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Sample records for susceptibility test system

  1. Susceptibility Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marker Bicarbonate (Total CO2) Bilirubin Blood Culture Blood Gases Blood Ketones Blood Smear Blood Typing Blood Urea ... hours depending on the method used. There are commercial tests available that offer rapid susceptibility testing and ...

  2. suitability of vitek 2 system in identification and susceptibility testing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-04-01

    Apr 1, 2014 ... susceptibility testing (AST) of bacteria from blood are ... This process ... This was a method validation study carried out at .... testing: Of the 19 cultures with AST by direct Vitek, three had discrepancies for some antibiotics.

  3. New method for rapid Susceptibility Testing on blood culture with HB&L system: preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Rondinelli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood culture, although represents the gold standard in detecting the ethiological agent of sepsis, is rather rarely required in relation to the real diagnostic importance. The result of this test depends in fact on many factors (sample volume, time of collection, accuracy, antibiotic therapy, contamination, number of drawings, drawing site, interpretation difficulties, etc. that are often considered by many clinicians so limited as to doubt about their actual value. The disadvantages are therefore represented by the lack of standardization but also by the low sensitivity and above all by the technical times too long for the clinical needs. Blood culture begins with the drawing of samples from the “septic” patient followed incubation of the bottles in automatic thermostated systems. In case of positive result (36 hours, the culture is Gram stained and streaked on solid media in order to obtain isolated colonies for the identification and the susceptibility testing (48 hours from positive result. The long time required for pathogen identification and susceptibility testing involves empirical broad spectrum antibiotic therapy that can promote the increase of bacterial resistance but also patient management costs. A clinically useful report should be available on short notice in order to guide the clinician to choose the most appropriate antibiotic. The microbiologist has therefore the hard work of reviewing the organization and the management of the procedures.We have therefore started to consider the possibility of treating the blood as an biological liquid in order to quickly determine the susceptibility of bacteria to antibiotics.

  4. Family system characteristics and psychological adjustment to cancer susceptibility genetic testing: a prospective study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostrom, I.I.H. van; Meijers-Heijboer, H.; Duivenvoorden, H.J.; Brocker-Vriends, A.H.; Asperen, C.J. van; Sijmons, R.H.; Seynaeve, C.; Gool, A.R. van; Klijn, J.G.M.; Tibben, A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined prospectively the contribution of family functioning, differentiation to parents, family communication and support from relatives to psychological distress in individuals undergoing genetic susceptibility testing for a known familial pathogenic BRCA1/2 or Hereditary nonpolyposis

  5. Family system characteristics and psychological adjustment to cancer susceptibility genetic testing: a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, I.; Meijers-Heijboer, H.; Duivenvoorden, H. J.; Bröcker-Vriends, A. H. J. T.; van Asperen, C. J.; Sijmons, R. H.; Seynaeve, C.; van Gool, A. R.; Klijn, J. G. M.; Tibben, A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined prospectively the contribution of family functioning, differentiation to parents, family communication and support from relatives to psychological distress in individuals undergoing genetic susceptibility testing for a known familial pathogenic BRCA1/2 or Hereditary nonpolyposis

  6. Family system characteristics and psychological adjustment to cancer susceptibility genetic testing : a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, I.; Meijers-Heijboer, H.; Duivenvoorden, H. J.; Brocker-Vriends, A. H. J. T.; van Asperen, C. J.; Sijmons, R. H.; Seynaeve, C.; Van Gool, A. R.; Klijn, J. G. M.; Tibben, A.

    This study examined prospectively the contribution of family functioning, differentiation to parents, family communication and support from relatives to psychological distress in individuals undergoing genetic susceptibility testing for a known familial pathogenic BRCA1/2 or Hereditary nonpolyposis

  7. Evaluation of MGIT 960 System for the Second-Line Drugs Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyejin Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many laboratories validate DST of the second-line drugs by BACTEC MGIT 960 system. The objective of this study is to evaluate the critical concentration and perform DST for the 2nd line drugs. We evaluated 193 clinical strains of M. tuberculosis isolated from patients in South Korea. Testing the critical concentration of six second-line drugs was performed by MGIT 960 and compared with L-J proportion method. The critical concentration was determined to establish the most one that gave the difference between drug resistance and susceptibility in MGIT960 system. Good agreement of the following concentrations was found: Concordance was 95% for 0.5 μg/mL of moxifloxacin; 93.6%, 1.0 μg/mL of levofloxacin; 97.5%, 2.5 μg/mL of kanamycin; 90.6%, 2.5 μg/mL of capreomycin; 86.2%, 5.0 μg/mL of ethionamide; and 90.8%, 2.0 μg/mL of ρ-aminosalicylic acid. The critical concentrations of the four drugs, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, kanamycin, and capreomycin, were concordant and reliable for testing 2nd line drug resistance. Further study of ethionamide and ρ-aminosalicylic acid is required.

  8. A Low Cost/Low Power Open Source Sensor System for Automated Tuberculosis Drug Susceptibility Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyukwang Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research an open source, low power sensor node was developed to check the growth of mycobacteria in a culture bottle with a nitrate reductase assay method for a drug susceptibility test. The sensor system reports the temperature and color sensor output frequency change of the culture bottle when the device is triggered. After the culture process is finished, a nitrite ion detecting solution based on a commercial nitrite ion detection kit is injected into the culture bottle by a syringe pump to check bacterial growth by the formation of a pigment by the reaction between the solution and the color sensor. Sensor status and NRA results are broadcasted via a Bluetooth low energy beacon. An Android application was developed to collect the broadcasted data, classify the status of cultured samples from multiple devices, and visualize the data for the end users, circumventing the need to examine each culture bottle manually during a long culture period. The authors expect that usage of the developed sensor will decrease the cost and required labor for handling large amounts of patient samples in local health centers in developing countries. All 3D-printerable hardware parts, a circuit diagram, and software are available online.

  9. Evaluation of an Automated System for Reading and Interpreting Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Fastidious Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idelevich, Evgeny A; Becker, Karsten; Schmitz, Janne; Knaack, Dennis; Peters, Georg; Köck, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Results of disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility testing depend on individual visual reading of inhibition zone diameters. Therefore, automated reading using camera systems might represent a useful tool for standardization. In this study, the ADAGIO automated system (Bio-Rad) was evaluated for reading disk diffusion tests of fastidious bacteria. 144 clinical isolates (68 β-haemolytic streptococci, 28 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 18 viridans group streptococci, 13 Haemophilus influenzae, 7 Moraxella catarrhalis, and 10 Campylobacter jejuni) were tested on Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with 5% defibrinated horse blood and 20 mg/L β-NAD (MH-F, Oxoid) according to EUCAST. Plates were read manually with a ruler and automatically using the ADAGIO system. Inhibition zone diameters, indicated by the automated system, were visually controlled and adjusted, if necessary. Among 1548 isolate-antibiotic combinations, comparison of automated vs. manual reading yielded categorical agreement (CA) without visual adjustment of the automatically determined zone diameters in 81.4%. In 20% (309 of 1548) of tests it was deemed necessary to adjust the automatically determined zone diameter after visual control. After adjustment, CA was 94.8%; very major errors (false susceptible interpretation), major errors (false resistant interpretation) and minor errors (false categorization involving intermediate result), calculated according to the ISO 20776-2 guideline, accounted to 13.7% (13 of 95 resistant results), 3.3% (47 of 1424 susceptible results) and 1.4% (21 of 1548 total results), respectively, compared to manual reading. The ADAGIO system allowed for automated reading of disk diffusion testing in fastidious bacteria and, after visual validation of the automated results, yielded good categorical agreement with manual reading.

  10. Antianaerobic Antimicrobials: Spectrum and Susceptibility Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wexler, Hannah M.; Goldstein, Ellie J. C.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria recovered from selected cases can influence the choice of antimicrobial therapy. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) has standardized many laboratory procedures, including anaerobic susceptibility testing (AST), and has published documents for AST. The standardization of testing methods by the CLSI allows comparisons of resistance trends among various laboratories. Susceptibility testing should be performed on organisms recovered from sterile body sites, those that are isolated in pure culture, or those that are clinically important and have variable or unique susceptibility patterns. Organisms that should be considered for individual isolate testing include highly virulent pathogens for which susceptibility cannot be predicted, such as Bacteroides, Prevotella, Fusobacterium, and Clostridium spp.; Bilophila wadsworthia; and Sutterella wadsworthensis. This review describes the current methods for AST in research and reference laboratories. These methods include the use of agar dilution, broth microdilution, Etest, and the spiral gradient endpoint system. The antimicrobials potentially effective against anaerobic bacteria include beta-lactams, combinations of beta-lactams and beta-lactamase inhibitors, metronidazole, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, macrolides, tetracyclines, and fluoroquinolones. The spectrum of efficacy, antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, and resistance patterns against these agents are described. PMID:23824372

  11. Real-Time Optical Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredborg, Marlene; Andersen, Klaus R; Jørgensen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing is in highly demand in health-care fields as antimicrobial resistant bacterial strains emerge and spread. Here we describe an optical screening system (oCelloScope), which based on time-lapse imaging of 96 bacteria-antibiotic combinations at a time......, introduces real-time detection of bacterial growth and antimicrobial susceptibility, with imaging material to support the automatically generated graphs. Automated antibiotic susceptibility tests of a monoculture showed statistically significant antibiotic effect within 6 minutes and within 30 minutes...... from multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria. The oCelloScope system can be employed for a broad range of applications within bacteriology and may present new vistas as a point-of-care instrument in both clinical and veterinarian settings....

  12. Evaluation of the automated system Vitek2 for identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Brazilian Gram-positive cocci strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Alves d'Azevedo

    Full Text Available Automated instruments offer many advantages for clinical laboratories. Nevertheless, they can have problems identifying and determining susceptibilities of some pathogens. Vitek® 2 (bioMérieux is an automated system that was recently introduced to Brazil. We evaluated the performance of this equipment for Brazilian isolates that had been characterized using reference identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods. Ninety-nine strains of Gram-positive cocci from a local reference center collection were analyzed, consisting of 50 coagulasenegative Staphylococcus (CoNS and 49 Enterococcus and related species. Vitek® 2 correctly identified 79.8% (79/99 of the isolates. Oxacillin resistance was detected in 76% (19/25 of resistant S. epidermidis strains and in 88% (22/25 of other resistant CoNS species strains. Vancomycin resistance was detected in 100% (20/20 of resistant Enterococcus and related species strains. Vitek® 2 performed very well for the identification of S. epidermidis and non-epidermidis staphylococci, and for the detection of vancomycin resistance in Enterococcus and related species. However, the system needs improvement in order to provide reliable results for the characterization of some CoNS species, identification of Enterococcus and related species and for detecting oxacillin resistance in CoNS.

  13. A rapid culture system uninfluenced by an inoculum effect increases reliability and convenience for drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yong-Gyun; Kim, Hyejin; Lee, Sangyeop; Kim, Suyeoun; Jo, EunJi; Kim, Eun-Geun; Choi, Jungil; Kim, Hyun Jung; Yoo, Jungheon; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Haeun; Jung, Hyunju; Ryoo, Sungweon; Kwon, Sunghoon

    2018-06-05

    The Disc Agarose Channel (DAC) system utilizes microfluidics and imaging technologies and is fully automated and capable of tracking single cell growth to produce Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) drug susceptibility testing (DST) results within 3~7 days. In particular, this system can be easily used to perform DSTs without the fastidious preparation of the inoculum of MTB cells. Inoculum effect is one of the major problems that causes DST errors. The DAC system was not influenced by the inoculum effect and produced reliable DST results. In this system, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the first-line drugs were consistent regardless of inoculum sizes ranging from ~10 3 to ~10 8 CFU/mL. The consistent MIC results enabled us to determine the critical concentrations for 12 anti-tuberculosis drugs. Based on the determined critical concentrations, further DSTs were performed with 254 MTB clinical isolates without measuring an inoculum size. There were high agreement rates (96.3%) between the DAC system and the absolute concentration method using Löwenstein-Jensen medium. According to these results, the DAC system is the first DST system that is not affected by the inoculum effect. It can thus increase reliability and convenience for DST of MTB. We expect that this system will be a potential substitute for conventional DST systems.

  14. Comparison of the Cathra Repliscan II, the AutoMicrobic system Gram-Negative General Susceptibility-Plus Card, and the Micro-Media System Fox Panel for dilution susceptibility testing of gram-negative bacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiber, N E; Kelly, M T; Latimer, J M; Tison, D L; Hysmith, R M

    1985-06-01

    A comparative evaluation was done to test the accuracy of the Cathra Repliscan II agar dilution system (Diagnostic Equipment, Inc., St. Paul, Minn.), the AutoMicrobic system with Gram-Negative General Susceptibility-Plus Card (Vitek Systems, Inc., Hazelwood, Mo.), and the Micro-Media Fox Panel micro broth dilution system (Micro-Media Systems, Inc., San Jose, Calif.) in determining MICs of 12 antibiotics for 200 gram-negative bacilli. Of the 200 strains tested, 12 isolates did not grow in one of the three systems. The 188 remaining organisms included 158 members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, 20 Pseudomonas spp., 5 Acinetobacter sp., 3 Aeromonas spp., and 2 Vibrio spp. A total of 2,256 organism-antibiotic combinations were analyzed for each system. An MIC was considered correct if two of the three systems were in agreement. When disagreements occurred, correct MICs were determined by the standard agar dilution method. With this criterion, overall agreements of the Cathra Repliscan II system, AutoMicrobic system, and Micro-Media Fox Panel system were 94.7, 94.9, and 95.5%, respectively. Tetracycline (20%), nitrofurantoin (20%), and ampicillin (16%) accounted for 56% of the discrepancies observed. These results indicate that all three systems perform with a high degree of accuracy for susceptibility testing of gram-negative bacilli.

  15. Direct identification and susceptibility testing of positive blood cultures using high speed cold centrifugation and Vitek II system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzi, Ali M; Rabaan, Ali A; Fawarah, Mahmoud M; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A

    Compared to routine isolated colony-based methods, direct testing of bacterial pellets from positive blood cultures reduces turnaround time for reporting of antibiotic susceptibility. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy, and precision, of a rapid method for direct identification and susceptibility testing of blood cultures with the routine method used in our laboratory, using Vitek 2. A total of 60 isolates were evaluated using the candidate and the routine method. The candidate method had 100% accuracy for the identification of Gram negative bacteria, Staphylococcus and Enterococcus, 50% for Streptococcus and 33.3% for Corynebacterium species. Susceptibility testing of Gram negative isolates yielded 98-100% essential agreement. For Staphylococcus and Enterococcus isolates, essential agreement was 100% for 17 antibiotics except for moxifloxacin. Direct testing of blood culture samples with Vitek 2 produced reliable identification and susceptibility results 18-24h sooner for aerobic/anaerobic facultative Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive Staphylococcus and Enterococcus strains. Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Microfluidics for Antibiotic Susceptibility and Toxicity Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Dai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The recent emergence of antimicrobial resistance has become a major concern for worldwide policy makers as very few new antibiotics have been developed in the last twenty-five years. To prevent the death of millions of people worldwide, there is an urgent need for a cheap, fast and accurate set of tools and techniques that can help to discover and develop new antimicrobial drugs. In the past decade, microfluidic platforms have emerged as potential systems for conducting pharmacological studies. Recent studies have demonstrated that microfluidic platforms can perform rapid antibiotic susceptibility tests to evaluate antimicrobial drugs’ efficacy. In addition, the development of cell-on-a-chip and organ-on-a-chip platforms have enabled the early drug testing, providing more accurate insights into conventional cell cultures on the drug pharmacokinetics and toxicity, at the early and cheaper stage of drug development, i.e., prior to animal and human testing. In this review, we focus on the recent developments of microfluidic platforms for rapid antibiotics susceptibility testing, investigating bacterial persistence and non-growing but metabolically active (NGMA bacteria, evaluating antibiotic effectiveness on biofilms and combinatorial effect of antibiotics, as well as microfluidic platforms that can be used for in vitro antibiotic toxicity testing.

  17. WHO global salm-surv external quality assurance system (EQAS): an important step toward improving the quality of Salmonella serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, A.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Angulo, F. J.

    2002-01-01

    % of the results were correct. For susceptibility testing, 92% of the results were in agreement with the expected results. However, only 78% of the performed tests with the E. coli ATCC 25922 reference strain were within the quality control range specified by National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards...... susceptibility testing through international training courses and an External Quality Assurance System (EQAS). In 2000, 44 WHO Global Salm-Surv member laboratories from 35 countries determined the serotype and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern for eight "blinded" Salmonella isolates. For serotyping, 73...... (NCCLS) guidelines. These EQAS results demonstrate the need for further training to improve the performance of some of the laboratories. WHO Global Salm-Surv activities, including international training courses and EQAS, represent an important step toward improving the quality of Salmonella serotyping...

  18. Susceptibility testing of Entamoeba histolytica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cedeno, J.R.; Krogstad, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    The growth of Entamoeba histolytica in microtiter plates in vitro in a variety of environments with reduced oxygen tensions is reported. With 3% O 2 , 3% CO 2 , and 94% N 2 , the parasite growth in microtiter plates was identical to that in screw-capped culture tubes, as measured by [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation and by quantitative parasite counts. There were no significant differences between the drug concentrations necessary to inhibit parasite growth by 50% based on [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation vs those defined by quantitative parasite counts for the 15 antimicrobial agents tested (including seven drugs used for the treatment of amebiasis). This technique provides a reproducible method to quantitate the activity of potential antiamebic agents in vitro. The isotopic method should be of particular value in defining the metabolism of the parasite and effects of antimicrobial agents on it, whereas the morphologic method may be more valuable for workers with limited resources available to them

  19. Results of Use of WHO Global Salm-Surv External Quality Assurance System for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Salmonella Isolates from 2000 to 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Rene S.; Seyfarth, Anne Mette; Jensen, Arne Bent

    2009-01-01

    laboratories in 102 countries participated in at least one EQAS iteration. A large number of laboratories reported results for the E. coli ATCC 25922 reference strain which were outside the quality control ranges. Critical deviations for susceptibility testing of the Salmonella isolates varied from 4% in 2000......An international External Quality Assurance System (EQAS) for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Salmonella was initiated in 2000 by the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Salm-Surv in order to enhance the capacities of national reference laboratories to obtain reliable data....... In particular, further training and dissemination of information on quality control, appropriate interpretive criteria (breakpoints), and harmonization of the methodology worldwide through WHO Global Salm-Surv and other programs will contribute to the generation of comparable and reliable antimicrobial...

  20. Susceptibility testing of fish cell lines for virus isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariel, Ellen; Skall, Helle Frank; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    and laboratories, but also between lineages of the same cell line. To minimise the occurrence of false negatives in a cell culture based surveillance system, we have investigated methods, to select cell lineages that are relatively superior in their susceptibility to a panel of virus isolates. The procedures...... cell lineages, we increased the number of isolates of each virus, propagated stocks in a given cell line and tested all lineages of that line in use in the laboratory. Testing of relative cell line susceptibility between laboratories is carried out annually via the Inter-laboratory Proficiency Test...... sensitivity for surveillance purposes within a cell line and between laboratories.In terms of economic and practical considerations as well as attempting to approach a realistic test system, we suggest the optimal procedure for susceptibility testing of fish cell lines for virus isolation to be a combination...

  1. Evaluation of the PREVI® Isola automated seeder system compared to reference manual inoculation for antibiotic susceptibility testing by the disk diffusion method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Page, S; van Belkum, A; Fulchiron, C; Huguet, R; Raoult, D; Rolain, J-M

    2015-09-01

    The disk diffusion (DD) method remains the most popular manual technique for antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) in clinical microbiology laboratories. This is because of its simplicity, reproducibility, and limited cost compared to (automated) microdilution systems, which are usually less sensitive at detecting certain important mechanisms of resistance. Here, we evaluate the PREVI® Isola automated seeder system using a new protocol for spreading bacterial suspensions (eight deposits of calibrated inocula of bacteria, followed by two rounds of rotation) in comparison with manual DD reference testing on a large series of clinical and reference strains. The average time required for seeding one agar plate for DD with this new protocol was 51 s per plate, i.e., 70 agar plates/h. Reproducibility and repeatability was assessed on three reference and three randomly chosen clinical strains, as usually requested by the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST), and was excellent compared to the manual method. The standard deviations of zones of growth inhibition showed no statistical discrimination. The correlation between the two methods, assessed using 294 clinical isolates and a panel of six antibiotics (n = 3,528 zones of growth inhibition measured), was excellent, with a correlation coefficient of 0.977. The new PREVI® Isola protocol adapted for DD had a sensitivity of 99 % and a specificity of 100 % compared to the manual technique for interpreting DD as recommended by the EUCAST.

  2. Comparison of the Vitek 2 yeast susceptibility system with CLSI microdilution for antifungal susceptibility testing of fluconazole and voriconazole against Candida spp., using new clinical breakpoints and epidemiological cutoff values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, Michael A; Diekema, Daniel J; Procop, Gary W; Rinaldi, Michael G

    2013-09-01

    A commercially available, fully automated yeast susceptibility test system (Vitek 2; bioMérieux, Marcy d'Etoile, France) was compared in 3 different laboratories with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) reference microdilution (BMD) method by testing 2 quality control strains, 10 reproducibility strains, and 425 isolates of Candida spp. against fluconazole and voriconazole. Reference CLSI BMD MIC endpoints and Vitek 2 MIC endpoints were read after 24 hours and 9.1-27.1 hours incubation, respectively. Excellent essential agreement (within 2 dilutions) between the reference and Vitek 2 MICs was observed for fluconazole (97.9%) and voriconazole (96.7%). Categorical agreement (CA) between the 2 methods was assessed using the new species-specific clinical breakpoints (CBPs): susceptible (S) ≤2 μg/mL, susceptible dose-dependent (SDD) 4 μg/mL, and resistant (R) ≥8 μg/mL for fluconazole and Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida parapsilosis and ≤32 μg/mL (SDD), ≥64 μg/mL (R) for Candida glabrata; S ≤0.12 μg/mL, SDD 0.25-0.5 μg/mL, R ≥1 μg/mL for voriconazole and C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis, and ≤0.5 μg/mL (S), 1 μg/mL (SDD), ≥2 μg/mL (R) for Candida krusei. The epidemiological cutoff value (ECV) of 0.5 μg/mL for voriconazole and C. glabrata was used to differentiate wild-type (WT; MIC ≤ ECV) from non-WT (MIC > ECV) strains of this species. Due to the lack of CBPs for the less common species, the ECVs for fluconazole and voriconazole, respectively, were used for Candida lusitaniae (2 μg/mL and 0.03 μg/mL), Candida dubliniensis (0.5 μg/mL and 0.03 μg/mL), Candida guilliermondii (8 μg/mL and 0.25 μg/mL), and Candida pelliculosa (4 μg/mL and 0.25 μg/mL) to categorize isolates of these species as WT and non-WT. CA between the 2 methods was 96.8% for fluconazole and 96.5% for voriconazole with less than 1% very major errors and 1.3-3.0% major errors. The Vitek 2 yeast susceptibility system

  3. Multiple Genetic Analysis System-Based Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing in Helicobacter pylori and High Eradication Rate With Phenotypic Resistance-Guided Quadruple Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Fangyuan; Ji, Danian; Huang, Renxiang; Zhang, Fan; Huang, Yiqin; Xiang, Ping; Kong, Mimi; Nan, Li; Zeng, Xianping; Wu, Yong; Bao, Zhijun

    2015-11-01

    Antibiotics resistance in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the major factor for eradication failure. Molecular tests including fluorescence in situ hybridization, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism, and dual priming oligonucleotide-PCR (DPO-PCR) play critical roles in the detection of antibiotic susceptibility; however, limited knowledge is known about application of multiple genetic analysis system (MGAS) in the area of H. pylori identification and antibiotics resistance detection.The aim of this study is to determine the antibiotics resistance using different molecular tests and evaluate the treatment outcomes of E-test-based genotypic resistance.A total of 297 patients with dyspepsia complaint were recruited for gastroscopies. Ninety patients with H. pylori culture positive were randomly divided into 2 groups (test group and control group). E-test, general PCR, and MGAS assay were performed in test group. Patients in control group were treated with empirical therapy (rabeprazole + bismuth potassium citrate + amoxicillin [AMX] + clarithromycin [CLR]), whereas patients in test group received quadruple therapy based on E-test results twice daily for 14 consecutive days. The eradication effect of H. pylori was confirmed by C-urea breath test after at least 4 weeks when treatment was finished.Rapid urease test showed 46.5% (128/297) patients with H. pylori infection, whereas 30.3% (90/297) patients were H. pylori culture positive. E-test showed that H. pylori primary resistance rate to CLR, AMX, metronidazole, tetracycline, and levofloxacin (LVX) was 40.0% (18/45), 4.4% (2/45), 53.3% (24/45), 0% (0/45), and 55.6% (25/45), respectively. In addition, there are many multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotypes, and the MDR strains have higher minimum inhibitory concentration than their single-drug resistant counterparts. Considering E-test as the reference test, the sensitivities of general PCR and MGAS in detecting CLR resistance were 83.3% (15/18) and 94.4% (17

  4. Drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to fluoroquinolones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, I S; Larsen, A R; Sandven, P

    2003-01-01

    In the first attempt to establish a quality assurance programme for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to fluoroquinolones, 20 strains with different fluoroquinolone susceptibility patterns were distributed by the Supranational Reference Laboratory in Stockholm to the other...

  5. Awareness of Cancer Susceptibility Genetic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Phuong L.; Vadaparampil, Susan Thomas; Breen, Nancy; McNeel, Timothy S.; Wideroff, Louise; Graubard, Barry I.

    2014-01-01

    Background Genetic testing for several cancer susceptibility syndromes is clinically available; however, existing data suggest limited population awareness of such tests. Purpose To examine awareness regarding cancer genetic testing in the U.S. population aged ≥25 years in the 2000, 2005, and 2010 National Health Interview Surveys. Methods The weighted percentages of respondents aware of cancer genetic tests, and percent changes from 2000–2005 and 2005–2010, overall and by demographic, family history, and healthcare factors were calculated. Interactions were used to evaluate the patterns of change in awareness between 2005 and 2010 among subgroups within each factor. To evaluate associations with awareness in 2005 and 2010, percentages were adjusted for covariates using multiple logistic regression. The analysis was performed in 2012. Results Awareness decreased from 44.4% to 41.5% (pAwareness increased between 2005 and 2010 in most subgroups, particularly among individuals in the South (p-interaction=0.03) or with a usual place of care (p-interaction=0.01). In 2005 and 2010, awareness was positively associated with personal or family cancer history and high perceived cancer risk, and inversely associated with racial/ethnic minorities, age 25–39 or ≥60 years, male gender, lower education and income levels, public or no health insurance, and no provider contact in 12 months. Conclusions Despite improvement from 2005 to 2010, ≤50% of the U.S. adult population was aware of cancer genetic testing in 2010. Notably, disparities persist for racial/ethnic minorities and individuals with limited health care access or income. PMID:24745633

  6. Rapid Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Using Forward Laser Light Scatter Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Randall T; Clinton, Lani K; Hewitt, Carolyn; Koyamatsu, Terri; Sun, Yilun; Jamison, Ginger; Perkins, Rosalie; Tang, Li; Pounds, Stanley; Bankowski, Matthew J

    2016-11-01

    The delayed reporting of antimicrobial susceptibility testing remains a limiting factor in clinical decision-making in the treatment of bacterial infection. This study evaluates the use of forward laser light scatter (FLLS) to measure bacterial growth for the early determination of antimicrobial susceptibility. Three isolates each (two clinical isolates and one reference strain) of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were tested in triplicate using two commercial antimicrobial testing systems, the Vitek2 and the MicroScan MIC panel, to challenge the BacterioScan FLLS. The BacterioScan FLLS showed a high degree of categorical concordance with the commercial methods. Pairwise comparison with each commercial system serving as a reference standard showed 88.9% agreement with MicroScan (two minor errors) and 72.2% agreement with Vitek (five minor errors). FLLS using the BacterioScan system shows promise as a novel method for the rapid and accurate determination of antimicrobial susceptibility. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Same day identification and full panel antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacteria from positive blood culture bottles made possible by a combined lysis-filtration method with MALDI-TOF VITEK mass spectrometry and the VITEK2 system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Machen

    Full Text Available Rapid identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of microorganisms causing bloodstream infections or sepsis have the potential to improve patient care. This proof-of-principle study evaluates the Lysis-Filtration Method for identification as well as antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacteria directly from positive blood culture bottles in a clinical setting. A total of 100 non-duplicated positive blood cultures were tested and 1012 microorganism-antimicrobial combinations were assessed. An aliquot of non-charcoal blood culture broth was incubated with lysis buffer briefly before being filtered and washed. Microorganisms recovered from the filter membrane were first identified by using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight VITEK® Mass Spectrometry (VITEK MS. After quick identification from VITEK MS, filtered microorganisms were inoculated to VITEK®2 system for full panel antimicrobial susceptibility testing analysis. Of 100 bottles tested, the VITEK MS resulted in 94.0% correct organism identification to the species level. Compared to the conventional antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods, direct antimicrobial susceptibility testing from VITEK®2 resulted in 93.5% (946/1012 category agreement of antimicrobials tested, with 3.6% (36/1012 minor error, 1.7% (7/1012 major error, and 1.3% (13/1012 very major error of antimicrobials. The average time to identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was 11.4 hours by using the Lysis-Filtration method for both VITEK MS and VITEK®2 compared to 56.3 hours by using conventional methods (p<0.00001. Thus, the same-day results of microorganism identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing directly from positive blood culture can be achieved and can be used for appropriate antibiotic therapy and antibiotic stewardship.

  8. Same Day Identification and Full Panel Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Bacteria from Positive Blood Culture Bottles Made Possible by a Combined Lysis-Filtration Method with MALDI-TOF VITEK Mass Spectrometry and the VITEK2 System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machen, Alexandra; Drake, Tim; Wang, Yun F. (Wayne)

    2014-01-01

    Rapid identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of microorganisms causing bloodstream infections or sepsis have the potential to improve patient care. This proof-of-principle study evaluates the Lysis-Filtration Method for identification as well as antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacteria directly from positive blood culture bottles in a clinical setting. A total of 100 non-duplicated positive blood cultures were tested and 1012 microorganism-antimicrobial combinations were assessed. An aliquot of non-charcoal blood culture broth was incubated with lysis buffer briefly before being filtered and washed. Microorganisms recovered from the filter membrane were first identified by using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight VITEK® Mass Spectrometry (VITEK MS). After quick identification from VITEK MS, filtered microorganisms were inoculated to VITEK®2 system for full panel antimicrobial susceptibility testing analysis. Of 100 bottles tested, the VITEK MS resulted in 94.0% correct organism identification to the species level. Compared to the conventional antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods, direct antimicrobial susceptibility testing from VITEK®2 resulted in 93.5% (946/1012) category agreement of antimicrobials tested, with 3.6% (36/1012) minor error, 1.7% (7/1012) major error, and 1.3% (13/1012) very major error of antimicrobials. The average time to identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was 11.4 hours by using the Lysis-Filtration method for both VITEK MS and VITEK®2 compared to 56.3 hours by using conventional methods (p<0.00001). Thus, the same-day results of microorganism identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing directly from positive blood culture can be achieved and can be used for appropriate antibiotic therapy and antibiotic stewardship. PMID:24551067

  9. Caspofungin Etest susceptibility testing of Candida species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Pfaller, Michael A; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of caspofungin Etest and the recently revised CLSI breakpoints. A total of 497 blood isolates, of which 496 were wild-type isolates, were included. A total of 65/496 susceptible isolates (13.1%) were misclassified as intermediate (I) or re...

  10. Same day identification and full panel antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacteria from positive blood culture bottles made possible by a combined lysis-filtration method with MALDI-TOF VITEK mass spectrometry and the VITEK2 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machen, Alexandra; Drake, Tim; Wang, Yun F Wayne

    2014-01-01

    Rapid identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of microorganisms causing bloodstream infections or sepsis have the potential to improve patient care. This proof-of-principle study evaluates the Lysis-Filtration Method for identification as well as antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacteria directly from positive blood culture bottles in a clinical setting. A total of 100 non-duplicated positive blood cultures were tested and 1012 microorganism-antimicrobial combinations were assessed. An aliquot of non-charcoal blood culture broth was incubated with lysis buffer briefly before being filtered and washed. Microorganisms recovered from the filter membrane were first identified by using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight VITEK® Mass Spectrometry (VITEK MS). After quick identification from VITEK MS, filtered microorganisms were inoculated to VITEK®2 system for full panel antimicrobial susceptibility testing analysis. Of 100 bottles tested, the VITEK MS resulted in 94.0% correct organism identification to the species level. Compared to the conventional antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods, direct antimicrobial susceptibility testing from VITEK®2 resulted in 93.5% (946/1012) category agreement of antimicrobials tested, with 3.6% (36/1012) minor error, 1.7% (7/1012) major error, and 1.3% (13/1012) very major error of antimicrobials. The average time to identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was 11.4 hours by using the Lysis-Filtration method for both VITEK MS and VITEK®2 compared to 56.3 hours by using conventional methods (pdirectly from positive blood culture can be achieved and can be used for appropriate antibiotic therapy and antibiotic stewardship.

  11. Susceptibility Testing of Medically Important Parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetu Bayih, Abebe; Debnath, Anjan; Mitre, Edward; Huston, Christopher D; Laleu, Benoît; Leroy, Didier; Blasco, Benjamin; Campo, Brice; Wells, Timothy N C; Willis, Paul A; Sjö, Peter; Van Voorhis, Wesley C; Pillai, Dylan R

    2017-07-01

    In the last 2 decades, renewed attention to neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) has spurred the development of antiparasitic agents, especially in light of emerging drug resistance. The need for new drugs has required in vitro screening methods using parasite culture. Furthermore, clinical laboratories sought to correlate in vitro susceptibility methods with treatment outcomes, most notably with malaria. Parasites with their various life cycles present greater complexity than bacteria, for which standardized susceptibility methods exist. This review catalogs the state-of-the-art methodologies used to evaluate the effects of drugs on key human parasites from the point of view of drug discovery as well as the need for laboratory methods that correlate with clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  12. Direct blood culturing on solid medium outperforms an automated continuously monitored broth-based blood culture system in terms of time to identification and susceptibility testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Idelevich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pathogen identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST should be available as soon as possible for patients with bloodstream infections. We investigated whether a lysis-centrifugation (LC blood culture (BC method, combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS identification and Vitek 2 AST, provides a time advantage in comparison with the currently used automated broth-based BC system. Seven bacterial reference strains were added each to 10 mL human blood in final concentrations of 100, 10 and 1 CFU/mL. Inoculated blood was added to the Isolator 10 tube and centrifuged at 3000 g for 30 min, then 1.5 mL sediment was distributed onto five 150-mm agar plates. Growth was observed hourly and microcolonies were subjected to MALDI-TOF MS and Vitek 2 as soon as possible. For comparison, seeded blood was introduced into an aerobic BC bottle and incubated in the BACTEC 9240 automated BC system. For all species/concentration combinations except one, successful identification and Vitek 2 inoculation were achieved even before growth detection by BACTEC. The fastest identification and inoculation for AST were achieved with Escherichia coli in concentrations of 100 CFU/mL and 10 CFU/mL (after 7 h each, while BACTEC flagged respective samples positive after 9.5 h and 10 h. Use of the LC-BC method allows skipping of incubation in automated BC systems and, used in combination with rapid diagnostics from microcolonies, provides a considerable advantage in time to result. This suggests that the usefulness of direct BC on solid medium should be re-evaluated in the era of rapid microbiology.

  13. Antimicrobial resistance and susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetz, Audrey N

    2014-09-01

    Infections due to anaerobic bacteria can be severe and life-threatening. Susceptibility testing of anaerobes is not frequently performed in laboratories, but such testing is important to direct appropriate therapy. Anaerobic resistance is increasing globally, and resistance trends vary by geographic region. An overview of a variety of susceptibility testing methods for anaerobes is provided, and the advantages and disadvantages of each method are reviewed. Specific clinical situations warranting anaerobic susceptibility testing are discussed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Reliability of provocative tests of motion sickness susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, D. S.; Reschke, M. F.; Kennedy, R. S.; Dunlop, W. P.

    1987-01-01

    Test-retest reliability values were derived from motion sickness susceptibility scores obtained from two successive exposures to each of three tests: (1) Coriolis sickness sensitivity test; (2) staircase velocity movement test; and (3) parabolic flight static chair test. The reliability of the three tests ranged from 0.70 to 0.88. Normalizing values from predictors with skewed distributions improved the reliability.

  15. Comparison of individuals opting for BRCA1/2 or HNPCC genetic susceptibility testing with regard to coping, illness perceptions, illness experiences, family system characteristics and hereditary cancer distress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, Iris; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Brocker-Vriends, Annette H. J. T.; van Asperen, Christi J.; Sijmons, Rolf H.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Van Gool, Arthur R.; Klijn, Jan G. M.; Tibben, Aad

    Objective: To study differences between individuals opting for genetic cancer susceptibility testing of a known familial BRCA1/2 and HNPCC related germline mutation. Methods: Coping, illness perceptions, experiences with cancer in relatives and family system characteristics were assessed in 271

  16. Dielectric susceptibility of classical Coulomb systems. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choquard, Ph.; Piller, B.; Rentsch, R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper deals with the shape dependence of the dielectric susceptibility (equivalently defined, in a canonical ensemble, by the mean square fluctuation of the electric polarization or by the second moment of the charge-charge correlation function) of classical Coulomb systems. The concept of partial second moment is introduced with the aim of analyzing the contributions to the total susceptibility of pairs of particles of increasing separation. For a disk-shaped one-component plasma with coupling parameter γ=2 it is shown, numerically and algebraically for small and large systems, that (1) the correlation function of two particles close to the edge of the disk decays as the inverse of the square of their distance, and (2) the susceptibility is made up of a bulk contribution, which saturates rapidly toward the Stillinger-Lovett value, and of surface contribution, which varies on the scale of the disk diameter and is described by a new law called the arc sine law. It is also shown that electrostatics and statistical mechanics with shape-dependent thermodynamic limits are consistent for the same model in a strip geometry, whereas the Stillinger-Lovett sum rule is verified for a boundary-free geometry such as the surface of a sphere. Some results of extensive computer simulations of one- and two-component plasmas in circular and elliptic geometries are shown. Anisotropy effects on the susceptibilities are clearly demonstrated and the arc sine law for a circular plasma is well confirmed

  17. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing by Australian veterinary diagnostic laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardefeldt, L Y; Marenda, M; Crabb, H; Stevenson, M A; Gilkerson, J R; Billman-Jacobe, H; Browning, G F

    2018-04-01

    The national strategy for tackling antimicrobial resistance highlights the need for antimicrobial stewardship in veterinary practice and for surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility in veterinary pathogens. Diagnostic laboratories have an important role in facilitating both of these processes, but it is unclear whether data from veterinary diagnostic laboratories are similar enough to allow for compilation and if there is consistent promotion of appropriate antimicrobial use embedded in the approaches of different laboratories to susceptibility testing. A cross-sectional study of antimicrobial susceptibility testing and reporting procedures by Australian veterinary diagnostic laboratories was conducted in 2017 using an online questionnaire. All 18 veterinary diagnostic laboratories in Australia completed the questionnaire. Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion was the method predominantly used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing and was used to evaluate 86% of all isolates, although two different protocols were used across the 18 laboratories (CLSI 15/18, CDS 3/18). Minimum inhibitory concentrations were never reported by 61% of laboratories. Common isolates were consistently reported on across all species, except for gram-negative isolates in pigs, for which there was some variation in the approach to reporting. There was considerable diversity in the panels of antimicrobials used for susceptibility testing on common isolates and no consistency was apparent between laboratories for any bacterial species. We recommend that nationally agreed and consistent antimicrobial panels for routine susceptibility testing should be developed and a uniform set of guidelines should be adopted by veterinary diagnostic laboratories in Australia. © 2018 Australian Veterinary Association.

  18. AC susceptibility enhancement studies in magnetic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, S.; Ranganathan, R.; Chakravarti, A.; Sil, S.

    2001-01-01

    Enhancement of AC susceptibility has been observed for typical ferromagnets (Gd), reentrant spin glasses like (Fe 1.5 Mn 1.5 Si) and canted spin systems (Ce(Fe 0.96 Al 0.04 ) 2 ). The data have been interpreted with the help of a simulation model based on dry friction-like pinning of domain walls for systems having ferromagnetic domain structures. A strong pinning mechanism appears in the reentrant spin glass like and canted spin systems at low temperatures in addition to the intrinsic one in the ferromagnetic phase. The temperature variation of the pinning potential has been given qualitatively for the reentrant spin glass like systems

  19. Penicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus: susceptibility testing, resistance rates and outcome of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagstrand Aldman, Malin; Skovby, Annette; I Påhlman, Lisa

    2017-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (SA) is an important human pathogen that causes both superficial and invasive infections. Penicillin is now rarely used in the treatment of SA infections due to widespread resistance and a concern about the accuracy of existing methods for penicillin susceptibility testing. The aims of the present study were to determine the frequency of penicillin-susceptible SA isolates from blood and wound cultures in Lund, Sweden, and to evaluate methods for penicillin testing in SA. We also wanted to investigate if penicillin-susceptible isolates are associated with higher mortality. Hundred blood culture isolates collected 2008/2009, 140 blood culture isolates from 2014/2015, and 141 superficial wound culture strains from 2015 were examined. Penicillin susceptibility was tested with disk diffusion according to EUCAST guidelines, and results were confirmed with a cloverleaf assay and PCR amplification of the BlaZ gene. Patient data for all bacteraemia cases were extracted from medical records. The disk diffusion method with assessment of both zone size and zone edge appearance had high accuracy in our study. About 57% of bacteraemia isolates from 2008/2009 were sensitive to penicillin compared to 29% in 2014/2015 (p penicillin susceptible. There was no difference in co-morbidity or mortality rates between patients with penicillin resistant and penicillin sensitive SA bacteraemia. Disk-diffusion is a simple and reliable method to detect penicillin resistance in SA, and susceptibility rates are significant. Penicillin has many theoretical advantages and should be considered in the treatment of SA bacteraemia when susceptible.

  20. Personalized Genetic Testing and Norovirus Susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Prystajecky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The availability of direct-to-consumer personalized genetic testing has enabled the public to access and interpret their own genetic information. Various genetic traits can be determined including resistance to norovirus through a nonsense mutation (G428A in the FUT2 gene. Although this trait is believed to confer resistance to the most dominant norovirus genotype (GII.4, the spectrum of resistance to other norovirus strains is unknown. The present report describes a cluster of symptomatic norovirus GI.6 infection in a family identified to have norovirus resistance through personalized genetic testing.

  1. [Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, José E; García-Sánchez, Enrique; García-García, María Inmaculada

    2014-02-01

    The anaerobic bacteria resistance to antibiotics is increasing, and even has appeared against the most active of those, like metronidazol and carbapenems. This fact forces to make and periodical sensibility tests -at least in the most aggressive and virulent species, in cases that they are isolated from life locations and in the absence of therapeutic response- to check the local sensibility and to establish suitable empiric therapies, all based on multicentric studies carried out in order to this or well to check the activity of new antibiotics. For the laboratory routine, the easiest sensibility method is the E-test/MIC evaluator. Another alternative is microdilution, that's only normalized for Bacteroides. There are preliminary facts that allow the use of disc diffusion method in some species of Bacteroides and Clostridium. For the temporal and multicentric studies, the procedure is dilution in agar plate, the reference method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  2. Polymyxin susceptibility testing, interpretative breakpoints and resistance mechanisms: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakthavatchalam, Yamuna Devi; Pragasam, Agila Kumari; Biswas, Indranil; Veeraraghavan, Balaji

    2018-03-01

    Emerging multidrug-resistant (MDR) nosocomial pathogens are a great threat. Polymyxins, an old class of cationic polypeptide antibiotic, are considered as last-resort drugs in treating infections caused by MDR Gram-negative bacteria. Increased use of polymyxins in treating critically ill patients necessitates routine polymyxin susceptibility testing. However, susceptibility testing both of colistin and polymyxin B (PMB) is challenging. In this review, currently available susceptibility testing methods are briefly discussed. The multicomponent composition of colistin and PMB significantly influences susceptibility testing. In addition, poor diffusion in the agar medium, adsorption to microtitre plates and the synergistic effect of the surfactant polysorbate 80 with polymyxins have a great impact on the performance of susceptibility testing methods This review also describes recently identified chromosomal resistance mechanisms, including modification of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with 4-amino-4-deoxy-l-arabinose (L-Ara4-N) and phosphoethanolamine (pEtN) resulting in alteration of the negative charge, as well as the plasmid-mediated colistin resistance determinants mcr-1, mcr-1.2, mcr-2 and mcr-3. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. In Vitro Susceptibility Test of Different Clinical Isolates against Ceftriaxone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Hakim Masood

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Because of the prevailing penicillin resistance in microorganisms, broad spectrum cephalosporins are used empirically specially in developing countries. The aim of this study is to determine the susceptibility pattern of different gram positive and gram negative pathogens against third generation cephalosporin-ceftriaxone to explore the existing effectiveness of this antibiotic.Methods: 180 clinical isolates of different gram positive and gram negative pathogens including P.mirabilis, S. typhi P.aeruginosa, E. coli, S. aureus and Klebsiella were collected from blood and urine samples of in-patients. 30 isolates of all species were tested against each of six brands of ceftriaxone using in vitro sensitivity tests by disc diffusion method (NCCLS criteria. The susceptibility limit was ≥21 mm zone of inhibition, while moderately susceptible was considered at 20-14 mm, and those isolates which showed >13 mm or no zone of inhibition were resistant to this antibacterial drug.Results: Ceftriaxone was found most effective against S. aureus. While 96.1% of the isolates showed susceptibility towards ceftriaxone, followed by E. coli (95%, P. aeruginosa (92.7%, K. pneumonia (89.4% and S. typhi (87.2%. P. mirabilis showed lowest susceptibility amongst all the test organisms (83.8%.Conclusion: Ceftriaxone can be used as a drug of choice in infections caused by S. aureus, E. coli, P. aurigenosa, K. pneumonia and S. typhi. However, it should be used with other antimicrobial agents in order to increase its effectiveness against P. mirabilis.

  4. Population genetic testing for cancer susceptibility: founder mutations to genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulkes, William D; Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Turnbull, Clare

    2016-01-01

    The current standard model for identifying carriers of high-risk mutations in cancer-susceptibility genes (CSGs) generally involves a process that is not amenable to population-based testing: access to genetic tests is typically regulated by health-care providers on the basis of a labour-intensive assessment of an individual's personal and family history of cancer, with face-to-face genetic counselling performed before mutation testing. Several studies have shown that application of these selection criteria results in a substantial proportion of mutation carriers being missed. Population-based genetic testing has been proposed as an alternative approach to determining cancer susceptibility, and aims for a more-comprehensive detection of mutation carriers. Herein, we review the existing data on population-based genetic testing, and consider some of the barriers, pitfalls, and challenges related to the possible expansion of this approach. We consider mechanisms by which population-based genetic testing for cancer susceptibility could be delivered, and suggest how such genetic testing might be integrated into existing and emerging health-care structures. The existing models of genetic testing (including issues relating to informed consent) will very likely require considerable alteration if the potential benefits of population-based genetic testing are to be fully realized.

  5. Antiobiotics susceptibility of Salmonella isolates from Wdal Test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antiobiotics susceptibility of Salmonella isolates from Wdal Test Positive Patients at the Federal Medical Center, Gusau. SB Manga, IG Ameh, S Bashir, AG Muazu, B Danjuma, ML Ibrahim, K Abdullahi, J Mawak. Abstract. No Abstract Supplied. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD ...

  6. Agar dilution method for susceptibility testing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta C de Castillo

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The antibiotic susceptibilities of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates obtained from patients attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases in Tucumán, Argentina, were determined by the agar dilution method (MIC. 3.5% of the isolates produced ²-lactamase. A total of 96.5% of ²-lactamase negative isolates tested were susceptible to penicillin (MIC < 2 µgml-1; 14.03% of the tested isolates were resistant to tetracycline (MIC < 2 µgml-1, and 98% of the tested isolates were susceptible to spectinomycin (MIC < 64 µgml-1. The MICs for 95% of the isolates, tested for other drugs were: < 2 µgml-1 for cefoxitin, < 0.06 µgml-1 for cefotaxime, < 0.25 µgml-1 for norfloxacin, < 10 µgml-1 for cephaloridine, < 10 µgml-1 for cephalexin, and < 50 µgml-1 for kanamycin. Antibiotic resistance among N. gonorrhoeae isolates from Tucumán, Argentina, appeared to be primarily limited to penicillin and tetracycline, which has been a general use against gonorrhoeae in Tucumán since 1960. Periodic monitoring of the underlying susceptibility profiles of the N. gonorrhoeae strains prevalent in areas of frequent transmission may provide clues regarding treatment options and emerging of drug resistance.

  7. 21 CFR 866.1620 - Antimicrobial susceptibility test disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Antimicrobial susceptibility test disc. 866.1620 Section 866.1620 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 866.1620 Antimicrobial...

  8. Candidaemia and antifungal susceptibility testing in a teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzar, M N; Shamim, A S

    2009-03-01

    We reviewed cases of candidaemia at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre from 1st January 2005 to 30th June 2006. All blood cultures positive for Candida species or its teleomorphs within the study period were identified and antifungal susceptibility testing was performed. Out of 50 blood isolates, 20 (40%) were identified as Candida albicans, 16 (32%) C. tropicalis, five (10%) C. parapsilosis, three (6%) C. famata, two (4%) C. glabrata, two (4%) Pichia ohmeri, one (2%) C. krusei and one (2%) P. etchell/carsonii. Susceptibility to amphotericin B was 100%, fluconazole 90%, itraconazole 40%, ketoconazole 88%, 5-flucytosine 98% and voriconazole 98%.

  9. Interpretive criteria of antimicrobial disk susceptibility tests with flomoxef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, H

    1991-01-01

    320 recently isolated pathogens, 20 strains from each of 16 species, were investigated using Mueller-Hinton agar and DIN as well as NCCLS standards. The geometric mean of the agar dilution MICs of flomoxef were 0.44 mg/l for Staphylococcus aureus, 0.05 mg/l (Klebsiella oxytoca) to 12.6 mg/l (Enterobacter spp.) for enterobacteriaceae, 33.1 mg/l for Acinetobacter anitratus, 64 mg/l for Enterococcus faecalis, and more than 256 mg/l for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. For disk susceptibility testing of flomoxef a 30 micrograms disk loading and the following interpretation of inhibition zones using the DIN method were recommended: resistant-up to 22 mm (corresponding to MICs of 8 mg/l or more), moderately susceptible-23 to 29 mm (corresponding to MICs from 1 to 4 mg/l), and susceptible-30 mm or more (corresponding to MICs of 0.5 mg/l or less). The respective values for the NCCLS method using the American high MIC breakpoints are: resistant--up to 14 mm (corresponding to MICs of 32 mg/l or more), moderately susceptible--15 to 17 mm (corresponding to MICs of 16 mg/l), and susceptible--18 mm or more (corresponding to MICs of 8 mg/l or less).

  10. Antifungal susceptibility testing method for resource constrained laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In resource-constrained laboratories of developing countries determination of antifungal susceptibility testing by NCCLS/CLSI method is not always feasible. We describe herein a simple yet comparable method for antifungal susceptibility testing. Methods: Reference MICs of 72 fungal isolates including two quality control strains were determined by NCCLS/CLSI methods against fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B and cancidas. Dermatophytes were also tested against terbinafine. Subsequently, on selection of optimum conditions, MIC was determined for all the fungal isolates by semisolid antifungal agar susceptibility method in Brain heart infusion broth supplemented with 0.5% agar (BHIA without oil overlay and results were compared with those obtained by reference NCCLS/CLSI methods. Results: Comparable results were obtained by NCCLS/CLSI and semisolid agar susceptibility (SAAS methods against quality control strains. MICs for 72 isolates did not differ by more than one dilution for all drugs by SAAS. Conclusions: SAAS using BHIA without oil overlay provides a simple and reproducible method for obtaining MICs against yeast, filamentous fungi and dermatophytes in resource-constrained laboratories.

  11. Addressing the susceptibility of digital systems to electromagnetic interference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, P.D.; Korsah, K.; Antonescu, C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of the technical basis for acceptance criteria applicable to the immunization of digital systems against electromagnetic interference (EMI). The work is sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and stems from the safety-related issues that need to be addressed as a result of the application of digital instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants. Designers of digital circuits are incorporating increasingly higher clock frequencies and lower logic level voltages, thereby leading to potentially greater susceptibility of spurious interference being misinterpreted as legitimate logic. Development of the technical basis for acceptance criteria to apply to these digital systems centers around establishing good engineering practices to ensure that sufficient levels of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) are maintained between the nuclear power plant's electronic and electromechanical systems. First, good EMC design and installation practices are needed to control the emissions from interference sources and thereby their impact on other nearby circuits and systems. Second, a verification and validation (V ampersand V) program is needed to outline the EMI tests to be performed, the associated test methods to be followed, and adequate acceptance criteria to ensure that the circuit or system under test meets the recommended guidelines. V ampersand V should be followed by periodic maintenance to assess whether the recommended EMI control practices continue to be adhered to as part of the routine operation of the nuclear power plant. By following these steps, the probability of encountering safety-related instrumentation susceptibility attributable to EMI will be greatly reduced

  12. Improved method for testing susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to pyrazinamide.

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, W R; Kilburn, J O

    1982-01-01

    The acid medium required to test susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to pyrazinamide (PZA) is a major problem in obtaining reliable test results. Satisfactory growth is usually obtained on Middlebrook and Cohn 7H10 medium at pH 5.5 if albumin-dextrose-catalase (ADC) supplement rather than oleic acid-albumin-dextrose-catalase is used; however, some lots of ADC supplement still fail to support growth at this low pH. A rapid turbidimetric test was developed to determine the growth-suppo...

  13. Electrochemical tests for pitting and crevice corrosion susceptibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postlethwaite, J.

    1983-01-01

    Passive metals are being considered as container materials for the disposal of nuclear waste by deep burial. Localized corrosion is a potential problem and electrochemical techniques have an important role in the assessment of the susceptibility of these container materials to crevice and pitting corrosion. This paper critically reviews both the theoretical background and the experimental details of the electrochemical test methods presently used in both industrial and scientific studies of localized corrosion in both halide and non-halide solutions and identifies those areas where theory and experimental behaviour are in agreement and those areas for which there is neither well established theory nor an experimental test method

  14. Addressing the susceptibility of digital systems to electromagnetic interference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, P.D.; Korsah, K.; Antonescu, C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of the technical basis for acceptance criteria applicable to the immunization of digital systems against electromagnetic interference (EMI). The work is sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and stems from the safety-related issues that need to be addressed as a result of the application of digital instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants. Designers of digital circuits are incorporating increasingly higher clock frequencies and lower logic level voltages, thereby leading to potentially greater susceptibility of spurious interference being misinterpreted as legitimate logic. Development of the technical basis for acceptance criteria to apply to these digital systems centers around establishing good engineering practices to ensure that sufficient levels of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) are maintained between the nuclear power plant's electronic and electromechanical systems. First, good EMC design and installation practices are needed to control the emissions from interference sources and thereby their impact on other nearby circuits and systems. Second, a verification and validation (V ampersand V) program is needed to outline the EMI tests to be performed, the associated test methods to be followed, and adequate acceptance should be followed by periodic maintenance to assess whether the recommended EMI control practices continue to be adhered to as part of the routine operation of the nuclear power plant. By following these steps, the probability of encountering safety-related instrumentation susceptibility attributable to EMI will be greatly reduced

  15. Laboratory Diagnosis and Susceptibility Testing for Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procop, Gary W

    2016-12-01

    The laboratory, which utilizes some of the most sophisticated and rapidly changing technologies, plays a critical role in the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Some of these tools are being employed in resource-challenged countries for the rapid detection and characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Foremost, the laboratory defines appropriate specimen criteria for optimal test performance. The direct detection of mycobacteria in the clinical specimen, predominantly done by acid-fast staining, may eventually be replaced by rapid-cycle PCR. The widespread use of the Xpert MTB/RIF (Cepheid) assay, which detects both M. tuberculosis and key genetic determinants of rifampin resistance, is important for the early detection of multidrug-resistant strains. Culture, using both broth and solid media, remains the standard for establishing the laboratory-based diagnosis of tuberculosis. Cultured isolates are identified far less commonly by traditional biochemical profiling and more commonly by molecular methods, such as DNA probes and broad-range PCR with DNA sequencing. Non-nucleic acid-based methods of identification, such as high-performance liquid chromatography and, more recently, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry, may also be used for identification. Cultured isolates of M. tuberculosis should be submitted for susceptibility testing according to standard guidelines. The use of broth-based susceptibility testing is recommended to significantly decrease the time to result. Cultured isolates may also be submitted for strain typing for epidemiologic purposes. The use of massive parallel sequencing, also known as next-generation sequencing, promises to continue to this molecular revolution in mycobacteriology, as whole-genome sequencing provides identification, susceptibility, and typing information simultaneously.

  16. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci: validation of susceptibility testing and in vitro activity of novel antibiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathe, Mathias; Lise, Kristensen,; Ellermann-Eriksen, Svend

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci: validation of susceptibility testing and in vitro activity of novel antibiotics......Vancomycin-resistant enterococci: validation of susceptibility testing and in vitro activity of novel antibiotics...

  17. Evaluation of a radiometric method for pyrazinamide susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarrand, J.J.; Spicer, A.D.; Groeschel, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    Pyrazinamide susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis requires an acid environment. By controlling the method of acidification and the quality and quantity of the inoculum, the test can be performed with the BACTEC radiometric system (Johnston Laboratories, Towson, Md.). We acidified BACTEC 7H12 medium with buffered phosphoric acid and adjusted the test inoculum to 1/10 of that usually employed in BACTEC protocols; after 5 days of growth we correctly identified 36 of 36 strains susceptible to 50 micrograms of pyrazinamide per ml. All 18 resistant strains were classified as pyrazinamide resistant. (Susceptibility or resistance had been determined by standard plate assays.) The test was able to detect small resistant populations in artificial mixtures of 1 or 2% resistant bacteria with a susceptible strain (10 mixtures each). We tested 70 M. tuberculosis strains in acidified BACTEC 7H12 medium and by the plate dilution test at pH 5.5. All strains grew in the BACTEC medium, but three strains failed to grow on plates and were not tested further; the results of both methods agreed for the remaining strains

  18. ANTIFUNGAL SUSCEPTIBILITY TESTING: CURRENT ROLE FROM THE CLINICAL LABORATORY PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunella Posteraro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite availability of many antifungal agents, antifungal clinical resistance occurs, perhaps as a result of an infecting organism found to be resistant in vitro to one or more antifungals tested. Thus, antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST results, if timely generated by the clinical microbiology and communicated to clinicians, can aid them in the therapeutic decision making, especially for difficult-to-treat invasive candidiasis and aspergillosis. Although recently refined AFST methods are commercially available to allow a close antifungal resistance surveillance in many clinical setting, novel assays, relying on short-time antifungal drug exposure of fungal isolates, are upcoming tools for AFST. Based on emerging technologies such as flow cytometry, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and isothermal microcalorimetry, these assays could provide a reliable means for quicker and sensitive assessment of AFST.

  19. Intersite interactions and susceptibility in mixed valence systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaoqian Wang; Gao Lin; Bingjian Ni; Fusui Liu.

    1985-10-01

    This paper considers the effect of intersite processes on the susceptibility in mixed valence system. The method of thermodynamical perturbation used in this paper can also be generalized to study other properties of mixed valence system. The general formula of partition function of two-site interactions for the mixed valence system is given. The numerical calculations show that the intersite interaction is large enough to explain the minimum of susceptibility discovered in experiments. The different types of our theoretical curves predict that the susceptibility should exhibit a rich variety of behaviour at low temperature for various materials. (author)

  20. Microbial sensor for drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z-T; Wang, D-B; Li, C-Y; Deng, J-Y; Zhang, J-B; Bi, L-J; Zhang, X-E

    2018-01-01

    Drug susceptibility testing (DST) of clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is critical in treating tuberculosis. We demonstrate the possibility of using a microbial sensor to perform DST of M. tuberculosis and shorten the time required for DST. The sensor is made of an oxygen electrode with M. tuberculosis cells attached to its surface. This sensor monitors the residual oxygen consumption of M. tuberculosis cells after treatment with anti-TB drugs with glycerine as a carbon source. In principle, after drug pretreatment for 4-5 days, the response differences between the sensors made of drug-sensitive isolates are distinguishable from the sensors made of drug-resistant isolates. The susceptibility of the M. tuberculosis H37Ra strain, its mutants and 35 clinical isolates to six common anti-TB drugs: rifampicin, isoniazid, streptomycin, ethambutol, levofloxacin and para-aminosalicylic acid were tested using the proposed method. The results agreed well with the gold standard method (LJ) and were determined in significantly less time. The whole procedure takes approximately 11 days and therefore has the potential to inform clinical decisions. To our knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrates the possible application of a dissolved oxygen electrode-based microbial sensor in M. tuberculosis drug resistance testing. This study used the microbial sensor to perform DST of M. tuberculosis and shorten the time required for DST. The overall detection result of the microbial sensor agreed well with that of the conventional LJ proportion method and takes less time than the existing phenotypic methods. In future studies, we will build an O 2 electrode array microbial sensor reactor to enable a high-throughput drug resistance analysis. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. [Rapid test for detection of susceptibility to cefotaxime in Enterobacteriaceae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Guerra, Gemma; Hoyos-Mallecot, Yannik; Rodríguez-Granger, Javier; Navarro-Marí, José María; Gutiérrez-Fernández, José

    In this work an "in house" rapid test based on the change in pH that is due to hydrolysis for detecting Enterobacteriaceae susceptible to cefotaxime is evaluated. The strains of Enterobacteriaceae from 1947 urine cultures were assessed using MicroScan panels and the "in house" test. This rapid test includes red phenol solution and cefotaxime. Using MicroScan panels, 499 Enterobacteriaceae isolates were evaluated, which included 27 isolates of Escherichia coli producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL), 16 isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae ESBL and 1 isolate of Klebsiella oxytoca ESBL. The "in house" test offers the following values: sensitivity 98% and specificity 97%, with negative predictive value 100% and positive predictive value 78%. The "in house" test based on the change of pH is useful in our area for detecting presumptively cefotaxime-resistant Enterobacteriaceae strains. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. SUSCEPTIBILITY TEST FOR FUNGI: CLINICAL AND LABORATORIAL CORRELATIONS IN MEDICAL MYCOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana ALASTRUEY-IZQUIERDO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARYDuring recent decades, antifungal susceptibility testing has become standardized and nowadays has the same role of the antibacterial susceptibility testing in microbiology laboratories. American and European standards have been developed, as well as equivalent commercial systems which are more appropriate for clinical laboratories. The detection of resistant strains by means of these systems has allowed the study and understanding of the molecular basis and the mechanisms of resistance of fungal species to antifungal agents. In addition, many studies on the correlation of in vitro results with the outcome of patients have been performed, reaching the conclusion that infections caused by resistant strains have worse outcome than those caused by susceptible fungal isolates. These studies have allowed the development of interpretative breakpoints for Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp., the most frequent agents of fungal infections in the world. In summary, antifungal susceptibility tests have become essential tools to guide the treatment of fungal diseases, to know the local and global disease epidemiology, and to identify resistance to antifungals.

  3. Children's differential susceptibility to parenting : An experimental test of “for better and for worse”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slagt, Meike; Dubas, Judith Semon; van Aken, Marcel; Ellis, Bruce J.; Dekovic, Maja

    2017-01-01

    Differential susceptibility theory proposes that a subset of individuals exist who display enhanced susceptibility to both negative (risk-promoting) and positive (development-enhancing) environments. This experiment represents the first attempt to directly test this assumption by exposing children

  4. Simple Sample Preparation Method for Direct Microbial Identification and Susceptibility Testing From Positive Blood Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hong-Wei; Li, Wei; Li, Rong-Guo; Li, Yong; Zhang, Yi; Sun, En-Hua

    2018-01-01

    Rapid identification and determination of the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of the infectious agents in patients with bloodstream infections are critical steps in choosing an effective targeted antibiotic for treatment. However, there has been minimal effort focused on developing combined methods for the simultaneous direct identification and antibiotic susceptibility determination of bacteria in positive blood cultures. In this study, we constructed a lysis-centrifugation-wash procedure to prepare a bacterial pellet from positive blood cultures, which can be used directly for identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and antibiotic susceptibility testing by the Vitek 2 system. The method was evaluated using a total of 129 clinical bacteria-positive blood cultures. The whole sample preparation process could be completed in identification was 96.49% for gram-negative bacteria and 97.22% for gram-positive bacteria. Vitek 2 antimicrobial susceptibility testing of gram-negative bacteria showed an agreement rate of antimicrobial categories of 96.89% with a minor error, major error, and very major error rate of 2.63, 0.24, and 0.24%, respectively. Category agreement of antimicrobials against gram-positive bacteria was 92.81%, with a minor error, major error, and very major error rate of 4.51, 1.22, and 1.46%, respectively. These results indicated that our direct antibiotic susceptibility analysis method worked well compared to the conventional culture-dependent laboratory method. Overall, this fast, easy, and accurate method can facilitate the direct identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of bacteria in positive blood cultures.

  5. Simple Sample Preparation Method for Direct Microbial Identification and Susceptibility Testing From Positive Blood Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-wei Pan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rapid identification and determination of the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of the infectious agents in patients with bloodstream infections are critical steps in choosing an effective targeted antibiotic for treatment. However, there has been minimal effort focused on developing combined methods for the simultaneous direct identification and antibiotic susceptibility determination of bacteria in positive blood cultures. In this study, we constructed a lysis-centrifugation-wash procedure to prepare a bacterial pellet from positive blood cultures, which can be used directly for identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS and antibiotic susceptibility testing by the Vitek 2 system. The method was evaluated using a total of 129 clinical bacteria-positive blood cultures. The whole sample preparation process could be completed in <15 min. The correct rate of direct MALDI-TOF MS identification was 96.49% for gram-negative bacteria and 97.22% for gram-positive bacteria. Vitek 2 antimicrobial susceptibility testing of gram-negative bacteria showed an agreement rate of antimicrobial categories of 96.89% with a minor error, major error, and very major error rate of 2.63, 0.24, and 0.24%, respectively. Category agreement of antimicrobials against gram-positive bacteria was 92.81%, with a minor error, major error, and very major error rate of 4.51, 1.22, and 1.46%, respectively. These results indicated that our direct antibiotic susceptibility analysis method worked well compared to the conventional culture-dependent laboratory method. Overall, this fast, easy, and accurate method can facilitate the direct identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of bacteria in positive blood cultures.

  6. In Vitro Susceptibility Testing of Tedizolid against Isolates of Nocardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Wallace, Richard J

    2017-12-01

    There is a paucity of efficacious antimicrobials (especially oral) against clinically relevant species of Nocardia To date, all species of Nocardia have been susceptible to linezolid, the first commercially available oxazolidinone. Tedizolid is a new oxazolidinone with previously reported improved in vitro and in vivo (intracellular) potency against multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium sp. and Nocardia brasiliensis Using the current Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute-recommended broth microdilution method, 101 isolates of Nocardia spp., including 29 Nocardia cyriacigeorgica , 17 Nocardia farcinica , 13 Nocardia nova complex, 21 Nocardia brasiliensis , 5 Nocardia pseudobrasiliensis , and 5 Nocardia wallacei isolates and 11 isolates of less common species, were tested for susceptibility to tedizolid and linezolid. For the most common clinically significant species of Nocardia , tedizolid MIC 50 values were 0.25 μg/ml for N. nova complex, N. brasiliensis , N. pseudobrasiliensis , and N. wallacei , compared to linezolid MIC 50 values of 1, 2, 0.5, and 1 μg/ml, respectively. Tedizolid and linezolid MIC 90 values were 2 μg/ml for N. nova complex and N. brasiliensis Tedizolid MIC 50 and MIC 90 values for both N. cyriacigeorgica and N. farcinica were 0.5 μg/ml and 1 μg/ml, respectively, compared to linezolid MIC 50 and MIC 90 values of 2 and 4 μg/ml, respectively. Based on MIC 90 values, this study showed that tedizolid was 2- to 3-fold more active than linezolid in vitro against most common species of Nocardia , with the exception of the N. nova complex and N. brasiliensis , for which values were the same. These results may warrant evaluation of tedizolid as a potential treatment option for Nocardia infections. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  7. 21 CFR 866.1640 - Antimicrobial susceptibility test powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 866.1640 Antimicrobial... clinical laboratories for determining in vitro susceptibility of bacterial pathogens to these therapeutic...

  8. Rapid drug susceptibility test of mycobacterium tuberculosis by bioluminescence sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bin; Xu, Shunqing; Chen, Zifei; Zhou, Yikai

    2001-09-01

    With the persisting increase of drug-resistant stains of M. Tuberculosis around the world, rapid and sensitive detection of antibiotic of M. Tuberculosis is becoming more and more important. In the present study, drug susceptibility of M. tuberculosis were detected by recombination mycobacteriophage combined with bioluminescence sensor. It is based on the use of recombination mycobacteriophage which can express firefly luciferase when it infects viable mycobacteria, and can effectively produce quantifiable photon. Meanwhile, in mycobacterium cells treated with active antibiotic, no light is observed. The emitted light is recorded by a bioluminscence sensor, so the result of drug-resistant test can be determined by the naked eye. 159 stains of M. tuberculosis were applied to this test on their resistant to rifampin, streptomycin and isoniazid. It is found that the agreement of this assay with Liewenstein- Jensen slat is: rifampin 95.60 percent, isoniazid 91.82 percent, streptomycin 88.68 percent, which showed that it is a fast and practical method to scene and detect drug resistant of mycobacterium stains.

  9. Semi Quantitative MALDI TOF for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing in Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-31

    Semi- quantitative MALDI-TOF for antimicrobial susceptibility testing in Staphylococcus 1 aureus 2 3 4 Tucker Maxson,a Cheryl L. Taylor-Howell,a...Timothy D. Minoguea# 5 6 Diagnostic Systems Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious 7 Disease, Fort Detrick, MD...USAa 8 9 Running Title: Quantitative MALDI for AST in S. aureus 10 #Address correspondence to Timothy D. Minogue, timothy.d.minogue.civ@mail.mil

  10. Identification and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Anaerobic Bacteria: Rubik's Cube of Clinical Microbiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajdács, Márió; Spengler, Gabriella; Urbán, Edit

    2017-11-07

    Anaerobic bacteria have pivotal roles in the microbiota of humans and they are significant infectious agents involved in many pathological processes, both in immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. Their isolation, cultivation and correct identification differs significantly from the workup of aerobic species, although the use of new technologies (e.g., matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, whole genome sequencing) changed anaerobic diagnostics dramatically. In the past, antimicrobial susceptibility of these microorganisms showed predictable patterns and empirical therapy could be safely administered but recently a steady and clear increase in the resistance for several important drugs (β-lactams, clindamycin) has been observed worldwide. For this reason, antimicrobial susceptibility testing of anaerobic isolates for surveillance purposes or otherwise is of paramount importance but the availability of these testing methods is usually limited. In this present review, our aim was to give an overview of the methods currently available for the identification (using phenotypic characteristics, biochemical testing, gas-liquid chromatography, MALDI-TOF MS and WGS) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (agar dilution, broth microdilution, disk diffusion, gradient tests, automated systems, phenotypic and molecular resistance detection techniques) of anaerobes, when should these methods be used and what are the recent developments in resistance patterns of anaerobic bacteria.

  11. Identification and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Anaerobic Bacteria: Rubik’s Cube of Clinical Microbiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajdács, Márió; Spengler, Gabriella; Urbán, Edit

    2017-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria have pivotal roles in the microbiota of humans and they are significant infectious agents involved in many pathological processes, both in immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. Their isolation, cultivation and correct identification differs significantly from the workup of aerobic species, although the use of new technologies (e.g., matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, whole genome sequencing) changed anaerobic diagnostics dramatically. In the past, antimicrobial susceptibility of these microorganisms showed predictable patterns and empirical therapy could be safely administered but recently a steady and clear increase in the resistance for several important drugs (β-lactams, clindamycin) has been observed worldwide. For this reason, antimicrobial susceptibility testing of anaerobic isolates for surveillance purposes or otherwise is of paramount importance but the availability of these testing methods is usually limited. In this present review, our aim was to give an overview of the methods currently available for the identification (using phenotypic characteristics, biochemical testing, gas-liquid chromatography, MALDI-TOF MS and WGS) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (agar dilution, broth microdilution, disk diffusion, gradient tests, automated systems, phenotypic and molecular resistance detection techniques) of anaerobes, when should these methods be used and what are the recent developments in resistance patterns of anaerobic bacteria. PMID:29112122

  12. Flow cytometry susceptibility testing for conventional antifungal drugs and Comparison with the NCCLS Broth Macrodilution Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Najafzadeh

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: During the last decade, the incidence of fungal infection has been increased in many countries. Because of the advent of resistant to antifungal agents, determination of an efficient strategic plan for treatment of fungal disease is an important issue in clinical mycology. Many methods have been introduced and developed for determination of invitro susceptibility tests. During the recent years, flow cytometry has developed to solving the problem and many papers have documented the usefulness of this technique. Materials and methods: As the first step, the invitro susceptibility of standard PTCC (Persian Type of Culture Collection strain and some clinical isolates of Candida consisting of Candida albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, C. kefyer and C. parapsilosis were evaluated by macrodilution broth method according to NCCLS (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines and flow cytometry susceptibility test. Results:  The data indicated that macro dilution broth methods and flow cytometry have the same results in determination of MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration for amphotericin B, clotrimazole, fluconazole, ketoconazole and miconazole in C. albicans PTCC 5027 as well as clinical Candida isolates, such as C.albicans, C.dubliniensis, C.glabrata C.kefyr, and C.parapsilosis. Discussion: Comparing the results obtained by macrodilution broth and flow cytometry methods revealed that flow cytometry was faster. It is suggested that flow cytometry susceptibility test can be used as a powerful tool for determination of MIC and administration of the best antifungal drug in treatment of patients with Candida infections.

  13. Co-trimoxazole susceptibility tests improved with separate trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole disks.

    OpenAIRE

    Amyes, S G

    1981-01-01

    It is impossible to test accurately bacterial susceptibility to the trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole combination co-trimoxazole with a single combined susceptibility disk. However, a variety of factors still affect the result even when separate trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole disks are used. Experiments with separate disks showed that the optimum conditions for testing the susceptibilities of enterobacteria to these drugs were to flood-seed an agar plate with an inoculum of 10(4) to 10(5) orga...

  14. Etest Cannot Be Recommended for In Vitro Susceptibility Testing of Mucorales

    OpenAIRE

    Caramalho, Rita; Maurer, Elisabeth; Binder, Ulrike; Araújo, Ricardo; Dolatabadi, Somayeh; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Lackner, Michaela

    2015-01-01

    Amphotericin B and posaconazole susceptibility patterns were determined for the most prevalent Mucorales, following EUCAST (European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing) broth microdilution guidelines. In parallel, Etest was performed and evaluated against EUCAST. The overall agreement of MICs gained with Etest and EUCAST was 75.1%; therefore, Etest cannot be recommended for antifungal susceptibility testing of Mucorales. Amphotericin B was the most active drug against Mucorales...

  15. Rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing of clinical isolates by digital time-lapse microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredborg, M; Rosenvinge, F S; Spillum, E

    2015-01-01

    (168 antimicrobial agent-organism combinations) demonstrated 3.6 % minor, no major and 1.2 % very major errors of the oCelloScope system compared to conventional susceptibility testing, as well as a rapid and correct phenotypic detection of strains with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA......-to-result, enabling same-day targeted antimicrobial therapy, facilitating antibiotic stewardship and better patient management. A full-scale validation of the oCelloScope system including more isolates is necessary to assess the impact of using it for AST....

  16. Rapid susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by bioluminescence assay of mycobacterial ATP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, L.E.; Hoffner, S.E.; Ansehn, S.

    1988-01-01

    Mycobacterial growth was monitored by bioluminescence assay of mycobacterial ATP. Cultures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and of 25 clinical isolates of the same species were exposed to serial dilutions of ethambutol, isoniazid, rifampin, and streptomycin. A suppression of ATP, indicating growth inhibition, occurred for susceptible but not resistant strains within 5 to 7 days of incubation. Breakpoint concentrations between susceptibility and resistance were determined by comparing these results with those obtained by reference techniques. Full agreement was found in 99% of the assays with the resistance ratio method on Lowenstein-Jensen medium, and 98% of the assays were in full agreement with the radiometric system (BACTEC). A main advantage of the bioluminescence method is its rapidity, with results available as fast as with the radiometric system but at a lower cost and without the need for radioactive culture medium. The method provides kinetic data concerning drug effects within available in vivo drug concentrations and has great potential for both rapid routine susceptibility testing and research applications in studies of drug effects on mycobacteria

  17. Routine disc diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Clostridium difficile and association with PCR ribotype 027

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, H M; Danielsen, T K; Justesen, U S

    2015-01-01

    Reduced susceptibility to metronidazole and vancomycin in Clostridium difficile has been reported, which emphasises the need for simple antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods. The aim of this study was to apply a published disc diffusion method and zone diameter breakpoint correlates...... the published breakpoint (difficile PCR ribotype 027 isolates had smaller zone...... diameters than non-027 isolates. The disc diffusion method is very simple and inexpensive, and the published zone diameter breakpoints will detect C. difficile isolates with reduced susceptibility to metronidazole and vancomycin....

  18. Rehabilitation actions in water supply systems: effects on biofilm susceptibility

    OpenAIRE

    RAMOS MARTINEZ, EVA; Herrera Fernández, Antonio Manuel; Gutiérrez-Pérez, Joanna A.; Izquierdo Sebastián, Joaquín; Pérez García, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm development in water supply systems (WSSs) depends on infrastructure and operational factors, apart from water quality. We have developed a methodology that considers WSSs hydraulic (operation) and physical (design) characteristics to identify areas with different biofilm development trends within a WSS. To achieve this aim we have used meta-analysis and multi-agent system label propagation via discriminant analysis. As a result, we recognise areas with different susceptibility to bio...

  19. Comparing the disk-diffusion and agar dilution tests for Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial susceptibility testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsi Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We assessed the validity of testing for antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical and mutant Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC isolates by disk diffusion in comparison to agar dilution, and Etest® (bioMerieux, France, respectively, for three third generation extended spectrum cephalosporins (ESC: ceftriaxone (CRO, cefixime (CFX, and cefpodoxime (CPD. Methods One hundred and five clinical isolates and ten laboratory-mutants were tested following Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI and manufacturer’s standards for each of the three methods. The measured diameters by the disk diffusion method were tested for correlation with the MIC values by agar dilution. In addition, comparisons with the Etest® were made. Categorical results for concordance, based on standard CLSI cutoffs, between the disk diffusion and the other two methods, respectively, were tested using the Chi-square statistics. Reproducibility was tested for CFX across a 6-month interval by repeated disk tests. Results Across all 115 specimens, the disk diffusion tests produced good categorical agreements, exhibiting concordance of 93.1%, 92.1%, and 90.4% with agar dilution and 93.0%, 92.1%, and 90.4% with Etest®, for CRO, CFX, and CPD, respectively. Pearson correlations between disk-diffusion diameters and agar dilution MIC’s were -0.59, -0.67, and -0.81 for CRO, CFX, and CPD, respectively. The correlations between disk diffusion and Etest® were -0.58, -0.73, and -0.49. Pearson correlation between the CFX disk readings over a 6-month interval was 91%. Conclusions Disk diffusion tests remain to be a useful, reliable and fast screening method for qualitative antimicrobial susceptibility testing for ceftriaxone, cefixime, and cefpodoxime.

  20. Susceptibility of SCADA systems and the energy sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goike, Lindsay

    The research in this paper focused on analyzing SCADA systems in the energy sector for susceptibility to cyber attacks, in furtherance of providing suggestions to mitigate current and future cyber attacks. The research will be addressing the questions: how are SCADA systems susceptible to cyber attacks, and what are the suggested ways to mitigate both current and future cyber attacks. The five main categories of security vulnerabilities facing current SCADA systems were found to be: connectivity to the Internet, failure to plan, interdependency of sectors, numerous different types of threats, and outdated software. Some of the recommendations mentioned to mitigate current and future risks were: virtual private networks, risk assessments, increased physical security, updating of software, and firewalls.

  1. Individual Differences in Digit Span, Susceptibility to Proactive Interference, and Aptitude/Achievement Test Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, Frank N.; Cooney, John B.

    1982-01-01

    Individual differences in digit span, susceptibility to proactive interference, and various aptitude/achievement test scores were investigated in two experiments with college students. Results indicated that digit span was strongly correlated with aptitude/achievement scores, but did not indicate that susceptibility to proactive interference…

  2. Small test SDHW systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    1999-01-01

    Three small test SDHW systems was tested in a laboratory test facility.The three SDHW systems where all based on the low flow principe and a mantle tank but the design of the systems where different.......Three small test SDHW systems was tested in a laboratory test facility.The three SDHW systems where all based on the low flow principe and a mantle tank but the design of the systems where different....

  3. Short communication prevalence of susceptibility to etravirine by genotype and phenotype in samples received for routine HIV type 1 resistance testing in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picchio, Gaston; Vingerhoets, Johan; Tambuyzer, Lotke; Coakley, Eoin; Haddad, Mojgan; Witek, James

    2011-12-01

    Abstract The prevalence of susceptibility to etravirine was investigated among clinical samples submitted for routine clinical testing in the United States using two separate weighted genotypic scoring systems. The presence of etravirine mutations and susceptibility to etravirine by phenotype of clinical samples from HIV-1-infected patients, submitted to Monogram Biosciences for routine resistance testing between June 2008 and June 2009, were analyzed. Susceptibility by genotype was determined using the Monogram and Tibotec etravirine-weighted genotypic scoring systems, with scores of ≤3 and ≤2, respectively, indicating full susceptibility. Susceptibility by phenotype was determined using the PhenoSense HIV assay, with lower and higher clinical cut-offs of 2.9 and 10, respectively. The frequency of individual etravirine mutations and the impact of the K103N mutation on susceptibility to etravirine by genotype were also determined. Among the 5482 samples with ≥1 defined nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) mutations associated with resistance, 67% were classed as susceptible to etravirine by genotype by both scoring systems. Susceptibility to etravirine by phenotype was higher (76%). The proportion of first-generation NNRTI-resistant samples with (n=3598) and without (n=1884) K103N with susceptibility to etravirine by genotype was 77% and 49%, respectively. Among samples susceptible to first-generation NNRTIs (n=9458), >99% of samples were susceptible to etravirine by phenotype (FC <2.9); the remaining samples had FC ≥2.9-10. In summary, among samples submitted for routine clinical testing in the United States, a high proportion of samples with first-generation NNRTI resistance was susceptible to etravirine by genotype and phenotype. A higher proportion of NNRTI-resistant samples with K103N than without was susceptible to etravirine.

  4. Susceptibility testing of sequential isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus recovered from treated patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danaoui, E.; Meletiadis, J.; Tortorano, A.M.; Symoens, F.; Nolard, N.; Viviani, M.A.; Piens, M.A.; Lebeau, B.; Verweij, P.E.; Grillot, R.

    2004-01-01

    Two-hundred sequential Aspergillus fumigatus isolates recovered from 26 immunocompromised patients with invasive aspergillosis or bronchial colonization were tested for their in vitro susceptibility to posaconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, terbinafine and amphotericin B. Twenty-one patients were

  5. A Novel Hypoxia Challenge Test Demonstrates Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Susceptibility to Acrolein Gas in Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    High levels of air pollution increase the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in susceptible populations including those with hypertension. Stress tests are useful for manifesting latent effects of exposure, particularly at low concentrations, often when no...

  6. Vaspar broth-disk procedure for antibiotic susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    West, S E; Wilkins, T D

    1980-01-01

    A modification of the Wilkins-Thiel broth-disk procedure for antibiotic susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria is described. This method utilizes an aerobically prepared medium overlaid with molten vaspar. Specialized anaerobic techniques or prereduced media are not required.

  7. Etest cannot be recommended for in vitro susceptibility testing of mucorales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramalho, Rita; Maurer, Elisabeth; Binder, Ulrike; Araújo, Ricardo; Dolatabadi, Somayeh; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Lackner, Michaela

    2015-01-01

    Amphotericin B and posaconazole susceptibility patterns were determined for the most prevalent Mucorales, following EUCAST (European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing) broth microdilution guidelines. In parallel, Etest was performed and evaluated against EUCAST. The overall agreement of MICs gained with Etest and EUCAST was 75.1%; therefore, Etest cannot be recommended for antifungal susceptibility testing of Mucorales. Amphotericin B was the most active drug against Mucorales species in vitro, while the activities of posaconazole were more restricted. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. A cost-effective smartphone-based antimicrobial susceptibility test reader for drug resistance testing (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Steve W.; Tseng, Derek; Di Carlo, Dino; Garner, Omai B.; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2017-03-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) is commonly used for determining microbial drug resistance, but routine testing, which can significantly reduce the spread of multi-drug resistant organisms, is not regularly performed in resource-limited and field-settings due to technological challenges and lack of trained diagnosticians. We developed a portable cost-effective smartphone-based colorimetric 96-well microtiter plate (MTP) reader capable of automated AST without the need for a trained diagnostician. This system is composed of a smartphone used in conjunction with a 3D-printed opto-mechanical attachment, which holds a set of inexpensive light-emitting-diodes and fiber-optic cables coupled to the 96-well MTP for enabling the capture of the transmitted light through each well by the smartphone camera. Images of the MTP plate are captured at multiple exposures and uploaded to a local or remote server (e.g., a laptop) for automated processing/analysis of the results using a custom-designed smartphone application. Each set of images are combined to generate a high dynamic-range image and analyzed for well turbidity (indicative of bacterial growth), followed by interpretative analysis per plate to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and drug susceptibility for the specific bacterium. Results are returned to the originating device within 1 minute and shown to the user in tabular form. We demonstrated the capability of this platform using MTPs prepared with 17 antibiotic drugs targeting Gram-negative bacteria and tested 82 patient isolate MTPs of Klebsiella pneumoniae, achieving well turbidity accuracy of 98.19%, MIC accuracy of 95.15%, and drug susceptibility interpretation accuracy of 99.06%, meeting the FDA defined criteria for AST.

  9. Evaluation of semisolid agar method for antifungal susceptibility test of T. rubrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultana Razia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: With increasing fungal disease many newer antifungal drugs are available with different spectrum of activ­ity. Antifungal susceptibility test will help clinicians for selection of effective drug and thereby treatment of patient. Objective: The study was undertaken to perform a simple screening drug susceptibility test of T. rnbrum by Semi Solid Agar Antifungal Susceptibility (SAAS Method: Perfonnance of susceptibility method was assessed by comparing the MICs of three commonly prescribed antifungal agents namely- tluconazole (FCZ, itraconazole (ITZ and terbinafine (TER to the CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute recommended M-38, a broth microdilution method. Results: In SAAS method, among twenty nine T. rubrum, twenty five (86.2% were susceptible (MIC range 0.5-64 µg/ml to Fluconazole (FCZ and four (13.7% were resistant (MIC value >64 µg/ml. In broth microdilution method, among twenty nine T. rubrum, twenty six (89.6% were susceptible (MIC range 0.3-64 µg/ml to FCZ and three (10.3% were resistant (MIC value >64 µg/ml. In case of both ITZ and TER, all were susceptible (MIC range 0.3-64 µg/ml to both methods. The SAAS method demonstrated the susceptibility pattern of T. rubrum against FCZ, ITZ and TER usually within 72 to 96 hours after organism isolation and results were concordance with the results of CLSI broth microdilution method. Conclusion: Though it is a newer method with proper standardization of the test method, SAAS method is simple and easily applicable screening method for susceptibility testing of antifungal agents against dermatophytes in any microbiology laboratories.

  10. Bacterial Cytological Profiling (BCP as a Rapid and Accurate Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Method for Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.T. Quach

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Successful treatment of bacterial infections requires the timely administration of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. The failure to initiate the correct therapy in a timely fashion results in poor clinical outcomes, longer hospital stays, and higher medical costs. Current approaches to antibiotic susceptibility testing of cultured pathogens have key limitations ranging from long run times to dependence on prior knowledge of genetic mechanisms of resistance. We have developed a rapid antimicrobial susceptibility assay for Staphylococcus aureus based on bacterial cytological profiling (BCP, which uses quantitative fluorescence microscopy to measure antibiotic induced changes in cellular architecture. BCP discriminated between methicillin-susceptible (MSSA and -resistant (MRSA clinical isolates of S. aureus (n = 71 within 1–2 h with 100% accuracy. Similarly, BCP correctly distinguished daptomycin susceptible (DS from daptomycin non-susceptible (DNS S. aureus strains (n = 20 within 30 min. Among MRSA isolates, BCP further identified two classes of strains that differ in their susceptibility to specific combinations of beta-lactam antibiotics. BCP provides a rapid and flexible alternative to gene-based susceptibility testing methods for S. aureus, and should be readily adaptable to different antibiotics and bacterial species as new mechanisms of resistance or multidrug-resistant pathogens evolve and appear in mainstream clinical practice.

  11. Lyophilized microculture susceptibility test for ketoconazole, miconazole, clotrimazole, and griseofulvin against dermatophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granade, T C; Mothershead, M A; Artis, W M

    1983-07-01

    A lyophilized microculture antimycotic susceptibility testing system for ketoconazole, miconazole, griseofulvin, and clotrimazole is described. Microculture plates were loaded with 100 microliters of medium and 10 microliters of appropriate concentrations of the four antimycotics and were lyophilized to complete dryness. The lyophilized plates were stored at -70 degrees C or 4 degrees C or in a desiccator at 25 degrees C. Samples from each storage condition were rehydrated at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, and 12 months and inoculated with Trichophyton mentagrophytes (Robin) Blanchard ATCC 18748. All of the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) generated from the lyophilized microcultures were within one experimental dilution of MICs derived from fresh microcultures. The ability of reconstituted lyophilized microcultures to consistently produce MICs comparable to MICs derived from fresh microcultures was characterized. Nine dermatophyte isolates were tested five times each over a 70-day period. The MICs derived were reproducible and comparable to MICs determined by freshly prepared microculture tests. Lyophilization of freshly prepared antimycotic-containing microcultures does not alter the MIC resolution of the testing system and provides an effective method of storage of prepared antimycotic tests for ketoconazole, miconazole, clotrimazole, and griseofulvin.

  12. Nonlinear susceptibility: A direct test of the quadrupolar Kondo effect in UBe13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.P.; Chandra, P.; Coleman, P.; Fisk, Z.; Smith, J.L.; Ott, H.R.

    1994-01-01

    We present the nonlinear susceptibility as a direct test of the quadrupolar Kondo scenario for heavy fermion behavior, and apply it to the case of cubic crystal-field symmetry. Within a single-ion model we compute the nonlinear susceptibility resulting from low-lying Γ 3 (5f 2 ) and Kramers (5f 3 ) doublets. We find that nonlinear susceptibility measurements on single-crystal UBe 13 are inconsistent with a quadrupolar (5f 2 ) ground state of the uranium ion; the experimental data indicate that the low-lying magnetic excitations of UBe 13 are predominantly dipolar in character

  13. Selection of media for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of fish pathogenic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Inger

    2001-01-01

    3, Diagnostic Sensitivity Test Agar) have been used in addition to media (Brain Heart Infusion Agar, Heart Infusion Agar, Columbia Blood Agar) normally utilized for cultivating fastidious bacteria. When testing marine pathogens, sodium chloride or seawater has been included in the media. Media...... pattern in fish pathogenic bacteria. The American guideline from The National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) recommends Mueller-Hinton Agar for susceptibility testing of human pathogens and this validated medium appears to be adequate for the rapidly growing fish pathogens. Following......The available data concerning antimicrobial susceptibility testing of fish pathogens showed that there is no consensus to the basal medium currently being employed. Different media recommended for susceptibility testing of human pathogens (Mueller-Hinton Agar, Tryptone Soya Agar, Antibiotic Medium...

  14. Selection of media for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of fish pathogenic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Inger

    2001-01-01

    The available data concerning antimicrobial susceptibility testing of fish pathogens showed that there is no consensus to the basal medium currently being employed. Different media recommended for susceptibility testing of human pathogens (Mueller-Hinton Agar, Tryptone Soya Agar, Antibiotic Medium...... 3, Diagnostic Sensitivity Test Agar) have been used in addition to media (Brain Heart Infusion Agar, Heart Infusion Agar, Columbia Blood Agar) normally utilized for cultivating fastidious bacteria. When testing marine pathogens, sodium chloride or seawater has been included in the media. Media...... normally used for cultivation of pathogens with specific growth requirements like Flavobacterium species and Renibacterium salmoninarum have been used for susceptibility testing. The Mueller-Hinton Agar and different modifications of this medium was used most frequently in published studies on resistant...

  15. Perceived susceptibility and self-protective behavior: a field experiment to encourage home radon testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinstein, N.D.; Sandman, P.M.; Roberts, N.E.

    1991-01-01

    Tested in a field experiment (N = 647) the hypothesis that perceptions of personal susceptibility are important in decisions to test one's home for radioactive radon gas. Experimental group subjects received a personal telephone call to tell them they lived in a high-risk area and a personal letter to reinforce the telephone message. After the intervention, experimental subjects were significantly more likely than minimal-treatment subjects to acknowledge the possibility of high radon levels in their homes. Perceptions of susceptibility and illness severity were significantly correlated with orders of radon test kits and with testing intentions. Nevertheless, there were no differences between groups in test orders or intentions. Results are discussed in terms of the difficulty of getting people to acknowledge susceptibility and the factors other than risk perceptions that influence self-protective behavior

  16. Ethical issues of genetic susceptibility testing for occupational diseases: opinions of trainees in a high-risk job

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M. J.; Rhebergen, M. D. F.; Kezic, S.; van Dijk, F. J. H.; Willems, D. L.; Verberk, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic research has opened up possibilities for identification of persons with an increased susceptibility for occupational disease. However, regulations considering the ethical issues that are inevitably associated with the use of genetic tests for susceptibility for occupational diseases are

  17. In Vitro Antibiotic Susceptibilities of Burkholderia mallei (Causative Agent of Glanders) Determined by Broth Microdilution and E-Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Henry S.; England, Marilyn J.; Waag, David M.; Byrne, W. Russell

    2001-01-01

    In vitro susceptibilities to 28 antibiotics were determined for 11 strains of Burkholderia mallei by the broth microdilution method. The B. mallei strains demonstrated susceptibility to aminoglycosides, macrolides, quinolones, doxycycline, piperacillin, ceftazidime, and imipenem. For comparison and evaluation, 17 antibiotic susceptibilities were also determined by the E-test. E-test values were always lower than the broth dilution values. Establishing and comparing antibiotic susceptibilities of specific B. mallei strains will provide reference information for assessing new antibiotic agents. PMID:11408233

  18. Culture and drug susceptibility testing among previously treated tuberculosis patients in the Dominican Republic, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia J. Romero Mercado

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB is a major public health concern that threatens global progress toward effective TB control. The risk of MDR-TB is increased in patients who have received previous TB treatment. This article describes the performance of culture and drug susceptibility testing (DST in patients registered as previously treated TB patients in the Dominican Republic in 2014, based on operational research that followed a retrospective cohort design and used routine program data. Under the current system of TB culturing and DST, the majority of patients with previously treated TB do not undergo DST, and those who do often experience considerable delay in obtaining their results. The lack of DST and delay in receiving DST results leads to underestimation of the number of MDR-TB cases and hinders the timely initiation of MDR-TB treatment.

  19. Technical basis for acceptance criteria on the susceptibility of digital systems to electromagnetic interference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, P.D.; Korsah, K.; Antonescu, C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of the technical basis for establishing acceptance criteria on the susceptibility of digital systems to electromagnetic interference (EMI). The effort is sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and stems from the safety-related issues that need to be addressed with the application of digital instrumentation and controls systems in nuclear power plants. Designers of digital circuits are incorporating increasingly higher clock frequencies and lower logic voltage levels, thereby leading to the risk of susceptibility when spurious interference is misinterpreted as legitimate logic. Development of the technical basis for acceptance criteria centers around establishing good engineering practices to ensure that sufficient levels of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) are maintained between the nuclear power plant's electronic and electromechanical systems. First, good EMC design and installation practices are needed to control the emissions from interference sources and their impact on other nearby circuits and systems. Then, a test and evaluation program is needed to outline the EMI tests to be performed, the associated test methods to be followed, and adequate test limits to ensure that the circuit or system under test meets the recommended guidelines. Test and evaluation should be followed by periodic maintenance to assess whether the recommended EMI control practices continue to be adhered to as part of the routine operation of the nuclear power plant. By following these steps, the probability of encountering safety-related problems associated with EMI will be greatly reduced

  20. Can disc diffusion susceptibility tests assess the antimicrobial activity of engineered nanoparticles?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kourmouli, A.; Valenti, M.; van Rijn, E.; Beaumont, H.J.E.; Kalantzi, Olga Ioanna; Schmidt-Ott, A.; Biskos, G.

    2018-01-01

    The use of disc diffusion susceptibility tests to determine the antibacterial activity of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) is questionable because their low diffusivity practically prevents them from penetrating through the culture media. In this study, we investigate the ability of such a test,

  1. 21 CFR 866.1700 - Culture medium for antimicrobial susceptibility tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... tests. 866.1700 Section 866.1700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 866.1700 Culture medium for antimicrobial susceptibility tests. (a) Identification. A culture medium for...

  2. Comparison of agar dilution and antibiotic gradient strip test with broth microdilution for susceptibility testing of swine Brachyspira species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirajkar, Nandita S; Gebhart, Connie J

    2016-03-01

    Production-limiting diseases in swine caused by Brachyspira are characterized by mucohemorrhagic diarrhea (B. hyodysenteriae and "B. hampsonii") or mild colitis (B. pilosicoli), while B. murdochii is often isolated from healthy pigs. Emergence of novel pathogenic Brachyspira species and strains with reduced susceptibility to commonly used antimicrobials has reinforced the need for standardized susceptibility testing. Two methods are currently used for Brachyspira susceptibility testing: agar dilution (AD) and broth microdilution (BMD). However, these tests have primarily been used for B. hyodysenteriae and rarely for B. pilosicoli. Information on the use of commercial susceptibility testing products such as antibiotic gradient strips is lacking. Our main objective was to validate and compare the susceptibility results, measured as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), of 6 antimicrobials for 4 Brachyspira species (B. hyodysenteriae, "B. hampsonii", B. pilosicoli, and B. murdochii) by BMD and AD (tiamulin, valnemulin, lincomycin, tylosin, and carbadox) or antibiotic gradient strip (doxycycline) methods. In general, the results of a high percentage of all 4 Brachyspira species differed by ±1 log2 dilution or less by BMD and AD for tiamulin, valnemulin, lincomycin, and tylosin, and by BMD and antibiotic gradient strip for doxycycline. The carbadox MICs obtained by BMD were 1-5 doubling dilutions different than those obtained by AD. BMD for Brachyspira was quicker to perform with less ambiguous interpretation of results when compared with AD and antibiotic gradient strip methods, and the results confirm the utility of BMD in routine diagnostics. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. A Microfluidic Channel Method for Rapid Drug-Susceptibility Testing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimi Matsumoto

    Full Text Available The recent global increase in the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and lack of development of new therapeutic agents emphasize the importance of selecting appropriate antimicrobials for the treatment of infections. However, to date, the development of completely accelerated drug susceptibility testing methods has not been achieved despite the availability of a rapid identification method. We proposed an innovative rapid method for drug susceptibility testing for Pseudomonas aeruginosa that provides results within 3 h. The drug susceptibility testing microfluidic (DSTM device was prepared using soft lithography. It consisted of five sets of four microfluidic channels sharing one inlet slot, and the four channels are gathered in a small area, permitting simultaneous microscopic observation. Antimicrobials were pre-introduced into each channel and dried before use. Bacterial suspensions in cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth were introduced from the inlet slot and incubated for 3 h. Susceptibilities were microscopically evaluated on the basis of differences in cell numbers and shapes between drug-treated and control cells, using dedicated software. The results of 101 clinically isolated strains of P. aeruginosa obtained using the DSTM method strongly correlated with results obtained using the ordinary microbroth dilution method. Ciprofloxacin, meropenem, ceftazidime, and piperacillin caused elongation in susceptible cells, while meropenem also induced spheroplast and bulge formation. Morphological observation could alternatively be used to determine the susceptibility of P. aeruginosa to these drugs, although amikacin had little effect on cell shape. The rapid determination of bacterial drug susceptibility using the DSTM method could also be applicable to other pathogenic species, and it could easily be introduced into clinical laboratories without the need for expensive instrumentation.

  4. Children's differential susceptibility to parenting: An experimental test of "for better and for worse".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagt, Meike; Dubas, Judith Semon; van Aken, Marcel A G; Ellis, Bruce J; Deković, Maja

    2017-02-01

    Differential susceptibility theory proposes that a subset of individuals exist who display enhanced susceptibility to both negative (risk-promoting) and positive (development-enhancing) environments. This experiment represents the first attempt to directly test this assumption by exposing children in the experimental group to both negative and positive feedback using puppet role-plays. It thereby serves as an empirical test as well as a methodological primer for testing differential susceptibility. Dutch children (N=190, 45.3% girls) between the ages of 4 and 6years participated. We examined whether negative and positive feedback would differentially affect changes in positive and negative affect, in prosocial and antisocial intentions and behavior, depending on children's negative emotionality. Results show that on hearing negative feedback, children in the experimental group increased in negative affect and decreased in positive affect more strongly than children in the control group. On hearing positive feedback, children in the experimental group tended to increase in positive affect and decrease in prosocial behavior. However, changes in response to negative or positive feedback did not depend on children's negative emotionality. Moreover, using reliable change scores, we found support for a subset of "vulnerable" children but not for a subset of "susceptible" children. The findings offer suggestions to guide future differential susceptibility experiments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis : Its utility in resource poor settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poojary A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the rapid colorimetric nitrate reductase based antibiotic susceptibility (CONRAS test performed on Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates with the conventional method i.e., the proportion method. Methods: One hundred clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis were tested for susceptibility to isoniazid (INH and rifampicin (RIF by the conventional proportion method and CONRAS in Middlebrook 7H9 liquid medium enriched with growth supplements (MB7H9S. Results: The performance of the CONRAS test was evaluated using proportion method as the gold standard. The sensitivity (ability to detect true drug resistance and specificity (ability to detect true drug susceptibility of the CONRAS test to INH was 93.75 and 98.52% and for RIF it was 96.10 and 100% respectively. The mean time for reporting was 6.3 days and the test showed excellent reproducibility. The kappa (k value for INH was 0.92 and for RIF was 0.99, indicating excellent agreement between the two methods. Conclusions: CONRAS test is a rapid and reliable method of drug susceptibility for M. tuberculosis.

  6. Selective reporting of antibiotic susceptibility test results in European countries: an ESCMID cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulcini, Céline; Tebano, Gianpiero; Mutters, Nico T; Tacconelli, Evelina; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Kahlmeter, Gunnar; Jarlier, Vincent

    2017-02-01

    Selective reporting of antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) results is one possible laboratory-based antibiotic stewardship intervention. The primary aim of this study was to identify where and how selective reporting of AST results is implemented in Europe both in inpatient and in outpatient settings. An ESCMID cross-sectional, self-administered, internet-based survey was conducted among all EUCIC (European Committee on Infection Control) or EUCAST (European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing) national representatives in Europe and Israel. Of 38 countries, 36 chose to participate in the survey. Selective reporting of AST results was implemented in 11/36 countries (31%), was partially implemented in 4/36 (11%) and was limited to local initiatives or was not adopted in 21/36 (58%). It was endorsed as standard of care by health authorities in only three countries. The organisation of selective reporting was everywhere discretionally managed by each laboratory, with a pronounced intra- and inter-country variability. The most frequent application was in uncomplicated community-acquired infections, particularly urinary tract and skin and soft-tissue infections. The list of reported antibiotics ranged from a few first-line options, to longer reports where only last-resort antibiotics were hidden. Several barriers to implementation were reported, mainly lack of guidelines, poor system support, insufficient resources, and lack of professionals' capability. In conclusion, selective reporting of AST results is poorly implemented in Europe and is applied with a huge heterogeneity of practices. Development of an international framework, based on existing initiatives and identified barriers, could favour its dissemination as one important element of antibiotic stewardship programmes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  7. Change of antibiotic susceptibility testing guidelines from CLSI to EUCAST: influence on cumulative hospital antibiograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfensberger, Aline; Sax, Hugo; Weber, Rainer; Zbinden, Reinhard; Kuster, Stefan P; Hombach, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We studied whether the change in antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) guidelines from CLSI to EUCAST influenced cumulative antibiograms in a tertiary care hospital in Switzerland. Antibiotic susceptibilities of non-duplicate isolates collected within a one-year period before (period A) and after (period B) changing AST interpretation from CLSI 2009 to EUCAST 1.3 (2011) guidelines were analysed. In addition, period B isolates were reinterpreted according to the CLSI 2009, CLSI 2013 and EUCAST 3.1 (2013) guidelines. The majority of species/drug combinations showed no differences in susceptibility rates comparing periods A and B. However, in some gram-negative bacilli, decreased susceptibility rates were observed when comparing CLSI 2009 with EUCAST 1.3 within period B: Escherichia coli / cefepime, 95.8% (CLSI 2009) vs. 93.1% (EUCAST 1.3), P=0.005; Enterobacter cloacae / cefepime, 97.0 (CLSI 2009) vs. 90.5% (EUCAST 1.3), P=0.012; Pseudomonas aeruginosa / meropenem, 88.1% (CLSI 2009) vs. 78.3% (EUCAST 1.3), P=0.002. These differences were still evident when comparing susceptibility rates according to the CLSI 2013 guideline with EUCAST 3.1 guideline. For P. aeruginosa and imipenem, a trend towards a lower antibiotic susceptibility rate in ICUs compared to general wards turned into a significant difference after the change to EUCAST: 87.9% vs. 79.8%, P=0.08 (CLSI 2009) and 86.3% vs. 76.8%, P=0.048 (EUCAST 1.3). The change of AST guidelines from CLSI to EUCAST led to a clinically relevant decrease of susceptibility rates in cumulative antibiograms for defined species/drug combinations, particularly in those with considerable differences in clinical susceptibility breakpoints between the two guidelines.

  8. Change of antibiotic susceptibility testing guidelines from CLSI to EUCAST: influence on cumulative hospital antibiograms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Wolfensberger

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We studied whether the change in antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST guidelines from CLSI to EUCAST influenced cumulative antibiograms in a tertiary care hospital in Switzerland. METHODS: Antibiotic susceptibilities of non-duplicate isolates collected within a one-year period before (period A and after (period B changing AST interpretation from CLSI 2009 to EUCAST 1.3 (2011 guidelines were analysed. In addition, period B isolates were reinterpreted according to the CLSI 2009, CLSI 2013 and EUCAST 3.1 (2013 guidelines. RESULTS: The majority of species/drug combinations showed no differences in susceptibility rates comparing periods A and B. However, in some gram-negative bacilli, decreased susceptibility rates were observed when comparing CLSI 2009 with EUCAST 1.3 within period B: Escherichia coli / cefepime, 95.8% (CLSI 2009 vs. 93.1% (EUCAST 1.3, P=0.005; Enterobacter cloacae / cefepime, 97.0 (CLSI 2009 vs. 90.5% (EUCAST 1.3, P=0.012; Pseudomonas aeruginosa / meropenem, 88.1% (CLSI 2009 vs. 78.3% (EUCAST 1.3, P=0.002. These differences were still evident when comparing susceptibility rates according to the CLSI 2013 guideline with EUCAST 3.1 guideline. For P. aeruginosa and imipenem, a trend towards a lower antibiotic susceptibility rate in ICUs compared to general wards turned into a significant difference after the change to EUCAST: 87.9% vs. 79.8%, P=0.08 (CLSI 2009 and 86.3% vs. 76.8%, P=0.048 (EUCAST 1.3. CONCLUSIONS: The change of AST guidelines from CLSI to EUCAST led to a clinically relevant decrease of susceptibility rates in cumulative antibiograms for defined species/drug combinations, particularly in those with considerable differences in clinical susceptibility breakpoints between the two guidelines.

  9. 21 CFR 866.1645 - Fully automated short-term incubation cycle antimicrobial susceptibility system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES... determining in vitro susceptibility of bacterial pathogens isolated from clinical specimens. Test results...

  10. Evaluation of susceptibility of high strength steels to delayed fracture by using cyclic corrosion test and slow strain rate test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Songjie; Zhang Zuogui; Akiyama, Eiji; Tsuzaki, Kaneaki; Zhang Boping

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate susceptibilities of high strength steels to delayed fracture, slow strain rate tests (SSRT) of notched bar specimens of AISI 4135 with tensile strengths of 1300 and 1500 MPa and boron-bearing steel with 1300 MPa have been performed after cyclic corrosion test (CCT). During SSRT the humidity around the specimen was kept high to keep absorbed diffusible hydrogen. The fracture stresses of AISI 4135 steels decreased with increment of diffusible hydrogen content which increased with CCT cycles. Their delayed fracture susceptibilities could be successfully evaluated in consideration of both influence of hydrogen content on mechanical property and hydrogen entry.

  11. Evaluation of susceptibility of high strength steels to delayed fracture by using cyclic corrosion test and slow strain rate test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Songjie [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, No. 30 Xueyuan Road, Hidian Zone, Beijing 100083 (China); Structural Metals Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Zhang Zuogui [Structural Metals Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Akiyama, Eiji [Structural Metals Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)], E-mail: AKIYAMA.Eiji@nims.go.jp; Tsuzaki, Kaneaki [Structural Metals Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Zhang Boping [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, No. 30 Xueyuan Road, Hidian Zone, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2010-05-15

    To evaluate susceptibilities of high strength steels to delayed fracture, slow strain rate tests (SSRT) of notched bar specimens of AISI 4135 with tensile strengths of 1300 and 1500 MPa and boron-bearing steel with 1300 MPa have been performed after cyclic corrosion test (CCT). During SSRT the humidity around the specimen was kept high to keep absorbed diffusible hydrogen. The fracture stresses of AISI 4135 steels decreased with increment of diffusible hydrogen content which increased with CCT cycles. Their delayed fracture susceptibilities could be successfully evaluated in consideration of both influence of hydrogen content on mechanical property and hydrogen entry.

  12. Direct Identification and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Bacteria From Positive Blood Culture Bottles by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry and the Vitek 2 System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Sung Jin; Park, Kang Gyun; Han, Kyungja; Park, Dong Jin; Park, Yeon-Joon

    2016-03-01

    We evaluated the reliability and accuracy of the combined use of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) bacterial identification and Vitek 2 antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) for bacteria from positive blood culture bottles. Direct identification and AST were performed in parallel to the standard methods in monomicrobial positive blood culture bottles. In total, 254 isolates grown on aerobic and/or anaerobic bottles were identified with MALDI-TOF Vitek MS (bioMérieux, France), and 1,978 microorganism/antimicrobial agent combinations were assessed. For isolates from anaerobic bottles, an aliquot of the culture broth was centrifuged, washed, and filtered through a nylon mesh. For isolates from aerobic/pediatric bottles, a lysis step using 9.26% ammonium chloride solution and 2% saponin solution was included. The overall correct identification rate was 81.8% (208/254) and that for gram-positive/gram-negative isolates was 73.9%/92.6%, respectively, and it was 81.8%, 87.6%, and 57.9% for isolates from aerobic, anaerobic, and pediatric bottles, respectively. Identification was not possible in 45 cases, and most of these isolates were streptococci (N=14) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (N=11). Misidentification occurred only in one case. Compared with standard methods, direct AST showed 97.9% (1,936/1,978) agreement with very major error of 0.25%, major error of 0.05%, and minor error of 1.8%. This simple and cost-effective sample preparation method gives reliable results for the direct identification and AST of bacteria. For the identification of streptococci and coagulase-negative staphylococci, the method should be further improved.

  13. Evaluation of rapid radiometric method for drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, S.H.; Libonati, J.P.; Middlebrook, G.

    1981-01-01

    A total of 106 isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were tested for drug susceptibility by the conventional 7H11 plate method and by a new rapid radiometric method using special 7H12 liquid medium with 14 C-labeled substrate. Results obtained by the two methods were compared for rapidity, sensitivity, and specificity of the new test method. There was 98% overall agreement between the results obtained by the two methods. Of a total of 424 drug tests, only 8 drug results did not agree, mostly in the case of streptomycin. This new procedure was found to be rapid, with 87% of the tests results reportable within 4 days and 98% reportable within 5 days as compared to the usual 3 weeks required with the conventional indirect susceptibility test method. The results of this preliminary study indicate that the rapid radiometric method seems to have the potential for routine laboratory use and merits further investigations

  14. Comparison of manual mycobacteria growth indicator tube and epsilometer test with agar proportion method for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Karabulut

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Antimycobacterial susceptibility tests take weeks, and delayed therapy can lead to spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Therefore, rapid, accurate and cost-effective methods are required for proper therapy selection. In this study, the Mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT and epsilometer test (Etest methods were compared to the agar proportion method for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Materials and Methods: The susceptibility tests against isoniazid (INH, rifampin (RIF, streptomycin (STM and ethambutol (ETM of 51 M. tuberculosis complex isolates were analyzed by the MGIT, Etest and agar proportion methods. Results: The concordance between MGIT/Etest and agar proportion methods was 98% for INH and 100% for RIF, STM, ETM. There were not statistically significant differences in results of the susceptibility tests between MGIT/Etest and the reference agar proportion method. Conclusion: The results have shown that MGIT and Etest methods can be used instead of the agar proportion method, because these two methods are more rapid and easier than the agar proportion method.

  15. .i.Aspergillus viridinutans./i. complex: polyphasic taxonomy, mating behaviour and antifungal susceptibility testing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dudová, Z.; Hubka, V.; Svobodová, L.; Hamal, P.; Nováková, Alena; Matsuzawa, T.; Yaguchi, T.; Kubátová, A.; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 56, Suppl. 3 (2013), s. 162-163 ISSN 0933-7407. [Trends in Medical Mycology /6./. 11.10.2013-14.10.2013, Copenhagen] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : Aspergillus viridinutans * polyphasic taxonomy * mating behaviour * antifungal susceptibility testing Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  16. En Route towards European Clinical breakpoints for veterinary antimicrobial susceptibility testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toutain, Pierre Louis; Bousquet-Mélou, Alain; Damborg, Peter; Ferran, Aude A.; Mevius, Dik; Pelligand, Ludovic; Veldman, Kees T.; Lees, Peter

    2017-01-01

    VetCAST is the EUCAST sub-committee for Veterinary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. Its remit is to define clinical breakpoints (CBPs) for antimicrobial drugs (AMDs) used in veterinary medicine in Europe. This position paper outlines the procedures and reviews scientific options to solve

  17. Isothermal microcalorimetry for antifungal susceptibility testing of Mucorales, Fusarium spp., and Scedosporium spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Furustrand Tafin, U.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Trampuz, A.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated isothermal microcalorimetry for real-time susceptibility testing of non-Aspergillus molds. MIC and minimal effective concentration (MEC) values of Mucorales (n = 4), Fusarium spp. (n = 4), and Scedosporium spp. (n = 4) were determined by microbroth dilution according to the Clinical

  18. Interpretive criteria for mupirocin susceptibility testing of Staphylococcus spp. using CLSI guidelines.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Creagh, S

    2012-02-03

    Mupirocin is an antimicrobial agent commonly used to treat staphylococcal infection or to eliminate persistent carriage. To date, interpretive criteria have not been established to define susceptibility or resistance when performing mupirocin susceptibility testing. In this evaluation, using CLSI guidelines, a total of 502 staphylococci comprising 219 methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, 222 methicillin-resistant S. aureus and 61 coagulase-negative staphylococci are tested by broth microdilution, disc diffusion and E-test. Disc diffusion using 5 microg mupirocin discs was found to be a reliable method to distinguish susceptible and resistant strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination was required to differentiate low-level and high-level resistance to mupirocin. E-test was found to be an accurate alternative to broth microdilution for the routine determination of MIC values of staphylococci to mupirocin. Broth microdilution and disc-diffusion results were plotted on a scattergram, and error rates were calculated. No errors were found using susceptibility criteria of < 4 microg\\/mL (MIC) and > 19 mm (zone diameter).

  19. System Performance and Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frei, U.; Oversloot, H.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter compares and contrasts the system performance of two widely used solar thermal systems using testing and simulation programs. Solar thermal systems are used in many countries for heating domestically used water. In addition to the simple thermosiphon systems, better designed pumped

  20. Comparison of E-test with other conventional susceptibility testing methods for ciprofloxacin and gentamicin against gram negative enteric bacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbolu, D O; Terry-Alli, O A; Daini, O A; Olabiyi, F A; Igharo, E A

    2012-06-01

    Increasing antibiotic resistance in Gram negative bacteria has led to the need for a faster and reliable method for determining antimicrobial susceptibility testing. In a resource poor setting like ours, it's also important to look for methods that will be clinically and economically beneficial to the patient. This study was aimed at evaluating the Epsilometer test (E-test) and conventional methods for determining antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates of Gram-negative enteric bacteria to ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. Disc diffusion, E-test, broth dilution and agar dilution methods were performed on 54 bacterial isolates. Using the E-test, 88.9% of bacterial isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, 92.6% were resistant using broth microdilution, 96.3% were resistant using agar dilution and 72.2% were resistant using disc diffusion. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) of isolates for gentamicin showed significant difference for all the techniques (p 0.05). Both E-test and broth dilution methods showed high levels of agreement (p > 0.05), there were low levels of agreement between E-test and agar dilution method (p < 0.05), especially at MIC50. The E-test can therefore be considered a reliable method to determine antimicrobial susceptibility testing and it gives results which are at least as accurate as those obtained by the broth dilution method.

  1. A review of the current state of antimicrobial susceptibility test methods for Brachyspira.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulathunga, D G R S; Rubin, J E

    2017-06-01

    The re-emergence of swine dysentery (Brachyspira-associated muco-haemorrhagic colitis) since the late 2000s has illuminated diagnostic challenges associated with this genus. The methods used to detect, identify, and characterize Brachyspira from clinical samples have not been standardized, and laboratories frequently rely heavily on in-house techniques. Particularly concerning is the lack of standardized methods for determining and interpreting the antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira spp. The integration of laboratory data into a treatment plan is a critical component of prudent antimicrobial usage. Therefore, the lack of standardized methods is an important limitation to the evidence-based use of antimicrobials. This review will focus on describing the methodological limitations and inconsistencies between current susceptibility testing schemes employed for Brachyspira, provide an overview of what we do know about the susceptibility of these organisms, and suggest future directions to improve and standardize diagnostic strategies.

  2. [Influence of testing conditions on the susceptibility results of Staphylococcus cohnii to beta-lactams].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Tonmasz; Szewczyk, Eligia M

    2006-01-01

    The high occurence of coagulase-negative staphylococci among bacteria responsible for hospital infections is unquestioned. Studies on the poorly-known novobiocin-resistant, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus cohnii were undertaken. The possibilities of optimizing conditions for determination of susceptibility to beta-lactam antibiotics of this species were researched. In the case of S. cohnii the new cefoxitin test for detection of methicillin resistant strains, introduced by the National Reference Centre for Antibiotics in Poland was found as a good and of credible quality. It was also shown, that application in in vitro examination conditions stimulating the mechanisms of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics, supplies credible results relating to their true susceptibility. The necessity of establishing individual conditions for susceptibility determination in different species of coagulase-negative staphylococci was suggested.

  3. Rapid bacterial antibiotic susceptibility test based on simple surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Ying; Han, Yin-Yi; Shih, Po-Han; Lian, Wei-Nan; Wang, Huai-Hsien; Lin, Chi-Hung; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Wang, Juen-Kai; Wang, Yuh-Lin

    2016-03-01

    Rapid bacterial antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) measurement are important to help reduce the widespread misuse of antibiotics and alleviate the growing drug-resistance problem. We discovered that, when a susceptible strain of Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli is exposed to an antibiotic, the intensity of specific biomarkers in its surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra drops evidently in two hours. The discovery has been exploited for rapid AST and MIC determination of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus and wild-type E. coli as well as clinical isolates. The results obtained by this SERS-AST method were consistent with that by the standard incubation-based method, indicating its high potential to supplement or replace existing time-consuming methods and help mitigate the challenge of drug resistance in clinical microbiology.

  4. Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. abscessus Lung Disease: Drug Susceptibility Testing in Sputum Culture Negative Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiko Kobayashi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Among Mycobacterium abscessus complex infections, patients with M. abscessus subsp. abscessus (MAA lung disease are difficult to treat and no standard therapy has been established. Few reports have investigated the drug susceptibility of these strains. We retrospectively investigated how in vitro drug susceptibility testing (DST of MAA affects the induction of sputum conversion using pharmacotherapy. Methods: Patients with MAA lung disease diagnosed and treated between 2010 and 2014 at our hospital were enrolled and divided into Group A (sputum conversion without relapse within 1 year and Group B (persistent positive cultured or negative conversion with relapse. MAA was identified in M. abscessus using sequence with genotyping, and DST of MAA was performed. Results: We assessed 23 patients (9 males and 14 females. There were 8 patients in Group A and 15 in Group B. Higher prevalence of susceptible isolates for clarithromycin (CAM susceptibility on day 14 was noted in Group A than in Group B (P = 0.03 and no significant difference observed in the two groups for other drugs. Conclusions: In vitro DST of MAA, especially CAM susceptibility on day 14, affected the results of negative conversion. No other drugs were found to affect sputum culture negative conversion.

  5. Formation of Linear Gradient of Antibiotics on Microfluidic Chips for High-throughput Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seunggyu; Lee, Seokhun; Jeon, Jessie S.

    2017-11-01

    To determine the most effective antimicrobial treatments of infectious pathogen, high-throughput antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) is critically required. However, the conventional AST requires at least 16 hours to reach the minimum observable population. Therefore, we developed a microfluidic system that allows maintenance of linear antibiotic concentration and measurement of local bacterial density. Based on the Stokes-Einstein equation, the flow rate in the microchannel was optimized so that linearization was achieved within 10 minutes, taking into account the diffusion coefficient of each antibiotic in the agar gel. As a result, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of each antibiotic against P. aeruginosa could be immediately determined 6 hours after treatment of the linear antibiotic concentration. In conclusion, our system proved the efficacy of a high-throughput AST platform through MIC comparison with Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) range of antibiotics. This work was supported by the Climate Change Research Hub (Grant No. N11170060) of the KAIST and by the Brain Korea 21 Plus project.

  6. LANDSLIDE SUSCEPTIBILITY ASSESSMENT THROUGH FUZZY LOGIC INFERENCE SYSTEM (FLIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bibi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Landslide is among one of the most important natural hazards that lead to modification of the environment. It is a regular feature of a rapidly growing district Mansehra, Pakistan. This caused extensive loss of life and property in the district located at the foothills of Himalaya. Keeping in view the situation it is concluded that besides structural approaches the non-structural approaches such as hazard and risk assessment maps are effective tools to reduce the intensity of damage. A landslide susceptibility map is base for engineering geologists and geomorphologists. However, it is not easy to produce a reliable susceptibility map due to complex nature of landslides. Since 1980s, several mathematical models have been developed to map landslide susceptibility and hazard. Among various models this paper is discussing the effectiveness of fuzzy logic approach for landslide susceptibility mapping in District Mansehra, Pakistan. The factor maps were modified as landslide susceptibility and fuzzy membership functions were assessed for each class. Likelihood ratios are obtained for each class of contributing factors by considering the expert opinion. The fuzzy operators are applied to generate landslide susceptibility maps. According to this map, 17% of the study area is classified as high susceptibility, 32% as moderate susceptibility, 51% as low susceptibility and areas. From the results it is found that the fuzzy model can integrate effectively with various spatial data for landslide hazard mapping, suggestions in this study are hope to be helpful to improve the applications including interpretation, and integration phases in order to obtain an accurate decision supporting layer.

  7. Genetic Testing for TMEM154 Mutations Associated with Lentivirus Susceptibility in Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrik, Dustin T.; Simpson, Barry; Kijas, James W.; Clawson, Michael L.; Chitko-McKown, Carol G.; Harhay, Gregory P.; Leymaster, Kreg A.

    2013-01-01

    In sheep, small ruminant lentiviruses cause an incurable, progressive, lymphoproliferative disease that affects millions of animals worldwide. Known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) in the U.S., and Visna/Maedi virus (VMV) elsewhere, these viruses reduce an animal’s health, productivity, and lifespan. Genetic variation in the ovine transmembrane protein 154 gene (TMEM154) has been previously associated with OPPV infection in U.S. sheep. Sheep with the ancestral TMEM154 haplotype encoding glutamate (E) at position 35, and either form of an N70I variant, were highly-susceptible compared to sheep homozygous for the K35 missense mutation. Our current overall aim was to characterize TMEM154 in sheep from around the world to develop an efficient genetic test for reduced susceptibility. The average frequency of TMEM154 E35 among 74 breeds was 0.51 and indicated that highly-susceptible alleles were present in most breeds around the world. Analysis of whole genome sequences from an international panel of 75 sheep revealed more than 1,300 previously unreported polymorphisms in a 62 kb region containing TMEM154 and confirmed that the most susceptible haplotypes were distributed worldwide. Novel missense mutations were discovered in the signal peptide (A13V) and the extracellular domains (E31Q, I74F, and I102T) of TMEM154. A matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization–time-of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) assay was developed to detect these and six previously reported missense and two deletion mutations in TMEM154. In blinded trials, the call rate for the eight most common coding polymorphisms was 99.4% for 499 sheep tested and 96.0% of the animals were assigned paired TMEM154 haplotypes (i.e., diplotypes). The widespread distribution of highly-susceptible TMEM154 alleles suggests that genetic testing and selection may improve the health and productivity of infected flocks. PMID:23408992

  8. Genetic testing for TMEM154 mutations associated with lentivirus susceptibility in sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Heaton

    Full Text Available In sheep, small ruminant lentiviruses cause an incurable, progressive, lymphoproliferative disease that affects millions of animals worldwide. Known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV in the U.S., and Visna/Maedi virus (VMV elsewhere, these viruses reduce an animal's health, productivity, and lifespan. Genetic variation in the ovine transmembrane protein 154 gene (TMEM154 has been previously associated with OPPV infection in U.S. sheep. Sheep with the ancestral TMEM154 haplotype encoding glutamate (E at position 35, and either form of an N70I variant, were highly-susceptible compared to sheep homozygous for the K35 missense mutation. Our current overall aim was to characterize TMEM154 in sheep from around the world to develop an efficient genetic test for reduced susceptibility. The average frequency of TMEM154 E35 among 74 breeds was 0.51 and indicated that highly-susceptible alleles were present in most breeds around the world. Analysis of whole genome sequences from an international panel of 75 sheep revealed more than 1,300 previously unreported polymorphisms in a 62 kb region containing TMEM154 and confirmed that the most susceptible haplotypes were distributed worldwide. Novel missense mutations were discovered in the signal peptide (A13V and the extracellular domains (E31Q, I74F, and I102T of TMEM154. A matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS assay was developed to detect these and six previously reported missense and two deletion mutations in TMEM154. In blinded trials, the call rate for the eight most common coding polymorphisms was 99.4% for 499 sheep tested and 96.0% of the animals were assigned paired TMEM154 haplotypes (i.e., diplotypes. The widespread distribution of highly-susceptible TMEM154 alleles suggests that genetic testing and selection may improve the health and productivity of infected flocks.

  9. High temperature magnetic susceptibility of the Nb-H system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welter, J.-M.

    1983-01-01

    The magnetic susceptibility chi(T,x) of various NbHsub(x) specimens with 0 - 5 to 1.25 x 10 - 5 cm 3 g - 1 in this hydrogen concentration range and exhibits a marked break at x approximately 0.6. An estimate of the Pauli paramagnetic spin susceptibility chisub(P) for the two limiting concentrations allowed the evaluation of the orbital paramagnetic susceptibility chisub(O). For x = 0 and x approximately 0.8 the values of chisub(P) are 1.05 x 10 - 5 cm 3 g - 1 and 0.39 x 10 - 5 cm 3 g - 1 respectively and the values of chisub(O) are 1.73 x 10 - 5 cm 3 g - 1 and 1.08 x 10 - 5 cm 3 g - 1 respectively. The magnetic susceptibility decreases by approximately 10% on going from the concentrated solid solution to the monohydride. (Auth.)

  10. ELECTROFORCE 3330 TEST SYSTEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Bose Electroforce 3330 is a test system with an axial electromagnetic linear motor, a torsional motor, and an environmental chamber for high and low temperature...

  11. Automatic Test Systems Aquisition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1994-01-01

    We are providing this final memorandum report for your information and use. This report discusses the efforts to achieve commonality in standards among the Military Departments as part of the DoD policy for automatic test systems (ATS...

  12. The Influence of Alloy Composition on the Hot Tear Susceptibility of the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloy System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jee-Hun; Jo, Jae-Sub; Sim, Woo-Jeong; Im, Hang-Joon

    2012-01-01

    Hot tearing was the most significant casting defect when the castability evaluation of the Al- Zn-Mg-Cu alloy system was conducted. It was related to the solidification range of the alloy. Therefore, the hot tear susceptibility of the AA7075 alloy, whose solidification range is the widest, was evaluated. The hot tear susceptibility was evaluated by using a mold for a hot tearing test designed to create the condition for the occurrence of hot tear in 8 steps. According to the tearing location and shape, a hot tear susceptibility index (HTS) score was measured. The solidification range of each alloy and hot tear susceptibility was compared and thereafter the microstructure of a near tear defect was observed. As a result, the HTS of the AA7075 alloy was found to be 67. Also, the HTS in relation to a change in Zn, Mg, Cu composition showed a difference of about 6-11% compared to the AA7075 alloy.

  13. American Society of Clinical Oncology Policy Statement Update: Genetic and Genomic Testing for Cancer Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Mark E; Bradbury, Angela R; Arun, Banu; Domchek, Susan M; Ford, James M; Hampel, Heather L; Lipkin, Stephen M; Syngal, Sapna; Wollins, Dana S; Lindor, Noralane M

    2015-11-01

    The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) has long affirmed that the recognition and management of individuals with an inherited susceptibility to cancer are core elements of oncology care. ASCO released its first statement on genetic testing in 1996 and updated that statement in 2003 and 2010 in response to developments in the field. In 2014, the Cancer Prevention and Ethics Committees of ASCO commissioned another update to reflect the impact of advances in this area on oncology practice. In particular, there was an interest in addressing the opportunities and challenges arising from the application of massively parallel sequencing-also known as next-generation sequencing-to cancer susceptibility testing. This technology introduces a new level of complexity into the practice of cancer risk assessment and management, requiring renewed effort on the part of ASCO to ensure that those providing care to patients with cancer receive the necessary education to use this new technology in the most effective, beneficial manner. The purpose of this statement is to explore the challenges of new and emerging technologies in cancer genetics and provide recommendations to ensure their optimal deployment in oncology practice. Specifically, the statement makes recommendations in the following areas: germline implications of somatic mutation profiling, multigene panel testing for cancer susceptibility, quality assurance in genetic testing, education of oncology professionals, and access to cancer genetic services. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  14. Genetic susceptibility testing for chronic disease and intention for behavior change in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassy, Jason L; Donelan, Karen; Hivert, Marie-France; Green, Robert C; Grant, Richard W

    2013-04-01

    Genetic testing for chronic disease susceptibility may motivate young adults for preventive behavior change. This nationally representative survey gave 521 young adults hypothetical scenarios of receiving genetic susceptibility results for heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and stroke and asked their (1) interest in such testing, (2) anticipated likelihood of improving diet and physical activity with high- and low-risk test results, and (3) readiness to make behavior change. Responses were analyzed by presence of established disease-risk factors. Respondents with high phenotypic diabetes risk reported increased likelihood of improving their diet and physical activity in response to high-risk results compared with those with low diabetes risk (odds ratio (OR), 1.82 (1.03, 3.21) for diet and OR, 2.64 (1.24, 5.64) for physical activity). In contrast, poor baseline diet (OR, 0.51 (0.27, 0.99)) and poor physical activity (OR, 0.53 (0.29, 0.99)) were associated with decreased likelihood of improving diet. Knowledge of genetic susceptibility may motivate young adults with higher personal diabetes risk for improvement in diet and exercise, but poor baseline behaviors are associated with decreased intention to make these changes. To be effective, genetic risk testing in young adults may need to be coupled with other strategies to enable behavior change.

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 230 Helicobacter pylori strains: importance of medium, inoculum, and incubation time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartzen, S H; Andersen, L P; Bremmelgaard, A

    1997-01-01

    No standardized method of susceptibility testing for Helicobacter pylori is currently available, so before a large agar dilution study comprising 230 H. pylori strains belonging to more than 80 genetically different groups was initiated, we performed a relatively small preliminary study....../spot) as the inoculum and 72 h as the incubation time. A modest inoculum effect was noted for amoxicillin and metronidazole. By the methodology derived from our preliminary study, the susceptibilities of 230 H. pylori strains to six antibiotics were subsequently determined. The results were generally in accord...... with those of others, and apart from metronidazole, the MIC of which for approximately 25% of the strains tested was >8 microg/ml, resistance was low in Denmark. The situation might, however, quickly change when and if the number of indications for antibiotic therapy for H. pylori infections increase...

  16. Fluoromycobacteriophages for Rapid, Specific, and Sensitive Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piuri, Mariana; Jacobs, William R.; Hatfull, Graham F.

    2009-01-01

    Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is of paramount importance as multiple- and extensively- drug resistant strains of M. tuberculosis emerge and spread. We describe here a virus-based assay in which fluoromycobacteriophages are used to deliver a GFP or ZsYellow fluorescent marker gene to M. tuberculosis, which can then be monitored by fluorescent detection approaches including fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry. Pre-clinical evaluations show that addition of either Rifampicin or Streptomycin at the time of phage addition obliterates fluorescence in susceptible cells but not in isogenic resistant bacteria enabling drug sensitivity determination in less than 24 hours. Detection requires no substrate addition, fewer than 100 cells can be identified, and resistant bacteria can be detected within mixed populations. Fluorescence withstands fixation by paraformaldehyde providing enhanced biosafety for testing MDR-TB and XDR-TB infections. PMID:19300517

  17. Mannose-binding lectin polymorphisms and susceptibility to infection in systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garred, P; Madsen, H O; Halberg, P

    1999-01-01

    To determine whether variant alleles in the coding portion of the mannose-binding lectin (MBL) gene are associated with increased susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and concomitant infections.......To determine whether variant alleles in the coding portion of the mannose-binding lectin (MBL) gene are associated with increased susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and concomitant infections....

  18. Multisite reproducibility of the broth microdilution method for susceptibility testing of Nocardia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conville, Patricia S; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Wallace, Richard J; Witebsky, Frank G; Koziol, Deloris; Hall, Geraldine S; Killian, Scott B; Knapp, Cindy C; Warshauer, David; Van, Tam; Wengenack, Nancy L; Deml, Sharon; Woods, Gail L

    2012-04-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of clinical isolates of Nocardia is recommended to detect resistance to commonly used antimicrobial agents; such testing is complicated by difficulties in inoculum preparation and test interpretation. In this study, six laboratories performed repetitive broth microdilution testing on single strains of Nocardia brasiliensis, Nocardia cyriacigeorgica, Nocardia farcinica, Nocardia nova, and Nocardia wallacei. For each isolate, a total of 30 microdilution panels from three different lots were tested at most sites. The goal of the study was to determine the inter- and intralaboratory reproducibility of susceptibility testing of this group of isolates. Acceptable agreement (>90% agreement at ±1 dilution of the MIC mode) was found for amikacin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, and moxifloxacin. After eliminating MIC values from single laboratories whose results showed the greatest deviation from those of the remaining laboratories, acceptable agreement was also found for amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, linezolid, minocycline, and tobramycin. Results showed unsatisfactory reproducibility of broth microdilution testing of ceftriaxone with N. cyriacigeorgica and N. wallacei, tigecycline with N. brasiliensis and N. cyriacigeorgica, and sulfonamides with N. farcinica and N. wallacei. N. nova ATCC BAA-2227 is proposed as a quality control organism for AST of Nocardia sp., and the use of a disk diffusion test for sulfisoxazole is proposed as a check of the adequacy of the inoculum and to confirm sulfonamide MIC results.

  19. Detection and antifungal susceptibility testing of oral Candida dubliniensis from human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunchanur Sneha

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: Candida dubliniensis, an opportunistic yeast that has been implicated in oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC in patients infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV may be under-reported due to its similarity with Candida albicans. Resistance to Fluconazole is often seen in C. dubliniensis isolates from clinical specimens. Aims: To know the prevalence of C. dubliniensis in OPC in patients infected with HIV and their antifungal susceptibility pattern. Settings and Design: One hundred and thirty-two HIV seropositive individuals and 50 healthy controls were included in the study. Materials and Methods: Two oral swabs were collected from the site of the lesion from 132 HIV-infected patients. Oral rinse was obtained from 50 healthy controls. Samples were inoculated on Sabouraud′s dextrose agar (SDA medium and on HiCrome Candida Differential Agar (CHROM agar medium. Isolates were speciated by standard tests. Dark green-colored, germ tube positive isolates, which failed to grow at 420C and negative for xylose assimilation were identified as C. dubliniensis. Antifungal susceptibility test was performed by Macro broth dilution technique (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines. Results and Conclusions: From 132 patients, 22 (16.3% C. dubliniensis were isolated; samples from healthy controls did not reveal their presence. Antifungal susceptibility test showed higher resistance among C. dubliniensis isolates to azoles compared to C. albicans. Five (22.7% isolates of C. dubliniensis were resistant to Fluconazole followed by four (18.2% to Ketoconazole. This study emphasizes the importance of identification and antifungal susceptibility testing of C. dubliniensis in HIV-infected patients.

  20. Immunochip Analysis Identifies Multiple Susceptibility Loci for Systemic Sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayes, Maureen D.; Bossini-Castillo, Lara; Gorlova, Olga; Martin, Jose Ezequiel; Zhou, Xiaodong; Chen, Wei V.; Assassi, Shervin; Ying, Jun; Tan, Filemon K.; Arnett, Frank C.; Reveille, John D.; Guerra, Sandra; Terue, Maria; Carmona, Francisco David; Gregersen, Peter K.; Lee, Annette T.; Lopez-Isac, Elena; Ochoa, Eguzkine; Carreira, Patricia; Simeon, Carmen Pilar; Castellvi, Ivan; Angel Gonzalez-Gay, Miguel; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Padyukov, Leonid; Aarcon-Riquelme, Marta; Wijmenga, Cisca; Beretta, Lorenzo; Riemekasten, Gabriela; Witte, Torsten; Hunzelmann, Nicolas; Kreuter, Alexander; Distler, Jorg H. W.; Voskuy, Alexandre E.; Schuerwegh, Annemie J.; Hesselstrand, Roger; Nordin, Annika; Airo, Paolo; Lunardi, Claudio; Shiels, Paul; van Laar, Jacob M.; Herrick, Ariane; Worthington, Jane; Denton, Christopher; Wigley, Fredrick M.; Hummers, Laura K.; Varga, John; Hinchcliff, Monique E.; Baron, Murray; Hudson, Marie; Pope, Janet E.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, 1,833 systemic sclerosis (SSc) cases and 3,466 controls were genotyped with the Immunochip array. Classical alleles, amino acid residues, and SNPs across the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region were imputed and tested. These analyses resulted in a model composed of six polymorphic

  1. A two-hour antibiotic susceptibility test by ATP-bioluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March Rosselló, Gabriel Alberto; García-Loygorri Jordán de Urries, María Cristina; Gutiérrez Rodríguez, María Purificación; Simarro Grande, María; Orduña Domingo, Antonio; Bratos Pérez, Miguel Ángel

    2016-01-01

    The antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) in Clinical Microbiology laboratories is still time-consuming, and most procedures take 24h to yield results. In this study, a rapid antimicrobial susceptibility test using ATP-bioluminescence has been developed. The design of method was performed using five ATCC collection strains of known susceptibility. This procedure was then validated against standard commercial methods on 10 strains of enterococci, 10 staphylococci, 10 non-fermenting gram negative bacilli, and 13 Enterobacteriaceae from patients. The agreement obtained in the sensitivity between the ATP-bioluminescence method and commercial methods (E-test, MicroScan and VITEK2) was 100%. In summary, the preliminary results obtained in this work show that the ATP-bioluminescence method could provide a fast and reliable AST in two hours. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  2. Antifungal susceptibility testing of vaginal candida isolates: the broth microdilution method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoudi Rad M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a common mucosal infection among immunocompetent, healthy women, and is caused by opportunistic yeasts that belong to genus Candida. In this study, we isolated and identified the Candida species in the vagina of patients who admitted in Gynecology Department of Mahdieh Hospital in Tehran, Iran to evaluate the in vitro activities of fluconazole, miconazole, itraconazole and flucytosine against 191 clinical Candida isolates by the NCCLS microdilution method."n"nMethods: 191 Candida were isolated from vaginal secretions and identified with conventional mycological methods in the diagnosis of Candida species. The identity of all strains was confirmed genotypically by multiplex PCR. In vitro susceptibility testing of vaginal Candida isolates was performed by the NCCLS broth microdilution method. The results were read at 48 h."n"nResults: Most C. albicans isolates (>90% were sensitive in vitro to the antifungal agents tested. Most C. glabrata isolates showed sensitivity to miconazole and then flucytosine while they were more resistant to Itraconazole and fluconazole. Many isolates of C. tropicalis were susceptible to miconazole and then fluconazole. They showed a little resistance to

  3. Rapid, automated, nonradiometric susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex to four first-line antituberculous drugs used in standard short-course chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Isik Somuncu; Thomsen, Vibeke Østergaard; Marjamäki, Merja

    2004-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis necessitates rapid and accurate susceptibility testing. The nonradiometric BACTEC Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube 960 (MGIT) system for susceptibility testing was evaluated on 222 clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates...... for isoniazid, rifampin, and ethambutol. Fifty-seven of the isolates were tested for pyrazinamide. Results were compared to those of radiometric BACTEC 460 system and discrepancies were resolved by the agar proportion method. We found an overall agreement of 99.0% for isoniazid, 99.5% for rifampin, 98.......2% for ethambutol, and 100% for pyrazinamide. After resolution of discrepancies, MGIT yielded no false susceptibility for rifampin and isoniazid. Although turnaround times were comparable, MGIT provides an advantage as inoculation can be done on any weekday as the growth is monitored automatically. The automated...

  4. Study on hydrogen assisted cracking susceptibility of HSLA steel by implant test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopa Chakraborty

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available DMR-249A is an indigenously developed high strength low alloy steel for Indian ship building industry for making ship-hull and is extensively used in the construction of war ships and submarines. Welding electrodes conforming to SFA 5.5 AWS E8018 C1 has been indigenously developed for welding of this steel using shielded metal arc welding process. In the present study, susceptibility to hydrogen assisted cracking of DMR-249A steel welds made using this electrode has been assessed using implant test. Implant tests were conducted using this electrode at two different levels of diffusible hydrogen, measured using gas chromatography technique. It is observed that both the steel and the welding consumable are not susceptible to hydrogen assisted cracking even with a high diffusible hydrogen level of 9 mL/100g of weld metal. In implant tests, specimen did not fracture even after loading to stress levels higher than the yield strength of the base metal. The good resistance of this steel and the welding consumable, even with high levels of diffusible hydrogen, is attributed to absence of a susceptible microstructure in both the weld metal and heat affected zone. Hence, this study shows that, in the absence of a susceptible microstructure, hydrogen assisted cracking is unlikely to occur even if hydrogen level is high. It also confirms that in welding of DMR-249A with indigenously developed E8018 C1 electrode, hydrogen assisted cracking is not a concern and no preheating is required to avoid it during welding.

  5. Linear and nonlinear optical susceptibilities in a laterally coupled quantum-dot–quantum-ring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Zaiping; Garoufalis, Christos S.; Baskoutas, Sotirios

    2014-01-01

    Linear and nonlinear optical susceptibilities in a laterally coupled quantum-dot–quantum-ring system have been theoretically studied. In general, we find that the structure parameters of the coupled system significantly affect the optical susceptibilities. The enhancement of the coupling effects between the dot and ring is found to increase considerably the optical susceptibilities and redshift drastically the transition energies. Comparing to the linear susceptibility, the nonlinear optical susceptibility is found to be more sensitive to the variation of the structure parameters. A comprehensive analysis of the electron probability density movement with respect to the modification of the structure parameters is provided, which offers a unique perspective of the ground-state localization. - Highlights: • Optical susceptibilities in a quantum-dot–quantum-ring system are studied. • The structure parameters significantly affect the optical susceptibilities. • The enhancement of the coupling effects increases the optical susceptibilities. • The nonlinear susceptibility is more sensitive to the change in structure parameters. • A comprehensive analysis of the electron probability density movement is provided

  6. In vitro susceptibility testing of fluoroquinolone activity against Salmonella: recent changes to CLSI standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humphries, R. M.; Fang, F. C.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2012-01-01

    this issue by revising the ciprofloxacin break points for Salmonella species. It is critical for clinicians and laboratory workers to be aware of the multiple technical issues surrounding these revised break points. In this article, we review FQ resistance mechanisms in Salmonella, their clinical...... antimicrobial susceptibility systems. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved....

  7. Real-Time Digital Bright Field Technology for Rapid Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canali, Chiara; Spillum, Erik; Valvik, Martin; Agersnap, Niels; Olesen, Tom

    2018-01-01

    Optical scanning through bacterial samples and image-based analysis may provide a robust method for bacterial identification, fast estimation of growth rates and their modulation due to the presence of antimicrobial agents. Here, we describe an automated digital, time-lapse, bright field imaging system (oCelloScope, BioSense Solutions ApS, Farum, Denmark) for rapid and higher throughput antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) of up to 96 bacteria-antibiotic combinations at a time. The imaging system consists of a digital camera, an illumination unit and a lens where the optical axis is tilted 6.25° relative to the horizontal plane of the stage. Such tilting grants more freedom of operation at both high and low concentrations of microorganisms. When considering a bacterial suspension in a microwell, the oCelloScope acquires a sequence of 6.25°-tilted images to form an image Z-stack. The stack contains the best-focus image, as well as the adjacent out-of-focus images (which contain progressively more out-of-focus bacteria, the further the distance from the best-focus position). The acquisition process is repeated over time, so that the time-lapse sequence of best-focus images is used to generate a video. The setting of the experiment, image analysis and generation of time-lapse videos can be performed through a dedicated software (UniExplorer, BioSense Solutions ApS). The acquired images can be processed for online and offline quantification of several morphological parameters, microbial growth, and inhibition over time.

  8. Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility Testing of Leptospira spp. Using Leptospira Vanaporn Wuthiekanun (LVW) Agar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Amornchai, Premjit; Langla, Sayan; White, Nicholas J; Day, Nicholas P J; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Peacock, Sharon J

    2015-08-01

    Leptospira Vanaporn Wuthiekanun (LVW) agar was used to develop a disk diffusion assay for Leptospira spp. Ten pathogenic Leptospira isolates were tested, all of which were susceptible to 17 antimicrobial agents (amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, amoxicillin, azithromycin, cefoxitin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, doripenem, doxycycline, gentamicin, linezolid, nitrofurantoin, penicillin, piperacillin/tazobactam, and tetracycline). All 10 isolates had no zone of growth inhibition for four antimicrobials (fosfomycin, nalidixic acid, rifampicin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole). Of the ten Leptospira, seven had a growth inhibition zone of ≤ 21 mm for aztreonam, the zone diameter susceptibility break point for Enterobacteriaceae. This assay could find utility as a simple screening method during the epidemiological surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Leptospira spp. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  9. In-vitro antimycobacterial drug susceptibility testing of non-tubercular mycobacteria by tetrazolium microplate assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Manimuthu Mani; Gopinath, Krishnamoorthy; Singla, Roopak; Singh, Sarman

    2008-07-11

    Non-tubercular mycobacteria (NTM) has not been given due attention till the recent epidemic of HIV. This has led to increasing interest of health care workers in their biology, epidemiology and drug resistance. However, timely detection and drug susceptibility profiling of NTM isolates are always difficult in resource poor settings like India. Furthermore, no standardized methodology or guidelines are available to reproduce the results with clinical concordance. To find an alternative and rapid method for performing the drug susceptibility assay in a resource limited settings like India, we intended to evaluate the utility of Tetrazolium microplate assay (TEMA) in comparison with proportion method for reporting the drug resistance in clinical isolates of NTM. A total of fifty-five NTM isolates were tested for susceptibility against Streptomycin, Rifampicin, Ethambutol, Ciprofloxacin, Ofloxacin, Azithromycin, and Clarithromycin by TEMA and the results were compared with agar proportion method (APM). Of the 55 isolates, 23 (41.8%) were sensitive to all the drugs and the remaining 32 (58.2%) were resistant to at least one drug. TEMA had very good concordance with APM except with minor discrepancies. Susceptibility results were obtained in the median of 5 to 9 days by TEMA. The NTM isolates were highly sensitive against Ofloxacin (98.18% sensitive) and Ciprofloxacin (90.09% sensitive). M. mucogenicum was sensitive only to Clarithromycin and resistant to all the other drugs tested. The concordance between TEMA and APM ranged between 96.4 - 100%. Tetrazolium Microplate Assay is a rapid and highly reproducible method. However, it must be performed only in tertiary level Mycobacteriology laboratories with proper bio-safety conditions.

  10. Rapid susceptibility testing and microcolony analysis of Candida spp. cultured and imaged on porous aluminum oxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin J Ingham

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acquired resistance to antifungal agents now supports the introduction of susceptibility testing for species-drug combinations for which this was previously thought unnecessary. For pathogenic yeasts, conventional phenotypic testing needs at least 24 h. Culture on a porous aluminum oxide (PAO support combined with microscopy offers a route to more rapid results. METHODS: Microcolonies of Candida species grown on PAO were stained with the fluorogenic dyes Fun-1 and Calcofluor White and then imaged by fluorescence microscopy. Images were captured by a charge-coupled device camera and processed by publicly available software. By this method, the growth of yeasts could be detected and quantified within 2 h. Microcolony imaging was then used to assess the susceptibility of the yeasts to amphotericin B, anidulafungin and caspofungin (3.5 h culture, and voriconazole and itraconazole (7 h culture. SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, the results showed good agreement with EUCAST (86.5% agreement; n = 170 and E-test (85.9% agreement; n = 170. The closest agreement to standard tests was found when testing susceptibility to amphotericin B and echinocandins (88.2 to 91.2% and the least good for the triazoles (79.4 to 82.4%. Furthermore, large datasets on population variation could be rapidly obtained. An analysis of microcolonies revealed subtle effects of antimycotics on resistant strains and below the MIC of sensitive strains, particularly an increase in population heterogeneity and cell density-dependent effects of triazoles. Additionally, the method could be adapted to strain identification via germ tube extension. We suggest PAO culture is a rapid and versatile method that may be usefully adapted to clinical mycology and has research applications.

  11. Emerging Resistance, New Antimicrobial Agents  …  but No Tests! The Challenge of Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing in the Current US Regulatory Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, R M; Hindler, J A

    2016-07-01

    Accurate and timely performance of antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) by the clinical laboratory is paramount to combating antimicrobial resistance. The ability of laboratories in the United States to effectively perform ASTs is challenged by several factors. Some, such as new resistance mechanisms and the associated evolution of testing recommendations and breakpoints, are inevitable. Others are entirely man-made. These include unnecessarily strict US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) limitations on how commercial AST systems can be used for diagnostic testing, the absence of up-to-date performance data on these systems, and the lack of commercially available FDA-cleared tests for newer antimicrobial agents or for older agents with updated breakpoints. This viewpoint will highlight contemporary AST challenges faced by the clinical laboratory, and propose some solutions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of rapidly growing mycobacteria by microdilution - Experience of a tertiary care centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Set R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of the study was to perform antimicrobial susceptibility testing of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM isolated from various clinically suspected cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, from January 2007 to April 2008, at a tertiary care centre in Mumbai. Materials and Methods: The specimens were processed for microscopy and culture using the standard procedures. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC were determined by broth microdilution, using Sensititre CA MHBT. Susceptibility testing was also carried out on Mueller Hinton agar by the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Results: Of the 1062 specimens received for mycobacterial cultures, 104 (9.79% grew mycobacteria. Of the mycobacterial isolates, six (5.76% were rapid growers. M. abscessus and M. chelonae appeared to be resistant organisms, with M. chelonae showing intermediate resistance to amikacin and minocycline. However, all the six isolates showed sensitivity to vancomycin and gentamicin by the disc diffusion test. Also all three isolates of M. abscessus were sensitive to piperacillin and erythromycin. Further studies are required to test their sensitivity to these four antimicrobials by using the microbroth dilution test, before they can be prescribed to patients. Conclusions: We wish to emphasize that reporting of rapidly growing mycobacteria from clinical settings, along with their sensitivity patterns, is an absolute need of the hour.

  13. A survey of methods used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing in veterinary diagnostic laboratories in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargatz, David A; Erdman, Matthew M; Harris, Beth

    2017-09-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious threat to animal and human health worldwide, requiring a collaborative, holistic approach. The U.S. Government has developed a national strategy to address antimicrobial resistance, with one component being to monitor antimicrobial resistance in agricultural settings. We developed a survey to collect information about antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) from the veterinary diagnostic laboratory community in the United States, assessing current practices and technologies and determining how AST information is shared. Of the 132 surveys administered, 52 (39%) were returned. Overall, responding laboratories conducted susceptibility tests on 98,788 bacterial isolates in 2014, with Escherichia coli being the most common pathogen tested across all animal species. The 2 most common AST methods employed were the disk diffusion method (71%) and the Sensititre platform broth microdilution system (59%). Laboratories primarily used the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) VET-01 standard (69%) and the automatically calculated interpretations provided by the commercial AST systems (61%) for interpreting their AST data. Only 22% of laboratories published AST data on a periodic basis, usually via annual reports published on the laboratory's website or through peer-reviewed journals for specific pathogens. Our results confirm that disk diffusion and broth microdilution remain the standard AST methods employed by U.S. veterinary diagnostic laboratories, and that CLSI standards are commonly used for interpreting AST results. This information will help determine the most efficient standardized methodology for future surveillance. Furthermore, the current infrastructure within laboratories, once harmonized, will help provide a mechanism for conducting national surveillance programs.

  14. Antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida species isolated from the immunocompromised patients admitted to ten university hospitals in Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badiee, P.; Badali, H.; Boekhout, T.; Diba, K.; Moghadam, A.G.; Hossaini Nasab, A.; Jafarian, H.; Mohammadi, R.; Mirhendi, H.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Shamsizadeh, A.; Soltani, J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Antifungal susceptibility testing is a subject of interest in the field of medical mycology. The aim of the present study were the distributions and antifungal susceptibility patterns of various Candida species isolated from colonized and infected immunocompromised patients admitted to

  15. Rapid disc diffusion antibiotic susceptibility testing for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and Enterococcus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hombach, Michael; Jetter, Marion; Blöchliger, Nicolas; Kolesnik-Goldmann, Natalia; Keller, Peter M; Böttger, Erik C

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background We investigated the feasibility of rapid disc diffusion antibiotic susceptibility testing (rAST) with reading of inhibition zones after 6 and/or 8 h of incubation for Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. In addition, we evaluated discrimination of resistant populations from the WT populations at early timepoints and the requirement for clinical breakpoint adaptations for proper interpretation of rAST data. Methods In total, 815 clinical strains [E. faecalis (n = 135), E. faecium (n = 227), P. aeruginosa (n = 295) and A. baumannii (n = 158)] were included in this study. Disc diffusion plates were streaked, incubated and imaged using the WASPLabTM automation system. WT populations and non-WT populations were defined using epidemiological cut-offs. Results and conclusions rAST at 6 and 8 h was possible for A. baumannii and enterococci with readability of inhibition zones >90%. Overall categorical agreement of rAST at 6 h with AST at 18 h was 97.2%, 97.4% and 95.3% for E. faecalis, E. faecium and A. baumannii, respectively. With few exceptions, major categorization error rates were <1% for A. baumannii, and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium were clearly separated from the WT at 6 h. For P. aeruginosa the average readability of inhibition zones was 68.9% at 8 h and we found an overall categorical agreement of 94.8%. Adaptations of clinical breakpoints and/or introduction of technical buffer zones, preferably based on aggregated population data from various epidemiological settings, are required for proper interpretation of rAST. PMID:29186434

  16. Candidemia: Speciation and Antifungal susceptibility testing from a Tertiary Care Hospital in Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nageswari Rajesh Gandham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Invasive fungal infections are an important nosocomial health problem, candidal infections being the most common. Candidal bloodstream infections (BSIs account for one-fourth of the nosocomial BSIs. Candida albicans once the most common has now been replaced by nonalbicans Candida, accounting for majority of cases of candidal infections. The knowledge and understanding of specific risk factors, epidemiology, prophylactic measures, and outcomes with relation to speciation are changing rapidly. Emergence of antifungal resistance is a cause of concern. With this background, a prospective study was undertaken. Aims and Objectives: To isolate Candida spp. from blood cultures of patients with clinically diagnosed or suspected septicemia; to identify and speciate Candida isolates and carry out the antifungal susceptibility test; to determine incidence of candidemia; to find out the crude mortality rate in candidemia patients. Materials and Methods: Blood cultures received in the Department of Microbiology from various critical care units over a 1-year period were included in this study. Samples were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar and routine bacteriological cultures. Speciation of suspected Candida growth was done by conventional and automated system. Results: A total of 225 out of 839 blood cultures were culture positive. A total of 196 were bacterial pathogens. Candida spp. were isolated in 29 samples. These included 10 cases of Candida tropicalis, 8 Candida parapsilosis, and three cases each of C. albicans and Candida krusei. Fluconazole resistance was seen (minimum inhibitory concentration ≥64 μg/ml in 4 isolates, 2 of C. krusei and 2 of Candida haemulonii. Incidence of candidemia was 3.46%. Crude mortality rate in the present study was 24%.

  17. [Epidemiological characteristics of typhoid fever and antibiotic susceptibility testing of Salmonella Typhi isolates in Guangxi, 1994-2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingliu; Kan, Biao; Yang, Jin; Lin, Mei; Yan, Meiying; Zeng, Jun; Quan, Yi; Liao, Hezhuang; Zhou, Lingyun; Jiang, Zhenling; Huang, Dehui

    2014-08-01

    Through analyzing the typhoid epidemics and to determine and monitor regional resistance characteristics of the shift of drug resistant profile on Salmonella (S.) Typhi, to understand the related epidemiological characteristics of typhoid fever and to provide evidence for the development of strategies, in Guangxi. Data of typhoid fever from surveillance and reporting system between 1994 to 2013 was collected and statistically analyzed epidemiologically. The susceptibility of 475 S. Typhi isolates from patients on ten antibiotics was tested by broth micro-dilution method and minimum inhibition concentration was obtained and interpreted based on the CLSI standard. From 1994 to 2013, a total of 57 928 cases of typhoid fever were reported in Guangxi province with an annual incidence of 6.29/100 000 and mortality as 0.03%. The higher incidence was observed in the population under 20 years of age. There was no significant difference on incidence between male and female, but farmers and students were among the hardest hit groups. More cases were seen from the northern part of the province. Cases appeared all year round with the peak from May to October. A total of 13 major outbreaks during 2001 to 2013 were reported and the main transmission route was water-borne. All the strains were sensitive to third generation cephalosporins cefotaxime and fluoroquinolones norfloxacin. The susceptibility rates to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ampicillin and gentamicin was around 98% but relative lower susceptible rate to ciprofloxacin was seen as 89.89% . The lowest susceptibility was found for streptomycin and sulfamethoxazole agents, with the rates as 67.73% and 65.89% , respectively. One strain was found to have been resistant to ciprofloxacin and another 47 isolates with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. Twenty eight isolates were found to be resistant to multiple antibiotics and one displayed ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole tetracycline and

  18. Are Adolescents with ADHD Interested in Genetic Testing for Nicotine Addiction Susceptibility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda J. Herbert

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been well-established that some adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD are at increased risk for cigarette smoking. Current research on the genetic basis of this association could ultimately translate into genetic tests capable of identifying smoking-prone adolescents with ADHD. In this study we examined 81 ADHD affected adolescents’ (age 13–21 interest in genetic testing for nicotine addiction susceptibility. Fifty-seven percent of adolescents indicated a fair amount of interest or more in testing. Most adolescents indicated that the personal information revealed from testing would be either useful (29% or interesting (37%. Implications for genetically-informed smoking prevention and cessation interventions in high risk adolescents with ADHD are discussed.

  19. Vehicle brake testing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Samuel S [Harriman, TN; Hodgson, Jeffrey W [Lenoir City, TN

    2002-11-19

    This invention relates to a force measuring system capable of measuring forces associated with vehicle braking and of evaluating braking performance. The disclosure concerns an invention which comprises a first row of linearly aligned plates, a force bearing surface extending beneath and beside the plates, vertically oriented links and horizontally oriented links connecting each plate to a force bearing surface, a force measuring device in each link, a transducer coupled to each force measuring device, and a computing device coupled to receive an output signal from the transducer indicative of measured force in each force measuring device. The present invention may be used for testing vehicle brake systems.

  20. Evaluation of the Sensititre MycoTB plate for susceptibility testing of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex against first- and second-line agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Leslie; Jude, Kurt P; Clark, Shirley L; Dionne, Kim; Merson, Ryan; Boyer, Ana; Parrish, Nicole M; Wengenack, Nancy L

    2012-11-01

    The Sensititre MycoTB plate (TREK Diagnostic Systems, Cleveland, OH) uses a microtiter plate MIC format for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates against first- and second-line antituberculosis agents. Categorical agreement versus the agar proportion method for 122 M. tuberculosis complex isolates was 94% to 100%.

  1. Harmonization of antimicrobial susceptibility testing among veterinary diagnostic laboratories in the five Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, A.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Hofshagen, Merete

    2003-01-01

    A total of 100 bacterial strains (25 Escherichia coli, 25 Salmonella enterica, 25 Staphylococcus aureus, and 25 Enterococcus strains) and four reference strains were tested for susceptibility toward 8-12 antimicrobial agents in 12 veterinary diagnostic laboratories in the five Nordic countries...... reported as vancomycin resistant. Ten laboratories identified the Enterococcus spp. to species level. All five Enterococcus faecium and 10 Enterococcus faecalis selected from the strain collection at the Danish Veterinary Institute were correctly identified by all laboratories, whereas some problems were...

  2. Simulator testing system (STS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, V.N.

    1990-01-01

    In recent years there has been a greater demand placed on the capabilities and time usage of real-time nuclear plant simulators due to NRC, INPO and utilities requirements. The requirements applied to certification, new simulators, upgrades, modifications, and maintenance of the simulators vary; however, they all require the capabilities of the simulator to be tested whether it is for NRC 10CFR55.45b requirements, ATP testing of new simulators, ATP testing of upgrades with or without panels, adding software/hardware due to plant modifications, or analyzing software/hardware problems on the simulator. This paper describes the Simulator Testing System (STS) which addresses each one of these requirements placed on simulators. Special attention will be given to ATP testing of upgrades without the use of control room panels. The capabilities and applications of the four parts of STS which are the Display Control Software (DCS), Procedure Control Software (PCS), Display Generator Software (DGS) and the Procedure Generator Software (PGS) will be reviewed

  3. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp.: validation of susceptibility testing and in vitro activity of vancomycin, linezolid, tigecycline and daptomycin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathe, Mathias; Kristensen, Lise; Ellermann-Eriksen, Svend

    2010-01-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have emerged to become a significant nosocomial pathogen. However, detection may be challenging and treatment possibilities are limited. Reports of resistance to linezolide, daptomycin and tigecycline underline the need for reliable susceptibility testing wi...

  4. Drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium Avium subsp. Avium isolates from naturally infected domestic pigeons to avian tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Parvandar

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: We suggest drug susceptibility testing for more nontuberculous mycobateria, particularly M. avium complex isolated from infected birds and humans, as well as molecular basics of drug sensitivity in order to detect resistance genes of pathogenic M. avium subsp. avium.

  5. Nightly Test system migration

    CERN Document Server

    Win-Lime, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The summer student program allows students to participate to the Cern adventure. They can follow several interesting lectures about particle science and participate to the experiment work. As a summer student, I had worked for LHCb experiment. LHCb uses a lot of software to analyze its data. All this software is organized in packages and projects. They are built and tested during the night using an automated system and the results are displayed on a web interface. Actually, LHCb is changing this system. It is looking for a replacement candidate. So I was charged to unify some internal interfaces to permit a swift migration. In this document, I will describe shortly the system used by LHCb, then I will explain what I have done in detail.

  6. Genotyping using whole-genome sequencing is a realistic alternative to surveillance based on phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zankari, Ea; Hasman, Henrik; Kaas, Rolf Sommer

    2013-01-01

    -genome sequencing (WGS) may soon be within reach even for routine surveillance and clinical diagnostics. The aim of this study was to evaluate WGS as a routine tool for surveillance of antimicrobial resistance compared with current phenotypic procedures. Methods: Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed...... to the categorizing of isolates as resistant and 2569 as susceptible. Seven cases of disagreement between tested and predicted susceptibility were observed, six of which were related to spectinomycin resistance in Escherichia coli. Correlation between MLST type and resistance profiles was only observed in Salmonella...

  7. Parallel susceptibility testing of bacteria through culture-quantitative PCR in 96-well plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Luo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The methods combining culture and quantitative PCR(qPCR offer new solutions for rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing(AST. However, the multiple steps of DNA extraction and cold storage of PCR reagents needed make them unsuitable for rapid high throughput AST. In this study, a parallel culture-qPCR method was developed to overcome above problems. Method: In this method, bacteria culture and DNA extraction automatically and simultaneously completed through using a common PCR instrument as a controllable heating device. A lyophilized 16S rDNA targeted qPCR reagent was also developed, which was stable and could be kept at 4 °C for long time and at 37 °C for about two months. Result: Testing of 36 P. aeruginosa isolates and 28 S. aureus isolates showed that the method had good agreements with the standard broth microdilution method, with an overall agreement of 97.22% (95% CI, 85.83–99.51 for P. aeruginosa and 96.43% (95% CI, 79.76–99.81 for S. aureus. This method could test 12 samples against a panel of up to 7 antibiotics simultaneously in two 96-well PCR plates within 4 h, which greatly improves the testing efficiency of the culture-qPCR method. Conclusion: With rapidness to obtain results and the capabilities for automation and multiple-sample testing, the parallel culture-qPCR method would have great potentials in clinical labs. Keywords: Antibiotic susceptibility testing, Thermo-cold lysis, Lyophilized qPCR reagent, Quantitative PCR, Bacteria

  8. Rapid detection and E-test antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from seafood and environmental sources in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Othrubi, Saleh M; Hanafiah, Alfizah; Radu, Son; Neoh, Humin; Jamal, Rahaman

    2011-04-01

    To find out the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafoods and environmental sources. The study was carried out at the Center of Excellence for Food Safety Research, University Putra Malaysia; Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia; Medical Molecular Biology Institute; and University Kebansaan Malaysia Hospital, Malaysia between January 2006 and August 2008. One hundred and forty-four isolates from 400 samples of seafood (122 isolates) and seawater sources (22 isolates) were investigated for the presence of thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh+) and TDH-related hemolysin (trh+) genes using the standard methods. The E-test method was used to test the antimicrobial susceptibility. The study indicates low occurrence of tdh+ (0.69%) and trh+ isolates (8.3%). None of the isolates tested posses both virulence genes. High sensitivity was observed against tetracycline (98%). The mean minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the isolates toward ampicillin increased from 4 ug/ml in 2004 to 24 ug/ml in 2007. The current study demonstrates a low occurrence of pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the marine environment and seafood. Nonetheless, the potential risk of vibrio infection due to consumption of Vibrio parahaemolyticus contaminated seafood in Malaysia should not be neglected.

  9. Tritium Systems Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cafasso, F.A.; Maroni, V.A.; Smith, W.H.; Wilkes, W.R.; Wittenberg, L.J.

    1978-01-01

    This TSTF proposal has two principal objectives. The first objective is to provide by mid-FY 1981 a demonstration of the fuel cycle and tritium containment systems which could be used in a Tokamak Experimental Power Reactor for operation in the mid-1980's. The second objective is to provide a capability for further optimization of tritium fuel cycle and environmental control systems beyond that which is required for the EPR. The scale and flow rates in TSTF are close to those which have been projected for a prototype experimental power reactor (PEPR/ITR) and will permit reliable extrapolation to the conditions found in an EPR. The fuel concentrations will be the same as in an EPR. Demonstrations of individual components of the deuterium-tritium fuel cycle and of monitoring, accountability and containment systems and of a maintenance methodology will be achieved at various times in the FY 1979-80 time span. Subsequent to the individual component demonstrations--which will proceed from tests with hydrogen (and/or deuterium) through tracer levels of tritium to full operational concentrations--a complete test and demonstration of the integrated fuel processing and tritium containment facility will be performed. This will occur near the middle of FY 1981. Two options were considered for the TSTF: (1) The modification of an existing building and (2) the construction of a new facility

  10. Comparison of Rosco Neo-Sensitabs with Oxoid paper disks in EUCAST disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility testing on Mueller-Hinton agar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, U S; Acar, Ziyap; Olsson, K

    2013-01-01

    This study compared Neo-Sensitabs with Oxoid paper disks using the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility test on Mueller-Hinton agar. The EUCAST-recommended quality control strains (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas...... paper disks for EUCAST disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility testing on Mueller-Hinton agar....

  11. Resonance test system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musial, Walter [Boulder, CO; White, Darris [Superior, CO

    2011-05-31

    An apparatus (10) for applying at least one load to a specimen (12) according to one embodiment of the invention may comprise a mass (18). An actuator (20) mounted to the specimen (12) and operatively associated with the mass (18) moves the mass (18) along a linear displacement path (22) that is perpendicular to a longitudinal axis of the specimen (12). A control system (26) operatively associated with the actuator (20) operates the actuator (20) to reciprocate the mass (18) along the linear displacement path (22) at a reciprocating frequency, the reciprocating frequency being about equal to a resonance frequency of the specimen (12) in a test configuration.

  12. ESBL Detection: Comparison of a Commercially Available Chromogenic Test for Third Generation Cephalosporine Resistance and Automated Susceptibility Testing in Enterobactericeae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ramadan El-Jade

    Full Text Available Rapid detection and reporting of third generation cephalosporine resistance (3GC-R and of extended spectrum betalactamases in Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E is a diagnostic and therapeutic priority to avoid inefficacy of the initial antibiotic regimen. In this study we evaluated a commercially available chromogenic screen for 3GC-R as a predictive and/or confirmatory test for ESBL and AmpC activity in clinical and veterinary Enterobacteriaceae isolates. The test was highly reliable in the prediction of cefotaxime and cefpodoxime resistance, but there was no correlation with ceftazidime and piperacillin/tazobactam minimal inhibitory concentrations. All human and porcine ESBL-E tested were detected with exception of one genetically positive but phenotypically negative isolate. By contrast, AmpC detection rates lay below 30%. Notably, exclusion of piperacillin/tazobactam resistant, 3GC susceptible K1+ Klebsiella isolates increased the sensitivity and specificity of the test for ESBL detection. Our data further imply that in regions with low prevalence of AmpC and K1 positive E. coli strains chromogenic testing for 3GC-R can substitute for more time consuming ESBL confirmative testing in E. coli isolates tested positive by Phoenix or VITEK2 ESBL screen. We, therefore, suggest a diagnostic algorithm that distinguishes 3GC-R screening from primary culture and species-dependent confirmatory ESBL testing by βLACTATM and discuss the implications of MIC distribution results on the choice of antibiotic regimen.

  13. Development of an Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Method Suitable for Performing During Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, James H.; Skweres, Joyce A.; Mishra S. K.; McElmeel, M. Letticia; Maher, Louise A.; Mulder, Ross; Lancaster, Michael V.; Pierson, Duane L.

    1997-01-01

    Very little is known regarding the affects of the microgravity environment of space flight upon the action of antimicrobial agents on bacterial pathogens. This study was undertaken to develop a simple method for conducting antibacterial susceptibility tests during a Space Shuttle mission. Specially prepared susceptibility test research cards (bioMerieux Vitek, Hazelwood, MO) were designed to include 6-11 serial two-fold dilutions of 14 antimicrobial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, a Beta-lactamase inhibitor, vancomycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICS) of the drugs were determined by visual reading of color endpoints in the Vitek research cards made possible by incorporation of a colorimetric growth indicator (alamarBlue(Trademark), Accumed International, Westlake, OH). This study has demonstrated reproducible susceptibility results when testing isolates of Staphylococcus aurezis, Group A Streptococcus, Enterococcusfaecalis, Escherichia coli (beta-lactamase positive and negative strains), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, and Pseudomoiias aeruginosa. In some instances, the MICs were comparable to those determined using a standard broth microdilution method, while in some cases the unique test media and format yielded slightly different values, that were themselves reproducible. The proposed in-flight experiment will include inoculation of the Vitek cards on the ground prior to launch of the Space Shuttle, storage of inoculated cards at refrigeration temperature aboard the Space Shuttle until experiment initiation, then incubation of the cards for 18-48 h prior to visual interpretation of MICs by the mission's astronauts. Ground-based studies have shown reproducible MICs following storage of inoculated cards for 7 days at 4-8 C to accommodate the mission's time schedule and the astronauts' activities. For comparison, ground-based control

  14. MASTER: a model to improve and standardize clinical breakpoints for antimicrobial susceptibility testing using forecast probabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blöchliger, Nicolas; Keller, Peter M; Böttger, Erik C; Hombach, Michael

    2017-09-01

    The procedure for setting clinical breakpoints (CBPs) for antimicrobial susceptibility has been poorly standardized with respect to population data, pharmacokinetic parameters and clinical outcome. Tools to standardize CBP setting could result in improved antibiogram forecast probabilities. We propose a model to estimate probabilities for methodological categorization errors and defined zones of methodological uncertainty (ZMUs), i.e. ranges of zone diameters that cannot reliably be classified. The impact of ZMUs on methodological error rates was used for CBP optimization. The model distinguishes theoretical true inhibition zone diameters from observed diameters, which suffer from methodological variation. True diameter distributions are described with a normal mixture model. The model was fitted to observed inhibition zone diameters of clinical Escherichia coli strains. Repeated measurements for a quality control strain were used to quantify methodological variation. For 9 of 13 antibiotics analysed, our model predicted error rates of  0.1% for ampicillin, cefoxitin, cefuroxime and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Increasing the susceptible CBP (cefoxitin) and introducing ZMUs (ampicillin, cefuroxime, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid) decreased error rates to < 0.1%. ZMUs contained low numbers of isolates for ampicillin and cefuroxime (3% and 6%), whereas the ZMU for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid contained 41% of all isolates and was considered not practical. We demonstrate that CBPs can be improved and standardized by minimizing methodological categorization error rates. ZMUs may be introduced if an intermediate zone is not appropriate for pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic or drug dosing reasons. Optimized CBPs will provide a standardized antibiotic susceptibility testing interpretation at a defined level of probability. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For

  15. Contributions of culture and antimicrobial susceptibility tests to the retreatment of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Horta Andrade

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study evaluated the efficacy of retreatment of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB with regard to treatment outcomes and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (ST profiles. Methods This retrospective cohort study analyzed 144 patients treated at a referral hospital in Brazil. All of them had undergone prior treatment, were smear-positive for TB and received a standardized retreatment regimen. Fisher's 2-tailed exact test and the χ2 test were used; RRs and 95% CIs were calculated using univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression. Results The patients were cured in 84 (58.3% cases. Failure was associated with relapsed treatment and abandonment (n=34. Culture tests were obtained for 103 (71.5% cases; 70 (48.6% had positive results. ST results were available for 67 (46.5% cases; the prevalence of acquired resistance was 53.7%. There were no significant differences between those who achieved or not therapeutic success (p=0.988, despite being sensitive or resistant to 1 or more drugs. Rifampicin resistance was independently associated with therapeutic failure (OR: 4.4, 95% CI:1.12-17.37, p=0.034. For those cases in which cultures were unavailable, a 2nd model without this information was built. In this, return after abandonment was significantly associated with retreatment failure (OR: 3.59, 95% CI:1.17-11.06, p=0.026. Conclusions In this cohort, the general resistance profile appeared to have no influence on treatment outcome, except in cases of rifampicin resistance. The form of reentry was another independent predictor of failure. The use of bacterial culture identification and ST in TB management must be re-evaluated. The recommendations for different susceptibility profiles must also be improved.

  16. Differential Susceptibility to Social Contexts : Putting "For Better and For Worse" to the test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slagt, M.I.

    2017-01-01

    The differential susceptibility model asserts that individuals vary in their general susceptibility to environmental influences.Crucially, the very children that are disproportionately vulnerable to harsh and low-quality parenting, may benefit disproportionately from supportive and high-quality

  17. SPECTR System Operational Test Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landman, W.H. Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This report overviews installation of the Small Pressure Cycling Test Rig (SPECTR) and documents the system operational testing performed to demonstrate that it meets the requirements for operations. The system operational testing involved operation of the furnace system to the design conditions and demonstration of the test article gas supply system using a simulated test article. The furnace and test article systems were demonstrated to meet the design requirements for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant. Therefore, the system is deemed acceptable and is ready for actual test article testing.

  18. Drug Susceptibility Testing of 31 Antimicrobial Agents on Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria Isolates from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Hui; Li, Guilian; Zhao, Xiuqin; Liu, Haican; Wan, Kanglin; Yu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Several species of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are now recognized as human pathogens. However, limited data on effective drug treatments against these organisms exists. Here, we describe the species distribution and drug susceptibility profiles of RGM clinical isolates collected from four southern Chinese provinces from January 2005 to December 2012. Clinical isolates (73) were subjected to in vitro testing with 31 antimicrobial agents using the cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth microdilution method. The isolates included 55 M. abscessus, 11 M. fortuitum, 3 M. chelonae, 2 M. neoaurum, and 2 M. septicum isolates. M. abscessus (75.34%) and M. fortuitum (15.07%), the most common species, exhibited greater antibiotic resistance than the other three species. The isolates had low resistance to amikacin, linezolid, and tigecycline, and high resistance to first-line antituberculous agents, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, rifapentine, dapsone, thioacetazone, and pasiniazid. M. abscessus and M. fortuitum were highly resistant to ofloxacin and rifabutin, respectively. The isolates showed moderate resistance to the other antimicrobial agents. Our results suggest that tigecycline, linezolid, clofazimine, and cefmetazole are appropriate choices for M. abscessus infections. Capreomycin, sulfamethoxazole, tigecycline, clofazimine, and cefmetazole are potentially good choices for M. fortuitum infections. Our drug susceptibility data should be useful to clinicians.

  19. Drug Susceptibility Testing of 31 Antimicrobial Agents on Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria Isolates from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Pang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Several species of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM are now recognized as human pathogens. However, limited data on effective drug treatments against these organisms exists. Here, we describe the species distribution and drug susceptibility profiles of RGM clinical isolates collected from four southern Chinese provinces from January 2005 to December 2012. Methods. Clinical isolates (73 were subjected to in vitro testing with 31 antimicrobial agents using the cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth microdilution method. The isolates included 55 M. abscessus, 11 M. fortuitum, 3 M. chelonae, 2 M. neoaurum, and 2 M. septicum isolates. Results. M. abscessus (75.34% and M. fortuitum (15.07%, the most common species, exhibited greater antibiotic resistance than the other three species. The isolates had low resistance to amikacin, linezolid, and tigecycline, and high resistance to first-line antituberculous agents, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, rifapentine, dapsone, thioacetazone, and pasiniazid. M. abscessus and M. fortuitum were highly resistant to ofloxacin and rifabutin, respectively. The isolates showed moderate resistance to the other antimicrobial agents. Conclusions. Our results suggest that tigecycline, linezolid, clofazimine, and cefmetazole are appropriate choices for M. abscessus infections. Capreomycin, sulfamethoxazole, tigecycline, clofazimine, and cefmetazole are potentially good choices for M. fortuitum infections. Our drug susceptibility data should be useful to clinicians.

  20. Highly sensitive bacterial susceptibility test against penicillin using parylene-matrix chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Min; Kim, Jo-Il; Song, Hyun-Woo; Noh, Joo-Yoon; Kang, Min-Jung; Pyun, Jae-Chul

    2015-09-15

    This work presented a highly sensitive bacterial antibiotic susceptibility test through β-lactamase assay using Parylene-matrix chip. β-lactamases (EC 3.5.2.6) are an important family of enzymes that confer resistance to β-lactam antibiotics by catalyzing the hydrolysis of these antibiotics. Here we present a highly sensitive assay to quantitate β-lactamase-mediated hydrolysis of penicillin into penicilloic acid. Typically, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry has been used to quantitate low molecular weight analytes and to discriminate them from noise peaks of matrix fragments that occur at low m/z ratios (m/ztest was carried out using Parylene-matrix chip and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The Parylene-matrix chip was successfully used to quantitate penicillin (m/z: [PEN+H](+)=335.1 and [PEN+Na](+)=357.8) and penicilloic acid (m/z: [PA+H](+)=353.1) in a β-lactamase assay with minimal interference of low molecular weight noise peaks. The β-lactamase assay was carried out with an antibiotic-resistant E. coli strain and an antibiotic-susceptible E. coli strain, revealing that the minimum number of E. coli cells required to screen for antibiotic resistance was 1000 cells for the MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry/Parylene-matrix chip assay. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A spatial decision support system for pipe-break susceptibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lying properties. Existing decision support systems available in the field of water distribution system maintenance mainly focus on leak detection and pipe rehabilitation/replacement strategies. These existing systems, however, do not address the ...

  2. [Confirming the Utility of RAISUS Antifungal Susceptibility Testing by New-Software].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Tomoko; Suematsu, Hiroyuki; Sawamura, Haruki; Yamagishi, Yuka; Mikamo, Hiroshige

    2017-08-15

    Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) methods for susceptibility tests of yeast are used in Japan. On the other hand, the methods have some disadvantage; 1) reading at 24 and 48 h, 2) using unclear scale, approximately 50% inhibition, to determine MICs, 3) calculating trailing growth and paradoxical effects. These makes it difficult to test the susuceptibility for yeasts. Old software of RAISUS, Ver. 6.0 series, resolved problem 1) and 2) but did not resolve problem 3). Recently, new software of RAISUS, Ver. 7.0 series, resolved problem 3). We confirmed that using the new software made it clear whether all these issue were settled or not. Eighty-four Candida isolated from Aichi Medical University was used in this study. We compared the MICs obtained by using RAISUS antifungal susceptibility testing of yeasts RSMY1, RSMY1, with those obtained by using ASTY. The concordance rates (±four-fold of MICs) between the MICs obtained by using ASTY and RSMY1 with the new software were more than 90%, except for miconazole (MCZ). The rate of MCZ was low, but MICs obtained by using CLSI methods and Yeast-like Fungus DP 'EIKEN' methods, E-DP, showed equivalent MICs of RSMY1 using the new software. The frequency of skip effects on RSMY1 using the new software markedly decreased relative to RSMY1 using the old software. In case of showing trailing growth, the new software of RAISUS made it possible to choice the correct MICs and to put up the sign of trailing growth on the result screen. New software of RAISUS enhances its usability and the accuracy of MICs. Using automatic instrument to determine MICs is useful to obtain objective results easily.

  3. Can disc diffusion susceptibility tests assess the antimicrobial activity of engineered nanoparticles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourmouli, Angeliki; Valenti, Marco; van Rijn, Erwin; Beaumont, Hubertus J. E.; Kalantzi, Olga-Ioanna; Schmidt-Ott, Andreas; Biskos, George

    2018-03-01

    The use of disc diffusion susceptibility tests to determine the antibacterial activity of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) is questionable because their low diffusivity practically prevents them from penetrating through the culture media. In this study, we investigate the ability of such a test, namely the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion test, to determine the antimicrobial activity of Au and Ag ENPs having diameters from 10 to 40 nm on Escherichia coli cultures. As anticipated, the tests did not show any antibacterial effects of Au nanoparticles (NPs) as a result of their negligible diffusivity through the culture media. Ag NPs on the other hand exhibited a strong antimicrobial activity that was independent of their size. Considering that Ag, in contrast to Au, dissolves upon oxidation and dilution in aqueous solutions, the apparent antibacterial behavior of Ag NPs is attributed to the ions they release. The Kirby-Bauer method, and other similar tests, can therefore be employed to probe the antimicrobial activity of ENPs related to their ability to release ions rather than to their unique size-dependent properties. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  4. Performance of the EUCAST disk diffusion method, the CLSI agar screen method, and the Vitek 2 automated antimicrobial susceptibility testing system for detection of clinical isolates of Enterococci with low- and medium-level VanB-type vancomycin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegstad, Kristin; Giske, Christian G; Haldorsen, Bjørg

    2014-01-01

    faecium (n=18) strains with and without nonsusceptibility to vancomycin was examined blindly in Danish (n=5), Norwegian (n=13), and Swedish (n=10) laboratories using the EUCAST disk diffusion method (n=28) and the CLSI agar screen (n=18) or the Vitek 2 system (bioMérieux) (n=5). The EUCAST disk diffusion...... method (very major error [VME] rate, 7.0%; sensitivity, 0.93; major error [ME] rate, 2.4%; specificity, 0.98) and CLSI agar screen (VME rate, 6.6%; sensitivity, 0.93; ME rate, 5.6%; specificity, 0.94) performed significantly better (P=0.02) than the Vitek 2 system (VME rate, 13%; sensitivity, 0.87; ME...... rate, 0%; specificity, 1). The performance of the EUCAST disk diffusion method was challenged by differences in vancomycin inhibition zone sizes as well as the experience of the personnel in interpreting fuzzy zone edges as an indication of vancomycin resistance. Laboratories using Oxoid agar (P

  5. Susceptibility of various areas of the nervous system of hens to TOCP-induced delayed neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classen, W; Gretener, P; Rauch, M; Weber, E; Krinke, G J

    1996-01-01

    Sensitivity of in-life parameters, biochemical endpoints, and susceptibility of various areas of the chicken nervous system to delayed neuropathy induced by tri-orthocresyl phosphate (TOCP) was assessed. Groups of hens were exposed to a single oral dose of TOCP of 0, 50, 200 or 500 mg/kg and the animals observed for 21 days. Perfusion fixed, paraffin embedded tissue sections were stained with Bodian's silver and Luxol blue and semi-thin epoxy sections with toluidine blue. Sciatic and tibial nerves, lumbosacral, midthoracic, and upper cervical spinal cord, medulla oblongata and cerebellum were examined using a semiquantitative scoring system. In pair-dosed hens inhibition of brain and spinal cord neurotoxic esterase (NTE) and cholinesterase and of plasma and erythrocyte cholinesterases was determined 24 hr and 48 hr after administration. At all dose levels NTE in brain and spinal cord and plasma cholinesterase was inhibited markedly. Quantitative inhibition of NTE was seen also in absence of neuropathy. Ataxia and body weight loss occurred in high-dose animals only, while dose-related neuropathy was seen in the distal tibial nerve, medulla oblongata and cerebellum. Ataxia was correlated best with neuropathy in peripheral nerves while degeneration of nerve fibers in the cerebellum, seen best in mid-longitudinal sections, was the most sensitive histological indicator of TOCP-induced delayed neuropathy. The particular susceptibility of spinocerebellar neurons was recognized long ago, but often has been neglected in delayed neurotoxicity studies and respective guidelines. Optimal sensitivity of toxicity tests is a prerequisite for risk assessment, can be cost efficient, and nowadays should be a main interest of animal welfare in order to reduce animals' suffering. Based on these data, determination of NTE inhibition together with histopathological examination of longitudinal sections of distal tibial nerves, mid-longitudinal sections of rostral cerebellum and cross

  6. Energy Systems Test Area (ESTA). Power Systems Test Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Situ, Cindy H.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides a detailed description of the Johnson Space Center's Power Systems Facility located in the Energy Systems Test Area (ESTA). Facilities and the resources used to support power and battery systems testing are also shown. The contents include: 1) Power Testing; 2) Power Test Equipment Capabilities Summary; 3) Source/Load; 4) Battery Facilities; 5) Battery Test Equipment Capabilities Summary; 6) Battery Testing; 7) Performance Test Equipment; 8) Battery Test Environments; 9) Battery Abuse Chambers; 10) Battery Abuse Capabilities; and 11) Battery Test Area Resources.

  7. Status of NRC approval of EPRI electromagnetic interference susceptibility testing guidelines for digital equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.W.; Shank, J.W.; Yoder, C.

    1996-01-01

    Historically, nuclear power plants installing digital equipment have been required to conduct expensive, site-specific electromagnetic interference (EMI) surveys to demonstrate that EMI will not affect the operation of sensitive electronic equipment. Consequently, EPRI formed a Utility Working Group which developed a set of generic EMI susceptibility testing guidelines, which were published as an EPRI report in September 1994. These guidelines are based upon EMI survey data obtained from several different plants and include criteria for determining their applicability. The Working Group interacted with NRC staff to obtain NRC approval. In April 1996, the NRC issued a Safety Evaluation Report (SER) endorsing the guidelines as a valid means of demonstrating EMI compatibility. The issuance of this SER was conditional on issuing a revision to the EPRI EMI Guidelines. This paper summarizes the guidelines, the NRC SER, and the current status of Revision 1 to the report

  8. Ethical, legal and social implications of prenatal and preimplantation genetic testing for cancer susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C-W; Hui, E C

    2009-01-01

    With the progress in cancer genetics and assisted reproductive technologies, it is now possible for cancer gene mutation carriers not only to reduce cancer mortality through the targeting of surveillance and preventive therapies, but also to avoid the birth of at-risk babies through the choice of different means of reproduction. Thus, the incidence of hereditary cancer syndromes may be decreased in the future. The integration of cancer genetic testing and assisted reproductive technologies raises certain ethical, legal and social issues beyond either genetic testing or assisted reproductive technology itself. In this paper, the reproductive decisions/choices of at-risk young couples and the ethical, legal and social concerns of prenatal genetic testing and preimplantation genetic diagnosis for susceptibility to hereditary cancer syndromes are discussed. Specifically, three ethical principles related to the integration of cancer genetic testing and assisted reproductive technologies, i.e. informed choice, beneficence to children and social justice, and their implications for the responsible translation of these medical techniques into common practice of preventive medicine are highlighted.

  9. Miniaturized Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test by Combining Concentration Gradient Generation and Rapid Cell Culturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel C. Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Effective treatment of bacterial infection relies on timely diagnosis and proper prescription of antibiotic drugs. The antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST is one of the most crucial experimental procedures, providing the baseline information for choosing effective antibiotic agents and their dosages. Conventional methods, however, require long incubation times or significant instrumentation costs to obtain test results. We propose a lab-on-a-chip approach to perform AST in a simple, economic, and rapid manner. Our assay platform miniaturizes the standard broth microdilution method on a microfluidic device (20 × 20 mm that generates an antibiotic concentration gradient and delivers antibiotic-containing culture media to eight 30-nL chambers for cell culture. When tested with 20 μL samples of a model bacterial strain (E. coli ATCC 25922 treated with ampicillin or streptomycin, our method allows for the determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations consistent with the microdilution test in three hours, which is almost a factor of ten more rapid than the standard method.

  10. Comparison of methods for in vitro testing of susceptibility of porcine Mycoplasma species to antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Laak, E A; Pijpers, A; Noordergraaf, J H; Schoevers, E C; Verheijden, J H

    1991-02-01

    The MICs of 18 antimicrobial agents used against strains of three porcine Mycoplasma species were determined by a serial broth dilution method. Twenty field strains of M. hyorhinis, ten field strains of M. hyopneumoniae, six field strains of M. flocculare, and the type strains of these species were tested. Twelve field strains and the type strain of M. hyorhinis were also tested by an agar dilution method. Tests were read at various time points. When the broth dilution method was used, the final MIC had to be read 2 days after color changes had stopped. MICs of tetracycline, oxytetracycline, doxycycline, and minocycline were low for the three Mycoplasma species tested. MICs of chlortetracycline were 8 to 16 times higher than MICs of the other tetracyclines. Spiramycin, tylosin, kitasamycin, spectinomycin, tiamulin, lincomycin, and clindamycin were effective against all strains of M. hyorhinis and M. hyopneumoniae. The quinolones were highly effective against M. hyopneumoniae but less effective against M. hyorhinis. The susceptibility patterns for M. hyopneumoniae and M. flocculare were similar.

  11. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing of Scopulariopsis brevicaulis strains using agar diffusion method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skóra, Magdalena; Macura, Anna B

    2011-01-01

    The genus Scopulariopsis is a common soil saprotroph and has been isolated from air, organic waste and also from plant, animal and human tissues. Scopulariopsis has mainly been associated in humans with superficial mycoses, but it has also been described as the cause of subcutaneous and invasive infections. The most common aetiological agent of infections in humans is Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. This species has been reported to be resistant in vitro to broad-spectrum antifungal agents available today. The aim of the study was to establish in vitro antifungal susceptibility of 35 S. brevicaulis strains against amphotericin B (AMB), flucytosine (FC), caspofungin (CAS), terbinafine (TER), ciclopirox (CIC), voriconazole (VOR), clotrimazole (CTR), miconazole (MCZ), econazole (ECO), ketoconazole (KET), itraconazole (ITR), and fluconazole (FLU). Antifungal susceptibility tests were evaluated by an agar diffusion method (Neo-Sensitabs, Rosco, Denmark). AMB, FC, CAS, ITR and FLU showed no antifungal activity against S. brevicaulis. TER, CIC, CTR, KET, VOR, ECO, and MCZ revealed inhibitory activity for S. brevicaulis, but it varied for each of the drugs. The best antifungal effect was observed for TER and CIC. All isolates had large inhibition zones for TER and CIC. CTR was also inhibitory for all tested S. brevicaulis isolates, but the diameters of inhibition zones were smaller than for TER and CIC. Nearly 89% isolates showed inhibition zones for KET and the mean diameter of the inhibition zone was comparable to CTR. The least antifungal activity exhibited VQR, ECO and MCZ. Because of the multiresistance of S. brevicaulis, infections due to this species may not respond to particular antifungal treatment and other therapeutic approaches should be considered, e.g., combined therapy and/or surgery.

  12. Rapid Isolation and Susceptibility Testing of Leptospira spp. Using a New Solid Medium, LVW Agar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Amornchai, Premjit; Paris, Daniel H.; Langla, Sayan; Thaipadunpanit, Janjira; Chierakul, Wirongrong; Smythe, Lee D.; White, Nicholas J.; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Peacock, Sharon J.

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenic Leptospira spp., the causative agents of leptospirosis, are slow-growing Gram-negative spirochetes. Isolation of Leptospira from clinical samples and testing of antimicrobial susceptibility are difficult and time-consuming. Here, we describe the development of a new solid medium that facilitates more-rapid growth of Leptospira spp. and the use of this medium to evaluate the Etest's performance in determining antimicrobial MICs to drugs in common use for leptospirosis. The medium was developed by evaluating the effects of numerous factors on the growth rate of Leptospira interrogans strain NR-20157. These included the type of base agar, the concentration of rabbit serum (RS), and the concentration and duration of CO2 incubation during the initial period of culture. The highest growth rate of NR-20157 was achieved using a Noble agar base supplemented with 10% RS (named LVW agar), with an initial incubation at 30°C in 5% CO2 for 2 days prior to continuous culture in air at 30°C. These conditions were used to develop the Etest for three species, L. interrogans (NR-20161), L. kirschnerii (NR-20327), and L. borgpetersenii (NR-20151). The MICs were read on day 7 for all samples. The Etest was then performed on 109 isolates of pathogenic Leptospira spp. The MIC90 values for penicillin G, doxycycline, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, and chloramphenicol were 0.64 units/ml and 0.19, 0.047, 0.5, and 2 μg/ml, respectively. The use of LVW agar, which enables rapid growth, isolation of single colonies, and simple antimicrobial susceptibility testing for Leptospira spp., provides an opportunity for new areas of fundamental and applied research. PMID:23114772

  13. Analysis of the magnetic susceptibility well log in drill hole UE25a-5, Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagstrum, J.T.; Daniels, J.J.; Scott, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Magnetic susceptibility measurements have been shown to be dependent upon the magnetite content of rocks with variations in rock susceptibility arising from changes in the shape, size, composition, and quantity of the contained magnetite grains. The present study was undertaken to determine the factor(s) responsible for the variation in magnetic susceptibility measurements from borehole UE25a-5 on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The well logs and sample analyses presented in this paper form part of a larger geophysical well-logging project studying the physical properties of welded tuffs at NTS. The ash-flow sheets at NTS appear to be the products of single compositionally zoned magmas that tend, within a cooling unit, to erupt hotter, more mafic, and more crystal-rich with time. These factors, however, have little effect on the degree to which the tuffs become welded. Furthermore, zones of crystallization and alteration are superimposed upon the welded units. X-ray data show poor correspondence between the relative abundance of magnetite in a sample and the borehole magnetic susceptibility measurement associated with it. Curie balance experiments demonstrate no change in the magnetic mineralogy that could account for the susceptibility variation. Thin-section observations corroborate the x-ray data, but indicate a proportional relationship between the borehole susceptibility measurements and the grain-size distribution of magnetite. The association of magnetic susceptibility anomalies with the crystal-rich zones of the welded tuffs will aid in the identification and correlation of the eruptive sequences at NTS

  14. Ship Systems Survivability Test Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Area for testing survivability of shipboard systems to include electrical, communications, and fire suppression. Multipurpose test range for supporting gun firing,...

  15. Inspection system performance test procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    This procedure establishes requirements to administer a performance demonstration test. The test is to demonstrate that the double-shell tank inspection system (DSTIS) supplied by the contractor performs in accordance with the WHC-S-4108, Double-Shell Tank Ultrasonic Inspection Performance Specification, Rev. 2-A, January, 1995. The inspection system is intended to provide ultrasonic (UT) and visual data to determine integrity of the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) site underground waste tanks. The robotic inspection system consists of the following major sub-systems (modules) and components: Mobile control center; Deployment module; Cable management assembly; Robot mechanism; Ultrasonic testing system; Visual testing system; Pneumatic system; Electrical system; and Control system

  16. Analysis of the susceptibility in a fluid system with Neumann – plus boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djondjorov Peter

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of the local and total susceptibilities of a fluid system bounded by different surfaces is studied in the framework of the Ginsburg-Landau Ising type model. The case of a plain geometry, Neumann-infinity boundary conditions under variations of the temperature and an external ordering field is considered. Exact analytic expressions for the order parameter, local and total susceptibilities in such a system are presented. They are used to analyse the phase behaviour of fluids confined in regions close to the bulk critical point of the respective infinite system.

  17. Rapid Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, and Burkholderia pseudomallei by Use of Laser Light Scattering Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugrysheva, Julia V; Lascols, Christine; Sue, David; Weigel, Linda M

    2016-06-01

    Rapid methods to determine antimicrobial susceptibility would assist in the timely distribution of effective treatment or postexposure prophylaxis in the aftermath of the release of bacterial biothreat agents such as Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, or Burkholderia pseudomallei Conventional susceptibility tests require 16 to 48 h of incubation, depending on the bacterial species. We evaluated a method that is based on laser light scattering technology that measures cell density in real time. We determined that it has the ability to rapidly differentiate between growth (resistant) and no growth (susceptible) of several bacterial threat agents in the presence of clinically relevant antimicrobials. Results were available in 10 h of incubation. Use of laser scattering technology decreased the time required to determine antimicrobial susceptibility by 50% to 75% for B. anthracis, Y. pestis, and B. pseudomallei compared to conventional methods. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Predicament in detection and reporting of extended spectrum beta lactamase production in routine antibiotic susceptibility testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, T.; Butt, E.; Raza, S.

    2017-01-01

    This descriptive and cross-sectional study was planned to determine the dilemma of inadvertent detection of extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) production in Enterobacteriaceaewhen using inhibition zone size of antibiotic disks of Cefotaxime or Aztreonam in routine antibiotic susceptibility testing as recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Screening and double disk tests were adopted as per CLSI. Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 was used as control strain. Among total specimens of 5346, there were 348 isolates of Escherichia coli(n=235), Klebsiella pneumonia (n=92), Klebsiella oxytoca(n=3) or Proteus mirabilus(n=18). The screening method recommended by CLSI significantly falsely detected ESBL production in 79 (32.3%) isolates (p<0.0001). ESBL detection is important as its frequency is high and treatment of the infection varies with the presence and absence of ESBL. To avoid false reporting, proper phenotypic detection of ESBL confirmatory method-like double-disk synergy test, should be used routinely. (author)

  19. Correcting a Fundamental Flaw in the Paradigm for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvi C. Ersoy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The emergence and prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria are an increasing cause of death worldwide, resulting in a global ‘call to action’ to avoid receding into an era lacking effective antibiotics. Despite the urgency, the healthcare industry still relies on a single in vitro bioassay to determine antibiotic efficacy. This assay fails to incorporate environmental factors normally present during host-pathogen interactions in vivo that significantly impact antibiotic efficacy. Here we report that standard antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST failed to detect antibiotics that are in fact effective in vivo; and frequently identified antibiotics that were instead ineffective as further confirmed in mouse models of infection and sepsis. Notably, AST performed in media mimicking host environments succeeded in identifying specific antibiotics that were effective in bacterial clearance and host survival, even though these same antibiotics failed in results using standard test media. Similarly, our revised media further identified antibiotics that were ineffective in vivo despite passing the AST standard for clinical use. Supplementation of AST medium with sodium bicarbonate, an abundant in vivo molecule that stimulates global changes in bacterial structure and gene expression, was found to be an important factor improving the predictive value of AST in the assignment of appropriate therapy. These findings have the potential to improve the means by which antibiotics are developed, tested, and prescribed.

  20. A prospective study of the impact of genetic susceptibility testing for BRCA1/2 or HNPCC on family relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, Iris; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Brocker-Vriends, Annette H. J. T.; van Asperen, Chhstl J.; Sijmons, Rolf H.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Van Gool, Arthur R.; Klijn, Jan G. M.; Riedijk, Samantha R.; van Dooren, Silvia; Tibben, Aad

    This study assessed the impact of genetic testing for cancer susceptibility on family relationships and determinants of adverse consequences for family relationships. Applicants for genetic testing of a known familial pathogenic mutation in BRCA1/2 or a HNPCC related gene (N = 271) rated the

  1. A prospective study of the impact of genetic susceptibility testing for BRCA1/2 or HNPCC on family relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, Iris; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Bröcker-Vriends, Annette H. J. T.; van Asperen, Christi J.; Sijmons, Rolf H.; Seynaeve, Caroline; van Gool, Arthur R.; Klijn, Jan G. M.; Riedijk, Samantha R.; van Dooren, Silvia; Tibben, Aad

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed the impact of genetic testing for cancer susceptibility on family relationships and determinants of adverse consequences for family relationships. Applicants for genetic testing of a known familial pathogenic mutation in BRCA1/2 or a HNPCC related gene (N=271) rated the

  2. A prospective study of the impact of genetic susceptibility testing for BRCA1/2 or HNPCC on family relationships.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostrom, I.I.H. van; Meijers-Heijboer, H.; Duivenvoorden, H.J.; Brocker-Vriends, A.H.; Asperen, C.J. van; Sijmons, R.H.; Seynaeve, C.; Gool, A.R. van; Klijn, J.G.M.; Riedijk, S.R.; Dooren, S. van; Tibben, A.

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed the impact of genetic testing for cancer susceptibility on family relationships and determinants of adverse consequences for family relationships. Applicants for genetic testing of a known familial pathogenic mutation in BRCA1/2 or a HNPCC related gene (N=271) rated the

  3. Bio-susceptibility of materials and thermal insulation systems used for historical buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterflinger, Katja; Ettenauer, Joerg; Pinar, Guadalupe

    2013-04-01

    In historical buildings of Northern countries high levels of energy are necessary to reach comfortable temperatures especially during the cold season. For this reason historical buildings are now also included in country specific regulations and ordinances to enhance the "energy - efficiency". Since an exterior insulation - as it is commonly used for modern architecture - is incompatible with monument protection, several indoor insulation systems based on historical and ecological materials, are on the market that should improve the thermic performance of a historical building. However, using organic materials as cellulose, loam, weed or wood, bears the risk of fungal growth and thus may lead to health problems in indoor environments. For this reason 5 different ecological indoor insulations systems were tested for their bio-susceptibility against various fungi both under natural conditions - after 2 years of installation in an historical building - and under laboratory conditions with high levels of relative humidity. Fungal growth was evaluated by classical isolation and cultivation as well as by molecular methods. The materials turned out to have a quite different susceptibility towards fungal contamination. Whereas insulations made of bloated Perlite (plaster and board) did not show any fungal growth after 2 years of exposition, the historical insulation made of loam and weed had high cell counts of various fungi. In laboratory experiments wooden softboard represented the best environment for fungal growth. As a result from this study, plaster and board made of bloated Perlite are presented as being the most appropriate materials for thermal insulation at least from the microbiological and hygienic point of view. For future investigations and for the monitoring of fungi in insulation and other building materials we suggest a molecular biology approach with a common protocol for quantitative DNA-extraction and amplification.

  4. Bile Culture and Susceptibility Testing of Malignant Biliary Obstruction via PTBD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Haipeng; Guo Zhi, E-mail: jieruke@yahoo.com.cn; Xing Wenge; Guo Xiuying; Liu Fang; Li Baoguo [Tinajin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Department of Interventional Therapy, Tianjin Key Cancer Prevention and Treatment Laboratory (China)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To assess the information obtained by bile culture and susceptibility testing for malignant biliary obstruction by a retrospective one-center study. Methods: A total of 694 patients with malignant biliary obstruction received percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage during the period July 2003 to September 2010, and subsequently, bile specimens were collected during the procedure. Among the 694 patients, 485 were men and 209 were women, ranging in age from 38 to 78 years (mean age 62 years). Results: A total of 42.9% patients had a positive bile culture (298 of 694). Further, 57 species of microorganisms and 342 strains were identified; gram-positive bacteria accounted for 50.9% (174 of 342) and gram-negative bacteria accounted for 41.5% (142 of 342) of these strains. No anaerobes were obtained by culture during this study. The most common microorganisms were Enterococcus faecalis (41 of 342, 11.9%), Escherichia coli (34 of 342, 9.9%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (28 of 342, 8.2%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (19 of 342, 5.5%), Enterococcus (18 of 342, 5.3%), and Enterobacter cloacae (16 of 342, 4.7%). The percentage of {beta}-lactamase-producing gram-positive bacteria was 27.6% (48 of 174), and the percentage of gram-negative bacteria was 19.7% (28 of 142). The percentage of enzyme-producing Escherichia coli was 61.7% (21 of 34). Conclusion: The bile cultures in malignant biliary obstruction are different from those in the Tokyo Guidelines and other benign biliary obstruction researches, which indicates that a different antibacterial therapy should be applied. Thus, knowledge of the antimicrobial susceptibility data could aid in the better use of antibiotics for the empirical therapy of biliary infection combined with malignant biliary obstruction.

  5. Bile Culture and Susceptibility Testing of Malignant Biliary Obstruction via PTBD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Haipeng; Guo Zhi; Xing Wenge; Guo Xiuying; Liu Fang; Li Baoguo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the information obtained by bile culture and susceptibility testing for malignant biliary obstruction by a retrospective one-center study. Methods: A total of 694 patients with malignant biliary obstruction received percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage during the period July 2003 to September 2010, and subsequently, bile specimens were collected during the procedure. Among the 694 patients, 485 were men and 209 were women, ranging in age from 38 to 78 years (mean age 62 years). Results: A total of 42.9% patients had a positive bile culture (298 of 694). Further, 57 species of microorganisms and 342 strains were identified; gram-positive bacteria accounted for 50.9% (174 of 342) and gram-negative bacteria accounted for 41.5% (142 of 342) of these strains. No anaerobes were obtained by culture during this study. The most common microorganisms were Enterococcus faecalis (41 of 342, 11.9%), Escherichia coli (34 of 342, 9.9%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (28 of 342, 8.2%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (19 of 342, 5.5%), Enterococcus (18 of 342, 5.3%), and Enterobacter cloacae (16 of 342, 4.7%). The percentage of β-lactamase-producing gram-positive bacteria was 27.6% (48 of 174), and the percentage of gram-negative bacteria was 19.7% (28 of 142). The percentage of enzyme-producing Escherichia coli was 61.7% (21 of 34). Conclusion: The bile cultures in malignant biliary obstruction are different from those in the Tokyo Guidelines and other benign biliary obstruction researches, which indicates that a different antibacterial therapy should be applied. Thus, knowledge of the antimicrobial susceptibility data could aid in the better use of antibiotics for the empirical therapy of biliary infection combined with malignant biliary obstruction.

  6. Awareness of cancer susceptibility genetic testing: the 2000, 2005, and 2010 National Health Interview Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Phuong L; Vadaparampil, Susan Thomas; Breen, Nancy; McNeel, Timothy S; Wideroff, Louise; Graubard, Barry I

    2014-05-01

    Genetic testing for several cancer susceptibility syndromes is clinically available; however, existing data suggest limited population awareness of such tests. To examine awareness regarding cancer genetic testing in the U.S. population aged ≥25 years in the 2000, 2005, and 2010 National Health Interview Surveys. The weighted percentages of respondents aware of cancer genetic tests, and percent changes from 2000-2005 and 2005-2010, overall and by demographic, family history, and healthcare factors were calculated. Interactions were used to evaluate the patterns of change in awareness between 2005 and 2010 among subgroups within each factor. To evaluate associations with awareness in 2005 and 2010, percentages were adjusted for covariates using multiple logistic regression. The analysis was performed in 2012. Awareness decreased from 44.4% to 41.5% (pAwareness increased between 2005 and 2010 in most subgroups, particularly among individuals in the South (pinteraction=0.03) or with a usual place of care (pinteraction=0.01). In 2005 and 2010, awareness was positively associated with personal or family cancer history and high perceived cancer risk, and inversely associated with racial/ethnic minorities, age 25-39 or ≥60 years, male gender, lower education and income levels, public or no health insurance, and no provider contact in 12 months. Despite improvement from 2005 to 2010, ≤50% of the U.S. adult population was aware of cancer genetic testing in 2010. Notably, disparities persist for racial/ethnic minorities and individuals with limited health care access or income. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Testing of Mortar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    IEP /TDP) or Independent Assessment Plan (IAP), and the test item and the procedures as outlined in this TOP. The following must also be considered...Command DTIC = Defense Technical Information Center DTP = Detailed Test Plan IAP = Independent Assessment Plan IEP = Independent Evaluation Plan IPT

  8. Landslide susceptibility mapping at Hoa Binh province (Vietnam) using an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien Bui, Dieu; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Lofman, Owe; Revhaug, Inge; Dick, Oystein B.

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate a potential application of the Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) and the Geographic Information System (GIS) as a relatively new approach for landslide susceptibility mapping in the Hoa Binh province of Vietnam. Firstly, a landslide inventory map with a total of 118 landslide locations was constructed from various sources. Then the landslide inventory was randomly split into a testing dataset 70% (82 landslide locations) for training the models and the remaining 30% (36 landslides locations) was used for validation purpose. Ten landslide conditioning factors such as slope, aspect, curvature, lithology, land use, soil type, rainfall, distance to roads, distance to rivers, and distance to faults were considered in the analysis. The hybrid learning algorithm and six different membership functions (Gaussmf, Gauss2mf, Gbellmf, Sigmf, Dsigmf, Psigmf) were applied to generate the landslide susceptibility maps. The validation dataset, which was not considered in the ANFIS modeling process, was used to validate the landslide susceptibility maps using the prediction rate method. The validation results showed that the area under the curve (AUC) for six ANFIS models vary from 0.739 to 0.848. It indicates that the prediction capability depends on the membership functions used in the ANFIS. The models with Sigmf (0.848) and Gaussmf (0.825) have shown the highest prediction capability. The results of this study show that landslide susceptibility mapping in the Hoa Binh province of Vietnam using the ANFIS approach is viable. As far as the performance of the ANFIS approach is concerned, the results appeared to be quite satisfactory, the zones determined on the map being zones of relative susceptibility.

  9. In vitro susceptibility testing of Aspergillus spp. against voriconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jun-yan; Xu, Ying-chun; Shi, Yi; Lü, Huo-xiang; Liu, Yong; Zhao, Wang-sheng; Chen, Dong-mei; Xi, Li-yan; Zhou, Xin; Wang, He; Guo, Li-na

    2010-10-01

    During recent years, the incidence of serious infections caused by opportunistic fungi has increased dramatically due to alterations of the immune status of patients with hematological diseases, malignant tumors, transplantations and so forth. Unfortunately, the wide use of triazole antifungal agents to treat these infections has lead to the emergence of Aspergillus spp. resistant to triazoles. The present study was to assess the in vitro activities of five antifungal agents (voriconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin) against different kinds of Aspergillus spp. that are commonly encountered in the clinical setting. The agar-based Etest MIC method was employed. One hundred and seven strains of Aspergillus spp. (5 species) were collected and prepared according to Etest Technique Manuel. Etest MICs were determined with RPMI agar containing 2% glucose and were read after incubation for 48 hours at 35°C. MIC(50), MIC(90) and MIC range were acquired by Whonet 5.4 software. The MIC(90) of caspofungin against A. fumigatus, A. flavus and A. nidulans was 0.094 µg/ml whereas the MIC(90) against A. niger was 0.19 µg/ml. For these four species, the MIC(90) of caspofungin was the lowest among the five antifungal agents. For A. terrus, the MIC(90) of posaconazole was the lowest. For A. fumigatus and A. flavus, the MIC(90) in order of increasing was caspofungin, posaconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, and amphotericin B. The MIC of amphotericin B against A. terrus was higher than 32 µg/ml in all 7 strains tested. The in vitro antifungal susceptibility test shows the new drug caspofungin, which is a kind of echinocandins, has good activity against the five species of Aspergillus spp. and all the triazoles tested have better in vitro activity than traditional amphotericin B.

  10. Mobile leak testing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ungr, F.

    The design and implementation are described of a mobile testing unit ULTRATEST M for helium leak tests. The equipment has been developed by Leybold-Heraeus GmbH in Cologne and is in-built in a Mercedes-Benz 208 van. The equipment is designed for the operative use in assembly and construction of nuclear power plants and its throughput is sufficient for checking the whole upper reactor block. It may also be used for removing defects of vacuum equipment requiring a high level of tightness or equally demanding equipment used in the chemical industry. Experience with the equipment is described. (B.S.)

  11. CAMAC system test module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, W.K.; Gjovig, A.; Naivar, F.; Potter, J.; Smith, W.

    1981-01-01

    Since the CAMAC Branch Highway is used to both send information to and receive information from a CAMAC crate, faults in this highway can be difficult to recognize and diagnose. Similarly faults caused by a Crate Controller corrupting either instructions or data are difficult to distinguish from faults caused by the modules themselves. The CLIVIT (CAMAC Logic Integrity Via Interactive Testing) module is designed to largely eliminate such difficulties and ambiguities by allowing the verification of Branch Highway and Dataway transactions via an independent data communication path. The principle of operation of the CLIVIT is explained. Described are the prototype construction, testing and use

  12. Test system and method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    at a second distance from the centre, the second distance being larger than the first distance, one or more sensors arranged at each fluid channel, wherein the sensors each comprise at least one optical detectable member, the test apparatus further comprising one or more optical sensing devices arranged...... larger than the first distance, one or more sensors arranged at each fluid channel, wherein the sensors each comprise at least one optical detectable member, the test apparatus further comprising one or more optical sensing devices arranged for sensing the at least one optical detectable member...

  13. Evaluation of four colourimetric susceptibility tests for the rapid detection of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosisisolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Yilmaz Coban

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate four rapid colourimetric methods, including the resazurin microtitre assay (REMA, malachite green decolourisation assay (MGDA, microplate nitrate reductase assay (MNRA and crystal violet decolourisation assay (CVDA, for the rapid detection of multidrug-resistant (MDR tuberculosis. Fifty Mycobacterium tuberculosisisolates were used in this study. Eighteen isolates were MDR, two isolates were only resistant to isoniazid (INH and the remaining isolates were susceptible to both INH and rifampicin (RIF. INH and RIF were tested in 0.25 µg/mL and 0.5 µg/mL, respectively. The agar proportion method was used as a reference method. MNRA and REMA were performed with some modifications. MGDA and CVDA were performed as defined in the literature. The agreements of the MNRA for INH and RIF were 96% and 94%, respectively, while the agreement of the other assays for INH and RIF were 98%. In this study, while the specificities of the REMA, MGDA and CVDA were 100%, the specificity of the MNRA was lower than the others (93.3% for INH and 90.9% for RIF. In addition, while the sensitivity of the MNRA was 100%, the sensitivities of the others were lower than that of the MNRA (from 94.1-95%. The results were reported on the seventh-10th day of the incubation. All methods are reliable, easy to perform, inexpensive and easy to evaluate and do not require special equipment.

  14. Isothermal microcalorimetry for antifungal susceptibility testing of Mucorales, Fusarium spp., and Scedosporium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furustrand Tafin, Ulrika; Meis, Jacques F; Trampuz, Andrej

    2012-08-01

    We evaluated isothermal microcalorimetry for real-time susceptibility testing of non-Aspergillus molds. MIC and minimal effective concentration (MEC) values of Mucorales (n = 4), Fusarium spp. (n = 4), and Scedosporium spp. (n = 4) were determined by microbroth dilution according to the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute M38-A2 guidelines. Heat production of molds was measured at 37 °C in Sabouraud dextrose broth inoculated with 2.5 × 10(4) spores/mL in the presence of amphotericin B, voriconazole, posaconazole, caspofungin, and anidulafungin. As determined by microcalorimetry, amphotericin B was the most active agent against Mucorales (MHIC 0.06-0.125 μg/mL) and Fusarium spp. (MHIC 1-4 μg/mL), whereas voriconazole was the most active agent against Scedosporium spp. (MHIC 0.25 to 8 μg/mL). The percentage of agreement (within one 2-fold dilution) between the MHIC and MIC (or MEC) was 67%, 92%, 75%, and 83% for amphotericin B, voriconazole, posaconazole, and caspofungin, respectively. Microcalorimetry provides additional information on timing of antifungal activity, enabling further investigation of drug-mold and drug-drug interaction, and optimization of antifungal treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Rapid identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of positive blood cultures using MALDI-TOF MS and a modification of the standardised disc diffusion test: a pilot study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzgerald, C

    2016-04-27

    In an era when clinical microbiology laboratories are under increasing financial pressure, there is a need for inexpensive, yet effective, rapid microbiology tests. The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel modification of standard methodology for the identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of pathogens in positive blood cultures, reducing the turnaround time of laboratory results by 24 h.

  16. Influence of the IL6 Gene in Susceptibility to Systemic Sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cenit, M.C.; Simeon, C.P.; Vonk, M.C.; Callejas-Rubio, J.L.; Espinosa, G.; Carreira, P.; Blanco, F.J.; Narvaez, J.; Tolosa, C.; Roman-Ivorra, J.A.; Gomez-Garcia, I.; Garcia-Hernandez, F.J.; Gallego, M.; Garcia-Portales, R.; Egurbide, M.V.; Fonollosa, V.; Garcia de la Pena, P.; Lopez-Longo, F.J.; Gonzalez-Gay, M.A.; The Spanish Scleroderma, G.; Hesselstrand, R.; Riemekasten, G.; Witte, T.J.M. de; Voskuyl, A.E.; Schuerwegh, A.J.; Madhok, R.; Fonseca, C.; Denton, C.; Nordin, A.; Palm, O.; Laar, J.M. van; Hunzelmann, N.; Distler, J.H.; Kreuter, A.; Herrick, A.; Worthington, J.; Koeleman, B.P.; Radstake, T.R.D.J.; Martin, J.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a genetically complex autoimmune disease; the genetic component has not been fully defined. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) plays a crucial role in immunity and fibrosis, both key aspects of SSc. We investigated the influence of IL6 gene in the susceptibility and

  17. Experience of parental cancer in childhood is a risk factor for psychological distress during genetic cancer susceptibility testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, I.; Meijers-Heijboer, H.; Duivenvoorden, H. J.; Brocker-Vriends, A. H. J. T.; van Asperen, C. J.; Sijmons, R. H.; Seynaeve, C.; Van Gool, A. R.; Klijn, J. G. M.; Tibben, A.

    Background: This study explores the effect of age at the time of parental cancer diagnosis or death on psychological distress and cancer risk perception in individuals undergoing genetic testing for a specific cancer susceptibility. Patients and methods: Cancer-related distress, worry and risk

  18. Experience of parental cancer in childhood is a risk factor for psychological distress during genetic cancer susceptibility testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, I.; Meijers-Heijboer, H.; Duivenvoorden, H. J.; Bröcker-Vriends, A. H. J. T.; van Asperen, C. J.; Sijmons, R. H.; Seynaeve, C.; van Gool, A. R.; Klijn, J. G. M.; Tibben, A.

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the effect of age at the time of parental cancer diagnosis or death on psychological distress and cancer risk perception in individuals undergoing genetic testing for a specific cancer susceptibility. Cancer-related distress, worry and risk perception were assessed in 271

  19. Prognostic factors for hereditary cancer distress six months after BRCA1/2 or HNPCC genetic susceptibility testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, Iris; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Brocker-Vriends, Annette H. J. T.; van Asperen, Christi J.; Sijmons, Rolf H.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Van Gool, Arthur R.; Klijn, Jan G. M.; Tibben, Aad

    This study explored predictors for hereditary cancer distress six months after genetic susceptibility testing for a known familial BRCA1/2 or HNPCC related mutation, in order to gain insight into aspects relevant for the identification of individuals needing additional psychosocial support. Coping,

  20. Impact of Rapid Susceptibility Testing and Antibiotic Selection Strategy on the Emergence and Spread of Antibiotic Resistance in Gonorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuite, Ashleigh R; Gift, Thomas L; Chesson, Harrell W; Hsu, Katherine; Salomon, Joshua A; Grad, Yonatan H

    2017-11-27

    Increasing antibiotic resistance limits treatment options for gonorrhea. We examined the impact of a hypothetical point-of-care (POC) test reporting antibiotic susceptibility profiles on slowing resistance spread. A mathematical model describing gonorrhea transmission incorporated resistance emergence probabilities and fitness costs associated with resistance based on characteristics of ciprofloxacin (A), azithromycin (B), and ceftriaxone (C). We evaluated time to 1% and 5% prevalence of resistant strains among all isolates with the following: (1) empiric treatment (B and C), and treatment guided by POC tests determining susceptibility to (2) A only and (3) all 3 antibiotics. Continued empiric treatment without POC testing was projected to result in >5% of isolates being resistant to both B and C within 15 years. Use of either POC test in 10% of identified cases delayed this by 5 years. The 3 antibiotic POC test delayed the time to reach 1% prevalence of triply-resistant strains by 6 years, whereas the A-only test resulted in no delay. Results were less sensitive to assumptions about fitness costs and test characteristics with increasing test uptake. Rapid diagnostics reporting antibiotic susceptibility may extend the usefulness of existing antibiotics for gonorrhea treatment, but ongoing monitoring of resistance patterns will be critical. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  1. Nuclear system test simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawyer, S.D.; Hill, W.D.; Wilson, P.A.; Steiner, W.M.

    1987-01-01

    A transportable test simulator is described for a nuclear power plant. The nuclear power plant includes a control panel, a reactor having actuated rods for moving into and out of a reactor for causing the plant to operate, and a control rod network extending between the control panel and the reactor rods. The network serially transmits command words between the panel and rods, and has connecting interfaces at preselected points remote from the control panel between the control panel and rods. The test simulator comprises: a test simulator input for transport to and connection into the network at at least one interface for receiving the serial command words from the network. Each serial command includes an identifier portion and a command portion; means for processing interior of the simulator for the serial command words for identifying that portion of the power plant designated in the identifier portion and processing the word responsive to the command portion of the word after the identification; means for generating a response word responsive to the command portion; and output means for sending and transmitting the response word to the nuclear power plant at the interface whereby the control panel responds to the response word

  2. Susceptibility and hardening of electronic systems to fast transient threats: new challenges ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sabath

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of susceptibility and hardening of electronic systems to transient threats has experienced a significant growth during the past ten years. Driven by the development in the area of non-lethal electromagnetic weapons it has become necessary to extend the classical set of transient threats, consisting of LEMP, ESD and NEMP, by a fast transient threat with an extreme bandwidth. The investigation of the susceptibility to those UWB threats, characterized by a bandwidth of more than a quarter of the center frequency, rise times of less than 200 ps and pulse durations in the ns regime, is of special interest. This paper presents an overview of current challenges of the hardening against UWB threats. It discusses recent research trends in transient susceptibility measurements, protection concepts and methods of analysis.

  3. Laboratory susceptibility tests of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae to the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Ulvedal

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: The susceptibility of these mosquito species to parasitism of an indigenous isolate of H. bacteriophora in the laboratory was demonstrated. Heterorhabditis bacteriophora N4 could be an efficient biological control agent.

  4. Portable Health Algorithms Test System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, Kevin J.; Wong, Edmond; Fulton, Christopher E.; Sowers, Thomas S.; Maul, William A.

    2010-01-01

    A document discusses the Portable Health Algorithms Test (PHALT) System, which has been designed as a means for evolving the maturity and credibility of algorithms developed to assess the health of aerospace systems. Comprising an integrated hardware-software environment, the PHALT system allows systems health management algorithms to be developed in a graphical programming environment, to be tested and refined using system simulation or test data playback, and to be evaluated in a real-time hardware-in-the-loop mode with a live test article. The integrated hardware and software development environment provides a seamless transition from algorithm development to real-time implementation. The portability of the hardware makes it quick and easy to transport between test facilities. This hard ware/software architecture is flexible enough to support a variety of diagnostic applications and test hardware, and the GUI-based rapid prototyping capability is sufficient to support development execution, and testing of custom diagnostic algorithms. The PHALT operating system supports execution of diagnostic algorithms under real-time constraints. PHALT can perform real-time capture and playback of test rig data with the ability to augment/ modify the data stream (e.g. inject simulated faults). It performs algorithm testing using a variety of data input sources, including real-time data acquisition, test data playback, and system simulations, and also provides system feedback to evaluate closed-loop diagnostic response and mitigation control.

  5. Quality assurance for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Latin American and Caribbean countries, 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatzky, Pam; Martin, Irene; Galarza, Patricia; Carvallo, Marıa Elena Trigoso; Araya Rodriguez, Pamela; Cruz, Olga Marina Sanabria; Hernandez, Alina Llop; Martinez, Mario Fabian; Borthagaray, Graciela; Payares, Daisy; Moreno, José E; Chiappe, Marina; Corredor, Aura Helena; Thakur, Sidharath Dev; Dillon, Jo-Anne R

    2018-04-19

    A Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial susceptibility quality control comparison programme was re-established in Latin America and the Caribbean to ensure antimicrobial susceptibility data produced from the region are comparable nationally and internationally. Three panels, consisting of N. gonorrhoeae isolates comprising reference strains and other characterised isolates were sent to 11 participating laboratories between 2013 and 2015. Antimicrobial susceptibilities for these isolates were determined using agar dilution, Etest or disc diffusion methods. Modal minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for each panel isolate/antibiotic combination were calculated. The guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute were used for interpretations of antimicrobial susceptibility. The agreement of MICs with the modal MICs was determined for each of the participating laboratories as well as for each of the antibiotics tested. Five of 11 laboratories that participated in at least one panel had an overall average agreement between participants' MIC results and modal MICs of >90%. For other laboratories, agreements ranged from 60.0% to 82.4%. The proportion of agreement between interpretations for all the antibiotics, except penicillin and tetracycline, was >90%. The percentages of agreement between MIC results and their modes for erythromycin, spectinomycin, cefixime and azithromycin were >90%. Tetracycline, ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin agreement ranged from 84.5% to 89.1%, while penicillin had 78.8% agreement between MICs and modal MICs. The participating laboratories had acceptable results, similar to other international quality assurance programmes. It is important to ensure continuation of the International Gonococcal Antimicrobial Susceptibility Quality Control Comparison Programme to ensure that participants can identify and correct any problems in antimicrobial susceptibility testing for N. gonorrhoeae as they arise and continue to generate reproducible

  6. Test System Impact on System Availability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pau, L. F.

    1987-01-01

    The specifications are presented for an imperfect automatic test system (ATS) (test frequency distribution, reliability, false alarm rate, nondetection rate) in order to account for the availability, readiness, mean time between unscheduled repairs (MTBUR), reliability, and maintenance of the sys......The specifications are presented for an imperfect automatic test system (ATS) (test frequency distribution, reliability, false alarm rate, nondetection rate) in order to account for the availability, readiness, mean time between unscheduled repairs (MTBUR), reliability, and maintenance...... of the system subject to monitoring and test. A time-dependent Markov model is presented, and applied in three cases, with examples of numerical results provided for preventive maintenance decisions, design of an automatic test system, buffer testing in computers, and data communications....

  7. Tiamulin activity against fastidious and nonfastidious veterinary and human bacterial isolates: initial development of in vitro susceptibility test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ronald N; Pfaller, Michael A; Rhomberg, Paul R; Walter, Donald H

    2002-02-01

    Tiamulin is a pleuromutilin derivative used in veterinary practice for the control and specific therapy of infections in swine. This report summarizes studies to establish standardized susceptibility testing methods, interpretive criteria, and reagent details for use in veterinary methods recently developed by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) (standards M31-A and M37-A, NCCLS, Wayne, Pa., 1999). A total of 636 fastidious and nonfastidious animal and human pathogens were processed by using media and procedures described by the NCCLS. Tiamulin disk diffusion tests used a 30-microg disk concentration, and the proposed MIC breakpoints corresponding to levels achievable in animal target tissues (lung) were or =32 microg/ml for resistance. Correlate zone diameters for specific nonfastidious species were as follows: for Pasteurella multocida and staphylococci tested on Mueller-Hinton agar, susceptibility at > or =19 mm and resistance at or =16 mm and resistance at or =9 mm) was suggested for veterinary fastidious medium broth and enriched chocolate Mueller-Hinton agar. Absolute categorical agreement between NCCLS dilution and disk diffusion test results with these criteria ranged from 90.5 to 96.2%. Tiamulin susceptibility testing methods appear to be accurate in their categorical classification for indicated species, and their availability will allow immediate testing of animal isolates to guide therapy via appropriate levels of dosing and to monitor the development of resistance for agents in this unique class.

  8. Ac susceptibility studies on Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarti, Arani; Mukherjee, C.D.; Ranganathan, R.; Chatterjee, N.; Raychaudhuri, A.K.

    1991-01-01

    We report the low a.c. susceptibility data χ'(T,Hsub(rms)), χsup(double inverted commas)(T,Hsub(rms)) for the newly prepared superconducting system Bi x Sr 4 Ca 2 Cu 4 O y (x=0.5, 1.0 and 1.5) containing Bi at concentrations lower than that in the conventional Bi-based system. The experimental results are discussed in the light of existing theories. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs

  9. Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing in a microfluidic pH sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yanyan; Zhen, Li; Liu, Jingqing; Wu, Jianmin

    2013-03-05

    For appropriate selection of antibiotics in the treatment of pathogen infection, rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) is urgently needed in clinical practice. This study reports the utilization of a microfluidic pH sensor for monitoring bacterial growth rate in culture media spiked with different kinds of antibiotics. The microfluidic pH sensor was fabricated by integration of pH-sensitive chitosan hydrogel with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidic channels. For facilitating the reflectometric interference spectroscopic measurements, the chitosan hydrogel was coated on an electrochemically etched porous silicon chip, which was used as the substrate of the microfluidic channel. Real-time observation of the pH change in the microchannel can be realized by Fourier transform reflectometric interference spectroscopy (FT-RIFS), in which the effective optical thickness (EOT) was selected as the optical signal for indicating the reversible swelling process of chitosan hydrogel stimulated by pH change. With this microfluidic pH sensor, we demonstrate that confinement of bacterial cells in a nanoliter size channel allows rapid accumulation of metabolic products and eliminates the need for long-time preincubation, thus reducing the whole detection time. On the basis of this technology, the whole bacterial growth curve can be obtained in less than 2 h, and consequently rapid AST can be realized. Compared with conventional methods, the AST data acquired from the bacterial growth curve can provide more detailed information for studying the antimicrobial behavior of antibiotics during different stages. Furthermore, the new technology also provides a convenient method for rapid minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) determination of individual antibiotics or the combinations of antibiotics against human pathogens that will find application in clinical and point-of-care medicine.

  10. Development of a new protocol for rapid bacterial identification and susceptibility testing directly from urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zboromyrska, Y; Rubio, E; Alejo, I; Vergara, A; Mons, A; Campo, I; Bosch, J; Marco, F; Vila, J

    2016-06-01

    The current gold standard method for the diagnosis of urinary tract infections (UTI) is urine culture that requires 18-48 h for the identification of the causative microorganisms and an additional 24 h until the results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) are available. The aim of this study was to shorten the time of urine sample processing by a combination of flow cytometry for screening and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) for bacterial identification followed by AST directly from urine. The study was divided into two parts. During the first part, 675 urine samples were processed by a flow cytometry device and a cut-off value of bacterial count was determined to select samples for direct identification by MALDI-TOF-MS at ≥5 × 10(6) bacteria/mL. During the second part, 163 of 1029 processed samples reached the cut-off value. The sample preparation protocol for direct identification included two centrifugation and two washing steps. Direct AST was performed by the disc diffusion method if a reliable direct identification was obtained. Direct MALDI-TOF-MS identification was performed in 140 urine samples; 125 of the samples were positive by urine culture, 12 were contaminated and 3 were negative. Reliable direct identification was obtained in 108 (86.4%) of the 125 positive samples. AST was performed in 102 identified samples, and the results were fully concordant with the routine method among 83 monomicrobial infections. In conclusion, the turnaround time of the protocol described to diagnose UTI was about 1 h for microbial identification and 18-24 h for AST. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Association of STAT4 rs7574865 with susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus in Iranian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkazemi, Sedigheh; Akbarian, Mahmoud; Jamshidi, Ahmad Reza; Mansouri, Reza; Ghoroghi, Shima; Salimi, Yahya; Tahmasebi, Zahra; Mahmoudi, Mahdi

    2013-12-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multifactorial autoimmune disease with complex genetic inheritance that affecting different organs and systems. STAT4 has been newly identified as a susceptible gene in the development of SLE. According to recent studies, STAT4 has been associated with SLE in various populations. We investigated whether STAT4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were associated with susceptibility and clinical features of SLE in Iranian patients. The study group comprised 280 patients with SLE and 281 sex-, age-, and ethnicity-matched healthy controls of Iranian ancestry. Two SNPs (rs7574865 and rs7601754) were genotyped using the TaqMan MGB Allelic Discrimination method. Our results showed a significant association between rs7574865 T allele (odds ratio (OR) = 1.50, 95 % CI = 1.18-1.92, P = 0.002) and susceptibility to SLE. The rs7574865TT genotype (P = 0.02, OR = 1.94, 95 % CI = 1.74-3.19) and GT genotype (P = 0.008, OR = 1.71, 95 % CI = 1.19-2.45) showed a significant association with the risk of SLE in the Iranian population. We concluded that STAT4 rs7574865 is associated with SLE susceptibility in the Iranian population and this SNP might be a factor in the pathogenesis of SLE. However, further studies are required to investigate the mechanism by which polymorphisms in this gene lead to SLE.

  12. Application of Enrofloxacin and Orbifloxacin Disks Approved in Japan for Susceptibility Testing of Representative Veterinary Respiratory Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    HARADA, Kazuki; USUI, Masaru; ASAI, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this study, susceptibilities of Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae to enrofloxacin and orbifloxacin were tested using an agar diffusion method with the commercial disks and a broth microdilution method. Good correlation between the 2 methods for enrofloxacin and orbifloxacin was observed for P. multocida (r = −0.743 and −0.818, respectively), M. haemolytica (r = −0.739 and −0.800, respectively) and A. pleuropneumoniae (r = −0.785 and −0.809, respectively). Based on the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute interpretive criteria for enrofloxacin, high-level categorical agreement between the 2 methods was found for P. multocida (97.9%), M. haemolytica (93.8%) and A. pleuropneumoniae (92.0%). Our findings indicate that the tested commercial disks can be applied for susceptibility testing of veterinary respiratory pathogens. PMID:25008965

  13. An application of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system to landslide susceptibility mapping (Klang valley, Malaysia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezer, Ebru; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Gokceoglu, Candan

    2010-05-01

    Landslides are one of the recurrent natural hazard problems throughout most of Malaysia. Recently, the Klang Valley area of Selangor state has faced numerous landslide and mudflow events and much damage occurred in these areas. However, only little effort has been made to assess or predict these events which resulted in serious damages. Through scientific analyses of these landslides, one can assess and predict landslide-susceptible areas and even the events as such, and thus reduce landslide damages through proper preparation and/or mitigation. For this reason , the purpose of the present paper is to produce landslide susceptibility maps of a part of the Klang Valley areas in Malaysia by employing the results of the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) analyses. Landslide locations in the study area were identified by interpreting aerial photographs and satellite images, supported by extensive field surveys. Landsat TM satellite imagery was used to map vegetation index. Maps of topography, lineaments and NDVI were constructed from the spatial datasets. Seven landslide conditioning factors such as altitude, slope angle, plan curvature, distance from drainage, soil type, distance from faults and NDVI were extracted from the spatial database. These factors were analyzed using an ANFIS to construct the landslide susceptibility maps. During the model development works, total 5 landslide susceptibility models were obtained by using ANFIS results. For verification, the results of the analyses were then compared with the field-verified landslide locations. Additionally, the ROC curves for all landslide susceptibility models were drawn and the area under curve values was calculated. Landslide locations were used to validate results of the landslide susceptibility map and the verification results showed 98% accuracy for the model 5 employing all parameters produced in the present study as the landslide conditioning factors. The validation results showed sufficient

  14. Development of a phosphorylated Momordica charantia protein system for inhibiting susceptible dose-dependent C. albicans to available antimycotics: An allosteric regulation of protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yuanbiao; Song, Li; Zhu, Chenchen; Wang, Qian; Guo, Tianyan; Yan, Yanhua; Li, Qingshan

    2017-11-15

    A regulatory Momordica charantia protein system was constructed allosterically by in vitro protein phosphorylation, in an attempt to evaluate antimycological pluripotency against dose-dependent susceptibilities in C. albicans. Fungal strain lineages susceptible to ketoconazole, econazole, miconazole, 5-flucytosine, nystatin and amphotericin B were prepared in laboratory, followed by identification via antifungal susceptibility testing. Protein phosphorylation was carried out in reactions with 5'-adenylic, guanidylic, cytidylic and uridylic acids and cyclic adenosine triphosphate, through catalysis of cyclin-dependent kinase 1, protein kinase A and protein kinase C respectively. Biochemical analysis of enzymatic reactions indicated the apparent Michaelis-Menten constants and maximal velocity values of 16.57-91.97mM and 55.56-208.33μM·min -1 , together with an approximate 1:1 reactant stoichiometric ratio. Three major protein phosphorylation sites were theoretically predicted at Thr255, Thr102 and Thr24 by a KinasePhos tool. Additionally, circular dichroism spectroscopy demonstrated that upon phosphorylation, protein folding structures were decreased in random coil, β6-sheet and α1-helix partial regions. McFarland equivalence standard testing yielded the concentration-dependent inhibition patterns, while fungus was grown in Sabouraud's dextrose agar. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of 0.16-0.51μM (at 50% response) were obtained for free protein and phosphorylated counterparts. With respect to the 3-cycling susceptibility testing regimen, individuals of total protein forms were administrated in-turn at 0.14μM/cycle. Relative inhibition ratios were retained to 66.13-81.04% of initial ones regarding the ketoconazole-susceptible C. albicans growth. An inhibitory protein system, with an advantage of decreasing antifungal susceptibilities to diverse antimycotics, was proposed because of regulatory pluripotency whereas little contribution to susceptibility in

  15. PTPN22 gene polymorphisms in autoimmune diseases with special reference to systemic lupus erythematosus disease susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradhan V

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a prototype autoimmune disease. SLE is a result of one or more immune mechanisms, like autoantibody production, complement activation, multiple inflammation and immune complex deposition leading to organ tissue damage. SLE affected patients are susceptible to common and opportunistic infections. There are several reports suggesting that Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection precipitates SLE in patients from endemic areas. Genetic factors and environmental factors also play an important role in the overall susceptibility to SLE pathophysiology. Recently, protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 22 (PTPN22 gene, has been found to be associated with several autoimmune diseases like SLE, Grave′s disease and Hashimoto thyroiditis. The missense R620W polymorphism, rs 2476601, in PTPN22 gene at the nucleotide 1858 in codon 620 (620Arg > Trp has been associated with autoimmune diseases. The PTPN22 locus is also found to be responsible for development of pulmonary tuberculosis in certain populations. The PTPN22 1858C/T gene locus will be ideal to look for SLE susceptibility to tuberculosis in the Indian population. In this review, we focus on human PTPN22 gene structure and function as well as the association of PTPN22 gene polymorphisms with SLE susceptibility

  16. Differences in susceptibility of five cladoceran species to two systemic insecticides, imidacloprid and fipronil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayasaka, Daisuke; Korenaga, Tomoko; Suzuki, Kazutaka; Sánchez-Bayo, Francisco; Goka, Koichi

    2012-03-01

    Differences in susceptibility of five cladocerans to the neonicotinoid imidacloprid and the phenyl-pyrazole fipronil, which have been dominantly used in rice fields of Japan in recent years, were examined based on short-term (48-h), semi-static acute immobilization exposure tests. Additionally, we compared the species sensitivity distribution (SSD) patterns of both insecticides between two sets of species: the five tested cladocerans and all other aquatic organisms tested so far, using data from the ECOTOX database of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The sensitivity of the test species to either imidacloprid or fipronil was consistent, spanning similar orders of magnitude (100 times). At the genus level, sensitivities to both insecticides were in the following descending order: Ceriodaphnia > Moina > Daphnia. A positive relationship was found between body lengths of each species and the acute toxicity (EC(50)) of the insecticides, in particular fipronil. Differences in SSD patterns of imidacloprid were found between the species groups compared, indicating that test cladocerans are much less susceptible than other aquatic species including amphibians, crustaceans, fish, insects, mollusks and worms. However, the SSD patterns for fipronil indicate no difference in sensitivity between cladocerans tested and other aquatic organisms despite the greater exposure, which overestimates the results, of our semi-static tests. From these results, Ceriodaphnia sp. should be considered as more sensitive bioindicators (instead of the standard Daphnia magna) for ecotoxicological assessments of aquatic ecosystems. In addition, we propose that ecotoxicity data associated with differences in susceptibility among species should be investigated whenever pesticides have different physicochemical properties and mode of action.

  17. Typhoid outbreak in Songkhla, Thailand 2009-2011: clinical outcomes, susceptibility patterns, and reliability of serology tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wannee Limpitikul

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical manifestations and outcomes, the reliability of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S ser. Typhi IgM and IgG rapid tests, and the susceptibility patterns and the response to treatment during the 2009-2011 typhoid outbreak in Songkhla province in Thailand. METHOD: The medical records of children aged <15 years with S ser. Typhi bacteremia were analysed. The efficacy of the typhoid IgM and IgG rapid tests and susceptibility of the S ser. Typhi to the current main antibiotics used for typhoid (amoxicillin, ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, co-trimoxazole, and ciprofloxacin, were evaluated. RESULTS: S ser. Typhi bacteremia was found in 368 patients, and all isolated strains were susceptible to all 6 antimicrobials tested. Most of the patients were treated with ciprofloxacin for 7-14 days. The median time (IQR of fever before treatment and duration of fever after treatment were 5 (4, 7 days and 4 (3, 5 days, respectively. Complications of ascites, lower respiratory symptoms, anemia (Hct <30%, and ileal perforation were found in 7, 7, 22, and 1 patients, respectively. None of the patients had recurrent infection or died. The sensitivities of the typhoid IgM and IgG tests were 58.3% and 25.6% respectively, and specificities were 74.1% and 50.5%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Most of the patients were diagnosed at an early stage and treated with a good outcome. All S ser. Typhi strains were susceptible to standard first line antibiotic typhoid treatment. The typhoid IgM and IgG rapid tests had low sensitivity and moderate specificity.

  18. Etest and Sensititre YeastOne Susceptibility Testing of Echinocandins against Candida Species from a Single Center in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigner, Maria; Erbeznik, Thomas; Gschwentner, Martin; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia

    2017-08-01

    Candida species were tested for susceptibility to caspofungin, anidulafungin, and micafungin in order to evaluate the roles of Etest and Sensititre YeastOne in antifungal susceptibility testing for daily routines and to survey resistance. A total of 104 Candida species isolates detected from blood cultures were investigated. With EUCAST broth microdilution as the reference method, essential agreement (EA), categorical agreement (CA), very major errors (VME), major errors (ME), and minor (MIN) errors were assessed by reading MICs at 18, 24, and 48 h. By use of EUCAST broth microdilution and species-specific clinical breakpoints (CBPs), echinocandin resistance was not detected during the study period. Using EUCAST CBPs, MIC readings at 24 h for the Etest and Sensititre YeastOne resulted in CA levels of 99% and 93% for anidulafungin and 99% and 97% for micafungin. Using revised CLSI CBPs for caspofungin, CA levels were 92% and 99% for Etest and Sensititre YeastOne. The Etest proved an excellent, easy-to-handle alternative method for testing susceptibility to anidulafungin and micafungin. Due to misclassifications, the Etest is less suitable for testing susceptibility to caspofungin (8% of isolates falsely tested resistant). The CA levels of Sensititre YeastOne were 93% and 97% for anidulafungin and micafungin (24 h) by use of EUCAST CBPs and increased to 100% for both antifungals if CLSI CBPs were applied and to 100% and 99% if Sensititre YeastOne epidemiological cutoff values (ECOFFs) were applied. No one echinocandin could be demonstrated to be superior to another in vitro Since resistance was lacking among our Candida isolates, we cannot derive any recommendation from accurate resistance detection by the Etest and Sensititre YeastOne. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  19. Standard Test Methods for Detecting Susceptibility to Intergranular Corrosion in Wrought, Nickel-Rich, Chromium-Bearing Alloys

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover two tests as follows: 1.1.1 Method A, Ferric Sulfate-Sulfuric Acid Test (Sections 3-10, inclusive)—This test method describes the procedure for conducting the boiling ferric sulfate—50 % sulfuric acid test which measures the susceptibility of certain nickel-rich, chromium-bearing alloys to intergranular corrosion (see Terminology G 15), which may be encountered in certain service environments. The uniform corrosion rate obtained by this test method, which is a function of minor variations in alloy composition, may easily mask the intergranular corrosion components of the overall corrosion rate on alloys N10276, N06022, N06059, and N06455. 1.1.2 Method B, Mixed Acid-Oxidizing Salt Test (Sections 11-18, inclusive)—This test method describes the procedure for conducting a boiling 23 % sulfuric + 1.2 % hydrochloric + 1 % ferric chloride + 1 % cupric chloride test which measures the susceptibility of certain nickel-rich, chromium-bearing alloys to display a step function increa...

  20. Using Reduced Inoculum Densities of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in MGIT Pyrazinamide Susceptibility Testing to Prevent False-Resistant Results and Improve Accuracy: A Multicenter Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn P. Morlock

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary platform used for pyrazinamide (PZA susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the MGIT culture system (Becton Dickinson. Since false-resistant results have been associated with the use of this system, we conducted a multicenter evaluation to determine the effect of using a reduced cell density inoculum on the rate of false resistance. Two reduced inoculum densities were compared with that prescribed by the manufacturer (designated as “BD” method. The reduced inoculum methods (designated as “A” and “C” were identical to the manufacturer’s protocol in all aspects with the exception of the cell density of the inoculum. Twenty genetically and phenotypically characterized M. tuberculosis isolates were tested in duplicate by ten independent laboratories using the three inoculum methods. False-resistant results declined from 21.1% using the standard “BD” method to 5.7% using the intermediate (“A” inoculum and further declined to 2.8% using the most dilute (“C” inoculum method. The percentages of the resistant results that were false-resistant declined from 55.2% for the “BD” test to 28.8% and 16.0% for the “A” and “C” tests, respectively. These results represent compelling evidence that the occurrence of false-resistant MGIT PZA susceptibility test results can be mitigated through the use of reduced inoculum densities.

  1. Microbial identification and automated antibiotic susceptibility testing directly from positive blood cultures using MALDI-TOF MS and VITEK 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattal, C; Oberoi, J K

    2016-01-01

    The study addresses the utility of Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation Time-Of-Flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) using VITEK MS and the VITEK 2 antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) system for direct identification (ID) and timely AST from positive blood culture bottles using a lysis-filtration method (LFM). Between July and December 2014, a total of 140 non-duplicate mono-microbial blood cultures were processed. An aliquot of positive blood culture broth was incubated with lysis buffer before the bacteria were filtered and washed. Micro-organisms recovered from the filter were first identified using VITEK MS and its suspension was used for direct AST by VITEK 2 once the ID was known. Direct ID and AST results were compared with classical methods using solid growth. Out of the 140 bottles tested, VITEK MS resulted in 70.7 % correct identification to the genus and/ or species level. For the 103 bottles where identification was possible, there was agreement in 97 samples (94.17 %) with classical culture. Compared to the routine method, the direct AST resulted in category agreement in 860 (96.5 %) of 891 bacteria-antimicrobial agent combinations tested. The results of direct ID and AST were available 16.1 hours before those of the standard approach on average. The combined use of VITEK MS and VITEK 2 directly on samples from positive blood culture bottles using a LFM technique can result in rapid and reliable ID and AST results in blood stream infections to result in early institution of targeted treatment. The combination of LFM and AST using VITEK 2 was found to expedite AST more reliably.

  2. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of human Brucella melitensis isolates from Qatar between 2014 - 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deshmukh, A.; Hagen, F.; Sharabasi, O.A.; Abraham, M.; Wilson, G.; Doiphode, S.; Maslamani, M.A.; Meis, J.F.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is one of the most common zoonotic disease affecting humans and animals and is endemic in many parts of the world including the Gulf Cooperation Council region (GCC). The aim of this study was to identify the species and determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of

  3. Risk of Fungemia Due to Rhodotorula and Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Rhodotorula Isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Zaas, Aimee K.; Boyce, Molly; Schell, Wiley; Lodge, Barbara Alexander; Miller, Jackie L.; Perfect, John R.

    2003-01-01

    Rhodotorula infections occur among patients with immunosuppression and/or central venous catheters. Using standardized methods (NCCLS M27-A), we determined the antifungal susceptibilities of 10 Rhodotorula bloodstream infection isolates. Patient information was collected for clinical correlation. The MICs of amphotericin B and posaconazole were the lowest, and the MICs of triazoles and echinocandins were higher than those of other antifungal agents.

  4. Drug susceptibility testing in microaerophilic parasites: Cysteine strongly affects the effectivities of metronidazole and auranofin, a novel and promising antimicrobial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Leitsch

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The microaerophilic parasites Entamoeba histolytica, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Giardia lamblia annually cause hundreds of millions of human infections which are treated with antiparasitic drugs. Metronidazole is the most often prescribed drug but also other drugs are in use, and novel drugs with improved characteristics are constantly being developed. One of these novel drugs is auranofin, originally an antirheumatic which has been relabelled for the treatment of parasitic infections. Drug effectivity is arguably the most important criterion for its applicability and is commonly assessed in susceptibility assays using in vitro cultures of a given pathogen. However, drug susceptibility assays can be strongly affected by certain compounds in the growth media. In the case of microaerophilic parasites, cysteine which is added in large amounts as an antioxidant is an obvious candidate because it is highly reactive and known to modulate the toxicity of metronidazole in several microaerophilic parasites.In this study, it was attempted to reduce cysteine concentrations as far as possible without affecting parasite viability by performing drug susceptibility assays under strictly anaerobic conditions in an anaerobic cabinet. Indeed, T. vaginalis and E. histolytica could be grown without any cysteine added and the cysteine concentration necessary to maintain G. lamblia could be reduced to 20%. Susceptibilities to metronidazole were found to be clearly reduced in the presence of cysteine. With auranofin the protective effect of cysteine was extreme, providing protection to concentrations up to 100-fold higher as observed in the absence of cysteine. With three other drugs tested, albendazole, furazolidone and nitazoxanide, all in use against G. lamblia, the effect of cysteine was less pronounced. Oxygen was found to have a less marked impact on metronidazole and auranofin than cysteine but bovine bile which is standardly used in growth media for G

  5. CMIF ECLS system test findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunk, Richard G.; Carrasquillo, Robyn L.; Ogle, Kathyrn Y.; Wieland, Paul O.; Bagdigian, Robert M.

    1989-01-01

    During 1987 three Space Station integrated Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) tests were conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Core Module Integration Facility (CMIF) as part of the MSFC ECLSS Phase II test program. The three tests ranged in duration from 50 to 150 hours and were conducted inside of the CMIF module simulator. The Phase II partial integrated system test configuration consisted of four regenerative air revitalization subsystems and one regenerative water reclamation subsystem. This paper contains a discussion of results and lessons learned from the Phase II test program. The design of the Phase II test configuration and improvements made throughout the program are detailed. Future plans for the MSFC CMIF test program are provided, including an overview of planned improvements for the Phase III program.

  6. A new rapid method for direct antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacteria from positive blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnini, Simona; Brucculeri, Veronica; Morici, Paola; Ghelardi, Emilia; Florio, Walter; Lupetti, Antonella

    2016-08-12

    Rapid identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of the causative agent(s) of bloodstream infections can lead to prompt appropriate antimicrobial therapy. To shorten species identification, in this study bacteria were recovered from monomicrobial blood cultures by serum separator tubes and spotted onto the target plate for direct MALDI-TOF MS identification. Proper antibiotics were selected for direct AST based on species identification. In order to obtain rapid AST results, bacteria were recovered from positive blood cultures by two different protocols: by serum separator tubes (further referred to as PR1), or after a short-term subculture in liquid medium (further referred to as PR2). The results were compared with those obtained by the method currently used in our laboratory consisting in identification by MALDI-TOF and AST by Vitek 2 or Sensititre on isolated colonies. The direct MALDI-TOF method concordantly identified with the current method 97.5 % of the Gram-negative bacteria and 96.1 % of the Gram-positive cocci contained in monomicrobial blood cultures. The direct AST by PR1 and PR2 for all isolate/antimicrobial agent combinations was concordant/correct with the current method for 87.8 and 90.5 % of Gram-negative bacteria and for 93.1 and 93.8 % of Gram-positive cocci, respectively. In particular, 100 % categorical agreement was found with levofloxacin for Enterobacteriaceae by both PR1 and PR2, and 99.0 and 100 % categorical agreement was observed with linezolid for Gram-positive cocci by PR1 and PR2, respectively. There was no significant difference in accuracy between PR1 and PR2 for Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive cocci. This newly described method seems promising for providing accurate AST results. Most importantly, these results would be available in a few hours from blood culture positivity, which would help clinicians to promptly confirm or streamline an effective antibiotic therapy in patients with bloodstream

  7. Quality Control Guidelines for Disk Diffusion and Broth Microdilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests with Seven Drugs for Veterinary Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odland, Brant A.; Erwin, Meredith E.; Jones, Ronald N.

    2000-01-01

    This multicenter study proposes antimicrobial susceptibility (MIC and disk diffusion methods) quality control (QC) parameters for seven compounds utilized in veterinary health. Alexomycin, apramycin, tiamulin, tilmicosin, and tylosin were tested by broth microdilution against various National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS)-recommended QC organisms (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Streptococcus pneumoniae ATCC 49619, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853). In addition, disk diffusion zone diameter QC limits were determined for apramycin, enrofloxacin, and premafloxacin by using E. coli ATCC 25922, P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853, and S. aureus ATCC 25923. The results from five or six participating laboratories produced ≥99.0% of MICs and ≥95.0% of the zone diameters within suggested guidelines. The NCCLS Subcommittee for Veterinary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing has recently approved these ranges for publication in the next M31 document. PMID:10618141

  8. A test system to quantify inoculum in runoff from Phytophthora ramorum-infected plant roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nina. Shishkoff

    2010-01-01

    Foliar hosts of Phytophthora ramorum are often susceptible to root infection, but the epidemiological significance of such infections is unknown. We used a standardized test system to study inoculum in runoff from root-infected Viburnum tinus cuttings.

  9. Flood susceptibility mapping using novel ensembles of adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system and metaheuristic algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi Termeh, Seyed Vahid; Kornejady, Aiding; Pourghasemi, Hamid Reza; Keesstra, Saskia

    2018-02-15

    Flood is one of the most destructive natural disasters which cause great financial and life losses per year. Therefore, producing susceptibility maps for flood management are necessary in order to reduce its harmful effects. The aim of the present study is to map flood hazard over the Jahrom Township in Fars Province using a combination of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) with different metaheuristics algorithms such as ant colony optimization (ACO), genetic algorithm (GA), and particle swarm optimization (PSO) and comparing their accuracy. A total number of 53 flood locations areas were identified, 35 locations of which were randomly selected in order to model flood susceptibility and the remaining 16 locations were used to validate the models. Learning vector quantization (LVQ), as one of the supervised neural network methods, was employed in order to estimate factors' importance. Nine flood conditioning factors namely: slope degree, plan curvature, altitude, topographic wetness index (TWI), stream power index (SPI), distance from river, land use/land cover, rainfall, and lithology were selected and the corresponding maps were prepared in ArcGIS. The frequency ratio (FR) model was used to assign weights to each class within particular controlling factor, then the weights was transferred into MATLAB software for further analyses and to combine with metaheuristic models. The ANFIS-PSO was found to be the most practical model in term of producing the highly focused flood susceptibility map with lesser spatial distribution related to highly susceptible classes. The chi-square result attests the same, where the ANFIS-PSO had the highest spatial differentiation within flood susceptibility classes over the study area. The area under the curve (AUC) obtained from ROC curve indicated the accuracy of 91.4%, 91.8%, 92.6% and 94.5% for the respective models of FR, ANFIS-ACO, ANFIS-GA, and ANFIS-PSO ensembles. So, the ensemble of ANFIS-PSO was introduced as the

  10. Quality-control ranges for antimicrobial susceptibility testing by broth dilution of the Brachyspira hyodysenteriae type strain (ATCC 27164(T))

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pringle, M.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Bergsjø, B.

    2006-01-01

    There are no approved standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the fastidious spirochete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. An interlaboratory study was performed to establish MIC quality control ranges for six antimicrobial agents for the type strain of B. hyodysenteriae using broth diluti....... The results showed that B. hyodysenteriae B78(T) ATCC 27164(T) is a suitable quality control strain. This is a first step toward standardization of methods regarding this anaerobe....

  11. Individual differences in the peripheral immune system promote resilience versus susceptibility to social stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodes, Georgia E; Pfau, Madeline L; Leboeuf, Marylene; Golden, Sam A; Christoffel, Daniel J; Bregman, Dana; Rebusi, Nicole; Heshmati, Mitra; Aleyasin, Hossein; Warren, Brandon L; Lebonté, Benoit; Horn, Sarah; Lapidus, Kyle A; Stelzhammer, Viktoria; Wong, Erik H F; Bahn, Sabine; Krishnan, Vaishnav; Bolaños-Guzman, Carlos A; Murrough, James W; Merad, Miriam; Russo, Scott J

    2014-11-11

    Depression and anxiety disorders are associated with increased release of peripheral cytokines; however, their functional relevance remains unknown. Using a social stress model in mice, we find preexisting individual differences in the sensitivity of the peripheral immune system that predict and promote vulnerability to social stress. Cytokine profiles were obtained 20 min after the first social stress exposure. Of the cytokines regulated by stress, IL-6 was most highly up-regulated only in mice that ultimately developed a susceptible behavioral phenotype following a subsequent chronic stress, and levels remained elevated for at least 1 mo. We confirmed a similar elevation of serum IL-6 in two separate cohorts of patients with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder. Before any physical contact in mice, we observed individual differences in IL-6 levels from ex vivo stimulated leukocytes that predict susceptibility versus resilience to a subsequent stressor. To shift the sensitivity of the peripheral immune system to a pro- or antidepressant state, bone marrow (BM) chimeras were generated by transplanting hematopoietic progenitor cells from stress-susceptible mice releasing high IL-6 or from IL-6 knockout (IL-6(-/-)) mice. Stress-susceptible BM chimeras exhibited increased social avoidance behavior after exposure to either subthreshold repeated social defeat stress (RSDS) or a purely emotional stressor termed witness defeat. IL-6(-/-) BM chimeric and IL-6(-/-) mice, as well as those treated with a systemic IL-6 monoclonal antibody, were resilient to social stress. These data establish that preexisting differences in stress-responsive IL-6 release from BM-derived leukocytes functionally contribute to social stress-induced behavioral abnormalities.

  12. A multi-annual landslide inventory for the assessment of shallow landslide susceptibility - Two test cases in Vorarlberg, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieher, Thomas; Perzl, Frank; Rössel, Monika; Rutzinger, Martin; Meißl, Gertraud; Markart, Gerhard; Geitner, Clemens

    2016-04-01

    Geomorphological landslide inventories provide crucial input data for any study on the assessment of landslide susceptibility, hazard or risk. Several approaches for assessing landslide susceptibility have been proposed to identify areas particularly vulnerable to this natural hazard. What they have in common is the need for data of observed landslides. Therefore the first step of any study on landslide susceptibility is usually the compilation of a geomorphological landslide inventory using a geographical information system. Recent research has proved the feasibility of orthophoto interpretation for the preparation of an inventory aimed at the delineation of landslides with the use of distinctive signs in the imagery data. In this study a multi-annual landslide inventory focusing on shallow landslides (i.e. translational soil slides of 0-2 m in depth) was compiled for two study areas in Vorarlberg (Austria) from the interpretation of nine orthophoto series. In addition, derivatives of two generations of airborne laser scanning data aided the mapping procedure. Landslide scar areas were delineated on the basis of a high-resolution differential digital terrain model. The derivation of landslide volumes, depths and depth-to-length ratios are discussed. Results show that most mapped landslides meet the definition of a shallow landslide. The inventory therefore provides the data basis for the assessment of shallow landslide susceptibility and allows for the application of various modelling techniques.

  13. Space Fission System Test Effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houts, Mike; Schmidt, Glen L.; Van Dyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Martin, James; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; Dickens, Ricky; Salvail, Pat; Harper, Roger

    2004-01-01

    Space fission technology has the potential to enable rapid access to any point in the solar system. If fission propulsion systems are to be developed to their full potential, however, near-term customers need to be identified and initial fission systems successfully developed, launched, and utilized. One key to successful utilization is to develop reactor designs that are highly testable. Testable reactor designs have a much higher probability of being successfully converted from paper concepts to working space hardware than do designs which are difficult or impossible to realistically test. ''Test Effectiveness'' is one measure of the ability to realistically test a space reactor system. The objective of this paper is to discuss test effectiveness as applied to the design, development, flight qualification, and acceptance testing of space fission systems. The ability to perform highly effective testing would be particularly important to the success of any near-term mission, such as NASA's Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter, the first mission under study within NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program

  14. Task 2 - Limits for High-Frequency Conducted Susceptibility Testing - CS114 (NRC-HQ-60-14-D-0015)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Richard Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ewing, Paul D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moses, Rebecca J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    A principal focus of Task 2 under this project was for ORNL to evaluate the basis for susceptibility testing against high-frequency conducted interference and to establish recommendations to resolve concerns about the severity of test limits for the conducted susceptibility (CS) test, CS114, from MIL-STD-461. The primary concern about the test limit has been characterized by the EPRI EMI Working Group in the following terms: Demonstrating compliance with the CS114 test limits recommended in TR-102323 has proven to be problematic, even for components that have been tested to commercial standards and demonstrated proper operation in industrial applications [6]. Specifically, EPRI notes that the CS114 limits approved in regulatory documents are significantly higher than those invoked by the US military and similar commercial standards in the frequency range below 200 kHz. For this task, ORNL evaluated the original approach to establishing the test limit, EPRI technical findings from a review of the limit, and the regulatory basis through which the currently approved limits were accepted. Based on this analysis, strategies have been developed regarding changes to the CS114 limit that can resolve the technical concerns raised by the industry. Guided by the principles that reasonable assurance of safety must not be compromised but excessive conservatism should be reduced, recommendations on a suitable basis for a revised limit have been developed and can be incorporated into the planned Revision 2 of RG 1.180.

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing before first-line treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with dual or triple antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosme, Angel; Montes, Milagrosa; Ibarra, Begoña; Tamayo, Esther; Alonso, Horacio; Mendarte, Usua; Lizasoan, Jacobo; Herreros-Villanueva, Marta; Bujanda, Luis

    2017-05-14

    To evaluate the efficacy of antimicrobial susceptibility-guided therapy before first-line treatment for infection in patients with dual or triple antibiotic resistance. A total of 1034 patients infected by Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) during 2013-2014 were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. 157 of 1034 (15%) patients showed resistance to two (127/1034; 12%) and to three (30/1034; 3%) antibiotics. Sixty-eight patients with dual H. pylori -resistance (clarithromycin, metronidazole or levofloxacin) were treated for 10 d with triple therapies: OAL (omeprazole 20 mg b.i.d., amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d., and levofloxacin 500 mg b.i.d.) 43 cases, OAM (omeprazole 20 mg b.i.d., amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d., and metronidazole 500 mg b.i.d.) 12 cases and OAC (omeprazole 20 mg b.id., amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d., and clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d.) 13 cases based on the antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Twelve patients showed triple H. pylori -resistance (clarithromycin, metronidazole and levofloxacin) and received for 10 d triple therapy with OAR (omeprazole 20 mg b.id., amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d., and rifabutin 150 mg b.i.d.). Eradication was confirmed by 13C-urea breath test. Adverse effects and compliance were assessed by a questionnaire. Intention-to-treat eradication rates were: OAL (97.6%), OAM (91.6%), OAC (92.3%) and OAR (58.3%). Cure rate was significantly higher in naïve patients treated with OAR-10 compared to patients who had two or three previous treatment failures (83% vs 33%). Adverse events rates for OAL, OAM, OAC and OAR were 22%, 25%, 23% and 17%, respectively, all of them mild-moderate. Antimicrobial susceptibility-guided triple therapies during 10 d for first-line treatment leads to an eradication rate superior to 90% in patients with dual antibiotic H. pylori resistance.

  16. Evaluation of Veterinary-Specific Interpretive Criteria for Susceptibility Testing of Streptococcus equi Subspecies with Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim-Sulfadiazine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadaka, Carmen; Kanellos, Theo; Guardabassi, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility test results for trimethoprim-sulfadiazine with Streptococcus equi subspecies are interpreted based on human data for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The veterinary-specific data generated in this study support a single breakpoint for testing trimethoprim-sulfamethoxaz......Antimicrobial susceptibility test results for trimethoprim-sulfadiazine with Streptococcus equi subspecies are interpreted based on human data for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The veterinary-specific data generated in this study support a single breakpoint for testing trimethoprim...

  17. Spectrophotometric reading of EUCAST antifungal susceptibility testing of Aspergillus fumigatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meletiadis, J.; Leth Mortensen, K.; Verweij, P. E.

    2017-01-01

    with spectrophotometrically determined MICs and essential (±1 twofold dilution) and categorical (susceptible/intermediate/resistant or wild-type/non-wild-type) agreement was calculated. Spectrophotometric data were analysed with regression analysis using the Emax model, and the effective concentration corresponding to 5% (EC......5) was estimated. Results Using the 5% cut-off, high essential (92%–97%) and categorical (93%–99%) agreement (

  18. Risk of Fungemia Due to Rhodotorula and Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Rhodotorula Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaas, Aimee K.; Boyce, Molly; Schell, Wiley; Lodge, Barbara Alexander; Miller, Jackie L.; Perfect, John R.

    2003-01-01

    Rhodotorula infections occur among patients with immunosuppression and/or central venous catheters. Using standardized methods (NCCLS M27-A), we determined the antifungal susceptibilities of 10 Rhodotorula bloodstream infection isolates. Patient information was collected for clinical correlation. The MICs of amphotericin B and posaconazole were the lowest, and the MICs of triazoles and echinocandins were higher than those of other antifungal agents. PMID:14605170

  19. Linking susceptibility genes and pathogenesis mechanisms using mouse models of systemic lupus erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, Steve P.; Morawski, Peter A.; Bolland, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) represents a challenging autoimmune disease from a clinical perspective because of its varied forms of presentation. Although broad-spectrum steroids remain the standard treatment for SLE, they have many side effects and only provide temporary relief from the symptoms of the disease. Thus, gaining a deeper understanding of the genetic traits and biological pathways that confer susceptibility to SLE will help in the design of more targeted and effective therapeutics. Both human genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and investigations using a variety of mouse models of SLE have been valuable for the identification of the genes and pathways involved in pathogenesis. In this Review, we link human susceptibility genes for SLE with biological pathways characterized in mouse models of lupus, and discuss how the mechanistic insights gained could advance drug discovery for the disease. PMID:25147296

  20. Linking susceptibility genes and pathogenesis mechanisms using mouse models of systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve P. Crampton

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE represents a challenging autoimmune disease from a clinical perspective because of its varied forms of presentation. Although broad-spectrum steroids remain the standard treatment for SLE, they have many side effects and only provide temporary relief from the symptoms of the disease. Thus, gaining a deeper understanding of the genetic traits and biological pathways that confer susceptibility to SLE will help in the design of more targeted and effective therapeutics. Both human genome-wide association studies (GWAS and investigations using a variety of mouse models of SLE have been valuable for the identification of the genes and pathways involved in pathogenesis. In this Review, we link human susceptibility genes for SLE with biological pathways characterized in mouse models of lupus, and discuss how the mechanistic insights gained could advance drug discovery for the disease.

  1. Programmable automated transistor test system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truong, L.V.; Sundberg, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    The paper describes a programmable automated transistor test system (PATTS) and its utilization to evaluate bipolar transistors and Darlingtons, and such MOSFET and special types as can be accommodated with the PATTS base-drive. An application of a pulsed power technique at low duty cycles in a non-destructive test is used to examine the dynamic switching characteristic curves of power transistors. Data collection, manipulation, storage, and output are operator interactive but are guided and controlled by the system software. In addition a library of test data is established on disks, tapes, and hard copies for future reference

  2. Availability of periodically tested systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    There is at the present time a need in accurate models to asess the availability of periodically tested stand-by systems. This paper shows how to improve the well known 'saw-tooth curve' model in order to take into account various reliability parameters. A model is developed to assess the pointwise and the mean availabilities of periodically tested stand-by systems. Exact and approxination formulae are given. In addition, the model developed herein leads to optimize the test interval in order to minimize the mean unavailability. A safety diesel in a nuclear power plant is given as an example

  3. Standard practice for slow strain rate testing to evaluate the susceptibility of metallic materials to environmentally assisted cracking

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for the design, preparation, and use of axially loaded, tension test specimens and fatigue pre-cracked (fracture mechanics) specimens for use in slow strain rate (SSR) tests to investigate the resistance of metallic materials to environmentally assisted cracking (EAC). While some investigators utilize SSR test techniques in combination with cyclic or fatigue loading, no attempt has been made to incorporate such techniques into this practice. 1.2 Slow strain rate testing is applicable to the evaluation of a wide variety of metallic materials in test environments which simulate aqueous, nonaqueous, and gaseous service environments over a wide range of temperatures and pressures that may cause EAC of susceptible materials. 1.3 The primary use of this practice is to furnish accepted procedures for the accelerated testing of the resistance of metallic materials to EAC under various environmental conditions. In many cases, the initiation of EAC is accelerated through the applic...

  4. Antibiotic susceptibility of methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) of food origin: A comparison of agar disc diffusion method and a commercially available miniaturized test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzón-Durán, Laura; Capita, Rosa; Alonso-Calleja, Carlos

    2018-06-01

    Methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) are a major concern to public and animal health. Thirty MRS (Staphylococcus aureus, S. cohnii, S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus, S. hominis, S. lentus, S. lugdunensis, S. sciuri, and S. xylosus) isolates from meat and poultry preparations were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility to 11 antimicrobials (belonging to seven different categories) of clinical significance using both the standard agar disc diffusion method and a commercially available miniaturized system (Sensi Test Gram-positive). It is worth stressing that 16 isolates (53.33%) exhibited an extensively drug-resistant phenotype (XDR). The average number of resistances per strain was 4.67. These results suggest that retail meat and poultry preparations are a likely vehicle for the transmission of multi-drug resistant MRS. Resistance to erythromycin was the commonest finding (76.67% of strains), followed by tobramycin, ceftazidime (66.67%), ciprofloxacin (56.67%) and fosfomycin (53.33%). An agreement (kappa coefficient) of 0.64 was found between the two testing methods. Using the agar disc diffusion as the reference method, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the miniaturized test were 98.44%, 69.44% and 83.33%, respectively. Most discrepancies between the two methods were due to isolates that were susceptible according to the disc diffusion method but resistant according to the miniaturized test (false positives). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida species isolated from the immunocompromised patients admitted to ten university hospitals in Iran: comparison of colonizing and infecting isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Badiee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antifungal susceptibility testing is a subject of interest in the field of medical mycology. The aim of the present study were the distributions and antifungal susceptibility patterns of various Candida species isolated from colonized and infected immunocompromised patients admitted to ten university hospitals in Iran. Methods In totally, 846 Candida species were isolated from more than 4000 clinical samples and identified by the API 20 C AUX system. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution method according to CLSI. Results The most frequent Candida species isolated from all patients was Candida albicans (510/846. The epidemiological cutoff value and percentage of wild-type species for amphotericin B and fluconazole in Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata and Candida krusei were 0.5 μg/ml (95% and 4 μg/ml (96%; 1 μg/ml (95% and 8 μg/ml (95%; 0.5 μg/ml (99% and 19 μg/ml (98%; and 4 μg/ml (95% and 64 μg/ml (95%, respectively. The MIC90 and epidemiological cutoff values to posaconazole in Candida krusei were 0.5 μg/ml. There were significant differences between infecting and colonizing isolates of Candida tropicalis in MIC 90 values of amphotericin B, and isolates of Candida glabrata in values of amphotericin B, caspofungin, and voriconazole (P < 0.05. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the susceptibility patterns of Candida species (colonizing and infecting isolates in immunocompromised patients are not the same and acquired resistance was seen in some species.

  6. Programmable, automated transistor test system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, L. V.; Sundburg, G. R.

    1986-01-01

    A programmable, automated transistor test system was built to supply experimental data on new and advanced power semiconductors. The data will be used for analytical models and by engineers in designing space and aircraft electric power systems. A pulsed power technique was used at low duty cycles in a nondestructive test to examine the dynamic switching characteristic curves of power transistors in the 500 to 1000 V, 10 to 100 A range. Data collection, manipulation, storage, and output are operator interactive but are guided and controlled by the system software.

  7. [Identification and drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium thermoresistibile and Mycobacterium elephantis isolated from a cow with mastitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W B; Ji, L Y; Xu, D L; Liu, H C; Zhao, X Q; Wu, Y M; Wan, K L

    2018-05-10

    Objective: To understand the etiological characteristics and drug susceptibility of Mycobacterium thermoresistibile and Mycobacterium elephantis isolated from a cow with mastitis and provide evidence for the prevention and control of infectious mastitis in cows. Methods: The milk sample was collected from a cow with mastitis, which was pretreated with 4 % NaOH and inoculated with L-J medium for Mycobacterium isolation. The positive cultures were initially identified by acid-fast staining and multi-loci PCR, then Mycobacterium species was identified by the multiple loci sequence analysis (MLSA) with 16S rRNA , hsp65 , ITS and SodA genes. The drug sensitivity of the isolates to 27 antibiotics was tested by alamar blue assay. Results: Two anti-acid stain positive strains were isolated from the milk of a cow with mastitis, which were identified as non- tuberculosis mycobacterium by multi-loci PCR, and multi-loci nucleic acid sequence analysis indicated that one strain was Mycobacterium thermoresistibile and another one was Mycobacterium elephantis . The results of the drug susceptibility test showed that the two strains were resistant to most antibiotics, including rifampicin and isoniazid, but they were sensitive to amikacin, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, ethambutol, streptomycin, tobramycin, ciprofloxacin and linezolid. Conclusions: Mycobacterium thermoresistibile and Mycobacterium elephantis were isolated in a cow with mastitis and the drug susceptibility spectrum of the pathogens were unique. The results of the study can be used as reference for the prevention and control the infection in cows.

  8. Comparison of Disk Diffusion and E-Test Methods for Doripenem Susceptibility of Nosocomial Acinetobacter Baumannii Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesim Cekin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Acinetobacter species are amoung the most common two cause of infections isolated from patients of intensive care unit in our hospital. Doripenem which acts by inhibiting cell wall synthesis is resently introduced for use in our country is broad spectrum antibiotic belonging to carbapenems. There are many studies investigating the susceptibility of doripenem of Acinetobacter baumannii which is isolated as a cause of ventilatory associated pneumonia in the literature. We aimed to compare e-test and disc diffusion methods for doripenem susceptibility of acinetobacter baumannii strains as nosocomial infections Acinetobacter baumanni isolates detected as nosocomial infection. Material and Method:. Between January to December, 2009 a total of 94 Acinetobacter baumanni strains isolated from different clinical specimens from intensive care units have been studied for doripenem susceptibility by disc diffusion and E-test methods. Minimal inhibitory consantrations (MIC were accepted as; sensitive %u22641 %u03BCg/ml, intermadiate 2-4 %u03BCg/ml, resistant >4 %u03BCg/ml and diameters of inhibition zone with 10 µg disc; sensitive

  9. Antifungal susceptibility testing of vulvovaginal Candida species among women attending antenatal clinic in tertiary care hospitals of Peshawar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan M

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Maria Khan,1 Jawad Ahmed,2 Amina Gul,3 Aamer Ikram,1 Farida Khurram Lalani1 1Department of Microbiology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, National University of Management Sciences, CMH Rawalpindi, Rawalpindi, Pakistan; 2Department of Microbiology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Khyber Medical University, Peshawar, Pakistan; 3Department of Microbiology, Khyber Medical College, Khyber Medical University, Peshawar, Pakistan Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is considered as a pervasive gynecological problem among women worldwide. Owing to this fact, in the current study, we aimed at assessing the prevalence rate of Candida spp. causing VVC in symptomatic pregnant women and their antifungal susceptibility pattern. Methods: This study was carried out in the tertiary care hospitals of Peshawar during the period of July 1, 2016 to December 31, 2016. The study group included 450 pregnant women in the age group of 17–44 years with symptoms of excessive vaginal discharge, pain and pruritis. In all, 108 pregnant women were culture positive for Candida. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST was conducted on specimens against various azoles and polyene F group of antifungals. Results: Out of 108 Candida spp. isolated from vaginal swabs, there were 45 (41.7% Candida albicans, 18 (16.7% Candida tropicalis, 18 (16.7% Candida krusei, 16 (14.8% Candida glabrata and 11 (10.2% Candida dubliniensis. According to age distribution, 27 years was the mean age. Pregnancy trimester distribution among patients was as follows: 21 (19.4% patients were in their first trimester, 65 (60.2% patients were in their second trimester and 22 (20.4% patients were in the third trimester. Susceptibility of fluconazole was determined as follows: 33.3% of the Candida isolates were sensitive, 4.6% were susceptible dose dependent (SDD and 62% were resistant. Susceptibility of Candida spp. with respect to nystatin in patients with VVC was as follows: 25% were

  10. [Drug susceptibility test guided therapy and novel empirical quadruple therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection: a network Meta-analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Q Y; Yu, R B; Shi, R H

    2017-05-10

    Objective: To compare the efficacy and the risk of adverse effect of drug susceptibility test guided therapy and novel empirical quadruple therapy for Helicobacter ( H .) pylori infection. Methods: Literature retrieval was conducted by using major databases. Related papers published up to June 2015 were considered eligible if they were randomized control trials comparing different pharmacological formulations for H. pylori infection and used in a network Meta-analysis and a single rate Meta-analysis to evaluate the relative and absolute rates of H. pylori eradication and the risk of adverse effect. The Jadad score was used to evaluate the methodological quality. Funnel plot was constructed to evaluate the risk of publication bias. Begg's rank correlation test or Egger's regression intercept test was done for the asymmetry of funnel plot. Results: Twenty randomized control trials for the treatment of 6 753 initial treated patients with H. pylori infection were included. Drug susceptibility test guided therapy was significantly superior to concomitant therapy, hybrid therapy, sequential therapy and bismuth quadruple therapy. The culture-based therapy had the highest likelihood of improving clinical efficacy, with lowest risk of adverse effect. Concomitant therapy had the highest probability of causing adverse effect despite its effectiveness. Hybrid therapy and bismuth quadruple therapy were associated with lower risk of adverse effect and higher effectiveness. Conclusion: Drug susceptibility test guided therapy showed superiority to other 4 interventions for H. pylori eradication mentioned above. Hybrid therapy and bismuth quadruple therapy might be applied in the settings where the culture-based strategy is not available.

  11. Kohn anomalies in momentum dependence of magnetic susceptibility of some three-dimensional systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanenko, A. A.; Volkova, D. O.; Igoshev, P. A.; Katanin, A. A.

    2017-11-01

    We study a question of the presence of Kohn points, yielding at low temperatures nonanalytic momentum dependence of magnetic susceptibility near its maximum, in electronic spectra of some threedimensional systems. In particular, we consider a one-band model on face-centered cubic lattice with hopping between the nearest and next-nearest neighbors, which models some aspects of the dispersion of ZrZn2, and the two-band model on body-centered cubic lattice, modeling the dispersion of chromium. For the former model, it is shown that Kohn points yielding maxima of susceptibility exist in a certain (sufficiently wide) region of electronic concentrations; the dependence of the wave vectors, corresponding to the maxima, on the chemical potential is investigated. For the two-band model, we show the existence of the lines of Kohn points, yielding maximum susceptibility, whose position agrees with the results of band structure calculations and experimental data on the wave vector of antiferromagnetism of chromium.

  12. Antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida species isolated from the immunocompromised patients admitted to ten university hospitals in Iran : comparison of colonizing and infecting isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badiee, Parisa; Badali, Hamid; Boekhout, Teun; Diba, Kambiz; Moghadam, Abdolkarim Ghadimi; Hossaini Nasab, Ali; Jafarian, Hadis; Mohammadi, Rasoul; Mirhendi, Hossein; Najafzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Shamsizadeh, Ahmad; Soltani, Jafar

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antifungal susceptibility testing is a subject of interest in the field of medical mycology. The aim of the present study were the distributions and antifungal susceptibility patterns of various Candida species isolated from colonized and infected immunocompromised patients admitted to

  13. Direct nitrate reductase assay versus microscopic observation drug susceptibility test for rapid detection of MDR-TB in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddie Bwanga

    Full Text Available The most common method for detection of drug resistant (DR TB in resource-limited settings (RLSs is indirect susceptibility testing on Lowenstein-Jensen medium (LJ which is very time consuming with results available only after 2-3 months. Effective therapy of DR TB is therefore markedly delayed and patients can transmit resistant strains. Rapid and accurate tests suitable for RLSs in the diagnosis of DR TB are thus highly needed. In this study we compared two direct techniques--Nitrate Reductase Assay (NRA and Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility (MODS for rapid detection of MDR-TB in a high burden RLS. The sensitivity, specificity, and proportion of interpretable results were studied. Smear positive sputum was collected from 245 consecutive re-treatment TB patients attending a TB clinic in Kampala, Uganda. Samples were processed at the national reference laboratory and tested for susceptibility to rifampicin and isoniazid with direct NRA, direct MODS and the indirect LJ proportion method as reference. A total of 229 specimens were confirmed as M. tuberculosis, of these interpretable results were obtained in 217 (95% with either the NRA or MODS. Sensitivity, specificity and kappa agreement for MDR-TB diagnosis was 97%, 98% and 0.93 with the NRA; and 87%, 95% and 0.78 with the MODS, respectively. The median time to results was 10, 7 and 64 days with NRA, MODS and the reference technique, respectively. The cost of laboratory supplies per sample was low, around 5 USD, for the rapid tests. The direct NRA and MODS offered rapid detection of resistance almost eight weeks earlier than with the reference method. In the study settings, the direct NRA was highly sensitive and specific. We consider it to have a strong potential for timely detection of MDR-TB in RLS.

  14. Testing differential susceptibility: Plasticity genes, the social environment, and their interplay in adolescent response inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jennifer S; Arias Vásquez, Alejandro; van Rooij, Daan; van der Meer, Dennis; Franke, Barbara; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Faraone, Stephen V; Hartman, Catharina A; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2017-06-01

    Impaired inhibitory control is a key feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We investigated gene-environment interaction (GxE) as a possible contributing factor to response inhibition variation in context of the differential susceptibility theory. This states individuals carrying plasticity gene variants will be more disadvantaged in negative, but more advantaged in positive environments. Behavioural and neural measures of response inhibition were assessed during a Stop-signal task in participants with (N = 197) and without (N = 295) ADHD, from N = 278 families (age M = 17.18, SD =3.65). We examined GxE between candidate plasticity genes (DAT1, 5-HTT, DRD4) and social environments (maternal expressed emotion, peer affiliation). A DRD4 × Positive peer affiliation interaction was found on the right fusiform gyrus (rFG) activation during successful inhibition. Further, 5-HTT short allele carriers showed increased rFG activation during failed inhibitions. Maternal warmth and positive peer affiliation were positively associated with right inferior frontal cortex activation during successful inhibition. Deviant peer affiliation was positively related to the error rate. While a pattern of differential genetic susceptibility was found, more clarity on the role of the FG during response inhibition is warranted before firm conclusions can be made. Positive and negative social environments were related to inhibitory control. This extends previous research emphasizing adverse environments.

  15. Species used for drug testing reveal different inhibition susceptibility for 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1.

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    Gabriele Möller

    Full Text Available Steroid-related cancers can be treated by inhibitors of steroid metabolism. In searching for new inhibitors of human 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17beta-HSD 1 for the treatment of breast cancer or endometriosis, novel substances based on 15-substituted estrone were validated. We checked the specificity for different 17beta-HSD types and species. Compounds were tested for specificity in vitro not only towards recombinant human 17beta-HSD types 1, 2, 4, 5 and 7 but also against 17beta-HSD 1 of several other species including marmoset, pig, mouse, and rat. The latter are used in the processes of pharmacophore screening. We present the quantification of inhibitor preferences between human and animal models. Profound differences in the susceptibility to inhibition of steroid conversion among all 17beta-HSDs analyzed were observed. Especially, the rodent 17beta-HSDs 1 were significantly less sensitive to inhibition compared to the human ortholog, while the most similar inhibition pattern to the human 17beta-HSD 1 was obtained with the marmoset enzyme. Molecular docking experiments predicted estrone as the most potent inhibitor. The best performing compound in enzymatic assays was also highly ranked by docking scoring for the human enzyme. However, species-specific prediction of inhibitor performance by molecular docking was not possible. We show that experiments with good candidate compounds would out-select them in the rodent model during preclinical optimization steps. Potentially active human-relevant drugs, therefore, would no longer be further developed. Activity and efficacy screens in heterologous species systems must be evaluated with caution.

  16. Use of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards Guidelines for Disk Diffusion Susceptibility Testing in New York State Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiehlbauch, Julia A.; Hannett, George E.; Salfinger, Max; Archinal, Wendy; Monserrat, Catherine; Carlyn, Cynthia

    2000-01-01

    Accurate antimicrobial susceptibility testing is vital for patient care and surveillance of emerging antimicrobial resistance. The National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) outlines generally agreed upon guidelines for reliable and reproducible results. In January 1997 we surveyed 320 laboratories participating in the New York State Clinical Evaluation Program for General Bacteriology proficiency testing. Our survey addressed compliance with NCCLS susceptibility testing guidelines for bacterial species designated a problem (Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus species) or fastidious (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae) organism. Specifically, we assessed compliance with guidelines for inoculum preparation, medium choice, number of disks per plate, and incubation conditions for disk diffusion tests. We also included length of incubation for S. aureus and Enterococcus species. We found overall compliance with the five characteristics listed above in 80 of 153 responding laboratories (50.6%) for S. aureus and 72 of 151 (47.7%) laboratories for Enterococcus species. The most common problem was an incubation time shortened to less than 24 h. Overall compliance with the first four characteristics was reported by 92 of 221 (41.6%) laboratories for S. pneumoniae, 49 of 163 (30.1%) laboratories for H. influenzae, and 11 of 77 (14.3%) laboratories for N. gonorrhoeae. Laboratories varied from NCCLS guidelines by placing an excess number of disks per plate. Laboratories also reported using alternative media for Enterococcus species, N. gonorrhoeae, and H. influenzae. This study demonstrates a need for education among clinical laboratories to increase compliance with NCCLS guidelines. PMID:10970381

  17. Has introduction of rapid drug susceptibility testing at diagnosis impacted treatment outcomes among previously treated tuberculosis patients in Gujarat, India?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paresh Dave

    Full Text Available Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP in India recommends that all previously-treated TB (PT patients are offered drug susceptibility testing (DST at diagnosis, using rapid diagnostics and screened out for rifampicin resistance before being treated with standardized, eight-month, retreatment regimen. This is intended to improve the early diagnosis of rifampicin resistance and its appropriate management and improve the treatment outcomes among the rest of the patients. In this state-wide study from Gujarat, India, we assess proportion of PT patients underwent rapid DST at diagnosis and the impact of this intervention on their treatment outcomes.This is a retrospective cohort study involving review of electronic patient-records maintained routinely under RNTCP. All PT patients registered for treatment in Gujarat during January-June 2013 were included. Information on DST and treatment outcomes were extracted from 'presumptive DR-TB patient register' and TB treatment register respectively. We performed a multivariate analysis to assess if getting tested is independently associated with unfavourable outcomes (death, loss-to-follow-up, failure, transfer out.Of 5,829 PT patients, 5306(91% were tested for drug susceptibility with rapid diagnostics. Overall, 71% (4,113 TB patients were successfully treated - 72% among tested versus 60% among non-tested. Patients who did not get tested at diagnosis had a 34% higher risk of unsuccessful outcomes as compared to those who got tested (aRR - 1.34; 95% CI 1.20-1.50 after adjusting for age, sex, HIV status and type of TB. Unfavourable outcomes (particularly failure and switched to category IV were higher among INH-resistant patients (39% as compared to INH-sensitive (29%.Offering DST at diagnosis improved the treatment outcomes among PT patients. However, even among tested, treatment outcomes remained suboptimal and were related to INH resistance and high loss-to-follow-up. These need to be addressed

  18. First isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Chromobacterium violaceum from oysters in Mexico

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    R. Berebichez-Fridman

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chromobacterium violaceum is a Gram-negative, facultative, anaerobic, non-sporing, fermentative and oxidase-positive coccobacillus. Human infections caused by Chromobacterium violaceum are infrequent. There are a few reported cases in several countries. Those infections appear after a skin contact with soil or contaminated water. Infections can progress to necrotizing metastatatic lesions and multiple abscesses of the lung, liver, skin, spleen, lymph nodes and brain with fatal septicemia. Infections caused by this bacterium have a high lethality rate, with a low recovery rate among survivors. It has been described that this bacterium is resistant to several antibiotics. Materials and methods: Chromobacterium violaceum was isolated, cultivated, and identified from oysters from thirteen different restaurants in Mexico City and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed. Results: Four isolations of Chromobacterium violaceum were obtained from oysters. Three of them corresponded to biotype 36 and all of them had a confidence factor of 0.987. All isolations were resistant to Carbencillin, Cephalothin and Cephotaxime. Two isolations were also resistant to Ampicillin and one was resistant to Amikacin. All isolations were sensitive to Ceftriaxone, Chloramphenicol, Gentamicin, Netilmicin, Nitrofurantoin, Pefloxacine and Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole. Conclusions: The presence of Chromabacterium violaceum in food obtained from salt marshes that usually are eaten fresh (like oysters means a high potential risk for human health because this bacterium has been associated with high morbidity and mortality. In our report, this bacterium showed resistance to several antibacterial agents. Patients should be cautions when eating fresh seafood, and healthcare personnel should suspect an infection caused by Chromobacterium violaceum if the patient presents with sepsis, enteritis or abscesses and they have risk factors for acquiring this

  19. Test report - caustic addition system operability test procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parazin, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    This Operability Test Report documents the test results of test procedure WHC-SD-WM-OTP-167 ''Caustic Addition System Operability Test Procedure''. The Objective of the test was to verify the operability of the 241-AN-107 Caustic Addition System. The objective of the test was met

  20. Error response test system and method using test mask variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gender, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An error response test system and method with increased functionality and improved performance is provided. The error response test system provides the ability to inject errors into the application under test to test the error response of the application under test in an automated and efficient manner. The error response system injects errors into the application through a test mask variable. The test mask variable is added to the application under test. During normal operation, the test mask variable is set to allow the application under test to operate normally. During testing, the error response test system can change the test mask variable to introduce an error into the application under test. The error response system can then monitor the application under test to determine whether the application has the correct response to the error.

  1. Multiloop integral system test (MIST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloudemans, J.R.

    1989-07-01

    The multiloop integral system test (MIST) was part of a multiphase program started in 1983 to address small-break loss-of-coolant accidents (SBLOCAs) specific to Babcock and Wilcox-designed plants. MIST was sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Babcock and Wilcox Owners Group, the Electric Power Research Institute, and Babcock and Wilcox. The unique features of the Babcock and Wilcox design, specifically the hot leg U-bends and steam generators, prevented the use of existing integral system data or existing integral system facilities to address the thermal-hydraulic SBLOCA questions. MIST and two other supporting facilities were specifically designed and constructed for this program, and an existing facility -- the once-through integral system (OTIS) -- was also used. Data from MIST and the other facilities will be used to benchmark the adequacy of system codes, such as RELAP5 and TRAC, for predicting abnormal plant transients. The individual tests are described in detail in Volumes 2 through 8 and Volume 11, and are summarized in Volume 1. Inter-group comparisons are addressed in this document, Volume 9. These comparisons are grouped as follows: mapping versus SBLOCA transients, SBLOCA, pump effects, and the effects of noncondensible gases. Appendix A provides an index and description of the microfiched plots for each test, which are enclosed with the corresponding Volumes 2 through 8. 147 figs., 5 tabs

  2. [Consensus for antimicrobial susceptibility testing for Enterobacteriaceae. Subcommittee on Antimicrobials, SADEBAC (Argentinian Society of Clinical Bacteriology), Argentinian Association of Microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famiglietti, A; Quinteros, M; Vázquez, M; Marín, M; Nicola, F; Radice, M; Galas, M; Pasterán, F; Bantar, C; Casellas, J M; Kovensky Pupko, J; Couto, E; Goldberg, M; Lopardo, H; Gutkind, G; Soloaga, R

    2005-01-01

    Taking into account previous recommendations from the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS), the Antimicrobial Committee, Sociedad Argentina de Bacteriología Clínica (SADEBAC), Asociación Argentina de Microbiología (AAM), and the experience from its members and some invited microbiologists, a consensus was obtained for antimicrobial susceptibility testing and interpretation in most frequent enterobacterial species isolated from clinical samples in our region. This document describes the natural antimicrobial resistance of some Enterobacteriaceae family members, including the resistance profiles due to their own chromosomal encoded beta-lactamases. A list of the antimicrobial agents that should be tested, their position on the agar plates, in order to detect the most frequent antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, and considerations on which antimicrobial agents should be reported regarding to the infection site and patient characteristics are included. Also, a description on appropriate phenotypic screening and confirmatory test for detection of prevalent extended spectrum beta-lactamases in our region are presented. Finally, a summary on frequent antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and their probably associated resistance mechanisms, and some infrequent antimicrobial resistance profiles that deserve confirmation are outlined.

  3. A case of Candida famata sepsis in a very low birth weight infant successfully treated with fluconazole following antifungal susceptibility testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpee Raturi

    2015-01-01

    This case report highlights the growing number of cases arising due to nonalbicans Candida infections in the neonatal intensive care units and the usefulness of antifungal susceptibility testing in deciding optimal antifungal therapy and preventing the emergence of drug resistance.

  4. Proposed quality control guidelines for National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards Susceptibility Tests using the veterinary antimicrobial agent tiamulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, M A; Jones, R N; Walter, D H

    2001-01-01

    Quality control guidelines for standardized antimicrobial susceptibility test methods are critical for the continuing accuracy of these clinical tests. In this report, quality control limits were proposed for the veterinary antimicrobial agent tiamulin with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranges of three or four log(2) dilution steps in two different medium formulations. Disk diffusion zone diameter ranges were proposed for tiamulin tested against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae ATCC 27090 (12-18 mm) and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 (25-32 mm). The data from eight participating laboratories produced 100% of results within proposed MIC limits (8-32 microg/mL), and 95.8-97.0% of zones were found within suggested zone diameter QC guidelines. These proposed QC ranges should be validated by in-use results from veterinary clinical laboratories.

  5. Use of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry for caspofungin susceptibility testing of Candida and Aspergillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carolis, Elena; Vella, Antonietta; Florio, Ada R; Posteraro, Patrizia; Perlin, David S; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Posteraro, Brunella

    2012-07-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was evaluated for testing susceptibility to caspofungin of wild-type and fks mutant isolates of Candida and Aspergillus. Complete essential agreement was observed with the CLSI reference method, with categorical agreement for 94.1% of the Candida isolates tested. Thus, MALDI-TOF MS is a reliable and accurate method to detect fungal isolates with reduced caspofungin susceptibility.

  6. Use of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry for Caspofungin Susceptibility Testing of Candida and Aspergillus Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carolis, Elena; Vella, Antonietta; Florio, Ada R.; Posteraro, Patrizia; Perlin, David S.; Posteraro, Brunella

    2012-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was evaluated for testing susceptibility to caspofungin of wild-type and fks mutant isolates of Candida and Aspergillus. Complete essential agreement was observed with the CLSI reference method, with categorical agreement for 94.1% of the Candida isolates tested. Thus, MALDI-TOF MS is a reliable and accurate method to detect fungal isolates with reduced caspofungin susceptibility. PMID:22535984

  7. The role of epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs/ECOFFs) in antifungal susceptibility testing and interpretation for uncommon yeasts and moulds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinel-Ingroff, Ana; Turnidge, John

    2016-01-01

    The role of antimicrobial susceptibility testing is to aid in selecting the best agent for the treatment of bacterial and fungal diseases. This has been best achieved by the setting of breakpoints by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) for prevalent Candida spp. versus anidulafungin, caspofungin, micafungin, fluconazole, and voriconazole. The European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) also has set breakpoints for prevalent and common Candida and Aspergillus species versus amphotericin B, itraconazole, and posaconazole. Recently, another interpretive category, the epidemiological cut off value, could aid in the early identification of strains with acquired resistance mechanisms. CLSI has postulated that epidemiological cut off values may, with due caution, aid physicians in managing mycosis by species where breakpoints are not available. This review provides (1) the criteria and statistical approach to establishing and estimating epidemiological cut off values (ECVs), (2) the role of the epidemiological cut off value in establishing breakpoints, (3) the potential role of epidemiological cut off values in clinical practice, (4) and the wide range of CLSI-based epidemiological cut off values reported in the literature as well as EUCAST and Sensititre Yeast One-ECVs. Additionally, we provide MIC/MEC (minimal inhibitory concentrations/minimum effective concentrations) ranges/modes of each pooled distribution used for epidemiological cut off value calculation. We focus on the epidemiological cut off value, the new interpretive endpoint that will identify the non-wild type strains (defined as potentially harboring resistance mechanisms). However, we emphasize that epidemiological cut off values will not categorize a fungal isolate as susceptible or resistant as breakpoints do, because the former do not account for the pharmacology of the antifungal agent or the findings from clinical outcome studies. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Espa

  8. A method of mapping sinkhole susceptibility using a geographic information system : a case study for interstates in the karst counties of Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This study proposes the use of a geographic information system (GIS) to create a susceptibility map, pinpointing : regions in the karst counties of Virginia, in particular, along interstates, most susceptible to future sinkhole : development, determi...

  9. Identification of MAMDC1 as a candidate susceptibility gene for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Hellquist

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a complex autoimmune disorder with multiple susceptibility genes. We have previously reported suggestive linkage to the chromosomal region 14q21-q23 in Finnish SLE families.Genetic fine mapping of this region in the same family material, together with a large collection of parent affected trios from UK and two independent case-control cohorts from Finland and Sweden, indicated that a novel uncharacterized gene, MAMDC1 (MAM domain containing glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor 2, also known as MDGA2, MIM 611128, represents a putative susceptibility gene for SLE. In a combined analysis of the whole dataset, significant evidence of association was detected for the MAMDC1 intronic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP rs961616 (P -value = 0.001, Odds Ratio (OR = 1.292, 95% CI 1.103-1.513 and rs2297926 (P -value = 0.003, OR = 1.349, 95% CI 1.109-1.640. By Northern blot, real-time PCR (qRT-PCR and immunohistochemical (IHC analyses, we show that MAMDC1 is expressed in several tissues and cell types, and that the corresponding mRNA is up-regulated by the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma in THP-1 monocytes. Based on its homology to known proteins with similar structure, MAMDC1 appears to be a novel member of the adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgCAM, which is involved in cell adhesion, migration, and recruitment to inflammatory sites. Remarkably, some IgCAMs have been shown to interact with ITGAM, the product of another SLE susceptibility gene recently discovered in two independent genome wide association (GWA scans.Further studies focused on MAMDC1 and other molecules involved in these pathways might thus provide new insight into the pathogenesis of SLE.

  10. Regulation on control systems tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau, J.; Navarro, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    Requirements under regulation applicable to the testing of control systems and controlled equipments in the case of USA nuclear projects are examined. They are reviewed, in particular, the following standards and criteria: 10 Code of Federal Regulations 50, Appendix A, General Design Criteria 20 and 21; IEEE Standards 279 and 308; IEEE Standard 338; US Regulatory Guides 1.22 and 1.118.(J.E.de C.)

  11. Antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida species isolated from the immunocompromised patients admitted to ten university hospitals in Iran: comparison of colonizing and infecting isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiee, Parisa; Badali, Hamid; Boekhout, Teun; Diba, Kambiz; Moghadam, Abdolkarim Ghadimi; Hossaini Nasab, Ali; Jafarian, Hadis; Mohammadi, Rasoul; Mirhendi, Hossein; Najafzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Shamsizadeh, Ahmad; Soltani, Jafar

    2017-11-21

    Antifungal susceptibility testing is a subject of interest in the field of medical mycology. The aim of the present study were the distributions and antifungal susceptibility patterns of various Candida species isolated from colonized and infected immunocompromised patients admitted to ten university hospitals in Iran. In totally, 846 Candida species were isolated from more than 4000 clinical samples and identified by the API 20 C AUX system. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution method according to CLSI. The most frequent Candida species isolated from all patients was Candida albicans (510/846). The epidemiological cutoff value and percentage of wild-type species for amphotericin B and fluconazole in Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata and Candida krusei were 0.5 μg/ml (95%) and 4 μg/ml (96%); 1 μg/ml (95%) and 8 μg/ml (95%); 0.5 μg/ml (99%) and 19 μg/ml (98%); and 4 μg/ml (95%) and 64 μg/ml (95%), respectively. The MIC90 and epidemiological cutoff values to posaconazole in Candida krusei were 0.5 μg/ml. There were significant differences between infecting and colonizing isolates of Candida tropicalis in MIC 90 values of amphotericin B, and isolates of Candida glabrata in values of amphotericin B, caspofungin, and voriconazole (P Candida species (colonizing and infecting isolates) in immunocompromised patients are not the same and acquired resistance was seen in some species.

  12. Comparison of methods for in vitro testing of susceptibility of porcine Mycoplasma species to antimicrobial agents.

    OpenAIRE

    Ter Laak, E A; Pijpers, A; Noordergraaf, J H; Schoevers, E C; Verheijden, J H

    1991-01-01

    The MICs of 18 antimicrobial agents used against strains of three porcine Mycoplasma species were determined by a serial broth dilution method. Twenty field strains of M. hyorhinis, ten field strains of M. hyopneumoniae, six field strains of M. flocculare, and the type strains of these species were tested. Twelve field strains and the type strain of M. hyorhinis were also tested by an agar dilution method. Tests were read at various time points. When the broth dilution method was used, the fi...

  13. Molecular identification and amphotericin B susceptibility testing of clinical isolates of Aspergillus from 11 hospitals in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Min Seok; Shin, Jong Hee; Choi, Min Ji; Park, Yeon Joon; Lee, Hye Soo; Koo, Sun Hoe; Lee, Won Gil; Kim, Soo Hyun; Shin, Myung Geun; Suh, Soon Pal; Ryang, Dong Wook

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the species distribution and amphotericin B (AMB) susceptibility of Korean clinical Aspergillus isolates by using two Etests and the CLSI broth microdilution method. A total of 136 Aspergillus isolates obtained from 11 university hospitals were identified by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and β-tubulin genomic regions. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of AMB were determined in Etests using Mueller-Hinton agar (Etest-MH) and RPMI agar (Etest-RPG), and categorical agreement with the CLSI method was assessed by using epidemiological cutoff values. ITS sequencing identified the following six Aspergillus species complexes: Aspergillus fumigatus (42.6% of the isolates), A. niger (23.5%), A. flavus (17.6%), A. terreus (11.0%), A. versicolor (4.4%), and A. ustus (0.7%). Cryptic species identifiable by β-tubulin sequencing accounted for 25.7% (35/136) of the isolates. Of all 136 isolates, 36 (26.5%) had AMB MICs of ≥2 μg/mL by the CLSI method. The categorical agreement of Etest-RPG with the CLSI method was 98% for the A. fumigatus, A. niger, and A. versicolor complexes, 87% for the A. terreus complex, and 37.5% for the A. flavus complex. That of Etest-MH was ≤75% for the A. niger, A. flavus, A. terreus, and A. versicolor complexes but was higher for the A. fumigatus complex (98.3%). Aspergillus species other than A. fumigatus constitute about 60% of clinical Aspergillus isolates, and reduced AMB susceptibility is common among clinical isolates of Aspergillus in Korea. Molecular identification and AMB susceptibility testing by Etest-RPG may be useful for characterizing Aspergillus isolates of clinical relevance.

  14. Cefoperazone and cefoperazone-sulbactam susceptibility tests with anaerobic bacteria by the thioglycolate disk elution method.

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, A L; Packer, R R; Jones, R N

    1985-01-01

    Tests were performed with 104 anaerobic microorganisms to evaluate the thioglycolate disk elution technique for the detection of resistance to cefoperazone and cefoperazone-sulbactam. An unacceptably high false-resistance rate and a poor reproducibility record make the disk elution procedure unsatisfactory for routine testing of this drug or combination of drugs.

  15. ISOLATION AND ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY TESTING OF RAPIDLY-GROWING MYCOBACTERIA FROM GRASSLAND SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Kyselková

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM are common soil saprophytes, but certain strains cause infections in human and animals. The infections due to RGM have been increasing in past decades and are often difficult to treat. The susceptibility to antibiotics is regularly evaluated in clinical isolates of RGM, but the data on soil RGM are missing. The objectives of this study was to isolate RGM from four grassland soils with different impact of manuring, and assess their resistance to antibiotics and the ability to grow at 37°C and 42°C. Since isolation of RGM from soil is a challenge, a conventional decontamination method (NaOH/malachite green/cycloheximide and a recent method based on olive oil/SDS demulsification were compared. The olive oil/SDS method was less efficient, mainly because of the emulsion instability and plate overgrowing with other bacteria. Altogether, 44 isolates were obtained and 23 representatives of different RGM genotypes were screened. The number of isolates per soil decreased with increasing soil pH, consistently with previous findings that mycobacteria were more abundant in low pH soils. Most of the isolates belonged to the Mycobacterium fortuitum group. The majority of isolates was resistant to 2-4 antibiotics. Multiresistant strains occurred also in a control soil that has a long history without the exposure to antibiotic-containing manure. Seven isolates grew at 37°C, including the species M. septicum and M. fortuitum known for infections in humans. This study shows that multiresistant RGM close to known human pathogens occur in grassland soils regardless the soil history of manuring.

  16. Standard test method for exfoliation corrosion susceptibility in 2XXX and 7XXX Series Aluminum Alloys (EXCO Test)

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for constant immersion exfoliation corrosion (EXCO) testing of high-strength 2XXX and 7XXX series aluminum alloys. Note 1—This test method was originally developed for research and development purposes; however, it is referenced, in specific material specifications, as applicable for evaluating production material (refer to Section 14 on Precision and Bias). 1.2 This test method applies to all wrought products such as sheet, plate, extrusions, and forgings produced from conventional ingot metallurgy process. 1.3 This test method can be used with any form of specimen or part that can be immersed in the test solution. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  17. State of the art report on the materials testing capabilities for IASCC susceptibility testing at SCK-CEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosch, R.-W.; Boydens, P.; Vankeerbergen, R.; Van Nieuwenhove, R.; Van Dyck, S

    1999-08-01

    An overview of the current IASCC testing facilities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN is given. The testing techniques are reviewed, and their capabilities as well as their limitations are discussed. Possible future developments in testing techniques are discussed. IASCC is caused by a complex interaction between materials, its environment and mechanical stresses. Characterisation techniques assessing mechanical stresses as well as electrochemical and microstructural characteristics are reported on.

  18. Simple, direct drug susceptibility testing technique for diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis in resource-poor settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, C-K; Joo, Y-T; Lee, E P; Park, Y K; Kim, H-J; Kim, S J

    2013-09-01

    The Korean Institute of Tuberculosis, Seoul, Republic of Korea. To develop a simple, direct drug susceptibility testing (DST) technique using Kudoh-modified Ogawa (KMO) medium. The critical concentrations of isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RMP), kanamycin (KM) and ofloxacin (OFX) for KMO medium were calibrated by comparing the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on KMO with those on Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ). The performance of the direct KMO DST technique was evaluated on 186 smear-positive sputum specimens and compared with indirect LJ DST. Agreement of MICs on direct vs. indirect DST was high for INH, RMP and OFX. KM MICs on KMO were ∼10 g/ml higher than those on LJ. The critical concentrations of INH, RMP, OFX and KM for KMO were therefore set at 0.2, 40.0, 2.0, and 40.0 g/ml. The evaluation of direct DST of smear-positive sputum specimens showed 100% agreement with indirect LJ DST for INH and RMP. However, the respective susceptible and resistant predictive values were 98.8% and 100% for OFX, and 100% and 80% for KM. Direct DST using KMO is useful, with clear advantages of a shorter turnaround time, procedural simplicity and low cost compared to indirect DST. It may be most indicated in resource-poor settings for programmatic management of drug-resistant tuberculosis.

  19. Electromagnetic Environmental Effects System Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    localized ( spot ) illumination is adequate to evaluate potential responses by illuminating specific apertures, cables and subsystems. At these...the EMC testing. The Battlefield Functional Area Control System (BFACS), Force XXI Blue Force Tracker (BFT), routers, hubs, switches, etc, are... Laser Printer F1 F1 F1 G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G Embedded Training Module F1 F1 F1 G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G

  20. Characterization of Salmonella Typhimurium isolates from domestically acquired infections in Finland by phage typing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, PFGE and MLVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienemann, Taru; Kyyhkynen, Aino; Halkilahti, Jani; Haukka, Kaisa; Siitonen, Anja

    2015-07-02

    Salmonella enterica spp. enterica serotype Typhimurium (STM) is the most common agent of domestically acquired salmonellosis in Finland. Subtyping methods which allow the characterization of STM are essential for effective laboratory-based STM surveillance and for recognition of outbreaks. This study describes the diversity of Finnish STM isolates using phage typing, antimicrobial susceptible testing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), and compares the discriminatory power and the concordance of these methods. A total of 375 sporadic STM isolates were analysed. The isolates were divided into 31 definite phage (DT) types, dominated by DT1 (47 % of the isolates), U277 (9 % of the isolates) and DT104 (8 % of the isolates). Of all the isolates, 62 % were susceptible to all the 12 antimicrobials tested and 11 % were multidrug resistant. Subtyping resulted in 83 different XbaI-PFGE profiles and 111 MLVA types. The three most common XbaI-PFGE profiles (STYM1, STYM7 and STYM8) and one MLVA profile with three single locus variants accounted for 56 % and 49 % of the STM isolates, respectively. The studied isolates showed a genetic similarity of more than 70 % by XbaI-PFGE. In MLVA, 71 % of the isolates lacked STTR6 and 77 % missed STTR10p loci. Nevertheless, the calculated Simpson's diversity index for XbaI-PFGE was 0.829 (95 % CI 0.792-0.865) and for MLVA 0.867 (95 % CI 0.835-0.898). However, the discriminatory power of the 5-loci MLVA varied among the phage types. The highest concordance of the results was found between XbaI-PFGE and phage typing (adjusted Wallace coefficient was 0.833 and adjusted Rand coefficient was 0.627). In general, the calculated discriminatory power was higher for genotyping methods (MLVA and XbaI-PFGE) than for phenotyping methods (phage typing). Overall, comparable diversity indices were calculated for PFGE and MLVA (both DI > 0.8). However, MLVA was phage type dependent

  1. Changes to perceptions of the pros and cons of genetic susceptibility testing after APOE genotyping for Alzheimer disease risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Kurt D.; Roberts, J. Scott; Uhlmann, Wendy R.; Green, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Perceptions about the pros and cons of genetic susceptibility testing are among the best predictors of test utilization. How actual testing changes such perceptions has yet to be examined. Methods In a clinical trial, first-degree relatives of patients with Alzheimer disease received genetic risk assessments for Alzheimer disease including APOE disclosure. Participants rated 11 possible benefits associated with genetic testing (pros) and 10 risks or limitations (cons) before genetic risk disclosure and again 12 months afterward. Results Pros were rated higher than cons at baseline (3.53 vs. 1.83, P cons did not change (1.88 vs. 1.83, P = 0.199) except for a three-item discrimination subscale which increased (2.07 vs. 1.92, P = 0.012). Among specific pros and cons, three items related to prevention and treatment changed the most. Conclusion The process of APOE genetic risk assessment for Alzheimer disease sensitizes some to its limitations and the risks of discrimination; however, 1-year after disclosure, test recipients still consider the pros to strongly outweigh the cons. PMID:21270636

  2. In Vitro Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Animal Nocardia Isolated from Field Cases of Skin Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Oyekunle

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available In vitro antimicrobial tests were carried out on strains of Nocardia isolated from field cases of cutaneous nocardiosis in farm animals. Results with the disc diffusion test showed the multiresistant nature of the isolates, but 23.81 and 21.43% were sensitive to ciprofloxacin and gentamycin, respectively. The MIC mode and range for oxytetracycline were 12.5 and 3.12–25 μg/ml, respectively, while those of erythromycin were 3.12 and 0.78–6.25 μg/ml, respectively.

  3. Susceptibility testing of Cryptococcus diffluens against amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole and posaconazole

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kantarcioglu, A.S.; Boekhout, T.; Yucel, A.; Altas, K.

    2009-01-01

    Cryptococcus diffluens is a recently re-established species that shares several phenotypic features with Cryptococcus neoformans. We evaluated the application of the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI, formerly NCCLS) macro- and microbroth dilution methods and the E-test agar diffusion

  4. Antimalarial drug susceptibility testing of Plasmodium falciparum in Brazil using a radioisotope method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerutti Junior Crispim

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available From March 1996 to August 1997, a study was carried out in a malaria endemic area of the Brazilian Amazon region. In vivo sensitivity evaluation to antimalarial drugs was performed in 129 patients. Blood samples (0.5 ml were drawn from each patient and cryopreserved to proceed to in vitro studies. In vitro sensitivity evaluation performed using a radioisotope method was carried out with the cryopreserved samples from September to December 1997. Thirty-one samples were tested for chloroquine, mefloquine, halofantrine, quinine, arteether and atovaquone. Resistance was evidenced in 96.6% (29/30 of the samples tested for chloroquine, 3.3% (1/30 for quinine, none (0/30 for mefloquine and none for halofantrine (0/30. Overall low sensitivity was evidenced in 10% of the samples tested for quinine, 22.5% tested for halofantrine and in 20% tested for mefloquine. Means of IC 50 values were 132.2 (SD: 46.5 ng/ml for chloroquine, 130.6 (SD: 49.6 ng/ml for quinine, 3.4 (SD: 1.3 ng/ml for mefloquine, 0.7 (SD: 0.3 ng/ml for halofantrine, 1 (SD: 0.6 ng/ml for arteether and 0.4 (SD: 0.2 ng/ml for atovaquone. Means of chloroquine IC 50 of the tested samples were comparable to that of the chloroquine-resistant strain W2 (137.57 ng/ml and nearly nine times higher than that of the chloroquine-sensitive strain D6 (15.09 ng/ml. Means of quinine IC 50 of the tested samples were 1.7 times higher than that of the low sensitivity strain W2 (74.84 ng/ml and nearly five times higher than that of the quinine-sensitive strain D6 (27.53 ng/ml. These results disclose in vitro high resistance levels to chloroquine, low sensitivity to quinine and evidence of decreasing sensitivity to mefloquine and halofantrine in the area under evaluation.

  5. Genetic susceptibility to Gilbert's syndrome in a valencian population; efficacy of the fasting test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, A K; Escartín, N; Monzó, C; Guzmán, C; Ferrer, I; González-Muñoz, C; Peña, P; Monzó, V; Marcaida, G; Rodríguez-López, R

    To describe the populational distribution of the UGT1A1*28 variant (genetic variant code rs8175347) located in the promotor of the UGT gene and correlate its genotypes with the results of the fasting test, as well as its relationship with the biochemical disorder of Gilbert's syndrome (GS) in a Valencian population. We studied the prevalence of the genotypes (TA) 6/6 (TA) 6/7 and (TA) 7/7 of the deleterious variant rs8175347 in 144 patients with hyperbilirubinemia, 38 of whom had previously undergone the fasting test to diagnose GS, and in 150 control patients. By analysing the genomic region of the TATA box of the UGT1A1 gene promotor using Sanger sequencing, we established the correlation between the rs8175347 genotypes and the fasting test results and with the patients' biochemical disorders. The rate of heterozygosity of allele (TA) 7 in the control population was 32% and increased to 87.59% among the patients with suspected GS. The rate of genotype TA 7/7 was 81.94% among the patients with hyperbilirubinemia, compared with 11.33% in the control patients. The fasting test showed a 15.79% rate of false negatives and a 5.26% rate of false positives. The high frequency of allele (TA) 7 among the Valencian control population, almost double the 5% reported for European control patients, confirms the high rate of GS reported in the Spanish population, without observing significant differences between the geographical ends of the country. The efficacy and reliability of the fasting test for the diagnosis of GS is questionable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  6. Potato dextrose agar antifungal susceptibility testing for yeasts and molds: evaluation of phosphate effect on antifungal activity of CMT-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Tortora, George; Ryan, Maria E; Lee, Hsi-Ming; Golub, Lorne M

    2002-05-01

    The broth macrodilution method (BMM) for antifungal susceptibility testing, approved by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS), was found to have deficiencies in testing of the antifungal activity of a new type of antifungal agent, a nonantibacterial chemically modified tetracycline (CMT-3). The high content of phosphate in the medium was found to greatly increase the MICs of CMT-3. To avoid the interference of phosphate in the test, a new method using potato dextrose agar (PDA) as a culture medium was developed. Eight strains of fungi, including five American Type Culture Collection strains and three clinical isolates, were used to determine the MICs of amphotericin B and itraconazole with both the BMM and the PDA methods. The MICs of the two antifungal agents determined with the PDA method showed 99% agreement with those determined with the BMM method within 1 log(2) dilution. Similarly, the overall reproducibility of the MICs with the PDA method was above 97%. Three other antifungal agents, fluconazole, ketoconazole, and CMT-3, were also tested in parallel against yeasts and molds with both the BMM and the PDA methods. The MICs of fluconazole and ketoconazole determined with the PDA method showed 100% agreement within 1 log(2) dilution of those obtained with the BMM method. However, the MICs of CMT-3 determined with the BMM method were as high as 128 times those determined with the PDA method. The effect of phosphate on the antifungal activity of CMT-3 was evaluated by adding Na2HPO4 to PDA in the new method. It was found that the MIC of CMT-3 against a Penicillium sp. increased from 0.5 microg/ml (control) to 2.0 microg/ml when the added phosphate was used at a concentration of 0.8 mg/ml, indicating a strong interference of Na2HPO4 with the antifungal activity of CMT-3. Except for fluconazole, all the other antifungal agents demonstrated clear end points among the yeasts and molds tested. Nevertheless, with its high reproducibility

  7. Standard test method for determining susceptibility to stress-corrosion cracking of 2XXX and 7XXX Aluminum alloy products

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1998-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a uniform procedure for characterizing the resistance to stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) of high-strength aluminum alloy wrought products for the guidance of those who perform stress-corrosion tests, for those who prepare stress-corrosion specifications, and for materials engineers. 1.2 This test method covers method of sampling, type of specimen, specimen preparation, test environment, and method of exposure for determining the susceptibility to SCC of 2XXX (with 1.8 to 7.0 % copper) and 7XXX (with 0.4 to 2.8 % copper) aluminum alloy products, particularly when stressed in the short-transverse direction relative to the grain structure. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The inch-pound units in parentheses are provided for information. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and de...

  8. Antifungal susceptibility testing of yeast isolated from corneal infections Teste de susceptibilidade a antifúngicos de leveduras isoladas de infecções corneais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lucia Degaspare Monte Mascaro

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To report the antifungal susceptibility profile of yeast isolates obtained from cases of keratitis. METHODS: Susceptibility testing of 15 yeast strains isolated from corneal infections to amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole and ketoconazole was performed using the NCCLS broth microdilution assay. RESULTS: Most episodes of eye infections were caused by Candida albicans. The antifungal drugs tested showed the following minimal inhibitory concentration values against yeast isolates: 0.125-0.5 µg/ml for amphotericin B; 0.125->64.0 µg/ml for fluconazole; 0.015-1.0 µg/ml for itraconazole and 0.015-0.125 µg/ml for ketoconazole. Despite the fact that all Candida isolates were judged to be susceptible to azoles, one isolate showed a minimal inhibitory concentration value significantly higher than a 90% minimal inhibitory concentration of all tested isolates. Rhodotorula rubra was resistant to fluconazole and itraconazole. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the fact that most yeast isolates from corneal infections are usually susceptible to amphotericin B and azoles, they exhibit a wide range of minimal inhibitory concentration values for antifungal drugs. The identification of strains at species level and their susceptibility pattern to antifungal drugs should be considered before determining the concentration to be used in topical antifungal formulations in order to optimize therapeutic response in eye infections.OBJETIVO: Relatar resultados e avaliar a aplicabilidade do teste de suscetibilidade a antifúngicos de leveduras isoladas de infecções corneais oculares. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se teste de suscetibilidade pelo método de microdiluição em caldo, padronizado pelo NCCLS-EUA, em 15 amostras de leveduras de infecções corneanas a anfotericina B, fluconazol, itraconazol e ketoconazol. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos episódios de infecção corneal foi causada por Candida albicans. As drogas antifúngicas testadas exibiram valores de concentra

  9. Further Evidence of Subphenotype Association with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Susceptibility Loci: A European Cases Only Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Perez, Elisa; Suarez-Gestal, Marian; Calaza, Manuel; Ordi-Ros, Josep; Balada, Eva; Bijl, Marc; Papasteriades, Chryssa; Carreira, Patricia; Skopouli, Fotini N.; Witte, Torsten; Endreffy, Emöke; Marchini, Maurizio; Migliaresi, Sergio; Sebastiani, Gian Domenico; Santos, Maria Jose; Suarez, Ana; Blanco, Francisco J.; Barizzone, Nadia; Pullmann, Rudolf; Ruzickova, Sarka; Lauwerys, Bernard R.; Gomez-Reino, Juan J.; Gonzalez, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) shows a spectrum of clinical manifestations that complicate its diagnosis, treatment and research. This variability is likely related with environmental exposures and genetic factors among which known SLE susceptibility loci are prime candidates. The first published analyses seem to indicate that this is the case for some of them, but results are still inconclusive and we aimed to further explore this question. Methods European SLE patients, 1444, recruited at 17 centres from 10 countries were analyzed. Genotypes for 26 SLE associated SNPs were compared between patients with and without each of 11 clinical features: ten of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) classification criteria (except ANAs) and age of disease onset. These analyses were adjusted for centre of recruitment, top ancestry informative markers, gender and time of follow-up. Overlap of samples with previous studies was excluded for assessing replication. Results There were three new associations: the SNPs in XKR6 and in FAM167A-BLK were associated with lupus nephritis (OR = 0.76 and 1.30, Pcorr = 0.007 and 0.03, respectively) and the SNP of MECP2, which is in chromosome X, with earlier age of disease onset in men. The previously reported association of STAT4 with early age of disease onset was replicated. Some other results were suggestive of the presence of additional associations. Together, the association signals provided support to some previous findings and to the characterization of lupus nephritis, autoantibodies and age of disease onset as the clinical features more associated with SLE loci. Conclusion Some of the SLE loci shape the disease phenotype in addition to increase susceptibility to SLE. This influence is more prominent for some clinical features than for others. However, results are only partially consistent between studies and subphenotype specific GWAS are needed to unravel their genetic component. PMID:23049788

  10. Spatial prediction of landslide susceptibility using an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system combined with frequency ratio, generalized additive model, and support vector machine techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Pourghasemi, Hamid Reza; Panahi, Mahdi; Kornejady, Aiding; Wang, Jiale; Xie, Xiaoshen; Cao, Shubo

    2017-11-01

    The spatial prediction of landslide susceptibility is an important prerequisite for the analysis of landslide hazards and risks in any area. This research uses three data mining techniques, such as an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system combined with frequency ratio (ANFIS-FR), a generalized additive model (GAM), and a support vector machine (SVM), for landslide susceptibility mapping in Hanyuan County, China. In the first step, in accordance with a review of the previous literature, twelve conditioning factors, including slope aspect, altitude, slope angle, topographic wetness index (TWI), plan curvature, profile curvature, distance to rivers, distance to faults, distance to roads, land use, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and lithology, were selected. In the second step, a collinearity test and correlation analysis between the conditioning factors and landslides were applied. In the third step, we used three advanced methods, namely, ANFIS-FR, GAM, and SVM, for landslide susceptibility modeling. Subsequently, the results of their accuracy were validated using a receiver operating characteristic curve. The results showed that all three models have good prediction capabilities, while the SVM model has the highest prediction rate of 0.875, followed by the ANFIS-FR and GAM models with prediction rates of 0.851 and 0.846, respectively. Thus, the landslide susceptibility maps produced in the study area can be applied for management of hazards and risks in landslide-prone Hanyuan County.

  11. Genetic testing of newborns for type 1 diabetes susceptibility: a prospective cohort study on effects on maternal mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Per

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concerns about the general psychological impact of genetic testing have been raised. In the Environmental Triggers of Type 1 Diabetes (MIDIA study, genetic testing was performed for HLA-conferred type 1 diabetes susceptibility among Norwegian newborns. The present study assessed whether mothers of children who test positively suffer from poorer mental health and well-being after receiving genetic risk information about their children. Methods The study was based on questionnaire data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort (MoBa study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Many of the mothers in the MoBa study also took part in the MIDIA study, in which their newborn children were tested for HLA-conferred genetic susceptibility for type 1 diabetes. We used MoBa questionnaire data from the 30th week of pregnancy (baseline and 6 months post-partum (3-3.5 months after disclosure of test results. We measured maternal symptoms of anxiety and depression (SCL-8, maternal self-esteem (RSES, and satisfaction with life (SWLS. The mothers also reported whether they were seriously worried about their child 6 months post-partum. We compared questionnaire data from mothers who had received information about having a newborn with high genetic risk for type 1 diabetes (N = 166 with data from mothers who were informed that their baby did not have a high-risk genotype (N = 7224. The association between genetic risk information and maternal mental health was analysed using multiple linear regression analysis, controlling for baseline mental health scores. Results Information on genetic risk in newborns was found to have no significant impact on maternal symptoms of anxiety and depression (p = 0.9, self-esteem (p = 0.2, satisfaction with life (p = 0.2, or serious worry about their child (OR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.64-1.48. Mental health before birth was strongly associated with mental health after birth. In addition, an increased

  12. Choosing the correct empirical antibiotic for urinary tract infection in pediatric: Surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Escherichia coli by E-Test method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedighi, Iraj; Solgi, Abbas; Amanati, Ali; Alikhani, Mohammad Yousef

    2014-12-01

    Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) are of the most common bacterial diseases worldwide. We investigate the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains isolated from pediatric patients with community acquired urinary tract infection (UTI) to find a clinical guidance for choosing a right empirical antibiotic in these patients. In this cross sectional study, 100 urine specimens which were positive for E. coli had been investigated for antibiotics susceptibility pattern. The susceptibility to Co-trimoxazol (25μg), Amikacin (30μg), Ceftriaxone (30μg), Nalidixic Acid (30μg), Cefixime (5μg), and Nitrofurantoin (300μg) tested with Disk diffusion agar and MIC determined with the E-test. Mean age of patients was 38 Months. Girls had greater proportion than boys (74 versus 26%). In Disk diffusion method, 26% of the isolates were susceptible to cotrimoxazole. Susceptibility to amikacin, ceftriaxone, nitrofurantoin, nalidixic acid and cefixime was 94%, 66%, 97%, 62% and 52%, respectively. By E-Test method and according to CLSI criteria susceptibility for co-trimoxazol, amikacin, ceftriaxone and nalidixic acid was 37%, 97%, 67% and 50%, respectively. The highest percentage of agreement between Disk diffusion and E-Test method was found for amikacin (96%) and the lowest percentage for co-trimoxazole (89%). Treatment failure, prolonged or repeated hospitalization, increased costs of care, and increased mortality are some consequence of bacterial resistance in UTIs. Misuse of antibiotics in each geographic location directly affects antibiotic resistance pattern. In the treatment of UTI, proper selection of antimicrobial agents should be relevant to the bacterial susceptibility testing surveillance. According to our results, amikacin as an injectable drug and nitrofurantoin as an oral agent could be used as a drug of choice in our region for children with UTIs.

  13. Testing Of The Dual Rotary Filter System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, D.; Fowley, M.; Stefanko, D.

    2011-01-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) installed and tested two hydraulically connected SpinTek rotary microfilter (RMF) units to determine the behavior of a multiple filter system. Both units were successfully controlled by a control scheme written in DELTA-V architecture by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Process Control Engineering personnel. The control system was tuned to provide satisfactory response to changing conditions during the operation of the multi-filter system. Stability was maintained through the startup and shutdown of one of the filter units while the second was still in operation. The installation configuration originally proposed by the Small Colum Ion Exchange (SCIX) project of independent filter and motor mountings may be susceptible to vibration. Significant stiffening of the filter and motor mounts was required to minimize the vibration. Alignment of the motor to the filter was a challenge in this test configuration. The deployment configuration must be easy to manipulate and allow for fine adjustment. An analysis of the vibration signature of the test system identified critical speeds. Whether it corresponds to the resonance frequency of a rotor radial vibration mode that was excited by rotor unbalance is uncertain based upon the measurements. A relative motion series should be completed on the filter with the final shaft configuration to determine if the resonances exist in the final filter design. The instrumentation selected for deployment, including the concentrate discharge control valve and flow meters, performed well. Automation of the valve control integrated well with the control scheme and when used in concert with the other control variables, allowed automated control of the dual RMF system. The one area of concern with the instrumentation was the condition resulting when the filtrate flow meter operated with less than three gpm. This low flow was at the lower range of performance for the flow meter. This should not be

  14. TESTING OF THE DUAL ROTARY FILTER SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, D.; Fowley, M.; Stefanko, D.

    2011-08-29

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) installed and tested two hydraulically connected SpinTek rotary microfilter (RMF) units to determine the behavior of a multiple filter system. Both units were successfully controlled by a control scheme written in DELTA-V architecture by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Process Control Engineering personnel. The control system was tuned to provide satisfactory response to changing conditions during the operation of the multi-filter system. Stability was maintained through the startup and shutdown of one of the filter units while the second was still in operation. The installation configuration originally proposed by the Small Colum Ion Exchange (SCIX) project of independent filter and motor mountings may be susceptible to vibration. Significant stiffening of the filter and motor mounts was required to minimize the vibration. Alignment of the motor to the filter was a challenge in this test configuration. The deployment configuration must be easy to manipulate and allow for fine adjustment. An analysis of the vibration signature of the test system identified critical speeds. Whether it corresponds to the resonance frequency of a rotor radial vibration mode that was excited by rotor unbalance is uncertain based upon the measurements. A relative motion series should be completed on the filter with the final shaft configuration to determine if the resonances exist in the final filter design. The instrumentation selected for deployment, including the concentrate discharge control valve and flow meters, performed well. Automation of the valve control integrated well with the control scheme and when used in concert with the other control variables, allowed automated control of the dual RMF system. The one area of concern with the instrumentation was the condition resulting when the filtrate flow meter operated with less than three gpm. This low flow was at the lower range of performance for the flow meter. This should not be

  15. A methodological approach to assess beach-dune system susceptibility to erosion. Cases studies from Valdelagrana spit (Spain) and Campomarino beach (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Angela; Aucelli, Pietro P. C.; Gracia, Javier F.; Anfuso, Giorgio; Rosskopf, Carmen M.

    2016-04-01

    Dunes provide many important services to coastal areas, such as coastal erosion mitigation, coastal flooding protection and biological diversity. Their dynamic equilibrium and geomorphological evolution are the result of the interaction between marine and aeolian processes. Moreover, coastal dunes are characterized by a high ecological value, being a narrow strip between marine and terrestrial ecosystems and are habitats considered of community interest by the Habitats Directive 92/43/EEC. In the meantime, the significant increase of human pressure on coastal environments during the last decades has caused a strong alteration and an increase of the fragility and fragmentation of these habitats. This paper presents a methodological approach for the assessment of the beach-dune system susceptibility to erosion. The aim is to identify, at the local scale, the degree of susceptibility of coastal stretches in order to evaluate the degree of exposure of human settlements and natural environments located behind the dune system and to support actuations to appropriately improve dune management and conservation. A coastal susceptibility matrix and a corresponding Coastal Susceptibility Index (CSI) are proposed. Following the assumption that a good index should be based on a minimum amount of essential information (Cooper and McLaughlin, 1998), possibly already available or easy to be obtained (Villa and McLeod, 2002), the proposed index consisted into eight variables concerning existing beach and dune conditions, covering geomorphological, physical and anthropogenic aspects. Each variable was inserted into a GIS system and overlapped with the others through a logical overlay operation. The resulting layer was reclassified according to the formula proposed by Rangel and Anfuso (2015) allowing to calculate the CSI, which ranged from 1 (null/very low susceptibility) to 5 (very high susceptibility). In a further step, the predominant processes occurred in the last decades were

  16. Further Evidence of Subphenotype Association with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Susceptibility Loci: A European Cases Only Study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alonso-Perez, E.; Suarez-Gestal, M.; Calaza, M.; Ordi-Ros, J.; Bijl, M.; Papasteriades, Ch.; Carreira, P.; Skopouli, F.N.; Witte, T.; Marchini, M.; Migliaresi, S.; Santos, M.J.; Růžičková, Šárka; Pullmann, R.; Sebastiani, G.D.; Suarez, A.; Blanco, F.J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 9 (2012), e45356 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION * GENETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY * DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2012

  17. Susceptibility testing for welding of AlMg alloys intended for extrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Borowski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of research was to determine the weldability, using Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG of extruded sections made of hard-deformable 5xxx series aluminum alloys with differing magnesium content, i.e. AlMg3, AlMg4,5, AlMg5, AlMg7. Welded joints were obtained as a result of a welding process consisting of several steps. Only welds characterized by very good appearance and quality were selected for tests. As a result of conducted research, TIG welding parameters were determined for sections with a thickness of 8 mm. It was observed that alloys of differing Mg content are characterized by high weldability and do not exhibit a significant reduction of the yield point. Moreover, joints exhibit uniform hardness distribution in the welded joint and heat-affected zone. Tensile strength is reduced.

  18. Development of a tiered and binned genetic counseling model for informed consent in the era of multiplex testing for cancer susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Angela R; Patrick-Miller, Linda; Long, Jessica; Powers, Jacquelyn; Stopfer, Jill; Forman, Andrea; Rybak, Christina; Mattie, Kristin; Brandt, Amanda; Chambers, Rachelle; Chung, Wendy K; Churpek, Jane; Daly, Mary B; Digiovanni, Laura; Farengo-Clark, Dana; Fetzer, Dominique; Ganschow, Pamela; Grana, Generosa; Gulden, Cassandra; Hall, Michael; Kohler, Lynne; Maxwell, Kara; Merrill, Shana; Montgomery, Susan; Mueller, Rebecca; Nielsen, Sarah; Olopade, Olufunmilayo; Rainey, Kimberly; Seelaus, Christina; Nathanson, Katherine L; Domchek, Susan M

    2015-06-01

    Multiplex genetic testing, including both moderate- and high-penetrance genes for cancer susceptibility, is associated with greater uncertainty than traditional testing, presenting challenges to informed consent and genetic counseling. We sought to develop a new model for informed consent and genetic counseling for four ongoing studies. Drawing from professional guidelines, literature, conceptual frameworks, and clinical experience, a multidisciplinary group developed a tiered-binned genetic counseling approach proposed to facilitate informed consent and improve outcomes of cancer susceptibility multiplex testing. In this model, tier 1 "indispensable" information is presented to all patients. More specific tier 2 information is provided to support variable informational needs among diverse patient populations. Clinically relevant information is "binned" into groups to minimize information overload, support informed decision making, and facilitate adaptive responses to testing. Seven essential elements of informed consent are provided to address the unique limitations, risks, and uncertainties of multiplex testing. A tiered-binned model for informed consent and genetic counseling has the potential to address the challenges of multiplex testing for cancer susceptibility and to support informed decision making and adaptive responses to testing. Future prospective studies including patient-reported outcomes are needed to inform how to best incorporate multiplex testing for cancer susceptibility into clinical practice.Genet Med 17 6, 485-492.

  19. E3 Testing of Directed Energy Systems: A Challenging Future

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Lyndell R

    2009-01-01

    .... Compatibility testing and susceptibility to electromagnetic radiation is required. Standards, such as MIL-STD-464 and MIL-STD-237D, are being revised to include HPM levels and frequencies for E3 tests...

  20. Proposal for agar disk diffusion interpretive criteria for susceptibility testing of bovine mastitis pathogens using cefoperazone 30μg disks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feßler, Andrea T; Kaspar, Heike; Lindeman, Cynthia J; Peters, Thomas; Watts, Jeffrey L; Schwarz, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    Cefoperazone is a third generation cephalosporin which is commonly used for bovine mastitis therapy. Bacterial pathogens involved in bovine mastitis are frequently tested for their susceptibility to cefoperazone. So far, the cefoperazone susceptibility testing using 30μg disks has been hampered by the lack of quality control (QC) ranges as well as the lack of interpretive criteria. In 2014, QC ranges for 30 μg cefoperazone disks have been established for Staphylococcus aureus ATCC ® 25923 and Escherichia coli ATCC ® 25922. As a next step, interpretive criteria for the susceptibility testing of bovine mastitis pathogens should be developed. For this, 637 bovine mastitis pathogens (including 112 S. aureus, 121 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), 103 E. coli, 101 Streptococcus agalactiae, 100 Streptococcus dysgalactiae and 100 Streptococcus uberis) were investigated by agar disk diffusion according to the document Vet01-A4 of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) using 30μg cefoperazone disks and the results were compared to the corresponding MIC values as determined by broth microdilution also according to the aforementioned CLSI document. Based on the results obtained and taking into account the achievable milk concentration of cefoperazone after regular dosing, the following interpretive criteria were proposed as a guidance for mastitis diagnostic laboratories: for staphylococci and E. coli ≥23mm (susceptible), 18-22mm (intermediate) and ≤17mm (resistant) and for streptococci ≥18mm (susceptible), and ≤17mm (non-susceptible). These proposed interpretive criteria shall contribute to a harmonization of cefoperazone susceptibility testing of bovine mastitis pathogens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Test results of HTTR control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motegi, Toshihiro; Iigaki, Kazuhiko; Saito, Kenji; Sawahata, Hiroaki; Hirato, Yoji; Kondo, Makoto; Shibutani, Hideki; Ogawa, Satoru; Shinozaki, Masayuki; Mizushima, Toshihiko; Kawasaki, Kozo

    2006-06-01

    The plant control performance of the IHX helium flow rate control system, the PPWC helium flow rate control system, the secondary helium flow rate control system, the inlet temperature control system, the reactor power control system and the outlet temperature control system of the HTTR are obtained through function tests and power-up tests. As the test results, the control systems show stable control response under transient condition. Both of inlet temperature control system and reactor power control system shows stable operation from 30% to 100%, respectively. This report describes the outline of control systems and test results. (author)

  2. Genotyping and drug susceptibility testing of mycobacterial isolates from population-based tuberculosis prevalence survey in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addo, Kennedy Kwasi; Addo, Samuel Ofori; Mensah, Gloria Ivy; Mosi, Lydia; Bonsu, Frank Adae

    2017-12-02

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and Non-tuberculosis Mycobacterium (NTM) infections differ clinically, making rapid identification and drug susceptibility testing (DST) very critical for infection control and drug therapy. This study aims to use World Health Organization (WHO) approved line probe assay (LPA) to differentiate mycobacterial isolates obtained from tuberculosis (TB) prevalence survey in Ghana and to determine their drug resistance patterns. A retrospective study was conducted whereby a total of 361 mycobacterial isolates were differentiated and their drug resistance patterns determined using GenoType Mycobacterium Assays: MTBC and CM/AS for differentiating MTBC and NTM as well MTBDRplus and NTM-DR for DST of MTBC and NTM respectively. Out of 361 isolates, 165 (45.7%) MTBC and 120 (33.2%) NTM (made up of 14 different species) were identified to the species levels whiles 76 (21.1%) could not be completely identified. The MTBC comprised 161 (97.6%) Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 4 (2.4%) Mycobacterium africanum. Isoniazid and rifampicin monoresistant MTBC isolates were 18/165 (10.9%) and 2/165(1.2%) respectively whiles 11/165 (6.7%) were resistant to both drugs. Majority 42/120 (35%) of NTM were M. fortuitum. DST of 28 M. avium complex and 8 M. abscessus complex species revealed that all were susceptible to macrolides (clarithromycin, azithromycin) and aminoglycosides (kanamycin, amikacin, and gentamicin). Our research signifies an important contribution to TB control in terms of knowledge of the types of mycobacterium species circulating and their drug resistance patterns in Ghana.

  3. System Testing of Desktop and Web Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, James M.

    2011-01-01

    We want our students to experience system testing of both desktop and web applications, but the cost of professional system-testing tools is far too high. We evaluate several free tools and find that AutoIt makes an ideal educational system-testing tool. We show several examples of desktop and web testing with AutoIt, starting with simple…

  4. A stepwise procedure to test contractility and susceptibility to injury for the rodent quadriceps muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J.P. Pratt

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In patients with muscle injury or muscle disease, assessment of muscle damage is typically limited to clinical signs, such as tenderness, strength, range of motion, and more recently, imaging studies.  Biological markers can also be used in measuring muscle injury, such as increased creatine kinase levels in the blood, but these are not always correlated with loss in muscle function (i.e. loss of force production.  This is even true of histological findings from animals, which provide a “direct measure” of damage, but do not account for loss of function.  The most comprehensive measure of the overall health of the muscle is contractile force.  To date, animal models testing contractile force have been limited to the muscle groups moving the ankle.  Here we describe an in vivo animal model for the quadriceps, with abilities to measure torque, produce a reliable muscle injury, and follow muscle recovery within the same animal over time.  We also describe a second model used for direct measurement of force from an isolated quadriceps muscle in situ. 

  5. Testing of a Microanalysis System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2001-01-01

    During the testing of microsystems, one has to cope with many problems resulting from inaccessibility, different technologies, and nonelectrical failure modes. A number of mixed-signal test techniques have been applied to test a new advanced microsystem. The choices on testing are directly dependent

  6. Susceptibility testing of terbinafine alone and in combination with amphotericin B, itraconazole, or voriconazole against conidia and hyphae of dematiaceous molds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancalana, Fernanda Simas Corrêa; Lyra, Luzia; Moretti, Maria Luiza; Schreiber, Angélica Zaninelli

    2011-12-01

    Studies have demonstrated excellent in vivo efficacy of terbinafine combined with other antifungal agents against dematiaceous molds; however, there is a lack of in vitro studies. Most studies evaluated conidia inocula, but susceptibility testing of hyphae could mimic the fungal status in infected tissues and might reflect the therapeutic potential of the agent. We investigated the in vitro susceptibility of terbinafine alone and in combination with amphotericin B, itraconazole, or voriconazole against conidia by microdilution and dynamic measurement of hyphae growth of dematiaceous molds. The MIC values for hyphae were, until 3 dilutions, below the MIC obtained for conidia. The results indicated 100% synergistic interactions between terbinafine and azoles or amphotericin B in all tests, but lower MICs for hyphae. In conclusion, our findings allow us to say that the hyphal form of tested dematiaceous molds showed high susceptibility to all antifungal agents evaluated, alone and in combination with terbinafine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Pathogen-triggered ethylene signaling mediates systemic-induced susceptibility to herbivory in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Simon C; Whiteman, Noah K; Bahrami, Adam K; Wilczek, Amity M; Cui, Jianping; Russell, Jacob A; Cibrian-Jaramillo, Angelica; Butler, Ian A; Rana, Jignasha D; Huang, Guo-Hua; Bush, Jenifer; Ausubel, Frederick M; Pierce, Naomi E

    2013-11-01

    Multicellular eukaryotic organisms are attacked by numerous parasites from diverse phyla, often simultaneously or sequentially. An outstanding question in these interactions is how hosts integrate signals induced by the attack of different parasites. We used a model system comprised of the plant host Arabidopsis thaliana, the hemibiotrophic bacterial phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae, and herbivorous larvae of the moth Trichoplusia ni (cabbage looper) to characterize mechanisms involved in systemic-induced susceptibility (SIS) to T. ni herbivory caused by prior infection by virulent P. syringae. We uncovered a complex multilayered induction mechanism for SIS to herbivory. In this mechanism, antiherbivore defenses that depend on signaling via (1) the jasmonic acid-isoleucine conjugate (JA-Ile) and (2) other octadecanoids are suppressed by microbe-associated molecular pattern-triggered salicylic acid (SA) signaling and infection-triggered ethylene signaling, respectively. SIS to herbivory is, in turn, counteracted by a combination of the bacterial JA-Ile mimic coronatine and type III virulence-associated effectors. Our results show that SIS to herbivory involves more than antagonistic signaling between SA and JA-Ile and provide insight into the unexpectedly complex mechanisms behind a seemingly simple trade-off in plant defense against multiple enemies.

  8. Testing of nuclear air-cleaning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    A standard is presented which describes methods for field-testing nuclear power plant air cleaning systems. Included are specifications for visual inspection; duct and housing leak test; mounting frame pressure leak test; airflow capacity, distribution, and residence time tests; air-aerosol mixing uniformity test; in place leak test of HEPA filter banks; multiple sampling technique; in-place leak test of adsorber stage; laboratory testing of adsorbent; and duct heater performance test

  9. Fatigue tests of dowel-socket systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, D.D.

    1976-01-01

    A test program was conducted to determine the fatigue behavior of LHTGR fuel element dowel/socket systems. Two dowel/socket systems, namely, a four-dowel system and a five-dowel system, were tested to failure under shear loads applied through a fatigue test apparatus to simulate repetitive loading during a seismic event

  10. Energy Systems Test Area (ESTA) Electrical Power Systems Test Operations: User Test Planning Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Test process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the ESTA Electrical Power Systems Test Laboratory. The User Test Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their test engineering personnel in test planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the test process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, test article interfaces, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  11. Analytic laboratory performance of a point of care urine culture kit for diagnosis and antibiotic susceptibility testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongard, E; Frimodt-Møller, N; Gal, M; Wootton, M; Howe, R; Francis, N; Goossens, H; Butler, C C

    2015-10-01

    Currently available point-of-care (POC) diagnostic tests for managing urinary tract infections (UTIs) in general practice are limited by poor performance characteristics, and laboratory culture generally provides results only after a few days. This laboratory evaluation compared the analytic performance of the POC UK Flexicult(™) (Statens Serum Institut) (SSI) urinary kit for quantification, identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing and routine UK National Health Service (NHS) urine processing to an advanced urine culture method. Two hundred urine samples routinely submitted to the Public Health Wales Microbiology Laboratory were divided and: (1) analysed by routine NHS microbiological tests as per local laboratory standard operating procedures, (2) inoculated onto the UK Flexicult(™) SSI urinary kit and (3) spiral plated onto Colorex Orientation UTI medium (E&O Laboratories Ltd). The results were evaluated between the NHS and Flexicult(™ )methods, and discordant results were compared to the spiral plating method. The UK Flexicult(™) SSI urinary kit was compared to routine NHS culture for identification of a pure or predominant uropathogen at ≥ 10(5) cfu/mL, with a positive discordancy rate of 13.5% and a negative discordancy rate of 3%. The sensitivity and specificity were 86.7% [95% confidence interval (CI) 73.8-93.7] and 82.6% (95% CI 75.8-87.7), respectively. The UK Flexicult(™) SSI urinary kit was comparable to routine NHS urine processing in identifying microbiologically positive UTIs in this laboratory evaluation. However, the number of false-positive samples could lead to over-prescribing of antibiotics in clinical practice. The Flexicult(™) SSI kit could be useful as a POC test for UTIs in primary care but further pragmatic evaluations are necessary.

  12. Association of TNFAIP3 Polymorphism with Susceptibility to Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in a Japanese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya Kawasaki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent genome-wide association studies demonstrated association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the TNFAIP3 region at 6q23 with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE in European-American populations. In this study, we investigated whether SNPs in the TNFAIP3 region are associated with SLE also in a Japanese population. A case-control association study was performed on the SNPs rs13192841, rs2230926, and rs6922466 in 318 Japanese SLE patients and 444 healthy controls. Association of rs2230926 G allele with SLE was replicated in Japanese (allelic association P=.033, odds ratio [OR] 1.47, recessive model P=.023, OR 8.52. The association was preferentially observed in the SLE patients with nephritis. When the TNFAIP3 mRNA levels of the HapMap samples were examined using GENEVAR database, the presence of TNFAIP3 rs2230926 G allele was associated with lower mRNA expression of TNFAIP3 (P=.013. These results indicated that TNFAIP3 is a susceptibility gene to SLE both in the Caucasian and Asian populations.

  13. Comparison of an antioxidant system in tolerant and susceptible wheat seedlings in response to salt stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feki, K.; Tounsi, S.; Brini, F.

    2017-07-01

    It has been demonstrated previously that the physiological and molecular analysis of seedlings of the tolerant (Om Rabia3) and susceptible (Mahmoudi) Tunisian wheat genotypes were different at short and long-term response to salinity. In this study, we examined the antioxidant defence system in seedlings of these two cultivars at short-term response to different NaCl concentrations. The findings showed that high salinity tolerance of cv. Om Rabia3, as manifested by lower decrease in its dry biomass, was associated with lower malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide contents, lower accumulation of the superoxide (O2⎯) in the roots and the shoots, and also lower decrease in ascorbate content than those in cv. Mahmoudi. Moreover, the expression of some genes coding for antioxidant enzymes such as the catalase, the superoxide dismutase and the peroxidase were enhanced by NaCl stress especially in the salt-tolerant cultivar. In parallel, their activities were increased in response to the same condition of stress and especially in the cv. Om Rabia3. Taken together, these data suggested that the capacity to limit oxidative damage is important for NaCl tolerance of durum wheat.

  14. Testing lifting systems in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kling, H.; Laug, R.

    1984-01-01

    Lifting systems in nuclear facilities must be inspected at regular intervals after having undergone their first acceptance test. These inspections are frequently carried out by service firms which not only employ the skilled personnel required for such jobs but also make available the necessary test equipment. The inspections in particular include a number of sophisticated load tests for which test load systems have been developed to allow lifting systems to be tested so that reactor specific boundary conditions are taken into account. In view of the large number of facilities to be inspected, the test load system is a modular system. (orig.) [de

  15. A 96-well-plate-based optical method for the quantitative and qualitative evaluation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation and its application to susceptibility testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müsken, Mathias; Di Fiore, Stefano; Römling, Ute; Häussler, Susanne

    2010-08-01

    A major reason for bacterial persistence during chronic infections is the survival of bacteria within biofilm structures, which protect cells from environmental stresses, host immune responses and antimicrobial therapy. Thus, there is concern that laboratory methods developed to measure the antibiotic susceptibility of planktonic bacteria may not be relevant to chronic biofilm infections, and it has been suggested that alternative methods should test antibiotic susceptibility within a biofilm. In this paper, we describe a fast and reliable protocol for using 96-well microtiter plates for the formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms; the method is easily adaptable for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. This method is based on bacterial viability staining in combination with automated confocal laser scanning microscopy. The procedure simplifies qualitative and quantitative evaluation of biofilms and has proven to be effective for standardized determination of antibiotic efficiency on P. aeruginosa biofilms. The protocol can be performed within approximately 60 h.

  16. Advances in rapid identification and susceptibility testing of bacteria in the clinical microbiology laboratory: implications for patient care and antimicrobial stewardship programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian P. Maurer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Early availability of information on bacterial pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility is of key importance for the management of infectious diseases patients. Currently, using traditional approaches, it usually takes at least 48 hours for identification and susceptibility testing of bacterial pathogens. Therefore, the slowness of diagnostic procedures drives prolongation of empiric, potentially inappropriate, antibacterial therapies. Over the last couple of years, the improvement of available techniques (e.g. for susceptibility testing, DNA amplification assays, and introduction of novel technologies (e.g. MALDI-TOF has fundamentally changed approaches towards pathogen identification and characterization. Importantly, these techniques offer increased diagnostic resolution while at the same time shorten the time-to-result, and are thus of obvious importance for antimicrobial stewardship. In this review, we will discuss recent advances in medical microbiology with special emphasis on the impact of novel techniques on antimicrobial stewardship programs.

  17. Profiling of Leptospira interrogans, L. santarosai, L. meyeri and L. borgpetersenii by SE-AFLP, PFGE and susceptibility testing--a continuous attempt at species and serovar differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Luisa Z; Miraglia, Fabiana; Lilenbaum, Walter; Neto, José S F; Freitas, Julio C; Morais, Zenaide M; Hartskeerl, Rudy A; da Costa, Barbara L P; Vasconcellos, Silvio A; Moreno, Andrea M

    2016-03-09

    Leptospirosis is a widespread systemic zoonosis, considered as reemerging in certain developing countries. Although the cross agglutinin absorption test is still considered the standard method for Leptospira identification, it presents several disadvantages. The aim of this study was to characterize Leptospira spp. isolated from various hosts by genotyping and broth microdilution susceptibility testing in an attempt to differentiate Leptospira species, serogroups and serovars. Forty-seven isolates were studied. They were previously serotyped, and species confirmation was performed by 16S rRNA sequencing. Single-enzyme amplified fragment length polymorphism (SE-AFLP) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis enabled the distinction of L. interrogans from L. santarosai, L. meyeri and L. borgpetersenii in two main clusters. Among L. interrogans, it was possible to differentiate into two new clusters the serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae from the serogroups Canicola and Pomona. L. santarosai isolates presented higher genetic variation than the other species in both techniques. Interestingly, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) cluster analysis also provided Leptospira serogroup differentiation. Further studies are necessary regarding serovar Bananal isolates, as they presented the highest MIC values for most of the antimicrobials tested. All studied techniques successfully distinguished Leptospira species and serogroups. Despite being library-dependent methods, these approaches are less labor intensive and more economically viable, particularly SE-AFLP, and can be implemented in most reference laboratories worldwide to enable faster Leptospira typing.

  18. Evaluation by the Double Loop Electrochemical Potentiokinetic Reactivation Test of Aged Ferritic Stainless Steel Intergranular Corrosion Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhom, H.; Amadou, T.; Braham, C.

    2010-12-01

    An experimental design method was used to determine the effect of factors that significantly affect the response of the double loop-electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (DL-EPR) test in controlling the susceptibility to intergranular corrosion (IGC) of UNS S43000 (AISI 430) ferritic stainless steel. The test response is expressed in terms of the reactivation/activation current ratio ( I r / I a pct). Test results analysed by the analysis of variance (ANOVA) method show that the molarity of the H2SO4 electrolyte and the potential scanning rate have a more significant effect on the DL-EPR test response than the temperature and the depassivator agent concentration. On the basis of these results, a study was conducted in order to determine the optimal operating conditions of the test as a nondestructive technique for evaluating IGC resistance of ferritic stainless steel components. Three different heat treatments are considered in this study: solution annealing (nonsensitized), aging during 3 hours at 773 K (500 °C) (slightly sensitized), and aging during 2 hours at 873 K (600 °C) (highly sensitized). The aim is to find the operating conditions that simultaneously ensure the selectivity of the attack (intergranular and chromium depleted zone) and are able to detect the effect of low dechromization. It is found that a potential scanning rate of 2.5 mV/s in an electrolyte composed of H2SO4 3 M solution without depassivator, at a temperature around 293 K (20 °C), is the optimal operating condition for the DL-EPR test. Using this condition, it is possible to assess the degree of sensitization (DOS) to the IGC of products manufactured in ferritic stainless steels rapidly, reliably, and quantitatively. A time-temperature-start of sensitization (TTS) diagram for the UNS S43000 (France Inox, Villepinte, France) stainless steel was obtained with acceptable accuracy by this method when the IGC sensitization criterion was set to I r / I a > 1 pct. This diagram is in

  19. Second line drug susceptibility testing to inform the treatment of rifampin-resistant tuberculosis: a quantitative perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. Kendall

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Treatment failure and resistance amplification are common among patients with rifampin-resistant tuberculosis (TB. Drug susceptibility testing (DST for second-line drugs is recommended for these patients, but logistical difficulties have impeded widespread implementation of second-line DST in many settings. To provide a quantitative perspective on the decision to scale up second-line DST, we synthesize literature on the prevalence of second-line drug resistance, the expected clinical and epidemiologic benefits of using second-line DST to ensure that patients with rifampin-resistant TB receive effective regimens, and the costs of implementing (or not implementing second-line DST for all individuals diagnosed with rifampin-resistant TB. We conclude that, in most settings, second-line DST could substantially improve treatment outcomes for patients with rifampin-resistant TB, reduce transmission of drug-resistant TB, prevent amplification of drug resistance, and be affordable or even cost-saving. Given the large investment made in each patient treated for rifampin-resistant TB, these payoffs would come at relatively small incremental cost. These anticipated benefits likely justify addressing the real challenges faced in implementing second-line DST in most high-burden settings.

  20. Genetic diversity of Aspergillus species isolated from onychomycosis and Aspergillus hongkongensis sp. nov., with implications to antifungal susceptibility testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Chi-Ching; Hui, Teresa W S; Lee, Kim-Chung; Chen, Jonathan H K; Ngan, Antonio H Y; Tam, Emily W T; Chan, Jasper F W; Wu, Andrea L; Cheung, Mei; Tse, Brian P H; Wu, Alan K L; Lai, Christopher K C; Tsang, Dominic N C; Que, Tak-Lun; Lam, Ching-Wan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2016-02-01

    Thirteen Aspergillus isolates recovered from nails of 13 patients (fingernails, n=2; toenails, n=11) with onychomycosis were characterized. Twelve strains were identified by multilocus sequencing as Aspergillus spp. (Aspergillus sydowii [n=4], Aspergillus welwitschiae [n=3], Aspergillus terreus [n=2], Aspergillus flavus [n=1], Aspergillus tubingensis [n=1], and Aspergillus unguis [n=1]). Isolates of A. terreus, A. flavus, and A. unguis were also identifiable by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The 13th isolate (HKU49(T)) possessed unique morphological characteristics different from other Aspergillus spp. Molecular characterization also unambiguously showed that HKU49(T) was distinct from other Aspergillus spp. We propose the novel species Aspergillus hongkongensis to describe this previously unknown fungus. Antifungal susceptibility testing showed most Aspergillus isolates had low MICs against itraconazole and voriconazole, but all Aspergillus isolates had high MICs against fluconazole. A diverse spectrum of Aspergillus species is associated with onychomycosis. Itraconazole and voriconazole are probably better drug options for Aspergillus onychomycosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification of treatment strategies for Mycoplasma genitalium-related urethritis in male patients by culturing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamasuna, Ryoichi

    2013-02-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium was first isolated from urethral swab specimens of male patients with non-gonococcal urethritis. However, the isolation of M. genitalium strains from clinical specimens has been difficult. Co-cultivation with Vero cells is one available technique for the isolation of M. genitalium. The strains that can be used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing by broth dilution or agar dilution methods are limited. Macrolides, such as azithromycin (AZM), have the strongest activity against M. genitalium. However, AZM-resistant strains have emerged and spread. Mutations in the 23S rRNA gene contribute to the organism's macrolide resistance, which is similar to the effects of the mutations in macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Of the fluoroquinolones, moxifloxacin (MFLX) and sitafloxacin have the strongest activities against M. genitalium, while levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin are not as effective. Some clinical trials on the treatment of M. genitalium-related urethritis are available in the literature. A doxycycline regimen was microbiologically inferior to an AZM regimen. For cases of treatment failure with AZM regimens, MFLX regimens were effective.

  2. HLA variants rs9271366 and rs9275328 are associated with systemic lupus erythematosus susceptibility in Malays and Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, H C; Phipps, M E; Othman, I; Tan, L P; Chua, K H

    2013-02-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antigens and genes have long been reported associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) susceptibility in many populations. With the advance in technologies such as genome-wide association studies, many newly discovered SLE-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been reported in recent years. These include HLA-DRB1/HLA-DQA1 rs9271366 and HLA-DQB1/HLA-DQA2 rs9275328. Our aim was to investigate these SNPs in a Malaysian SLE cohort. SNPs rs9271366 and rs9275328 were screened across 790 Malaysian citizens from three ethnic groups (360 patients and 430 healthy volunteers) by Taqman SNP genotyping assays. Allele and genotyping frequencies, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, Fisher's exact test and odds ratio were calculated for each SNP and ethnic group. Linkage disequilibrium and interaction between the two SNPs were also evaluated. The minor allele G and its homozygous genotype GG of HLA-DRB1/HLA-DQA1 rs9271366 significantly increased the SLE susceptibility in Malaysian patients, including those of Malay and Chinese ethnicity (odds ratio (OR) > 1, p < 0.05). As for HLA-DQB1/HLA-DQA2 rs9275328, the minor allele T and the heterozygous genotype CT conferred protective effect to SLE in Malaysians, as well as in Malays and Chinese, by having OR < 1 and p value <0.05. Both SNPs did not show associations to SLE in Indians. D' and r (2) values for the two SNPs in LD analysis were 0.941 and 0.065, respectively, with haplotype GC and AT being significantly associated with SLE (p < 5.0 × 10(-4)) after 10,000 permutations were performed. The MDR test clustered the genotype combinations of GG and CC, and AG and CC of rs9271366 and rs9275328, accordingly, as high-risk group, and the two SNPs interacted redundantly by removing 1.96% of the entropy. Our findings suggest that in addition to some classical HLA variants, rs9271366 and rs9275328 are additional polymorphisms worth considering in the Malaysian and possibly in

  3. TMACS Test Procedure TP007: System administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanlan, P.; Washburn, S.; Seghers, R.

    1994-01-01

    The TMACS Software Project Test Procedures translate the project's acceptance criteria into test steps. Software releases are certified when the affected Test Procedures are successfully performed and the customers authorize installation of these changes. This Test Procedure tests the TMACS System Administration functions

  4. Tritium systems test assembly stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasen, William G.; Michelotti, Roy A.; Anast, Kurt R.; Tesch, Charles

    2004-01-01

    The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) was a facility dedicated to tritium technology Research and Development (R and D) primarily for future fusion power reactors. The facility was conceived in mid 1970's, operations commenced in early 1980's, stabilization and deactivation began in 2000 and were completed in 2003. The facility will remain in a Surveillance and Maintenance (S and M) mode until the Department of Energy (DOE) funds demolition of the facility, tentatively in 2009. A safe and stable end state was achieved by the TSTA Facility Stabilization Project (TFSP) in anticipation of long term S and M. At the start of the stabilization project, with an inventory of approximately 140 grams of tritium, the facility was designated a Hazard Category (HC) 2 Non-Reactor Nuclear facility as defined by US Department of Energy standard DOE-STD-1027-92 (1997). The TSTA facility comprises a laboratory area, supporting rooms, offices and associated laboratory space that included more than 20 major tritium handling systems. The project's focus was to reduce the tritium inventory by removing bulk tritium, tritiated water wastes, and tritium-contaminated high-inventory components. Any equipment that remained in the facility was stabilized in place. All of the gloveboxes and piping were rendered inoperative and vented to atmosphere. All equipment, and inventoried tritium contamination, remaining in the facility was left in a safe-and-stable state. The project used the End Points process as defined by the DOE Office of Environmental Management (web page http://www.em.doe.- gov/deact/epman.htmtlo) document and define the end state required for the stabilization of TSTA Facility. The End Points process added structure that was beneficial through virtually all phases of the project. At completion of the facility stabilization project the residual tritium inventory was approximately 3,000 curies, considerably less than the 1.6-gram threshold for a HC 3 facility. TSTA is now

  5. Susceptibility Testing by Polymerase Chain Reaction DNA Quantitation: A Method to Measure Drug Resistance of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eron, Joseph J.; Gorczyca, Paul; Kaplan, Joan C.; D'Aquila, Richard T.

    1992-04-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) DNA quantitation (PDQ) susceptibility testing rapidly and directly measures nucleoside sensitivity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates. PCR is used to quantitate the amount of HIV-1 DNA synthesized after in vitro infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The relative amounts of HIV-1 DNA in cell lysates from cultures maintained at different drug concentrations reflect drug inhibition of virus replication. The results of PDQ susceptibility testing of 2- or 3-day cultures are supported by assays measuring HIV-1 p24 antigen production in supernatants of 7- or 10-day cultures. DNA sequence analyses to identify mutations in the reverse transcriptase gene that cause resistance to 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine also support the PDQ results. With the PDQ method, both infectivity titration and susceptibility testing can be performed on supernatants from primary cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. PDQ susceptibility testing should facilitate epidemiologic studies of the clinical significance of drug-resistant HIV-1 isolates.

  6. International and multicenter comparison of EUCAST and CLSI M27-A2 broth microdilution methods for testing susceptibilities of Candida spp. to fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espinel-Ingroff, A.; Barchiesi, F.; Cuenca-Estrella, M.; Pfaller, M.A.; Rinaldi, M.; Rodriguez-Tudela, J.L.; Verweij, P.E.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare MICs of fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole obtained by the European Committee on Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) and CLSI (formerly NCCLS) methods in each of six centers for 15 Candida albicans (5 fluconazole-resistant and 4

  7. Testing Digital Electronic Protection Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gabourin, S

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines the core concepts and realisation of the Safe Machine Parameters Controller (SMPC) testbench, based on a VME crate and LabVIEW program. Its main goal is to ensure the correct function of the SMPC for the protection of the CERN accelerator complex. To achieve this, the tester has been built to replicate the machine environment and operation, in order to ensure that the chassis under test is completely exercised. The complexity of the task increases with the number of input combinations. This paper also outlines the benefits and weaknesses of developing a test suite independently of the hardware being tested, using the “V” approach.

  8. Preoperational test report, primary ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-01-01

    This represents a preoperational test report for Primary Ventilation Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides vapor space filtered venting of tanks AY101, AY102, AZ101, AZ102. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System

  9. Preoperational test report, primary ventilation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-11-04

    This represents a preoperational test report for Primary Ventilation Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides vapor space filtered venting of tanks AY101, AY102, AZ101, AZ102. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  10. Preoperational test report, vent building ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-01-01

    This represents a preoperational test report for Vent Building Ventilation Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) for the W-030 Ventilation Building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System

  11. Presence of Type I-F CRISPR/Cas systems is associated with antimicrobial susceptibility in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Seyid; Personne, Yoann; Newire, Enas; Laverick, Rebecca; Russell, Oliver; Roberts, Adam P; Enne, Virve I

    2017-08-01

    Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) and their associated cas genes are sequence-specific DNA nuclease systems found in bacteria and archaea. CRISPR/Cas systems use RNA transcripts of previously acquired DNA (spacers) to target invading genetic elements with the same sequence, including plasmids. In this research we studied the relationship between CRISPR/Cas systems and multidrug resistance in Escherichia coli . The presence of Type I-E and Type I-F CRISPR systems was investigated among 82 antimicrobial-susceptible and 96 MDR clinical E. coli isolates by PCR and DNA sequencing. Phylogrouping and MLST were performed to determine relatedness of isolates. RT-PCR was performed to ascertain the expression of associated cas genes. Type I-F CRISPR was associated with the B2 phylogroup and was significantly overrepresented in the susceptible group (22.0%) compared with the MDR group (2.1%). The majority of CRISPR I-F-containing isolates had spacer sequences that matched IncF and IncI plasmids. RT-PCR demonstrated that Type I-F cas genes were expressed and therefore potentially functional. The CRISPR I-F system is more likely to be found in antimicrobial-susceptible E. coli . Given that the Type I-F system is expressed in WT isolates, we suggest that this difference could be due to the CRISPR system potentially interfering with the acquisition of antimicrobial resistance plasmids, maintaining susceptibility in these isolates. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Qualification and testing of CT systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartscher, Markus; Neuschaefer-Rube, Ulrich; Illemann, Jens

    2018-01-01

    This chapter focuses on system verification and conformance to specifications. System qualification is carried out to ensure that the system and itscomponents achieve the best performance—usually corresponding to the specificationsmade by the manufacturer. Acceptance and reverification testing ar...

  13. Electromagnetic Environmental Effects System Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-02

    Frequency List for Ground Systems. Frequency (MHz) Polarization (POL) Modulation (MOD) Electric Field Intensity V/m 3.03 V AM 50 4 V AM 50...21 September 2009 B-6 Table B-2. Sample External RF EME Frequency List for Ground Systems. Frequency (MHz) Polarization (POL) Modulation...438 V/H AM/FM/PM 50 TOP 1-2-511 21 September 2009 B-7 Table B-2. Sample External RF EME Frequency List for Ground Systems. Frequency (MHz

  14. Energy Systems High-Pressure Test Laboratory | Energy Systems Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facility | NREL Energy Systems High-Pressure Test Laboratory Energy Systems High-Pressure Test Laboratory In the Energy Systems Integration Facility's High-Pressure Test Laboratory, researchers can safely test high-pressure hydrogen components. Photo of researchers running an experiment with a hydrogen fuel

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility of quinupristin/dalfopristin tested against gram-positive cocci from Latin America: results from the Global SMART (GSMART surveillance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sader Helio S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Gram-positive cocci are important causes of both nosocomial and community-acquired infections, and antimicrobial resistance among these pathogens has become an important problem worldwide. Since resistance among these organisms can vary substantially by geographic location, we conducted a multicenter surveillance study with isolates from five Latin American countries (15 medical centers. Quinupristin/dalfopristin (formerly RP-59500 is a novel streptogramin combination with focused activity against Gram-positive cocci, many exhibiting emerging resistance. The in vitro activity of quinupristin/dalfopristin and 12 other antimicrobial agents were evaluated against 1,948 strains including Staphylococcus aureus (747 strains, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS; 446 strains, enterococci (429 strains, and various Streptococcus spp. (326 strains. Oxacillin resistance was observed in 41% of S. aureus (MIC, or = 13 mm and 40% of CoNS (MIC, or = 18 mm. Vancomycin, teicoplanin, and quinupristin/dalfopristin (MIC90, 0.25 - 1 mug/ml remained effective against all strains, but cross-resistance was high among other tested drugs. The quinupristin/dalfopristin MIC50 for Streptococcus pneumoniae and other streptococci was only 0.5 mug/ml (13% to 28% were penicillin-resistant; 12% to 22% were macrolide-resistant. Enterococci demonstrated variable inhibition by quinupristin/dalfopristin depending upon identification and the susceptibility testing method used. The demonstrated quinupristin/dalfopristin activity against Enterococcus faecium was confirmed, but potential species identification errors with various commercial systems continue to confuse susceptibility statistics, even though some strains of E. faecium confirmed by PCR-based or other molecular identification techniques did have quinupristin/dalfopristin MICs of > or = 4 mug/mL. Most important, glycopeptide-resistant enterococci are rapidly emerging in Latin America, and quinupristin/dalfopristin appears

  16. Consenso sobre las pruebas de sensibilidad a los antimicrobianos en Enterobacteriaceae Consensus for antimicrobial susceptibility testing for Enterobacteriaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Famiglietti

    2005-03-01

    , and the experience from its members and some invited microbiologists, a consensus was obtained for antimicrobial susceptibility testing and interpretation in most frequent enterobacterial species isolated from clinical samples in our region. This document describes the natural antimicrobial resistance of some Enterobacteriaceae family members, including the resistance profiles due to their own chromosomal encoded beta-lactamases. A list of the antimicrobial agents that should be tested, their position on the agar plates, in order to detect the most frequent antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, and considerations on which antimicrobial agents should be reported regarding to the infection site and patient characteristics are included. Also, a description on appropriate phenotypic screening and confirmatory test for detection of prevalent extended spectrum beta-lactamases in our region are presented. Finally, a summary on frequent antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and their probably associated resistance mechanisms, and some infrequent antimicrobial resistance profiles that deserve confirmation are outlined.

  17. Antifungal susceptibility testing of Aspergillus species complex in the Clinical Laboratory: how to do it, when to do it, and how to interpret it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Manso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of drug resistance in fungal pathogens has a profound impact on human health given limited number of antifungal drugs. Antifungal resistance in Aspergillus spp. infection can be encountered in the antifungal drug-exposed patient due to selection of intrinsically resistant species or isolates with acquired resistance belonging to species that are normally susceptible. Resistance to triazoles is not common in Aspergillus spp., however, triazole resistance in A. fumigatus appears to be increasing in several European countries in recent years and can be clinically relevant. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing have developed breakpoints and epidemiological cutoff values that are now established for Aspergillus spp. Clinical microbiology laboratories will be employed commercial susceptibility assays, rather than reference broth microdilution methods and comparative studies are particularly important.

  18. Minicomputer controlled test system for process control and monitoring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worster, L.D.

    A minicomputer controlled test system for testing process control and monitoring systems is described. This system, in service for over one year, has demonstrated that computerized control of such testing has a real potential for expanding the scope of the testing, improving accuracy of testing, and significantly reducing the time required to do the testing. The test system is built around a 16-bit minicomputer with 12K of memory. The system programming language is BASIC with the addition of assembly level routines for communication with the peripheral devices. The peripheral devices include a 100 channel scanner, analog-to-digital converter, visual display, and strip printer. (auth)

  19. Detailed modelling of the susceptibility of a thermally populated, strongly driven circuit-QED system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kockum, Anton Frisk; Johansson, Göran; Sandberg, Martin; Vissers, Michael R; Gao, Jiansong; Pappas, David P

    2013-01-01

    We present measurements and modelling of the susceptibility of a 2D microstrip cavity coupled to a driven transmon qubit. We are able to fit the response of the cavity to a weak probe signal with high accuracy in the strong coupling, low detuning, i.e., non-dispersive, limit over a wide bandwidth. The observed spectrum is rich in multi-photon processes for the doubly dressed transmon. These features are well explained by including the higher transmon levels in the driven Jaynes–Cummings model and solving the full master equation to calculate the susceptibility of the cavity. (paper)

  20. Testing Infrastructure for Operating System Kernel Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Maxwell; Karlsson, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Testing is an important part of system development, and to test effectively we require knowledge of the internal state of the system under test. Testing an operating system kernel is a challenge as it is the operating system that typically provides access to this internal state information. Multi......-core kernels pose an even greater challenge due to concurrency and their shared kernel state. In this paper, we present a testing framework that addresses these challenges by running the operating system in a virtual machine, and using virtual machine introspection to both communicate with the kernel...... and obtain information about the system. We have also developed an in-kernel testing API that we can use to develop a suite of unit tests in the kernel. We are using our framework for for the development of our own multi-core research kernel....

  1. Test software for BESIII MDC electronics system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongyu; Sheng Huayi; Zhu Haitao; Ji Xiaolu; Zhao Dongxu

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the design of Test System Software for BESIII MDC Electronics. Two kinds of test systems, SBS VP7 based and PowerPC based systems, and their corresponding test software are introduced. The software is developed in LabVIEW 7.1 and Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0, some test functions of the software, as well as their user interfaces, are described in detail. The software has been applied in hardware debugging, performance test and long term stability test. (authors)

  2. Rapid and cost-effective identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing in patients with Gram-negative bacteremia directly from blood-culture fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakarikou, Christina; Altieri, Anna; Bossa, Maria Cristina; Minelli, Silvia; Dolfa, Camilla; Piperno, Micol; Favalli, Cartesio

    2018-03-01

    Rapid pathogen identification (ID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) in bacteremia cases or sepsis could improve patient prognosis. Thus, it is important to provide timely reports, which make it possible for clinicians to set up appropriate antibiotic therapy during the early stages of bloodstream infection (BSI). This study evaluates an in-house microbiological protocol for early ID as well as AST on Gram negative bacteria directly from positive monomicrobial and polymicrobial blood cultures (BCs). A total of 102 non-duplicated positive BCs from patients with Gram-negative bacteremia were tested. Both IDs and ASTs were performed from bacterial pellets extracted directly from BCs using our protocol, which was applied through the combined use of a MALDI-TOF MS and Vitek2 automated system. The results of our study showed a 100% agreement in bacterial ID and 98.25% categorical agreement in AST when compared to those obtained by routine conventional methods. We recorded only a 0.76% minor error (mE), 0.76% major error (ME) and a 0.20% very major error (VME). Moreover, the turnaround time (TAT) regarding the final AST report was significantly shortened (ΔTAT = 8-20 h, p patient management, by early and appropriate antimicrobial treatment and could potentially optimize antimicrobial stewardship programs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A Novel and Validated Protocol for Performing MIC Tests to Determine the Susceptibility of Piscirickettsia salmonis Isolates to Florfenicol and Oxytetracycline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Contreras-Lynch

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a validated protocol, using a novel, specifically formulated medium, to perform broth microdilution antimicrobial susceptibility assays of the salmonid bacterial pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC for florfenicol and oxytetracycline against 58 P. salmonis isolates recovered from various outbreaks occurred in Chilean salmonid farms were determined using this protocol. Normalized resistance interpretation (NRI analysis was applied to these data to calculate appropriate protocol-specific epidemiological cut-off values. These cut-off values allow the isolates to be categorized as either fully susceptible wild type (WT members of this species, or as manifesting reduced susceptibility non-wild type (NWT. The distribution of MIC values of florfenicol was bimodal and the distribution of the normalized values for the putative WT observation had a standard deviation of 0.896 log2 μg mL-1. This analysis calculated a cut-off value of ≤0.25 μg mL-1 and categorized 33 (56% of the isolates as manifesting reduced susceptibility to florfenicol. For the oxytetracycline MIC data the NRI analysis also treated the distribution as bimodal. The distribution of the normalized values for the putative WT observation had a standard deviation of 0.951 log2 μg mL-1. This analysis gave a cut-off value of ≤0.5 μg mL-1 and categorized five isolates (9% as manifesting reduced susceptibility to oxytetracycline. The susceptibility testing protocol developed in this study was capable of generating MIC data from all the isolates tested. On the basis of the precision of the data it generated, and the degree of separation of values for WT and NWT it achieved, it is argued that this protocol has the performance characteristics necessary for it to be considered as a standard protocol.

  4. Testing cooperative systems with the MARS simulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netten, B.D.; Wedemeijer, H.

    2010-01-01

    The complexity of cooperative systems makes the use of high fidelity simulation essential in the development and testing of cooperative applications and their interactions with other cooperative systems. In SAFESPOT a simulator test bench is setup to test the safety margin applications running on

  5. Evaluation of Veterinary-Specific Interpretive Criteria for Susceptibility Testing of Streptococcus equi Subspecies with Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim-Sulfadiazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadaka, Carmen; Kanellos, Theo; Guardabassi, Luca; Boucher, Joseph; Watts, Jeffrey L

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility test results for trimethoprim-sulfadiazine with Streptococcus equi subspecies are interpreted based on human data for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The veterinary-specific data generated in this study support a single breakpoint for testing trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and/or trimethoprim-sulfadiazine with S. equi This study indicates trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole as an acceptable surrogate for trimethoprim-sulfadiazine with S. equi. Copyright © 2016 Sadaka et al.

  6. Operational test report integrated system test (ventilation upgrade)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HARTY, W.M.

    1999-10-05

    Operational Final Test Report for Integrated Systems, Project W-030 (Phase 2 test, RECIRC and HIGH-HEAT Modes). Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks, including upgraded vapor space cooling and filtered venting of tanks AY101, Ay102, AZ101, AZ102.

  7. Operational test report, integrated system test (ventilation upgrade)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HARTY, W.M.

    1999-01-01

    Operational Final Test Report for Integrated Systems, Project W-030 (Phase 2 test, RECIRC and HIGH-HEAT Modes). Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks, including upgraded vapor space cooling and filtered venting of tanks AY101, AY102, AZ101, AZ102

  8. TTCN-3 for distributed testing embedded systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, S.C.C.; Deiß, T.; Ioustinova, N.; Kontio, A.; Pol, van de J.C.; Rennoch, A.; Sidorova, N.; Virbitskaite, I.; Voronkov, A.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract. TTCN-3 is a standardized language for specifying and executing test suites that is particularly popular for testing embedded systems. Prior to testing embedded software in a target environment, the software is usually tested in the host environment. Executing in the host environment often

  9. Railcar waste transfer system hydrostatic test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingson, S.D.

    1997-01-01

    This Acceptance Test Report (ATR) documents for record purposes the field results, acceptance, and approvals of the completed acceptance test per HNF-SD-W417-ATP-001, ''Rail car Waste Transfer System Hydrostatic Test''. The test was completed and approved without any problems or exceptions

  10. Cooperative Testing of Uncontrollable Timed Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Li, Shuhao

    2008-01-01

    the SUT against the test purpose as long as the SUT reacts to our moves in a cooperative style. We present an operational framework of cooperative winning strategy generation, test case derivation and execution. The test method is proved to be sound and complete. Preliminary experimental results indicate......Abstract. This paper deals with targeted testing of timed systems with uncontrollable behavior. The testing activity is viewed as a game between the tester and the system under test (SUT) towards a given test purpose. The SUT is modeled as Timed Game Automaton and the test purpose is specified...... in Timed CTL formula. We can employ a timed game solver UPPAAL-TIGA to check if the test purpose is ture w.r.t. the model, and if yes, to generate a winning strategy and use it for black-box conformance testing. Specifically, we show that in case the checking yields a negative result, we can still test...

  11. Flood susceptibility mapping using novel ensembles of adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system and metaheuristic algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Razavi Termeh, Seyed Vahid; Kornejady, Aiding; Pourghasemi, Hamid Reza; Keesstra, Saskia

    2018-01-01

    Flood is one of the most destructive natural disasters which cause great financial and life losses per year. Therefore, producing susceptibility maps for flood management are necessary in order to reduce its harmful effects. The aim of the present study is to map flood hazard over the Jahrom

  12. Vitrification Facility integrated system performance testing report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, D.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides a summary of component and system performance testing associated with the Vitrification Facility (VF) following construction turnover. The VF at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) was designed to convert stored radioactive waste into a stable glass form for eventual disposal in a federal repository. Following an initial Functional and Checkout Testing of Systems (FACTS) Program and subsequent conversion of test stand equipment into the final VF, a testing program was executed to demonstrate successful performance of the components, subsystems, and systems that make up the vitrification process. Systems were started up and brought on line as construction was completed, until integrated system operation could be demonstrated to produce borosilicate glass using nonradioactive waste simulant. Integrated system testing and operation culminated with a successful Operational Readiness Review (ORR) and Department of Energy (DOE) approval to initiate vitrification of high-level waste (HLW) on June 19, 1996. Performance and integrated operational test runs conducted during the test program provided a means for critical examination, observation, and evaluation of the vitrification system. Test data taken for each Test Instruction Procedure (TIP) was used to evaluate component performance against system design and acceptance criteria, while test observations were used to correct, modify, or improve system operation. This process was critical in establishing operating conditions for the entire vitrification process

  13. Caustic addition system operability test procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parazin, R.E.

    1994-11-01

    This test procedure provides instructions for performing operational testing of the major components of the 241-AN-107 Caustic Addition System by WHC and Kaiser personnel at the Rotating Equipment Shop run-in pit (Bldg. 272E).

  14. Caustic addition system operability test procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parazin, R.E.

    1994-11-01

    This test procedure provides instructions for performing operational testing of the major components of the 241-AN-107 Caustic Addition System by WHC and Kaiser personnel at the Rotating Equipment Shop run-in pit (Bldg. 272E)

  15. Discrepancy in Vancomycin AUC/MIC Ratio Targeted Attainment Based upon the Susceptibility Testing in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eum, Seenae; Bergsbaken, Robert L; Harvey, Craig L; Warren, J Bryan; Rotschafer, John C

    2016-09-27

    This study demonstrated a statistically significant difference in vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for Staphylococcus aureus between a common automated system (Vitek 2) and the E-test method in patients with S. aureus bloodstream infections. At an area under the serum concentration time curve (AUC) threshold of 400 mg∙h/L, we would have reached the current Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA)/American Society of Health System Pharmacists (ASHP)/Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists (SIDP) guideline suggested AUC/MIC target in almost 100% of patients while using the Vitek 2 MIC data; however, we could only generate 40% target attainment while using E-test MIC data ( p AUC of 450 mg∙h/L or greater was required to achieve 100% target attainment using either Vitek 2 or E-test MIC results.

  16. Optimization and evaluation of Flexicult® Vet for detection, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial uropathogens in small animal veterinary practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardabassi, Luca; Hedberg, Sandra; Jessen, Lisbeth Rem; Damborg, Peter

    2015-10-26

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common reason for antimicrobial prescription in dogs and cats. The objective of this study was to optimize and evaluate a culture-based point-of-care test for detection, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial uro-pathogens in veterinary practice. Seventy-two urine samples from dogs and cats with suspected UTI presenting to seven veterinary facilities were used by clinical staff and an investigator to estimate sensitivity and specificity of Flexicult Vet A compared to laboratory reference standards for culture and susceptibility testing. Subsequently, the test was modified by inclusion of an oxacillin-containing compartment for detection of methicillin-resistant staphylococci. The performance of the modified product (Flexicult Vet B) for susceptibility testing was evaluated in vitro using a collection of 110 clinical isolates. Bacteriuria was reported by the laboratory in 25 (35 %) samples from the field study. The sensitivity and specificity of Flexicult Vet A for detection of bacteriuria were 83 and 100 %, respectively. Bacterial species were correctly identified in 53 and 100 % of the positive samples by clinical staff and the investigator, respectively. The susceptibility results were interpreted correctly by clinical staff for 70 % of the 94 drug-strain combinations. Higher percentages of correct interpretation were observed when the results were interpreted by the investigator in both the field (76 %) and the in vitro study (94 %). The most frequent errors were false resistance to β-lactams (ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate and cephalotin) in Escherichia coli for Flexicult Vet A, and false amoxicillin-clavulanate resistance in E. coli and false ampicillin susceptibility in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius for Flexicult Vet B. The latter error can be prevented by categorizing staphylococcal strains growing in the oxacillin compartment as resistant to all β-lactams. Despite the

  17. High Power Alternator Test Unit (ATU) Electrical System Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchenough, Arthur; Hervol, David

    2007-01-01

    The Alternator Test Unit (ATU) in the Lunar Power System Facility (LPSF) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, OH was used to simulate the operating conditions and evaluate the performance of the ATU and it s interaction with various LPSF components in accordance with the JIMO AC Power System Requirements. The testing was carried out at the breadboard development level. Results of these tests will be used for the development and validation of analytical models for performance and lifetime prediction.

  18. Critical behavior of AC antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic susceptibilities of a spin-1/2 metamagnetic Ising system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulpinar, Gul; Vatansever, Erol

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the temperature variations of the equilibrium and the non-equilibrium antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic susceptibilities of a metamagnetic system are examined near the critical point. The kinetic equations describing the time dependencies of the total and staggered magnetizations are derived by utilizing linear response theory. In order to obtain dynamic magnetic relaxation behavior of the system, the stationary solutions of the kinetic equations in existence of sinusoidal staggered and physical external magnetic fields are performed. In addition, the static and dynamical mean field critical exponents are calculated in order to formulate the critical behavior of antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic magnetic response of a metamagnetic system. Finally, a comparison of the findings of this study with previous theoretical and experimental studies is represented and it is shown that a good agreement is found with our results. - Highlights: ► Staggered dynamic susceptibility diverges as T→T N in the low frequency region. ► Dynamic total susceptibility exhibits a finite jump discontinuity as T→T N while wτ 2 ⪡1. ► The slope of the staggered magnetic dispersion curve chances in sign as T→T N .

  19. Evaluation of the routine antimicrobial susceptibility testing results of clinically significant anaerobic bacteria in a Slovenian tertiary-care hospital in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeverica, Samo; Kolenc, Urša; Mueller-Premru, Manica; Papst, Lea

    2017-10-01

    The aim of our study was to determined antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of 2673 clinically significant anaerobic bacteria belonging to the major genera, isolated in 2015 in a large tertiary-care hospital in Slovenia. The species identification was performed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined immediately at the isolation of the strains against: penicillin, co-amoxiclav, imipenem, clindamycin and metronidazole, using gradient diffusion methodology and EUCAST breakpoints. The most frequent anaerobes were Bacteroides fragilis group with 31% (n = 817), Gram positive anaerobic cocci (GPACs) with 22% (n = 589), Prevotella with 14% (n = 313) and Propionibacterium with 8% (n = 225). Metronidazole has retained full activity (100%) against all groups of anaerobic bacteria intrinsically susceptible to it. Co-amoxiclav and imipenem were active against most tested anaerobes with zero or low resistance rates. However, observed resistance to co-amoxiclav (8%) and imipenem (1%) is worrying especially among B. fragilis group isolates. High overall resistance (23%) to clindamycin was detected in our study and was highest among the genera Prevotella, Bacteroides, Parabacteroides, GPACs and Clostridium. Routine testing of antimicrobial susceptibility of clinically relevant anaerobic bacteria is feasible and provides good surveillance data. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Polymer systems testing: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is in the process of decontaminating lead shielding material. The procedure involves abrasive surface etching of the shielding to remove the outer layer of lead that contains the majority of the radioactive contaminants. This procedure generates a small volume of mixed waste in the form of a wet residue containing lead, abrasive grit (Al 2 O 3 ), uranium and water. IC Technologies, Inc. (ICT) has developed several processes for the treatment of mixed wastes involving stabilizing/encapsulating the waste in a polymer monolith. The objective of the test program was to verify the applicability of ICT's technology to this specific waste stream and provide LANL baseline data on the performance of polymer encapsulation techniques. Polymer microencapsulation of lead shielding/blasting grit (surrogate) mixed waste was evaluated. Two polymers, melamine formaldehyde and polyester xylene, were used to examine the effect of waste loading on Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) extract Pb concentration. Six levels of waste loading were evaluated by eleven tests. Significant reduction in Pb solubility during TCLP was achieved. Additional optimization to the single-stage microencapsulation technique utilized will be necessary to mitigate the toxic (RCRA) characteristic of the waste

  1. System for testing optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golob, John E. [Olathe, KS; Looney, Larry D. [Los Alamos, NM; Lyons, Peter B. [Los Alamos, NM; Nelson, Melvin A. [Santa Barbara, CA; Davies, Terence J. [Santa Barbara, CA

    1980-07-15

    A system for measuring a combination of optical transmission properties of fiber optic waveguides. A polarized light pulse probe is injected into one end of the optical fiber. Reflections from discontinuities within the fiber are unpolarized whereas reflections of the probe pulse incident to its injection remain polarized. The polarized reflections are prevented from reaching a light detector whereas reflections from the discontinuities reaches the detector.

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility determined by the E test, Löwenstein-Jensen proportion, and DNA sequencing methods among Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates discrepancies, preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inês Moura Freixo

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains resistant to streptomycin (SM, isoniazid (INH, and/or rifampin (RIF as determined by the conventional Löwenstein-Jensen proportion method (LJPM were compared with the E test, a minimum inhibitory concentration susceptibility method. Discrepant isolates were further evaluated by BACTEC and by DNA sequence analyses for mutations in genes most often associated with resistance to these drugs (rpsL, katG, inhA, and rpoB. Preliminary discordant E test results were seen in 75% of isolates resistant to SM and in 11% to INH. Discordance improved for these two drugs (63% for SM and none for INH when isolates were re-tested but worsened for RIF (30%. Despite good agreement between phenotypic results and sequencing analyses, wild type profiles were detected on resistant strains mainly for SM and INH. It should be aware that susceptible isolates according to molecular methods might contain other mechanisms of resistance. Although reproducibility of the LJPM susceptibility method has been established, variable E test results for some M. tuberculosis isolates poses questions regarding its reproducibility particularly the impact of E test performance which may vary among laboratories despite adherence to recommended protocols. Further studies must be done to enlarge the evaluated samples and looked possible mutations outside of the hot spot sequenced gene among discrepant strains.

  3. A listening test system for automative audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Søren; Gulbol, Mehmet-Ali; Martin, Geoff

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes two listening tests that were performed to provide initial validation of an auralisation system (see Part 1) to mimic the acoustics of a car interior. The validation is based on a comparison of results from an in-car listening test and another test using the auralisation system...... and recordings of the stimuli used for the in-car test. The music samples for the test were chosen from a database of various CODEC examples from a previous extensive ITU test to validate the ITU-R BS.1387-1 standard....

  4. Testing the 'hybrid susceptibility' and 'phenological sink' hypotheses using the P. balsamifera - P. deltoides hybrid zone and septoria leaf spot [Septoria musiva].

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBoldus, Jared M; Isabel, Nathalie; Floate, Kevin D; Blenis, Peter; Thomas, Barb R

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid genotypes that arise between plant species frequently have increased susceptibility to arthropod pests and fungal pathogens. This pattern has been attributed to the breakdown of plant defenses ('Hybrid susceptibility' hypothesis) and (or) to extended periods of susceptibility attributed to plant phenologies in zones of species overlap and (or) hybridization ('phenological sink' hypothesis). We examined these hypotheses by assessing the susceptibility of parental and hybrid Populus host genotypes to a leaf spot disease caused by the fungal pathogen Septoria musiva. For this purpose, 214 genotypes were obtained from morphologically pure zones of P. balsamifera and P. deltoides, and from an intervening zone of overlap and hybridization on the drainage of the Red Deer River, Alberta, Canada. Genotypes were identified as P. balsamifera, P. deltoides, or hybrid using a suite of 27 species-specific SNP markers. Initially the genetic structure of the hybrid zone was characterized with 27.7% of trees classified as admixed individuals. To test the hybrid susceptibility hypothesis, a subset of 52 genotypes was inoculated with four isolates of S. musiva. Levels of susceptibility were P. balsamifera > F1 hybrid > P. deltoides. A further 53 genotypes were grown in a common garden to assess the effect of genotype on variation in leaf phenology. Leaf phenology was more variable within the category of hybrid genotypes than within categories of either parental species. Leaf phenology was also more variable for the category of trees originating in the hybrid (P. balsamifera - P. deltoides [hybrid and parental genotypes combined]) zone than in adjacent pure zones of the parental species. The results from the inoculation experiment support the hybrid intermediacy hypothesis. The results from the common garden experiment support the 'phenological sink' hypothesis. These findings have greatly increased our understanding of the epidemiology and ecology of fungal pathogens in plant

  5. Testing the 'hybrid susceptibility' and 'phenological sink' hypotheses using the P. balsamifera - P. deltoides hybrid zone and septoria leaf spot [Septoria musiva].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared M LeBoldus

    Full Text Available Hybrid genotypes that arise between plant species frequently have increased susceptibility to arthropod pests and fungal pathogens. This pattern has been attributed to the breakdown of plant defenses ('Hybrid susceptibility' hypothesis and (or to extended periods of susceptibility attributed to plant phenologies in zones of species overlap and (or hybridization ('phenological sink' hypothesis. We examined these hypotheses by assessing the susceptibility of parental and hybrid Populus host genotypes to a leaf spot disease caused by the fungal pathogen Septoria musiva. For this purpose, 214 genotypes were obtained from morphologically pure zones of P. balsamifera and P. deltoides, and from an intervening zone of overlap and hybridization on the drainage of the Red Deer River, Alberta, Canada. Genotypes were identified as P. balsamifera, P. deltoides, or hybrid using a suite of 27 species-specific SNP markers. Initially the genetic structure of the hybrid zone was characterized with 27.7% of trees classified as admixed individuals. To test the hybrid susceptibility hypothesis, a subset of 52 genotypes was inoculated with four isolates of S. musiva. Levels of susceptibility were P. balsamifera > F1 hybrid > P. deltoides. A further 53 genotypes were grown in a common garden to assess the effect of genotype on variation in leaf phenology. Leaf phenology was more variable within the category of hybrid genotypes than within categories of either parental species. Leaf phenology was also more variable for the category of trees originating in the hybrid (P. balsamifera - P. deltoides [hybrid and parental genotypes combined] zone than in adjacent pure zones of the parental species. The results from the inoculation experiment support the hybrid intermediacy hypothesis. The results from the common garden experiment support the 'phenological sink' hypothesis. These findings have greatly increased our understanding of the epidemiology and ecology of fungal

  6. Introducing an ophthalmic testing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Zhuo Chen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To integrate the individual and various items of refractive examination to one software, and made it applicated conveniently.METHODS: On the basis of every examination system, the computer software was designed and developed, the modules were established and maintained.RESULTS: The computer software could fulfill the examinations of visual acuity, strabismus(Hess screen, color vision, stereopsis.CONCLUSION: After 10 years' application, the effect is significant. It can nearly replace the items using projector of integrated refractometer, stereopsis exam and color blind exam.

  7. Gas characterization system software acceptance test procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo, C.V.

    1996-01-01

    This document details the Software Acceptance Testing of gas characterization systems. The gas characterization systems will be used to monitor the vapor spaces of waste tanks known to contain measurable concentrations of flammable gases

  8. Gas characterization system software acceptance test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo, C.V.

    1996-01-01

    This document details the results of software acceptance testing of gas characterization systems. The gas characterization systems will be used to monitor the vapor spaces of waste tanks known to contain measurable concentrations of flammable gases

  9. Safety testing for LHC access system

    CERN Document Server

    Valentini, F; Ninin, P; Scibile, S

    2008-01-01

    In the domain of Safety Real-Time Systems the problem of testing represents always a big effort in terms of time, costs and efficiency to guarantee an adequate coverage degree. Exhaustive tests may, in fact, not be practicable for large and distributed systems. This paper describes the testing process followed during the validation of the CERN's LHC Access System [1], responsible for monitoring and preventing physical risks for the personnel accessing the underground areas. In the paper we also present a novel strategy for the testing problem, intended to drastically reduce the time for the test patterns generation and execution. In particular, we propose a methodology for blackbox testing that relies on the application of Model Checking techniques. Model Checking is a formal method from computer science, commonly adopted to prove correctness of system’s models through an automatic system’s state space exploration against some property formulas.

  10. LHCb : Full Experiment System Test

    CERN Multimedia

    Cattaneo, M

    2009-01-01

    LHCb had been planning to commission its High Level Trigger software and Data Quality monitoring procedures using real collisions data from the LHC pilot run. Following the LHC incident on 19th September 2008, it was decided to commission the system using simulated data. This “Full Experiment System Test” consists of: - Injection of simulated minimum bias events into the full HLT farm, after selection by a simulated Level 0 trigger. - Processing in the HLT farm to achieve the output rate expected for nominal LHC luminosity running, sustained over the typical duration of an LHC fill. - Real time Data Quality validation of the HLT output, validation of calibration and alignment parameters for use in the reconstruction. - Transmission of the event data, calibration data and book-keeping information to Tier1 sites and full reconstruction of the event data. - Data Quality validation of the reconstruction output. We will report on the preparations and results of FEST09, and on the status of commissioning for no...

  11. Spaceport Command and Control System Automation Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) is the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) launch control system for the Orion capsule and Space Launch System, the next generation manned rocket currently in development. This large system requires high quality testing that will properly measure the capabilities of the system. Automating the test procedures would save the project time and money. Therefore, the Electrical Engineering Division at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has recruited interns for the past two years to work alongside full-time engineers to develop these automated tests, as well as innovate upon the current automation process.

  12. Spaceport Command and Control System Automated Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Meriel

    2017-01-01

    The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) is the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) launch control system for the Orion capsule and Space Launch System, the next generation manned rocket currently in development. This large system requires high quality testing that will properly measure the capabilities of the system. Automating the test procedures would save the project time and money. Therefore, the Electrical Engineering Division at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has recruited interns for the past two years to work alongside full-time engineers to develop these automated tests, as well as innovate upon the current automation process.

  13. Excitation system testing in HPP 'Uvac'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojčić Nemanja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The excitation system of hydro unit in HPP 'Uvac' and results of testings of excitation system performed for achieving of unit's mathematical model are presented in this paper. Description of excitation system equipment, parameters of regulators and results obtained after testings are presented. The presented results showed that the regulators are properly adjusted and that the excitation system is completely functional and reliable.

  14. Cost-effectiveness analysis of microscopic observation drug susceptibility test versus Xpert MTB/Rif test for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV patients in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walusimbi, Simon; Kwesiga, Brendan; Rodrigues, Rashmi; Haile, Melles; de Costa, Ayesha; Bogg, Lennart; Katamba, Achilles

    2016-10-10

    Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility (MODS) and Xpert MTB/Rif (Xpert) are highly sensitive tests for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). This study evaluated the cost effectiveness of utilizing MODS versus Xpert for diagnosis of active pulmonary TB in HIV infected patients in Uganda. A decision analysis model comparing MODS versus Xpert for TB diagnosis was used. Costs were estimated by measuring and valuing relevant resources required to perform the MODS and Xpert tests. Diagnostic accuracy data of the tests were obtained from systematic reviews involving HIV infected patients. We calculated base values for unit costs and varied several assumptions to obtain the range estimates. Cost effectiveness was expressed as costs per TB patient diagnosed for each of the two diagnostic strategies. Base case analysis was performed using the base estimates for unit cost and diagnostic accuracy of the tests. Sensitivity analysis was performed using a range of value estimates for resources, prevalence, number of tests and diagnostic accuracy. The unit cost of MODS was US$ 6.53 versus US$ 12.41 of Xpert. Consumables accounted for 59 % (US$ 3.84 of 6.53) of the unit cost for MODS and 84 % (US$10.37 of 12.41) of the unit cost for Xpert. The cost effectiveness ratio of the algorithm using MODS was US$ 34 per TB patient diagnosed compared to US$ 71 of the algorithm using Xpert. The algorithm using MODS was more cost-effective compared to the algorithm using Xpert for a wide range of different values of accuracy, cost and TB prevalence. The cost (threshold value), where the algorithm using Xpert was optimal over the algorithm using MODS was US$ 5.92. MODS versus Xpert was more cost-effective for the diagnosis of PTB among HIV patients in our setting. Efforts to scale-up MODS therefore need to be explored. However, since other non-economic factors may still favour the use of Xpert, the current cost of the Xpert cartridge still needs to be reduced further by more than

  15. Polarized dependence of nonlinear susceptibility in a single layer graphene system in infrared region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solookinejad, G., E-mail: ghsolooki@gmail.com

    2016-09-15

    In this study, the linear and nonlinear susceptibility of a single-layer graphene nanostructure driven by a weak probe light and an elliptical polarized coupling field is discussed theoretically. The Landau levels of graphene can be separated in infrared or terahertz regions under the strong magnetic field. Therefore, by using the density matrix formalism in quantum optic, the linear and nonlinear susceptibility of the medium can be derived. It is demonstrated that by adjusting the elliptical parameter, one can manipulate the linear and nonlinear absorption as well as Kerr nonlinearity of the medium. It is realized that the enhanced Kerr nonlinearity can be possible with zero linear absorption and nonlinear amplification at some values of elliptical parameter. Our results may be having potential applications in quantum information science based on Nano scales devices.

  16. A mechanism for the downturn in inverse susceptibility in triangle-based frustrated spin systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isoda, M

    2008-01-01

    A mechanism for the downturn of inverse magnetic susceptibility below an intermediate temperature, recently observed in many experiments, is proposed as an intrinsic feature of lattices with triangle-based frustrated geometries. The temperature at the bending of the inverse susceptibility curve may be related to the features of other thermodynamic properties; the hump of the specific heat and the emergence of a 1/3 plateau in magnetization under a magnetic field. This fact is derived through a Monte Carlo simulation study of the Ising model on triangular and kagome lattices, and the exact calculation for the single and small-sized triangle clusters, on both the Ising and Heisenberg models. These results may indicate the dominance of S(S z ) = 1/2 quantum (classical) trimer formation in the intermediate-energy regime in two-dimensional triangle-based lattices

  17. Scheduling system for test automation framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahyudi, Djohan

    2014-01-01

    An Interventional X-ray (iXR) system provides real time X-ray imaging with high image clarity and low X-ray dose. After several years of development, the iXR System has become complex. In order to verify the correct operation of the system, the system integration and test group performs extensive

  18. Rapid identification and susceptibility testing of Candida spp. from positive blood cultures by combination of direct MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and direct inoculation of Vitek 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idelevich, Evgeny A; Grunewald, Camilla M; Wüllenweber, Jörg; Becker, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Fungaemia is associated with high mortality rates and early appropriate antifungal therapy is essential for patient management. However, classical diagnostic workflow takes up to several days due to the slow growth of yeasts. Therefore, an approach for direct species identification and direct antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST) without prior time-consuming sub-culturing of yeasts from positive blood cultures (BCs) is urgently needed. Yeast cell pellets prepared using Sepsityper kit were used for direct identification by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS) and for direct inoculation of Vitek 2 AST-YS07 card for AFST. For comparison, MALDI-TOF MS and Vitek 2 testing were performed from yeast subculture. A total of twenty four positive BCs including twelve C. glabrata, nine C. albicans, two C. dubliniensis and one C. krusei isolate were processed. Applying modified thresholds for species identification (score ≥ 1.5 with two identical consecutive propositions), 62.5% of BCs were identified by direct MALDI-TOF MS. AFST results were generated for 72.7% of BCs directly tested by Vitek 2 and for 100% of standardized suspensions from 24 h cultures. Thus, AFST comparison was possible for 70 isolate-antifungal combinations. Essential agreement (minimum inhibitory concentration difference ≤ 1 double dilution step) was 88.6%. Very major errors (VMEs) (false-susceptibility), major errors (false-resistance) and minor errors (false categorization involving intermediate result) amounted to 33.3% (of resistant isolates), 1.9% (of susceptible isolates) and 1.4% providing 90.0% categorical agreement. All VMEs were due to fluconazole or voriconazole. This direct method saved on average 23.5 h for identification and 15.1 h for AFST, compared to routine procedures. However, performance for azole susceptibility testing was suboptimal and testing from subculture remains indispensable to validate the direct finding.

  19. Rapid identification and susceptibility testing of Candida spp. from positive blood cultures by combination of direct MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and direct inoculation of Vitek 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny A Idelevich

    Full Text Available Fungaemia is associated with high mortality rates and early appropriate antifungal therapy is essential for patient management. However, classical diagnostic workflow takes up to several days due to the slow growth of yeasts. Therefore, an approach for direct species identification and direct antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST without prior time-consuming sub-culturing of yeasts from positive blood cultures (BCs is urgently needed. Yeast cell pellets prepared using Sepsityper kit were used for direct identification by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS and for direct inoculation of Vitek 2 AST-YS07 card for AFST. For comparison, MALDI-TOF MS and Vitek 2 testing were performed from yeast subculture. A total of twenty four positive BCs including twelve C. glabrata, nine C. albicans, two C. dubliniensis and one C. krusei isolate were processed. Applying modified thresholds for species identification (score ≥ 1.5 with two identical consecutive propositions, 62.5% of BCs were identified by direct MALDI-TOF MS. AFST results were generated for 72.7% of BCs directly tested by Vitek 2 and for 100% of standardized suspensions from 24 h cultures. Thus, AFST comparison was possible for 70 isolate-antifungal combinations. Essential agreement (minimum inhibitory concentration difference ≤ 1 double dilution step was 88.6%. Very major errors (VMEs (false-susceptibility, major errors (false-resistance and minor errors (false categorization involving intermediate result amounted to 33.3% (of resistant isolates, 1.9% (of susceptible isolates and 1.4% providing 90.0% categorical agreement. All VMEs were due to fluconazole or voriconazole. This direct method saved on average 23.5 h for identification and 15.1 h for AFST, compared to routine procedures. However, performance for azole susceptibility testing was suboptimal and testing from subculture remains indispensable to validate the direct finding.

  20. [Statistical approach to evaluate the occurrence of out-of acceptable ranges and accuracy for antimicrobial susceptibility tests in inter-laboratory quality control program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Tamio; Matuda, Junichi; Yamane, Nobuhisa

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the occurrence of out-of acceptable ranges and accuracy of antimicrobial susceptibility tests, we applied a new statistical tool to the Inter-Laboratory Quality Control Program established by the Kyushu Quality Control Research Group. First, we defined acceptable ranges of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for broth microdilution tests and inhibitory zone diameter for disk diffusion tests on the basis of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M100-S21. In the analysis, more than two out-of acceptable range results in the 20 tests were considered as not allowable according to the CLSI document. Of the 90 participating laboratories, 46 (51%) experienced one or more occurrences of out-of acceptable range results. Then, a binomial test was applied to each participating laboratory. The results indicated that the occurrences of out-of acceptable range results in the 11 laboratories were significantly higher when compared to the CLSI recommendation (allowable rate laboratory was statistically compared with zero using a Student's t-test. The results revealed that 5 of the 11 above laboratories reported erroneous test results that systematically drifted to the side of resistance. In conclusion, our statistical approach has enabled us to detect significantly higher occurrences and source of interpretive errors in antimicrobial susceptibility tests; therefore, this approach can provide us with additional information that can improve the accuracy of the test results in clinical microbiology laboratories.

  1. Comparison between E-test and CLSI broth microdilution method for antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida albicans oral isolates Comparação entre E-test e o método da microdiluição do CLSI para teste de susceptibilidade a antifúngicos de isolados orais de Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Yumi Koga-Ito

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Thirty Candida albicans isolated from oral candidosis patients and 30 C. albicans isolated from control individuals were studied. In vitro susceptibility tests were performed for amphotericin B, fluconazole, 5-flucytosine and itraconazole through the Clinical and Laboratorial Standards Institute (CLSI reference method and E test system. The results obtained were analyzed and compared. MIC values were similar for the strains isolated from oral candidosis patients and control individuals. The agreement rate for the two methods was 66.67% for amphotericin B, 53.33% for fluconazole, 65% for flucytosine and 45% for itraconazole. According to our data, E test method could be an alternative to trial routine susceptibility testing due to its simplicity. However, it can not be considered a substitute for the CLSI reference method.Trinta Candida albicans isoladas de pacientes portadores de candidose oral e 30 Candida albicans isoladas de indivíduos controle foram estudadas. Testes de susceptibilidade in vitro foram realizados com anfotericina B, fluconazol, 5-flucitosina e itraconazol pelo método do Clinical and Laboratorial Standars Institute (CLSI e por E-test. Os resultados obtidos foram analisados e comparados. Os valores de CIM foram semelhantes para amostras isoladas de pacientes portadores de candidose oral e indivíduos controle. A concordância entre os dois métodos foi de 66,7% para a anfotericina B, 53,33% para o fluconazol, 65% para a flucitosina e 45% para o itraconazol. De acordo com estes resultados, o método do E-test poderia ser uma alternativa para a triagem de casos de rotina pela sua simplicidade. Entretanto, este método não pode ser considerado como um substituto para o método de referência do CLSI.

  2. Molecular Characterization and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Escherichia coli Isolates from Patients with Urinary Tract Infections in 20 Chinese Hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xiaoli; Cavaco, Lina; Lv, Yuan

    2011-01-01

    A total of 222 urinary Escherichia coli isolates from 20 tertiary hospitals in 15 different provinces and 4 municipalities in mainland China were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility, phylogrouping, and the presence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes. A subset of 138 suspected...

  3. Cascade Distiller System Performance Testing Interim Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Pensinger, Stuart; Sargusingh, Miriam J.

    2014-01-01

    The Cascade Distillation System (CDS) is a rotary distillation system with potential for greater reliability and lower energy costs than existing distillation systems. Based upon the results of the 2009 distillation comparison test (DCT) and recommendations of the expert panel, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Water Recovery Project (WRP) project advanced the technology by increasing reliability of the system through redesign of bearing assemblies and improved rotor dynamics. In addition, the project improved the CDS power efficiency by optimizing the thermoelectric heat pump (TeHP) and heat exchanger design. Testing at the NASA-JSC Advanced Exploration System Water Laboratory (AES Water Lab) using a prototype Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell d International, Torrance, Calif.) with test support equipment and control system developed by Johnson Space Center was performed to evaluate performance of the system with the upgrades as compared to previous system performance. The system was challenged with Solution 1 from the NASA Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison testing performed in 2009. Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. A secondary objective of this testing is to evaluate the performance of the CDS as compared to the state of the art Distillation Assembly (DA) used in the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This was done by challenging the system with ISS analog waste streams. This paper details the results of the AES WRP CDS performance testing.

  4. Automatic test system of the photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiino, Kazuo; Kono, Koji; Ishii, Takanobu; Kasai, Seiji; Yamada, Sakue; Kitamura, Shoichi.

    1990-03-01

    A test system of R580 photomultipliers (PMTs) was constructed for the ZEUS experiment HERA. In this report, we will describe the general feature of the test system, each component of the setup, the procedure of the measurements, the data analyses and the results of the first 800 PMT measurements. (author)

  5. Automated System Tests High-Power MOSFET's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Steven W.; Wendt, Isabel O.

    1994-01-01

    Computer-controlled system tests metal-oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFET's) at high voltages and currents. Measures seven parameters characterizing performance of MOSFET, with view toward obtaining early indication MOSFET defective. Use of test system prior to installation of power MOSFET in high-power circuit saves time and money.

  6. En Route towards European Clinical Breakpoints for Veterinary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing: A Position Paper Explaining the VetCAST Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Bousquet-Mélou, Alain; Damborg, Peter; Ferran, Aude A.; Mevius, Dik; Pelligand, Ludovic; Veldman, Kees T.; Lees, Peter

    2017-01-01

    VetCAST is the EUCAST sub-committee for Veterinary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. Its remit is to define clinical breakpoints (CBPs) for antimicrobial drugs (AMDs) used in veterinary medicine in Europe. This position paper outlines the procedures and reviews scientific options to solve challenges for the determination of specific CBPs for animal species, drug substances and disease conditions. VetCAST will adopt EUCAST approaches: the initial step will be data assessment; then procedures for decisions on the CBP; and finally the release of recommendations for CBP implementation. The principal challenges anticipated by VetCAST are those associated with the differing modalities of AMD administration, including mass medication, specific long-acting product formulations or local administration. Specific challenges comprise mastitis treatment in dairy cattle, the range of species and within species breed considerations and several other variable factors not relevant to human medicine. Each CBP will be based on consideration of: (i) an epidemiological cut-off value (ECOFF) – the highest MIC that defines the upper end of the wild-type MIC distribution; (ii) a PK/PD breakpoint obtained from pre-clinical pharmacokinetic data [this PK/PD break-point is the highest possible MIC for which a given percentage of animals in the target population achieves a critical value for the selected PK/PD index (fAUC/MIC or fT > MIC)] and (iii) when possible, a clinical cut-off, that is the relationship between MIC and clinical cure. For the latter, VetCAST acknowledges the paucity of such data in veterinary medicine. When a CBP cannot be established, VetCAST will recommend use of ECOFF as surrogate. For decision steps, VetCAST will follow EUCAST procedures involving transparency, consensus and independence. VetCAST will ensure freely available dissemination of information, concerning standards, guidelines, ECOFF, PK/PD breakpoints, CBPs and other relevant information for AST

  7. En Route towards European Clinical Breakpoints for Veterinary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing: A Position Paper Explaining the VetCAST Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Bousquet-Mélou, Alain; Damborg, Peter; Ferran, Aude A; Mevius, Dik; Pelligand, Ludovic; Veldman, Kees T; Lees, Peter

    2017-01-01

    VetCAST is the EUCAST sub-committee for Veterinary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. Its remit is to define clinical breakpoints (CBPs) for antimicrobial drugs (AMDs) used in veterinary medicine in Europe. This position paper outlines the procedures and reviews scientific options to solve challenges for the determination of specific CBPs for animal species, drug substances and disease conditions. VetCAST will adopt EUCAST approaches: the initial step will be data assessment; then procedures for decisions on the CBP; and finally the release of recommendations for CBP implementation. The principal challenges anticipated by VetCAST are those associated with the differing modalities of AMD administration, including mass medication, specific long-acting product formulations or local administration. Specific challenges comprise mastitis treatment in dairy cattle, the range of species and within species breed considerations and several other variable factors not relevant to human medicine. Each CBP will be based on consideration of: (i) an epidemiological cut-off value (ECOFF) - the highest MIC that defines the upper end of the wild-type MIC distribution; (ii) a PK/PD breakpoint obtained from pre-clinical pharmacokinetic data [this PK/PD break-point is the highest possible MIC for which a given percentage of animals in the target population achieves a critical value for the selected PK/PD index ( f AUC/MIC or f T > MIC)] and (iii) when possible, a clinical cut-off, that is the relationship between MIC and clinical cure. For the latter, VetCAST acknowledges the paucity of such data in veterinary medicine. When a CBP cannot be established, VetCAST will recommend use of ECOFF as surrogate. For decision steps, VetCAST will follow EUCAST procedures involving transparency, consensus and independence. VetCAST will ensure freely available dissemination of information, concerning standards, guidelines, ECOFF, PK/PD breakpoints, CBPs and other relevant information for AST

  8. En Route towards European Clinical Breakpoints for Veterinary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing: A Position Paper Explaining the VetCAST Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Louis Toutain

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available VetCAST is the EUCAST sub-committee for Veterinary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. Its remit is to define clinical breakpoints (CBPs for antimicrobial drugs (AMDs used in veterinary medicine in Europe. This position paper outlines the procedures and reviews scientific options to solve challenges for the determination of specific CBPs for animal species, drug substances and disease conditions. VetCAST will adopt EUCAST approaches: the initial step will be data assessment; then procedures for decisions on the CBP; and finally the release of recommendations for CBP implementation. The principal challenges anticipated by VetCAST are those associated with the differing modalities of AMD administration, including mass medication, specific long-acting product formulations or local administration. Specific challenges comprise mastitis treatment in dairy cattle, the range of species and within species breed considerations and several other variable factors not relevant to human medicine. Each CBP will be based on consideration of: (i an epidemiological cut-off value (ECOFF – the highest MIC that defines the upper end of the wild-type MIC distribution; (ii a PK/PD breakpoint obtained from pre-clinical pharmacokinetic data [this PK/PD break-point is the highest possible MIC for which a given percentage of animals in the target population achieves a critical value for the selected PK/PD index (fAUC/MIC or fT > MIC] and (iii when possible, a clinical cut-off, that is the relationship between MIC and clinical cure. For the latter, VetCAST acknowledges the paucity of such data in veterinary medicine. When a CBP cannot be established, VetCAST will recommend use of ECOFF as surrogate. For decision steps, VetCAST will follow EUCAST procedures involving transparency, consensus and independence. VetCAST will ensure freely available dissemination of information, concerning standards, guidelines, ECOFF, PK/PD breakpoints, CBPs and other relevant information

  9. Insecticide susceptibility tests conducted in Kamhororo, Masakadza and Chilonga villages in Zimbabwe during the 2011 malaria period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lukwa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Insecticide susceptibility tests using World Health Organization papers treated with 4% dichloro-diphenyl-trichloro-ethane (DDT, 0.05% deltamethrin, 0.05% lambda-cyhalothrin, 0.5% etofenprox, 0.15% cyfluthrin and 0.75% permethrin were conducted in Kamhororo, Masakadza and Chilonga villages, Zimbabwe. Three to 5-day old female Anopheles gambiae sensu lato adult mosquitoes were used. Deltamethrin knocked down 100% of the mosquitoes from Kamhororo, Masakadza and Chilonga at 35 min exposure. DDT did not knock down 100% of the mosquitoes from Kamhororo and Masakadza but did so in Chilonga. One hundred percent knockdown was achieved for cyfluthrin when exposed to mosquitoes from Kamhororo (60 min, Masakadza (25 min and Chilonga (25 min. Etofenprox knocked down 100% of the mosquitoes collected from Kamhororo (30 min, Masakadza (30 min and Chilonga (55 min. Knockdown of mosquitoes due to deltamethrin, DDT, cyfluthrin, permethrin; lambda-cyhalothrin and etofenprox were different at different observation times. One hundred percent mortality due to deltamethrin, DDT, etofenprox, lambdacyhalothrin and cyfluthrin was recorded for mosquitoes collected from all the 3 sites. One hundred percent mortality due to pemethrin was recorded for mosquitoes collected from Kamhororo and Chilonga but mortality was 98.5% for those collected from Masakadza. No knockdown or mortality occurred in the controls from each locality. The kd50 (knockdown of 50% of the mosquitoes values were 24.4-73.7 min (DDT, 8-13 min (pemethrin, 9.4-16.3 min (cyfluthrin, 9.4-14.4 min (etofenprox, 8.7-13 min (lambda-cyhalothrin and 12.1-15.9 min (deltamethrin. The kd90 (knockdown of 90% of the mosquitoes values were 45.6-199.5 min (DDT, 14.7-26.5 min (pemethrin, 16.5-34.9 min (cyfluthrin, 21.8-24.4 min (etofenprox, 16.3-31.6 min (lambdacyhalothrin and 21-25.3 min (deltamethrin. No insecticide resistance was recorded from the 3 sites.

  10. Test procedure for boxed waste assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachter, J.

    1994-01-01

    This document, prepared by Los Alamos National Laboratory's NMT-4 group, details the test methodology and requirements for Acceptance/Qualification testing of a Boxed Waste Assay System (BWAS) designed and constructed by Pajarito Scientific Corporation. Testing of the BWAS at the Plutonium Facility (TA55) at Los Alamos National Laboratory will be performed to ascertain system adherence to procurement specification requirements. The test program shall include demonstration of conveyor handling capabilities, gamma ray energy analysis, and imaging passive/active neutron accuracy and sensitivity. Integral to these functions is the system's embedded operating and data reduction software

  11. BMFT-UPTF densitometer system test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menkhaus, D.E.

    1985-11-01

    This report documents acceptance test results performed on the five Upper Plenum Test Facility (UPTF) three-beam densitometer systems and spare parts. The five densitometer systems are used on the UPTF four hot legs and broken cold leg to measure average chordal-beam densities. The primary objectives of the tests performed were: to verify all assemblies fit as designed (mechanical fitup); to ensure radiation levels met the criteria (<2.5 mR/h); to verify that design accuracy requirements were met (performance tests); and to verify proper operation of the densitometer systems (functional checks). 15 figs., 11 tabs

  12. Testing Real-Time Systems Using UPPAAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessel, Anders; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mikucionis, Marius

    2008-01-01

    This chapter presents principles and techniques for model-based black-box conformance testing of real-time systems using the Uppaal model-checking tool-suite. The basis for testing is given as a network of concurrent timed automata specified by the test engineer. Relativized input...

  13. Unit Testing for Command and Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Joshua

    2018-01-01

    Unit tests were created to evaluate the functionality of a Data Generation and Publication tool for a command and control system. These unit tests are developed to constantly evaluate the tool and ensure it functions properly as the command and control system grows in size and scope. Unit tests are a crucial part of testing any software project and are especially instrumental in the development of a command and control system. They save resources, time and costs associated with testing, and catch issues before they become increasingly difficult and costly. The unit tests produced for the Data Generation and Publication tool to be used in a command and control system assure the users and stakeholders of its functionality and offer assurances which are vital in the launching of spacecraft safely.

  14. Effect of point-of-care susceptibility testing in general practice on appropriate prescription of antibiotics for patients with uncomplicated urinary tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anne; Cordoba, Gloria; Møller Sørensen, Tina

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of adding point-of-care (POC) susceptibility testing to POC culture on appropriate use of antibiotics as well as clinical and microbiological cure for patients with suspected uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) in general practice. DESIGN: Open......, individually randomised controlled trial. SETTING: General practice. PARTICIPANTS: Women with suspected uncomplicated UTI, including elderly patients above 65, patients with recurrent UTI and patients with diabetes. The sample size calculation predicted 600 patients were needed. INTERVENTIONS: Flexicult SSI......-Urinary Kit was used for POC culture and susceptibility testing and ID Flexicult was used for POC culture only. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome: appropriate antibiotic prescribing on the day after consultation defined as either (1) patient with UTI: to prescribe a first-line antibiotic to which...

  15. Preoperational test report, primary ventilation condensate system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-01-29

    Preoperational test report for Primary Ventilation Condensate System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides a collection point for condensate generated by the W-030 primary vent offgas cooling system serving tanks AYIOI, AY102, AZIOI, AZI02. The system is located inside a shielded ventilation equipment cell and consists of a condensate seal pot, sampling features, a drain line to existing Catch Tank 241-AZ-151, and a cell sump jet pump. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  16. Water electrolysis system refurbishment and testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenough, B. M.

    1972-01-01

    The electrolytic oxygen generator for the back-up water electrolysis system in a 90-day manned test was refurbished, improved and subjected to a 182-day bench test. The performance of the system during the test demonstrated the soundness of the basic electrolysis concept, the high development status of the automatic controls which allowed completely hands-off operation, and the capability for orbital operation. Some design improvements are indicated.

  17. PFN tool test and calibration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, W.A.

    1981-12-01

    A system has been developed for the functional testing and neutron output calibration of the PFN (Prompt Fission Neutron) Uranium Logging Tool. The system was designed primarily for field work and consists of a special vehicle as well as test apparatus. Only the pertinent instrumentation is described. This document will serve as an Instruction and Test Equipment service manual for those involved with calibration of the neutron output of the PFN tool

  18. In vitro susceptibility of bovine mastitis pathogens to a combination of penicillin and framycetin: development of interpretive criteria for testing by broth microdilution and disk diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillar, C M; Stoneburner, A; Shinabarger, D L; Abbeloos, E; Goby, L; Bradley, Andrew J

    2014-10-01

    Dry cow therapy is an important part of mastitis control. This therapy typically consists of an antibiotic or antibiotics administered at a single dose by intramammary infusion at dry off to treat or prevent infection by prevalent mastitis pathogens. A combination dry cow therapy consisting of the active components penicillin and framycetin is currently used in several countries. Despite its use, standardized methods for the susceptibility testing of this combination against mastitis pathogens have not been established. In this study, which used Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methodology, preliminary interpretive criteria for the broth microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) testing of mastitis pathogens to penicillin combined with framycetin (2:1 wt/wt) were established based on the amount of drug achieved and maintained postadministration in the udder. Based on resulting MIC distributions of recent veterinary field isolates and a subset of isolates preselected for resistance to β-lactams or aminoglycosides and concentrations achieved postadministration, criteria for broth microdilution testing of the combination (susceptible, intermediate, resistant in micrograms per milliliter) were set as follows: Escherichia coli ≤8/4, 16/8, ≥32/16; Staphylococcus spp. ≤2/1, 4/2-8/4, >16/8; Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus dysgalactiae 4/2. A disk diffusion test using disks containing 100 μg of framycetin and 10 IU of penicillin was also developed, and preliminary interpretive criteria (susceptible, intermediate, resistant in millimeters) were set based on correlation to broth MIC values and the minimization of interpretive errors between isolates tested concurrently by broth microdilution and disk diffusion as follows: E. coli ≥18, 16-17, ≤15; Staphylococcus spp. ≥21, 18-20, ≤17; Strep. uberis and Strep. dysgalactiae ≥21, 19-20, ≤18. In addition, ranges for the quality control of the testing of this combination by both broth

  19. A New Twist to the Kirby-Bauer Antibiotic Susceptibility Test Activity?Increasing Antibiotic Sensitivity of Pseudomonas fluorescens through Thermal Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Gerbig, Donald G.; Engohang-Ndong, Jean; Aubihl, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotic sensitivity and the effect of temperature on microbial growth are two standard laboratory activities found in most microbial laboratory manuals. We have found a novel way to combine the two activities to demonstrate how temperature can influence antibiotic sensitivity using a standard incubator in instructional laboratory settings. This activity reinforces the important concepts of microbial growth and temperature along with Kirby-Bauer antibiotic susceptibility testing. We found t...

  20. Space Launch System Scale Model Acoustic Test Ignition Overpressure Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nance, Donald; Liever, Peter; Nielsen, Tanner

    2015-01-01

    The overpressure phenomenon is a transient fluid dynamic event occurring during rocket propulsion system ignition. This phenomenon results from fluid compression of the accelerating plume gas, subsequent rarefaction, and subsequent propagation from the exhaust trench and duct holes. The high-amplitude unsteady fluid-dynamic perturbations can adversely affect the vehicle and surrounding structure. Commonly known as ignition overpressure (IOP), this is an important design-to environment for the Space Launch System (SLS) that NASA is currently developing. Subscale testing is useful in validating and verifying the IOP environment. This was one of the objectives of the Scale Model Acoustic Test, conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center. The test data quantifies the effectiveness of the SLS IOP suppression system and improves the analytical models used to predict the SLS IOP environments. The reduction and analysis of the data gathered during the SMAT IOP test series requires identification and characterization of multiple dynamic events and scaling of the event waveforms to provide the most accurate comparisons to determine the effectiveness of the IOP suppression systems. The identification and characterization of the overpressure events, the waveform scaling, the computation of the IOP suppression system knockdown factors, and preliminary comparisons to the analytical models are discussed.

  1. Space Launch System Scale Model Acoustic Test Ignition Overpressure Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nance, Donald K.; Liever, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    The overpressure phenomenon is a transient fluid dynamic event occurring during rocket propulsion system ignition. This phenomenon results from fluid compression of the accelerating plume gas, subsequent rarefaction, and subsequent propagation from the exhaust trench and duct holes. The high-amplitude unsteady fluid-dynamic perturbations can adversely affect the vehicle and surrounding structure. Commonly known as ignition overpressure (IOP), this is an important design-to environment for the Space Launch System (SLS) that NASA is currently developing. Subscale testing is useful in validating and verifying the IOP environment. This was one of the objectives of the Scale Model Acoustic Test (SMAT), conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The test data quantifies the effectiveness of the SLS IOP suppression system and improves the analytical models used to predict the SLS IOP environments. The reduction and analysis of the data gathered during the SMAT IOP test series requires identification and characterization of multiple dynamic events and scaling of the event waveforms to provide the most accurate comparisons to determine the effectiveness of the IOP suppression systems. The identification and characterization of the overpressure events, the waveform scaling, the computation of the IOP suppression system knockdown factors, and preliminary comparisons to the analytical models are discussed.

  2. Fermilab tevatron five refrigerator system tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rode, C.; Ferry, R.; Leiniger, M.; Makara, J.; Misek, J.; Mizicko, D.; Richied, D.; Theilacker, J.

    1982-01-01

    The Fermilab Tevatron refrigeration system is described with the layout illustrated. The compressor control loops, the refrigerator control loops, and magnet control loops (two per refrigerator) are described and each illustrated. The mobile purifier is described. A five refrigerator test is presented, using two compressor buildings, satellite refrigerator concept test and the test current to the writing. The configuration of the five refrigerator test is diagramed

  3. Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Compliance Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, Louis M.

    2011-01-01

    The Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) defines an open architecture for software defined radios. This document describes the testing methodology to aid in determining the degree of compliance to the STRS architecture. Non-compliances are reported to the software and hardware developers as well as the NASA project manager so that any non-compliances may be fixed or waivers issued. Since the software developers may be divided into those that provide the operating environment including the operating system and STRS infrastructure (OE) and those that supply the waveform applications, the tests are divided accordingly. The static tests are also divided by the availability of an automated tool that determines whether the source code and configuration files contain the appropriate items. Thus, there are six separate step-by-step test procedures described as well as the corresponding requirements that they test. The six types of STRS compliance tests are: STRS application automated testing, STRS infrastructure automated testing, STRS infrastructure testing by compiling WFCCN with the infrastructure, STRS configuration file testing, STRS application manual code testing, and STRS infrastructure manual code testing. Examples of the input and output of the scripts are shown in the appendices as well as more specific information about what to configure and test in WFCCN for non-compliance. In addition, each STRS requirement is listed and the type of testing briefly described. Attached is also a set of guidelines on what to look for in addition to the requirements to aid in the document review process.

  4. A genome-wide association study identified AFF1 as a susceptibility locus for systemic lupus eyrthematosus in Japanese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukinori Okada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an autoimmune disease that causes multiple organ damage. Although recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS have contributed to discovery of SLE susceptibility genes, few studies has been performed in Asian populations. Here, we report a GWAS for SLE examining 891 SLE cases and 3,384 controls and multi-stage replication studies examining 1,387 SLE cases and 28,564 controls in Japanese subjects. Considering that expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs have been implicated in genetic risks for autoimmune diseases, we integrated an eQTL study into the results of the GWAS. We observed enrichments of cis-eQTL positive loci among the known SLE susceptibility loci (30.8% compared to the genome-wide SNPs (6.9%. In addition, we identified a novel association of a variant in the AF4/FMR2 family, member 1 (AFF1 gene at 4q21 with SLE susceptibility (rs340630; P = 8.3×10(-9, odds ratio = 1.21. The risk A allele of rs340630 demonstrated a cis-eQTL effect on the AFF1 transcript with enhanced expression levels (P<0.05. As AFF1 transcripts were prominently expressed in CD4(+ and CD19(+ peripheral blood lymphocytes, up-regulation of AFF1 may cause the abnormality in these lymphocytes, leading to disease onset.

  5. Preoperational test report, recirculation ventilation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-01-01

    This represents a preoperational test report for Recirculation Ventilation Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides vapor space cooling of tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102 and supports the ability to exhaust air from each tank. Each system consists of a valved piping loop, a fan, condenser, and moisture separator; equipment is located inside each respective tank farm in its own hardened building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System

  6. Preoperational test report, recirculation ventilation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-11-11

    This represents a preoperational test report for Recirculation Ventilation Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides vapor space cooling of tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102 and supports the ability to exhaust air from each tank. Each system consists of a valved piping loop, a fan, condenser, and moisture separator; equipment is located inside each respective tank farm in its own hardened building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  7. The International English Language Testing System (IELTS): The Speaking Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, D. E.

    1991-01-01

    The International English Language Testing System (IELTS) assesses proficiency in English both generally and for special purposes of non-native English speakers studying, training, or learning English in English-speaking countries. The Speaking subtest of the IELTS measures a candidate's general proficiency in speaking in everyday situations via a…

  8. SIMS Prototype System 4: performance test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-09

    The results obtained during testing of a self-contained, preassembled air type solar system, designed for installation remote from the dwelling, to provide space heating and hot water are presented. Data analysis is included which documents the system performance and verifies the suitability of SIMS Prototype System 4 for field installation.

  9. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Mycoplasma hyosynoviae isolated from pigs during 1968 to 1971 and during 1995 and 1996

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Friis, N. F.

    1998-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) for enrofloxacin, lincomycin, tetracycline, tiamulin and tylosin, of Mycoplasma hyosynoviae, isolated from pigs at notably different intervals (1968-71 and 1995-96). Each group comprised 21 low passage isolates...... and a Danish reference strain (M60) and the type strain (S16). MICs were determined in liquid medium with both initial and final readings. Enrofloxacin, lincomycin, tetracycline and tiamulin were active against all isolates, and tiamulin showed the highest activity. For tylosin all the isolates from 1968......-71 were highly susceptible, whereas the isolates from 1995-96 could be divided into a highly susceptible (nine isolates) and relatively resistant (12 isolates) group. This difference between old and new strains was statistically significant (p=0.0000415). The remaining agents, enrofloxacin, lincomycin...

  10. Internal testing of pipe systems with IRIS inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The internal piping inspection system IRIS allows inside testing of pipes with an internal diameter of NW 70 as a minimum, and of any horizontal or vertical layout of the piping system. Visual testing is done by means of an integrated CCD video system with high resolution power. Technical data are given and examples of applications, in the German and English language. (DG) [de

  11. Data Link Test and Analysis System/ATCRBS Transponder Test System Technical Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    This document references material for personnel using or making software changes : to the Data Link Test and Analysis System (DATAS) for Air Traffic Control Radar : Beacon System (ATCRBS) transponder testing and data collection. This is one of : a se...

  12. Molecular identification and in-vitro antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida species isolated from patients with onychomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyvan Pakshir

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Candida species are the most opportunistic fungi affecting the nails and resulting in onychomycosis. In this study, we identified and evaluated in-vitro susceptibility of the recovered isolates against fluconazole (FLC, voriconazole (VRC, and clotrimazole (CLT using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI M27-A3 document. Materials and Methods: From patients with either clinically or mycologically proven onychomycosis, 97 isolates comprising of seven Candida species were isolated, which were identified by both conventional and molecular techniques such as polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. In addition, Candida dubliniensis was confirmed by restriction endonuclease analysis. Antifungal susceptibility of each isolate against the three azoles applied in this study was determined using the CLSI microdilution reference method M27-A3. Results: Candida parapsilosis (C. parapsilosis was the most frequently isolated species (n=44, followed by C. albicans (n=23, C. tropicalis (n=13, C. glabrata (n=7, C. krusei (n=6, C. guilliermondii (n=3, and C. dubliniensis (n=1. All the isolates were susceptible to CLT. VRC had lower minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values for the isolates compared to FLC. Geometric mean MIC values of VRC, FLC, and CLT for C. parapsilosis isolates were 0.07 µg/ml, 0.8 µg/ml, and 0.35 µg/ml, respectively. Collectively, all species exhibited greater susceptibility to VRC in comparison to C. albicans (P≤0.001. Conclusion: This study showed that non-albicans Candida species were the most common etiologic agents of non-dermatophyte onychomycosis. The major antifungal agents used in clinics to empirically treat yeast onychomycosis are FLC and CLT. Our data suggested that CLT is a better choice for the treatment of Candida onychomycosis, especially in drug resistant cases.

  13. Comparison of Disk Diffusion and E-Test Methods for Doripenem Susceptibility of Nosocomial Acinetobacter Baumannii Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Yesim Cekin

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Acinetobacter species are amoung the most common two cause of infections isolated from patients of intensive care unit in our hospital. Doripenem which acts by inhibiting cell wall synthesis is resently introduced for use in our country is broad spectrum antibiotic belonging to carbapenems. There are many studies investigating the susceptibility of doripenem of Acinetobacter baumannii which is isolated as a cause of ventilatory associated pneumonia in the literature. We aimed to compare ...

  14. PUREX exhaust ventilation system installation test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackaby, W.B.

    1997-01-01

    This Acceptance Test Report validates the testing performed, the exceptions logged and resolved and certifies this portion of the SAMCONS has met all design and test criteria to perform as an operational system. The proper installation of the PUREX exhaust ventilation system components and wiring was systematically evaluated by performance of this procedure. Proper operation of PUREX exhaust fan inlet, outlet, and vortex damper actuators and limit switches were verified, using special test equipment, to be correct and installed wiring connections were verified by operation of this equipment

  15. Model-based testing for embedded systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zander, Justyna; Mosterman, Pieter J

    2011-01-01

    What the experts have to say about Model-Based Testing for Embedded Systems: "This book is exactly what is needed at the exact right time in this fast-growing area. From its beginnings over 10 years ago of deriving tests from UML statecharts, model-based testing has matured into a topic with both breadth and depth. Testing embedded systems is a natural application of MBT, and this book hits the nail exactly on the head. Numerous topics are presented clearly, thoroughly, and concisely in this cutting-edge book. The authors are world-class leading experts in this area and teach us well-used

  16. A prototype tap test imaging system: Initial field test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, J. J.; Barnard, D. J.; Hudelson, N. A.; Simpson, T. S.; Hsu, D. K.

    2000-05-01

    This paper describes a simple, field-worthy tap test imaging system that gives quantitative information about the size, shape, and severity of defects and damages. The system consists of an accelerometer, electronic circuits for conditioning the signal and measuring the impact duration, a laptop PC and data acquisition and processing software. The images are generated manually by tapping on a grid printed on a plastic sheet laid over the part's surface. A mechanized scanner is currently under development. The prototype has produced images for a variety of aircraft composite and metal honeycomb structures containing flaws, damages, and repairs. Images of the local contact stiffness, deduced from the impact duration using a spring model, revealed quantitatively the stiffness reduction due to flaws and damages, as well as the stiffness enhancement due to substructures. The system has been field tested on commercial and military aircraft as well as rotor blades and engine decks on helicopters. Field test results will be shown and the operation of the system will be demonstrated.—This material is based upon work supported by the Federal Aviation Administration under Contract #DTFA03-98-D-00008, Delivery Order No. IA016 and performed at Iowa State University's Center for NDE as part of the Center for Aviation Systems Reliability program.

  17. Investigating flood susceptible areas in inaccessible regions using remote sensing and geographic information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Joongbin; Lee, Kyoo-Seock

    2017-03-01

    Every summer, North Korea (NK) suffers from floods, resulting in decreased agricultural production and huge economic loss. Besides meteorological reasons, several factors can accelerate flood damage. Environmental studies about NK are difficult because NK is inaccessible due to the division of Korea. Remote sensing (RS) can be used to delineate flood inundated areas in inaccessible regions such as NK. The objective of this study was to investigate the spatial characteristics of flood susceptible areas (FSAs) using multi-temporal RS data and digital elevation model data. Such study will provide basic information to restore FSAs after reunification. Defining FSAs at the study site revealed that rice paddies with low elevation and low slope were the most susceptible areas to flood in NK. Numerous sediments from upper streams, especially streams through crop field areas on steeply sloped hills, might have been transported and deposited into stream channels, thus disturbing water flow. In conclusion, NK floods may have occurred not only due to meteorological factors but also due to inappropriate land use for flood management. In order to mitigate NK flood damage, reforestation is needed for terraced crop fields. In addition, drainage capacity for middle stream channel near rice paddies should be improved.

  18. Comparison of M.I.C.E. and Etest with CLSI agar dilution for antimicrobial susceptibility testing against oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloiza H Campana

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to comparatively evaluate the performance of M.I.C.E. and Etest methodologies to that of agar dilution for determining the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. METHODS: A total of 100 oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. isolates were collected from hospitalized patients at a teaching hospital. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing for vancomycin, teicoplanin and linezolid was performed using the reference CLSI agar dilution method (2009, Etest and M.I.C.E. methodologies. The MIC values were interpreted according to CLSI susceptibility breakpoints and compared by regression analysis. RESULTS: In general, the essential agreement (±1-log2 between M.I.C.E. and CLSI agar dilution was 93.0%, 84.0% and 77.0% for linezolid, teicoplanin and vancomycin, respectively. Essential agreement rates between M.I.C.E. and Etest were excellent (>90.0% for all antibiotics tested. Both strips (M.I.C.E. and Etest yielded two very major errors for linezolid. Unacceptable minor rates were observed for teicoplanin against CoNS and for vancomycin against S. aureus. CONCLUSIONS: According to our results, linezolid and teicoplanin MICs against all staphylococci and S. aureus, respectively, were more accurately predicted by M.I.C.E. strips. However, the Etest showed better performance than M.I.C.E. for predicting vancomycin MICs against all staphylococci. Thus, microbiologists must be aware of the different performance of commercially available gradient strips against staphylococci.

  19. Genotyping and antifungal susceptibility testing of multiple Malassezia pachydermatis isolates from otitis and dermatitis cases in pets: is it really worth the effort?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Pérez, Sergio; García, Marta E; Peláez, Teresa; Blanco, José L

    2016-01-01

    A total of 216 colonies of Malassezia pachydermatis from 28 cases of fungal otitis or dermatitis in pets were genotyped by M13 fingerprinting and tested for antifungal susceptibility. A huge genetic diversity was found (157 M13 types in total), with all animals having a polyclonal pattern of infection (5.4 ± 1.5 genotypes/sample). Furthermore, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that most genetic diversity (44%) was found at the within sample level. In contrast, variability in antifungal susceptibility among isolates from the same sample was less important, with different M13 types displaying in most cases identical or very similar MIC results. Most isolates displayed high in vitro susceptibility to amphotericin B, terbinafine and all azoles tested except fluconazole, for which MIC values were always ≥4 μg/ml and a 26.9% of isolates displayed values ≥32 μg/ml. We conclude that although characterization of multiple yeast isolates results in a considerable increase in laboratory workload and expenses, it may help to get a better understanding of the epidemiology of M. pachydermatis in a given patient population. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. QUASI-RANDOM TESTING OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Yarmolik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Various modified random testing approaches have been proposed for computer system testing in the black box environment. Their effectiveness has been evaluated on the typical failure patterns by employing three measures, namely, P-measure, E-measure and F-measure. A quasi-random testing, being a modified version of the random testing, has been proposed and analyzed. The quasi-random Sobol sequences and modified Sobol sequences are used as the test patterns. Some new methods for Sobol sequence generation have been proposed and analyzed.

  1. Activity of pradofloxacin against Porphyromonas and Prevotella spp. Implicated in periodontal disease in dogs: susceptibility test data from a European multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Bernd; Greife, Heinrich A; Pridmore, Andrew; Silley, Peter

    2008-06-01

    Collaborating veterinarians from five European countries collected subgingival bacterial samples from dogs exhibiting clinical periodontal disease. Sterile endodontic paper points were used for collection of the samples, which were transported to a central laboratory for susceptibility testing. Anaerobic bacteria were isolated and Porphyromonas and Prevotella isolates identified to the species level; susceptibility to pradofloxacin and metronidazole was determined using the CLSI agar dilution methodology. A total of 630 isolates, 310 of Porphyromonas spp. and 320 of Prevotella spp., were isolated. Pradofloxacin MIC data for all isolates were in the range of periodontal disease and shows activity against metronidazole-resistant isolates. The broad-spectrum activity of pradofloxacin makes it a suitable candidate for the treatment of periodontal disease in dogs.

  2. Tutoring system for nondestructive testing using computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Koo; Koh, Sung Nam [Joong Ang Inspection Co.,Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Yun Ju; Kim, Min Koo [Dept. of Computer Engineering, Aju University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-10-15

    This paper is written to introduce a multimedia tutoring system for nondestructive testing using personal computer. Nondestructive testing, one of the chief methods for inspecting welds and many other components, is very difficult for the NDT inspectors to understand its technical basis without a wide experience. And it is necessary for considerable repeated education and training for keeping their knowledge. The tutoring system that can simulate NDT works is suggested to solve the above problem based on reasonable condition. The tutoring system shows basic theories of nondestructive testing in a book-style with video images and hyper-links, and it offers practices, in which users can simulate the testing equipment. The book-style and simulation practices provide effective and individual environments for learning nondestructive testing.

  3. Tutoring system for nondestructive testing using computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Koo; Koh, Sung Nam; Shim, Yun Ju; Kim, Min Koo

    1997-01-01

    This paper is written to introduce a multimedia tutoring system for nondestructive testing using personal computer. Nondestructive testing, one of the chief methods for inspecting welds and many other components, is very difficult for the NDT inspectors to understand its technical basis without a wide experience. And it is necessary for considerable repeated education and training for keeping their knowledge. The tutoring system that can simulate NDT works is suggested to solve the above problem based on reasonable condition. The tutoring system shows basic theories of nondestructive testing in a book-style with video images and hyper-links, and it offers practices, in which users can simulate the testing equipment. The book-style and simulation practices provide effective and individual environments for learning nondestructive testing.

  4. Radioactive waste incineration system cold demonstration test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hozumi, Masahiro; Takaoku, Yoshinobu; Koyama, Shigeru; Nagae, Madoka; Seike, Yasuhiko; Yamanaka, Yasuhiro; Shibata, Kenji; Manabe, Kyoichi

    1984-12-01

    To demonstrate Waste Incineration System (WIS) which our company has been licensed by Combustion Engineering Inc., USA we installed a demonstration test plant in our Hiratsuka Research Laboratory and started the demonstration test on January 1984. One of the characteristics of this system is to be able to process many kinds of wastes with only one system, and to get high volume reduction factors. In our test plant, we processed paper, cloth, wood, polyethylene sheets as the samples of solid combustible wastes and spent ion exchange resins with incineration and processed condensed liquid wastes with spray drying. We have got good performances and enough Decontamination Factor (DF) data for the dust control equipment. In this paper, we introduce this demonstration test plant and report the test results up to date. (author).

  5. Dynamical spin susceptibility of electron-doped high-Tc cuprates. Comparison with hole-doped systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Atsuo; Mutou, Tetsuya; Tanaka, Syunsuke; Hirashima, Dai S.

    2010-01-01

    The magnetic excitation spectrum of electron-doped copper oxide superconductors is studied by calculating the dynamical spin susceptibility of the two-dimensional Hubbard model in which a d x2-y2 -wave superconducting order parameter is assumed. The spectrum of electron-doped systems is compared with that of hole-doped systems, and the relationship between the frequency at which a peak grows in the spectrum and the superconducting energy gap at a hot spot is investigated. A peak may be observed even when the magnetic resonance condition is not exactly satisfied. We find that, in the electron-doped systems, the resonance condition is less likely to be satisfied than in the hole-doped systems because of the small density of states around the hot spots, and the peak frequency is close to twice the gap magnitude at the hot spots. (author)

  6. Preoperational test report, raw water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-10-29

    This represents the preoperational test report for the Raw Water System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system supplies makeup water to the W-030 recirculation evaporative cooling towers for tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102. The Raw Water pipe riser and associated strainer and valving is located in the W-030 diesel generator building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  7. Preoperational test report, raw water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-01-01

    This represents the preoperational test report for the Raw Water System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system supplies makeup water to the W-030 recirculation evaporative cooling towers for tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102. The Raw Water pipe riser and associated strainer and valving is located in the W-030 diesel generator building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System

  8. Urbanization and climate change implications in flood risk management: Developing an efficient decision support system for flood susceptibility mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Shereif H; Gan, Thian Yew

    2018-04-26

    The effects of urbanization and climate change impact to the flood risk of two governorates in Egypt were analyzed. Non-parametric change point and trend detection algorithms were applied to the annual rainfall, rainfall anomaly, and temperature anomaly of both study sites. Next, change points and trends of the annual and monthly surface runoff data generated by the Curve Number method over 1948-2014 were also analyzed to detect the effects of urbanization on the surface runoff. Lastly, a GIS decision support system was developed to delineate flood susceptibility zones for the two governorates. The significant decline in annual rainfall and rainfall anomaly after 1994 at 8.96 and 15.3 mm/decade respectively was likely due to climate change impact, especially significant warming trend since 1976 at 0.16 °C/decade, though that could partly be attributed to rapid urbanization. Since 1970, effects of urbanization to flood risk are clear, because despite a decline in rainfall, the annual surface runoff and runoff anomaly show positive trends of 12.7 and of 14.39 mm/decade, respectively. Eleven flood contributing factors have been identified and used in mapping flood susceptibility zones of both sites. In the El-Beheira governorate, 9.2%, 17.9%, 32.3%, 28.3% and 12.3% of its area are categorized as very high, high, moderate, low and very low susceptibility to flooding, respectively. Similarly, in Alexandria governorate, 15.9%, 33.5%, 41%, 8.8% and 0.8% of its area are categorized as very high, high, moderate, low and very low susceptibility to flooding, respectively. Very high and high susceptible zones are located in the northern, northwestern and northeastern parts of the Beheira governorates, and in the northeastern and northwestern parts of Alexandria. The flood related information obtained in this study will be useful to assist mitigating potential flood damages and future land use planning of both governorates of Egypt. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All

  9. Multisignal detecting system of pile integrity testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zuting; Luo, Ying; Yu, Shihai

    2002-05-01

    The low strain reflection wave method plays a principal rule in the integrating detection of base piles. However, there are some deficiencies with this method. For example, there is a blind area of detection on top of the tested pile; it is difficult to recognize the defects at deep-seated parts of the pile; there is still the planar of 3D domino effect, etc. It is very difficult to solve these problems only with the single-transducer pile integrity testing system. A new multi-signal piles integrity testing system is proposed in this paper, which is able to impulse and collect signals on multiple points on top of the pile. By using the multiple superposition data processing method, the detecting system can effectively restrain the interference and elevate the precision and SNR of pile integrity testing. The system can also be applied to the evaluation of engineering structure health.

  10. Exemplar PV system for test and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This report describes the construction of Reference Photovoltaic System for Test and Development at University of Southampton between April 1995 and June 2000, which subsequently became known as the STaR Facility. (author)

  11. Prototype Engineered Barrier System Field Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.L.; Beatty, J.; Buscheck, T.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents selected preliminary results obtained during the first 54 days of the Prototype Engineered Barrier System Field Tests (PEBSFT) that are being performed in G-Tunnel within the Nevada Test Site. The test described is a precursor to the Engineered Barrier Systems Field Tests (EBSFT). The EBSFT will consist of in situ tests of the geohydrologic and geochemical environment in the near field (within a few meters) of heaters emplaced in welded tuff to simulate the thermal effects of waste packages. The PEBSFTs are being conducted to evaluate the applicability of measurement techniques, numerical models, and procedures for future investigations that will be conducted in the Exploratory Shaft Facilities of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). The paper discusses the evolution of hydrothermal behavior during the prototype test, including rock temperatures, changes in rock moisture content, air permeability of fractures, gas pressures, and rock mass gas-phase humidity. 10 refs., 12 figs

  12. Orion Boiler Plate Airdrop Test System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machin, Ricardo A.; Evans, Carol T.

    2013-01-01

    On the 29th of February 2012 the Orion Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) project attempted to perform an airdrop test of a boilerplate test article for the second time. The first attempt (Cluster Development Test 2, July 2008) to deliver a similar boilerplate from a C-17 using the Low Velocity Air Drop (LVAD) technique resulted in the programmer parachute failing to properly inflate, the test article failing to achieve the desired test initiation conditions, and the test article a total loss. This paper will pick up where the CDT-2 failure investigation left off, describing the test technique that was adopted, and outline the modeling that was performed to gain confidence that the second attempt would be successful. The second boiler plate test (Cluster Development Test 3-3) was indeed a complete success and has subsequently been repeated several times, allowing the CPAS project to proceed with the full scale system level development testing required to integrate the hardware to the first Entry Flight Test vehicle as well as go into the Critical Design Review with minimum risk and a mature design.

  13. Stress Testing of Transactional Database Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Meira , Jorge Augusto; Cunha De Almeida , Eduardo; Sunyé , Gerson; Le Traon , Yves; Valduriez , Patrick

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Transactional database management systems (DBMS) have been successful at supporting traditional transaction processing workloads. However, web-based applications that tend to generate huge numbers of concurrent business operations are pushing DBMS performance over their limits, thus threatening overall system availability. Then, a crucial question is how to test DBMS performance under heavy workload conditions. Answering this question requires a testing methodology to ...

  14. The Regional Test Center Data Transfer System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Daniel M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Photovoltaic and Distributed Systems Dept.; Stein, Joshua S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Photovoltaic and Distributed Systems Dept.

    2016-09-01

    The Regional Test Centers are a group of several sites around the US for testing photovoltaic systems and components related to photovoltaic systems. The RTCs are managed by Sandia National Laboratories. The data collected by the RTCs must be transmitted to Sandia for storage, analysis, and reporting. This document describes the methods that transfer the data between remote sites and Sandia as well as data movement within Sandia’s network. The methods described are in force as of September, 2016.

  15. Development of autonomous vehicles’ testing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A. M.; Shadrin, S. S.

    2018-02-01

    This article describes overview of automated and, in perspective, autonomous vehicles’ (AV) implementation risks. Set of activities, actual before the use of AVs on public roads, minimizing negative technical and social problems of AVs’ implementation is presented. Classification of vehicle’s automated control systems operating conditions is formulated. Groups of tests for AVs are developed and justified, sequence of AVs’ testing system formation is proposed.

  16. Railcar waste transfer system hydrostatic test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingson, S.D.

    1997-01-01

    Recent modifications have been performed on the T-Plant Railcar Waste Transfer System, This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that identified piping welds and mechanical connections incorporated during the modification are of high integrity and are acceptable for service. This will be achieved by implementation of a hydrostatic leak test

  17. Acceptance test report: Backup power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, D.B.

    1996-01-01

    Acceptance Test Report for construction functional testing of Project W-030 Backup Power System. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. Backup power includes a single 125 KW diesel generator, three 10-kva uninterruptible power supply units, and all necessary control

  18. Test Telemetry And Command System (TTACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Alvin J.

    1994-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has developed a multimission Test Telemetry and Command System (TTACS) which provides a multimission telemetry and command data system in a spacecraft test environment. TTACS reuses, in the spacecraft test environment, components of the same data system used for flight operations; no new software is developed for the spacecraft test environment. Additionally, the TTACS is transportable to any spacecraft test site, including the launch site. The TTACS is currently operational in the Galileo spacecraft testbed; it is also being provided to support the Cassini and Mars Surveyor Program projects. Minimal personnel data system training is required in the transition from pre-launch spacecraft test to post-launch flight operations since test personnel are already familiar with the data system's operation. Additionally, data system components, e.g. data display, can be reused to support spacecraft software development; and the same data system components will again be reused during the spacecraft integration and system test phases. TTACS usage also results in early availability of spacecraft data to data system development and, as a result, early data system development feedback to spacecraft system developers. The TTACS consists of a multimission spacecraft support equipment interface and components of the multimission telemetry and command software adapted for a specific project. The TTACS interfaces to the spacecraft, e.g., Command Data System (CDS), support equipment. The TTACS telemetry interface to the CDS support equipment performs serial (RS-422)-to-ethernet conversion at rates between 1 bps and 1 mbps, telemetry data blocking and header generation, guaranteed data transmission to the telemetry data system, and graphical downlink routing summary and control. The TTACS command interface to the CDS support equipment is nominally a command file transferred in non-real-time via ethernet. The CDS support equipment is responsible for

  19. Rapid differentiation of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and other coagulase-negative staphylococci and meticillin susceptibility testing directly from growth-positive blood cultures by multiplex real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukes, Leanne; Mikhail, Jane; Bome-Mannathoko, Naledi; Hadfield, Stephen J; Harris, Llinos G; El-Bouri, Khalid; Davies, Angharad P; Mack, Dietrich

    2010-12-01

    This study evaluated a multiplex real-time PCR method specific for the mecA, femA-SA and femA-SE genes for rapid identification of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and non-S. epidermidis coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), and meticillin susceptibility testing directly in positive blood cultures that grew Gram-positive cocci in clusters. A total of 100 positive blood cultures produced: 39 S. aureus [12 meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), 31% of all the S. aureus]; 30 S. epidermidis (56.6% of the CoNS), 8 Staphylococcus capitis (15.1%), 3 Staphylococcus saprophyticus (5.7%), 4 Staphylococcus hominis (7.5%), 3 Staphylococcus haemolyticus (5.7%), 2 Staphylococcus warneri (3.8%), 1 Staphylococcus cohnii (1.9%) and 2 unidentified Staphylococcus spp. (3.8%); and 1 Micrococcus luteus in pure culture. Two blood cultures had no growth on subculture and five blood cultures grew mixed CoNS. For the 95 blood cultures with pure growth or no growth on subculture, there was very good agreement between real-time PCR and the BD Phoenix identification system for staphylococcal species categorization in S. aureus, S. epidermidis and non-S. epidermidis CoNS and meticillin-resistance determination (Cohen's unweighted kappa coefficient κ=0.882). All MRSA and meticillin-susceptible S. aureus were correctly identified by mecA amplification. PCR amplification of mecA was more sensitive for direct detection of meticillin-resistant CoNS in positive blood cultures than testing with the BD Phoenix system. There were no major errors when identifying staphylococcal isolates and their meticillin susceptibility within 2.5 h. Further studies are needed to evaluate the clinical benefit of using such a rapid test on the consumption of glycopeptide antibiotics and the alteration of empiric therapy in the situation of positive blood cultures growing staphylococci, and the respective clinical outcomes.

  20. Orion Ammonia Boiler System Preflight Test Preparations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Julia L.

    2017-01-01

    The Environmental Controls and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) branch at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is currently undergoing preparations for ground testing of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) to prepare its subsystems for EM-1 (Exploration Mission-1). EM-1, Orions second unmanned flight, is a three-week long lunar mission during which the vehicle will complete a 6-day retrograde lunar orbit before returning to Earth. This paper focuses on the work done during the authors 16-week internship with the Mechanical Engineering Branch of KSCs Engineering Directorate. The authors project involved assisting with the preparations for testing the Orion MPCVs ammonia boiler system. The purpose of the ammonia boiler system is to keep the spacecraft sufficiently cool during the reentry portion of its mission, from service module (SM) separation to post-landing. This system is critical for keeping both the spacecraft (avionics and electronics) and crew alive during reentry, thus a successful test of the system is essential to the success of EM-1. XXXX The author was able to draft a detailed outline of the procedure for the ammonia system functional test. More work will need to be done on the vehicle power-up and power-down portions of the procedure, but the ammonia system testing portion of the procedure is thorough and includes vehicle test configurations, vehicle commands, and GSE. The author was able to compile a substantial list of questions regarding the ammonia system functional test with the help of her mentors. A significant number of these questions were answered in the teleconferences with Lockheed Martin.

  1. Coagulation system changes associated with susceptibility to infection in trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Elaine; Davenport, Ross; De'Ath, Henry; De-Ath, Henry; Manson, Joanna; Brockamp, Thomas; Brohi, Karim

    2013-01-01

    Infection following trauma is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and is common following severe hemorrhage. There is a strong interaction between the coagulation and immunity. The objective of this study was to establish if there was an association between changes in coagulation status after hemorrhage and the subsequent incidence of infection. Prospective cohort study of adult injured patients presenting to a major trauma center during a 2-year period. Blood was drawn at 24 hours following admission and analyzed using functional thromboelastography testing and laboratory defined tests of coagulation and blood count. Patients were followed up for infectious episodes while in the hospital using Center for Disease Control definitions. A total of 158 patients were recruited; 71 (45%) developed infection and were older (44 years vs. 32 years, p = 0.01) and more severely injured (Injury Severity Score [ISS], 25 vs.10; p < 0.01). White blood cell counts at 24 hours were normal, and there was no difference between groups (both 9.6 × 10/(9)L). Protein C was lower in those with infection (70.2 IU/dL vs. 83.3 IU/dL, p = 0.02), with a dose-dependent increase in infection as levels of protein C decreased. Plasmin activation at 24 hours was also strongly associated with infection plasmin-antiplasmin (infection vs. no infection, 6,156 μg/L vs. 3,324 μg/L, p = 0.03). The infection cohort had overall 12% lower procoagulant levels (varied between factor VIII 6.4% and factor II 16.2%). There is a strong association between the status of the coagulation system after 24 hours and the development of infection following trauma. Improved early coagulation management may decrease infection rates in this patient group. Prognostic prospective study, level III.

  2. RHIC sextant test: Accelerator systems and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, F.; Trbojevic, D.; Ahrens, L. [and others

    1997-08-01

    One sextant of the RHIC Collider was commissioned in early 1997 with beam. We describe here the performance of the accelerator systems, instrumentation subsystems and application software. We also describe a ramping test without beam that took place after the commissioning with beam. Finally, we analyze the implications of accelerator systems performance and their impact on the planning for RHIC installation and commissioning.

  3. RHIC sextant test: Accelerator systems and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilat, F.; Trbojevic, D.; Ahrens, L.

    1997-01-01

    One sextant of the RHIC Collider was commissioned in early 1997 with beam. We describe here the performance of the accelerator systems, instrumentation subsystems and application software. We also describe a ramping test without beam that took place after the commissioning with beam. Finally, we analyze the implications of accelerator systems performance and their impact on the planning for RHIC installation and commissioning

  4. The BNL Accelerator Test Facility control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, R.; Bottke, I.; Fernow, R.; Ben-Zvi, I.

    1993-01-01

    Described is the VAX/CAMAC-based control system for Brookhaven National Laboratory's Accelerator Test Facility, a laser/linac research complex. Details of hardware and software configurations are presented along with experiences of using Vsystem, a commercial control system package

  5. Rocket Testing and Integrated System Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Schmalzel, John

    2005-01-01

    Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) describes a set of system capabilities that in aggregate perform: determination of condition for each system element, detection of anomalies, diagnosis of causes for anomalies, and prognostics for future anomalies and system behavior. The ISHM should also provide operators with situational awareness of the system by integrating contextual and timely data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) as needed. ISHM capabilities can be implemented using a variety of technologies and tools. This chapter provides an overview of ISHM contributing technologies and describes in further detail a novel implementation architecture along with associated taxonomy, ontology, and standards. The operational ISHM testbed is based on a subsystem of a rocket engine test stand. Such test stands contain many elements that are common to manufacturing systems, and thereby serve to illustrate the potential benefits and methodologies of the ISHM approach for intelligent manufacturing.

  6. Convergence to a pulsating travelling wave for an epidemic reaction-diffusion system with non-diffusive susceptible population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Arnaud; Giletti, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    In this work we study the asymptotic behaviour of the Kermack-McKendrick reaction-diffusion system in a periodic environment with non-diffusive susceptible population. This problem was proposed by Kallen et al. as a model for the spatial spread for epidemics, where it can be reasonable to assume that the susceptible population is motionless. For arbitrary dimensional space we prove that large classes of solutions of such a system have an asymptotic spreading speed in large time, and that the infected population has some pulse-like asymptotic shape. The analysis of the one-dimensional problem is more developed, as we are able to uncover a much more accurate description of the profile of solutions. Indeed, we will see that, for some initially compactly supported infected population, the profile of the solution converges to some pulsating travelling wave with minimal speed, that is to some entire solution moving at a constant positive speed and whose profile's shape is periodic in time.

  7. Evaluation of GenoType® MTBDRplus assay for rapid detection of drug susceptibility testing of multi-drug resistance tuberculosis in Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kumar Maurya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The problem of multi-drug resistance tuberculosis (MDR-TB is growing in several hotspots throughout the world. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of MDR-TB is crucial to facilitate early treatment and to reduce its spread in the community. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the new, novel GenoType® MTBDRplus assay for rapid detection of drug susceptibility testing (DST of MDR-TB cases in Northern India. Materials and Methods: A total of 550 specimens were collected from highly suspected drug resistant from pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB cases. All the specimens were processed by Ziehl- Neelsen staining, culture, differentiation by the GenoType® CM assay, first line DST using BacT/ALERT 3D system and GenoType® MTBDRplus assay. The concordance of the GenoType® MTBDRplus assay was calculated in comparison with conventional DST results. Results: Overall the sensitivity for detection of rifampicin, isoniazid and MDR-TB resistance by GenoType® MTBDRplus assay was 98.0%, 98.4% and 98.2% respectively. Out of 55 MDR-TB strains, 45 (81.8%, 52 (94.5% and 17 (30.9% strains showed mutation in rpoB, katG and inhA genes respectively (P < 0.05. The most prominent mutations in rpoB, katG and inhA genes were; 37 (67.3% in S531L, 52 (94.5% in S315T1 and 11 (20% in C15T regions respectively (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Our study demonstrated a high concordance between the GenoType® MTBDRplus assay resistance patterns and those were observed by conventional DST with good sensitivity, specificity with short turnaround times and to control new cases of MDR-TB in countries with a high prevalence of MDR-TB.

  8. Standardization of penetrating radiation testing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiley, P.A.; Aronson, H.L.

    1979-01-01

    Standardization is provided to control system gain of a penetrating radiation testing system by periodically inspecting a reference object in the same manner as the product samples so as to generate a stabilization signal which is compared to a reference signal. The difference, if any, between the stabilization signal and the reference signal is integrated and the integrated signal is used to correct the gain of the system

  9. Test-driven modeling of embedded systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck, Allan; Madsen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    To benefit maximally from model-based systems engineering (MBSE) trustworthy high quality models are required. From the software disciplines it is known that test-driven development (TDD) can significantly increase the quality of the products. Using a test-driven approach with MBSE may have...... a similar positive effect on the quality of the system models and the resulting products and may therefore be desirable. To define a test-driven model-based systems engineering (TD-MBSE) approach, we must define this approach for numerous sub disciplines such as modeling of requirements, use cases...... suggest that our method provides a sound foundation for rapid development of high quality system models....

  10. Susceptibility of Porphyromonas gingivalis in biofilms to amoxicillin, doxycycline and metronidazole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T.

    2002-01-01

    Biofilm, Porphyromonas gingivalis, susceptibility testing, amoxicillin, doxycycline, metronidazole......Biofilm, Porphyromonas gingivalis, susceptibility testing, amoxicillin, doxycycline, metronidazole...

  11. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles of oral pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veloo, A. C. M.; Seme, K.; Raangs, Gerwin; Rurenga, P.; Singadji, Z.; Wekema - Mulder, G.; van Winkelhoff, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Periodontitis is a bacterial disease that can be treated with systemic antibiotics. The aim of this study was to establish the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of five periodontal pathogens to six commonly used antibiotics in periodontics. A total of 247 periodontal bacterial isolates were tested

  12. A Systems Genetic Approach to Identify Low Dose Radiation-Induced Lymphoma Susceptibility/DOE2013FinalReport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balmain, Allan [University of California, San Francisco; Song, Ihn Young [University of California, San Francisco

    2013-05-15

    The ultimate goal of this project is to identify the combinations of genetic variants that confer an individual's susceptibility to the effects of low dose (0.1 Gy) gamma-radiation, in particular with regard to tumor development. In contrast to the known effects of high dose radiation in cancer induction, the responses to low dose radiation (defined as 0.1 Gy or less) are much less well understood, and have been proposed to involve a protective anti-tumor effect in some in vivo scientific models. These conflicting results confound attempts to develop predictive models of the risk of exposure to low dose radiation, particularly when combined with the strong effects of inherited genetic variants on both radiation effects and cancer susceptibility. We have used a Systems Genetics approach in mice that combines genetic background analysis with responses to low and high dose radiation, in order to develop insights that will allow us to reconcile these disparate observations. Using this comprehensive approach we have analyzed normal tissue gene expression (in this case the skin and thymus), together with the changes that take place in this gene expression architecture a) in response to low or high- dose radiation and b) during tumor development. Additionally, we have demonstrated that using our expression analysis approach in our genetically heterogeneous/defined radiation-induced tumor mouse models can uniquely identify genes and pathways relevant to human T-ALL, and uncover interactions between common genetic variants of genes which may lead to tumor susceptibility.

  13. Magnetic susceptibility and electron–phonon (e–p) interaction in some U and Ce based heavy fermion (HF) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, J.; Shadangi, N.; Nayak, P.

    2015-01-01

    Here an attempt is made to explore the variation of magnetic susceptibility with temperature for different values of the position of f-level (d) and electron–phonon interaction (EPI) strength (r) in some U and Ce based heavy Fermion (HF) systems within Periodic Anderson Model (PAM) in the presence of a static magnetic field B and interaction of phonons with electrons of hybridization band. Since magnetic susceptibility χ is related to the f-electron occupation n ±σ f , the expression for the latter is analytically derived through f–f correlation function following the Green function technique of Zubarev. The numerical analysis of χ as a function of temperature ‘T’ is done for different values of d and r. The results show a good agreement with the experiments for some U and Ce based HFs. An explanation for the existence of a critical value of d w.r.t. E F for switching of nature of χ∼T from U to Ce based HF systems is provided. Our calculated value of the temperature T χmax corresponding to the peak position of χ for small values of hybridization constant γ=0.002 and 0.0036 coincides with the experimental value of 19 K for UPt 3 and 35 K for UPd 2 Al 3 reported by Frings et al. and Geibel et al. respectively. - Highlights: • Variation of magnetic susceptibility χ with temperature T is studied for some HF systems. • Periodic Anderson Model in presence of magnetic field and electron–phonon interaction is used for numerical evaluation. • The existence of a critical value of the position of f-level(d) is proposed for distinction between χ∼T behavior of U and Ce based HF systems. • Results obtained are in good agreement with the experimental observations for some Ce and U based HF systems. • Theoretically evaluated temperature corresponding to the peak value of χ matches with the experimental results of UPt 3 and UPd 2 Al 3

  14. Preoperational test report, recirculation condenser cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-01-01

    This represents a preoperational test report for Recirculation Condenser Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The four system provide condenser cooling water for vapor space cooling of tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102. Each system consists of a valved piping loop, a pair of redundant recirculation pumps, a closed-loop evaporative cooling tower, and supporting instrumentation; equipment is located outside the farm on concrete slabs. Piping is routed to the each ventilation condenser inside the farm via below-grade concrete trenches. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System

  15. Preoperational test report, recirculation condenser cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-11-04

    This represents a preoperational test report for Recirculation Condenser Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The four system provide condenser cooling water for vapor space cooling of tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102. Each system consists of a valved piping loop, a pair of redundant recirculation pumps, a closed-loop evaporative cooling tower, and supporting instrumentation; equipment is located outside the farm on concrete slabs. Piping is routed to the each ventilation condenser inside the farm via below-grade concrete trenches. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  16. Dynamic magnetic susceptibility of systems with long-range magnetic order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vannette, Matthew Dano

    2009-01-01

    The utility of the TDR as an instrument in the study of magnetically ordered materials has been expanded beyond the simple demonstration purposes. Results of static applied magnetic field dependent measurements of the dynamic magnetic susceptibility, ?, of various ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) materials showing a range of transition temperatures (1-800 K) are presented. Data was collected primarily with a tunnel diode resonator (TDR) at different radio-frequencies (∼10-30 MHz). In the vicinity of TC local moment ferromagnets show a very sharp, narrow peak in ? which is suppressed in amplitude and shifted to higher temperatures as the static bias field is increased. Unexpectedly, critical scaling analysis fails for these data. It is seen that these data are frequency dependent, however there is no simple method whereby measurement frequency can be changed in a controllable fashion. In contrast, itinerant ferromagnets show a broad maximum in ? well below TC which is suppressed and shifts to lower temperatures as the dc bias field is increased. The data on itinerant ferromagnets is fitted to a semi-phenomenological model that suggests the sample response is dominated by the uncompensated minority spins in the conduction band. Concluding remarks suggest possible scenarios to achieve frequency resolved data using the TDR as well as other fields in which the apparatus may be exploited.

  17. GES [Ground Engineering System] test site preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, C.M.; Mahaffey, M.K.; Miller, W.C.; Schade, A.R.; Toyoda, K.G.

    1987-10-01

    Activities are under way at Hanford to convert the 309 containment building and its associated service wing to a nuclear test facility for the Ground Engineering System (GES) test. Conceptual design is about 80% complete, encompassing facility modifications, a secondary heat transport system, a large vacuum system, a test article cell and handing system, control and data handling systems, and safety andl auxiliary systems. The design makes extensive use of existing equipment to minimize technical risk and cost. Refurbishment of this equipment is 25% complete. Cleanout of some 1000 m 3 of equipment from the earlier reactor test in the facility is 85% complete. An Environmental Assessment was prepared and revised to incorporate Department of Energy (DOE) comments. It is now in the DOE approval chain, where a Finding of No Significant Impact is expected. During the next year, definite design will be well advanced, long-lead procurements will be initiated, construction planning will be completed, an operator training plan will be prepared, and the site (preliminary) safety analysis report will be drafted

  18. The role of whole genome sequencing in antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacteria: report from the EUCAST Subcommittee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellington, M J; Ekelund, O; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2017-01-01

    clinical decision making. Internationally agreed principles and quality control (QC) metrics will facilitate early harmonization of analytical approaches and interpretive criteria for WGS-based predictive AST. Only data sets that pass agreed QC metrics should be used in AST predictions. Minimum performance...... of resistance loci. For most bacterial species the major limitations to widespread adoption for WGS-based AST in clinical laboratories remain the current high-cost and limited speed of inferring antimicrobial susceptibility from WGS data as well as the dependency on previous culture because analysis directly...... should be changed to epidemiological cut-off values in order to improve differentiation of wild-type from non-wild-type isolates (harbouring an acquired resistance). Clinical breakpoints should be a secondary comparator. This assessment will reveal whether genetic predictions could also be used to guide...

  19. A systems genetics approach identifies CXCL14, ITGAX, and LPCAT2 as novel aggressive prostate cancer susceptibility genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra A Williams

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Although prostate cancer typically runs an indolent course, a subset of men develop aggressive, fatal forms of this disease. We hypothesize that germline variation modulates susceptibility to aggressive prostate cancer. The goal of this work is to identify susceptibility genes using the C57BL/6-Tg(TRAMP8247Ng/J (TRAMP mouse model of neuroendocrine prostate cancer. Quantitative trait locus (QTL mapping was performed in transgene-positive (TRAMPxNOD/ShiLtJ F2 intercross males (n = 228, which facilitated identification of 11 loci associated with aggressive disease development. Microarray data derived from 126 (TRAMPxNOD/ShiLtJ F2 primary tumors were used to prioritize candidate genes within QTLs, with candidate genes deemed as being high priority when possessing both high levels of expression-trait correlation and a proximal expression QTL. This process enabled the identification of 35 aggressive prostate tumorigenesis candidate genes. The role of these genes in aggressive forms of human prostate cancer was investigated using two concurrent approaches. First, logistic regression analysis in two human prostate gene expression datasets revealed that expression levels of five genes (CXCL14, ITGAX, LPCAT2, RNASEH2A, and ZNF322 were positively correlated with aggressive prostate cancer and two genes (CCL19 and HIST1H1A were protective for aggressive prostate cancer. Higher than average levels of expression of the five genes that were positively correlated with aggressive disease were consistently associated with patient outcome in both human prostate cancer tumor gene expression datasets. Second, three of these five genes (CXCL14, ITGAX, and LPCAT2 harbored polymorphisms associated with aggressive disease development in a human GWAS cohort consisting of 1,172 prostate cancer patients. This study is the first example of using a systems genetics approach to successfully identify novel susceptibility genes for aggressive prostate cancer. Such

  20. Analysis of regional brain mitochondrial bioenergetics and susceptibility to mitochondrial inhibition utilizing a microplate based system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerbeck, Andrew; Pandya, Jignesh; Singh, Indrapal; Bittman, Kevin; Readnower, Ryan; Bing, Guoying; Sullivan, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of mitochondrial bioenergetic function typically has required 50–100 μg of protein per sample and at least 15 min per run when utilizing a Clark-type oxygen electrode. In the present work we describe a method utilizing the Seahorse Biosciences XF24 Flux Analyzer for measuring mitochondrial oxygen consumption simultaneously from multiple samples and utilizing only 5 μg of protein per sample. Utilizing this method we have investigated whether regionally based differences exist in mitochondria isolated from the cortex, striatum, hippocampus, and cerebellum. Analysis of basal mitochondrial bioenergetics revealed that minimal differences exist between the cortex, striatum, and hippocampus. However, the cerebellum exhibited significantly slower basal rates of Complex I and Complex II dependent oxygen consumption (p < 0.05). Mitochondrial inhibitors affected enzyme activity proportionally across all samples tested and only small differences existed in the effect of inhibitors on oxygen consumption. Investigation of the effect of rotenone administration on Complex I dependent oxygen consumption revealed that exposure to 10 pM rotenone led to a clear time dependent decrease in oxygen consumption beginning 12 min after administration (p < 0.05). These studies show that the utilization of this microplate based method for analysis of mitochondrial bioenergetics is effective at quantifying oxygen consumption simultaneously from multiple samples. Additionally, these studies indicate that minimal regional differences exist in mitochondria isolated from the cortex, striatum, or hippocampus. Furthermore, utilization of the mitochondrial inhibitors suggests that previous work indicating regionally specific deficits following systemic mitochondrial toxin exposure may not be the result of differences in the individual mitochondria from the affected regions. PMID:21402103

  1. Presence-only approach to assess landslide triggering-thickness susceptibility: a test for the Mili catchment (north-eastern Sicily, Italy)

    KAUST Repository

    Lombardo, Luigi

    2016-06-29

    This study evaluates the performances of the presence-only approach, Maximum Entropy, in assessing landslide triggering-thickness susceptibility within the Mili catchment (Sicily, Italy). This catchment underwent several meteorological stresses, resulting in hundreds of shallow rapid mass movements between 2007 and 2011. In particular, the area has become known for two disasters, which occurred in 2009 and 2010; the first weather system did not pass directly over the catchment; however, peak rainfall was registered over the basin during the second meteorological event. Field data were collected to associate the depth from the slope surface that material was mobilised at the triggering zone to each mass movement within the catchment. This information has been used to model the landslide susceptibility for two classes of processes, divided into shallow failures for maximum depths of 1 m and deep ones in case of values equal or greater than 1 m. Topographic attributes from a 2-m DEM were used as predictors, together with medium resolution vegetation indexes derived from ASTER scenes and geological, land use and tectonic maps. The presence-only approach discriminated between the two depth classes at the landslide trigger zone, producing excellent prediction skills associated with relatively low variances across a set of 50 randomly generated replicates. The role of each predictor was assessed to ascertain the significance to the final model output. This work uses simple field measurements to produce triggering-thickness susceptibility, which is a novel approach and may perform better as a proxy for landslide hazard assessments with respect to more common susceptibility practises. © 2016, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  2. Acquisition system testing with superfluid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.E.; Fester, D.A.; DiPirro, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    NASA is evaluating both a thermomechanical pump and centrifugal pump for the SHOOT experiment using capillary fluid acquisition systems. Tests were conducted for these systems with superfluid helium under adverse operating conditions. Minus one-g outflow tests were run in conjunction with the thermomechanical pump. Both fine mesh screen and porous sponges were tested. A screen acquisition device was also tested with the low-NPSH centrifugal pump. Results to date show that the screen and sponge are capable of supplying superfluid helium to the thermomechanical pump inlet against a one-g head up to four cm. This is more than sufficient for the SHOOT application. Results with the sponge were reproducible while those with the screen could not always be repeated

  3. System design description for the whole element furnace testing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, G.A.; Marschman, S.C.; MacFarlan, P.J.; King, D.A.

    1998-05-01

    This document provides a detailed description of the Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Whole Element Furnace Testing System located in the Postirradiation Testing Laboratory G-Cell (327 Building). Equipment specifications, system schematics, general operating modes, maintenance and calibration requirements, and other supporting information are provided in this document. This system was developed for performing cold vacuum drying and hot vacuum drying testing of whole N-Reactor fuel elements, which were sampled from the 105-K East and K West Basins. The proposed drying processes are intended to allow dry storage of the SNF for long periods of time. The furnace testing system is used to evaluate these processes by simulating drying sequences with a single fuel element and measuring key system parameters such as internal pressures, temperatures, moisture levels, and off-gas composition

  4. Establishing quality control ranges for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus: a cornerstone to develop reference strains for Korean clinical microbiology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung Kuk; Choi, Seung Jun; Shin, Saeam; Lee, Wonmok; Pinto, Naina; Shin, Nari; Lee, Kwangjun; Hong, Seong Geun; Kim, Young Ah; Lee, Hyukmin; Kim, Heejung; Song, Wonkeun; Lee, Sun Hwa; Yong, Dongeun; Lee, Kyungwon; Chong, Yunsop

    2015-11-01

    Quality control (QC) processes are being performed in the majority of clinical microbiology laboratories to ensure the performance of microbial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing by using ATCC strains. To obtain these ATCC strains, some inconveniences are encountered concerning the purchase cost of the strains and the shipping time required. This study was focused on constructing a database of reference strains for QC processes using domestic bacterial strains, concentrating primarily on antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Three strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus) that showed legible results in preliminary testing were selected. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and zone diameters (ZDs) of eight antimicrobials for each strain were determined according to the CLSI M23. All resulting MIC and ZD ranges included at least 95% of the data. The ZD QC ranges obtained by using the CLSI method were less than 12 mm, and the MIC QC ranges extended no more than five dilutions. This study is a preliminary attempt to construct a bank of Korean QC strains. With further studies, a positive outcome toward cost and time reduction can be anticipated.

  5. Light-emitting device test systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, Mark; Brodie, Alan; George, James; Guan, Yu; Nyffenegger, Ralph

    2018-01-23

    Light-emitting devices, such as LEDs, are tested using a photometric unit. The photometric unit, which may be an integrating sphere, can measure flux, color, or other properties of the devices. The photometric unit may have a single port or both an inlet and outlet. Light loss through the port, inlet, or outlet can be reduced or calibrated for. These testing systems can provide increased reliability, improved throughput, and/or improved measurement accuracy.

  6. W-026, acceptance test report manipulator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, T.L.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the WRAP Manipulator System Acceptance Test Plan (ATP) is to verify that the 4 glovebox sets of WRAP manipulator components, including rail/carriage, slave arm, master controller and auxiliary equipment, meets the requirements of the functional segments of 14590 specification. The demonstration of performance elements of the ATP are performed as a part of the Assembly specifications. Manipulator integration is integrated in the performance testing of the gloveboxes. Each requirement of the Assembly specification will be carried out in conjunction with glovebox performance tests

  7. Spaceport Command and Control System Automation Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plano, Tom

    2017-01-01

    The goal of automated testing is to create and maintain a cohesive infrastructure of robust tests that could be run independently on a software package in its entirety. To that end, the Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) project at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has brought in a large group of interns to work side-by-side with full time employees to do just this work. Thus, our job is to implement the tests that will put SCCS through its paces.

  8. Crack growth testing of cold worked stainless steel in a simulated PWR primary water environment to assess susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tice, D.R.; Stairmand, J.W.; Fairbrother, H.J.; Stock, A.

    2007-01-01

    Although austenitic stainless steels do not show a high degree of susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in PWR primary environments, there is limited evidence from laboratory testing that crack propagation may occur under some conditions for materials in a cold-worked condition. A test program is therefore underway to examine the factors influencing SCC propagation in good quality PWR primary coolant. Type 304 stainless steel was subjected to cold working by either rolling (at ambient or elevated temperature) or fatigue cycling, to produce a range of yield strengths. Compact tension specimens were fabricated from these materials and tested in simulated high temperature (250-300 o C) PWR primary coolant. It was observed that the degree of crack propagation was influenced by the degree of cold work, the crack growth orientation relative to the rolling direction and the method of working. (author)

  9. Optimization and evaluation of Flexicult(®) Vet for detection, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial uropathogens in small animal veterinary practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guardabassi, Luca; Hedberg, Sandra; Jessen, Lisbeth Rem

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common reason for antimicrobial prescription in dogs and cats. The objective of this study was to optimize and evaluate a culture-based point-of-care test for detection, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial uro......-pathogens in veterinary practice. METHODS: Seventy-two urine samples from dogs and cats with suspected UTI presenting to seven veterinary facilities were used by clinical staff and an investigator to estimate sensitivity and specificity of Flexicult Vet A compared to laboratory reference standards for culture...... B (commercial name Flexicult(®) Vet) is a time- and cost-effective point-of-care test to guide antimicrobial choice and facilitate implementation of antimicrobial use guidelines for treatment of UTIs in small animals, provided that clinical staff is adequately trained to interpret the results...

  10. Data acquisition and test system software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgeois, N.A. Jr.

    1979-03-01

    Sandia Laboratories has been assigned the task by the Base and Installation Security Systems (BISS) Program Office to develop various aspects of perimeter security systems. One part of this effort involves the development of advanced signal processing techniques to reduce the false and nuisance alarms from sensor systems while improving the probability of intrusion detection. The need existed for both data acquisition hardware and software. Also, the hardware is used to implement and test the signal processing algorithms in real time. The hardware developed for this signal processing task is the Data Acquisition and Test System (DATS). The programs developed for use on DATS are described. The descriptions are taken directly from the documentation included within the source programs themselves

  11. Results from the STAR TPC system test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betts, W.

    1996-01-01

    A system test of various components of the Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC (STAR) detector, operating in concern, has recently come on-line. Communication between a major sub-detector, a sector of the Time Projection Chamber (TPC), and the trigger, data acquisition and slow controls systems has been established, enabling data from cosmic ray muons to be collected. First results from an analysis of the TPC data are presented. These include measurements of system noise, electronic parameters such as amplifier gains and pedestal values, and tracking resolution for cosmic ray muons and laser induced ionization tracks. A discussion on the experience gained in integrating the different components for the system test is also given

  12. Comparison of Two Different Disk Diffusion Agar Tests in Determination of Antibiotic Susceptibility for E-Coli Isolated from Urinary Tract Infection in Pediatrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sedighi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Urinary Tract Infection (UTI is one of the most common infections during childhood and E-Coli is the more predominant pathogen recovered in UTI. Disk Diffusion agar test is a method of choice because it is cost effective, simple, and now routinely used for detection of antibiotic susceptibility. A rapid increase in antibiotic resistance in our region made the authors to design a study to compare this traditional method with two different disk diffusion agar tests.Materials & Methods: Our study was conducted between 2009 and 2010 in Be’sat teaching hospital on 100 pediatric patients ranged 15 days to 13 years old with positive urine culture for E-coli. Antibiogram detection was performed by disk diffusion agar test with two different kits as Padtan-Teb (made in Iran and Mast (made in the U.K. for Co-trimoxazol, Amikacin, Ceftriaxone, Nalidixic Acid, Cefixime, and Nitrofurantoin. At last the data was analyzed by McNemar test.Results: Co-trimoxazol obtained the lowest (23% Padtan-Teb and 26% Mast and Nitrofurantoin had the highest (86% Padtan-Teb and 97% Mast sensitivity in the two methods which were used in our study. The results were statistically significant for Amikacin, Ceftriaxone, Cefixime, and Nitrofurantoin. The data was analyzed by Mc Memar test.Conclusion: According to our study the results of antibiotic susceptibility were more compatible with other non national Disk diffusion agar test and thus we recommend that our manufactures in Iran should increase the quality of their products.

  13. The role of variants from the innate immune system genes in tuberculosis and skin test response in a Native American population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenau, Juliana D; Salzano, Francisco M; Hurtado, Ana M; Hill, Kim R; Hutz, Mara H

    2016-10-01

    Native American populations show higher tuberculosis (TB) mortality and infectivity rates than non-Native populations. Variants in the innate immune system seem to have an important role on TB susceptibility. The role of some innate immune system variants in TB susceptibility and/or skin test response (PPD) were investigated in the Aché, a Native American population. Complement receptor 1 and toll like receptor 9 variants were associated with anergy to PPD and protection to TB, respectively. These findings demonstrate an important role of the innate immune system variants in TB susceptibility. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Quality control ranges for testing broth microdilution susceptibility of Flavobacterium columnare and F. psychrophilium to nine antimicrobials

    Science.gov (United States)

    A multi-laboratory broth microdilution method trial was performed to standardize the specialized test conditions required for fish pathogens Flavobacterium columnare and F. pyschrophilum. Nine laboratories tested the quality control (QC) strains Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Aeromonas salmonicid...

  15. Advisory expert system for test rig operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielczynski, P.

    1994-01-01

    The advisory expert system MAESTRO (Modular Advisory Expert System for Test Rig Operator) has been designed to guide the operator of large experimental installation during start-up, steady state and shut down. The installation is located in the research reactor MARIA in the Institute of Atomic Energy in Swierk, Poland. The system acquires and analyses on line signals from installation and performs two tasks in real time: leading the operator and monitoring of the installation (including signal validation). Systems tasks, architecture and knowledge representation concepts are described. The system is based on expert systems techniques what makes in phases of continuous change of process parameters and it has been achieved by special knowledge representation allowing its dynamical modification. (author). 147 refs, 42 figs, 5 tab

  16. Prototype Engineered Barrier System Field Test (PEBSFT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.L.; Buscheck, T.; Carlson, R.; Daily, W.; Lee, K.; Lin, Wunan; Mao, Nai-hsien; Ueng, Tzou-Shin; Wang, H.; Watwood, D.

    1991-08-01

    This final report represents a summary of data and interpretations obtained from the Prototype Engineered Barrier System Field Test (PEBSFT) performed in G-Tunnel within the Nevada Test Site. The PEBSFT was conducted to evaluate the applicability of measurement techniques, numerical models, and procedures developed for future field tests that will be conducted in the Exploratory Studies Facilities (ESF) at Yucca Mountain. The primary objective of the test was to provide a basis for determining whether tests planned for the ESF have the potential to be successful. Chapter 1 on high frequency electromagnetic tomography discusses the rock mass electromagnetic permittivity and attenuation rate changes that were measured to characterize the water distribution in the near field of a simulated waste container. The data are used to obtain quantitative estimates of how the moisture content in the rock mass changes during heating and to infer properties of the spatial variability of water distribution, leading to conclusions about the role of fractures in the system. Chapter 2 discusses the changes in rock moisture content detected by the neutron logging probe. Chapter 3 permeability tests discusses the characterization of the in-situ permeability of the fractured tuff around the borehole. The air permeability testing apparatus, the testing procedures, and the data analysis are presented. Chapter 4 describes the moisture collection system installed in the heater borehole to trap and measure the moisture volumes. Chapter 5 describes relative humidity measurements made with the thermocouple psychrometer and capacitance sensors. Chapter 6 discusses gas pressure measurements in the G-Tunnel, addressing the calibration and installation of piezoresistive-gaged transducers. Chapter 7 describes the calibration and installation of thermocouples for temperature measurements. Chapter 8 discusses the results of the PEBSFT

  17. Tritium Systems Test Facility. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, G.W.; Battleson, K.W.; Bauer, W.

    1976-10-01

    Sandia Laboratories proposes to build and operate a Tritium Systems Test Facility (TSTF) in its newly completed Tritium Research Laboratory at Livermore, California (see frontispiece). The facility will demonstrate at a scale factor of 1:200 the tritium fuel cycle systems for an Experimental Power Reactor (EPR). This scale for each of the TSTF subsystems--torus, pumping system, fuel purifier, isotope separator, and tritium store--will allow confident extrapolation to EPR dimensions. Coolant loop and reactor hall cleanup facilities are also reproduced, but to different scales. It is believed that all critical details of an EPR tritium system will be simulated correctly in the facility. Tritium systems necessary for interim devices such as the Ignition Test Reactor (ITR) or The Next Step (TNS) can also be simulated in TSTF at other scale values. The active tritium system will be completely enclosed in an inert atmosphere glove box which will be connected to the existing Gas Purification System (GPS) of the Tritium Research Laboratory. In effect, the GPS will become the scaled environmental control system which otherwise would have to be built especially for the TSTF

  18. Supernatant treatment system design through testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploetz, D.K.; Leonard, I.M.

    1988-12-01

    The main purpose of the Supernatant Treatment System (STS) is to remove more than 99.9 percent of the radioactive cesium (Cs-137) from the high-level waste stored in tank 8D-2. Cesium removal is accomplished in the STS by processing the supernatant (liquid) portion of the high-level waste through three or four ion exchange columns filled with zeolite. After treatment in the STS, the decontaminated supernatant is processed as low-level waste and finally encapsulated in cement for eventual disposal. The Cs-137 removed from the waste and absorbed onto zeolite ion exchange material is temporarily stored in tank 8D-1 until it can be encapsulated in glass and disposed of as high-level waste. This report discusses construction and testing of the STS. Design of the STS was started in 1982 in parallel with the selection of the ion exchange material. The construction of this system was accomplished in five phase in parallel with completion of design to allow for faster completion of the project. The existing high-level waste storage tanks -- 8D-1, 8D-2, and 8D-3 -- required major renovations to permit transfer of the high-level waste from tank 8D-2 to tank 8D-1, to house the components that comprise the STS in tank 8D-1, and to store decontaminated wastes in tank 8D-3. Testing in the STS started before construction was complete and was accomplished by first testing components individually. Then the system was retested using simulated supernatant. Integrated testing of the whole Integrated Radwaste Treatment System (IRTS), which includes the STS, Liquid Waste Treatment System (LWTS), Cement Solidification System (CSS), and the Drum Cell, was also performed using simulated supernatant. Finally, slightly radioactive condensate water from tank 8D-1 was processed. After successfully completing this testing, the STS started operations with radioactive supernatant on May 23, 1988. 21 refs., 33 figs., 21 tabs

  19. A rapid method for testing in vivo the susceptibility of different strains of Trypanosoma cruzi to active chemotherapeutic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leny S. Filardi

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available A method is described which permits to determine in vivo an in a short period of time (4-6 hours the sensitivity of T. cruzo strains to known active chemotherapeutic agents. By using resistant- and sensitive T. cruzi stains a fairly good correlation was observed between the results obtained with this rapid method (which detects activity against the circulating blood forms and those obtained with long-term schedules which involve drug adminstration for at least 20 consecutive days and a prolonged period of assessment. This method may be used to characterize susceptibility to active drugs used clinically, provide infomation on the specific action against circulating trypomastigotes and screen active compounds. Differences in the natural susceptibility of Trypanosoma cruzi strains to active drugs have been already reported using different criteria, mostly demanding long-term study of the animal (Hauschka, 1949; Bock, Gonnert & Haberkorn, 1969; Brener, Costa & Chiari, 1976; Andrade & Figueira, 1977; Schlemper, 1982. In this paper we report a method which detects in 4-6 hours the effect of drugs on bloodstream forms in mice with established T. cruzi infections. The results obtained with this method show a fairly good correlation with those obtained by prolonged treatment schedules used to assess the action of drugs in experimental Chagas' disease and may be used to study the sensitivity of T. cruzi strains to active drugs.No presente trabalho descreve-se um metodo que permite determinar in vivo e em curto espaço de tempo (4-6 horas a sensibilidade de cepas de T. cruzi a agentes terapeuticos ativos na doença de Chagas. Usando-se cepas sensíveis e resistentes aos medicamentos foi possível observar uma boa correlação entre os resultados obtidos com o método rápido (que detecta atividade contra as formas circulantes do parasita e aqueles obtidos com esquema de acao prolongada que envolve a administração da droga por 20 dias e posterior avalia

  20. Laboratory results of the AOF system testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Johann; Madec, Pierre-Yves; Arsenault, Robin; Oberti, Sylvain; Paufique, Jérôme; La Penna, Paolo; Ströbele, Stefan; Donaldson, Robert; Soenke, Christian; Suárez Valles, Marcos; Kiekebusch, Mario; Argomedo, Javier; Le Louarn, Miska; Vernet, Elise; Haguenauer, Pierre; Duhoux, Philippe; Aller-Carpentier, Emmanuel; Valenzuela, Jose Javier; Guerra, Juan Carlos

    2016-07-01

    For two years starting in February 2014, the AO modules GRAAL for HAWK-I and GALACSI for MUSE of the Adaptive Optics Facility project have undergone System Testing at ESO's Headquarters. They offer four different modes: NGS SCAO, LGS GLAO in the IR, LGS GLAO and LTAO in the visible. A detailed characterization of those modes was made possible by the existence of ASSIST, a test bench emulating an adaptive VLT including the Deformable Secondary Mirror, a star simulator and turbulence generator and a VLT focal plane re-imager. This phase aimed at validating all the possible components and loops of the AO modules before installation at the actual VLT that comprises the added complexity of real LGSs, a harsher non-reproducible environment and the adaptive telescope control. In this paper we present some of the major results obtained and challenges encountered during the phase of System Tests, like the preparation of the Acquisition sequence, the testing of the Jitter loop, the performance optimization in GLAO and the offload of low-order modes from the DSM to the telescope (restricted to the M2 hexapod). The System Tests concluded with the successful acceptance, shipping, installation and first commissioning of GRAAL in 2015 as well as the acceptance and shipping of GALACSI, ready for installation and commissioning early 2017.