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Sample records for susceptible adult subjects

  1. Air pollution and lung function among susceptible adult subjects: a panel study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marconi Achille

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse health effects at relatively low levels of ambient air pollution have consistently been reported in the last years. We conducted a time-series panel study of subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, asthma, and ischemic heart disease (IHD to evaluate whether daily levels of air pollutants have a measurable impact on the lung function of adult subjects with pre-existing lung or heart diseases. Methods Twenty-nine patients with COPD, asthma, or IHD underwent repeated lung function tests by supervised spirometry in two one-month surveys. Daily samples of coarse (PM10–2.5 and fine (PM2.5 particulate matter were collected by means of dichotomous samplers, and the dust was gravimetrically analyzed. The particulate content of selected metals (cadmium, chrome, iron, nickel, lead, platinum, vanadium, and zinc was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Ambient concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2, carbon monoxide (CO, ozone (O3, and sulphur dioxide (SO2 were obtained from the regional air-quality monitoring network. The relationships between concentrations of air pollutants and lung function parameters were analyzed by generalized estimating equations (GEE for panel data. Results Decrements in lung function indices (FVC and/or FEV1 associated with increasing concentrations of PM2.5, NO2 and some metals (especially zinc and iron were observed in COPD cases. Among the asthmatics, NO2 was associated with a decrease in FEV1. No association between average ambient concentrations of any air pollutant and lung function was observed among IHD cases. Conclusion This study suggests that the short-term negative impact of exposure to air pollutants on respiratory volume and flow is limited to individuals with already impaired respiratory function. The fine fraction of ambient PM seems responsible for the observed effects among COPD cases, with zinc and iron having a potential role via oxidative stress. The

  2. Subjective Wellbeing Among Adults with Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes-Truscott, Elizabeth; Browne, Jessica L; Pouwer, Frans

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the subjective wellbeing of Australian adults with diabetes who completed the Diabetes MILES—Australia survey, investigating by diabetes type and treatment, and by comparing with the subjective wellbeing of the general Australian adult population. In addition, the extent to wh...

  3. Subjective adult identity and casual sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Heidi Ann

    2015-12-01

    A majority of Americans have a casual sexual experience before transitioning to adulthood. Little research has yet to examine how identity influences causal sexual behavior. The current study fills this gap in the literature by examining if subjective adult identity predicts casual sexual behavior net of life course transitions in a national sample of Americans. To answer this research question, the Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health is utilized. Structural equation modeling results show the older and more adult-like individuals feel the less likely they are to report a recent casual sexual partner. Once life course factors are included in the model, subjective identity is no longer associated with casual sex. Practitioners who work with adult populations need to consider how life course transitions influence casual sexual behavior.

  4. Adult Playfulness, Humor Styles, and Subjective Happiness.

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    Yue, Xiao D; Leung, Chun-Lok; Hiranandani, Neelam A

    2016-12-01

    Playfulness has been referred to as a disposition that involves reframing a situation to amuse others and to make the situation more stimulating and enjoyable. It may serve to shift one's perspective when dealing with environmental threats. Despite all the benefits of playfulness towards psychological well-being, it remains a largely understudied subject in psychology, particularly in Chinese societies. Hence, this study examined the association between adult playfulness, humor styles, and subjective happiness among a sample of 166 university students in Hong Kong and 159 students in Guangzhou, who completed a self-administered questionnaire, including the Short Measure for Adult Playfulness, the Chinese Humor Styles Questionnaire, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Results showed that adult playfulness was positively correlated with affiliative humor, self-enhancing humor, and subjective happiness in both Hong Kong and Guangzhou samples. By its implication, highly playful Chinese students preferred using affiliative and self-enhancing humor to amuse themselves and others. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Subjective Oral Health in Dutch Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijsbert H.W. Verrips

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine whether the subjective oral health (SOH of the Dutch adult population was associated with clinical and demographic variables. Methods: A clinical examination was conducted in a sample of 1,018 people from the Dutch city of ‘s-Hertogenbosch. SOH was measured using the Dutch translation of the short form of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-NL14. Results: The average score on the OHIP-NL14 was 2.8 ± 5.9 and 51% of the respondents had a score of 0. Dental status was the most important predictor of SOH. Conclusions:  The SOH in the Dutch adult population was much better than in groups of adults in Australia, the United Kingdom and New Zealand. Nevertheless, there were important variations in SOH related to dental and socio-economic status.

  6. Subjective oral health in Dutch adults

    OpenAIRE

    Verrips, G.H.W.; Schuller, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether the subjective oral health (SOH) of the Dutch adult population was associated with clinical and demographic variables. Methods: A clinical examination was conducted in a sample of 1,018 people from the Dutch city of ‘s-Hertogenbosch. SOH was measured using the Dutch translation of the short form of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-NL14). Results: The average score on the OHIP-NL14 was 2.8 ± 5.9 and 51% of the respondents had a score of 0. Dental status was the mo...

  7. Effect of triclosan on the subgingival microbiota of periodontitis-susceptible subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosling, B; Dahlén, G; Volpe, A; Furuichi, Y; Ramberg, P; Lindhe, J

    1997-12-01

    The present study evaluated the long-term effect of (i) meticulous self-performed, supragingival plaque control and (ii) the use of a triclosan/copolymer containing dentifrice in adult subjects susceptible to destructive periodontitis. 40 individuals were recruited into the trial. 3-5 years prior to the baseline examination, they had all been treated by nonsurgical means- for advanced periodontal disease. During the subsequent maintenance phase, all subjects had at different time intervals exhibited sites with recurrent periodontitis. At a baseline examination, 6 surfaces per tooth were examined regarding bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth, and probing attachment level. The deepest pocket site in each quadrant (i.e. 4 sites per subject) was selected and samples of the subgingival bacteria were taken. At baseline, all volunteers received detailed information on proper oral hygiene techniques. This information was repeated on an individual need basis during the course of the subsequent 36-months. No professional subgingival therapy was delivered between the baseline and the 36-month examinations. The subjects were randomly distributed into 2 equal groups of 20 individuals each, 1 test and 1 control group. The members of the test group were supplied with a fluoridated dentifrice containing triclosan/copolymer (Total, Colgate), while the controls received a corresponding dentifrice but without triclosan/copolymer. The findings demonstrated that in subjects with advanced and recurrent periodontitis, carefully practiced supragingival plaque control had some effects on the subgingival microbiota, but also that this was insufficient to prevent disease progression. In a corresponding group of subjects, however, who used a triclosan/copolymer dentifrice, the subgingival microbiota was reduced in both quantitative and qualitative terms and recurrent periodontitis was almost entirely prevented.

  8. Association between adult height, genetic susceptibility and risk of glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitahara, Cari M; Wang, Sophia S; Melin, Beatrice S; Wang, Zhaoming; Braganza, Melissa; Inskip, Peter D; Albanes, Demetrius; Andersson, Ulrika; Beane Freeman, Laura E; Buring, Julie E; Carreón, Tania; Feychting, Maria; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaziano, J Michael; Giles, Graham G; Hallmans, Goran; Hankinson, Susan E; Henriksson, Roger; Hsing, Ann W; Johansen, Christoffer; Linet, Martha S; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Michaud, Dominique S; Peters, Ulrike; Purdue, Mark P; Rothman, Nathaniel; Ruder, Avima M; Sesso, Howard D; Severi, Gianluca; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Stevens, Victoria L; Visvanathan, Kala; Waters, Martha A; White, Emily; Wolk, Alicja; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Zheng, Wei; Hoover, Robert; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Yeager, Meredith; Chanock, Stephen J; Hartge, Patricia; Rajaraman, Preetha

    2012-01-01

    Background Some, but not all, observational studies have suggested that taller stature is associated with a significant increased risk of glioma. In a pooled analysis of observational studies, we investigated the strength and consistency of this association, overall and for major sub-types, and investigated effect modification by genetic susceptibility to the disease. Methods We standardized and combined individual-level data on 1354 cases and 4734 control subjects from 13 prospective and 2 case–control studies. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for glioma and glioma sub-types were estimated using logistic regression models stratified by sex and adjusted for birth cohort and study. Pooled ORs were additionally estimated after stratifying the models according to seven recently identified glioma-related genetic variants. Results Among men, we found a positive association between height and glioma risk (≥190 vs 170–174 cm, pooled OR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.11–2.61; P-trend = 0.01), which was slightly stronger after restricting to cases with glioblastoma (pooled OR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.17–3.38; P-trend = 0.02). Among women, these associations were less clear (≥175 vs 160–164 cm, pooled OR for glioma = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.70–1.62; P-trend = 0.22; pooled OR for glioblastoma = 1.36, 95% CI: 0.77–2.39; P-trend = 0.04). In general, we did not observe evidence of effect modification by glioma-related genotypes on the association between height and glioma risk. Conclusion An association of taller adult stature with glioma, particularly for men and stronger for glioblastoma, should be investigated further to clarify the role of environmental and genetic determinants of height in the etiology of this disease. PMID:22933650

  9. GIS-Based Integration of Subjective and Objective Weighting Methods for Regional Landslides Susceptibility Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhua Zhou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of landslide susceptibility maps is of great importance due to rapid urbanization. The purpose of this study is to present a method to integrate the subjective weight with objective weight for regional landslide susceptibility mapping on the geographical information system (GIS platform. The analytical hierarchy process (AHP, which is subjective, was employed to weight predictive factors’ contribution to landslide occurrence. The frequency ratio (FR method, which is objective, was used to derive subclasses’ frequency ratio with respect to landslides that indicate the relative importance of a subclass within each predictive factor. A case study was carried out at Tsushima Island, Japan, using a historical inventory of 534 landslides and seven predictive factors: elevation, slope, aspect, terrain roughness index (TRI, lithology, land cover and mean annual precipitation (MAP. The landslide susceptibility index (LSI was calculated using the weighted linear combination of factors’ weights and subclasses’ weights. The study area was classified into five susceptibility zones according to the LSI. In addition, the produced susceptibility map was compared with maps generated using the conventional FR and AHP method and validated using the relative landslide index (RLI. The validation result showed that the proposed method performed better than the conventional application of the FR method and AHP method. The obtained landslide susceptibility maps could serve as a scientific basis for urban planning and landslide hazard management.

  10. The Making of Entrepreneurial Subjectivity in Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siivonen, Päivi; Brunila, Kristiina

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the idea of entrepreneurial subjectivity and the ways in which it is shaped by the entrepreneurial discourse in adult education. As a result, we argue that educational practices related to adults form a particular kind of ideal subjectivity that we refer to as entrepreneurial. In order to understand how this entrepreneurial…

  11. Giftedness and Subjective Well-Being: A Study with Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirthwein, Linda; Rost, Detlef H.

    2011-01-01

    Studies on the well-being of gifted adults are rare, and the available studies are often limited by methodological shortcomings. In a longitudinal project 101 intellectually gifted adults (mean IQ = 136) were compared to 91 adults of average intelligence (mean IQ = 103). Subjective well-being was operationalized by positive and negative…

  12. Cold sore susceptibility gene-1 genotypes affect the expression of herpes labialis in unrelated human subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Kriesel, John D.; Bhatia, Amiteshwar; Thomas, Alun

    2014-01-01

    Our group has recently described a gene on human chromosome 21, the Cold Sore Susceptibility Gene-1 (CSSG-1, also known as C21orf91), which may confer susceptibility to frequent cold sores in humans. We present here a genotype?phenotype analysis of CSSG-1 in a new, unrelated human population. Seven hundred fifty-eight human subjects were enrolled in a case/control Cold Sore Study. CSSG-1 genotyping, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) serotyping, demographic and phenotypic data was available from 6...

  13. Orthodontic treatment in periodontitis-susceptible subjects : a systematic literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Zasciurinskiene, Egle; Lindsten, Rune; Slotte, Christer; Bjerklin, Krister

    2016-01-01

    The aim is to evaluate the literature for clinical scientific data on possible effects of orthodontic treatment on periodontal status in periodontitis-susceptible subjects. A systematic literature review was performed on studies in English using PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Library central databases (1965-2014). By manually searching reference lists of selected studies, we identified additional articles; then we searched these publications: Journal of Periodontology, Periodontology 2000, Jou...

  14. Decoding the Neoliberal Subjectivity in Self-Helping Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moosung

    2017-01-01

    This article explores and explains the subjectivity of self-helping adult learners, as depicted in contemporary, best-selling self-help books. It interrogates how those self-help texts embody particular features of self-helping subjectivity by appropriating neoliberalist perspectives on self and the world. It illuminates four salient features of…

  15. Objective and subjective socioeconomic status and susceptibility to the common cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Sheldon; Alper, Cuneyt M; Doyle, William J; Adler, Nancy; Treanor, John J; Turner, Ronald B

    2008-03-01

    We ask whether subjective socioeconomic status (SES) predicts who develops a common cold when exposed to a cold virus. 193 healthy men and women ages 21-55 years were assessed for subjective (perceived rank) and objective SES, cognitive, affective and social dispositions, and health practices. Subsequently, they were exposed by nasal drops to a rhinovirus or influenza virus and monitored in quarantine for objective signs of illness and self-reported symptoms. Infection, signs and symptoms of the common cold, and clinical illness (infection and significant objective signs of illness). Increased subjective SES was associated with decreased risk for developing a cold for both viruses. This association was independent of objective SES and of cognitive, affective and social disposition that might provide alternative spurious (third factor) explanations for the association. Poorer sleep among those with lesser subjective SES may partly mediate the association between subjective SES and colds. Increased Subjective SES is associated with less susceptibility to upper respiratory infection, and this association is independent of objective SES, suggesting the importance of perceived relative rank to health. Copyright (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Sleep Habits and Susceptibility to Upper Respiratory Illness: the Moderating Role of Subjective Socioeconomic Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Aric A; Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Adler, Nancy E; Hall, Martica; Cohen, Sheldon

    2017-02-01

    Sleep is a predictor of infectious illness that may depend on one's socioeconomic status (SES). This study aimed to investigate the moderating effects of objective and subjective SES on sleep-clinical cold risk link and test whether nasal inflammation serves as a plausible biological pathway. This study combined data (n = 732) from three viral challenge studies. Measures of self-reported sleep and objective and subjective measures of SES were obtained. Participants were quarantined and administrated rhinovirus (RV) or influenza virus and monitored over 5 (RV) or 6 (influenza) days for the development of a cold. Symptom severity, including mucus production and nasal clearance time, and levels of nasal cytokines (interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β) were measured prior to administration and each day during the quarantined period. Subjective SES, but not objective SES, moderated associations between shorter sleep duration and increased likelihood of a clinical cold. Compared to ≥8-hour sleepers, ≤6-hour sleepers with low subjective SES were at increased risk for developing a cold (OR = 2.57, 95% CI 1.10-6.02). There was no association between sleep duration and colds in high subjective SES participants. Among infected individuals who reported low subjective SES, shorter sleep duration was associated with greater mucus production. There was no evidence that markers of nasal inflammation mediated the link between sleep duration and cold susceptibility among those reporting low subjective SES. Subjective SES may reflect an important social factor for understanding vulnerability to and protection against infectious illness among short sleepers.

  17. Mortality of Adult Critically Ill Subjects With Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Regis Goulart; Tonietto, Tulio Frederico; Duso, Bruno Achutti; Maccari, Juçara Gasparetto; de Oliveira, Roselaine Pinheiro; Rutzen, William; Madeira, Laura; Ascoli, Aline; Hessler, Rachel; Morandi, Paola; Cremonese, Ricardo Viegas; Neto, Felippe Leopoldo Dexheimer; Tagliari, Luciana; de Campos Balzano, Patrícia; Barth, José Hervê Diel; Teixeira, Cassiano

    2017-05-01

    Cancer patients may require intensive care support for postoperative care, complications associated with underlying malignancy, or toxicities related to cancer therapy. The higher mortality rates found in this population than in the population of ICU patients without cancer may be attributable to confounding due to a higher prevalence of multiple organic dysfunctions at ICU admission in patients with malignancy; however, data regarding this hypothesis are scarce. Accordingly, we performed the present study to compare the crude and propensity score-matched mortality rates between adult subjects with and without cancer admitted to a mixed medical-surgical ICU. We conducted a retrospective analysis of a comprehensive longitudinal ICU database in a tertiary referral hospital in Southern Brazil. All adult subjects who were admitted to the ICU from January 2008 to December 2014 were evaluated. Crude and propensity score-matched all-cause 30-d mortality rates of critically ill subjects with cancer were compared with those of critically ill subjects without cancer. A total of 4,221 subjects were evaluated. The survival analysis revealed that the crude mortality rate was higher among subjects with cancer than among subjects without cancer (18.7% vs 10.2%, P < .001). However, after matching by propensity score, the 30-d mortality rates of subjects with and without cancer were similar (18.5% vs 15.2%, P = .17). The present study failed to show an association between malignancy and all-cause 30-d mortality rate in adult subjects admitted to a mixed medical-surgical ICU. The propensity score-matched analysis showed no evidence of excessive mortality due to cancer diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  18. Gender difference in acquired seizure susceptibility in adult rats after early complex febrile seizures.

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    Dai, Yun-Jian; Xu, Zheng-Hao; Feng, Bo; Xu, Ceng-Lin; Zhao, Hua-Wei; Wu, Deng-Chang; Hu, Wei-Wei; Chen, Zhong

    2014-12-01

    Gender differences are involved in many neurological disorders including epilepsy. However, little is known about the effect of gender difference on the risk of epilepsy in adults with a specific early pathological state such as complex febrile seizures (FSs) in infancy. Here we used a well-established complex FS model in rats and showed that: (1) the susceptibility to seizures induced by hyperthermia, pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), and maximal electroshock (MES) was similar in male and female rat pups, while males were more susceptible to PTZ- and MES-induced seizures than age-matched females in normal adult rats; (2) adult rats with complex FSs in infancy acquired higher seizure susceptibility than normal rats; importantly, female FS rats were more susceptible to PTZ and MES than male FS rats; and (3) the protein expression of interleukin-1β, an inflammatory factor associated with seizure susceptibility, was higher in adult FS females than in males, which may reflect a gender-difference phenomenon of seizure susceptibility. Our results provide direct evidence that the acquired seizure susceptibility after complex FSs is gender-dependent.

  19. Measles outbreak reveals measles susceptibility among adults in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    5 Namibia Country Office, Center for Global Health, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Windhoek, Namibia. 6 World Health Organization Field ... The wide age distribution of cases indicated measles-susceptible individuals accumulated over several decades prior to the start of the outbreak. S Afr Med J 2016 ...

  20. Condylar volume and surface in Caucasian young adult subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Cordasco Giancarlo; Pagnoni Mario; Polimeni Antonella; Nucera Riccardo; Saccucci Matteo; Tecco Simona; Festa Felice; Iannetti Giorgio

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background There have been no quantitative standards for volumetric and surface measurements of the mandibular condyle in Caucasian population. However, the recently developed cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) system allows measurement of these parameters with high accuracy. Methods CBCT was used to measure the condylar volume, surface and the volume to surface ratio, called the Morphometric Index (MI), of 300 temporo-mandibular joints (TMJ) in 150 Caucasian young adult subjects, ...

  1. Subjective Age and Changes in Memory in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R; Caudroit, Johan; Terracciano, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    The subjective experience of aging, indexed by how old or young an individual feels, has been related to well-being and health-related outcomes among older adults. The present study examined whether subjective age is associated with memory level and changes, as indexed by measures of immediate and delayed recall. A complementary purpose was to test the mediating role of depressive symptoms and physical activity in the relation between subjective age and memory changes. Participants were drawn from three waves of the Health and Retirement Study. Subjective age, baseline memory measures, and covariates were assessed during the 2008 wave (N = 5809), depressive symptoms and physical activity were assessed again in the 2010 wave, and the follow-up memory measures were assessed in the 2012 wave. Regression analyses that included demographic, metabolic, and vascular covariates revealed that a younger subjective age at baseline was associated with better concurrent performance and with slower decline in immediate and delayed recall. Bootstrap procedures indicated that fewer depressive symptoms mediated these associations. Additional analyses revealed that memory level and change were unrelated to changes in subjective age. Beyond chronological age, the subjective experience of age is associated with cognitive aging. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. The susceptibility of adult schistosomes to immune attrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Agnew

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Mouse infection models are described that demonstrate reduction of egg production in Schistosoma haematobium infections and both worm loss and reduced fecundity in S. bovis infections. Neither phenomenum could be shown in S. mansoni infected mice. The immunological basis for these anti-adult responses was inferred by comparison with infections in T-cell deprived mice and by the serum transfer of the ability to reduce a S. bovis worm burden into immunocompromised hosts. Vaccination with irradiation attenuated parasites was also shown to have consequences for the adults of a challenge infections of S. haematobium and S. bovis specifically. Prior vaccination resulted in an abrogation of the anti-fecundity and adult worm elimination that occurred in non-vaccinated similary infected mice. hese models are being used to define the targets and mechanisms involved in anti-adult attrition. A serological assay, quantitation of a circulating antigen (CAA has been assessed for its ability to measure worm burdens of different species of schistosome in mice. This assay will be used to question whether anti-adult immunity contributes to the pattern of infection with S. mansoni and S. haematobium in man.

  3. Subjective Age and Cystatin C Among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio; Neupert, Shevaun

    2017-10-16

    Cystatin C (CysC) is a marker of kidney function that is relevant for the health and cognition of older adults. Little is known about the link between psychological factors and CysC. Therefore, the present study examined whether subjective age is related to CysC level and changes in CysC over time. Participants were 5,066 individuals drawn from the Health and Retirement Study aged from 50 to 107 years (60% women, mean age = 69.36 years, SD = 9.54). They provided data on subjective age, demographic covariates, and CysC at baseline. CysC was assessed again 4 years later. Analysis revealed that an older subjective age was related to higher level of CysC at baseline and to an increase in CysC over 4 years, controlling for demographic factors. An older subjective age was also related to higher risk of exceeding the clinical threshold of CysC at baseline and 4 years later. Additional analysis revealed that disease burden, depressive symptoms, physical inactivity, and BMI partly mediated these associations. The present study provides new evidence on the role of subjective age as a psychological factor associated with individuals' risk of kidney dysfunction, an association beyond chronological age.

  4. Infectious diseases and immunological responses in adult subjects with lifetime untreated, congenital GH deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Viviane C; Barrios, Mônica R; Salvatori, Roberto; de Almeida, Roque Pacheco; de Melo, Enaldo V; Nascimento, Ana C S; de Jesus, Amélia Ribeiro; Aguiar-Oliveira, Manuel H

    2016-10-01

    Growth hormone is important for the development and function of the immune system, but there is controversy on whether growth hormone deficiency is associated to immune disorders. A model of isolated growth hormone deficiency may clarify if the lack of growth hormone is associated with increased susceptibility to infections, or with an altered responsiveness of the immune system. We have studied the frequency of infectious diseases and the immune function in adults with congenital, untreated isolated growth hormone deficiency. In a cross-sectional study, 35 adults with isolated growth hormone deficiency due to a homozygous mutation in the growth hormone releasing hormone receptor gene and 31 controls were submitted to a clinical questionnaire, physical examination serology for tripanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, HIV, tetanus, hepatitis B and C, and serum total immunoglobulin G, M, E and A measurement. The immune response was evaluated in a subset of these subjects by skin tests and response to vaccination for hepatitis B, tetanus, and bacillus Calmette-Guérin. There was no difference between the groups in history of infectious diseases and baseline serology. Isolated growth hormone deficiency subjects had lower total IgG, but within normal range. There was no difference in the response to any of the vaccinations or in the positivity to protein Purified Derived, streptokinase or candidin. Adult untreated isolated growth hormone deficiency does not cause an increased frequency of infectious diseases, and does not alter serologic tests, but is associated with lower total IgG levels, without detectable clinical impact.

  5. Developmental Trajectory of McGurk Effect Susceptibility in Children and Adults With Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narinesingh, Cindy; Goltz, Herbert C; Raashid, Rana Arham; Wong, Agnes M F

    2015-03-05

    The McGurk effect is an audiovisual illusion that involves the concurrent presentation of a phoneme (auditory syllable) and an incongruent viseme (visual syllable). Adults with amblyopia show less susceptibility to this illusion than visually normal controls, even when viewing binocularly. The present study investigated the developmental trajectory of McGurk effect susceptibility in adults, older children (10-17 years), and younger children (4-9 years) with amblyopia. A total of 62 participants with amblyopia (22 adults, 12 older children, 28 younger children) and 66 visually normal controls (25 adults, 17 older children, 24 younger children) viewed videos that combined phonemes and visemes, and were asked to report what they heard. Videos with congruent (auditory and visual matching) and incongruent (auditory and visual not matching) stimuli were presented. Incorrect responses on incongruent trials correspond to high McGurk effect susceptibility, indicating that the viseme influenced the phoneme. Participants with amblyopia (28.0% ± 3.3%) demonstrated a less consistent McGurk effect than visually normal controls (15.2% ± 2.3%) across all age groups (P = 0.0024). Effect susceptibility increased with age (P = 0.0003) for amblyopic participants and controls. Both groups showed a similar response pattern to different speakers and syllables, but amblyopic participants invariably demonstrated a less consistent effect. Amblyopia is associated with reduced McGurk effect susceptibility in children and adults. Our findings indicate that the differences do not simply indicate delayed development in children with amblyopia; rather, they represent permanent alterations that persist into adulthood. Copyright 2015 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  6. Recapitulation of Clinical Individual Susceptibility to Drug-Induced QT Prolongation in Healthy Subjects Using iPSC-Derived Cardiomyocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadahiro Shinozawa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To predict drug-induced serious adverse events (SAE in clinical trials, a model using a panel of cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs of individuals with different susceptibilities could facilitate major advancements in translational research in terms of safety and pharmaco-economics. However, it is unclear whether hiPSC-derived cells can recapitulate interindividual differences in drug-induced SAE susceptibility in populations not having genetic disorders such as healthy subjects. Here, we evaluated individual differences in SAE susceptibility based on an in vitro model using hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs as a pilot study. hiPSCs were generated from blood samples of ten healthy volunteers with different susceptibilities to moxifloxacin (Mox-induced QT prolongation. Different Mox-induced field potential duration (FPD prolongation values were observed in the hiPSC-CMs from each individual. Interestingly, the QT interval was significantly positively correlated with FPD at clinically relevant concentrations (r > 0.66 in multiple analyses including concentration-QT analysis. Genomic analysis showed no interindividual significant differences in known target-binding sites for Mox and other drugs such as the hERG channel subunit, and baseline QT ranges were normal. The results suggest that hiPSC-CMs from healthy subjects recapitulate susceptibility to Mox-induced QT prolongation and provide proof of concept for in vitro preclinical trials.

  7. No Clinically Significant Difference Between Adult and Pediatric IKDC Subjective Knee Evaluation Scores in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegmeier, Nicole; Oak, Sameer R; O'Rourke, Colin; Strnad, Greg; Spindler, Kurt P; Jones, Morgan; Farrow, Lutul D; Andrish, Jack; Saluan, Paul

    Two versions of the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) Subjective Knee Evaluation form currently exist: the original version (1999) and a recently modified pediatric-specific version (2011). Comparison of the pediatric IKDC with the adult version in the adult population may reveal that either version could be used longitudinally. We hypothesize that the scores for the adult IKDC and pediatric IKDC will not be clinically different among adult patients aged 18 to 50 years. Randomized crossover study design. Level 2. The study consisted of 100 participants, aged 18 to 50 years, who presented to orthopaedic outpatient clinics with knee problems. All participants completed both adult and pediatric versions of the IKDC in random order with a 10-minute break in between. We used a paired t test to test for a difference between the scores and a Welch's 2-sample t test to test for equivalence. A least-squares regression model was used to model adult scores as a function of pediatric scores, and vice versa. A paired t test revealed a statistically significant 1.6-point difference between the mean adult and pediatric scores. However, the 95% confidence interval (0.54-2.66) for this difference did not exceed our a priori threshold of 5 points, indicating that this difference was not clinically important. Equivalence testing with an equivalence region of 5 points further supported this finding. The adult and pediatric scores had a linear relationship and were highly correlated with an R2 of 92.6%. There is no clinically relevant difference between the scores of the adult and pediatric IKDC forms in adults, aged 18 to 50 years, with knee conditions. Either form, adult or pediatric, of the IKDC can be used in this population for longitudinal studies. If the pediatric version is administered in adolescence, it can be used for follow-up into adulthood.

  8. Subjective experiences of older adults practicing taiji and qigong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Decelle, Sharon; Reed, Mike; Rosengren, Karl; Schlagal, Robert; Greene, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a qualitative study following a 6-month Taiji (T'ai Chi)/Qigong (Ch'i Kung) intervention for older adults. The researchers conducted in-depth interviews of eight selected participants who elected to continue practicing Taiji after the intervention ended, in order to explore their subjective experiences of Taiji's effects and their motivations for continuing to practice. We created a Layers Model to capture the significance and meaning of the multidimensionality of their reported experiences. Participants not only reported simple benefits along five dimensions of experience (physical, mental, emotional, social and spiritual) but also described complex multidimensional experiences. Overall findings indicate that participants derived a very wide variety of perceived benefits, the most meaningful being a felt sense of body-mind-spirit integration. Our results support the important role of qualitative studies in researching the effects of Taiji and Qigong.

  9. Clues of subjective social status among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, François; Roos, J Micah; Combs, R M

    2015-07-01

    We investigate determinants of subjective social status (SSS) as measured by respondents placing themselves on a ten-rung ladder from least to most "money", "education" and "respected job", in a large sample of young adults. The most potent clues of SSS are proximate in the life course, reflecting educational attainment and current socioeconomic and job situation, rather than distal characteristics such as family background, although relatively distal High school GPA has a lingering effect. Additional analyses reveal that College selectivity has a substantial impact on SSS, net of other variables in the model; Currently married does not significantly contribute to SSS, but contrary to some expectations Number of children significantly lowers SSS. We find no evidence of greater "status borrowing" by women as associations of SSS with shared household characteristics (Household income, Household assets, Home ownership) do not differ by gender. Our findings for these young adults support the conclusion of earlier research that SSS reflects a "cognitive averaging" of standard dimensions of socioeconomic status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Condylar volume and surface in Caucasian young adult subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordasco Giancarlo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been no quantitative standards for volumetric and surface measurements of the mandibular condyle in Caucasian population. However, the recently developed cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT system allows measurement of these parameters with high accuracy. Methods CBCT was used to measure the condylar volume, surface and the volume to surface ratio, called the Morphometric Index (MI, of 300 temporo-mandibular joints (TMJ in 150 Caucasian young adult subjects, with varied malocclusions, without pain or dysfunction of TMJs. Results The condylar volume was 691.26 ± 54.52 mm3 in males and 669.65 ± 58.80 mm3 in, and was significantly higher (p2 in males and 394.77 ± 60.73 mm2 in females. Furthermore, the condylar volume (693.61 ± 62.82 mm3 in the right TMJ was significantly higher than in the left (666.99 ± 48.67 mm3, p 2 in the right TMJ and 389.41 ± 56.63 mm2 in the left TMJ; t = 3.29; p Conclusion These data from temporomandibular joints of patients without pain or clinical dysfunction might serve as examples of normal TMJ's in the general population not seeking orthodontic care.

  11. Infection Susceptibility in Gastric Intrinsic Factor (Vitamin B12-Defective Mice Is Subject to Maternal Influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynda Mottram

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mice harboring a mutation in the gene encoding gastric intrinsic factor (Gif, a protein essential for the absorption of vitamin B12/cobalamin (Cbl, have potential as a model to explore the role of vitamins in infection. The levels of Cbl in the blood of Giftm1a/tm1a mutant mice were influenced by the maternal genotype, with offspring born to heterozygous (high Cbl, F1 mothers exhibiting a significantly higher serum Cbl level than those born to homozygous (low Cbl, F2 equivalents. Low Cbl levels correlated with susceptibility to an infectious challenge with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium or Citrobacter rodentium, and this susceptibility phenotype was moderated by Cbl administration. Transcriptional and metabolic profiling revealed that Cbl deficient mice exhibited a bioenergetic shift similar to a metabolic phenomenon commonly found in cancerous cells under hypoxic conditions known as the Warburg effect, with this metabolic effect being exacerbated further by infection. Our findings demonstrate a role for Cbl in bacterial infection, with potential general relevance to dietary deficiency and infection susceptibility.

  12. Typing of Streptococcus mutans strains isolated from caries free and susceptible subjects by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Tahmourespour, Arezoo; Nabinejad, Abdolreza; Shirian, Hannaneh; Rosa, Edvaldo Antonio Ribeiro; Tahmourespour, Sanaz

    2013-01-01

    This study was evaluated the clonal diversity of Streptococcus mutans in caries-free and caries-active subjects using MLEE. Strains from caries-free subjects were grouped in a single taxon. Unrooted dendrogram showed that different strains clustered in four different clades, also showed that more than one clonal type can be found in a same individual.

  13. Analysis of the cephalometric pattern of Brazilian achondroplastic adult subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Cardoso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the position of the cranial base, maxilla, and mandible of Brazilian achondroplastic adult subjects through cephalometric measurements of the cranio-dento-facial complex, and to compare the results to normal patterns established in literature. METHODS: Fourteen achondroplastic adult subjects were evaluated based on their radiographic cephalometric measurements, which were obtained using the tracings proposed by Downs, Steinner, Bjork, Ricketts and McNamara. Statistical comparison of the means was performed with Student's t test. RESULTS: When compared to normal patterns, the cranial base presented a smaller size in both its anterior and posterior portions, the cranial base angle was acute and there was an anterior projection of the porion; the maxilla was found to be smaller in size in both the anteroposterior and transversal directions, it was inclined anteriorly with anterior vertical excess, and retropositioned in relation to the cranial base and to the mandible; the mandible presented a normal-sized ramus, a decreased body and transverse dimension, a tendency towards vertical growth and clockwise rotation, and it was slightly protruded in relation to the cranial base and maxilla. CONCLUSION: Although we observed wide individual variation in some parameters, it was possible to identify significant differences responsible for the phenotypical characteristics of achondroplastic patients.OBJETIVO: avaliar o tamanho e o posicionamento da base do crânio, da maxila e da mandíbula de indivíduos acondroplásicos brasileiros adultos, a partir de medidas cefalométricas do complexo dentoesqueletofacial. Confrontar os dados obtidos aos padrões de normalidade estabelecidos na literatura. MÉTODOS: foram avaliados 14 indivíduos acondroplásicos adultos, utilizando algumas grandezas cefalométricas radiográficas obtidas a partir dos traçados preconizados por Downs, Steinner, Björk, Ricketts e Mc

  14. Condylar volume and surface in Caucasian young adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecco, Simona; Saccucci, Matteo; Nucera, Riccardo; Polimeni, Antonella; Pagnoni, Mario; Cordasco, Giancarlo; Festa, Felice; Iannetti, Giorgio

    2010-12-31

    There have been no quantitative standards for volumetric and surface measurements of the mandibular condyle in Caucasian population. However, the recently developed cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) system allows measurement of these parameters with high accuracy. CBCT was used to measure the condylar volume, surface and the volume to surface ratio, called the Morphometric Index (MI), of 300 temporo-mandibular joints (TMJ) in 150 Caucasian young adult subjects, with varied malocclusions, without pain or dysfunction of TMJs. The condylar volume was 691.26 ± 54.52 mm3 in males and 669.65 ± 58.80 mm3 in, and was significantly higher (pcondylar surface, although without statistical significance (406.02 ± 55.22 mm2 in males and 394.77 ± 60.73 mm2 in females).Furthermore, the condylar volume (693.61 ± 62.82 mm3 ) in the right TMJ was significantly higher than in the left (666.99 ± 48.67 mm3, p condylar surface (411.24 ± 57.99 mm2 in the right TMJ and 389.41 ± 56.63 mm2 in the left TMJ; t = 3.29; p < 0.01). The MI is 1.72 ± 0.17 for the whole sample, with no significant difference between males and females or the right and left sides. These data from temporomandibular joints of patients without pain or clinical dysfunction might serve as examples of normal TMJ's in the general population not seeking orthodontic care.

  15. Low maternal care exacerbates adult stress susceptibility in the chronic mild stress rat model of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Kim; Dyrvig, Mads; Bouzinova, Elena V

    2012-01-01

    to a differential stress-coping ability. Thus rats fostered by low maternal care dams became more prone to adopt a stress-susceptible phenotype developing an anhedonic-like condition. Moreover, low maternal care offspring had lower weight gain and lower locomotion, with no additive effect of stress. Subchronic......In the present study we report the finding that the quality of maternal care, in early life, increased the susceptibility to stress exposure in adulthood, when rats were exposed to the chronic mild stress paradigm. Our results indicate that high, as opposed to low maternal care, predisposed rats...... exposure to chronic mild stress induced an increase in faecal corticosterone metabolites, which was only significant in rats from low maternal care dams. Examination of glucocorticoid receptor exon 17 promoter methylation in unchallenged adult, maternally characterized rats, showed an insignificant...

  16. Thymidylate synthase (TS tandem repeat promoter polymorphism and susceptibility to colorectal cancer of romanian subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai TOMA

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The risk of colorectal cancer (CRC is influence by polymorphisms located in the genes encoding enzymes of the folate pathway. The aim of this study was to evaluate if 2R/3R TS (rs34743033 polymorphism is involved in predisposition for colorectal in Romanian subjects. In the present case-control study, 75 sporadic CRC subjects and 60 healthy controls were genotyped by PCR method. The frequency of 3R/3R genotype was 40% in control group and 42.7% in cancer group. We found that there was no statistically significant association between the risk for CRC and 2R/3R TS polymorphism in Romanian subjects.

  17. Susceptibility of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae and adults to four insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sheppard, D Craig; Joyce, John A

    2002-06-01

    Dosage-mortality regressions were determined for black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), larvae fed cyromazine or pyriproxifen treated media. Cyromazine LC50 for larvae dying before becoming prepupae ranged from 0.25 to 0.28 ppm with dosage-mortality regression slopes between 5.79 and 12.04. Cyromazine LC50s for larvae dying before emergence ranged from 0.13 to 0.19 ppm with dosage-mortality regression slopes between 3.94 and 7.69. Pyriproxifen dosage-mortality regressions were not generated for larvae failing to become prepupae since <32% mortality was recorded at the highest concentration of 1,857 ppm. LC50s for larvae failing to become adults ranged from 0.10 to 0.12 ppm with dosage mortality-regression slopes between 1.67 and 2.32. Lambda-cyhalothrin and permethrin dosage-mortality regressions were determined for wild adult black soldier flies and house flies, Musca domestica L., and for susceptible house flies. Our results indicate that the wild house fly, unlike the black soldier fly, population was highly resistant to each of these pyrethroids. Regression slopes for black soldier flies exposed to lambda-cyhalothrin were twice as steep as those determined for the wild house fly strain. Accordingly, LC50s for the black soldier fly and susceptible house fly were 10- to 30-fold lower than those determined for wild house flies. The differential sensitivity between wild black soldier flies and house flies might be due to behavioral differences. Adult house flies usually remain in animal facilities with the possibility of every adult receiving pesticide exposure, while black soldier fly adults are typically present only during emergence and oviposition thereby limiting their exposure.

  18. Matrix metalloproteinase 3 polymorphisms as a potential marker of enhanced susceptibility to lung cancer in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Brzóska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction and objective[/b]. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is often accompanied by lung cancer. Among the genes that may play a role in the occurrence of COPD and lung cancer are those encoding the proteolytic enzymes, such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and their tissue inhibitors. The objective of this study was to find MMPs-associated markers useful in the identification of COPD subjects with increased susceptibility to developing lung cancer. [b]Materials and methods[/b]. We compared the frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes coding for matrix proteinases ([i]MMP1, MMP2, MMP3, MMP9, MMP12[/i] as well as tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases ([i]TIMP1[/i] in two groups of subjects: COPD patients (54 subjects and COPD patients diagnosed for lung cancer occurrence (53 subjects.The levels of the respective proteins in blood serum were also analyzed. [b]Results[/b]. The frequencies of 2 genotypes, [i]MMP3[/i] rs3025058 and MMP3 rs678815, were significantly different between the studied groups. In both cases, more heterozygotes and less homozygotes (both types were observed in the COPD group than in the COPD + cancer group. A significantly higher TIMP1 level in blood serum was observed in the COPD + cancer group than in the COPD group. There were no statistically significant differences in[i] MMPs[/i] blood levels between the studied groups. In addition, no genotype-associated differences in [i]TIMP1[/i] or[i] MMPs[/i] blood levels were observed. [b]Conclusions[/b]. Homozygocity for [i]MMP3[/i] rs3025058 and rs678815 polymorphisms is a potential marker of enhanced susceptibility to lung cancer development among COPD subjects.

  19. Study of Associated Genetic Variants in Indian Subjects Reveals the Basis of Ethnicity Related Differences in Susceptibility to Venous Thromboembolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babita Kumari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic variants linked with the susceptibility of individuals to VTE are well known; however, the studies explaining the ethnicity based difference in susceptibility to VTE are limited. Present study assesses mutations in six candidate genes contributing to the etiology of VTE in Indian subjects. The study comprised 93 VTE patients and 102 healthy controls. A PCR-RFLP based analysis was performed for nine mutations in the following genes associated with VTE: favtor V Leiden (FVL, prothrombin, tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI, fibrinogen-beta, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1, and methylene tetrahydrofolatereductase (MTHFR. All the subjects were found to be monomorphic for FVL 1691G/A, prothrombin 20210G/A and TFPI −536C/T mutations. The mutation in the MTHFR gene (677C/T was observed only in patients. Contrarily, higher frequency of mutation in the PAI-1 −844G/A and the fibrinogen-β −455G/A was observed in controls in comparison to the patients. This study suggests that the PAI-1 −844G/A and fibrinogen-β −455G/A could be protective variants against VTE in Indians. While MTHFR 677C/T mutation was found to be associated, in contrast to other populations, the established genetic variants FVL 1691G/A, prothrombin 20210G/A, and TFPI −536C/T may not be associated with VTE in Indians thus revealing the basis of ethnicity related differences in susceptibility of Indians to VTE.

  20. Identification of Susceptibility Genes of Adult Asthma in French Canadian Women

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    Jean-Christophe Bérubé

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Susceptibility genes of asthma may be more successfully identified by studying subgroups of phenotypically similar asthma patients. This study aims to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with asthma in French Canadian adult women. A pooling-based genome-wide association study was performed in 240 allergic asthmatic and 120 allergic nonasthmatic women. The top associated SNPs were selected for individual genotyping in an extended cohort of 349 asthmatic and 261 nonasthmatic women. The functional impact of asthma-associated SNPs was investigated in a lung expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL mapping study (n=1035. Twenty-one of the 38 SNPs tested by individual genotyping showed P values lower than 0.05 for association with asthma. Cis-eQTL analyses supported the functional contribution of rs17801353 associated with C3AR1 (P=7.90E-10. The asthma risk allele for rs17801353 is associated with higher mRNA expression levels of C3AR1 in lung tissue. In silico functional characterization of the asthma-associated SNPs also supported the contribution of C3AR1 and additional genes including SYNE1, LINGO2, and IFNG-AS1. This pooling-based GWAS in French Canadian adult women followed by lung eQTL mapping suggested C3AR1 as a functional locus associated with asthma. Additional susceptibility genes were suggested in this homogenous subgroup of asthma patients.

  1. Salivary immunoglobulin A and serum antibodies to Streptococcus mutans ribosomal preparations in dental caries-free and caries-susceptible human subjects.

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory, R.L.; Filler, S J; Michalek, S M; McGhee, J R

    1986-01-01

    Caries-free subjects or individuals with low caries susceptibility exhibited significantly higher (P less than 0.001) levels of naturally occurring salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) and serum IgG, IgA, and IgM antibodies to a Streptococcus mutans ribosomal preparation than subjects with high caries susceptibility. Absorption of saliva and serum samples with S. mutans ribosomal preparations, but not with other S. mutans antigens or with Escherichia coli and Neisseria gonorrhoeae ribosomal prepar...

  2. Subjective wellbeing among adults with diabetes : Results from Diabetes MILES—Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmes-truscott, Elizabeth; Browne, Jessica L.; Pouwer, F.; Speight, Jane; Cummins, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the subjective wellbeing of Australian adults with diabetes who completed the Diabetes MILES—Australia survey, investigating by diabetes type and treatment, and by comparing with the subjective wellbeing of the general Australian adult population. In addition, the extent to which

  3. GC-MS/MS detects potential pregabalin abuse in susceptible subjects' hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianni, Federica; Aroni, Kyriaki; Gili, Alessio; Sardella, Roccaldo; Bacci, Mauro; Lancia, Massimo; Natalini, Benedetto; Gambelunghe, Cristiana

    2017-12-07

    Pregabalin, a GABA analogue, binds to the alpha 2 delta subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels. It is recognised as efficacious in pathologies such as epilepsy, neuropathic pain, and anxiety disorders. Since pregabalin prescriptions have increased worldwide, reports of its abuse have been accumulating, mainly in patients with opioid abuse disorders. The present study investigated potential pregabalin abuse by means of hair analysis, a matrix that provides valuable retrospective information. Half of the pool of 280 susceptible patients had been occasional drug users and were being monitored for driving licence renewals. The other 140 patients had a history of opiate dependency and were monitored to assess compliance with methadone therapy. In view of determining pregabalin in hair samples, it was extracted in methanol, successfully derivatised to give the ethyl chloroformate derivative, and finally pregabalin was analysed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Selectivity, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, recovery, intra- and inter-day precision, and accuracy of the quantification procedure were appraised. Pregabalin limits of detection and quantification were 30 pg/mg and 50 pg/mg, respectively. We found 10.7% of hair samples from methadone patients and 4.29% from occasional drug users were positive to pregabalin without medical prescription. The mean pregabalin concentration in hair was higher than in consumers with medical indications (1.45 ng/mg vs 0.74 ng/mg). These results suggest that pregabalin possesses a significant abuse potential particularly among individuals attending opiate dependence services and that pregabalin abuse is a serious emerging issue, which should be carefully monitored. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Leukocyte profile of adult Nigerian subjects with acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Leukocyte levels are evidently useful in trauma assessment, prognostication and management.1 Leukocytosis is a known physiologic response to trauma 2 but suggested to be absent among Africans origin3. The aim of present study is to investigate the existence of leukocytosis among adult Nigerians who ...

  5. Residual susceptibility to measles among young adults in Victoria, Australia following a national targeted measles-mumps-rubella vaccination campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leydon Jennie A

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Past measles immunisation policies in Australia have resulted in a cohort of young adults who have been inadequately vaccinated, but who also have low levels of naturally acquired immunity because immunisation programs have decreased the circulation of wild virus. A measles-mumps-rubella (MMR immunisation campaign aimed at addressing this susceptibility to measles among young adults was conducted in Australia in 2001–2. By estimating age-specific immunity, we aimed to evaluate the success of this campaign in the state of Victoria. Methods We conducted serosurveys after the young adult MMR program at state and national levels to estimate immunity among young adults born between 1968–82. We compared results of the Victorian (state surveys with the Victorian component of the national surveys and compared both surveys with surveys conducted before the campaign. We also reviewed all laboratory confirmed measles cases in Victoria between 2000–4. Results The Victorian state serosurveys indicated no significant change in immunity of the cohort following the young adult MMR campaign (83.9% immune pre and 85.5% immune post campaign while the Victorian component of the national serosurvey indicated a significant decline in immunity (91.0% to 84.2%; p = 0.006. Both surveys indicated about 15% susceptibility to measles among young Victorian adults after the campaign. Measles outbreaks in Victoria between 2000–4 confirmed the susceptibility of young adults. Outbreaks involved a median of 2.5 cases with a median age of 24.5 years. Conclusion In Victoria, the young adult MMR program appears to have had no effect on residual susceptibility to measles among the 1968–82 birth cohort. Young adults in Victoria, as in other countries where past immunisation policies have left a residual susceptible cohort, represent a potential problem for the maintenance of measles elimination.

  6. Larval competition alters susceptibility of adult Aedes mosquitoes to dengue infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alto, Barry W; Lounibos, L Philip; Mores, Christopher N; Reiskind, Michael H

    2008-02-22

    Dengue, the most important human arboviral disease, is transmitted primarily by Aedes aegypti and, to a lesser extent, by Aedes albopictus. The current distributions of these invasive species overlap and are affected by interspecific larval competition in their container habitats. Here we report that competition also enhances dengue infection and dissemination rates in one of these two vector species. We determined the effects of competition on adult A. aegypti and A. albopictus, comparing their susceptibility to infection with a Southeast Asian strain of dengue-2 virus. High levels of intra- or interspecific competition among larvae enhanced the susceptibility of A. albopictus to dengue virus infection and potential for transmission, as indicated by disseminated infections. Doubling the number of competing larvae (A. albopictus or A. aegypti), led to a significant (more than 60%) increase in the proportion of A. albopictus with disseminated dengue-2 infection. Competition-enhanced vector competence appears to result from a reduction in 'barriers' (morphological or physiological) to virus infection and dissemination and may contribute to the importance of A. albopictus in dengue transmission. Similar results for other unrelated arboviruses suggest that larval competition, common in mosquitoes, should be considered in estimates of vector competence for pathogens that infect humans.

  7. Perinatal Nicotine Exposure Increases Obesity Susceptibility in Adult Male Rat Offspring by Altering Early Adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jie; Zhang, Wan-Xia; Rao, Yi-Song; Xue, Jing-Ling; Wang, Fei-Fei; Zhang, Li; Yan, You-E

    2016-11-01

    The present study aims to evaluate whether perinatal nicotine (NIC) exposure increases obesity susceptibility in adult male rat offspring by altering early adipogenesis. NIC was sc administered (2.0 mg/kg per day) to pregnant rats from gestational day 9 to the time of weaning (postnatal day 28). At weaning, NIC-exposed male pups had an increased body weight and inguinal sc fat mass and a decreased average cell area of adipocyte, which was accompanied by an overexpression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the epididymal white adipose tissue. Additionally, the hepatic lipogenic gene levels from NIC-exposed male pups were also affected. At 12 and 26 weeks of age, body weight and fat mass were increased, whereas there was no change in food intake in NIC-exposed male offspring. Adipogenic and lipogenic genes, glucose transporter 4, and leptin mRNA levels were increased, whereas adiponectin mRNA levels were decreased in the epididymal white adipose tissue of NIC-exposed males. The hepatic lipogenic gene expression of NIC-exposed males was increased. NIC-exposed male offspring showed normal glycemia and a higher serum insulin level, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function. Furthermore, the NIC-exposed male offspring showed higher serum lipids and Castelli index I and lower nonesterified fatty acid. At 26 weeks, in the ip glucose and insulin tolerance tests, the glucose clearance was delayed, and the area under the curve was higher in the NIC-exposed male offspring. In conclusion, perinatal NIC exposure increased obesity susceptibility in adult male rat offspring by altering early adipogenesis.

  8. Subjective burden among spousal and adult-child informal caregivers of older adults: results from a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenkamp, Marloes; Hagedoorn, Mariët; Slaets, Joris; Stolk, Ronald; Wittek, Rafael; Smidt, Nynke

    2016-12-07

    Pressures on informal caregivers are likely to increase due to increasing life expectancy and health care costs, which stresses the importance of prevention of subjective burden. The present study examined the correlates of overall subjective burden and multiple burden dimensions among spousal and adult-child caregivers of Dutch older adults, both cross-sectional and longitudinal (12-months follow-up). In 2010 and 2011 baseline and follow-up data was collected in a sample of informal caregivers and care recipients in the Northern provinces of the Netherlands. Subjective burden included 7 burden dimensions and a summary score for overall subjective burden, based on the Care-Related Quality of Life Instrument (CarerQoL-7D). Objective stressors were the time investment in caregiving (hours of household care, personal care, practical care) and the health situation of the care recipient, including multimorbidity, functional limitations (Katz Index of Independence Basic Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL), and cognitive functioning problems (EQ-5D + C). Correlates of subjective burden were evaluated with linear and logistic regression analyses. The sample consisted of 356 caregivers at baseline (43% spousal, 57% adult-child caregivers), and 158 caregivers at follow-up (45% spousal, 55% adult-child caregivers). At baseline and follow-up, spousal caregivers experienced a higher overall subjective burden, and reported more often mental health problems, physical health problems, and problems with combining daily activities, compared to adult-child caregivers. For spousal caregivers, a poorer health situation of the care recipient was associated with higher subjective burden, while adult-child caregivers reported higher levels of subjective burden when their time investment in caregiving was high. Subjective burden at follow-up was mainly explained by baseline subjective burden. These results indicate that for effective

  9. Exposure to Celebrity-Endorsed Small Cigar Promotions and Susceptibility to Use among Young Adult Cigarette Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kymberle L. Sterling

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Small cigar smoking among young adult cigarette smokers may be attributed to their exposure to its advertisements and promotions. We examined the association between exposure to a celebrity music artist’s endorsement of a specific brand of small cigars and young adult cigarette smokers’ susceptibility to smoking that brand. Venue-based sampling procedures were used to select and survey a random sample of 121 young adult cigarette smokers, aged 18–35. Fourteen percent reported exposure to the artist’s endorsement of the small cigar and 45.4% reported an intention to smoke the product in the future. The odds of small cigar smoking susceptibility increased threefold for those who reported exposure to the endorsement compared to those not exposed (OR = 3.64, 95% CI 1.06 to 12.54. Past 30-day small cigar use (OR = 3.30, 95% CI 1.24 to 8.74 and past 30-day cigar use (OR = 5.08, 95% CI 1.23, 21.08 were also associated with susceptibility to smoke a small cigar. An association between young adult cigarette smokers’ exposure to the music artist’s small cigar endorsement and their susceptibility to smoke small cigars was found. This association underscores the importance of monitoring small cigar promotions geared toward young people and their impact on small cigar product smoking.

  10. Exposure to Celebrity-Endorsed Small Cigar Promotions and Susceptibility to Use among Young Adult Cigarette Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Kymberle L.; Moore, Roland S.; Pitts, Nicole; Duong, Melissa; Ford, Kentya H.; Eriksen, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Small cigar smoking among young adult cigarette smokers may be attributed to their exposure to its advertisements and promotions. We examined the association between exposure to a celebrity music artist's endorsement of a specific brand of small cigars and young adult cigarette smokers' susceptibility to smoking that brand. Venue-based sampling procedures were used to select and survey a random sample of 121 young adult cigarette smokers, aged 18–35. Fourteen percent reported exposure to the artist's endorsement of the small cigar and 45.4% reported an intention to smoke the product in the future. The odds of small cigar smoking susceptibility increased threefold for those who reported exposure to the endorsement compared to those not exposed (OR = 3.64, 95% CI 1.06 to 12.54). Past 30-day small cigar use (OR = 3.30, 95% CI 1.24 to 8.74) and past 30-day cigar use (OR = 5.08, 95% CI 1.23, 21.08) were also associated with susceptibility to smoke a small cigar. An association between young adult cigarette smokers' exposure to the music artist's small cigar endorsement and their susceptibility to smoke small cigars was found. This association underscores the importance of monitoring small cigar promotions geared toward young people and their impact on small cigar product smoking. PMID:24371444

  11. Exposure to celebrity-endorsed small cigar promotions and susceptibility to use among young adult cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Kymberle L; Moore, Roland S; Pitts, Nicole; Duong, Melissa; Ford, Kentya H; Eriksen, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    Small cigar smoking among young adult cigarette smokers may be attributed to their exposure to its advertisements and promotions. We examined the association between exposure to a celebrity music artist's endorsement of a specific brand of small cigars and young adult cigarette smokers' susceptibility to smoking that brand. Venue-based sampling procedures were used to select and survey a random sample of 121 young adult cigarette smokers, aged 18-35. Fourteen percent reported exposure to the artist's endorsement of the small cigar and 45.4% reported an intention to smoke the product in the future. The odds of small cigar smoking susceptibility increased threefold for those who reported exposure to the endorsement compared to those not exposed (OR = 3.64, 95% CI 1.06 to 12.54). Past 30-day small cigar use (OR = 3.30, 95% CI 1.24 to 8.74) and past 30-day cigar use (OR = 5.08, 95% CI 1.23, 21.08) were also associated with susceptibility to smoke a small cigar. An association between young adult cigarette smokers' exposure to the music artist's small cigar endorsement and their susceptibility to smoke small cigars was found. This association underscores the importance of monitoring small cigar promotions geared toward young people and their impact on small cigar product smoking.

  12. Do Social Networks Improve Chinese Adults' Subjective Well-being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xiaoyan; Shen, Yan; Smith, James P; Zhou, Guangsu

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies relationships between social networks, health and subjective well-being (SWB) using nationally representative data of the Chinese Population-the Chinese Family Panel Studies (CFPS). Our data contain SWB indicators in two widely used variants-happiness and life-satisfaction. Social network variables used include kinship relationships measured by marital status, family size, and having a genealogy; ties with friends/relatives/neighbors measured by holiday visitation, frequency of contacts, and whether and value gifts given and received; total number and time spent in social activities, and engagement in organizations including the communist party, religious groups, and other types. We find that giving and receiving gifts has a larger impact on SWB than either just giving or receiving them. Similarly the number of friends is more important than number of relatives, and marriage is associated with higher levels of SWB. Time spent in social activities and varieties of activities both matter for SWB but varieties matter more. Participation in organizations is associated with higher SWB across such diverse groups as being a member of the communist party or a religious organization. China represents an interesting test since it is simultaneously a traditional society with long-established norms about appropriate social networks and a rapidly changing society due to substantial economic and demographic changes. We find that it is better to both give and receive, to engage in more types of social activities, and that participation in groups all improve well-being of Chinese people.

  13. Self-Rated Health in Healthy Adults and Susceptibility to the Common Cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Sheldon; Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Doyle, William J

    2015-01-01

    To explore the association of self-rated health (SRH) with host resistance to illness after exposure to a common cold virus and identify mechanisms linking SRH to future health status. We analyzed archival data from 360 healthy adults (mean [standard deviation] age = 33.07 [10.69] years, 45.6% women). Each person completed validated questionnaires that assessed SRH (excellent, very good, good, fair, poor), socioemotional factors, and health practices and was subsequently exposed to a common cold virus and monitored for 5 days for clinical illness (infection and objective signs of illness). Poorer SRH was associated in a graded fashion with greater susceptibility to developing clinical illness (good/fair versus excellent: odds ratio = 3.21, 95% confidence interval = 1.47-6.99; very good versus excellent: odds ratio = 2.60, 95% confidence interval = 1.27-5.32), independent of age, sex, race, prechallenge immunity (specific antibody), body mass, season, education, and income. Greater illness risk was not attributable to infection, but to increased likelihood of developing objective signs of illness once infected. Poorer SRH also correlated with poorer health practices, increased stress, lower positive emotions, and other socioemotional factors. However, none of these (alone or together) accounted for the association between SRH and host resistance. Additional data (separate study) indicated that history of having colds was unrelated to susceptibility and hence also did not account for the SRH link with immunocompetence. Poorer SRH is associated with poorer immunocompetence, possibly reflecting sensitivity to sensations associated with premorbid immune dysfunction. In turn, poorer immune function may be a major contributing mechanism linking SRH to future health.

  14. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  15. All Night Spectral Analysis of EEG Sleep in Young Adult and Middle-Aged Male Subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Derk Jan; Beersma, Domien G.M.; Hoofdakker, Rutger H. van den

    1989-01-01

    The sleep EEGs of 9 young adult males (age 20-28 years) and 8 middle-aged males (42-56 years) were analyzed by visual scoring and spectral analysis. In the middle-aged subjects power density in the delta, theta and sigma frequencies were attenuated as compared to the young subjects. In both age

  16. Weekend experiences and subjective well-being of retired older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jinmoo; Kim, Junhyoung; Kim, Byung-Gook; Heo, Seongmoo

    2014-07-01

    To examine how involvement in activities is related to subjective well-being (SWB) among older adults in particular during weekends. To explore the situational and behavioral factors such as day of week, type of activities, and social context and their impact on subjective well being of older adults. The experience sampling method (ESM) was used with retired older adults. Participants reported lower levels of SWB on the weekend. They experienced higher levels of SWB when they were engaged in active leisure on the weekend. Social contexts were significant predictors of older adults' SWB on the weekend. These findings extend the body of knowledge that involvement in active leisure and socializing with friends improve SWB of older adults.

  17. Changing Epidemiological Characteristics of Hepatitis A in Zhejiang Province, China: Increased Susceptibility in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhifang; Chen, Yaping; Xie, Shuyun; Lv, Huakun

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis A is a common acute hepatitis caused by hepatitis A virus (HAV). Annually, it affects 1.4 million people worldwide. Between 1991 and 1994, HAV infections were highly endemic in Zhejiang Province (China), with 78,720 reported HAV infections per year. Hepatitis A vaccine came on the market in 1995 and was implemented for voluntary immunization. Since 2008, hepatitis A vaccine has been integrated into the national childhood routine immunization program. To understand the current epidemiological profile of hepatitis A in Zhejiang Province since hepatitis A vaccine has been available for nearly two decades. This study used the 2005-2014 National Notifiable Diseases Reporting System data to evaluate the incidence rate of notified hepatitis A cases in Zhejiang Province. The overall trend of incidence rate of notified hepatitis A cases significantly decreased from 2005 to 2014 (Phepatitis A vaccine seemed to be effective in decreasing notified hepatitis A incidence rate in individuals aged ≤19 years. Those aged ≥20 years were observed to be the most susceptible population. The vast majority of hepatitis A cases were notified among Laborers. Therefore, we strongly suggest that future preventive and control measures should focus more on adults, particularly Laborers, in addition to the current childhood hepatitis A vaccination programme.

  18. Susceptibility of functional impairment scales to noncredible responses in the clinical evaluation of adult ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Oliver; Koerts, Janneke; Butzbach, Marah; Weisbrod, Matthias; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Tucha, Lara

    2017-11-23

    A growing body of research questions the reliance of symptom self-reports in the clinical evaluation of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood. A recent study suggested that also impairment reports are vulnerable to noncredible responses, as derived from a simulation design using a global functional impairment scale. The present study aims to add evidence to this issue, by using an ADHD specific impairment scale in a simulation design on large samples. Impairment ratings on the Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale (WFIRS) of 62 patients with ADHD were compared to 142 healthy individuals who were instructed to show normal behavior. Furthermore, impairment ratings of patients with ADHD were compared to ratings of 330 healthy individuals who were randomly assigned to one of four simulation conditions that were instructed to complete the scale as if they had ADHD. Patients with ADHD reported higher levels of impairment than the healthy control group in all domains of life. Furthermore, individuals instructed to feign ADHD indicated higher levels of impairments in most domains of life compared to control participants and genuine patients with ADHD. The group differences between individuals feigning ADHD and individuals with genuine ADHD, however, were only small to moderate. Further analyses revealed that the WFRIS was not useful to successfully differentiate genuine from feigned ADHD. The present study confirms the conclusion that self-reported impairments are susceptible to noncredible responses and should be used with caution in the clinical evaluation of adult ADHD.

  19. Antibiotic susceptibility in commonly isolated pathogens from urinary tract infection in a cohort of subjects from low socioeconomic strata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwai, Saera Suhail; Nageen, Ayesha; Ghaznavi, Samina; Bashir, Farhat; Ara, Jamal

    2017-01-01

    Urinary tract infection is one of the commonest infections seen in clinical practice. Lack of compliance and unjustified antibiotic prescriptions has resulted in bacterial resistance and is proving as a major challenge in the management of these infections. Our aim was to identify the sensitivity pattern of commonly used antibiotics against urinary tract infections so as to suggest an improvised line of action against bacteria causing urinary tract infections'. This was a hospital based cross sectional study extended over a period of four months. Patients were recruited from outpatients department of a tertiary care hospital in an industrial area of Karachi. Adult patients with symptomatic and documented UTI in urine detailed report (pus cells >10) were enrolled after informed consent. A clean catch midstream urine was collected for culture and sensitivity testing using the standard microbiological procedure. Data is analyzed on SPSS 16. A total of 184 samples were collected in 4 months. The Male to Female ratio was 1:2 (n=58/126) with mean age 48.5±12 years. 83(45.6%) patients were between 45-60 years. Most common isolated pathogen was Eschericia coli 108(59%) followed by staphylococcus aureus 30(16.4%) and Klebsiella 20(11%). 55(30%) pathogens showed sensitivity to 4-6 antibiotics, 22(12%) strains to 7-9 antibiotics, 33(18%) were sensitive to ≤3 drugs and in 3(1.6%) patients resistance to all antibiotics is seen. The more resistant pathogens were sensitive to intravenous antibiotics alone. In this low socioeconomic cohort with UTI nearly half the isolated pathogens has shown resistance to most of the commonly used antibiotics recommended in the guidelines especially the floxacin group probably because of its unwarranted use. Therefore, a revised line of management should be developed locally in accordance with the susceptibility pattern of the urinary pathogens to avoid further resistance as well as morbidity of the patient.

  20. Susceptibility of adult field strains of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Singapore to pirimiphos-methyl and permethrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, L T; Yatiman, R; Gek, L P

    2001-06-01

    The susceptibilities of field strains (Fl) of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus adult females to pirimiphos-methyl and permethrin were investigated and compared with a susceptible laboratory strain (S) by using a filter paper (12 x 15 cm) impregnation method. The resistance ratio between the 50% lethal concentration values (RR50) of the Fl and the S strains shows that the RR50 of Fl Ae. aegypti for pirimiphos-methyl was 1.5 and the RR50 of Fl Ae. aegypti for permethrin was 12.9. The RR50 of Fl Ae. albopictus for pirimiphos-methyl was 1.4, and that for permethrin was 1.8. This indicates that the field strain Ae. aegypti, but not Ae. albopictus, has developed resistance to permethrin. However, both species are still susceptible to pirimiphos-methyl. Therefore, control with pirimiphos-methyl will still be effective.

  1. Single-dose pharmacokinetics of bupropion hydrobromide and metabolites in healthy adolescent and adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, D Alexander; Crean, Christopher S

    2015-09-01

    Data from 2 pediatric single-dose studies, conducted at the same center, were combined to evaluate exposure levels of bupropion and metabolites in adolescents 12-17 years old, compared with adults > 18 years. Pharmacokinetic analyses of bupropion and its metabolites were performed using normalization and pharmacological/convulsive weighting methods on exposure. When compared with adults (>18 years), subjects 12-14 years had an increase in weight-normalized exposure to bupropion (ie, Cmax , 78%; AUC0-t , 83%; and AUCinf , 85%). Variability in this younger age group was also higher, with observations of a 3- to 4-fold increase in exposure. When the changes in metabolites were accounted within pharmacological and convulsive-weighted exposures, the relative ratio of 12-14 years to adults in body weight-normalized Cmax was 127% and 110%, respectively. Subjects 15-17 years did not exhibit a difference in exposure compared with adults. The influence of age on bupropion pharmacokinetics demonstrates that, in general, healthy adolescent subjects cannot be considered smaller healthy adult subjects; the increase in exposure is inversely related to age and appears to be solely associated with bupropion, not with its metabolites. Because there are no clinical safety and efficacy data of bupropion in adolescents, this data may shift its risk-benefit profile. © 2015, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  2. Self-discipline and self-consciousness predict subjective memory in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearman, Ann; Storandt, Martha

    2005-05-01

    Research has shown the personality variables of conscientiousness and neuroticism to be related to subjective memory in older adults. This study was designed to determine the specific facets of these traits involved in the relation between personality and memory complaints. Subjective memory evaluations were examined in 85 community-dwelling people aged 56 to 94 years. Regression analysis revealed that one facet of conscientiousness (self-discipline) and two facets of neuroticism (self-consciousness and anxiety) explained almost one third of the variance in subjective memory complaints. Anxiety acted as a suppressor variable to enhance the contribution of self-consciousness. Objective measures of episodic and prospective memory were not related to subjective memory. Effective treatments of memory complaints in healthy older adults may have to focus on enhancing self-discipline and self-concept.

  3. [Susceptibility of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) adults to fungicides used to control apple diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzon, Cristiane G; Grützmacher, Anderson D; Giolo, Fabrizio P; de Lima, Crislaine A B Lima; Nörnberg, Sandro D; Müller, Cristiane; da R Härter, Wagner

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the susceptibility under laboratory conditions of Trichogrammapretiosum Riley adults to fungicides recommended by the Integrated Production of Apple (IPA). The bioassays were carried out using the International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC), West Palearctic Regional Section (WPRS) standard protocols. Twelve selected fungicides were studied in the doses (g or ml active ingredient/100 L) captan 1 (0.115), captan 2 (0.120), kresoxim-methyl (0.010), sulphur 1 (AG) (0.480), sulphur 2 (0.480), folpet (0.105), mancozeb (0.160), pyraclostrobin (0.010), tebuconazole (0.010), tetraconazole (0.005), thiophanate-methyl (0.050) and triforine (0.024). Distilled water was used as the blank treatment and the insecticide triclorfon (0.150) as a positive control. The parasitoids were exposed to dry residues applied on glass plates. The reduction in the capacity of parasitism was used to measure the effect of the chemical in comparison to the blank treatment. Each treatment was replicated four times. The results allowed us to classify the fungicides tested in four categories: 1, harmless ( 99%). 75% of the tested substances were classified as selective (classes 1 and 2) to the parasitoid. The fungicides captan 1, captan 2, kresoxim-methyl, folpet, pyraclostrobin, tebuconazole, thiophanate-methyl and triforine were harmless; mancozeb was slightly harmful; sulphur 1 (AG) and tetraconazole were moderately harmful and sulphur 2 was harmful. These findings should be taken into account when selecting fungicides to spray apple orchards against fungi diseases to preserve the egg parasitoid T. pretiosum.

  4. Measles outbreak reveals measles susceptibility among adults in Namibia, 2009 - 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbuanu, Ikechukwu U; Muroua, Clementine; Allies, Martiena; Chitala, Kennedy; Gerber, Sue; Shilunga, Primus; Mhata, Petrus; Kriss, Jennifer L; Caparos, Lucille; Smit, Sheilagh B; De Wee, Roselina J; Goodson, James L

    2016-06-17

    The World Health Organization, African Region, set the goal of achieving measles elimination by 2020. Namibia was one of seven African countries to implement an accelerated measles control strategy beginning in 1996. Following implementation of this strategy, measles incidence decreased; however, between 2009 and 2011 a major outbreak occurred in Namibia. Measles vaccination coverage data were analysed and a descriptive epidemiological analysis of the measles outbreak was conducted using measles case-based surveillance and laboratory data. During 1989 - 2008, MCV1 (the first routine dose of measles vaccine) coverage increased from 56% to 73% and five supplementary immunisation activities were implemented. During the outbreak (August 2009 - February 2011), 4 605 suspected measles cases were reported; of these, 3 256 were confirmed by laboratory testing or epidemiological linkage. Opuwo, a largely rural district in north-western Namibia with nomadic populations, had the highest confirmed measles incidence (16 427 cases per million). Infants aged ≤11 months had the highest cumulative age-specific incidence (9 252 cases per million) and comprised 22% of all confirmed cases; however, cases occurred across a wide age range, including adults aged ≥30 years. Among confirmed cases, 85% were unvaccinated or had unknown vaccination history. The predominantly detected measles virus genotype was B3, circulating in concurrent outbreaks in southern Africa, and B2, previously detected in Angola. A large-scale measles outbreak with sustained transmission over 18 months occurred in Namibia, probably caused by importation. The wide age distribution of cases indicated measles-susceptible individuals accumulated over several decades prior to the start of the outbreak.

  5. Roussouly's sagittal spino-pelvic morphotypes as determinants of gait in asymptomatic adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakouny, Ziad; Assi, Ayman; Massaad, Abir; Saghbini, Elie; Lafage, Virginie; Skalli, Wafa; Ghanem, Ismat; Kreichati, Gaby

    2017-05-01

    Sagittal alignment is known to greatly vary between asymptomatic adult subjects; however, there are no studies on the possible effect of these differences on gait. The aim of this study is to investigate whether asymptomatic adults with different Roussouly sagittal alignment morphotypes walk differently. Ninety-one asymptomatic young adults (46M & 45W), aged 21.6±2.2years underwent 3D gait analysis and full body biplanar X-rays with three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of their spines and pelvises and generation of sagittal alignment parameters. Subjects were divided according to Roussouly's sagittal alignment classification. Sagittal alignment and kinematic parameters were compared between Roussouly types. 17 subjects were classified as type 2, 47 as type 3, 26 as type 4 but only 1 as type 1. Type 2 subjects had significantly more mean pelvic retroversion (less mean pelvic tilt) during gait compared to type 3 and 4 subjects (type 2: 8.2°; type 3:11.2°, type 4: 11.3°) and significantly larger ROM pelvic obliquity compared to type 4 subjects (type 2: 11.0°; type 4: 9.1°). Type 2 subjects also had significantly larger maximal hip extension during stance compared to subjects of types 3 and 4 (type 2: -11.9°; type 3: -8.8°; type 4: -7.9°) and a larger ROM of ankle plantar/dorsiflexion compared to type 4 subjects (type 2: 31.1°; type 4: 27.9°). Subjects with type 2 sagittal alignment were shown to have a gait pattern involving both increased hip extension and pelvic retroversion which could predispose to posterior femoroacetabular impingement and consequently osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Joint dynamics and intra-subject variability during countermovement jumps in children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffalt, Peter C; Alkjær, Tine; Simonsen, Erik B

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated lower limb joint work, lower limb joint energy transport and intra-subject variation of the joint dynamics during countermovement jumps in children and adults. Twelve healthy men and eleven healthy boys performed ten maximal countermovement jumps. Three dimensional...... countermovement jumps were less efficient in producing proximal joint work, transferring energy through joint centres and characterized by a higher intra-subject variation....

  7. Subjective-objective sleep discrepancy among older adults: Associations with insomnia diagnosis and insomnia treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Kay, Daniel B.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica; Monk, Timothy H.

    2014-01-01

    Discrepancy between subjective and objective measures of sleep is associated with insomnia and increasing age. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia improves sleep quality and decreases subjective-objective sleep discrepancy. This study describes differences between older adults with insomnia and controls in sleep discrepancy, and tests the hypothesis that reduced sleep discrepancy following cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia correlates with the magnitude of symptom improvement rep...

  8. The effect of cognitive testing and feedback on older adults' subjective age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraci, Lisa; De Forrest, Ross; Hughes, Matthew; Saenz, Gabriel; Tirso, Robert

    2017-03-10

    Subjective age, or how old a person feels, is an important measure of self-perception that is associated with consequential cognitive and health outcomes. Recent research suggests that subjective age is affected by certain situations, including cognitive testing contexts. The current study examined whether cognitive testing and positive performance feedback affect subjective age and subsequent cognitive performance. Older adults took a series of neuropsychological and cognitive tests and subjective age was measured at various time points. Participants also either received positive or no feedback on an initial cognitive task, an analogies task. Results showed that participants felt older over the course of the testing session, particularly after taking a working memory test, relative to baseline. Positive feedback did not significantly mitigate this subjective aging effect. Results suggest that subjective age is malleable and that it can be affected by standard cognitive and neuropsychological test conditions.

  9. Subjective-Objective Sleep Discrepancy in Older Adults With MCI and Subsyndromal Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNapoli, Elizabeth A; Gebara, Marie Anne; Kho, Terry; Butters, Meryl A; Gildengers, Ariel G; Albert, Steven M; Dew, Mary Amanda; Erickson, Kirk I; Reynolds, Charles F; Karp, Jordan F

    2017-11-01

    We investigated the prevalence and correlates of discrepancies between self-reported sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) and objective sleep efficiency (actigraphy) in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and subsyndromal depression. This was a secondary analysis of a clincial trial with 59 adults aged 60 years and older with MCI and subsyndromal depression. We included baseline data on participants' subjective sleep quality, objective sleep efficiency, depressive symptoms, insomnia diagnosis, and cognitive functioning. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index subjective sleep quality and actigraphy-measured sleep efficiency were not significantly correlated ( r = -.06; P = .64), with 61% of participants having subjective-objective sleep discrepancies. Correlates of subjective-objective sleep discrepancy included the presence of an insomnia diagnosis and impaired memory, particularly delayed memory. These findings are important because subjective underestimation of symptoms in older adults with memory impairments may result in sleep disturbances going unrecognized in clinical practice; on the other hand, an insomnia disorder may be a possible remediable contribution to subjective overestimation of sleep disturbances.

  10. Culture, Parental Conflict, Parental Marital Status, and the Subjective Well-Being of Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohm, Carol L.; Oishi, Shigehiro; Darlington, Janet; Diener, Ed

    1998-01-01

    Study 1 found that subjective well-being was negatively associated with marital conflict among offspring of never-divorced and remarried parents. Study 2 found that the negative association of divorce and of marital conflict with the life satisfaction of the offspring did not differ for adopted young adults. (Author/MKA)

  11. Mothers Caring for an Adult Child with Schizophrenia: The Effects of Subjective Burden on Maternal Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jan Steven; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined long-term effects that burdens associated with coping with mental illness have on parental health. Data from 81 mothers of adult children with schizophrenia revealed that subjective burdens associated with stigma and worries were related to lower levels of physical well-being among the mothers. (Author/NB)

  12. Objective and subjective need for cosmetic dentistry in the Dutch adult population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgersdijk, R.; Truin, G.J.; Kalsbeek, H.; Hof, M. van 't; Mulder, J.

    1991-01-01

    In order to assess the objective and subjective need for cosmetic dentistry in the Dutch adult population in 1986 a stratified sample of 2784 dentate persons, aged 15-74 yr, participated in the study. The aesthetics of anterior teeth and first premolars in the maxillary mandibular arch were

  13. Revisiting the Structure of Subjective Well-Being in Middle-Aged Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiel, Magda; Brunner, Martin; Martin, Romain; Schalke, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Subjective well-being is a broad, multifaceted construct comprising general satisfaction with life, satisfaction with life domains (health, family, people, free time, self, housing, work, and finances), positive affect, and negative affect. Drawing on representative data from middle-aged adults (N = 738), the authors used three different…

  14. Changes in bleaching susceptibility among corals subject to ocean warming and recurrent bleaching in Moorea, French Polynesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan S Pratchett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Climate-induced coral bleaching poses a major threat to coral reef ecosystems, mostly because of the sensitivities of key habitat-forming corals to increasing temperature. However, susceptibility to bleaching varies greatly among coral genera and there are likely to be major changes in the relative abundance of different corals, even if the wholesale loss of corals does not occur for several decades. Here we document variation in bleaching susceptibility among key genera of reef-building corals in Moorea, French Polynesia, and compare bleaching incidence during mass-bleaching events documented in 1991, 1994, 2002 and 2007. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study compared the proportion of colonies that bleached for four major genera of reef-building corals (Acropora, Montipora, Pocillopora and Porites, during each of four well-documented bleaching events from 1991 to 2007. Acropora and Montipora consistently bleached in far greater proportions (up to 98% than Pocillopora and Porites. However, there was an apparent and sustained decline in the proportion of colonies that bleached during successive bleaching events, especially for Acropora and Montipora. In 2007, only 77% of Acropora colonies bleached compared with 98% in 1991. Temporal variation in the proportion of coral colonies bleached may be attributable to differences in environmental conditions among years. Alternately, the sustained declines in bleaching incidence among highly susceptible corals may be indicative of acclimation or adaptation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Coral genera that are highly susceptible to coral bleaching, and especially Acropora and Montipora, exhibit temporal declines in their susceptibility to thermal anomalies at Moorea, French Polynesia. One possible explanation for these findings is that gradual removal of highly susceptible genotypes (through selective mortality of individuals, populations, and/or species is producing a coral assemblage that is

  15. Changes in bleaching susceptibility among corals subject to ocean warming and recurrent bleaching in Moorea, French Polynesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratchett, Morgan S; McCowan, Dominique; Maynard, Jeffrey A; Heron, Scott F

    2013-01-01

    Climate-induced coral bleaching poses a major threat to coral reef ecosystems, mostly because of the sensitivities of key habitat-forming corals to increasing temperature. However, susceptibility to bleaching varies greatly among coral genera and there are likely to be major changes in the relative abundance of different corals, even if the wholesale loss of corals does not occur for several decades. Here we document variation in bleaching susceptibility among key genera of reef-building corals in Moorea, French Polynesia, and compare bleaching incidence during mass-bleaching events documented in 1991, 1994, 2002 and 2007. This study compared the proportion of colonies that bleached for four major genera of reef-building corals (Acropora, Montipora, Pocillopora and Porites), during each of four well-documented bleaching events from 1991 to 2007. Acropora and Montipora consistently bleached in far greater proportions (up to 98%) than Pocillopora and Porites. However, there was an apparent and sustained decline in the proportion of colonies that bleached during successive bleaching events, especially for Acropora and Montipora. In 2007, only 77% of Acropora colonies bleached compared with 98% in 1991. Temporal variation in the proportion of coral colonies bleached may be attributable to differences in environmental conditions among years. Alternately, the sustained declines in bleaching incidence among highly susceptible corals may be indicative of acclimation or adaptation. Coral genera that are highly susceptible to coral bleaching, and especially Acropora and Montipora, exhibit temporal declines in their susceptibility to thermal anomalies at Moorea, French Polynesia. One possible explanation for these findings is that gradual removal of highly susceptible genotypes (through selective mortality of individuals, populations, and/or species) is producing a coral assemblage that is more resistant to sustained and ongoing ocean warming.

  16. Personality and subjective age among older adults: the mediating role of age-group identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canada, Brice; Stephan, Yannick; Caudroit, Johan; Jaconelli, Alban

    2013-01-01

    A small body of research has highlighted the role of the five-factor model personality traits in subjective age. However, no study has yet focused on the mechanisms through which personality could be related to subjective age among older adults. The purpose of the present study was to examine the mediating role of age-group identification in relation between personality traits and subjective age. It was hypothesized that both extraversion and openness to experience are positively related to a younger subjective age through the mediation of their negative relationship with age-group identification. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 501 older individuals aged from 60 to 95 years who completed measures of sociodemographic variables, self-rated health, personality, subjective age, and age-group identification. Multiple regression analysis revealed that openness to experience was positively related to subjective age through the complete mediation of age-group identification, whereas no support was found for the relationship between extraversion and subjective age. This study fills a gap in the existing literature and reveals that openness to experience is related to a youthful subjective age, because older open individuals tend to distance themselves from their age group. Therefore, this study confirms that personality deserves attention as a predictor of subjective age, independently of sociodemographic and health-related variables.

  17. Loneliness and depressive symptoms among older adults: The moderating role of subjective life expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, Ehud; Bergman, Yoav S

    2016-03-30

    Loneliness and depressive symptoms are closely related, and both are indicators of reduced physical and mental well-being in old age. In recent years, the subjective perception of how long an individual expects to live (subjective life expectancy) has gained importance as a significant predictor of future psychological functioning, as well as of physical health. The current study examined whether subjective life expectancy moderates the connection between loneliness and depressive symptoms in a representative sample of older adults. Data was collected from the Israeli component of the fifth wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE-Israel). Participants (n=2210; mean age=70.35) completed measures of loneliness, depressive symptoms, and life expectancy target age. A hierarchical regression analysis predicting depressive symptoms yielded a significant interaction of loneliness and subjective life expectancy. Further analyses demonstrated that low subjective life expectancy mitigated the loneliness-depressive symptoms connection. Findings are discussed in light of the potential burden of higher subjective life expectancy for lonesome older adults, and practical implications are suggested. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Childhood Trauma Associated with Enhanced High Frequency Band Powers and Induced Subjective Inattention of Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hwan Lee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Childhood trauma can lead to various psychological and cognitive symptoms. It has been demonstrated that high frequency electroencephalogram (EEG powers could be closely correlated with inattention. In this study, we explored the relationship between high frequency EEG powers, inattention, symptoms of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, and childhood traumatic experiences. A total of 157 healthy Korean adult volunteers were included and divided into two groups using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ score. The subjective inattention scores, ADHD scale, and anxiety and depression symptom were evaluated. EEG was recorded and quantitative band powers were analyzed. The results were as follows: (1 the high CTQ group showed significantly increased delta, beta1, beta2, beta3 and gamma, and significantly decreased low alpha power compared to the low CTQ group; (2 the high CTQ group had higher inattention score compared to the low CTQ group; (3 the high CTQ group had higher adult ADHD scores; (4 CTQ scores showed significant positive correlations with inattention scores, and adult ADHD scores; (5 unexpectedly, the inattention scores showed significant positive correlations with beta powers and a negative correlation with low alpha power; and (6 the moderated mediation model was confirmed: the depression fully mediated the path from state anxiety to inattention, and the CTQ significantly moderated the pathway between anxiety and depression. Our results show the possibility that childhood adversity may cause subjective inattention and adult ADHD symptoms. Depressive symptoms fully mediated the path from anxiety to inattention, especially in those who report severe childhood traumatic experiences.

  19. Subjective-objective sleep discrepancy among older adults: associations with insomnia diagnosis and insomnia treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Daniel B; Buysse, Daniel J; Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica; Monk, Timothy H

    2015-02-01

    Discrepancy between subjective and objective measures of sleep is associated with insomnia and increasing age. Cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia improves sleep quality and decreases subjective-objective sleep discrepancy. This study describes differences between older adults with insomnia and controls in sleep discrepancy, and tests the hypothesis that reduced sleep discrepancy following cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia correlates with the magnitude of symptom improvement reported by older adults with insomnia. Participants were 63 adults >60 years of age with insomnia, and 51 controls. At baseline, participants completed sleep diaries for 7 days while wearing wrist actigraphs. After receiving cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia, insomnia patients repeated this sleep assessment. Sleep discrepancy variables were calculated by subtracting actigraphic sleep onset latency and wake after sleep onset from respective self-reported estimates, pre- and post-treatment. Mean level and night-to-night variability in sleep discrepancy were investigated. Baseline sleep discrepancies were compared between groups. Pre-post-treatment changes in Insomnia Severity Index score and sleep discrepancy variables were investigated within older adults with insomnia. Sleep discrepancy was significantly greater and more variable across nights in older adults with insomnia than controls, P ≤ 0.001 for all. Treatment with cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia was associated with significant reduction in the Insomnia Severity Index score that correlated with changes in mean level and night-to-night variability in wake after sleep onset discrepancy, P insomnia. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  20. Subjective cognitive failures after stroke in young adults: prevalent but not related to cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maaijwee, Noortje A M M; Schaapsmeerders, Pauline; Rutten-Jacobs, Loes C A; Arntz, Renate M; Schoonderwaldt, Hennie C; van Dijk, Ewoud J; Kessels, Roy P C; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik

    2014-07-01

    Few studies exist on subjective cognitive failures after a stroke in young adults (≤50 years) and their relation to objective cognitive performance is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of subjective cognitive failures in patients with a stroke in young adulthood and their relation with objective cognitive impairment. This study is part of the "Follow-Up of Transient ischemic attack and stroke patients and Unelucidated Risk factor Evaluation"-study (FUTURE study), including patients, aged 18-50 years, admitted to our hospital between 1980 and 2010 with a first-ever TIA or ischemic stroke. The prevalence of subjective cognitive failures in patients was determined and compared with 146 age- and sex-matched stroke-free controls. The relation of subjective failures with objective cognitive performance was investigated with linear and logistic regression analysis. 160 patients with a TIA and 277 with an ischemic stroke were included. After a mean follow-up of 10.1 (SD 8.3) years, the prevalence of subjective memory failures was 86.4% and that of subjective executive failures was 67.4% in patients, versus 69.7% (p = 0.008) and 41.4% (p = 0.002) in controls. A weak association between subjective memory failures and objective immediate (beta -0.12, p = 0.011) and delayed memory performance (beta -0.13, p = 0.010) was observed in patients. Subjective cognitive failures are prevalent after stroke in young adults, but not strongly related to objective cognitive impairment. Therefore, extensive neuropsychological assessment is essential for determination of objective cognitive impairment. However, it is important that subjective cognitive failures are recognized as they may indicate underlying psychosocial problems.

  1. Objective but not subjective sleep predicts memory in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavuoto, Marina G; Ong, Ben; Pike, Kerryn E; Nicholas, Christian L; Bei, Bei; Kinsella, Glynda J

    2016-08-01

    Research on the relationship between habitual sleep patterns and memory performance in older adults is limited. No previous study has used objective and subjective memory measures in a large, older-aged sample to examine the association between sleep and various domains of memory. The aim of this study was to examine the association between objective and subjective measures of sleep with memory performance in older adults, controlling for the effects of potential confounds. One-hundred and seventy-three community-dwelling older adults aged 65-89 years in Victoria, Australia completed the study. Objective sleep quality and length were ascertained using the Actiwatch 2 Mini-Mitter, while subjective sleep was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Memory was indexed by tests of retrospective memory (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test - Revised), working memory (n-back, 2-back accuracy) and prospective memory (a habitual button pressing task). Compared with normative data, overall performance on retrospective memory function was within the average range. Hierarchical regression was used to determine whether objective or subjective measures of sleep predicted memory performances after controlling for demographics, health and mood. After controlling for confounds, actigraphic sleep indices (greater wake after sleep onset, longer sleep-onset latency and longer total sleep time) predicted poorer retrospective (∆R(2)  = 0.05, P = 0.016) and working memory (∆R(2)  = 0.05, P = 0.047). In contrast, subjective sleep indices did not significantly predict memory performances. In community-based older adults, objectively-measured, habitual sleep indices predict poorer memory performances. It will be important to follow the sample longitudinally to determine trajectories of change over time. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  2. Discrepancy between objective and subjective cognition in adults with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisurapanont, Manit; Suttajit, Sirijit; Eurviriyanukul, Kanokkwan; Varnado, Prirada

    2017-06-20

    This study aimed to determine: i) the correlation between objective and subjective cognition, ii) the correlates of objective and subjective cognition and iii) the predictors of discrepancy between objective and subjective cognition. Participants were non-elderly patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). We assessed subjective cognition using the Perceived Deficit Questionnaire for Depression (PDQ-D) and objective cognition using Face I and Face II tests of the Wechsler Memory Scale, 3rd edition and Digit Span and Matrix Reasoning tests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Adults, 3rd edition. The discrepancy between objective and subjective cognition was estimated. Participants were 57 outpatients with MDD. PDQ-D scores were not correlated with composite neurocognitive test (NCT) z scores. Years of education significantly predicted composite NCT z scores, as did age. The 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) scores significantly predicted PDQ-D scores, as did antidepressant treatment. Age significantly predicted discrepancy scores, as did PHQ-9 scores. In conclusion, objective and subjective cognition in patients with MDD are not correlated. Age and education predict objective cognition. Depression. severity and antidepressant treatment predict subjective cognition. Age and depression severity may predict the discrepancy between objective and subjective cognition.

  3. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Linlong [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Magdalou, Jacques [UMR 7561 CNRS-Nancy Université, Faculté de Médicine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Chen, Liaobin [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE + ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE + HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE + HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a “two-programming” hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is “the first programming”, and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as “the second programming”. - Highlights: • Prenatal ethanol exposure increase the susceptibility of NAFLD in female offspring. • Prenatal ethanol exposure reprograms fetal liver’s glucose and lipid metabolism . • Prenatal ethanol exposure cause

  4. Study on susceptibility status in aquatic and adult stages of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus against insecticides at international airports of south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S N; Saxena, V K; Lal, Shiv

    2004-09-01

    A study on susceptibility status in aquatic and adult stages of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus was undertaken at International Airports of Thiruvananthapuram and Cochin located in southern India. WHO standard test kits were used to conduct insecticide susceptibility tests against various organophosphates, organochlorines, carbamates and synthetic pyrethroids. The results indicate that adult Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus were resistant to DDT and dieldrin, but susceptible to propoxur, fenitrothion, malathion, deltamethrin, permethrin and lambdacyhalothrin. The susceptibility test conducted on immature stages of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus revealed that they are susceptible to the larvicides commonly used under the National Vector Borne Diseases Control Programme viz. Temephos (0.02 ppm), Fenthion (0.05 ppm) Malathion (1.0 ppm) and Fenitrothion (0.06 ppm).

  5. Interactive Effects of Anxiety Sensitivity and Subjective Social Status on Psychological Symptomatology in Black Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitzel, Lorraine R; Childress, Sarah D; Obasi, Ezemenari M; Garey, Lorra; Vidrine, Damon J; McNeill, Lorna H; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Anxiety sensitivity is the fear of anxiety-related sensations and subjective social status is a self-perception of social standing relative to others: both constructs have been linked to psychological symptomatology. This study investigated the interactive effects of anxiety sensitivity and social status in relation to anxiety and depressive symptomatology expression among 124 black adults. Participants provided sociodemographics and completed self-report questionnaires. The interactive associations between anxiety sensitivity and social status on anxiety symptomatology and depressive symptomatology were examined with hierarchical linear regressions adjusted for sociodemographics and negative affectivity. Significant interactions between anxiety sensitivity and social status were evident only for anxiety symptoms: specifically, the association between anxiety sensitivity and anxiety symptoms was much stronger for individuals with lower (versus higher) subjective social status. Black adults with this higher anxiety sensitivity/lower social status phenotype may be at heightened risk for the expression of anxiety symptomatology, and may benefit from interventions to reduce anxiety sensitivity.

  6. Condylar volume and condylar area in class I, class II and class III young adult subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Saccucci Matteo; D’Attilio Michele; Rodolfino Daria; Festa Felice; Polimeni Antonella; Tecco Simona

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Aim Aim of this study was to compare the volume and the shape of mandibular condyles in a Caucasian young adult population, with different skeletal pattern. Material and methods 200 Caucasian patients (15–30 years old, 95 male and 105 females) were classified in three groups on the base of ANB angle: skeletal class I (65 patients), skeletal class II (70 patients) and skeletal class III (65 patients). Left and right TMJs of each subject were evaluated independently with CBCT (Iluma). ...

  7. Susceptibility of adult female Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae to the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is modified following blood feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuels Richard I

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mosquito Aedes aegypti, vector of dengue fever, is a target for control by entomopathogenic fungi. Recent studies by our group have shown the susceptibility of adult A. aegypti to fungal infection by Metarhizium anisopliae. This fungus is currently being tested under field conditions. However, it is unknown whether blood-fed A. aegypti females are equally susceptible to infection by entomopathogenic fungi as sucrose fed females. Insect populations will be composed of females in a range of nutritional states. The fungus should be equally efficient at reducing survival of insects that rest on fungus impregnated surfaces following a blood meal as those coming into contact with fungi before host feeding. This could be an important factor when considering the behavior of A. aegypti females that can blood feed on multiple hosts over a short time period. Methods Female A. aegypti of the Rockefeller strain and a wild strain were infected with two isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus M. anisopliae (LPP 133 and ESALQ 818 using an indirect contact bioassay at different times following blood feeding. Survival rates were monitored on a daily basis and one-way analysis of variance combined with Duncan's post-hoc test or Log-rank survival curve analysis were used for statistical comparisons of susceptibility to infection. Results Blood feeding rapidly reduced susceptibility to infection, determined by the difference in survival rates and survival curves, when females were exposed to either of the two M. anisopliae isolates. Following a time lag which probably coincided with digestion of the blood meal (96-120 h post-feeding, host susceptibility to infection returned to pre-blood fed (sucrose fed levels. Conclusions Reduced susceptibility of A. aegypti to fungi following a blood meal is of concern. Furthermore, engorged females seeking out intra-domicile resting places post-blood feeding, would be predicted to rest for prolonged

  8. Acute effects of low-level sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide exposures on the respiratory tract of susceptible subjects in cold environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salonen, R.O.; Randell, J.T.; Haelinen, A.I.; Pennanen, A.S. [National Public Health Inst., Kuopio (Finland). Div. of Environmental Health; Kosma, V.M. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Pathology; Pekkarinen, H. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physiology; Ruuskanen, J. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Tukiainen, H. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Pulmonary Diseases

    1995-12-31

    Several recent epidemiological studies from Finland have suggested that sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) cause adverse health effects in susceptible population groups, such as children and asthmatic patients, at much smaller concentrations than the present guideline values of the World Health Organization. One possible explanation of these findings is that the relatively long winter-time increases the sensitivity of the respiratory tract to irritant pollutants. This hypothesis is supported by experimental human and animal studies, which have shown obstruction and inflammatory changes in the conducting airways after ventilation of cold and dry air. Asthmatic patients are much more sensitive than healthy subjects to the irritating effects of cold and dry air and of air pollutants. The airways of many non-asthmatic a topic subjects are also sensitive to cold air, but these subjects are poorly defined as a potential susceptible population group to air pollutants. The aims of this project are: (1) to construct experimental human and animal facilities and protocols for short-term studies on SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} exposures at subfreezing temperatures, (2) to apply advanced lung function methodologies and symptom assessment for characterisation of short-term respiratory responses of asthmatic and a topic subjects to these exposures, (3) to apply well-established pulmonary physiological, cytological and morphological methods for characterisation of short-term responses to and mechanisms of these exposures in the guinea-pig lower airways. (author)

  9. IS COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING ASSOCIATED WITH SUBJECTIVE QUALITY OF LIFE IN YOUNG ADULTS WITH SPINA BIFIDA AND HYDROCEPHALUS?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barf, Hans A.; Post, Marcel W. M.; Verhoef, Marjolein; Gooskens, Rob H. J. M.; Prevo, Arie J. H.

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that cognitive functioning is associated with subjective quality of life of young adults with spina bifida and hydrocephalus (SBHC). Design: Cross-sectional multi-centre study in The Netherlands. Subjects: A total of 110 young adults with SBHC (16-25 years old, 63%

  10. Active versus sedentary lifestyle from childhood to adult and susceptibility to ozone: An animal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pattern of sedentary lifestyle beginning in childhood is associated with obesity and related disorders such as type 2 diabetes. Obesity is associated with increased susceptibility to air pollutants and initiating regular exercise early in life should impact positively on respir...

  11. Use of memory strategies among younger and older adults: Results from objective and subjective measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Teixeira Fabricio

    Full Text Available Abstract Memory plays a fundamental role in the identity of people and in human life, as it enables us to interpret our surroundings and make decisions. It is known that the aging process can be accompanied by cognitive decline in some memory sub systems. However, the use of memory strategies can help encoding and retrieval of new information. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify and compare, using objective and subjective measures, which recall strategies are used spontaneously by young and older adults. Methods: Twenty-six first-year college students, and thirty-three seniors enrolled at the Third Age University of the same campus, completed a visual memory test including 18 black and white pictures, memorized a short story, and completed an open question about memory strategies, a memory check list to indicate strategies used, and a memory self-efficacy scale. The Bousfield categorization measure was also calculated from the recall protocol. Results: Young adults demonstrated better performance than the older adults on the memory tasks, and were also more confident. Both groups reported using similar strategies. Conclusion: Young and older adults seem to tackle memory tasks in similar ways but young adults outperform seniors.

  12. Safety and Efficacy of Oral Polypodium leucotomos Extract in Healthy Adult Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Brian; Swenson, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the safety of oral Polypodium leucotomos extract administered twice daily to healthy adults for 60 days and assess its ability to provide protection against exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Design: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Setting: A single clinical research center. Participants: Healthy adult men and women between 18 and 65 years of age with Fitzpatrick skin types I to IV. Measurements: Safety assessments included a physical examination, vital signs, and clinical laboratory parameters including hematology, comprehensive metabolic panel, and prothrombin time-partial thromboplastin time were obtained at baseline and at the end of the study. Reports of adverse events were recorded. Efficacy assessments were changes in minimal erythema dose testing, ultraviolet-induced erythema intensity response, and sunburn history during the prior 60 days. Results: After two months of treatment, there were no changes in any safety assessments. The subjects in the placebo group showed a greater likelihood of experiencing >1 episodes of sunburn (2 vs. 8 subjects; p=0.04) At Day 28, Polypodium leucotomos extract-treated subjects showed greater likelihood of an increased minimal erythema dose (8 vs. 1 subject; p=0.01) and greater likelihood of decreased ultraviolet-induced erythema intensity (10 subjects vs. 3 subjects; pPolypodium leucotomos extract 240mg taken twice daily for 60 days was a safe and effective means for reducing the damaging effects of ultraviolet radiation. Based on the excellent safety profile of Polypodium leucotomos, additional studies using higher doses may be warranted. PMID:25741399

  13. Interaction of smoking and obesity susceptibility loci on adolescent BMI: The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kristin L; Graff, Misa; North, Kari E; Richardson, Andrea S; Mohlke, Karen L; Lange, Leslie A; Lange, Ethan M; Harris, Kathleen M; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2015-11-04

    Adolescence is a sensitive period for weight gain and risky health behaviors, such as smoking. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified loci contributing to adult body mass index (BMI). Evidence suggests that many of these loci have a larger influence on adolescent BMI. However, few studies have examined interactions between smoking and obesity susceptibility loci on BMI. This study investigates the interaction of current smoking and established BMI SNPs on adolescent BMI. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, a nationally-representative, prospective cohort of the US school-based population in grades 7 to 12 (12-20 years of age) in 1994-95 who have been followed into adulthood (Wave II 1996; ages 12-21, Wave III; ages 18-27), we assessed (in 2014) interactions of 40 BMI-related SNPs and smoking status with percent of the CDC/NCHS 2000 median BMI (%MBMI) in European Americans (n = 5075), African Americans (n = 1744) and Hispanic Americans (n = 1294). Two SNPs showed nominal significance for interaction (p obesity risk by smoking status in adolescents, with those who may be most likely to initiate smoking (i.e., adolescent females), being at greatest risk for exacerbating genetic obesity susceptibility.

  14. Subjective sleep disturbance in Chinese adults with epilepsy: Associations with affective symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yeru; Zhang, Mengmeng; Wang, Yu; Wang, Lanlan; Xu, Xiangjun; Xiao, Gairong; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Ting; Zhou, Nong

    2017-09-01

    As well as being a very common neurological disease worldwide, epilepsy significantly impairs patients' emotional, behavioral, and cognitive functioning. Sleep disturbances are the most frequent complaint in patients with epilepsy. The present study assesses the impact of a range of affective symptoms on subjective sleep quality and sleep disturbances in Chinese adults with epilepsy. Adults with epilepsy who visited our epilepsy clinic from July 2015 to March 2016 were enrolled in our study. Both patients and healthy controls completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE). Subjective sleep quality and sleep disturbances were examined with regard to self-reported symptoms of depression and anxiety, seizure-related factors, and demographic factors. The PSQI scores and ISI scores of patients were significantly higher (indicating lower quality sleep and more serious insomnia) than those of the control group. Symptoms associated with depression and anxiety were independently related to impaired subjective sleep quality and insomnia. Affective symptoms explained more of the variance in PSQI scores and ISI scores than did seizure-related or demographic variables. In addition, these variables also seemed to be less powerful contributing factors to subjective sleep quality and insomnia than affective symptoms, several seizure-related factors, such as seizure control, partial seizures and duration of epilepsy, which are also significantly associated with subjective sleep quality and insomnia. In addition, use of lamotrigine (LTG) was also associated with insomnia and use of clonazepam (CZP) and phenobarbital (PB) with daytime sleepiness in patients with epilepsy. Chinese adults with epilepsy have poorer self-reported subjective sleep quality and a higher prevalence of insomnia than the control group

  15. Predictive value of pharmacokinetics-adjusted phenotypic susceptibility on response to ritonavir-enhanced protease inhibitors (PIs) in human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects failing prior PI therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eron, Joseph J; Park, Jeong-Gun; Haubrich, Richard; Aweeka, Francesca; Bastow, Barbara; Pakes, Gary E; Yu, Song; Wu, Hulin; Richman, Douglas D

    2009-06-01

    The activities of protease inhibitors in vivo may depend on plasma concentrations and viral susceptibility. This nonrandomized, open-label study evaluated the relationship of the inhibitory quotient (IQ [the ratio of drug exposure to viral phenotypic susceptibility]) to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viral load (VL) change for ritonavir-enhanced protease inhibitors (PIs). Subjects on PI-based regimens replaced their PIs with ritonavir-enhanced indinavir (IDV/r) 800/200 mg, fosamprenavir (FPV/r) 700/100 mg, or lopinavir (LPV/r) 400/200 mg twice daily. Pharmacokinetics were assessed at day 14; follow-up lasted 24 weeks. Associations between IQ and VL changes were examined. Fifty-three subjects enrolled, 12 on IDV/r, 33 on FPV/r, and 8 on LPV/r. Median changes (n-fold) (FC) of 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)s) to the study PI were high. Median 2-week VL changes were -0.7, -0.1, and -1.0 log(10) for IDV/r, FPV/r, and LPV/r. With FPV/r, correlations between the IQ and the 2-week change in VL were significant (Spearman's r range, -0.39 to -0.50; P PI-experienced subjects with highly resistant HIV-1, short-term VL responses to RTV-enhanced FPV/r correlated best with baseline susceptibility. The IQ improved correlation in analyses of all arms where a greater range of virologic responses was observed.

  16. [Music therapy in adults with cochlear implants : Effects on music perception and subjective sound quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, E; Grapp, M; Argstatter, H

    2016-12-01

    People with severe hearing impairments and deafness can achieve good speech comprehension using a cochlear implant (CI), although music perception often remains impaired. A novel concept of music therapy for adults with CI was developed and evaluated in this study. This study included 30 adults with a unilateral CI following postlingual deafness. The subjective sound quality of the CI was rated using the hearing implant sound quality index (HISQUI) and musical tests for pitch discrimination, melody recognition and timbre identification were applied. As a control 55 normally hearing persons also completed the musical tests. In comparison to normally hearing subjects CI users showed deficits in the perception of pitch, melody and timbre. Specific effects of therapy were observed in the subjective sound quality of the CI, in pitch discrimination into a high and low pitch range and in timbre identification, while general learning effects were found in melody recognition. Music perception shows deficits in CI users compared to normally hearing persons. After individual music therapy in the rehabilitation process, improvements in this delicate area could be achieved.

  17. The Association between Subjective Memory Complaints and Sleep within Older African American Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamaldo, Alyssa A; Wright, Regina S; Aiken-Morgan, Adrienne T; Allaire, Jason C; Thorpe, Roland J; Whitfield, Keith E

    2017-06-13

    The purpose of the current study is to examine the association between subjective memory complaints and sleep (quantity and quality) in African American older adults. Participants from the Baltimore Study of Black Aging (BSBA; n = 351; mean age = 71.99) completed a self-report sleep scale, subjective memory complaint scale, global cognitive status measure, and demographic questionnaire. Worse overall sleep quality was significantly associated with subjective reports of difficulty recalling the placement of objects, recalling specific facts from reading materials, and worse memory currently compared to the past. Specific sleep parameters (e.g., longer sleep latency and shorter sleep duration) were associated with negative appraisals of participants' ability to do specific tasks involving memory (e.g., difficulty recalling placement of objects). Participants classified as poor sleepers (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI] total score > 5) were more likely to report worse memory now compared to the past than participants classified as good sleepers (PSQI total score ≤ 5). Evaluation of sleep may be warranted when older adults, particularly African Americans, communicate concerns regarding their memory. Insufficient sleep may be a useful marker of acute daytime dysfunction and, perhaps, cognitive decline. Given memory problems are the hallmark of dementia, our findings support further evaluation of whether poor sleep can aid in the diagnosis of cognitive impairment.

  18. Subjective sleep characteristics associated with anxiety and depression in older adults: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Olivier; Lorrain, Dominique; Belleville, Geneviève; Grenier, Sébastien; Préville, Michel

    2014-12-01

    Sleep complaints are often associated with anxiety and depression, but the specific complaints related to each syndrome are poorly characterized, especially in older adults. The objective was to identify subjective sleep characteristics specific to anxiety and depression in this population. A random sample of 2393 individuals aged 65 years or older was used. Anxiety and depression were categorized using DSM-V criteria for phobias, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, unspecified anxiety disorder, major depressive episode, and depressive episode with insufficient symptoms. Subjective sleep characteristics were measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Logistic regression models predicting anxiety or depression were used to determine the independent sleep characteristics associated with each syndrome adjusting for age, sex, education level, cognitive functioning, anxiolytic/sedative/hypnotic use, antidepressants use, subjective health, chronic diseases, cardiovascular conditions, and anxiety or depression (as appropriate). Nearly all Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index subscales were significantly associated with anxiety, but these subscales shared variance and only sleep duration in hours, sleep disturbance score, and daytime functioning score were independently related to anxiety. Within these significant subscales, the main specific sleep complaints associated with anxiety were daytime sleepiness and sleep disturbances related to coughing/snoring, feeling cold, and bad dreams. The use of sleeping medication was the only specific sleep characteristic associated with depression. These results suggest that in older adults, symptoms of short sleep duration, daytime sleepiness and sleep disturbances are independently related to anxiety while the use of sleep medication is independently associated to depression. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Prevalence and Cognitive Bases of Subjective Memory Complaints in Older Adults: Evidence from a Community Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Fritsch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To estimate the prevalence of subjective memory complaints (SMCs in a sample of community-dwelling, older adults and to examine cognitive bases of these complaints. Participants. 499 community-dwelling adults, 65 and older. Measurements. A telephone survey consisting of cognitive tests and clinical and sociodemographic variables. SMCs were based on subjects' evaluations and subjects' perceptions of others' evaluations. Analysis. Logistic regression was used to model the risk for SMCs as a function of the cognitive, clinical, and sociodemographic variables. We tested for interactions of the cognitive variables with age, education, and gender. Results. 27.1% reported memory complaints. Among the younger age, better objective memory performance predicted lower risk for SMCs, while among the older age, better memory had no effect on risk. Among the better-educated people, better global cognitive functioning predicted lower risk for SMCs, while among the less-educated people, better global cognitive functioning had no effect on SMC risk. When predicting others' perceptions, better objective memory was associated with lower risk for SMCs. Conclusion. Objective memory performance and global cognitive functioning are associated with lower risk for SMCs, but these relationships are the strongest for the younger age and those with more education, respectively. Age and education may affect the ability to accurately appraise cognitive functioning.

  20. Genetic Influences on Physiological and Subjective Responses to an Aerobic Exercise Session among Sedentary Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollis C. Karoly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine whether genetic variants suggested by the literature to be associated with physiology and fitness phenotypes predicted differential physiological and subjective responses to a bout of aerobic exercise among inactive but otherwise healthy adults. Method. Participants completed a 30-minute submaximal aerobic exercise session. Measures of physiological and subjective responding were taken before, during, and after exercise. 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that have been previously associated with various exercise phenotypes were tested for associations with physiological and subjective response to exercise phenotypes. Results. We found that two SNPs in the FTO gene (rs8044769 and rs3751812 were related to positive affect change during exercise. Two SNPs in the CREB1 gene (rs2253206 and 2360969 were related to change in temperature during exercise and with maximal oxygen capacity (VO2 max. The SLIT2 SNP rs1379659 and the FAM5C SNP rs1935881 were associated with norepinephrine change during exercise. Finally, the OPRM1 SNP rs1799971 was related to changes in norepinephrine, lactate, and rate of perceived exertion (RPE during exercise. Conclusion. Genetic factors influence both physiological and subjective responses to exercise. A better understanding of genetic factors underlying physiological and subjective responses to aerobic exercise has implications for development and potential tailoring of exercise interventions.

  1. Mood Influences the Concordance of Subjective and Objective Measures of Sleep Duration in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Baillet

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective/Background: Sleep plays a central role in maintaining health and cognition. In most epidemiologic studies, sleep is evaluated by self-report questionnaires but several reports suggest that these evaluations might be less accurate than objective measures such as polysomnography or actigraphy. Determinants of the discrepancy between objective and subjective measures remain to be investigated. The aim of this pilot-study was to examine the role of mood states in determining the discrepancy observed between objective and subjective measures of sleep duration in older adults.Patients/Methods: Objective sleep quantity and quality were recorded by actigraphy in a sample of 45 elderly subjects over at least three consecutive nights. Subjective sleep duration and supplementary data, such as mood status and memory, were evaluated using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA.Results: A significant discrepancy was observed between EMA and actigraphic measures of sleep duration (p<0.001. The magnitude of this difference was explained by the patient’s mood status (p=0.020. No association was found between the magnitude of this discrepancy and age, sex, sleep quality or memory performance.Conclusion: The discrepancy classically observed between objective and subjective measures of sleep duration can be explained by mood status at the time of awakening. These results have potential implications for epidemiologic and clinical studies examining sleep as a risk factor for morbidity or mortality.

  2. Mood Influences the Concordance of Subjective and Objective Measures of Sleep Duration in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillet, Marion; Cosin, Charlotte; Schweitzer, Pierre; Pérès, Karine; Catheline, Gwenaëlle; Swendsen, Joel; Mayo, Willy

    2016-01-01

    Sleep plays a central role in maintaining health and cognition. In most epidemiologic studies, sleep is evaluated by self-report questionnaires but several reports suggest that these evaluations might be less accurate than objective measures such as polysomnography or actigraphy. Determinants of the discrepancy between objective and subjective measures remain to be investigated. The aim of this pilot-study was to examine the role of mood states in determining the discrepancy observed between objective and subjective measures of sleep duration in older adults. Objective sleep quantity and quality were recorded by actigraphy in a sample of 45 elderly subjects over at least three consecutive nights. Subjective sleep duration and supplementary data, such as mood status and memory, were evaluated using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). A significant discrepancy was observed between EMA and actigraphic measures of sleep duration (p sleep quality or memory performance. The discrepancy classically observed between objective and subjective measures of sleep duration can be explained by mood status at the time of awakening. These results have potential implications for epidemiologic and clinical studies examining sleep as a risk factor for morbidity or mortality.

  3. A comparison of older adults' subjective experiences with virtual and real environments during dynamic balance activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proffitt, Rachel; Lange, Belinda; Chen, Christina; Winstein, Carolee

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the subjective experience of older adults interacting with both virtual and real environments. Thirty healthy older adults engaged with real and virtual tasks of similar motor demands: reaching to a target in standing and stepping stance. Immersive tendencies and absorption scales were administered before the session. Game engagement and experience questionnaires were completed after each task, followed by a semistructured interview at the end of the testing session. Data were analyzed respectively using paired t tests and grounded theory methodology. Participants preferred the virtual task over the real task. They also reported an increase in presence and absorption with the virtual task, describing an external focus of attention. Findings will be used to inform future development of appropriate game-based balance training applications that could be embedded in the home or community settings as part of evidence-based fall prevention programs.

  4. Ocular findings in adult subjects with an inactivating mutation in GH releasing hormone receptor gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faro, Augusto C N; Pereira-Gurgel, Virginia M; Salvatori, Roberto; Campos, Viviane C; Melo, Gustavo B; Oliveira, Francielle T; Oliveira-Santos, Alecia A; Oliveira, Carla R P; Pereira, Francisco A; Hellström, Ann; Oliveira-Neto, Luís A; Valença, Eugenia H O; Aguiar-Oliveira, Manuel H

    2017-06-01

    Ocular function is fundamental for environmental adaptation and survival capacity. Growth factors are necessary for a mature eyeball, needed for adequate vision. However, the consequences of the deficiency of circulating growth hormone (GH) and its effector insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) on the physical aspects of the human eye are still debated. A model of untreated isolated GH deficiency (IGHD), with low but measurable serum GH, may clarify this issue. The aim of this study was to assess the ocular aspects of adult IGHD individuals who have never received GH therapy. Cross sectional study. Setting: University Hospital, Federal University of Sergipe, Brazil. Twenty-five adult (13 males, mean age 50.1years, range 26 to 70years old) IGHD subjects homozygous for a null mutation (c.57+1G>A) in the GHRH receptor gene, and 28 (15 males, mean age 51.1years, range 26 to 67years old) controls were submitted to an endocrine and ophthalmological assessment. Forty-six IGHD and 50 control eyes were studied. Visual acuity, intraocular pressure, refraction (spherical equivalent), ocular axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness (LT), vitreous depth (VD), mean corneal curvature (CC) and central corneal thickness (CCT). IGHD subjects exhibited unmeasurable serum IGF-I levels, similar visual acuity, intraocular pressure and LT, higher values of spherical equivalent and CC, and lower measures of AL, ACD, VD and CCT in comparison to controls, but within their respective normal ranges. While mean stature in IGHD group was 78% of the control group, mean head circumference was 92% and axial AL was 96%. These observations suggest mild ocular effects in adult subjects with severe IGF-I deficiency due to non-treated IGHD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Social network types among older Korean adults: Associations with subjective health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Sung Yun; Joo, Won-Tak; Kim, Woo Jung; Kim, Se Joo; Youm, Yoosik; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Park, Yeong-Ran; Lee, Eun

    2017-01-01

    With population aging now a global phenomenon, the health of older adults is becoming an increasingly important issue. Because the Korean population is aging at an unprecedented rate, preparing for public health problems associated with old age is particularly salient in this country. As the physical and mental health of older adults is related to their social relationships, investigating the social networks of older adults and their relationship to health status is important for establishing public health policies. The aims of this study were to identify social network types among older adults in South Korea and to examine the relationship of these social network types with self-rated health and depression. Data from the Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project were analyzed. Model-based clustering using finite normal mixture modeling was conducted to identify the social network types based on ten criterion variables of social relationships and activities: marital status, number of children, number of close relatives, number of friends, frequency of attendance at religious services, attendance at organized group meetings, in-degree centrality, out-degree centrality, closeness centrality, and betweenness centrality. Multivariate regression analysis was conducted to examine associations between the identified social network types and self-rated health and depression. The model-based clustering analysis revealed that social networks clustered into five types: diverse, family, congregant, congregant-restricted, and restricted. Diverse or family social network types were significantly associated with more favorable subjective mental health, whereas the restricted network type was significantly associated with poorer ratings of mental and physical health. In addition, our analysis identified unique social network types related to religious activities. In summary, we developed a comprehensive social network typology for older Korean adults. Copyright © 2016

  6. HLA-DR4 antigen and idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy susceptibility: a meta-analysis involving 11,761 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, B; Ni, H; Geshang, Q; Li, Y; Shen, W; Shi, H

    2011-02-01

    Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC) has been hypothesized as a multifactorial disorder initiated by an environment trigger in individuals with predisposing human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles. Published data on the association between HLA-DR4 antigen and IDC risk are inconclusive. To derive a more precise estimation of the relationship, a meta-analysis was performed. Studies in English-language articles were identified by a search of PubMed and Embase database (inception to June 2010). A total of 19 case-control studies including 1378 cases and 10,383 controls provided data on the association between HLA-DR4 antigen and genetic susceptibility to IDC. Overall, statistically elevated frequency of HLA-DR4 allele [OR (odds ratio), 1.58; 95% CI (confidence interval), 1.21-2.07; P = 0.0009] was found in patients with IDC compared with controls. When stratified by myocardial biopsy or non-biopsy cases, statistically increased risks were found for IDC in both subgroups. In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, significantly increased risk was found among Europeans from 12 case-control studies (OR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.11-2.12; P = 0.009). In conclusion, our results suggest that HLA-DR4 antigen is a low-penetrant risk factor for developing IDC in Europeans. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. A standing posture is associated with increased susceptibility to the sound-induced flash illusion in fall-prone older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, John; Setti, Annalisa; Doheny, Emer P; Kenny, Rose Anne; Newell, Fiona N

    2014-02-01

    Recent research has provided evidence suggesting a link between inefficient processing of multisensory information and incidence of falling in older adults. Specifically, Setti et al. (Exp Brain Res 209:375-384, 2011) reported that older adults with a history of falling were more susceptible than their healthy, age-matched counterparts to the sound-induced flash illusion. Here, we investigated whether balance control in fall-prone older adults was directly associated with multisensory integration by testing susceptibility to the illusion under two postural conditions: sitting and standing. Whilst standing, fall-prone older adults had a greater body sway than the age-matched healthy older adults and their body sway increased when presented with the audio-visual illusory but not the audio-visual congruent conditions. We also found an increase in susceptibility to the sound-induced flash illusion during standing relative to sitting for fall-prone older adults only. Importantly, no performance differences were found across groups in either the unisensory or non-illusory multisensory conditions across the two postures. These results suggest an important link between multisensory integration and balance control in older adults and have important implications for understanding why some older adults are prone to falling.

  8. Evaluation of the olivocochlear efferent reflex strength in the susceptibility to temporary hearing deterioration after music exposure in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, Keppler; Ingeborg, Dhooge; Leen, Maes; Annelies, Bockstael; Birgit, Philips; Freya, Swinnen; Bart, Vinck

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the predictive role of the olivocochlear efferent reflex strength in temporary hearing deterioration in young adults exposed to music. This was based on the fact that a noise-protective role of the medial olivocochlear (MOC) system was observed in animals and that efferent suppression (ES) measured using contralateral acoustic stimulation (CAS) of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) is capable of exploring the MOC system. Knowing an individual's susceptibility to cochlear damage after noise exposure would enhance preventive strategies for noise-induced hearing loss. The hearing status of 28 young adults was evaluated using pure-tone audiometry, transient evoked OAEs (TEOAEs) and distortion product OAEs (DPOAEs) before and after listening to music using an MP3 player during 1 h at an individually determined loud listening level. CAS of TEOAEs was measured before music exposure to determine the amount of ES. Regression analysis showed a distinctive positive correlation between temporary hearing deterioration and the preferred gain setting of the MP3 player. However, no clear relationship between temporary hearing deterioration and the amount of ES was found. In conclusion, clinical measurement of ES, using CAS of TEOAEs, is not correlated with the amount of temporary hearing deterioration after 1 h music exposure in young adults. However, it is possible that the temporary hearing deterioration in the current study was insufficient to activate the MOC system. More research regarding ES might provide more insight in the olivocochlear efferent pathways and their role in auditory functioning.

  9. Effect of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 and Tissue Plasminogen Activator Polymorphisms on Susceptibility to Type 2 Diabetes in Malaysian Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid Al-Hamodi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Elevated activity of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 and decreased tissue plasminogen activator (tPA activity are considered to be important risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and metabolic syndrome (MetS. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the PAI-1 4G/5G and tPA Alu-repeat I/D polymorphisms with T2DM in Malaysian subjects. Serum insulin, coronary risk panel, plasma glucose, and PAI-1 4G/5G and tPA Alu-repeat I/D polymorphisms were studied in 303 T2DM subjects (227 with MetS and 76 without MetS and 131 normal subjects without diabetes and MetS. Statistical analysis showed that the dominant and additive models of PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism showed a weak association with T2DM without MetS (OR=2.35, P=0.045; OR=1.67, P=0.058. On the other hand, the recessive model of the tPA Alu-repeat I/D polymorphism showed an association with T2DM with MetS (OR=3.32, P=0.013 whereas the dominant and additive models of the tPA Alu-repeat I/D polymorphism were not associated with T2DM either with or without MetS.

  10. Effects of a single, oral 60 mg caffeine dose on attention in healthy adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmus, Micha Mm; Hay, Justin L; Zuiker, Rob Gja; Okkerse, Pieter; Perdrieu, Christelle; Sauser, Julien; Beaumont, Maurice; Schmitt, Jeroen; van Gerven, Joop Ma; Silber, Beata Y

    2017-02-01

    Caffeine induces positive effects on sustained attention, although studies assessing the acute effects of low caffeine dose (effects of a 60 mg dose of caffeine on sustained attention in tests lasting up to 45 minutes using 82 low or non-caffeine-consuming healthy male ( n=41) and female ( n=41) adults aged between 40 and 60 years. Vigilance was measured using Mackworth Clock test, Rapid Visual Information Processing Test, adaptive tracking test, saccadic eye movement and attention switch test. Effects on mood and fatigue were analysed using Bond and Lader and Caffeine Research visual analogue scales, and Samn-Perelli questionnaire. Saliva sampling was performed for both compliance and caffeine pharmacokinetic analysis. Administration of a 60 mg caffeine dose resulted in a significant improvement in sustained attention compared with the placebo. Also a significantly improved peak saccadic velocity and reaction time performance was found, and decreased error rate. Significantly increased feelings of alertness, contentment and overall mood after caffeine treatment compared with placebo were observed. This study demonstrated that in healthy adult subjects oral administration of a single 60 mg caffeine dose elicited a clear enhancement of sustained attention and alertness, measured both in multiple objective performances and in subjective scales.

  11. EFFECTS OF GREEN COFFEE BEAN EXTRACT IN SOME BIOMARKERS OF ADULT BRAZILIAN SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Adriana de Assis JÁCOME

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The purpose of the present study was to analyze the acute effects of the green coffee extracts consumption in some biomarkers of adult Brazilian subjects. Twenty healthy adult subjects between 18 and 35 years old of different sex and ethnic groups took part in the present study. All participants were submitted a 12 hours overnight fast before experiments. Plasma and serum biochemical parameters were measured in distinct intervals after a breakfast standard ingestion and 0.6 L of green coffee been extract consumption. No statistically differences (Wilcoxon test on serum lipid profi le and plasmatic homocysteine concentration were noted after green coffee beverage intake. Caffeine has been associated with increase of the glycaemia in roasted coffee consumers. In the present study, a signifi cant increase (p= 0.03 in glycaemia was observed thirty minutes after the green coffee beverage ingestion and, then, there was a tendency of glycaemia maintenance. The low amount of free caffeine found in green coffee matrix could explain the quick stabilization of the glycaemia. The ingestion of green coffee beverage also signifi cantly reduced uricaemia (p= 0.03 (Wilcoxon test. It is possible that the polyphenols, present in high amounts in this beverage, could act inhibiting the xanthine oxidase enzyme. Therefore, the consumption of green coffee has to stabilize blood glucose 30 minutes after ingestion of test meal, and reduction of uricaemia.

  12. Comparative analysis of NK cell receptor repertoire in adults and very elderly subjects with cytomegalovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Vega, Guillermo; Rangel-Ramírez, Velia; Monsiváis-Urenda, Adriana; Niño-Moreno, Perla; Garcia-Sepúlveda, Christian; Noyola, Daniel E; González-Amaro, Roberto

    2017-03-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in children and young adults has been associated with changes in the innate immune system. We herein analyzed the possible effect of very long term HCMV infection on the expression of several NK cell receptors. Ninety HCMV-seropositive individuals were included and classified as young adults (n=30), elderly (n=30) and very elderly subjects (n=30). A peripheral blood sample was obtained and the expression of NK cell receptors (NKG2A, NKG2C, ILT2, CD161, KIR2DL1, KIR3DL1, and KIR3DL2) by NK and other lymphocyte subsets was assessed by flow cytometry. In addition, the frequency of the sixteen KIR genes was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction. We found a significant increase in the number of NKG2C+ NK and T cells in elderly individuals compared to young adults accompanied by an opposite trend in the number of NKG2A+ lymphocytes, and ILT2+ cells were also increased in elderly individuals. A significant increase in the levels of CD3-CD56+NKG2C+CD57+ cells was also detected in the elderly groups. Finally, KIR gene analysis revealed that the KIR genotype 2 was significantly less frequent in the elderly individuals. Our results support that long-term infection by HCMV exerts a significant progressive effect on the innate immune system. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of maternal high-fat diet and sedentary lifestyle on susceptibility of adult offspring to ozone exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, C J; Phillips, P M; Johnstone, A F M; Schmid, J; Schladweiler, M C; Ledbetter, A; Snow, S J; Kodavanti, U P

    2017-05-01

    Epidemiological and experimental data suggest that obesity exacerbates the health effects of air pollutants such as ozone (O3). Maternal inactivity and calorically rich diets lead to offspring that show signs of obesity. Exacerbated O3 susceptibility of offspring could thus be manifested by maternal obesity. Thirty-day-old female Long-Evans rats were fed a control (CD) or high-fat (HF) (60% calories) diet for 6 wks and then bred. GD1 rats were then housed with a running wheel (RW) or without a wheel (SED) until parturition, creating four groups of offspring: CD-SED, CD-RW, HF-SED and HF-RW. HF diet was terminated at PND 35 and all offspring were placed on CD. Body weight and %fat of dams were greatest in order; HF-SED > HF-RW > CD-SED > CD-RW. Adult offspring were exposed to O3 for two consecutive days (0.8 ppm, 4 h/day). Glucose tolerance tests (GTT), ventilatory parameters (plethysmography), and bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) cell counts and protein biomarkers were performed to assess response to O3. Exercise and diet altered body weight and %fat of young offspring. GTT, ventilation and BALF cell counts were exacerbated by O3 with responses markedly exacerbated in males. HF diet and O3 led to significant exacerbation of several BALF parameters: total cell count, neutrophils and lymphocytes were increased in male HF-SED versus CD-SED. Males were hyperglycemic after O3 exposure and exhibited exacerbated GTT responses. Ventilatory dysfunction was also exacerbated in males. Maternal exercise had minimal effects on O3 response. The results of this exploratory study suggest a link between maternal obesity and susceptibility to O3 in their adult offspring in a sex-specific manner.

  14. Genetic polymorphism of the estrogen receptor alpha gene and susceptibility to osteoarthritis: evidence based on 15,022 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Yan, Xiao-Bin; Sun, Qian-Qian; Hu, Ai-Min; Liu, Hong-Li; Yin, Yan-Wei

    2015-06-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α) gene polymorphism may influence the development of osteoarthritis (OA). However, the results are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to explore using a meta-analysis whether rs2234693 (ER-α PvuII T/C) polymorphism confers significant susceptibility to OA. A systematic search of all relevant studies published through 17 August 2014 was conducted using the PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane database, Current Controlled Trials, Clinicaltrials.gov, Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, CBMdisc, CNKI and Google Scholar. All statistical analyses were done with Review Manager 5.1.4. Twelve articles involving 15 studies were included in the final meta-analysis, which contained 6417 OA cases and 8605 controls. Overall, no significant association was found between the rs2234693 polymorphism and OA risk when all studies were pooled into the meta-analysis (for C allele vs. T allele: OR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.94-1.04, p = 0.63; for C/C vs. T/T: OR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.87-1.08, p = 0.53; for C/C vs. T/C + T/T: OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.88-1.06, p = 0.43; for C/C + T/C vs. T/T: OR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.89-1.14, p = 0.94). In the subgroup analysis, significant association was found between the rs2234693 polymorphism and the OA risk in the knee osteoarthritis (KOA) group (for C/C + T/C vs. T/T: OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.02-1.29, p = 0.02). The present meta-analysis suggests that the rs2234693 polymorphism is associated with an increased KOA risk. Additional well designed genome-wide association studies are required to confirm the result.

  15. Attentional control and subjective executive function in treatment-naive adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venke Arntsberg Grane

    Full Text Available We investigated performance-derived measures of executive control, and their relationship with self- and informant reported executive functions in everyday life, in treatment-naive adults with newly diagnosed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n = 36 and in healthy controls (n = 35. Sustained attentional control and response inhibition were examined with the Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.. Delayed responses, increased reaction time variability, and higher omission error rate to Go signals in ADHD patients relative to controls indicated fluctuating levels of attention in the patients. Furthermore, an increment in NoGo commission errors when Go stimuli increased relative to NoGo stimuli suggests reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant stimuli in conditions demanding frequent responding. The ADHD group reported significantly more cognitive and behavioral executive problems than the control group on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A. There were overall not strong associations between task performance and ratings of everyday executive function. However, for the ADHD group, T.O.V.A. omission errors predicted self-reported difficulties on the Organization of Materials scale, and commission errors predicted informant reported difficulties on the same scale. Although ADHD patients endorsed more symptoms of depression and anxiety on the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA than controls, ASEBA scores were not significantly associated with T.O.V.A. performance scores. Altogether, the results indicate multifaceted alteration of attentional control in adult ADHD, and accompanying subjective difficulties with several aspects of executive function in everyday living. The relationships between the two sets of data were modest, indicating that the measures represent non-redundant features of adult ADHD.

  16. Larval competition alters susceptibility of adult Aedes mosquitoes to dengue infection

    OpenAIRE

    ALTO, BARRY W.; Lounibos, L. Philip; Mores, Christopher N.; REISKIND, MICHAEL H.

    2007-01-01

    Dengue, the most important human arboviral disease, is transmitted primarily by Aedes aegypti and, to a lesser extent, by Aedes albopictus. The current distributions of these invasive species overlap and are affected by interspecific larval competition in their container habitats. Here we report that competition also enhances dengue infection and dissemination rates in one of these two vector species. We determined the effects of competition on adult A. aegypti and A. albopictus, comparing th...

  17. Susceptibility of young and adult rats to the oral toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Chen, Zhangjian; Ba, Te; Pu, Ji; Chen, Tian; Song, Yanshuang; Gu, Yongen; Qian, Qin; Xu, Yingying; Xiang, Kun; Wang, Haifang; Jia, Guang

    2013-05-27

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) have potential applications as food additives, but concerns persist about their safety. Children are identified as having the highest exposure and may face the greatest health risks. However, the toxicological sensitivity of TiO2 NPs in different ages is not clear. Here, a comparative toxicity study of TiO2 NPs in 3-week (youth) and 8-week (adult) old Sprague-Dawley rats is reported following oral exposure at doses of 0, 10, 50, 200 mg kg(-1) body weight per day for 30 days. The organ mass and histology, blood biochemistry and redox state, intestinal function, and biodistribution of NPs are characterized. The results show that TiO2 NPs induce different toxic effects on young and adult rats. The liver edema, heart injuries and non-allergic mast cell activation in stomach tissues are found in young rats. On the other hand, only slight injury in the liver and kidney and decreased intestinal permeability and molybdenum contents are found in adult rats. Furthermore, TiO2 NP exposure can provoke reductive stress (i.e., increased reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratios) in plasmas through enhancing the glucose and GSH levels in young rats or reducing the glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) acitivity and GSSG levels in adult rats. These results suggest that different ages may require different biomarkers for identifying and monitoring oral toxicity of nanoparticles. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Adult Daughters' Influence on Mothers' Health-Related Decision Making: An Expansion of the Subjective Norms Construct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Pamela K.; Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen; Guerra, Claudia; Pasick, Rena J.

    2009-01-01

    This study of mother-adult daughter communication uses qualitative methods to explore the appropriateness of including adult daughters as referents in the measurement of subjective norms (a behavioral theory construct) related to the use of mammography and other health-related tests and services. The methods were chosen to approximate as closely…

  19. Factors Associated with Subjective Quality of Life of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-Report versus Maternal Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jinkuk; Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Smith, Leann E.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2016-01-01

    We examined factors related to subjective quality of life (QoL) of adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) aged 25-55 (n = 60), using the World Health Organization Quality of Life measure (WHOQOL-BREF). We used three different assessment methods: adult self-report, maternal proxy-report, and maternal report. Reliability analysis showed that…

  20. Condylar volume and condylar area in class I, class II and class III young adult subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saccucci Matteo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim Aim of this study was to compare the volume and the shape of mandibular condyles in a Caucasian young adult population, with different skeletal pattern. Material and methods 200 Caucasian patients (15–30 years old, 95 male and 105 females were classified in three groups on the base of ANB angle: skeletal class I (65 patients, skeletal class II (70 patients and skeletal class III (65 patients. Left and right TMJs of each subject were evaluated independently with CBCT (Iluma. TMJ evaluation included: condylar volume; condylar area; morphological index (MI. Condylar volumes were calculated by using the Mimics software. The condylar volume, the area and the morphological index (MI were compared among the three groups, by using non-parametric tests. Results The Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann Whitney test revealed that: no significant difference was observed in the whole sample between the right and the left condylar volume; subjects in skeletal class III showed a significantly higher condylar volume, respect to class I and class II subjects (p 3 in males and 663.5 ± 81.3 mm3 in females; p 2 in males and 389.76 ± 61.15 mm2 in females; p  Conclusion Skeletal class appeared to be associated to the mandibular condylar volume and to the mandibular condylar area in the Caucasian orthodontic population.

  1. Susceptibility of Ceraeochrysa cubana larvae and adults to six insect growth-regulator insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Éric Kodi; Zanardi, Odimar Zanuzo; Aguiar Santos, Kenia Fernanda; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao

    2017-02-01

    The impacts of six insect growth-regulators were assessed on the predator Ceraeochrysa cubana (Hagen) larvae and adults. Our results showed that diflubenzuron, lufenuron and pyriproxyfen caused 100% larva mortality, whereas buprofezin, methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide were similar to control treatment. In comparison to the control, buprofezin prolonged the duration of larval stage, while methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide reduced the predator larva development time. Buprofezin, methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide did not affect the C. cubana duration and survival of pupal stage, fecundity and fertility. However, methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide reduced predator female and male longevities. Based on a reduction coefficient, diflubenzuron, lufenuron and pyriproxyfen were highly harmful to first instar larvae, while buprofezin, methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide were considered slightly harmful to the predator. Estimating the life table parameters, our results showed that buprofezin, methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide reduced the C. cubana Ro, r and λ. In comparison to the control, buprofezin prolonged the T and methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide shortened the predator T. In adults, our results showed that the insecticides did not cause significant mortality, but diflubenzuron, lufenuron and pyriproxyfen reduced the C. cubana fecundity and longevity. Diflubenzuron and lufenuron also reduced the C. cubana fertility. Based on a reduction coefficient, diflubenzuron and lufenuron were highly harmful to C. cubana adults, while pyriproxyfen was slightly harmful and buprofezin, methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide were considered harmless to the predator. Therefore, insect growth-regulators affect the C. cubana biological or populational parameters, and they can harm the integrated pest management programs that aim the predator conservation and/or augmentation in agroecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence of diphtheria and tetanus antibodies among adults in Singapore: a national serological study to identify most susceptible population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, L W; James, L; Goh, K T

    2016-03-01

    In view of waning antitoxin titres over time after the last vaccine dose against diphtheria and tetanus, we determined the immunity levels in adults to identify most susceptible groups for protection in Singapore. Our study involved residual sera from 3293 adults aged 18-79 who had participated in a national health survey in 2010. IgG antibody levels were determined using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 92.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 91.1-92.9%) had at least basic protection against diphtheria (antibody levels ≥0.01 IU/ml), while 71.4% (95% CI: 69.8-72.9%) had at least short-term protection against tetanus (antibody levels >0.1 IU/ml). The seroprevalence declined significantly with age for both diseases; the drop was most marked in the 50- to 59-year age group for diphtheria and 60- to 69-year age group for tetanus. There was a significant difference in seroprevalence by residency for diphtheria (92.8% among Singapore citizens versus 87.1% among permanent residents; P = 0.001). The seroprevalence for tetanus was significantly higher among males (83.2%) than females (62.4%) (P diphtheria and tetanus, particularly those travelling to areas where diphtheria is endemic or epidemic. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Condylar volume and condylar area in class I, class II and class III young adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccucci, Matteo; D'Attilio, Michele; Rodolfino, Daria; Festa, Felice; Polimeni, Antonella; Tecco, Simona

    2012-12-14

    Aim of this study was to compare the volume and the shape of mandibular condyles in a Caucasian young adult population, with different skeletal pattern. 200 Caucasian patients (15-30 years old, 95 male and 105 females) were classified in three groups on the base of ANB angle: skeletal class I (65 patients), skeletal class II (70 patients) and skeletal class III (65 patients). Left and right TMJs of each subject were evaluated independently with CBCT (Iluma). TMJ evaluation included: condylar volume; condylar area; morphological index (MI). Condylar volumes were calculated by using the Mimics software. The condylar volume, the area and the morphological index (MI) were compared among the three groups, by using non-parametric tests. The Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann Whitney test revealed that: no significant difference was observed in the whole sample between the right and the left condylar volume; subjects in skeletal class III showed a significantly higher condylar volume, respect to class I and class II subjects (p condylar volume was observed in class II subjects, respect to class I and class III (p condylar volume (699.8 ± 63.07 mm3 in males and 663.5 ± 81.3 mm3 in females; p condylar surface (423.24 ± 63.03 mm2 in males and 389.76 ± 61.15 mm2 in females; p condylar volume and to the mandibular condylar area in the Caucasian orthodontic population.

  4. Subjective cognitive decline and fall risk in community-dwelling older adults with or without objective cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirooka, Hidehiko; Nishiguchi, Shu; Fukutani, Naoto; Tashiro, Yuto; Nozaki, Yuma; Aoyama, Tomoki

    2017-07-19

    The association between subjective cognitive decline and falls has not been clearly determined. Our aim was to explore the effect of subjective cognitive decline on falls in community-dwelling older adults with or without objective cognitive decline. We included 470 older adults (mean age 73.6 ± 5.2; 329 women) living in the community and obtained data on fall history directly from the participants. Subjective cognitive decline was assessed using a self-administered question. Objective cognitive function was measured using the Mini-Mental State Examination. Statistical analyses were carried out separately for participants with objective cognitive decline and those without. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that, among participants without objective cognitive decline, subjective cognitive decline was positively associated with falls [OR 1.91; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17-3.12; p = 0.01). Conversely, among participants with objective cognitive decline, subjective cognitive decline was negatively associated with falls (OR 0.07; 95% CI 0.01-0.85, p = 0.04). The result suggests that the objective-subjective disparity may affect falls in community-dwelling older adults. The presence of subjective cognitive decline was significantly positively associated with falls among cognitively intact older adults. However, among their cognitively impaired peers, the absence of subjective cognitive decline was positively associated with falls.

  5. The moderating effect of subjective age on the association between depressive symptoms and cognitive functioning in Korean older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Young; Kim, Young Sun; Lee, Hee Yun; Shin, Hye Ri; Park, SeolWoo; Cho, Sung Eun

    2017-10-20

    Depressive symptoms are greatly associated with cognitive impairment in older adults. Recent growing body of literature has reported that the subjective perception of one's own age (subjective age) predicts both cognitive performance and mental well-being in old age. This study aims to examine whether subjective age moderates the association between depressive symptoms and cognitive functioning in a representative sample of Korean older adults. To address this research question, we employed the Stereotype-Embodiment Theory as a theoretical guide. Data are from the 2016 Dementia Literacy Survey collected by Kyung Hee University, and 526 community-dwelling Korean older adults (ages 60-79) completed the questionnaire about depressive symptoms, cognitive functioning, and subjective age. According to the hierarchical regression analysis, both higher levels of depressive symptoms and older subjective age were associated with poorer cognitive functioning. Further analyses showed that subjective age attenuated the effect of depressive symptoms on cognitive functioning: when older adults have a higher level of depression, those with younger subjective age reported a higher level of cognitive functioning than those with older subjective age. Based on the findings from this study, both theoretical and practical implications were discussed.

  6. Subjective sleep impairment in adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes: Results from Diabetes MILES-The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nefs, G.; Donga, E.; van Someren, E.J.W.; Bot, M.; Speight, J.; Pouwer, F.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Despite growing recognition of the impact of sleep on diabetes, a clear profile of people with diabetes regarding subjective sleep impairment has yet to be established. This study examines: (1) subjective sleep characteristics in adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes; (2) the relationship of

  7. Subjective sleep impairment in adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes : Results from Diabetes MILES-The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nefs, Giesje; Donga, Esther; van Someren, Eus; Bot, Mariska; Speight, Jane; Pouwer, François

    AIMS: Despite growing recognition of the impact of sleep on diabetes, a clear profile of people with diabetes regarding subjective sleep impairment has yet to be established. This study examines: (1) subjective sleep characteristics in adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes; (2) the relationship of

  8. Evaluating the subject-performed task effect in healthy older adults: relationship with neuropsychological tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: An enhancement in recall of simple instructions is found when actions are performed in comparison to when they are verbally presented – the subject-performed task (SPT effect. This enhancement has also been found with older adults. However, the reason why older adults, known to present a deficit in episodic memory, have a better performance for this type of information remains unclear. In this article, we explored this effect by comparing the performance on the SPT task with the performance on other tasks, in order to understand the underlying mechanisms that may explain this effect. Objective: We hypothesized that both young and older adult groups should show higher recall in SPT compared with the verbal learning condition, and that the differences between age groups should be lower in the SPT condition. We aimed to explore the correlations between these tasks and known neuropsychological tests, and we also measured source memory for the encoding condition. Design: A mixed design was used with 30 healthy older adults, comparing their performance with 30 healthy younger adults. Each participant was asked to perform 16 simple instructions (SPT condition and to only read the other 16 instructions (Verbal condition – VT. The test phase included a free recall task. Participants were also tested with a set of neuropsychological measures (speed of processing, working memory and verbal episodic memory. Results: The SPT effect was found for both age groups; but even for SPT materials, group differences in recall persisted. Source memory was found to be preserved for the two groups. Simple correlations suggested differences in correlates of SPT performance between the two groups. However, when controlling for age, the SPT and VT tasks correlate with each other, and a measure of episodic memory correlated moderately with both SPT and VT performance. Conclusions: A strong effect of SPT was observed for all but one, which still displayed the

  9. Effects of Delta-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase Polymorphisms on Susceptibility to Lead in Han Subjects from Southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin Sun

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is to determine the distribution of the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD polymorphism among Han subjects of the Chinese population and to study whether the polymorphism in the ALAD gene modifies the toxicity of lead in lead-exposed workers. For this purpose we conducted a cross-sectional study on 156 Chinese workers who were exposed to lead in lead-acid battery and electric-flex manufacturing plants. The authors found that the allele frequencies of ALAD1 and ALAD2 were 0.9679 and 0.0321, respectively. Workers with the ALAD 1-1 genotype were associated with higher blood lead levels than those with the ALAD 1-2 genotype. Blood and urine lead levels were much higher in storage battery workers than in cable workers. The self-conscious symptom survey showed that the incidences of debilitation, amnesia and dreaminess were much higher in those had more than five years of tenure or contact with lead on the job within the ALAD 1-1 genotype subgroup. Laboratory examinations showed that serum iron and zinc levels in workers’ with the ALAD 1-2 genotype were higher than those with the ALAD 1-1 genotype, especially in storage-battery workers. Correlation analysis indicated that the blood lead level negatively correlated with serum calcium, iron and zinc level. The data of this study suggest that the ALAD gene polymorphism and serum ion levels may modify the kinetics of lead in blood. Therefore, the authors recommend that an adequate intake of dietary calcium, iron, and zinc or the calcium, iron, and zinc supplementation should be prescribed to Chinese lead exposed workers.

  10. Evaluation of the olivocochlear efferent reflex strength in the susceptibility to temporary hearing deterioration after music exposure in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keppler Hannah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current study was to evaluate the predictive role of the olivocochlear efferent reflex strength in temporary hearing deterioration in young adults exposed to music. This was based on the fact that a noise-protective role of the medial olivocochlear (MOC system was observed in animals and that efferent suppression (ES measured using contralateral acoustic stimulation (CAS of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs is capable of exploring the MOC system. Knowing an individual′s susceptibility to cochlear damage after noise exposure would enhance preventive strategies for noise-induced hearing loss. The hearing status of 28 young adults was evaluated using pure-tone audiometry, transient evoked OAEs (TEOAEs and distortion product OAEs (DPOAEs before and after listening to music using an MP3 player during 1 h at an individually determined loud listening level. CAS of TEOAEs was measured before music exposure to determine the amount of ES. Regression analysis showed a distinctive positive correlation between temporary hearing deterioration and the preferred gain setting of the MP3 player. However, no clear relationship between temporary hearing deterioration and the amount of ES was found. In conclusion, clinical measurement of ES, using CAS of TEOAEs, is not correlated with the amount of temporary hearing deterioration after 1 h music exposure in young adults. However, it is possible that the temporary hearing deterioration in the current study was insufficient to activate the MOC system. More research regarding ES might provide more insight in the olivocochlear efferent pathways and their role in auditory functioning.

  11. Social Inequalities and Depressive Symptoms in Adults: The Role of Objective and Subjective Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maske, Ulrike E.; Zeeb, Hajo; Lampert, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Background There is substantial evidence that lower objective socioeconomic status (SES)—as measured by education, occupation, and income—is associated with a higher risk of depression. Less is known, however, about associations between perceptions of social status and the prevalence of depression. This study investigated associations of both objective SES and subjective social status (SSS) with depressive symptoms among adults in Germany. Methods Data were obtained from the 2013 special wave of the German Health Update study, a national health survey of the adult population in Germany. Objective SES was determined using a composite index based on education, occupation, and income. The three single dimensions of the index were also used individually. SSS was measured using the MacArthur Scale, which asks respondents to place themselves on a 10-rung ‘social ladder’. Regression models were employed to examine associations of objective SES and SSS with current depressive symptoms, as assessed with the eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-8 sum score ≥10). Results After mutual adjustment, lower objective SES and lower SSS were independently associated with current depressive symptoms. The associations were found in both sexes and persisted after further adjustment for sociodemographic factors, long-term chronic conditions, and functional limitations. Mediation analyses revealed a significant indirect relationship between objective SES and depressive symptoms through SSS. When the three individual dimensions of objective SES were mutually adjusted, occupation and income were independently associated with depressive symptoms. After additional adjustment for SSS, these associations attenuated but remained significant. Conclusions The findings suggest that perceptions of low social status in adults may be involved in the pathogenesis of depression and play a mediating role in the relationship between objective SES and depressive symptoms

  12. Subjective and objective napping and sleep in older adults: are evening naps "bad" for nighttime sleep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautovich, Natalie D; McCrae, Christina S; Rowe, Meredeth

    2008-09-01

    To compare objective and subjective measurements of napping and to examine the relationship between evening napping and nocturnal sleep in older adults. For 12 days, participants wore actigraphs and completed sleep diaries. Community. One hundred individuals who napped, aged 60 to 89 (including good and poor sleepers with typical age-related medical comorbidities). Twelve days of sleep diary and actigraphy provided subjective and objective napping and sleep data. Evening naps (within 2 hours of bedtime) were characteristic of the sample, with peak nap time occurring between 20:30 and 21:00 (average nap time occurred between 14:30 and 15:00). Two categories of nappers were identified: those who took daytime and evening naps and daytime-only. No participants napped during the evening only. Day-and-evening nappers significantly underreported evening napping and demonstrated lower objectively measured sleep onset latencies (20.0 vs 26.5 minutes), less wake after sleep onset (51.4 vs 72.8 minutes), and higher sleep efficiencies (76.8 vs 82%) than daytime-only nappers. Day and evening napping was prevalent in this sample of community-dwelling good and poor sleepers but was not associated with impaired nocturnal sleep. Although the elimination or restriction of napping is a common element of cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia, these results suggest that a uniform recommendation to restrict or eliminate napping (particularly evening napping) may not meet the needs of all older individuals with insomnia.

  13. The interpupillary distance in adult Caucasian subjects, with reference to 'readymade' reading spectacle centration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointer, Jonathan S

    2012-07-01

    The magnitude of the far interpupillary distance (FIPD) has recognized significance within and beyond clinical optometry. Quantitative information regarding the lesser-reported near parameter (NIPD) would similarly be of interest, and could be of relevance with regard to the visual comfort obtained with 'readymade' reading spectacles. Mensuration statistics relating to the FIPD and NIPD are presented, as collated from the spectacle dispensing records of n = 1354 healthy Caucasian presbyopic subjects. The FIPD data were partitioned across 4 age bands (by decade, 41-80 years of age): the NIPD data were distributed across seven nominal reading powers (in 0.50 D steps, +1.00 to +4.00 D). The results of these analyses are considered here, along with their potential application. Consistent gender (male > female) and classification (far > near) differences in IPD (both of approximately 3 mm) were confirmed throughout these data. The magnitude of the adult FIPD is in accord with previously published results; this dimension is now supplemented by NIPD values, whose relationship with total near power is also described. This new anthropometric survey indicates that inter- and intra-gender interocular facial measurement stability is a characteristic of presbyopic subjects. It is suggested that across the anticipated range of age and total reading power requirement of Caucasian (White Northern European) wearers of 'readymade' reading spectacles, adoption of a standard optical centration distance of 61 mm would be universally appropriate. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2012 The College of Optometrists.

  14. Lexical decisions in adults with low and high susceptibility to pattern-related visual stress: a preliminary investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M Gilchrist

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pattern-related visual stress (PRVS is a form of sensory hypersensitivity that some people experience when viewing high contrast repeating patterns, notably alternating dark and light stripes. Those susceptible to PRVS typically have a strong aversion to such stimuli, and this is often accompanied by experiences of visual discomfort and disturbance. The patterns most likely to elicit symptoms of PRVS have a square-wave grating configuration of spatial frequency ~ 3 cycles/degree. Such stimuli are characteristic of printed text in which lines of words and the spaces between them present a high contrast grating-like stimulus. Consequently, much printed reading material has the potential to elicit PRVS that may impair reading performance, and this problem is now thought to be common in individuals with reading difficulties including dyslexia. However, the manner in which PRVS affects reading ability is unknown. One possibility is that the early sensory visual stress may interfere with the later cognitive word recognition stage of the reading process, resulting in reading performance that is slower and/or less accurate.To explore the association of PRVS with word recognition ability, lexical decision performance (speed and accuracy to words and pronounceable non-words was measured in two groups of adults, having low and high susceptibility to PRVS. Results showed that lexical decisions were generally faster but less accurate in high-PRVS, and also that high-PRVS participants made decisions significantly faster for words than for non-words, revealing a strong lexicality effect that was not present in low-PRVS. These findings are novel and, as yet, unconfirmed by other studies. We consider possible interpretation in terms of cortical activity and perceptual mechanisms.

  15. Plasma and serum lipidomics of healthy white adults shows characteristic profiles by subjects' gender and age.

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    Masaki Ishikawa

    Full Text Available Blood is a commonly used biofluid for biomarker discovery. Although blood lipid metabolites are considered to be potential biomarker candidates, their fundamental properties are not well characterized. We aimed to (1 investigate the matrix type (serum vs. plasma that may be preferable for lipid biomarker exploration, (2 elucidate age- and gender-associated differences in lipid metabolite levels, and (3 examine the stability of lipid metabolites in matrix samples subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we performed lipidomic analyses for fasting plasma and serum samples for four groups (15 subjects/group of young and elderly (25-34 and 55-64 years old, respectively males and females and for an additional aliquot of samples from young males, which were subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Lysophosphatidylcholine and diacylglycerol levels were higher in serum than in plasma samples, suggesting that the clotting process influences serum lipid metabolite levels. Gender-associated differences highlighted that the levels of many sphingomyelin species were significantly higher in females than in males, irrespective of age and matrix (plasma and serum. Age-associated differences were more prominent in females than in males, and in both matrices, levels of many triacylglycerols were significantly higher in elderly females than in young females. Plasma and serum levels of most lipid metabolites were reduced by freeze-thawing. Our results indicate that plasma is an optimal matrix for exploring lipid biomarkers because it represents the original properties of an individual's blood sample. In addition, the levels of some blood lipid species of healthy adults showed gender- and age-associated differences; thus, this should be considered during biomarker exploration and its application in diagnostics. Our fundamental findings on sample selection and handling procedures for measuring blood lipid metabolites

  16. Intra-subject variability in muscle activity and co-contraction during jumps and landings in children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffalt, P C; Alkjaer, T; Simonsen, E B

    2017-01-01

    and 60 cm for the children and 60 and 90 cm for the adults. The adults also performed ten DJ from 60 cm. EMG was recorded from nine lower limb muscles in the right leg and normalized to isometric MVC. Statistical parametric mapping was used to reveal differences in the muscle activity and intra......We investigated muscle activity, intra-subject variability in muscle activity and co-contraction during vertical jumps and landings in children and adults. Ten male children and 10 male adults completed 10 countermovement jumps (CMJ), 10 drop jumps (DJ) from 30 cm, 10 low and high landings from 30......-subject variability in the muscle activity. Co-contraction was quantified for two thigh muscle pairs and one plantar flexor/dorsiflexor muscle pair and group differences were assessed (two-way ANOVA). No significant differences were observed in the less eccentric demanding CMJ while significantly higher muscle...

  17. Species Diversity, Antifungal Susceptibility, and Virulence Attributes of Candida Colonising the Oral Cavities of Adult Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Anil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral candidiasis is a common occurrence in diabetic patients. Species of Candida isolated from these infections and their virulence pattern undergo changes over time and require periodic assessments. Objective of this study was to determine changes in the spectrum of Candida species colonizing oral cavity, their antifungal susceptibility patterns, and virulence attributes, in adult diabetic patients. Oral swabs were collected from 100 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM and an equal number of healthy controls. Specimens were cultured for Candida and species were identified, according to standard protocols. Of 100 diabetic patients, 42 were colonized by yeasts with C. albicans as the predominant species (51%. Non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC species accounted for 47% of the specimens, with C. tropicalis being the commonest. Among healthy controls, 23 were colonized by Candida species, of which C. albicans was predominant. Results obtained indicate that C. albicans continues to be the predominant species in oral cavities of diabetic patients. Candidal carriage was significantly associated with duration of diabetes and fasting blood sugar levels. Virulence attributes, proteinase and phospholipase secretion, and biofilm formation were significantly higher in DM group.

  18. The Comparison of the Average Thresholds of Auditory Steady-State Response in Adult Subjective Idiopathic Tinnitus and Normal Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ghasem Ahmad

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Tinnitus is a common symptom among lots of people but little is known about its origins. This study was aimed at comparing the Auditory Steady-State Response (ASSR thresholds in normal cases and patients with subjective idiopathic tinnitus (SIT in order to diagnose its real origins.Materials and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 19 patients with tinnitus and 24 normal cases aged 18-40 yr.The patients underwent broad medical tests to roll out any background reason for their tinnitus. ASSR thresholds were estimated in both groups at 20 and 40 amplitude modulation. The patients were selected from tinnitus patients in Research Center in Hazrat Rasoul Hospital, Tehran, Iran.Results: The mean ASSR thresholds at 40HZ modulation were worse in tinnitus patients compared to normal ones (p<0.05 but no significant statistical differences was detected at 20HZ. These results were found in both situations in which we averaged both ears thresholds and when we estimated the thresholds of the ears separately.Conclusion: It seems that the origin of the responses of the modulation of 40Hz, primary auditory cortex, midbrain regions and subcortical areas, in these patients is involved or the origin of their tinnitus is related to some kind of problems in these areas, although more investigation is needed about 20Hz.

  19. Nutritional Assessment Score: A new tool derived from Subjective Global Assessment for hospitalized adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Fink, Jaqueline; de Mello, Elza Daniel; Beghetto, Mariur Gomes; Luft, Vivian Cristine; de Jezus Castro, Stela Maris; de Mello, Paula Daniel

    2017-02-24

    There is no method to be used as a reference standard for nutritional assessment. This study aims to develop and verify the performance of a new tool, based on the Item Response Theory (IRT), from the Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) questionnaire, in hospitalized adult patients. Retrospective cohort study, composed by secondary database, formed by patients included from October 2005 to June 2006. The new tool presented was developed through the usage of cumulative models from the IRT. Out of 1503 evaluated patients, 2/3 were randomly selected to the development sample of the new tool and 1/3 to the performance verification sample. After item adjustments, the "Nutritional Assessment Score" (NAS) was proposed, with reduced number of questions, and, in comparison to SGA, less polytomic items. NAS demonstrates association to variables that are clinically relevant (hospital mortality, long hospital stay, serum albumin and body mass index) and has shown itself to be more precise to patients with the worst degrees of nutritional status. Results point to the validation of the NAS in detecting, accurately, the nutritional status of hospitalized patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  20. The Effects of Integrated Attention Training for Older Chinese Adults With Subjective Cognitive Complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Calvin Pak-Wing; Chiu-Wa Lam, Linda; Cheng, Sheung-Tak

    2016-12-01

    Early intervention to reduce cognitive decline and preserve functioning is a compelling public health issue. Because impaired attention occurs early in the process of cognitive impairment, focusing training strategies upon attention may be a potential intervention to prevent further cognitive decline. We sought to test the effects on cognitive performance and daily functioning of a new cognitive training program that focuses on attention. This single-blind randomized controlled trial lasted 6 months and included two phases. Assessments were conducted at baseline, at 3 months, and at 6 months. The study was performed in four community older adult centers. Ninety-three participants with subjective cognitive impairment without dementia were included. Forty-seven participants were randomized to the Integrated Attention Training Program (IATP), and 46 were randomized to the control group. The two arms of the study included the IATP (intervention group) and a health-related education program (active control group). No significant interactions were identified between group and time for the Clinical Dementia Rating-Sum of Boxes and other secondary outcomes, except for the Digit Forward Score ( p Attention Network Test, Digit Backward Score ( p attention in cognitive training.

  1. So You Think You Look Young? Matching Older Adults' Subjective Ages with Age Estimations Provided by Younger, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotter-Gruhn, Dana; Hess, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    Perceived age plays an important role in the context of age identity and social interactions. To examine how accurate individuals are in estimating how old they look and how old others are, younger, middle-aged, and older adults rated photographs of older target persons (for whom we had information about objective and subjective age) in terms of…

  2. Adult Exposure to Bt Toxin Cry1Ac Reduces Life Span and Reproduction of Resistant and Susceptible Pink Bollworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Wan, Peng; Cong, Shengbo; Wang, Jintao; Huang, Minsong; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Li, Xianchun; Wu, Kongming

    2016-05-01

    Insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are used widely in sprays and transgenic plants to control insect pests. Although much research has elucidated the effects of Bt toxins on larvae, relatively little is known about their effects on adults. Here, we evaluated the effects of exposing adults to Bt toxin Cry1Ac on the life span and reproduction of two strains of pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders)). In larval diet bioassays, the concentration of Cry1Ac killing 50% of larvae (LC 50 ) was 640 times higher for the laboratory-selected resistant strain (AZP-R) than the susceptible strain (APHIS-S). In experiments with adults, the highest concentrations of Cry1Ac tested (160 and 640 µg Cry1Ac per ml of 5% honey water) reduced life span for both strains. Treatments with 10, 40, and 160 µg Cry1Ac per ml reduced the duration of the oviposition period as well as the number of eggs laid by both strains, but did not affect the percentage of pairs producing eggs, the duration of the preoviposition period, or the percentage of eggs hatching for either strain. Adult life span did not differ between strains at low to moderate concentrations of Cry1Ac, but it was significantly greater for the resistant strain than the susceptible strain at the two highest concentrations of Cry1Ac tested. The reduced susceptibility to high concentrations of Cry1Ac in adults of the AZP-R strain relative to the APHIS-S strain provides the first evidence of expression of resistance to a Bt toxin in adult Lepidoptera. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. The relation between overweight and subjective health according to age, social class, slimming behavior and smoking habits in Dutch adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidell, J C; Bakx, K C; Deurenberg, P.; Burema, J; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.; Huygen, F J

    1986-01-01

    Subjective health status was assessed in relation to overweight by administering a list of 51 health complaints to adult men and women who were either chronically overweight as defined by Body Mass Index (BMI) or not overweight, in a continuous morbidity registration in four general practices during

  4. Older adults' attitudes toward enrollment of non-competent subjects participating in Alzheimer's research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlawish, Jason; Rubright, Jonathan; Casarett, David; Cary, Mark; Ten Have, Thomas; Sankar, Pamela

    2009-02-01

    Research that seeks to enroll noncompetent patients with Alzheimer's disease without presenting any potential benefit to participants is the source of substantial ethical controversy. The authors used hypothetical Alzheimer's disease studies that included either a blood draw or a blood draw and lumbar puncture to explore older persons' attitudes on this question. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 538 persons age 65 and older. Questions explored participants' understanding of research concepts, their views on enrolling persons with Alzheimer's disease in research, and their preferences regarding having a proxy decision maker, granting advance consent, and granting their proxy leeway to override the participant's decision. Additional questions assessed altruism, trust, value for research, and perceptions of Alzheimer's disease. The majority (83%) were willing to grant advance consent to a blood draw study, and nearly half (48%) to a blood draw plus lumbar puncture study. Most (96%) were willing to identify a proxy for research decision making, and most were willing to grant their proxy leeway over their advance consent: 81% for the blood draw study and 70% for the blood draw plus lumbar puncture study. Combining the preferences for advance consent and leeway, the proportion who would permit being enrolled in the blood draw and lumbar puncture studies, respectively, were 92% and 75%. Multivariate models showed that willingness to be enrolled in research was most strongly associated with a favorable attitude toward biomedical research. Older adults generally support enrolling noncompetent persons with Alzheimer's disease into research that does not present a benefit to subjects. Willingness to grant their proxy leeway over advance consent and a favorable attitude about biomedical research substantially explain this willingness.

  5. Circadian phase, dynamics of subjective sleepiness and sensitivity to blue light in young adults complaining of a delayed sleep schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moderie, Christophe; Van der Maren, Solenne; Dumont, Marie

    2017-06-01

    To assess factors that might contribute to a delayed sleep schedule in young adults with sub-clinical features of delayed sleep phase disorder. Two groups of 14 young adults (eight women) were compared: one group complaining of a delayed sleep schedule and a control group with an earlier bedtime and no complaint. For one week, each subject maintained a target bedtime reflecting their habitual sleep schedule. Subjects were then admitted to the laboratory for the assessment of circadian phase (dim light melatonin onset), subjective sleepiness, and non-visual light sensitivity. All measures were timed relative to each participant's target bedtime. Non-visual light sensitivity was evaluated using subjective sleepiness and salivary melatonin during 1.5-h exposure to blue light, starting one hour after target bedtime. Compared to control subjects, delayed subjects had a later circadian phase and a slower increase of subjective sleepiness in the late evening. There was no group difference in non-visual sensitivity to blue light, but we found a positive correlation between melatonin suppression and circadian phase within the delayed group. Our results suggest that a late circadian phase, a slow build-up of sleep need, and an increased circadian sensitivity to blue light contribute to the complaint of a delayed sleep schedule. These findings provide targets for strategies aiming to decreasing the severity of a sleep delay and the negative consequences on daytime functioning and health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Subjective and objective traumatic death: distinct roles in developing complicated grief and depression among older adults in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Suqin; Chow, Amy Y M

    2017-03-01

    Symptoms of complicated grief are associated with a traumatic death. However, the subjective experience of whether or not the death was considered traumatic has not been substantially explored. This study first examined the difference between objective and subjective traumatic death, and then investigated their respective impacts on complicated grief and depressive symptoms following bereavement among older adults in Hong Kong. Participants were 187 Hong Kong adults aged 65 years or above who had lost a family member within the past five years. Demographic information, the Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG), the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and the anxiety subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were utilized. The subjective traumatic level of the death did not differ between the objective traumatic and non-traumatic death as defined by nature of death (t = -1.554, p = 0.122). Higher subjective traumatic levels and younger age of the deceased, were positively related to complicated grief symptoms, F (10, 161) = 14.222, p subjective traumatic levels and older age of the bereaved were positively associated with symptoms of depression, F (10, 160) = 2.855, p = 0.003, R 2 = 0.151. However, objective traumatic death was found to have no relation to either complicated grief or depressive symptoms. Subjective and objective traumatic death may be two distinct concepts, and the subjective experience of the death as a trauma may be a more important factor that contributes to complicated grief and depressive symptoms.

  7. Subjective burden among spousal and adult-child informal caregivers of older adults : results from a longitudinal cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenkamp, Marloes; Hagedoorn, Mariët; Slaets, Joris; Stolk, Ronald; Wittek, Rafael; Smidt, Nynke

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pressures on informal caregivers are likely to increase due to increasing life expectancy and health care costs, which stresses the importance of prevention of subjective burden. The present study examined the correlates of overall subjective burden and multiple burden dimensions among

  8. The relationship between physical activity, meaning in life, and subjective vitality in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Haewon

    2017-11-01

    The present study examined the potential contribution of meaning in life to the relationship between physical activity and subjective vitality in older adults. Two-hundred and fifty community-dwelling elders completed the instruments assessing physical activity, meaning in life, and subjective vitality. Results from structural equation modeling indicated that physical activity was positively associated with both meaning in life and subjective vitality. Further, the relationship between physical activity and vitality was partially mediated by meaning in life. Although previous studies have consistently found a positive impact of physical activity on vitality, the current study suggested that it is more productive to focus not only on physical activity, but also on meaning in life, in order to vitalize elders. Further, a focus on meaning in life can be a productive way to continue to vitalize older adults who are unable to engage in regular physical activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Discrepancy between objective and subjective cognition in adults with major depressive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Srisurapanont, Manit; Suttajit, Sirijit; Eurviriyanukul, Kanokkwan; Varnado, Prirada

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine: i) the correlation between objective and subjective cognition, ii) the correlates of objective and subjective cognition and iii) the predictors of discrepancy between objective and subjective cognition. Participants were non-elderly patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). We assessed subjective cognition using the Perceived Deficit Questionnaire for Depression (PDQ-D) and objective cognition using Face I and Face II tests of the Wechsler Memory Scale, 3rd...

  10. The 10-year course of adult aggression toward others in patients with borderline personality disorder and axis II comparison subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanarini, Mary C; Temes, Christina M; Ivey, Alexandra M; Cohn, Danielle M; Conkey, Lindsey C; Frankenburg, Frances R; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M

    2017-06-01

    This study had two aims. The first was to assess and compare various types of aggressive behavior toward others reported by borderline patients and axis II comparison subjects over time. The second was to determine the best baseline and time-varying predictors of aggressive behavior in these borderline patients. At baseline, a series of interviews and self-report measures were administered to 290 borderline patients and 72 axis II comparison subjects. Measures assessing aggression toward others, axis I and II disorders as well as adult adversity were re-administered every two years over the course of ten years. It was found that borderline patients reported significantly higher rates of verbal, emotional, and physical aggression toward others than comparison subjects but the rates of these forms of aggression toward others declined significantly for those in both study groups. Multivariate analyses indicated that the strongest predictors of adult aggression towards others were severity of adult adversity and a substance use disorder. Taken together, these results suggest that borderline patients commonly report aggression toward others but that this aggression declines significantly over time. These results also suggest that this aggression toward others is most strongly associated with adult experiences of adversity and concurrent substance abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in major depressed and bipolar subjects: role of personality traits and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nicola, Marco; Sala, Loretta; Romo, Lucia; Catalano, Valeria; Even, Christian; Dubertret, Caroline; Martinotti, Giovanni; Camardese, Giovanni; Mazza, Marianna; Tedeschi, Daniela; Callea, Antonino; De Risio, Luisa; Guelfi, Julien Daniel; Rouillon, Frederic; Janiri, Luigi; Gorwood, Philip

    2014-08-01

    A significant comorbidity between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and affective disorders has been consistently reported in adults. Less data regarding the role of personality traits and the influence of ADHD co-occurrence on clinical characteristics and outcome of mood disorders are currently available. One hundred and six remitted major depressed, 102 euthymic bipolar subjects, and 120 healthy controls, homogeneous with respect to demographic characteristics, were included in the study. ADHD diagnosis was based on DSM-IV-TR criteria. Childhood and adult ADHD features were measured with the Wender Utah Rating Scale, the Adult ADHD Self-rating Scale, and the Brown Attention-Deficit Disorder Scale. The Revised NEO Personality Inventory was also administered to the clinical groups, in order to investigate personality dimensions. The occurrence of adult ADHD in subjects with bipolar disorders (BD) or major depressive disorder (MDD) was 15.7 and 7.5 %, respectively, compared to 3.3 % in healthy controls (HC). Significant associations (p < .001) between personality traits (neuroticism, conscientiousness, and extraversion) and ADHD features were observed. Logistic regression analysis of all clinical subjects (n = 208) showed that those with lower levels of neuroticism (OR = 1.031; p = .025) had a lower frequency of ADHD comorbidity. The present study emphasizes the close relationship between affective disorders, especially BD, and ADHD in adults. Our findings support the need to assess subjects with mood disorders in the clinical setting for possible coexisting ADHD and to further investigate personality traits to better understand the etiology of affective disorders and ADHD co-occurrence.

  12. Safety and Efficacy of Oral Polypodium leucotomos Extract in Healthy Adult Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Nestor, Mark S.; Berman, Brian; Swenson, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the safety of oral Polypodium leucotomos extract administered twice daily to healthy adults for 60 days and assess its ability to provide protection against exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Design: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Setting: A single clinical research center. Participants: Healthy adult men and women between 18 and 65 years of age with Fitzpatrick skin types I to IV. Measurements: Safety ass...

  13. Intra- and inter-subject variation in lower limb coordination during countermovement jumps in children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffalt, Peter C; Alkjær, Tine; Simonsen, Erik B

    2016-01-01

    in the experiment. Lower body 3D-kinematics and kinetics from both legs were obtained during 9 vertical jumps of each subject. Coordination pattern and coordination variability of intra-limb and inter-limb coupling were established by modified vector coding and continuous relative phase. The adult group jumped......-subject variability. Based on these results, it was concluded that the same movement solutions were available to both age groups, but the children were less able to consistently utilize the individually chosen coordination pattern. Thus, this ability appears to be developed through normal ontogenesis....

  14. Implications of parent-child relationships for emerging adults' subjective feelings about adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, Anna K; Campione-Barr, Nicole; Killoren, Sarah E

    2017-10-01

    Little is known about the role of parents in promoting their children's successful transition to adulthood, particularly for college students who may maintain stronger ties to parents than other emerging adults. The present study therefore investigated longitudinal implications of parent-child relationship qualities during emerging adults' first year of college for their feelings about the upcoming transition to adulthood 3 years later, as well as implications of 3 types of parental control (behavioral control, psychological control, helicopter parenting) for these associations. Multilevel models indicated that emerging adults who reported less negativity in their relationships with mothers and fathers felt more like adults 3 years later compared with emerging adults with low-quality relationships, while high levels of psychological control and helicopter parenting had detrimental implications for their vocational identity development and perceived competence regarding their transition to adulthood. However, nuanced interactions between parent-child relationship quality and parental control indicated that behavioral control had positive implications for outcomes if it occurred within the context of high-quality relationships, or when utilized with sons. The present study highlights the complex role that parents may play during college students' transition to adulthood, and future work should continue to examine ways that clinicians can incorporate parents as a potential resource for promoting emerging adults' successful transition to adulthood and the workforce. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. (Un)veiling Desire: Re-Defining Relationships between Gendered Adult Education Subjects and Adult Education Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Priti

    2011-01-01

    This paper challenges constructions of the "gendered illiterate Indian villager" as a homogenous group of people who are empowered through acquiring literacy. I strive to displace homogeneous representations of gendered "illiterate" subjects through ethnographic accounts of diverse people's realities in different villages in…

  16. Effects of smartphone-based memory training for older adults with subjective memory complaints: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seo Jin; Seo, Sungmin; Lee, Ji Hyun; Song, Myeong Ju; Shin, Min-Sup

    2017-01-10

    We explored whether newly developed application (Smartphone-based brain Anti-aging and memory Reinforcement Training, SMART) improved memory performance in older adults with subjective memory complaints (SMC). A total of 53 adults (range: 50-68 years; 52.8% female) were randomized into either one of two intervention groups [SMART (n = 18) vs. Fit Brains® (n = 19)] or a wait-list group (n = 16). Participants in the intervention groups underwent 15-20 minutes of training per day, five days per week for 8 weeks. We used objective cognitive measures to evaluate changes with respect to four domains: attention, memory, working memory (WM), and response inhibition. In addition, we included self-report questionnaires to assess levels of SMC, depression, and anxiety. Total WM quotient [t(17) = 6.27, p smartphone-based memory training program may improve WM function in older adults. However, objective improvement in performance does not necessarily lead to decreased SMC.

  17. Anxiety Sensitivity and Age: Roles in Understanding Subjective Social Status among Low Income Adult Latinos in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Paulus, Daniel J; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Garza, Monica; Manning, Kara; Lemaire, Chad; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Smith, Lia J; Ochoa-Perez, Melissa

    2017-07-05

    One social determinant of health construct that is reliably related to health disparities among the Latino population is subjective social status, reflecting subjective ratings of social standing. Yet, little research has explored factors that may undergird variability in subjective social status among this population or in general. Accordingly, the present investigation examined one possible etiological model wherein age moderates the relation between individual differences in anxiety sensitivity (fear of the negative consequences of stress sensations) and subjective social status among a Latino primary care sample. Participants included Spanish-speaking Latino adults (n = 394; 86.5% female; average age = 39.0 years). Results demonstrated an interaction between the anxiety sensitivity and age for subjective social status among the Latino sample. Inspection of the form of the significant interaction indicated that the association between anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status was evident among older, but not younger, persons. The current findings suggest that decreasing anxiety sensitivity, especially among older Latinos, may be one possible viable therapeutic approach to change subjective social status in order to help offset health disparities among this group.

  18. Attitudes, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and intentions related to adult smoking cessation after coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursey, M; Craig, D

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between intention, attitudes, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control related to smoking cessation in adults after initial coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). The theoretical framework for the study was derived from Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior. Intention, the global and belief-based measures of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control were measured with the Determinants of Adult Smoking Cessation (DOASC) Questionnaire developed by the investigator. Thirty-two adult smokers completed the questionnaire 2 to 3 weeks following hospital discharge. Four weeks after the questionnaire completion, a follow-up telephone call was used to determine the participants' current smoking status. The study results indicated that there was a statistically significant relationship between the intention to quit smoking after CABG and the global measure of attitude, and perceived behavioral control. This study highlights some of the beliefs about the outcomes of quitting smoking permanently after CABG which may underlie attitudes, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control in this population. Implications for theory, practice, and research are discussed.

  19. Enhanced cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization and intrinsic excitability of NAc medium spiny neurons in adult but not adolescent rats susceptible to diet-induced obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oginsky, Max F.; Maust, Joel D.; Corthell, John T.; Ferrario, Carrie R.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Basal and diet-induced differences in mesolimbic function, particularly within the nucleus accumbens (NAc), may contribute to human obesity; these differences may be more pronounced in susceptible populations. Objectives We determined whether there are differences in cocaine-induced behavioral plasticity in rats that are susceptible vs. resistant to diet-induced obesity, and basal differences in the striatal neuron function in adult and adolescent obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats. Methods Susceptible and resistant outbred rats were identified based on “junk-food” diet-induced obesity. Then, the induction and expression of cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization, which is mediated by enhanced striatal function and is associated with increased motivation for rewards and reward-paired cues, were evaluated. Basal differences in mesolimbic function were examined in selectively bred obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats (P70-80 and P30-40) using both cocaine induced locomotion and whole-cell patch clamping approaches in NAc core medium spiny neurons (MSNs). Results In rats that became obese after eating “junk-food”, the expression of locomotor sensitization was enhanced compared to non-obese rats, with similarly strong responses to 7.5 and 15 mg/kg cocaine. Without diet manipulation, obesity-prone rats were hyper-responsive to the acute locomotor-activating effects of cocaine, and the intrinsic excitability of NAc core MSNs was enhanced by ~60% at positive and negative potentials. These differences were present in adult, but not adolescent rats. Post-synaptic glutamatergic transmission was similar between groups. Conclusions Mesolimbic systems, particularly NAc MSNs, are hyper-responsive in obesity-prone individuals; and interactions between predisposition and experience influence neurobehavioral plasticity in ways that may promote weight gain and hamper weight loss in susceptible rats. PMID:26612617

  20. Enhanced cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization and intrinsic excitability of NAc medium spiny neurons in adult but not in adolescent rats susceptible to diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oginsky, Max F; Maust, Joel D; Corthell, John T; Ferrario, Carrie R

    2016-03-01

    Basal and diet-induced differences in mesolimbic function, particularly within the nucleus accumbens (NAc), may contribute to human obesity; these differences may be more pronounced in susceptible populations. We examined differences in cocaine-induced behavioral plasticity in rats that are susceptible vs. resistant to diet-induced obesity and basal differences in striatal neuron function in adult and in adolescent obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats. Susceptible and resistant outbred rats were identified based on "junk-food" diet-induced obesity. Then, the induction and expression of cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization, which is mediated by enhanced striatal function and is associated with increased motivation for rewards and reward-paired cues, were evaluated. Basal differences in mesolimbic function were examined in selectively bred obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats (P70-80 and P30-40) using both cocaine-induced locomotion and whole-cell patch clamping approaches in NAc core medium spiny neurons (MSNs). In rats that became obese after eating junk-food, the expression of locomotor sensitization was enhanced compared to non-obese rats, with similarly strong responses to 7.5 and 15 mg/kg cocaine. Without diet manipulation, obesity-prone rats were hyper-responsive to the acute locomotor-activating effects of cocaine, and the intrinsic excitability of NAc core MSNs was enhanced by ∼60 % at positive and negative potentials. These differences were present in adult, but not adolescent rats. Post-synaptic glutamatergic transmission was similar between groups. Mesolimbic systems, particularly NAc MSNs, are hyper-responsive in obesity-prone individuals, and interactions between predisposition and experience influence neurobehavioral plasticity in ways that may promote weight gain and hamper weight loss in susceptible rats.

  1. Paramagnetic susceptibility of the Zr{sub 62}Cu{sub 22}Al{sub 10}Fe{sub 5}Dy{sub 1} metallic glass subjected to high-pressure torsion deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korolev, A.V., E-mail: korolyov@imp.uran.ru [Institute of Metal Physics of the Ural Branch RAS, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Kourov, N.I. [Institute of Metal Physics of the Ural Branch RAS, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Pushin, V.G. [Institute of Metal Physics of the Ural Branch RAS, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Gunderov, D.V. [Saint-Petersburg State University, Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Ufa State Aviation Technical University, Ufa (Russian Federation); Boltynjuk, E.V.; Ubyivovk, E.V. [Saint-Petersburg State University, Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Valiev, R.Z. [Saint-Petersburg State University, Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Ufa State Aviation Technical University, Ufa (Russian Federation)

    2017-09-01

    Highlights: • Zr-based BMG was subjected to HPT at temperatures of 20 °C and 150 °C. • Magnetic measurements reveal well recordable changes in paramagnetic susceptibility. • Paramagnetic susceptibility may be an indicator of a change in the structural state. - Abstract: The Zr{sub 62}Cu{sub 22}Al{sub 10}Fe{sub 5}Dy{sub 1} bulk metallic glass is studied in the as-cast state and in the state after processing by high-pressure torsion at temperatures of 20 °C and 150 °C. According to the data from X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, the structural state of the samples depends weakly on the conducted processing. At the same time, magnetic measurements reveal well recordable changes in paramagnetic susceptibility induced by the processing of the samples. It is assumed that, because of high-pressure torsion deformation, there occurs a noticeable change in the material electronic structure, which leads to a change in the full susceptibility of the samples. The performed studies demonstrate that paramagnetic susceptibility may be an indicator of a change in the structural state of paramagnetic amorphous metallic substances.

  2. Utility of virtual reality environments to examine physiological reactivity and subjective distress in adults who stutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundage, Shelley B; Brinton, James M; Hancock, Adrienne B

    2016-12-01

    Virtual reality environments (VREs) allow for immersion in speaking environments that mimic real-life interactions while maintaining researcher control. VREs have been used successfully to engender arousal in other disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of virtual reality environments to examine physiological reactivity and subjective ratings of distress in persons who stutter (PWS). Subjective and objective measures of arousal were collected from 10PWS during four-minute speeches to a virtual audience and to a virtual empty room. Stuttering frequency and physiological measures (skin conductance level and heart rate) did not differ across speaking conditions, but subjective ratings of distress were significantly higher in the virtual audience condition compared to the virtual empty room. VREs have utility in elevating subjective ratings of distress in PWS. VREs have the potential to be useful tools for practicing treatment targets in a safe, controlled, and systematic manner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Subjective and Neural Responses to Intravenous Alcohol in Young Adults with Light and Heavy Drinking Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Gilman, Jodi M; Ramchandani, Vijay A.; Crouss, Tess; Hommer, Daniel W.

    2011-01-01

    Heavy alcohol consumption during young adulthood is a risk factor for the development of serious alcohol use disorders. Research has shown that individual differences in subjective responses to alcohol may affect individuals' vulnerability to developing alcoholism. Studies comparing the subjective and objective response to alcohol between light and heavy drinkers (HDs), however, have yielded inconsistent results, and neural responses to alcohol in these groups have not been characterized. We ...

  4. Prevalence and predictors of subjective memory complaints in adult male carriers of the FMR1 premutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Rachael Cherie; Hocking, Darren Robert; Trollor, Julian Norman

    2016-08-01

    To examine the prevalence and predictors of subjective memory complaints among a cohort of male FMR1 premutation (PM) carriers with and without fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). Twenty-two PM males (ages 26-80, 7 with FXTAS) and 24 matched controls with normal FMR1 alleles (ages 26-77) completed cross-sectional assessments of subjective memory complaints (memory complaints questionnaire, MAC-Q), objective memory function (Logical Memory subtest from the Wechsler Memory Scale, third edition), and psychiatric symptoms (Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales; the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders). Although a greater proportion of PM males (36%) endorsed subjective memory complaints compared to controls (21%), formal statistical comparisons failed to reach significance. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that subjective memory complaints were not associated with objective memory performance, but rather were predicted by elevated psychiatric symptoms. The relationship between psychiatric symptoms and subjective complaints found in the PM group was not statistically different to that found in the control group. There were no significant relationships between FMR1 molecular measures (CGG repeat length, FMR1 mRNA level) and measures of subjective memory complaints, objective memory performance, or psychiatric symptoms. In keeping with findings from the general population, this study suggests that subjective ratings of memory performance in PM males are associated with underlying psychological factors rather than cross-sectional objective memory function. However, future longitudinal studies are required to determine whether subjective memory complaints may predict changes in objective memory function over time.

  5. Interpersonal Relationships and Subjective Well-being among Older Adults in Sheltered Housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herbers, Daniel J.; Meijering, Louise

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine how experiences with interpersonal relationships contribute to older adults’ well-being in the residential context of sheltered housing. We draw on data collected from sixteen in-depth interviews with older adults living in sheltered housing in a small town in

  6. Feeling Caught between Parents: Adult Children's Relations with Parents and Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Paul R.; Afifi, Tamara D.

    2006-01-01

    Research on divorce has found that adolescents' feelings of being caught between parents are linked to internalizing problems and weak parent-child relationships. The present study estimates the effects of marital discord, as well as divorce, on young adult offspring's feelings of being caught in the middle (N=632). Children with parents in…

  7. Liver Stiffness Values Are Lower in Pediatric Subjects than in Adults and Increase with Age: A Multifrequency MR Elastography Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchell, Emily; Jugé, Lauriane; Hatt, Alice; Sinkus, Ralph; Bilston, Lynne E

    2017-04-01

    Purpose To determine if healthy hepatic mechanical properties differ between pediatric and adult subjects at magnetic resonance (MR) elastography. Materials and Methods Liver shear moduli in 24 healthy pediatric participants (13 children aged 5-14 years [seven boys, six girls] and 11 adolescents aged 15-18 years [six boys, five girls]) and 10 healthy adults (aged 22-36 years [five men, five women]) were obtained with 3-T MR elastography at 28, 56, and 84 Hz. Relationships between shear moduli and age were assessed with Spearman correlations. Differences between age groups were determined with one-way analysis of variance and Tukey multiple comparisons tests. Results Liver stiffness values (means ± standard deviations) were significantly lower in children and adolescents than in adults at 56 Hz (children, 2.2 kPa ± 0.3; adolescents, 2.2 kPa ± 0.2; adults, 2.6 kPa ± 0.3; analysis of variance, P = .009) and 84 Hz (children, 5.6 kPa ± 0.8; adolescents, 6.5 kPa ± 1.2; adults, 7.8 kPa ± 1.2; analysis of variance, P = .0003) but not at 28 Hz (children, 1.2 kPa ± 0.2; adolescents, 1.3 kPa ± 0.3; adults, 1.2 kPa ± 0.2; analysis of variance, P = .40). At 56 and 84 Hz, liver stiffness increased with age (Spearman correlation, r = 0.38 [P = .03] and r = 0.54 [P = .001], respectively). Stiffness varied less with frequency in children and adolescents than in adults (analysis of variance, P = .0009). No significant differences were found in shear moduli at 28, 56, or 84 Hz or frequency dependence between children and adolescents (P = .38, P = .99, P = .14, and P = .30, respectively, according to Tukey tests). Conclusion Liver stiffness values are lower and vary less with frequency in children and adolescents than in adults. Stiffness increases with age during normal development and approaches adult values during adolescence. Comparing pediatric liver stiffness to adult baseline values to detect pediatric liver mechanical abnormalities may not allow detection of mild

  8. Increased RhoA/Rho-Kinase Activity and Markers of Endothelial Dysfunction in Young Adult Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leguina-Ruzzi, Alberto; Pereira, Jaime; Pereira-Flores, Karla; Valderas, Juan P; Mezzano, Diego; Velarde, Victoria; Sáez, Claudia G

    2015-11-01

    Metabolic syndrome, a chronic condition associated with higher risk of cardiovascular diseases, is increasingly prevalent in young adults. Dyslipidemia, proinflammatory cytokines, endothelial dysfunction signs, and RhoA/Rho-kinase (ROCK) activation are considered risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. The occurrence of these factors in young patients with metabolic syndrome but without type 2 diabetes or hypertension has not been fully studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate young subjects with enlarged waist circumference and dyslipidemia but without type 2 diabetes or hypertension,for markers associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases. Thirty-two male patients aged 31 ± 1.3 years diagnosed with metabolic syndrome according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guide for enlarged waist circumference, elevated triglycerides, and low HDL levels, but with blood pressure and fasting glucose within normal ranges, were evaluated for RhoA/ROCK activity in leukocytes, serum fatty acid methyl esters profile, proinflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress markers in addition to thrombin generation and biochemical analysis. Age- and gender-matched healthy subjects were equivalently evaluated. Patients showed higher RhoA/ROCK activity, elevated levels of interleukin-6, soluble CD40L, monocyte chemoattractant protein, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (P < 0.001) as well as parameters of endogenous thrombin generation potential (P < 0.05) compared with healthy subjects. Increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, advanced oxidation protein product, and insulin levels and low nitric oxide biodisponibility (P < 0.001) were also found in patients as compared with controls. Palmitic acid was one of the saturated fatty acids found to be significantly elevated in patients compared with control subjects (P = 0.0087). Increased markers of cardiovascular risk are already present in young

  9. EFFECTS OF MATERNAL HIGH FAT DIET AND SEDENTARY LIFESTYLE ON SUSCEPTIBILITY OF ADULT OFFSPRING TO OZONE EXPOSURE IN RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological and experimental data suggest that obesity exacerbates the health effects of air pollutants such as ozone (O3). Maternal inactivity and calorically rich diets lead to offspring that show signs of obesity. Exacerbated O3 susceptibility of offspring could thus be m...

  10. Facebook Use Predicts Declines in Subjective Well-Being in Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kross, Ethan; Verduyn, Philippe; Demiralp, Emre; Park, Jiyoung; Lee, David Seungjae; Lin, Natalie; Shablack, Holly; Jonides, John; Ybarra, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Over 500 million people interact daily with Facebook. Yet, whether Facebook use influences subjective well-being over time is unknown. We addressed this issue using experience-sampling, the most reliable method for measuring in-vivo behavior and psychological experience. We text-messaged people five times per day for two-weeks to examine how Facebook use influences the two components of subjective well-being: how people feel moment-to-moment and how satisfied they are with their lives. Our re...

  11. HLA Class II Alleles Susceptibility Markers of Type 1 Diabetes Fail to Specify Phenotypes of Ketosis-Prone Diabetes in Adult Tunisian Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Laadhar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to characterize the different subgroups of ketosis-prone diabetes (KPD in a sample of Tunisian patients using the Aβ scheme based on the presence or absence of β-cell autoantibodies (A+ or A− and β-cell functional reserve (β+ or β− and we investigated whether HLA class II alleles could contribute to distinct KPD phenotypes. We enrolled 43 adult patients with a first episode of ketosis. For all patients we evaluated clinical parameters, β-cell autoimmunity, β-cell function and HLA class II alleles. Frequency distribution of the 4 subgroups was 23.3% A+β−, 23.3% A−β−, 11.6% A+β+ and 41.9% A−β+. Patients from the group A+β− were significantly younger than those from the group A−β− (P=.002. HLA susceptibility markers were significantly more frequent in patients with autoantibodies (P=.003. These patients also had resistance alleles but they were more frequent in A+β+ than A+β− patients (P=.04. Insulin requirement was not associated to the presence or the absence of HLA susceptibility markers. HLA class II alleles associated with susceptibility to autoimmune diabetes have not allowed us to further define Tunisian KPD groups. However, high prevalence of HLA resistance alleles in our patients may reflect a particular genetic background of Tunisian KPD population.

  12. Multimorbidity and its relation to subjective memory complaints in a large general population of older adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.R. Verhey; M.P. van Boxtel; K.J. Hajema; M. van den Akker; Dr. Sil Aarts; J.F. Metsemakers; A.M. van Ingen

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multimorbidity has been suggested to be associated with a variety of negative health-related outcomes. The present study was designed to evaluate the association between multimorbidity and subjective memory complaints. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was based on data obtained from a

  13. Are depressive symptomatology and self-focused attention associated with subjective memory impairment in older adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Juhee; Oh, Kyung Ja; Seo, Sang Won; Na, Duk L

    2014-04-01

    Subjective memory impairment (SMI) refers to conditions in which people complain of memory problems despite intact cognition. The primary purpose of the present study was to examine the roles of self-focused attention and depressive symptomatology in subjective memory complaints. One hundred and eight patients who visited a memory disorder clinic with complaints of memory decline, but who were found on subsequent neuropsychological assessment to have normal cognitive function, were recruited to participate in the study. The severity of subjective memory complaints was measured with the modified Multifactorial Memory Questionnaire. In addition, neuropsychological functions, self-focused attention, and depressive symptomatology were also assessed. The results showed that the severity of SMI was not significantly correlated with any of the neuropsychological test scores except for the complex figure copy. The severity of SMI, however, was significantly correlated with self-focused attention and depressive symptomatology. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that self-focused attention and depressive symptomatology significantly contributed to the severity of subjective memory complaints over and above the neuropsychological test performance. The interaction effects between self-focused attention/depressive symptomatology and objective memory performance on the severity of SMI were not significant. In conclusion, self-focused attention and depressive symptomatology appear to play important roles in the severity of SMI, even though it is not clear how these factors interact with objective memory performance. Clinical implications as well as limitations of the present study were discussed.

  14. The Influence of Executive Functioning on Facial and Subjective Pain Responses in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive decline is known to reduce reliability of subjective pain reports. Although facial expressions of pain are generally considered to be less affected by this decline, empirical support for this assumption is sparse. The present study therefore examined how cognitive functioning relates to facial expressions of pain and whether cognition acts as a moderator between nociceptive intensity and facial reactivity. Facial and subjective responses of 51 elderly participants to mechanical stimulation at three intensities levels (50 kPa, 200 kPa, and 400 kPa) were assessed. Moreover, participants completed a neuropsychological examination of executive functioning (planning, cognitive inhibition, and working memory), episodic memory, and psychomotor speed. The results showed that executive functioning has a unique relationship with facial reactivity at low pain intensity levels (200 kPa). Moreover, cognitive inhibition (but not other executive functions) moderated the effect of pressure intensity on facial pain expressions, suggesting that the relationship between pressure intensity and facial reactivity was less pronounced in participants with high levels of cognitive inhibition. A similar interaction effect was found for cognitive inhibition and subjective pain report. Consequently, caution is needed when interpreting facial (as well as subjective) pain responses in individuals with a high level of cognitive inhibition. PMID:27274618

  15. Disturbed subjective sleep characteristics in adult patients with long-standing type 1 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, M.; Donga, E.; van Dijk, J. G.; Lammers, G. J.; van Kralingen, K. W.; Dekkers, O. M.; Corssmit, E. P. M.; Romijn, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    Decreased sleep duration and/or impaired sleep quality negatively influence glucoregulation. The aim of this study was to assess subjective sleep characteristics in patients with type 1 diabetes, to relate sleep characteristics to long-term glycaemic control and to assess possible risk factors for

  16. The kinetic and kinematic stability measures in healthy adult subjects with and without flat foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Paul S; Zipple, J Timothy; Andraka, John M; Danial, Pamela

    2017-03-01

    Flat foot problems are associated with impaired mobility and postural stability. The purpose of this study was to compare the kinematic and kinetic indices during one leg standing between subjects with and without flat foot. Forty-four participants enrolled in the study, including 22 subjects with flat foot and 22 control subjects. The measurements included kinematic stability on the trunk as well as kinetic stability from a force plate. All participants were asked to maintain one leg standing with the contralateral hip and knee flexed to approximately 90° for 25seconds. The kinetic index decreased in the flat foot group (t=-5.08, p=0.001) during one leg standing without visual input. There were strong correlations between kinetic and kinematic stabilities (0.75-0.86) with visual input and moderate correlations (0.49-0.67) without visual input in the control group. The flat foot group exhibited a significantly decreased kinetic index without visual input. The more effective postural stability in the control group might be due to efficient compensatory strategies utilized without visual input to maintain one leg standing. These outcome measures could help to develop a practical test leading to kinematic postural changes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Intrauterine and Nursing Period Is a Window of Susceptibility for Development of Obesity and Intestinal Tumorigenesis by a High Fat Diet in Min/+ Mice as Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Ha Thi; Hetland, Ragna Bogen; Steffensen, Inger-Lise

    2015-01-01

    We studied how obesogenic conditions during various life periods affected obesity and intestinal tumorigenesis in adult C57BL/6J-Min (multiple intestinal neoplasia)/+ mice. The mice were given a 10% fat diet throughout life (negative control) or a 45% fat diet in utero, during nursing, during both in utero and nursing, during adult life, or during their whole life-span, and terminated at 11 weeks for tumorigenesis (Min/+) or 23 weeks for obesogenic effect (wild-type). Body weight at 11 weeks was increased after a 45% fat diet during nursing, during both in utero and nursing, and throughout life, but had normalized at 23 weeks. In the glucose tolerance test, the early exposure to a 45% fat diet in utero, during nursing, or during both in utero and nursing, did not affect blood glucose, whereas a 45% fat diet given to adults or throughout life did. However, a 45% fat diet during nursing or during in utero and nursing increased the number of small intestinal tumors. So did exposures to a 45% fat diet in adult life or throughout life, but without increasing the tumor numbers further. The intrauterine and nursing period is a window of susceptibility for dietary fat-induced obesity and intestinal tumor development. PMID:25874125

  18. Differential susceptibility of adults and nymphs of Blattella germanica (L.) (Blattodea: Blattellidae) to infection by Metarhizium anisopliae and assessment of delivery strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, R B; Alves, S B

    2011-01-01

    Microbial insecticides for cockroach control, such as those containing entomopathogenic fungi, may be an alternative to reduce contamination by chemicals in housing and food storage environments. Virulence of isolate ESALQ1037 belonging to the Metarhizium anisopliae complex against nymphs and adults of Blattella germanica (L.), and its infectivity following exposure of insects to a contaminated surface or to M. anisopliae-bait were determined under laboratory conditions. Estimated LD50 15 d following topical inoculation was 2.69 x 10(5) conidia per adult, whereas for nymphs the maximum mortality was lower than 50%. Baits amended with M. anisopliae conidia had no repellent effect on targets; adult mortality was inferior to 25%, and nymphs were not susceptible. All conidia found in the digestive tract of M. anisopliae-bait fed cockroaches were unviable, and bait-treated insects that succumbed to fungal infection showed a typical mycelial growth on mouthparts and front legs, but not on the hind body parts. As opposed to baits, the use of a M. anisopliae powdery formulation for surface treatment was effective in attaining high mortality rates of B. germanica. Both nymphs and adults were infected when this delivery strategy was used, and mycelia growth occurred all over the body surface. Our results suggest that the development of powders or similar formulations of M. anisopliae to control B. germanica may provide faster and better results than some of the strategies based on baits currently available.

  19. Differential susceptibility of adults and nymphs of Blattella germanica (L.) (Blattodea: Blattellidae) to infection by Metarhizium anisopliae and assessment of delivery strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, R.B., E-mail: rblopes@cenargen.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Alves, S.B. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia e Acarologia

    2011-05-15

    Microbial insecticides for cockroach control, such as those containing entomopathogenic fungi, may be an alternative to reduce contamination by chemicals in housing and food storage environments. Virulence of isolate ESALQ1037 belonging to the Metarhizium anisopliae complex against nymphs and adults of Blattella germanica (L.), and its infectivity following exposure of insects to a contaminated surface or to M. anisopliae-bait were determined under laboratory conditions. Estimated LD50 15 d following topical inoculation was 2.69 x 105 conidia per adult, whereas for nymphs the maximum mortality was lower than 50%. Baits amended with M. anisopliae conidia had no repellent effect on targets; adult mortality was inferior to 25%, and nymphs were not susceptible. All conidia found in the digestive tract of M. anisopliae-bait fed cockroaches were unviable, and bait-treated insects that succumbed to fungal infection showed a typical mycelial growth on mouthparts and front legs, but not on the hind body parts. As opposed to baits, the use of a M. anisopliae powdery formulation for surface treatment was effective in attaining high mortality rates of B. germanica. Both nymphs and adults were infected when this delivery strategy was used, and mycelia growth occurred all over the body surface. Our results suggest that the development of powders or similar formulations of M. anisopliae to control B. germanica may provide faster and better results than some of the strategies based on baits currently available. (author)

  20. The Intrauterine and Nursing Period Is a Window of Susceptibility for Development of Obesity and Intestinal Tumorigenesis by a High Fat Diet in Min/+ Mice as Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha Thi Ngo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied how obesogenic conditions during various life periods affected obesity and intestinal tumorigenesis in adult C57BL/6J-Min (multiple intestinal neoplasia/+ mice. The mice were given a 10% fat diet throughout life (negative control or a 45% fat diet in utero, during nursing, during both in utero and nursing, during adult life, or during their whole life-span, and terminated at 11 weeks for tumorigenesis (Min/+ or 23 weeks for obesogenic effect (wild-type. Body weight at 11 weeks was increased after a 45% fat diet during nursing, during both in utero and nursing, and throughout life, but had normalized at 23 weeks. In the glucose tolerance test, the early exposure to a 45% fat diet in utero, during nursing, or during both in utero and nursing, did not affect blood glucose, whereas a 45% fat diet given to adults or throughout life did. However, a 45% fat diet during nursing or during in utero and nursing increased the number of small intestinal tumors. So did exposures to a 45% fat diet in adult life or throughout life, but without increasing the tumor numbers further. The intrauterine and nursing period is a window of susceptibility for dietary fat-induced obesity and intestinal tumor development.

  1. Reliability of scored patient generated subjective global assessment for nutritional status among HIV infected adults in TASO, Kampala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokori, A; Kabehenda, M K; Nabiryo, C; Wamuyu, M G

    2011-08-01

    Establish the reliability of the scored Patient Generated-Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) in determining nutritional status among Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) naive HIV-infected adults. A descriptive, cross sectional study among outpatient medical clinics, in The AIDS Support Organization (TASO), Mulago Centre, Kampala, Uganda. The study group (n=217) consisted of male (n=60) and female (n=157) HIV patients (18-67 years). Purposive sampling was used. Anthropometry (weight, height, BMI), nutritional history (body weight, dietary intake, gastrointestinal symptoms, functional capacity and infections), and clinical status were assessed. Sensitivity and specificity of PG-SGA were determined using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve. Data collection was done from April-May 2008. Only 12% of the subjects were underweight and over half (58.2%) had normal weight. The PG-SGA had low sensitivity (69.2%) and specificity (57.1%) at categorizing the risk for malnutrition indicated by BMInutritional status in this population.

  2. Reaching in reality and virtual reality: a comparison of movement kinematics in healthy subjects and in adults with hemiparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feldman Anatol G

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Virtual reality (VR is an innovative tool for sensorimotor rehabilitation increasingly being employed in clinical and community settings. Despite the growing interest in VR, few studies have determined the validity of movements made in VR environments with respect to real physical environments. The goal of this study was to compare movements done in physical and virtual environments in adults with motor deficits to those in healthy individuals. Methods The participants were 8 healthy adults and 7 adults with mild left hemiparesis due to stroke. Kinematics of functional arm movements involving reaching, grasping and releasing made in physical and virtual environments were analyzed in two phases: 1 reaching and grasping the ball and 2 ball transport and release. The virtual environment included interaction with an object on a 2D computer screen and haptic force feedback from a virtual ball. Temporal and spatial parameters of reaching and grasping were determined for each phase. Results Individuals in both groups were able to reach, grasp, transport, place and release the virtual and real ball using similar movement strategies. In healthy subjects, reaching and grasping movements in both environments were similar but these subjects used less wrist extension and more elbow extension to place the ball on the virtual vertical surface. Participants with hemiparesis made slower movements in both environments compared to healthy subjects and during transport and placing of the ball, trajectories were more curved and interjoint coordination was altered. Despite these differences, patients with hemiparesis also tended to use less wrist extension during the whole movement and more elbow extension at the end of the placing phase. Conclusion Differences in movements made by healthy subjects in the two environments may be explained by the use of a 2D instead of a 3D virtual environment and the absence of haptic feedback from the VR target

  3. Population aging in local areas and subjective well-being of older adults: Findings from two studies in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Tami; Sugisawa, Hidehiro; Harada, Ken; Kai, Ichiro

    2016-05-23

    Subjective well-being (SWB) of older adults could be affected by both individual and community characteristics. However, the effect of community characteristics, such as population aging in local areas, remains unclear. This study examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the area-level population aging and SWB of older individuals from two distinct surveys. Those analyzed were 572 respondents aged 75 years and older for a cross-sectional survey in a metropolitan area in Tokyo, Japan (Study 1) and 1,257 and 859 respondents for a cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis, respectively, for a 2-year longitudinal survey project in urban and rural areas of Fukui Prefecture (Study 2). Area-level population aging was assessed by the number of people aged 65 years or older per 100 residents. SWB was assessed with the Life Satisfaction Index-A (LSIA). Multilevel analysis was performed to examine unconditional and conditional associations between the area-level number of older adults per 100 residents and the individual-level LSIA scores. The area-level number of older adults per 100 residents was significantly and positively associated with the LSIA scores in Study 1 (p = 0.042), even after controlling for the area- and individual-level covariates. In Study 2, we also found a significant effect of the area-level number of older adults per 100 residents on LSIA scores in the longitudinal multivariate analysis (p = 0.049). Findings from two survey projects suggested cross-validity in the positive effect of area-level population aging on older adults' SWB. Policymakers should consider older citizens' SWB in the recent urban-to-rural migration governmental policy as well as in urban renovation planning.

  4. Simple binocular vision examination on synoptophore determination of normative database of healthy adult subjects examination of binocular vision on synoptophore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesely, Petr; Synek, Svatopluk

    2013-04-01

    The main goal of our study was to determine the database of parameters of simple binocular vision (SBV) in healthy adult population. Next goal was to verify current data of particular parameters of SBV Average subjective deviation for far of all 74 subjects was 2.78 +/- 3.65 cm/m, of women was 2.90 +/- 3.69 cm/m and only for men was 2.00 +/- 3.49 cm/m. According our measurements the positive fusion range of all subjects is 25.10 +/- 12.77 cm/m, negative fusion range -6.45 +/- 4.18 cm/m, accommodation convergence to accommodation ratio (AC/A) is 3.41 +/- 1.47 cm/m and subjective deviation with accommodation on 33 cm (with minus 3 D) is 13.02 +/- 5.23 cm/m. Further we proved statistically significant correlation between these parameters of SBV: Age and AC/A, SU-3 and AC/A, SU0 and SU-3, SU-3 and FS0 and FS-3. Knowledge of basic SBV parameters is important not only for ophthalmologist but also for optometrists.

  5. Objective QbTest and subjective evaluation of stimulant treatment in adult attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijlenga, D; Jasperse, M; Gehlhaar, S K; Sandra Kooij, J J

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the QbTest as an objective measure versus self-reported ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS) before and during stimulant treatment in adults with ADHD. We used the subjective ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS), and the objective computerized QbTest, which is a 20-minute unconditional identical pairs test that measures attention, impulsivity, and also hyperactivity using a motion-tracking system. Patients were assessed before (baseline) and during medical treatment with stimulants (follow-up) in an observational study design. Data of n=145 patients at baseline and n=82 patients at follow-up were analyzed. There were significant symptom reductions on all symptom domains, but correlations between the tests were weak. Improvement on the QbTest was independent of the patient's age, gender, educational level, ADHD subtype, co-morbid disorders, and use of other medications. Patients with worst QbTest results at baseline showed most improvement at follow-up. The QbTest was more sensitive to medication effects than the ADHD-RS. QbTest objectified clinical significant medication effect in 54% of patients who subjectively did not report any clinical effects. Symptoms dimensions of objective and subjective tests refer to different psychological constructs. The QbTest is a valuable addition to existing subjective measures to assess medication effects in ADHD patients who have difficulties reporting treatment effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Exploring HIV infection and susceptibility to measles among older children and adults in Malawi: a facility-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A. Polonsky

    2015-02-01

    Conclusions: We found no evidence that HIV infection contributes to the risk of measles infection among adults, but HIV-infected children (including at ages older than previously reported, were less likely to be seroprotected in this sample.

  7. Natural occurrence of subjective aging experiences in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miche, Martina; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Diehl, Manfred; Oswald, Frank; Kaspar, Roman; Kolb, Maren

    2014-03-01

    The subjective experience of aging is a relevant correlate of developmental outcomes. However, traditional approaches fall short of capturing the inherent multidimensionality of subjective aging experiences (SAEs). Based on the concept of Awareness of Age-Related Change (AARC; Diehl, M. K., & Wahl, H.-W. (2010). Awareness of age-related change: Examination of a (mostly) unexplored concept. Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 65, 340-350. doi:10.1093/geronb/gbp110), this study provides a description of SAEs that is facet rich, and based on their natural occurrence, analyzes interindividual differences and associations with well-being. Data came from 225 participants (70-88 years) of the ongoing BEWOHNT study. Open-ended diary entries about age-related experiences were collected for more than 14 days and coded according to AARC domains and subdomains. Seventy percent of all participants had SAEs about physical functioning. About half of the sample reported experiences in the domains interpersonal relations, social-emotional and social-cognitive functioning (COGN-EMOT), and lifestyle. Thirty percent experienced aging in terms of changes in cognitive functioning. Contents of SAEs varied by gender, age group, and functional status. SAEs about COGN-EMOT were most consistently related to affective components of subjective well-being. Our results demonstrate the benefits of an open-ended approach to a multidimensional understanding of SAEs. Content-related, social-cognitive and social-emotional changes more than functional age-related changes were most important for well-being.

  8. Facebook use predicts declines in subjective well-being in young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethan Kross

    Full Text Available Over 500 million people interact daily with Facebook. Yet, whether Facebook use influences subjective well-being over time is unknown. We addressed this issue using experience-sampling, the most reliable method for measuring in-vivo behavior and psychological experience. We text-messaged people five times per day for two-weeks to examine how Facebook use influences the two components of subjective well-being: how people feel moment-to-moment and how satisfied they are with their lives. Our results indicate that Facebook use predicts negative shifts on both of these variables over time. The more people used Facebook at one time point, the worse they felt the next time we text-messaged them; the more they used Facebook over two-weeks, the more their life satisfaction levels declined over time. Interacting with other people "directly" did not predict these negative outcomes. They were also not moderated by the size of people's Facebook networks, their perceived supportiveness, motivation for using Facebook, gender, loneliness, self-esteem, or depression. On the surface, Facebook provides an invaluable resource for fulfilling the basic human need for social connection. Rather than enhancing well-being, however, these findings suggest that Facebook may undermine it.

  9. Facebook use predicts declines in subjective well-being in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kross, Ethan; Verduyn, Philippe; Demiralp, Emre; Park, Jiyoung; Lee, David Seungjae; Lin, Natalie; Shablack, Holly; Jonides, John; Ybarra, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Over 500 million people interact daily with Facebook. Yet, whether Facebook use influences subjective well-being over time is unknown. We addressed this issue using experience-sampling, the most reliable method for measuring in-vivo behavior and psychological experience. We text-messaged people five times per day for two-weeks to examine how Facebook use influences the two components of subjective well-being: how people feel moment-to-moment and how satisfied they are with their lives. Our results indicate that Facebook use predicts negative shifts on both of these variables over time. The more people used Facebook at one time point, the worse they felt the next time we text-messaged them; the more they used Facebook over two-weeks, the more their life satisfaction levels declined over time. Interacting with other people "directly" did not predict these negative outcomes. They were also not moderated by the size of people's Facebook networks, their perceived supportiveness, motivation for using Facebook, gender, loneliness, self-esteem, or depression. On the surface, Facebook provides an invaluable resource for fulfilling the basic human need for social connection. Rather than enhancing well-being, however, these findings suggest that Facebook may undermine it.

  10. Facebook Use Predicts Declines in Subjective Well-Being in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kross, Ethan; Verduyn, Philippe; Demiralp, Emre; Park, Jiyoung; Lee, David Seungjae; Lin, Natalie; Shablack, Holly; Jonides, John; Ybarra, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Over 500 million people interact daily with Facebook. Yet, whether Facebook use influences subjective well-being over time is unknown. We addressed this issue using experience-sampling, the most reliable method for measuring in-vivo behavior and psychological experience. We text-messaged people five times per day for two-weeks to examine how Facebook use influences the two components of subjective well-being: how people feel moment-to-moment and how satisfied they are with their lives. Our results indicate that Facebook use predicts negative shifts on both of these variables over time. The more people used Facebook at one time point, the worse they felt the next time we text-messaged them; the more they used Facebook over two-weeks, the more their life satisfaction levels declined over time. Interacting with other people “directly” did not predict these negative outcomes. They were also not moderated by the size of people's Facebook networks, their perceived supportiveness, motivation for using Facebook, gender, loneliness, self-esteem, or depression. On the surface, Facebook provides an invaluable resource for fulfilling the basic human need for social connection. Rather than enhancing well-being, however, these findings suggest that Facebook may undermine it. PMID:23967061

  11. Has the licensing of respiratory quinolones for adults and the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) for children had herd effects with respect to antimicrobial non-susceptibility in invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenoll, A; Aguilar, L; Granizo, J J; Giménez, M J; Aragoneses-Fenoll, L; Mendez, C; Tarragó, D

    2008-12-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the evolution of antibiotic non-susceptibility in Spanish invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae after licensure of respiratory-quinolones for adults and 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) for immunization of children. All invasive pneumococci received in the Reference Laboratory (January 2000-August 2007; n = 12 957 isolates) were serotyped, and susceptibility to penicillin/erythromycin/levofloxacin was determined. Antibiotic consumption and PCV-7 doses/year were provided by IMS and the manufacturer, respectively. In 2000-07, PCV-7 distribution (doses/1000 inhabitants adults (r = -0.905; P = 0.002). This decrease in PCV-7 serotypes correlated with a decrease in penicillin non-susceptibility in children (r = 0.929; P < 0.001) and adults (r = 0.905; P = 0.002) and with erythromycin non-susceptibility in children (r = 0.833; P = 0.010). Penicillin/erythromycin non-susceptibility in 2000 was significantly higher in paediatric versus adult isolates (penicillin: 51.4% versus 29.2%; erythromycin: 39.5% versus 20.4%), but similar in 2006-07 (20% to 24%). The increase in respiratory quinolones consumption correlated with the increase in levofloxacin non-susceptibility in adults (r = 0.926; P = 0.008) but not in children, with different non-susceptibility rates in 2007 (1.6% versus 0.0%; P = 0.013). This ecological analysis suggests that PCV-7 vaccination in children had a herd effect in adults, but consumption of respiratory quinolones in adults had no effect on pneumococcal susceptibility to levofloxacin in

  12. Subjective, behavioral, and physiological responses to the rubber hand illusion do not vary with age in the adult phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo, Priscila; Borrego, Adrián; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Llorens, Roberto; Demarzo, Marcelo; Baños, Rosa M

    2017-11-03

    The Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI) is a perceptual illusion that enables integration of artificial limbs into the body representation through combined multisensory integration. Most previous studies investigating the RHI have involved young healthy adults within a very narrow age range (typically 20-30 years old). The purpose of this paper was to determine the influence of age on the RHI. The RHI was performed on 93 healthy adults classified into three groups of age (20-35 years old, N = 41; 36-60 years old, N = 28; and 61-80 years old, N = 24), and its effects were measured with subjective (Embodiment of Rubber Hand Questionnaire), behavioral (proprioceptive drift), and physiological (changes in skin temperature and conductance) measures. There were neither significant differences among groups in any response, nor significant covariability or correlation between age and other measures (but for skin temperature), which suggests that the RHI elicits similar responses across different age groups in the adult phase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Should nonalcoholic fatty liver disease be included in the definition of metabolic syndrome? A cross-sectional comparison with Adult Treatment Panel III criteria in nonobese nondiabetic subjects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Musso, Giovanni; Gambino, Roberto; Bo, Simona; Uberti, Barbara; Biroli, Giampaolo; Pagano, Gianfranco; Cassader, Maurizio

    2008-01-01

    The ability of the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria of metabolic syndrome to identify insulin-resistant subjects at increased cardiovascular risk is suboptimal, especially in the absence of obesity and diabetes...

  14. Radiographic alveolar bone loss in untreated Taiwan Chinese subjects with adult periodontitis measured by the digital scanning radiographic image analysis method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hou, G-L; Hung, C-C; Yang, Y-S; Shieh, T-Y; Tsai, C-C

    2003-01-01

    To determine differences in radiographic alveolar bone loss (RABL) by age group, gender and tooth type in subjects with adult periodontitis using the digital scanning radiographic image analysis (DSRIA) method...

  15. Subjective Report of Side Effects of Prescribed and Nonprescribed Psychostimulant Use in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tess E; Martel, Michelle M; DeSantis, Alan D

    2017-03-21

    Side effects of prescribed and nonprescribed psychostimulant use are understudied. The study examined side effects of prescribed and nonprescribed psychostimulant use in a college sample with attention to possible gender differences. 2716 undergraduates (1448 male) between the ages of 17 and 57 years (M = 19.43 years, SD = 1.7 years) completed an online survey that included questions about the subjective side effects of prescribed and nonprescribed psychostimulant use. Results suggested that prescribed users more frequently reported side effects, compared to nonprescribed users. For prescribed users, females more frequently reported appetite, somatic, and anxiety-related side effects compared to males. For nonprescribed users, while females reported more somatic and anxiety-related side effects, males more frequently reported loss of sex drive and sweating as side effects. Conclusions/Importance: These findings suggest prescribed users of psychostimulants more frequently report side effects with prominent gender differences in line with gender roles.

  16. EVALUATION OF RESULTS IN CHOSEN SUBJECTS AND ANALYSIS OF THE MOTIVATION OF ADULT STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VOSTRÁ VYDROVÁ, Hana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The university studies of adult people in the combined or distance form of study denotes many differences in comparison with the regular studies. Very important question is if the results of the distance students are on the same level as those of regular students. The Czech University of Life Sciences in Prague has steadily high number of combined students in tutorial centres outside Prague. The contribution is based on an inquiry survey among the students of tutorial centres. Another data source is the official database of the university. The level of satisfaction of students was compared with their results and a negative dependency was found. We also investigated the relation between socio demographic characteristics and the motivation and attitude to the study. We found dependencies in three questions. Finally, we compare the results of the students from the tutorial centers and regular students and have not found remarkable differences. The good (not worse results of students from the centers of distance studies can be explained by more intensive motivation which implies more intensive and more responsible preparation for exams. For the statistical analysis we used the software SPSS, version 18.

  17. An exploratory study of the combined effects of orally administered methylphenidate and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on cardiovascular function, subjective effects, and performance in healthy adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kollins, Scott H.; Schoenfelder, Erin N.; English, Joseph S.; Holdaway, Alex; Van Voorhees, Elizabeth; O’Brien, Benjamin R.; Dew, Rachel; Chrisman, Allan K.

    2014-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is commonly prescribed for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and is often used illicitly by young adults. Illicit users often coadminister MPH with marijuana. Little is known about physiologic and subjective effects of these substances used in combination. In this double-blind, cross-over experiment, sixteen healthy adult subjects free from psychiatric illness (including ADHD) and reporting modest levels of marijuana use participated in 6 ...

  18. An experience sampling study on the ecological validity of the SWN-20: Indication that subjective well-being is associated with momentary affective states above and beyond psychosis susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pos, Karin; de Wit, Iris E; van Dijk, Floor A; Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A; Bruggeman, Richard; Meijer, Carin J; de Haan, Lieuwe; Alizadeh, Berhooz Z; Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A; Van Beveren, Nico J; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; de Haan, Lieuwe; Delespaul, Phillipe; Meijer, Carin J; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Kahn, Rene S; Schirmbeck, Frederike; Simons, Claudia J P; van Haren, Neeltje E; van Os, Jim; van Winkel, Ruud

    2017-12-01

    Subjective well-being (SWB) is associated with treatment adherence and symptom outcome in people with psychotic disorders. Also, it is associated with psychosis susceptibility and it is partly hereditable. The SWN-20 is a widely used tool to assess subjective well-being in patients; it was also found to be suitable for assessing SWB in healthy populations. Yet it is unclear how this retrospectively measured construct may be associated with momentary affective state, which is the proposed underlying mechanism of subjective well-being. This study therefore investigated the ecological validity of the SWN-20 in people at different risk for psychosis. In 63 patients with a psychotic disorder and 61 siblings of patients with a psychotic disorder we assessed whether subjective well-being as measured with the SWN-20, was associated with momentary positive affect, negative affect, reward experience and stress-sensitivity as measured by the experience sample method (ESM). Higher subjective well-being was associated with higher momentary positive affect and lower negative affect, and this association was not conditional on psychosis vulnerability. Subjective well-being was not associated with stress-sensitivity or reward-experience. SWN-20 is an easy-to-use and ecologically valid tool to measure subjective well-being in people with different vulnerability for psychosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Physical activity and sedentary behavior measured objectively and subjectively in overweight and obese adults with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janney, Carol A; Ganguli, Rohan; Tang, Gong; Cauley, Jane A; Holleman, Robert G; Richardson, Caroline R; Kriska, Andrea M

    2015-10-01

    Describe objective and subjective physical activity levels and time spent being sedentary in adults with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders (SZO/SA). Baseline physical activity and sedentary behaviors were assessed among 46 overweight and obese community-dwelling adults (aged 18-70 years; BMI > 27 kg/m(2)) diagnosed with SZO/SA by DSM-IV-TR, with mild symptom severity (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale score physical activity levels, measured using actigraphs, in WAIST were compared to a nationally representative sample of users (n = 46) and nonusers (n = 46) of mental health service (MHS) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2003-2004) matched by sex, BMI, and age. On average, adults with SZO/SA wore actigraphs more than 15 h/d for 7 days averaging 151,000 counts/d. The majority of monitoring time (81%) was classified as sedentary (approximately 13 h/d). Moderate/vigorous and light physical activity accounted for only 2% (19 min/d) and 17% (157 min/d) of monitoring time/d, respectively. Primary source of activity was household activities (409 ± 438 min/wk). Fifty-three percent reported walking for transportation or leisure. Adults with SZO/SA were significantly less active (176 min/d) and more sedentary (756 min/d) than NHANES users of MHS (293 and 640 min/d, respectively) and nonusers of MHS (338 and 552 min/d, respectively) (P physical activity; and significantly less active than NHANES users and nonusers of MHS. This sedentary lifestyle is significantly lower than those of other inactive US populations, is costly for the individual and community, and highlights the need for physical activity promotion and interventions in this high risk population. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  20. Adult adiposity susceptibility loci, early growth and general and abdominal fatness in childhood: the Generation R Study.

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    Vogelezang, S; Monnereau, C; Gaillard, R; Renders, C M; Hofman, A; Jaddoe, V W V; Felix, J F

    2015-06-01

    Genome-wide association studies in adults have identified genetic loci associated with adiposity measures. Little is known about the effects of these loci on growth and body fat distribution from early childhood onwards. In a population-based prospective cohort study among 4144 children, we examined the associations of weighted risk scores combining 29 known genetic markers of adult body mass index (BMI) and 14 known genetic markers of adult waist-hip ratio (WHR) with peak weight velocity, peak height velocity, age at adiposity peak and BMI at adiposity peak in early infancy and additionally with BMI, total fat mass, android/gynoid fat ratio and preperitoneal fat area at the median age of 6.0 years (95% range 5.7, 7.8). A higher adult BMI genetic risk score was associated with a higher age at adiposity peak in infancy and a higher BMI, total fat mass, android/gynoid fat ratio and preperitoneal fat area in childhood (P=0.05, 1.5 × 10(-24), 3.6 × 10(-18), 4.0 × 10(-11) and 1.3 × 10(-5), respectively), with the strongest association for childhood BMI with a 0.04 higher s.d. score BMI (95% confidence interval 0.03, 0.05) per additional risk allele. A higher adult WHR genetic risk score was not associated with infant growth measures or childhood BMI and total fat mass, but was associated with childhood android/gynoid fat ratio and preperitoneal fat area (PBMI and WHR in adults influence growth patterns and general and abdominal fat development from early childhood onwards.

  1. [Subjective memory complaints in young adults: the influence of the emotional state].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicer-Porcar, Olga; Mirete-Fructuoso, Marcos; Molina-Rodríguez, Sergio; Soto-Amaya, Johnathan

    2014-12-16

    INTRODUCTION. Many young people today display memory complaints that are not linked to their real cognitive performance. A number of studies have sought to identify the factors involved in this problem, such as anxious-depressive symptoms, the variables of anxiety traditionally being measured as somatic or cognitive manifestations with an activation that is unspecific or not linked to any particular stimulus. AIMS. To perform an exploratory analysis to determine the role played by symptoms of depression and of various subtypes of specific and unspecific anxiety in memory complaints in young adults. PATIENTS AND METHODS. The sample used in this study was made of 193 university students, 71% of whom were females, with a mean age of 22.22 ± 3.67 years. The variable 'Memory complaints' was measured with the Memory Failures Questionnaire, and the Brief Symptom Check List was used to measure the variables 'Depression', 'Social anxiety', 'Obsessive-compulsive anxiety', 'Agoraphobic anxiety', 'Somatisation' and 'Insomnia'. RESULTS. The variables of specific anxiety show a greater correlation with memory complaints than unspecific anxiety. Multiple regression analysis explained 34.9% of the variance of memory complaints, although the only variable that made a significant contribution was 'Social anxiety', which alone explains 34.4%. CONCLUSIONS. A distinct influence between the different types of anxiety and memory complaints has been observed. The findings obtained are a novelty in this area of knowledge by pointing to a greater relevance of the variables of specific anxiety in comparison to unspecific anxiety in explaining memory complaints and the need to take a personalised approach.

  2. The relation between overweight and subjective health according to age, social class, slimming behavior and smoking habits in Dutch adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidell, J C; Bakx, K C; Deurenberg, P; Burema, J; Hautvast, J G; Huygen, F J

    1986-01-01

    Subjective health status was assessed in relation to overweight by administering a list of 51 health complaints to adult men and women who were either chronically overweight as defined by Body Mass Index (BMI) or not overweight, in a continuous morbidity registration in four general practices during the period 1967-83. Responses were received from 455 men (182 overweight) and 790 women (386 overweight), ages 26-66 years. Response rate (71 per cent) and age distribution (mean age 48) were similar in overweight and non-overweight groups of both sexes. BMI was correlated with the total number of complaints in women (r = 0.15) but not in men (r = 0.07). Multiple regression analysis revealed, however, that age was an effect modifier in this relation, there being a negative association between BMI and subjective health in younger men and a positive association in older men, whereas in women the association between BMI and subjective health was much more pronounced at younger ages than at older ages. In addition, current smoking habits and social class (in men and women) and reported slimming behavior (in women) had an independent relation to the total number of health complaints. BMI was also related to specific complaints and groups of complaints, particularly in women. PMID:3777287

  3. Pharmacokinetic Interactions between Tafenoquine and Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine or Artemether-Lumefantrine in Healthy Adult Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Justin A; Mohamed, Khadeeja; Goyal, Navin; Bouhired, Samia; Hussaini, Azra; Jones, Siôn W; Koh, Gavin C K W; Kostov, Ivan; Taylor, Maxine; Wolstenholm, Allen; Duparc, Stephan

    2016-12-01

    Tafenoquine is in development as a single-dose treatment for relapse prevention in individuals with Plasmodium vivax malaria. Tafenoquine must be coadministered with a blood schizonticide, either chloroquine or artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). This open-label, randomized, parallel-group study evaluated potential drug interactions between tafenoquine and two ACTs: dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine and artemether-lumefantrine. Healthy volunteers of either sex aged 18 to 65 years without glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency were randomized into five cohorts (n = 24 per cohort) to receive tafenoquine on day 1 (300 mg) plus once-daily dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine on days 1, 2, and 3 (120 mg/960 mg for 36 to daily on days 2 and 3, or each drug alone. The pharmacokinetic parameters of tafenoquine, piperaquine, lumefantrine, artemether, and dihydroartemisinin were determined by using noncompartmental methods. Point estimates and 90% confidence intervals were calculated for area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and maximum observed plasma concentration (Cmax) comparisons of tafenoquine plus ACT versus tafenoquine or ACT. All subjects receiving dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine experienced QTc prolongation (a known risk with this drug), but tafenoquine coadministration had no clinically relevant additional effect. Tafenoquine coadministration had no clinically relevant effects on dihydroartemisinin, piperaquine, artemether, or lumefantrine pharmacokinetics. Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine coadministration increased the tafenoquine Cmax by 38% (90% confidence interval, 25 to 52%), the AUC from time zero to infinity (AUC0-∞) by 12% (1 to 26%), and the half-life (t1/2) by 29% (19 to 40%), with no effect on the AUC from time zero to the time of the last nonzero concentration (AUC0-last). Artemether-lumefantrine coadministration had no effect on tafenoquine pharmacokinetics. Tafenoquine can be coadministered with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine or

  4. Fish Oil Supplementation Increases Event-Related Posterior Cingulate Activation in Older Adults with Subjective Memory Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boespflug, E L; McNamara, R K; Eliassen, J C; Schidler, M D; Krikorian, R

    2016-02-01

    To determine the effects of long-chain omega-3 (LCn-3) fatty acids found in fish oil, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), on cortical blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activity during a working memory task in older adults with subjective memory impairment. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Academic medical center. Healthy older adults (62-80 years) with subjective memory impairment, but not meeting criteria for mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Fish oil (EPA+DHA: 2.4 g/d, n=11) or placebo (corn oil, n=10) for 24 weeks. Cortical BOLD response patterns during performance of a sequential letter n-back working memory task were determined at baseline and week 24 by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). At 24 weeks erythrocyte membrane EPA+DHA composition increased significantly from baseline in participants receiving fish oil (+31%, p ≤ 0.0001) but not placebo (-17%, p=0.06). Multivariate modeling of fMRI data identified a significant interaction among treatment, visit, and memory loading in the right cingulate (BA 23/24), and in the right sensorimotor area (BA 3/4). In the fish oil group, BOLD increases at 24 weeks were observed in the right posterior cingulate and left superior frontal regions during memory loading. A region-of-interest analysis indicated that the baseline to endpoint change in posterior cingulate cortex BOLD activity signal was significantly greater in the fish oil group compared with the placebo group during the 1-back (p=0.0003) and 2-back (p=0.0005) conditions. Among all participants, the change in erythrocyte EPA+DHA during the intervention was associated with performance in the 2-back working memory task (p = 0.01), and with cingulate BOLD signal during the 1-back (p = 0.005) with a trend during the 2-back (p = 0.09). Further, cingulate BOLD activity was related to performance in the 2-back condition. Dietary fish oil supplementation increases red blood cell omega-3 content

  5. Comparative analysis of viral shedding in pediatric and adult subjects with central nervous system-associated enterovirus infections from 2013 to 2015 in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordey, S; Schibler, M; L'Huillier, A G; Wagner, N; Gonçalves, A R; Ambrosioni, J; Asner, S; Turin, L; Posfay-Barbe, K M; Kaiser, L

    2017-04-01

    Several enterovirus (EV) genotypes can result in aseptic meningitis, but their routes of access to the central nervous system remain to be elucidated and may differ between the pediatric and adult populations. To assess the pattern of viral shedding in pediatric and adult subjects with acute EV meningitis and to generate EV surveillance data for Switzerland. All pediatric and adult subjects admitted to the University Hospitals of Geneva with a diagnosis of EV meningitis between 2013 and 2015 were enrolled. A quantitative EV real-time reverse transcriptase (rRT)-PCR was performed on the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), blood, stool, urine and respiratory specimens to assess viral shedding and provide a comparative analysis of pediatric and adult populations. EV genotyping was systematically performed. EV positivity rates differed significantly between pediatric and adult subjects; 62.5% of pediatric cases (no adult case) were EV-positive in stool and blood for subjects for whom these samples were all collected. Similarly, the EV viral load in blood was significantly higher in pediatric subjects. Blood C-reactive protein levels were lower and the number of leucocytes/mm3 in the CSF were higher in non-viremic than in viremic pediatric subjects, respectively. A greater diversity of EV genotypes was observed in pediatric cases, with a predominance of echovirus 30 in children ≥3 years old and adults. In contrast to adults, EV-disseminated infections are predominant in pediatric subjects and show different patterns of EV viral shedding. This observation may be useful for clinicians and contribute to modify current practices of patient care. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Localization and migration of benzimidazole resistant and susceptible adult Cooperia curticei in the small intestine of sheep after treatment with thiabendazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerboeuf, D; Hubert, J; Alvinerie, M

    2000-11-01

    Four groups of three lambs per group were experimentally infected with Cooperia curticei susceptible (two groups) or resistant (two groups) to benzimidazoles, and distributions of adult worms in the small intestine were studied. For each Cooperia isolate, one group was treated with thiabendazole (TBZ) (5 or 50mg/kg bodyweight) 28 days after infection. In the two untreated groups, the population of C. curticei were present from the second to the tenth meter of intestine from the pylorus with a maximum in the sixth meter for both isolates. After treatment with TBZ, the size of the resistant worm population did not significantly decrease but a large number of worms were found towards the proximal sections of the intestine. In contrast, the susceptible population was reduced by about 40% but the surviving worms remained at this same site of predilection after treatment. Measurements of the concentration of TBZ and 5OH-thiabendazole (5OH-TBZ) in the intestinal segments do not indicate a clear relationship between the localization of worms and TBZ or 5OH-TBZ concentrations at least 12h after the anthelmintic treatment. The hypothesis of an enhanced expression of the mechanisms of resistance in the first few meters of small intestine is suggested.

  7. Multidimensional Voice Program (MDVP) and amplitude variation parameters in euphonic adult subjects. Normative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicastri, M; Chiarella, G; Gallo, L V; Catalano, M; Cassandro, E

    2004-12-01

    The introduction, in the late 70s, of the first digital spectrograph (DSP Sonograph) by Kay Elemetrics has improved the possibilities of spectroacoustic voice analysis in the clinical field. Thanks to the marketing, in 1993, of the Multi Dimensional Voice Program (MDVP) advanced system, it is now possible to analyse 33 quantitative voice parameters which, in turn, allow evaluation of fundamental frequency, amplitude and spectral energy balance and the presence of any sonority gap and diplophony. Despite its potentials, the above-mentioned system is not widely used yet, partly on account of the lack of a standard procedure. Indeed, there are still only a few case reports in the literature taking into consideration prescriptive aspects related both to procedure and analysis. This study aims to provide the results of amplitude perturbation parameter analysis in euphonic adult patients. In our opinion, these are the most significant parameters in determining the severity of a phonation disorder. The study has been carried out on 35 patients (24 female, 11 male, mean age 31.6 years, range 19-59). The voice signal has been recorded using a 4300 B Kay Computer Speech Lab (CSL) supported by a personal computer including a SM48 Shure-Prolog microphone located at a distance of 15 cm and angled at 45 degrees. Input microphone saturation has been adjusted to 6/9 of the CH1 channel. The voice sample consisted in a held /a/ and the analysis has been carried out on the central 3 seconds of the recording. The analysis has been carried out using a 5105 MDVP software version 2.3 and the signal digitalised at a 50 kHz sample rate. In order for the sample to be as free from intensity or frequency changes as possible, each patient underwent a training session (including at least 3 phonation tests) before the recording. The study included only emissions between 55 and 65 dB and with spectrum stability. Environmental noise has constantly been monitored and maintained below 30 dB. Data

  8. Short-latency afferent inhibition is a poor predictor of individual susceptibility to rTMS-induced plasticity in the motor cortex of young and older adults.

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    Marielle eYoung-Bernier

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cortical plasticity, including long-term potentiation (LTP-like plasticity, can be assessed non-invasively with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS protocols. In this study, we examined age differences in responses to intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS in a group of 20 young and 18 healthy older adults. Because the cholinergic system plays a role in the neural processes underlying learning and memory, including LTP, we also investigated whether short latency afferent inhibition (SAI, a neurophysiological marker of central cholinergic activity, would be associated with age-related differences in LTP-like plasticity induced by iTBS. Methods: SAI was first assessed by examining the modulation of motor evoked potentials (MEPs in response to median nerve conditioning 20 ms prior to TMS. Participants then underwent iTBS (3 pulses at 50 HZ every 200 ms for 2 s with 8 s between trains, repeated 20 times. MEP responses (120% RMT were assessed immediately after iTBS and 5, 10, and 20 min post-application. Results: Responses to iTBS were quite variable in both age groups, with only approximately 60% of the participants (n=13 young and 10 older adults showing the expected facilitation of MEP responses. There were no significant age group differences in MEP facilitation following iTBS. Although older adults exhibited reduced SAI, individual variations were not associated with susceptibility to express LTP-like induced plasticity after iTBS. Conclusion: Overall, these results are consistent with reports of high inter-individual variability in responses to iTBS. Although SAI was reduced in older adults, consistent with a deterioration of the cholinergic system with age, SAI levels were not associated with LTP-like plasticity as assessed with iTBS.

  9. Short-latency afferent inhibition is a poor predictor of individual susceptibility to rTMS-induced plasticity in the motor cortex of young and older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young-Bernier, Marielle; Tanguay, Annick N.; Davidson, Patrick S. R.; Tremblay, François

    2014-01-01

    Cortical plasticity, including long-term potentiation (LTP)-like plasticity, can be assessed non-invasively with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) protocols. In this study, we examined age differences in responses to intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) in a group of 20 young and 18 healthy older adults. Because the cholinergic system plays a role in the neural processes underlying learning and memory, including LTP, we also investigated whether short latency afferent inhibition (SAI), a neurophysiological marker of central cholinergic activity, would be associated with age-related differences in LTP-like plasticity induced by iTBS. Methods: SAI was first assessed by examining the modulation of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in response to median nerve conditioning 20 ms prior to TMS. Participants then underwent iTBS (3 pulses at 50 Hz every 200 ms for 2 s with 8 s between trains, repeated 20 times). MEP responses (120% resting motor threshold (RMT)) were assessed immediately after iTBS and 5, 10, and 20 min post-application. Results: Responses to iTBS were quite variable in both age groups, with only approximately 60% of the participants (n = 13 young and 10 older adults) showing the expected facilitation of MEP responses. There were no significant age group differences in MEP facilitation following iTBS. Although older adults exhibited reduced SAI, individual variations were not associated with susceptibility to express LTP-like induced plasticity after iTBS. Conclusion: Overall, these results are consistent with reports of high inter-individual variability in responses to iTBS. Although SAI was reduced in older adults, consistent with a deterioration of the cholinergic system with age, SAI levels were not associated with LTP-like plasticity as assessed with iTBS. PMID:25147523

  10. The effect of cognitive training on the subjective perception of well-being in older adults

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    Vladimír Bureš

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background There is a growing number of studies indicating the major consequences of the subjective perception of well-being on mental health and healthcare use. However, most of the cognitive training research focuses more on the preservation of cognitive function than on the implications of the state of well-being. This secondary analysis of data from a randomised controlled trial investigated the effects of individualised television-based cognitive training on self-rated well-being using the WHO-5 index while considering gender and education as influencing factors. The effects of cognitive training were compared with leisure activities that the elderly could be engaged in to pass time. Methods Cognitively healthy participants aged 60 years or above screened using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and Major Depression Inventory (MDI were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group or to an active control group in a single-blind controlled two-group design and underwent 24 training sessions. Data acquired from the WHO-5 questionnaire administered before and after intervention were statistically analysed using a mixed design model for repeated measures. The effect of individualised cognitive training was compared with leisure activities while the impact of gender and education was explored using estimated marginal means. Results A total of 81 participants aged 67.9 ± 5.59 [60–84] without cognitive impairments and absent of depression symptoms underwent the study. Participants with leisure time activities declared significantly higher scores compared to participants with cognitive training M = 73.48 ± 2.88, 95% CI [67.74–79.22] vs M = 64.13 ± 3.034, 95% CI [58.09–70.17] WHO-5 score. Gender and education were found to moderate the effect of cognitive training on well-being when compared to leisure activities. Females engaged in leisure activities in the control group reported higher by M = 9.77 ± 5.4, 95% CI [

  11. Meditation and Music Improve Memory and Cognitive Function in Adults with Subjective Cognitive Decline: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Kim E; Selfe, Terry Kit; Khalsa, Dharma Singh; Kandati, Sahiti

    2017-01-01

    While effective therapies for preventing or slowing cognitive decline in at-risk populations remain elusive, evidence suggests mind-body interventions may hold promise. In this study, we assessed the effects of Kirtan Kriya meditation (KK) and music listening (ML) on cognitive outcomes in adults experiencing subjective cognitive decline (SCD), a strong predictor of Alzheimer's disease. Sixty participants with SCD were randomized to a KK or ML program and asked to practice 12 minutes/day for 3 months, then at their discretion for the ensuing 3 months. At baseline, 3 months, and 6 months we measured memory and cognitive functioning [Memory Functioning Questionnaire (MFQ), Trail-making Test (TMT-A/B), and Digit-Symbol Substitution Test (DSST)]. The 6-month study was completed by 53 participants (88%). Participants performed an average of 93% (91% KK, 94% ML) of sessions in the first 3 months, and 71% (68% KK, 74% ML) during the 3-month, practice-optional, follow-up period. Both groups showed marked and significant improvements at 3 months in memory and cognitive performance (MFQ, DSST, TMT-A/B; p's≤0.04). At 6 months, overall gains were maintained or improved (p's≤0.006), with effect sizes ranging from medium (DSST, ML group) to large (DSST, KK group; TMT-A/B, MFQ). Changes were unrelated to treatment expectancies and did not differ by age, gender, baseline cognition scores, or other factors. Findings of this preliminary randomized controlled trial suggest practice of meditation or ML can significantly enhance both subjective memory function and objective cognitive performance in adults with SCD, and may offer promise for improving outcomes in this population.

  12. Correlates of subjective transportation deficiency among older adults attending outpatient clinics in a tertiary care hospital in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Reyes, Ana Patricia; Medina-Rimoldi, Carlos Tonatiuh; Avila-Funes, José Alberto

    2017-11-01

    Older adults frequently report problems of transportation. Little is known about the correlates of transportation deficiency in Latin America. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the correlates of subjective transportation deficiency (STD) among community-dwelling older adults attending a tertiary care hospital in Mexico City. Cross-sectional study of 228 participants aged ≥70 years being followed in any of the outpatient clinics of a tertiary care hospital in Mexico City. Data were obtained through a structured questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out in order to identify the correlates of STD. The mean age of the participants was 79.8 years (SD 6.4) and 67.1% were women. STD was present in 46% of participants. The multivariate logistic regression model showed that female sex, illiteracy, mobility disability and the use of an assistive walking device had an independent and statistically significant association with STD. Female sex, illiteracy, mobility disability and the use of an assistive walking device were independent correlates of STD in the present study. Identifying the frequency and correlates of transportation deficiency in vulnerable populations will allow for the identification and implementation of useful public policies, as well as for the optimization of prevention and treatment strategies in an attempt to preserve mobility and autonomy, especially in low- and middle-income countries where previous work on transportation deficiency is lacking. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1893-1898. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  13. Survival and weight change among adult individuals of Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus, 1758 (Blattaria, Blattidae subject to various stress conditions

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    Jucelio Peter Duarte

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2015v28n2p103 Periplaneta americana is a species of great importance to public health, since it can act as a vector of many pathogens and it reaches large populations in urban environments. This is probably due to its ability to resist starvation and desiccation. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of absence of water and food on survival and weight change among adult P. americana individuals and check whether the initial weight of individuals influences on their survival. Four groups having twenty P. americana couples were formed and subject to: I no water or food; II no food; III no water; and IV control group. Insects were isolated according to the groups, which were weighed at the beginning and end of the stress conditions. They remained under these conditions until all individuals in each test group were dead. Stress conditions caused reduction in survival time when compared to the control group. Adults with higher body mass survived longer when deprived only of food, while among those lacking water, weight had no influence on survival. Total weight loss was greater among individuals deprived of water than those deprived only of food.

  14. Genetic Variation in the β2-Adrenocepter Gene Is Associated with Susceptibility to Bacterial Meningitis in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriani, Kirsten S.; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; Baas, Frank; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the biased β2-adrenoceptor/β-arrestin pathway was shown to play a pivotal role in crossing of the blood brain barrier by Neisseria meningitidis. We hypothesized that genetic variation in the β2-adrenoceptor gene (ADRB2) may influence susceptibility to bacterial meningitis. In a prospective genetic association study we genotyped 542 patients with CSF culture proven community acquired bacterial meningitis and 376 matched controls for 2 functional single nucleotide polymorphisms in the β2-adrenoceptor gene (ADRB2). Furthermore, we analyzed if the use of non-selective beta-blockers, which bind to the β2-adrenoceptor, influenced the risk of bacterial meningitis. We identified a functional polymorphism in ADRB2 (rs1042714) to be associated with an increased risk for bacterial meningitis (Odds ratio [OR] 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04–1.76; p = 0.026). The association remained significant after correction for age and was more prominent in patients with pneumococcal meningitis (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.12–2.07; p = 0.007). For meningococcal meningitis the difference in genotype frequencies between patients and controls was similar to that in pneumococcal meningitis, but this was not statistically significant (OR 1.43, 95% CI 0.60–3.38; p = 0.72). Patients with bacterial meningitis had a lower frequency of non-selective beta-blockers use compared to the age matched population (0.9% vs. 1.8%), although this did not reach statistical significance (OR 1.96 [95% CI 0.88–4.39]; p = 0.09). In conclusion, we identified an association between a genetic variant in the β2-adrenoceptor and increased susceptibility to bacterial meningitis. The potential benefit of pharmacological treatment targeting the β2-adrenoceptor to prevent bacterial meningitis in the general population or patients with bacteraemia should be further studied in both experimental studies and observational cohorts. PMID:22624056

  15. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and tolerability of verinurad, a selective uric acid reabsorption inhibitor, in healthy adult male subjects

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    Shen Z

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Zancong Shen,1 Michael Gillen,2 Jeffrey N Miner,1 Gail Bucci,1 David M Wilson,1 Jesse W Hall1 1Ardea Biosciences, Inc., San Diego, CA, 2AstraZeneca, Gaithersburg, MD, USA Purpose: Verinurad (RDEA3170 is a selective uric acid reabsorption inhibitor in clinical development for the treatment of gout and asymptomatic hyperuricemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and tolerability of verinurad in healthy adult males.Subjects and methods: This was a Phase I, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single and multiple ascending dose study. Panels of eight male subjects received a single oral dose of verinurad or placebo in either a fasted or fed state; panels of 10–12 male subjects received ascending doses of once-daily verinurad or placebo in a fasted state for 10 days. Serial blood and urine samples were assayed for verinurad and uric acid. Safety was assessed by adverse event (AE reports, laboratory tests, vital signs, and electrocardiograms (ECGs.Results: A total of 81 adult males completed the study. Following single doses of verinurad, maximum observed plasma concentration (Cmax and area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC increased in a dose-proportional manner; Cmax occurred at 0.5–0.75 hours and 1.25 hours in the fasted and fed states, respectively. Food decreased AUC by 23% and Cmax by 37%-53%. There was a modest accumulation of verinurad following multiple daily doses. Verinurad reduced serum urate levels by up to 62% (40 mg, single dose and 61% (10 mg, multiple dose. The increase in urinary excretion of uric acid was greatest in the first 6 hours after dosing and was still evident ≥24 hours for verinurad doses ≥2 mg. Verinurad was well tolerated at all doses. No serious AEs, severe AEs, discontinuations due to AEs, or clinically significant laboratory or ECG abnormalities were reported.Conclusion: Single and multiple doses of verinurad were well tolerated

  16. Susceptibility of Adults of the Cerambycid Beetle Hedypathes betulinus to the Entomopathogenic Fungi Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, and Purpureocillium Lilacinum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schapovaloff, M. E.; Alves, L. F. A.; Fanti, A. L.; Alzogaray, R. A.; Lastra, C. C. López

    2014-01-01

    The cerambycid beetle Hedypathes betulinus (Klug) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) causes severe damage to yerba mate plants (Ilex paraguariensis (St. Hilaire) (Aquifoliales: Aquifoliaceae)), which results in large losses of production. In this study, the pathogenicity of entomopathogenic fungi of the species Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivelli) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae), Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), and Purpureocillium lilacinum (Thom) Luangsa-ard, Hywel-Jones, Houbraken and Samson (Hypocreales: Ophiocordycipitaceae) on yerba mate were evaluated. Fifteen isolates of B. bassiana, two of M. anisopliae, and seven of P. lilacinum on H. betulinus adults were analyzed under laboratory conditions. The raw mortality rate caused by B. bassiana isolates varied from 51.1 to 86.3%, and their LT50 values varied between 8.7 and 13.6 d. The isolates of M. anisopliae caused 69.6–81.8% mortality, and their LT50 values varied between 7.4 and 7.9 d. In contrast, isolates of P. lilacinum were not pathogenic. M. anisopliae and B. bassiana isolates were pathogenic against H. betulinus adults, suggesting that they may be useful in biological control programs for insect pests of yerba mate.

  17. Pilot study of parathyroid glands in adult and pediatric subjects exposed to ionizing radiation after the ChNPP accident, methodology of parathyroid diagnostic ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminskyi, O V; Kopylova, O V; Afanasyev, D Ye; Mazurenko, O V; Berezovskyi, S Ya

    2017-12-01

    Estimation of the parathyroid hyperplasia prevalence after the ChNPP accident in adults exposed to ion izing radiation and their descendants using the diagnostic ultrasound and its methodology elaboration. The pilot prospective study of the prevalence of parathyroid hyperplasia among the Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) accident adult survivors (n=686) and their descendants (54 children) was performed using diagnostic ultrasound examination of thyroid and parathyroids. Among the study subjects there were 339 ChNPP accident clean up workers (ACUW), 32 persons were evacuated from the 30 km exclusion zone and 224 ones were included to the control group. Diagnostic ultrasound of thyroid and parathyroids was performed according to the standard method. Additionally, in children with parathyroid hyperplasia an additional assay of 25 hydroxyvitamin D levels in serum was performed. In calculating the statistical significance, its level p Parathyroids are a few small but critically important endocrine glands that synthesize parathyroid hormone, regulating mainly phosphoric calcium metabolism. Insufficient (hypoparathyroidism) or excessive (hyperparathy roidism) function of parathyroids is harmful to the patients affecting the state of nervous and cardiovascular sys tem. Parathyroidss can accumulate isotopes of cesium, strontium and radioactive iodine. The available data testify to an increased incidence of clinically significant hyperplasia of parthyroids (more than 9 mm in adults and more than 5 mm in children) among persons exposed toionizng radiation as a result of the accident at the ChNPP (28.64%) and their descendants (23.8-70.6%). First of all are concerned those adults who live in contaminated areas in comparison with the control group (24.15% in not irradiated). Evacuees from the 30 km exclusion zone being the category of people who were exposed to the absorbed iodine isotopes in the first days of the Chernobyl accident are the another risk group. These data

  18. Polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) are associated with susceptibility to adult acute myeloid leukemia in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lulu; Deng, Donghong; Peng, Zhigang; Ye, Fanghui; Xiao, Qiang; Zhang, Bing; Ye, Bingbing; Mo, Zengnan; Yang, Xiaobo; Liu, Zhenfang

    2015-06-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is an essential enzyme in the metabolism of folate. Since acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is characterized by rapidly proliferating tissues that have a high requirement for DNA synthesis, it is possible that the presence of MTHFR polymorphisms could be linked to the multifactorial process of AML development. We evaluated the role of MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in a case-control study comprising 98 AML patients and 2016 healthy controls in a Southern Chinese population. We further conducted a sub-study restricted to individuals who neither smoked nor drank alcohol (70 AML patients and 160 healthy controls). MTHFR polymorphisms in the patient and control groups were evaluated by SNaP shot genotype techniques and Illumina BeadChip, respectively. Logistic regression was used to assess the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). The MTHFR 1298AC genotype and the 677CC/1298AC haplotype were significantly associated with a decreased risk of AML compared with the AA genotype and 677CC/1298AA haplotype (OR=0.60, 95% CI: 0.38-0.95, P=0.03; OR=0.49, 95% CI: 0.27-0.90, P=0.02, respectively). In addition, the 677TT genotype was significantly associated with an increased risk of AML compared with the AA genotype only in non-smokers and non-drinkers (OR=4.78; 95% CI=1.38-16.61, P=0.01). The results might suggest that MTHFR polymorphisms are significantly associated with AML risk. In addition, the role of MTHFR genetic susceptibility could be greater among non-smokers and non-drinkers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The impact of increasing body mass on peak and mean plantar pressure in asymptomatic adult subjects during walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Jones

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The implication of high peak plantar pressure on foot pathology in individuals both with and without diabetes has been recognized. The aim of this study was to investigate and clarify the relationship between increasing body mass and peak and mean plantar pressure in an asymptomatic adult population during walking. Methods: Thirty adults without any relevant medical history, structural foot deformities or foot posture assessed as highly pronated or supinated, and within a normal body mass index range were included in the study. An experimental, same subjects, repeated measures design was used. Peak and mean plantar pressure were evaluated with the F-Scan in-shoe plantar pressure measurement system under four different loading conditions (0, 5, 10, and 15 kg simulated with a weighted vest. Pressure data were gathered from three stances utilizing the mid-gait protocol. Results: There were statistically significant increases in peak pressure between the 10 and 15 kg load conditions compared to the control (0 kg within the heel and second to fifth metatarsal regions. The first metatarsal and hallux regions only displayed statistically significant increases in peak pressure between 15 kg and the control (0 kg. The midfoot and lesser digits regions did not display any statistically significant differences in peak pressure between any load conditions compared to the control (0 kg. The second to fifth metatarsal region displayed statistically significant increases in mean pressure in the 5, 10 and 15 kg groups compared to the control (0 kg. A statistically significant increase in peak pressure between the 15 kg and control (0 kg group was evident in all other regions. Conclusion: The relationship between increasing body mass and peak and mean plantar pressure was dependent upon the plantar region. This study provides more detail outlining the response of peak and mean pressure to different loading conditions than previously reported in the

  20. Genetic polymorphism of apolipoprotein A5 gene and susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of 15,137 subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Wei Yin

    Full Text Available Several studies have investigated whether the polymorphism in the apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5 is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM risk. However, those studies have produced inconsistent results. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the APOA5 -1131T/C polymorphism (rs662799 confers significant susceptibility to T2DM using a meta-analysis.PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane database, CBMdisc, CNKI and Google Scholar were searched to get the genetic association studies. All statistical analyses were done with Stata 11.0.A total of 19 studies included 4,767 T2DM cases and 10,370 controls (four studies involving 555 T2DM cases and 2958 controls were performed among Europeans and 15 studies involving 4212 T2DM cases and 7412 controls were performed among Asians were combined showing significant association between the APOA5 -1131T/C polymorphism and T2DM risk (for C allele vs. T allele: OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.17-1.40, p<0.00001; for C/C vs. T/T: OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.35-1.83, p<0.00001; for C/C vs. T/C+T/T: OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.18-1.57, p<0.0001; for C/C+T/C vs. T/T: OR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.16-1.51, p<0.0001. In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, significant association was also found among Asians (for C allele vs. T allele: OR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.22-1.40, p<0.00001; for C/C vs. T/T: OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.38-1.88, p<0.00001; for C/C vs. T/C+T/T: OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.20-1.61, p<0.0001; for C/C+T/C vs. T/T: OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.25-1.62, p<0.00001. However, no significant association was found between the APOA5 -1131T/C polymorphism and T2DM risk among Europeans.The present meta-analysis suggests that the APOA5 -1131T/C polymorphism is associated with an increased T2DM risk in Asian population.

  1. Subjective Cognitive Decline in Older Adults: An Overview of Self-Report Measures Used Across 19 International Research Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Laura A.; Smart, Colette M.; Crane, Paul K.; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Berman, Lorin M.; Boada, Mercè; Buckley, Rachel F.; Chételat, Gaël; Dubois, Bruno; Ellis, Kathryn A.; Gifford, Katherine A.; Jefferson, Angela L.; Jessen, Frank; Katz, Mindy J.; Lipton, Richard B.; Luck, Tobias; Maruff, Paul; Mielke, Michelle M.; Molinuevo, José Luis; Naeem, Farnia; Perrotin, Audrey; Petersen, Ronald C.; Rami, Lorena; Reisberg, Barry; Rentz, Dorene M.; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.; Risacher, Shannon L.; Rodriguez, Octavio; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Slavin, Melissa J.; Snitz, Beth E.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Tandetnik, Caroline; van der Flier, Wiesje M.; Wagner, Michael; Wolfsgruber, Steffen; Sikkes, Sietske A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Research increasingly suggests that subjective cognitive decline (SCD) in older adults, in the absence of objective cognitive dysfunction or depression, may be a harbinger of non-normative cognitive decline and eventual progression to dementia. Little is known, however, about the key features of self-report measures currently used to assess SCD. The Subjective Cognitive Decline Initiative (SCD-I) Working Group is an international consortium established to develop a conceptual framework and research criteria for SCD (Jessen et al., 2014, Alzheimers Dement 10, 844–852). In the current study we systematically compared cognitive self-report items used by 19 SCD-I Working Group studies, representing 8 countries and 5 languages. We identified 34 self-report measures comprising 640 cognitive self-report items. There was little overlap among measures—approximately 75% of measures were used by only one study. Wide variation existed in response options and item content. Items pertaining to the memory domain predominated, accounting for about 60% of items surveyed, followed by executive function and attention, with 16% and 11% of the items, respectively. Items relating to memory for the names of people and the placement of common objects were represented on the greatest percentage of measures (56% each). Working group members reported that instrument selection decisions were often based on practical considerations beyond the study of SCD specifically, such as availability and brevity of measures. Results document the heterogeneity of approaches across studies to the emerging construct of SCD. We offer preliminary recommendations for instrument selection and future research directions including identifying items and measure formats associated with important clinical outcomes. PMID:26402085

  2. Subjective and Objective Napping and Sleep in Older Adults: Are Evening Naps ‘Bad’ for Nighttime Sleep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautovich, Natalie D.; McCrae, Christina S.; Rowe, Meredeth

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare objective and subjective measurements of napping, and to examine the relationship between evening napping and nocturnal sleep in older adults. Design For twelve days, participants wore actigraphs and completed sleep diaries. Setting Community Participants 100 individuals who napped, 60–89 years (including good and poor sleepers with typical age-related medical comorbidities). Measurements Twelve days of sleep diary and actigraphy provided subjective and objective napping and sleep data. Results Evening naps (within 2 hours of bedtime) were characteristic of the sample with peak nap time occurring between 20:30–21:00 (average nap time occurred between 14:30–15:00). Two categories of nappers were identified: 1) day/evening – those who took both daytime and evening naps, and 2) daytime-only. Interestingly, no participants napped during the evening only. Day/evening nappers significantly underreported evening napping and demonstrated lower objectively measured sleep onset latencies (20 vs 26.5 minutes), less wake after sleep onset (51.4 vs 72.8 minutes), and higher sleep efficiencies (76.8 vs 82%) than daytime-only nappers. Conclusion Day/evening napping was prevalent amongst this sample of community-dwelling good/poor sleepers, but was not associated with impaired nocturnal sleep. Although the elimination or restriction of napping is a common element of cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTi), these results suggest that a uniform recommendation to restrict/eliminate napping (particularly evening napping) may not meet the needs of all older individuals with insomnia. PMID:18691289

  3. Pharmacokinetics of Oral and Intravenous Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) When Co-Administered with Intravenous Morphine in Healthy Adult Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffa, Robert B; Pawasauskas, Jayne; Pergolizzi, Joseph V; Lu, Luke; Chen, Yin; Wu, Sutan; Jarrett, Brant; Fain, Randi; Hill, Lawrence; Devarakonda, Krishna

    2017-12-06

    Several features favor paracetamol (acetaminophen) administration by the intravenous rather than the oral route in the postoperative setting. This study compared the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of oral and intravenous paracetamol when given with or without an opioid, morphine. In this randomized, single-blind, parallel, repeat-dose study in healthy adults, subjects received four repeat doses of oral or intravenous 1000 mg paracetamol at 6-h intervals, and morphine infusions (0.125 mg/kg) at the 2nd and 3rd intervals. Comparisons of plasma pharmacokinetic profiles were conducted before, during, and after opioid co-administrations. Twenty-two subjects were included in the pharmacokinetic analysis. Observed paracetamol peak concentration (C max ) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve over the dosing interval (AUC 0-6 ) were reduced when oral paracetamol was co-administered with morphine (reduced from 11.6 to 7.25 µg/mL and from 31.00 to 25.51 µg·h/mL, respectively), followed by an abruptly increased C max and AUC 0-6 upon discontinuation of morphine (to 13.5 µg/mL and 52.38 µg·h/mL, respectively). There was also a significantly prolonged mean time to peak plasma concentration (T max ) after the 4th dose of oral paracetamol (2.84 h) compared to the 1st dose (1.48 h). However, pharmacokinetic parameters of paracetamol were not impacted when intravenous paracetamol was co-administered with morphine. Morphine co-administration significantly impacted the pharmacokinetics of oral but not intravenous paracetamol. The abrupt release of accumulated paracetamol at the end of morphine-mediated gastrointestinal inhibition following oral but not intravenous administration of paracetamol suggests that intravenous paracetamol provides a better option for the management of postoperative pain. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT02848729.

  4. Correlation of lithium levels between drinking water obtained from different sources and scalp hair samples of adult male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloch, Shahnawaz; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Talpur, Farah Naz; Arain, Muhammad Balal

    2017-10-01

    There is some evidence that natural levels of lithium (Li) in drinking water may have a protective effect on neurological health. In present study, we evaluate the Li levels in drinking water of different origin and bottled mineral water. To evaluate the association between lithium levels in drinking water with human health, the scalp hair samples of male subjects (25-45 years) consumed drinking water obtained from ground water (GW), municipal treated water (MTW) and bottled mineral water (BMW) from rural and urban areas of Sindh, Pakistan were selected. The water samples were pre-concentrated five to tenfold at 60 °C using temperature-controlled electric hot plate. While scalp hair samples were oxidized by acid in a microwave oven, prior to determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The Li content in different types of drinking water, GW, MTW and BMW was found in the range of 5.12-22.6, 4.2-16.7 and 0.0-16.3 µg/L, respectively. It was observed that Li concentration in the scalp hair samples of adult males consuming ground water was found to be higher, ranged as 292-393 μg/kg, than those who are drinking municipal treated and bottle mineral water (212-268 and 145-208 μg/kg), respectively.

  5. The Course of Adult Experiences of Abuse in Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder and Axis II Comparison Subjects: A 10-Year Follow-Up Study

    OpenAIRE

    McGowan, Amelia; King, Hannah; Frankenburg, Frances F.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett; Zanarini, Mary C.

    2012-01-01

    The first objective of this study was to assess the rates of adult experiences of verbal, emotional, physical, and sexual abuse reported by borderline patients and axis II comparison subjects over ten years of prospective follow-up. The second objective was to determine time-to-cessation, recurrence, and new onset of each type of abuse. The Abuse History Interview was administered to 290 borderline patients and 72 axis II comparison subjects at baseline. The AHI Follow-up Version was administ...

  6. The Associated Ion between the VDR Gene Polymorphisms and Susceptibility to Hepatocellular Carcinoma and the Clinicopathological Features in Subjects Infected with HBV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Yao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the possible association between the vitamin D receptor (VDR, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection. Method. 968 chronic HBV infection patients were enrolled, of which 436 patients were diagnosed HCC patients, and 532 were non-HCC patients. The clinicopathological characteristics of HCC were evaluated. The genotypes of VDR gene at FokI, BsmI, ApaI, and TaqI were determined. Results. The genotype frequencies of VDR FokI C>T polymorphism were significantly different between HCC and non-HCC groups. HCC patients had a higher prevalence of FokI TT genotype than non-HCC subjects. With FokI CC as reference, the TT carriage had a significantly higher risk for development of HCC after adjustments with age, sex, HBV infection time, α-fetoprotein, smoking status, and alcohol intake. In addition, we also found that the TT genotype carriage of FokI polymorphisms were associated with advanced tumor stage, presence of cirrhosis, and lymph node metastasis. The SNP at BsmI, ApaI, and TaqI did not show positive association with the risk and clinicopathological features of HCC. Conclusion. The FokI C>T polymorphisms may be used as a molecular marker to predict the risk and to evaluate the disease severity of HCC in those infected with HBV.

  7. The associated ion between the VDR gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma and the clinicopathological features in subjects infected with HBV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xing; Zeng, Huazong; Zhang, Guolei; Zhou, Weimin; Yan, Qiang; Dai, Licheng; Wang, Xiang

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the possible association between the vitamin D receptor (VDR), single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. 968 chronic HBV infection patients were enrolled, of which 436 patients were diagnosed HCC patients, and 532 were non-HCC patients. The clinicopathological characteristics of HCC were evaluated. The genotypes of VDR gene at FokI, BsmI, ApaI, and TaqI were determined. The genotype frequencies of VDR FokI C>T polymorphism were significantly different between HCC and non-HCC groups. HCC patients had a higher prevalence of FokI TT genotype than non-HCC subjects. With FokI CC as reference, the TT carriage had a significantly higher risk for development of HCC after adjustments with age, sex, HBV infection time, α -fetoprotein, smoking status, and alcohol intake. In addition, we also found that the TT genotype carriage of FokI polymorphisms were associated with advanced tumor stage, presence of cirrhosis, and lymph node metastasis. The SNP at BsmI, ApaI, and TaqI did not show positive association with the risk and clinicopathological features of HCC. The FokI C>T polymorphisms may be used as a molecular marker to predict the risk and to evaluate the disease severity of HCC in those infected with HBV.

  8. The sevoflurane washout profile of seven recent anesthesia workstations for malignant hyperthermia-susceptible adults and infants: a bench test study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottron, Nicolas; Larcher, Claire; Sommet, Agnès; Fesseau, Rose; Alacoque, Xavier; Minville, Vincent; Fourcade, Olivier; Kern, Delphine

    2014-07-01

    Preoperative flushing of an anesthesia workstation is an alternative for preparation of the anesthesia workstation before use in malignant hyperthermia-susceptible patients (MHS). We studied in vitro, using a test lung, the washout profile of sevoflurane in 7 recent workstations during adult and, for the first time, pediatric ventilation patterns. Anesthesia workstations were first primed with 3% sevoflurane for 2 hours and then prepared according to the recommendations of the Malignant Hyperthermia Association of the United States. The flush was done with maximal fresh gas flow (FGF) with a minute ventilation equal to 600 mL × 15, to reach a sevoflurane concentration of Avance®, and Zeus®) and more interestingly, for machines not previously tested (Felix®, Flow-I®, Perseus®, and Leon®). An increase of sevoflurane concentration was observed when decreasing FGF (except for flow-I® and Leon®) and during simulation of MHS infant ventilation (except for Felix®). This descriptive study strongly suggests that washout profiles may differ for each anesthesia workstation. We advise the use of maximal FGF during preparation and anesthesia. Required flushing times are longer when preparing an anesthesia workstation before providing anesthesia for MHS infants.

  9. Early Life Processes, Endocrine Mediators and Number of Susceptible Cells in Relation to Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    Early life processes, endocrine mediators and number of susceptible cells in relation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER to breast cancer ... cancer risk. Method: Five interlinked component projects covering the spectrum from endometrial to adult life . Progress report: Component projects...Analyses are pending and no findings can be reported yet. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Breast cancer , early life , mammary gland specific stem cells, hormones 16

  10. Prevention of respiratory tract infections with bacterial lysate OM-85 bronchomunal in children and adults: a state of the art

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    De Benedetto, Fernando; Sevieri, Gianfranco

    2013-01-01

    .... Aim of this review is to summarize the main clinical studies on the effect of the bacterial lysate OM-85 in treating RTIs in susceptible subjects - namely children and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-affected adults...

  11. APPENDICITIS: YOUNG ADULTS ARE SUSCEPTIBLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somashekhar V. Hiremath

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT Appendicitis is the one of the most common emergencies of the acute abdomen encountered by the clinicians; peritonitis is the common cause due to appendicular perforation. Ultrasonography of abdomen is the preferred method of diagnosis of acute appendicitis. The study is done to diagnose acute appendicitis in a tertiary care hospital to ascertain early diagnosis prevalent in this part of the country, which might differ from other studies. AIM To ascertain prevalence, presentation and management of appendicitis in this part of India in a tertiary care government hospital with provisional diagnosis of appendicitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS Cases of acute abdomen, clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis admitted in KIMS Hospital, Hubli, a tertiary care government hospital, from January 2014 to January 2015 for materials of this study. 100 cases have been taken for study; cases included in this study are acute appendicitis, appendicular abscess; method used is USG abdomen, a simple diagnostic tool. RESULTS In present study, 100 cases of acute abdomen with clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis were taken and laparotomy was done for 98 cases and two cases of appendicular abscess. Youngest patient was 7 years old and oldest was 65 years. Peak incidence between 11 to 30 years of age group and male to female ratio is 3:2. Postoperative wound infection was a common complication in 21 cases and retention of urine was noticed in 7 cases, and there was a death in one case due to septicaemia. CONCLUSION Acute appendicitis is a second most common indication for early laparotomy in KIMS Hospital, Hubli, first being perforative peritonitis. Acute appendicitis is common between 11 to 30 years of age group, early diagnosis and intervention is required to prevent appendicular perforation and its complications. Diagnosis of acute appendicitis is to be done in patients presenting with atypical pain, absence of vomiting does not rule out appendicitis. Anorexia is an important symptom and fever is late presentation. Economic and early diagnostic tool is USG of the abdomen and sometimes diagnostic laparoscopy, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance image do help in concluding the diagnosis.

  12. Cellular aging and restorative processes: subjective sleep quality and duration moderate the association between age and telomere length in a sample of middle-aged and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribbet, Matthew R; Carlisle, McKenzie; Cawthon, Richard M; Uchino, Bert N; Williams, Paula G; Smith, Timothy W; Gunn, Heather E; Light, Kathleen C

    2014-01-01

    To examine whether subjective sleep quality and sleep duration moderate the association between age and telomere length (TL). Participants completed a demographic and sleep quality questionnaire, followed by a blood draw. Social Neuroscience Laboratory. One hundred fifty-four middle-aged to older adults (age 45-77 y) participated. Participants were excluded if they were on immunosuppressive treatment and/or had a disease with a clear immunologic (e.g., cancer) component. N/A. Subjective sleep quality and sleep duration were assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and TL was determined using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). There was a significant first-order negative association between age and TL. Age was also negatively associated with the self-reported sleep quality item and sleep duration component of the PSQI. A significant age × self-reported sleep quality interaction revealed that age was more strongly related to TL among poor sleepers, and that good sleep quality attenuated the association between age and TL. Moreover, adequate subjective sleep duration among older adults (i.e. greater than 7 h per night) was associated with TL comparable to that in middle-aged adults, whereas sleep duration was unrelated to TL for the middle-aged adults in our study. The current study provides evidence for an association between sleep quality, sleep duration, and cellular aging. Among older adults, better subjective sleep quality was associated with the extent of cellular aging, suggesting that sleep duration and sleep quality may be added to a growing list of modifiable behaviors associated with the adverse effects of aging.

  13. Analysis of the variability of the pharmacokinetics of multiple drugs in young adult and elderly subjects and its implications for acceptable daily exposures and cleaning validation limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streeter, Anthony J; Faria, Ellen C

    2017-06-01

    The elderly constitute a significant, potentially sensitive, subpopulation within the general population, which must be taken into account when performing risk assessments including determining an acceptable daily exposure (ADE) for the purpose of a cleaning validation. Known differences in the pharmacokinetics of drugs between young adults (who are typically the subjects recruited into clinical trials) and the elderly are potential contributors affecting the interindividual uncertainty factor (UFH) component of the ADE calculation. The UFH values were calculated for 206 drugs for young adult and elderly groups separately and combined (with the elderly assumed to be a sensitive subpopulation) from published studies where the pharmacokinetics of the young adult and elderly groups were directly compared. Based on the analysis presented here, it is recommended to use a default UFH value of 10 for worker populations (which are assumed to be approximately equivalent to the young adult groups) where no supporting pharmacokinetic data exist, while it is recommended to use a default UFH value of 15 for the general population, to take the elderly into consideration when calculating ADE values. The underlying reasons for the large differences between the exposures in the young adult and elderly subjects for the 10 compounds which show the greatest separation are different in almost every case, involving the OCT2 transporter, glucuronidation, hydrolysis, CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4 or CYP3A5. Therefore, there is no consistent underlying mechanism which appears responsible for the largest differences in pharmacokinetic parameters between young adult and elderly subjects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. HISTORY AS A SCHOOL SUBJECT IN THE “SECOND CHANCE” PROGRAMME FOR FUNCTIONAL BASIC EDUCATION OF ADULTS

    OpenAIRE

    Paulina Čović; Dragica Koljanin

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of comprehensive educational reforms which include adult education is taking place in Serbia. The bases for the reforms are new approaches to education and learning, because rapid changes in all spheres of life have opened up the need for lifelong learning and education. However, the moment when society recognized the need for an institutional and organized form of adult education was preceded by a long development path in the second half of the twentieth century. This pap...

  15. Susceptibility of different developmental stages of large pine weevil Hylobius abietis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to entomopathogenic fungi and effect of fungal infection to adult weevils by formulation and application methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Minshad A; Butt, Tariq M

    2012-09-15

    The large pine weevil, Hylobius abietis, is a major pest in European conifer forests causing millions of Euros of damage annually. Larvae develop in the stumps of recently felled trees; the emerging adults feed on the bark of seedlings and may kill them. This study investigated the susceptibility of different developmental stages of H. abietis to commercial and commercially viable isolates of entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium and Beauveria. All the developmental stages of H. abietis can be killed by Metarhizium robertsii, Metarhizium brunneum, and Beauveria bassiana. The most virulent isolate of M. robertsii ARSEF4556 caused 100% mortality of pupae, larvae and adults on day 4, 6 and 12, respectively. This strain was further tested against adult weevils in different concentrations (10(5)-10(8) conidia cm(-2) or ml(-1)) using two types of fungal formulation: 'dry' conidia and 'wet' conidia (suspended in 0.03% aq. Tween 80) applied on different substrates (tissue paper, peat and Sitka spruce seedlings). 'Dry' conidia were more effective than 'wet' conidia on tissue paper and on spruce or 'dry' conidia premixed in peat. The LC(50) value for 'dry' conidia of isolate ARSEF4556 was three folds lower than 'wet' conidia on tissue paper. This study showed that 'dry' conidia are more effective than 'wet' conidia, causing 100% adult mortality within 12 days. Possible strategies for fungal applications are discussed in light of the high susceptibility of larvae and pupae to fungal pathogen. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Tenskinmetric Evaluation of Surface Energy Changes in Adult Skin: Evidence from 834 Normal Subjects Monitored in Controlled Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Dal Bosco

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the influence of the skin aging critical level on the adult skin epidermal functional state, an improved analytical method based on the skin surface energetic measurement (TVS modeling was developed. Tenskinmetric measurements were carried out non-invasively in controlled conditions by contact angle method using only a water-drop as reference standard liquid. Adult skin was monitored by TVS Observatory according to a specific and controlled thermal protocol (Camianta protocol in use at the interconnected “Mamma Margherita Terme spa” of Terme Euganee. From June to November 2013, the surface free energy and the epidermal hydration level of adult skin were evaluated on arrival of 265 male and 569 female adult volunteers (51–90 years of age and when they departed 2 weeks later. Sensitive measurements were carried out at 0.1 mN/m. High test compliance was obtained (93.2% of all guests. Very interesting results are obtained. The high sensitivity and discrimination power of tenskinmetry combined with a thermal Camianta protocol demonstrate the possibility to evaluate at baseline level the surface energetic changes and the skin reactivity which occurs on adult skin.

  17. Susceptibility of adult and senescent brown norway rats to repeated ozone exposure: An assessment of behavior, serum biochemistry and cardiopulmonary function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropospheric ozone (03) is a pervasive air pollutant that produces pulmonary and cardiovascular dysfunction and there is growing evidence suggesting neurological dysfunction as well. Young and old individuals are generally recognized as being susceptible to ozone toxicity; howeve...

  18. Sense of Coherence, Sociodemographic, Lifestyle, and Health-related Factors in Older Adults' Subjective Well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia von Humboldt

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: Self-reported spirituality is the strongest predictor of SWB. Other predictors are sense of coherence, social support, living setting, household, perceived health, and medication. Results emphasize that health care approaches may benefit from clearly understanding SWB and its predictors, as essential for promoting older adults' health and well-being.

  19. The impact of idiopathic childhood-onset growth hormone deficiency (GHD) on bone mass in subjects without adult GHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Martin; Müller, Jørn; Svendsen, Ole Lander

    2005-01-01

    Despite seemingly adequate growth hormone (GH) treatment during childhood, children with GH deficiency (GHD) have reduced bone mineral density (BMD) at final height. The aim was to evaluate BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) in adults treated for idiopathic childhood-onset (CO) GHD, 18 years after...

  20. Subjective social status, self-rated health and tobacco smoking: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelo, Lidyane do V; Giatti, Luana; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2014-11-01

    Using baseline data from ELSA-Brasil (N = 15,105), we investigated whether subjective social status, measured using three 10-rung "ladders," is associated with self-rated health and smoking, independently of objective indicators of social position and depression symptoms. Additionally, we explored whether the magnitude of these associations varies according to the reference group. Subjective social status was independently associated with poor self-rated health and weakly associated with former smoking. The references used for social comparison did not change these associations significantly. Subjective social status, education, and income represent distinct aspects of social inequities, and the impact of each of these indicators on health is different. © The Author(s) 2013.

  1. Treatment outcome and long-term stability of skeletal changes following maxillary distraction in adult subjects of cleft lip and palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satinder Pal Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : To evaluate the treatment outcome and long-term stability of skeletal changes following maxillary advancement with distraction osteogenesis in adult subjects of cleft lip and palate. Materials and Methods: Total 12 North Indian adult patients in the age range of 17-34 years with cleft lip and palate underwent advancement of maxilla by distraction osteogenesis. Lateral cephalograms recorded prior to distraction, at the end of distraction, 6 months after distraction, and at least 24 months (mean 25.5 ± 1.94 months after distraction osteogenesis were used for the evaluation of treatment outcome and long-term stability of the skeletal changes. Descriptive analysis, ANOVA, and post-hoc test were used, and P-value 0.05 was considered as a statistically significant level. Results: Maxillary distraction resulted in significant advancement of maxilla (P<0.001. Counterclockwise rotation of the palatal plane took place after maxillary distraction. The position of the mandible and facial heights were stable during distraction. During the first 6 months of the post-distraction period, the maxilla showed relapse of approximately 30%. However, after 6 months post distraction, the relapse was very negligible. Conclusions: Successful advancement of maxilla was achieved by distraction osteogenesis in adult subjects with cleft lip and palate. Most of the relapse occurred during the first 6 months of post-distraction period, and after that the outcomes were stable.

  2. Treatment outcome and long-term stability of skeletal changes following maxillary distraction in adult subjects of cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satinder Pal; Jena, Ashok Kumar; Rattan, Vidya; Utreja, Ashok Kumar

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the treatment outcome and long-term stability of skeletal changes following maxillary advancement with distraction osteogenesis in adult subjects of cleft lip and palate. Total 12 North Indian adult patients in the age range of 17-34 years with cleft lip and palate underwent advancement of maxilla by distraction osteogenesis. Lateral cephalograms recorded prior to distraction, at the end of distraction, 6 months after distraction, and at least 24 months (mean 25.5 ± 1.94 months) after distraction osteogenesis were used for the evaluation of treatment outcome and long-term stability of the skeletal changes. Descriptive analysis, ANOVA, and post-hoc test were used, and P-value 0.05 was considered as a statistically significant level. Maxillary distraction resulted in significant advancement of maxilla (Ppalatal plane took place after maxillary distraction. The position of the mandible and facial heights were stable during distraction. During the first 6 months of the post-distraction period, the maxilla showed relapse of approximately 30%. However, after 6 months post distraction, the relapse was very negligible. Successful advancement of maxilla was achieved by distraction osteogenesis in adult subjects with cleft lip and palate. Most of the relapse occurred during the first 6 months of post-distraction period, and after that the outcomes were stable.

  3. Ancestral susceptibility to colorectal cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Huhn, S.; Pardini, Barbara; Naccarati, Alessio; Vodička, Pavel (ed.); Hemminki, K.; Försti, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2012), s. 197-204 ISSN 0267-8357 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/07/1430; GA ČR GAP304/10/1286 Grant - others:EU FP7(XE) HEALTH-F4-2007-200767 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : cancer susceptibility * molecular epidemiology * genetic susceptibility Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.500, year: 2012

  4. An exploratory study of the combined effects of orally administered methylphenidate and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on cardiovascular function, subjective effects, and performance in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollins, Scott H; Schoenfelder, Erin N; English, Joseph S; Holdaway, Alex; Van Voorhees, Elizabeth; O'Brien, Benjamin R; Dew, Rachel; Chrisman, Allan K

    2015-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is commonly prescribed for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and is often used illicitly by young adults. Illicit users often coadminister MPH with marijuana. Little is known about physiologic and subjective effects of these substances used in combination. In this double-blind, cross-over experiment, sixteen healthy adult subjects free from psychiatric illness (including ADHD) and reporting modest levels of marijuana use participated in 6 experimental sessions wherein all combinations of placebo or 10mg oral doses of delta-9-tetrahydocannibinol (THC); and 0mg, 10mg and 40 mg of MPH were administered. Sessions were separated by at least 48 hours. Vital signs, subjective effects, and performance measure were collected. THC and MPH showed additive effects on heart rate and rate pressure product (e.g., peak heart rate for 10mg THC+0mg, 10mg, and 40 mg MPH=89.1, 95.9, 102.0 beats/min, respectively). Main effects of THC and MPH were also observed on a range of subjective measures of drug effects, and significant THC dose × MPH dose interactions were found on measures of "Feel Drug," "Good Effects," and "Take Drug Again." THC increased commission errors on a continuous performance test (CPT) and MPH reduced reaction time variability on this measure. Effects of THC, MPH, and their combination were variable on a measure of working memory (n-back task), though in general, MPH decreased reaction times and THC mitigated these effects. These results suggest that the combination of low to moderate doses of MPH and THC produces unique effects on cardiovascular function, subjective effects and performance measures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Association of Enjoyable Childhood Mealtimes with Adult Eating Behaviors and Subjective Diet-Related Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainuki, Tomomi; Akamatsu, Rie; Hayashi, Fumi; Takemi, Yukari

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study examined whether the experience of enjoyable mealtimes at home during childhood was related to eating behaviors and subjective diet-related quality of life in adulthood. Methods: The study used data (n = 2,936) obtained from a research program about "Shokuiku" (food and nutrition education) conducted by the Cabinet…

  6. Tiredness in daily activities: a subjective measure for the identification of frailty among non-disabled community-living older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Larsen, Kirsten; Avlund, Kirsten

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the responses to questions about tiredness in daily activities is an early subjective sign of frailty indicating older community-living adults at increased risk for disability and mortality. Tiredness in daily activities as measured by the Mob...... at 5-, 10-, and 15-year follow-up. Onset of disability among non-disabled 70-year old men and women was strongly related to tiredness in daily activities at 5- and 10-year follow-up. Scores on the Mob-T Scale were significantly associated with mortality during the aggregate 15-year follow-up period...... in daily activities is suggested as a basis for identifying vulnerable frail subsets of older adults requiring targeted strategies for prevention....

  7. Thyrotropin levels are associated with chronic kidney disease among healthy subjects in cross-sectional analysis of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto de Miranda, Érique José F; Bittencourt, Márcio Sommer; Goulart, Alessandra C; Santos, Itamar S; de Oliveira Titan, Silvia Maria; Ladeira, Roberto Marini; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Lotufo, Paulo A; Benseñor, Isabela Judith Martins

    2017-12-01

    Few studies have evaluated a possible relationship between thyrotropin levels and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and albumin/creatinine ratio in euthyroid subjects. We aimed to analyze this association using baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Cross-sectionally, we included subjects with normal thyroid function and with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). We excluded individuals using medications that affect thyroid function. Linear and logistic regression models evaluated GFR estimated by Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-Epi) and albuminuria/creatinine ratio as dependent variables and thyrotropin quartiles in individuals with euthyroidism and SCH as independent variables, adjusted for demographical characteristics and diseases related to CKD. We included 13,193 subjects with a median age of 51 years [interquartile range, (IQR): 45-58], 6840 (51.8%) women, 12,416 (94.1%) euthyroid, and 777 (5.9%) with SCH. SCH subjects were characterized by higher age, triglycerides, frequency of white race, cardiovascular disease, CKD, and former smokers. In adjusted models, log-transformed TSH in euthyroid subjects was inversely and strongly associated with CKD (β = -2.181, 95% CI -2.714 to -1.648), P < 0.0001 for glomerular filtration rate and 4.528 (1.190-7.865) for albuminuria/creatinine ratio. Multivariate logistic models for euthyroid subjects showed an OR of 1.45 (95% CI 1.15-1.83) for GFR and of 1.95 (95% CI 1.08-3.54) for albuminuria/creatinine ratio in the fourth quartile of TSH using the first as the reference. Thyrotropin levels are independently associated with CKD in euthyroid subjects.

  8. Predictors of improvement in subjective sleep quality reported by older adults following group-based cognitive behavior therapy for sleep maintenance and early morning awakening insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovato, Nicole; Lack, Leon; Wright, Helen; Kennaway, David J

    2013-09-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy is an effective nonpharmacologic treatment for insomnia. However, individualized administration is costly and often results in substantial variability in treatment response across individual patients, particularly so for older adults. Group-based administration has demonstrated impressive potential for a brief and inexpensive answer to the effective treatment of insomnia in the older population. It is important to identify potential predictors of response to such a treatment format to guide clinicians when selecting the most suitable treatment for their patients. The aim of our study was to identify factors that predict subjective sleep quality of older adults following group-based administration of cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia (CBT-I). Eighty-six adults (41 men; mean age, 64.10 y; standard deviation [SD], 6.80) with sleep maintenance or early morning awakening insomnia were selected from a community-based sample to participate in a 4-week group-based treatment program of CBT-I. Participants were required to complete 7-day sleep diaries and a comprehensive battery of questionnaires related to sleep quality and daytime functioning. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to identify factors predicting subjective sleep quality immediately following treatment and at 3-month follow-up. Sleep diaries reported average nightly sleep efficiency (SE), which was used as the outcome measure of sleep quality. Participants with the greatest SE following treatment while controlling for pretreatment SE were relatively younger and had more confidence in their ability to sleep at pretreatment. These characteristics may be useful to guide clinicians when considering the use of a group-based CBT-I for sleep maintenance or early morning awakening insomnia in older adults. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Subjective alcohol responses in a cross-sectional, field-based study of adolescents and young adults: Effects of age, drinking level, and dependence/consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treloar, Hayley; Celio, Mark A; Lisman, Stephen A; Miranda, Robert; Spear, Linda P

    2017-01-01

    Adolescents are physically, cognitively, socially, and emotionally different than adults in ways that may partially explain why alcohol misuse typically develops during this period. Ample animal-science evidence and nascent ecological evidence points toward developmentally limited differences in sensitivity to alcohol's stimulatory and sedative effects. Field-based research methods were used to test for such age-related differences in a sample of adolescents through young adults. Potential moderating influences of estimated blood alcohol content (eBAC), as well as typical consumption and level of dependence/consequences were explored. Subjective alcohol responses were collected from 1,364 participants, aged 17 to 32 years, recruited outside of venues where drinking takes place in a small metropolitan bar district. Self-reports of stimulatory response to alcohol were age-related, such that younger participants reported increased subjective stimulation at the time of data collection relative to older participants. Age-related differences in stimulatory responses were more pronounced at lower eBACs and among younger participants who typically drank more heavily. Stimulatory responses generally diminished among older than younger participants, although individuals with greater dependence/consequences consistently reported greater stimulation from drinking. Contrastingly, age, typical consumption, and dependence/consequences were not related to sedation in this sample. This research provides cross-sectional evidence to support age-, consumption-, and dependence/consequences-related differences in stimulatory alcohol responses among adolescents and young adults assessed within a bar-area context. While cross-sectional, the results of this field-based study provide support for the theory that addiction liability is developmentally linked and associated, in part, with age-related differences in subjective alcohol responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All

  10. Cerebral time domain-NIRS: reproducibility analysis, optical properties, hemoglobin species and tissue oxygen saturation in a cohort of adult subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Giacalone, Giacomo; Zanoletti, Marta; Contini, Davide; Rebecca, Re; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Roveri, Luisa; Torricelli, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    The reproducibility of cerebral time-domain near-infrared spectroscopy (TD-NIRS) has not been investigated so far. Besides, reference intervals of cerebral optical properties, of absolute concentrations of deoxygenated-hemoglobin (HbR), oxygenated-hemoglobin (HbO), total hemoglobin (HbT) and tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) and their variability have not been reported. We have addressed these issues on a sample of 88 adult healthy subjects. TD-NIRS measurements at 690, 785, 830 nm were fitted ...

  11. The objective-subjective assessment of noise: young adults can estimate loudness of events and lifestyle noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Elizabeth Francis; Williams, Warwick; Gilliver, Megan

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the study was to establish whether individuals can subjectively estimate: (1) the loudness of events with respect to the objectively measured noise level; and (2) the overall loudness of their daily noise exposure level. Participants wore personal noise exposure meters for up to five days. During this time, participants kept diaries of daily events and estimated the loudness of these events and their overall noise exposure using 1-to-10 rating scales. A group of 45 volunteers aged between 18 and 35 years participated in the study. 86% of participants' subjective estimates were significantly correlated with the objective noise measurements. Multiple regression showed that age, overall lifestyle noise, and diary quality were predictors of the strength of correlation observed. In addition participants' subjective estimates of their overall noise exposure were significantly correlated with their actual average daily noise exposure. Results suggest that individuals can make a reasonable estimate of the loudness of events they experience and the overall level of noise they experience. These results may have significant influence for those interested in producing effective hearing health awareness programs in that individuals may be capable of assessing their own degree of hazard exposure.

  12. Subjective and objective cognitive function among older adults with a history of traumatic brain injury: A population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel C Gardner

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is extremely common across the lifespan and is an established risk factor for dementia. The cognitive profile of the large and growing population of older adults with prior TBI who do not have a diagnosis of dementia, however, has not been well described. Our aim was to describe the cognitive profile associated with prior TBI exposure among community-dwelling older adults without dementia-an understudied but potentially vulnerable population.In this population-based cohort study, we studied 984 community-dwelling older adults (age 51 y and older and their spouses without dementia who had been randomly selected from respondents to the 2014 wave of the Health and Retirement Study to participate in a comprehensive TBI survey and who either reported no prior TBI (n = 737 or prior symptomatic TBI resulting in treatment in a hospital (n = 247. Mean time since first TBI was 38 ± 19 y. Outcomes assessed included measures of global cognitive function, verbal episodic memory, semantic fluency, and calculation as well as a measure of subjective memory ("How would you rate your memory at the present time?". We compared outcomes between the two TBI groups using regression models adjusting for demographics, medical comorbidities, and depression. Sensitivity analyses were performed stratified by TBI severity (no TBI, TBI without loss of consciousness [LOC], and TBI with LOC. Respondents with TBI were younger (mean age 64 ± 10 y versus 68 ± 11 y, were less likely to be female, and had higher prevalence of medical comorbidities and depression than respondents without TBI. Respondents with TBI did not perform significantly differently from respondents without TBI on any measure of objective cognitive function in either raw or adjusted models (fully adjusted: global cognitive function score 15.4 versus 15.2, p = 0.68; verbal episodic memory score 4.4 versus 4.3, p = 0.79; semantic fluency score 15.7 versus 14.0, p = 0.21; calculation

  13. Subjective and objective cognitive function among older adults with a history of traumatic brain injury: A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Raquel C; Langa, Kenneth M; Yaffe, Kristine

    2017-03-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is extremely common across the lifespan and is an established risk factor for dementia. The cognitive profile of the large and growing population of older adults with prior TBI who do not have a diagnosis of dementia, however, has not been well described. Our aim was to describe the cognitive profile associated with prior TBI exposure among community-dwelling older adults without dementia-an understudied but potentially vulnerable population. In this population-based cohort study, we studied 984 community-dwelling older adults (age 51 y and older and their spouses) without dementia who had been randomly selected from respondents to the 2014 wave of the Health and Retirement Study to participate in a comprehensive TBI survey and who either reported no prior TBI (n = 737) or prior symptomatic TBI resulting in treatment in a hospital (n = 247). Mean time since first TBI was 38 ± 19 y. Outcomes assessed included measures of global cognitive function, verbal episodic memory, semantic fluency, and calculation as well as a measure of subjective memory ("How would you rate your memory at the present time?"). We compared outcomes between the two TBI groups using regression models adjusting for demographics, medical comorbidities, and depression. Sensitivity analyses were performed stratified by TBI severity (no TBI, TBI without loss of consciousness [LOC], and TBI with LOC). Respondents with TBI were younger (mean age 64 ± 10 y versus 68 ± 11 y), were less likely to be female, and had higher prevalence of medical comorbidities and depression than respondents without TBI. Respondents with TBI did not perform significantly differently from respondents without TBI on any measure of objective cognitive function in either raw or adjusted models (fully adjusted: global cognitive function score 15.4 versus 15.2, p = 0.68; verbal episodic memory score 4.4 versus 4.3, p = 0.79; semantic fluency score 15.7 versus 14.0, p = 0.21; calculation impairment

  14. Differences in Stylet Sheath Occurrence and the Fibrous Ring (Sclerenchyma) between xCitroncirus Plants Relatively Resistant or Susceptible to Adults of the Asian Citrus Psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, El-Desouky; Richardson, Matthew L.; Abdo, Zaid; Hall, David G.; Shatters, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina citri, Hemiptera: Liviidae), is the principal vector of the phloem-limited bacteria strongly associated with huanglongbing (HLB), the world’s most serious disease of citrus. Host plant resistance may provide an environmentally safe and sustainable method of controlling ACP and/or HLB. Two xCitroncirus accessions (hybrids of Poncirus trifoliata and Citrus spp.), that are relatively resistant (UN-3881) or relatively susceptible (Troyer-1459) to ACP adults with regard to adult longevity, were compared in relation to ACP feeding behavior and some structural features of the leaf midrib. The settling (putative feeding/probing) sites of ACP adults on various parts of the leaf were not influenced primarily by plant accession. However, fewer ACP stylet sheaths were found in the midrib and fewer stylet sheath termini reached the vascular bundle (phloem and/or xylem) in UN-3881 compared to Troyer-1459 plants. Furthermore, in midribs of UN-3881 leaves the fibrous ring (sclerenchyma) around the phloem was significantly wider (thicker) compared to that in midribs of Troyer-1459 leaves. Our data indicate that feeding and/or probing by ACP adults into the vascular bundle is less frequent in the more resistant (UN-3881) than in the more susceptible (Troyer-1459) accessions. Our results also suggest that the thickness of the fibrous ring may be a barrier to stylet penetration into the vascular bundle, which is important for successful ACP feeding on the phloem and for transmitting HLB-associated bacteria. These results may help in the development of citrus plants resistant to ACP, which in turn could halt or slow the spread of the HLB-associated bacteria by this vector. PMID:25343712

  15. Differences in stylet sheath occurrence and the fibrous ring (sclerenchyma between xCitroncirus plants relatively resistant or susceptible to adults of the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Desouky Ammar

    Full Text Available The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina citri, Hemiptera: Liviidae, is the principal vector of the phloem-limited bacteria strongly associated with huanglongbing (HLB, the world's most serious disease of citrus. Host plant resistance may provide an environmentally safe and sustainable method of controlling ACP and/or HLB. Two xCitroncirus accessions (hybrids of Poncirus trifoliata and Citrus spp., that are relatively resistant (UN-3881 or relatively susceptible (Troyer-1459 to ACP adults with regard to adult longevity, were compared in relation to ACP feeding behavior and some structural features of the leaf midrib. The settling (putative feeding/probing sites of ACP adults on various parts of the leaf were not influenced primarily by plant accession. However, fewer ACP stylet sheaths were found in the midrib and fewer stylet sheath termini reached the vascular bundle (phloem and/or xylem in UN-3881 compared to Troyer-1459 plants. Furthermore, in midribs of UN-3881 leaves the fibrous ring (sclerenchyma around the phloem was significantly wider (thicker compared to that in midribs of Troyer-1459 leaves. Our data indicate that feeding and/or probing by ACP adults into the vascular bundle is less frequent in the more resistant (UN-3881 than in the more susceptible (Troyer-1459 accessions. Our results also suggest that the thickness of the fibrous ring may be a barrier to stylet penetration into the vascular bundle, which is important for successful ACP feeding on the phloem and for transmitting HLB-associated bacteria. These results may help in the development of citrus plants resistant to ACP, which in turn could halt or slow the spread of the HLB-associated bacteria by this vector.

  16. Incidence, morphology, and progression of bicuspid aortic valve in pediatric and young adult subjects with coexisting congenital heart defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Talha; Poterucha, Joseph T; Johnson, Jonathan N; Craviari, Cecilia; Nienaber, Thomas; Palfreeman, Jared; Cetta, Frank; Hagler, Donald J

    2017-05-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) occurs both as an isolated cardiac lesion and in association with congenital heart defects (CHD). Their aim was to identify the incidence and morphology of BAV in patients with coexisting CHD and compare their disease progression to patients with isolated BAV. The Mayo Clinic echocardiography database was retrospectively analyzed to identify pediatric and young adult patients (≤22 years) who were diagnosed with BAV from 1990 to 2015. The morphology of BAV was determined from the echocardiographic studies before any intervention. Overall, 1010 patients with BAV were identified, 619 (61%) with isolated BAV and 391 (39%) with BAV and coexisting CHD. The incidence of BAV was highest in patients with coarctation of the aorta (36%) and interrupted aortic arch (36%). In comparison to patients with isolated BAV, patients with BAV and left-sided obstructive lesions more frequently had right-left cusp fusion (P = .0001). BAV in patients with right-sided obstructive lesions was rare, but they more frequently had right-noncoronary or left-noncoronary cusp fusion (P = .01). No significant progression of aortic stenosis or regurgitation was observed in patients with BAV and coexisting CHD; however in patients with isolated BAV the severity of aortic regurgitation increased with age. In patients with isolated BAV, the ascending aorta diameter (z-score) increased with age, peaked around 8-9 years of age, and was larger in comparison to patients with BAV and coexisting CHD. The sinus of Valsalva diameter (z-score) in patients with BAV and ventricular septal defect was larger than isolated BAV patients after 18 years (P disease vary in pediatric and young adult patients with BAV and coexisting CHD. However, there was no significant BAV disease progression when associated with these CHD. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SELF-REPORTED HEALTH STATUS AND SUBJECTIVE HEALTH LITERACY AMONG YOUNG ADULTS IN LITHUANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Cesnaviciene, Jurate; Ustilaite, Stase; Kalinkeviciene, Ausra

    2016-01-01

    Seeking to successfully act in the 21st century, a person should have a relatively big spectrum of abilities and competences; in other words, s/he should develop literacy in a number of spheres. Health literacy is essential for a person’s daily capability to manage own health and the quality of life, which is dependent on it. It is significant for the social and economic development of the society. The purpose of the research was to identify the relationships between subjective health literac...

  18. Variations in serotypes and susceptibility of adult non-invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates between the periods before (May 2000-May 2001) and 10 years after (May 2010-May 2011) introduction of conjugate vaccines for child immunisation in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenoll, Asunción; Aguilar, Lorenzo; Giménez, María-José; Vicioso, María-Dolores; Robledo, Olga; Granizo, Juan-José; Coronel, Pilar

    2012-07-01

    This study explored the serotype distribution and antibiotic susceptibility of adult non-invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates received in the Spanish Reference Laboratory for Pneumococci immediately prior to introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in June 2001 (May 2000-May 2001) and 10 years afterwards (May 2010-May 2011). Serotyping was performed by Quellung reaction and/or dot-blot assay, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by agar dilution. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) breakpoints were used for susceptibility interpretation. A total of 1274 isolates were identified (650 in the first period and 624 in the second period). PCV7 serotypes (as a group) showed a decrease (P<0.001) from 43.2% in the first period to 13.9% in the second period, with MIC(90) values (MIC for 90% of the organisms) of levofloxacin for the remaining PCV7 serotypes of 16 μg/mL. Inversely, non-PCV7 serotypes (as a group) increased from 56.8% to 86.1% (P<0.001), mainly due to increases in serotypes 19A (294.1% increase; P<0.001) and 15A (180.0% increase; P=0.005). Globally, non-susceptibility to penicillin decreased from 54.2% in the first period to 36.9% in the second period (P<0.001). Serotype 19A became the most worrisome, with an increase (at least five dilutions) in MIC(90) for all β-lactams in the second period, with non-susceptibility increasing from 18.2% to 71.4% (P=0.003) for penicillin and from 0.0% to 38.1% (P=0.022) for amoxicillin. Cefditoren showed the highest intrinsic activity (lowest MIC(50)/MIC(90)) overall and also against serotype 19A. Continuous surveillance of serotype distribution and antibiotic susceptibility among adult non-invasive isolates is necessary to detect emerging serotypes and to continuously assess the intrinsic activity of highly active oral antibiotics such as levofloxacin and cefditoren and of parenteral antibiotics such as cefotaxime. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and the

  19. Subjective discomfort in children receiving 3 T MRI and experienced adults' perspective on children's tolerability of 7 T: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I-Jun; Tench, Christopher R; Gowland, Penny; Jaspan, Tim; Dineen, Rob A; Evangelou, Nikos; Abdel-Fahim, Rasha; Whitehouse, William P; Constantinescu, Cris S

    2014-10-15

    To explore the possible discomfort perceived by children participating in 7 T MRI research, and the age range in which children are most likely to tolerate it well. A cross-sectional survey using age-appropriate questionnaires containing six measures of subjective discomfort (general discomfort, dizziness, noisiness, claustrophobia and feeling of cold or warm). For children, 3 T clinical scanner in a tertiary referral teaching hospital; for adults, 3 and 7 T scanner in a university research building. Non-sedated children and young people under 18 years of age who underwent 3 T clinical MRI for brain or musculoskeletal scans and adult volunteers attending 7 T with or without 3 T for brain scans. 83% (89/107) of involved individuals returned questionnaires. The most common discomfort among 31 children receiving 3 T MRI was noisiness (39%), followed by cold (19%), general discomfort (16%), dizziness (13%) and claustrophobia (10%). The noise was reported more frequently in children younger than 12 years than those older (p=0.021). The most common discomfort for 58 adults receiving 7 T MRI was noisiness (43%). In adults, there was a higher frequency of general discomfort during 7 than 3 T scans (p=0.031). More than 85% of adult respondents thought children aged 12-17 years would tolerate 7 T scans well, but only 35% and 15% thought children aged 10-11 and 8-9 years, respectively, would. Noisiness was the most common discomfort across all ages in 3 and 7 T scanners. Although general discomfort was more common during 7 than 3 T scans in adults, most adults thought children aged 12 years or more would tolerate 7 T MRI well. Cautious enrolment of children in 7 T MRI study is warranted, but until there is more evidence of how well those aged 12 years or more tolerate 7 T MRI, we would caution against enrolling younger children. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  20. Attitudes, subjective norms and perception of behavioural control as predictors of sun-related behaviour in Swedish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bränström, Richard; Ullén, Henrik; Brandberg, Yvonne

    2004-11-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the major preventable cause of skin cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the explanatory value of attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control on behaviours related to UV exposure. A random population-based sample (n = 1752, 18-37 years of age) in the Stockholm County, Sweden, answered a questionnaire with items on sun related behaviours and beliefs. The items concerned issues influenced by the Theory of Planned Behaviour, that is, attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations between behaviours and beliefs. Positive attitudes towards being tanned and being in the sun were both strongly associated with time spent in the sun, intentional tanning, sunbed use, going on vacation to a sunny resort, intention to decrease sunbathing and use of protection against the sun. Perceiving sunbathing as risky was associated with using different ways to protect and intending to reduce sun exposure. Having people around oneself who frequently sunbathe was related to intentional tanning and vacations to sunny resorts. Finally, perceived behavioural control was associated with use of sunscreen and use of other ways to protect from the sun among women. The study identified factors on which primary preventive interventions towards decreasing sun exposure should be focused.

  1. Fukuda and Babinski-Weil tests: within-subject variability and test-retest reliability in nondisabled adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquet, Nicole; Taillon-Hobson, Anne; Lajoie, Yves

    2014-01-01

    The Fukuda Stepping Test and the Babinski-Weil test are clinical assessments that presumably reveal unilateral vestibular hypofunction. However, abnormal performances on both of these two tests have been found in nondisabled individuals. This study compared measures of lateral and longitudinal displacements and body rotation for both tests, as well as the within-subject variability and test-retest reliability of the measures. In addition, correlations between hand and foot dominance and these measures were studied. Fifty young, nondisabled participants performed three trials of the 100-step Fukuda test and three trials of the Babinski-Weil test. The testing session was repeated 7 d later (retest). Lateral displacement, body rotation, and within-subject variability of these two measures were larger on the Fukuda than the Babinski-Weil test. No difference in test-retest reliability was found between the two tests, and a significant correlation was found between body rotation on the Fukuda test and score on the Waterloo Footedness Questionnaire. There may have been smaller variability in results of the Babinski-Weil test because it contains fewer steps (36) than the 100-step Fukuda test. Future research should compare tests with an equal number of steps; but, in the meantime, the Babinski-Weil test seems to have better psychometric properties than the Fukuda test, at least in nondisabled individuals.

  2. Alzheimer disease pathology in subjects without dementia in 2 studies of aging: the Nun Study and the Adult Changes in Thought Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SantaCruz, Karen S; Sonnen, Joshua A; Pezhouh, Maryam Kherad; Desrosiers, Mark F; Nelson, Peter T; Tyas, Suzanne L

    2011-10-01

    Individuals with antemortem preservation of cognition who show autopsy evidence of at least moderate Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology suggest the possibility of brain reserve, that is, functional resistance to structural brain damage. This reserve would, however, only be relevant if the pathologic markers correlate well with dementia. Using data from the Nun Study (n = 498) and the Adult Changes in Thought (ACT) Study (n = 323), we show that Braak staging correlates strongly with dementia status. Moreover, participants with severe(Braak stage V-VI) AD pathology who remained not demented represent only 12% (Nun Study) and 8% (ACT study) of nondemented subjects. Comparison of these subjects to those who were demented revealed that the former group was often significantly memory-impaired despite not being classified as demented. Most of these nondemented participants showed only stage V neurofibrillary pathology and frontal tangle counts that were slightly lower than a comparable (Braak stage V) dementia group. In summary, these data indicate that, in individuals with AD-type pathology who do not meet criteria for dementia, neocortical neurofibrillary tangles are somewhat reduced and incipient cognitive decline is present. Our data provide a foundation for helping to define additional factors that may impair, or be protective of, cognition in older adults.

  3. The Relieving Effects of BrainPower Advanced, a Dietary Supplement, in Older Adults with Subjective Memory Complaints: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

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    Jingfen Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subjective memory complaints (SMCs are common in older adults that can often predict further cognitive impairment. No proven effective agents are available for SMCs. The effect of BrainPower Advanced, a dietary supplement consisting of herbal extracts, nutrients, and vitamins, was evaluated in 98 volunteers with SMCs, averaging 67 years of age (47–88, in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Subjective hypomnesis/memory loss (SML and attention/concentration deficits (SAD were evaluated before and after 12-week supplementation of BrainPower Advanced capsules (n=47 or placebo (n=51, using a 5-point memory questionnaire (1 = no/slight, 5 = severe. Objective memory function was evaluated using 3 subtests of visual/audio memory, abstraction, and memory recall that gave a combined total score. The BrainPower Advanced group had more cases of severe SML (severity ⩾ 3 (44/47 and severe SAD (43/47 than the placebo group (39/51 and 37/51, < 0.05, < 0.05, resp. before the treatment. BrainPower Advanced intervention, however, improved a greater proportion of the severe SML (29.5%(13/44 (P<0.01 and SAD (34.9%(15/43(P<0.01 than placebo (5.1% (2/39 and 13.5% (5/37, resp.. Thus, 3-month BrainPower Advanced supplementation appears to be beneficial to older adults with SMCs.

  4. Differences in Subjective Experiences to First Use of Menthol and Non-Menthol Cigarettes in a National Sample of Young Adult Cigarette Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Silva, Joanne; Cohn, Amy M; Johnson, Amanda L; Villanti, Andrea C

    2017-08-17

    Menthol has been hypothesized to ease the harshness of cigarette smoke. Thus, sensory experiences at first cigarette use may be one mechanism by which menthol facilitates progression to regular smoking. This study examined differences in subjective experiences to first use of a menthol vs. non-menthol cigarette among new young adult smokers. Data were drawn from Waves 5-8 of the Truth Initiative Young Adult Cohort Study, a national sample of 18-34 year olds assessed every six months. Analyses included a subset of young adult current smokers (n=251) who initiated smoking in the past six months. Subjective responses to first cigarette use were assessed across menthol and non-menthol initiators in bivariate analyses and adjusted models controlling for smoking correlates. Fifty-two percent of new young adult smokers used a menthol cigarette at first use. First use of a menthol cigarette was higher in those aged 18-24 (vs. 25-34). Most Black smokers (93.1%) were menthol initiators compared to 43.9% of White smokers. More than half of menthol and non-menthol initiates felt relaxed or calm, dizzy, lightheaded, liking the taste and a rush or buzz at first use. Menthol initiators were less likely in bivariate and multivariable analyses to experience feeling nauseated at first use (AOR=0.45; p=.020) compared to non-menthol initiators. While few differences were found between menthol and non-menthol initiators in their subjective experiences, fewer menthol initiates felt nauseated at first cigarette use. Future research needs to identify additional mechanisms linking menthol initiation to smoking progression. Menthol initiators were more likely to be younger (18-24 vs. 25-34) and Black (vs. White) compared to non-menthol initiators. Our finding that menthol initiators were less likely to feel nauseated at first cigarette use compared to non-menthol initiators, suggests that menthol may reduce aversion to early cigarette use among young smokers and thus has the potential to

  5. Impact of Diurnal Temperature Fluctuations during Larval Development on Adult Life History Traits and Insecticide Susceptibility in Two Vectors; Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-30

    water quality and population age structure, may also effect the expression of insecticide resistance. Tene Fossog et al. (64) suggested that water...exposure (63). Tene Fossog et al. (64) suggested that water quality parameters can influence larval susceptibility to pyrethrins. In addition...population age structure, may also have an effect on the expression of insecticide resistance. Tene Fossog et al. (64) suggested that water quality

  6. Nutritional status assessed by scored patient-generated subjective global assessment associated with length of hospital stay in adult patients receiving an appendectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Hao Huang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malnutrition has been associated with poor health outcomes in hospitalized patients. This study assessed the validity of the scored patient-generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA in adult patients who had undergone an open appendectomy, and examined the association of this assessment tool with length of hospital stay. Methods: Nutritional status was determined by using the scored PG-SGA in adult patients (n = 86 who had undergone an open appendectomy within 24 hours of admission. Variables were compared between well-nourished and malnourished participants. Regression analysis was used to identify potential predictors for length of hospital stay. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC analysis was used to examine the validity of the PG-SGA score to predict the nutritional status. Results: On admission, 17% of the study subjects were malnourished and associated with a significantly older age (53.0 vs. 39.5, greater PG-SGA score (8 vs. 2, higher comorbidity (67% vs. 27%, and longer length of hospital stay (6.9 d vs. 4.1 d. The PG-SGA score and comorbidity were the determined risk factors for length of hospital stay after performing multiple regression analysis. Furthermore, the PG-SGA score had a significantly positive correlation with length of hospital stay (Spearman's rho = 0.378, p < 0.001. The area under the ROC curve indicating the PG-SGA score, compared with nutritional status, is 0.9751. Conclusions: The scored PG-SGA in adults receiving an appendectomy is significantly associated with length of hospital stay, and is an effective tool for assessing the nutritional status of patients with cancer and chronic illness, as well as of patients with acute surgical abdomen.

  7. SUBJECTIVE HEALTH ASSESSMENT AND HEALTH BEHAVIOUR OF ADULT INHABITANTS OF TOWNS LOCATED IN THE VICINITY OF WIND FARMS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Mroczek

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The development of wind power industry is beneficial both for human beings and their environment, even so it causes anxiety of people living near wind farms. It is highly related to insufficient information on the effect of wind farms on human health. The aim of this study was to assess subjective health, existing problems and health behaviours demonstrated by the residents of places located near wind farms. Materials of methods. The study was performed in January and February 2009. The research tool was a questionnaire consisting of the Norwegian version of The SF-36 General Health Questionnaire, the Visual Analog Scale (VAS for health assessment, and author’s questions. Information was obtained from 343 respondents, whose average age was 45 years. Out of them 57% had a job, while 12% were unemployed. All respondents were country dwellers. Results: General health was assessed as excellent or very good by 30%, as bad by 10.8%. One-fourth of respondents observed the worsening of their health. Some 59.2% claimed that wind farms were over 1500 m from their houses; people living in the shortest distance form a wind mill (700 m constituted 8%. One-third thought that windmills were safe for health; 69.1% did not regard windmills beneficial to themselves, and 2.6% could not see any advantages for the local community. Overweight and obesity were found in 42.34%, and 96.8% suffered from chronic diseases. Conclusions: 1. Subjective quality of life assessment depends directly on internal conditions of an individual. Construction of wind farms is not evaluated as an investment that changes the life of an individual. It is thought to have no effect on the assessment of health or its worsening. 2. Risk behaviours in the group examined do not differ from those observed in the general population. The factors which make the behaviours different are gender, age below 65 and occupational inactivity.

  8. Hypnotic susceptibility and dream characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamore, N; Barrett, D

    1989-11-01

    This study examined the relationship of hypnotic susceptibility to a variety of dream characteristics and types of dream content. A Dream Questionnaire was constructed synthesizing Gibson's dream inventory and Hilgard's theoretical conceptions of hypnosis. Employing the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility and the Field Inventory for evaluating hypnotic response, several dream dimensions correlated significantly with hypnotizability. For subjects as a whole, the strongest correlates were the frequency of dreams which they believed to be precognitive and out-of-body dreams. Ability to dream on a chosen topic also correlated significantly with hypnotic susceptibility for both genders. For females only, there was a negative correlation of hypnotic susceptibility to flying dreams. Absorption correlated positively with dream recall, ability to dream on a chosen topic, reports of conflict resolution in dreams, creative ideas occurring in dreams, amount of color in dreams, pleasantness of dreams, bizarreness of dreams, flying dreams and precognitive dreams.

  9. Effects of moderate-intensity exercise on polysomnographic and subjective sleep quality in older adults with mild to moderate sleep complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Abby C; Pruitt, Leslie A; Woo, Sandra; Castro, Cynthia M; Ahn, David K; Vitiello, Michael V; Woodward, Steven H; Bliwise, Donald L

    2008-09-01

    This study sought to determine the 12-month effects of exercise increases on objective and subjective sleep quality in initially inactive older persons with mild to moderate sleep complaints. A nonclinical sample of underactive adults 55 years old or older (n=66) with mild to moderate chronic sleep complaints were randomly assigned to a 12-month program of primarily moderate-intensity endurance exercise (n=36) or a health education control program (n=30). The main outcome measure was polysomnographic sleep recordings, with additional measures of subjective sleep quality, physical activity, and physical fitness. Directional hypotheses were tested. Using intent-to-treat methods, at 12 months exercisers, relative to controls, spent significantly less time in polysomnographically measured Stage 1 sleep (between-arm difference=2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7-4.0; p=003), spent more time in Stage 2 sleep (between-arm difference=3.2, 95% CI, 0.6-5.7; p=.04), and had fewer awakenings during the first third of the sleep period (between-arm difference=1.0, 95% CI, 0.39-1.55; p=.03). Exercisers also reported greater 12-month improvements relative to controls in Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) sleep disturbance subscale score (p=.009), sleep diary-based minutes to fall asleep (p=.01), and feeling more rested in the morning (p=.02). Compared with general health education, a 12-month moderate-intensity exercise program that met current physical activity recommendations for older adults improved some objective and subjective dimensions of sleep to a modest degree. The results suggest additional areas for investigation in this understudied area.

  10. Should nonalcoholic fatty liver disease be included in the definition of metabolic syndrome? A cross-sectional comparison with Adult Treatment Panel III criteria in nonobese nondiabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, Giovanni; Gambino, Roberto; Bo, Simona; Uberti, Barbara; Biroli, Giampaolo; Pagano, Gianfranco; Cassader, Maurizio

    2008-03-01

    The ability of the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria of metabolic syndrome to identify insulin-resistant subjects at increased cardiovascular risk is suboptimal, especially in the absence of obesity and diabetes. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with insulin resistance and is emerging as an independent cardiovascular risk factor. We compared the strength of the associations of ATP III criteria and of NAFLD to insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction in nonobese nondiabetic subjects. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) >2, oxidative stress (nitrotyrosine), soluble adhesion molecules (intracellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and E-selectin), and circulating adipokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, leptin, adiponectin, and resistin) were cross-sectionally correlated to ATP III criteria and to NAFLD in 197 unselected nonobese nondiabetic subjects. NAFLD more accurately predicted insulin resistance than ATP III criteria: sensitivity 73 vs. 38% (P = 0.0001); positive predictive value: 81 vs. 62% (P = 0.035); negative predictive value 87 vs. 74% (P = 0.012); positive likelihood ratio 4.39 vs. 1.64 (P = 0.0001); and negative likelihood ratio 0.14 vs. 0.35 (P = 0.0001). Adding NAFLD to ATP III criteria significantly improved their diagnostic accuracy for insulin resistance. Furthermore, NAFLD independently predicted HOMA-IR, nitrotyrosine, and soluble adhesion molecules on logistic regression analysis; the presence of NAFLD entailed more severe oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction, independent of adiposity or any feature of the metabolic syndrome in insulin-resistant subjects. NAFLD is more tightly associated with insulin resistance and with markers of oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction than with ATP III criteria in nonobese nondiabetic subjects and may help identify individuals with increased cardiometabolic risk in this population.

  11. Who bites the bullet first? The susceptibility of leopards Panthera pardus to trophy hunting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Richard Braczkowski

    Full Text Available Reliable data is fundamentally important for managing large carnivore populations, and vital for informing hunting quota levels if those populations are subject to trophy hunting. Camera-trapping and spoor counts can provide reliable population estimates for many carnivores, but governments typically lack the resources to implement such surveys over the spatial scales required to inform robust quota setting. It may therefore be prudent to shift focus away from estimating population size and instead focus on monitoring population trend. In this paper we assess the susceptibility of African leopards Panthera pardus to trophy hunting. This has management ramifications, particularly if the use of harvest composition is to be explored as a metric of population trend. We explore the susceptibility of different leopard age and sex cohorts to trophy hunting; first by examining their intrinsic susceptibility to encountering trophy hunters using camera-traps as surrogates, and second by assessing their extrinsic susceptibility using photographic questionnaire surveys to determine their attractiveness to hunters. We show that adult male and female leopards share similar incident rates to encountering hunters but adult males are the most susceptible to hunting due to hunter preference for large trophies. In contrast, sub-adult leopards rarely encounter hunters and are the least attractive trophies. We suggest that our findings be used as a foundation for the exploration of a harvest composition scheme in the Kwazulu-Natal and Limpopo provinces where post mortem information is collected from hunted leopards and submitted to the local provincial authorities.

  12. Insecticide susceptibility and resistance development in malathion selected Aedes albopictus (Skuse).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvi, S; Edah, M A; Nazni, W A; Lee, H L; Tyagi, B K; Sofian-Azirun, M; Azahari, A H

    2010-12-01

    Aedes albopictus was bioassayed to determine resistance development to malathion (OP). Two methods were applied, including WHO larval bioassay to determine the susceptibility to lethal concentration (LC), and adult bioassay to determine lethal time (LT). Larvae from colonies that had undergone selection pressure with malathion to yield 50% mortality were further subjected to selection for subsequent 10 generations. Selection of Ae. albopictus with malathion could relatively induce a consistent resistance ratio of 1.0 throughout 10 generations. It was noted that Ae. albopictus larvae showed less susceptibility to malathion compared to adults. The susceptibility test of adult mosquitoes to diagnostic dosage of 5.0% malathion-impregnated paper showed a variety of susceptibility to malathion when compared to the susceptible strain. Bioassay results indicated that the LT50 values of malathion-selected Ae. albopictus ranged between 11.5 - 58.8 minutes for ten consecutive generations. Biochemical enzyme studies indicated that there was a significant difference (p albopictus suggested that non-specific esterases do not play a role in resistance of malathion-selected Ae. albopictus.

  13. Quantitative and subjective behavioural aspects in the assessment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderström, Staffan; Pettersson, Richard; Nilsson, Kent W

    2014-01-01

    Self-rating scales and cognitive tests are instruments used in the assessment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, few studies have examined the differential validity of these kinds of instruments in psychiatric samples. To examine the discriminative validity of two self-report scales (ADHD Self-Report Scale [ASRS v.1.1], Current Symptom Scale [CSS]) and a continuous performance test with measures of motor activity (QBTest Plus). The interrelation between the instruments, and their abilities to differentiate between patients with an ADHD diagnosis and non-ADHD patients referred for psychiatric assessment were examined in a naturalistic sample of 61 adult patients. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for the dichotomized versions of the test variables in all tests ranged from 0.61 to 0.71. The ASRS and CSS exhibited sensitivity of 90.2% and 85.4%, and specificity of 35.0% and 40.0%, respectively. Variables from the QBTest Plus showed the opposite result for the variables QBImpulsivity and QBInattention, with sensitivity of 58.5% and 36.3% and specificity of 80.0% and 100.0%. Sensitivity and specificity of QBActivity were 68.3% and 65.0%, respectively. A stepwise discriminant function analysis showed that two variables from the QBTest Plus--QBInattention and QBActivity--accounted for 22.8% of the between-group variability, with the strongest predictor being QBInattention. The function yielded an overall correct classification of 72.1%. The classification correctly identified 87.8% of patients diagnosed with ADHD and 40.0% of non-ADHD patients. The discriminant validity of self-rating scales and the more objective measure of ADHD symptoms are poor and should be integrated generally with other sources of data.

  14. Hemodynamic response after injection of local anesthetics with or without adrenaline in adult Nigerian subjects undergoing simple tooth extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olutayo James

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to determine the changes in the blood pressure (BP and the pulse rate (PR of normotensive patients having dental extraction under the administration of 2% lignocaine local anesthetic with or without adrenaline. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was carried out on 325 consecutive normotensive patients who presented at the exodontia clinic of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH, Lagos, Yoruba State, Nigeria from December 2004 to August 2005 for simple tooth extraction. The patients were randomly allocated into two groups according to the type of anesthetic solution employed. Group A had tooth extraction done under the administration of 2% lignocaine with adrenaline (1:80,000 while group B had tooth extraction done under the administration of 2% lignocaine local anesthetic without vasoconstrictor (plain lignocaine. Each patient had single tooth extracted. The following parameters were monitored in each of the surgical interventions: systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, and PR. Measurements were taken in the waiting room before surgery, during the surgery after local anesthesia, during tooth extraction, and 15 min after tooth extraction. Results: The sample consisted of 176 females and 149 males. Age range of the patients was 18-89 years with the mean age of 35.08 ± 15.60 years. The hemodynamic responses to lignocaine with adrenaline (1:80,000 and plain lignocaine essentially follow the same pattern in the study. There was no statistically significant difference between the measured parameters in the two groups after the administration of local anesthetics. Conclusion: This study, therefore, shows that there was no difference in the hemodynamic changes observed with the use of lignocaine with adrenaline or plain lignocaine during a simple tooth extraction in healthy adults.

  15. Subjective health complaints and illness perception amongst adults with Joint Hypermobility Syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome-HypermobilityType - a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Lena; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Løvaas, Helene; Løvvik, Camilla; Maeland, Silje

    2017-10-17

    To investigate the prevalence and severity of subjective health complaints and describe illness perception in a population of Joint Hypermobility Syndrome or Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome-Hypermobile Type. This study was a postal survey with a questionnaire battery on demographic data, subjective health complaints inventory, and illness perception. A total of 110 individuals diagnosed with Joint Hypermobility Syndrome or Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome-Hypermobile Type from two specialized hospitals in Norway were offered participation. Further, 140 gender- and age-matched healthy controls from statistics Norway representing the general population were sent the questionnaire for reference. Overall response rate was 30.4% (n = 76), with 44.5% (n = 49) in Joint Hypermobility Syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome-Hypermobile Type and 19.3% (n = 27) in controls. Subjective health complaints were significantly higher in Joint Hypermobility Syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome-Hypermobile Type - than in the controls (32.06 vs. 11.08; p Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome-Hypermobile Type had low understanding of their illness and symptoms (understanding, mean: 3.93, SD 2.88), and reported to have moderate personal and treatment control over their illness. Adults with Joint Hypermobility Syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome-Hypermobile Type reported higher frequency and severity of subjective health complaints than the matched controls from the general adult population in Norway. Furthermore, Joint Hypermobility Syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome-Hypermobile Type reported low understanding of their illness and associated symptoms, and moderate belief that their illness can be kept under control through self-management or treatment. This may indicate one of the reasons why prognosis for these patients is poor. Implications for rehabilitation Awareness of the complexity of the subjective health complaints and inquiry into illness perception could contribute with valuable information about these patients

  16. [Nicotine dependence, smoking-related attitude, and subjective norms across the stages of change for smoking cessation among adults smokers in a rural area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Hee; Seo, Nam Sook; Kang, Hae Young

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify nicotine dependence, smoking-related attitude, and subjective norms across the stages of change for smoking cessation among adult smokers in a rural area. The subjects were 276 current smokers (male=243, female=33). There were 3 stages of change for smoking cessation: pre-contemplation, contemplation, and preparation stage. Data was collected by an interview or self-reporting from February 12th to March 5th 2004, and analyzed with frequency, percentage, chi- square-test, Fisher's exact probability test, ANOVA, and Scheffe test using the SPSS-PC program. According to the stages of change, 114(41.3%) current smokers were in pre-contemplation, 110(39.9%) in contemplation, and 52(18.8%) in the preparation stage. There was a higher percentage of males than females (chi- square=8.99, p=.011) in the preparation stage. The mean score of the smoking-related attitude (F=7.43, p=.001) and subjective norm(F=27.41, p=.001) were both lowest in the pre-contemplation stage and increased positively during the stages of change for smoking cessation. Based on these findings, the authors recommend that community-based smoking cessation programs should be developed by considering the intention or motives of current smokers and should be initiated in the preparation stage and primarily for male groups.

  17. A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study on acceptability, safety and efficacy of oral administration of sacha inchi oil (Plukenetia volubilis L.) in adult human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Gonzales, Carla

    2014-03-01

    The study was designed to assess acceptability and side-effects of consumption of sacha inchi oil, rich in α-linolenic acid and sunflower oil, rich in linoleic acid, in adult human subjects. Thirty subjects received 10 or 15ml daily of sacha inchi or sunflower oil for 4months. Acceptability was assessed with daily self-report and with a Likert test at the end of the study. Safety was assessed with self- recording of side-effects and with hepatic and renal markers. Primary efficacy variables were the change in lipid profile. Subjects reported low acceptability of sacha inchi oil at week-1 (37.5%). However, since week-6, acceptability was significantly increased to 81.25-93.75%. No differences were observed in acceptability with respect to sex or oil volume (P>0.05). Most frequent adverse effects during first weeks of consuming sacha inchi oil or sunflower oil were nauseas. The side-effects were reduced with time. Biochemical markers of hepatic and kidney function were maintained unchanged. Serum total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels and arterial blood pressure were lowered with both oils (P<0.05). Higher HDL-cholesterol was observed with sacha inchi oil at month-4. In conclusion, sacha inchi oil consumed has good acceptability after week-1 of consumption and it is safety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cybercrime Victimization and Subjective Well-Being: An Examination of the Buffering Effect Hypothesis Among Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaakinen, Markus; Keipi, Teo; Räsänen, Pekka; Oksanen, Atte

    2017-10-19

    The wealth of beneficial tools for online interaction, consumption, and access to others also bring new risks for harmful experiences online. This study examines the association between cybercrime victimization and subjective well-being (SWB) and, based on the buffering effect hypothesis, tests the assumption of the protective function of social belonging in cybercrime victimization. Cross-national data from the United States, United Kingdom, Germany, and Finland (N = 3,557; Internet users aged 15-30 years; 49.85 percent female) were analyzed using descriptive statistics and main and moderation effect models. Results show that cybercrime victimization has a negative association with SWB after adjusting for a number of confounding factors. This association concerns both general cybercrime victimization and subcategories such as victimization to offensive cybercrime and cyberfraud. In line with the buffering effect hypothesis, social belonging to offline groups was shown to moderate the negative association between SWB and cybercrime victimization. The same effect was not found in the social belonging to online groups. Overall, the study indicates that, analogously to crime victimization in the offline context, cybercrime is a harmful experience whose negative effects mainly concern those users who have weak social ties offline to aid in coping with such stressors.

  19. Ascending single-dose study of the safety profile, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of bosutinib coadministered with ketoconazole to healthy adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Richat; Leister, Cathie; El Gaaloul, Myriam; Chalon, Stephan; Sonnichsen, Daryl

    2012-09-01

    Bosutinib (SKI-606) is an orally bioavailable, competitive tyrosine kinase inhibitor that selectively targets both Src and Abl tyrosine kinases. Bosutinib is metabolized primarily through the cytochrome P450 3A4 pathway. Inhibition of bosutinib metabolism by coadministration with the potent cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitor ketoconazole could potentially increase plasma concentrations of bosutinib, allowing for the study of bosutinib tolerability at supratherapeutic concentrations in a healthy subject population. This study assessed the safety profile, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of different dose combinations of bosutinib coadministered with ketoconazole in healthy adults, and determined whether supratherapeutic concentrations of bosutinib can be achieved with ketoconazole. This was a randomized, Phase I, double-blind, placebo-controlled, sequential-group study conducted in healthy adults. Single oral doses of bosutinib 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, and 600 mg or placebo were administered with ketoconazole and food on day 1; daily single oral doses of ketoconazole 400 mg were administered on days -1 and 1 through 4. Forty-eight subjects were enrolled. Their mean (SD) age was 32.0 (10.7) years (range, 18-50 years). The majority of the subjects (n = 44 [92%]) were white, 2 (4%) were black or African American, and 2 (4%) were of other races. Bosutinib was associated with acceptable tolerability at doses from 100 to 600 mg, with adverse events either mild (n = 30 [63%]) or moderate (n = 12 [25%]) in severity; no subject discontinued treatment due to adverse events, and no serious events were reported. Mean (SD) values for bosutinib 100 to 600 mg ranged from 58.4 (13.3) to 426 (100) ng/mL for C(max) and 2980 (802) to 23,000 (4020) ng·h/mL for AUC(0-∞); mean AUC(0-24) and AUC(0-last) ranged from 876 (234) to 7080 (1640) ng· h/mL and from 2740 (854) to 22,200 (3630) ng · h/mL, respectively. C(max) and AUC were linear and dose proportional. Mean C(max) at 600 mg was 2

  20. An unusually large 5q duplication in an adult female subject: spreading of inactivation and in vitro instability of the derivative Xp/5q chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovescalli, A; Ghidoni, A

    1989-01-01

    An unbalanced translocation resulting in an unusually large partial 5q trisomy (5q11-5qter) and partial Xp monosomy (Xp11-Xpter) is reported in a 24 yr old woman with phenotypic abnormalities including gonadal dysgenesis and mental retardation. The karyotypes of the parents and the brother were found normal. Peripheral blood stimulated lymphocytes and cutaneous fibroblasts of the proband exhibited constantly, after BrdU incorporation, selective inactivation of the derivative X;5 chromosome spreading to the 5q duplicate segment. A variety of numerical and structural changes involving the derivative chromosome were observed in about 10% of cells of the cultured lymphoblastoid line established from the subject's lymphocytes. The extended 5q duplication, according to the literature, is generally accompanied by a severe phenotype and by developmental failure; it is therefore believe that genetic inactivation of the 5q duplicated region permitted the proband's development to adult age, despite the profound chromosomal imbalance.

  1. A genome-wide association study in 19 633 Japanese subjects identified LHX3-QSOX2 and IGF1 as adult height loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yukinori; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Takahashi, Atsushi; Matsuda, Koichi; Hosono, Naoya; Ohmiya, Hiroko; Daigo, Yataro; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Kubo, Michiaki; Nakamura, Yusuke; Kamatani, Naoyuki

    2010-06-01

    Previous genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified several loci associated with human height; however, such evidence was mostly reported in Caucasian populations. Since the different distributions of height between populations suggest their different genetic backgrounds, analysis in different populations would be useful. Here, we present the results of a GWAS for adult height in 19 633 Japanese subjects. We found eight significantly associated loci that satisfied the genome-wide significance level (P height to this locus (rs1457595, P = 1.2 x 10(-5)). We observed large differences in the allele frequencies of rs17032362 and rs1457595 between Japanese (34 and 9%, respectively) and Caucasian (1.7 and 0%, respectively) populations, thereby suggesting weak statistical powers for the IGF1 locus in the previous Caucasian GWASs for height. We extensively compared our results with those of previous reports on the Caucasian and Korean populations. We were able to replicate all four loci previously reported in Koreans (EFEMP1, ZBTB38, HMGA1 and PLAG1, P height-associated loci identified in our study and the previous GWASs demonstrated an effect size of 1.26 cm (95% confidence interval: 1.18-1.34) per 1.0 increase of the normalized Z score for height-increasing alleles, explaining 4.6% of the total variance of adult height.

  2. Subjective Cognitive Decline Correlates With Depression Symptoms and Not With Concurrent Objective Cognition in a Clinic-Based Sample of Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlatar, Zvinka Z; Muniz, Martha; Galasko, Douglas; Salmon, David P

    2017-01-19

    Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) is common in older adults; however, its utility in clinic-based samples remains controversial given its strong associations with mood symptoms. Five hundred nineteen individuals aged 60-95 with a wide range of cognitive performance scores were referred by community health clinics for brief screening of cognitive complaints. Linear regression models examined the cross-sectional associations between SCD (5-item self-reported questions), symptoms of depression (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI]), and concurrent objective cognitive performance (Cognitive Composite) adjusting for demographics. There was not a significant association between SCD and concurrent objective cognition after adjusting for demographics and depression. In contrast, there was a significant association between SCD and depression after adjusting for demographics and objective cognition. There was also a consistent association between SCD and depression, but not between SCD and objective cognition, in those with high and low levels of SCD reporting, in all ranges of cognitive performance, and in those with mild to moderate depression. Results are consistent with previous findings and suggest that SCD does not accurately reflect concurrent cognitive performance in a clinic-based sample of older adults. Clinical interpretation of SCD should account for the role of depression.

  3. Integration in the Vocational World: How Does It Affect Quality of Life and Subjective Well-Being of Young Adults with ASD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eynat Gal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess whether the perception of quality of life (QOL and subjective well-being (SWB of young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD is affected by participation in a comprehensive program. Participants included 25 young adults with ASD who participated in the “Roim Rachok Program” (RRP, where they were trained to become aerial photography interpreters. Following the training period, they served in a designated army unit where they practiced their newly acquired profession. The participants filled out two questionnaires, (a Quality of Life (QOL-Q and (b Personal Well-being Index (PWI, at three points of the intervention: (a before the course, (b at the end of the course, and (c six months after integrating in the designated army unit. Wilcoxon signed ranks tests were used to assess the differences between the reported QOL and SWB at the three points of time. The results suggest that there were no significant differences at the end of the course, compared to its beginning. However, there were significantly improved perception of QOL and SWB during the period between the end of the course and six months after starting work. The results of this study highlight the importance of tailored vocational programs that are adapted to the unique needs and strengths of individuals with ASD.

  4. Pharmacodynamics assessment of Bemiparin after multiple prophylactic and single therapeutic doses in adult and elderly healthy volunteers and in subjects with varying degrees of renal impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Salvador; Antonijoan, Rosa-María; Ballester, Maria Rosa; Gutierro, Ibon; Ayani, Ignacio; Martinez-Gonzalez, Javier; Borrell, Montserrat; Fontcuberta, Jordi; Gich, Ignasi

    2014-06-01

    Aging and renal impairment may prolong the half-life and lead to accumulation of low molecular weight heparins. Correct dosing is critical to prevent bleeding or thrombosis. Open, parallel study. Healthy adult [n=13] and elderly (>65yrs) [n=12] volunteers; and subjects with mild (ClCr≥50 to ≤80mL/min, n=8), moderate (ClCr≥30 to <50mL/min, n=7), and severe (ClCr<30mL/min, n=8) renal impairment received four prophylactic doses (3,500IU/24h) and a single therapeutic dose (115IU/kg) of bemiparin with an interim washout period. Anti-FXa activity and the potential need for dose adjustment were evaluated. There were statistically significant differences in the severe renal impairment group vs. adult volunteers in all anti-FXa related parameters, but no significant differences in any of the anti-FXa related parameters between the adult and the elderly. Anti-FXa simulations after 10 prophylactic doses predicted mean Amax=0.59IU/mL in subjects with severe renal impairment and 0.33-0.39IU/mL in the rest. Simulations in the severe renal impairment group with dose adjustment (2,500IU/24h) predicted all individual Amax<0.60IU/mL (mean Amax=0.42IU/ml). Simulations after 10 therapeutic doses predicted mean Amax=1.22IU/mL in severe renal impairment group and 0.89-0.98IU/mL in the rest. Simulations in the severe renal impairment group with 75% dose adjustment predicted individual Amax≤1.60IU/mL (mean Amax=0.91IU/mL). No dose adjustments are required in elderly with preserved renal function. A dose adjustment of bemiparin is only advisable in patients with severe renal impairment when using prophylactic or therapeutic doses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Subjective social status and health-related quality of life among adults in Germany. Results from the German General Social Survey (ALLBUS 2010)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoebel, J; Kuntz, B; Müters, S; Lampert, T

    2013-10-01

    The impact of subjective perception of social status on health has been analysed in international health research for several years. However, in Germany the empirical analysis of the relation between subjective social status (SSS) and health is still in the very early stages. This study investigates if health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in German adults is associated with SSS over and above conventional measures of social status. The results are based on the German General Social Survey (ALLBUS 2010), a representative cross-sectional survey of the adult resident population in Germany (n=2 827). HRQoL was assessed with 4 items referring to self-rated health (SRH) and impairment of well-being due to bodily pain, depressiveness, and loneliness. SSS was measured with a 10-point scale where participants rated their status in society. The impact of SSS on HRQoL was analysed separately for men and women using logistic regression models adjusted for age, school education, net equivalent household income, and occupational position. Poorer SRH, bodily pain, depressiveness, and loneliness occurred significantly more often in men and women with low SSS compared to those with higher SSS. After adjusting for age, education, income, and occupation, the effects of SSS on SRH and depressiveness remained significant in men and women (SRH: men: OR=4.76; 95% CI=2.52-8.99; women: OR=2.95; 95% CI=1.74-4.99; depressiveness: men: OR=2.86; 95% CI=1.60-5.10; women: OR=2.75; 95% CI=1.65-4.56). The effects of SSS on bodily pain and loneliness were observed only in women after adjustment for objective status indicators (OR=1.75; 95% CI=1.07-2.86 and OR=3.03; 95% CI=1.43-6.42, respectively). These findings indicate that self-perception of social disadvantage affects HRQoL in German adults independently and partly gender-specifically. Hence, complementary to objective status indicators the SSS offers additional potential for describing and explaining health inequalities. © Georg Thieme

  6. [Evaluation of total energy expenditure in adult, overweight and free-living subjects. A comparison between two methods: Factorial Method vs SenseWear Armband "Metabolic Holter"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giobbi, G

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation of SenseWear Armband functional and structural characteristics and comparison between TEE value from Factorial Method and Metabolic Holter. The study has involved a homogeneous group of 21 adult, overweight (25BMI30 Kg/m(2)) and free-living subjects, 9 men and 12 women, with an average age of 34.9 +/- 14.5 (20-60 years old). TEE valuation has been performed for each subject by means of Factorial Method and, secondly, through the application of SenseWear Armband (Bodymedia Inc., Pittsburgh, PA, USA). Values recorded by Armband overestimate Factorial values of 14%. The Student's t Test has reported significant results (t = 3.540; p = 0.002). Spearman's Correlation has showed the following values of r = 0.696 and p = 0.001. The analysed methods can't be superimposed because the study has showed a signifi cant difference between the reported values. In spite of all that, Spearman study has highlighted a remarkable statistic relation between the techniques. In conclusion, SWA and FM seem to allow a corresponding diagnosis.

  7. Influence of early maladaptive schemas, depression, and anxiety on the intensity of self-reported cognitive complaint in older adults with subjective cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandetnik, Caroline; Hergueta, Thierry; Bonnet, Philippe; Dubois, Bruno; Bungener, Catherine

    2017-10-01

    Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) designates a self-reported cognitive decline despite preserved cognitive abilities. This study aims to explore, in older adults with SCD, the association between intensity of self-reported cognitive complaint and psychological factors including Young's early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) (i.e. enduring cognitive structures giving rise to beliefs about oneself and the world), as well as depression and anxiety. Seventy-six subjects (69.22 years ± 6.1) with intact cognitive functioning were recruited through an advertisement offering free participation in an intervention on SCD. After undergoing a neuropsychological examination (including global cognition (MMSE) and episodic memory (FCSRT)) and a semi-structured interview to assess depressive symptoms (MADRS), they completed a set of online self-reported questionnaires on SCD (McNair questionnaire), Young's EMSs (YSQ-short form), depression (HADS-D), and anxiety (HADS-A and trait-STAI-Y). The McNair score did not correlate with the neuropsychological scores. Instead, it was highly (r > 0.400; p depression, anxiety, and these three EMSs as predictors (while controlling for age, gender, and objective cognition) accounted for 38.5% of the observed variance in SCD intensity. The level of cognitive complaint is significantly associated with Young's EMSs in the category of "Impaired autonomy and performance". We assume that SCD may primarily be driven by profound long-term inner beliefs about oneself that do not specifically refer to self-perceived memory abilities.

  8. Non-cycloplegic spherical equivalent refraction in adults: comparison of the double-pass system, retinoscopy, subjective refraction and a table-mounted autorefractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaseca, Meritxell; Arjona, Montserrat; Pujol, Jaume; Peris, Elvira; Martínez, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of spherical equivalent (SE) estimates of a double-pass system and to compare it with retinoscopy, subjective refraction and a table-mounted autorefractor. Non-cycloplegic refraction was performed on 125 eyes of 65 healthy adults (age 23.5±3.0 years) from October 2010 to January 2011 using retinoscopy, subjective refraction, autorefraction (Auto kerato-refractometer TOPCON KR-8100, Japan) and a double-pass system (Optical Quality Analysis System, OQAS, Visiometrics S.L., Spain). Nine consecutive measurements with the double-pass system were performed on a subgroup of 22 eyes to assess repeatability. To evaluate the trueness of the OQAS instrument, the SE laboratory bias between the double-pass system and the other techniques was calculated. The SE mean coefficient of repeatability obtained was 0.22D. Significant correlations could be established between the OQAS and the SE obtained with retinoscopy (r=0.956, Prefraction (r=0.955, Prefraction -0.23±0.50D; More myopic values were achieved by means of autorefraction 0.24±0.49D. The double-pass system provides accurate and reliable estimates of the SE that can be used for clinical studies. This technique can determine the correct focus position to assess the ocular optical quality. However, it has a relatively small measuring range in comparison with autorefractors (-8.00 to +5.00D), and requires prior information on the refractive state of the patient.

  9. The effect of dairy and nondairy beverages consumed with high glycemic cereal on subjective appetite, food intake, and postprandial glycemia in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Marron; Huot, Pedro S P; Lee, Ying Ti; Vien, Shirley; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Anderson, G Harvey

    2017-11-01

    The objective was to compare the effect of dairy and nondairy beverages when consumed with carbohydrate at breakfast on subjective appetite, food intake (FI), and postprandial glycemia (PPG) in healthy young adults. Twenty-six healthy males and females (13 males and 13 females; 23.0 ± 2.6 years; BMI: 22.3 ± 1.5 kg/m(2)) participated in a randomized crossover study. They consumed nonisocaloric amounts (250 mL) of almond beverage, soy beverage, 1% fat milk, yogurt beverage, and water (control) with cereal and 120 min later, an ad libitum meal. Subjective appetite, PPG, and insulin were measured at baseline and at intervals before and after the meal at which FI was measured. Post-treatment blood glucose was lowest following soy beverage compared with all treatments but was not different from milk (p = 0.0002). There were no differences between any other treatments. However, over the first hour, PPG for all treatments was 27% lower compared with water (p beverage led to the highest insulin concentrations post-treatment (p beverage (p beverages consumed with a high glycemic cereal at breakfast increased satiety and decreased FI compared with water with cereal. Despite higher carbohydrate content, all beverages led to similar or lower PPG than the water breakfast, but dairy beverages increased insulin more than nondairy beverages.

  10. Changes of serum omentin-1 levels in normal subjects, type 2 diabetes and type 2 diabetes with overweight and obesity in Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Zhu, Lei; Zheng, Min; Fan, Chaohua; Li, Yunhao; Zhang, Dan; He, Yanming; Yang, Hongjie

    2014-07-01

    Omentin-1 has been identified as interesting novel adipokines that may modulate insulin action. Its exact biological function is unclear. The aim of this study is to assay the levels of serum omentin-1 in normal subjects and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with normal weight, overweight and obesity and to analyze the relationship between serum omentin-1 levels with body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), plasma glucose, insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) and serum lipid levels. There are eighty newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients, thirty-five type 2 diabetes patients with normal weight, twenty-nine type 2 diabetes patients with overweight, sixteen type 2 diabetes patients with obesity, and forty healthy control subjects were enrolled in this study. The levels of plasma glucose at fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose and fasting serum levels of insulin, omentin-1and HbA1c were measured. HOMA-IR was calculated. Serum omentin-1 levels were found to be significantly decreased in type 2 diabetes patients with normal weight (821.16 ± 312.50 ng/L), in type 2 diabetes patients with overweight (748.00±322.51 ng/L), and in type 2 diabetes patients with obesity (530.44±357.35 ng/L) compared with healthy control subjects (994.71±435.90 ng/L) at Pinsulin (FINS), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-hour postprandial blood glucose (2HPG), triglycerides (TG), and positively correlated to high-density lipoprotein (HDL). BMI was independent related factor that influenced the levels of serum omentin-1. Decreased omentin-1 levels may contribute to the development of insulin resistance, T2DM and particularly to obesity in Chinese adults, however, its role in these diseases needs to be fully elucidated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Increased objectively assessed vigorous-intensity exercise is associated with reduced stress, increased mental health and good objective and subjective sleep in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Markus; Brand, Serge; Herrmann, Christian; Colledge, Flora; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe

    2014-08-01

    The role of physical activity as a factor that protects against stress-related mental disorders is well documented. Nevertheless, there is still a dearth of research using objective measures of physical activity. The present study examines whether objectively assessed vigorous physical activity (VPA) is associated with mental health benefits beyond moderate physical activity (MPA). Particularly, this study examines whether young adults who accomplish the American College of Sports Medicine's (ACSM) vigorous-intensity exercise recommendations differ from peers below these standards with regard to their level of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, perceived pain, and subjective and objective sleep. A total of 42 undergraduate students (22 women, 20 men; M=21.24years, SD=2.20) volunteered to take part in the study. Stress, pain, depressive symptoms, and subjective sleep were assessed via questionnaire, objective sleep via sleep-EEG assessment, and VPA via actigraphy. Meeting VPA recommendations had mental health benefits beyond MPA. VPA was associated with less stress, pain, subjective sleep complaints and depressive symptoms. Moreover, vigorous exercisers had more favorable objective sleep pattern. Especially, they had increased total sleep time, more stage 4 and REM sleep, more slow wave sleep and a lower percentage of light sleep. Vigorous exercisers also reported fewer mental health problems if exposed to high stress. This study provides evidence that meeting the VPA standards of the ACSM is associated with improved mental health and more successful coping among young people, even compared to those who are meeting or exceeding the requirements for MPA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of dairy products consumed with high glycemic carbohydrate on subjective appetite, food intake, and postprandial glycemia in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Marron; Lee, Ying Ti; Vien, Shirley; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Anderson, G Harvey

    2017-11-01

    The objective was to compare the effect of liquid, semi-solid, and solid dairy products and a nondairy beverage when consumed with glycemic carbohydrate on subjective appetite, food intake (FI), and post-prandial glycemia (PPG) in healthy older adults. Thirty healthy men and women (14 males and 16 females; age: 64.6 ± 2.4 y; BMI: 25.6 ± 2.5 kg/m2) participated in a randomized crossover study. Treatments were one of 250 mL of 2% fat milk and soy beverage, 175 g of 2% Greek yogurt, and 30 g of Cheddar cheese consumed as part of an isocaloric (380 kcal) meal with bread and jam. Water alone served as the energy-free control for subjective appetite. At 180 min after consumption, the participants were fed an ad libitum meal to measure FI. Subjective appetite, blood glucose, and insulin were measured at baseline and at intervals both before (post-treatment) and after the meal (postmeal). Cheese and yogurt resulted in lower post-treatment blood glucose than milk and soy beverage when consumed with carbohydrate (p < 0.0001), but no differences among any treatments were observed postmeal. Treatments led to similar insulin concentrations. Post-treatment appetite was lower than after the water control for all treatments but suppressed more by cheese and yogurt compared with milk (p < 0.0001). There were no differences in FI among treatments. Cheese and yogurt increase satiety and lower PPG more than milk or a soy beverage when consumed with carbohydrate.

  13. Association of stress, depression, and suicidal ideation with subjective oral health status and oral functions in Korean adults aged 35 years or more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Sun; Kim, Han-Na; Lee, Jung-Ha; Kim, Se-Yeon; Jun, Eun-Joo; Kim, Jin-Bom

    2017-06-23

    Oral health greatly affects well-being throughout the different stages of life from childhood to late adulthood. Loss of teeth due to poor oral health hinders mastication, leading to poor nutrition absorption, and affects pronunciation and aesthetics, leading to interpersonal difficulties. As social activities become limited, a sense of isolation and loneliness, stress, and depression grows while happiness decreases. This study aimed to examine the association of stress, depression, and suicidal ideation with oral health status and oral functions in a large nationwide sample of Korean adults aged 35 years or more. The sample comprised 15,716 adults, selected using a rolling survey sampling method and data were extracted from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) (2010-2012). Participants were interviewed about their self-evaluation of health including oral health status and mental health, such as stress, depression, and suicidal ideation. Data from 11,347 adults were finally selected after excluding participants with missing answers. The dependent variables were stress, depression, and suicidal ideation. The independent variables were gender, age, household income, education, smoking, drinking, oral health perception, chewing, and speaking. Complex samples logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Participants met the criteria for stress (25.4%), depression (13.0%), and suicidal ideation (13.9%). Subjective oral health status was not significantly associated with stress, depression, and suicidal ideation. However, the presence of very uncomfortable chewing problems was significantly associated with stress (OR = 2.294, 95% CI = 1.41, 3.72), depression (OR = 3.232, 95% CI = 1.97, 5.31), and suicidal ideation (OR = 2.727, 95% CI = 1.58, 4.72). The presence of very uncomfortable speaking problems was significantly associated with stress (OR

  14. Adult-onset deletion of the Prader-Willi syndrome susceptibility gene Snord116 in mice results in reduced feeding and increased fat mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purtell, Louise; Qi, Yue; Campbell, Lesley; Sainsbury, Amanda; Herzog, Herbert

    2017-04-01

    The imprinted small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) Snord116 is implicated in the aetiology of Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), a disease associated with hyperphagia and obesity. Germline deletion of Snord116 in mice has been found to lead to increased food intake but not to the development of obesity. To determine the role of Snord116 independent of potential compensatory developmental factors, we investigated the effects of conditional adult-onset deletion of Snord116 in mice. Deletion of Snord116 was induced at 8 weeks of age by oral administration of tamoxifen to male Snordlox/lox; ROSAcre/+ mice, with vehicle-treated mice used as controls. Body weight (BW) was monitored weekly and body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and tissue dissection. Non-fasted and fasting-induced food intake was determined, and glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed. Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure and physical activity were assessed by indirect calorimetry. Adult-onset deletion of Snord116 led to reduced food intake and increased adiposity, albeit with no concomitant change in BW or lean mass compared to controls. Adult onset Snord116 deletion was also associated with worsened glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. This study identified a key role for Snord116 in feeding behaviour and growth. Further, it is likely that the effects of this gene are modulated by developmental stage, as mice with adult-onset deletion showed an opposite phenotype, with respect to food intake and body composition, to previously published data on mice with germline deletion.

  15. Alcohol increases hypnotic susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmens-Wheeler, Rebecca; Dienes, Zoltán; Duka, Theodora

    2013-09-01

    One approach to hypnosis suggests that for hypnotic experience to occur frontal lobe activity must be attenuated. For example, cold control theory posits that a lack of awareness of intentions is responsible for the experience of involuntariness and/or the subjective reality of hypnotic suggestions. The mid-dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex and the ACC are candidate regions for such awareness. Alcohol impairs frontal lobe executive function. This study examined whether alcohol affects hypnotisability. We administered 0.8 mg/kg of alcohol or a placebo to 32 medium susceptible participants. They were subsequently hypnotised and given hypnotic suggestions. All participants believed they had received some alcohol. Participants in the alcohol condition were more susceptible to hypnotic suggestions than participants in the placebo condition. Impaired frontal lobe activity facilitates hypnotic responding, which supports theories postulating that attenuation of executive function facilitates hypnotic response, and contradicts theories postulating that hypnotic response involves enhanced inhibitory, attentional or other executive function. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Enhanced brain susceptibility to negative stimuli in adolescents: ERP evidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajin eYuan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: previous studies investigated neural substrates of emotional face processing in adolescents and its comparison with adults. As emotional faces elicit more of emotional expression recognition rather than direct emotional responding, it remains undetermined how adolescents are different from adults in brain susceptibility to emotionally stressful stimuli. Methods: Event-Related Potentials were recorded for highly negative (HN, moderately negative (MN and Neutral pictures in 20 adolescents and 20 adults while subjects performed a standard/deviant distinction task by pressing different keys, irrespective of the emotionality of deviant stimuli. Results: Adolescents exhibited more negative amplitudes for HN versus neutral pictures in N1 (100-150ms, P2 (130-190ms, N2 (210-290ms and P3 (360-440ms components. In addition, adolescents showed more negative amplitudes for MN compared to neutral pictures in N1, P2 and N2 components. By contrast, adults exhibited significant emotion effects for HN stimuli in N2 and P3 amplitudes but not in N1 and P2 amplitudes, and they did not exhibit a significant emotion effect for MN stimuli at all these components. In the 210-290ms time interval, the emotion effect for HN stimuli was significant across frontal and central regions in adolescents, while this emotion effect was noticeable only in the central region for adults. Conclusions: Adolescents are more emotionally sensitive to negative stimuli compared to adults, regardless of the emotional intensity of the stimuli, possibly due to the immature prefrontal control system over the limbic emotional inputs during adolescence. Keywords: Event-Related Potentials (ERPs; Adolescence; Emotion intensity; Negative pictures; Emotional Susceptibility

  17. Subject positioning in the BOD POD® only marginally affects measurement of body volume and estimation of percent body fat in young adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Maarten W

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate whether subject positioning would affect the measurement of raw body volume, thoracic gas volume, corrected body volume and the resulting percent body fat as assessed by air displacement plethysmography (ADP). Twenty-five young adult men (20.7±1.1 y, BMI = 22.5±1.4 kg/m(2)) were measured using the BOD POD® system using a measured thoracic gas volume sitting in a 'forward bent' position and sitting up in a straight position in random order. Raw body volume was 58±124 ml (p<0.05) higher in the 'straight' position compared to the 'bent' position. The mean difference in measured thoracic gas volume (bent-straight = -71±211 ml) was not statistically significant. Corrected body volume and percent body fat in the bent position consequently were on average 86±122 ml (p<0.05) and 0.5±0.7% (p<0.05) lower than in the straight position respectively. Although the differences reached statistical significance, absolute differences are rather small. Subject positioning should be viewed as a factor that may contribute to between-test variability and hence contribute to (in)precision in detecting small individual changes in body composition, rather than a potential source of systematic bias. It therefore may be advisable to pay attention to standardizing subject positioning when tracking small changes in PF are of interest. The cause of the differences is shown not to be related to changes in the volume of isothermal air in the lungs. It is hypothesized and calculated that the observed direction and magnitude of these differences may arise from the surface area artifact which does not take into account that a subject in the bent position exposes more skin to the air in the device therefore potentially creating a larger underestimation of the actual body volume due to the isothermal effect of air close to the skin.

  18. Subject positioning in the BOD POD® only marginally affects measurement of body volume and estimation of percent body fat in young adult men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten W Peeters

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to evaluate whether subject positioning would affect the measurement of raw body volume, thoracic gas volume, corrected body volume and the resulting percent body fat as assessed by air displacement plethysmography (ADP. METHODS: Twenty-five young adult men (20.7±1.1 y, BMI = 22.5±1.4 kg/m(2 were measured using the BOD POD® system using a measured thoracic gas volume sitting in a 'forward bent' position and sitting up in a straight position in random order. RESULTS: Raw body volume was 58±124 ml (p<0.05 higher in the 'straight' position compared to the 'bent' position. The mean difference in measured thoracic gas volume (bent-straight = -71±211 ml was not statistically significant. Corrected body volume and percent body fat in the bent position consequently were on average 86±122 ml (p<0.05 and 0.5±0.7% (p<0.05 lower than in the straight position respectively. CONCLUSION: Although the differences reached statistical significance, absolute differences are rather small. Subject positioning should be viewed as a factor that may contribute to between-test variability and hence contribute to (inprecision in detecting small individual changes in body composition, rather than a potential source of systematic bias. It therefore may be advisable to pay attention to standardizing subject positioning when tracking small changes in PF are of interest. The cause of the differences is shown not to be related to changes in the volume of isothermal air in the lungs. It is hypothesized and calculated that the observed direction and magnitude of these differences may arise from the surface area artifact which does not take into account that a subject in the bent position exposes more skin to the air in the device therefore potentially creating a larger underestimation of the actual body volume due to the isothermal effect of air close to the skin.

  19. A randomized controlled trial of two simple mind-body programs, Kirtan Kriya meditation and music listening, for adults with subjective cognitive decline: Feasibility and acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Kim E; Selfe, Terry Kit; Khalsa, Dharma Singh; Kandati, Sahiti

    2016-06-01

    In this randomized controlled trial (RCT), we assessed the feasibility and acceptability of two simple home-based relaxation programs in adults experiencing subjective cognitive decline, a strong predictor of Alzheimer's disease. Sixty participants were randomized to a beginner Kirtan Kriya meditation (KK) program or a music listening (ML) program. Participants were asked to practice 12min daily for the first 12 weeks, then as often as they liked for the following 3 months. Participants underwent assessments at baseline, 12 weeks, and 6 months to evaluate changes in key outcomes. Feasibility and acceptability were evaluated by measuring recruitment and retention rates, assessment visit attendance, practice adherence, and treatment expectancy; exit questionnaires completed at 12 weeks and 6 months provided additional data regarding participant experience with the study, perceived barriers to and facilitators of practice, reasons for drop-out, and views regarding the assigned intervention. Fifty-three participants (88%) completed the 6 month study. Adherence in both groups was excellent, with participants completing 93% (91% KK, 94% ML) of sessions on average in the first 12 weeks, and 71% (68% KK, 74% ML) during the 3 month, practice-optional, follow-up period. At week 12, over 80% of participants indicated they were likely to continue practicing following study completion. Responses to both structured and open-ended exit questionnaire items also suggested high satisfaction with both programs. Findings of this RCT of a beginner meditation practice and a simple ML program suggest that both programs were well accepted and the practices are feasible in adults with early memory loss. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of Exposure to Electronic Cigarette Advertising on Susceptibility and Trial of Electronic Cigarettes and Cigarettes in US Young Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanti, Andrea C; Rath, Jessica M; Williams, Valerie F; Pearson, Jennifer L; Richardson, Amanda; Abrams, David B; Niaura, Raymond S; Vallone, Donna M

    2016-05-01

    This study assessed the impact of brief exposure to four electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) print advertisements (ads) on perceptions, intention, and subsequent use of e-cigarettes and cigarettes in US young adults. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in a national sample of young adults from an online panel survey in 2013. Participants were randomized to ad exposure or control. Curiosity, intentions, and perceptions regarding e-cigarettes were assessed post-exposure and e-cigarette and cigarette use at 6-month follow-up. Analyses were conducted in 2014. Approximately 6% of young adults who had never used an e-cigarette at baseline tried an e-cigarette at 6-month follow-up, half of whom were current cigarette smokers at baseline. Compared to the control group, ad exposure was associated with greater curiosity to try an e-cigarette (18.3% exposed vs. 11.3% unexposed, AOR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.18, 2.26) among never e-cigarette users and greater likelihood of e-cigarette trial at follow-up (3.6% exposed vs. 1.2% unexposed, AOR = 2.85; 95% CI = 1.07, 7.61) among never users of cigarettes and e-cigarettes. Exploratory analyses did not find an association between ad exposure and cigarette trial or past 30-day use among never users, nor cigarette use among smokers over time. Curiosity mediated the relationship between ad exposure and e-cigarette trial among e-cigarette never users. Exposure to e-cigarette ads may enhance curiosity and limited trial of e-cigarettes in never users. Future studies are needed to examine the net effect of curiosity and trial of e-cigarettes on longer-term patterns of tobacco use. This randomized trial provides the first evidence of the effect of e-cigarette advertising on a behavioral outcome in young adults. Compared to the control group, ad exposure was associated with greater curiosity to try an e-cigarette among never e-cigarette users and greater likelihood of e-cigarette trial at follow-up in a small number of never e

  1. Association between MTHFR gene 1298A>C polymorphism and breast cancer susceptibility: a meta-analysis based on 38 case-control studies with 40,985 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinghong; Zhang, Lijun; Li, Guangming

    2016-08-27

    Studies investigating the association between the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene 1298A>C polymorphism and the risk of breast cancer have reported inconsistent results. So, we performed this updated meta-analysis and tried to give a more precise estimation of association between MTHFR gene 1298A>C polymorphism and breast cancer susceptibility. Relevant studies published before 1 January 2016 were identified by searching PubMed and EMBASE. The strength of relationship between the MTHFR gene 1298A>C polymorphism and breast cancer susceptibility was assessed using odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI). The meta-analysis was performed using Stata 11.0 software. A total number of 38 case-control studies including 18,686 cases and 22,299 controls were identified. No association was found in five genetic models (dominant model: OR = 0.99, 95 % CI 0.99-1.00, P = 0.218; recessive model: OR = 1.00, 95 % CI 0.97-1.02, P = 0.880; homozygote genetic model: OR = 0.99, 95 % CI 0.98-1.01, P = 0.390; heterozygote genetic model: OR = 0.99, 95 % CI 0.97-1.00, P = 0.138; and allele contrast genetic model: OR = 0.99, 95 % CI 0.98-1.01) for MTHFR gene 1298 A>C polymorphism and breast cancer susceptibility. In the subgroup analysis stratified by source of control, decreased risk of breast cancer was found in studies with hospital-based controls in dominant model (OR = 0.98, 95 % CI 0.96-1.00, P = 0.037). Our meta-analysis suggested that there is no significant association between MTHFR gene 1298A>C polymorphism and breast cancer susceptibility for overall population.

  2. Normative values of spino-pelvic sagittal alignment, balance, age, and health-related quality of life in a cohort of healthy adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Masashi; Hatsushikano, Shun; Shimoda, Haruka; Ono, Masatoshi; Watanabe, Kei

    2016-11-01

    To elucidate the normative values of whole body sagittal alignment and balance of a healthy population in the standing position; and to clarify the relationship among the alignment, balance, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and age. Healthy Japanese adult volunteers [n = 126, mean age 39.4 years (20-69), M/F = 30/96] with no history of spinal disease were enrolled in a cross-sectional cohort study. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) questionnaire was administered and subjects were scanned from the center of the acoustic meati (CAM) to the feet while standing on a force plate to determine the gravity line (GL), and the distance between CAM and GL (CAM-GL) was measured in the sagittal plane. Standard X-ray parameters were measured from the head to the lower extremities. ODI was compared among age groups stratified by decade. Correlations were investigated by simple linear regression analysis. Ideal lumbar lordosis was investigated using the least squares method. The present study yielded normative values for whole standing sagittal alignment including head and lower extremities in a cohort of 126 healthy adult volunteers, comparable to previous reports and thus a formula for ideal lumbar lordosis was deduced: LL = 32.9 + 0.60 × PI - 0.23 × age. There was a tendency of positive correlation between McGregor slope, thoracic kyphosis, PT, and age. SVA, T1 pelvic angle, sacrofemoral angle, knee flexion angle, and ankle flexion angle, but not CAM-GL, increased with age, suggesting that the spinopelvic alignment changes with age, but standing whole body alignment is compensated for to preserve a horizontal gaze. ODI tended to increase from the 40s in the domain of pain intensity, personal care, traveling, and total score. ODI weakly, but significantly positively correlated with age and PI-LL. Whole body standing alignment even in healthy subjects gradually deteriorates with age, but is compensated to preserve a horizontal gaze. HRQOL is also

  3. Becoming disabled: The association between disability onset in younger adults and subsequent changes in productive engagement, social support, financial hardship and subjective wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Eric; Kariuki, Maina; Honey, Anne; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth

    2014-10-01

    Very few population-based studies have investigated the association between the onset of health conditions/impairments associated with disability and subsequent well-being. To examine the association between the onset of disability and four indicators of well-being (full-time engagement in employment or education, financial hardship, social support, subjective well-being) among a nationally representative sample of Australian adolescents and young adults. Secondary analysis of the first eight waves (2001-2008) of the survey of Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia. For financial hardship and subjective well-being, the majority of participants belonged to trajectory classes for which there was no evidence that the onset of disability was associated with a subsequent lowering of well-being. For participation in employment and education, the majority of participants belonged to trajectory classes for which there was evidence of a modest immediate reduction in participation rates followed by subsequent stability. For social support, the majority of participants belonged to trajectory classes for which there was evidence of a modest temporary reduction in support followed by rebound back to initial levels. Membership of classes associated with poorer outcomes was associated with a number of covariates including: male gender; younger age of disability onset; being born overseas; not living with both parents at age 14; lower proficiency in the English language; and parental education being year 12 or below. The results of our analyses illustrate the existence of clear empirically defined trajectory classes following the onset of disability across a range of indicators of well-being. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cerebral time domain-NIRS: reproducibility analysis, optical properties, hemoglobin species and tissue oxygen saturation in a cohort of adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacalone, Giacomo; Zanoletti, Marta; Contini, Davide; Re, Rebecca; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Roveri, Luisa; Torricelli, Alessandro

    2017-11-01

    The reproducibility of cerebral time-domain near-infrared spectroscopy (TD-NIRS) has not been investigated so far. Besides, reference intervals of cerebral optical properties, of absolute concentrations of deoxygenated-hemoglobin (HbR), oxygenated-hemoglobin (HbO), total hemoglobin (HbT) and tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) and their variability have not been reported. We have addressed these issues on a sample of 88 adult healthy subjects. TD-NIRS measurements at 690, 785, 830 nm were fitted with the diffusion model for semi-infinite homogenous media. Reproducibility, performed on 3 measurements at 5 minutes intervals, ranges from 1.8 to 6.9% for each of the hemoglobin species. The mean ± SD global values of HbR, HbO, HbT, StO2 are respectively 24 ± 7 μM, 33.3 ± 9.5 μM, 57.4 ± 15.8 μM, 58 ± 4.2%. StO2 displays the narrowest range of variability across brain regions.

  5. Ethnic diversity of gut microbiota: species characterization of Bacteroides fragilis group and genus Bifidobacterium in healthy Belgian adults, and comparison with data from Japanese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Eiji; Matsuki, Takahiro; Kubota, Hiroyuki; Makino, Hiroshi; Sakai, Takafumi; Oishi, Kenji; Kushiro, Akira; Fujimoto, Junji; Watanabe, Koichi; Watanuki, Masaaki; Tanaka, Ryuichiro

    2013-08-01

    The composition of the human gut microbiota is related to host health, and it is thought that dietary habits may play a role in shaping this composition. Here, we examined the population size and prevalence of six predominant bacterial genera and the species compositions of genus Bifidobacterium (g-Bifid) and Bacteroides fragilis group (g-Bfra) in 42 healthy Belgian adults by quantitative PCR (qPCR) over a period of one month. The population sizes and prevalence of these bacteria were basically stable throughout the study period. The predominant g-Bifid species were Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Bifidobacterium longum ss. longum, and the predominant g-Bfra species were Bacteroides vulgatus, Bacteroides uniformis, and Bacteroides ovatus. The Belgian gut microbiota data were then compared with gut microbiota data from 46 Japanese subjects collected according to the same protocol (Matsuki et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70, 167-173, 2004). The population size and prevalence of Bifidobacterium catenulatum group were significantly lower in the Belgian gut microbiota than in the Japanese gut microbiota (P diversity of gut microbiota among ethnic groups. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Average Ambulatory Measures of Sound Pressure Level, Fundamental Frequency, and Vocal Dose Do Not Differ Between Adult Females With Phonotraumatic Lesions and Matched Control Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Stan, Jarrad H; Mehta, Daryush D; Zeitels, Steven M; Burns, James A; Barbu, Anca M; Hillman, Robert E

    2015-11-01

    Clinical management of phonotraumatic vocal fold lesions (nodules, polyps) is based largely on assumptions that abnormalities in habitual levels of sound pressure level (SPL), fundamental frequency (f0), and/or amount of voice use play a major role in lesion development and chronic persistence. This study used ambulatory voice monitoring to evaluate if significant differences in voice use exist between patients with phonotraumatic lesions and normal matched controls. Subjects were 70 adult females: 35 with vocal fold nodules or polyps and 35 age-, sex-, and occupation-matched normal individuals. Weeklong summary statistics of voice use were computed from anterior neck surface acceleration recorded using a smartphone-based ambulatory voice monitor. Paired t tests and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests resulted in no statistically significant differences between patients and matched controls regarding average measures of SPL, f0, vocal dose measures, and voicing/voice rest periods. Paired t tests comparing f0 variability between the groups resulted in statistically significant differences with moderate effect sizes. Individuals with phonotraumatic lesions did not exhibit differences in average ambulatory measures of vocal behavior when compared with matched controls. More refined characterizations of underlying phonatory mechanisms and other potentially contributing causes are warranted to better understand risk factors associated with phonotraumatic lesions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Cerebral time domain-NIRS: reproducibility analysis, optical properties, hemoglobin species and tissue oxygen saturation in a cohort of adult subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacalone, Giacomo; Zanoletti, Marta; Contini, Davide; Re, Rebecca; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Roveri, Luisa; Torricelli, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    The reproducibility of cerebral time-domain near-infrared spectroscopy (TD-NIRS) has not been investigated so far. Besides, reference intervals of cerebral optical properties, of absolute concentrations of deoxygenated-hemoglobin (HbR), oxygenated-hemoglobin (HbO), total hemoglobin (HbT) and tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) and their variability have not been reported. We have addressed these issues on a sample of 88 adult healthy subjects. TD-NIRS measurements at 690, 785, 830 nm were fitted with the diffusion model for semi-infinite homogenous media. Reproducibility, performed on 3 measurements at 5 minutes intervals, ranges from 1.8 to 6.9% for each of the hemoglobin species. The mean ± SD global values of HbR, HbO, HbT, StO2 are respectively 24 ± 7 μM, 33.3 ± 9.5 μM, 57.4 ± 15.8 μM, 58 ± 4.2%. StO2 displays the narrowest range of variability across brain regions. PMID:29188096

  8. The impact of cigarette branding and plain packaging on perceptions of product appeal and risk among young adults in Norway: A between-subjects experimental survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffels, Janne; Lund, Ingeborg

    2013-12-04

    This study examined the perceptions of cigarette packaging and the potential impact of plain packaging regulations. The hypothesis was that the branded cigarette packages would be rated more positively than the corresponding plain packs with and without descriptors. Between-subjects experimental online survey. Male and female participants were separately randomised to one of the three experimental conditions: fully branded cigarette packs, plain packs with descriptors and plain packs without descriptors; participants were asked to evaluate 12 individual cigarette packages. The participants were also asked to compare five pairs of packs from the same brand family. Norway. 1010 youths and adults aged 15-22. Ratings of appeal, taste and harmfulness for individual packages. Ratings of taste, harm, quality, 'would rather try' and 'easier to quit' for pairs of packages. Plain with and without descriptors packs were rated less positively than the branded packs on appeal (index score 1.63/1.61 vs 2.42, ppackaging could lead to a reduction in positive perceptions of cigarettes among young people.

  9. Microbiologic Efficacy of Azithromycin and Susceptibilities to Azithromycin of Isolates of Chlamydia pneumoniae from Adults and Children with Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roblin, Patricia M.; Hammerschlag, Margaret R.

    1998-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae was eradicated from the nasopharynges of 26 of 33 (78.8%) evaluable children and adults with community-acquired pneumonia who were treated with azithromycin. We tested 55 isolates of C. pneumoniae obtained from 46 of these patients against azithromycin. The MIC at which 90% of the isolates were inhibited and the minimal chlamydiacidal concentration at which 90% of strains tested were killed of azithromycin for these isolates were both 0.5 μg/ml. Seven patients remained culture positive after treatment. The MICs of azithromycin for isolates from two patients increased fourfold after therapy. However, all the patients with persistent infection improved clinically. Further studies of treatment of C. pneumoniae infection, utilizing culture, are needed both to assess efficacy and to monitor for the possible development of antibiotic resistance. PMID:9449287

  10. A phase I ascending single-dose study of the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of bosutinib (SKI-606) in healthy adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Richat; Hug, Bruce A; Leister, Cathie; Gaaloul, Myriam El; Chalon, Stephan; Sonnichsen, Daryl

    2012-01-01

    Bosutinib (SKI-606), a dual Src/Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is in clinical development for the treatment of patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). To support clinical development, we conducted a dose-escalation and food-effect evaluation of safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics (PK) of bosutinib in healthy adults. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-ascending dose, sequential-group study of oral bosutinib. Subjects randomly received bosutinib 200, 400, 600, and 800 mg with food; 200 and 400 mg without food; or placebo. Plasma concentrations were determined by a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay. Non-compartmental PK analyses were performed, and power models assessed dose linearity. Of 55 enrolled subjects, 33 (81%) subjects had adverse events (AEs) after receiving bosutinib. Common AEs included diarrhea (39%), nausea (29%), and headache (22%). Bosutinib 200-600 mg with food was safe and well tolerated. Bosutinib exposures (C (max) and AUC) were linear and dose proportional from 200 to 800 mg with food. Absorption was relatively slow; median time to C (max) was 6 h. Apparent volume of distribution (V (z)/F) was 131-214 L/kg, mean apparent clearance (CL/F) was 2.25-3.81 L/h/kg, and mean terminal elimination half-life (t (1/2)) was 32-39 h. Preliminary food effect assessment showed that exposure to bosutinib increased by ~2.52-fold (P = 0.002) for C (max) and ~2.28-fold (P = 0.002) for AUC when 200 mg bosutinib was administered with food compared with administration under fasting conditions; administration of 400 mg bosutinib with food increased AUC by ~1.5-fold (P = 0.037). Approximately 1% of administered dose was excreted in urine. Bosutinib 200-600 mg with food was safe and well tolerated. Under fed conditions, bosutinib exposures were linear and dose proportional, and C (max) increased by ~1.5-fold. The t (1/2) supported a once-daily dosing regimen.

  11. Genetic susceptibility for Alzheimer disease neuritic plaque pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Joshua M; Chen, Kewei; Keenan, Brendan T; Chibnik, Lori B; Fleisher, Adam; Thiyyagura, Pradeep; Roontiva, Auttawut; McCabe, Cristin; Patsopoulos, Nikolaos A; Corneveaux, Jason J; Yu, Lei; Huentelman, Matthew J; Evans, Denis A; Schneider, Julie A; Reiman, Eric M; De Jager, Philip L; Bennett, David A

    2013-09-01

    While numerous genetic susceptibility loci have been identified for clinical Alzheimer disease (AD), it is important to establish whether these variants are risk factors for the underlying disease pathology, including neuritic plaques. To investigate whether AD susceptibility loci from genome-wide association studies affect neuritic plaque pathology and to additionally identify novel risk loci for this trait. Candidate analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms and genome-wide association study in a joint clinicopathologic cohort, including 725 deceased subjects from the Religious Orders Study and the Rush Memory and Aging Project (2 prospective, community-based studies), followed by targeted validation in an independent neuroimaging cohort, including 114 subjects from multiple clinical and research centers. A quantitative measure of neuritic plaque pathologic burden, based on assessments of silver-stained tissue averaged from multiple brain regions. Validation based on β-amyloid load by immunocytochemistry, and replication with fibrillar β-amyloid positron emission tomographic imaging with Pittsburgh Compound B or florbetapir. Besides the previously reported APOE and CR1 loci, we found that the ABCA7 (rs3764650; P = .02) and CD2AP (rs9349407; P = .03) AD susceptibility loci are associated with neuritic plaque burden. In addition, among the top results of our genome-wide association study, we discovered a novel variant near the amyloid precursor protein gene (APP, rs2829887) that is associated with neuritic plaques (P = 3.3 × 10-6). This polymorphism was associated with postmortem β-amyloid load as well as fibrillar β-amyloid in 2 independent cohorts of adults with normal cognition. These findings enhance understanding of AD risk factors by relating validated susceptibility alleles to increased neuritic plaque pathology and implicate common genetic variation at the APP locus in the earliest, presymptomatic stages of AD.

  12. Genetic Labeling Reveals Novel Cellular Targets of Schizophrenia Susceptibility Gene: Distribution of GABA and Non-GABA ErbB4-Positive Cells in Adult Mouse Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Jonathan C.; Lin, Thiri W.; Sathyamurthy, Anupama; Liu, Fang; Yin, Dong-Min; Xiong, Wen-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) and its receptor ErbB4 are schizophrenia risk genes. NRG1-ErbB4 signaling plays a critical role in neural development and regulates neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. Nevertheless, its cellular targets remain controversial. ErbB4 was thought to express in excitatory neurons, although recent studies disputed this view. Using mice that express a fluorescent protein under the promoter of the ErbB4 gene, we determined in what cells ErbB4 is expressed and their identity. ErbB4 was widely expressed in the mouse brain, being highest in amygdala and cortex. Almost all ErbB4-positive cells were GABAergic in cortex, hippocampus, basal ganglia, and most of amygdala in neonatal and adult mice, suggesting GABAergic transmission as a major target of NRG1-ErbB4 signaling in these regions. Non-GABAergic, ErbB4-positive cells were present in thalamus, hypothalamus, midbrain, and hindbrain. In particular, ErbB4 is expressed in serotoninergic neurons of raphe nuclei but not in norepinephrinergic neurons of the locus ceruleus. In hypothalamus, ErbB4 is present in neurons that express oxytocin. Finally, ErbB4 is expressed in a group of cells in the subcortical areas that are positive for S100 calcium binding protein β. These results identify novel cellular targets of NRG1-ErbB4 signaling. PMID:25274830

  13. A GCH1 haplotype confers sex-specific susceptibility to pain crises and altered endothelial function in adults with sickle cell anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfer, Inna; Youngblood, Victoria; Darbari, Deepika S.; Wang, Zhengyuan; Diaw, Lena; Freeman, Lita; Desai, Krupa; Dizon, Michael; Allen, Darlene; Cunnington, Colin; Channon, Keith M.; Milton, Jacqueline; Hartley, Stephen W.; Nolan, Vikki; Kato, Gregory J.; Steinberg, Martin H.; Goldman, David; Taylor, James G.

    2014-01-01

    GTP cyclohydrolase (GCH1) is rate limiting for tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) synthesis, where BH4 is a cofactor for nitric oxide (NO) synthases and aromatic hydroxylases. GCH1 polymorphisms are implicated in the pathophysiology of pain, but have not been investigated in African populations. We examined GCH1 and pain in sickle cell anemia where GCH1 rs8007267 was a risk factor for pain crises in discovery (n = 228; odds ratio [OR] 2.26; P = 0.009) and replication (n = 513; OR 2.23; P = 0.004) cohorts. In vitro, cells from sickle cell anemia subjects homozygous for the risk allele produced higher BH4. In vivo physiological studies of traits likely to be modulated by GCH1 showed rs8007267 is associated with altered endothelial dependent blood flow in females with SCA (8.42% of variation; P = 0.002). The GCH1 pain association is attributable to an African haplotype with where its sickle cell anemia pain association is limited to females (OR 2.69; 95% CI 1.21–5.94; P = 0.01) and has the opposite directional association described in Europeans independent of global admixture. The presence of a GCH1 haplotype with high BH4 in populations of African ancestry could explain the association of rs8007267 with sickle cell anemia pain crises. The vascular effects of GCH1 and BH4 may also have broader implications for cardiovascular disease in populations of African ancestry. PMID:24136375

  14. Exposure of fatty acids after a single oral administration of sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) and sunflower oil in human adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Gonzales, Carla; Villegas, Leon

    2014-01-01

    Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) is a potential oilseed crop because it is rich in α-linolenic acid (ALA) (omega-3 fatty acid). To evaluate the exposure of fatty acids after a single oral administration of sacha inchi or sunflower oil in healthy volunteers. Plasma fatty acids concentrations were assayed by Gas Chromatography with Flame Ionization Detector in 18 adult subjects. After fasting, blood samples were obtained at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 24 h after ingestion of 10 or 15 ml of sacha inchi oil or sunflower oil. The proportion ALA/linoleic acid was 1.37 in sacha inchi oil and 0.01 in sunflower oil. ALA, lauric acid, palmitic acid, linolelaidic acid, cis-8,11,14-eicosatrienoic acid, cis-13,16-docosadienoic acid and cis-4,7,10,13,16,19-docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels changed over time after sacha inchi oil ingestion but not with sunflower oil. The time at maximal concentration (tmax) for ALA was 2 h after sacha inchi oil ingestion. No ALA in plasma was observed after sunflower oil consumption. The maximal concentration of ALA was 2.84 ± 0.36 mg/ml in women and 0.94 ± 0.57 mg/ml in men, p  0.05). There is a trend for higher plasma ALA levels with 15 ml sacha inchi oil. After 2 h of consumption, plasma delta triacylglycerol were reduced with sunflower oil but slightly increased with sacha inchi oil. A reduction in plasma delta triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein cholesterol was observed with both oils. Consumption of sacha inchi oil increased ALA and DHA in plasma.

  15. Characterizing Race/Ethnicity and Genetic Ancestry for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Yambazi; Kvale, Mark N.; Hoffmann, Thomas J.; Hesselson, Stephanie E.; Ranatunga, Dilrini; Tang, Hua; Sabatti, Chiara; Croen, Lisa A.; Dispensa, Brad P.; Henderson, Mary; Iribarren, Carlos; Jorgenson, Eric; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Ludwig, Dana; Olberg, Diane; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Rowell, Sarah; Sadler, Marianne; Sakoda, Lori C.; Sciortino, Stanley; Shen, Ling; Smethurst, David; Somkin, Carol P.; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Walter, Lawrence; Whitmer, Rachel A.; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Schaefer, Catherine; Risch, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Using genome-wide genotypes, we characterized the genetic structure of 103,006 participants in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California multi-ethnic Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging Cohort and analyzed the relationship to self-reported race/ethnicity. Participants endorsed any of 23 race/ethnicity/nationality categories, which were collapsed into seven major race/ethnicity groups. By self-report the cohort is 80.8% white and 19.2% minority; 93.8% endorsed a single race/ethnicity group, while 6.2% endorsed two or more. Principal component (PC) and admixture analyses were generally consistent with prior studies. Approximately 17% of subjects had genetic ancestry from more than one continent, and 12% were genetically admixed, considering only nonadjacent geographical origins. Self-reported whites were spread on a continuum along the first two PCs, indicating extensive mixing among European nationalities. Self-identified East Asian nationalities correlated with genetic clustering, consistent with extensive endogamy. Individuals of mixed East Asian–European genetic ancestry were easily identified; we also observed a modest amount of European genetic ancestry in individuals self-identified as Filipinos. Self-reported African Americans and Latinos showed extensive European and African genetic ancestry, and Native American genetic ancestry for the latter. Among 3741 genetically identified parent–child pairs, 93% were concordant for self-reported race/ethnicity; among 2018 genetically identified full-sib pairs, 96% were concordant; the lower rate for parent–child pairs was largely due to intermarriage. The parent–child pairs revealed a trend toward increasing exogamy over time; the presence in the cohort of individuals endorsing multiple race/ethnicity categories creates interesting challenges and future opportunities for genetic epidemiologic studies. PMID:26092716

  16. Adherence to Mediterranean Diet Pattern among Spanish Adults Attending a Medical Centre: Nondiabetic Subjects and Type 1 and 2 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción Vidal-Peracho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify adherence to Mediterranean diet among two groups of Spanish adults: diabetic patients and nondiabetic subjects. Methods. Adherence to Mediterranean diet was measured by a 14-item screener (scale: 0–14; ≤5: low, 6–9: moderate, and ≥10: high in 351 volunteers. Results. Mean age was 50.97 ± 12.58 in nondiabetics (n=154 and 59.50 ± 13.34 in diabetics (n=197. The whole sample scored 8.77 ± 1.82. Score was 9.19 ± 1.84 in nondiabetic females (n=58 and 8.15 ± 1.79 in diabetic females (n=85 (p=0.003, due to lower consumption of olive oil (p=0.005 and nuts (p=0.000. Type 2 diabetic males (n=79; 8.76 ± 1.88 consumed less olive oil than healthy males (n=28; 9.36 ± 1.59 (p=0.046. Up to 30-year-old nondiabetics scored lower than more than 60-year-old nondiabetics (8.40 ± 1.5 versus 9.74 ± 2.03; p=0.047. The youngest ate less olive oil (p=0.002 and more pastries (p=0.007. Conclusions. The sample presented moderate adherence to Mediterranean diet in all subgroups. Scientific evidence about the benefits of Mediterranean diet, olive oil, and nuts supports the recommendation to increase consumption of olive oil and nuts in diabetic women and of daily olive oil in type 2 diabetic men, reducing consumption of red meat, butter, and pastries, and to promote Mediterranean diet among the youngest of the sample studied.

  17. Geographic variations of the International Diabetes Federation and the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III definitions of the metabolic syndrome in nondiabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Carlos; Serrano-Ríos, Manuel; Martínez-Larrad, María T; González-Sánchez, José L; Seclén, Segundo; Villena, Arturo; Gonzalez-Villalpando, Clicerio; Williams, Ken; Haffner, Steven M

    2006-03-01

    We have carried out international comparisons of the metabolic syndrome using the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) definitions. This analysis could help to discern the applicability of these definitions across populations. Nondiabetic subjects aged 35-64 years were eligible for analysis in population-based studies from San Antonio (Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites, n = 2,473), Mexico City (n = 1,990), Spain (n = 2,540), and Peru (n = 346). Kappa statistics examined the agreement between metabolic syndrome definitions. Because of the lower cutoff points for elevated waist circumference, the IDF definition of the metabolic syndrome generated greater prevalence estimates than the ATP III definition. Prevalence difference between definitions was more significant in Mexican-origin and Peruvian men than in Europid men from San Antonio and Spain because the IDF definition required ethnic group-specific cutoff points for elevated waist circumference. ATP III and IDF definitions disagreed in the classification of 13-29% of men and 3-7% of women. In men, agreement between these definitions was 0.54 in Peru, 0.43 in Mexico City, 0.62 in San Antonio Mexican Americans, 0.69 in San Antonio non-Hispanic whites, and 0.64 in Spain. In women, agreement between definitions was 0.87, 0.89, 0.86, 0.87, and 0.93, respectively. The IDF definition of the metabolic syndrome generates greater prevalence estimates than the ATP III definition. Agreement between ATP III and IDF definitions was lower for men than for women in all populations and was relatively poor in men from Mexico City.

  18. Characterizing Race/Ethnicity and Genetic Ancestry for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Yambazi; Kvale, Mark N; Hoffmann, Thomas J; Hesselson, Stephanie E; Ranatunga, Dilrini; Tang, Hua; Sabatti, Chiara; Croen, Lisa A; Dispensa, Brad P; Henderson, Mary; Iribarren, Carlos; Jorgenson, Eric; Kushi, Lawrence H; Ludwig, Dana; Olberg, Diane; Quesenberry, Charles P; Rowell, Sarah; Sadler, Marianne; Sakoda, Lori C; Sciortino, Stanley; Shen, Ling; Smethurst, David; Somkin, Carol P; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K; Walter, Lawrence; Whitmer, Rachel A; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Schaefer, Catherine; Risch, Neil

    2015-08-01

    Using genome-wide genotypes, we characterized the genetic structure of 103,006 participants in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California multi-ethnic Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging Cohort and analyzed the relationship to self-reported race/ethnicity. Participants endorsed any of 23 race/ethnicity/nationality categories, which were collapsed into seven major race/ethnicity groups. By self-report the cohort is 80.8% white and 19.2% minority; 93.8% endorsed a single race/ethnicity group, while 6.2% endorsed two or more. Principal component (PC) and admixture analyses were generally consistent with prior studies. Approximately 17% of subjects had genetic ancestry from more than one continent, and 12% were genetically admixed, considering only nonadjacent geographical origins. Self-reported whites were spread on a continuum along the first two PCs, indicating extensive mixing among European nationalities. Self-identified East Asian nationalities correlated with genetic clustering, consistent with extensive endogamy. Individuals of mixed East Asian-European genetic ancestry were easily identified; we also observed a modest amount of European genetic ancestry in individuals self-identified as Filipinos. Self-reported African Americans and Latinos showed extensive European and African genetic ancestry, and Native American genetic ancestry for the latter. Among 3741 genetically identified parent-child pairs, 93% were concordant for self-reported race/ethnicity; among 2018 genetically identified full-sib pairs, 96% were concordant; the lower rate for parent-child pairs was largely due to intermarriage. The parent-child pairs revealed a trend toward increasing exogamy over time; the presence in the cohort of individuals endorsing multiple race/ethnicity categories creates interesting challenges and future opportunities for genetic epidemiologic studies. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  19. Clinical implications of gait analysis in the rehabilitation of adult patients with "Prader-Willi" Syndrome: a cross-sectional comparative study ("Prader-Willi" Syndrome vs matched obese patients and healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baccalaro Gabriele

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Being severely overweight is a distinctive clinical feature of Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS. PWS is a complex multisystem disorder, representing the most common form of genetic obesity. The aim of this study was the analysis of the gait pattern of adult subjects with PWS by using three-Dimensional Gait Analysis. The results were compared with those obtained in a group of obese patients and in a group of healthy subjects. Methods Cross-sectional, comparative study: 19 patients with PWS (11 males and 8 females, age: 18–40 years, BMI: 29.3–50.3 kg/m2; 14 obese matched patients (5 males and 9 females, age: 18–40 years, BMI: 34.3–45.2 kg/m2; 20 healthy subjects (10 males and 10 females, age: 21–41 years, BMI: 19.3–25.4 kg/m2. Kinematic and kinetic parameters during walking were assessed by an optoelectronic system and two force platforms. Results PWS adult patients walked slower, had a shorter stride length, a lower cadence and a longer stance phase compared with both matched obese, and healthy subjects. Obese matched patients showed spatio-temporal parameters significantly different from healthy subjects. Furthermore, Range Of Motion (ROM at knee and ankle, and plantaflexor activity of PWS patients were significantly different between obese and healthy subjects. Obese subjects revealed kinematic and kinetic data similar to healthy subjects. Conclusion PWS subjects had a gait pattern significantly different from obese patients. Despite that, both groups had a similar BMI. We suggest that PWS gait abnormalities may be related to abnormalities in the development of motor skills in childhood, due to precocious obesity. A tailored rehabilitation program in early childhood of PWS patients could prevent gait pattern changes.

  20. Subject description of non-fiction literature for adults: expert-theoretical basis for the realisation of the »Hidden Treasure« research project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Pogorelec

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Library users searching through non-fiction library material by subject in online OPACs, expect to be able to search fiction by subject as well. The research project Skriti zaklad (Hidden Treasure was launched in 2002 and was aimed at improving the current subject description of non-juvenile literary works in Slovenian libraries. An overview of the current practice of fiction subject description in Slovenian libraries revealed that Universal Decimal Classification class numbers are usually assigned, while subject headings or abstracts are scarce. The article presents a model designed for subject description of fiction, with special emphasis on subject headings, for the Bežigrad High School Library and the Bežigrad Public Library (both in Ljubljana.

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility in community-acquired bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Bacterial isolates were obtained from adults suspected to have community-acquired pneumonia and who sought treatment at two city council clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents was performed using a microdilution broth method, according to the criteria set ...

  2. Helicobacter pylori : Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E-test strips for metronidazole, amoxicillin and clarithromycin were used for susceptibility testing. Results. The prevalence of H. pylori infection in children was 73.3%, and 54.8% in adults. All the H. pylori investigated in this study were largely sensitive to clarithromycin (100%, minimum inhibiting concentration (MIC) <2 ìg/ml) ...

  3. Polytrauma Increases Susceptibility to Pseudomonas Pneumonia in Mature Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Isaiah R; Ghosh, Sarbani; Fuchs, Anja; Hilliard, Julia; Davis, Christopher G; Bochicchio, Grant V; Southard, Robert E

    2016-05-01

    Pneumonia is the most common complication observed in patients with severe injuries. Although the average age of injured patients is 47 years, existing studies of the effect of injury on the susceptibility to infectious complications have focused on young animals, equivalent to a late adolescent human. We hypothesized that mature adult animals are more susceptible to infection after injury than younger counterparts. To test this hypothesis, we challenged 6 to 8-month-old mature mice to a polytrauma injury followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia and compared them to young (8-10-week-old) animals. We demonstrate that polytrauma injury increases mortality from pneumonia in mature animals (sham-pneumonia 21% vs. polytrauma-pneumonia 62%) but not younger counterparts. After polytrauma, pneumonia in mature mice is associated with higher bacterial burden in lung, increased incidence of bacteremia, and elevated levels of bacteria in the blood, demonstrating that injury decreases the ability to control the infectious challenge. We further find that polytrauma did not induce elevations in circulating cytokine levels (TNF-alpha, IL-6, KC, and IL-10) 24  h after injury. However, mature mice subjected to polytrauma demonstrated an exaggerated circulating inflammatory cytokine response to subsequent Pseudomonas pneumonia. Additionally, whereas prior injury increases LPS-stimulated IL-6 production by peripheral blood leukocytes from young (8-10-week-old) mice, injury does not prime IL-6 production by cell from mature adult mice. We conclude that in mature mice polytrauma results in increased susceptibility to Pseudomonas pneumonia while priming an exaggerated but ineffective inflammatory response.

  4. Subjective perceived impact of Tai Chi training on physical and mental health among community older adults at risk for ischemic stroke: a qualitative study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guohua Zheng; Zhenyu Xiong; Xin Zheng; Junzhe Li; Tingjin Duan; Dalu Qi; Kun Ling; Lidian Chen

    2017-01-01

    Background Evidence from quantitative studies suggest that Tai Chi produces a variety of health-related benefits, but few qualitative studies have investigated how older adults perceive the benefit of Tai Chi...

  5. Community-level assessment of dental plaque bacteria susceptibility to triclosan over 19 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent used in toothpaste to reduce dental plaque, gingivitis and oral malodor. This community-level assessment evaluated the susceptibility of dental plaque bacteria to triclosan in samples collected over 19 years. Methods A total of 155 dental plaque samples were collected at eleven different times over 19 years from 58 adults using 0.3% triclosan, 2% copolymer, 0.243% sodium fluoride toothpaste and from 97 adults using toothpaste without triclosan. These included samples from 21 subjects who used triclosan toothpaste for at least five years and samples from 20 control subjects. The samples were cultured on media containing 0, 7.5 or 25 μg/ml triclosan. Descriptive statistics and p values were computed and a linear regression model and the runs test were used to examine susceptibility over time. Results Growth inhibition averaged 99.451% (91.209 - 99.830%) on media containing 7.5 μg/ml triclosan and 99.989% (99.670 - 100%) on media containing 25 μg/ml triclosan. There was no change in microbial susceptibility to triclosan over time discernible by regression analysis or the runs test in plaque samples taken over 19 years including samples from subjects using a triclosan-containing dentifrice for at least five years. Conclusions This community-level assessment of microbial susceptibility to triclosan among supragingival plaque bacteria is consistent with the long-term safety of a 0.3% triclosan, 2% copolymer, 0.243% sodium fluoride dentifrice. PMID:24889743

  6. Susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoeck, Marcus Matheus Johannes

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis the author studied the diagnostic procedures for susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia (MH), with special emphasis upon refining the biological diagnostic test and improving protocols and guidelines for investigation of MH susceptibility. MH is a pharmacogenetic disease of skeletal

  7. [Vaccination against hepatitis B on the Ivory Coast: study of the anti-HBs response in healthy adult subjects carrying only anti-HBc antibodies before vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouattara, S A; Meite, M; Aron, Y

    1986-01-01

    A total of 103 volunteers, from 18 to 55 years of age, have received the hevac B Pasteur 5 micrograms vaccine subcutane on sly; one injection a month during three months and one booster injection after one year. The study of the anti-HBs reaction of the subjects, with regard to the serological status to the hepatite B virus before inoculation, has shown that only 78.8% of the subjects, who are only positive towards the anti-HBc antibody, will develop an anti-HBs response of primary type with a relatively low value. In contrast, all anti-HBc and/or anti-HBs subjects, who are positive before inoculation, react with relatively high anti-HBs values right after the first injection, of the seronegative subjects before inoculation. 93.3% will develop an anti-HBs seroconversion after the complete inoculation procedure.

  8. Aging increases the susceptibility to motor memory interference and reduces off-line gains in motor skill learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, Marc; Ritterband-Rosenbaum, Anina; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2014-08-01

    Declines in the ability to learn motor skills in older adults are commonly attributed to deficits in the encoding of sensorimotor information during motor practice. We investigated whether aging also impairs motor memory consolidation by assessing the susceptibility to memory interference and off-line gains in motor skill learning after practice in children, young, and older adults. Subjects performed a ballistic task (A) followed by an accuracy-tracking task (B) designed to disrupt the consolidation of A. Retention tests of A were performed immediately and 24 hours after B. Older adults showed greater susceptibility to memory interference and no off-line gains in motor skill learning. Performing B produced memory interference and reduced off-line gains only in the older group. However, older adults also showed deficits in memory consolidation independent of the interfering effects of B. Age-related declines in motor skill learning are not produced exclusively by deficits in the encoding of sensorimotor information during practice. Aging also increases the susceptibility to memory interference and reduces off-line gains in motor skill learning after practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Environmentally Induced Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance of Disease Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Eric E.; Skinner, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental insults, such as exposure to toxicants or nutritional abnormalities, can lead to epigenetic changes that are in turn related to increased susceptibility to disease. The focus of this review is on the transgenerational inheritance of such epigenetic abnormalities (epimutations), and how it is that these inherited epigenetic abnormalities can lead to increased disease susceptibility, even in the absence of continued environmental insult. Observations of environmental toxicant specificity and exposure specific disease susceptibility are discussed. How epimutations are transmitted across generations and how epigenetic changes in the germline are translated into an increased disease susceptibility in the adult is reviewed in regards to disease etiology. PMID:24657180

  10. Susceptibility of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine anti-fungal susceptibility of Cryptococcus neoformans and. Cryptococcus gattii from environmental and clinical sources in Nairobi, Kenya. Design: Prospective study. Setting: Kenya Medical Research Institute, Mycology laboratory, Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: A total of 123 isolates were tested for their ...

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility of staphylococci species from cow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus species isolated from foremilk samples. Setting: Milk was collected from five farms within a 70 km radius of Gaborone, Botswana. Subjects: Two hundred and twenty five staphylococci isolates from foremilk samples. Main outcome measures: ...

  12. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  13. Reward processing in male adults with childhood ADHD--a comparison between drug-naïve and methylphenidate-treated subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoy, Meline; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Schlochtermeier, Lorna; Wrase, Jana; Knutson, Brian; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Huss, Michael; Heinz, Andreas; Ströhle, Andreas

    2011-06-01

    Dysfunctional reward processing has been proposed as a main deficit in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which could be modulated by treatment with methylphenidate (MPH). We examined differences in reward processing in adulthood (independent of actual ADHD) depending on MPH treatment during childhood. Eleven males with childhood ADHD treated with MPH, 12 drug-naïve males with childhood ADHD, and 12 controls matched by age, handedness, and smoking behavior were studied drug-free using functional magnetic resonance imaging. BOLD-responses were compared during a monetary incentive delay task using an ANOVA design focusing on the ventral striatum during anticipation and the orbitofrontal cortex during outcome. Controls, drug-naïve, and treated subjects did not differ significantly in their activations in the ventral striatum and orbitofrontal cortex. Explorative analyses revealed decreased insula activation during outcome of loss avoidance in drug-naïve subjects in comparison to both groups, while treated subjects did not differ from controls. Insula activation correlated significantly positive with harm avoidance in the treated group. Furthermore, comparing subjects with actual ADHD symptoms, remitters and controls we observed decreased putamen activition in ADHD persisters. Basal ganglia reward processing seemed to be unrelated to MPH pretreatment, but was related to remission. On the other hand, the revealed differences between treated and drug-naïve subjects with childhood ADHD, i.e., in the insula, give evidence for more pronounced abnormal activation in reward-associated brain regions in untreated subjects with childhood ADHD and underpin the need of prospective studies on long-term effects of psychostimulant treatment.

  14. A Prediction of Response of the Head and Neck of the U.S. Adult Military Population to Dynamic Impact Acceleration from Selected Dynamic Test Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-01

    It noceeawy and )Aettfi O haack mombe) Dynamic Response of Head and Neck Physical Characteristics of Head and NecK Mathematical Model Simulationj...response of these volunteers to -Gx sled acca’eratioa at 6 and 15 G’s. Procedures used for comuting the various prameter vilues w-4 coeprisons between...may be used with . mathematical modeling techniques in order to extend and project the NAMRL dynamic response results to the general adult U.S

  15. Genotypic and phenotypic patterns of antimicrobial susceptibility of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of antibiotics' susceptibility to H. pylori strains among Egyptian patients. 60 symptomatic cases were enrolled. H. pylori infection was diagnosed by upper endoscopy as well as biopsy. Antimicrobial susceptibility to H. pylori strains was assessed in all subjects by disc diffusion and Ellipsometer testing (E-testing) methods.

  16. Association between Gc genotype and susceptibility to TB is dependent on vitamin D status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martineau, A R; Leandro, A C C S; Anderson, S T; Newton, S M; Wilkinson, K A; Nicol, M P; Pienaar, S M; Skolimowska, K H; Rocha, M A; Rolla, V C; Levin, M; Davidson, R N; Bremner, S A; Griffiths, C J; Eley, B S; Bonecini-Almeida, M G; Wilkinson, R J

    2010-05-01

    Group-specific component (Gc) variants of vitamin D binding protein differ in their affinity for vitamin D metabolites that modulate antimycobacterial immunity. We conducted studies to determine whether Gc genotype associates with susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB). The following subjects were recruited into case-control studies: in the UK, 123 adult TB patients and 140 controls, all of Gujarati Asian ethnic origin; in Brazil, 130 adult TB patients and 78 controls; and in South Africa, 281 children with TB and 182 controls. Gc genotypes were determined and their frequency was compared between cases versus controls. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were obtained retrospectively for 139 Gujarati Asians, and case-control analysis was stratified by vitamin D status. Interferon (IFN)-gamma release assays were also performed on 36 Gujarati Asian TB contacts. The Gc2/2 genotype was strongly associated with susceptibility to active TB in Gujarati Asians, compared with Gc1/1 genotype (OR 2.81, 95% CI 1.19-6.66; p = 0.009). This association was preserved if serum 25(OH)D was or =20 nmol.L(-1) (p = 0.36). Carriage of the Gc2 allele was associated with increased PPD of tuberculin-stimulated IFN-gamma release in Gujarati Asian TB contacts (p = 0.02). No association between Gc genotype and susceptibility to TB was observed in other ethnic groups studied.

  17. A randomized, crossover, placebo- and moxifloxacin-controlled study to evaluate the effects of bosutinib (SKI-606), a dual Src/Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor, on cardiac repolarization in healthy adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Richat; Hug, Bruce A; Leister, Cathie; Sonnichsen, Daryl

    2012-08-01

    Effects of therapeutic and supratherapeutic concentrations of bosutinib, a dual Src/Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor, on the corrected QT interval (QTc) in 60 healthy adults were assessed, according to ICH-E14 guidelines, in this 2-part, randomized, single-dose, double-blind, crossover, placebo- and open-label moxifloxacin-controlled study. Subjects received placebo, moxifloxacin and bosutinib 500 mg with food (therapeutic) in Part 1. In Part 2, subjects received placebo and bosutinib 500 mg plus ketoconazole (supratherapeutic). ANOVA compared baseline-adjusted QTc for bosutinib with placebo; and bosutinib plus ketoconazole with placebo plus ketoconazole. Primary endpoint was population-specific QT correction (QTcN). Secondary endpoints were Bazett QT correction (QTcB), Fridericia's formula QT correction (QTcF) and individual QT correction (QTcI). Upper bounds for 90% confidence intervals were bosutinib concentrations and QTc. No subjects had QTcB, QTcF, QTcI or QTcN >450 msec or change from baseline >30 msec. In summary, therapeutic and supratherapeutic bosutinib exposures are not associated with QTc prolongation in healthy adults. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  18. Age, Cumulative Trauma and Stressful Life Events, and Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms among Older Adults in Prison: Do Subjective Impressions Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschi, Tina; Morgen, Keith; Zgoba, Kristen; Courtney, Deborah; Ristow, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aging prison population in the United States presents a significant public health challenge with high rates of trauma and mental health issues that the correctional system alone is ill-prepared to address. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of age, objective, and subjective measures of trauma and stressful…

  19. Prevalence of positive urinary dipstick analysis (leucocyte esterase, nitrite, haemoglobin, or glucose) in a population of 3645 adult subjects--consequence for measurement of urinary albumin excretion rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess prevalence of positive urinary dipstick analysis for leucocyte esterase, nitrite, haemoglobin, or glucose in the general population and measure the urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) in subjects with or without a positive dipstick analysis. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study...

  20. Host susceptibility of citrus cultivars to Queensland fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, A C; Hamacek, E L; Smith, D; Kopittke, R A; Gu, H

    2013-04-01

    Citrus crops are considered to be relatively poor hosts for Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), as for other tephritid species. Australian citrus growers and crop consultants have reported observable differences in susceptibility of different citrus cultivars under commercial growing conditions. In this study we conducted laboratory tests and field surveys to determine susceptibility to B. tryoni of six citrus cultivars [(Eureka lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck); Navel and Valencia oranges (C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck); and Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins (C. reticulata Blanco). The host susceptibility of these citrus cultivars was quantified by a Host Susceptibility Index, which is defined as the number of adult flies produced per gram of fruit infested at a calculated rate of one egg per gram of fruit. The HSI was ranked as Murcott (0.083) > Imperial (0.052) > Navel (0.026) - Ellendale (0.020) > Valencia (0.008) > Eureka (yellow) (0.002) > Eureka (green) (0). Results of the laboratory study were in agreement with the level of field infestation in the four citrus cultivars (Eureka lemon, Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins) that were surveyed from commercial orchards under baiting treatments against fruit flies in the Central Burnett district of Queensland. Field surveys of citrus hosts from the habitats not subject to fruit fly management showed that the numbers of fruit flies produced per gram of fruit were much lower, compared with the more susceptible noncitrus hosts, such as guava (Psidium guajava L.), cherry guava (P. littorale Raddi), mulberry (Morus nigra L.), loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.), and pear (Pyrus communis L.). Therefore, the major citrus crops commercially cultivated in Australia have a relatively low susceptibility to B. tryoni, with Eureka lemons being a particularly poor host for this tephritid fruit fly.

  1. Brief report: personality correlates of susceptibility to peer influence in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stautz, Kaidy; Cooper, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    Adolescents show a heightened susceptibility to peer influence compared to adults. Individual differences in this susceptibility exist, yet there has been little effort to link these with broader personality processes. Reward sensitivity and impulsive behaviour are also heightened in adolescence and could affect the tendency to be influenced by peers. This study examined associations between self-reported resistance to peer influence, facets of reward sensitivity and impulsivity, and subjective social status in a sample of 269 British sixth form students (mean age 16.79). Multiple regression analyses showed that negative and positive urgency were significantly negatively associated with resistance to peer influence. The relationship between negative urgency and resistance was moderated by subjective social status, such that individuals reporting low status showed a stronger negative relationship. Results suggest that a susceptibility to peer influence is linked with a tendency to act impulsively when in heightened emotional states. Adolescents high in negative urgency who feel lower in their social hierarchy may be particularly vulnerable. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Prenatal ethanol exposure increases osteoarthritis susceptibility in female rat offspring by programming a low-functioning IGF-1 signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Qubo; Tan, Yang; Zhang, Xianrong; Luo, Hanwen; Deng, Yu; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2015-10-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicates that osteoarthritis (OA) and prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) are both associated with low birth weight but possible causal interrelationships have not been investigated. To investigate the effects of PEE on the susceptibility to OA in adult rats that experienced intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), and to explore potential intrauterine mechanisms, we established the rat model of IUGR by PEE and dexamethasone, and the female fetus and 24-week-old adult offspring subjected to strenuous running for 6 weeks were sacrificed. Knee joints were collected from fetuses and adult offspring for histochemistry, immunohistochemistry and qPCR assays. Histological analyses and the Mankin score revealed increased cartilage destruction and accelerated OA progression in adult offspring from the PEE group compared to the control group. Immunohistochemistry showed reduced expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling pathway components. Furthermore, fetuses in the PEE group experienced IUGR but exhibited a higher postnatal growth rate. The expression of many IGF-1 signaling components was downregulated, which coincided with reduced amounts of type II collagen in the epiphyseal cartilage of fetuses in the PEE group. These results suggest that PEE enhances the susceptibility to OA in female adult rat offspring by down-regulating IGF-1 signaling and retarding articular cartilage development.

  3. Subjective versus objective stress in noncritically ill hospitalized and outpatient adult men Estresse subjetivo versus objetivo em homens não criticamente enfermos ambulatoriais e hospitalizados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Karkow

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study of 120 subjects was performed with the purpose of evaluating stress hormones and emotional stress (anxiety in outpatient and hospitalized subjects. The aims were to determine the degree of objective stress, as well as to correlate this finding with subjective findings, estimated using Beck's Anxiety Inventory.. METHOD: Three populations were investigated, namely outpatient clinical cases (Group I, n = 30, hospitalized clinical individuals (Group II, n = 30, and hospitalized surgical candidates (Group III, n = 30. Controls (Group IV, n = 30 were healthy volunteers who were health-care professionals and students. To avoid hormone interactions, only men were enrolled in all groups. All hospitalized subjects were tested on admission and before therapeutic interventions. Fasting epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol were measured in the morning, and Beck's Anxiety Inventory was adminstered by a trained psychologist. RESULTS: The 3 patient groups displayed higher anxiety levels than the controls. Hormone concentrations did not present remarkable changes and did not correlate with subjective stress (anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: 1 Subjective disorders (as determined with Beck's Anxiety Inventory were a common finding in both outpatient and hospitalized populations, without differences between the various groups; 2 Objective stress (as determined by elevated hormone levels was more difficult to confirm-findings rarely exceeded the reference range; 3 Correlation between the two variables could not be demonstrated; 4 Further studies are necessary to define stress quantification and interpretation in patient populations, especially in relationship with nutritional diagnosis and dietetic prescription.Um estudo transversal de 120 indivíduos foi executado visando avaliar hormônios do estresse e estresse subjetivo (ansiedade em casos ambulatoriais e hospitalizados. O objetivo era determinar o grau de estresse objetivo, bem como

  4. Bone structure in two adult subjects with impaired minor spliceosome function resulting from RNU4ATAC mutations causing microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type 1 (MOPD1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøigård, Anne Bruun; Frost, Morten; Larsen, Martin Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type 1 (MOPD1), or Taybi-Linder syndrome is characterized by distinctive skeletal dysplasia, severe intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation, microcephaly, dysmorphic features, and neurological malformations. It is an autosomal recessive...... disorder caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the RNU4ATAC gene resulting in impaired function of the minor spliceosome.Here, we present the first report on bone morphology, bone density and bone microstructure in two adult MOPD1 patients and applied radiographs, dual energy X......, cortical thickness, total bone density, cortical bone density, trabecular bone density and trabecular bone volume per tissue volume (BV/TV) were all low. These findings may correlate to the short stature and low body weight of the MOPD1 patients. Our findings suggest that minor spliceosome malfunction may...

  5. Effects of ketoconazole and valproic acid on the pharmacokinetics of the next generation NNRTI, lersivirine (UK-453,061), in healthy adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Grant; Davis, John; Layton, Gary; Chong, Chew-Lan; Weissgerber, Georges; Vourvahis, Manoli

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the effect of inhibitors of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and glucuronidation (UGT2B7) on the pharmacokinetics of lersivirine (UK-453,061), a next generation non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor with a unique resistance profile, and to investigate the safety and tolerability of co-administration of lersivirine with these inhibitors. Two open-label, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover studies were conducted in healthy subjects. Study 1 investigated the effect of ketoconazole (400 mg once daily) on the pharmacokinetics of lersivirine (250 mg once daily). Subjects received ketoconazole 400 mg once daily or placebo on days 1-2 and received lersivirine 250 mg once daily and ketoconazole 400 mg once daily or placebo on days 3-9. Study 2 investigated the effect of valproic acid (VPA, sodium valproate, 1000 mg once daily) on the PK of lersivirine (500 mg once daily). On days 1-7, subjects received lersivirine 500 mg once daily plus either VPA 1000 mg or placebo. Compared with lersivirine alone, co-administration with ketoconazole increased the lersivirine mean area under the curve (AUC(0,24 h)) and maximum plasma concentration (C(max) ) by 82% (90% CI 74%, 91%) and 61% (90% CI 41%, 83%), respectively. VPA increased the mean lersivirine AUC(0,24 h) by 25% (90% CI 16%, 35%), with little effect on C(max) (2.5%, 90% CI -9%, 16%). There were no serious adverse events and no treatment-related discontinuations from either study. Inhibition of CYP3A4 and UGT2B7 by ketoconazole increased lersivirine exposure. Inhibition of UGT2B7-mediated glucuronidation by VPA had a modest effect on lersivirine exposure. Co-administration of lersivirine with either ketoconazole or VPA appeared to be well tolerated. © 2011 Pfizer Inc. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  6. Subjective perceived impact of Tai Chi training on physical and mental health among community older adults at risk for ischemic stroke: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guohua; Xiong, Zhenyu; Zheng, Xin; Li, Junzhe; Duan, Tingjin; Qi, Dalu; Ling, Kun; Chen, Lidian

    2017-04-20

    Evidence from quantitative studies suggest that Tai Chi produces a variety of health-related benefits, but few qualitative studies have investigated how older adults perceive the benefit of Tai Chi. The objective of the current study was to qualitatively evaluate the perceived benefits of Tai Chi practice among community older population. This study was conducted with participants from a trial examining the effects of a 12-week Tai Chi training on ischemic stroke risk in community older adults (n = 170). A total of 20 participants were randomly selected from a convenience sample of participants who had completed 12-week Tai Chi training (n = 68) were interviewed regarding their perceived benefit on physical and mental health and whether Tai Chi exercise was suitable for the elderly. All participants agreed that Tai Chi training could relax their body and make them comfortable. Most of them thought Tai Chi training could promote physical health, including relieving pain, enhancing digestion, strengthening immunity, enhancing energy and improving sleep quality, enhancing their mental and emotional state (e.g. improving mood and reducing anxiety, improving concentration and promoting interpersonal relationship). Most of participants also agreed that Tai Chi exercise was appropriate for community older people. Three primary themes emerged from content analysis: Improving physical health; Enhancing mental and emotional state; Conforming with the request of the elderly. The findings indicate that regular Tai Chi exercise may have positive benefits in terms of improved physical health and mental state among community elderly population, and may be useful and feasible body-mind exercise to community elderly population for its positive effects and advantages. ChiCTR ChiCTR-TRC-13003601 . Registered 23 July 2014.

  7. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subject Index. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed period at Maitri, Antarctica. 1721. Geomorphology. A simple depression-filling method for raster and irregular elevation datasets. 1653. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic. Information System to target restoration actions in water-.

  8. The influence of non-linear frequency compression on the perception of music by adults with a moderate to sever hearing loss: subjective impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uys, Marinda; Pottas, Lidia; Vinck, Bart; van Dijk, Catherine

    2012-12-01

    To date, the main direction in frequency-lowering hearing aid studies has been in relation to speech perception abilities. With improvements in hearing aid technology, interest in musical perception as a dimension that could improve hearing aid users' quality of life has grown. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of non-linear frequency compression (NFC) on hearing aid users' subjective impressions of listening to music. DESIGN & SAMPLE: A survey research design was implemented to elicit participants' (N=40) subjective impressions of musical stimuli with and without NFC. The use of NFC significantly improved hearing aid users' perception of the musical qualities of overall fidelity, tinniness and reverberance. Although participants preferred to listen to the loudness, fullness, crispness, naturalness and pleasantness of music with the use of NFC, these benefits were not significant. The use of NFC can increase hearing aid users' enjoyment and appreciation of music. Given that a relatively large percentage of hearing aid users express a loss of enjoyment of music, audiologists should not ignore the possible benefits of NFC, especially if one takes into account that previous research indicates speech perception benefits with this technology.

  9. The influence of non-linear frequency compression on the perception of music by adults with a moderate to severe hearing loss: Subjective impressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinda Uys

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To date, the main direction in frequency-lowering hearing aid studies has been in relation to speech perception abilities. With improvements in hearing aid technology, interest in musical perception as a dimension that could improve hearing aid users’ quality of life has grown. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of non-linear frequency compression (NFC on hearing aid users’ subjective impressions of listening to music. Design & sample: A survey research design was implemented to elicit participants’ (N=40 subjective impressions of musical stimuli with and without NFC. Results: The use of NFC significantly improved hearing aid users’ perception of the musical qualities of overall fidelity, tinniness and reverberance. Although participants preferred to listen to the loudness, fullness, crispness, naturalness and pleasantness of music with the use of NFC, these benefits were not significant. Conclusion: The use of NFC can increase hearing aid users’ enjoyment and appreciation of music. Given that a relatively large percentage of hearing aid users express a loss of enjoyment of music, audiologists should not ignore the possible benefits of NFC, especially if one takes into account that previous research indicates speech perception benefits with this technology.

  10. Genetic susceptibility of periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laine, M.L.; Crielaard, W.; Loos, B.G.

    2012-01-01

    In this systematic review, we explore and summarize the peer-reviewed literature on putative genetic risk factors for susceptibility to aggressive and chronic periodontitis. A comprehensive literature search on the PubMed database was performed using the keywords ‘periodontitis’ or ‘periodontal

  11. Fourie susceptible.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    a number of cultivars exhibited field resistance to halo blight and bacterial brown spot, all cultivars were more or less susceptible to .... Cerillos. Alubia. I. 91. 57. Kranskop. Red speckled sugar. II. 97. 63. OPS-RS1. Red speckled sugar. II. 96. 63. OPS-RS2. Red speckled sugar. I. 100. 61. OPS-RS3. Red speckled sugar. II. 97.

  12. Evaluation of Insecticides Susceptibility and Malaria Vector Potential of Anopheles annularis s.l. and Anopheles vagus in Assam, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Sunil; Yadav, Kavita; Rabha, Bipul; Goswami, Diganta; Hazarika, S; Tyagi, Varun

    2016-01-01

    During the recent past, development of DDT resistance and reduction to pyrethroid susceptibility among the malaria vectors has posed a serious challenge in many Southeast Asian countries including India. Current study presents the insecticide susceptibility and knock-down data of field collected Anopheles annularis sensu lato and An. vagus mosquito species from endemic areas of Assam in northeast India. Anopheles annularis s.l. and An. vagus adult females were collected from four randomly selected sentinel sites in Orang primary health centre (OPHC) and Balipara primary health centre (BPHC) areas, and used for testing susceptibility to DDT, malathion, deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin. After insecticide susceptibility tests, mosquitoes were subjected to VectorTest™ assay kits to detect the presence of malaria sporozoite in the mosquitoes. An. annularis s.l. was completely susceptible to deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and malathion in both the study areas. An. vagus was highly susceptible to deltamethrin in both the areas, but exhibited reduced susceptibility to lambda-cyhalothrin in BPHC. Both the species were resistant to DDT and showed very high KDT50 and KDT99 values for DDT. Probit model used to calculate the KDT50 and KDT99 values did not display normal distribution of percent knock-down with time for malathion in both the mosquito species in OPHC (p<0.05) and An. vagus in BPHC (χ2 = 25.3; p = 0.0), and also for deltamethrin to An. vagus in BPHC area (χ2 = 15.4; p = 0.004). Minimum infection rate (MIR) of Plasmodium sporozoite for An. vagus was 0.56 in OPHC and 0.13 in BPHC, while for An. annularis MIR was found to be 0.22 in OPHC. Resistance management strategies should be identified to delay the expansion of resistance. Testing of field caught Anopheles vectors from different endemic areas for the presence of malaria sporozoite may be useful to ensure their role in malaria transmission.

  13. Evaluation of Insecticides Susceptibility and Malaria Vector Potential of Anopheles annularis s.l. and Anopheles vagus in Assam, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Dhiman

    Full Text Available During the recent past, development of DDT resistance and reduction to pyrethroid susceptibility among the malaria vectors has posed a serious challenge in many Southeast Asian countries including India. Current study presents the insecticide susceptibility and knock-down data of field collected Anopheles annularis sensu lato and An. vagus mosquito species from endemic areas of Assam in northeast India. Anopheles annularis s.l. and An. vagus adult females were collected from four randomly selected sentinel sites in Orang primary health centre (OPHC and Balipara primary health centre (BPHC areas, and used for testing susceptibility to DDT, malathion, deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin. After insecticide susceptibility tests, mosquitoes were subjected to VectorTest™ assay kits to detect the presence of malaria sporozoite in the mosquitoes. An. annularis s.l. was completely susceptible to deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and malathion in both the study areas. An. vagus was highly susceptible to deltamethrin in both the areas, but exhibited reduced susceptibility to lambda-cyhalothrin in BPHC. Both the species were resistant to DDT and showed very high KDT50 and KDT99 values for DDT. Probit model used to calculate the KDT50 and KDT99 values did not display normal distribution of percent knock-down with time for malathion in both the mosquito species in OPHC (p<0.05 and An. vagus in BPHC (χ2 = 25.3; p = 0.0, and also for deltamethrin to An. vagus in BPHC area (χ2 = 15.4; p = 0.004. Minimum infection rate (MIR of Plasmodium sporozoite for An. vagus was 0.56 in OPHC and 0.13 in BPHC, while for An. annularis MIR was found to be 0.22 in OPHC. Resistance management strategies should be identified to delay the expansion of resistance. Testing of field caught Anopheles vectors from different endemic areas for the presence of malaria sporozoite may be useful to ensure their role in malaria transmission.

  14. Resting-state networks in healthy adult subjects: a comparison between a 32-element and an 8-element phased array head coil at 3.0 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolini, Marco; Keeser, Daniel; Ingrisch, Michael; Werner, Natalie; Kindermann, Nicole; Reiser, Maximilian; Blautzik, Janusch

    2015-05-01

    Little research exists on the influence of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) head coil's channel count on measured resting-state functional connectivity. To compare a 32-element (32ch) and an 8-element (8ch) phased array head coil with respect to their potential to detect functional connectivity within resting-state networks. Twenty-six healthy adults (mean age, 21.7 years; SD, 2.1 years) underwent resting-state functional MRI at 3.0 Tesla with both coils using equal standard imaging parameters and a counterbalanced design. Independent component analysis (ICA) at different model orders and a dual regression approach were performed. Voxel-wise non-parametric statistical between-group contrasts were determined using permutation-based non-parametric inference. Phantom measurements demonstrated a generally higher image signal-to-noise ratio using the 32ch head coil. However, the results showed no significant differences between corresponding resting-state networks derived from both coils (p coil does not offer any significant advantages in detecting ICA-based functional connectivity within RSNs. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  15. The impact of a videogame-based pilot physical activity program in older adults with schizophrenia on subjectively and objectively measured physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather eLeutwyler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this report is to describe the impact of a videogame-based pilot physical activity program using the Kinect for Xbox 360 game system (Microsoft, Redmond, WA on physical activity in older adults with schizophrenia. Methods: In this one group pretest posttest pilot study, twenty participants played an active videogame for 30 minutes, once a week for 6 weeks. Physical activity was measured by self-report with the Yale Physical Activity Survey and objectively with the Sensewear Pro armband at enrollment and at the end of the 6-week program. Results: There was a significant increase in frequency of self-reported vigorous physical activity. We did not detect a statistically significant difference in objectively measured physical activity although increase in number of steps and sedentary activity were in the desired direction. Conclusions: These results suggest participants’ perception of physical activity intensity differs from the intensity objectively captured with a valid and reliable physical activity monitor.

  16. Sex differences in subjective and objective responses to a stimulant medication (methylphenidate): Comparisons between overweight/obese adults with and without binge-eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Caroline; Levitan, Robert D; Kaplan, Allan S; Carter-Major, Jacqueline C; Kennedy, James L

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine sex differences in response to a single dose of a psychomotor-stimulant medication (methylphenidate: MP) and to assess whether expected differences were moderated by binge-eating disorder (BED) status. It is anticipated that findings will shed light on factors that contribute to response variation in the use of stimulant pharmacotherapy to treat BED. The study employed a double-blind, drug-placebo, cross-over design in overweight/obese adults with BED (n = 90) and without BED (n = 108). Emotional/mood ratings were assessed every 15 minutes after oral administration of the drug/placebo, and appetite, cravings, and consumption were assessed during a laboratory-based snack-food challenge. Women reported earlier and more sustained "overall" effects of the drug-including "feeling high"-than the men. There was also a significantly greater suppression in appetite ratings, food cravings, and food consumption from the placebo to the drug condition among the women. Indeed, among men there were no significant differences between the two conditions on any of the food-related variables. BED status also did not moderate any of the drug-placebo differences. These findings are relevant to the use of stimulant pharmacotherapy for BED, and raise the possibility that overweight/obese men may be relatively less responsive to this form of treatment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:473-481). © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. A comparison of the nutritional status between adult celiac patients on a long-term, strictly gluten-free diet and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, M; Della Valle, N; Rosania, R; Facciorusso, A; Trotta, A; Cantatore, F P; Falco, S; Pignatiello, S; Viggiani, M T; Amoruso, A; De Filippis, R; Di Leo, A; Francavilla, R

    2016-01-01

    There are conflicting data on the effect of a gluten-free diet (GFD) on the nutritional status of celiac patients. In the present study, we evaluated, in adult celiac patients, the influence of a long-term, strictly GFD on their nutritional status and compared it with matched healthy volunteers. Our study included 39 celiac patients and 39 healthy volunteers. The body mass index (BMI) of patients and controls was evaluated at enrollment, while the patients' BMI before the GFD was retrieved from clinical records. In addition, at enrollment, in both groups, we compared BMI, fat mass (FM), bone mineral density (BMD), as well as their dietary intake, recorded on a 7-day diary. At the time of diagnosis, the majority of celiac patients (82.0%) had a normal BMI or were overweight, while 10.3% were malnourished. After the GFD, patients with a normal BMI showed a significant weight increase (P=0.002), but none of them switched in the overweight or obese category. Two (50%) of the four malnourished patients achieved a normal BMI. Controls and patients on a GFD had a similar BMI, FM, BMD and total calorie intake, but the amount of lipids and fiber intake was significantly different in the two groups (P=0.003 and Pnutritional status of celiac patients without inducing overweight or obesity. Our findings are related to a celiac population adopting a GFD based on a Mediterranean-type diet.

  18. Subjective Sleep Quality as a Possible Mediator in the Relationship between Personality Traits and Depressive Symptoms in Middle-Aged Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Vivian; Peck, Katlyn; Mallya, Sasha; Lupien, Sonia J; Fiocco, Alexandra J

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the mediating role of sleep in the relationship between personality traits and depressive symptoms in a group of community-dwelling men and women (Mage = 57.92, SD = 4.00). Participants completed the short form NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). High neuroticism and low conscientiousness was associated with poor sleep, as well as greater depressive symptom severity. Partial indirect mediation effects were found between personality traits (i.e., neuroticism and conscientiousness) and depressive symptoms through self-report sleep measures. An alternative model was also explored, entering depression as the mediator; however a smaller portion of the variance was explained by this model, compared with the hypothesized model. The current study provides preliminary information regarding the mechanisms that influence the relationship between personality traits, sleep, and depression among a group of community-dwelling middle-aged adults. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  19. Differential susceptibility to the environment: an evolutionary--neurodevelopmental theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Bruce J; Boyce, W Thomas; Belsky, Jay; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H

    2011-02-01

    Two extant evolutionary models, biological sensitivity to context theory (BSCT) and differential susceptibility theory (DST), converge on the hypothesis that some individuals are more susceptible than others to both negative (risk-promoting) and positive (development-enhancing) environmental conditions. These models contrast with the currently dominant perspective on personal vulnerability and environmental risk: diathesis stress/dual risk. We review challenges to this perspective based on emerging theory and data from the evolutionary, developmental, and health sciences. These challenges signify the need for a paradigm shift in conceptualizing Person x Environment interactions in development. In this context we advance an evolutionary--neurodevelopmental theory, based on DST and BSCT, of the role of neurobiological susceptibility to the environment in regulating environmental effects on adaptation, development, and health. We then outline current thinking about neurogenomic and endophenotypic mechanisms that may underpin neurobiological susceptibility, summarize extant empirical research on differential susceptibility, and evaluate the evolutionary bases and implications of BSCT and DST. Finally, we discuss applied issues including methodological and statistical considerations in conducting differential susceptibility research; issues of ecological, cultural, and racial--ethnic variation in neurobiological susceptibility; and implications of differential susceptibility for designing social programs. We conclude that the differential susceptibility paradigm has far-reaching implications for understanding whether and how much child and adult development responds, for better and for worse, to the gamut of species-typical environmental conditions.

  20. Brain Injury Lesion Imaging Using Preconditioned Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping without Skull Stripping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soman, S; Liu, Z; Kim, G; Nemec, U; Holdsworth, S J; Main, K; Lee, B; Kolakowsky-Hayner, S; Selim, M; Furst, A J; Massaband, P; Yesavage, J; Adamson, M M; Spincemallie, P; Moseley, M; Wang, Y

    2018-02-22

    Identifying cerebral microhemorrhage burden can aid in the diagnosis and management of traumatic brain injury, stroke, hypertension, and cerebral amyloid angiopathy. MR imaging susceptibility-based methods are more sensitive than CT for detecting cerebral microhemorrhage, but methods other than quantitative susceptibility mapping provide results that vary with field strength and TE, require additional phase maps to distinguish blood from calcification, and depict cerebral microhemorrhages as bloom artifacts. Quantitative susceptibility mapping provides universal quantification of tissue magnetic property without these constraints but traditionally requires a mask generated by skull-stripping, which can pose challenges at tissue interphases. We evaluated the preconditioned quantitative susceptibility mapping MR imaging method, which does not require skull-stripping, for improved depiction of brain parenchyma and pathology. Fifty-six subjects underwent brain MR imaging with a 3D multiecho gradient recalled echo acquisition. Mask-based quantitative susceptibility mapping images were created using a commonly used mask-based quantitative susceptibility mapping method, and preconditioned quantitative susceptibility images were made using precondition-based total field inversion. All images were reviewed by a neuroradiologist and a radiology resident. Ten subjects (18%), all with traumatic brain injury, demonstrated blood products on 3D gradient recalled echo imaging. All lesions were visible on preconditioned quantitative susceptibility mapping, while 6 were not visible on mask-based quantitative susceptibility mapping. Thirty-one subjects (55%) demonstrated brain parenchyma and/or lesions that were visible on preconditioned quantitative susceptibility mapping but not on mask-based quantitative susceptibility mapping. Six subjects (11%) demonstrated pons artifacts on preconditioned quantitative susceptibility mapping and mask-based quantitative susceptibility mapping

  1. Adult Treatment Panel III 2001 but not International Diabetes Federation 2005 criteria of the metabolic syndrome predict clinical cardiovascular events in subjects who underwent coronary angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saely, Christoph H; Koch, Lorena; Schmid, Fabian; Marte, Thomas; Aczel, Stefan; Langer, Peter; Hoefle, Guenter; Drexel, Heinz

    2006-04-01

    The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) has recently established a worldwide consensus definition of the metabolic syndrome. No prospective data are available on the cardiovascular risk associated with this new metabolic syndrome definition. In a prospective study of 750 coronary patients, we recorded vascular events over 4 years. From our patients, 37.3% (n = 280) had the metabolic syndrome according to the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII) definition and 45.5% (n = 341) according to the IDF definition. The metabolic syndrome as defined by the ATPIII criteria significantly predicted vascular events (adjusted hazard ratio 1.745 [95% CI 1.255-2.427]; P = 0.001), but the metabolic syndrome as defined by IDF criteria did not (1.189 [0.859-1.646]; P = 0.297). Accordingly, event-free survival was significantly lower among patients who fulfilled the ATPIII but not the IDF criteria than among those who met the IDF but not the ATPIII criteria (P = 0.012). The metabolic syndrome as defined by ATPIII criteria remained significantly predictive of vascular events after adjustment for type 2 diabetes but not after additional adjustment for the metabolic syndrome components high triglycerides and low HDL cholesterol. These lipid traits in turn proved significantly predictive of vascular events even after adjustment for the metabolic syndrome. The ATPIII definition of the metabolic syndrome confers a significantly higher risk of vascular events than the IDF definition. However, among angiographied coronary patients, even the ATPIII definition of the metabolic syndrome does not provide prognostic information beyond its dyslipidemic features.

  2. The natural history of subjective tinnitus in adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis of no-intervention periods in controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, John S; McFerran, Don J; Hall, Deborah A; Hoare, Derek J

    2018-01-01

    Tinnitus is a prevalent condition, but little has been published regarding the natural history of the condition. One technique for evaluating the long-term progression of the disease is to examine what happens to participants in the no-intervention control arm of a clinical trial. The aim of this study was to examine no-intervention or waiting-list data reported in trials, in which participants on the active arm received any form of tinnitus intervention. CINAHL, PsychINFO, EMBASE, ASSIA, PubMed, Web of Science, Science Direct, EBSCO Host, and Cochrane. Inclusion criteria followed the PICOS principles: Participants, adults with tinnitus; Intervention, none; Control, any intervention for alleviating tinnitus; Outcomes, a measure assessing tinnitus symptoms using a multi-item patient-reported tinnitus questionnaire. Secondary outcome measures included multi-item patient-reported questionnaires of mood and health-related quality of life and measures that quantified change in tinnitus loudness; Study design, randomized controlled trials or observational studies utilizing a no-intervention or waiting-list control group. Data were extracted and standardized mean difference was calculated for each study to enable meta-analysis. The evidence strongly favored a statistically significant decrease in the impact of tinnitus over time, though there was significant heterogeneity and clinical significance cannot be interpreted. Outcome data regarding secondary measures did not demonstrate any clinically significant change. Participants allocated to the no-intervention or waiting-list control arm of clinical trials for a tinnitus intervention show a small but significant improvement in self-reported measures of tinnitus with time; the clinical significance of this finding is unknown. There is, however, considerable variation across individuals. These findings support previous work and can cautiously be used when counseling patients. Laryngoscope, 128:217-227, 2018. © 2017 The

  3. Effects of a program to prevent social isolation on loneliness, depression, and subjective well-being of older adults: a randomized trial among older migrants in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Tami; Kai, Ichiro; Takizawa, Ayako

    2012-01-01

    Social isolation among the elderly is a concern in developed countries. Using a randomized trial, this study examined the effect of a social isolation prevention program on loneliness, depression, and subjective well-being of the elderly in Japan. Among the elderly people who relocated to suburban Tokyo, 63 who responded to a pre-test were randomized and assessed 1 and 6 months after the program. Four sessions of a group-based program were designed to prevent social isolation by improving community knowledge and networking with other participants and community "gatekeepers." The Life Satisfaction Index A (LSI-A), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Ando-Osada-Kodama (AOK) loneliness scale, social support, and other variables were used as outcomes of this study. A linear mixed model was used to compare 20 of the 21 people in the intervention group to 40 of the 42 in the control group, and showed that the intervention program had a significant positive effect on LSI-A, social support, and familiarity with services scores and a significant negative effect on AOK over the study period. The program had no significant effect on depression. The findings of this study suggest that programs aimed at preventing social isolation are effective when they utilize existing community resources, are tailor-made based on the specific needs of the individual, and target people who can share similar experiences. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Knowledge of results and learning to tell the time in an adult male with an intellectual disability: a single-subject research design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegate, Samantha L; Rice, Martin S; Stein, Franklin; Maitra, Kinsuk K

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated whether knowledge of results, in the form of visual and audible feedback, would increase the accuracy of time-telling in an individual with an intellectual disability. A 19-year-old male with mild intellectual disability participated in this A1-B1-A2-B2 single-subject study design. The task involved correctly identifying the time given on a computer. Data, based on the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, showed that the participant demonstrated a greater number of correct responses during the intervention phases. Incorporating knowledge of results into a learning strategy for this individual with intellectual disability resulted in an increased ability to accurately identify the correct time on an analogue clock. There is a need to replicate the study design to increase the external validity and generalization of results. The strategies described in the present study may also be useful for occupational therapists who teach individuals with intellectual disability to gain skills in their everyday activities of daily living (ADLs). (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Effect of self-selected music on adults' anxiety and subjective experiences during initial radiotherapy treatment: a randomised controlled trial and qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Clare; Sproston, Michael; Wilkinson, Kate; Willis, David; Milner, Alvin; Grocke, Denise; Wheeler, Greg

    2012-08-01

    Patients may experience radiotherapy as anxiety provoking, especially during unfamiliar initial treatment. This study examines whether patients' use of self-selected music while undergoing first radiotherapy treatment reduces anxiety, and how patients describe their first radiotherapy experience with or without self-selected music. Using quantitative and qualitative methods, 100 participants preparing to commence radiotherapy were assigned to the initial radiotherapy session either with self-selected music or without music. In both participant groups, the Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory measured pre- and post-radiotherapy levels, music preference questions examined future music desires during treatment and a semistructured questionnaire examined additional subjective experiences. Overall, participants were not highly anxious pre-radiotherapy, anxiety decreased in both music and control groups following radiotherapy (P = 0.008) and this change was not different between groups (P = 0.35). However, music group participants were significantly more likely to want music in future radiotherapy sessions (P = 0.007). Some reported a benefit from the music in terms of feeling supported, distracted or that treatment time seemed faster. Participants in both groups often commended helpful staff. Negative reactions were only occasional. Although preferred music does not reduce anxiety, it can support some patients undergoing initial radiotherapy and departmental staff should invite patients to bring music to radiotherapy, provide music libraries and offer to play patient selected music during treatments. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology © 2012 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  6. The Effect of Intra- and Intergenerational Caregiving on Subjective Well-Being--Evidence of a Population Based Longitudinal Study among Older Adults in Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Hajek

    Full Text Available To examine whether intra- and intergenerational caregiving affect subjective well-being (SWB of the caregivers longitudinally.Data were drawn from the German Ageing Survey (DEAS, which is a population-based longitudinal study of individuals living in Germany aged 40 and over. The waves in 2002, 2008 and 2011 were used (with 10,434 observations. SWB was examined in a broad sense, covering affective (AWB and cognitive well-being (CWB, positive (PA and negative affect (NA as well as functional and mental health. While intragenerational caregiving was defined as providing care for spouse/partner, intergenerational caregiving was defined as providing care for mother, father, mother-in-law, father-in-law, partner's mother or partner's father.Fixed effects regressions adjusting for sociodemographic factors, social network, self-efficacy and morbidity showed that intergenerational informal care did not affect the various SWB outcome measures. Intragenerational caregiving affected CWB (women and mental health (total sample and men, whereas it did not affect the other outcome variables.Our findings highlight the importance of intragenerational caregiving for mental health (men and cognitive well-being (women. Consequently, interventions to avoid mental illness due to intragenerational caregiving are urgently needed.

  7. Genetic Susceptibility to Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Kovacic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a complex multifocal arterial disease involving interactions of multiple genetic and environmental factors. Advances in techniques of molecular genetics have revealed that genetic ground significantly influences susceptibility to atherosclerotic vascular diseases. Besides further investigations of monogenetic diseases, candidate genes, genetic polymorphisms, and susceptibility loci associated with atherosclerotic diseases have been identified in recent years, and their number is rapidly increasing. This paper discusses main genetic investigations fields associated with human atherosclerotic vascular diseases. The paper concludes with a discussion of the directions and implications of future genetic research in arteriosclerosis with an emphasis on prospective prediction from an early age of individuals who are predisposed to develop premature atherosclerosis as well as to facilitate the discovery of novel drug targets.

  8. Subjective sleep disturbances and glycemic control in adults with long-standing type 1 diabetes: The Pittsburgh's Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denic-Roberts, Hristina; Costacou, Tina; Orchard, Trevor J

    2016-09-01

    To date, studies on sleep disturbances in type 1 diabetes (T1D) have been limited to youth and/or small samples. We therefore assessed the prevalence of subjective sleep disturbances and their associations with glycemia and estimated insulin sensitivity in individuals with long-standing T1D. We conducted a cross-sectional study including 222 participants of the Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications study of childhood-onset T1D attending the 25-year examination (mean age=52years, diabetes duration=43years). The Berlin Questionnaire (risk of obstructive sleep apnea, OSA), the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (daytime sleepiness), and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (sleep quality, bad dreams presence, and sleep duration) were completed. Associations between sleep disturbances and poor glycemic control (HbA1c⩾7.5%/58mmol/mol), log-transformed HbA1c, and estimated insulin sensitivity (estimated glucose disposal rate, eGDR, squared) were assessed in multivariable regression. The prevalences of high OSA risk, excessive daytime sleepiness, poor sleep quality, and bad dreams were 23%, 13%, 41%, and 26%, respectively, with more women (51%) reporting poor sleep quality than men (30%, p=0.004). Participants under poor glycemic control were twice as likely to report bad dreams (p=0.03), but not independently (p=0.07) of depressive symptomatology. Sleep duration was directly associated with HbA1c among individuals with poor glycemic control, but inversely in their counterparts (interaction p=0.002), and inversely associated with eGDR (p=0.002). These findings suggest important interrelationships between sleep, gender, depressive symptomatology, and glycemic control, which may have important clinical implications. Further research is warranted to examine the mechanism of the interaction between sleep duration and glycemic control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Marijuana Usage and Hypnotic Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzini, Louis R.; McDonald, Roy D.

    1973-01-01

    Anonymous self-reported drug usage data and hypnotic susceptibility scores were obtained from 282 college students. Frequent marijuana users (more than 10 times) showed greater susceptibility to hypnosis than nonusers. (Author)

  10. The usefulness of the International Diabetes Federation and the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III definitions of the metabolic syndrome in predicting coronary heart disease in subjects with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Peter C; Kong, Alice P; So, Wing-Yee; Yang, Xilin; Ho, Chung-Shun; Ma, Ronald C; Ozaki, Risa; Chow, Chun-Chung; Lam, Christopher W; Chan, Juliana C N; Cockram, Clive S

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the predictive value for coronary heart disease (CHD) of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definition (with Asian criteria for central obesity) of the metabolic syndrome with existing criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) in Chinese subjects with type 2 diabetes. Subjects with type 2 diabetes and without macrovascular diseases or end-stage renal disease were categorized by the criteria of the IDF and the NCEP ATP III. CHD was defined as myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, coronary revascularization, heart failure, and death related to CHD. Of 4,350 patients (aged 54.4 +/- 13.4 years; median follow-up period 7.1 [interquartile range 5.2-8.5] years), 65.9% had metabolic syndrome according to either IDF or NCEP ATP III criteria. The NCEP ATP III definition identified metabolic syndrome in 786 subjects (18.1%) who did not fulfill the criteria of the IDF. HDL cholesterol and systolic blood pressure were predictors of CHD after adjustment for other confounding factors. Compared with subjects without metabolic syndrome, the IDF criteria failed to predict CHD (hazard ratio 1.13 [95% CI 0.86-1.48], P = 0.374). In contrast, the NCEP ATP III definition (2.51 [1.80-3.50], P < 0.001) predicted an increased risk of CHD with the NCEP-only group having the highest risk (2.49 [1.66-3.73], P < 0.001). With established type 2 diabetes, the IDF definition of the metabolic syndrome failed to identify a subgroup of patients who had the highest risk for CHD. Practitioners must recognize the appropriate setting for its application.

  11. Association Between the 20210G>A Prothrombin Gene Polymorphism and Arterial Ischemic Stroke in Children and Young Adults-Two Meta-analyses of 3586 Cases and 6440 Control Subjects in Total.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarecka-Hujar, Beata; Kopyta, Ilona; Skrzypek, Michal; Sordyl, Joanna

    2017-04-01

    Previous data have shown that the 20210G>A polymorphism of the Factor II gene is related to an increased prothrombin level, which may in turn lead to a procoagulant state. The heterogeneous and multifactorial character of arterial ischemic stroke often results in contradictory reports describing the association between the 20210G>A polymorphism and arterial ischemic stroke in different populations. We performed a meta-analysis of available data addressing the relation between the FII 20210G>A polymorphism and arterial ischemic stroke, both in young adults and children. We searched PubMed using appropriate keywords. The inclusion criteria for the study were as follows: case-control study, study population consisting of children, study population consisting of young adults, arterial ischemic stroke confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography, and English language. The exclusion criteria included lack of genotype or allele frequencies, study design other than a case-control study, outcome definition other than arterial ischemic stroke, and previously overlapped patient groups. Finally, 30 case-control studies (14 in children and 16 in young adults) were included. Statistical analyses were conducted using R software. Heterogeneity between the studies was evaluated using the Dersimonian and Laird's Q test. In the case of significant between-studies heterogeneity, the pooled odds ratio was estimated with a random-effects model, otherwise a fixed-effects model was used. The pooled analysis showed that carriers of 20210A allele (GA+AA genotypes) of the prothrombin gene are more common in arterial ischemic stroke patients, both in children and young adults, than in control subjects (P = 0.006; odds ratio, 1.83; 95% confidence interval, 1.19 to 2.80 and P = 0.001; odds ratio, 1.69; 95% confidence interval, 1.25 to 2.28, respectively). The results of the present meta-analysis have proven that the FII 20210G>A polymorphism is associated with arterial

  12. A Novel NF-κB Inhibitor, Edasalonexent (CAT-1004), in Development as a Disease-Modifying Treatment for Patients With Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Phase 1 Safety, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacodynamics in Adult Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Joanne M; Zimmer, Michael; Offman, Elliot; Grant, Toni; Jirousek, Michael

    2017-05-01

    In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), NF-κB is activated in skeletal muscle from infancy regardless of the underlying dystrophin mutation and drives inflammation and muscle degeneration while inhibiting muscle regeneration. Edasalonexent (CAT-1004) is a bifunctional orally administered small molecule that covalently links 2 compounds known to inhibit NF-κB, salicylic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Edasalonexent is designed to inhibit activated NF-κB upon intracellular cleavage to these bioactive components. Preclinical data demonstrate disease-modifying activity in DMD animal models. Three placebo-controlled studies in adult subjects assessed the safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of single or multiple edasalonexent doses up to 6000 mg. Seventy-nine adult subjects received edasalonexent, and 25 received placebo. Pharmacokinetic results were consistent with the intracellular cleavage of edasalonexent to its active components. Food increased plasma exposures of edasalonexent and salicyluric acid, an intracellularly formed metabolite of salicylic acid. The NF-κB pathway and proteosome gene expression profiles in peripheral mononuclear cells were significantly decreased (P = .02 and P = .002, respectively) after 2 weeks of edasalonexent treatment. NF-κB activity was inhibited following a single dose of edasalonexent but not by equimolar doses of salicylic acid and DHA. Edasalonexent was well tolerated, and the most common adverse events were mild diarrhea and headache. In first-in-human studies, edasalonexent was safe, well tolerated, and inhibited activated NF-κB pathways, suggesting potential therapeutic utility in DMD regardless of the causative dystrophin mutation, as well as other NF-κB-mediated diseases. © 2017, The Authors. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  13. Controlled human exposures to ambient pollutant particles in susceptible populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghio Andrew J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Epidemiologic studies have established an association between exposures to air pollution particles and human mortality and morbidity at concentrations of particles currently found in major metropolitan areas. The adverse effects of pollution particles are most prominent in susceptible subjects, including the elderly and patients with cardiopulmonary diseases. Controlled human exposure studies have been used to confirm the causal relationship between pollution particle exposure and adverse health effects. Earlier studies enrolled mostly young healthy subjects and have largely confirmed the capability of particles to cause adverse health effects shown in epidemiological studies. In the last few years, more studies involving susceptible populations have been published. These recent studies in susceptible populations, however, have shown that the adverse responses to particles appear diminished in these susceptible subjects compared to those in healthy subjects. The present paper reviewed and compared control human exposure studies to particles and sought to explain the "unexpected" response to particle exposure in these susceptible populations and make recommendations for future studies. We found that the causes for the discrepant results are likely multifactorial. Factors such as medications, the disease itself, genetic susceptibility, subject selection bias that is intrinsic to many controlled exposure studies and nonspecificity of study endpoints may explain part of the results. Future controlled exposure studies should select endpoints that are more closely related to the pathogenesis of the disease and reflect the severity of particle-induced health effects in the specific populations under investigation. Future studies should also attempt to control for medications and genetic susceptibility. Using a different study design, such as exposing subjects to filtered air and ambient levels of particles, and assessing the improvement in

  14. Efficacy of phosphatidylcholine in the modulation of motion sickness susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, R. L.; Ryan, P.; Homick, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of pharmacological doses of phosphatidylcholine (lecithin) in the modulation of motion sickness induced by exposure to coriolis stimulation in a rotating chair. Subjects received daily dietary supplements of 25 grams of lecithin (90 percent phosphatidylcholine) and were tested for their susceptibility to motion sickness after 4 h, 2 d, and 21 d. A small but statistically significant increase in susceptibility (+15 percent) was noted 4 h after supplemental phosphatidylcholine, with four of nine subjects demonstrating a marked increase in susceptibility. This finding was attributed to choline's stimulatory action on cholinergic systems, an action which opposes that of the classical antimotion sickness drug scopolamine. Chronic lecithin loading revealed a trend towards reduced susceptibility, possibly indicating the occurrence of adaptive mechanisms such as receptor down-regulation. Withdrawal from lecithin loading, perhaps coupled with anticholinergic treatment, might prove to be a potent prophylactic regimen and ought to be tested.

  15. Serotype distribution and antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains in the south of Tunisia: A five-year study (2012–2016 of pediatric and adult populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Ktari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To analyze the serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae clinical isolates collected in the south of Tunisia over a 5-year period in different age groups and to assess their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Methods: A total of 305 non-duplicate S. pneumoniae isolates were collected between January 2012 and December 2016 at the university hospital in Sfax, Tunisia. All isolates were serotyped by multiplex PCR. The antibiotic susceptibility of all isolates was determined using the disk diffusion test or Etest assay. Results: Among the 305 pneumococcal isolates, 76 (24.9% were invasive and 229 (75.1% were non-invasive. The most common serotypes were 19F (20%, 14 (16.7%, 3 (9.2%, 23F (7.5%, 19A (5.9%, and 6B (5.9%. Potential immunization coverage rates for pneumococcal conjugate vaccines PCV7, PCV10, and PCV13 were 58%, 59.3%, and 78.7%, respectively. Three-quarters (75.3% of pneumococcal isolates were non-susceptible to penicillin. The resistance rate to erythromycin was 71.4%. Only two isolates were resistant to levofloxacin. Conclusions: 19F and 14 were the most prevalent serotypes in the south of Tunisia. The inclusion of a PCV in the immunization program could be useful for reducing the burden of pneumococcal diseases. The high resistance rate to penicillin and macrolides is alarming. Prudent use of antibiotics is crucial to prevent the selection of multidrug-resistant pneumococci. Keywords: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Antibiotic, Serotype, PCV, Tunisia

  16. Pathophysiological characteristics of preproinsulin-specific CD8+ T cells in subjects with juvenile-onset and adult-onset type 1 diabetes: A 1-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Mahinder; Badal, Darshan; Jacob, Neenu; Dayal, Devi; Kumar, Rakesh; Bhansali, Anil; Bhadada, Sanjay Kumar; Sachdeva, Naresh

    2018-02-01

    Among the beta-cell associated antigens, preproinsulin (PPI) has been shown to play a key role in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). PPI-specific autoreactive CD8+ T cells emerge early during beta-cell destruction and persist in peripheral circulation during diabetes progression. However, the influence of insulin therapy on phenotype of autoreactive CD8+ T cells in T1D including, juvenile-onset T1D (JOT1D), and adult-onset T1D (AOT1D) is not yet known. We followed the time course of PPI-specific CD8+ T cells in JOT1D and AOT1D subjects that achieved glycemic control after 1 year of insulin therapy, using major histocompatibility complex-I (MHC-I) dextramers by flow cytometry. At follow-up, PPI-specific CD8+ T cells could be detected consistently in peripheral blood of all T1D subjects. Proportion of PPI-specific effector memory (T EM ) subsets decreased, while central memory T (T CM ) cells remained unchanged in both groups. Expression of granzyme-B and perforin in PPI-specific CD8+ T cells also remained unchanged. Further, on analysis of B-chain and signal peptide (SP) specific CD8+ T cell responses separately, we again observed decrease in T EM subset in both the groups, while increase in naive (T N ) subset was observed in B-chain specific CD8+ T cells only. Our study shows that PPI-specific CD8+ T cells can be detected in both JOT1D and AOT1D subjects over a period of time with reliable consistency in frequency but variable pathophysiological characteristics. Insulin therapy seems to reduce the PPI-specific T EM subsets; however, the PPI-specific T CM cells continue to persist as attractive targets for immunotherapy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Magnetic susceptibilities of minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Sam; Brownfield, I.K.

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic separation of minerals is a topic that is seldom reported in the literature for two reasons. First, separation data generally are byproducts of other projects; and second, this study requires a large amount of patience and is unusually tedious. Indeed, we suspect that most minerals probably are never investigated for this property. These data are timesaving for mineralogists who concentrate mono-mineralic fractions for chemical analysis, age dating, and for other purposes. The data can certainly be used in the ore-beneficiation industries. In some instances, magnetic-susceptibility data may help in mineral identification, where other information is insufficient. In past studies of magnetic separation of minerals, (Gaudin and Spedden, 1943; Tille and Kirkpatrick, 1956; Rosenblum, 1958; Rubinstein and others, 1958; Flinter, 1959; Hess, 1959; Baker, 1962; Meric and Peyre, 1963; Rojas and others, 1965; and Duchesne, 1966), the emphasis has been on the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic ranges of extraction. For readers interested in the history of magnetic separation of minerals, Krumbein and Pettijohn (1938, p. 344-346) indicated nine references back to 1848. The primary purpose of this paper is to report the magnetic-susceptibility data on as many minerals as possible, similar to tables of hardness, specific gravity, refractive indices, and other basic physical properties of minerals. A secondary purpose is to demonstrate that the total and best extraction ranges are influenced by the chemistry of the minerals. The following notes are offered to help avoid problems in separating a desired mineral concentrate from mixtures of mineral grains.

  18. Trial in Adult Subjects With Spinocerebellar Ataxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-22

    Spinocerebellar Ataxias; Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 1; Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 2; Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 3; Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 6; Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 7; Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 8; Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 10

  19. Graphene susceptibility in Holstein model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousavi, Hamze, E-mail: hamze.mousavi@gmail.co [Department of Physics, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nano Science and Nano Technology Research Center, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    We study the effects of the electron-phonon interaction on the temperature dependence of the orbital magnetic susceptibility of monolayer graphene. We use the linear response theory and Green's function formalism within the Holstein Hamiltonian model. The results show that the effects of the electron-phonon interaction on the susceptibility of graphene sheet have different behaviors in two temperature regions. In the low temperature region, susceptibility increases when the electron-phonon coupling strength increases. On the other hand, the susceptibility reduces with increasing the electron-phonon coupling strength in the high temperature region. - Highlights: Effect of electron-phonon interaction on the susceptibility of graphene is studied. Linear response theory and Green's function technique in Holstein model are used. Effect of electron-phonon on susceptibility has different behaviors in two temperature regions.

  20. Topological susceptibility from slabs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bietenholz, Wolfgang [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-543, Distrito Federal, C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Forcrand, Philippe de [Institute for Theoretical Physics, ETH Zürich,CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); CERN, Physics Department, TH Unit, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Gerber, Urs [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-543, Distrito Federal, C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo,Edificio C-3, Apdo. Postal 2-82, Morelia, Michoacán, C.P. 58040 (Mexico)

    2015-12-14

    In quantum field theories with topological sectors, a non-perturbative quantity of interest is the topological susceptibility χ{sub t}. In principle it seems straightforward to measure χ{sub t} by means of Monte Carlo simulations. However, for local update algorithms and fine lattice spacings, this tends to be difficult, since the Monte Carlo history rarely changes the topological sector. Here we test a method to measure χ{sub t} even if data from only one sector are available. It is based on the topological charges in sub-volumes, which we denote as slabs. Assuming a Gaussian distribution of these charges, this method enables the evaluation of χ{sub t}, as we demonstrate with numerical results for non-linear σ-models.

  1. Topological Susceptibility from Slabs

    CERN Document Server

    Bietenholz, Wolfgang; Gerber, Urs

    2015-01-01

    In quantum field theories with topological sectors, a non-perturbative quantity of interest is the topological susceptibility chi_t. In principle it seems straightforward to measure chi_t by means of Monte Carlo simulations. However, for local update algorithms and fine lattice spacings, this tends to be difficult, since the Monte Carlo history rarely changes the topological sector. Here we test a method to measure chi_t even if data from only one sector are available. It is based on the topological charges in sub-volumes, which we denote as slabs. Assuming a Gaussian distribution of these charges, this method enables the evaluation of chi_t, as we demonstrate with numerical results for non-linear sigma-models.

  2. Bacteriology and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Otitis Media at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    In Ethiopia, although studies on bacteriology and microbial susceptibility of otitis media have been conducted in children (13-15), no recent data have been reported from adults particularly in the study area. This study was undertaken to determine bacterial pathogens and their antimicrobial resistance profile from children.

  3. Evaluation of susceptibility of some elite cowpea cultivars to attack ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifteen elite cowpea cultivars were evaluated for their susceptibility to attack and damage by the most destructive storage pest, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), based on the number of eggs laid, total developmental time, percentage adult emergence, seed weight loss, and growth index. Significantly, more eggs were laid on ...

  4. Susceptibility to DDT and pyrethroids, and detection of knockdown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Newly emerged female mosquitoes of two to five days old were selected and exposed to DDT 4%, Permethrin 1% and Deltamethrin 0.05%, the WHO diagnostic doses. These adult mosquitoes were from larvae of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato collected from rural and urban settings and reared in an insectary. A susceptible ...

  5. O discurso curricular intercultural na educação de jovens e adultos e a produção de subjetividades The intercultural curriculum discourse in the education of youngsters and adults and the production of subjectivities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Tenório de Carvalho

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O discurso pela interculturalidade, ao contrapor-se às formas homogeneizadoras de diferentes processos educativos, apresenta uma vontade de poder-saber e problematiza experiências dominantes de currículos monoculturalistas, ao mesmo tempo em que produz subjetividades multidimensionais de classe, gênero, raça, etnia, geração. Sob o enfoque da análise foucaultiana do discurso, desenvolveu-se um estudo sobre o eixo pedagógico e as regras de normalização da formação discursiva da interculturalidade no campo da educação de jovens e adultos, com vistas a analisar os enunciados que conformam o sujeito da interculturalidade. Para tal análise, foram selecionados, no discurso pela interculturalidade, enunciados que delineiam modos de abordar as práticas de objetivação do ser jovem e adulto na sociedade e em relação a si próprio, isto é, enunciados que indicam processos de governamentalidade - técnicas de si - dos sujeitos da educação. Examinou-se o jogo de poder-saber subjacente às verdades apresentadas no discurso pela interculturalidade, as quais afirmam o cidadão coletivo e/ou multicultural. Em relação à produção de subjetividades no discurso curricular, pode-se considerar, a partir de uma perspectiva nietzscheana, que, ao dizer-se da interculturalidade em substituição à homogeneização cultural, diz-se também daquilo que se é.The discourse for interculturality, by going against the homogenizing forms of different education processes, describes a will to power-knowledge and problematizes dominant experiences of monoculturalist curricula, whilst producing multidimensional subjectivities of class, gender, race, ethnicity, and generation. Under the approach of the Foucauldian analysis of discourse, a study was developed here of the pedagogical line and rules of normatizing of the discursive formation of interculturality in the field of the education of youngsters and adults, with a view to analyze the statements that

  6. Susceptibility of laboratory rodents to Trichinella papuae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadaow, Lakkhana; Intapan, Pewpan M; Boonmars, Thidarut; Morakote, Nimit; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2013-12-01

    Members of the genus Trichinella are small nematodes that can infect a wide range of animal hosts. However, their infectivity varies depending on the parasite and host species combination. In this study, we examined the susceptibility of 4 species of laboratory rodents, i.e., mice, rats, hamsters, and gerbils to Trichinella papuae, an emerging non-encapsulated Trichinella species. Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella pseudospiralis were also included in this study for comparison. Fifteen animals of each rodent species were infected orally with 100 muscle larvae of each Trichinella species. Intestinal worm burden was determined at day 6 and 10 post-inoculation (PI). The numbers of muscle larvae were examined at day 45 PI. The reproductive capacity index (RCI) of the 3 Trichinella species in different rodent hosts was determined. By day 6 PI, 33.2-69.6% of the inoculated larvae of the 3 Trichinella species became adult worms in the small intestines of the host animals. However, in rats, more than 96% of adult worms of all 3 Trichinella species were expelled from the gut by day 10 PI. In gerbils, only 4.8-18.1% of adult worms were expelled by day 10 PI. In accordance with the intestinal worm burden and the persistence of adults, the RCI was the highest in gerbils with values of 241.5±41.0 for T. papuae, 432.6±48 for T. pseudospiralis, and 528.6±20.6 for T. spiralis. Hamsters ranked second and mice ranked third in susceptibility in terms of the RCI, Rats yielded the lowest parasite RCI for all 3 Trichinella species. Gerbils may be an alternative laboratory animal for isolation and maintenance of Trichinella spp.

  7. Fourie susceptible.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Dry beans are an important crop in South Africa with the annual bean consumption being approximately 120 000 t. The crop is annually subjected to a number of biotic constraints such as bacterial diseases that can cause serious yield losses especially when the climate is conducive to diseases. The use of resistant ...

  8. AGING AND SUSCEPTIBILITY TO TOLUENE IN RATS: A PHARMACOKINETIC, BIOMARKER, AND PHYSIOLOGICAL APPROACH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aging adults are a growing segment of the U.S. population and are likely to exhibit increased susceptibility to many environmental toxicants. However, there is little information on the susceptibility of the aged to toxicants. The toxicity of toluene has been well characterized i...

  9. THE SUSCEPTIBILITY OF MICE TO BACTERIAL ENDOTOXINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaedler, Russell W.; Dubos, Rene J.

    1961-01-01

    Albino mice (Rockefeller NCS strain) raised and maintained free of ordinary bacterial pathogens, as well as of intestinal Escherichia coli and of Proteus bacilli, were found to be highly resistant to the lethal effect of bacterial endotoxins. When newborn mice of this NCS colony were nursed by foster mothers from another colony raised under ordinary conditions (SS colony from which the NCS colony was derived), they acquired the intestinal flora of the latter animals and became susceptible to the lethal effects of endotoxins. NCS adult mice could be rendered susceptible to the lethal effect of endotoxins by vaccination with heat killed Gram-negative bacilli. The susceptibility thus induced exhibited a certain degree of specificity for the bacterial strain used in vaccination. Although untreated NCS mice were resistant to the lethal effect of endotoxins, they proved exquisitively susceptible to the infection-enhancing effect of these materials. For example, 1 µg. or less of endotoxin was found sufficient to help establish a rapidly fatal septicemia with Staphylococcus aureus. Small amounts of endotoxin (1 µg. or less), administered alone, caused a marked but transient loss of weight. Vaccination with heat-killed Gram-negative bacilli or with killed BCG increased the resistance of NCS mice to the infection-enhancing effect of small amounts of endotoxin. This protective effect exhibited a certain degree of specificity for the bacterial strain from which the toxin used in the infection-enhancing test was derived. These various findings can be explained by assuming that the pathological effects of endotoxins involve at least two unrelated mechanisms; (a) a primary toxicity illustrated in this study by the loss of weight and enhancement of infection resulting from the injection of small doses of toxin; (b) an immunological reaction with lethal consequences which became manifest only in animals sensitized to the endotoxin by prior exposure to Gram-negative bacilli. PMID

  10. Safety of sublingual immunotherapy Timothy grass tablet in subjects with allergic rhinitis with or without conjunctivitis and history of asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maloney, J; Durham, S; Skoner, D

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with asthma may be more susceptible to adverse events (AEs) with sublingual immunotherapy tablet (SLIT-tablet) treatment, such as severe systemic reactions and asthma-related events. Using data from eight trials of grass SLIT-tablet in subjects with allergic rhinitis with...... with uncontrolled and severe asthma were excluded from the trials. Frequencies for treatment-emergent AEs (TEAEs), local allergic swelling (mouth or throat), systemic allergic reactions, and asthma-related treatment-related AEs (TRAEs) were calculated. RESULTS: Among adults (n = 3314) and children (n = 881), 24......% and 31%, respectively, had reported asthma. No serious local allergic swellings or serious systemic allergic reactions occurred in subjects with asthma treated with SLIT-tablet. There was no evidence of increased TEAEs, systemic allergic reactions, or severe local allergic swellings in adults or children...

  11. Susceptibility to COPD: differential proteomic profiling after acute smoking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza Franciosi

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor for COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, yet only a subset of smokers develops COPD. Family members of patients with severe early-onset COPD have an increased risk to develop COPD and are therefore defined as "susceptible individuals". Here we perform unbiased analyses of proteomic profiles to assess how "susceptible individuals" differ from age-matched "non-susceptible individuals" in response to cigarette smoking. Epithelial lining fluid (ELF was collected at baseline and 24 hours after smoking 3 cigarettes in young individuals susceptible or non-susceptible to develop COPD and older subjects with established COPD. Controls at baseline were older healthy smoking and non-smoking individuals. Five samples per group were pooled and analysed by stable isotope labelling (iTRAQ in duplicate. Six proteins were selected and validated by ELISA or immunohistochemistry. After smoking, 23 proteins increased or decreased in young susceptible individuals, 7 in young non-susceptible individuals, and 13 in COPD in the first experiment; 23 proteins increased or decreased in young susceptible individuals, 32 in young non-susceptible individuals, and 11 in COPD in the second experiment. SerpinB3 and Uteroglobin decreased after acute smoke exposure in young non-susceptible individuals exclusively, whereas Peroxiredoxin I, S100A9, S100A8, ALDH3A1 (Aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1 decreased both in young susceptible and non-susceptible individuals, changes being significantly different between groups for Uteroglobin with iTRAQ and for Serpin B3 with iTRAQ and ELISA measures. Peroxiredoxin I, SerpinB3 and ALDH3A1 increased in COPD patients after smoking. We conclude that smoking induces a differential protein response in ELF of susceptible and non-susceptible young individuals, which differs from patients with established COPD. This is the first study applying unbiased proteomic profiling to unravel the underlying

  12. Microwave susceptibility experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConaghy, C.

    1984-05-29

    In certain experimental environments, systems can be affected or damaged by microwave pulses. I have conducted tests at LLNL to understand the phenomenology of microwave susceptibility of system components and subsystem components. To date, my experiments have concentrated on bipolar transistors, similar to what might be used in discrete analog circuits, and on CMOS RAM chips, which might be used in a computer memory system. I observed a decrease in failure energies for both the transistor and the integrated curcuit as I shortened the microwave pulse width. An S band (2.86 GHz) transmit/receive (T/R) tube has also been tested both at S band and at X band (8.16 GHz). The S band pulse had limitations in rise-time from zero power, which had an effect on the amount of power that could be transmitted through the T/R tube, as much as 0.7% of the incident power passed through the tube. All tests were conducted in closed-waveguide or coax test-fixtures, in contrast to the anechoic chambers utilized by other experimenters. I have used both S band and X band Klystron generators. For very high power (greater than 1 MW), I used an additional pulse-compression cavity at S band. Other subsystem components such as an X band mixer and an X band T/R tube will be tested in the future. 8 references.

  13. [Antimicrobial susceptibility cumulative reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canut-Blasco, Andrés; Calvo, Jorge; Rodríguez-Díaz, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Martínez, Luis

    2016-10-01

    Cumulative reports on antimicrobial susceptibility tests data are important for selecting empirical treatments, as an educational tool in programs on antimicrobial use, and for establishing breakpoints defining clinical categories. These reports should be based on data validated by clinical microbiologists using diagnostic samples (not surveillance samples). In order to avoid a bias derived from including several isolates obtained from the same patient, it is recommended that, for a defined period, only the first isolate is counted. A minimal number of isolates per species should be presented: a figure of >=30 isolates is statistically acceptable. The report is usually presented in a table format where, for each cell, information on clinically relevant microorganisms-antimicrobial agents is presented. Depending on particular needs, multiple tables showing data related to patients, samples, services or special pathogens can be prepared. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  14. Predictive Validity of the Expanded Susceptibility to Smoke Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, David R; Hartman, Sheri J; Nodora, Jesse; Messer, Karen; James, Lisa; White, Martha; Portnoy, David B; Choiniere, Conrad J; Vullo, Genevieve C; Pierce, John

    2015-07-01

    The susceptibility to smoking index can be improved as it only identifies one third of future adult smokers. Adding curiosity to this index may increase the identification of future smokers and improve the identification of effective prevention messages. Analyses used data from the California Longitudinal Study of Smoking Transitions in Youth, for whom tobacco use behaviors, attitudes, and beliefs were assessed at 3 time points from age 12 through early adulthood. Logistic regressions were used to evaluate whether baseline curiosity about smoking was predictive of smoking during the 6-year follow-up period and whether curiosity about smoking provided evidence of incremental validity over existing measures of susceptibility to smoking. Compared to those who were classified as definitely not curious about smoking, teens who were classified as probably not curious (OR adj = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.28-2.81) and those classified as definitely curious (OR adj = 2.38, 95% CI= 1.49-3.79) had an increase in the odds of becoming a young adult smoker. Adding curiosity to the original susceptibility to smoking index increased the sensitivity of the enhanced susceptibility index to 78.9% compared to 62.2% identified by the original susceptibility index. However, a loss of specificity meant there was no improvement in the positive predictive value. The enhanced susceptibility index significantly improves identification of teens at risk for becoming young adult smokers. Thus, this enhanced index is preferred for identifying and testing potentially effective prevention messages. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. [Antimicrobial susceptibility in Chile 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes-D, Marcela; Silva, Francisco; García, Patricia; Bello, Helia; Briceño, Isabel; Calvo-A, Mario; Labarca, Jaime

    2014-04-01

    Bacteria antimicrobial resistance is an uncontrolled public health problem that progressively increases its magnitude and complexity. The Grupo Colaborativo de Resistencia, formed by a join of experts that represent 39 Chilean health institutions has been concerned with bacteria antimicrobial susceptibility in our country since 2008. In this document we present in vitro bacterial susceptibility accumulated during year 2012 belonging to 28 national health institutions that represent about 36% of hospital discharges in Chile. We consider of major importance to report periodically bacteria susceptibility so to keep the medical community updated to achieve target the empirical antimicrobial therapies and the control measures and prevention of the dissemination of multiresistant strains.

  16. [Oxidative stress and susceptibility of periodontal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mei-fang; Huang, Yi-jing; Zhang, Hai-feng; Tang, Wen; Zhou, Jie

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between dietary antioxidant status and susceptibility of periodontal disease in humans. Fifty patients with moderate-to-sever periodontal disease and 50 subjects without periodontal disease were enrolled in this study. Food frequency questionnaire and 72-hour diet recall were conducted to study the dietary pattern and antioxidant nutrients intake in patients and healthy subjects. Nutritional status including vitamins, mineral substance, and antioxidant enzymes in these 2 groups were analyzed in serum and saliva samples by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). SPSS 19.0 software package was used for paired t test. Compared with the control group, the chronic periodontal group had lower levels of potatoes, aquatic product, milk, soy, fresh vegetables, fruit and vitamin supplements intake(Pperiodontal disease group than that in the control group (Pperiodontal group than in the control group (Pperiodontal disease. The antioxidant nutrients may help to protect paradentium. Supported by Research Fund from Shanghai Municipal Health Bureau (20114103).

  17. Acid-inhibitory effects of vonoprazan 20 mg compared with esomeprazole 20 mg or rabeprazole 10 mg in healthy adult male subjects--a randomised open-label cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Y; Mori, Y; Okamoto, H; Nishimura, A; Komura, E; Araki, T; Shiramoto, M

    2015-09-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely used for the treatment of acid-related diseases. Vonoprazan is a member of a new class of acid suppressants; potassium-competitive acid blockers. Vonoprazan may thus be an alternative to PPIs. To evaluate efficacy, rapidity and duration of acid-inhibitory effects of vonoprazan vs. two control PPIs, esomeprazole and rabeprazole, in 20 healthy Japanese adult male volunteers with CYP2C19 extensive metaboliser genotype. In this randomised, open-label, two-period cross-over study, vonoprazan 20 mg and esomeprazole 20 mg (Study V vs. E) or rabeprazole 10 mg (Study V vs. R) were orally administered daily for 7 days. Primary pharmacodynamic endpoint was gastric pH over 24 h measured as percentage of time pH ≥3, ≥4 and ≥5 (pH holding time ratios; HTRs) and mean gastric pH. Acid-inhibitory effect (pH4 HTR) of vonoprazan was significantly greater than that of esomeprazole or rabeprazole on both Days 1 and 7; Day 7 difference in pH4 HTR for vonoprazan vs. esomeprazole was 24.6% [95% confidence interval (CI): 16.2-33.1] and for vonoprazan vs. rabeprazole 28.8% [95% CI: 17.2-40.4]. The Day 1 to Day 7 ratio of 24-h pH4 HTRs was >0.8 for vonoprazan, compared with 0.370 for esomeprazole and 0.393 for rabeprazole. Vonoprazan was generally well tolerated. One vonoprazan subject withdrew due to a rash which resolved after discontinuation. This study demonstrated a more rapid and sustained acid-inhibitory effect of vonoprazan 20 mg vs. esomeprazole 20 mg or rabeprazole 10 mg. Therefore, vonoprazan may be a potentially new treatment for acid-related diseases. © 2015 The Authors. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Suitability of Vitek 2 System in Identification and Susceptibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To verify the accuracy of direct Vitek testing for blood cultures with Gramnegative bacilli. Design: Validation study. Setting: Aga Khan University Hospital Nairobi. Subjects: Twenty two positive blood cultures. Main outcome measures: Correct bacteria identification and errors for susceptibility testing. Results: Of the ...

  19. Antifungal drug susceptibility of Candida albicans | Bii | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the susceptibility of clinical isolates of Candida albicans and to establish the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) to commonly used antifungal drugs. Design: Laboratory based experiment. Setting: Mbagathi District Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Candida albicans isolated between 1998 ...

  20. pso.ATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    isolates vere made using standard methods, Antibiotic susceptibility tests against commonly prescribed ... Acute otitis media is rapid with short .... sensitivity tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests: The antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of major Gram positive and negative bacterial isolates obtained from clinical specimens.

  1. The Psychosocial Experience of High School Girls Highly Susceptible to Stereotype Threat: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picho, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    The author used phenomenology to explore the subjective experience of ninth-grade girls susceptible to mathematics-related stereotype threat in their authentic learning environments. The sample constituted students categorized as either having low or high susceptibility to stereotype threat (SST) enrolled in Honors mathematics classes at an urban…

  2. Fully automated measurement of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility using 3D rotator

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Studýnka, J.; Chadima, Martin; Suza, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 629, 26 August (2014), s. 6-13 ISSN 0040-1951 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : AMS * Kappabridge * susceptibility tensor Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 2.872, year: 2014

  3. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to nine antibiotics currently used in Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giulio, Mara; Di Campli, Emanuela; Di Bartolomeo, Soraya; Cataldi, Valentina; Marzio, Leonardo; Grossi, Laurino; Ciccaglione, Antonio Francesco; Nostro, Antonia; Cellini, Luigina

    2016-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori expresses an increased resistance in respect to antimicrobials currently used in therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial profiles of H. pylori isolates to nine conventional antibiotics used in a Central Region (Abruzzo) of Italy. Biopsies were taken from antrum and fundus of 112 adult and 3 children with Urea Breath Test positive with dyspeptic symptoms and analyzed for H. pylori culture and antibacterial activity. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed for clarithromycin, metronidazole, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, amoxicillin, ampicillin, and rifabutin by a modified agar dilution susceptibility test. Bacterial culture was successful in 100 out of 115 patients. Helicobacter pylori strains were isolated from 98 antrum and 83 fundus samples. The rate of recovery of H. pylori strains was 90.50% (181/200). The percentages of resistance were as follows: clarithromycin 72.44% antrum, 72.28% fundus; metronidazole 34.69% antrum, 42.16% fundus; levofloxacin 42.85% antrum, 53.01% fundus; moxifloxacin 37.35% antrum, 46.57% fundus; ciprofloxacin 39.47% antrum, 44.28% fundus; tetracycline 2.63% antrum, 2.85% fundus; amoxicillin 1.02% antrum, 1.20% fundus; ampicillin 0% antrum and fundus and rifabutin 0% antrum, 1.20% fundus. A total of 35 subjects harbored multi-resistant strains. This study underlines the high rate of resistance to clarithromycin, metronidazole and quinolones, which may reflect an overuse of them. Culture and susceptibility test, should be performed to prevent the emergence of multi-resistance and to assess an efficacious regimen.

  4. Determination of antimicrobial susceptibilities on infected urines without isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picciolo, G. L.; Chappelle, E. W.; Deming, J. W.; Shrock, C. G.; Vellend, H.; Barza, M. J.; Weinstein, L. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for the quick determination of the susceptibilities of various unidentified bacteria contained in an aqueous physiological fluid sample, particularly urine, to one or more antibiotics. A bacterial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) assay is carried out after the elimination of non-bacterial ATP to determine whether an infection exists. If an infection does exist, a portion of the sample is further processed, including subjecting parts of the portion to one or more antibiotics. Growth of the bacteria in the parts are determined, again by an ATP assay, to determine whether the unidentified bacteria in the sample are susceptible to the antibiotic or antibiotics under test.

  5. Comparison of the benefits of cochlear implantation versus contra-lateral routing of signal hearing aids in adult patients with single-sided deafness: study protocol for a prospective within-subject longitudinal trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitterick, Pádraig T; O'Donoghue, Gerard M; Edmondson-Jones, Mark; Marshall, Andrew; Jeffs, Ellen; Craddock, Louise; Riley, Alison; Green, Kevin; O'Driscoll, Martin; Jiang, Dan; Nunn, Terry; Saeed, Shakeel; Aleksy, Wanda; Seeber, Bernhard U

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with a unilateral severe-to-profound hearing loss, or single-sided deafness, report difficulty with listening in many everyday situations despite having access to well-preserved acoustic hearing in one ear. The standard of care for single-sided deafness available on the UK National Health Service is a contra-lateral routing of signals hearing aid which transfers sounds from the impaired ear to the non-impaired ear. This hearing aid has been found to improve speech understanding in noise when the signal-to-noise ratio is more favourable at the impaired ear than the non-impaired ear. However, the indiscriminate routing of signals to a single ear can have detrimental effects when interfering sounds are located on the side of the impaired ear. Recent published evidence has suggested that cochlear implantation in individuals with a single-sided deafness can restore access to the binaural cues which underpin the ability to localise sounds and segregate speech from other interfering sounds. The current trial was designed to assess the efficacy of cochlear implantation compared to a contra-lateral routing of signals hearing aid in restoring binaural hearing in adults with acquired single-sided deafness. Patients are assessed at baseline and after receiving a contra-lateral routing of signals hearing aid. A cochlear implant is then provided to those patients who do not receive sufficient benefit from the hearing aid. This within-subject longitudinal design reflects the expected care pathway should cochlear implantation be provided for single-sided deafness on the UK National Health Service. The primary endpoints are measures of binaural hearing at baseline, after provision of a contra-lateral routing of signals hearing aid, and after cochlear implantation. Binaural hearing is assessed in terms of the accuracy with which sounds are localised and speech is perceived in background noise. The trial is also designed to measure the impact of the interventions on

  6. Acceptability, Safety, and Efficacy of Oral Administration of Extracts of Black or Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii in Adult Human Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Gonzales-Arimborgo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The plant maca, grown at 4000 m altitude in the Peruvian Central Andes, contains hypocotyls that have been used as food and in traditional medicine for centuries. The aim of this research was to provide results on some health effects of oral administration of spray-dried extracts of black or red maca (Lepidium meyenii in adult human subjects living at low (LA and high altitude (HA. A total of 175 participants were given 3 g of either placebo, black, or red maca extract daily for 12 weeks. Primary outcomes were changes in sexual desire, mood, energy, health-related quality of life score (HRQL, and chronic mountain sickness (CMS score, or in glycaemia, blood pressure, and hemoglobin levels. Secondary outcomes were acceptability and safety, assessed using the Likert test and side effect self-recording, respectively, and the effect of altitude. At low altitude, 32, 30, and 32 participants started the study receiving placebo, red maca, or black maca, respectively. At high altitudes, 33, 35, and 31 participants started the study receiving placebo, red maca, and black maca, respectively. Consumption of spray-dried extracts of red and black maca resulted in improvement in mood, energy, and health status, and reduced CMS score. Fatty acids and macamides were higher in spray-dried extracts of black maca than in red maca. GABA predominated in spray-dried extracts of red maca. Effects on mood, energy, and CMS score were better with red maca. Black maca and, in smaller proportions, red maca reduced hemoglobin levels only in highlanders with abnormally high hemoglobin levels; neither variety of maca reduced hemoglobin levels in lowlanders. Black maca reduced blood glucose levels. Both varieties produced similar responses in mood, and HRQL score. Maca extracts consumed at LA or HA had good acceptability and did not show serious adverse effects. In conclusion, maca extract consumption relative to the placebo improved quality of life parameters. Differences in

  7. Acceptability, Safety, and Efficacy of Oral Administration of Extracts of Black or Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii) in Adult Human Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales-Arimborgo, Carla; Yupanqui, Irma; Montero, Elsa; Alarcón-Yaquetto, Dulce E; Zevallos-Concha, Alisson; Caballero, Lidia; Gasco, Manuel; Zhao, Jianping; Khan, Ikhlas A; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2016-08-18

    The plant maca, grown at 4000 m altitude in the Peruvian Central Andes, contains hypocotyls that have been used as food and in traditional medicine for centuries. The aim of this research was to provide results on some health effects of oral administration of spray-dried extracts of black or red maca (Lepidium meyenii) in adult human subjects living at low (LA) and high altitude (HA). A total of 175 participants were given 3 g of either placebo, black, or red maca extract daily for 12 weeks. Primary outcomes were changes in sexual desire, mood, energy, health-related quality of life score (HRQL), and chronic mountain sickness (CMS) score, or in glycaemia, blood pressure, and hemoglobin levels. Secondary outcomes were acceptability and safety, assessed using the Likert test and side effect self-recording, respectively, and the effect of altitude. At low altitude, 32, 30, and 32 participants started the study receiving placebo, red maca, or black maca, respectively. At high altitudes, 33, 35, and 31 participants started the study receiving placebo, red maca, and black maca, respectively. Consumption of spray-dried extracts of red and black maca resulted in improvement in mood, energy, and health status, and reduced CMS score. Fatty acids and macamides were higher in spray-dried extracts of black maca than in red maca. GABA predominated in spray-dried extracts of red maca. Effects on mood, energy, and CMS score were better with red maca. Black maca and, in smaller proportions, red maca reduced hemoglobin levels only in highlanders with abnormally high hemoglobin levels; neither variety of maca reduced hemoglobin levels in lowlanders. Black maca reduced blood glucose levels. Both varieties produced similar responses in mood, and HRQL score. Maca extracts consumed at LA or HA had good acceptability and did not show serious adverse effects. In conclusion, maca extract consumption relative to the placebo improved quality of life parameters. Differences in the level of

  8. Comparison of the benefits of cochlear implantation versus contra-lateral routing of signal hearing aids in adult patients with single-sided deafness: study protocol for a prospective within-subject longitudinal trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Individuals with a unilateral severe-to-profound hearing loss, or single-sided deafness, report difficulty with listening in many everyday situations despite having access to well-preserved acoustic hearing in one ear. The standard of care for single-sided deafness available on the UK National Health Service is a contra-lateral routing of signals hearing aid which transfers sounds from the impaired ear to the non-impaired ear. This hearing aid has been found to improve speech understanding in noise when the signal-to-noise ratio is more favourable at the impaired ear than the non-impaired ear. However, the indiscriminate routing of signals to a single ear can have detrimental effects when interfering sounds are located on the side of the impaired ear. Recent published evidence has suggested that cochlear implantation in individuals with a single-sided deafness can restore access to the binaural cues which underpin the ability to localise sounds and segregate speech from other interfering sounds. Methods/Design The current trial was designed to assess the efficacy of cochlear implantation compared to a contra-lateral routing of signals hearing aid in restoring binaural hearing in adults with acquired single-sided deafness. Patients are assessed at baseline and after receiving a contra-lateral routing of signals hearing aid. A cochlear implant is then provided to those patients who do not receive sufficient benefit from the hearing aid. This within-subject longitudinal design reflects the expected care pathway should cochlear implantation be provided for single-sided deafness on the UK National Health Service. The primary endpoints are measures of binaural hearing at baseline, after provision of a contra-lateral routing of signals hearing aid, and after cochlear implantation. Binaural hearing is assessed in terms of the accuracy with which sounds are localised and speech is perceived in background noise. The trial is also designed to measure the impact of

  9. Susceptibility Genes in Thyroid Autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Ban

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD are complex diseases which are caused by an interaction between susceptibility genes and environmental triggers. Genetic susceptibility in combination with external factors (e.g. dietary iodine is believed to initiate the autoimmune response to thyroid antigens. Abundant epidemiological data, including family and twin studies, point to a strong genetic influence on the development of AITD. Various techniques have been employed to identify the genes contributing to the etiology of AITD, including candidate gene analysis and whole genome screening. These studies have enabled the identification of several loci (genetic regions that are linked with AITD, and in some of these loci, putative AITD susceptibility genes have been identified. Some of these genes/loci are unique to Graves' disease (GD and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT and some are common to both the diseases, indicating that there is a shared genetic susceptibility to GD and HT. The putative GD and HT susceptibility genes include both immune modifying genes (e.g. HLA, CTLA-4 and thyroid specific genes (e.g. TSHR, Tg. Most likely, these loci interact and their interactions may influence disease phenotype and severity.

  10. Predictive Validity of the Expanded Susceptibility to Smoke Index

    OpenAIRE

    Strong, David R.; Hartman, Sheri J.; Nodora, Jesse; Messer, Karen; James, Lisa; White, Martha; Portnoy, David B.; Choiniere, Conrad J.; Vullo, Genevieve C.; Pierce, John

    2014-01-01

    Objectives:The susceptibility to smoking index can be improved as it only identifies one third of future adult smokers. Adding curiosity to this index may increase the identification of future smokers and improve the identification of effective prevention messages.Methods:Analyses used data from the California Longitudinal Study of Smoking Transitions in Youth, for whom tobacco use behaviors, attitudes, and beliefs were assessed at 3 time points from age 12 through early adulthood. Logistic r...

  11. Nanotoxicity Overview: Nano-Threat to Susceptible Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing applications of nanomaterials and nanotechnology, potential danger of nanoparticle exposure has become a critical issue. However, recent nanotoxicity studies have mainly focused on the health risks to healthy adult population. The nanotoxicity effects on susceptible populations (such as pregnant, neonate, diseased, and aged populations have been overlooked. Due to the alterations in physiological structures and functions in susceptible populations, they often suffer more damage from the same exposure. Thus, it is urgent to understand the effects of nanoparticle exposure on these populations. In order to fill this gap, the potential effects of nanoparticles to pregnant females, neonate, diseased, and aged population, as well as the possible underlying mechanisms are reviewed in this article. Investigations show that responses from susceptible population to nanoparticle exposure are often more severe. Reduced protection mechanism, compromised immunity, and impaired self-repair ability in these susceptible populations may contribute to the aggravated toxicity effects. This review will help minimize adverse effects of nanoparticles to susceptible population in future nanotechnology applications.

  12. Susceptibility of Italian populations of Aedes albopictus to temephos and to other insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romi, Roberto; Toma, Luciano; Severini, Francesco; Di Luca, Marco

    2003-12-01

    We evaluated larval and adult susceptibility to 5 insecticides commonly used for control of Aedes albopictus, by using 15 field-collected populations from northern and central Italy, and we compared these data, collected in 2002, with those from evaluations conducted in 1992-93, 1996, and 1998-99. Larvae were tested for susceptibility to temephos and to the conventional diagnostic dosages of chlorpyrifos and fenthion proposed by the World Health Organization for Aedes aegypti. Adults were exposed to the diagnostic dosages of deltamethrin and permethrin. Overall, all of the populations tested in 2002 were still susceptible to temephos: median lethal concentration (LC50) values ranged from 0.0026 to 0.0085 mg/liter, and LC99 values ranged from 0.0093 to 0.023 mg/liter. These populations were also fully susceptible to chlorpyrifos and fenthion, and adults were susceptible to deltamethrin and permethrin. When comparing these data with those from previous evaluations, we observed a slight yet progressive increase in the LC50 and LC99 values of susceptibility to temephos, and these values are approaching the diagnostic dosage of 0.02 mg/liter proposed for Ae. aegypti. However, the implications of these findings need to be considered in light of the results of previous studies that have shown that larval Ae. albopictus are less susceptible than Ae. aegypti to organophosphate insecticides.

  13. Inherited susceptibility and radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, J.B. [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States)

    1997-03-01

    There is continuing concern that some people in the general population may have genetic makeups that place them at particularly high risk for radiation-induced cancer. The existence of such a susceptible subpopulation would have obvious implications for the estimation of risks of radiation exposure. Although it has been long known that familial aggregations of cancer do sometimes occur, recent evidence suggests that a general genetic predisposition to cancer does not exist; most cancers occur sporadically. On the other hand, nearly 10% of the known Mendelian genetic disorders are associated with cancer. A number of these involve a familial predisposition to cancer, and some are characterized by an enhanced susceptibility to the induction of cancer by various physical and chemical carcinogens, including ionizing radiation. Such increased susceptibility will depend on several factors including the frequency of the susceptibility gene in the population and its penetrance, the strength of the predisposition, and the degree to which the cancer incidence in susceptible individuals may be increased by the carcinogen. It is now known that these cancer-predisposing genes may be responsible not only for rare familial cancer syndromes, but also for a proportion of the common cancers. Although the currently known disorders can account for only a small fraction of all cancers, they serve as models for genetic predisposition to carcinogen-induced cancer in the general population. In the present report, the author describes current knowledge of those specific disorders that are associated with an enhanced predisposition to radiation-induced cancer, and discusses how this knowledge may bear on the susceptibility to radiation-induced cancer in the general population and estimates of the risk of radiation exposure.

  14. Ethics of Research Involving Human Subjects in Criminal Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, Seth Allan; Wilkins, Leslie T.

    1977-01-01

    Research in criminal justice involving human subjects has increased greatly, yet we have no code of ethics to guide such research. This paper argues that the primary purpose of a code should be protection of these research subjects, who are especially susceptible to mistreatment because of their prisoner status. (Author)

  15. pitting corrosion susceptibility pitting corrosion susceptibility of aisi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Abstract. The susceptibility of austenitic (AISI 301) stainless steel to pitting corrosion was evaluated in sodium chloride. (NaCl) solutions ... AISI 301 steel suffers from pitting corrosion in all the investigated solutions. AISI 301 steel suffers from ..... [1] Ijeomah, M.N.C. Elements of Corrosion and Protection. Theory, Auto Century ...

  16. Magnetic Susceptability Measurements in Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jason; Mallory, Kendall; Seim, Ryan

    2000-04-01

    A new undergraduate research facility in magnetic susceptability measurements on superconductors is being developed at the University of Northern Colorado. Initial data measurements of the magnetic susceptability of various superconductors will be presented. These measurements were obtained with a liquid helium/nitrogen dewar that was reassembled for use in this project. The cryostat consists of two separate dewars, the first of which contains liquid nitrogen, the second, liquid helium. The liquid nitrogen dewar is used to keep the helium bath from evaporating off too quickly. Data on the evaporation rates of the two liquids will also be presented.

  17. What Does It Take to Be an Adult in Austria? Views of Adulthood in Austrian Adolescents, Emerging Adults, and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirsch, Ulrike; Dreher, Eva; Mayr, Eva; Willinger, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the defining features of emerging adulthood, subjects' conceptions of the transition to adulthood, and the perceived adult status in Austria. The sample consisted of 775 subjects (226 adolescents, 317 emerging adults, 232 adults). Results showed that most Austrian emerging adults feel themselves to be between adolescence…

  18. Association between the dysbindin gene (DTNBP1) and cognitive functions in Japanese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Ryota; Noguchi, Hiroko; Hori, Hiroaki; Ohi, Kazutaka; Yasuda, Yuka; Takeda, Masatoshi; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2009-08-01

    The dysbindin gene (dystrobrevin binding protein 1: DTNBP1) is a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia. Susceptibility genes for schizophrenia have been hypothesized to mediate liability for the disorder at least partly by influencing cognitive performance. This report investigated the relationship between cognitive function and the dysbindin gene. The possible association between a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of DTNBP1 (rs2619539: P1655), which is a risk-independent SNP for schizophrenia in Japanese populations, and memory and IQ was investigated in 70 schizophrenia patients and 165 healthy volunteers in a Japanese population. This SNP was associated with two memory scales, verbal memory and general memory, on the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R), and three subcategories of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), vocabulary, similarities and picture completion in healthy subjects. The SNP, however, did not influence either the indices of WMS-R, IQ or subcategories of WAIS-R in schizophrenia patients. A risk-independent SNP in DTNBP1 may have an impact on cognitive functions such as memory and IQ in healthy subjects.

  19. A landslide susceptibility map of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeckx, Jente; Vanmaercke, Matthias; Duchateau, Rica; Poesen, Jean

    2017-04-01

    Studies on landslide risks and fatalities indicate that landslides are a global threat to humans, infrastructure and the environment, certainly in Africa. Nonetheless our understanding of the spatial patterns of landslides and rockfalls on this continent is very limited. Also in global landslide susceptibility maps, Africa is mostly underrepresented in the inventories used to construct these maps. As a result, predicted landslide susceptibilities remain subject to very large uncertainties. This research aims to produce a first continent-wide landslide susceptibility map for Africa, calibrated with a well-distributed landslide dataset. As a first step, we compiled all available landslide inventories for Africa. This data was supplemented by additional landslide mapping with Google Earth in underrepresented regions. This way, we compiled 60 landslide inventories from the literature (ca. 11000 landslides) and an additional 6500 landslides through mapping in Google Earth (including 1500 rockfalls). Various environmental variables such as slope, lithology, soil characteristics, land use, precipitation and seismic activity, were investigated for their significance in explaining the observed spatial patterns of landslides. To account for potential mapping biases in our dataset, we used Monte Carlo simulations that selected different subsets of mapped landslides, tested the significance of the considered environmental variables and evaluated the performance of the fitted multiple logistic regression model against another subset of mapped landslides. Based on these analyses, we constructed two landslide susceptibility maps for Africa: one for all landslide types and one excluding rockfalls. In both maps, topography, lithology and seismic activity were the most significant variables. The latter factor may be surprising, given the overall limited degree of seismicity in Africa. However, its significance indicates that frequent seismic events may serve as in important

  20. Topological susceptibility from the overlap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Debbio, Luigi; Pica, Claudio

    2003-01-01

    The chiral symmetry at finite lattice spacing of Ginsparg-Wilson fermionic actions constrains the renormalization of the lattice operators; in particular, the topological susceptibility does not require any renormalization, when using a fermionic estimator to define the topological charge. Theref...

  1. Sensibility and Subjectivity: Levinas’ Traumatic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmika Pandya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other. 

  2. Clay mineralogy and magnetic susceptibility of Oxisols in geomorphic surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Arantes Camargo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies analyzing the variability of clay minerals and magnetic susceptibility provide data for the delineation of site-specific management areas since many of their attributes are important to agronomy and the environment. This study aimed to evaluate the spatial variability of clay minerals, magnetic susceptibility, adsorbed phosphorus and physical attributes in Oxisols of sandstones in different geomorphic surfaces. For that purpose, soil samples were collected every 25 m along a transect located within the area where the geomorphic surfaces were identified and mapped. The transect occupied the central portion of 500 ha, where it was also sampled for density purposes with one sample per six hectares. Soil samples were collected at a depth of 0.0-0.2 m. The results of the physical, chemical, mineralogical and magnetic susceptibility analyses were subjected to statistical and geostatistical analyses. The nature of the clay minerals and magnetic susceptibility was dependent on the variation of the soil parent material. High values of magnetic susceptibility were associated with the presence of maghemite and magnetite of coarse size. The spatial variability of crystallinity and the content of Fe oxides, as well as magnetic susceptibility, were dependent on the age of the geomorphic surfaces. The youngest surface had greater spatial variability of these attributes. The iron (goethite and hematite and aluminum (gibbsite oxides in the youngest geomorphic surface influenced the low values of soil density and high values of total pore volume, micropores and P adsorption. The characterization of the spatial variability of Fe oxides and susceptibility allowed for the delineation of homogeneous areas.

  3. Landslide Susceptibility Statistical Methods: A Critical and Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihir, Monika; Malamud, Bruce; Rossi, Mauro; Reichenbach, Paola; Ardizzone, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    Landslide susceptibility assessment, the subject of this systematic review, is aimed at understanding the spatial probability of slope failures under a set of geomorphological and environmental conditions. It is estimated that about 375 landslides that occur globally each year are fatal, with around 4600 people killed per year. Past studies have brought out the increasing cost of landslide damages which primarily can be attributed to human occupation and increased human activities in the vulnerable environments. Many scientists, to evaluate and reduce landslide risk, have made an effort to efficiently map landslide susceptibility using different statistical methods. In this paper, we do a critical and systematic landslide susceptibility literature review, in terms of the different statistical methods used. For each of a broad set of studies reviewed we note: (i) study geography region and areal extent, (ii) landslide types, (iii) inventory type and temporal period covered, (iv) mapping technique (v) thematic variables used (vi) statistical models, (vii) assessment of model skill, (viii) uncertainty assessment methods, (ix) validation methods. We then pulled out broad trends within our review of landslide susceptibility, particularly regarding the statistical methods. We found that the most common statistical methods used in the study of landslide susceptibility include logistic regression, artificial neural network, discriminant analysis and weight of evidence. Although most of the studies we reviewed assessed the model skill, very few assessed model uncertainty. In terms of geographic extent, the largest number of landslide susceptibility zonations were in Turkey, Korea, Spain, Italy and Malaysia. However, there are also many landslides and fatalities in other localities, particularly India, China, Philippines, Nepal and Indonesia, Guatemala, and Pakistan, where there are much fewer landslide susceptibility studies available in the peer-review literature. This

  4. A Heuristic Approach to Global Landslide Susceptibility Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Thomas; Kirschbaum, Dalia B.

    2017-01-01

    Landslides can have significant and pervasive impacts to life and property around the world. Several attempts have been made to predict the geographic distribution of landslide activity at continental and global scales. These efforts shared common traits such as resolution, modeling approach, and explanatory variables. The lessons learned from prior research have been applied to build a new global susceptibility map from existing and previously unavailable data. Data on slope, faults, geology, forest loss, and road networks were combined using a heuristic fuzzy approach. The map was evaluated with a Global Landslide Catalog developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, as well as several local landslide inventories. Comparisons to similar susceptibility maps suggest that the subjective methods commonly used at this scale are, for the most part, reproducible. However, comparisons of landslide susceptibility across spatial scales must take into account the susceptibility of the local subset relative to the larger study area. The new global landslide susceptibility map is intended for use in disaster planning, situational awareness, and for incorporation into global decision support systems.

  5. Behaviorally Assessed Sleep and Susceptibility to the Common Cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Aric A; Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Hall, Martica H; Cohen, Sheldon

    2015-09-01

    Short sleep duration and poor sleep continuity have been implicated in the susceptibility to infectious illness. However, prior research has relied on subjective measures of sleep, which are subject to recall bias. The aim of this study was to determine whether sleep, measured behaviorally using wrist actigraphy, predicted cold incidence following experimental viral exposure. A total of 164 healthy men and women (age range, 18 to 55 y) volunteered for this study. Wrist actigraphy and sleep diaries assessed sleep duration and sleep continuity over 7 consecutive days. Participants were then quarantined and administered nasal drops containing the rhinovirus, and monitored over 5 days for the development of a clinical cold (defined by infection in the presence of objective signs of illness). Logistic regression analysis revealed that actigraphy- assessed shorter sleep duration was associated with an increased likelihood of development of a clinical cold. Specifically, those sleeping cold compared to those sleeping > 7 h per night; those sleeping 6.01 to 7 h were at no greater risk (OR = 1.66; 95% CI 0.40-6.95). This association was independent of prechallenge antibody levels, demographics, season of the year, body mass index, psychological variables, and health practices. Sleep fragmentation was unrelated to cold susceptibility. Other sleep variables obtained using diary and actigraphy were not strong predictors of cold susceptibility. Shorter sleep duration, measured behaviorally using actigraphy prior to viral exposure, was associated with increased susceptibility to the common cold. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  6. Postural control in blind subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vinicius Soares

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze postural control in acquired and congenitally blind adults. Methods: A total of 40 visually impaired adults participated in the research, divided into 2 groups, 20 with acquired blindness and 20 with congenital blindness - 21 males and 19 females, mean age 35.8 ± 10.8. The Brazilian version of Berg Balance Scale and the motor domain of functional independence measure were utilized. Results: On Berg Balance Scale the mean for acquired blindness was 54.0 ± 2.4 and 54.4 ± 2.5 for congenitally blind subjects; on functional independence measure the mean for acquired blind group was 87.1 ± 4.8 and 87.3 ± 2.3 for congenitally blind group. Conclusion: Based upon the scale used the results suggest the ability to control posture can be developed by compensatory mechanisms and it is not affected by visual loss in congenitally and acquired blindness.

  7. Serological Susceptibility to Varicella Among U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement Detainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varan, Aiden K; Lederman, Edith R; Stous, Shanon S; Elson, Diana; Freiman, Jennifer L; Marin, Mona; Lopez, Adriana S; Stauffer, William M; Joseph, Rachael H; Waterman, Stephen H

    2017-01-01

    U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) is responsible for detaining unauthorized aliens during immigration proceedings. During 2014 to 2015, adult ICE detainees at a California facility were invited to complete a survey concerning self-reported varicella history and risk factors. Participants underwent serological testing for varicella-zoster virus (VZV) IgG; susceptible individuals were offered varicella vaccination. Among 400 detainees with available serology results, 48 (12%) were susceptible to varicella. Self-reported varicella history was negatively associated with susceptibility (adjusted odds ratio = 0.16; 95% confidence interval [0.07, 0.35]). Among 196 detainees reporting a positive history, 95% had VZV IgG levels suggestive of varicella immunity. Among 44 susceptible detainees offered vaccination, 86% accepted. Given relatively high varicella susceptibility, targeted screening and vaccination among ICE detainees lacking a positive history might reduce varicella transmission risks.

  8. Phenylketonuria (PKU in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Martínez-Pardo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring phenylketonuria adult patients is an important subject which has created considerable interest in specialized metabolic clinics. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of the experience with these patients in the Unit of Metabolic Diseases at the Hospital Ramon y Cajal; the use of sapropterin in adults is included.

  9. Reducing Susceptibility to Courtesy Stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachleda, Catherine L; El Menzhi, Leila

    2017-04-19

    In light of the chronic shortage of health professionals willing to care for HIV/AIDS patients, and rising epidemics in many Muslim countries, this qualitative study examined susceptibility and resistance to courtesy stigma as experienced by nurses, doctors, and social workers in Morocco. Forty-nine in-depth interviews provided rich insights into the process of courtesy stigma and how it is managed, within the context of interactions with Islam, interactions within the workplace (patients, other health professionals), and interactions outside the workplace (the general public, friends, and family). Theoretically, the findings extend understanding of courtesy stigma and the dirty work literature. The findings also offer practical suggestions for the development of culturally appropriate strategies to reduce susceptibility to courtesy stigmatization. This study represents the first to explore courtesy stigma as a process experienced by health professionals providing HIV/AIDS care in an Islamic country.

  10. Metabolic enzyme polymorphisms and susceptibility to acute leukemia in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Gareth J; Smith, Martyn T

    2002-01-01

    Genetic approaches to understanding the etiology of the acute leukemias are beginning to deliver meaningful insights. Polymorphic variants in xenobiotic metabolizer loci were a natural starting point to study the relevance of these changes. The finding that glutathione S-transferase (GST) T1 null variants increase leukemia risk has implicated oxidative stress in hematopoietic stem cells as an important etiological factor in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The importance of these enzyme systems in handling specific substrates has also been confirmed by the finding of an increased risk of therapy-related leukemia in individuals with underactive variants of GSTP1 who have been exposed to a chemotherapeutic agent metabolized by this enzyme. Benzene is a well-recognized leukemogen, and genetic variants in its metabolic pathway can modulate the risk of leukemia following exposure. In particular, underactive variants of the NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 gene (NQO1) seem to increase the risk of AML. Other enzymes within the pathway are proving more difficult to study because of the absence of variants that significantly affect the biological activity of the enzyme under study. No effect of the myeloperoxidase (MPO) gene variants in altering the risk of AML has been seen in our studies. Another pathway recently shown to be important in determining leukemia risk is folic acid metabolism, particularly important in predisposition to acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). Polymorphic variants of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) which impair its activity have been shown to be associated with a protective effect. This is thought to be due to an increased availability of nucleotide precursors for incorporation into DNA. This finding implicates misincorporation of uracil into DNA as an important mechanism of leukemic change in lymphoid precursors. Future studies will extend these observations but will require biological material collected from large well-controlled epidemiological studies. The technological challenges imposed by the high throughput of samples required by these studies are currently being addressed.

  11. Susceptibility of Adult Mosquitoes to Insecticides in Aqueous Sucrose Baits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    conditions. J. Econ. Entomol. 92: 1266-1273. Müller G. and Y. Schlein. 2006. Sugar questing mosquitoes in arid areas gather on scarce blossoms that can...to feeding responses of western cherry fruit fly Rhagoletis indifferens to spinosad bait. Physiol. Entomol. 34: 163- 173.

  12. Antimycotics susceptibility testing of dermatophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsić-Arsenijević Valentina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatophytes are moulds that produce infections of the skin, hair and nails of humans and animals. The most common forms among these infections are onychomycosis and tinea pedis affecting 20% of world population. These infections are usually chronic. The treatment of dermatophytoses tends to be prolonged partly because available treatments are not very effective. Antifungal drug consumption and public health expenditure are high worldwide, as well as in Serbia. For adequate therapy, it is necessary to prove infection by isolation of dermatophytes and to test the antifungal susceptibility of isolates. Susceptibility testing is important for the resistance monitoring, epidemiological research and to compare in vitro activities of new antifungal agents. The diffusion and dilution methods of susceptibility tests are used, and technical issues of importance for the proper performance and interpretation of test results are published in the document E.DEF 9.1 (EUCAST and M38-A2 (CLSI. The aim of our paper is to promptly inform the public about technical achievements in this area, as well as the new organization of laboratory for medical mycology in our country. The formation of laboratory networks coordinated by the National Reference Laboratory for the cause of mycosis need to enable interlaboratory studies and further standardization of methods for antifungal susceptibility testing of dermatophytes, reproducibility of tests and clinical correlation monitoring (MIK values and clinical outcome of dermatophytosis. The importance of the new organization is expected efficient improvement in the dermatophytosis therapy at home, better quality of patient's life and the reduction of the cost of treatment.

  13. Antibiotic susceptibility of Atopobium vaginae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verschraegen Gerda

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have indicated that a recently described anaerobic bacterium, Atopobium vaginae is associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV. Thus far the four isolates of this fastidious micro-organism were found to be highly resistant to metronidazole and susceptible for clindamycin, two antibiotics preferred for the treatment of BV. Methods Nine strains of Atopobium vaginae, four strains of Gardnerella vaginalis, two strains of Lactobacillus iners and one strain each of Bifidobacterium breve, B. longum, L. crispatus, L. gasseri and L. jensenii were tested against 15 antimicrobial agents using the Etest. Results All nine strains of A. vaginae were highly resistant to nalidixic acid and colistin while being inhibited by low concentrations of clindamycin (range: G. vaginalis strains were also susceptible for clindamycin ( 256 μg/ml but susceptible to clindamycin (0.023 – 0.125 μg/ml. Conclusion Clindamycin has higher activity against G. vaginalis and A. vaginae than metronidazole, but not all A. vaginae isolates are metronidazole resistant, as seemed to be a straightforward conclusion from previous studies on a more limited number of strains.

  14. Back to the Future: Penicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Matthew P; René, Pierre; Cheng, Alexandre P; Lee, Todd C

    2016-12-01

    Widespread penicillin usage rapidly resulted in the emergence of penicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. However, new data suggest that penicillin susceptibility may be in a period of renaissance. The objective of our study was to quantify penicillin resistance in methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bacteremia. We retrospectively reviewed all adult MSSA bacteremia from April 2010 to April 2015 at the McGill University Health Centre (Montreal, QC, Canada). Susceptibility to penicillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) was determined in accordance with the Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. There were 324 unique episodes of MSSA bacteremia. Ninety (28%) isolates were susceptible to penicillin, 229 (71%) to erythromycin, 239 (74%) to clindamycin, and 317 (98%) to TMP-SMX. Isolates that were penicillin resistant were more likely to also be resistant to other antibiotics, but a statistically significant association was apparent only for erythromycin resistance (76/234, 32.2% vs 19/90, 21.1%, P = .04). The median age of patients was 67.5 years (interquartile range 52-78) and overall in-hospital 30-day mortality was 16.3% (53 deaths). After adjustment for patient age, there was no association between penicillin resistance and either intensive care unit admission or death. More than one-quarter of patients with MSSA bacteremia potentially could be treated with parenteral penicillin, which may offer pharmacokinetic advantages over other beta-lactam drugs and potentially improved outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetic Aspects of Susceptibility to Mercury Toxicity: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoli, Virginia; Sprovieri, Francesca

    2017-01-18

    Human exposure to mercury is still a major public health concern. In this context, children have a higher susceptibility to adverse neurological mercury effects, compared to adults with similar exposures. Moreover, there exists a marked variability of personal response to detrimental mercury action, in particular among population groups with significant mercury exposure. New scientific evidence on genetic backgrounds has raised the issue of whether candidate susceptibility genes can make certain individuals more or less vulnerable to mercury toxicity. In this review, the aim is to evaluate a new genetic dimension and its involvement in mercury risk assessment, focusing on the important role played by relevant polymorphisms, located in attractive gene targets for mercury toxicity. Existing original articles on epidemiologic research which report a direct link between the genetic basis of personal vulnerability and different mercury repercussions on human health will be reviewed. Based on this evidence, a careful evaluation of the significant markers of susceptibility will be suggested, in order to obtain a powerful positive "feedback" to improve the quality of life. Large consortia of studies with clear phenotypic assessments will help clarify the "window of susceptibility" in the human health risks due to mercury exposure.

  16. Objective and subjective sleep quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Jennum, Poul Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    and subjective sleep quality during benzodiazepine discontinuation and whether sleep variables were associated with benzodiazepine withdrawal. Eligible patients included adults with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder and long-term use of benzodiazepines in combination...... with antipsychotics. All participants gradually tapered the use of benzodiazepines after randomization to add-on treatment with melatonin versus placebo. Here we report a subsample of 23 patients undergoing sleep recordings (one-night polysomnography) and 55 patients participating in subjective sleep quality ratings....... Melatonin had no effect on objective sleep efficiency, but significantly improved self-reported sleep quality. Reduced benzodiazepine dosage at the 24-week follow-up was associated with a significantly decreased proportion of stage 2 sleep. These results indicate that prolonged-release melatonin has some...

  17. A measure of subjective happiness: Preliminary reliability and construct validation

    OpenAIRE

    Lyubomirsky, S; Lepper, HS

    1999-01-01

    Using a 'subjectivist' approach to the assessment of happiness, a new 4-item measure of global subjective happiness was developed and validated in 14 studies with a total of 2 732 participants. Data was collected in the United States from students on two college campuses and one high school campus, from community adults in two California cities, and from older adults. Students and community adults in Moscow, Russia also participated in this research. Results indicated that the Subjective Happ...

  18. Measurements of temperature dependence of 'localized susceptibility'

    CERN Document Server

    Shiozawa, H; Ishii, H; Takayama, Y; Obu, K; Muro, T; Saitoh, Y; Matsuda, T D; Sugawara, H; Sato, H

    2003-01-01

    The magnetic susceptibility of some rare-earth compounds is estimated by measuring magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) of rare-earth 3d-4f absorption spectra. The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility obtained by the MCD measurement is remarkably different from the bulk susceptibility in most samples, which is attributed to the strong site selectivity of the core MCD measurement.

  19. Phenotype, genotype, and antibiotic susceptibility of Swedish and Thai oral isolates of Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, Susanne; Leonhardt, Åsa; Arirachakaran, Pratanporn; Carlen, Anette; Dahlén, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study investigated phenotypes, virulence genotypes, and antibiotic susceptibility of oral Staphylococcus aureus strains in order to get more information on whether oral infections with this bacterium are associated with certain subtypes or related to an over-growth of the S. aureus variants normally found in the oral cavity of healthy carriers. Materials and methods A total number of 157 S. aureus strains were investigated. Sixty-two strains were isolated from Swedish adults with oral infections, 25 strains were from saliva of healthy Swedish dental students, and 45 strains were from tongue scrapings of HIV-positive subjects in Thailand, and 25 Thai strains from non-HIV controls. The isolates were tested for coagulase, nitrate, arginine, and hemolysin, and for the presence of the virulence genes: hlg, clfA, can, sdrC, sdrD, sdrE, map/eap (adhesins) and sea, seb, sec, tst, eta, etb, pvl (toxins). MIC90 and MIC50 were determined by E-test against penicillin V, oxacillin, amoxicillin, clindamycin, vancomycin, fusidic acid, and cefoxitin. Results While the hemolytic phenotype was significantly (p<0.001) more common among the Thai strains compared to Swedish strains, the virulence genes were found in a similar frequency in the S. aureus strains isolated from all four subject groups. The Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genotype was found in 73–100% of the strains. More than 10% of the strains from Swedish oral infections and from Thai HIV-positives showed low antibiotic susceptibility, most commonly for clindamycin. Only three methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains were identified, two from oral infections and one from a Thai HIV patient. Conclusions S. aureus is occasionally occurring in the oral cavity in both health and disease in Sweden and Thailand. It is therefore most likely that S. aureus in opportunistic oral infections originate from the oral microbiota. S. aureus should be considered in case of oral infections and complaints

  20. Phenotype, genotype, and antibiotic susceptibility of Swedish and Thai oral isolates of Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Blomqvist

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study investigated phenotypes, virulence genotypes, and antibiotic susceptibility of oral Staphylococcus aureus strains in order to get more information on whether oral infections with this bacterium are associated with certain subtypes or related to an over-growth of the S. aureus variants normally found in the oral cavity of healthy carriers. Materials and methods: A total number of 157 S. aureus strains were investigated. Sixty-two strains were isolated from Swedish adults with oral infections, 25 strains were from saliva of healthy Swedish dental students, and 45 strains were from tongue scrapings of HIV-positive subjects in Thailand, and 25 Thai strains from non-HIV controls. The isolates were tested for coagulase, nitrate, arginine, and hemolysin, and for the presence of the virulence genes: hlg, clfA, can, sdrC, sdrD, sdrE, map/eap (adhesins and sea, seb, sec, tst, eta, etb, pvl (toxins. MIC90 and MIC50 were determined by E-test against penicillin V, oxacillin, amoxicillin, clindamycin, vancomycin, fusidic acid, and cefoxitin. Results: While the hemolytic phenotype was significantly (p<0.001 more common among the Thai strains compared to Swedish strains, the virulence genes were found in a similar frequency in the S. aureus strains isolated from all four subject groups. The Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL genotype was found in 73–100% of the strains. More than 10% of the strains from Swedish oral infections and from Thai HIV-positives showed low antibiotic susceptibility, most commonly for clindamycin. Only three methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA strains were identified, two from oral infections and one from a Thai HIV patient. Conclusions: S. aureus is occasionally occurring in the oral cavity in both health and disease in Sweden and Thailand. It is therefore most likely that S. aureus in opportunistic oral infections originate from the oral microbiota. S. aureus should be considered in case of oral

  1. Susceptibility of Aeromonas Hydophila Isolates to Antimicrobial Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Stojanov

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila is a microorganism widely distributed in nature: in water, soil, food. It is also part of the normal bacterial flora of many animals. As an opportune microorganism it is a secondary biological agent that contributes to the occurrence of a fish disease and its deterioration. Frequently, its presence is an indication of bad zoohygiene and zootechnical conditions in fish ponds. Reduced quality and quantity of feed, mechanical injuries, parasitosis, seasonal oscillation in temperature present some of the factors that produce favorable conditions for bacterial proliferation of aeromonas in fish ponds, so clinical symptoms of the disease occur. Aeromonas is almost always present in clinical isolates and may be unjustly accused for bad health of fish. Antibiotic therapy is applied even when the clinical findings are clear, what certainly effects the susceptibility to chemotherapeutics. The subject of our work was bacteriological examination of the material obtained from the carps with the observed skin changes and the carps without these changes. Also, antimicrobial susceptibility of Aeromonas hydrophila was tested. The aim of this research was to determined the presence of Aeromonas hydrophilia in the carp ponds and to test antibiotic susceptibility. The material consisted of the samples from the fish ponds where the carps were with and without changed skin. The method the isolation of Aeromonas hydrophila was used. The diffusion disk technique was used for testing antibiotic susceptibility. The isolates were tested for their susceptibility to Florephenikol, Flumequine, Olaqindox and Oxitetracycline. The obtained results point that antimicrobial susceptibility was the same regardless of the origin of the samples, i.e. the resistance was the same for both groups of samples (the strains isolated from the fish with skin changes and the strains from fish without changes on skin. The strains were highly resistant: 35% were resistant to

  2. Stumbling over obstacles in older adults compared to young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schillings, AM; Mulder, T; Duysens, J

    Falls are a major problem in older adults. Many falls occur because of stumbling. The aim of the present study is to investigate stumbling reactions of older adults and to compare them with young adults. While subjects walked on a treadmill, a rigid obstacle unexpectedly obstructed the forward sway

  3. High Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Young Adults in Ternate, Eastern Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ie, Susan Irawati; Turyadi; Sidarta, Erick; Sadhewa, Arkasha; Purnomo, Gludhug Ariyo; Soedarmono, Yuyun S. M.; Pattiiha, Mochtar Zein; Thedja, Meta Dewi; Harahap, Alida R.; Muljono, David H.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been declining thanks to the universal hepatitis B infant immunization program. Nevertheless, young adults born before the program implementation might have acquired HBV in early childhood or remain susceptible to infection. This study aimed to evaluate hepatitis B epidemiology in asymptomatic young adult population in Ternate, eastern Indonesia. Serum samples of 376 subjects (aged 17–25, mean 19.82 ± 1.69 years; male/female 138/238) were screened for HBV parameters serologically (HBV surface antigen [HBsAg]; its antibody [anti-HBs]; anti-core antigen [anti-HBc]), and molecularly (HBV DNA). HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs, and HBV DNA prevalence were 15.7%, 36.2%, 24.2%, and 27.9%, respectively, with male predominance. Of all subjects, 13.0% were HBsAg negative with detectable HBV DNA (occult hepatitis B [OHB]), and 56.4% showed negativity for all seromarkers. This population showed high hepatitis B prevalence with substantial occurrence of OHB. However, a high percentage of the population were still susceptible and at risk of HBV infection. This study emphasizes the necessity to improve prevention strategies to screen and manage HBV carriers, including the adoption of catch-up or booster vaccination targeted to young adult populations. Investigations on the roles of host-virus interactions associated with OHB and its implications are warranted. PMID:26392157

  4. Genomic analysis suggests higher susceptibility of children to air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Danitsja M; Pedersen, Marie; Hendriksen, Peter J M

    2008-01-01

    Differences in biological responses to exposure to hazardous airborne substances between children and adults have been reported, suggesting children to be more susceptible. Aim of this study was to improve our understanding of differences in susceptibility in cancer risk associated with air...... pollution by comparing genome-wide gene expression profiles in peripheral blood of children and their parents. Gene expression analysis was performed in blood from children and parents living in two different regions in the Czech Republic with different levels of air pollution. Data were analyzed by two...... in relation to air pollution exposure at the transcriptome level. The findings underline the necessity of implementing environmental health policy measures specifically for protecting children's health....

  5. A subjective scheduler for subjective dedicated networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman; Fakhrizal, Said Reza; Al-Akaidi, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    Multiple access technique is one of important techniques within medium access layer in TCP/IP protocol stack. Each network technology implements the selected access method. Priority can be implemented in those methods to differentiate services. Some internet networks are dedicated for specific purpose. Education browsing or tutorial video accesses are preferred in a library hotspot, while entertainment and sport contents could be subjects of limitation. Current solution may use IP address filter or access list. This paper proposes subjective properties of users or applications are used for priority determination in multiple access techniques. The NS-2 simulator is employed to evaluate the method. A video surveillance network using WiMAX is chosen as the object. Subjective priority is implemented on WiMAX scheduler based on traffic properties. Three different traffic sources from monitoring video: palace, park, and market are evaluated. The proposed subjective scheduler prioritizes palace monitoring video that results better quality, xx dB than the later monitoring spots.

  6. Multiple HLA Epitopes Contribute to Type 1 Diabetes Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roark, Christina L.; Anderson, Kirsten M.; Simon, Lucas J.; Schuyler, Ronald P.; Aubrey, Michael T.; Freed, Brian M.

    2014-01-01

    Disease susceptibility for type 1 diabetes is strongly associated with the inheritance of specific HLA alleles. However, conventional allele frequency analysis can miss HLA associations because many alleles are rare. In addition, disparate alleles that have similar peptide-binding sites, or shared epitopes, can be missed. To identify the HLA shared epitopes associated with diabetes, we analyzed high-resolution genotyping for class I and class II loci. The HLA epitopes most strongly associated with susceptibility for disease were DQB1 A57, DQA1 V76, DRB1 H13, and DRB1 K71, whereas DPB1 YD9,57, HLA-B C67, and HLA-C YY9,116 were more weakly associated. The HLA epitopes strongly associated with resistance were DQB1 D57, DQA1 Y80, DRB1 R13, and DRB1 A71. A dominant resistance phenotype was observed for individuals bearing a protective HLA epitope, even in the presence of a susceptibility epitope. In addition, an earlier age of disease onset correlated with significantly greater numbers of susceptibility epitopes and fewer resistance epitopes (P epitopes was higher in patients than in control subjects and was not exclusively a result of linkage disequilibrium, suggesting that multiple HLA epitopes may work together to increase the risk of developing diabetes. PMID:24357703

  7. EVALUATION OF VITEK 2 SYSTEM FOR CLINICAL IDENTIFICATION OF CANDIDA SPECIES AND THEIR ANTIFUNGAL SUSCEPTIBILITY TEST

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan; Ram Murugan

    2016-01-01

    BJECTIVES 1. To evaluate the Vitek 2 system for clinical identification of Candida species and their antifungal susceptibility test; 2. To study the incidence of various types of Candida species in this part of Tamilnadu. METHODS Samples collected from different wards were subjected for culture, isolation and identification of Candida Species and Antifungal Susceptibility testing by Vitek System. Vitek 2 test was carried out in Apollo Specialty Hospital Lab Services, Madurai....

  8. The influence of chronic renal failure on the spectrum and antimicrobial susceptibility of uropathogens in community-acquired acute pyelonephritis presenting as a positive urine culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Ho

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of chronic renal failure (CRF in the antimicrobial resistance of uropathogens in patients with community-acquired acute pyelonephritis (APN remains poorly understood. Method We performed a retrospective analysis of 502 adults (54 men, 448 women; mean age 61.7 ± 16.0 years, range 18-98 years who were treated for community-acquired APN at Kosin University Gospel Hospital (Busan, Republic of Korea during a ten-year period (January 2000 to December 2009. We evaluated the spectra and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of uropathogens in CRF and non-CRF patients with community-acquired APN that presented as a positive urine culture. Results The 502 adult subjects were classified as either non-CRF APN patients (336 patients, 66.9% or CRF APN patients (166 patients, 33.1% according to their estimated glomerular filtration rate. No significant differences in the sensitivity of E. coli to a third cephalosporin, aminoglycoside (except gentamycin, or ciprofloxacin were observed between non-CRF and CRF patients. Conclusions In our series of patients with community-acquired APN that initially presented as a positive urine culture, CRF did not influence the isolation rates of different uropathogens or their patterns of susceptibility to antimicrobials.

  9. Candida and candidaemia. Susceptibility and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2013-11-01

    specific incidence rate was comparable in children and the younger adults with that in the other Nordic countries it was notably higher in the elderly population. This in combination with the fact that it is increasing specifically in the elderly men and that the incidence rates in the Nordic countries were comparable two decades back suggest that host specific factors including antifungal consumption rather than genetic differences in susceptibility to fungaemia account for the differences, and hence that it is possibly modifiable by implementing relevant measures. Hence, it was important to investigate the underlying clinical conditions and diagnostic factors and the outcome in Danish patients with fungaemia. In this study we demonstrated that two thirds of the patients had received abdominal surgery or intensive care treatment prior to the development of the fungaemia, a proportion that is higher than in most other studies. We also demonstrated that unless surveillance cultures are handled with careful attention the detection of non-C. albicans may go unnoticed which imply a risk of inappropriate treatment in cases involving intrinsically resistant species. Finally, we demonstrated the necessity of using a fungal blood culture flask in addition to the conventional aerobic and anaerobic ones if all C. glabrata infections (BACTEC) and all polymicrobial infections (BacT/ALERT) are to be diagnosed. Hence close monitoring with the use of improved diagnostic options (such as frequent BC including a mycosis bottle, surveillance cultures and mannan antigen and antibody screening) of particularly ICU and abdominal surgery patients may help better identify patients with fungaemia and allow early treatment. With respect to treatment and outcome we found that the fluconazole resistant species C. glabrata, C. krusei and S. cerevisiae were significantly more common in patients exposed to at least 7 days of antifungal prophylaxis (mainly fluconazole). We also demonstrated that a

  10. Susceptibility of the aging Brown Norway rat to carbaryl, an anti-cholinesterase-based insecticide: Thermoregulatory and cardiovascular responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The proportion of aged in the United States is projected to expand markedly for the next several decades. Hence, the U.S.EPA is assessing if the aged are more susceptible to environmental toxicants. The thermoregulatory and cardiovascular responses of young adult, mature adult, a...

  11. HYPERTENSIVE NIGERIAN ADULTS -- A Preliminary Report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjects: Normotensive. non-diabetic. non-obese adolescents/young adult offsprings of known adult hypertensives. receiving in-patient care. Controls had similar characteristics but born to normotensive adults. Design: Prospective. cross-sectional involving 42 subjects and 50 controls. Results: Mean age of the 42 study ...

  12. Early-life environment influencing susceptibility to cytomegalovirus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Maier, A B; Slagbom, P E

    2012-01-01

    genetically informative cohorts. From the Leiden Longevity Study (LLS) we selected long-lived sib-pairs (n=844) and their middle-aged offspring and the offspring's partners (n=1452). From the Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins (LSADT) 604 (302 pairs) same-sex monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins...... number for partners was 71% (Penvironment accounts for the similarity within twin pairs. Our findings suggest that susceptibility to CMV infection......--even under continuous within-partnership exposure--appears to be more strongly influenced by early-life environment than by genetic factors and adult environment....

  13. Cannabis-related episodic memory deficits and hippocampal morphological differences in healthy individuals and schizophrenia subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew J; Cobia, Derin J; Reilly, James L; Gilman, Jodi M; Roberts, Andrea G; Alpert, Kathryn I; Wang, Lei; Breiter, Hans C; Csernansky, John G

    2015-09-01

    Cannabis use has been associated with episodic memory (EM) impairments and abnormal hippocampus morphology among both healthy individuals and schizophrenia subjects. Considering the hippocampus' role in EM, research is needed to evaluate the relationship between cannabis-related hippocampal morphology and EM among healthy and clinical groups. We examined differences in hippocampus morphology between control and schizophrenia subjects with and without a past (not current) cannabis use disorder (CUD). Subjects group-matched on demographics included 44 healthy controls (CON), 10 subjects with a CUD history (CON-CUD), 28 schizophrenia subjects with no history of substance use disorders (SCZ), and 15 schizophrenia subjects with a CUD history (SCZ-CUD). Large-deformation, high-dimensional brain mapping with MRI produced surface-based representations of the hippocampus that were compared across all four groups and correlated with EM and CUD history. Surface maps of the hippocampus were generated to visualize morphological differences. CON-CUD and SCZ-CUD were characterized by distinct cannabis-related hippocampal shape differences and parametric deficits in EM performance. Shape differences observed in CON-CUD were associated with poorer EM performance, while shape differences observed in SCZ-CUD were associated with a longer duration of CUD and shorter duration of CUD remission. A past history of CUD may be associated with notable differences in hippocampal morphology and EM impairments among adults with and without schizophrenia. Although the results may be compatible with a causal hypothesis, we must consider that the observed cannabis-related shape differences in the hippocampus could also be explained as biomarkers of a neurobiological susceptibility to poor memory or the effects of cannabis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The Moderating Role of Age-Group Identification and Perceived Threat on Stereotype Threat among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sonia K.; Chasteen, Alison L.

    2009-01-01

    Although research has shown that older adults are negatively affected by aging stereotypes, relatively few studies have attempted to identify those older adults who may be especially susceptible to these effects. The current research takes steps toward identifying older adults most susceptible to the effects of stereotype threat and investigates…

  15. Susceptibility of the Plum Curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar, to Entomopathogenic Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Mizell, Russell F; Campbell, James F

    2002-09-01

    The plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar, is a major pest of pome and stone fruit. Our objective was to determine virulence and reproductive potential of six commercially available nematode species in C. nenuphar larvae and adults. Nematodes tested were Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Hb strain), H. marelatus (Point Reyes strains), H. megidis (UK211 strain), Steinernema riobrave (355 strain), S. carpocapsae (All strain), and S. feltiae (SN strain). Survival of C. nenuphar larvae treated with S. feltiae and S. riobrave, and survival of adults treated with S. carpocapsae and S. riobrave, was reduced relative to non-treated insects. Other nematode treatments were not different from the control. Conotrachelus nenuphar larvae were more susceptible to S. feltiae infection than were adults, but for other nematode species there was no significant insect-stage effect. Reproduction in C. nenuphar was greatest for H. marelatus, which produced approximately 10,000 nematodes in larvae and 5,500 in adults. Other nematodes produced approximately 1,000 to 3,700 infective juveniles per C. nenuphar with no significant differences among nematode species or insect stages. We conclude that S. carpocapsae or S. riobrave appears to have the most potential for controlling adults, whereas S. feltiae or S. riobrave appears to have the most potential for larval control.

  16. Phishing suspiciousness in older and younger adults: The role of executive functioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon E Gavett

    Full Text Available Phishing is the spoofing of Internet websites or emails aimed at tricking users into entering sensitive information, with such goals as financial or identity theft. The current study sought to determine whether age is associated with increased susceptibility to phishing and whether tests of executive functioning can predict phishing susceptibility. A total of 193 cognitively intact participants, 91 younger adults and 102 older adults, were primarily recruited through a Psychology department undergraduate subject pool and a gerontology research registry, respectively. The Executive Functions Module from the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery and the Iowa Gambling Task were the primary cognitive predictors of reported phishing suspiciousness. Other predictors included age group (older vs. younger, sex, education, race, ethnicity, prior knowledge of phishing, prior susceptibility to phishing, and whether or not browsing behaviors were reportedly different in the laboratory setting versus at home. A logistic regression, which accounted for a 22.7% reduction in error variance compared to the null model and predicted phishing suspiciousness with 73.1% (95% CI [66.0, 80.3] accuracy, revealed three statistically significant predictors: the main effect of education (b = 0.58, SE = 0.27 and the interactions of age group with prior awareness of phishing (b = 2.31, SE = 1.12 and performance on the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery Mazes test (b = 0.16, SE = 0.07. Whether or not older adults reported being suspicious of the phishing attacks used in this study was partially explained by educational history and prior phishing knowledge. This suggests that simple educational interventions may be effective in reducing phishing vulnerability. Although one test of executive functioning was found useful for identifying those at risk of phishing susceptibility, four tests were not found to be useful; these results speak to the need for more ecologically valid

  17. Phishing suspiciousness in older and younger adults: The role of executive functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rui; John, Samantha E.; Bussell, Cara A.; Roberts, Jennifer R.; Yue, Chuan

    2017-01-01

    Phishing is the spoofing of Internet websites or emails aimed at tricking users into entering sensitive information, with such goals as financial or identity theft. The current study sought to determine whether age is associated with increased susceptibility to phishing and whether tests of executive functioning can predict phishing susceptibility. A total of 193 cognitively intact participants, 91 younger adults and 102 older adults, were primarily recruited through a Psychology department undergraduate subject pool and a gerontology research registry, respectively. The Executive Functions Module from the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery and the Iowa Gambling Task were the primary cognitive predictors of reported phishing suspiciousness. Other predictors included age group (older vs. younger), sex, education, race, ethnicity, prior knowledge of phishing, prior susceptibility to phishing, and whether or not browsing behaviors were reportedly different in the laboratory setting versus at home. A logistic regression, which accounted for a 22.7% reduction in error variance compared to the null model and predicted phishing suspiciousness with 73.1% (95% CI [66.0, 80.3]) accuracy, revealed three statistically significant predictors: the main effect of education (b = 0.58, SE = 0.27) and the interactions of age group with prior awareness of phishing (b = 2.31, SE = 1.12) and performance on the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery Mazes test (b = 0.16, SE = 0.07). Whether or not older adults reported being suspicious of the phishing attacks used in this study was partially explained by educational history and prior phishing knowledge. This suggests that simple educational interventions may be effective in reducing phishing vulnerability. Although one test of executive functioning was found useful for identifying those at risk of phishing susceptibility, four tests were not found to be useful; these results speak to the need for more ecologically valid tools in

  18. Respiratory infections precede adult-onset asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aino Rantala

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Respiratory infections in early life are associated with an increased risk of developing asthma but there is little evidence on the role of infections for onset of asthma in adults. The objective of this study was to assess the relation of the occurrence of respiratory infections in the past 12 months to adult-onset asthma in a population-based incident case-control study of adults 21-63 years of age. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We recruited all new clinically diagnosed cases of asthma (n = 521 during a 2.5-year study period and randomly selected controls (n = 932 in a geographically defined area in South Finland. Information on respiratory infections was collected by a self-administered questionnaire. The diagnosis of asthma was based on symptoms and reversible airflow obstruction in lung function measurements. The risk of asthma onset was strongly increased in subjects who had experienced in the preceding 12 months lower respiratory tract infections (including acute bronchitis and pneumonia with an adjusted odds ratio (OR 7.18 (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.16-9.99, or upper respiratory tract infections (including common cold, sinusitis, tonsillitis, and otitis media with an adjusted OR 2.26 (95% CI 1.72-2.97. Individuals with personal atopy and/or parental atopy were more susceptible to the effects of respiratory infections on asthma onset than non-atopic persons. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides new evidence that recently experienced respiratory infections are a strong determinant for adult-onset asthma. Reducing such infections might prevent onset of asthma in adulthood, especially in individuals with atopy or hereditary propensity to it.

  19. Common variants in CASP3 confer susceptibility to Kawasaki disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onouchi, Yoshihiro; Ozaki, Kouichi; Buns, Jane C; Shimizu, Chisato; Hamada, Hiromichi; Honda, Takafumi; Terai, Masaru; Honda, Akihito; Takeuchi, Takashi; Shibuta, Shoichi; Suenaga, Tomohiro; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Higashi, Kouji; Yasukawa, Kumi; Suzuki, Yoichi; Sasago, Kumiko; Kemmotsu, Yasushi; Takatsuki, Shinichi; Saji, Tsutomu; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Nagai, Toshiro; Hamamoto, Kunihiro; Kishi, Fumio; Ouchi, Kazunobu; Sato, Yoshitake; Newburger, Jane W; Baker, Annette L; Shulman, Stanford T; Rowley, Anne H; Yashiro, Mayumi; Nakamura, Yoshikazu; Wakui, Keiko; Fukushima, Yoshimitsu; Fujino, Akihiro; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Kawasaki, Tomisaku; Hata, Akira; Nakamura, Yusuke; Tanaka, Toshihiro

    2010-07-15

    Kawasaki disease (KD; OMIM 611775) is an acute vasculitis syndrome which predominantly affects small- and medium-sized arteries of infants and children. Epidemiological data suggest that host genetics underlie the disease pathogenesis. Here we report that multiple variants in the caspase-3 gene (CASP3) that are in linkage disequilibrium confer susceptibility to KD in both Japanese and US subjects of European ancestry. We found that a G to A substitution of one commonly associated SNP located in the 5' untranslated region of CASP3 (rs72689236; P = 4.2 x 10(-8) in the Japanese and P = 3.7 x 10(-3) in the European Americans) abolished binding of nuclear factor of activated T cells to the DNA sequence surrounding the SNP. Our findings suggest that altered CASP3 expression in immune effecter cells influences susceptibility to KD.

  20. Susceptibility to declarative memory interference is pronounced in primary insomnia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Griessenberger

    Full Text Available Sleep has been shown to stabilize memory traces and to protect against competing interference in both the procedural and declarative memory domain. Here, we focused on an interference learning paradigm by testing patients with primary insomnia (N = 27 and healthy control subjects (N = 21. In two separate experimental nights with full polysomnography it was revealed that after morning interference procedural memory performance (using a finger tapping task was not impaired in insomnia patients while declarative memory (word pair association was decreased following interference. More specifically, we demonstrate robust associations of central sleep spindles (in N3 with motor memory susceptibility to interference as well as (cortically more widespread fast spindle associations with declarative memory susceptibility. In general the results suggest that insufficient sleep quality does not necessarily show up in worse overnight consolidation in insomnia but may only become evident (in the declarative memory domain when interference is imposed.

  1. Recent developments in machine learning applications in landslide susceptibility mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lun, Na Kai; Liew, Mohd Shahir; Matori, Abdul Nasir; Zawawi, Noor Amila Wan Abdullah

    2017-11-01

    While the prediction of spatial distribution of potential landslide occurrences is a primary interest in landslide hazard mitigation, it remains a challenging task. To overcome the scarceness of complete, sufficiently detailed geomorphological attributes and environmental conditions, various machine-learning techniques are increasingly applied to effectively map landslide susceptibility for large regions. Nevertheless, limited review papers are devoted to this field, particularly on the various domain specific applications of machine learning techniques. Available literature often report relatively good predictive performance, however, papers discussing the limitations of each approaches are quite uncommon. The foremost aim of this paper is to narrow these gaps in literature and to review up-to-date machine learning and ensemble learning techniques applied in landslide susceptibility mapping. It provides new readers an introductory understanding on the subject matter and researchers a contemporary review of machine learning advancements alongside the future direction of these techniques in the landslide mitigation field.

  2. Bioavailability of two oral suspension and two oral tablet formulations of acyclovir 400 mg: two single-dose, open-label, randomized, two-period crossover comparisons in healthy Mexican adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma-Aguirre, Jose Antonio; Absalón-Reyes, Jose Antonio; Novoa-Heckel, Germán; de Lago, Alberto; Oliva, Iván; Rodríguez, Zulema; González-de la Parra, Mario; Burke-Fraga, Victoria; Namur, Salvador

    2007-06-01

    Acyclovir is an important antiviral drug, used extensively for treatment of herpes simplex and varicella zoster. Six oral generic formulations of acyclovir are available in Mexico; however, a literature search failed to identify data information concerning the bioavailability of these formulations in the Mexican population. The aim of these 2 studies was to compare the bioavailability of 4 oral formulations of acyclovir 400 mg--2 tablet formulations and 2 suspension formulations--with their corresponding listed drug references in Mexico (a list issued by Mexican Health Authorities). Two separate, single-dose, open-label, randomized, 2-period crossover studies were conducted at the Centro de Estudios Científicos y Clínicos Pharma, S.A. de C.V. (clinical unit), Mexico City, Mexico. For each study, a different set of eligible subjects were selected. They included healthy Mexican volunteers of either sex. For each study, subjects were randomly assigned to receive 1 test formulation of acyclovir 400 mg followed by the reference formulation, or vice versa, with a 1-week washout period between doses. After a 12-hour (overnight) fast, subjects received a single 400-mg dose (tablet or 10-mL suspension) of the corresponding formulation. For the analysis of pharmacokinetic properties, including C(max), AUC from time 0 (baseline) to time t (AUC(0-t)), and AUC from baseline to infinity (AUC(0-infinity)), blood samples were drawn at baseline, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25, 1.5, 1.75, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 hours after dosing. The formulations were considered bioequivalent if the natural logarithm (ln)-transformed ratios of Cmax and AUC were within the predetermined equivalence range of 80% to 125% and if P healthy subjects, single, 400-mg doses of the test brand of acyclovir administered either in tablet or suspension form, appeared to be bioequivalent to the reference brand based on the rate and extent of absorption in accordance with the definition of the US Food and Drug

  3. L’environnement optimal d’apprentissage : contribution de la recherche empirique sur les déterminants psychologiques de l’expérience positive subjective aux sciences de l’éducation et de la formation des adultes.

    OpenAIRE

    Heutte, Jean

    2017-01-01

    International audience; En tant que pionnier de la recherche empirique sur les déterminants psychologiques de l’expérience positive subjective, via l’élaboration de la théorie de l’autotélisme- flow, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi est l’inspirateur de la psychologie positive. Afin de mieux illustrer la portée de cette théorie majeure de la psychologie scientifique contemporaine, nous mettrons en lumière son importante contribution à la recherche fondamentale en sciences de l’éducation et de la forma...

  4. Dermatophyte susceptibility varies towards antimicrobial textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Timo R; Mucha, Helmut; Hoefer, Dirk

    2012-07-01

    Dermatophytoses are a widespread problem worldwide. Textiles in contact with infected skin can serve as a carrier for fungus propagation. Hitherto, it is unknown, whether antifungal textiles could contribute in controlling dermatophytes e.g. by disrupting the chain of infection. Testing of antimicrobial fabrics for their antifungal activities therefore is a fundamental prerequisite to assess the putative clinical relevance of textiles for dermatophyte prevention. Fabrics finished with either didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC), poly-hexamethylenbiguanide, copper and two silver chloride concentrations were tested for their antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Candida albicans. To prove dermatophyte susceptibility towards the textiles, swatches were subjected to DIN EN 14199 (Trichophyton sp.) or DIN EN ISO 20743 (C. albicans) respectively. In addition, samples were embedded, and semi-thin sections were analysed microscopically. While all samples showed a clear inhibition of C. albicans, activity against Trichophyton sp. varied significantly: For example, DDAC completely inhibited T. rubrum growth, whereas T. mentagrophytes growth remained unaffected even in direct contact to the fibres. The results favour to add T. mentagrophytes as a test organism in textile dermatophyte efficacy tests. Microscopic analysis of swatches allowed detailed evaluation of additional parameters like mycelium thickness, density and hyphae penetration depth into the fabric. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. A necdin/MAGE-like gene in the chromosome 15 autism susceptibility region: expression, imprinting, and mapping of the human and mouse orthologues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bischof Jocelyn M

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proximal chromosome 15q is implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders including Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes, autistic disorder and developmental abnormalities resulting from chromosomal deletions or duplications. A subset of genes in this region are subject to genomic imprinting, the expression of the gene from only one parental allele. Results We have now identified the NDNL2 (also known as MAGE-G gene within the 15q autistic disorder susceptibility region and have mapped its murine homolog to the region of conserved synteny near necdin (Ndn on mouse Chr 7. NDNL2/MAGE-G is a member of a large gene family that includes the X-linked MAGE cluster, MAGED1 (NRAGE, MAGEL2 and NDN, where the latter two genes are implicated in Prader-Willi syndrome. We have now determined that NDNL2/Ndnl2 is widely expressed in mouse and human fetal and adult tissues, and that it is apparently not subject to genomic imprinting by the PWS/AS Imprinting Center. Conclusion Although NDNL2/MAGE-G in the broadly defined chromosome 15 autistic disorder susceptibility region, it is not likely to be pathogenic based on its wide expression pattern and lack of imprinted expression.

  6. Genetic susceptibility to environmental toxicants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    The toxicological challenges to the chemical industry have in recent years been greatly affected by the rapid innovation and development of analytical, molecular and genetic technologies. ECETOC recognises the importance of developing the technical and intellectual skill bases in academia...... and industrial based laboratories to meet the rapid development of the science base of toxicology. As the technology to determine genetic susceptibility develops, so scientist will be able to describe altered gene expression provoked by chemicals long before they are able to offer valid interpretations...... of their meaning. A potential for inadvertently raising concerns over the effect of chemicals in experimental animals or man, or even the intentional misrepresentation of results to suggest chemicals are “playing” with our genes is enormous. History has shown that some individuals and groups in society are willing...

  7. Illusory recollection in older adults and younger adults under divided attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Erin I; Fernandes, Myra A

    2009-03-01

    The authors investigated the effect of divided attention, study-list repetition, and age on recollection and familiarity. Older and younger adults under full attention and younger adults under divided attention at study viewed word lists highly associated with a single unstudied word (critical lure) once or three times, and subsequently performed a remember-know recognition test. Younger adults made fewer false remember responses to critical lures from repeated study lists, whereas younger adults under divided attention and older adults both showed an increase with repetition. Findings suggest older adults' susceptibility to illusory memories is related to a deficit in available attention during encoding.

  8. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions, and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must...

  9. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    2014-01-01

    Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must ...

  10. Subjective meaning: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen-Huitink, Janneke; van Wijbergen-Huitink, Janneke; Meier, Cécile

    This introductory chapter traces some of the considerations on the basis of which relativistic approaches to subjective meaning became en vogue. In doing so, the chapter provides an overview of the relevant linguistic and philosophical issues when developing a treatment of subjectivity. In addition,

  11. Subjective safety in traffic.