other four were C. coli. From rats, two isolates were C. jejuni and one was C. coli. In farm animals thermophilic Campylobacter were detected from 31.6% of sheep (n=57 and 60% horses (n=5. Of the isolates 12 (57% were C. jejuni (10 from sheep and 2 from horses and the remaining were C. coli (8 from sheep and 1 from a horse. The isolates were frequently resistant to erythromycin, norfloxacin, colistin sulphate and nalidixic acid; whereas low levels of resistance were observed for ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. Conclusion: Our study reveals carriage of antimicrobial resistant thermophilic Campylobacter in the intestines of the study animals. This highlights possibilities in involvement of these animals in the epidemiology of Campylobacter infections. Thus, there is a need to consider these animal species when planning control measures for this zoonotic bacterium.

  6. Do Bird Assemblages Predict Susceptibility by E-Waste Pollution? A Comparative Study Based on Species- and Guild-Dependent Responses in China Agroecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qiang; Wu, Jiangping; Sun, Yuxin; Zhang, Min; Mai, Bixian; Mo, Ling; Lee, Tien Ming; Zou, Fasheng

    2015-01-01

    Indirect effects of electronic waste (e-waste) have been proposed as a causal factor in the decline of bird populations, but analyses of the severity impacts on community assembly are currently lacking. To explore how population abundance/species diversity are influenced, and which functional traits are important in determining e-waste susceptibility, here we surveyed breeding and overwintering birds with a hierarchically nested sampling design, and used linear mixed models to analyze changes...

  7. Prevalence and antifungal susceptibility of Candida albicans and its related species Candida dubliniensis and Candida africana isolated from vulvovaginal samples in a hospital of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theill, Laura; Dudiuk, Catiana; Morano, Susana; Gamarra, Soledad; Nardin, María Elena; Méndez, Emilce; Garcia-Effron, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Candida africana taxonomical status is controversial. It was proposed as a separate species within the Candida albicans species complex; however, phylogenetic analyses suggested that it is an unusual variety of C. albicans. The prevalence of C. albicans-related species (Candida dubliniensis and C. africana) as vulvovaginal pathogens is not known in Argentina. Moreover, data on antifungal susceptibility of isolates causing vulvovaginal candidiasis is scarce. The aims of this study were to establish the prevalence of C. dubliniensis and C. africana in vaginal samples and to evaluate the antifungal susceptibilities of vaginal C. albicans species complex strains. We used a molecular-based method coupled with a new pooled DNA extraction methodology to differentiate C. dubliniensis and C. africana in a collection of 287 strains originally identified as C. albicans isolated from an Argentinian hospital during 2013. Antifungal susceptibilities to fluconazole, clotrimazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, nystatin, amphotericin B and terbinafine were evaluated by using the CLSI M27-A3 and M27-S4 documents. Of the 287 isolates, 4 C. dubliniensis and one C. africana strains (1.39% and 0.35% prevalence, respectively) were identified. This is the first description of C. africana in Argentina and its identification was confirmed by sequencing the ITS2 region and the hwp1 gene. C. dubliniensis and C. africana strains showed very low MIC values for all the tested antifungals. Fluconazole-reduced-susceptibility and azole cross-resistance were observed in 3.55% and 1.41% of the C. albicans isolates, respectively. These results demonstrate that antifungal resistance is still a rare phenomenon in this kind of isolates. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. CLSI performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacteria isoloated from aquatic animals; second information supplement. CLSI document VET03/VET04-S2

    Science.gov (United States)

    The supplemental information presented in this document is intended for use with the antimicrobial susceptibility testing procedures published in the following Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) approved documents VET03-A Methods for Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility Testing of Bacte...

  9. Functional identity and diversity of animals predict ecosystem functioning better than species-based indices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gagic, Vesna; Bartomeus, Ignasi; Jonsson, Tomas; Taylor, Astrid; Winqvist, Camilla; Fischer, Christina; Slade, Eleanor M; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Emmerson, Mark; Potts, Simon G; Tscharntke, Teja; Weisser, Wolfgang; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    .... We analysed eight datasets, including five animal groups, to examine how well a trait-based approach, compared with a more traditional taxonomic approach, predicts seven ecosystem functions below- and above-ground...

  10. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprints for identification of red meat animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, M C; Lim, C H; Chua, S B; Chew, S T; Phang, S T

    1998-03-01

    The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method was used to generate fingerprint patterns for 10 meat species: wild boar, pig, horse, buffalo, beef, venison, dog, cat, rabbit and kangaroo. A total of 29 10-nucleotide primers, with GC contents ranging from 50-80%, were evaluated for their specificity and efficiency. The fingerprint patterns that were generated were found in some cases to be species-specific, i.e. one species could be differentiated from another. The advantages and disadvantages of using RAPD-PCR for the identification of red meat species are also discussed.

  11. Toward a cross-species neuroscientific understanding of the affective mind: do animals have emotional feelings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-06-01

    Do we need to consider mental processes in our analysis of brain functions in other animals? Obviously we do, if such BrainMind functions exist in the animals we wish to understand. If so, how do we proceed, while still retaining materialistic-mechanistic perspectives? This essay outlines the historical forces that led to emotional feelings in animals being marginalized in behavioristic scientific discussions of why animals behave the way they do, and why mental constructs are generally disregarded in modern neuroscientific analyses. The roots of this problem go back to Cartesian dualism and the attempt of 19th century physician-scientists to ground a new type of medical curriculum on a completely materialistic approach to body functions. Thereby all vitalistic principles were discarded from the lexicon of science, and subjective experience in animals was put in that category and discarded as an invalid approach to animal behavior. This led to forms of rigid operationalism during the era of behaviorism and subsequently ruthless reductionism in brain research, leaving little room for mentalistic concepts such as emotional feelings in animal research. However, modern studies of the brain clearly indicate that artificially induced arousals of emotional networks, as with localized electrical and chemical brain stimulation, can serve as "rewards" and "punishments" in various learning tasks. This strongly indicates that animal brains elaborate various experienced states, with those having affective contents being easiest to study rigorously. However, in approaching emotional feelings empirically we must pay special attention to the difficulties and vagaries of human language and evolutionary levels of control in the brain. We need distinct nomenclatures from primary (unconditioned phenomenal experiences) to tertiary (reflective) levels of mind. The scientific pursuit of affective brain processes in other mammals can now reveal general BrainMind principles that also apply

  12. Specific metabolic pathway in vitro of pinazepam and diazepam by liver microsomal enzymes of different animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comi, V; Fossati, A; Gervasi, G B

    1977-04-01

    The metabolic pathway of Pinazepam and Diazepam in vitro was studied with rat, guinea pig and dog liver microsomes using a chromatographic and spectrophotometric technique. Two main pathways were observed, N1-dealkylation and C3-hydroxylation. N1-dealkylation was shown to be the predominant reaction for Pinazepam in all the animal species studied, while C3-hydroxylation was the major metabolic pathway for Diazepam in the rat. No oxazepam was found when Pinazepam and Diazepam were incubated with liver microsomes.

  13. Molecular Detection of Acinetobacter Species in Lice and Keds of Domestic Animals in Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Socolovschi, Cristina; Parola, Philippe; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Raoult, Didier

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the presence of Acinetobacter and Rickettsia species DNA in lice and Melophagus ovinus (sheep ked) of animals from Oromia Regional State in Ethiopia. From September through November 2011, a total of 207 cattle, 85 sheep, 47 dogs and 16 cats were examined for ectoparasites. Results of morphological identification revealed several species of ectoparasites: Linognathus vituli (L. vituli), Bovicola bovis (B. bovis) and Solenopotes capillatus (S. capillatus) on cattle; B. ovis and Melophagus ovinus (M. ovinus) on sheep; and Heterodoxus spiniger (H. spiniger) on dogs. There was a significantly (p≤0.0001) higher prevalence of L. vituli observed in cattle than both S. capillatus and B. bovis. Molecular identification of lice using an 18S rRNA gene analysis confirms the identified lice species by morphological methods. We detected different Acinetobacter species among lice (11.1%) and keds (86.4%) including A. soli in L. vituli of cattle, A. lowffii in M. ovinus of sheep, A. pittii in H. spiniger of dogs, 1 new Acinetobacter spp. in M. ovinus and 2 new Acinetobacter spp. in H. spiniger of dogs using partial rpoB gene sequence analysis. There was a significantly higher prevalence of Acinetobacter spp. in keds than in lice (p≤0.00001). Higher percentage of Acinetobacter spp. DNA was detected in H. spiniger than in both B. ovis and L. vituli (p≤0.00001). Carbapenemase resistance encoding genes for blaOXA-23, blaOXA-24, blaOXA-58, blaNDM-1 and blaOXA-51 were not found in any lice and keds. These findings suggest that synanthropic animals and their ectoparasites might increase the risk of human exposure to zoonotic pathogens and could be a source for Acinetobacter spp. infections in humans. However, additional epidemiological data are required to determine whether ectoparasites of animals can act as environmental reservoirs and play a role in spreading these bacteria to both animal and human hosts. PMID:23285015

  14. Comparative meta-analysis of the effect of Lactobacillus species on weight gain in humans and animals

    OpenAIRE

    Million, M.; Angelakis, E.; Paul, M.; Armougom, Fabrice; Leibovici, L.; Raoult, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Background: Obesity is associated with alteration of the gut microbiota. In order to clarify the effect of Lactobacillus-containing probiotics (LCP) on weight we performed a meta-analysis of clinical studies and experimental models. We intended to assess effects by Lactobacillus species. Methods: A broad search with no date or language restriction was performed. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and comparative clinical studies in humans and animals or experimental models assess...

  15. Natural mixing of species: novel plant–animal communities on Caribbean Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel E. Lugo; T.A. Carlo; Jr. Wunderle

    2012-01-01

    Global anthropogenic activities are responsible for the modification of landscapes, creation of novel environments and movement of species across biogeographic regions. A consequence of this activity is the mixing of native and introduced species and the formation of novel biotic communities. We review the ecological consequences of the mixing of native and introduced...

  16. Predicting rarity and decline in animals, plants, and mushrooms based on species attributes and indicator groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musters, C.J.M.; Kalkman, V.; van Strien, A.

    2013-01-01

    In decisions on nature conservation measures, we depend largely on knowledge of the relationship between threats and environmental factors for a very limited number of species groups, with relevant environmental factors often being deduced from the relationship between threat and species traits. But

  17. Tree diversity and species identity effects on soil fungi, protists and animals are context dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedersoo, Leho; Bahram, Mohammad; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Põlme, Sergei; Hiiesalu, Indrek; Anslan, Sten; Harend, Helery; Buegger, Franz; Pritsch, Karin; Koricheva, Julia; Abarenkov, Kessy

    2016-02-01

    Plant species richness and the presence of certain influential species (sampling effect) drive the stability and functionality of ecosystems as well as primary production and biomass of consumers. However, little is known about these floristic effects on richness and community composition of soil biota in forest habitats owing to methodological constraints. We developed a DNA metabarcoding approach to identify the major eukaryote groups directly from soil with roughly species-level resolution. Using this method, we examined the effects of tree diversity and individual tree species on soil microbial biomass and taxonomic richness of soil biota in two experimental study systems in Finland and Estonia and accounted for edaphic variables and spatial autocorrelation. Our analyses revealed that the effects of tree diversity and individual species on soil biota are largely context dependent. Multiple regression and structural equation modelling suggested that biomass, soil pH, nutrients and tree species directly affect richness of different taxonomic groups. The community composition of most soil organisms was strongly correlated due to similar response to environmental predictors rather than causal relationships. On a local scale, soil resources and tree species have stronger effect on diversity of soil biota than tree species richness per se.

  18. Biology of tiny animals: three new species of minute salamanders (Plethodontidae: Thorius) from Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Olea, Gabriela; Rovito, Sean M; García-París, Mario; Maisano, Jessica A; Wake, David B; Hanken, James

    2016-01-01

    We describe three new species of minute salamanders, genus Thorius, from the Sierra Madre del Sur of Oaxaca, Mexico. Until now only a single species, T. minutissimus, has been reported from this region, although molecular data have long shown extensive genetic differentiation among geographically disjunct populations. Adult Thorius pinicola sp. nov., T. longicaudus sp. nov., and T. tlaxiacus sp. nov. are larger than T. minutissimus and possess elliptical rather than oval nostrils; T. pinicola and T. longicaudus also have longer tails. All three new species occur west of the range of T. minutissimus, which has the easternmost distribution of any member of the genus. The new species are distinguished from each other and from other named Thorius in Oaxaca by a combination of adult body size, external morphology and osteology, and by protein characters (allozymes) and differences in DNA sequences. In addition, we redescribe T. minutissimus and a related species, T. narisovalis, to further clarify the taxonomic status of Oaxacan populations and to facilitate future studies of the remaining genetically differentiated Thorius that cannot be satisfactorily assigned to any named species. Populations of all five species considered here appear to have declined dramatically over the last one or two decades and live specimens are difficult to find in nature. Thorius may be the most endangered genus of amphibians in the world. All species may go extinct before the end of this century.

  19. Biology of tiny animals: three new species of minute salamanders (Plethodontidae: Thorius from Oaxaca, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Parra-Olea

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe three new species of minute salamanders, genus Thorius, from the Sierra Madre del Sur of Oaxaca, Mexico. Until now only a single species, T. minutissimus, has been reported from this region, although molecular data have long shown extensive genetic differentiation among geographically disjunct populations. Adult Thorius pinicola sp. nov., T. longicaudus sp. nov., and T. tlaxiacus sp. nov. are larger than T. minutissimus and possess elliptical rather than oval nostrils; T. pinicola and T. longicaudus also have longer tails. All three new species occur west of the range of T. minutissimus, which has the easternmost distribution of any member of the genus. The new species are distinguished from each other and from other named Thorius in Oaxaca by a combination of adult body size, external morphology and osteology, and by protein characters (allozymes and differences in DNA sequences. In addition, we redescribe T. minutissimus and a related species, T. narisovalis, to further clarify the taxonomic status of Oaxacan populations and to facilitate future studies of the remaining genetically differentiated Thorius that cannot be satisfactorily assigned to any named species. Populations of all five species considered here appear to have declined dramatically over the last one or two decades and live specimens are difficult to find in nature. Thorius may be the most endangered genus of amphibians in the world. All species may go extinct before the end of this century.

  20. Study on the Characteristic Spectral Properties for Species Identification of Animal-Derived Feedstuff Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Zhou, Simiao; Yang, Zengling; Han, Lujia; Liu, Xian

    2017-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to explore the effective spectral bands related to lipid characteristics in spectra of raw animal-derived feedstuff and figure out which marked spectral regions (single or combined) contributed more to species discrimination. A total of 82 meat and bone meals, including porcine, poultry, bovine, ovine, and fish, were studied. Raw materials, extracted lipid, and defatted samples were simultaneously analyzed and calculated using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy in combination with chemometric methods. Taking the spectra of lipid as references, five marked spectral regions considered the main lipid characteristic regions were found in the raw animal-derived feedstuff spectra. In the study, single and combined marked spectral bands were investigated and proved to have better performance than the whole spectra of raw terrestrial animal-derived feedstuff and fishmeal. For the discrimination of five animal species, the regions of 1800-1650 cm-1, 1500-1330 cm-1, 1260-1060 cm-1, and 790-640 cm-1 presented better results; for the classification of three categories, the regions of 3100-2800 cm-1, 1800-1650 cm-1, and 1500-1330 cm-1 showed the best results.

  1. Searching for animal models and potential target species for emerging pathogens: Experience gained from Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS coronavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Vergara-Alert

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Emerging and re-emerging pathogens represent a substantial threat to public health, as demonstrated with numerous outbreaks over the past years, including the 2013–2016 outbreak of Ebola virus in western Africa. Coronaviruses are also a threat for humans, as evidenced in 2002/2003 with infection by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV, which caused more than 8000 human infections with 10% fatality rate in 37 countries. Ten years later, a novel human coronavirus (Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, MERS-CoV, associated with severe pneumonia, arose in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Until December 2016, MERS has accounted for more than 1800 cases and 35% fatality rate. Finding an animal model of disease is key to develop vaccines or antivirals against such emerging pathogens and to understand its pathogenesis. Knowledge of the potential role of domestic livestock and other animal species in the transmission of pathogens is of importance to understand the epidemiology of the disease. Little is known about MERS-CoV animal host range. In this paper, experimental data on potential hosts for MERS-CoV is reviewed. Advantages and limitations of different animal models are evaluated in relation to viral pathogenesis and transmission studies. Finally, the relevance of potential new target species is discussed.

  2. [Flow-cytofluorometric study of bactericidal granules in blood phagocytes of animals with various species sensitivity to experimental plague infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsov, A L

    2015-01-01

    Compare the content of bactericidal granules (BG) in blood phagocytes of animals, that differ by species sensitivity to plague infection, under the conditions of measuring, that ensure automatic differentiating by this parameter of monocytes and granulocytes of human blood. Human whole blood leukocytes were studied, as well as from 7 animal species: mice, guinea pigs, golden hamsters, white rats, rabbits, dogs and horses. Acridine orange (AO) was used for supra-vital staining in primary (bactericidal) granule cells. Relative BG content was measured in separate cells in conventional units of red fluorescence intensity by flow cytofluorometry. Deficiency of AO molecules in BG, that correlates with deficiency of leukocyte elastase in cells, that is most pronounced in mice and lest pronounced in rabbits, was established to be characteristic for all the blood phagocytes of all the laboratory animal species sensitive to plague. Blood phagocytes of dogs and horses, that were non-sensitive to plague, differed by high heterogeneity by the studied parameter, and in horse blood innate immunity cells were detected, that contained 2.5 times higher amount of BG, than blood granulocytes of humans. Leukocyte BG, that have enzyme cationic proteins: elastase, cathepsin G, protease 3 and myeloperoxidase, play and important role in protection of organism from plague infection.

  3. Ivermectin residue depletion in food producing species and its presence in animal foodstuffs with a view to human safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano, M; San Andrés, M I; de Lucas, J J; González-Canga, A

    2012-05-01

    From a human safety perspective, the administration of ivermectin to food producing animal species entails potential risks related to the presence of drug residues in edible tissues, milk, and other derived products. The European Medicines Agency has established the maximum residue limits for ivermectin in the European Union, with values of 100 μg·kg(-1) in fat and liver and 30 μg·kg(-1) in kidney for all mammalian food producing species, in order to ensure that the amount of ivermectin that can be found in animal foodstuff is below dangerous levels for the consumers. According to these values, withdrawal periods after subcutaneous injection were recently established in the European Union (2009), in 49 days for products containing ivermectin as a single active substance or in combination with closantel, and in 66 days when combined with clorsulon. The marker residue for ivermectin was found to be H(2)B(1a), which is the major component of the parent compound. The tissue distribution of residues and the overall ratios of marker to total residues were generally similar in most species, and the highest concentrations of ivermectin residues were found in fat and liver with high levels also detected in injection site muscles. Ivermectin is not licensed for use in animals from which milk is produced for human consumption, however its extra-label use should be considered regarding human safety, due to its long persistence in milk and milk-derived products.

  4. Detection of Dientamoeba fragilis in animal faeces using species specific real time PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Douglas; Barratt, Joel; Roberts, Tamalee; Phillips, Owen; Šlapeta, Jan; Ryan, Una; Marriott, Deborah; Harkness, John; Ellis, John; Stark, Damien

    2016-08-30

    Dientamoeba fragilis is a potentially pathogenic, enteric, protozoan parasite with a worldwide distribution. While clinical case reports and prevalence studies appear regularly in the scientific literature, little attention has been paid to this parasite's biology, life cycle, host range, and possible transmission routes. Overall, these aspects of Dientamoeba biology remain poorly understood at best. In this study, a total of 420 animal samples, collected from Australia, were surveyed for the presence of Dientamoeba fragilis using PCR. Several PCR assays were evaluated for sensitivity and specificity. Two previously published PCR methods demonstrated cross reactivity with other trichomonads commonly found in animal samples. Only one assay exhibited excellent specificity. Using this assay D. fragilis was detected from one dog and one cat sample. This is the first report of D. fragilis from these animals and highlights the role companion animals may play in D. fragilis transmission. This study demonstrated that some published D. fragilis molecular assays cross react with other closely related trichomonads and consequently are not suitable for animal prevalence studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Species-Specific and Drug-Specific Differences in Susceptibility of Candida Biofilms to Echinocandins: Characterization of Less Common Bloodstream Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simitsopoulou, Maria; Peshkova, Pavla; Tasina, Efthymia; Katragkou, Aspasia; Kyrpitzi, Daniela; Velegraki, Aristea; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Candida species other than Candida albicans are increasingly recognized as causes of biofilm-associated infections. This is a comprehensive study that compared the in vitro activities of all three echinocandins against biofilms formed by different common and infrequently identified Candida isolates. We determined the activities of anidulafungin (ANID), caspofungin (CAS), and micafungin (MFG) against planktonic cells and biofilms of bloodstream isolates of C. albicans (15 strains), Candida parapsilosis (6 strains), Candida lusitaniae (16 strains), Candida guilliermondii (5 strains), and Candida krusei (12 strains) by XTT [2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide] assay. Planktonic and biofilm MICs were defined as ≥50% fungal damage. Planktonic cells of all Candida species were susceptible to the three echinocandins, with MICs of ≤1 mg/liter. By comparison, differences in the MIC profiles of biofilms in response to echinocandins existed among the Candida species. Thus, C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii biofilms were highly recalcitrant to all echinocandins, with MICs of ≥32 mg/liter. In contrast, the MICs of all three echinocandins for C. albicans and C. krusei biofilms were relatively low (MICs ≤ 1 mg/liter). While echinocandins exhibited generally high MICs against C. parapsilosis biofilms, MFG exhibited the lowest MICs against these isolates (4 mg/liter). A paradoxical growth effect was observed with CAS concentrations ranging from 8 to 64 mg/liter against C. albicans and C. parapsilosis biofilms but not against C. krusei, C. lusitaniae, or C. guilliermondii. While non-albicans Candida planktonic cells were susceptible to all echinocandins, there were drug- and species-specific differences in susceptibility among biofilms of the various Candida species, with C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii exhibiting profiles of high MICs of the three echinocandins. PMID:23529739

  6. Divergent Isoprenoid Biosynthesis Pathways in Staphylococcus Species Constitute a Drug Target for Treating Infections in Companion Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Christine L.; Morris, Daniel O.; Rankin, Shelley C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Staphylococcus species are a leading cause of skin and soft tissue infections in humans and animals, and the antibiotics used to treat these infections are often the same. Methicillin- and multidrug-resistant staphylococcal infections are becoming more common in human and veterinary medicine. From a “One Health” perspective, this overlap in antibiotic use and resistance raises concerns over the potential spread of antibiotic resistance genes. Whole-genome sequencing and comparative genomics analysis revealed that Staphylococcus species use divergent pathways to synthesize isoprenoids. Species frequently associated with skin and soft tissue infections in companion animals, including S. schleiferi and S. pseudintermedius, use the nonmevalonate pathway. In contrast, S. aureus, S. epidermidis, and S. lugdunensis use the mevalonate pathway. The antibiotic fosmidomycin, an inhibitor of the nonmevalonate pathway, was effective in killing canine clinical staphylococcal isolates but had no effect on the growth or survival of S. aureus and S. epidermidis. These data identify an essential metabolic pathway in Staphylococcus that differs among members of this genus and suggest that drugs such as fosmidomycin, which targets enzymes in the nonmevalonate pathway, may be an effective treatment for certain staphylococcal infections. IMPORTANCE Drug-resistant Staphylococcus species are a major concern in human and veterinary medicine. There is a need for new antibiotics that exhibit a selective effect in treating infections in companion and livestock animals and that would not be used to treat human bacterial infections. We have identified fosmidomycin as an antibiotic that selectively targets certain Staphylococcus species that are often encountered in skin infections in cats and dogs. These findings expand our understanding of Staphylococcus evolution and may have direct implications for treating staphylococcal infections in veterinary medicine. PMID:27704053

  7. Chemical profiling with HPLC-FTMS of exogenous and endogenous chemicals susceptible to the administration of chotosan in an animal model of type 2 diabetes-induced dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yimin; Li, Feng; Inada, Chikako; Tanaka, Ken; Watanabe, Shiro; Fujiwara, Hironori; Sasaki-Hamada, Sachie; Oka, Jun-Ichiro; Matsumoto, Kinzo

    2015-02-01

    In our previous study, the daily administration of chotosan (CTS), a Kampo formula consisting of Uncaria and other 10 different crude drugs, ameliorated cognitive deficits in several animal models of dementia including type 2 diabetic db/db mice in a similar manner to tacrine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. The present study investigated the metabonomics of CTS in db/db mice, a type 2 diabetes model, and m/m mice, a non-diabetes control strain, to identify the exogenous and endogenous chemicals susceptible to the administration of CTS using high performance liquid chromatography equipped with an orbitrap hybrid Fourier transform mass spectrometer. The results obtained revealed that the systemic administration of CTS for 20 days led to the distribution of Uncalia plant-derived alkaloids such as rhynchophylline, hirsuteine, and corynoxeine in the plasma and brains of db/db and m/m mice and induced alterations in four major metabolic pathways; i.e., (1) purine, (2) tryptophan, (3) cysteine and methionine, (4) glycerophospholipids in db/db mice. Moreover, glycerophosphocholine (GPC) levels in the plasma and brain were significantly higher in CTS-treated db/db mice than in vehicle-treated control animals. The results of the in vitro experiment using organotypic hippocampal slice cultures demonstrated that GPC (10-30 μM), as well as tacrine, protected hippocampal cells from N-methyl-d-aspartate-induced excitotoxicity in a manner that was reversible with the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine, whereas GPC had no effect on the activity of acetylcholinesterase in vitro. Our results demonstrated that some CTS constituents with neuropharmacological activity were distributed in the plasma and brain tissue following the systemic administration of CTS and may subsequently have affected some metabolic pathways including glycerophospholipid metabolism and cognitive function in db/db mice. Moreover, the present metabonomic analysis suggested that GPC is a putative

  8. Sex and age specific effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol during the periadolescent period in the rat: The unique susceptibility of the prepubescent animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Lindsay; Black, Rita; Michaelides, Michael; Hurd, Yasmin L; Dow-Edwards, Diana

    Adolescents who use marijuana are more likely to exhibit anxiety, depression, and other mood disorders, including psychotic-like symptoms. Additionally, the age at onset of use and the stress history of the individual can affect responses to cannabis. To examine the effect of early life experience on adolescent Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure, we exposed adolescent (postnatal day (P) 29-38) male and female rats, either shipped from a supplier or born in our vivarium, to once daily injections of 3mg/kg THC. Our findings suggest that males are more sensitive to the anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of THC, as measured by the elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swim test (FST), respectively, than females. Exposure to the FST increased plasma corticosterone levels, regardless of drug treatment or origin and females had higher levels than males overall. Shipping increased THC responses in females (acoustic startle habituation) and in males (latency to immobility in FST). No significant effects of THC or shipping on pre-pulse inhibition were observed. Due to differences in timing of puberty in males and females during the P29-38 period of THC treatment, we also dosed female rats between P21-30 (pre-puberty) and male rats between P39-48 (puberty). Pre-pubertal animals showed reductions in anxiety on the EPM, an effect that was not seen in animals treated during puberty. These results suggest that both sexes are more susceptible to changes in emotional behavior when THC exposure occurs just prior to the onset of puberty. Within the animals dosed from P29-38, THC increased cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) mRNA expression and tended to decrease CP55,940 stimulated [35S]GTPγS binding in the central amygdala only of females. Therefore, early stress enhances THC responses in males (in FST) and females (ASR habituation), THC alters CB1R expression and function in females only and prepubescent rats are generally more responsive to THC than pubertal rats. In summary

  9. A novel method to determine valnemulin in feedingstuffs for several animal species by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Pasquale; Di Marco Pisciottano, Ilaria; Urbani, Valeria; Bianco, Raffaele; Picarelli, Emanuela

    2016-11-01

    A new method specific for the determination and unambiguous confirmation of the antibiotic valnemulin in feed for all animal species is described. Simple clean-up based on solvent extraction and liquid partition is carried out prior to determination by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray tandem mass spectrometry on a hybrid QTRAP 4000 system, in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Valnemulin is licensed in the European Union as a veterinary drug for use in feed for pigs and rabbits, but unavoidable carryover in feed for non-target species should be monitored. The method is rapid and reliable, and was validated in-house at 10, 100 and 750 ng g-1, evaluating the analytical performances according to Commission Regulation (EC) No. 882/2004. Good mean recoveries from 79.7% to 92.6%, and within-laboratory reproducibility RSDs, ranging from 6.2% to 12.1%, were measured; the limit of quantification at 10.0 ng g-1 also allows for sensitive evaluation of undesirable carryover in feed for non-target species. The results of monitoring 24 compound feeds for several animal species are also reported.

  10. Predicting rarity and decline in animals, plants, and mushrooms based on species attributes and indicator groups

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Musters, C.J.M; Kalkman, V; van Strien, A

    2013-01-01

    In decisions on nature conservation measures, we depend largely on knowledge of the relationship between threats and environmental factors for a very limited number of species groups, with relevant...

  11. Rarity, species richness, and the threat of extinction--are plants the same as animals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Knapp

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of conservation status is done both for areas or habitats and for species (or taxa. IUCN Red List categories have been the principal method of categorising species in terms of extinction risk, and have been shown to be robust and helpful in the groups for which they have been developed. A recent study highlights properties associated with extinction risk in flowering plants, focusing on the species-rich hot spot of the Cape region of South Africa, and concludes that merely following methods derived from studies of vertebrates may not provide the best estimates of extinction risk for plants. Biology, geography, and history all are important factors in risk, and the study poses many questions about how we categorise and assess species for conservation priorities.

  12. Toxoplasmosis in dogs: First report of Toxoplasma gondii infection in any animal species in Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the worldwide importance of zoonotic parasite Toxoplasma gondii nothing is known of toxoplasmosis in animals in Angola. The present study aimed at estimating the seroprevalence and also assessing correlates of T. gondii infection in pet dogs from Luanda, Angola. Dogs (n = 103) brought to a v...

  13. Clostridium difficile Infection in Production Animals and Avian Species: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moono, Peter; Foster, Niki F; Hampson, David J; Knight, Daniel R; Bloomfield, Lauren E; Riley, Thomas V

    2016-12-01

    Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and colitis in hospitalized humans. Recently, C. difficile infection (CDI) has been increasingly recognized as a cause of neonatal enteritis in food animals such as pigs, resulting in stunted growth, delays in weaning, and mortality, as well as colitis in large birds such as ostriches. C. difficile is a strictly anaerobic spore-forming bacterium, which produces two toxins A (TcdA) and B (TcdB) as its main virulence factors. The majority of strains isolated from animals produce an additional binary toxin (C. difficile transferase) that is associated with increased virulence. C. difficile is ubiquitous in the environment and has a wide host range. This review summarizes the epidemiology, clinical presentations, risk factors, and laboratory diagnosis of CDI in animals. Increased awareness by veterinarians and animal owners of the significance of clinical disease caused by C. difficile in livestock and avians is needed. Finally, this review provides an overview on methods for controlling environmental contamination and potential therapeutics available.

  14. In awe of fish? Animal ethics for non-cuddly species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, C.P.G.

    2013-01-01

    We are all consumers. What we consume, how, and how much, has consequences of great moral importance for humans, animals, and the environment. Great challenges lie ahead as we are facing population growth and climate change and reduced availability of fossil fuels. It is often argued that key to

  15. Bacteria causing bacteremia in pediatric cancer patients presenting with febrile neutropenia-species distribution and susceptibility patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, Karin G. E.; Winter, Rik H. L. J.; Ammann, Roland A.; Droz, Sara; Spanjaard, Lodewijk; de Bont, Eveline S. J. M.; Kamps, Willem A.; van de Wetering, Marianne D.; Tissing, Wim J. E.

    Infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatric cancer patients. The aim of this study was to establish the microbiological spectrum and the susceptibility patterns of bacteremia-causing bacteria in pediatric cancer patients with febrile neutropenia in relation to the use of

  16. Effects of forage species or concentrate finishing on animal performance, carcass and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckett, S K; Neel, J P S; Lewis, R M; Fontenot, J P; Clapham, W M

    2013-03-01

    Angus-cross steers (n = 128; initial BW = 270 ± 3.8 kg) were used in a 3-yr study to assess effects of forage species grazed before slaughter versus concentrate finishing on carcass and meat quality. At the completion of the stockering phase, steers were randomly allotted to mixed pasture (MP; n = 36/yr) or corn-silage concentrate (CON; n = 12/yr) finishing treatments. At 40 d before harvest, MP steers were randomly divided into 3 forage species treatments: alfalfa (AL), pearl millet (PM), or mixed pasture (MP). Average daily BW gain was greater (P = 0.001) for CON than for forage-finished (FOR) steers during the early and overall finishing phase. During the late finishing phase when FOR steers were grazing difference forage species, ADG was greater (P = 0.03) for PM than MP or AL. Harvest weight and HCW were greater (P 0.78) between CON and FOR and were not altered (P > 0.40) by forage species. Trained sensory panel juiciness, initial tenderness, and overall tenderness scores did not differ (P > 0.17) by finishing treatment or forage species. Beef flavor intensity was greater (P forage-fed steaks, regardless of forage species, than CON. Finishing on forages reduced (P = 0.003) total lipid content by 61% for the LM compared with CON finished cattle. Forage species grazed before harvest did not alter (P > 0.05) total lipid content of the LM. Oleic acid concentration and total MUFA of the LM were 21% and 22% less (P = 0.001) for FOR than CON. Concentrations of all individual [linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic (EPA), docosapentaenoic (DPA), and docosadexaenoic (DHA) acids] and total n-3 fatty acids were greater (P forage species. Concentrate finishing increases carcass weight with same time endpoints and accelerates deposition of MUFA in comparison with FOR, which reduces carcass weight and fat deposition but maintains high concentrations of n-3 and CLA fatty acids. Finishing system or forage species grazed 40 d before slaughter did not alter beef tenderness but FOR

  17. Climate change impacts on the ecology of Fusarium graminearum species complex and susceptibility of wheat to Fusarium head blight: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat caused mainly by members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) is a major threat to agricultural grain production, food safety, and animal health. The severity of disease epidemics and accumulation of associated trichothecene mycotoxins in wheat kerne...

  18. Plasma membrane nadh dehydrogenase and Ca2+-dependent potassium transport in erythrocytes of several animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, C; López-Burillo, S; García-Sancho, J; Herreros, B

    1983-01-19

    Ca2+-dependent K+ transport and plasma membrane NADH dehydrogenase activities have been studied in several 'high-K+' (human, rabbit and guinea pig) and 'low-K+' (dog, cat and sheep) erythrocytes. All the species except sheep showed Ca2+-dependent K+ transport. NADH-ferricyanide reductase was detected in all the species and showed positive correlation with the flavin contents of the membranes. NADH-cytochrome c reductase was very low or absent in dog, sheep and guinea pig membranes. No correlation was found between NADH dehydrogenase and Ca2+-dependent K+ channel activities in the species studied. Nor were any of the above activities correlated with (Na+ + K+)-ATPase activity.

  19. The Healing Species: Animal-Assisted Character Education for Improving Student Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda J. Pearson

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Healing Species program aims to reduce disruptive behaviors at school by increasing students’ abilities to avoid conflict when possible and to resolve conflicts peaceably when they occur. The program’s 11 lessons incorporate elements of behavior theory that postulate behavior follows belief. This study hypothesized that 5th and 6th grade students who completed the Healing Species curriculum would show fewer normative beliefs favoring aggression, greater empathy, and fewer disciplinary infractions, than a comparable group of students who did not receive the Healing Species program. Lessons included the participation of rescued dogs to emphasize compassion, empathy, responsibility, and forgiveness. Study results offered evidence of improved overall behavior and specific reductions in violence and aggression.

  20. Chimeric protein A/G conjugate for detection of anti-Toxoplasma gondii immunoglobulin G in multiple animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, John J; White, Holly A; Schaaf, Stephanie L; Mohammed, Hussni O; Wade, Susan E

    2012-05-01

    Serological testing for toxoplasmosis diagnosis remains the method of choice in human medicine due to the accessibility of the requisite sample, the difficulty in predicting the parasite's location in the host for direct detection, and the availability of established commercial methods. In veterinary medicine, although the first 2 conditions are unchanged, there is a need for commercially produced test methods that are validated for Toxoplasma gondii detection across the range of animal species that can serve as intermediate hosts. The development of such a serological method for animals would allow the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in individual animals and a higher throughput method for population-level toxoplasmosis surveys. The incorporation of a non-species-specific chimeric protein A/G conjugate into an anti-Toxoplasma immunoglobulin G enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is described. Serum from potential intermediate hosts was reevaluated using this method and compared with earlier testing using an established agglutination procedure. Very good agreement between the 2 tests was noted (κ = 0.81), establishing the method as a useful option for veterinary diagnostic testing.

  1. Differences in brain 5-HT transporter dissociation rates among animal species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erreboe, I.; Plenge, P.; Mellerup, E.T. [Univ. of Copenhagen, Dept. of Pharmacology, Lab. of Neuropsychiatry, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1995-06-01

    The potential of using receptor-ligand dissociation rates as a model for investigating molecular changes in receptors was tested using the dissociation of [{sup 3}H]citalopram, [{sup 3}H]paroxetine and [{sup 3}H]imipramine from the brain 5-HT transporter of four different species (mouse, rat, pig and man). Since the dissociation rates of each of the three ligands differed in most of the species investigated, receptor-ligand dissociation rate constants would seem to be a sensitive measure of receptor conformation. The model could be useful in the search of structural variation in receptors whether attributable to genetic factors or to posttranslational modification. (au) (12 refs.).

  2. Do bird assemblages predict susceptibility by e-waste pollution? A comparative study based on species- and guild-dependent responses in China agroecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhang

    Full Text Available Indirect effects of electronic waste (e-waste have been proposed as a causal factor in the decline of bird populations, but analyses of the severity impacts on community assembly are currently lacking. To explore how population abundance/species diversity are influenced, and which functional traits are important in determining e-waste susceptibility, here we surveyed breeding and overwintering birds with a hierarchically nested sampling design, and used linear mixed models to analyze changes in bird assemblages along an exposure gradient in South China. Total bird abundance and species diversity decreased with e-waste severity (exposed < surrounding < reference, reflecting the decreasing discharge and consequent side effects. Twenty-five breeding species exclusively used natural farmland, and nine species decreased significantly in relative abundance at e-waste polluted sites. A high pairwise similarity between exposed and surrounding sites indicates a diffuse effect of pollutants on the species assembly at local scale. We show that sensitivity to e-waste severity varies substantially across functional guild, with the prevalence of woodland insectivorous and grassland specialists declining, while some open farmland generalists such as arboreal frugivores, and terrestrial granivores were also rare. By contrast, the response of waterbirds, omnivorous and non-breeding visitors seem to be tolerable to a wide range of pollution so far. These findings underscore that improper e-waste dismantling results in a severe decline of bird diversity, and the different bird assemblages on polluted and natural farmlands imply species- and guild-dependent susceptibility with functional traits. Moreover, a better understanding of the impact of e-waste with different pollution levels, combined multiple pollutants, and in a food-web context on bird is required in future.

  3. Clinical characteristics of bacteraemia caused by burkholderia cepacia complex species and antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates in a medical centre in taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Ying-Chun; Liao, Chun-Hsing; Sheng, Wang-Huei; Chien, Jung-Yien; Huang, Yu-Tsung; Yu, Chong-Jen; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2017-07-10

    This study investigated the clinical characteristics and outcomes of bacteraemia due to Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) species among 54 patients without cystic fibrosis from January 2013 to February 2015. BCC isolates were identified to the species level by the Bruker Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS system and by sequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA and recA genes. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of the isolates were determined by the agar dilution method. Sequencing of the recA gene in the 54 blood isolates revealed 37 (68.5%) isolates of B. cenocepacia, 9 (16.7%) B. cepacia, 4 (7.4%) isolates of B. multivorans and one isolate each of B. arboris, B. pseudomultivorans, B. seminalis, and B. vietnamiensis. The overall performance of the Bruker Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS system for correctly identifying the 54 BCC isolates to the species level was 79.6% that was better than that (16.7%) by 16S RNA sequencing analysis. Bacteraemic pneumonia (n=23, 42.6%) and catheter-related bacteraemia (n=21, 38.9%) were the most common types of infection. Higher rates of ceftazidime and meropenem resistance were found in B. cepacia isolates (33.3% and 22.2%, respectively) than in isolates of B. cenocepacia (21.6% and 10.8%, respectively) and other species (12.5% and 12.5%, respectively). Overall, the 30-day mortality rate was 38.9% (21/54). Bacteraemia caused by BCC species other than B. cenocepacia and B. cepacia (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 20.005, P=0.024) and high SOFA score (aOR 1.412, P=0.003) were predictive of higher 30-day mortality. Different BCC complex species are associated with different outcomes of bacteraemia and exhibit different susceptibility patterns. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Recent patents for detecting the species of origin in animal feedstuff, and raw and processed meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogberg-Muñoz, Andrés; Posik, Diego M; Rípoli, María V; Falomir Lockhart, Agustín H; Peral-García, Pilar; Giovambattista, Guillermo

    2013-04-01

    The value of the traceability and labeling of food is attributable to two main aspects: health safety and/or product or process certification. The identification of the species related to meat production is still a major concern for economic, religious and health reasons. Many approaches and technologies have been used for species identification in animal feedstuff and food. The early methods for meat products identification include physical, anatomical, histological and chemical. Since 1970, a variety of methods were developed, these include electrophoresis (i.e. isoelectrofocusing), chromatography (i.e. HPLC), immunological techniques (i.e. ELISA), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Mass Spectrometry and PCR (DNA and RNA based methods). The recent patents on species detection in animal feedstuffs, raw meat and meat processed products, listed in this work, are mainly based on monoclonal antibodies and PCR, especially RT-PCR. The new developments under research are looking for more sensible, specific, less time consuming and quantitatively detection methods, which can be used in highly processed or heated treated meat food.

  5. Authentication of meat and meat products vs. detection of animal species in feed - what is the difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nešić, K.; Stojanović, D.; Baltić, Ž. M.

    2017-09-01

    Authenticity of food is an issue that is growing in awareness and concern. Although food adulteration has been present since antiquity, it has broadened to include entire global populations as modern food supply chains have expanded, enriched and become more complex. Different forms of adulteration influence not only the quality of food products, but also may cause harmful health effects. Meat and meat products are often subjected to counterfeiting, mislabelling and similar fraudulent activities, while substitutions of meat ingredients with other animal species is one among many forms of food fraud. Feed is also subject to testing for the presence of different animal species, but as part of the eradication process of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE). In both food and feed cases, the final goal is consumer protection, which should be provided by quick, precise and specific tools. Several analytical tests have been employed for such needs. This paper provides an overview of authentication of meat and meat products compared with species identification in feed control, highlighting the most prevalent laboratory methods.

  6. Bloodstream Infections Due to Trichosporon spp.: Species Distribution, Trichosporon asahii Genotypes Determined on the Basis of Ribosomal DNA Intergenic Spacer 1 Sequencing, and Antifungal Susceptibility Testing▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas-Neto, Thomas C.; Chaves, Guilherme M.; Melo, Analy S. A.; Colombo, Arnaldo L.

    2009-01-01

    The reevaluation of the genus Trichosporon has led to the replacement of the old taxon Trichosporon beigelii by six new species. Sequencing of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) intergenic spacer 1 (IGS1) is currently mandatory for accurate Trichosporon identification, but it is not usually performed in routine laboratories. Here we describe Trichosporon species distribution and prevalence of Trichosporon asahii genotypes based on rDNA IGS1 sequencing as well as antifungal susceptibility profiles of 22 isolates recovered from blood cultures. The clinical isolates were identified as follows: 15 T. asahii isolates, five Trichosporon asteroides isolates, one Trichosporon coremiiforme isolate, and one Trichosporon dermatis isolate. We found a great diversity of different species causing trichosporonemia, including a high frequency of isolation of T. asteroides from blood cultures that is lower than that of T. asahii only. Regarding T. asahii genotyping, we found that the majority of our isolates belonged to genotype 1 (86.7%). We report the first T. asahii isolate belonging to genotype 4 in South America. Almost 50% of all T. asahii isolates exhibited amphotericin B MICs of ≥2 μg/ml. Caspofungin MICs obtained for all the Trichosporon sp. isolates tested were consistently high (MICs ≥ 2 μg/ml). Most isolates (87%) had high MICs for 5-flucytosine, but all of them were susceptible to triazoles, markedly to voriconazole (all MICs ≤ 0.06 μg/ml). PMID:19225102

  7. Cross-Species Affective Neuroscience Decoding of the Primal Affective Experiences of Humans and Related Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-01-01

    Background The issue of whether other animals have internally felt experiences has vexed animal behavioral science since its inception. Although most investigators remain agnostic on such contentious issues, there is now abundant experimental evidence indicating that all mammals have negatively and positively-valenced emotional networks concentrated in homologous brain regions that mediate affective experiences when animals are emotionally aroused. That is what the neuroscientific evidence indicates. Principal Findings The relevant lines of evidence are as follows: 1) It is easy to elicit powerful unconditioned emotional responses using localized electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB); these effects are concentrated in ancient subcortical brain regions. Seven types of emotional arousals have been described; using a special capitalized nomenclature for such primary process emotional systems, they are SEEKING, RAGE, FEAR, LUST, CARE, PANIC/GRIEF and PLAY. 2) These brain circuits are situated in homologous subcortical brain regions in all vertebrates tested. Thus, if one activates FEAR arousal circuits in rats, cats or primates, all exhibit similar fear responses. 3) All primary-process emotional-instinctual urges, even ones as complex as social PLAY, remain intact after radical neo-decortication early in life; thus, the neocortex is not essential for the generation of primary-process emotionality. 4) Using diverse measures, one can demonstrate that animals like and dislike ESB of brain regions that evoke unconditioned instinctual emotional behaviors: Such ESBs can serve as ‘rewards’ and ‘punishments’ in diverse approach and escape/avoidance learning tasks. 5) Comparable ESB of human brains yield comparable affective experiences. Thus, robust evidence indicates that raw primary-process (i.e., instinctual, unconditioned) emotional behaviors and feelings emanate from homologous brain functions in all mammals (see Appendix S1), which are regulated by higher

  8. Cross-species affective neuroscience decoding of the primal affective experiences of humans and related animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaak Panksepp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The issue of whether other animals have internally felt experiences has vexed animal behavioral science since its inception. Although most investigators remain agnostic on such contentious issues, there is now abundant experimental evidence indicating that all mammals have negatively and positively-valenced emotional networks concentrated in homologous brain regions that mediate affective experiences when animals are emotionally aroused. That is what the neuroscientific evidence indicates. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The relevant lines of evidence are as follows: 1 It is easy to elicit powerful unconditioned emotional responses using localized electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB; these effects are concentrated in ancient subcortical brain regions. Seven types of emotional arousals have been described; using a special capitalized nomenclature for such primary process emotional systems, they are SEEKING, RAGE, FEAR, LUST, CARE, PANIC/GRIEF and PLAY. 2 These brain circuits are situated in homologous subcortical brain regions in all vertebrates tested. Thus, if one activates FEAR arousal circuits in rats, cats or primates, all exhibit similar fear responses. 3 All primary-process emotional-instinctual urges, even ones as complex as social PLAY, remain intact after radical neo-decortication early in life; thus, the neocortex is not essential for the generation of primary-process emotionality. 4 Using diverse measures, one can demonstrate that animals like and dislike ESB of brain regions that evoke unconditioned instinctual emotional behaviors: Such ESBs can serve as 'rewards' and 'punishments' in diverse approach and escape/avoidance learning tasks. 5 Comparable ESB of human brains yield comparable affective experiences. Thus, robust evidence indicates that raw primary-process (i.e., instinctual, unconditioned emotional behaviors and feelings emanate from homologous brain functions in all mammals (see Appendix S1, which are regulated by

  9. Fusarium keratitis in South India: causative agents, their antifungal susceptibilities and a rapid identification method for the Fusarium solani species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homa, Mónika; Shobana, Coimbatore S; Singh, Yendrembam R B; Manikandan, Palanisamy; Selvam, Kanesan P; Kredics, László; Narendran, Venkatapathy; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Galgóczy, László

    2013-09-01

    Seventy Fusarium isolates derived from human keratomycosis were identified based on partial sequences of the β-tubulin (β-TUB) and translation elongation factor 1α (EF-1α) genes. Most of the isolates were confirmed as members of the F. solani species complex (75.71%), followed by the F. dimerum species complex (8.57%), the F. fujikuroi species complex (8.57%), the F. oxysporum species complex (4.29%) and the F. incarnatum-equiseti species complex (2.86%). A combined phylogenetic tree was estimated including all the 70 isolates. Isolates belonging to different species complexes formed separate clades. In this study, we also report the first isolation of F. napiforme from human keratomycosis. A new method based on a specific EcoRI restriction site in the EF-1α gene was developed for the rapid identification of F. solani. In vitro antifungal susceptibilities of the isolates to seven antifungals were determined by broth microdilution method. Terbinafine, natamycin and amphotericin B proved to be the most effective drugs, followed by voriconazole. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of clotrimazole, econazole and itraconazole were generally high (≥64 μg ml(-1) ). The interactions between the two most effective antifungals (natamycin and terbinafine) were determined by checkerboard microdilution method. Synergism (71.8%) or no interaction (28.2%) was revealed between the two compounds. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Susceptibility and possible resistance mechanisms in the palm species Phoenix dactylifera, Chamaerops humilis and Washingtonia filifera against Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier, 1790) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangelosi, B; Clematis, F; Curir, P; Monroy, F

    2016-06-01

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, known as the Red Palm Weevil (RPW), is reported as a pest of up to 40 palm species. However, the susceptibility degree and the defense mechanisms of these species against this weevil are still poorly known. In Europe, the RPW is a major pest of Phoenix canariensis while other palm species, including the congeneric Phoenix dactylifera, seem to be less suitable hosts for this insect. The aim of our study was to compare the defensive response of P. dactylifera, Chamaerops humilis and Washingtonia filifera against R. ferrugineus and try to define the mechanisms of resistance that characterize these species. Bioassays were carried out to evaluate the mortality induced on RPW larvae by extracts from the leaf rachis of the studied palm species. Tests at semi-field scale were also conducted, based either on forced palm infestation, with larvae of RPW, or on natural infestation, with adult females. Rachis extracts from C. humilis and W. filifera caused 100% larval mortality after 2 days of exposure, while extracts of P. dactylifera did not impair larval survival. Independently of the effect of the leaf extracts, the weevils were unable to naturally infest the three palm species, although larval survival was high after forced infestation of the plants. We concluded that the observed lack of infestation of P. dactylifera by RPW is due to factors other than antibiosis. In W. filifera and C. humilis, although the presence of antixenosis mechanisms cannot be excluded, resistance to R. ferrugineus seems to rely on the presence of antibiosis compounds.

  11. 150 years beyond Darwin's Origin of species: finding new approaches to reconstruct early animal phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loesel, Rudi

    2009-01-01

    The conference ‘Celebrating Darwin: From the Origin of Species to Deep Metazoan Phylogeny’ was held at the Humboldt University in Berlin, from 3 to 6 March 2009. Specialists from the fields of bioinformatics, molecular biology, developmental biology, comparative morphology and paleontology joined forces to present and discuss novel approaches in reconstructing the still unresolved early branching patterns of the metazoan tree of life. PMID:19443502

  12. Occurrence of 3 Bordetella species during an outbreak of cough illness in Ohio: epidemiology, clinical features, laboratory findings and antimicrobial susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Kevin B; Salamon, Doug; Cummins, Carol; Leber, Amy; Rodgers, Loren E; Marcon, Mario J

    2014-07-01

    An increase in laboratory diagnosis of pertussis was noted in central Ohio during 2010. Diagnosis was made using a polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the multicopy insertion sequence IS481, which is found in both Bordetella pertussis (Bp) and Bordetella holmesii (Bh). An increase in specimens testing positive for Bordetella parapertussis (Bpp) using insertion sequence IS1001 was also noted. Nasopharyngeal swab specimens submitted April 1, 2010, to March 31, 2011, were tested using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay for Bp/Bh (IS481) and Bpp followed by singleplex assays for Bp and Bh. A subgroup of specimens was also cultured for Bordetella species, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on recovered organisms. Demographic and clinical features were compared for patients with Bp, Bh and Bpp. Of 520 IS481-positive specimens, 214 (41.1%) were positive for Bp, 79 (15.2%) were positive for Bh and 5 (1.0%) were positive for both Bp and Bh; 222 (42.7%) were negative for both targets. An additional 220 specimens were positive for Bpp. Among a sample of 155 IS481-positive specimens, 40, 15 and 0 were culture positive for Bp, Bh and Bpp, respectively. Among a sample of 55 BparaIS1001-positive (Bpp) specimens, 22, 0 and 0 were culture positive for Bpp, Bp and Bh, respectively. All Bordetella species were susceptible to macrolide antibiotics. Patients with Bh were older than patients with Bp, who were older than those positive for Bpp (mean ages: 12.0, 8.0 and 4.2 years, respectively; P Bordetella species), but did not differ statistically among the groups (χ = 5.1, P = 0.17). All 3 Bordetella species, Bp, Bh and Bpp, were detected during on outbreak of pertussis-like cough illness. There were noted differences in age and seasonality, but clinical features at the time of presentation did not allow clear differentiation of these infections. All Bordetella species recovered from culture and tested were susceptible in vitro to macrolide

  13. Comparison of the Broth Microdilution (BMD) Method of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing with the 24-Hour CLSI BMD Method for Testing Susceptibility of Candida Species to Fluconazole, Posaconazole, and Voriconazole by Use of Epidemiological Cutoff Values▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, M. A.; Espinel-Ingroff, A.; Boyken, L.; Hollis, R. J.; Kroeger, J.; Messer, S. A.; Tendolkar, S.; Diekema, D. J.

    2011-01-01

    The antifungal broth microdilution (BMD) method of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) was compared with CLSI BMD method M27-A3 for fluconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole susceptibility testing of 1,056 isolates of Candida. The isolates were obtained in 2009 from more than 60 centers worldwide and included 560 isolates of C. albicans, 175 of C. glabrata, 162 of C. parapsilosis, 124 of C. tropicalis, and 35 of C. krusei. The overall essential agreement (EA) between EUCAST and CLSI results ranged from 96.9% (voriconazole) to 98.6% (fluconazole). The categorical agreement (CA) between methods and species of Candida was assessed using previously determined epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs). The ECVs (expressed as μg/ml) for fluconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole, respectively, were as follows: 0.12, 0.06, and 0.03 for C. albicans; 32, 2, and 0.5 for C. glabrata; 2, 0.25, and 0.12 for C. parapsilosis; 2, 0.12, and 0.06 for C. tropicalis; 64, 0.5, and 0.5 for C. krusei. Excellent CA was observed for all comparisons between the EUCAST and CLSI results for fluconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole, respectively, for each species: 98.9%, 93.6%, and 98.6% for C. albicans; 96.0%, 98.9%, and 93.7% for C. glabrata; 90.8%, 98.1%, and 98.1% for C. parapsilosis; 99.2%, 99.2%, and 96.8% for C. tropicalis; 97.1%, 97.1%, and 97.1% for C. krusei. We demonstrate high levels of EA and CA between the CLSI and EUCAST BMD methods for testing of triazoles against Candida when the MICs were determined after 24 h and ECVs were used to differentiate wild-type (WT) from non-WT strains. These results provide additional data in favor of the harmonization of these two methods. PMID:21227994

  14. Comparison of the broth microdilution (BMD) method of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing with the 24-hour CLSI BMD method for testing susceptibility of Candida species to fluconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole by use of epidemiological cutoff values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, M A; Espinel-Ingroff, A; Boyken, L; Hollis, R J; Kroeger, J; Messer, S A; Tendolkar, S; Diekema, D J

    2011-03-01

    The antifungal broth microdilution (BMD) method of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) was compared with CLSI BMD method M27-A3 for fluconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole susceptibility testing of 1,056 isolates of Candida. The isolates were obtained in 2009 from more than 60 centers worldwide and included 560 isolates of C. albicans, 175 of C. glabrata, 162 of C. parapsilosis, 124 of C. tropicalis, and 35 of C. krusei. The overall essential agreement (EA) between EUCAST and CLSI results ranged from 96.9% (voriconazole) to 98.6% (fluconazole). The categorical agreement (CA) between methods and species of Candida was assessed using previously determined epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs). The ECVs (expressed as μg/ml) for fluconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole, respectively, were as follows: 0.12, 0.06, and 0.03 for C. albicans; 32, 2, and 0.5 for C. glabrata; 2, 0.25, and 0.12 for C. parapsilosis; 2, 0.12, and 0.06 for C. tropicalis; 64, 0.5, and 0.5 for C. krusei. Excellent CA was observed for all comparisons between the EUCAST and CLSI results for fluconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole, respectively, for each species: 98.9%, 93.6%, and 98.6% for C. albicans; 96.0%, 98.9%, and 93.7% for C. glabrata; 90.8%, 98.1%, and 98.1% for C. parapsilosis; 99.2%, 99.2%, and 96.8% for C. tropicalis; 97.1%, 97.1%, and 97.1% for C. krusei. We demonstrate high levels of EA and CA between the CLSI and EUCAST BMD methods for testing of triazoles against Candida when the MICs were determined after 24 h and ECVs were used to differentiate wild-type (WT) from non-WT strains. These results provide additional data in favor of the harmonization of these two methods.

  15. What determines species richness of parasitic organisms? A meta-analysis across animal, plant and fungal hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Tsukushi; O'Dwyer, Katie; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Poulin, Robert

    2014-02-01

    Although a small set of external factors account for much of the spatial variation in plant and animal diversity, the search continues for general drivers of variation in parasite species richness among host species. Qualitative reviews of existing evidence suggest idiosyncrasies and inconsistent predictive power for all proposed determinants of parasite richness. Here, we provide the first quantitative synthesis of the evidence using a meta-analysis of 62 original studies testing the relationship between parasite richness across animal, plant and fungal hosts, and each of its four most widely used presumed predictors: host body size, host geographical range size, host population density, and latitude. We uncover three universal predictors of parasite richness across host species, namely host body size, geographical range size and population density, applicable regardless of the taxa considered and independently of most aspects of study design. A proper match in the primary studies between the focal predictor and both the spatial scale of study and the level at which parasite species richness was quantified (i.e. within host populations or tallied across a host species' entire range) also affected the magnitude of effect sizes. By contrast, except for a couple of indicative trends in subsets of the full dataset, there was no strong evidence for an effect of latitude on parasite species richness; where found, this effect ran counter to the general latitude gradient in diversity, with parasite species richness tending to be higher further from the equator. Finally, the meta-analysis also revealed a negative relationship between the magnitude of effect sizes and the year of publication of original studies (i.e. a time-lag bias). This temporal bias may be due to the increasing use of phylogenetic correction in comparative analyses of parasite richness over time, as this correction yields more conservative effect sizes. Overall, these findings point to common underlying

  16. Applying clinically proven human techniques for contraception and fertility to endangered species and zoo animals: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, Sherman J; Barbey, Natalie; Lenahan, Kathy; Silber, David Z

    2013-12-01

    Reversible contraception that does not alter natural behavior is a critical need for managing zoo populations. In addition to reversible contraception, other fertility techniques perfected in humans may be useful, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or oocyte and embryo banking for endangered species like amphibians and Mexican wolves (Canis lupus baileyi). Furthermore, the genetics of human fertility can give a better understanding of fertility in more exotic species. Collaborations were established to apply human fertility techniques to the captive population. Reversible vasectomy might be one solution for reversible contraception that does not alter behavior. Reversible approaches to vasectomy, avoiding secondary epididymal disruption, were attempted in South American bush dogs (Speothos venaticus), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), Przewalski's horse (Equus przewalski poliakov), and Sika deer (Cervus nippon) in a variety of zoos around the world. These techniques were first perfected in > 4,000 humans before attempting them in zoo animals. In vitro fertilization with gestational surrogacy was used to attempt to break the vicious cycle of hand rearing of purebred orangutans, and egg and ovary vitrification in humans have led to successful gamete banking for Mexican wolves and disappearing amphibians. The study of the human Y chromosome has even explained a mechanism of extinction related to global climate change. The best results with vasectomy reversal (normal sperm counts, pregnancy, and live offspring) were obtained when the original vasectomy was performed "open-ended," so as to avoid pressure-induced epididymal disruption. The attempt at gestational surrogacy for orangutans failed because of severe male infertility and the lack of success with human ovarian hyperstimulation protocols. Vitrification of oocytes is already being employed for the Amphibian Ark Project and for Mexican wolves. Vasectomy can be a reversible contraception

  17. Genetic Diversity of Arcobacter Species of Animal and Human Origin in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soma Sekhar, M; Srinivasa Rao, T; Chinnam, B K; Subramanyam, K V; Metta, M; Mohammad Sharif, N

    2017-06-01

    Arcobacter is an emerging foodborne pathogen having zoonotic significance. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) PCR and repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) analysis of a total of 41 Arcobacter isolates revealed a greater degree of genetic diversity. ERIC-PCR genotyping distinguished 14, 13 and 12 genotypes among 16, 13 and 12 isolates of A. butzleri, A. cryaerophilus and A. skirrowii, respectively. Rep-PCR genotyping distinguished 15, 12 and 11 genotypes among 16, 13 and 12 isolates of A. butzleri, A. cryaerophilus and A. skirrowii, respectively. The discriminatory power for ERIC and rep-PCR was found to be 0.997 and 0.996, respectively. Close clustering between isolates of animal and human origin are indicative of probable zoonotic significance.

  18. A Fast and Reliable Real-Time PCR Method for Detection of Ten Animal Species in Meat Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalsecco, Lissandra Sousa; Palhares, Rafael Melo; Oliveira, Pollyana Carvalho; Teixeira, Lilian Viana; Drummond, Marcela Gonçalves; de Oliveira, Denise Aparecida Andrade

    2018-02-01

    Species substitution in meat products is a common problem reported worldwide. This type of food fraud is, typically, an intentional act for economic gain, using sources of low-priced meats in high-value meat products. Consequences include economic, health, and religious concerns. Highly sensitive and efficient techniques are thus required to detect meat species. This paper describes a method based on real-time PCR to detect 10 animal species (Bos taurus, Sus scrofa, Ovis aries, Capra hircus, Gallus gallus, Meleagris gallopavo, Bubalus bubalis, Equus caballus, Felis catus, and Canis familiaris) in meat product. The method combines species-specific and universal (used here as internal positive control) primers, and applies melt curve analysis for amplicon checking. Method accuracy was evaluated on 46 experimental meat mixtures and all species were correctly identified in all cases, at 1% test sensitivity. Analysis of 14 commercial meat products revealed that 6 of 14 samples had nondeclared bovine and/or chicken material. We performed an interlaboratory comparison using the reference meat mixtures and commercial samples, achieving 100% of reproducibility. The developed test proved to be effective and reliable for routine analysis of meat products. This paper describes a fast and reliable method for species detection in meat products based on real-time PCR. It can be applied for analysis of in natura or processed meat. The method proposed here can play an important role in controlling the origin of meat products, ensuring their quality and safety for the entire food industry-producers to consumers. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  19. Cell cycle control in the early embryonic development of aquatic animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefert, Joseph C; Clowdus, Emily A; Sansam, Christopher L

    2015-12-01

    The cell cycle is integrated with many aspects of embryonic development. Not only is proper control over the pace of cell proliferation important, but also the timing of cell cycle progression is coordinated with transcription, cell migration, and cell differentiation. Due to the ease with which the embryos of aquatic organisms can be observed and manipulated, they have been a popular choice for embryologists throughout history. In the cell cycle field, aquatic organisms have been extremely important because they have played a major role in the discovery and analysis of key regulators of the cell cycle. In particular, the frog Xenopus laevis has been instrumental for understanding how the basic embryonic cell cycle is regulated. More recently, the zebrafish has been used to understand how the cell cycle is remodeled during vertebrate development and how it is regulated during morphogenesis. This review describes how some of the unique strengths of aquatic species have been leveraged for cell cycle research and suggests how species such as Xenopus and zebrafish will continue to reveal the roles of the cell cycle in human biology and disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Do Bird Assemblages Predict Susceptibility by E-Waste Pollution? A Comparative Study Based on Species- and Guild-Dependent Responses in China Agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Wu, Jiangping; Sun, Yuxin; Zhang, Min; Mai, Bixian; Mo, Ling; Lee, Tien Ming; Zou, Fasheng

    2015-01-01

    Indirect effects of electronic waste (e-waste) have been proposed as a causal factor in the decline of bird populations, but analyses of the severity impacts on community assembly are currently lacking. To explore how population abundance/species diversity are influenced, and which functional traits are important in determining e-waste susceptibility, here we surveyed breeding and overwintering birds with a hierarchically nested sampling design, and used linear mixed models to analyze changes in bird assemblages along an exposure gradient in South China. Total bird abundance and species diversity decreased with e-waste severity (exposed e-waste polluted sites. A high pairwise similarity between exposed and surrounding sites indicates a diffuse effect of pollutants on the species assembly at local scale. We show that sensitivity to e-waste severity varies substantially across functional guild, with the prevalence of woodland insectivorous and grassland specialists declining, while some open farmland generalists such as arboreal frugivores, and terrestrial granivores were also rare. By contrast, the response of waterbirds, omnivorous and non-breeding visitors seem to be tolerable to a wide range of pollution so far. These findings underscore that improper e-waste dismantling results in a severe decline of bird diversity, and the different bird assemblages on polluted and natural farmlands imply species- and guild-dependent susceptibility with functional traits. Moreover, a better understanding of the impact of e-waste with different pollution levels, combined multiple pollutants, and in a food-web context on bird is required in future. PMID:25811881

  1. Do bird assemblages predict susceptibility by e-waste pollution? A comparative study based on species- and guild-dependent responses in China agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Wu, Jiangping; Sun, Yuxin; Zhang, Min; Mai, Bixian; Mo, Ling; Lee, Tien Ming; Zou, Fasheng

    2015-01-01

    Indirect effects of electronic waste (e-waste) have been proposed as a causal factor in the decline of bird populations, but analyses of the severity impacts on community assembly are currently lacking. To explore how population abundance/species diversity are influenced, and which functional traits are important in determining e-waste susceptibility, here we surveyed breeding and overwintering birds with a hierarchically nested sampling design, and used linear mixed models to analyze changes in bird assemblages along an exposure gradient in South China. Total bird abundance and species diversity decreased with e-waste severity (exposed e-waste polluted sites. A high pairwise similarity between exposed and surrounding sites indicates a diffuse effect of pollutants on the species assembly at local scale. We show that sensitivity to e-waste severity varies substantially across functional guild, with the prevalence of woodland insectivorous and grassland specialists declining, while some open farmland generalists such as arboreal frugivores, and terrestrial granivores were also rare. By contrast, the response of waterbirds, omnivorous and non-breeding visitors seem to be tolerable to a wide range of pollution so far. These findings underscore that improper e-waste dismantling results in a severe decline of bird diversity, and the different bird assemblages on polluted and natural farmlands imply species- and guild-dependent susceptibility with functional traits. Moreover, a better understanding of the impact of e-waste with different pollution levels, combined multiple pollutants, and in a food-web context on bird is required in future.

  2. Influence of iodine-containing radiographic contrast media on the phenotype of erythrocytes from different laboratory animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebl, B; Hopperdietzel, C; Hünigen, H; Dietze, K; Klein, S; Schreier, B; Jung, F

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that clinically relevant concentrations of iodine-containing radiographic contrast media (CM) induce morphological changes in human erythrocytes. However, there are only few reports about CM effects on erythrocytes of animals (e.g. mice, rats, rabbits, and pigs). Thus, two conventional iodine-containing CM (iodixanol, Visipaque™ 320; iomeprol, Iomeprol™ 350) were tested for their effects on the morphology of erythrocytes from these. After venous blood sampling and blood centrifugation, the autologous plasma was supplemented with 40 vol% CM. Then, a defined number of erythrocytes was incubated in this CM-supplemented plasma for 5 min at body temperature (37°C). Subsequently, 10 μL of the cell suspension were transferred to a purified glass slide and the number of discocytes, echinocytes, and acanthocytes was counted within a total number of 100 erythrocytes (40 fold primary magnification, transmitted light mode). Shape changes of the erythrocytes from all animal species strongly depended on the type of CM and compared to the effects which have already been described for human erythrocytes. Incubation in both CM resulted in morphological changes of the erythrocytes. Incubation in a iodixanol/plasma mixture induced the lowest echinocyte or acanthocyte formation. Porcine erythrocytes showed a much more distinct shape change than those of other animal species and humans. These results suggest erythrocytes from mice, rats, and rabbits are a suitable model system for a model system for human erythrocytes when CM effects on the cellular shape of erythrocytes have to be tested. The distinct deformation of the pig erythrocytes could be due to differences in the pig erythrocyte membrane or the physical and chemical constitution of pig erythrocytes.

  3. Three-Locus Identification, Genotyping, and Antifungal Susceptibilities of Medically Important Trichosporon Species from China▿‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Li-Na; Xiao, Meng; Kong, Fanrong; Chen, Sharon C.-A.; Wang, He; Sorrell, Tania C.; Jiang, Wei; Dou, Hong-Tao; Li, Ruo-Yu; Xu, Ying-Chun

    2011-01-01

    Three reference and 45 clinical isolates of Trichosporon were analyzed by conventional phenotypic and molecular methods to determine the species and genotypes of Trichosporon isolates from China. Target loci for molecular methods included the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene, and the intergenic spacer 1 (IGS1) region. Identification of eight Trichosporon species was achieved, of which Trichosporon asahii was the most common. Of the sequence-based molecular methods, the one targeting the D1/D2 domain assigned 97.9% (47/48) of isolates (seven species) correctly, while tests targeting both the ITS and IGS1 regions correctly identified all 48 isolates. The commercial API 20C AUX and Vitek 2 Compact YST systems correctly identified 91.9% and 73% of isolates when their biochemical profiles were queried against those of species contained in the databases, respectively, and misidentified 63.6% and 36.4% of isolates of species that were unclaimed by the databases, respectively. The predominant genotype among T. asahii clinical isolates, genotype 4 (51.4%), is rarely found in other countries. Voriconazole and itraconazole were the most active drugs in vitro against all the Trichosporon species tested, while caspofungin and amphotericin B demonstrated poor activity. PMID:21900517

  4. Can Species Traits Predict the Susceptibility of Riverine Fish to Water Resource Development? An Australian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, Robert J.; Sternberg, David

    2015-06-01

    Water resource developments alter riverine environments by disrupting longitudinal connectivity, transforming lotic habitats, and modifying in-stream hydraulic conditions. Effective management of anthropogenic disturbances therefore requires an understanding of the range of potential ecosystem effects and the inherent traits symptomatic of elevated vulnerability to disturbance. Using 42 riverine fish native to South Eastern Australia as a case study, we quantified six morphological, behavioral, and life-history traits to classify species into groups reflecting potential differences in their response to ecosystem changes as a result of water resource development. Classification analysis identified five strategies based on fish life-history dispersal requirements, climbing potential, and habitat preference. These strategies in turn highlight the potential species at risk from the separate impacts of water resource development and inform management decisions to mitigate those risks. Swimming ability did not contribute to distinguishing species into functional groups, likely due to methodological inconsistencies in quantifying swimming performance that may ultimately hinder the ability of fish passage facilities to function within the physical capabilities of species at risk of habitat fragmentation. This study improves our ability to predict the performance of groups of species at risk from the multiple environmental changes imposed by humans and goes beyond broad-scale dispersal requirements as a predictor of individual species response.

  5. Chemical Composition, Nitrogen Fractions and Amino Acids Profile of Milk from Different Animal Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Rafiq

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Milk composition is an imperative aspect which influences the quality of dairy products. The objective of study was to compare the chemical composition, nitrogen fractions and amino acids profile of milk from buffalo, cow, sheep, goat, and camel. Sheep milk was found to be highest in fat (6.82%±0.04%, solid-not-fat (11.24%±0.02%, total solids (18.05%±0.05%, protein (5.15%±0.06% and casein (3.87%±0.04% contents followed by buffalo milk. Maximum whey proteins were observed in camel milk (0.80%±0.03%, buffalo (0.68%±0.02% and sheep (0.66%±0.02% milk. The non-protein-nitrogen contents varied from 0.33% to 0.62% among different milk species. The highest r-values were recorded for correlations between crude protein and casein in buffalo (r = 0.82, cow (r = 0.88, sheep (r = 0.86 and goat milk (r = 0.98. The caseins and whey proteins were also positively correlated with true proteins in all milk species. A favorable balance of branched-chain amino acids; leucine, isoleucine, and valine were found both in casein and whey proteins. Leucine content was highest in cow (108±2.3 mg/g, camel (96±2.2 mg/g and buffalo (90±2.4 mg/g milk caseins. Maximum concentrations of isoleucine, phenylalanine, and histidine were noticed in goat milk caseins. Glutamic acid and proline were dominant among non-essential amino acids. Conclusively, current exploration is important for milk processors to design nutritious and consistent quality end products.

  6. Endangered and Threatened Animal Species and Subspecies of U.S., Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, and Trust Territory. 1979 and 1980 Editions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

    Presented is a listing of threatened and endangered animal species and subspecies both by State and collectively for the United States, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, and Trust Territory. (BW)

  7. Susceptibility of laboratory rodents to Trichinella papuae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadaow, Lakkhana; Intapan, Pewpan M; Boonmars, Thidarut; Morakote, Nimit; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2013-12-01

    Members of the genus Trichinella are small nematodes that can infect a wide range of animal hosts. However, their infectivity varies depending on the parasite and host species combination. In this study, we examined the susceptibility of 4 species of laboratory rodents, i.e., mice, rats, hamsters, and gerbils to Trichinella papuae, an emerging non-encapsulated Trichinella species. Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella pseudospiralis were also included in this study for comparison. Fifteen animals of each rodent species were infected orally with 100 muscle larvae of each Trichinella species. Intestinal worm burden was determined at day 6 and 10 post-inoculation (PI). The numbers of muscle larvae were examined at day 45 PI. The reproductive capacity index (RCI) of the 3 Trichinella species in different rodent hosts was determined. By day 6 PI, 33.2-69.6% of the inoculated larvae of the 3 Trichinella species became adult worms in the small intestines of the host animals. However, in rats, more than 96% of adult worms of all 3 Trichinella species were expelled from the gut by day 10 PI. In gerbils, only 4.8-18.1% of adult worms were expelled by day 10 PI. In accordance with the intestinal worm burden and the persistence of adults, the RCI was the highest in gerbils with values of 241.5±41.0 for T. papuae, 432.6±48 for T. pseudospiralis, and 528.6±20.6 for T. spiralis. Hamsters ranked second and mice ranked third in susceptibility in terms of the RCI, Rats yielded the lowest parasite RCI for all 3 Trichinella species. Gerbils may be an alternative laboratory animal for isolation and maintenance of Trichinella spp.

  8. [Antibiotics susceptibility of Streptococcus and Enterococcus: data of Onerba network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachée, A; Varon, E; Jouy, E; Meunier, D

    2009-05-01

    This work was aimed to analyze trends in susceptibility to antibiotics among the main species of beta-hemolytic streptococci involved in community-acquired infections in human (Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus agalactiae), or in animals (Streptococcus suis and Streptococcus uberis) and also among the main enterocci species, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Data were recorded since 1996 through the Onerba networks. S. pyogenes, as the other beta-hemolytic streptococci studied remained fully susceptible to beta-lactam antibiotics. However, susceptibility to macrolides is clearly decreasing in S. pyogenes. In 2002, only 62 to 65% of the strains according to the network considered, were susceptible to erythromycin. A similar trend was observed for S. agalactiae with only 75% of erythromycin susceptibility in 2002, and for both species isolated from animals S. suis and S. uberis, with respectively 35 and 76% of strains susceptible to erythromycin. In enterococci, susceptibility to beta-lactams remained stable between 2000 and 2004. Indeed, the susceptibility to aminopenicillins remained high in E. faecalis (about 98%), whereas the proportion of E. faecium isolates susceptible to these antibiotics were lower than 60%. From 1999 to 2004, various studies conducted in French hospitals showed that the vancomycin resistance among enterococci accounted for less than 2%. However, the recent emergence of glycopeptide resistant enterococci clusters in French hospitals is a matter of concern and emphasizes the need for an ongoing surveillance. Such trend in macrolide resistance among S. pyogenes or S. agalactiae should consequently lead to propose other alternatives in case of beta-lactam allergy, and for pharyngitis, to rethink the place of the culture for susceptibility testing.

  9. Comparative Vibration Levels Perceived Among Species in a Laboratory Animal Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, John N; Kinard, Will L; Reynolds, Randall P

    2011-01-01

    The current study was performed to determine the vibration levels that were generated in cages on a ventilated rack by common construction equipment in frequency ranges likely to be perceived by humans, rats, and mice. Vibration generated by the ventilated rack blower caused small but significant increases in some of the abdominal, thoracic, and head resonance frequency ranges (RFR) and sensitivity frequency ranges (SFR) in which each species is most likely to be affected by and perceive vibration, respectively. Vibration caused by various items of construction equipment at 3 ft from the cage were evaluated relative to the RFR and SFR of humans, rats, and mice in 3 anatomic locations. In addition, the vibration levels in the RFR and SFR that resulted from the use of a large jackhammer and were measured at various locations and distances in the facility and evaluated in terms of humans, rats, and mice in 3 anatomic locations. Taken together, the data indicate that a given vibration source generates vibration in frequency ranges that are more likely to affect rats and mice as compared with humans. PMID:22330711

  10. [Comparative physiology of short-interval conditioned reflexes to time in different species of animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, A S; Kosteĭko, N D; Kurmaeva, A O

    1983-01-01

    Conditioned reflexes (CR) to short time intervals (from 0.25 to 20 min) were studied in rabbits, white rats and pigeons by motor food-procuring method. Some significant distinctions between species were revealed. The mean duration of formation of CR to time in rabbits amounted to 74 pairings, in rats--to 121, in pigeons--to 217. The optimal time interval varied in rabbits from 2 to 10 min, in rats from 1 to 4 min and in pigeons in was from 1 to 1,5 min. The longest interval which allowed to form the trace CR to time was not in excess of 22 min in rabbits, 10 min in rats and 4-5 min in pigeons. The shortest interval was within 15-45 s. Unstable and incorrect CR to time was formed when the intervals were shorter or longer than the optimal one. The accuracy of CR to time was: in rabbits approximately equal to 0.93-0.95 in rats approximately equal to 0.85-0.94, in pigeons approximately equal to 0.78-0.85. The data obtained have satisfactory explanation in the light of I. P. Pavlov's hypothesis on physiological mechanism of CR to time.

  11. Preliminary study of the influence of red blood cells morphometry on the species determinism of domestic animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezar Adili

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This survey was realized on cattle, sheep, goats, horses, and dogs, in order to study the influence of three morphometric parameters: the diameter, the circumference and the surface of red blood cells on the determinism of these species. Materials and Methods: For each species, blood samples were taken from 15 adult female by jugular venipuncture with confection of blood smears on microscope slides immediately after blood collection and stained according to the method of May-Gründwald Giemsa. Morphometric study was realized using the software OPTIKA Pro Vision. To better describe the results, the statistical analysis was assessed by using the descriptive Boxplots test, ANOVA, and the Student's t-test. Results: The morphometric parameters of red blood cells are biggest in dogs followed by horses, cattle, and sheep, while goats have the lowest ones. Conclusion: This investigation allowed us to show that from a drop of blood we can have an idea about the animal species taking into account the diameter, the circumference, and the surface of erythrocytes.

  12. Profiling of Leptospira interrogans, L. santarosai, L. meyeri and L. borgpetersenii by SE-AFLP, PFGE and susceptibility testing--a continuous attempt at species and serovar differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Luisa Z; Miraglia, Fabiana; Lilenbaum, Walter; Neto, José S F; Freitas, Julio C; Morais, Zenaide M; Hartskeerl, Rudy A; da Costa, Barbara L P; Vasconcellos, Silvio A; Moreno, Andrea M

    2016-03-09

    Leptospirosis is a widespread systemic zoonosis, considered as reemerging in certain developing countries. Although the cross agglutinin absorption test is still considered the standard method for Leptospira identification, it presents several disadvantages. The aim of this study was to characterize Leptospira spp. isolated from various hosts by genotyping and broth microdilution susceptibility testing in an attempt to differentiate Leptospira species, serogroups and serovars. Forty-seven isolates were studied. They were previously serotyped, and species confirmation was performed by 16S rRNA sequencing. Single-enzyme amplified fragment length polymorphism (SE-AFLP) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis enabled the distinction of L. interrogans from L. santarosai, L. meyeri and L. borgpetersenii in two main clusters. Among L. interrogans, it was possible to differentiate into two new clusters the serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae from the serogroups Canicola and Pomona. L. santarosai isolates presented higher genetic variation than the other species in both techniques. Interestingly, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) cluster analysis also provided Leptospira serogroup differentiation. Further studies are necessary regarding serovar Bananal isolates, as they presented the highest MIC values for most of the antimicrobials tested. All studied techniques successfully distinguished Leptospira species and serogroups. Despite being library-dependent methods, these approaches are less labor intensive and more economically viable, particularly SE-AFLP, and can be implemented in most reference laboratories worldwide to enable faster Leptospira typing.

  13. High-resolution melting of 12S rRNA and cytochrome b DNA sequences for discrimination of species within distinct European animal families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Naue

    Full Text Available The cheap and easy identification of species is necessary within multiple fields of molecular biology. The use of high-resolution melting (HRM of DNA provides a fast closed-tube method for analysis of the sequence composition of the mitochondrial genes 12S rRNA and cytochrome b. We investigated the potential use of HRM for species identification within eleven different animal groups commonly found in Europe by animal-group-specific DNA amplification followed by DNA melting. Influence factors as DNA amount, additional single base alterations, and the existence of mixed samples were taken into consideration. Visual inspection combined with mathematical evaluation of the curve shapes did resolve nearly all species within an animal group. The assay can therefore not only be used for identification of animal groups and mixture analysis but also for species identification within the respective groups. The use of a universal 12S rRNA system additionally revealed a possible approach for species discrimination, mostly by exclusion. The use of the HRM assay showed to be a reliable, fast, and cheap method for species discrimination within a broad range of different animal species and can be used in a flexible "modular" manner depending on the question to be solved.

  14. Species-level correlates of susceptibility to the pathogenic amphibian fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betsy A. Bancroft; Barbara A. Han; Catherine L. Searle; Lindsay M. Biga; Deanna H. Olson; Lee B. Kats; Joshua J. Lawler; Andrew R. Blaustein

    2011-01-01

    Disease is often implicated as a factor in population declines of wildlife and plants. Understanding the characteristics that may predispose a species to infection by a particular pathogen can help direct conservation efforts. Recent declines in amphibian populations world-wide are a major conservation issue and may be caused in part by a fungal pathogen, ...

  15. Trends in antimicrobial susceptibility among isolates of Campylobacter species in Ireland and the emergence of resistance to ciprofloxacin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lucey, B

    2012-02-03

    Measurements were made of the susceptibility to six commonly prescribed antibiotics, including erythromycin, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin, of 130 isolates of Campylobacterjejuni and 15 isolates of Campylobacter coli cultured from human and poultry sources during 2000. The results were compared with the results from a collection of strains isolated between 1996 and 1998. The levels of resistance to erythromycin remained low, 2 per cent and 4.4 per cent for the human and poultry isolates, respectively. Resistance to tetracycline had increased to 31 per cent and 24.4 per cent from 13.9 per cent and 18.8 per cent for the human and poultry isolates, respectively. However, the resistance to ciprofloxacin of the strains isolated during 2000 had increased to 30 per cent, whereas between 1996 and 1998 there had been no resistance to this agent among human isolates, and only 3.1 per cent resistance among poultry isolates. The molecular basis for this resistance has been shown to be the result of a single amino acid substitution, Thr-86-Ile, in the gyrA subunit of DNA gyrase in Cjejuni. A subset of 59 isolates was tested by molecular methods and all of the 25 phenotypically resistant isolates possessed this substitution. None of the human isolates had been treated with ciprofloxacin before their laboratory isolation.

  16. Review and phylogenetic analysis of qac genes that reduce susceptibility to quaternary ammonium compounds in Staphylococcus species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wassenaar, Trudy M; Ussery, David; Nielsen, Lene Nørby

    2015-01-01

    The qac genes of Staphylococcus species encode multidrug efflux pumps: membrane proteins that export toxic molecules and thus increase tolerance to a variety of compounds such as disinfecting agents, including quaternary ammonium compounds (for which they are named), intercalating dyes and some...... described in the literature for qac detection may miss particular qac genes due to lack of DNA conservation. Despite their resemblance in substrate specificity, the Qac proteins belonging to the two protein families have little in common. QacA and QacB are highly conserved in Staphylococcus species, while...... variation, despite their short length, even within the Staphylococcus genus. Phylogenetic analysis of these genes identified similarity to a large number of other SMR members, found in staphylococci as well as in other genera. A number of phylogenetic trees of SMR Qac proteins are presented here, starting...

  17. An exploration on greenhouse gas and ammonia production by insect species suitable for animal or human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonincx, Dennis G A B; van Itterbeeck, Joost; Heetkamp, Marcel J W; van den Brand, Henry; van Loon, Joop J A; van Huis, Arnold

    2010-12-29

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) production, as a cause of climate change, is considered as one of the biggest problems society is currently facing. The livestock sector is one of the large contributors of anthropogenic GHG emissions. Also, large amounts of ammonia (NH(3)), leading to soil nitrification and acidification, are produced by livestock. Therefore other sources of animal protein, like edible insects, are currently being considered. An experiment was conducted to quantify production of carbon dioxide (CO₂) and average daily gain (ADG) as a measure of feed conversion efficiency, and to quantify the production of the greenhouse gases methane (CH₄) and nitrous oxide (N₂O) as well as NH₃ by five insect species of which the first three are considered edible: Tenebrio molitor, Acheta domesticus, Locusta migratoria, Pachnoda marginata, and Blaptica dubia. Large differences were found among the species regarding their production of CO₂ and GHGs. The insects in this study had a higher relative growth rate and emitted comparable or lower amounts of GHG than described in literature for pigs and much lower amounts of GHG than cattle. The same was true for CO₂ production per kg of metabolic weight and per kg of mass gain. Furthermore, also the production of NH₃ by insects was lower than for conventional livestock. This study therefore indicates that insects could serve as a more environmentally friendly alternative for the production of animal protein with respect to GHG and NH₃ emissions. The results of this study can be used as basic information to compare the production of insects with conventional livestock by means of a life cycle analysis.

  18. An Exploration on Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Production by Insect Species Suitable for Animal or Human Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonincx, Dennis G. A. B.; van Itterbeeck, Joost; Heetkamp, Marcel J. W.; van den Brand, Henry; van Loon, Joop J. A.; van Huis, Arnold

    2010-01-01

    Background Greenhouse gas (GHG) production, as a cause of climate change, is considered as one of the biggest problems society is currently facing. The livestock sector is one of the large contributors of anthropogenic GHG emissions. Also, large amounts of ammonia (NH3), leading to soil nitrification and acidification, are produced by livestock. Therefore other sources of animal protein, like edible insects, are currently being considered. Methodology/Principal Findings An experiment was conducted to quantify production of carbon dioxide (CO2) and average daily gain (ADG) as a measure of feed conversion efficiency, and to quantify the production of the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) as well as NH3 by five insect species of which the first three are considered edible: Tenebrio molitor, Acheta domesticus, Locusta migratoria, Pachnoda marginata, and Blaptica dubia. Large differences were found among the species regarding their production of CO2 and GHGs. The insects in this study had a higher relative growth rate and emitted comparable or lower amounts of GHG than described in literature for pigs and much lower amounts of GHG than cattle. The same was true for CO2 production per kg of metabolic weight and per kg of mass gain. Furthermore, also the production of NH3 by insects was lower than for conventional livestock. Conclusions/Significance This study therefore indicates that insects could serve as a more environmentally friendly alternative for the production of animal protein with respect to GHG and NH3 emissions. The results of this study can be used as basic information to compare the production of insects with conventional livestock by means of a life cycle analysis. PMID:21206900

  19. An exploration on greenhouse gas and ammonia production by insect species suitable for animal or human consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis G A B Oonincx

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Greenhouse gas (GHG production, as a cause of climate change, is considered as one of the biggest problems society is currently facing. The livestock sector is one of the large contributors of anthropogenic GHG emissions. Also, large amounts of ammonia (NH(3, leading to soil nitrification and acidification, are produced by livestock. Therefore other sources of animal protein, like edible insects, are currently being considered. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An experiment was conducted to quantify production of carbon dioxide (CO₂ and average daily gain (ADG as a measure of feed conversion efficiency, and to quantify the production of the greenhouse gases methane (CH₄ and nitrous oxide (N₂O as well as NH₃ by five insect species of which the first three are considered edible: Tenebrio molitor, Acheta domesticus, Locusta migratoria, Pachnoda marginata, and Blaptica dubia. Large differences were found among the species regarding their production of CO₂ and GHGs. The insects in this study had a higher relative growth rate and emitted comparable or lower amounts of GHG than described in literature for pigs and much lower amounts of GHG than cattle. The same was true for CO₂ production per kg of metabolic weight and per kg of mass gain. Furthermore, also the production of NH₃ by insects was lower than for conventional livestock. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study therefore indicates that insects could serve as a more environmentally friendly alternative for the production of animal protein with respect to GHG and NH₃ emissions. The results of this study can be used as basic information to compare the production of insects with conventional livestock by means of a life cycle analysis.

  20. [Age group, geographical incidence and patterns of antifungal susceptibility of Candida species causing candidemia in the Spanish paediatric population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodríguez, Julio; Cantón, Emilia; Pemán, Javier; Alvarez, Maria; Ezpeleta, Guillermo; Gómez-Nieto, Amelia; Iglesias, Isabel; Martín-Mazuelos, Estrella; Ramírez-de Ocariz, Inmaculada; Rezusta, Antonio; Royo-García, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    There are few epidemiological studies on candidaemia in the paediatric population in Spain. We sought to determine the epidemiology of candidaemia in these patients. Prospective, observational and multicentre study in 44 Spanish hospitals. All candidaemia episodes in paediatric patients from 0 to 15 years old between January 2009 and February 2010 were studied. There were 197 episodes and 200 species were isolated. The most frequent species was Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto (43%), followed by C. albicans (36%), C. tropicalis (6%), C. orthopsilosis, and C. glabrata (4%) respectively. C. albicans was the most prevalent in newborns, and C. parapsilosis was most frequent in the other age groups. As regards the regions of Spain, C. albicans was most prevalent in patients from Catalonia, the Balearic Islands and Canary Islands, and C. parapsilosis in patients from Andalusia, Castilla-León, Galicia, Valencia, and Madrid. The rate of resistance to fluconazole was 1.5% (4.1% with the new species-specific Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute [CLSI] criteria). Fluconazole resistance was lower in neonates than the other age groups. The Neonatal Wards were the areas with most episodes (31.5%). In the multivariate analysis, the variables associated independently with candidaemia due to C. albicans were: catheter (OR: 5.967; 95% CI: 1.614-22.057; P=.007) and prematurity (OR: 2.229; 95% CI: 1.141- 4.631; P=.020). The epidemiology of paediatric candidaemia varies between Spanish regions, but, globally, C. parapsilosis and C. albicans, are respectively, the first and second most frequently isolated species, and they show resistance rates to fluconazole of less than 5%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  1. Susceptibility of various Japanese freshwater fish species to an isolate of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) genotype IVb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takafumi; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2013-11-25

    Genotype IVb of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) was isolated for the first time in the Great Lakes basin in 2003, where it spread and caused mass mortalities in several wild fish species throughout the basin. In order to prevent further spreading of the disease and to assess risks of new genotypes invading new watersheds, basic microbiological information such as pathogenicity studies are essential. In this study, experimental infections were conducted on 7 indigenous freshwater fish species from Japan by immersion with a VHSV genotype IVb isolate. In Expt 1, cumulative mortalities in bluegill Lepomis macrochirus used as positive controls, Japanese fluvial sculpin Cottus pollux, and iwana Salvelinus leucomaenis pluvius were 50, 80 and 0%, respectively. In Expt 2, cumulative mortalities of 100, 100 and 10% were observed in Japanese fluvial sculpin C. pollux, Japanese rice fish Oryzias latipes and yoshinobori Rhinogobius sp., respectively. No mortality was observed in honmoroko Gnathopogon caerulescens, akaza Liobagrus reini or Japanese striped loach Cobitis biwae. VHSV was detected by RT-PCR from samples of kidney, spleen, and brain from all dead fish, and virus re-isolation by cell culture was successful from all dead fish. We detected the virus in the brain from a few surviving bluegill 50 d post exposure by both cell culture and RT-PCR. These results revealed that VHSV IVb could become a serious threat to wild freshwater fish species in Japan, and that some surviving fish might become healthy carriers of the virus.

  2. Characterization of Arabidopsis Transcriptional Responses to Different Aphid Species Reveals Genes that Contribute to Host Susceptibility and Non-host Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaouannet, Maëlle; Morris, Jenny A.; Hedley, Peter E.; Bos, Jorunn I. B.

    2015-01-01

    Aphids are economically important pests that display exceptional variation in host range. The determinants of diverse aphid host ranges are not well understood, but it is likely that molecular interactions are involved. With significant progress being made towards understanding host responses upon aphid attack, the mechanisms underlying non-host resistance remain to be elucidated. Here, we investigated and compared Arabidopsis thaliana host and non-host responses to aphids at the transcriptional level using three different aphid species, Myzus persicae, Myzus cerasi and Rhopalosiphum pisum. Gene expression analyses revealed a high level of overlap in the overall gene expression changes during the host and non-host interactions with regards to the sets of genes differentially expressed and the direction of expression changes. Despite this overlap in transcriptional responses across interactions, there was a stronger repression of genes involved in metabolism and oxidative responses specifically during the host interaction with M. persicae. In addition, we identified a set of genes with opposite gene expression patterns during the host versus non-host interactions. Aphid performance assays on Arabidopsis mutants that were selected based on our transcriptome analyses identified novel genes contributing to host susceptibility, host defences during interactions with M. persicae as well to non-host resistance against R. padi. Understanding how plants respond to aphid species that differ in their ability to infest plant species, and identifying the genes and signaling pathways involved, is essential for the development of novel and durable aphid control in crop plants. PMID:25993686

  3. Characterization of Arabidopsis Transcriptional Responses to Different Aphid Species Reveals Genes that Contribute to Host Susceptibility and Non-host Resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maëlle Jaouannet

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aphids are economically important pests that display exceptional variation in host range. The determinants of diverse aphid host ranges are not well understood, but it is likely that molecular interactions are involved. With significant progress being made towards understanding host responses upon aphid attack, the mechanisms underlying non-host resistance remain to be elucidated. Here, we investigated and compared Arabidopsis thaliana host and non-host responses to aphids at the transcriptional level using three different aphid species, Myzus persicae, Myzus cerasi and Rhopalosiphum pisum. Gene expression analyses revealed a high level of overlap in the overall gene expression changes during the host and non-host interactions with regards to the sets of genes differentially expressed and the direction of expression changes. Despite this overlap in transcriptional responses across interactions, there was a stronger repression of genes involved in metabolism and oxidative responses specifically during the host interaction with M. persicae. In addition, we identified a set of genes with opposite gene expression patterns during the host versus non-host interactions. Aphid performance assays on Arabidopsis mutants that were selected based on our transcriptome analyses identified novel genes contributing to host susceptibility, host defences during interactions with M. persicae as well to non-host resistance against R. padi. Understanding how plants respond to aphid species that differ in their ability to infest plant species, and identifying the genes and signaling pathways involved, is essential for the development of novel and durable aphid control in crop plants.

  4. Surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns among Shigella species isolated in China during the 7-year period of 2005-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haifei; Chen, Guosheng; Zhu, Yulin; Liu, Yanyan; Cheng, Jun; Hu, Lifen; Ye, Ying; Li, Jiabin

    2013-03-01

    Shigella is a frequent cause of bacterial dysentery in the developing world. Treatment with antibiotics is recommended for shigellosis, but the options are limited due to globally emerging resistance. This study was conducted to determine the frequency and pattern of antimicrobial susceptibility of Shigella in China. We studied the antimicrobial resistance profiles of 308 Shigella spp. strains (260 S. flexneri, 40 S. sonnei, 5 S. boydii, and 3 S. dysenteriae) isolated from fecal samples of patients (age, from 3 months to 92 yr) presenting with diarrhea in different districts of Anhui, China. The antimicrobial resistance of strains was determined by the agar dilution method according to the CSLI guidelines. The most common serogroup in the Shigella isolates was S. flexneri (n=260, 84.4%), followed by S. sonnei (n=40, 13.0%). The highest resistance rate was found for nalidixic acid (96.4%), followed by ampicillin (93.2%), tetracycline (90.9%), and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (80.8%). Among the isolates tested, 280 (91.0%) were multidrug resistant (resistant to ≥2 agents). The most common resistance pattern was the combination of ampicillin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (70.8%). Resistance to ampicillin and tetracycline were more common among S. flexneri than among S. sonnei isolates. S. flexneri is predominant in Anhui, China, and its higher antimicrobial resistance rate compared with that of S. sonnei is a cause for concern. Continuous monitoring of resistance patterns is necessary to control the spread of resistance in Shigella. The recommendations for antimicrobial treatment must be updated regularly based on surveillance results.

  5. Variation in susceptibility of field strains of three stored grain insect species to spinosad and chlorpyrifos-methyl plus deltamethrin on hard red winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Blossom; Subramanyam, Bhadriraju; Arthur, Frank H; Gill, Bikram S

    2013-08-01

    Spinosad and chlorpyrifos-methyl plus deltamethrin efficacy at labeled rates on hard red winter wheat were evaluated against 11 field strains of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst); six strains of the sawtoothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.); and two strains of the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), collected mostly from farm-stored grain in Kansas. Adults were exposed to wheat treated with spinosad at 1 mg (active ingredient)/kg or chlorpyrifos-methyl plus deltamethrin at three plus 0.5 mg (active ingredient)/kg. Adult mortality was assessed after 7 and 14 d and progeny production after 42 d. Spinosad did not provide complete mortality or progeny suppression of T. castaneum and O. surinamensis field strains, but was effective against R. dominica strains. Chlorpyrifos-methyl plus deltamethrin produced complete mortality and progeny suppression of field strains all three species. The two least susceptible T. castaneum and O. surinamensis strains and the two R. dominica strains were chosen for dose-response tests only with spinosad. The LD99 values for T. castaneum and R. dominica field strains were similar to that of the corresponding laboratory strains. Corresponding values for the two O. sturinamensis field strains were significantly greater (approximately 6 times) than the laboratory strain. The effective dose for progeny reduction (ED99) of only one R. dominica field strain was significantly greater (approximately 2 times) than the laboratory strain. The baseline susceptibility data of field strains of three insect species to spinosad will be useful for monitoring resistance development when this product is commercially released as a grain protectant.

  6. Platelet binding and biodistribution of [{sup 99m}Tc]rBitistatin in animal species and humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, Linda C. [Department of Radiology, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140 (United States)], E-mail: lknight@temple.edu; Romano, Jan E. [Department of Radiology, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140 (United States); Bright, Lewis T.; Agelan, Alexis [University Laboratory Animal Resources, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140 (United States); Kantor, Steven; Maurer, Alan H. [Department of Radiology, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140 (United States)

    2007-10-15

    Introduction: {sup 99m}Tc recombinant bitistatin (rBitistatin) is a radioligand for {alpha}{sub IIb}{beta}{sub 3} (glycoproteins IIb/IIIa) receptor on platelets and is being developed as a diagnostic radiopharmaceutical for in vivo imaging of acute thrombi and emboli. Prior to the first administration of [{sup 99m}Tc]rBitistatin to human subjects, its biodistribution and effects on platelets were evaluated in animals. This paper reports findings in animal studies in comparison with initial findings in normal human subjects. Methods: [{sup 99m}Tc]rBitistatin was administered to mice, guinea pigs and dogs to assess time-dependent organ distribution, urinary excretion and blood disappearance rates. Blood samples were analyzed to determine radioligand binding to circulating platelets and the extent of plasma protein binding. The effect of [{sup 99m}Tc]rBitistatin on circulating platelet count was determined. These factors were also determined in normal human subjects who received [{sup 99m}Tc]rBitistatin as part of a Phase I clinical trial. Results: The main organs that accumulated [{sup 99m}Tc]rBitistatin were kidneys, liver and spleen in all animal species and humans. The main organs seen on human images were the kidneys and spleen. Liver uptake was fainter, and soft-tissue background was low. [{sup 99m}Tc]rBitistatin bound to circulating platelets in blood, with a higher percentage of binding to platelets in guinea pigs and dogs compared to that in humans. Plasma protein binding was low and of little consequence in view of platelet binding. The main route of excretion was through the urine. [{sup 99m}Tc]rBitistatin did not affect platelet counts in humans or dogs. Conclusions: [{sup 99m}Tc]rBitistatin, when administered at low doses for imaging, has no adverse effects on platelets and has the qualitative biodistribution predicted by animal studies. [{sup 99m}Tc]rBitistatin was found to bind to circulating platelets in humans, suggesting that it will be able to bind

  7. Understanding the limits of animal models as predictors of human biology: lessons learned from the sbv IMPROVER Species Translation Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhrissorrakrai, Kahn; Belcastro, Vincenzo; Bilal, Erhan; Norel, Raquel; Poussin, Carine; Mathis, Carole; Dulize, Rémi H J; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Alexopoulos, Leonidas; Rice, J Jeremy; Peitsch, Manuel C; Stolovitzky, Gustavo; Meyer, Pablo; Hoeng, Julia

    2015-02-15

    Inferring how humans respond to external cues such as drugs, chemicals, viruses or hormones is an essential question in biomedicine. Very often, however, this question cannot be addressed because it is not possible to perform experiments in humans. A reasonable alternative consists of generating responses in animal models and 'translating' those results to humans. The limitations of such translation, however, are far from clear, and systematic assessments of its actual potential are urgently needed. sbv IMPROVER (systems biology verification for Industrial Methodology for PROcess VErification in Research) was designed as a series of challenges to address translatability between humans and rodents. This collaborative crowd-sourcing initiative invited scientists from around the world to apply their own computational methodologies on a multilayer systems biology dataset composed of phosphoproteomics, transcriptomics and cytokine data derived from normal human and rat bronchial epithelial cells exposed in parallel to 52 different stimuli under identical conditions. Our aim was to understand the limits of species-to-species translatability at different levels of biological organization: signaling, transcriptional and release of secreted factors (such as cytokines). Participating teams submitted 49 different solutions across the sub-challenges, two-thirds of which were statistically significantly better than random. Additionally, similar computational methods were found to range widely in their performance within the same challenge, and no single method emerged as a clear winner across all sub-challenges. Finally, computational methods were able to effectively translate some specific stimuli and biological processes in the lung epithelial system, such as DNA synthesis, cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix, translation, immune/inflammation and growth factor/proliferation pathways, better than the expected response similarity between species. pmeyerr@us.ibm.com or Julia

  8. Susceptibility of various Japanese freshwater fish species to an isolate of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) genotype IVb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ito, Takafumi; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    mortalities in bluegill Lepomis macrochirus used as positive controls, Japanese fluvial sculpin Cottus pollux, and iwana Salvelinus leucomaenis pluvius were 50, 80 and 0%, respectively. In Expt 2, cumulative mortalities of 100, 100 and 10% were observed in Japanese fluvial sculpin C. pollux, Japanese rice...... fish Oryzias latipes and yoshinobori Rhinogobius sp., respectively. No mortality was observed in honmoroko Gnathopogon caerulescens, akaza Liobagrus reini or Japanese striped loach Cobitis biwae. VHSV was detected by RT-PCR from samples of kidney, spleen, and brain from all dead fish, and virus re......-isolation by cell culture was successful from all dead fish. We detected the virus in the brain from a few surviving bluegill 50 d post exposure by both cell culture and RT-PCR. These results revealed that VHSV IVb could become a serious threat to wild freshwater fish species in Japan, and that some surviving fish...

  9. The effects of spatial and temporal heterogeneity on the population dynamics of four animal species in a Danish landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forchhammer Mads C

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variation in carrying capacity and population return rates is generally ignored in traditional studies of population dynamics. Variation is hard to study in the field because of difficulties controlling the environment in order to obtain statistical replicates, and because of the scale and expense of experimenting on populations. There may also be ethical issues. To circumvent these problems we used detailed simulations of the simultaneous behaviours of interacting animals in an accurate facsimile of a real Danish landscape. The models incorporate as much as possible of the behaviour and ecology of skylarks Alauda arvensis, voles Microtus agrestis, a ground beetle Bembidion lampros and a linyphiid spider Erigone atra. This allows us to quantify and evaluate the importance of spatial and temporal heterogeneity on the population dynamics of the four species. Results Both spatial and temporal heterogeneity affected the relationship between population growth rate and population density in all four species. Spatial heterogeneity accounted for 23–30% of the variance in population growth rate after accounting for the effects of density, reflecting big differences in local carrying capacity associated with the landscape features important to individual species. Temporal heterogeneity accounted for 3–13% of the variance in vole, skylark and spider, but 43% in beetles. The associated temporal variation in carrying capacity would be problematic in traditional analyses of density dependence. Return rates were less than one in all species and essentially invariant in skylarks, spiders and beetles. Return rates varied over the landscape in voles, being slower where there were larger fluctuations in local population sizes. Conclusion Our analyses estimated the traditional parameters of carrying capacities and return rates, but these are now seen as varying continuously over the landscape depending on habitat quality and the mechanisms

  10. Ohio Aquatic Gap Analysis-An Assessment of the Biodiversity and Conservation Status of Native Aquatic Animal Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covert, S. Alex; Kula, Stephanie P.; Simonson, Laura A.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of the GAP Analysis Program is to keep common species common by identifying those species and habitats that are not yet adequately represented in the existing matrix of conservation lands. The Gap Analysis Program (GAP) is sponsored by the Biological Resources Discipline of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The Ohio Aquatic GAP (OH-GAP) is a pilot project that is applying the GAP concept to aquatic-specifically, riverine-data. The mission of GAP is to provide regional assessments of the conservation status of native animal species and to facilitate the application of this information to land-management activities. OH-GAP accomplished this through * mapping aquatic habitat types, * mapping the predicted distributions of fish, crayfish, and bivalves, * documenting the presence of aquatic species in areas managed for conservation, * providing GAP results to the public, planners, managers, policy makers, and researchers, and * building cooperation with multiple organizations to apply GAP results to state and regional management activities. Gap analysis is a coarse-scale assessment of aquatic biodiversity and conservation; the goal is to identify gaps in the conservation of native aquatic species. It is not a substitute for biological field studies and monitoring programs. Gap analysis was conducted for the continuously flowing streams in Ohio. Lakes, reservoirs, wetlands, and the Lake Erie islands were not included in this analysis. The streams in Ohio are in the Lake Erie and Ohio River watersheds and pass through six of the level III ecoregions defined by Omernik: the Eastern Corn Belt Plains, Southern Michigan/Northern Indiana Drift Plains, Huron/Erie Lake Plain, Erie Drift Plains, Interior Plateau, and the Western Allegheny Plateau. To characterize the aquatic habitats available to Ohio fish, crayfish, and bivalves, a classification system needed to be developed and mapped. The process of classification includes delineation of areas of relative

  11. Occurrence, species distribution, antimicrobial resistance and clonality of methicillin- and erythromycin-resistant staphylococci in the nasal cavity of domestic animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagcigil, Funda A.; Moodley, Arshnee; Baptiste, Keith E.

    2007-01-01

    beta-Lactams and macrolides are important antibiotics for treatment of staphylococcal infections in both humans and animals. The aim of the study was to investigate the occurrence, species distribution and clonality of methicillin and erythromycin-resistant staphylococci in the nasal cavity of dogs......, horses, pigs, and cattle in Denmark. Nasal swabs were collected from a total of 400 animals, including 100 individuals of each species. Methicillin and erythromycin-resistant staphylococci were isolated on selective media, identified by 16S rDNA sequencing, and typed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis...... (PFGE). Methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCoNS) harbouring mecA were isolated from horses (50%) and dogs (13%), but not from food animals. The species identified were S. haemolyticus (n = 21), S. vitulinus (n = 19), S. sciuri (n = 13), S. epidermidis (n = 8), and S. warneri (n...

  12. Development of a simultaneous identification method for 13 animal species using two multiplex real-time PCR assays and melting curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Natsumi; Sakurada, Makoto; Kusunoki, Hiroshi; Ueno, Yasuhiro

    2017-11-26

    We developed a simple and rapid method for animal species identification in the forensic science field based on mitochondrial DNA using two multiplex real-time PCRs and analysis of the resultant SYBR Green I melting curves. This method was designed to identify nine domestic animals simultaneously (dog, cat, rabbit, cattle, pig, chicken, goat, sheep and horse) and four wild animals (deer, raccoon-dog, monkey and bear) by comparing the different melting temperatures of the amplicons produced from samples originating from each species. For this analysis, we targeted various mitochondrial genes, including those encoding cytochrome b (cytb), NADH dehydrogenase 5 (ND5), cytochrome c oxidase 3 (COX3), tRNA-ND5, and tRNA-ATP synthase 8 (ATP8). For practical applications, this study presents a validation of this assay including its specificity, sensitivity and robustness. The limits of detection in the multiplex reactions were 10 pg for eight of the nine animals, excluding horse (1 pg for horse). The method was able to correctly identify the animal species from artificial forensic samples including blood stains, saliva, hair and bone, and samples digested in artificial gastric fluid, and for 17 forensic casework samples. The data from the multiplex real-time PCR assays are obtainable only 30 min after DNA extraction of the samples, making the assays useful for screening samples containing DNA from unknown animal origin in the forensic field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Yarrowia divulgata f.a., sp. nov., a yeast species from animal-related and marine sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Edina; Niss, Marete; Dlauchy, Dénes; Arneborg, Nils; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Péter, Gábor

    2013-12-01

    Five yeast strains, phenotypically indistinguishable from Yarrowia lipolytica and Yarrowia deformans, were recovered from different animal-related samples. One strain was isolated from a bacon processing plant in Denmark, two strains from chicken liver in the USA, one strain from chicken breast in Hungary and one from minced beef in Hungary. Comparisons of the sequences of their large subunit rRNA gene D1/D2 domain and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions revealed that, despite their phenotypic similarity, they represent a novel yeast species of the Yarrowia clade with Y. deformans being the genotypically closest relative (LSU rRNA gene D1/D2 and ITS region similarity of 97.0 and 93.7 %, respectively). Yarrowia divulgata f.a., sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate these strains with F6-17(T) ( = CBS 11013(T) = CCUG 56725(T)) as the type strain. Some D1/D2 sequences of yeasts from marine habitats were found in the GenBank database that were identical to those of the strains of Y. divulgata f.a., sp. nov. Unfortunately, these strains were not available for our study.

  14. Molecular detection of hemoprotozoa and Rickettsia species in arthropods collected from wild animals in the Burgos Province, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lledó, Lourdes; Giménez-Pardo, Consuelo; Domínguez-Peñafiel, Gerardo; Sousa, Rita; Gegúndez, Maria Isabep; Casado, Nieves; Criado, Angel

    2010-10-01

    Limited information on the presence of bacterial and hematozoan infections in parasitic arthropods from Spain is available. In an attempt to address this issue, the prevalence of Theileria, Babesia, Hepatozoon, and Rickettsia species was investigated by polymerase chain reaction plus sequencing. In a survey for zoonotic pathogens in ectoparasites, 42 wild animals (which included rodents, carnivores, Sciuridae, and Cervidae) were captured in Burgos (Spain). A total of 256 arthropods (including 107 ticks, 76 fleas, and 73 mites) were collected from these mammals. Molecular diagnostic results showed that (i) Rickettsia felis was found in fleas (two Ctenocephalides felis), (ii) Hepatozoon sp. infected some fleas (two Ctenophtalmus sp. and a DNA pool of Ceratophyllus sciurorum) and Acari (one Neotrombicula sp.), and (iii) Theileria annae was found in Ixodes ricinus and I. hexagonus (each a single infected specimen). All microorganisms and parasites were genetically identical to pathogens already described in Spain or elsewhere. Infected arthropods were recovered from beech marten, bank vole, squirrel, wood mouse, and red fox. Our findings emphasize the potential risk for transmission of rickettsias to humans (namely, R. felis) in Burgos, since C. felis is capable to seek out humans for feeding. No hemoprotozoa with proven significance as human pathogens were found in the survey. However, finding T. annae in ticks recovered from wild canids suggests possible links of sylvatic and domestic cycles for some Piroplasmida.

  15. [Aspects of animal welfare and species protection in the international trade of ornamental fish and air transport to Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöhr, Anna-Caroline; Hildebrand, Heike; Unshelm, Jürgen; Erhard, Michael Helmut

    2005-01-01

    The number of ornamental fish kept in German aquariums is rising, but the supply of offspring is not sufficient to meet the needs of the fish enthusiasts. Therefore millions of ornamental fish from foreign countries are being imported to Germany. This provokes a number of new problems regarding the protection of species and the animals' welfare during transportation. For the assessment of the transport conditions, 1000 shipments of ornamental fishes were evaluated at the Rhein-Main-Airport Frankfurt, Germany. Water samples were taken from 100 shipments and were examined for anaesthetics. The results are disturbing: 41% of the shipments have total transportation times between 31-42 h resulting in an oxygen deficit in the transport bags (5.2%) and dead ornamental fish. Also damage of the transportation containers, high fish densities as well as drastic size differences amoung the fish in one transport bag were noticeable. In 99% of the cases, formal defects could be noted. The German association of pet stores has declared that fish belonging to three special fresh water families should not be kept in an aquarium, but 1 200 of such fish were imported. The HPLC analysis of the water samples revealed an additive. The non-declared anaesthetic 2-phenoxyethanol was present in all samples taken from shipments based out of Singapore. The results emphasize that improvements are urgently necessary in the control of the air transport and trade with Ornamental fish.

  16. Assessment of PCR-DGGE for the identification of diverse Helicobacter species, and application to faecal samples from zoo animals to determine Helicobacter prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Soud, Waleed Abu; Bennedsen, Mads; On, Stephen L W; Ouis, Ibn-Sina; Vandamme, Peter; Nilsson, Hans-Olof; Ljungh, Asa; Wadström, Torkel

    2003-09-01

    Helicobacter species are fastidious bacterial pathogens that are difficult to culture by standard methods. A PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) technique for detection and identification of different Helicobacter species was developed and evaluated. The method involves PCR detection of Helicobacter DNA by genus-specific primers that target 16S rDNA and subsequent differentiation of Helicobacter PCR products by use of DGGE. Strains are identified by comparing mobilities of unknown samples to those determined for reference strains; sequence analysis can also be performed on purified amplicons. Sixteen DGGE profiles were derived from 44 type and reference strains of 20 Helicobacter species, indicating the potential of this approach for resolving infection of a single host by multiple Helicobacter species. Some more highly related species were not differentiated whereas in highly heterogeneous species, sequence divergence was observed and more than one PCR-DGGE profile was obtained. Application of the PCR-DGGE method to DNA extracted from faeces of zoo animals revealed the presence of Helicobacter DNA in 13 of 16 samples; a correlation was seen between the mobility of PCR products in DGGE analysis and DNA sequencing. In combination, this indicated that zoo animals are colonized by a wide range of different Helicobacter species; seven animals appeared to be colonized by multiple Helicobacter species. By this approach, presumptive identifications were made of Helicobacter bilis and Helicobacter hepaticus in a Nile crocodile, Helicobacter cinaedi in a baboon and a red panda, and Helicobacter felis in a wolf and a Taiwan beauty snake. All of these PCR products ( approximately 400 bp) showed 100 % sequence similarity to 16S rDNA sequences of the mentioned species. These results demonstrate the potential of PCR-DGGE-based analysis for identification of Helicobacter species in complex ecosystems, such as the gastrointestinal tract, and could contribute to

  17. Impacts of animal traffic on the Brazilian Amazon parrots (Amazona species) collection of the Quinzinho de Barros Municipal Zoological Park, Brazil, 1986-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Teixeira, Rodrigo Hidalgo Friciello; Camargo, Luis Carlos; Nunes, Adauto Luis Veloso; Matushima, Eliana Reiko

    2010-01-01

    Eleven species of Amazon parrots (genus Amazona) are known to occur in Brazil, and nest poaching and illegal traffic pose serious conservation threats to these species. When the illegal owners realize these animals are incompatible with their expectations and lifestyle, or when the police arrests traders and owners, these trafficked animals are often considered unfit for release and sent to local zoos and captive breeders. A retrospective survey of animal and necropsy records from 1986 to 2007 was used to evaluate the impacts of animal traffic on the population composition and mortality patterns of Amazon parrots at the Quinzinho de Barros Municipal Zoological Park, Sorocaba, Brazil. Data were obtained for 374 Amazon parrots of ten Brazilian species, and there was evidence that the studied population could be split into two major groups: a majority belonging to the Amazona aestiva species and a minority belonging to the remaining species. In comparison, the animals of the first group were more frequently admitted from traffic-related origins (98 vs. 75%), had a shorter lifespan (median 301 days vs. 848 days) and a higher mortality within the first year postadmission (54 vs. 37%), were less likely to receive expensive treatments, and were more frequently housed off-exhibit. On an average, parrots were found to have a short postadmission lifespan (median 356 days), with 92.5% of the birds dying within their first five years in captivity. The paper discusses the difficult dilemmas these incoming traffic-related animals pose to zoo management and official anti-traffic policies. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. A TaqMan real-time PCR method based on alternative oxidase genes for detection of plant species in animal feed samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Doroteia Campos

    Full Text Available Traceability of processed food and feed products has been gaining importance due to the impact that those products can have on human/animal health and to the associated economic and legal concerns, often related to adulterations and frauds as it can be the case for meat and milk. Despite mandatory traceability requirements for the analysis of feed composition, few reliable and accurate methods are presently available to enforce the legislative frame and allow the authentication of animal feeds. In this study, nine sensitive and species-specific real-time PCR TaqMan MGB assays are described for plant species detection in animal feed samples. The method is based on selective real-time qPCR (RT-qPCR amplification of target genes belonging to the alternative oxidase (AOX gene family. The plant species selected for detection in feed samples were wheat, maize, barley, soybean, rice and sunflower as common components of feeds, and cotton, flax and peanut as possible undesirable contaminants. The obtained results were compared with end-point PCR methodology. The applicability of the AOX TaqMan assays was evaluated through the screening of commercial feed samples, and by the analysis of plant mixtures with known composition. The RT-qPCR methodology allowed the detection of the most abundant species in feeds but also the identification of contaminant species present in lower amounts, down to 1% w/w. AOX-based methodology provides a suitable molecular marker approach to ascertain plant species composition of animal feed samples, thus supporting feed control and enforcement of the feed sector and animal production.

  19. Nordic-Baltic Student Teachers' Identification of and Interest in Plant and Animal Species: The Importance of Species Identification and Biodiversity for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmberg, Irmeli; Berg, Ida; Jeronen, Eila; Kärkkäinen, Sirpa; Norrgård-Sillanpää, Pia; Persson, Christel; Vilkonis, Rytis; Yli-Panula, Eija

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of species, interest in nature, and nature experiences are the factors that best promote interest in and understanding of environmental issues, biodiversity and sustainable life. The aim of this study is to investigate how well student teachers identify common local species, their interest in and ideas about species identification, and…

  20. Introduction and development of new production systems with non-traditional animal species. (With special reference to iguana production in Panama)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eilers, C.H.A.M.; Koops, W.J.

    2004-01-01

    This study aims to compare the development of iguana production systems in Panama with the development of other new production systems involving non-traditional animal species. Experts on new production systems using pacas, grasscutters, deer, eel, catfish and ostrich were interviewed about their

  1. Cells with dysfunctional telomeres are susceptible to reactive oxygen species hydrogen peroxide via generation of multichromosomal fusions and chromosomal fragments bearing telomeres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Seon Rang [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeong-Eun; Juhn, Kyoung-Mi; Ju, Yeun-Jin; Jeong, Jaemin [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Chang-Mo; Yun, Hyun Jin [Division of Radiation Effect, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Mi Yong; Shin, Hyun-Jin; Joo, Hyun-Yoo; Park, Eun-Ran; Park, In-Chul; Hong, Sung Hee; Hwang, Sang-Gu [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Haekwon [Department of Biotechnology, Seoul Woman' s University, Seoul 139-774 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Myung-Haing [Laboratory of Toxicology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Hoon [Department of Biology, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Gil Hong [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kee-Ho, E-mail: khlee@kirams.re.kr [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Under conditions of telomere erosion, cells become extremely sensitive to H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chromosomal regions adjacent to telomeres are cleaved by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} under such conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2}O{sub 2} thus causes multichromosomal fusions and generation of small chromosomal fragments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N-acetylcysteine prevents H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced chromosomal aberrations. -- Abstract: During genotoxic stress, reactive oxygen species hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) is a prime mediator of the DNA damage response. Telomeres function both to assist in DNA damage repair and to inhibit chromosomal end-to-end fusion. Here, we show that telomere dysfunction renders cells susceptible to H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, via generation of multichromosomal fusion and chromosomal fragments. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} caused formation of multichromosomal end-to-end fusions involving more than three chromosomes, preferentially when telomeres were erosive. Interestingly, extensive chromosomal fragmentation (yielding small-sized fragments) occurred only in cells exhibiting such multichromosomal fusions. Telomeres were absent from fusion points, being rather present in the small fragments, indicating that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} cleaves chromosomal regions adjacent to telomeres. Restoration of telomere function or addition of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine prevented development of chromosomal aberrations and rescued the observed hypersensitivity to H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Thus, chromosomal regions adjacent to telomeres become sensitive to reactive oxygen species hydrogen peroxide when telomeres are dysfunctional, and are cleaved to produce multichromosomal fusions and small chromosomal fragments bearing the telomeres.

  2. Inhibition of heat-shock protein 90 enhances the susceptibility to antifungals and reduces the virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans/Cryptococcus gattii species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Evangelista, Antonio José de Jesus; Serpa, Rosana; Marques, Francisca Jakelyne de Farias; de Melo, Charlline Vládia Silva; de Oliveira, Jonathas Sales; Franco, Jônatas da Silva; de Alencar, Lucas Pereira; Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Rocha, Marcos Fébio Gadelha

    2016-02-01

    Heat-shock proteins (Hsps) are chaperones required for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis in different fungal pathogens, playing an important role in the infectious process. This study investigated the effect of pharmacological inhibition of Hsp90 by radicicol on the Cryptococcus neoformans/Cryptococcus gattii species complex--agents of the most common life-threatening fungal infection amongst immunocompromised patients. The influence of Hsp90 inhibition was investigated regarding in vitro susceptibility to antifungal agents of planktonic and sessile cells, ergosterol concentration, cell membrane integrity, growth at 37 °C, production of virulence factors in vitro, and experimental infection in Caenorhabditis elegans. Hsp90 inhibition inhibited the in vitro growth of planktonic cells of Cryptococcus spp. at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 2 μg ml(-1) and increased the in vitro inhibitory effect of azoles, especially fluconazole (FLC) (P < 0.05). Inhibition of Hsp90 also increased the antifungal activity of azoles against biofilm formation and mature biofilms of Cryptococcus spp., notably for Cryptococcus gattii. Furthermore, Hsp90 inhibition compromised the permeability of the cell membrane, and reduced planktonic growth at 37 °C and the capsular size of Cryptococcus spp. In addition, Hsp90 inhibition enhanced the antifungal activity of FLC during experimental infection using Caenorhabditis elegans. Therefore, our results indicate that Hsp90 inhibition can be an important strategy in the development of new antifungal drugs.

  3. Comparison of whole animal costs of protein synthesis among polar and temperate populations of the same species of gammarid amphipod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastrick, S P S; Whiteley, N M

    2017-05-01

    Protein synthesis can account for a substantial proportion of metabolic rate. Energetic costs of protein synthesis, should in theory, be the same in marine invertebrates from a range of thermal habitats, and yet direct measurements using inhibitors produce widely differing values, especially in the cold. The present study aimed to remove any potential confounding interspecific effects by determining costs of protein synthesis in two latitudinally separated populations of the same species (amphipod, Gammarus oceanicus) living in two different thermal regimes; polar vs cold-temperate. Costs of protein synthesis were determined in summer acclimatised G. oceanicus from Svalbard (79°N) at 5°C and from Scotland (58°N) at 13°C. Amphipods were injected with the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide (CHX), at 9mmoll-1 in crab saline to give a tissue concentration of 0.05mgCHXg-1FW and left for 60min before the injection of [3H] phenylalanine. After incubation for 120min (180min in total from initial injection), both whole-animal rates of oxygen uptake and absolute rates of protein synthesis were significantly reduced in CHX-treated amphipods vs controls injected with saline. Both populations exhibited similar costs of protein synthesis of ~7μmolO2mg-1protein which is close to the estimated theoretical minimum for peptide bond formation, and similar to the values obtained in cell-free systems. The study demonstrates that in G. oceanicus, costs of protein synthesis rates were not elevated in the cold but were fixed among polar and cold-temperate populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Outstanding micro-endemism in New Caledonia: More than one out of ten animal species have a very restricted distribution range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caesar, Maram; Grandcolas, Philippe; Pellens, Roseli

    2017-01-01

    New Caledonia is a biodiversity hotspot, with an extremely high number of endemic species with narrow distribution ranges that are at high risk of extinction due to open-cast nickel mining, invasive species and seasonal man-induced fires. Mentions of micro-endemism permeate the literature on the biota of this archipelago. However, so far there has been no research comparing distribution range in different animal groups. The aim of this study is to examine the implication of different sampling effort variables in order to distinguish micro-endemicity from data deficiency, and evaluate the distribution range, frequency, and extent to which micro-endemism is common to several groups of organisms. We compiled a dataset derived from publications in Zoologia Neocaledonica, comprising 1,149 species, of which 86% are endemic to New Caledonia. We found that the sampling effort variables that were best correlated with distribution range were the number of sampling dates and the number of collectors per species. The median value of sampling dates was used to establish a cut-off point for defining adequately sampled species. We showed that, although only 52% of species were sampled adequately enough to determine their distribution range, the number of species with a very narrow distribution range was still high. Among endemics from New Caledonia, 12% (116 species) have ranges ≤5.2km2 and 3.9% (38 species) have ranges between 23 and 100 km2. Surprisingly, a similar trend was observed in non-endemic species: 22% occurred in areas ≤ 5.2 km2, and 8% in areas 23-100 km2, suggesting that environmental dissimilarity may play an important role in the distribution of these species. Micro-endemic species were predominant in 18 out of 20 orders. These results will contribute to a re-assessment of the IUCN red list of species in this archipelago, indicating that at least 116 species are probably critically endangered.

  5. Investigations on the efficacy of routinely used phenotypic methods compared to genotypic approaches for the identification of staphylococcal species isolated from companion animals in Irish veterinary hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Identification of Staphylococci to species level in veterinary microbiology is important to inform therapeutic intervention and management. We report on the efficacy of three routinely used commercial phenotypic methods for staphylococcal species identification, namely API Staph 32 (bioMérieux), RapID (Remel) and Staph-Zym (Rosco Diagnostica) compared to genotyping as a reference method to identify 52 staphylococcal clinical isolates (23 coagulase positive; 29 coagulase negative) from companion animals in Irish veterinary hospitals. Results Genotyping of a 412 bp fragment of the staphylococcal tuf gene and coagulase testing were carried out on all 52 veterinary samples along with 7 reference strains. In addition, genotyping of the staphylococcal rpoB gene, as well as PCR-RFLP of the pta gene, were performed to definitively identify members of the Staphylococcus intermedius group (SIG). The API Staph 32 correctly identified all S. aureus isolates (11/11), 83% (10/12) of the SIG species, and 66% (19/29) of the coagulase negative species. RapID and Staph-Zym correctly identified 61% (14/23) and 0% (0/23) respectively of the coagulase-positives, and 10% (3/29) and 3% (1/29) respectively of the coagulase-negative species. Conclusions Commercially available phenotypic species identification tests are inadequate for the correct identification of both coagulase negative and coagulase positive staphylococcal species from companion animals