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Sample records for susceptibility specific heat

  1. Entropy, specific heat, susceptibility, and Rushbrooke inequality in percolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, M. K.; Alam, D.; Jitu, Z. I.; Rahman, M. M.

    2017-11-01

    We investigate percolation, a probabilistic model for continuous phase transition, on square and weighted planar stochastic lattices. In its thermal counterpart, entropy is minimally low where order parameter (OP) is maximally high and vice versa. In addition, specific heat, OP, and susceptibility exhibit power law when approaching the critical point and the corresponding critical exponents α ,β ,γ respectably obey the Rushbrooke inequality (RI) α +2 β +γ ≥2 . Their analogs in percolation, however, remain elusive. We define entropy and specific heat and redefine susceptibility for percolation and show that they behave exactly in the same way as their thermal counterpart. We also show that RI holds for both the lattices albeit they belong to different universality classes.

  2. Determination of susceptibility and specific heat critical exponents for weak itinerant-electron ferromagnets from vibrating reed experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, K.; Kaul, S. N.

    2002-04-01

    We report the observation of a linear relationship between the magnetic contribution to Young's modulus, ΔE/E0, and inverse magnetic susceptibility χ-1 for amorphous weak itinerant-electron ferromagnets Fe90Zr10 and Fe91Zr9 in the asymptotic critical region near the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic phase transition. The proportionality ΔE(T)/E0~χ-1(T) is shown to provide as accurate a means of determining the asymptotic critical exponent γ and the leading ``correction-to-scaling'' amplitudes for susceptibilty from the ΔE/E0 data as a direct measurement of magnetic susceptibilty does. Similarly, the well-known relation between the magnetic contributions to sound velocity and specific heat is fully exploited to extract accurate estimates for the universal critical amplitude ratio A+/A- and the asymptotic critical exponents α+/- for the specific heat from the sound velocity data. The presently determined values of α+/- and γ, together with the reported value for spontaneous magnetization critical exponent β, not only obey the scaling equalities α+=α- and α+2β+γ=2 but also assert that the atomic magnetic moments in the alloys in question interact with one another through an attractive interaction which decays faster than 1/r5 with the interatomic spacing, r.

  3. Magnetic field dependence of the magnetic susceptibility and the specific heat of the doped plasticized polyaniline (PANI-DB3EPSA)0.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djurado, D; Pron, A; Jacquot, J F; Travers, J P; Adriano, C; Vargas, J M; Pagliuso, P G; Rettori, C; Lesseux, G G; Fier, I; Walmsley, L

    2011-05-25

    Specific heat, magnetization and electron spin resonance (ESR) data obtained from a self-standing film of the doped plasticized polyaniline (PANI-DB3EPSA)(0.5) are shown. No long range magnetic order has been observed at zero magnetic field, above 2 K. For a magnetic field of 3.3 kOe applied perpendicular to the plane of the film, a clear signature of an induced ordered state can be seen in the specific heat data and ESR also reveals this antiferromagnetic order. An electronic contribution is detected from ESR, magnetization and specific heat; however, for T ≤ 5 K, the specific heat data show the existence of a gap. Magnetization data also show a low temperature dominant Curie behaviour which cannot be seen from ESR, probably due to a very large linewidth, suggesting short range correlations among spin 1/2 polarons.

  4. SPECIFIC HEAT INDICATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, F.L.; Binns, J.E.

    1961-05-01

    Apparatus for continuously and automatically measuring and computing the specific heat of a flowing solution is described. The invention provides for the continuous measurement of all the parameters required for the mathematical solution of this characteristic. The parameters are converted to logarithmic functions which are added and subtracted in accordance with the solution and a null-seeking servo reduces errors due to changing voltage drops to a minimum. Logarithmic potentiometers are utilized in a unique manner to accomplish these results.

  5. High specific heat superconducting composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyert, Jr., William A.

    1979-01-01

    A composite superconductor formed from a high specific heat ceramic such as gadolinium oxide or gadolinium-aluminum oxide and a conventional metal conductor such as copper or aluminum which are insolubly mixed together to provide adiabatic stability in a superconducting mode of operation. The addition of a few percent of insoluble gadolinium-aluminum oxide powder or gadolinium oxide powder to copper, increases the measured specific heat of the composite by one to two orders of magnitude below the 5.degree. K. level while maintaining the high thermal and electrical conductivity of the conventional metal conductor.

  6. Changes in population susceptibility to heat and cold over time: assessing adaptation to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuthnott, Katherine; Hajat, Shakoor; Heaviside, Clare; Vardoulakis, Sotiris

    2016-03-08

    In the context of a warming climate and increasing urbanisation (with the associated urban heat island effect), interest in understanding temperature related health effects is growing. Previous reviews have examined how the temperature-mortality relationship varies by geographical location. There have been no reviews examining the empirical evidence for changes in population susceptibility to the effects of heat and/or cold over time. The objective of this paper is to review studies which have specifically examined variations in temperature related mortality risks over the 20(th) and 21(st) centuries and determine whether population adaptation to heat and/or cold has occurred. We searched five electronic databases combining search terms for three main concepts: temperature, health outcomes and changes in vulnerability or adaptation. Studies included were those which quantified the risk of heat related mortality with changing ambient temperature in a specific location over time, or those which compared mortality outcomes between two different extreme temperature events (heatwaves) in one location. The electronic searches returned 9183 titles and abstracts, of which eleven studies examining the effects of ambient temperature over time were included and six studies comparing the effect of different heatwaves at discrete time points were included. Of the eleven papers that quantified the risk of, or absolute heat related mortality over time, ten found a decrease in susceptibility over time of which five found the decrease to be significant. The magnitude of the decrease varied by location. Only two studies attempted to quantitatively attribute changes in susceptibility to specific adaptive measures and found no significant association between the risk of heat related mortality and air conditioning prevalence within or between cities over time. Four of the six papers examining effects of heatwaves found a decrease in expected mortality in later years. Five studies

  7. Dynamic specific heat of frustrated Ising spin rings

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, G

    2003-01-01

    The dynamic specific heat C(omega) is calculated exactly for rings of six coupled Ising spins within Glauber dynamics. We used the response of the internal energy to small temperature oscillations to find C(omega). The spin glass (SG) and disordered ferromagnetic (DFM) rings showed here have four energy minima and thus four diverging relaxation times in the time evolution of magnetization and three such times in the evolution of energy. The properties of the real and imaginary parts of dynamic specific heat are investigated for different temperatures and frequencies. The dynamic susceptibility is affected by the longest relaxing mode while the dynamic specific heat is not. Our results confirm that C(omega) is sensitive only to rapidly relaxing processes for ferromagnetic (FM) and anti-ferromagnetic (AFM) cases. (Author)

  8. Essential Specification Elements for Heat Exchanger Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, L.

    2015-07-01

    Performance upgrade and equipment degradation are the primary impetuses for a nuclear power plant to engage in the large capital cost project of heat exchanger replacement. Along with attention to these issues, consideration of heat exchanger Codes and Standards, material improvements, thermal redesign, and configuration are essential for developing User’s Design Specifications for successful replacement projects. The User’s Design Specification is the central document in procuring ASME heat exchangers. Properly stated objectives for the heat exchanger replacement are essential for obtaining the materials, configurations and thermal designs best suited for the nuclear power plant. Additionally, the code of construction required and the applied manufacturing standard (TEMA or HEI) affects how the heat exchanger may be designed or configured to meet the replacement goals. Knowledge of how Codes and Standards affect design and configuration details will aid in writing the User’s Design Specification. Joseph Oat Corporation has designed and fabricated many replacement heat exchangers for the nuclear power industry. These heat exchangers have been constructed per ASME Section III to various Code-Years or ASME Section VIII-1 to the current Code-Year also in accordance with TEMA and HEI. These heat exchangers have been a range of like-for-like replacement to complete thermal, material and configuration redesigns. Several examples of these heat exchangers with their Code, Standard and specification implications are presented. (Author.

  9. Measuring Specific Heats at High Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandersande, Jan W.; Zoltan, Andrew; Wood, Charles

    1987-01-01

    Flash apparatus for measuring thermal diffusivities at temperatures from 300 to 1,000 degrees C modified; measures specific heats of samples to accuracy of 4 to 5 percent. Specific heat and thermal diffusivity of sample measured. Xenon flash emits pulse of radiation, absorbed by sputtered graphite coating on sample. Sample temperature measured with thermocouple, and temperature rise due to pulse measured by InSb detector.

  10. CORRELATION AND HEAT SUSCEPTIBILITY INDEX ANALYSIS FOR TERMINAL HEAT TOLERANCE IN BREAD WHEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit SHARMA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Six generations namely, P1, P2, F2, F3, BC1s and BC2s (2006-07 and P1, P2, F3, F4, BC1ss and BC2ss (2007-08 developed from four parental genotypes viz. DBW 14 (heat tolerant, NP 846 (heat and drought tolerant, WH 147 and Raj 4014 (heat susceptible for late sown. All the six generations from four crosses were evaluated during Rabi 2006-07 and Rabi 2007-08 in a compact family block design with three replications on two sowing dates. Heat susceptibility index values revealed reduction in grain yield in both the years for all the generations of the four crosses. Significant estimates of correlation of grain yield with days to heading, days to anthesis and days to maturity were recorded in late sown condition during first year. While under timely sown condition spike length has high estimate correlation with grain yield in first year itself. Significant estimated were recorded for tillers per plant in both the environments in second year. Lowest yield loss was reported in backcross populations of Cross I in both years and among segregating populations of Cross IV observed to be least affected and therefore suggested to be forwarded to further generations and further selection of heat tolerant genotypes.

  11. Temperature alters host genotype-specific susceptibility to chytrid infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gsell, A.S.; De Senerpont Domis, L.N.; Van Donk, E.; Ibelings, B.W.

    2013-01-01

    The cost of parasitism often depends on environmental conditions and host identity. Therefore, variation in the biotic and abiotic environment can have repercussions on both, species-level host-parasite interaction patterns but also on host genotype-specific susceptibility to disease. We exposed

  12. Specific heat of ovendry loblolly pine wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles W. McMillin

    1969-01-01

    In the range of 333 K to 413 K, the specific heat of ovendry loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) wood was expressed by a linear function of temperature. No relationship was detected with specific gravity, growth rate, or distance from the pith; nor were differences found between earlywood and latewood.

  13. On the specific heat of carbon steels

    OpenAIRE

    Umino, Saburo

    2010-01-01

    The results of the pre:lent investigation may be summarized as follows: (1) The heat content of carbon steels at high temperatures was determined by the mixture method, while the oxidation of the specimen was prevented by passing a purified hydrogen gas through the furnace. The specimens were twelve kinds of steels with different carbon contents from 0.09 % to 2.84 % and the range of temperature was 23~250°C. (2) According to A. Meuthen, the specific heat is constant below the A1 point, but t...

  14. MEASUREMENT OF SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY OF SALTSTONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbour, J; Vickie Williams, V

    2008-09-29

    One of the goals of the Saltstone variability study is to identify (and quantify the impact of) the operational and compositional variables that control or influence the important processing and performance properties of Saltstone grout mixtures. The heat capacity of the Saltstone waste form is one of the important properties of Saltstone mixes that was last measured at SRNL in 1997. It is therefore important to develop a core competency for rapid and accurate analysis of the specific heat capacity of the Saltstone mixes in order to quantify the impact of compositional and operational variations on this property as part of the variability study. The heat capacity, coupled with the heat of hydration data obtained from isothermal calorimetry for a given Saltstone mix, can be used to predict the maximum temperature increase in the cells within the vaults of the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The temperature increase controls the processing rate and the pour schedule. The maximum temperature is also important to the performance properties of the Saltstone. For example, in mass pours of concrete or grout of which Saltstone is an example, the maximum temperature increase and the maximum temperature difference (between the surface and the hottest location) are controlled to ensure durability of the product and prevent or limit the cracking caused by the thermal gradients produced during curing. This report details the development and implementation of a method for the measurement of the heat capacities of Saltstone mixes as well as the heat capacities of the cementitious materials of the premix and the simulated salt solutions used to batch the mixes. The developed method utilizes the TAM Air isothermal calorimeter and takes advantage of the sophisticated heat flow measurement capabilities of the instrument. Standards and reference materials were identified and used to validate the procedure and ensure accuracy of testing. Heat capacities of Saltstone mixes were

  15. Measurement of the Specific Heat Using a Gravity Cancellation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Fang

    2003-01-01

    The specific heat at constant volume C(sob V) of a simple fluid diverges near its liquid-vapor critical point. However, gravity-induced density stratification due to the divergence of isothermal susceptibility hinders the direct comparison of the experimental data with the predictions of renormalization group theory. In the past, a microgravity environment has been considered essential to eliminate the density stratification. We propose to perform specific heat measurements of He-3 on the ground using a method to cancel the density stratification. A He-3 fluid layer will be heated from below, using the thermal expansion of the fluid to cancel the hydrostatic compression. A 6% density stratification at a reduced temperature of 10(exp -5) can be cancelled to better than 0.1% with a steady 1.7 micro K temperature difference across a 0.05 cm thick fluid layer. A conventional AC calorimetry technique will be used to determine the heat capacity. The minimized bulk density stratification with a relaxation time 6500 sec at a reduced temperature of 10(exp -5) will stay unchanged during 1 Hz AC heating. The smear of the specific heat divergence due to the temperature difference across the cell is about 0.1% at a reduced temperature of 10(exp -6). The combination of using High Resolution Thermometry with a 0.5 n K temperature resolution in the AC technique and the cancellation of the density stratification will enable C(sub V) to be measured down to a reduced temperature of 10(exp -6) with less than a 1% systematic error.

  16. On the Specific Heat Capacity of CuO Nanofluid

    OpenAIRE

    Le-Ping Zhou; Bu-Xuan Wang; Xiao-Feng Peng; Xiao-Ze Du; Yong-Ping Yang

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews briefly the definition of heat capacity and clarifies the defined specific heat capacity and volumetric heat capacity. The specific heat capacity and volumetric heat capacity, with our measured experimental data for CuO nanofluids, are discussed as an illustrating example. The result indicates that the specific heat capacity of CuO nanofluid decreases gradually with increasing volume concentration of nanoparticles. The measurement and the prediction from the thermal equilib...

  17. Genetic susceptibility for specific cancers. Medical liability of the clinician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, M J

    1999-12-01

    The use of genetic profiling techniques to detect individuals with an increased susceptibility to heritable cancers has provoked recent legal interest in the duties of the attending physician and in the rights of patients and their families. In the current study specific prima facie and recently litigated cases are presented and explored to delineate the issues facing physicians and to illustrate the prerogatives of patients who are caught up in a heritable cancer enigma. Various courts have attempted to answer questions involving lawsuits in which incidents of breast/ovarian carcinoma and colon carcinoma have provoked claims of negligence against health care providers. Health care workers involved in the care of these patients have specific duties to these individuals. It would appear that physicians are being forced to assume the additional duty of delving into a patient's family history of cancer through multiple generations. This duty is followed by a responsibility to provide detailed counseling to those patients in whom such activity impacts the diagnosis and management of familial cancer.

  18. Landslide susceptibility and risk assessment: specificities for road networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicani, Roberta; Argentiero, Ilenia; Parisi, Alessandro; Spilotro, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    A regional-scale assessment of landslide susceptibility and risk along the main road corridors crossing the provincial territory of Matera (Basilicata Region, Southern Italy) was carried out. The entire provincial road network extends for about 1,320 km through a territory, of which represents the main connection infrastructure among thirty-one municipalities due to the lack of an efficient integrated transportation system through the whole regional territory. For this reason, the strategic importance of these roads consists in their uniqueness in connecting every urban center with the socio-economic surrounding context. These roads and their vehicular traffic are continuously exposed to instability processes (about the 40% of the total length is disrupted by landslides), characterized both by high intensity and low frequency and by low intensity and high frequency. This last typology, consisting in small shallow landslides, is particularly hazardous for the roads since it is widespread along the road network, its occurrence is connected to rainfalls and determines high vulnerability conditions for the road in terms of interruption of vehicular traffic. A GIS-based heuristic-bivariate statistical predictive model was performed to assess and map the landslide susceptibility in the study area, by using a polynomial function of eight predisposing factors, weighted according to their influence on the landslide phenomena, recognized and collected in an inventory. Susceptibility associated to small shallow phenomena was assessed by using a polynomial function of specific factors, such as slope angle and aspect, lithological outcrops, rainfalls, etc. In absence of detailed input data, the spatial distribution of landslide risk along the road corridors was assessed and mapped using a qualitative hazard-consequence matrix approach, by which risk is obtained by combining hazard categories with consequence classes pairwise in a two-dimensional table or matrix. Landslide

  19. The specific heat of YBCO single crystals near Tc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reagan, S.; Lawrie, I.D.; Howson, M.A. [Leeds Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1992-12-01

    The authors present results for the measured specific heat of YBCO single crystals between 80 and 110K. The specific heat has been measured using an a.c. optical heating technique with a temperature resolution of 15mK. The superconducting transition is marked by a sharply peaked {open_quote}Lambda{close_quote} like anomaly. The {open_quote}fluctuation{close_quote} contributions to the specific heat fit a logarithmic divergence very well.

  20. Susceptibility to Heat-Related Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalance Emergency Department Visits in Atlanta, Georgia, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Heidari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Identification of populations susceptible to heat effects is critical for targeted prevention and more accurate risk assessment. Fluid and electrolyte imbalance (FEI may provide an objective indicator of heat morbidity. Data on daily ambient temperature and FEI emergency department (ED visits were collected in Atlanta, Georgia, USA during 1993–2012. Associations of warm-season same-day temperatures and FEI ED visits were estimated using Poisson generalized linear models. Analyses explored associations between FEI ED visits and various temperature metrics (maximum, minimum, average, and diurnal change in ambient temperature, apparent temperature, and heat index modeled using linear, quadratic, and cubic terms to allow for non-linear associations. Effect modification by potential determinants of heat susceptibility (sex; race; comorbid congestive heart failure, kidney disease, and diabetes; and neighborhood poverty and education levels was assessed via stratification. Higher warm-season ambient temperature was significantly associated with FEI ED visits, regardless of temperature metric used. Stratified analyses suggested heat-related risks for all populations, but particularly for males. This work highlights the utility of FEI as an indicator of heat morbidity, the health threat posed by warm-season temperatures, and the importance of considering susceptible populations in heat-health research.

  1. Susceptibility to Heat-Related Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalance Emergency Department Visits in Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Leila; Winquist, Andrea; Klein, Mitchel; O'Lenick, Cassandra; Grundstein, Andrew; Ebelt Sarnat, Stefanie

    2016-10-02

    Identification of populations susceptible to heat effects is critical for targeted prevention and more accurate risk assessment. Fluid and electrolyte imbalance (FEI) may provide an objective indicator of heat morbidity. Data on daily ambient temperature and FEI emergency department (ED) visits were collected in Atlanta, Georgia, USA during 1993-2012. Associations of warm-season same-day temperatures and FEI ED visits were estimated using Poisson generalized linear models. Analyses explored associations between FEI ED visits and various temperature metrics (maximum, minimum, average, and diurnal change in ambient temperature, apparent temperature, and heat index) modeled using linear, quadratic, and cubic terms to allow for non-linear associations. Effect modification by potential determinants of heat susceptibility (sex; race; comorbid congestive heart failure, kidney disease, and diabetes; and neighborhood poverty and education levels) was assessed via stratification. Higher warm-season ambient temperature was significantly associated with FEI ED visits, regardless of temperature metric used. Stratified analyses suggested heat-related risks for all populations, but particularly for males. This work highlights the utility of FEI as an indicator of heat morbidity, the health threat posed by warm-season temperatures, and the importance of considering susceptible populations in heat-health research.

  2. Cappuccino and specific heat versus heat of vaporization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hidden, Frits; Boomsma, Jorn; Schins, Anton; Van den Berg, Ed

    2012-01-01

    A cappuccino is prepared by adding about 50 mL frothing, foaming milk to a cup of espresso. Whole milk is best for foaming and the ideal milk temperature when adding it to the espresso is 65 °C. The espresso itself may be warmer than that. During the heating the milk should not burn, as that would

  3. The Heat Is on: An Inquiry-Based Investigation for Specific Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, Deborah G.

    2011-01-01

    A substantial number of upper-level science students and practicing physical science teachers demonstrate confusion about thermal equilibrium, heat transfer, heat capacity, and specific heat capacity. The traditional method of instruction, which involves learning the related definitions and equations, using equations to solve heat transfer…

  4. Cappuccino and Specific Heat versus Heat of Vaporization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidden, Frits; Boomsma, Jorn; Schins, Anton; van den Berg, Ed

    2012-01-01

    A cappuccino is prepared by adding about 50 mL frothing, foaming milk to a cup of espresso. Whole milk is best for foaming and the ideal milk temperature when adding it to the espresso is 65 [degrees]C. The espresso itself may be warmer than that. During the heating the milk should not burn, as that would spoil the taste. The best way is to heat…

  5. Older persons and heat-susceptibility: the role of health promotion in a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Alana; Bi, Peng; Nitschke, Monika; Pisaniello, Dino; Newbury, Jonathan; Kitson, Alison

    2011-12-01

    Many studies world wide have provided evidence that older persons are a sub-population at increased risk of heat-related morbidity and mortality. This article gives an overview of the current state of knowledge of risk factors and provides commentary on the role of health promotion in the prevention of a climate change-related increase in elderly heat casualties. A search of peer-reviewed medical and epidemiological literature and community health websites was conducted in order to gain an in-depth understanding of heat-susceptibility in the elderly and preventive strategies. Key search words included: elderly, aged, older, heat, thermoregulation, heat wave, mortality, heat effects, dehydration, heat-related illness, adaptation, adaptive capacity. The reasons underlying reduced heat tolerance in this group are multi-faceted, comprising physiological, social and behavioural limitations, with comorbidities and polypharmacy being contributing factors. Additionally, some older persons may be unable or reluctant to undertake adaptations necessary to maintain thermal homeostasis due to diminished awareness of the heat, lowered thirst sensation, mobility or cognitive impairments, a lowered perception of risk, or economic concerns. With older persons in poor health being particularly vulnerable to heat, preventive messages need to promote protective behaviours and help build resilience as temperatures rise.

  6. Low penetrance breast cancer susceptibility loci are associated with specific breast tumor subtypes: findings from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Broeks, A; Schmidt, M.K; Sherman, M.E; Couch, F.J; Hopper, J.L; Dite, G.S; Apicella, C; Smith, L.D; Hammet, F; Southey, M.C; Veer, L.J. van 't; Groot, R. de; Smit, V.T; Fasching, P.A; Beckmann, M.W; Jud, S; Ekici, A.B; Hartmann, A; Hein, A; Schulz-Wendtland, R; Burwinkel, B; Marme, F; Schneeweiss, A; Sinn, H.P; Sohn, C; Tchatchou, S; Bojesen, S.E; Nordestgaard, B.G; Flyger, H; Orsted, D.D; Kaur-Knudsen, D; Milne, R.L; Perez, J.I; Zamora, P; Roiguez, P.M; Benitez, J; Brauch, H; Justenhoven, C; Ko, Y.D; Hamann, U; Fischer, H.P; Bruning, T; Pesch, B; Chang-Claude, J; Wang-Gohrke, S; Bremer, M; Karstens, J.H; Hillemanns, P; Dork, T; Nevanlinna, H.A; Heikkinen, T; Heikkila, P; Blomqvist, C; Aittomaki, K; Aaltonen, K; Lindblom, A; Margolin, S; Mannermaa, A; Kosma, V.M; Kauppinen, J.M; Kataja, V; Auvinen, P; Eskelinen, M; Soini, Y; Chenevix-Trench, G; Spurdle, A.B; Beesley, J; Chen, X; Holland, H; Lambrechts, D; Claes, B; Vandorpe, T; Neven, P; Wildiers, H; Flesch-Janys, D; Hein, R; Loning, T; Kosel, M; Fredericksen, Z.S; Wang, X; Giles, G.G; Baglietto, L; Severi, G; McLean, C; Haiman, C.A; Henderson, B.E; Marchand, L. le; Kolonel, L.N; Alnaes, G.G; Kristensen, V; Borresen-Dale, A.L; Hunter, D.J; Hankinson, S.E; Anulis, I.L; Mulligan, A.M; O'Malley, F.P; Devilee, P; Huijts, P.E; Tollenaar, R.A.E.M; Asperen, C.J. van

    2011-01-01

    .... We investigated breast cancer risk associations of eight susceptibility loci identified in GWAS and two putative susceptibility loci in candidate genes in relation to specific breast tumor subtypes...

  7. The Specific Heat of Matter at Low Temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Tari, A

    2003-01-01

    Recent discoveries of new materials and improvements in calorimetric techniques have given new impetus to the subject of specific heat. Nevertheless, there is a serious lack of literature on the subject. This invaluable book, which goes some way towards remedying that, is concerned mainly with the specific heat of matter at ordinary temperatures. It discusses the principles that underlie the theory of specific heat and considers a number of theoretical models in some detail. The subject matter ranges from traditional materials to those recently discovered - heavy fermion compounds, high temper

  8. Specific heat properties of electrons in generalized Fibonacci quasicrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauriz, P. W.; Vasconcelos, M. S.; Albuquerque, E. L.

    2003-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the specific heat properties of electrons in one-dimensional quasiperiodic potentials, arranged in accordance with the generalized Fibonacci sequence. The electronic energy spectra are calculated using the one-dimensional Schrödinger equation in a tight-binding approximation. Both analytical and numerical results on the temperature dependence of the electron's specific heat associated with their multiscale fractal energy spectra are presented. We compare our numerical results with those found for the ordinary Fibonacci structure. A rich and varied behavior is found for the specific heat oscillations when T→0, with interesting physical consequences.

  9. Specific heat in diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babanlı, A. M.; Ibragimov, B. G.

    2017-11-01

    In the present paper, we have calculated the specific heat and magnetization of a quantum ring of a diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) material in the presence of magnetic field. We take into account the effect of Rashba spin-orbital interaction, the exchange interaction and the Zeeman term on the specific heat. We have calculated the energy spectrum of the electrons in diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum ring. Moreover we have calculated the specific heat dependency on the magnetic field and Mn concentration at finite temperature of a diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum ring.

  10. Effects of disruption of heat shock genes on susceptibility of Escherichia coli to fluoroquinolones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morioka Mizue

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that expression of certain bacterial genes responds rapidly to such stimuli as exposure to toxic chemicals and physical agents. It is generally believed that the proteins encoded in these genes are important for successful survival of the organism under the hostile conditions. Analogously, the proteins induced in bacterial cells exposed to antibiotics are believed to affect the organisms' susceptibility to these agents. Results We demonstrated that Escherichia coli cells exposed to levofloxacin (LVFX, a fluoroquinolone (FQ, induce the syntheses of heat shock proteins and RecA. To examine whether the heat shock proteins affect the bactericidal action of FQs, we constructed E. coli strains with mutations in various heat shock genes and tested their susceptibility to FQs. Mutations in dnaK, groEL, and lon increased this susceptibility; the lon mutant exhibited the greatest effects. The increased susceptibility of the lon mutant was corroborated by experiments in which the gene encoding the cell division inhibitor, SulA, was subsequently disrupted. SulA is induced by the SOS response and degraded by the Lon protease. The findings suggest that the hypersusceptibility of the lon mutant to FQs could be due to abnormally high levels of SulA protein resulting from the depletion of Lon and the continuous induction of the SOS response in the presence of FQs. Conclusion The present results show that the bactericidal action of FQs is moderately affected by the DnaK and GroEL chaperones and strongly affected by the Lon protease. FQs have contributed successfully to the treatment of various bacterial infections, but their widespread use and often misuse, coupled with emerging resistance, have gradually compromised their utility. Our results suggest that agents capable of inhibiting the Lon protease have potential for combination therapy with FQs.

  11. Can the frequency-dependent specific heat be measured by thermal effusion methods?

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Tage; Olsen, Niels Boye; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2007-01-01

    It has recently been shown that plane-plate heat effusion methods devised for wide-frequency specific-heat spectroscopy do not give the isobaric specific heat, but rather the so-called longitudinal specific heat. Here it is shown that heat effusion in a spherical symmetric geometry also involves the longitudinal specific heat.

  12. Wheat Mds-1 encodes a heat-shock protein and governs susceptibility towards the Hessian fly gall midge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant pests including insects must manipulate plants in order to utilize the nutrition and environment of the host. Here, we show that the heat-shock protein gene Mayetiola destructor susceptibility gene-1 (Mds-1) is a major susceptibility gene in wheat that allows the gall midge M. destructor, com...

  13. Urbanized South Asians' susceptibility to coronary heart disease: The high-heat food preparation hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakde, Smitha; Bhopal, Raj S; Bhardwaj, Swati; Misra, Anoop

    2017-01-01

    Known risk factors do not fully explain the comparatively high susceptibility to coronary heart disease (CHD) in South Asians (Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, and Sri Lankan populations in South Asia and overseas). The search for explanatory hypotheses and cofactors that raise susceptibility of South Asians to CHD continues. The aim of this study was to propose "the high-heat food preparation hypothesis," where neo-formed contaminants (NFCs) such as trans-fatty acids (TFAs) and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are the cofactors. We reviewed the actions of AGEs and TFAs, the burden of these products in tissues and blood in South Asians, the relationship between these products and CHD, the effects of preparing food and reheating oils at high temperatures on NFCs, and the foods and mode of preparation in South Asian and Chinese cuisines. Animal and human studies show NFCs increase the risk for CHD. Evidence on the consumption and body burden of these products across ethnic groups is not available, and comparable data on the NFC content of the cuisine of South Asians and potential comparison populations (e.g., the Chinese with lower CHD rates) are limited. South Asians' cuisine is dominated by frying and roasting techniques that use high temperatures. South Asian foods have high TFA content primarily through the use of partially hydrogenated fats, reheated oils, and high-heat cooking. Reheating oils greatly increases the TFA content. In comparison, Chinese cuisine involves mostly braising, steaming, and boiling rather than frying. We hypothesize that South Asians' susceptibility to CHD is partly attributable to high-heat treated foods producing high NFCs. Research to accrue direct evidence is proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Magnetic susceptibility and heat capacity of graphene in two-band Harrison model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Hamze; Bagheri, Mehran; Khodadadi, Jabbar

    2015-11-01

    Using a two-band tight-binding Harrison model and Green's function technique, the influences of both localized σ and delocalized π electrons on the density of states, the Pauli paramagnetic susceptibility, and the heat capacity of a graphene sheet are investigated. We witness an extension in the bandwidth and an increase in the number of Van-Hove singularities as well. As a notable point, besides the magnetic nature which includes diamagnetism in graphene-based nanosystems, a paramagnetic behavior associated with the itinerant π electrons could be occurred. Further, we report a Schottky anomaly in the heat capacity. This study asserts that the contribution of both σ and π electrons play dominant roles in the mentioned physical quantities.

  15. Fluctuation-dissipation theorem for frequency-dependent specific heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe; Nielsen, Johannes K.

    1996-01-01

    A derivation of the fluctuation-dissipation (FD) theorem for the frequency-dependent specific heat of a system described by a master equation is presented. The FD theorem is illustrated by a number of simple examples, including a system described by a linear Langevin equation, a two-level system......, and a system described by the energy master equation. It is shown that for two quite different models with low-energy cutoffs—a collection of two-level systems and a system described by the energy master equation—the frequency-dependent specific heat in dimensionless units becomes universal at low temperatures......, i.e., independent of both energy distribution and temperature. These two models give almost the same universal frequency-dependent specific heat, which compares favorably to experiments on supercooled alcohols....

  16. Specific heat of a non-local attractive Hubbard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calegari, E.J., E-mail: eleonir@ufsm.br [Laboratório de Teoria da Matéria Condensada, Departamento de Física, UFSM, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Lobo, C.O. [Laboratório de Teoria da Matéria Condensada, Departamento de Física, UFSM, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Magalhaes, S.G. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Litorânea s/n, 24210, 346, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Chaves, C.M.; Troper, A. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-10-01

    The specific heat C(T) of an attractive (interaction G<0) non-local Hubbard model is investigated within a two-pole approximation that leads to a set of correlation functions, which play an important role as a source of anomalies as the pseudogap. For a giving range of G and n{sub T} (where n{sub T}=n{sub ↑}+n{sub ↓}), the specific heat as a function of the temperature presents a two peak structure. Nevertehelesss, the presence of a pseudogap eliminates the two peak structure. The effects of the second nearest-neighbor hopping on C(T) are also investigated.

  17. Specific heat of YBa sub 2 Cu sub 4 O sub 8 near T sub c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willis, J.O. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Tomeno, Izumi; Miyatake, Takayuki; Itoh, Takao; Tai, Keishi; Koshizuka, Naoki; Tanaka, Shoji (International Superconductivity Tech. Center, Tokyo (Japan). Superconductivity Research Lab.)

    1990-01-01

    Specific heat measurements are reported for a polycrystalline, bulk sample of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 4}O{sub 8} prepared at high oxygen pressure. The magnitude of the idealized specific heat jump {triangle}C{sub p}/T at {Tc} (= 80 {plus minus} 0.5K) is 15.5 {plus minus} 2 mJ/K{sup 2}-mole. The transition width {triangle} {Tc} is about 3K. The size of the jump is greatly reduced compared to YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}. The normal state magnetic susceptibility is somewhat smaller than in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} and is temperature dependent. The results suggest a smaller electronic density of states for YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 4}O{sub 8}. 13 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Measurement of the specific heat capacity of graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picard, S.; Burns, D.T.; Roger, P

    2006-01-15

    With the objective of implementing graphite calorimetry at the BIPM to measure absorbed dose, an experimental assembly has recently been constructed to measure the specific heat capacity of graphite. A status description of the apparatus and results from the first measurements are given. The outcome is discussed and the experimental uncertainty is reviewed. (authors)

  19. Specific heat of the simple-cubic Ising model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, X.; Blöte, H.W.J.

    2010-01-01

    We provide an expression quantitatively describing the specific heat of the Ising model on the simple-cubic lattice in the critical region. This expression is based on finite-size scaling of numerical results obtained by means of a Monte Carlo method. It agrees satisfactorily with series expansions

  20. Sex-specific differences in pathogen susceptibility in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retschnig, Gina; Williams, Geoffrey R; Mehmann, Marion M; Yañez, Orlando; de Miranda, Joachim R; Neumann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Sex-related differences in susceptibility to pathogens are a common phenomenon in animals. In the eusocial Hymenoptera the two female castes, workers and queens, are diploid and males are haploid. The haploid susceptibility hypothesis predicts that haploid males are more susceptible to pathogen infections compared to females. Here we test this hypothesis using adult male (drone) and female (worker) honey bees (Apis mellifera), inoculated with the gut endoparasite Nosema ceranae and/or black queen cell virus (BQCV). These pathogens were chosen due to previously reported synergistic interactions between Nosema apis and BQCV. Our data do not support synergistic interactions between N. ceranae and BQCV and also suggest that BQCV has limited effect on both drone and worker health, regardless of the infection level. However, the data clearly show that, despite lower levels of N. ceranae spores in drones than in workers, Nosema-infected drones had both a higher mortality and a lower body mass than non-infected drones, across all treatment groups, while the mortality and body mass of worker bees were largely unaffected by N. ceranae infection, suggesting that drones are more susceptible to this pathogen than workers. In conclusion, the data reveal considerable sex-specific differences in pathogen susceptibility in honey bees and highlight the importance of ultimate measures for determining susceptibility, such as mortality and body quality, rather than mere infection levels.

  1. Sex-specific differences in pathogen susceptibility in honey bees (Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Retschnig

    Full Text Available Sex-related differences in susceptibility to pathogens are a common phenomenon in animals. In the eusocial Hymenoptera the two female castes, workers and queens, are diploid and males are haploid. The haploid susceptibility hypothesis predicts that haploid males are more susceptible to pathogen infections compared to females. Here we test this hypothesis using adult male (drone and female (worker honey bees (Apis mellifera, inoculated with the gut endoparasite Nosema ceranae and/or black queen cell virus (BQCV. These pathogens were chosen due to previously reported synergistic interactions between Nosema apis and BQCV. Our data do not support synergistic interactions between N. ceranae and BQCV and also suggest that BQCV has limited effect on both drone and worker health, regardless of the infection level. However, the data clearly show that, despite lower levels of N. ceranae spores in drones than in workers, Nosema-infected drones had both a higher mortality and a lower body mass than non-infected drones, across all treatment groups, while the mortality and body mass of worker bees were largely unaffected by N. ceranae infection, suggesting that drones are more susceptible to this pathogen than workers. In conclusion, the data reveal considerable sex-specific differences in pathogen susceptibility in honey bees and highlight the importance of ultimate measures for determining susceptibility, such as mortality and body quality, rather than mere infection levels.

  2. Is there a link between exertional heat stroke and susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Sagui

    Full Text Available The identification of a predisposition toward malignant hyperthermia (MH as a risk factor for exertional heat stroke (EHS remains a matter of debate. Such a predisposition indicates a causal role for MH susceptibility (MHS after EHS in certain national recommendations and has led to the use of an in vitro contracture test (IVCT to identify the MHS trait in selected or unselected EHS patients. The aim of this study was to determine whether the MHS trait is associated with EHS.EHS subjects in the French Armed Forces were routinely examined for MHS after experiencing an EHS episode. This retrospective study compared the features of IVCT-diagnosed MHS (iMHS EHS subjects with those of MH-normal EHS patients and MH patients during the 2004-2010 period. MHS status was assessed using the European protocol.During the study period, 466 subjects (median age 25 years; 31 women underwent MHS status investigation following an EHS episode. None of the subjects reported previous MH events. An IVCT was performed in 454 cases and was diagnostic of MHS in 45.6% of the study population, of MH susceptibility to halothane in 18.5%, of MH susceptibility to caffeine in 9.9%, and of MH susceptibility to halothane and caffeine in 17.2%. There were no differences in the clinical features, biological features or outcomes of iMHS EHS subjects compared with those of MH-normal or caffeine or halothane MHS subjects without known prior EHS episode. The recurrence rate was 12.7% and was not associated with MH status or any clinical or biological features. iMHS EHS patients exhibited a significantly less informative IVCT response than MH patients.The unexpected high prevalence of the MHS trait after EHS suggested a latent disturbance of calcium homeostasis that accounted for the positive IVCT results. This study did not determine whether EHS patients have an increased risk of MH, and it could not determine whether MH susceptibility is a risk factor for EHS.

  3. Heat waves and cause-specific mortality at all ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basagaña, Xavier; Sartini, Claudio; Barrera-Gómez, Jose; Dadvand, Payam; Cunillera, Jordi; Ostro, Bart; Sunyer, Jordi; Medina-Ramón, Mercedes

    2011-11-01

    Mortality has been shown to increase with extremely hot ambient temperatures. Details on the specific cause of mortality can be useful for improving preventive policies. Infants are often identified as a population that is vulnerable to extreme heat conditions; however, information on heat and infant mortality is scarce, with no studies reporting on cause-specific mortality. The study includes all deaths in the Catalonia region of Spain during the warm seasons of 1983-2006 (503,389 deaths). We used the case-crossover design to evaluate the association between the occurrence of extremely hot days (days with maximum temperature above the 95th percentile) and mortality. Total mortality and infant mortality were stratified into 66 and 8 causes of death, respectively. Three consecutive hot days increased total daily mortality by 19%. We calculated that 1.6% of all deaths were attributable to heat. About 40% of attributable deaths did not occur during heat-wave periods. The causes of death that were increased included cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, mental and nervous system disorders, infectious and digestive system diseases, diabetes, and some external causes such as suicide. In infants, the effect of heat was observed on the same day and was detected only for conditions originating in the perinatal period (relative risk = 1.53 [95% confidence interval = 1.16-2.02]). Within the perinatal causes, cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive system, and hemorrhagic and hematologic disorders were the causes of death with stronger effects. Heat contributes to an increase in mortality from several causes. In infants, the first week of life is the most critical window of vulnerability.

  4. Specific Heat and Second Sound Measurements with the DYNAMIX Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Joel

    2003-01-01

    In addition to its primary role of studying non-linear heat transport effects near the lambda transition of He-4, the DYNAMX apparatus is suitable for measurements of the specific heat and the velocity of second sound. We plan to take advantage of available time on orbit to make measurements in these areas near to the lambda transition. The specific heat work would be similar to LPE, aimed at improving our knowledge of the singularity in the bulk heat capacity at the transition, but would provide more accurate results close to the transition. It would focus roughly equally on each side of the transition and would be synergistic with the CQ experiment, providing wider-range data at Q = 0. The second sound measurements are made possible by the fast time constant and high resolution of the DYNAMX thermometers, which allow accurate time-of-flight measurements of second sound pulses. It appears possible to measure the second sound velocity to about 1% at a reduced temperature of t = 5x10(exp -8) by averaging over a moderate number of pulses. The data would complement and extend earlier ground-based measurements, leading to improved tests of the theory of static critical phenomena at the lambda transition.

  5. Specific heat of PrNi{sub 5}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim-Ngan, N.H. [Center for Solid State Physics, Sw Filip 5, 31-150, Krakow (Poland)]|[Van der Waals-Zeeman Laboratorium, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Radwanski, R.J. [Center for Solid State Physics, Sw Filip 5, 31-150, Krakow (Poland)]|[Inst. Physics and Informatics, Pedagogical University, 30-084, Krakow (Poland); Kayzel, F.E. [Van der Waals-Zeeman Laboratorium, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Franse, J.J.M. [Van der Waals-Zeeman Laboratorium, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1995-02-09

    Specific-heat measurements have been performed on single-crystalline PrNi{sub 5} from 1.3 to 250 K, in order to evaluate the contribution of the Pr subsystem. PrNi{sub 5} does not order magnetically down to the lowest temperatures as crystalline-electric-field (CEF) interactions, producing the non-magnetic singlet ground state {Gamma}{sub 4}, dominate the exchange interactions. Analysis of the specific heat unambiguously establishes the position of the two lowest excited levels at 33.7 K ({Gamma}{sub 1}) and 45.7 K ({Gamma}{sub 6}) which levels cannot be observed in inelastic-neutron-scattering experiments. A set of CEF parameters of the Pr{sup 3+} ion in the f{sup 2} configuration has been evaluated that gives the best account for all known experimental results of this compound. ((orig.)).

  6. The 55 K specific heat anomaly in palladium hydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, N.; Vaughan, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    A specific heat anomaly in PdH and PdD has been observed by Aston et al. (1957) close to 55 K. Its position was found to be independent of hydrogen concentration and its magnitude to be linear in hydrogen concentration. Ferguson's (1965) and Brodowsky's (1972) explanations of the anomaly are shown to be unsatisfactory. This is true also for the detailed mechanical statistical model proposed by Staford and McLellan (1974) for interstitial solid solutions of hydrogen in transition metals. It is shown that Gopal's (1966) simple Schottky model of specific heat anomaly, which considers a system of several levels with Boltzmann statistics, provides much better agreement with experiment than the more elaborate models, both in magnitude and in predicting a linear dependence on hydrogen concentration.

  7. Low temperature specific heat of glasses: a non-extensive approach

    OpenAIRE

    Razdan, Ashok

    2005-01-01

    Specific heat is calculated using Tsallis statistics. It is observed that it is possible to explain some low temperature specific heat properties of glasses using non-extensive approach. A similarity between temperature dependence of non-extensive specific heat and fractal specific heat is also discussed.

  8. Murine glomerular transcriptome links endothelial cell-specific molecule-1 deficiency with susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyi Zheng

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is the leading cause of kidney disease; however, there are no early biomarkers and no cure. Thus, there is a large unmet need to predict which individuals will develop nephropathy and to understand the molecular mechanisms that govern this susceptibility. We compared the glomerular transcriptome from mice with distinct susceptibilities to DN at four weeks after induction of diabetes, but before histologic injury, and identified differential regulation of genes that modulate inflammation. From these genes, we identified endothelial cell specific molecule-1 (Esm-1, as a glomerular-enriched determinant of resistance to DN. Glomerular Esm-1 mRNA and protein were lower in DN-susceptible, DBA/2, compared to DN-resistant, C57BL/6, mice. We demonstrated higher Esm-1 secretion from primary glomerular cultures of diabetic mice, and high glucose was sufficient to increase Esm-1 mRNA and protein secretion in both strains of mice. However, induction was significantly attenuated in DN-susceptible mice. Urine Esm-1 was also significantly higher only in DN-resistant mice. Moreover, using intravital microscopy and a biomimetic microfluidic assay, we showed that Esm-1 inhibited rolling and transmigration in a dose-dependent manner. For the first time we have uncovered glomerular-derived Esm-1 as a potential non-invasive biomarker of DN. Esm-1 inversely correlates with disease susceptibility and inhibits leukocyte infiltration, a critical factor in protecting the kidney from DN.

  9. Generic Guide Specification for Geothermal Heat Pump Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, WKT

    2000-04-12

    The attached Geothermal (Ground-Source) Heat Pump (GHP) Guide Specifications have been developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with the intent to assist federal agency sites and engineers in the preparation of construction specifications for GHP projects. These specifications have been developed in the industry-standard Construction Specification Institute (CSI) format and cover several of the most popular members of the family of GHP systems. These guide specifications are applicable to projects whether the financing is with conventional appropriations, arranged by GHP specialty ESCOs under the U.S. Department of Energy's Technology-Specific GHP Super ESPCs, arranged by utilities under Utility Energy Service Contracts (UESCs) or arranged by generalist ESCOs under the various regional ESPCs. These specifications can provide several benefits to the end user that will help ensure successful GHP system installations. GHP guide specifications will help to streamline the specification development, review, and approval process because the architecture and engineering (AE) firm will be working from the familiar CSI format instead of developing the specifications from other sources. The guide specifications help to provide uniformity, standardization, and consistency in both the construction specifications and system installations across multiple federal sites. This standardization can provide future benefits to the federal sites in respect to both maintenance and operations. GHP guide specifications can help to ensure that the agency is getting its money's worth from the GHP system by preventing the use of marginal or inferior components and equipment. The agency and its AE do not have to start from scratch when developing specifications and can use the specification as a template and/or a checklist in developing both the design and the contract documents. The guide specifications can save project costs by reducing the engineering effort required

  10. Cell-Type-Specific Epigenetic Editing at the Fosb Gene Controls Susceptibility to Social Defeat Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Peter J; Burek, Dominika J; Lombroso, Sonia I; Neve, Rachael L; Robison, Alfred J; Nestler, Eric J; Heller, Elizabeth A

    2018-01-01

    Chronic social defeat stress regulates the expression of Fosb in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) to promote the cell-type-specific accumulation of ΔFosB in the two medium spiny neuron (MSN) subtypes in this region. ΔFosB is selectively induced in D1-MSNs in the NAc of resilient mice, and in D2-MSNs of susceptible mice. However, little is known about the consequences of such selective induction, particularly in D2-MSNs. This study examined how cell-type-specific control of the endogenous Fosb gene in NAc regulates susceptibility to social defeat stress. Histone post-translational modifications (HPTMs) were targeted specifically to Fosb using engineered zinc-finger proteins (ZFPs). Fosb-ZFPs were fused to either the transcriptional repressor, G9a, which promotes histone methylation or the transcriptional activator, p65, which promotes histone acetylation. These ZFPs were expressed in D1- vs D2-MSNs using Cre-dependent viral expression in the NAc of mice transgenic for Cre recombinase in these MSN subtypes. We found that stress susceptibility is oppositely regulated by the specific cell type and HPTM targeted. We report that Fosb-targeted histone acetylation in D2-MSNs or histone methylation in D1-MSNs promotes a stress-susceptible, depressive-like phenotype, while histone methylation in D2-MSNs or histone acetylation in D1-MSNs increases resilience to social stress as quantified by social interaction behavior and sucrose preference. This work presents the first demonstration of cell- and gene-specific targeting of histone modifications, which model naturally occurring transcriptional phenomena that control social defeat stress behavior. This epigenetic-editing approach, which recapitulates physiological changes in gene expression, reveals clear differences in the social defeat phenotype induced by Fosb gene manipulation in MSN subtypes.

  11. AIRE polymorphism, melanoma antigen-specific T cell immunity, and susceptibility to melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conteduca, Giuseppina; Fenoglio, Daniela; Parodi, Alessia; Battaglia, Florinda; Kalli, Francesca; Negrini, Simone; Tardito, Samuele; Ferrera, Francesca; Salis, Annalisa; Millo, Enrico; Pasquale, Giuseppe; Barra, Giusi; Damonte, Gianluca; Indiveri, Francesco; Ferrone, Soldano; Filaci, Gilberto

    2016-09-20

    AIRE is involved in susceptibility to melanoma perhaps regulating T cell immunity against melanoma antigens (MA). To address this issue, AIRE and MAGEB2 expressions were measured by real time PCR in medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) from two strains of C57BL/6 mice bearing either T or C allelic variant of the rs1800522 AIRE SNP. Moreover, the extent of apoptosis induced by mTECs in MAGEB2-specific T cells and the susceptibility to in vivo melanoma B16F10 cell challenge were compared in the two mouse strains.The C allelic variant, protective in humans against melanoma, induced lower AIRE and MAGEB2 expression in C57BL/6 mouse mTECs than the T allele. Moreover, mTECs expressing the C allelic variant induced lower extent of apoptosis in MAGEB2-specific syngeneic T cells than mTECs bearing the T allelic variant (p AIRE genotype than in those bearing the TT one (p AIRE SNP may differentially shape the MA-specific T cell repertoire potentially influencing susceptibility to melanoma.

  12. Monoclonal antibodies specific to heat-treated porcine blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja Nhari, Raja Mohd Hafidz; Hamid, Muhajir; Rasli, Nurmunirah Mohamad; Omar, Abdul Rahman; El Sheikha, Aly Farag; Mustafa, Shuhaimi

    2016-05-01

    Porcine blood is potentially being utilized in food as a binder, gelling agent, emulsifier or colorant. However, for certain communities, the usage of animal blood in food is strictly prohibited owing to religious concerns and health reasons. This study reports the development of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against heat-treated soluble proteins (HSPs) of autoclaved porcine blood; characterization of MAbs against blood, non-blood and plasma from different animal species using qualitative indirect non-competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); and immunoblotting of antigenic components in HSPs of porcine blood. Fifteen MAbs are specific to heat-treated and raw porcine blood and not cross-reacted with other animal blood and non-blood proteins (meat and non-meat). Twelve MAbs are specific to porcine plasma, while three MAbs specific to porcine plasma are cross-reacted with chicken plasma. Immunoblotting revealed antigenic protein bands (∼60, ∼85-100 and ∼250 kDa) in porcine blood and plasma recognized by the MAbs. Selection of MAbs that recognized 60 kDa HSPs of porcine blood and plasma as novel monoclonal antibodies would be useful for detection of porcine plasma in processed food using the immunoassay method. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Specific adjustments in grapevine leaf proteome discriminating resistant and susceptible grapevine genotypes to Plasmopara viticola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Andreia; Martins, Joana; Sebastiana, Mónica; Guerreiro, Ana; Silva, Anabela; Matos, Ana Rita; Monteiro, Filipa; Pais, Maria Salomé; Roepstorff, Peter; Coelho, Ana Varela

    2017-01-30

    Grapevine downy mildew is an important disease affecting crop production leading to severe yield losses. This study aims to identify the grapevine cultivar-specific adjustments of leaf proteome that allow the discrimination between resistance and susceptibility towards P. viticola (constitutive (0h) and in after inoculation (6, 12 and 24h). Leaf proteome analysis was performed using 2D difference gel electrophoresis followed by protein identification via mass spectrometry. In addition, we analysed ROS production, antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation and gene expression. Proteins related to photosynthesis and metabolism allowed the discrimination of resistant and susceptible grapevine cultivars prior to P. viticola inoculation. Following inoculation increase of hydrogen peroxide levels, cellular redox regulation, establishment of ROS signalling and plant cell death seem to be key points differentiating the resistant genotype. Lipid associated signalling events, particularly related to jasmonates appear also to play a major role in the establishment of resistance. The findings from this study contribute to a better understanding of genotype-specific differences that account for a successful establishment of a defence response to the downy mildew pathogen. Here, we present for the first time grapevine cultivar-specific adjustments of leaf proteome that allow the discrimination between resistance and susceptibility towards P. viticola (constitutive (0h) and in after inoculation (6, 12 and 24h). We have highlighted that, following inoculation, the major factors differentiating the resistant from the susceptible grapevine cultivars are the establishment of effective ROS signalling together with lipid-associated signalling events, particularly related to jasmonates. It is believed that plants infected with biotrophic pathogens suppress JA-mediated responses, however recent evidences shown that jasmonic acid signalling pathway in grapevine resistance against Plasmopara

  14. Region-specific disturbed iron distribution in early idiopathic Parkinson's disease measured by quantitative susceptibility mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Naying; Ling, Huawei; Ding, Bei; Huang, Juan; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Zhongping; Liu, Chunlei; Chen, Kemin; Yan, Fuhua

    2015-11-01

    In Parkinson's disease (PD), iron elevation in specific brain regions as well as selective loss of dopaminergic neurons is a major pathologic feature. A reliable quantitative measure of iron deposition is a potential biomarker for PD and may contribute to the investigation of iron-mediated PD. The primary purpose of this study is to assess iron variations in multiple deep grey matter nuclei in early PD with a novel MRI technique, quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). The inter-group differences of susceptibility and R2* value in deep grey matter nuclei, namely head of caudate nucleus (CN), putamen (PUT), global pallidus (GP), substantia nigra (SN), and red nucleus (RN), and the correlations between regional iron deposition and the clinical features were explored in forty-four early PD patients and 35 gender and age-matched healthy controls. Susceptibility values were found to be elevated within bilateral SN and RN contralateral to the most affected limb in early PD compared with healthy controls (HCs). The finding of increased susceptibility in bilateral SN is consistent with work on a subgroup of patients at the earliest clinical detectable state (Hoehn and Yahr [1967]: Neurology 17:427-442; Stage I). However, increased R2* values were only seen within SN contralateral to the most affected limb in the PD group when compared with controls. Furthermore, bilateral SN magnetic susceptibility positively correlated with disease duration and UPDRS-III scores in early PD. This finding supports the potential value of QSM as a non-invasive quantitative biomarker of early PD. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Susceptibility of mouse minute virus to inactivation by heat in two cell culture media types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleh, Marc; Romanowski, Peter; Bhebe, Prince; Zhang, Li; Chinniah, Shivanthi; Lawrence, Bill; Bashiri, Houman; Gaduh, Asri; Rajurs, Viveka; Rasmussen, Brian; Chuck, Alice; Dehghani, Houman

    2009-01-01

    Viral contaminations of biopharmaceutical manufacturing cell culture facilities are a significant threat and one for which having a risk mitigation strategy is highly desirable. High temperature, short time (HTST) mammalian cell media treatment may potentially safeguard manufacturing facilities from such contaminations. HTST is thought to inactivate virions by denaturing proteins of the viral capsid, and there is evidence that HTST provides ample virucidal efficacy against nonenveloped or naked viruses such as mouse minute virus (MMV), a parvovirus. The aim of the studies presented herein was to further delineate the susceptibility of MMV, known to have contaminated mammalian cell manufacturing facilities, to heat by exposing virus-spiked cell culture media to a broad range of temperatures and for various times of exposure. The results of these studies show that HTST is capable of inactivating MMV by three orders of magnitude or more. Thus, we believe that HTST is a useful technology for the purposes of providing a barrier to adventitious contamination of mammalian cell culture processes in the biopharmaceutical industry. 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers

  16. Induction of Rhizopus oryzae germination under starvation using host metabolites increases spore susceptibility to heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgeman, Tidhar; Kakongi, Nathan; Schneider, Avishai; Vinokur, Yakov; Teper-Bamnolker, Paula; Carmeli, Shmuel; Levy, Maggie; Skory, Christopher D; Lichter, Amnon; Eshel, Dani

    2014-03-01

    Sweetpotato is a nutritional source worldwide. Soft rot caused by Rhizopus spp. is a major limiting factor in the storage of produce, rendering it potentially unsafe for human consumption. In this study, Rhizopus oryzae was used to develop a concept of postharvest disease control by weakening the pathogen through induction of spore germination under starvation conditions. We isolated the sweetpotato active fractions (SPAFs) that induce spore germination and used them at a low dose to enhance spore weakening caused by starvation. Germination in SPAF at 1 mg/ml weakened the pathogen spores by delaying their ability to form colonies on rich media and by increasing their sensitivity to heat stress. The weakening effect was also supported by reduced metabolic activity, as detected by Alarmar Blue fluorescent dye assays. Spores incubated with SPAF at 1 mg/ml showed DNA fragmentation in some of their nuclei, as observed by TUNEL assay. In addition, these spores exhibited changes in ultrastructural morphology (i.e., shrinkage of germ tubes, nucleus deformation, and vacuole formation) which are hallmarks of programmed cell death. We suggest that induction of spore germination under starvation conditions increases their susceptibility to stress and, therefore, might be considered a new strategy for pathogen control.

  17. Low penetrance breast cancer susceptibility loci are associated with specific breast tumor subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broeks, Annegien; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Sherman, Mark E

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancers demonstrate substantial biological, clinical and etiological heterogeneity. We investigated breast cancer risk associations of eight susceptibility loci identified in GWAS and two putative susceptibility loci in candidate genes in relation to specific breast tumor subtypes. Subtypes...... were defined by five markers (ER, PR, HER2, CK5/6, EGFR) and other pathological and clinical features. Analyses included up to 30 040 invasive breast cancer cases and 53 692 controls from 31 studies within the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. We confirmed previous reports of stronger associations......3803662 (16q12), rs889312 (5q11), rs3817198 (11p15) and rs13387042 (2q35); however, only two of them (16q12 and 2q35) were associated with tumors with the core basal phenotype (P ≤ 0.002). These analyses are consistent with different biological origins of breast cancers, and indicate that tumor...

  18. Low penetrance breast cancer susceptibility loci are associated with specific breast tumor subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broeks, Annegien; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Sherman, Mark E

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancers demonstrate substantial biological, clinical and etiological heterogeneity. We investigated breast cancer risk associations of eight susceptibility loci identified in GWAS and two putative susceptibility loci in candidate genes in relation to specific breast tumor subtypes. Subtypes...... were defined by five markers (ER, PR, HER2, CK5/6, EGFR) and other pathological and clinical features. Analyses included up to 30 040 invasive breast cancer cases and 53 692 controls from 31 studies within the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. We confirmed previous reports of stronger associations......3803662 (16q12), rs889312 (5q11), rs3817198 (11p15) and rs13387042 (2q35); however, only two of them (16q12 and 2q35) were associated with tumors with the core basal phenotype (P = 0.002). These analyses are consistent with different biological origins of breast cancers, and indicate that tumor...

  19. Epitope-Specific Tolerance Modes Differentially Specify Susceptibility to Proteolipid Protein-Induced Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Immunization with myelin components can elicit experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE. EAE susceptibility varies between mouse strains, depending on the antigen employed. BL/6 mice are largely resistant to EAE induction with proteolipid protein (PLP, probably a reflection of antigen-specific tolerance. However, the extent and mechanism(s of tolerance to PLP remain unclear. Here, we identified three PLP epitopes in PLP-deficient BL/6 mice. PLP-sufficient mice did not respond against two of these, whereas tolerance was “leaky” for an epitope with weak predicted MHCII binding, and only this epitope was encephalitogenic. In TCR transgenic mice, the “EAE-susceptibility-associated” epitope was “ignored” by specific CD4 T cells, whereas the “resistance-associated” epitope induced clonal deletion and Treg induction in the thymus. Central tolerance was autoimmune regulator dependent and required expression and presentation of PLP by thymic epithelial cells (TECs. TEC-specific ablation of PLP revealed that peripheral tolerance, mediated by dendritic cells through recessive tolerance mechanisms (deletion and anergy, could largely compensate for a lack of central tolerance. However, adoptive EAE was exacerbated in mice lacking PLP in TECs, pointing toward a non-redundant role of the thymus in dominant tolerance to PLP. Our findings reveal multiple layers of tolerance to a central nervous system autoantigen that vary among epitopes and thereby specify disease susceptibility. Understanding how different modalities of tolerance apply to distinct T cell epitopes of a target in autoimmunity has implications for antigen-specific strategies to therapeutically interfere with unwanted immune reactions against self.

  20. High-field magnetization and specific heat of TmNi{sub 5}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayzel, F.E. [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Van der Waals-Zeeman Inst.; Franse, J.J.M. [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Van der Waals-Zeeman Inst.; Colpa, J.H.P. [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Van der Waals-Zeeman Inst.; Kim-Ngan, N.-H. [Centre for Solid State Physics, Krakow (Poland); Tai, L.T. [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Van der Waals-Zeeman Inst.; Radwanski, R.J. [Centre for Solid State Physics, Krakow (Poland); Gignoux, D. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 38 -Grenoble (France). Lab. Louis Neel

    1996-05-01

    High-field magnetization on two single-crystalline samples from different batches of TmNi{sub 5} has been measured along the crystallographic a, b and c directions up to 38 T at 1.5 K. A small high-field susceptibility {chi}{sub HF}=6.3.10{sup -3} {mu}{sub B}/T f.u. was observed along the easy c-axis. The magnetization measured alon g both a- and b-axis shows hysteresis and a magnetic transition between 5 and 15 T. Specific heat has been measured from 1.5 to 160 K. A {lambda}-type peak found at about 3.7 K originates from the magnetic system. (orig.).

  1. Fnip1 regulates skeletal muscle fiber type specification, fatigue resistance, and susceptibility to muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Nicholas L; Banks, Glen B; Tsang, Mark; Margineantu, Daciana; Gu, Haiwei; Djukovic, Danijel; Chan, Jacky; Torres, Michelle; Liggitt, H Denny; Hirenallur-S, Dinesh K; Hockenbery, David M; Raftery, Daniel; Iritani, Brian M

    2015-01-13

    Mammalian skeletal muscle is broadly characterized by the presence of two distinct categories of muscle fibers called type I "red" slow twitch and type II "white" fast twitch, which display marked differences in contraction strength, metabolic strategies, and susceptibility to fatigue. The relative representation of each fiber type can have major influences on susceptibility to obesity, diabetes, and muscular dystrophies. However, the molecular factors controlling fiber type specification remain incompletely defined. In this study, we describe the control of fiber type specification and susceptibility to metabolic disease by folliculin interacting protein-1 (Fnip1). Using Fnip1 null mice, we found that loss of Fnip1 increased the representation of type I fibers characterized by increased myoglobin, slow twitch markers [myosin heavy chain 7 (MyH7), succinate dehydrogenase, troponin I 1, troponin C1, troponin T1], capillary density, and mitochondria number. Cultured Fnip1-null muscle fibers had higher oxidative capacity, and isolated Fnip1-null skeletal muscles were more resistant to postcontraction fatigue relative to WT skeletal muscles. Biochemical analyses revealed increased activation of the metabolic sensor AMP kinase (AMPK), and increased expression of the AMPK-target and transcriptional coactivator PGC1α in Fnip1 null skeletal muscle. Genetic disruption of PGC1α rescued normal levels of type I fiber markers MyH7 and myoglobin in Fnip1-null mice. Remarkably, loss of Fnip1 profoundly mitigated muscle damage in a murine model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. These results indicate that Fnip1 controls skeletal muscle fiber type specification and warrant further study to determine whether inhibition of Fnip1 has therapeutic potential in muscular dystrophy diseases.

  2. Ketamine and Imipramine Reverse Transcriptional Signatures of Susceptibility and Induce Resilience-Specific Gene Expression Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagot, Rosemary C; Cates, Hannah M; Purushothaman, Immanuel; Vialou, Vincent; Heller, Elizabeth A; Yieh, Lynn; LaBonté, Benoit; Peña, Catherine J; Shen, Li; Wittenberg, Gayle M; Nestler, Eric J

    2017-02-15

    Examining transcriptional regulation by antidepressants in key neural circuits implicated in depression and understanding the relation to transcriptional mechanisms of susceptibility and natural resilience may help in the search for new therapeutic agents. Given the heterogeneity of treatment response in human populations, examining both treatment response and nonresponse is critical. We compared the effects of a conventional monoamine-based tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, and a rapidly acting, non-monoamine-based antidepressant, ketamine, in mice subjected to chronic social defeat stress, a validated depression model, and used RNA sequencing to analyze transcriptional profiles associated with susceptibility, resilience, and antidepressant response and nonresponse in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, and amygdala. We identified similar numbers of responders and nonresponders after ketamine or imipramine treatment. Ketamine induced more expression changes in the hippocampus; imipramine induced more expression changes in the nucleus accumbens and amygdala. Transcriptional profiles in treatment responders were most similar in the PFC. Nonresponse reflected both the lack of response-associated gene expression changes and unique gene regulation. In responders, both drugs reversed susceptibility-associated transcriptional changes and induced resilience-associated transcription in the PFC. We generated a uniquely large resource of gene expression data in four interconnected limbic brain regions implicated in depression and its treatment with imipramine or ketamine. Our analyses highlight the PFC as a key site of common transcriptional regulation by antidepressant drugs and in both reversing susceptibility- and inducing resilience-associated molecular adaptations. In addition, we found region-specific effects of each drug, suggesting both common and unique effects of imipramine versus ketamine. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological

  3. Unsteady Flow in a Supersonic Turbine with Variable Specific Heats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorney, Daniel J.; Griffin, Lisa W.; Huber, Frank; Sondak, Douglas L.; Turner, James (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Modern high-work turbines can be compact, transonic, supersonic, counter-rotating, or use a dense drive gas. The vast majority of modern rocket turbine designs fall into these Categories. These turbines usually have large temperature variations across a given stage, and are characterized by large amounts of flow unsteadiness. The flow unsteadiness can have a major impact on the turbine performance and durability. For example, the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) fuel turbine, a high work, transonic design, was found to have an unsteady inter-row shock which reduced efficiency by 2 points and increased dynamic loading by 24 percent. The Revolutionary Reusable Technology Turbopump (RRTT), which uses full flow oxygen for its drive gas, was found to shed vortices with such energy as to raise serious blade durability concerns. In both cases, the sources of the problems were uncovered (before turbopump testing) with the application of validated, unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to the designs. In the case of the RRTT and the Alternate Turbopump Development (ATD) turbines, the unsteady CFD codes have been used not just to identify problems, but to guide designs which mitigate problems due to unsteadiness. Using unsteady flow analyses as a part of the design process has led to turbine designs with higher performance (which affects temperature and mass flow rate) and fewer dynamics problems. One of the many assumptions made during the design and analysis of supersonic turbine stages is that the values of the specific heats are constant. In some analyses the value is based on an average of the expected upstream and downstream temperatures. In stages where the temperature can vary by 300 to 500 K, however, the assumption of constant fluid properties may lead to erroneous performance and durability predictions. In this study the suitability of assuming constant specific heats has been investigated by performing three-dimensional unsteady Navier

  4. Susceptibility of Snails to Infection with Schistosomes is influenced by Temperature and Expression of Heat Shock Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Matty; Elhelu, O; Smith, M; Haugen, B; Miller, A; Raghavan, N; Wellman, C; Cousin, C; Dixon, F; Mann, V; Rinaldi, G; Ittiprasert, W; Brindley, PJ

    2015-01-01

    The freshwater snail, Biomphalaria glabrata is the obligate intermediate host for the transmission of the parasitic trematode, Schistosoma mansoni the causative agent of the chronic debilitating neglected tropical disease, schistosomiasis. We showed previously that in juvenile snails, early and significant induction of stress manifested by the expression of stress proteins, Hsp 70, Hsp 90 and reverse transcriptase (RT) of the non- LTR retrotransposon, nimbus, is a characteristic feature of juvenile susceptible NMRI but not resistant BS-90 snails. These latter, however, could be rendered susceptible after mild heat shock at 32°C, revealing that resistance in the BS-90 resistant snail to schistosomes is a temperature dependent trait. Here we tested the hypothesis that maintenance of BS-90 resistant snails at the permissive temperature for several generations affects the resistance phenotype displayed at the non-permissive temperature of 25°C. The progeny of BS-90 snails bred and maintained through several generations (F1 to F4) at 32°C were susceptible to the schistosome infection when returned to room temperature, shedding cercariae at four weeks post-infection. Moreover, the study of expression levels of the heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 protein by ELISA and western blot analysis, showed that this protein is also differentially expressed between susceptible and resistant snails, with susceptible snails expressing more protein than their resistant counterparts after early exposure to wild-type but not to radiation-attenuated miracidia. These data suggested that in the face of global warming, the ability to sustain a reduction in schistosomiasis by using refractory snails as a strategy to block transmission of the disease might prove challenging since non-lethal elevation in temperature, affects snail susceptibility to S. mansoni. PMID:26504668

  5. The specific heat of the solid electrolyte system CuI - AgI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusakabe, M.; Ito, Y.; Tamaki, S.

    1996-09-01

    The specific heat for AgI-doped CuI has been measured by the method of differential scanning calorimetry. Anomalous specific heats were observed around the transition temperature from non-superionic to superionic phases. These were well explained in terms of the Schottky-type excess specific heat.

  6. Specific dysregulation of IFNγ production by natural killer cells confers susceptibility to viral infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassima Fodil

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural Killer (NK cells contribute to the control of viral infection by directly killing target cells and mediating cytokine release. In C57BL/6 mice, the Ly49H activating NK cell receptor plays a key role in early resistance to mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV infection through specific recognition of the MCMV-encoded MHC class I-like molecule m157 expressed on infected cells. Here we show that transgenic expression of Ly49H failed to provide protection against MCMV infection in the naturally susceptible A/J mouse strain. Characterization of Ly49H(+ NK cells from Ly49h-A transgenic animals showed that they were able to mount a robust cytotoxic response and proliferate to high numbers during the course of infection. However, compared to NK cells from C57BL/6 mice, we observed an intrinsic defect in their ability to produce IFNγ when challenged by either m157-expressing target cells, exogenous cytokines or chemical stimulants. This effect was limited to NK cells as T cells from C57BL/6 and Ly49h-A mice produced comparable cytokine levels. Using a panel of recombinant congenic strains derived from A/J and C57BL/6 progenitors, we mapped the genetic basis of defective IFNγ production to a single 6.6 Mb genetic interval overlapping the Ifng gene on chromosome 10. Inspection of the genetic interval failed to reveal molecular differences between A/J and several mouse strains showing normal IFNγ production. The chromosome 10 locus is independent of MAPK signalling or decreased mRNA stability and linked to MCMV susceptibility. This study highlights the existence of a previously uncovered NK cell-specific cis-regulatory mechanism of Ifnγ transcript expression potentially relevant to NK cell function in health and disease.

  7. Uncertainties in the estimation of specific absorption rate during radiofrequency alternating magnetic field induced non-adiabatic heating of ferrofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, B. B.; Ranoo, Surojit; Philip, John

    2017-11-01

    Magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) is becoming a viable cancer treatment methodology where the alternating magnetic field induced heating of magnetic fluid is utilized for ablating the cancerous cells or making them more susceptible to the conventional treatments. The heating efficiency in MFH is quantified in terms of specific absorption rate (SAR), which is defined as the heating power generated per unit mass. In majority of the experimental studies, SAR is evaluated from the temperature rise curves, obtained under non-adiabatic experimental conditions, which is prone to various thermodynamic uncertainties. A proper understanding of the experimental uncertainties and its remedies is a prerequisite for obtaining accurate and reproducible SAR. Here, we study the thermodynamic uncertainties associated with peripheral heating, delayed heating, heat loss from the sample and spatial variation in the temperature profile within the sample. Using first order approximations, an adiabatic reconstruction protocol for the measured temperature rise curves is developed for SAR estimation, which is found to be in good agreement with those obtained from the computationally intense slope corrected method. Our experimental findings clearly show that the peripheral and delayed heating are due to radiation heat transfer from the heating coils and slower response time of the sensor, respectively. Our results suggest that the peripheral heating is linearly proportional to the sample area to volume ratio and coil temperature. It is also observed that peripheral heating decreases in presence of a non-magnetic insulating shielding. The delayed heating is found to contribute up to ~25% uncertainties in SAR values. As the SAR values are very sensitive to the initial slope determination method, explicit mention of the range of linear regression analysis is appropriate to reproduce the results. The effect of sample volume to area ratio on linear heat loss rate is systematically studied and the

  8. High field magnetization and specific heat of ErNi{sub 5}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayzel, F.E.; Franse, J.J.M. [Univ. van Amsterdam (Netherlands). Van der Waals-Zeeman Lab.; Radwanski, R.J. [Centre for Solid State Physics, Krakow (Poland)

    1994-03-01

    High field magnetization studies of single crystalline ErNi{sub 5} in fields up to 38T at 1.5K along the main crystallographic directions have been performed. Along the easy direction, the hexagonal axis, the spontaneous magnetization, M{sub s}, amounts to 8.62{mu}{sub B}/f.u. The high-field susceptibility is very small and equal to 41 {times} 10{sup {minus}4}{mu}{sub B}/Tf.u. There exists a distinct difference between the curves along the a- and b-axis. The a-axis curve monotonously increases with field up to 38T. The b-axis curve coincides with the a-axis curve up to 12T but starts to deviate from it above this field, resulting in a value for the magnetization at 38T which is almost the full moment value. The specific beat of a newly-grown single-crystalline sample has been measured in zero field and in applied fields along the c-axis (B = 0.3, 1, 2, 5T). The zero-field measurements coincide with previously reported results The specific heat shows a rapid decrease of the ferrimagnetic order with applied field. Already in 1T, the sharp lambda-type of peak at the magnetic transition is decreased by two third and becomes a broad bump that coincides with the la measurement above 30K. Higher fields further suppress the transition.

  9. Theta-specific susceptibility in a model of adaptive synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Christian; Schmiedt, Joscha T; Pawelzik, Klaus R

    2013-01-01

    Learning and memory formation are processes which are still not fully understood. It is widely believed that synaptic plasticity is the most important neural substrate for both. However, it has been observed that large-scale theta band oscillations in the mammalian brain are beneficial for learning, and it is not clear if and how this is linked to synaptic plasticity. Also, the underlying dynamics of synaptic plasticity itself have not been completely uncovered yet, especially for non-linear interactions between multiple spikes. Here, we present a new and simple dynamical model of synaptic plasticity. It incorporates novel contributions to synaptic plasticity including adaptation processes. We test its ability to reproduce non-linear effects on four different data sets of complex spike patterns, and show that the model can be tuned to reproduce the observed synaptic changes in great detail. When subjected to periodically varying firing rates, already linear pair based spike timing dependent plasticity (STDP) predicts a specific susceptibility of synaptic plasticity to pre- and postsynaptic firing rate oscillations in the theta-band. Our model retains this band-pass property, while for high firing rates in the non-linear regime it modifies the specific phase relation required for depression and potentiation. For realistic parameters, maximal synaptic potentiation occurs when the postsynaptic is trailing the presynaptic activity slightly. Anti-phase oscillations tend to depress it. Our results are well in line with experimental findings, providing a straightforward and mechanistic explanation for the importance of theta oscillations for learning.

  10. Susceptibility to mortality related to temperature and heat and cold wave duration in the population of Stockholm County, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joacim Rocklöv

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ambient temperatures can cause an increase in mortality. A better understanding is needed of how health status and other factors modify the risk associated with high and low temperatures, to improve the basis of preventive measures. Differences in susceptibility to temperature and to heat and cold wave duration are relatively unexplored. Objectives: We studied the associations between mortality and temperature and heat and cold wave duration, stratified by age and individual and medical factors. Methods: Deaths among all residents of Stockholm County between 1990 and 2002 were linked to discharge diagnosis data from hospital admissions, and associations were examined using the time stratified case-crossover design. Analyses were stratified by gender, age, pre-existing disease, country of origin, and municipality level wealth, and adjusted for potential confounding factors. Results: The effect on mortality by heat wave duration was higher for lower ages, in areas with lower wealth, for hospitalized patients younger than age 65. Odds were elevated among females younger than age 65, in groups with a previous hospital admission for mental disorders, and in persons with previous cardiovascular disease. Gradual increases in summer temperatures were associated with mortality in people older than 80 years, and with mortality in groups with a previous myocardial infarction and with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in the population younger than 65 years. During winter, mortality was associated with a decrease in temperature particularly in men and with the duration of cold spells for the population older than 80. A history of hospitalization for myocardial infarction increased the odds associated with cold temperatures among the population older than 65. Previous mental disease or substance abuse increased the odds of death among the population younger than 65. Conclusion: To increase effectiveness, we suggest preventive efforts

  11. Differences in Susceptibility to Heat Stress along the Chicken Intestine and the Protective Effects of Galacto-Oligosaccharides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Varasteh

    Full Text Available High ambient temperatures negatively affect the human well-being as well as animal welfare and production. The gastrointestinal tract is predominantly responsive to heat stress. The currently available information about the multifaceted response to heat stress within different parts of the intestine is limited, especially in avian species. Hence, this study aims to evaluate the heat stress-induced sequence of events in the intestines of chickens. Furthermore, the gut health-promoting effect of dietary galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS was investigated in these heat stress-exposed chickens. Chickens were fed a control diet or diet supplemented with 1% or 2.5% GOS (6 days prior to and during a temperature challenge for 5 days (38-39°C, 8h per day. The parameters measured in different parts of the intestines included the genes (qPCR HSF1, HSF3, HSP70, HSP90, E-cadherin, claudin-1, claudin-5, ZO-1, occludin, TLR-2, TLR-4, IL-6, IL-8, HO-1, HIF-1α and their associated proteins HSP70, HSP90 and pan-cadherin (western blots. In addition, IL-6 and IL-8 plasma concentrations were measured by ELISA. In the jejunum, HSF3, HSP70, HSP90, E-cadherin, claudin-5, ZO-1, TLR-4, IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA expression and HSP70 protein expression were increased after heat stress exposure and a more pronounced increase in gene expression was observed in ileum after heat stress exposure, and in addition HSF1, claudin-1 and HIF-1α mRNA levels were upregulated. Furthermore, the IL-8 plasma levels were decreased in chickens exposed to heat stress. Interestingly, the heat stress-related effects in the jejunum were prevented in chickens fed a GOS diet, while dietary GOS did not alter these effects in ileum. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the differences in susceptibility to heat stress along the intestine, where the most obvious modification in gene expression is observed in ileum, while dietary GOS only prevent the heat stress-related changes in jejunum.

  12. Susceptibility of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) developmental stages to high temperatures used during structural heat treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahroof, R; Subramanyam, B

    2006-12-01

    Heating the ambient air of a whole, or a portion of a food-processing facility to 50 to 60 degrees C and maintaining these elevated temperatures for 24 to 36 h, is an old technology, referred to as heat treatment. There is renewed interest in adopting heat treatments around the world as a viable insect control alternative to fumigation with methyl bromide. There is limited published information on responses of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), exposed to elevated temperatures typically used during heat treatments. Time-mortality relationships were determined for eggs, fifth-instars (wandering-phase larvae), pupae, and adults of P. interpunctella exposed to five constant temperatures between 44 and 52 degrees C. Mortality of each stage increased with increasing temperature and exposure time. In general, fifth-instars were the most heat-tolerant stage at all temperatures tested. Exposure for a minimum of 34 min at 50 degrees C was required to kill 99% of the fifth-instars. It is proposed that heat treatments aimed at controlling fifth-instars should be able to control all other stages of P. interpunctella.

  13. Lattice specific heat and local density of states of Ni-based dilute ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to calculate the local density of states of substitutional impurities and lattice specific heat in different alloys. The resonance ... therefore, we have calculated lattice specific heat of a number of dilute alloys and discussed the results in the light of ..... [9] J C Ho and R Viswanathan, Phys. Rev. 172, 705 (1968). [10] M Dixon, F E ...

  14. Specific heat of Ho sub 2 Co sub 17 and Er sub 2 Co sub 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franse, J.J.M.; Klaasse, J.C.P.; Sinnema, S. (Amsterdam Univ. (NL). Natuurkunding Lab.); Radwanski, R.J. (University of Mining and Metallurgy, Krakow (PL). Solid State Physics Dept.)

    1988-12-01

    The specific heat of polycrystalline samples of Ho{sub 2}Co{sub 17} and Er{sub 2}Co{sub 17} has been measured between 1.25 K and 38 K in zero field and in an applied field of 5 T. The electronic, lattice, nuclear and crystal field contributions to the specific heat have been separated.

  15. Better latent heat and specific heat of stearic acid with magnetite/graphene nanocomposite addition for thermal storage application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andiarto, R.; Nuryadin, M. K.; Taufik, A.; Saleh, R.

    2017-04-01

    In our previous study, the addition of Magnetite (Fe3O4) into Stearic acid (Sa) as an organic phase change material (PCM) shows an enhancement in the latent heat for thermal energy storage applications. The latent heat of the PCM can also be increased by adding graphene material. Therefore, in this research, the thermal properties of Sa have been studied by the sonication method for several different concentrations of Fe3O4/Graphene nanocomposite additions. The structural properties of all of the samples were observed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD). Melting-solidifying behavior and specific heat value were measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The thermal degradation process of all samples was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Based on the DSC results, the presence of Fe3O4/Graphene in the Sa enhances the latent heat up to 20%. The specific heat value of the mixture was also found to be increased as the concentration of Fe3O4/Graphene to Sa increased. The TGA results show a lowered thermal degradation process of the Sa by the addition of the Fe3O4/Graphene which indicates a higher thermal stability of the mixture. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that the addition of Fe3O4/Graphene to Sa improves both the sensible heat and the latent heat of the mixture which are very important for thermal energy storage applications

  16. Performance optimization of Brayton heat engine at maximum efficient power using temperature dependent specific heat of working fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Rajesh; Kaushik, S C; Kumar, Raj

    2015-01-01

    Efficient power optimization of Brayton heat engine with variable specific heat of the working fluid is analyzed from the view of finite time thermodynamics. The efficient power is defined as the multiplication of engine power and engine efficiency. Hence, the proposed method considers not only the power output but also the engine efficiency. Optimizing the efficient power gives a compromise between power and engine efficiency. Results obtained are compared with those obtained by using the ma...

  17. Virus-specific thermostability and heat inactivation profiles of alphaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So Lee; Huang, Yan-Jang S; Hsu, Wei-Wen; Hettenbach, Susan M; Higgs, Stephen; Vanlandingham, Dana L

    2016-08-01

    Serological diagnosis is a critical component for disease surveillance and is important to address the increase in incidence and disease burden of alphaviruses, such as the chikungunya (CHIKV) and Ross River (RRV) viruses. The gold standard for serological diagnosis is the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), which demonstrates the neutralizing capacity of serum samples after the removal of complement activity and adventitious viruses. This procedure is normally performed following inactivation of the virus at 56°C for 30min. Although this protocol has been widely accepted for the inactivation of envelope RNA viruses, recent studies have demonstrated that prolonged heat inactivation is required to completely inactivate two alphaviruses, Western equine encephalitis virus and CHIKV. Incomplete inactivation of viruses poses a laboratory biosafety risk and can also lead to spurious test results. Despite its importance in ensuring the safety of laboratory personnel as well as test integrity, systematic investigation on the thermostability of alphaviruses has not been performed. In this study, the temperature tolerance and heat inactivation profiles of RRV, Barmah Forest, and o'nyong-nyong viruses were determined. Variations in thermostability were observed within the Semliki forest serocomplex. Therefore, evidence-based heat inactivation procedures for alphaviruses are recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Mycobacterial Cultures Contain Cell Size and Density Specific Sub-populations of Cells with Significant Differential Susceptibility to Antibiotics, Oxidative and Nitrite Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Srinivasan; Nair, Rashmi Ravindran; Sharan, Deepti; Jakkala, Kishor; Mukkayyan, Nagaraja; Swaminath, Sharmada; Pradhan, Atul; Joshi, Niranjan V.; Ajitkumar, Parthasarathi

    2017-01-01

    The present study shows the existence of two specific sub-populations of Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis cells differing in size and density, in the mid-log phase (MLP) cultures, with significant differential susceptibility to antibiotic, oxidative, and nitrite stress. One of these sub-populations (~10% of the total population), contained short-sized cells (SCs) generated through highly-deviated asymmetric cell division (ACD) of normal/long-sized mother cells and symmetric cell divisions (SCD) of short-sized mother cells. The other sub-population (~90% of the total population) contained normal/long-sized cells (NCs). The SCs were acid-fast stainable and heat-susceptible, and contained high density of membrane vesicles (MVs, known to be lipid-rich) on their surface, while the NCs possessed negligible density of MVs on the surface, as revealed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Percoll density gradient fractionation of MLP cultures showed the SCs-enriched fraction (SCF) at lower density (probably indicating lipid-richness) and the NCs-enriched fraction (NCF) at higher density of percoll fractions. While live cell imaging showed that the SCs and the NCs could grow and divide to form colony on agarose pads, the SCF, and NCF cells could independently regenerate MLP populations in liquid and solid media, indicating their full genomic content and population regeneration potential. CFU based assays showed the SCF cells to be significantly more susceptible than NCF cells to a range of concentrations of rifampicin and isoniazid (antibiotic stress), H2O2 (oxidative stress),and acidified NaNO2 (nitrite stress). Live cell imaging showed significantly higher susceptibility of the SCs of SC-NC sister daughter cell pairs, formed from highly-deviated ACD of normal/long-sized mother cells, to rifampicin and H2O2, as compared to the sister daughter NCs, irrespective of their comparable growth rates. The SC-SC sister daughter cell pairs, formed

  19. Specific adjustments in grapevine leaf proteome discriminating resistant and susceptible grapevine genotypes to Plasmopara viticola

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueiredo, Andreia; Martins, Joana; Sebastiana, Mónica

    2017-01-01

    Grapevine downy mildew is an important disease affecting crop production leading to severe yield losses. This study aims to identify the grapevine cultivar-specific adjustments of leaf proteome that allow the discrimination between resistance and susceptibility towards P. viticola (constitutive (...

  20. Some specific features of subcooled boiling heat transfer and crisis at extremely high heat flux densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotovsky, M.A. [Polzunov Institute, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    Forced convection boiling is the process used widely in a lot of industry branches including NPP. Heat transfer intensity under forced convection boiling is considered in different way in dependence on conditions. One of main problems for the process considered is an influence of interaction between forced flow and boiling on heat transfer character. For saturated water case a transition from ''pure'' forced convection to nucleate boiling can be realized in smooth form. (author)

  1. ‘‘Cooling by Heating’’- Demonstrating the Significance of the Longitudinal Specific Heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papini, Jon J.; Dyre, J. C.; Christensen, Tage Emil

    2012-01-01

    is generally considerably larger than in solids. This paper presents analytical solutions of the relevant coupled thermoviscoelastic equations. In general, there is a difference between the isobaric specific heat cp measured at constant isotropic pressure and the longitudinal specific heat cl pertaining...... between these two specific heats. For a typical glass-forming liquid, when the temperature at the surface is increased by 1 K, a lowering of the temperature at the sphere center of the order of 5 mK is expected if the experiment is performed at the glass transition. The cooling-by-heating effect......Heating a solid sphere at its surface induces mechanical stresses inside the sphere. If a finite amount of heat is supplied, the stresses gradually disappear as temperature becomes homogeneous throughout the sphere. We show that before this happens, there is a temporary lowering of pressure...

  2. Increasing age is a major risk factor for susceptibility to heat stress during physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Ryan; Poirier, Martin P; Louie, Jeffrey C; Sigal, Ronald J; Boulay, Pierre; Flouris, Andreas D; Kenny, Glen P

    2017-11-01

    We evaluated the extent to which age, cardiorespiratory fitness, and body fat can independently determine whole-body heat loss (WBHL) in 87 otherwise healthy adults. We show that increasing age is a major predictor for decreasing WBHL in otherwise healthy adults (aged 20-70 years), accounting for 40% of the variation in the largest study to date. While greater body fat also had a minor detrimental impact on WBHL, there was no significant role for cardiorespiratory fitness.

  3. Determination of the thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity of neem seeds by inverse problem method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Nnamchi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the thermal conductivity and the specific heat capacity of neem seeds (Azadirachta indica A. Juss usingthe inverse method is the main subject of this work. One-dimensional formulation of heat conduction problem in a spherewas used. Finite difference method was adopted for the solution of the heat conduction problem. The thermal conductivityand the specific heat capacity were determined by least square method in conjunction with Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm.The results obtained compare favourably with those obtained experimentally. These results are useful in the analysis ofneem seeds drying and leaching processes.

  4. Determination of Specific Heat Capacity on Composite Shape-Stabilized Phase Change Materials and Asphalt Mixtures by Heat Exchange System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Biao; Zhou, Xue-Yan; Liu, Jiang; You, Zhanping; Wei, Kun; Huang, Xiao-Feng

    2016-05-19

    Previous research has shown that composite shape-stabilized phase change material (CPCM) has a remarkable capacity for thermal storage and stabilization, and it can be directly applied to highway construction without leakage. However, recent studies on temperature changing behaviors of CPCM and asphalt mixture cannot intuitively reflect the thermoregulation mechanism and efficiency of CPCM on asphalt mixture. The objective of this paper is to determine the specific heat capacity of CPCM and asphalt mixtures mixed with CPCM using the heat exchange system and the data acquisition system. Studies have shown that the temperature-rise curve of 5 °C CPCM has an obvious temperature plateau, while an asphalt mixture mixed with 5 °C CPCM does not; with increasing temperature, the specific heat capacities of both 5 °C CPCM and asphalt mixture first increase and then decrease, while the variation rate of 5 °C CPCM is larger than that of the asphalt mixture, and the maximum specific heat capacity of 5 °C CPCM appears around the initial phase change temperature. It is concluded that the temperature intervals of 5 °C CPCM are -18 °C-7 °C, 7 °C-25 °C and 25 °C-44 °C, respectively, and that of the asphalt mixture are -18 °C~10 °C, -10 °C~5 °C and 5 °C~28 °C. A low dosage of 5 °C CPCM has little influence on the specific heat capacity of asphalt mixture. Finally, the functions of specific heat capacities and temperature for CPCM and asphalt mixture mixed with CPCM were recommended by the sectional regression method.

  5. Sex-specific effects of NLRP6/AVR and ADM loci on susceptibility to essential hypertension in a Sardinian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Glorioso

    Full Text Available Coronary artery disease, heart failure, fatal arrhythmias, stroke, and renal disease are the most common causes of mortality for humans, and essential hypertension remains a major risk factor. Elucidation of susceptibility loci for essential hypertension has been difficult because of its complex, multifactorial nature involving genetic, environmental, and sex- and age-dependent nature. We investigated whether the 11p15.5 region syntenic to rat chromosome 1 region containing multiple blood pressure quantitative trait loci (QTL detected in Dahl rat intercrosses harbors polymorphisms that contribute to susceptibility/resistance to essential hypertension in a Sardinian population. Initial testing performed using microsatellite markers spanning 18 Mb of 11p15.5 detected a strong association between D11S1318 (at 2.1 Mb, P = 0.004 and D11S1346 (at 10.6 Mb, P = 0.00000004, suggesting that loci in close proximity to these markers may contribute to susceptibility in our Sardinian cohort. NLR family, pyrin domain containing 6/angiotensin-vasopressin receptor (NLRP6/AVR, and adrenomedullin (ADM are in close proximity to D11S1318 and D11S1346, respectively; thus we tested single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within NLRP6/AVR and ADM for their association with hypertension in our Sardinian cohort. Upon sex stratification, we detected one NLRP6/AVR SNP associated with decreased susceptibility to hypertension in males (rs7948797G, P = 0.029; OR = 0.73 [0.57-0.94]. For ADM, sex-specific analysis showed a significant association between rs4444073C, with increased susceptibility to essential hypertension only in the male population (P = 0.006; OR = 1.44 [1.13-1.84]. Our results revealed an association between NLRP6/AVR and ADM loci with male essential hypertension, suggesting the existence of sex-specific NLRP6/AVR and ADM variants affecting male susceptibility to essential hypertension.

  6. Susceptibility losses in heating of magnetic core/shell nanoparticles for hyperthermia: a Monte Carlo study of shape and size effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilakaki, M; Binns, C; Trohidou, K N

    2015-05-07

    Optimizing the heating properties of magnetic nanoparticles is of great importance for hyperthermia applications. Recent experimental results show that core/shell nanoparticles could give an increased specific absorption rate (SAR) compared to the magnetic oxide nanoparticles currently used. We have developed a modified phenomenological model based on the linear Néel-Brown relaxation model to calculate the SAR due to susceptibility losses in complex nanoparticles with ferromagnetic (FM) core/ferrimagnetic (FiM) shell morphology. We use the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation technique with the implementation of the Metropolis algorithm to investigate the effect of size and shape on the magnetisation behaviour of complex ferromagnetic/ferrimagnetic nanoparticles covered by a surfactant layer. The findings of our simulations are used as an input in our modified model for the calculation of the SAR. Our calculations show that for all the sizes and shapes the complex FM/FiM nanoparticles give higher SAR values than the pure ferrimagnetic ones due to their higher core saturation magnetisation. For all sizes the nanoparticles with the truncated cuboctahedral shape give the highest SAR values and the cubic ones the lowest ones. The decrease in the surfactant thickness results in an increase of the SAR values. Our results have the same characteristics as the available experimental data from Fe/Fe3O4 nanoparticles, confirming that the complex nanoparticles with core/shell morphology can optimise the heating properties for hyperthermia.

  7. Stage- and sex-specific heat tolerance in the yellow dung fly Scathophaga stercoraria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanckenhorn, Wolf U; Gautier, Roland; Nick, Marcel; Puniamoorthy, Nalini; Schäfer, Martin A

    2014-12-01

    Thermal tolerance varies at all hierarchical levels of biological organization: among species, populations, individuals, and even within individuals. Age- or developmental stage- and sex-specific thermal effects have received relatively little attention in the literature, despite being crucial for understanding thermal adaptation in nature and responses to global warming. We document stage- and sex- specific heat tolerance in the yellow dung fly Scathophaga stercoraria (Diptera: Scathophagidae), a species common throughout the northern hemisphere that generally favours cool climates. Exposure of eggs to temperatures up to 32°C did not affect larval hatching rate, but subsequent egg-to-adult survival at a benign temperature was reduced. Permanent transfer from benign (18°C) to hot temperatures (up to 31°C) at different larval and pupal stages strongly decreased egg-to-adult survival, though survival continuously improved the later the transfer occurred. Temporary transfer for only two days increased mortality more weakly, survival being lowest when temperature stress was imposed early during the larval or pupal stages. Adult flies provided with sugar and water tolerated 31°C longer than previously thought (5 days in males to 9 days in females). Eggs were thus less susceptible to thermal stress than larvae, pupae or adults, in agreement with the hypothesis that more mobile stages require less physiological protection against heat because they can behaviourally thermoregulate. The probability of mating, of laying a clutch, and hatching success were generally independently reduced by exposure of females or males to warm temperatures (24°C) during the juvenile or adult stages, with some interactions evident. High temperature stress thus affects survival differentially depending on when it occurs during the juvenile or the pre-reproductive adult life stage, and affects reproductive success via the mating behaviour of both sexes, female physiology in terms of

  8. Measurement and Model Validation of Nanofluid Specific Heat Capacity with Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry O'Hanley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanofluids are being considered for heat transfer applications; therefore it is important to know their thermophysical properties accurately. In this paper we focused on nanofluid specific heat capacity. Currently, there exist two models to predict a nanofluid specific heat capacity as a function of nanoparticle concentration and material. Model I is a straight volume-weighted average; Model II is based on the assumption of thermal equilibrium between the particles and the surrounding fluid. These two models give significantly different predictions for a given system. Using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, a robust experimental methodology for measuring the heat capacity of fluids, the specific heat capacities of water-based silica, alumina, and copper oxide nanofluids were measured. Nanoparticle concentrations were varied between 5 wt% and 50 wt%. Test results were found to be in excellent agreement with Model II, while the predictions of Model I deviated very significantly from the data. Therefore, Model II is recommended for nanofluids.

  9. Measurements of thermal diffusivity, specific heat capacity and thermal conductivity with LFA 447 apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zajas, Jan Jakub; Heiselberg, Per

    The LFA 447 can be successfully used for measurements of thermal diffusivity, specific heat and thermal conductivity of various samples. It is especially useful when determining the properties of materials on a very small scale. The matrix measurement mode allows for determining the local...... properties with a fine resolution, down to 1 millimeter. Special attention needs to be taken when determining the specific heat capacity in the comparative method. First of all, the test and reference sample should be of nearly identical thickness. Secondly, their heat diffusion time should be comparable, so...... that the heat losses from both samples during the measurement are similar. Finally, the leveling of the samples is very important. Very small discrepancies can cause a massive error in the derivation of specific heat capacity and, as a result, thermal conductivity....

  10. An apparatus for the specific heat measurement of undercooled liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsaka, K.; Gatewood, J. R.; Trinh, E. H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a drop calorimeter with an electromagnetic levitator that was specifically built for enthalpy measurements of undercooled liquids, including high-melting-point metals. Design diagrams of this device and of a furnace for making a suspended drop are presented together with results of measurements on an aluminum sample.

  11. 19p13.1 Is a triple-negative-specific breast cancer susceptibility locus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Stevens (Kristen); Z. Fredericksen (Zachary); C. Vachon (Celine); X. Wang (Xing); S. Margolin (Sara); A. Lindblom (Annika); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); D. Greco (Dario); K. Aittomäki (Kristiina); C. Blomqvist (Carl); J. Chang-Claude (Jenny); A. Vrieling (Alina); D. Flesch-Janys (Dieter); H.-P. Sinn (Hans-Peter); S. Wang-Gohrke (Shan); S. Nickels (Stefan); H. Brauch (Hiltrud); Y-D. Ko (Yon-Dschun); H.-P. Fischer; R.K. Schmutzler (Rita); A. Meindl (Alfons); C.R. Bartram (Claus); S. Schott (Sarah); C. Engel (Christoph); A.K. Godwin (Andrew); J. Weaver (JoEllen); S.S. Pathak; P. Sharma (Pankaj); H. Brenner (Hermann); H. Mul̈ler (Heiko); V. Arndt (Volker); C. Stegmaier (Christa); P. Miron (Penelope); D. Yannoukakos (Drakoulis); A. Stavropoulou (Alexandra); G. Fountzilas (George); H. Gogas (Helen); R. Swann (Ruth); M. Dwek (Miriam); A. Perkins (Annie); R.L. Milne (Roger); J. Benítez (Javier); M.P. Zamora (Pilar); J.I.A. Perez (Jose Ignacio Arias); S.E. Bojesen (Stig); S.F. Nielsen (Sune); B.G. Nordestgaard (Børge); H. Flyger (Henrik); P. Guénel (Pascal); T. Truong (Thérèse); F. Menegaux (Florence); E. Cordina-Duverger (Emilie); B. Burwinkel (Barbara); F. Marme (Federick); A. Schneeweiss (Andreas); C. Sohn (Christof); E.J. Sawyer (Elinor); I.P. Tomlinson (Ian); M. Kerin (Michael); J. Peto (Julian); N. Johnson (Nichola); O. Fletcher (Olivia); I. dos Santos Silva (Isabel); P.A. Fasching (Peter); M.W. Beckmann (Matthias); A. Hartmann; A.B. Ekici (Arif); A. Lophatananon (Artitaya); K.R. Muir (Kenneth); P. Puttawibul (Puttisak); S. Wiangnon (Surapon); M.K. Schmidt (Marjanka); A. Broeks (Annegien); L.M. Braaf (Linde); E.H. Rosenberg (Efraim); J.L. Hopper (John); C. Apicella (Carmel); D.J. Park (Daniel); M.C. Southey (Melissa); A.J. Swerdlow (Anthony ); A. Ashworth (Alan); O. Nicholas (Orr); M. Schoemaker (Minouk); H. Anton-Culver (Hoda); A. Ziogas (Argyrios); L. Bernstein (Leslie); C.C. Dur (Christina Clarke); C-Y. Shen (Chen-Yang); J-C. Yu (Jyh-Cherng); H.-M. Hsu (Huan-Ming); C.-N. Hsiung (Chia-Ni); U. Hamann (Ute); T. Dun̈nebier (Thomas); T. Rud̈iger (Thomas); H.U. Ulmer (Hans); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul); A.M. Dunning (Alison); M.K. Humphreys (Manjeet); Q. Wang (Qing); A. Cox (Angela); S.S. Cross (Simon); M.W.R. Reed (Malcolm); P. Hall (Per); K. Czene (Kamila); C.B. Ambrosone (Christine); F. Ademuyiwa (Foluso); H. Hwang (Helena); D. Eccles (Diana); M. García-Closas (Montserrat); J.D. Figueroa (Jonine); M.E. Sherman (Mark); J. Lissowska (Jolanta); P. Devilee (Peter); C.M. Seynaeve (Caroline); R.A.E.M. Tollenaar (Rob); M.J. Hooning (Maartje); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); J.A. Knight (Julia); G. Glendon (Gord); A.M. Mulligan (Anna Marie); R. Winqvist (Robert); K. Pykäs (Katri); A. Jukkola-Vuorinen (Arja); M. Grip (Mervi); E.M. John (Esther); A. Miron (Alexander); G.G. Alnæs (Grethe); V. Kristensen (Vessela); A.-L. Brøresen-Dale (Anne-Lise); G.G. Giles (Graham); L. Baglietto (Laura); C.A. McLean (Catriona Ann); G. Severi (Gianluca); M. Kosel (Matthew); V.S. Pankratz (Shane); S. Slager (Susan); J.E. Olson (Janet); P. Radice (Paolo); P. Peterlongo (Paolo); S. Manoukian (Siranoush); M. Barile (Monica); D. Lambrechts (Diether); S. Hatse (Sigrid); A.-S. Dieudonné (Anne-Sophie); M.R. Christiaens (Marie Rose); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); J. Beesley (Jonathan); X. Chen (Xiaoqing); A. Mannermaa (Arto); V-M. Kosma (Veli-Matti); J. Hartikainen (Jaana); Y. Soini (Ylermi); D.F. Easton (Douglas); F.J. Couch (Fergus)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe 19p13.1 breast cancer susceptibility locus is a modifier of breast cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers and is also associated with the risk of ovarian cancer. Here, we investigated 19p13.1 variation and risk of breast cancer subtypes, defined by estrogen receptor (ER),

  12. Specific microRNAs Regulate Heat Stress Responses in Caenorhabditis elegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nehammer, Camilla; Podolska, Agnieszka; Mackowiak, Sebastian D

    2015-01-01

    to heat stress in Caenorhabditis elegans and show that a discrete subset of miRNAs is thermoregulated. Using in-depth phenotypic analyses of miRNA deletion mutant strains we reveal multiple developmental and post-developmental survival and behavioral functions for specific miRNAs during heat stress. We...

  13. Assessment of Self-Heating Susceptibility of Indian Coal Seams - A Neural Network Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, D. C.; Ray, S. K.

    2014-12-01

    The paper addresses an electro-chemical method called wet oxidation potential technique for determining the susceptibility of coal to spontaneous combustion. Altogether 78 coal samples collected from thirteen different mining companies spreading over most of the Indian Coalfields have been used for this experimental investigation and 936 experiments have been carried out by varying different experimental conditions to standardize this method for wider application. Thus for a particular sample 12 experiments of wet oxidation potential method were carried out. The results of wet oxidation potential (WOP) method have been correlated with the intrinsic properties of coal by carrying out proximate, ultimate and petrographic analyses of the coal samples. Correlation studies have been carried out with Design Expert 7.0.0 software. Further, artificial neural network (ANN) analysis was performed to ensure best combination of experimental conditions to be used for obtaining optimum results in this method. All the above mentioned analysis clearly spelt out that the experimental conditions should be 0.2 N KMnO4 solution with 1 N KOH at 45°C to achieve optimum results for finding out the susceptibility of coal to spontaneous combustion. The results have been validated with Crossing Point Temperature (CPT) data which is widely used in Indian mining scenario. W pracy omówiono możliwości wykorzystania metody elektro-chemicznej zwanej metodą określania potencjału utleniającego w procesie mokrym do określania skłonności węgla do samozapłonu. Dla potrzeb eksperymentu zebrano 78 próbek węgla z trzynastu kopalni w obrębie Indyjskiego Zagłębia Węglowego. Przeprowadzono 936 eksperymentów, w różnych warunkach prowadzenia procesu aby zapewnić standaryzację metody w celu jej szerszego zastosowania. Dla każdej próbki przeprowadzono 12 eksperymentów metodą badania potencjału utleniającego w procesie mokrym. Wyniki skorelowano z własnościami danego węgla przez

  14. The discontinuity of the specific heat for the 5D Ising model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.H. Lundow

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the behaviour of the specific heat around the critical point of the Ising model in dimension 5 to 7. We find a specific heat discontinuity, like that for the mean field Ising model, and provide estimates for the left and right hand limits of the specific heat at the critical point. We also estimate the singular exponents, describing how the specific heat approaches those limits. Additionally, we make a smaller scale investigation of the same properties in dimension 6 and 7, and provide strongly improved estimates for the critical temperature Kc in d=5,6,7 which bring the best MC-estimate closer to those obtained by long high temperature series expansions.

  15. Lattice specific heat and local density of states of Ni-based dilute ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    based dilute alloys has been carried out. Lattice Green's function method has been used to calculate the local density of states of substitutional impurities and lattice specific heat in different alloys. The resonance condition has been investigated for ...

  16. Variation of the ratio of specific heats across a detached bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, J. K.; Wiskerchen, M. J.

    1974-01-01

    Equations are derived which allow the ratio of specific heats behind the earth's bow shock to be evaluated if several pre-shock parameters (the specific-heat ratio, the Alfvenic Mach number, the sonic Mach number, and the angle between the shock normal at the stagnation point and the magnetic field) and the density jump across the shock are known. Numerical examples show that the dependence of the post-shock ratio on the pre-shock ratio is weak.

  17. On the averaging of ratios of specific heats in a multicomponent planetary atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubisch, R.

    1974-01-01

    The use of adiabatic relations in the calculation of planetary atmospheres requires knowledge of the ratio of specific heats of a mixture of gases under various pressure and temperature conditions. It is shown that errors introduced by simple averaging of the ratio of specific heats in a multicomponent atmosphere can be roughly 0.4%. Therefore, the gamma-averaging error can become important when integrating through the atmosphere to a large depth.

  18. Determination of pepsin-susceptible and pepsin-resistant epitopes in native and heat-treated peanut allergen Ara h 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxtel, E.L. van; Koppelman, S.J.; Broek, L.A.M. van den; Gruppen, H.

    2008-01-01

    This study was aimed at the determination of the pepsin-susceptible and pepsin-resistant epitopes in native and heat-treated Ara h 1, a major allergen from peanuts. Both the oligomeric structure and the trimeric structure of the allergen were investigated. Under the in vitro conditions applied,

  19. Specific heat of pristine and brominated graphite fibers, composites and HOPG. [Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ching-Chen; Maciag, Carolyn

    1987-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry was used to obtain specific heat values of pristine and brominated P-100 graphite fibers and brominated P-100/epoxy composite as well as pristine and brominated highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) for comparison. Based on the experimental results obtained, specific heat values are calculated for several different temperatures, with a standard deviation estimated at 1.4 percent of the average values. The data presented here are useful in designing heat transfer devices (such as airplane de-icing heaters) from bromine fibers.

  20. Heat susceptibility of interleukin-10 and other cytokines in donor human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untalan, Peter B; Keeney, Susan E; Palkowetz, Kimberly H; Rivera, Audelio; Goldman, Armond S

    2009-09-01

    Holder pasteurization renders donor human milk safe for consumption. Because human milk reduces the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants, we tested whether Holder pasteurization affects certain factors in human milk that protect the intestines: epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1, erythropoietin (EPO), and interleukin (IL)-10. Donor human milk from a milk bank was examined. The aqueous phase of 17 samples of donor term human milk (mean duration of lactation, 8 +/- 3.5 months) was examined before and after Holder pasteurization. In the case of IL-10, lesser degrees of pasteurization were also evaluated. The agents were quantified using enzyme immunoassays. The function of IL-10 was also tested. Concentrations of EGF and IL-10 were markedly lower than previously reported values in human milk from earlier phases of lactation. Holder pasteurization significantly reduced the concentrations of EPO and IL-10, whereas lesser degrees of heating increased the detection of IL-10. The immunosuppression of T-cell proliferation by human milk, thought to be attributed to IL-10 alone, persisted after Holder pasteurization. Holder pasteurization greatly decreased concentrations of EPO and IL-10 in human milk. These decreases may impact the ability of human milk to protect against necrotizing enterocolitis. Evidence of possible binding of IL-10 to other proteins in human milk was also found. Experiments to test whether Holder pasteurization affects the function of IL-10 in human milk produced evidence for an agent in human milk other than IL-10 that inhibits T-cell proliferation and resists Holder pasteurization.

  1. Specific heat of NbTi from 0 to 7 T between 4. 2 and 20 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elrod, S.A.; Miller, J.R.; Dresner, L.

    1981-01-01

    Specific heat measurements are reported for an annealed Nb-44% Ti rod. A formula has been derived by thermodynamic arguments for the specific heat of Type II superconductors as a function of temperature and the applied magnetic field. (MOW)

  2. Critical behavior of 2,6-dimethylpyridine-water: Measurements of specific heat, dynamic light scattering, and shear viscosity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzaev, S. Z.; Behrends, R.; Heimburg, Thomas Rainer

    2006-01-01

    2,6-dimethylpyridine-water, specific heat, dynamic light scattering, shear viscosity Udgivelsesdato: 14 April......2,6-dimethylpyridine-water, specific heat, dynamic light scattering, shear viscosity Udgivelsesdato: 14 April...

  3. Experimental Investigation on the Specific Heat of Carbonized Phenolic Resin-Based Ablative Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Te; Ye, Hong; Zhang, Lisong; Cai, Qilin

    2017-10-01

    As typical phenolic resin-based ablative materials, the high silica/phenolic and carbon/phenolic composites are widely used in aerospace field. The specific heat of the carbonized ablators after ablation is an important thermophysical parameter in the process of heat transfer, but it is rarely reported. In this investigation, the carbonized samples of the high silica/phenolic and carbon/phenolic were obtained through carbonization experiments, and the specific heat of the carbonized samples was determined by a 3D DSC from 150 °C to 970 °C. Structural and compositional characterizations were performed to determine the mass fractions of the fiber and the carbonized product of phenolic which are the two constituents of the carbonized samples, while the specific heat of each constituent was also measured by 3D DSC. The masses of the carbonized samples were reduced when heated to a high temperature in the specific heat measurements, due to the thermal degradation of the carbonized product of phenolic resin in the carbonized samples. The raw experimental specific heat of the two carbonized samples and the carbonized product of phenolic resin was modified according to the quality changes of the carbonized samples presented by TGA results. Based on the mass fraction and the specific heat of each constituent, a weighted average method was adopted to obtain the calculated results of the carbonized samples. Due to the unconsolidated property of the fiber samples which impacts the reliability of the DSC measurement, there is a certain deviation between the experimental and calculated results of the carbonized samples. Considering the similarity of composition and structure, the data of quartz glass and graphite were used to substitute the specific heat of the high silica fiber and carbon fiber, respectively, resulting in better agreements with the experimental ones. Furthermore, the accurate specific heat of the high silica fiber and carbon fiber bundles was obtained by

  4. HLA complex-linked heat shock protein genes and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucisik-Akkaya, Esma; Davis, Charronne F; Gorodezky, Clara; Alaez, Carmen; Dorak, M Tevfik

    2010-09-01

    Three heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) genes, HSPA1L, HSPA1A, and HSPA1B, are located within the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class III region. HSPs act as stress signals and regulate natural killer cell response to cancer. HSP70 gene polymorphisms show disease associations partly due to their linkage disequilibrium with HLA alleles. To systematically evaluate their associations with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), we examined the three functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs2227956 (T493M) in HSPA1L, rs1043618 in HSPA1A 5'UTR, and rs1061581 (Q351Q) in HSPA1B by TaqMan assays or polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism in 114 ALL cases and 414 controls from Wales (UK), in 100 Mexican Mestizo ALL cases and 253 controls belonging to the same ethnic group, and in a panel of 82 HLA-typed reference cell line samples. Homozygosity for HSPA1B rs1061581 minor allele G was associated with protection (odds ratio (OR) = 0.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.16-0.78; P = 0.007) with gene-dosage effect (additive model) reaching significance (P = 0.0001) in the Welsh case-control group. This association was replicated in the second case-control group from Mexico (OR (recessive model) = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.24-0.96; P = 0.03), and the pooled analysis yielded a strong association (Mantel-Haenszel OR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.27-0.69, P = 0.0004). The association was stronger in males in each group and in the pooled analysis. A three-SNP haplotype including the major allele A of rs1061581 showed a highly significant increase in Welsh cases compared with respective controls (6.7% vs 1.8%; P = 0.0003) due to the difference between male cases and controls. The protective allele of rs1061581 occurred more frequently on the HLA-DRB3 haplotypes (especially DRB1*03) in the cell line panel, but the HSPA1B association was independent from the HLA-DRB4 association previously detected in the same case-control group from Wales (adjusted P = 0

  5. Electronic miniband structure, heat capacity and magnetic susceptibility of monolayer and bilayer silicene in TI, VSPM and BI regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarmohammadi, Mohsen, E-mail: m.yarmohammadi69@gmail.com

    2017-04-11

    In the current work, we theoretically study the electronic band structure (EBS), electronic heat capacity (EHC) and magnetic susceptibility (MS) of three structures including monolayer, AA-stacked and AB-stacked bilayer silicene based on the Kane–Mele Hamiltonian model and Green's function method. The particular attention of this study is paid to the effect of external electric field on the aforementioned physical properties. By variation of the electric field, three phases are found: Topological insulator (TI), valley–spin polarized metal (VSPM) and band insulator (BI). Marvellously, its electronic minibands show that the spin-up contribution of charge carriers with lowest energy bands behaves like relativistic Dirac fermions with linear (parabolic) energy dispersions in monolayer (bilayer) case near the Dirac points. An insightful analysis shows that the maximum and minimum value of EHC peak appear for (AA) AB-stacked bilayer and monolayer silicene in TI (BI) regime while in MS curves appear for (AB) AA-stacked bilayer and monolayer lattices in TI (BI) regime, respectively. Moreover, we have observed a phase transition from antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic and paramagnetic in the monolayer and bilayer structures in the VSPM regime based on the MS findings, respectively. - Highlights: • Comparison of electronic miniband structure of monolayer and bilayer silicene by using the Kane–Mele model and Green's function technique. • Investigation and comparison the electronic contribution of heat capacity for different configurations of silicene structures. • Observation of phase transition from antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic and paramagnetic phase in the monolayer and bilayer cases, respectively.

  6. A new decay heat standard proposition based on a technical specifications guide for computation codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laugier, Frederic; Garzenne, Claude [EDF R and D SINETICS, 1 av. du Gal de Gaulle, 92141 Clamart Cedex (France); Diop, Cheikh [CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Ebalard, Sylvie [AREVA, 92084 Paris La Defense (France); Sargeni, Antonio [IRSN, B.P. 17, 92262 Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    2008-07-01

    The existing ISO international decay heat standard provides the basis for calculating the decay heat power of non-recycled nuclear fuel of light water reactors. Computing decay heat with this standard can be really efficient for standard uranium fuels. Though, for Mixed Oxide fuels, high Burn-Up uranium fuels or for non standard irradiation sequences, decay heat can only be estimated by more complex decay heat computation codes. Therefore, a new ISO international standard, a 'Technical specifications guide for decay heat computation' has been proposed to reflect the international way to compute decay heat in light water reactors. The aim of this article is to give the justifications for the methods that lead to simplified modelization of the decay heat and that will be put into this standard. These methods are useful for rapid and precise determination of reaction rates and for nuclide chains simplifications. We propose also a simple method to evaluate the sensitivity of decay heat computations with respect to nuclear data. (authors)

  7. Compilation of Data on Radionuclide Data for Specific Activity, Specific Heat and Fission Product Yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, A.; Thomason, R.S.

    2000-09-05

    This compilation was undertaken to update the data used in calculation of curie and heat loadings of waste containers in the Solid Waste Management Facility. The data has broad general use and has been cross-checked extensively in order to be of use in the Materials Accountability arena. The fission product cross-sections have been included because they are of use in the Environmental Remediation and Waste Management areas where radionuclides which are not readily detectable need to be calculated from the relative fission yields and material dispersion data.

  8. The Nominal/Generic Specific Heat per Average Atom Concept for CHNO Energetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    HMX can exist in different solid polymorphic forms. At a certain temperature, TT, one form may change to another form if the heat energy of...NUMBERS 14. SUBJECT TERMS TNT, HMX , PBX-9502, Specific Heat, Reactive Temperatures, Shock Loaded Explosives, Shock Reaction Criteria 17. SECURITY...This report is devoted to substantiating this N/G CP per average atom concept and illustrating its practical utilization via examples for TNT, HMX

  9. An analysis of boundary-effects in obtaining the frequency dependent specific heat by effusivity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tage Emil; Behrens, Claus

    The frequency dependent specific heat is a significant response function characterizing the glass transition. Contrary to the dielectric response it is not easily measured over many decades. The introduction of the 3-omega method, where the temperature oscillations at a planar oscillatoric heat...... generator is measured, made this possible. The method relied on a 1-d solution to the heat diffusion equation. There have been attempts to invoke the boundary effects to first order. However we present the fully 3-d solution to the problem including these effects. The frequency range can hereby...

  10. The Jewish people: their ethnic history, genetic disorders and specific cancer susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedar-Barnes, Inbal; Rozen, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The Jews are an ancient and unique group of people linked by language, religion and customs in spite of their major geographical shifts, expulsions, forced conversions and massacres throughout their entire history. As a result of these historical events that led to repeated migration, the Jewish people became dispersed into various ethnic sub-groups. Between these ethnic groups exists heterogeneity, as well as some similarities, to the populations amongst whom they lived. Rare genetic diseases have been reported to be prevalent among the different groups of Jews, which for the most part can be explained by random genetic drift together with intra-familial marriages. In this publication, we will briefly discuss the origin of the various ethnic groups and some of the genetic diseases commonly found in them, with emphasis on the Ashkenazim, their prevalent genetic diseases and cancer susceptibility.

  11. Non-Specific Protein Modifications by a Phytochemical Induce Heat Shock Response for Self-Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Kohta; Ohkura, Shinya; Nakahata, Erina; Ishisaka, Akari; Kawai, Yoshichika; Terao, Junji; Mori, Taiki; Ishii, Takeshi; Nakayama, Tsutomu; Kioka, Noriyuki; Matsumoto, Shinya; Ikeda, Yasutaka; Akiyama, Minoru; Irie, Kazuhiro; Murakami, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Accumulated evidence shows that some phytochemicals provide beneficial effects for human health. Recently, a number of mechanistic studies have revealed that direct interactions between phytochemicals and functional proteins play significant roles in exhibiting their bioactivities. However, their binding selectivities to biological molecules are considered to be lower due to their small and simple structures. In this study, we found that zerumbone, a bioactive sesquiterpene, binds to numerous proteins with little selectivity. Similar to heat-denatured proteins, zerumbone-modified proteins were recognized by heat shock protein 90, a constitutive molecular chaperone, leading to heat shock factor 1-dependent heat shock protein induction in hepa1c1c7 mouse hepatoma cells. Furthermore, oral administration of this phytochemical up-regulated heat shock protein expressions in the livers of Sprague-Dawley rats. Interestingly, pretreatment with zerumbone conferred a thermoresistant phenotype to hepa1c1c7 cells as well as to the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. It is also important to note that several phytochemicals with higher hydrophobicity or electrophilicity, including phenethyl isothiocyanate and curcumin, markedly induced heat shock proteins, whereas most of the tested nutrients did not. These results suggest that non-specific protein modifications by xenobiotic phytochemicals cause mild proteostress, thereby inducing heat shock response and leading to potentiation of protein quality control systems. We considered these bioactivities to be xenohormesis, an adaptation mechanism against xenobiotic chemical stresses. Heat shock response by phytochemicals may be a fundamental mechanism underlying their various bioactivities. PMID:23536805

  12. Monocot and dicot MLO powdery mildew susceptibility factors are functionally conserved in spite of the evolution of class-specific molecular features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appiano, M.; Catalano, D.; Santillan Martinez, M.I.; Lotti, C.; Zheng Zheng, Zheng; Visser, R.G.F.; Ricciardi, L.; Bai, Y.; Pavan, S.N.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Specific members of the plant Mildew Locus O (MLO) protein family act as susceptibility factors towards powdery mildew (PM), a worldwide-spread fungal disease threatening many cultivated species. Previous studies indicated that monocot and dicot MLO susceptibility proteins are

  13. A New Method for the Determination of the Specific Heat Capacity Using Laser-Flash Calorimetry Down to 77K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbel, A.; Hemberger, F.; Vidi, S.; Ebert, H.-P.

    2013-05-01

    A new method for evaluation of the specific heat capacity in the temperature regime between 77K and 330K using laser-flash calorimetry is presented. Usually, laser-flash calorimetry is accomplished by performing an additional laser-flash measurement on a reference specimen with a known specific heat capacity and by comparing the maximum rear-side temperatures rises. In this study, the calibration is achieved by comparison of the rear-side temperature rise to specific-heat-capacity data determined by other methods in an adjacent temperature regime. Subsequently, the thus yielded proportional factor is used for the evaluation of the specific heat capacity from laser-flash measurements at temperatures where no specific-heat-capacity data are available. The reliability of this method is shown by performing measurements on a material with known specific heat capacity, aluminum oxide. Furthermore, the specific heat capacity and thermal conductivity of borosilicate crown glass (BK7) was determined experimentally.

  14. Theoretical analysis for the specific heat and thermal parameters of solid C60

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, J. R.; Calles, A.; Castro, J. J.

    1997-08-01

    We present the results of a theoretical analysis for the thermal parameters and phonon contribution to the specific heat in solid C60. The phonon contribution to the specific heat is calculated through the solution of the corresponding dynamical matrix, for different points in the Brillouin zone, and the construccion of the partial and generalized phonon density of states. The force constants are obtained from a first principle calculation, using a SCF Hartree-Fock wave function from the Gaussian 92 program. The thermal parameters reported are the effective temperatures and vibrational amplitudes as a function of temperature. Using this model we present a parametization scheme in order to reproduce the general behaviour of the experimental specific heat for these materials.

  15. Quantum criticality at the superconductor-insulator transition revealed by specific heat measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poran, S; Nguyen-Duc, T; Auerbach, A; Dupuis, N; Frydman, A; Bourgeois, Olivier

    2017-02-22

    The superconductor-insulator transition (SIT) is considered an excellent example of a quantum phase transition that is driven by quantum fluctuations at zero temperature. The quantum critical point is characterized by a diverging correlation length and a vanishing energy scale. Low-energy fluctuations near quantum criticality may be experimentally detected by specific heat, c p , measurements. Here we use a unique highly sensitive experiment to measure c p of two-dimensional granular Pb films through the SIT. The specific heat shows the usual jump at the mean field superconducting transition temperature marking the onset of Cooper pairs formation. As the film thickness is tuned towards the SIT, is relatively unchanged, while the magnitude of the jump and low-temperature specific heat increase significantly. This behaviour is taken as the thermodynamic fingerprint of quantum criticality in the vicinity of a quantum phase transition.

  16. “Cooling by Heating”—Demonstrating the Significance of the Longitudinal Specific Heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon J. Papini

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Heating a solid sphere at its surface induces mechanical stresses inside the sphere. If a finite amount of heat is supplied, the stresses gradually disappear as temperature becomes homogeneous throughout the sphere. We show that before this happens, there is a temporary lowering of pressure and density in the interior of the sphere, inducing a transient lowering of the temperature here. For ordinary solids this effect is small because c_{p}≅c_{V}. For fluent liquids the effect is negligible because their dynamic shear modulus vanishes. For a liquid at its glass transition, however, the effect is generally considerably larger than in solids. This paper presents analytical solutions of the relevant coupled thermoviscoelastic equations. In general, there is a difference between the isobaric specific heat c_{p} measured at constant isotropic pressure and the longitudinal specific heat c_{l} pertaining to mechanical boundary conditions that confine the associated expansion to be longitudinal. In the exact treatment of heat propagation, the heat-diffusion constant contains c_{l} rather than c_{p}. We show that the key parameter controlling the magnitude of the “cooling-by-heating“ effect is the relative difference between these two specific heats. For a typical glass-forming liquid, when the temperature at the surface is increased by 1 K, a lowering of the temperature at the sphere center of the order of 5 mK is expected if the experiment is performed at the glass transition. The cooling-by-heating effect is confirmed by measurements on a glucose sphere at the glass transition.

  17. Fluctuation contribution to the specific heat in non-Fermi models for superconductivity

    OpenAIRE

    Tifrea, I.; Grosu, I.; Crisan, M.

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the fluctuation contribution to the specific heat of a two-dimensional superconductor with a non-Fermi normal state described by a Anderson Green's function $G(k,i\\omega)=\\omega_c^{-\\alpha}/(i\\omega-\\epsilon_k)^{1-\\alpha}$. The specific heat corrections contain a term proportional to $(T^{2\\alpha-T_c^{2\\alpha}})^{-1}$ and another logarithmic one. We defined a coherence length as function of the non-Fermi parameter $\\alpha$, which showed that a crossover study between BCS and Bo...

  18. Specific heats of lunar surface materials from 90 to 350 degrees Kelvin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robie, R.A.; Hemingway, B.S.; Wilson, W.H.

    1970-01-01

    The specific heats of lunar samples 10057 and 10084 returned by the Apollo 11 mission have been measured between 90 and 350 degrees Kelvin by use of an adiabatic calorimeter. The samples are representative of type A vesicular basalt-like rocks and of finely divided lunar soil. The specific heat of these materials changes smoothly from about 0.06 calorie per gram per degree at 90 degrees Kelvin to about 0.2 calorie per gram per degree at 350 degrees Kelvin. The thermal parameter ??=(k??C)-1/2 for the lunar surface will accordingly vary by a factor of about 2 between lunar noon and midnight.

  19. Spin excitations and the electronic specific heat of URu2Si2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mason, T.E.; Buyers, W.J.L.

    1991-01-01

    and conduction electrons yields m*/m(b) almost-equal-to 7.7 for T T(N) which is sufficient to account for the difference between band-structure calculations and the measured electronic specific heat. In addition, inclusion of the temperature dependence of the spin...... excitations as T(N) is approached from below reproduces, qualitatively, the peak observed in the specific heat at T(N). The peak arises from a gap in the spin, not charge spectrum below T(N)....

  20. Specific heat studies of pure Nb{sub 3}Sn single crystals at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escudero, R; Morales, F [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-360, Mexico, DF 04510 (Mexico); Bernes, S, E-mail: escu@servidor.unam.m [Facultad de Ciencias QuImicas, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Monterrey Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2009-08-12

    Specific heat measurements performed on high purity vapor-grown Nb{sub 3}Sn crystals show clear features related to both the martensitic and superconducting transitions. Our measurements indicate that the martensitic anomaly does not display hysteresis, meaning that the martensitic transition could be a weak first-order or a second-order thermodynamic transition. Careful measurements of the two transition temperatures display an inverse correlation between them. At low temperature, specific heat measurements show the existence of a single superconducting energy gap feature.

  1. Quantifying variety-specific heat resistance and the potential for adaptation to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, Jesse; Barkley, Andrew; Rife, Trevor W; Poland, Jesse A; Nalley, Lawton Lanier

    2016-08-01

    The impact of climate change on crop yields has become widely measured; however, the linkages for winter wheat are less studied due to dramatic weather changes during the long growing season that are difficult to model. Recent research suggests significant reductions under warming. A potential adaptation strategy involves the development of heat resistant varieties by breeders, combined with alternative variety selection by producers. However, the impact of heat on specific wheat varieties remains relatively unstudied due to limited data and the complex genetic basis of heat tolerance. Here, we provide a novel econometric approach that combines field-trial data with a genetic cluster mapping to group wheat varieties and estimate a separate extreme heat impact (temperatures over 34 °C) across 24 clusters spanning 197 varieties. We find a wide range of heterogeneous heat resistance and a trade-off between average yield and resistance. Results suggest that recently released varieties are less heat resistant than older varieties, a pattern that also holds for on-farm varieties. Currently released - but not yet adopted - varieties do not offer improved resistance relative to varieties currently grown on farm. Our findings suggest that warming impacts could be significantly reduced through advances in wheat breeding and/or adoption decisions by producers. However, current adaptation-through-adoption potential is limited under a 1 °C warming scenario as increased heat resistance cannot be achieved without a reduction in average yields. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Bone quantitative susceptibility mapping using a chemical species-specific R2* signal model with ultrashort and conventional echo data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimov, Alexey V; Liu, Zhe; Spincemaille, Pascal; Prince, Martin R; Du, Jiang; Wang, Yi

    2017-03-05

    To develop quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) of bone using an ultrashort echo time (UTE) gradient echo (GRE) sequence for signal acquisition and a bone-specific effective transverse relaxation rate ( R2*) to model water-fat MR signals for field mapping. Three-dimensional radial UTE data (echo times ≥ 40 μs) was acquired on a 3 Tesla scanner and fitted with a bone-specific signal model to map the chemical species and susceptibility field. Experiments were performed ex vivo on a porcine hoof and in vivo on healthy human subjects (n = 7). For water-fat separation, a bone-specific model assigning R2* decay mostly to water was compared with the standard models that assigned the same decay for both fat and water. In the ex vivo experiment, bone QSM was correlated with CT. Compared with standard models, the bone-specific R2* method significantly reduced errors in the fat fraction within the cortical bone in all tested data sets, leading to reduced artifacts in QSM. Good correlation was found between bone CT and QSM values in the porcine hoof (R(2)  = 0.77). Bone QSM was successfully generated in all subjects. The QSM of bone is feasible using UTE with a conventional echo time GRE acquisition and a bone-specific R2* signal model. Magn Reson Med 000:000-000, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  3. Determination of the specific heat petroleum derivates; Determinacao do calor especifico de derivados ultrapesados de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballesteros Hernandez, Julie A.; Zuniga Linan, Lamia; Jardini, Andre; Maciel, Maria Regina Wolf; Maciel Filho, Rubens Maciel [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica; Medina, Lilian Carmen [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    In the development of the specific mathematical modeling for heavy and ultra heavy petroleum fractions in a molecular distiller is very important the definition of physical and chemical parameters as density and specific heat of the mixture, the enthalpy of vaporization, among others, since they are used in the energy balance. Information on these properties and their variation with temperature are found in the open literature for mixture with few components (simple mixtures). However, for multicomponent solutions consisting of complex mixtures such as oil and its heavy and ultraheavy fractions, available data are few, or are limited to low temperatures. The specific heat is an important property in the energy balance. This property can be measured by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), which gives results with great sensitivity and accuracy. This paper presents the variation of specific heat with the temperature of ultra-heavy oil fractions in the range from 80 deg to 350 deg C . Through the study of this variation, the equation nowadays used can be adjusted, in order to determine the specific heat. New values of the constants are determined, so that the equation can be used for these complex products, optimizing the estimative of Cp and so no experimental data are always necessary for simulations. (author)

  4. Datasets in Gene Expression Omnibus used in the study ORD-020969: Genomic effects of androstenedione and sex-specific liver cancer susceptibility in mice

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Datasets in Gene Expression Omnibus used in the study ORD-020969: Genomic effects of androstenedione and sex-specific liver cancer susceptibility in mice. This...

  5. Evaluation of Veterinary-Specific Interpretive Criteria for Susceptibility Testing of Streptococcus equi Subspecies with Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim-Sulfadiazine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadaka, Carmen; Kanellos, Theo; Guardabassi, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility test results for trimethoprim-sulfadiazine with Streptococcus equi subspecies are interpreted based on human data for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The veterinary-specific data generated in this study support a single breakpoint for testing trimethoprim...

  6. Combined function specification-regularization procedure for solution of inverse heat conduction problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, J. V.; Murio, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    The inverse heat conduction problem involves the calculation of surface heat flux and/or temperature histories from transient, measured temperatures inside solids. This paper proposes and investigates a new combined procedure that is based on two different methods. One of these methods is the sequential function specification method which was originally proposed by Beck. The other method is the regularization method which has been used by Tikhonov and others. The combined method uses the sequential feature of the function specification method and the special function that is minimized in the regularization method. A test case is investigated of a semi-infinite body exposed to a heat flux that is initially zero, has a step increase and then drops to zero. A wide range of parameters is investigated. The combined procedure is much more computationally efficient than the usual regularization procedure when all the flux components are found simultaneously and yet the calculated values found by combined method are little different.

  7. Effect of nonmagnetic and magnetic impurities on the specific heat jump in anisotropic superconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Openov, LA

    The specific-heat jump DeltaC at a critical temperature T-c in an anisotropic superconductor containing both potential and spin-flip scatterers is calculated within a weak-coupling mean-field approximation. It is shown that the presence of even a small amount of spin-flip scatterers in the sample

  8. Specific heat studies in Ho–Ba–CuO superconductors: Fermionic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Specific heat studies in Ho–Ba–CuO superconductors: Fermionic and bosonic contributions. DINESH VARSHNEY*, SANJAY SHAH and R K SINGH†. School of Physics, Devi Ahilya University, Khandwa Road Campus, Indore 452 017, India. †School of Pure and Applied Physics, Guru Ghasidas University, Bilaspur 495 ...

  9. Page 1 The Specific Heats of Crystals—II 161 different techniques. It ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    different techniques. It is a simple matter with the aid of the table to cal- culate the contributions to the specific heat arising from the nine modes of internal vibration of the diamond structure. The lowest frequency appearing in the table expressed in wave-numbers, viz., 621 cm." may also be properly assumed to be the upper ...

  10. The Measurement of the Specific Latent Heat of Fusion of Ice: Two Improved Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, S. Y.; Chun, C. K. W.

    2000-01-01

    Suggests two methods for measuring the specific latent heat of ice fusion for high school physics laboratories. The first method is an ice calorimeter which is made from simple materials. The second method improves the thermal contact and allows for a more accurate measurement. Lists instructions for both methods. (Author/YDS)

  11. Low-temperature specific heat and thermal conductivity of silica aerogels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sleator, T.; Bernasconi, A.; Posselt, D.

    1991-01-01

    Specific-heat and thermal-conductivity measurements were made on a series of base-catalyzed silica aerogels at temperatures between 0.05 and 20 K. Evidence for a crossover between regimes of characteristically different excitations was observed. The data analysis indicates a "bump" in the density...

  12. Laboratory Activity: Specific Heat by Change in Internal Energy of Silly Putty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koser, John

    2011-01-01

    Students in introductory physics courses often don't study thermodynamics or thermodynamic events. If any thermal physics is taught in introductory courses (e.g., Physics 101 for Liberal Arts Majors), it usually involves the concepts of specific heat and various temperature scales. Seldom are the first and second laws of thermodynamics taught in…

  13. Low-temperature specific-heat and thermal-conductivity of silica aerogels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernasconi, A.; Sleator, T.; Posselt, D.

    1992-01-01

    Specific heat, C(p), and thermal conductivity, lambda, have been measured on a series of base-catalyzed silica aerogels at temperatures between 0.05 and 20 K. Results for both C(p)(T) and lambda(T) confirm that the different length-scale regions observed in the aerogel structure are reflected...

  14. Order parameter anisotropy of MgB2 using specific heat jump of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Order parameter anisotropy of MgB2 using specific heat jump of layered superconductors. I N ASKERZADE1 2. 1Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Ankara University, 06100-Tando˘gan-Ankara, Turkey. 2Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, H-Cavid 33, Baku-370143,. Azerbaijan.

  15. Low temperature specific heat of the spin-density-wave compound (TMTSF)2PF6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odin, J.; Lasjaunias, J.C.; Biljakovic, K.

    1994-01-01

    We report on specific heat measurements of the SDW compound (TMTSF)2PF6 between 2 and 25 K, performed by two different techniques. We discuss the two successive transitions which occur in this T-range : the SDW ordering transition at T = 12.1 K, and a glass transition around-3-3.5 K. The latter...

  16. Specifications for temperature measurement in the district heating sector; Anforderungen an die Temperaturmessung in der Fernwaerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathies, Nicolaus [Krohne Messtechnik GmbH, Duisburg (Germany); Schupp, Reiner [MID-Cert GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    Wrong design of thermometers often causes faulty billing. Correct design depends on the requirements of the market segment and of the heating systems concerned. Additionally, aspects resulting from the measurement process and the environmental conditions must be taken into account as well as equipment-specific criteria. The authors outline the requirements to a correct temperature measurement. (orig./GL)

  17. Summary of some feasibility studies for site-specific solar industrial process heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Some feasibility studies for several different site specific solar industrial process heat applications are summarized. The followng applications are examined. Leather Tanning; Concrete Production: Lumber and Paper Processing; Milk Processing; Molding, Curing or Drying; Automobile Manufacture; and Food Processing and Preparation. For each application, site and process data, system design, and performance and cost estimates are summarized.

  18. Integrated genetic and epigenetic analysis identifies haplotype-specific methylation in the FTO type 2 diabetes and obesity susceptibility locus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher G Bell

    Full Text Available Recent multi-dimensional approaches to the study of complex disease have revealed powerful insights into how genetic and epigenetic factors may underlie their aetiopathogenesis. We examined genotype-epigenotype interactions in the context of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D, focussing on known regions of genomic susceptibility. We assayed DNA methylation in 60 females, stratified according to disease susceptibility haplotype using previously identified association loci. CpG methylation was assessed using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation on a targeted array (MeDIP-chip and absolute methylation values were estimated using a Bayesian algorithm (BATMAN. Absolute methylation levels were quantified across LD blocks, and we identified increased DNA methylation on the FTO obesity susceptibility haplotype, tagged by the rs8050136 risk allele A (p = 9.40×10(-4, permutation p = 1.0×10(-3. Further analysis across the 46 kb LD block using sliding windows localised the most significant difference to be within a 7.7 kb region (p = 1.13×10(-7. Sequence level analysis, followed by pyrosequencing validation, revealed that the methylation difference was driven by the co-ordinated phase of CpG-creating SNPs across the risk haplotype. This 7.7 kb region of haplotype-specific methylation (HSM, encapsulates a Highly Conserved Non-Coding Element (HCNE that has previously been validated as a long-range enhancer, supported by the histone H3K4me1 enhancer signature. This study demonstrates that integration of Genome-Wide Association (GWA SNP and epigenomic DNA methylation data can identify potential novel genotype-epigenotype interactions within disease-associated loci, thus providing a novel route to aid unravelling common complex diseases.

  19. Species-Specific and Drug-Specific Differences in Susceptibility of Candida Biofilms to Echinocandins: Characterization of Less Common Bloodstream Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simitsopoulou, Maria; Peshkova, Pavla; Tasina, Efthymia; Katragkou, Aspasia; Kyrpitzi, Daniela; Velegraki, Aristea; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Candida species other than Candida albicans are increasingly recognized as causes of biofilm-associated infections. This is a comprehensive study that compared the in vitro activities of all three echinocandins against biofilms formed by different common and infrequently identified Candida isolates. We determined the activities of anidulafungin (ANID), caspofungin (CAS), and micafungin (MFG) against planktonic cells and biofilms of bloodstream isolates of C. albicans (15 strains), Candida parapsilosis (6 strains), Candida lusitaniae (16 strains), Candida guilliermondii (5 strains), and Candida krusei (12 strains) by XTT [2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide] assay. Planktonic and biofilm MICs were defined as ≥50% fungal damage. Planktonic cells of all Candida species were susceptible to the three echinocandins, with MICs of ≤1 mg/liter. By comparison, differences in the MIC profiles of biofilms in response to echinocandins existed among the Candida species. Thus, C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii biofilms were highly recalcitrant to all echinocandins, with MICs of ≥32 mg/liter. In contrast, the MICs of all three echinocandins for C. albicans and C. krusei biofilms were relatively low (MICs ≤ 1 mg/liter). While echinocandins exhibited generally high MICs against C. parapsilosis biofilms, MFG exhibited the lowest MICs against these isolates (4 mg/liter). A paradoxical growth effect was observed with CAS concentrations ranging from 8 to 64 mg/liter against C. albicans and C. parapsilosis biofilms but not against C. krusei, C. lusitaniae, or C. guilliermondii. While non-albicans Candida planktonic cells were susceptible to all echinocandins, there were drug- and species-specific differences in susceptibility among biofilms of the various Candida species, with C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii exhibiting profiles of high MICs of the three echinocandins. PMID:23529739

  20. Specific heat of Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube material measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fong, R.W.L.; Neal, P.D. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, ON (Canada); Fazeli, F.; Aniolek, M. [CanmetMATERIALS, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Gezgin, S. [NETZSCH-Geratebau GmbH, Wittelsbacherstr, Selb/Bavaria (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Specific heats of Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube material have been measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) between 100{sup o}C and 1200{sup c}C using a heating and cooling rate of 20{sup o}C/min. A hysteresis was observed in the specific heat curves between heating and cooling. A maximum value occurs at a higher temperature on heating than on cooling, and the magnitude is larger for cooling when compared to heating. The as-manufactured tube material showed a small enthalpy change during first heating, attributed to decomposition of meta-stable β-Zr; and this did not appear on second heating after being first heated to 1200{sup o}C. Further studies are suggested to characterize the hysteresis behaviour. (author)

  1. A Major Susceptibility Locus for Specific Language Impairment Is Located on 13q21

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlett, Christopher W.; Flax, Judy F.; Logue, Mark W.; Vieland, Veronica J.; Bassett, Anne S.; Tallal, Paula; Brzustowicz, Linda M.

    2002-01-01

    Children who fail to develop language normally—in the absence of explanatory factors such as neurological disorders, hearing impairment, or lack of adequate opportunity—are clinically described as having specific language impairment (SLI). SLI has a prevalence of ∼7% in children entering school and is associated with later difficulties in learning to read. Research indicates that genetic factors are important in the etiology of SLI. Studies have consistently demonstrated that SLI aggregates i...

  2. The brain-specific factor FEZ1 is a determinant of neuronal susceptibility to HIV-1 infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Haedicke, Juliane

    2009-08-18

    Neurons are one of the few cell types in the human body that do not support HIV type-1 (HIV-1) replication. Although the lack of key receptors is a major obstacle to infection, studies suggest that additional functions inhibit virus replication to explain the exquisite resistance of neurons to HIV-1. However, specific neuronal factors that may explain this resistance remain to be discovered. In a screen for antiviral factors using a fibroblast line chemically mutagenized and selected for resistance to retroviral infection, we recently identified induction of rat FEZ1 (fasciculation and elongation protein zeta-1), a brain-specific protein, as the cause of this resistance. When exogenously expressed in nonneuronal cell lines rat FEZ1 blocked nuclear entry of retroviral DNA. Here, we demonstrate that among human brain cells, neurons naturally express high levels of FEZ1 compared to astrocytes or microglia cells and are correspondingly less susceptible to infection with pseudotyped HIV-1 that bypasses receptor-mediated viral entry. Demonstrating that endogenous FEZ1 was functionally important in the resistance of neurons to HIV-1 infection, siRNA-mediated knockdown of endogenous FEZ1 increased the infectivity of neurons while sensitive brain cell types like microglia became more resistant upon FEZ1 overexpression. In addition, FEZ1 expression was not induced in response to IFN treatment. As such, in contrast to other widely expressed, IFN-inducible antiviral factors, FEZ1 appears to represent a unique neuron-specific determinant of cellular susceptibility to infection in a cell type that is naturally resistant to HIV-1.

  3. Pitx2 prevents susceptibility to atrial arrhythmias by inhibiting left-sided pacemaker specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Klysik, Elzbieta; Sood, Subeena; Johnson, Randy L; Wehrens, Xander H T; Martin, James F

    2010-05-25

    Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most prevalent sustained cardiac arrhythmia, often coexists with the related arrhythmia atrial flutter (AFL). Limitations in effectiveness and safety of current therapies make an understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying AF more urgent. Genome-wide association studies implicated a region of human chromosome 4q25 in familial AF and AFL, approximately 150 kb distal to the Pitx2 homeobox gene, a developmental left-right asymmetry (LRA) gene. To investigate the significance of the 4q25 variants, we used mouse models to investigate Pitx2 in atrial arrhythmogenesis directly. When challenged by programmed stimulation, Pitx2(null+/-) adult mice had atrial arrhythmias, including AFL and atrial tachycardia, indicating that Pitx2 haploinsufficiency predisposes to atrial arrhythmias. Microarray and in situ studies indicated that Pitx2 suppresses sinoatrial node (SAN)-specific gene expression, including Shox2, in the left atrium of embryos and young adults. In vivo ChIP and transfection experiments indicated that Pitx2 directly bound Shox2 in vivo, supporting the notion that Pitx2 directly inhibits the SAN-specific genetic program in left atrium. Our findings implicate Pitx2 and Pitx2-mediated LRA-signaling pathways in prevention of atrial arrhythmias.

  4. Estimating thermal diffusivity and specific heat from needle probe thermal conductivity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, W.F.; Gilbert, L.Y.; Winters, W.J.; Mason, D.H.

    2006-01-01

    Thermal diffusivity and specific heat can be estimated from thermal conductivity measurements made using a standard needle probe and a suitably high data acquisition rate. Thermal properties are calculated from the measured temperature change in a sample subjected to heating by a needle probe. Accurate thermal conductivity measurements are obtained from a linear fit to many tens or hundreds of temperature change data points. In contrast, thermal diffusivity calculations require a nonlinear fit to the measured temperature change occurring in the first few tenths of a second of the measurement, resulting in a lower accuracy than that obtained for thermal conductivity. Specific heat is calculated from the ratio of thermal conductivity to diffusivity, and thus can have an uncertainty no better than that of the diffusivity estimate. Our thermal conductivity measurements of ice Ih and of tetrahydrofuran (THF) hydrate, made using a 1.6 mm outer diameter needle probe and a data acquisition rate of 18.2 pointss, agree with published results. Our thermal diffusivity and specific heat results reproduce published results within 25% for ice Ih and 3% for THF hydrate. ?? 2006 American Institute of Physics.

  5. Presence of a central vein within white matter lesions on susceptibility weighted imaging: a specific finding for multiple sclerosis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lummel, Nina; Boeckh-Behrens, Tobias; Brueckmann, Hartmut; Linn, Jennifer [University of Munich, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany); Schoepf, Veronika [University of Munich, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany); Medical University of Vienna, MR Centre of Excellence, Vienna (Austria); Burke, Michael [GE Healthcare, Solingen (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    Susceptibility weighted imaging depicts the perivenous extent of multiple sclerosis white matter lesions (MS-WML) in vivo by directly visualizing their centrally running vein. The aim of this study was to investigate the specificity of this finding for MS. Fifteen patients with MS and 15 patients with microangiopathic white matter lesions (mWML) underwent 3T MRI, including a fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequence (FLAIR) and a susceptibility weighted angiography (SWAN). All WMLs were identified on FLAIR and assigned to one of the following localizations: supratentorial peripheral, supratentorial periventricular, or infratentorial. Subsequently, the presence of a central vein within these lesions was assessed on SWAN. A total of 711 MS-WMLs and 1,119 m-WMLs were identified on FLAIR, all of which could also be visualized on SWAN. A central vein was detectable in 80% of the MS-WMLs and in 78% of the m-WMLs (in 73% and 76% of the peripheral, in 92% and 94% of the periventricular, and in 71% and 75% of the infratentorial MS-WMLs and m-WMLs, respectively). With regard to the supratentorial peripheral lesions, significantly more m-WMLs showed a central vein compared to the MS-WMLs. For the other localizations, there was no significant difference between the groups with regard to the percentage of lesions with central vein. Our results indicate that the detection of a central vein within a WML should not be considered a specific finding for MS; it is also found in WMLs of other etiologies. (orig.)

  6. Triheptanoin reduces seizure susceptibility in a syndrome-specific mouse model of generalized epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hwan; Borges, Karin; Petrou, Steven; Reid, Christopher A

    2013-01-01

    Triheptanoin is a triglyceride containing heptanoate, an odd-chained medium fatty acid that is metabolized to produce propionyl-CoA and subsequently C4 intermediates of the citric acid cycle and therefore capable of anaplerosis. These metabolic products are believed to underlie triheptanoin's anticonvulsant effects in rodent seizure models. Here we investigate the anticonvulsive effects of oral triheptanoin in a syndrome-specific genetic mouse model of generalized epilepsy based on the GABA(A)γ2(R43Q) mutation. Mice were fed a diet supplemented with triheptanoin from weaning for three weeks prior to electrocortical recordings. Occurrence and durations of spike and wave discharges (SWDs) were measured. Triheptanoin did not alter body weight or basal blood glucose levels suggesting that it was well tolerated. Triheptanoin supplementation halved the time spent in seizures due to a reduction in both SWD occurrence and duration. An injection of insulin was used to reduce blood glucose, a metabolic stress known to precipitate seizures in the GABA(A)γ2(R43Q) mouse. The reduction in seizure count was also evident following insulin induced hypoglycemia with the triheptanoin treated group having significantly less SWDs than control animals under similar low blood glucose conditions. In summary, triheptanoin may be an effective and well tolerated dietary therapy for generalized epilepsy. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Optimizing the District Heating Primary Network from the Perspective of Economic-Specific Pressure Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haichao Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A district heating (DH system is one of the most important components of infrastructures in cold areas. Proper DH network design should balance the initial investment and the heat distribution cost of the DH network. Currently, this design is often based on a recommended value for specific pressure loss (R = ∆P/L in the main lines. This will result in a feasible network design, but probably not be optimal in most cases. The paper develops a novel optimization model to facilitate the design by considering the initial investment in the pipes and the heat distribution costs. The model will generate all possible network scenarios consisting of different series of diameters for each pipe in the flow direction of the network. Then, the annuity on the initial investment, the heat distribution cost, and the total annual cost will be calculated for each network scenario, taking into account the uncertainties of the material prices and the yearly operating time levels. The model is applied to a sample DH network and the results indicate that the model works quite well, clearly identifying the optimal network design and demonstrating that the heat distribution cost is more important than the initial investment in DH network design.

  8. Specific heat of CePb{sub 3} in magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietri, R.; Andraka, B.

    2000-10-01

    The specific heat of polycrystalline CePb{sub 3} was measured in magnetic fields to 14 T and temperatures down to 0.4 K. An anomaly related to an aniferromagnetic phase transition is effectively attenuated by magnetic fields and disappears for fields larger than 6 T. The electronic specific heat coefficient {gamma} increases for small fields, has a maximum value at 6 T, and decreases for larger fields. This field dependence of {gamma} correlates with previously studied quadratic temperature coefficient of the resistivity as a function of a magnetic field. A/{gamma}{sup 2} is field dependent below 6 T, but constant ({approx}10{sup -5} {Omega}cmK{sup 2}mol{sup 2}J{sup -2}) for fields larger than 6 T within the experimental uncertainty.

  9. Thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity and specific heat of copper-carbon fiber composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniya, Keiichi; Arakawa, Hideo; Kanai, Tsuneyuki; Chiba, Akio

    1988-01-01

    A new material of copper/carbon fiber composite is developed which retains the properties of copper, i.e., its excellent electrical and thermal conductivity, and the property of carbon, i.e., a small thermal expansion coefficient. These properties of the composite are adjustable within a certain range by changing the volume and/or the orientation of the carbon fibers. The effects of carbon fiber volume and arrangement changes on the thermal and electrical conductivity, and specific heat of the composite are studied. Results obtained are as follows: the thermal and electrical conductivity of the composite decrease as the volume of the carbon fiber increases, and were influenced by the fiber orientation. The results are predictable from a careful application of the rule of mixtures for composites. The specific heat of the composite was dependent, not on fiber orientation, but on fiber volume. In the thermal fatigue tests, no degradation in the electrical conductivity of this composite was observed.

  10. Dynamic properties of silica aerogels as deduced from specific-heat and thermal-conductivity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernasconi, A.; Sleator, T.; Posselt, D.

    1992-01-01

    The specific heat C(p) and the thermal conductivity lambda of a series of base-catalyzed silica aerogels have been measured at temperatures between 0.05 and 20 K. The results confirm that the different length-scale regions observed in the aerogel structure are reflected in the dynamic behavior of...... SiO2 are most likely not due to fractal behavior.......The specific heat C(p) and the thermal conductivity lambda of a series of base-catalyzed silica aerogels have been measured at temperatures between 0.05 and 20 K. The results confirm that the different length-scale regions observed in the aerogel structure are reflected in the dynamic behavior...

  11. The DNA electronic specific heat at low temperature: The role of aperiodicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarmento, R.G. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970, Natal, RN (Brazil); Mendes, G.A. [Departamento de Biofísica e Farmacologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970, Natal, RN (Brazil); Albuquerque, E.L., E-mail: eudenilson@gmail.com [Departamento de Biofísica e Farmacologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970, Natal, RN (Brazil); Fulco, U.L. [Departamento de Biofísica e Farmacologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970, Natal, RN (Brazil); Vasconcelos, M.S. [Escola de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970, Natal, RN (Brazil); Ujsághy, O. [Department of Theoretical Physics and Condensed Matter Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budafoki út 8, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary); Freire, V.N. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Ceará, 60455-760, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Caetano, E.W.S. [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Ceará, 60040-531, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2012-07-16

    The electronic specific heat spectra at constant volume (C{sub V}) of a long-range correlated extended ladder model, mimicking a DNA molecule, is theoretically analyzed for a stacked array of a double-stranded structure made up from the nucleotides guanine G, adenine A, cytosine C and thymine T. The role of the aperiodicity on C{sub V} is discussed, considering two different nucleotide arrangements with increasing disorder, namely the Fibonacci and the Rudin–Shapiro quasiperiodic structures. Comparisons are made for different values of the band fillings, considering also a finite segment of natural DNA, as part of the human chromosome Ch22. -- Highlights: ► Quasiperiodic sequence to mimic the DNA nucleotides arrangement. ► Electronic tight-binding Hamiltonian model. ► Electronic density of states. ► Electronic specific heat spectra.

  12. Accurate determination of specific heat at high temperatures using the flash diffusivity method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandersande, J. W.; Zoltan, A.; Wood, C.

    1989-01-01

    The flash diffusivity method of Parker et al. (1961) was used to measure accurately the specific heat of test samples simultaneously with thermal diffusivity, thus obtaining the thermal conductivity of these materials directly. The accuracy of data obtained on two types of materials (n-type silicon-germanium alloys and niobium), was + or - 3 percent. It is shown that the method is applicable up to at least 1300 K.

  13. Specific heat of the two-dimensional Hubbard model at weak to intermediate coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, S.; Tremblay, A.-M. S.

    2004-03-01

    We show how, in the weak to intermediate coupling regime, the thermodynamics of the two-dimensional t-t'-U Hubbard model can be obtained from the Two-Particle Self-Consistent approach.[1] The results agree with Quantum Monte Carlo simulations. We then compute the specific heat and the double occupancy. Close to half-filling, the rapid decrease of double occupancy with decreasing temperature signals a growing antiferromagnetic correlation length and a concomitant pseudogap. The decrease in double occupancy corresponds to an increase in the local magnetic moment and to a decrease in potential energy. These phenomena manifest themselves as a low temperature peak in the specific heat. The high-temperature peak in the specific heat arises from the kinetic energy and is much less sensitive to antiferromagnetic correlations. We obtain the domain, in the temperature-doping plane, where a pseudogap appears and we study the evolution of this domain with U and t'. With a large enough frustration t', there is a complete suppression of the pseudogap. [1] Y.M. Vilk and A.-M.S. Tremblay, J. Phys. I France 7, 1309 (1997).

  14. Specific heat, Electrical resistivity and Electronic band structure properties of noncentrosymmetric Th7Fe3superconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, V H; Sahakyan, M

    2017-11-17

    Noncentrosymmetric superconductor Th 7 Fe 3 has been investigated by means of specific heat, electrical resisitivity measurements and electronic properties calculations. Sudden drop in the resistivity at 2.05 ± 0.15 K and specific heat jump at 1.98 ± 0.02 K are observed, rendering the superconducting transition. A model of two BCS-type gaps appears to describe the zero-magnetic-field specific heat better than those based on the isotropic BCS theory or anisotropic functions. A positive curvature of the upper critical field H c2 (T c ) and nonlinear field dependence of the Sommerfeld coefficient at 0.4 K qualitatively support the two-gap scenario, which predicts H c2 (0) = 13 kOe. The theoretical densities of states and electronic band structures (EBS) around the Fermi energy show a mixture of Th 6d- and Fe 3d-electrons bands, being responsible for the superconductivity. Furthermore, the EBS and Fermi surfaces disclose significantly anisotropic splitting associated with asymmetric spin-orbit coupling (ASOC). The ASOC sets up also multiband structure, which presumably favours a multigap superconductivity. Electron Localization Function reveals the existence of both metallic and covalent bonds, the latter may have different strengths depending on the regions close to the Fe or Th atoms. The superconducting, electronic properties and implications of asymmetric spin-orbit coupling associated with noncentrosymmetric structure are discussed.

  15. Monocot and dicot MLO powdery mildew susceptibility factors are functionally conserved in spite of the evolution of class-specific molecular features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appiano, Michela; Catalano, Domenico; Santillán Martínez, Miguel; Lotti, Concetta; Zheng, Zheng; Visser, Richard G F; Ricciardi, Luigi; Bai, Yuling; Pavan, Stefano

    2015-10-26

    Specific members of the plant Mildew Locus O (MLO) protein family act as susceptibility factors towards powdery mildew (PM), a worldwide-spread fungal disease threatening many cultivated species. Previous studies indicated that monocot and dicot MLO susceptibility proteins are phylogenetically divergent. A bioinformatic approach was followed to study the type of evolution of Angiosperm MLO susceptibility proteins. Transgenic complementation tests were performed for functional analysis. Our results show that monocot and dicot MLO susceptibility proteins evolved class-specific conservation patterns. Many of them appear to be the result of negative selection and thus are likely to provide an adaptive value. We also tested whether different molecular features between monocot and dicot MLO proteins are specifically required by PM fungal species to cause pathogenesis. To this aim, we transformed a tomato mutant impaired for the endogenous SlMLO1 gene, and therefore resistant to the tomato PM species Oidium neolycopersici, with heterologous MLO susceptibility genes from the monocot barley and the dicot pea. In both cases, we observed restoration of PM symptoms. Finally, through histological observations, we demonstrate that both monocot and dicot susceptibility alleles of the MLO genes predispose to penetration of a non-adapted PM fungal species in plant epidermal cells. With this study, we provide insights on the evolution and function of MLO genes involved in the interaction with PM fungi. With respect to breeding research, we show that transgenic complementation assays involving phylogenetically distant plant species can be used for the characterization of novel MLO susceptibility genes. Moreover, we provide an overview of MLO protein molecular features predicted to play a major role in PM susceptibility. These represent ideal targets for future approaches of reverse genetics, addressed to the selection of loss-of-function resistant mutants in cultivated species.

  16. 40 CFR 75.71 - Specific provisions for monitoring NOX and heat input for the purpose of calculating NOX mass...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MONITORING NOX Mass Emissions Provisions § 75.71 Specific provisions for monitoring NOX and heat input for... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specific provisions for monitoring NOX and heat input for the purpose of calculating NOX mass emissions. 75.71 Section 75.71 Protection of...

  17. The Low Temperature Specific Heat of Pr0.65Ca0.35MnO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The low temperature specific heat of polycrystalline perovskite-type Pr0.65Ca0.35MnO3 manganese oxide has been investigated experimentally. It is found that the low temperature electron specific heat in zero magnetic field is obviously larger than that of ordinary rare-earth manganites oxide. To get the contribution of phonon to the specific heat precisely, the lattice specific heat is calculated by Debye model fitting. Results confirm that the low temperature specific heat of Pr0.65Ca0.35MnO3 is related to the itinerant electrons in ferromagnetic clusters and the disorder in the sample.

  18. Leishmania major-specific B cells are necessary for Th2 cell development and susceptibility to L. major LV39 in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronet, Catherine; Voigt, Heike; Himmelrich, Hayo; Doucey, Marie-Agnès; Hauyon-La Torre, Yazmin; Revaz-Breton, Mélanie; Tacchini-Cottier, Fabienne; Bron, Claude; Louis, Jacques; Launois, Pascal

    2008-04-01

    B lymphocytes are considered to play a minimal role in host defense against Leishmania major. In this study, the contribution of B cells to susceptibility to infection with different strains of L. major was investigated in BALB/c mice lacking mature B cells due to the disruption of the IgM transmembrane domain (microMT). Whereas BALB/c microMT remained susceptible to infection with L. major IR173 and IR75, they were partially resistant to infection with L. major LV39. Adoptive transfer of naive B cells into BALB/c microMT mice before infection restored susceptibility to infection with L. major LV39, demonstrating a role for B cells in susceptibility to infection with this parasite. In contrast, adoptive transfer of B cells that express an IgM/IgD specific for hen egg lysozyme (HEL), an irrelevant Ag, did not restore disease progression in BALB/c microMT mice infected with L. major LV39. This finding was likely due to the inability of HEL Tg B cells to internalize and present Leishmania Ags to specific T cells. Furthermore, specific Ig did not contribute to disease progression as assessed by transfer of immune serum in BALB/c microMT mice. These data suggest that direct Ag presentation by specific B cells and not Ig effector functions is involved in susceptibility of BALB/c mice to infection with L. major LV39.

  19. Clonal complex 398 methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus: a frequent unspecialized human pathogen with specific phenotypic and genotypic characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Chroboczek

    Full Text Available Clonal complex 398 livestok-associated-MRSA (CC398 LA-MRSA clone is described as a major animal pathogen that can also colonize and infect humans. CC398 methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (CC398 MSSA is less described. We identified 126 CC398 MSSA strains of human origin within 6380 S. aureus isolates gathered between 2009 and 2011, from the French National Reference Centre for Staphylococci. They were characterized using antimicrobial susceptibility testing, spa typing, DNA microarrays (Identibac S. aureus Genotyping ®, Alere, CC398-specific sequence PCR, ermT (encoding macrolides résistance PCR. Fifty-three CC398 LA-MRSA collected from French pigs and veal were used as comparators, and phylogenetic relations between human CC398 MSSA and animal CC398 MRSA populations were explored on the basis of spa-typing and DNA microarrays. CC398 MSSA were able to induce a large spectrum of infections (especially skin, bloodstream, and pneumonias. The prevalence rate of this clone was high in MSSA population, i.e., 24.7% in a local prospective study on nasal colonization, and 7.5% in a national prospective study on infective endocarditis. CC398 MSSA isolates were frequently (89% erythromycin resistant, due to the presence of the ermT gene, a gene not detected in erythromycin resistant CC398 LA-MRSA strains. Expression of staphylococcal complement inhibitor (scn and the chemotaxis inhibitory protein (chp, was also specific to this population. The CC398 MRSA signature included also a panel of antibiotic resistance genes, especially a type IV or V cassette mec and tetM. CC398 MSSA and CC398 LA-MRSA populations were closely related based on spa-typing and DNA microarrays, with the MRSA strains forming the most derived lineage in phylogenic trees. Both MSSA and MRSA populations may come from common ancestors, which would have evolved in the settings of different selective pressures, explaining the acquisition of ermT, chp and scn for MSSA, and

  20. Drought and Heat Differentially Affect XTH Expression and XET Activity and Action in 3-Day-Old Seedlings of Durum Wheat Cultivars with Different Stress Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iurlaro, Andrea; De Caroli, Monica; Sabella, Erika; De Pascali, Mariarosaria; Rampino, Patrizia; De Bellis, Luigi; Perrotta, Carla; Dalessandro, Giuseppe; Piro, Gabriella; Fry, Stephen C; Lenucci, Marcello S

    2016-01-01

    Heat and drought stress have emerged as major constraints for durum wheat production. In the Mediterranean area, their negative effect on crop productivity is expected to be exacerbated by the occurring climate change. Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolases (XTHs) are chief enzymes in cell wall remodeling, whose relevance in cell expansion and morphogenesis suggests a central role in stress responses. In this work the potential role of XTHs in abiotic stress tolerance was investigated in durum wheat. The separate effects of dehydration and heat exposure on XTH expression and its endotransglucosylase (XET) in vitro activity and in vivo action have been monitored, up to 24 h, in the apical and sub-apical root regions and shoots excised from 3-day-old seedlings of durum wheat cultivars differing in stress susceptibility/tolerance. Dehydration and heat stress differentially influence the XTH expression profiles and the activity and action of XET in the wheat seedlings, depending on the degree of susceptibility/tolerance of the cultivars, the organ, the topological region of the root and, within the root, on the gradient of cell differentiation. The root apical region was the zone mainly affected by both treatments in all assayed cultivars, while no change in XET activity was observed at shoot level, irrespective of susceptibility/tolerance, confirming the pivotal role of the root in stress perception, signaling, and response. Conflicting effects were observed depending on stress type: dehydration evoked an overall increase, at least in the apical region of the root, of XET activity and action, while a significant inhibition was caused by heat treatment in most cultivars. The data suggest that differential changes in XET action in defined portions of the root of young durum wheat seedlings may have a role as a response to drought and heat stress, thus contributing to seedling survival and crop establishment. A thorough understanding of the mechanisms underlying

  1. Nanocalorimeter platform for in situ specific heat measurements and x-ray diffraction at low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willa, K.; Diao, Z.; Campanini, D.; Welp, U.; Divan, R.; Hudl, M.; Islam, Z.; Kwok, W.-K.; Rydh, A.

    2017-12-01

    Recent advances in electronics and nanofabrication have enabled membrane-based nanocalorimetry for measurements of the specific heat of microgram-sized samples. We have integrated a nanocalorimeter platform into a 4.5 T split-pair vertical-field magnet to allow for the simultaneous measurement of the specific heat and x-ray scattering in magnetic fields and at temperatures as low as 4 K. This multi-modal approach empowers researchers to directly correlate scattering experiments with insights from thermodynamic properties including structural, electronic, orbital, and magnetic phase transitions. The use of a nanocalorimeter sample platform enables numerous technical advantages: precise measurement and control of the sample temperature, quantification of beam heating effects, fast and precise positioning of the sample in the x-ray beam, and fast acquisition of x-ray scans over a wide temperature range without the need for time-consuming re-centering and re-alignment. Furthermore, on an YBa2Cu3O7-δ crystal and a copper foil, we demonstrate a novel approach to x-ray absorption spectroscopy by monitoring the change in sample temperature as a function of incident photon energy. Finally, we illustrate the new insights that can be gained from in situ structural and thermodynamic measurements by investigating the superheated state occurring at the first-order magneto-elastic phase transition of Fe2P, a material that is of interest for magnetocaloric applications.

  2. Simultaneous determination of thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat in sI methane hydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, W.F.; Stern, L.A.; Kirby, S.H.; Winters, W.J.; Mason, D.H.

    2007-01-01

    Thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat of sI methane hydrate were measured as functions of temperature and pressure using a needle probe technique. The temperature dependence was measured between −20°C and 17°C at 31.5 MPa. The pressure dependence was measured between 31.5 and 102 MPa at 14.4°C. Only weak temperature and pressure dependencies were observed. Methane hydrate thermal conductivity differs from that of water by less than 10 per cent, too little to provide a sensitive measure of hydrate content in water-saturated systems. Thermal diffusivity of methane hydrate is more than twice that of water, however, and its specific heat is about half that of water. Thus, when drilling into or through hydrate-rich sediment, heat from the borehole can raise the formation temperature more than 20 per cent faster than if the formation's pore space contains only water. Thermal properties of methane hydrate should be considered in safety and economic assessments of hydrate-bearing sediment.

  3. The specific heat of Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Larrea, I. [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada II, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, UPV/EHU, Apto. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Lopez-Echarri, A. [Instituto de Sintesis y Estudio de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, UPV/EHU, Apto. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)]. E-mail: a.lopezecharri@ehu.es; Bocanegra, E.H. [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada II, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, UPV/EHU, Apto. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); No, M.L. [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada II, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, UPV/EHU, Apto. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); San Juan, J.M. [Dpto. Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, UPV/EHU, Apto. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2006-11-25

    The specific heat of Cu{sub 81.8}Al{sub 13.7}Ni{sub 4.5} (AK10) shape memory alloy has been studied by means of conventional DSC and adiabatic calorimetry techniques. The transformation temperatures and the shape of the calorimetric curves obtained by adiabatic calorimetry do not show any noticeable dependence on the temperature measurement rates, contrarily to what is observed by other calorimetric techniques. The dynamical character of the various experimental methods together with the influence of the latent heat associated to the first order character of these phase transitions are discussed. The specific heat of AK10 has been measured from 50 to 350 K which covers the phase transformation temperature range. The forward and reverse martensitic transformation peaks were found at 299.5 and 304.6 K, showing a thermal hysteresis of 5.1 deg. C. The C {sub p} accuracy can be estimated in 0.1% of C {sub p} and permits a reliable assignment of the following values to the phase transition thermodynamic functions: {delta}H = 7.4 {+-} 0.2 J/g and {delta}S = 0.025 {+-} 0.001 J/gK.

  4. Round robin test on the measurement of the specific heat of solar salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Sánchez, Belén; Nieto-Maestre, Javier; González-Aguilar, José; Julia, José Enrique; Navarrete, Nuria; Faik, Abdessamad; Bauer, Thomas; Bonk, Alexander; Navarro, María Elena; Ding, Yulong; Uranga, Nerea; Veca, Elisabetta; Sau, Salvatore; Giménez, Pau; García, Pierre; Burgaleta, Juan Ignacio

    2017-06-01

    Solar salt (SS), a well-known non-eutectic mixture of sodium nitrate (60% w/w) and potassium nitrate (40% w/w), is commonly used either as Thermal Energy Storage (TES) material (double tank technology) or Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) (solar tower) in modern CSP plants worldwide. The specific heat (cp, kJ kg-1 °C-1) of SS is a very important property in order to support the design of new CSP Plants or develop novel materials based on SS. A high scientific effort has been dedicated to perform a suitable thermophysical characterization of this material. However, there is still a great discrepancy among the cp values reported by different authors1. These differences may be due to either experimental errors (random or systematic) or divergences in the starting material (grade of purity, presence of impurities and/or water). In order to avoid the second source of uncertainty (the starting material), a Round Robin Test (RRT) was proposed starting from a common material. In this way, the different methods from each laboratory could be compared. The study should lay the foundations for the establishment of a systematic procedure for the measurement of the specific heat of this kind of materials. Nine institutions, research centers and companies, accepted the proposal and are contributing with their results. The initiative was organized within the Workshop SolarPACES Task III - Material activity.

  5. Magnetization, specific heat, and thermal conductivity of hexagonal ErMnO3 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, J. D.; Fan, C.; Zhao, Z. Y.; Zhang, F. B.; Zhao, J. Y.; Liu, X. G.; Zhao, X.; Liu, Y. J.; Wang, J. F.; Sun, X. F.

    2017-11-01

    We report a study of magnetism and magnetic transitions of hexagonal ErMnO3 single crystals by magnetization, specific heat, and heat transport measurements. Magnetization data show that the c -axis magnetic field induces three magnetic transitions at 0.8, 12, and 28 T. The specific heat shows a peak at 2.2 K, which is due to a magnetic transition of Er3 + moments. For low-T thermal conductivity (κ ), a clear diplike feature appears in the κ (H ) isotherm at 1-1.25 T for H ∥a b , while in the case of H ∥c , a steplike increase is observed at 0.5-0.8 T. The transition fields in κ (H ) are in good agreement with those obtained from magnetization, and the anomaly of κ can be understood by a spin-phonon scattering scenario. The natures of magnetic structures and corresponding field-induced transitions at low temperatures are discussed.

  6. Low-temperature specific heat of the superconductor Mo{sub 3}Sb{sub 7}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, V.H. [W. Trzebiatowski Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, PO Box 1410, 50-950 Wroclaw (Poland)], E-mail: v.h.tran@int.pan.wroc.pl; Miller, W. [W. Trzebiatowski Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, PO Box 1410, 50-950 Wroclaw (Poland); Bukowski, Z. [Laboratory for Solid State Physics, ETH Zuerich, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2008-11-15

    The low-temperature specific heat of a superconductor Mo{sub 3}Sb{sub 7} with T{sub c} = 2.2 {+-} 0.05 K has been measured in magnetic fields up to 5 T. In the normal state, the electronic specific heat coefficient {gamma}{sub n}, and the Debye temperature {theta}{sub D} are found to be 34.5(2) mJ mol{sup -1} K{sup -2} and 283(5) K, respectively. The enhanced {gamma}{sub n} value is interpreted as due to a narrow Mo-4d band pinned at the Fermi level. The electronic specific heat in the superconducting state can be analyzed in terms a phenomenological two BCS-like gap model with the gap widths 2{delta}{sub 1}/k{sub B}T{sub c} = 4.0 and 2{delta}{sub 2}/k{sub B}T{sub c} = 2.5, and relative weights of the molar electronic heat coefficients {gamma}{sub 1}/{gamma}{sub n} = 0.7 and {gamma}{sub 2}/{gamma}{sub n} = 0.3. Some characteristic thermodynamic parameters for the studied superconductor, like the specific heat jump at T{sub c}, {delta}C(T{sub c})/{gamma}{sub n}T{sub c}, the electron-phonon coupling constant, {lambda}{sub e-ph}, the upper H{sub c2} and thermodynamic critical H{sub c0} fields, the penetration depth {lambda}, coherence length {xi} and the Ginzburg-Landau parameter {kappa} are evaluated. The estimated values of parameters such as 2{delta}{sub 0}/k{sub B}T{sub c}, {delta}C(T{sub c})/{gamma}{sub n}T{sub c}, N(E{sub F}) and {lambda}{sub e-ph} suggest that Mo{sub 3}Sb{sub 7} belongs to an intermediate-coupling regime. The electronic band structure calculations indicate that the density of states near the Fermi level is formed mainly by the Mo-4d orbitals and that there is no overlap between the Mo-4d and Sb-sp orbitals.

  7. The Calculation Methods of the Specific Fuel Rate in Combined Heat and Electricity Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Chuchueva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses a specific fuel rate in combined heat and electricity production using CHP technology. There are two objectives for calculation of specific fuel rate: a CHP technical efficiency estimate, b increasing CHP competitiveness at electricity and district heat markets. Currently, development of a number of thermo-dynamical methods of calculation solves the first problem while to solve the second one there is a number of developed economical methods of calculation. In Russia despite a decade of the wholesale electricity market progress the CHP market offers are still tightly connected with technical efficiency rate. To estimate the technical efficiency rate is widely used the least effective thermo-dynamical method – so called “physical” method”. The paper formulates a problem statement that is the specific fuel rate calculation and reviews the most widely applied methods. The review consists of two parts: in the first the Russian methods are discussed, and in the second one the methods widely used in the countries with highly developed electricity and district heat markets. A new thermo-dynamical method to calculate the specific fuel rate is introduced, which uses the linear characteristic curves of a steam turbine. The developed method allows us to take into consideration the energy inequality of the CHP products. Another advantages of this new method are calculation simplicity and small number of input data. To compare the effectiveness of different methods were introduced comparison rules and also calculations were performed. The comparison of thermo-dynamical methods shows that the most effective methods are an exergy method and also the method that takes into consideration the reduced generation of electricity (work method. Calculation complexity and large number of input data are main disadvantages of these methods. The comparison of economical methods shows that the most effective from stated point of view are a

  8. Stage-specific heat effects: timing and duration of heat waves alter demographic rates of a global insect pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Rudolf, Volker H W; Ma, Chun-Sen

    2015-12-01

    The frequency and duration of periods with high temperatures are expected to increase under global warming. Thus, even short-lived organisms are increasingly likely to experience periods of hot temperatures at some point of their life-cycle. Despite recent progress, it remains unclear how various temperature experiences during the life-cycle of organisms affect demographic traits. We simulated hot days (daily mean temperature of 30 °C) increasingly experienced under field conditions and investigated how the timing and duration of such hot days during the life cycle of Plutella xylostella affects adult traits. We show that hot days experienced during some life stages (but not all) altered adult lifespan, fecundity, and oviposition patterns. Importantly, the effects of hot days were contingent on which stage was affected, and these stage-specific effects were not always additive. Thus, adults that experience different temporal patterns of hot periods (i.e., changes in timing and duration) during their life-cycle often had different demographic rates and reproductive patterns. These results indicate that we cannot predict the effects of current and future climate on natural populations by simply focusing on changes in the mean temperature. Instead, we need to incorporate the temporal patterns of heat events relative to the life-cycle of organisms to describe population dynamics and how they will respond to future climate change.

  9. Sex-specific predictors of hearing-aid use in older persons: The age, gene/environment susceptibility - Reykjavik study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Diana E.; Li, Chuan-Ming; Hoffman, Howard J.; Chiu, May S.; Themann, Christa L.; Petersen, Hannes; Jonsson, Palmi V.; Jonsson, Helgi; Jonasson, Fridbert; Sverrisdottir, Johanna Eyrun; Launer, Lenore J.; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Cotch, Mary Frances

    2015-01-01

    Objective We estimate the prevalence of hearing-aid use in Iceland and identify sex-specific factors associated with use. Design Population-based cohort study. Study sample A total of 5172 age, gene/environment susceptibility - Reykjavik study (AGES-RS) participants, aged 67 to 96 years (mean age 76.5 years), who completed air-conduction and pure-tone audiometry. Results Hearing-aid use was reported by 23.0% of men and 15.9% of women in the cohort, although among participants with at least moderate hearing loss in the better ear (pure-tone average [PTA] of thresholds at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz ≥ 35 dB hearing level [HL]) it was 49.9% and did not differ by sex. Self-reported hearing loss was the strongest predictor of hearing-aid use in men [OR: 2.68 (95% CI: 1.77, 4.08)] and women [OR: 3.07 (95% CI: 1.94, 4.86)], followed by hearing loss severity based on audiometry. Having diabetes or osteoarthritis were significant positive predictors of use in men, whereas greater physical activity and unimpaired cognitive status were important in women. Conclusions Hearing-aid use was comparable in Icelandic men and women with moderate or greater hearing loss. Self-recognition of hearing loss was the factor most predictive of hearing-aid use; other influential factors differed for men and women. PMID:25816699

  10. Sex-specific predictors of hearing-aid use in older persons: The age, gene/environment susceptibility - Reykjavik study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Diana E; Li, Chuan-Ming; Hoffman, Howard J; Chiu, May S; Themann, Christa L; Petersen, Hannes; Jonsson, Palmi V; Jonsson, Helgi; Jonasson, Fridbert; Sverrisdottir, Johanna Eyrun; Launer, Lenore J; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Cotch, Mary Frances

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the prevalence of hearing-aid use in Iceland and identify sex-specific factors associated with use. Population-based cohort study. A total of 5172 age, gene/environment susceptibility - Reykjavik study (AGES-RS) participants, aged 67 to 96 years (mean age 76.5 years), who completed air-conduction and pure-tone audiometry. Hearing-aid use was reported by 23.0% of men and 15.9% of women in the cohort, although among participants with at least moderate hearing loss in the better ear (pure-tone average [PTA] of thresholds at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz ≥ 35 dB hearing level [HL]) it was 49.9% and did not differ by sex. Self-reported hearing loss was the strongest predictor of hearing-aid use in men [OR: 2.68 (95% CI: 1.77, 4.08)] and women [OR: 3.07 (95% CI: 1.94, 4.86)], followed by hearing loss severity based on audiometry. Having diabetes or osteoarthritis were significant positive predictors of use in men, whereas greater physical activity and unimpaired cognitive status were important in women. Hearing-aid use was comparable in Icelandic men and women with moderate or greater hearing loss. Self-recognition of hearing loss was the factor most predictive of hearing-aid use; other influential factors differed for men and women.

  11. HSV-2 Specifically Down Regulates HLA-C Expression to Render HSV-2-Infected DCs Susceptible to NK Cell Killing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elboim, Moran; Grodzovski, Inna; Djian, Esther; Wolf, Dana G.; Mandelboim, Ofer

    2013-01-01

    Both NK cells and CTLs kill virus-infected and tumor cells. However, the ways by which these killer cells recognize the infected or the tumorigenic cells are different, in fact almost opposite. CTLs are activated through the interaction of the TCR with MHC class I proteins. In contrast, NK cells are inhibited by MHC class I molecules. The inhibitory NK receptors recognize mainly MHC class I proteins and in this regard practically all of the HLA-C proteins are recognized by inhibitory NK cell receptors, while only certain HLA-A and HLA-B proteins interact with these receptors. Sophisticated viruses developed mechanisms to avoid the attack of both NK cells and CTLs through, for example, down regulation of HLA-A and HLA-B molecules to avoid CTL recognition, leaving HLA-C proteins on the cell surface to inhibit NK cell response. Here we provide the first example of a virus that through specific down regulation of HLA-C, harness the NK cells for its own benefit. We initially demonstrated that none of the tested HSV-2 derived microRNAs affect NK cell activity. Then we show that surprisingly upon HSV-2 infection, HLA-C proteins are specifically down regulated, rendering the infected cells susceptible to NK cell attack. We identified a motif in the tail of HLA-C that is responsible for the HSV-2-meduiated HLA-C down regulation and we show that the HLA-C down regulation is mediated by the viral protein ICP47. Finally we show that HLA-C proteins are down regulated from the surface of HSV-2 infected dendritic cells (DCs) and that this leads to the killing of DC by NK cells. Thus, we propose that HSV-2 had developed this unique and surprising NK cell-mediated killing strategy of infected DC to prevent the activation of the adaptive immunity. PMID:23555244

  12. Sex specific effects of heat induced hormesis in Hsf-deficient Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, J G; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Kristensen, K V

    2007-01-01

    In insects mild heat stress early in life has been reported to increase life span and heat resistance later in life, a phenomenon termed hormesis. Here, we test if the induction of the heat shock response by mild heat stress is mediating hormesis in longevity and heat resistance at older age....... To test this hypothesis we used two heat shock transcription factor (Hsf) mutant stocks. One stock harbours a mutation giving rise to a heat sensitive Hsf which inactivates the heat shock response at high temperature and the other is a rescued mutant giving rise to a wild-type phenotype. We measured...... longevity, heat resistance and expression level of a heat shock protein, Hsp70, in controls and mildly heat treated flies. We found a marked difference between males and females with males showing a beneficial effect of the early heat treatment on longevity and heat resistance later in life in the rescued...

  13. Effects of phonon dimensionality in the specific heat of multiwall carbon nanotubes at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge, Guillermo A; Bekeris, V; Acha, C [Laboratorio de Bajas Temperaturas, Departamento de Fisica, FCEyN-UBA, Pab. 1, Ciudad Universitaria (1428), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Escobar, M M; Goyanes, S [Laboratorio de Polimeros y Materiales Compuestos, Departamento de Fisica, FCEyN-UBA, Pab. 1, Ciudad Universitaria (1428), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Zilli, D; Cukierman, A L [PINMATE, Departamento de Industrias, FCEyN-UBA, Pab. Industrias, Ciudad Universitaria (1428), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Candal, R J, E-mail: gjorge@df.uba.a [Instituto de Fisicoquimica de Materiales, Ambiente y EnergIa, CONICET-UBA, Ciudad Universitaria (1428) Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-05-01

    We have measured the specific heat at constant pressure, C{sub p}, of three different samples of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNT). For all samples, C{sub p} departs from a graphitic behavior at T < 120 K. C{sub p} measurements show a temperature threshold from a linear regime for intermediate temperature to a higher-order power law for low temperatures. Moreover, it was found that this crossover only depends on the internal structure of the individual MWNT and not on the spatial order of the MWNT within a bundle.

  14. Modelling of Dynamic Transmission Cable Temperature Considering Soil-Specific Heat, Thermal Resistivity, and Precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus; Anders, George J.; Holboell, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    as functions of the moisture content which is known to vary with time. Furthermore, issues related to the cooling effect during rainy weather are considered. The algorithm is based on the lumped parameters model and takes as input distributed temperature sensing measurements as well as the current and ambient......This paper presents an algorithm for the estimation of the time-dependent temperature evolution of power cables, when real-time temperature measurements of the cable surface or a point within its vicinity are available. The thermal resistivity and specific heat of the cable surroundings are varied...

  15. Anomalous Schottky Specific Heat and Structural Distortion in Ferromagnetic PrAl2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Arjun K.; Paudyal, D.; Mudryk, Y.; Gschneidner, K. A., Jr.; Pecharsky, V. K.

    2013-05-01

    Unique from other rare earth dialuminides, PrAl2 undergoes a cubic to tetragonal distortion below T=30K in a zero magnetic field, but the system recovers its cubic symmetry upon the application of an external magnetic field of 10 kOe via a lifting of the 4f crystal field splitting. The nuclear Schottky specific heat in PrAl2 is anomalously high compared to that of pure Pr metal. First principles calculations reveal that the 4f crystal field splitting in the tetragonally distorted phase of PrAl2 underpins the observed unusual low temperature phenomena.

  16. Spin-Wave Analysis of Specific Heat and Magnetization in EuO and EuS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, O. W.; Henderson, A. J.; Meyer, H.

    1975-01-01

    Recent neutron scattering measurements of the spin-wave spectrum have shown that the second-nearest-neighbor exchange constant in EuO is ferromagnetic, in disagreement with previously published results from both specific-heat and magnetization measurements. We undertook a thorough study of the bulk...... data on both EuO and its isomorph EuS, including some previously unpublished specific-heat data. The new analysis resolved the controversy regarding the specific heat, which is actually in good agreement with the neutron scattering results. However, the NMR data are more sensitive to effects other than...

  17. A new experimental method to determine specific heat capacity of inhomogeneous concrete material with incorporated microencapsulated-PCM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    The study presented in this paper focuses on an experimental investigation of the specific heat capacity as a function of the temperature Cp (T) of concrete mixed with various amounts of phase change material (PCM). The tested specimens are prepared by directly mixing concrete and microencapsulated...... PCM. This paper describes the development of the new material and the experimental set-up to determine the specific heat capacity of the PCM concrete material. Moreover, various methods are proposed and compared to calculate the specific heat capacity of the PCM concrete. Finally, it is hoped...

  18. First and Second-Law Efficiency Analysis and ANN Prediction of a Diesel Cycle with Internal Irreversibility, Variable Specific Heats, Heat Loss, and Friction Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Rashidi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The variability of specific heats, internal irreversibility, heat and frictional losses are neglected in air-standard analysis for different internal combustion engine cycles. In this paper, the performance of an air-standard Diesel cycle with considerations of internal irreversibility described by using the compression and expansion efficiencies, variable specific heats, and losses due to heat transfer and friction is investigated by using finite-time thermodynamics. Artificial neural network (ANN is proposed for predicting the thermal efficiency and power output values versus the minimum and the maximum temperatures of the cycle and also the compression ratio. Results show that the first-law efficiency and the output power reach their maximum at a critical compression ratio for specific fixed parameters. The first-law efficiency increases as the heat leakage decreases; however the heat leakage has no direct effect on the output power. The results also show that irreversibilities have depressing effects on the performance of the cycle. Finally, a comparison between the results of the thermodynamic analysis and the ANN prediction shows a maximum difference of 0.181% and 0.194% in estimating the thermal efficiency and the output power. The obtained results in this paper can be useful for evaluating and improving the performance of practical Diesel engines.

  19. Depot-specific differences in angiogenic capacity of adipose tissue in differential susceptibility to diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mun-Gyu; Lee, Hye-Jin; Jin, Bo-Yeong; Gutierrez-Aguilar, Ruth; Shin, Kyung-Ho; Choi, Sang-Hyun; Um, Sung Hee; Kim, Dong-Hoon

    2016-11-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) expansion requires AT remodeling, which depends on AT angiogenesis. Modulation of AT angiogenesis could have therapeutic promise for the treatment of obesity. However, it is unclear how the capacity of angiogenesis in each adipose depot is affected by over-nutrition. Therefore, we investigated the angiogenic capacity (AC) of subcutaneous and visceral fats in lean and obese mice. We compared the AC of epididymal fat (EF) and inguinal fat (IF) using an angiogenesis assay in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice and diet-resistant (DR) mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Furthermore, we compared the expression levels of genes related to angiogenesis, macrophage recruitment, and inflammation using RT-qPCR in the EF and IF of lean mice fed a low-fat diet (LFD), DIO mice, and DR mice fed a HFD. DIO mice showed a significant increase in the AC of EF only at 22 weeks of age compared to DR mice. The expression levels of genes related to angiogenesis, macrophage recruitment, and inflammation were significantly higher in the EF of DIO mice than in those of LFD mice and DR mice, while expression levels of genes related to macrophages and their recruitment were higher in the IF of DIO mice than in those of LFD and DR mice. Expression of genes related to angiogenesis (including Hif1a, Vegfa, Fgf1, Kdr, and Pecam1), macrophage recruitment, and inflammation (including Emr1, Ccr2, Itgax, Ccl2, Tnf, and Il1b) correlated more strongly with body weight in the EF of HFD-fed obese mice compared to that of IF. These results suggest depot-specific differences in AT angiogenesis and a potential role in the susceptibility to diet-induced obesity.

  20. A noncontact measurement technique for the specific heat and total hemispherical emissivity of undercooled refractory materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulison, Aaron J.; Rhim, Won-Kyu

    1994-03-01

    A noncontact measurement technique for the constant pressure specific heat (cpl) and the total hemispherical emissivity (ɛTl) of undercooled refractory materials is presented. In purely radiative cooling, a simple formula which relates the post-recalescence isotherm duration and the undercooling level to cpl is derived. This technique also allows us to measure ɛTl once cpl is known. The experiments were performed using the high-temperature high-vacuum electrostatic levitator at JPL in which 2-3 mm diameter metallic samples can be levitated, melted, and radiatively cooled in vacuum. The averaged specific heats and total hemispherical emissivities of Zr and Ni over the undercooled regions agree well with the results obtained by drop calorimetry: cpl,av(Zr)=40.8±0.9 J/mol K, ɛTl,av(Zr)=0.28±0.01, cpl,av(Ni)=42.6±0.8 J/mol K, and ɛTl,av(Ni)=0.16±0.01.

  1. Low-temperature specific heat in hydrogenated and Mn-doped La (Fe,Si ) 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Edmund; Ghivelder, Luis; Nicotina, Amanda; Turcaud, Jeremy; Bratko, Milan; Caplin, A. David; Basso, Vittorio; Barcza, Alexander; Katter, Matthias; Cohen, Lesley F.

    2016-10-01

    It is now well established that the paramagnetic-to-ferromagnetic transition in the magnetocaloric La (FeSi) 13 is a cooperative effect involving spin, charge, and lattice degrees of freedom. However, the influence of this correlated behavior on the ferromagnetic state is as yet little studied. Here we measure the specific heat at low temperatures in a systematic set of LaF exM nyS iz samples, with and without hydrogen, to extract the Sommerfeld coefficient, the Debye temperature, and the spin-wave stiffness. Substantial and systematic changes in magnitude of the Sommerfeld coefficient are observed with Mn substitution and introduction of hydrogen, showing that over and above the changes to the density of states at the Fermi energy there are significant enhanced d -band electronic interactions at play. The Sommerfeld coefficient is found to be 90 -210 mJ mo l-1K-2 , unusually high compared to that expected from band-structure calculations. The Debye temperature determined from the specific heat measurement is insensitive to Mn and Si doping but increases when hydrogen is introduced into the system. The Sommerfeld coefficient is reduced in magnetic field for all compositions that have a measurable spin-wave contribution. These results move our understanding of the cooperative effects forward in this important and interesting class of materials significantly and provide a basis for future theoretical development.

  2. Improvement of stability of Nb3Sn superconductors by introducing high specific heat substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, X. [Fermilab; Li, P. [Fermilab; Zlobin, A. V. [Fermilab; Peng, X. [Unlisted, US, OH

    2018-01-08

    High-J c Nb3Sn conductors have low stability against perturbations, which accounts for the slow training rates of high-field Nb3Sn magnets. While it is known that adding substances with high specific heat (C) into Nb3Sn wires can increase their overall specific heat and thus improve their stability, there has not been a practical method that is compatible with the fabrication of long-length conductors. In this work, we put forward a scheme to introduce such substances to distributed-barrier Nb3Sn wires, which adds minimum difficulty to the wire manufacturing process. Multifilamentary wires using a mixture of Cu and high-C Gd2O3 powders have been successfully fabricated along this line. Measurements showed that addition of Gd2O3 had no negative effects on residual resitivity ratio or non-Cu J c, and that flux jumps were remarkably reduced, and minimum quench energy values at 4.2 K, 14 T were increased by a factor of three, indicating that stability was significantly improved. We also discussed the influences of the positioning of high-C substances and their thermal diffusivity on their effectiveness in reducing the superconductor temperature rise against perturbations. Based on these results, we proposed an optimized conductor architecture to maximize the effectiveness of this approach.

  3. Experimental study on density, thermal conductivity, specific heat, and viscosity of water-ethylene glycol mixture dispersed with carbon nanotubes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ganeshkumar Jayabalan; Kathirkaman Durai; Raja Kandhaswamy; Kumaresan Vellisamy; Velraj Ramalingam

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the effect of adding multi wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) in water – ethylene glycol mixture on density and various thermophysical properties such as thermal conductivity, specific heat and viscosity...

  4. Heat flux measurements of Tb{sub 3}M series (M=Co, Rh and Ru): Specific heat and magnetocaloric properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, J.C.B., E-mail: jolmiui@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Campinas, SP 13083-859 (Brazil); Lombardi, G.A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Campinas, SP 13083-859 (Brazil); Reis, R.D. dos [Max-Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Nöthnitzer Str. 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Freitas, H.E.; Cardoso, L.P.; Mansanares, A.M.; Gandra, F.G. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Campinas, SP 13083-859 (Brazil)

    2016-12-15

    We report on the magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect (MCE) for the Tb{sub 3}M series, with M=Co, Rh and Ru, obtained using a heat flux technique. The specific heat of Tb{sub 3}Co and Tb{sub 3}Rh are very similar, with a first order type transition occurring around 6 K below the magnetic ordering temperature without any corresponding feature on the magnetization. The slightly enhanced electronic specific heat, the Debye temperature around 150 K and the presence of the magnetic specific heat well above the ordering temperature are also characteristic of many other compounds of the R{sub 3}M family (R=Rare Earth). The specific heat for Tb{sub 3}Ru, however, presents two peaks at 37 K and 74 K. The magnetization shows that below the first peak the system presents an antiferromagnetic behavior and is paramagnetic above 74 K. We obtained a magnetocaloric effect for M=Co and Rh, −∆S=12 J/kg K, but for Tb{sub 3}Ru it is less than 3 J/kg K (μ{sub 0}∆H=5 T). We believe that the experimental results show that the MCE is directly related with the process of hybridization of the (R)5d-(M)d electrons that occurs in the R{sub 3}M materials.

  5. Evaluation of canine-specific minocycline and doxycycline susceptibility breakpoints for meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates from dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnot, Melanie L; Cole, Lynette K; Lorch, Gwendolen; Papich, Mark G; Rajala-Schultz, Paivi J; Daniels, Joshua B

    2015-10-01

    Using the US Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) human tetracycline breakpoints to predict minocycline and doxycycline susceptibility of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (SP) isolates from dogs is not appropriate because they are too high to meet pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic data using a standard dose. New breakpoints have been approved for doxycycline and proposed for minocycline. Revised breakpoints are four dilutions lower than tetracycline breakpoints, providing a more conservative standard for classification of isolates. The objectives of this study were to measure minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of minocycline and doxycycline of 100 canine meticillin-resistant SP clinical isolates, compare their susceptibilities to minocycline and doxycycline based on current and revised standards, and document their tetracycline resistance genes. E-test strips were used to determine MICs. PCR was used to identify tet genes. Using the human tetracycline breakpoint of MIC ≤ 4 μg/mL, 76 isolates were susceptible to minocycline and 36 isolates were susceptible to doxycycline. In contrast, using the proposed minocycline breakpoint (MIC ≤ 0.25 μg/mL) and approved doxycycline breakpoint (MIC ≤ 0.125 μg/mL), 31 isolates were susceptible to both minocycline and doxycycline. Thirty-one isolates carried no tet genes, two had tet(K) and 67 had tet(M). Use of the human tetracycline breakpoints misclassified 45 and five of the isolates as susceptible to minocycline and doxycycline, respectively. PCR analysis revealed that 43 and five of the isolates classified as susceptible to minocycline and doxycycline, respectively, possessed the tetracycline resistance gene, tet(M), known to confer resistance to both drugs. These results underscore the importance of utilizing the proposed minocycline and approved doxycycline canine breakpoints in place of human tetracycline breakpoints. © 2015 ESVD and ACVD.

  6. Strain-specific properties and T cells regulate the susceptibility to papilloma induction by Mus musculus papillomavirus 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handisurya, Alessandra; Day, Patricia M; Thompson, Cynthia D; Bonelli, Michael; Lowy, Douglas R; Schiller, John T

    2014-08-01

    The immunocytes that regulate papillomavirus infection and lesion development in humans and animals remain largely undefined. We found that immunocompetent mice with varying H-2 haplotypes displayed asymptomatic skin infection that produced L1 when challenged with 6×1010 MusPV1 virions, the recently identified domestic mouse papillomavirus (also designated "MmuPV1"), but were uniformly resistant to MusPV1-induced papillomatosis. Broad immunosuppression with cyclosporin A resulted in variable induction of papillomas after experimental infection with a similar dose, from robust in Cr:ORL SENCAR to none in C57BL/6 mice, with lesional outgrowth correlating with early viral gene expression and partly with reported strain-specific susceptibility to chemical carcinogens, but not with H-2 haplotype. Challenge with 1×1012 virions in the absence of immunosuppression induced small transient papillomas in Cr:ORL SENCAR but not in C57BL/6 mice. Antibody-induced depletion of CD3+ T cells permitted efficient virus replication and papilloma formation in both strains, providing experimental proof for the crucial role of T cells in controlling papillomavirus infection and associated disease. In Cr:ORL SENCAR mice, immunodepletion of either CD4+ or CD8+ T cells was sufficient for efficient infection and papillomatosis, although deletion of one subset did not inhibit the recruitment of the other subset to the infected epithelium. Thus, the functional cooperation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells is required to protect this strain. In contrast, C57BL/6 mice required depletion of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells for infection and papillomatosis, and separate CD4 knock-out and CD8 knock-out C57BL/6 were also resistant. Thus, in C57BL/6 mice, either CD4+ or CD8+ T cell-independent mechanisms exist that can protect this particular strain from MusPV1-associated disease. These findings may help to explain the diversity of pathological outcomes in immunocompetent humans after infection with a specific

  7. Strain-specific properties and T cells regulate the susceptibility to papilloma induction by Mus musculus papillomavirus 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Handisurya

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The immunocytes that regulate papillomavirus infection and lesion development in humans and animals remain largely undefined. We found that immunocompetent mice with varying H-2 haplotypes displayed asymptomatic skin infection that produced L1 when challenged with 6×1010 MusPV1 virions, the recently identified domestic mouse papillomavirus (also designated "MmuPV1", but were uniformly resistant to MusPV1-induced papillomatosis. Broad immunosuppression with cyclosporin A resulted in variable induction of papillomas after experimental infection with a similar dose, from robust in Cr:ORL SENCAR to none in C57BL/6 mice, with lesional outgrowth correlating with early viral gene expression and partly with reported strain-specific susceptibility to chemical carcinogens, but not with H-2 haplotype. Challenge with 1×1012 virions in the absence of immunosuppression induced small transient papillomas in Cr:ORL SENCAR but not in C57BL/6 mice. Antibody-induced depletion of CD3+ T cells permitted efficient virus replication and papilloma formation in both strains, providing experimental proof for the crucial role of T cells in controlling papillomavirus infection and associated disease. In Cr:ORL SENCAR mice, immunodepletion of either CD4+ or CD8+ T cells was sufficient for efficient infection and papillomatosis, although deletion of one subset did not inhibit the recruitment of the other subset to the infected epithelium. Thus, the functional cooperation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells is required to protect this strain. In contrast, C57BL/6 mice required depletion of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells for infection and papillomatosis, and separate CD4 knock-out and CD8 knock-out C57BL/6 were also resistant. Thus, in C57BL/6 mice, either CD4+ or CD8+ T cell-independent mechanisms exist that can protect this particular strain from MusPV1-associated disease. These findings may help to explain the diversity of pathological outcomes in immunocompetent humans after infection

  8. Heat, chloride, and specific conductance as ground water tracers near streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, M.H.; Su, G.W.; Constantz, J.

    2007-01-01

    Commonly measured water quality parameters were compared to heat as tracers of stream water exchange with ground water. Temperature, specific conductance, and chloride were sampled at various frequencies in the stream and adjacent wells over a 2-year period. Strong seasonal variations in stream water were observed for temperature and specific conductance. In observation wells where the temperature response correlated to stream water, chloride and specific conductance values were similar to stream water values as well, indicating significant stream water exchange with ground water. At sites where ground water temperature fluctuations were negligible, chloride and/or specific conductance values did not correlate to stream water values, indicating that ground water was not significantly influenced by exchange with stream water. Best-fit simulation modeling was performed at two sites to derive temperature-based estimates of hydraulic conductivities of the alluvial sediments between the stream and wells. These estimates were used in solute transport simulations for a comparison of measured and simulated values for chloride and specific conductance. Simulation results showed that hydraulic conductivities vary seasonally and annually. This variability was a result of seasonal changes in temperature-dependent hydraulic conductivity and scouring or clogging of the streambed. Specific conductance fits were good, while chloride data were difficult to fit due to the infrequent (quarterly) stream water chloride measurements during the study period. Combined analyses of temperature, chloride, and specific conductance led to improved quantification of the spatial and temporal variability of stream water exchange with shallow ground water in an alluvial system. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

  9. Tissue-Type-Specific Heat-Shock Response and Immunolocalization of Class I Low-Molecular-Weight Heat-Shock Proteins in Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinn, T. L.; Chang, PFL.; Chen, Y. M.; Key, J. L.; Lin, C. Y.

    1997-06-01

    A monospecific polyclonal antibody was used to study the tissue-type specificity and intracellular localization of class I low-molecular-weight (LMW) heat-shock proteins (HSPs) in soybean (Glycine max) under different heat-shock regimes. In etiolated soybean seedlings, the root meristematic regions contained the highest levels of LMW HSP. No tissue-type-specific expression of class I LMW HSP was detected using the tissue-printing method. In immunolocalization studies of seedlings treated with HS (40[deg]C for 2 h) the class I LMW HSPs were found in the aggregated granular structures, which were distributed randomly in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus. When the heat shock was released, the granular structures disappeared and the class I LMW HSPs became distributed homogeneously in the cytoplasm. When the seedlings were then given a more severe heat shock following the initial 40[deg]C -> 28[deg]C treatment, a large proportion of the class I LMW HSPs that originally localized in the cytoplasm were translocated into the nucleus and nucleolus. Class I LMW HSPs may assist in the resolubilization of proteins denatured or aggregated by heat and may also participate in the restoration of organellar function after heat shock.

  10. Preliminary review of critical shutdown heat removal items for common cause failure susceptibility on LMFBR's. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allard, L.T.; Elerath, J.G.

    1976-02-01

    This document presents a common cause failure analysis for Critical LMFBR Shutdown Heat Removal Systems. The report is intended to outline a systematic approach to defining areas with significant potential for common causes of failure, and ultimately provide inputs to the reliability prediction model. A preliminary evaluation of postulatd single initiating causes resulting in multiple failures of LMFBR-SHRS items is presented in Appendix C. This document will be periodically updated to reflect new information and activity.

  11. Specifics of heat and mass transfer in spherical dimples under the effect of external factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchukin, A. V.; Il'inkov, A. V.; Takmovtsev, V. V.; Khabibullin, I. I.

    2017-06-01

    The specifics are examined of heat transfer enhancement with spherical dimples under the effect of factors important for practice and characteristic of cooling systems of gas-turbine engines and power units. This experimental investigation deals with the effect of the following factors on the flow in a channel with hemispherical dimples: continuous air swirl in an annulus with dimples on its concave wall, dimples on the convex or concave wall of a curved rectangular channel, imposition of regular velocity fluctuations on the external flow in a straight rectangular channel, and adverse or favorable pressure gradient along the flow direction. The flow is turbulent. Reynolds numbers based on the channel hydraulic diameter are on the order of 104. Results of the investigation of a model of a two-cavity diffuser dimple proposed by the authors are presented. It has been found that results for channels with spherical dimples and for smooth channels differ not only quantitatively but also qualitatively. Thus, if the effect of centrifugal mass forces on convex and concave surfaces with hemispherical dimples and in a smooth channel is almost the same (quantitative and qualitative indicators are identical), the pressure gradient in the flow direction brings about the drastically opposite results. At the same time, the quantitative contribution to a change in heat transfer in hemispherical dimples is different and depends on the impact type. The results are discussed with the use of physical models created on the basis of the results of flow visualization studies and data on the turbulence intensity, pressure coefficient, etc. Results of the investigations suggest that application of spherical dimples under nonstandard conditions requires the calculated heat transfer to be corrected to account for one or another effect.

  12. Heat

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrence, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Is it possible to make heat by rubbing your hands together? Why does an ice cube melt when you hold it? In this title, students will conduct experiments to help them understand what heat is. Kids will also investigate concepts such as which materials are good at conducting heat and which are the best insulators. Using everyday items that can easily be found around the house, students will transform into scientists as they carry out step-by-step experiments to answer interesting questions. Along the way, children will pick up important scientific skills. Heat includes seven experiments with detailed, age-appropriate instructions, surprising facts and background information, a "conclusions" section to pull all the concepts in the book together, and a glossary of science words. Colorful, dynamic designs and images truly put the FUN into FUN-damental Experiments.

  13. Metamagnetic-like anomalies in f-electron systems investigated by specific heat measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Hideyuki; Aoki, Yuji; Matsuda, Tatsuma D.; Sugawara, Hitoshi [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Andreev, A.V.; Sechovsky, V.; Havela, L.; Settai, Rikio; Onuki, Yoshichika

    1999-02-28

    We report the results on the specific heat (C) and magnetocaloric effect measurements in 4f- and 5f-compounds exhibiting metamagnetic-like anomaly (MLA) at field (H) around H{sub M} from the paramagnetic ground state. The MLA in Ce-compounds (CeRu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and CeCu{sub 6}) and UCoAl have both close resemblance and apparent difference; the first order character has been confirmed for UCoAl but not for the Ce compounds. For the Ce compounds, a single peak C(H)/T at H{sub M} at lowest temperature splits into double peaks at finite temperatures. For UCoAl, a step-like decreases of C(H)/T across H{sub M} at lowest temperature changes to a peak structure around HM at higher temperatures. (author)

  14. Experimental thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and specific heat values for mixtures of nitrogen, oxygen, and argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, R. A.; Cieszkiewicz, M. T.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental measurements of thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity obtained with a transient hot-wire apparatus are reported for three mixtures of nitrogen, oxygen, and argon. Values of the specific heat, Cp, are calculated from these measured values and the density calculated with an equation of state. The measurements were made at temperatures between 65 and 303 K with pressures between 0.1 and 70 MPa. The data cover the vapor, liquid, and supercritical gas phases for the three mixtures. The total reported points are 1066 for the air mixture (78.11 percent nitrogen, 20.97 percent oxygen, and 0.92 percent argon), 1058 for the 50 percent nitrogen, 50 percent oxygen mixture, and 864 for the 25 percent nitrogen, 75 oxygen mixture. Empirical thermal conductivity correlations are provided for the three mixtures.

  15. Effect of impurity pinning on conduction and specific heat in the Luttinger liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artemenko, S.N. [V.A. Kotelnikov Institute for Radio-Engineering and Electronics of the RAS, Mokhovaya str. 11-7, Moscow 125009 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: sartemenko@googlemail.com; Remizov, S.V.; Shapiro, D.S.; Vakhitov, R.R. [V.A. Kotelnikov Institute for Radio-Engineering and Electronics of the RAS, Mokhovaya str. 11-7, Moscow 125009 (Russian Federation)

    2009-03-01

    We study theoretically two effects related to impurity depinning that are common for 1D Luttinger liquid (LL) and linear-chain charge-density wave (CDW) conductors. First, we consider the electron transport through a single impurity in a 1D conducting channel and study a new regime of conduction related to LL sliding at voltage above a threshold one. The DC current in this regime is accompanied by oscillations with frequency f=I/e. This resembles the CDW depinning in linear-chain conductors, the Josephson effect, and the Coulomb blockade. Second, we found that strong pinning of the LL by impurities leads to a magnetic field dependence of the low-temperature specific heat similar to that observed experimentally in CDW compounds. We interpret this in favor of possibility of formation of the LL in linear-chain compounds.

  16. Specific heating power of fatty acid and phospholipid stabilized magnetic fluids in an alternating magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuyper, M de; Soenen, S J H [Interdisciplinary Research Centre, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven-Campus Kortrijk, B-8500 Kortrijk (Belgium); Hodenius, M; Ivanova, G; Baumann, M; Paciok, E; Schmitz-Rode, T [Applied Medical Engineering, Helmholtz-Institute, Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 20, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Eckert, T [Department of Physical Chemistry, RWTH Aachen, Landoltweg 2, D-52074 Aachen (Germany)], E-mail: hodenius@hia.rwth-aachen.de

    2008-05-21

    Magnetic fluids (MFs) with a similar narrow size distribution of the iron oxide core were stabilized with lauric acid (MF 1), oleate (MF 2) or, after dialysis in the presence of liposomes, with phospholipid molecules (MF 3 and MF 4, respectively). The hydrodynamic sizes of the MF 1 and MF 3 were half those found for MF 2 and MF 4. The MFs were exposed to inductive heating in an alternating magnetic field at a frequency of 200 kHz and a maximum magnetic field strength of 3.8 kA m{sup -1}. Specific absorption rates (SAR) of 294 {+-} 42 (MF 1), 214 {+-} 16 (MF 2), 297 {+-} 13 (MF 3) and 213 {+-} 6 W g{sup -1} Fe (MF 4) were obtained. The data for MF 2 and MF 4 were identical to those found for the commercially available ferucarbotran. The biomedical relevance of the phospholipid-coated MFs is briefly discussed.

  17. Solid and liquid Equation of state for initially porous aluminum where specific heat is constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Jerry W.; Lemar, E. R.; Brown, Mary

    2011-06-01

    A porous solid's initial state is off the thermodynamic surface of the non-porous solid to start with but when pressure is high enough to cause total pore collapse or crush up, then the final states are on the condensed matter thermodynamic surfaces. The Hugoniot for the fully compacted solid is above the Principle Hugoniot with pressure, temperature and internal energy increased at a given v. There are a number of ways to define this hotter Hugoniot, which can be referenced to other thermodynamic paths on this thermodynamic surface. The choice here was to use the Vinet isotherm to define a consistent thermodynamic surface for the solid and melt phase of 6061 aluminum where specific heat is constant for the P-v-T space of interest. Analytical equations are developed for PH and TH.

  18. The alleviating effect of elevated CO2 on heat stress susceptibility of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanmugam, S.; Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2013-01-01

    This study analysed the alleviating effect of elevated CO2 on stress-induced decreases in photosynthesis and changes in carbohydrate metabolism in two wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) of different origin. The plants were grown in ambient (400 μl l−1) and elevated (800 μl l−1) CO2 with a day....../night temperature of 15/10 °C. At the growth stages of tillering, booting and anthesis, the plants were subjected to heat stress of 40 °C for three continuous days. Photosynthetic parameters, maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry (Fv/Fm) and contents of pigments and carbohydrates...

  19. Tomato susceptibility to Alternaria stem canker : Parameters involved in host-specific toxin-induced leaf necrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witsenboer, Hanneke M.A.; Kloosterziel, Karen M.; Hateboer, Guus; Nijkamp, H. John J.; Hille, Jacques

    1992-01-01

    AAL-toxin causes severe necrosis in leaves of susceptible tomato cultivars at nanomolar concentrations. In resistant tomato cultivars harbouring the semi-dominant Alternaria stem canker resistance locus necrosis is also observed, however at much higher toxin concentrations, in both lines the

  20. Specific heat and Hall effect of the ferromagnetic Kondo lattice UCu0.9Sb2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, V. H.; Bukowski, Z.

    2017-06-01

    We have investigated the electrical resistivity ρ, specific heat C p and Hall coefficient R H on a single crystal of a ferromagnetic Kondo lattice UCu0.9Sb2. The experimental ρ (T) , C p (T) and {{R}\\text{H}}(T) data evidence a bulk magnetic phase transition at {{T}\\text{C}}=113 K, and additionally exhibit an unexpected bump located in the temperature range T C/10-T C/3. UCu0.9Sb2 has an enhanced electronic specific heat coefficient γ ˜ 71 mJ molK-2, corresponding to Kondo temperature {{T}\\text{K}}˜ 6.8 K. An analysis of the Hall effect data for j//(a, b)-plane and H// c-axis reveals that the low-temperature ordinary Hall coefficient R 0 is positive, suggesting that p-type electrical conductivity is dominant. The density of the carriers at 2 K is about 0.6 holes f.u.-1, which may categorize the studied compound into class of low carrier density compounds. Combined γ and R 0 data divulge an effective mass of charge carriers {{m}\\ast}˜ 27 m e . This finding together with quite low Hall mobility {μ\\text{H}}=25 cm2 Vs-1 and Kadowaki-Woods ratio {{r}\\text{KW}}=0.98× ~{{10}-5} μ Ω cm (mol K2 mJ-1)2, manifest the development of heavy-fermion state in the ferromagnetic UCu0.9Sb2 compound at low temperatures.

  1. Numerical Renormalization Group computation of temperature dependent specific heat for a two-channel Anderson model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, J.V.B., E-mail: joao.ferreira@ufms.br [Fundacao Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (Brazil); Ferreira, A.I.I.; Leite, A.H. [Fundacao Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (Brazil); Libero, V.L. [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, SP, Universidade Estadual de Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-03-15

    The Numerical Renormalization Group (NRG) is applied to diagonalize a two-channel Anderson model describing a local magnetic impurity embedded in a fermionic bath. In spite of the difficulty in computing the specific heat using NRG, the interleaving discretization and multi-step iterative transformation virtually eliminate the numerical oscillations introduced by the logarithmic discretization of the conduction band. These allow to cover uniformly a large range of temperature, from the top of the band to a very small fraction of the bandwidth. This is relevant in describing, for instance, the presence of a low temperature Kondo resonance together with a high temperature Schottky peak, as well to cover Fermi and non-Fermi liquid regimes, like in the recent studied Ce{sub 1-x}La{sub x}Ni{sub 9}Ge{sub 4} family. We highlight the importance in describing the Schottky peak to define the number of degrees of freedom of the local levels, in order to correctly define the model to describe a given compound. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The two-channel Anderson model exhibits FL and nFL regimes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NRG, with interleaving and the multi-step procedures, solve Hamiltonian. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Large temperature in the specific heat curves, from Kondo to Schottky peak. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analysis of Ce{sub 1-x}La{sub x}Ni{sub 9}Ge{sub 4} compound. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Schottky-like peak in this compound suggests J=9/2 multiplet at the impurity level.

  2. Empirical equations for viscosity and specific heat capacity determination of paraffin PCM and fatty acid PCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreneche, C.; Ferrer, G.; Palacios, A.; Solé, A.; Inés Fernández, A.; Cabeza, L. F.

    2017-10-01

    Phase change materials (PCM) used in thermal energy storage (TES) systems have been presented, over recent years, as one of the most effective options in energy storage. Paraffin and fatty acids are some of the most used PCM in TES systems, as they have high phase change enthalpy and in addition they do not present subcooling nor hysteresis and have proper cycling stability. The simulations and design of TES systems require the knowledge of the thermophysical properties of PCM. Thermal conductivity, viscosity, specific heat capacity (Cp) can be experimentally determined, but these are material and time consuming tasks. To avoid or to reduce them, and to have reliable data without the need of experimentation, thermal properties can be calculated by empirical equations. In this study, five different equations are given to calculate the viscosity and specific heat capacity of fatty acid PCM and paraffin PCM. Two of these equations concern, respectively, the empirical calculation of the viscosity and liquid Cp of the whole paraffin PCM family, while the other three equations presented are for the corresponding calculation of viscosity, solid Cp, liquid Cp of the whole fatty acid family of PCM. Therefore, this study summarize the work performed to obtain the main empirical equations to measure the above mentioned properties for whole fatty acid PCM family and whole paraffin PCM family. Moreover, empirical equations have been obtained to calculate these properties for other materials of these PCM groups and these empirical equations can be extrapolated for PCM with higher or lower phase change temperatures within a lower relative error 4%.

  3. Crystal-field study of magnetization and specific heat properties of frustrated pyrochlore Pr{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, J.; Jana, Y.M., E-mail: yatramohan@yahoo.com; Biswas, A. Ali

    2016-10-15

    The experimental results of temperature dependent dc magnetic susceptibility, field dependent isothermal magnetization, magnetic specific heat and entropy of the pyrochlore Pr{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} are simulated and analyzed using appropriate D{sub 3d} crystal-field (CF) and anisotropic molecular field tensors at Pr-sites in the self-consistent mean-field approach involving four magnetically non-equivalent rare-earth spins on the tetrahedral unit of the pyrochlore structure. CF level pattern and wave-functions of the ground {sup 3}H{sub 4} multiplet of the Pr{sup 3+} ions are obtained considering intermediate coupling between different Russell-Saunders terms of the 4f{sup 2} electronic configurations of Pr-ion and J-mixing effects. CF analysis shows that the CF ground-state of the Pr{sup 3+} ion in Pr{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} is a well-isolated doublet, with significant admixtures of terms coming from |M{sub J}=±4〉 and |M{sub J}=±1〉, and the Pr-spins are effectively Ising-like along the local <111> axes. Magnetic specific heat in zero-field is simulated by considering a temperature dependence of the exchange splitting of the ground doublet. - Highlights: • Full CF diagonalization using intermediate coupling and J-mixing. • Pr-spins are Ising-like along local [111] axis. • Magnetic specific heat is due to temperature dependence exchange splitting of ground CF doublet.

  4. PTPN22 is associated with susceptibility to psoriatic arthritis but not psoriasis: evidence for a further PsA-specific risk locus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bowes, John

    2015-04-28

    Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a chronic inflammatory arthritis associated with psoriasis; it has a higher estimated genetic component than psoriasis alone, however most genetic susceptibility loci identified for PsA to date are also shared with psoriasis. Here we attempt to validate novel single nucleotide polymorphisms selected from our recent PsA Immunochip study and determine specificity to PsA.

  5. Antioxidant Defense Enzyme Genes and Asthma Susceptibility: Gender-Specific Effects and Heterogeneity in Gene-Gene Interactions between Pathogenetic Variants of the Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonikov, Alexey V.; Ivanov, Vladimir P.; Bogomazov, Alexey D.; Freidin, Maxim B.; Illig, Thomas; Solodilova, Maria A.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress resulting from an increased amount of reactive oxygen species and an imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants plays an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma. The present study tested the hypothesis that genetic susceptibility to allergic and nonallergic variants of asthma is determined by complex interactions between genes encoding antioxidant defense enzymes (ADE). We carried out a comprehensive analysis of the associations between adult asthma and 46 single nucleotide polymorphisms of 34 ADE genes and 12 other candidate genes of asthma in Russian population using set association analysis and multifactor dimensionality reduction approaches. We found for the first time epistatic interactions between ADE genes underlying asthma susceptibility and the genetic heterogeneity between allergic and nonallergic variants of the disease. We identified GSR (glutathione reductase) and PON2 (paraoxonase 2) as novel candidate genes for asthma susceptibility. We observed gender-specific effects of ADE genes on the risk of asthma. The results of the study demonstrate complexity and diversity of interactions between genes involved in oxidative stress underlying susceptibility to allergic and nonallergic asthma. PMID:24895604

  6. Antioxidant Defense Enzyme Genes and Asthma Susceptibility: Gender-Specific Effects and Heterogeneity in Gene-Gene Interactions between Pathogenetic Variants of the Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey V. Polonikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress resulting from an increased amount of reactive oxygen species and an imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants plays an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma. The present study tested the hypothesis that genetic susceptibility to allergic and nonallergic variants of asthma is determined by complex interactions between genes encoding antioxidant defense enzymes (ADE. We carried out a comprehensive analysis of the associations between adult asthma and 46 single nucleotide polymorphisms of 34 ADE genes and 12 other candidate genes of asthma in Russian population using set association analysis and multifactor dimensionality reduction approaches. We found for the first time epistatic interactions between ADE genes underlying asthma susceptibility and the genetic heterogeneity between allergic and nonallergic variants of the disease. We identified GSR (glutathione reductase and PON2 (paraoxonase 2 as novel candidate genes for asthma susceptibility. We observed gender-specific effects of ADE genes on the risk of asthma. The results of the study demonstrate complexity and diversity of interactions between genes involved in oxidative stress underlying susceptibility to allergic and nonallergic asthma.

  7. Transcriptomics and systems biology analysis in identification of specific pathways involved in cacao resistance and susceptibility to witches' broom disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Hora Junior, Braz Tavares; Poloni, Joice de Faria; Lopes, Maíza Alves; Dias, Cristiano Villela; Gramacho, Karina Peres; Schuster, Ivan; Sabau, Xavier; Cascardo, Júlio Cézar De Mattos; Mauro, Sônia Marli Zingaretti Di; Gesteira, Abelmon da Silva; Bonatto, Diego; Micheli, Fabienne

    2012-04-01

    This study reports on expression analysis associated with molecular systems biology of cacao-Moniliophthora perniciosa interaction. Gene expression data were obtained for two cacao genotypes (TSH1188, resistant; Catongo, susceptible) challenged or not with the fungus M. perniciosa and collected at three time points through disease. Using expression analysis, we identified 154 and 227 genes that are differentially expressed in TSH1188 and Catongo, respectively. The expression of some of these genes was confirmed by RT-qPCR. Physical protein-protein interaction (PPPI) networks of Arabidopsis thaliana orthologous proteins corresponding to resistant and susceptible interactions were obtained followed by cluster and gene ontology analyses. The integrated analysis of gene expression and systems biology allowed designing a general scheme of major mechanisms associated with witches' broom disease resistance/susceptibility. In this sense, the TSH1188 cultivar shows strong production of ROS and elicitors at the beginning of the interaction with M. perniciosa followed by resistance signal propagation and ROS detoxification. On the other hand, the Catongo genotype displays defense mechanisms that include the synthesis of some defense molecules but without success in regards to elimination of the fungus. This phase is followed by the activation of protein metabolism which is achieved with the production of proteasome associated with autophagy as a precursor mechanism of PCD. This work also identifies candidate genes for further functional studies and for genetic mapping and marker assisted selection.

  8. Genome-wide survey and expression profiling of heat shock proteins and heat shock factors revealed overlapped and stress specific response under abiotic stresses in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenhuo; Hu, Guocheng; Han, Bin

    2009-04-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are molecular chaperons, which function in protein folding and assembly, protein intracellular localization and secretion, and degradation of misfolded and truncated proteins. Heat shock factors (Hsfs) are the transcriptional activators of Hsps. It has been reported that Hsps and Hsfs are widely involved in response to various abiotic stresses such as heat, drought, salinity and cold. To elucidate the function and regulation of rice Hsp and Hsf genes, we examined a global expression profiling with heat stressed rice seedling, and then compared our results with the previous rice data under cold, drought and salt stresses. The comparison revealed that, while most Hsfs and Hsps had highly similar and overlapped response and regulation patterns under different stresses, some of those genes showed significantly specific response to distinct stress. We also found that heat-responsive gene profiling differed largely from those under cold/drought/salt stresses, and that drought treatment was more effective to up-regulate Hsf expression in rice than in Arabidopsis. Overall, our data suggests that Hsps and Hsfs might be important elements in cross-talk of different stress signal transduction networks. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Gender-specific increase in susceptibility to metabolic syndrome of offspring rats after prenatal caffeine exposure with post-weaning high-fat diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jing [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Luo, Hanwen [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wu, Yimeng; He, Zheng; Zhang, Li; Guo, Yu [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Ma, Lu [Department of Epidemiology & Health Statistics, Public Health School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Magdalou, Jacques [UMR 7561 CNRS-NancyUniversité, Faculté de Médicine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Chen, Liaobin [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Disease, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Disease, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2015-05-01

    Prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) alters the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolic programming and induces an increased susceptibility to metabolic syndrome (MS) in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) offspring rats. High-fat diet (HFD) is one of the main environmental factors accounting for the incidence of MS. In this study, we aimed to clarify the gender-specific increase in susceptibility to MS in offspring rats after PCE with post-weaning HFD. Maternal Wistar rats were administered with caffeine (120 mg/kg·d) from gestational day 11 until delivery. The offspring rats with normal diet or HFD were euthanized at postnatal week 24, and blood samples were collected. Results showed that PCE not only reduced serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone levels, but also enhanced serum glucose, triglyceride and total cholesterol (TCH) concentrations in the offspring rats. Moreover, several interactions among PCE, HFD and gender were observed by a three-way ANOVA analysis. In PCE offspring, HFD could aggravate the degree of increased serum triglyceride level. Meanwhile, serum corticosterone levels of females were decreased more obviously than those of males in PCE offspring. The results also revealed interactions between HFD and gender in the levels of serum ACTH, triglyceride and TCH, which were changed more evidently in female HFD offspring. These results indicate that HFD could exacerbate the dysfunction of lipid metabolism and the susceptibility to MS induced by PCE, and the female offspring are more sensitive to HFD-induced neuroendocrine metabolic dysfunction than their male counterparts. - Highlights: • Caffeine induced HPA axis dysfunction in offspring rats fed by high-fat diet (HFD). • Caffeine induced an increased susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. • HFD aggravated susceptibility to metabolic syndrome induced by caffeine. • Female was more sensitive to HFD-induced neuroendocrine

  10. Is nutrient intake a gender-specific cause for enhanced susceptibility to alcohol-induced liver disease in women?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagnerberger, S.; Schäfer, C.; Schwarz, E.

    2008-01-01

    AIM: Women have a higher susceptibility to alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD) than men. Gender-related differences in food preference were described in previous studies for several populations, but not in alcohol abusers. As certain micronutrients are reported to take influence on the development...... of ALD in dependence on the sex of the patients. RESULTS: No significant differences between males and females with ALD were calculated for the intake (per kg body weight/day) of protein, carbohydrates, fat, and the intake (per kg body weight/day) of most micronutrients. In females with ALD, higher...

  11. Is nutrient intake a gender-specific cause for enhanced susceptibility to alcohol-induced liver disease in women?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagnerberger, S.; Schafer, C.; Schwarz, E.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: Women have a higher susceptibility to alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD) than men. Gender-related differences in food preference were described in previous studies for several populations, but not in alcohol abusers. As certain micronutrients are reported to take influence on the development...... of ALD in dependence on the sex of the patients. Results: No significant differences between males and females with ALD were calculated for the intake (per kg body weight/day) of protein, carbohydrates, fat, and the intake (per kg body weight/day) of most micronutrients. In females with ALD, higher...

  12. Density of states, specific heat and nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate in PrOs4Sb12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Alrub, Tayseer; Curnoe, Stephanie

    2007-03-01

    We present a theoretical study of the density of states, specific heat and nuclear spin-relaxation rate in the unconventional superconductor PrOs4Sb12. In this material, superconductivity is best described by a three component order parameter in the triplet channel. Instead of nodes, deep dips appear in the gap function producing power law temperature dependencies at higher temperatures and exponential suppression at low temperatures of the specific heat and the nuclear spin lattice relaxation rate. Various experimental observations will be discussed in this context.

  13. Population-specificity of heat stress gene induction in northern and southern eelgrass Zostera marina populations under simulated global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Nina; Winters, Gidon; Rauch, Gisep; Eizaguirre, Christophe; Gu, Jenny; Nelle, Peter; Fricke, Birgit; Reusch, Thorsten B H

    2010-07-01

    Summer heat waves have already resulted in mortality of coastal communities, including ecologically important seagrass meadows. Gene expression studies from controlled experiments can provide important insight as to how species/genotypes react to extreme events that will increase under global warming. In a common stress garden, we exposed three populations of eelgrass, Zostera marina, to extreme sea surface temperatures, simulating the 2003-European heat wave. Populations came from locations widely differing in their thermal regime, two northern European locations [Ebeltoft (Kattegat), Doverodde (Limfjord, Baltic Sea)], and one southern population from Gabicce Mare (Adriatic Sea), allowing to test for population specificity in the response to a realistic heat stress event. Eelgrass survival and growth as well as the expression of 12 stress associated candidate genes were assessed during and after the heat wave. Contrary to expectations, all populations suffered equally from 3 weeks of heat stress in terms of shoot loss. In contrast, populations markedly differed in multivariate measures of gene expression. While the gene expression profiles converged to pre-stress values directly after the heat wave, stress correlated genes were upregulated again 4 weeks later, in line with the observed delay in shoot loss. Target genes had to be selected based on functional knowledge in terrestrial plants, nevertheless, 10/12 genes were induced relative to the control treatment at least once during the heat wave in the fully marine plant Z. marina. This study underlines the importance of realistic stress and recovery scenarios in studying the impact of predicted climate change.

  14. Reduced short-term memory span in aphasia and susceptibility to interference: contribution of material-specific maintenance deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barde, Laura H F; Schwartz, Myrna F; Chrysikou, Evangelia G; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L

    2010-03-01

    Semantic short-term memory (STM) deficits have been traditionally defined as an inability to maintain semantic representations over a delay (Martin et al., 1994b). Yet some patients with semantic STM deficits make numerous intrusions of items from previously presented lists, thus presenting an interesting paradox: why should an inability to maintain semantic representations produce an increase in intrusions from earlier lists? In this study, we investigated the relationship between maintenance deficits and susceptibility to interference in a group of 20 aphasic patients characterized with weak semantic or weak phonological STM. Patients and matched control participants performed a modified item-recognition task designed to elicit semantic or phonological interference from list items located one, two, or three trials back (Hamilton & Martin, 2007). Controls demonstrated significant effects of interference in both versions of the task. Interference in patients was predicted by the type and severity of their STM deficit; that is, shorter semantic spans were associated with greater semantic interference and shorter phonological spans were associated with greater phonological interference. We interpret these results through a new perspective, the reactivation hypothesis, and we discuss their importance for accounts emphasizing the contribution of maintenance mechanisms for STM impairments in aphasia as well as susceptibility to interference. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Measurement of specific heat and thermal conductivity of supported and suspended graphene by a comprehensive Raman optothermal method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin-Yi; Xia, Kailun; Zhang, Ji; Zhang, Yingying; Li, Qunyang; Takahashi, Koji; Zhang, Xing

    2017-08-03

    The last decade has seen the rapid growth of research on two-dimensional (2D) materials, represented by graphene, but research on their thermophysical properties is still far from sufficient owing to the experimental challenges. Herein, we report the first measurement of the specific heat of multilayer and monolayer graphene in both supported and suspended geometries. Their thermal conductivities were also simultaneously measured using a comprehensive Raman optothermal method without needing to know the laser absorption. Both continuous-wave (CW) and pulsed lasers were used to heat the samples, based on consideration of the variable laser spot radius and pulse duration as well as the heat conduction within the substrate. The error from the laser absorption was eliminated by comparing the Raman-measured temperature rises for different spot radii and pulse durations. The thermal conductivity and specific heat were extracted by analytically fitting the temperature rise ratios as a function of spot size and pulse duration, respectively. The measured specific heat was about 700 J (kg K)(-1) at room temperature, which is in accordance with theoretical predictions, and the measured thermal conductivities were in the range of 0.84-1.5 × 10(3) W (m K)(-1). The measurement method demonstrated here can be used to investigate in situ and comprehensively the thermophysical properties of many other emerging 2D materials.

  16. Food Legumes and Rising Temperatures: Effects, Adaptive Functional Mechanisms Specific to Reproductive Growth Stage and Strategies to Improve Heat Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumari Sita

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ambient temperatures are predicted to rise in the future owing to several reasons associated with global climate changes. These temperature increases can result in heat stress- a severe threat to crop production in most countries. Legumes are well-known for their impact on agricultural sustainability as well as their nutritional and health benefits. Heat stress imposes challenges for legume crops and has deleterious effects on the morphology, physiology, and reproductive growth of plants. High-temperature stress at the time of the reproductive stage is becoming a severe limitation for production of grain legumes as their cultivation expands to warmer environments and temperature variability increases due to climate change. The reproductive period is vital in the life cycle of all plants and is susceptible to high-temperature stress as various metabolic processes are adversely impacted during this phase, which reduces crop yield. Food legumes exposed to high-temperature stress during reproduction show flower abortion, pollen and ovule infertility, impaired fertilization, and reduced seed filling, leading to smaller seeds and poor yields. Through various breeding techniques, heat tolerance in major legumes can be enhanced to improve performance in the field. Omics approaches unravel different mechanisms underlying thermotolerance, which is imperative to understand the processes of molecular responses toward high-temperature stress.

  17. Inhibition of heat-shock protein 90 enhances the susceptibility to antifungals and reduces the virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans/Cryptococcus gattii species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Evangelista, Antonio José de Jesus; Serpa, Rosana; Marques, Francisca Jakelyne de Farias; de Melo, Charlline Vládia Silva; de Oliveira, Jonathas Sales; Franco, Jônatas da Silva; de Alencar, Lucas Pereira; Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Rocha, Marcos Fébio Gadelha

    2016-02-01

    Heat-shock proteins (Hsps) are chaperones required for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis in different fungal pathogens, playing an important role in the infectious process. This study investigated the effect of pharmacological inhibition of Hsp90 by radicicol on the Cryptococcus neoformans/Cryptococcus gattii species complex--agents of the most common life-threatening fungal infection amongst immunocompromised patients. The influence of Hsp90 inhibition was investigated regarding in vitro susceptibility to antifungal agents of planktonic and sessile cells, ergosterol concentration, cell membrane integrity, growth at 37 °C, production of virulence factors in vitro, and experimental infection in Caenorhabditis elegans. Hsp90 inhibition inhibited the in vitro growth of planktonic cells of Cryptococcus spp. at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 2 μg ml(-1) and increased the in vitro inhibitory effect of azoles, especially fluconazole (FLC) (P < 0.05). Inhibition of Hsp90 also increased the antifungal activity of azoles against biofilm formation and mature biofilms of Cryptococcus spp., notably for Cryptococcus gattii. Furthermore, Hsp90 inhibition compromised the permeability of the cell membrane, and reduced planktonic growth at 37 °C and the capsular size of Cryptococcus spp. In addition, Hsp90 inhibition enhanced the antifungal activity of FLC during experimental infection using Caenorhabditis elegans. Therefore, our results indicate that Hsp90 inhibition can be an important strategy in the development of new antifungal drugs.

  18. Influence of a weak dc electric field on tricritical phase transition in TGSe: evidence of different specific heat behaviour on cooling and heating runs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, F J; Gallardo, M C; Jimenez, J; Cerro, J del [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Instituto Ciencia Materiales Sevilla, Universidad de Sevilla-CSIC, PO Box 1065, 41080 Sevilla (Spain)

    2006-11-08

    The para-ferroelectric tricritical phase transition of a single crystal of triglycine selenate (TGSe) has been studied in the neighbourhood of the transition temperature, under weak electric fields, E, using a highly sensitive calorimetric technique. The specific heat, c{sub E}, under fields in the range between 5 and 175 V cm{sup -1} and close to transition temperature (0.2 K), shows different behaviour on cooling and on heating at a temperature variation rate of {+-} 0.03 K h{sup -1}; for Theating and on cooling runs is discussed and it is concluded that data on heating correspond to the thermal equilibrium.

  19. A novel conditional gene silencing method using a tumor-specific and heat-inducible siRNA system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jing; Wang, Xiaoyu; Liao, Yi; Feng, Jianguo; Tang, Liling

    2016-06-01

    RNAi technology is an invaluable tool for investigating gene function. However, the non-temporal and non-spatial control is the primary limitation, which leads to siRNA leakiness and off-target effects. In this study, we inserted three kinds of HSE into tumor specific promoter hTERT, which aims to construct a temperature-inducible and tumor-specific RNAi plasmid vector. In our system, the expression of mature siRNA is tightly controlled by the heat shock-inducible and tumor-specific promoters. From the expression level of RNA and protein, we determined the efficiency of the inducible siRNA system by targeting SNCG gene in HepG2 and MCF-7 cells. Results showed that the controllable siRNA system could be induced to initiate siRNA expression by heat-induce. The silencing effect of SNCG is on a relative low level (10 %) at 37 °C, while it is significantly increased to 50 or 60 % after heat inducing at 43 °C. This new conditional siRNA system provides a novel approach to drive the siRNA expression by heat-inducible and tumor-specific promoter.

  20. CHNO Energetic Polymer Specific Heat Prediction From The Proposed Nominal/Generic (N/G) CP Concept

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Billingsley, James P

    2007-01-01

    The importance of the specific heat (Cp) of CHNO energetic polymers relative to their impact shock sensitivity has been documented in MICOM TR-RD-SS-95-2, AMCOM TR-KD-SS-99-8, and RDECOM TR- AMR-SS-06-09...

  1. Specific heat of Nb{sub 3}Sn: The case for a single gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Y. J., E-mail: jophy@knu.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Zhou, Jian; Sung, Zu Hawn; Lee, Peter J.; Larbalestier, D. C. [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32310 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The important influence of multiple gaps in the superconductivity of MgB{sub 2} and Fe-based compounds, especially because of the possibility that manipulation of a second gap can significantly raise the upper critical field H{sub c2}, has refocused attention on Nb{sub 3}Sn because anomalies in both specific heat and point-contact tunneling studies have led to the proposal that Nb{sub 3}Sn is also a two-gap superconductor. Here, we search for evidence of the second gap in a careful study of the influence of the homogenization temperature on the sample uniformity. We show that it is very difficult to fabricate samples that are both homogeneous and stoichiometric. We find so-called “second-gap” anomalies disappear only after high temperature and long-term annealing. Such a well-annealed sample shows only a strong, electron-phonon-coupled, single-gap behavior. In contrast, samples reacted and annealed at lower temperatures, as in the earlier two-gap studies, show small chemical composition variations of the A15 phase. We propose that the second gap sightings are actually due to variation of T{sub c} within very difficult-to-fully homogenize samples. A curiosity of the A15 Nb{sub 3}Sn phase is that almost any mixture of Nb and Sn tries to form a stoichiometric A15 composition, but the residue of course contains off-stoichiometric A15, Nb, and other phases when the Nb:Sn ratio departs from the true 3:1 stoichiometry.

  2. Istra district heating system. Specific technical report. Appendix 2 to the master plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    The objective of the master plan project is to improve heat supply in Istra. The considerable system losses from the fuel supplied to the end-users are one subject for improvement. At the same time, the current system operation results in poor quality heat for the consumers. Due to the inflexibility of the system, the dwellings/premises of the consumers are either overheated or insufficiently heated. The financial situation in Istra, the legal ownership of the district heating system and consumers ability to pay limit the possibilities for system improvements. The Master Plan and Feasibility Study evaluates four different development scenarios. Each of the scenarios is compared to the current situation in Istra, where nothing is done to change the system, but only to operate the present system in a sustainable way. The sustainable operation of the district heating system includes all necessary renovations and component replacements necessary. The project does not take into account the present financial situation in Istra, which has resulted in less maintenance than necessary. This situation is not a comparable parameter, as it is not sustainable and will lead to a breakdown of the heat supply within a short time horizon. (EHS)

  3. GABAergic neuron-specific loss of Ube3a causes Angelman syndrome-like EEG abnormalities and enhances seizure susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judson, Matthew C.; Wallace, Michael L.; Sidorov, Michael S.; Burette, Alain C.; Gu, Bin; van Woerden, Geeske M.; King, Ian F.; Han, Ji Eun; Zylka, Mark J.; Elgersma, Ype; Weinberg, Richard J.; Philpot, Benjamin D.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Loss of maternal UBE3A causes Angelman syndrome (AS), a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with severe epilepsy. We previously implicated GABAergic deficits onto layer (L) 2/3 pyramidal neurons in the pathogenesis of neocortical hyperexcitability, and perhaps epilepsy, in AS model mice. Here we investigate consequences of selective Ube3a loss from either GABAergic or glutamatergic neurons, focusing on the development of hyperexcitability within L2/3 neocortex and in broader circuit and behavioral contexts. We find that GABAergic Ube3a loss causes AS-like increases in neocortical EEG delta power, enhances seizure susceptibility, and leads to presynaptic accumulation of clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) – all without decreasing GABAergic inhibition onto L2/3 pyramidal neurons. Conversely, glutamatergic Ube3a loss fails to yield EEG abnormalities, seizures, or associated CCV phenotypes, despite impairing tonic inhibition onto L2/3 pyramidal neurons. These results substantiate GABAergic Ube3a loss as the principal cause of circuit hyperexcitability in AS mice, lending insight into ictogenic mechanisms in AS. PMID:27021170

  4. Biomphalaria glabrata transcriptome: cDNA microarray profiling identifies resistant- and susceptible-specific gene expression in haemocytes from snail strains exposed to Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rollinson David

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomphalaria glabrata is an intermediate snail host for Schistosoma mansoni, one of the important schistosomes infecting man. B. glabrata/S. mansoni provides a useful model system for investigating the intimate interactions between host and parasite. Examining differential gene expression between S. mansoni-exposed schistosome-resistant and susceptible snail lines will identify genes and pathways that may be involved in snail defences. Results We have developed a 2053 element cDNA microarray for B. glabrata containing clones from ORESTES (Open Reading frame ESTs libraries, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH libraries and clones identified in previous expression studies. Snail haemocyte RNA, extracted from parasite-challenged resistant and susceptible snails, 2 to 24 h post-exposure to S. mansoni, was hybridized to the custom made cDNA microarray and 98 differentially expressed genes or gene clusters were identified, 94 resistant-associated and 4 susceptible-associated. Quantitative PCR analysis verified the cDNA microarray results for representative transcripts. Differentially expressed genes were annotated and clustered using gene ontology (GO terminology and Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway analysis. 61% of the identified differentially expressed genes have no known function including the 4 susceptible strain-specific transcripts. Resistant strain-specific expression of genes implicated in innate immunity of invertebrates was identified, including hydrolytic enzymes such as cathepsin L, a cysteine proteinase involved in lysis of phagocytosed particles; metabolic enzymes such as ornithine decarboxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the production of polyamines, important in inflammation and infection processes, as well as scavenging damaging free radicals produced during production of reactive oxygen species; stress response genes such as HSP70; proteins involved in signalling, such as importin 7

  5. Laser heat hyperalgesia is not a feature of non-specific chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, M; Ritter, A; Puta, C; Nötzel, D; Miltner, W H R; Weiss, T

    2014-11-01

    Based upon studies using mechanical pin-prick, pressure, electrical or heat stimuli applied to painful and/or pain-free parts of the body, chronic low back pain (CLBP) has been shown to be associated with generalized and enhanced pain sensitivity and altered brain responses to noxious stimuli. To date, no study examined the processing of noxious laser heat pulses, which are known to selectively excite thermal nociceptors located in the superficial skin layers, in CLBP. We studied laser heat pain thresholds (LHPTs) and nociceptive laser-evoked brain electrical potentials (LEPs) following skin stimulation of the pain-affected back and the pain-free abdomen using noxious laser heat stimulation in 16 CLBP patients and 16 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HCs). We observed no statistically significant differences in LHPTs between CLBP patients and HCs, neither on the back nor on the abdomen. Furthermore, we found no evidence for altered brain responses between CLBP patients and HCs in response to stimulation of the back and abdomen in single-trial latencies and amplitudes of LEP components (N2, P2). The results are in contrast to previous studies showing hypersensitivity to different experimental noxious stimuli (e.g., contact heat). We argue that these discrepancies may be due to low spatial and temporal summation within the central nervous system following laser heat stimulation. Our results indicate important methodological differences between laser heat and thermode stimulation that should be taken into account when interpreting results, such as from thermal quantitative sensory testing. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  6. Voxel-specific brain arterial input functions from dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI and blind deconvolution in a group of healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordli, Håkon; Taxt, Torfinn; Moen, Gunnar; Grüner, Renate

    2010-04-01

    Arterial input functions may differ between brain regions due to delay and dispersion effects in the vascular supply network. Unless corrected for, these differences may degrade quantitative estimations of cerebral blood flow in dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance perfusion imaging (DSC-MRI). To investigate in a healthy population (n=44) the properties of voxel-specific arterial input functions that were obtained using a recently published blind estimation approach. The voxel-specific arterial input functions were qualitatively and quantitatively assessed, through visual inspection or by comparing time-to-peak (delays) and peak amplitude (dispersion) values between eight regions of the brain. Furthermore, they were compared to arterial input functions selected manually in the middle cerebral artery (MCA), where normally no delay or dispersion of the contrast agent was expected. The estimated voxel-specific arterial input functions varied between brain regions. Differences in delays and dispersion were larger within one brain region among all participants than between regions in one participant. A good correlation was typically found between the estimated voxel-specific arterial input functions and the manually selected arterial input functions in the MCA region. Given knowledge of neurovascular anatomy, the current blind approach seemingly produced reasonable estimates of voxel-specific arterial input functions. In addition to potentially reducing quantification errors in DSC-MRI, these user-independent voxel-specific arterial input functions could be useful for visualizing abnormal blood supply patterns in patients.

  7. Occupational exposure in small and medium scale industry with specific reference to heat and noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lakhwinder Pal; Bhardwaj, Arvind; Deepak, Kishore Kumar

    2010-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess heat and noise exposure and occupational safety practices in small and medium scale casting and forging units (SMEs) of Northern India. We conducted personal interviews of 350 male workers of these units through a comprehensive questionnaire and collected information on heat and noise exposure, use of protective equipment, sweat loss and water intake, working hour. The ambient wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT index) was measured using quest temp 34/36o area heat stress monitor. A-weighted Leq ambient noise was measured using a quest sound level meter "ANSI SI. 43-1997 (R 2002) type-1 model SOUNDPRO SE/DL". We also incorporated OSHA norms for hearing conservation which include - an exchange rate of 5dB(A), criterion level at 90dB(A), criterion time of eight hours, threshold level is equal to 80dB(A), upper limit is equal to 140dB(A) and with F/S response rate. Results of the study revealed that occupational heat exposure in melting, casting, forging and punching sections is high compared to ACGIH/NIOSH norms. Ambience noise in various sections like casting / molding, drop forging, cutting presses, punching, grinding and barreling process was found to be more than 90dB(A). About 95% of the workers suffered speech interference where as high noise annoyance was reported by only 20%. Overall, 68% workers were not using any personal protective equipment (PPE). The study concluded that the proportion of SME workers exposed to high level heat stress and noise (60 - 72 hrs/week) is high. The workers engaged in forging and grinding sections are more prone to noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) at higher frequencies as compared to workers of other sections. It is recommended that there is a strong need to implement the standard of working hours as well as heat stress and noise control measures.

  8. Occupational exposure in small and medium scale industry with specific reference to heat and noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakhwinder Pal Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to assess heat and noise exposure and occupational safety practices in small and medium scale casting and forging units (SMEs of Northern India. We conducted personal interviews of 350 male workers of these units through a comprehensive questionnaire and collected information on heat and noise exposure, use of protective equipment, sweat loss and water intake, working hour. The ambient wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT index was measured using quest temp 34/36o area heat stress monitor. A-weighted Leq ambient noise was measured using a quest sound level meter "ANSI SI. 43-1997 (R 2002 type-1 model SOUNDPRO SE/DL". We also incorporated OSHA norms for hearing conservation which include - an exchange rate of 5dB(A, criterion level at 90dB(A, criterion time of eight hours, threshold level is equal to 80dB(A, upper limit is equal to 140dB(A and with F/S response rate. Results of the study revealed that occupational heat exposure in melting, casting, forging and punching sections is high compared to ACGIH/NIOSH norms. Ambience noise in various sections like casting / molding, drop forging, cutting presses, punching, grinding and barreling process was found to be more than 90dB(A. About 95% of the workers suffered speech interference where as high noise annoyance was reported by only 20%. Overall, 68% workers were not using any personal protective equipment (PPE. The study concluded that the proportion of SME workers exposed to high level heat stress and noise (60 - 72 hrs/week is high. The workers engaged in forging and grinding sections are more prone to noise induced hearing loss (NIHL at higher frequencies as compared to workers of other sections. It is recommended that there is a strong need to implement the standard of working hours as well as heat stress and noise control measures.

  9. Investigations of temperature dependences of electrical resistivity and specific heat capacity of metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eser, Erhan, E-mail: eserphy@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Polatlı Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Gazi University, Polatlı, Ankara (Turkey); Koç, Hüseyin [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Muş Alparslan University, Muş (Turkey)

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we calculated the electrical resistivity and heat capacities of some ideal metals (Cu, Pt, and Pd) using a method that it employs the statistical model and Debye functions. The method is used to provide a simple and reliable analytical procedure for wide temperature range. The results obtained for the electrical resistivity and heat capacity have been compared with the results in literature. The results obtained at low temperature are in excellent agreement with experimental and theoretical results. Finally the used approximation and analytical method are a useful approach to calculate thermophysical properties of metals.

  10. Specific heat and magnetic properties of single-crystalline Zn{sub x}Dy{sub y}Cr{sub z}Se{sub 4} spinels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jendrzejewska, Izabela, E-mail: izabela.jendrzejewska@us.edu.pl [University of Silesia, Institute of Chemistry, Szkolna 9, 40-006 Katowice (Poland); Groń, Tadeusz [University of Silesia, Institute of Physics, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Maciążek, Ewa [University of Silesia, Institute of Chemistry, Szkolna 9, 40-006 Katowice (Poland); Duda, Henryk [University of Silesia, Institute of Physics, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Kubisztal, Marian [University of Silesia, Institute of Material Science, 75 Pułku Piechoty 1A, 41-500 Chorzów (Poland); Ślebarski, Andrzej [University of Silesia, Institute of Physics, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Pietrasik, Ewa [University of Silesia, Institute of Chemistry, Szkolna 9, 40-006 Katowice (Poland); Fijałkowski, Marcin [University of Silesia, Institute of Physics, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland)

    2016-06-01

    The crystal structure, magnetic isotherm, magnetic susceptibility, electrical conductivity and specific heat measurements for single-crystalline Zn{sub x}Dy{sub y}Cr{sub z}Se{sub 4} (where x+y+z≈3) spinels are presented. A semiconducting behavior with the activation energy of 0.53 eV, an antiferromagnetic order with a Néel temperature T{sub N}=22 K and a strong ferromagnetic exchange evidenced by a positive Curie–Weiss temperature θ=79, 71 and 70 K with increasing Dy-content in the sequence 0.05, 0.13 and 0.19 were established. Below T{sub N} the magnetic field dependence of magnetization, M(H), shows two peaks at critical fields H{sub c1} and H{sub c2}. The values of H{sub c1} decrease slightly with temperature, especially for the larger Dy-content, while the values of H{sub c2} drop rapidly with temperature. The magnetic contribution to the specific heat displays a sharp peak at T{sub N}, which is strongly shifted to much lower temperatures in the applied magnetic fields. Similar behavior was found for the temperature dependence of the specific heat C(T) plotted as C(T)/T vs. T. The value of the magnetic and phonon contribution to the entropy at T{sub N} and at H=0 is only ∼4.8, ∼4.4 and ∼4.2 J mol{sup −1} K{sup −1}/Cr{sup 3+} for y=0.05, 0.13 and 0.19, respectively, much lower than the average magnetic contribution S{sub m}=(z/2)Rln(2S+1)=12.33 J mol{sup −1} K{sup −1}/Cr{sup 3+} calculated for Cr{sup 3+} ion with S=3/2, as the dysprosium one is paramagnetic. - Highlights: • Dy-substitution does not affect the Cr{sup 3+} 3d{sup 3} electronic configuration and AFM order. • The larger Dy-content, the smaller FM short-range interactions. • The magnetic and phonon contribution to the entropy decreases as Dy-content increases.

  11. Transgenerational effects of mild heat in Arabidopsis thaliana show strong genotype specificity that is explained by climate at origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groot, Maartje P; Kubisch, Alexander; Ouborg, N Joop; Pagel, Jörn; Schmid, Karl J; Vergeer, Philippine; Lampei, Christian

    2017-08-01

    Transgenerational environmental effects can trigger strong phenotypic variation. However, it is unclear how cues from different preceding generations interact. Also, little is known about the genetic variation for these life history traits. Here, we present the effects of grandparental and parental mild heat, and their combination, on four traits of the third-generation phenotype of 14 Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes. We tested for correlations of these effects with climate and constructed a conceptual model to identify the environmental conditions that favour the parental effect on flowering time. We observed strong evidence for genotype-specific transgenerational effects. On average, A. thaliana accustomed to mild heat produced more seeds after two generations. Parental effects overruled grandparental effects in all traits except reproductive biomass. Flowering was generally accelerated by all transgenerational effects. Notably, the parental effect triggered earliest flowering in genotypes adapted to dry summers. Accordingly, this parental effect was favoured in the model when early summer heat terminated the growing season and environments were correlated across generations. Our results suggest that A. thaliana can partly accustom to mild heat over two generations and genotype-specific parental effects show non-random evolutionary divergence across populations that may support climate change adaptation in the Mediterranean. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Determination of the Specific Heat Ratio of a Gas in a Plastic Syringe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    The rapid compression or expansion of a gas in a plastic syringe is a poor approximation of an adiabatic process. Heat exchange with the walls of the syringe brings the gas to equilibrium in an amount of time that is not significantly greater than the length of the compression or expansion itself. Despite this limitation, it is still possible to…

  13. Order parameter anisotropy of MgB2 using specific heat jump of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The recently obtained analytical result [1] for renormalization of the jump of the heat capacity (S-N)/N by anisotropy of the order parameter is applied to the layered superconductors. The graph of (S-N)/N vs. the anisotropy of the order parameter allows a direct determination of the gap anisotropy in MgB2 using ...

  14. Calculation of thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat capacity of sedimentary rocks using petrophysical well logs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, Sven; Balling, Niels; Förster, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In this study, equations are developed that predict for synthetic sedimentary rocks (clastics, carbonates and evapourates) thermal properties comprising thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity and thermal diffusivity. The rock groups are composed of mineral assemblages with variable contents...... of each property vary depending on the selected well-log combination. Best prediction is in the range of 2–8 per cent for the specific heat capacity, of 5–10 per cent for the thermal conductivity, and of 8–15 for the thermal diffusivity, respectively. Well-log derived thermal conductivity is validated...... by laboratory data measured on cores from deep boreholes of the Danish Basin, the North German Basin, and the Molasse Basin. Additional validation of thermal conductivity was performed by comparing predicted and measured temperature logs. The maximum deviation between these logs is conductivity...

  15. The calculation of high-temperature equilibrium and nonequilibrium specific heat data for N2, O2 and NO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Richard L.

    1987-01-01

    Specific heat data for high-temperature air species are needed to compute the temperature and enthalpy of gas mixtures in aerothermodynamics flowfield calculations. Accurate data are known only for temperatures under 6000 K, but are required for temperatures exceeding 25,000 K. In the present study, CP data are computed for N2, O2 and NO. The calculations are based on summations over all the vibration-rotation energy levels for all known bound electronic states. Estimates are made for the error introduced by the neglect of possible additional high-lying electronic states. In addition, a scheme for the partitioning of the internal energy into vibrational, rotational and electronic contributions is presented which consistently accounts for the nonseparable nature of the various energy modes. The multitemperature specific heat data are recommended for use in nonequilibrium flowfield models.

  16. The specific heat of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overend, N.; Howson, M.A. [Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom); Abell, S. [Universities of Birmingham and Oxford (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The specific heat of twinned and detwinned single crystal samples of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} have been measured with magnetic fields up to 8 tesla applied parallel to the c-axes of the crystals. The samples measured had transition temperatures around 90K and transition widths from 0.3 K to 2 K. The data exhibits scaling behaviour characteristic of the 3-dimensional X-Y model with critical exponents consistent with those observed in superfluid {sup 4}He. The authors then compare the scaling properties of the specific heat in the different samples and look for the {open_quote}universal{close_quote} nature of the scaling function.

  17. Allele-specific analysis of cell fusion-mediated pluripotent reprograming reveals distinct and predictive susceptibilities of human X-linked genes to reactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantone, Irene; Dharmalingam, Gopuraja; Chan, Yi-Wah; Kohler, Anne-Celine; Lenhard, Boris; Merkenschlager, Matthias; Fisher, Amanda G

    2017-01-25

    Inactivation of one X chromosome is established early in female mammalian development and can be reversed in vivo and in vitro when pluripotency factors are re-expressed. The extent of reactivation along the inactive X chromosome (Xi) and the determinants of locus susceptibility are, however, poorly understood. Here we use cell fusion-mediated pluripotent reprograming to study human Xi reactivation and allele-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to identify reactivated loci. We show that a subset of human Xi genes is rapidly reactivated upon re-expression of the pluripotency network. These genes lie within the most evolutionary recent segments of the human X chromosome that are depleted of LINE1 and enriched for SINE elements, predicted to impair XIST spreading. Interestingly, this cadre of genes displays stochastic Xi expression in human fibroblasts ahead of reprograming. This stochastic variability is evident between clones, by RNA-sequencing, and at the single-cell level, by RNA-FISH, and is not attributable to differences in repressive histone H3K9me3 or H3K27me3 levels. Treatment with the DNA demethylating agent 5-deoxy-azacytidine does not increase Xi expression ahead of reprograming, but instead reveals a second cadre of genes that only become susceptible to reactivation upon induction of pluripotency. Collectively, these data not only underscore the multiple pathways that contribute to maintaining silencing along the human Xi chromosome but also suggest that transcriptional stochasticity among human cells could be useful for predicting and engineering epigenetic strategies to achieve locus-specific or domain-specific human Xi gene reactivation.

  18. A study on specific heat capacities of Li-ion cell components and their influence on thermal management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loges, André; Herberger, Sabrina; Seegert, Philipp; Wetzel, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Thermal models of Li-ion cells on various geometrical scales and with various complexity have been developed in the past to account for the temperature dependent behaviour of Li-ion cells. These models require accurate data on thermal material properties to offer reliable validation and interpretation of the results. In this context a thorough study on the specific heat capacities of Li-ion cells starting from raw materials and electrode coatings to representative unit cells of jelly rolls/electrode stacks with lumped values was conducted. The specific heat capacity is reported as a function of temperature and state of charge (SOC). Seven Li-ion cells from different manufactures with different cell chemistry, application and design were considered and generally applicable correlations were developed. A 2D thermal model of an automotive Li-ion cell for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) application illustrates the influence of specific heat capacity on the effectivity of cooling concepts and the temperature development of Li-ion cells.

  19. Specific heat of REBaSrCu{sub 3}O{sub 7} compounds (R=Nd, Sm, Dy, Er)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarnawski, Z. [Academy of Min. and Metall., Cracow (Poland). Solid State Phys. Dept.]|[Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Van der Waals-Zeeman Inst.; Wang, X.Z. [Johannes Keppler Univ., Linz (Austria). Angewandte Physik; Kim-Ngan, N.-T.H. [Pedagogical Univ., Krakow (Poland). Center for Solid State Physics]|[Pedagogical Univ., Krakow (Poland). Inst. of Physics; Radwanski, R.J. [Pedagogical Univ., Krakow (Poland). Center for Solid State Physics]|[Pedagogical Univ., Krakow (Poland). Inst. of Physics; Franse, J.J.M. [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Van der Waals-Zeeman Inst.

    1996-05-01

    Specific heat measurements have been performed on polycrystalline REBaSrCu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (R=Nd, Sm, Dy, Er) in the temperature range from 0.3 to 3 K. Antiferromagnetic order is indicated by the {lambda}-type peak in the specific heat at 1.2 and 0.6 K for Dy and Er compounds, respectively, whereas only a broad anomaly around 0.6 K is observed for Nd and Sm compounds. The specific heat data for Nd and Sm compounds are well fit with a Schottky-type anomaly with an energy splitting of 1.4 K, indicating the existence of an internal field of 2.42 T at the RE site. The magnetic singlet ground state of ErBaSrCu{sub 3}O{sub 7} and DyBaSrCu{sub 3}O{sub 7} is produ ced by exchange interactions of -0.05 and -0.035 T f.u./{mu}{sub B}, respectively. (orig.).

  20. Experimental study on density, thermal conductivity, specific heat, and viscosity of water-ethylene glycol mixture dispersed with carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganeshkumar Jayabalan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the effect of adding multi wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT in water – ethylene glycol mixture on density and various thermophysical properties such as thermal conductivity, specific heat and viscosity. Density of nanofluids was measured using standard volumetric flask method and the data showed a good agreement with the mixing theory. The maximum thermal conductivity enhancement of 11 % was noticed for the nanofluids with 0.9 wt. %. Due to lower specific heat of the MWCNT, the specific heat of the nanofluids decreased in proportion with the MWCNT concentration. The rheological analysis showed that the transition region from shear thinning to Newtonian extended to the higher shear stress range compared to that of base fluids. Viscosity ratio of the nanofluids augmented anomalously with respect to increase in temperature and about 2.25 fold increase was observed in the temperature range of 30 – 40 ˚C. The modified model of Maron and Pierce predicted the viscosity of the nanofluids with the inclusion of effect of aspect ratio of MWCNT and nanoparticle aggregates.

  1. The determination of values of the specific heat capacity of the selected thermal insulation materials used in track bed structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobeš Peter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The report concentrates on the determination of the specific heat capacity of the selected thermal insulation materials (liapor, styrodur, foam concrete. The aim of the report is to gain the necessary input parameters for the numerical modelling of the temperature changes of various track bed structures of the railway line where a part or, if appropriate, the whole protective layer is replaced by the material with better thermal insulation properties. There are described the methods for stating the specific heat capacity as well as the calibration of the calorimeter for stating of the calorimetric constant in the introduction of the report. The parameters needed for calculation of the specific heat capacity of the selected thermal insulation materials are characterized in the second part of the report. There are also introduced the laboratory stated values of the parameter in question. The comparison of the values stated by the laboratory measurements with the values introduced in the technical data sheets from their producers (or if appropriate gained from the foreign sources is made in the conclusion of the report.

  2. Relationship between resistivity and specific heat in a canonical non-magnetic heavy fermion alloy system: UPt{sub 5-x}Au{sub x}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andraka, B.; Pietri, R.; Thomas, S.G. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics; Stewart, G.R. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics; University of Augsburg, Memminger Str. 6, 86135 Augsburg (Germany); Scheidt, E.W.; Schreiner, T. [University of Augsburg, Memminger Str. 6, 86135 Augsburg (Germany)

    1999-10-01

    A comprehensive study of the relationship between the electronic specific heat coefficient ({gamma}) and the temperature square coefficient (A) of the electrical resistivity for a single, cubic, heavy fermion alloy system, UPt{sub 5-x}Au{sub x} is presented. In this alloy system, whose low temperature properties are consistent with the Fermi-liquid behavior, {gamma} varies by more than a factor of 10 while the corresponding A coefficient changes by a factor larger than 200. A tracks changes in {gamma} fairly well, but A/{gamma}{sup 2}, postulated to have a universal value for heavy fermions, is not constant and varies from about 10{sup -6}(x=0,0.5) to 10{sup -5}{mu}{omega} cm (mol K/mJ){sup 2}(x>1.1), thus from a value typical of transition metals to that characteristic of other heavy fermion compounds. We have found a correlation between A/{gamma}{sup 2} and magnetic characteristics such as the paramagnetic Curie-Weiss temperature and the low temperature magnetic susceptibility divided by {gamma}. (orig.)

  3. Chlamydia trachomatis and chlamydial heat shock protein 60-specific antibody and cell-mediated responses predict tubal factor infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiitinen, A.; Surcel, H.-M.; Halttunen, M.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To evaluate the role of Chlamydia trachomatis-induced humoral and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses in predicting tubal factor infertility (TFI). METHODS: Blood samples were taken from 88 women with TFI and 163 control women. C. trachomatis and chlamydial heat shock protein 60 (CHSP......60)-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies were analysed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Proliferative reactivity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells was studied in vitro against Chlamydia elementary body (EB) and recombinant CHSP60 antigens. RESULTS: C. trachomatis-specific...

  4. Solar feasibility study for site-specific industrial-process-heat applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, O.L.

    1980-03-18

    This study addresses the technical feasibility of solar energy in industrial process heat (IPH) applications in Mid-America. The study was one of two contracted efforts covering the MASEC 12-state region comprised of: Illinois, Michigan, North Dakota, Indiana, Minnesota, Ohio, Iowa, Missouri, South Dakota, Kansas, Nebraska, Wisconsin. The results of our study are encouraging to the potential future role of solar energy in supplying process heat to a varied range of industries and applications. We identified and developed Case Study documentation of twenty feasible solar IPH applications covering eight major SIC groups within the Mid-American region. The geographical distribution of these applications for the existing range of solar insolation levels are shown and the characteristics of the applications are summarized. The results of the study include process identification, analysis of process heat requirements, selection of preliminary solar system characteristics, and estimation of system performance and cost. These are included in each of the 20 Case Studies. The body of the report is divided into two primary discussion sections dealing with the Study Methodology employed in the effort and the Follow-On Potential of the identified applications with regard to possible demonstration projects. The 20 applications are rated with respect to their relative overall viability and procedures are discussed for possible demonstration project embarkment. Also, a possible extension of this present feasibility study for late-comer industrial firms expressing interest appears worthy of consideration.

  5. Specific Aspects Regarding Coupled Numerical Modeling of Inverter and Load Equipments in an Induction Heating Installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu MICH-VANCEA

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The most propitious projection of inductiveelectrothermic installation requires a deep study ofcoupled electrothermic and circuits problems; thereforethe present paper follows the same line. Research inspecific literature have emphasized that induction heatinghas a much higher efficiency if the supply of the charge(inductor – piece is done at frequencies other thatindustrial one. [1]. Due to material alter depending ontemperature and, implicitly, the variation of the electricalparameters of the heating installation it is necessary totackle the projection of these inductive electrothermicinstallation projected through coupled numericalmodeling of the inverter circuit and of the heatingthrough induction process. The paper presents thenumerical modeling of the continuous current –alternating current conversion bridge (inverter withelements of static switch – over, the type of commandsignal (PWM of elements of static switch of power, thenumerical modeling of the heating throughelectromagnetic induction process and aspects ofcorrelation regarding the functioning/ working of theinstallation depending on the parameters of the load. Theparameters get modified due to material alter dependingon temperature during the heating process.

  6. 16 kDa heat shock protein from heat-inactivated Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a homodimer - suitability for diagnostic applications with specific llama VHH monoclonals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Saurabh K; Ruigrok, Vincent J B; Thompson, Natalie J; Trilling, Anke K; Heck, Albert J R; van Rijn, Cees; Beekwilder, Jules; Jongsma, Maarten A

    2013-01-01

    The 16 kDa heat shock protein (HSP) is an immuno-dominant antigen, used in diagnosis of infectious Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb.) causing tuberculosis (TB). Its use in serum-based diagnostics is limited, but for the direct identification of M.tb. bacteria in sputum or cultures it may represent a useful tool. Recently, a broad set of twelve 16 kDa specific heavy chain llama antibodies (VHH) has been isolated, and their utility for diagnostic applications was explored. To identify the epitopes recognized by the nine (randomly selected from a set of twelve 16 kDa specific VHH antibodies) distinct VHH antibodies, 14 overlapping linear epitopes (each 20 amino acid long) were characterized using direct and sandwich ELISA techniques. Seven out of 14 epitopes were recognized by 8 out of 9 VHH antibodies. The two highest affinity binders B-F10 and A-23 were found to bind distinct epitopes. Sandwich ELISA and SPR experiments showed that only B-F10 was suitable as secondary antibody with both B-F10 and A-23 as anchoring antibodies. To explain this behavior, the epitopes were matched to the putative 3D structure model. Electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and size exclusion chromatography were used to determine the higher order conformation. A homodimer model best explained the differential immunological reactivity of A-23 and B-F10 against heat-treated M.tb. lysates. The concentrations of secreted antigens of M.tb. in sputum are too low for immunological detection and existing kits are only used for identifying M.tb. in cultures. Here we describe how specific combinations of VHH domains could be used to detect the intracellular HSP antigen. Linked to methods of pre-concentrating M.tb. cells prior to lysis, HSP detection may enable the development of protein-based diagnostics of sputum samples and earlier diagnosis of diseases.

  7. Bromodomain protein 4 discriminates tissue-specific super-enhancers containing disease-specific susceptibility loci in prostate and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuber, Verena; Bettella, Francesco; Witoelar, Aree

    2017-01-01

    ) and applied to other diseases such as schizophrenia. Conclusions: This is the first study to evaluate the enrichment of epigenetic readers in genome-wide associations studies for SNPs within enhancers, and provides a powerful tool for enriching and prioritizing PC and BC genetic risk loci. Our study......Background: Epigenetic information can be used to identify clinically relevant genomic variants single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of functional importance in cancer development. Super-enhancers are cell-specific DNA elements, acting to determine tissue or cell identity and driving tumor...... progression. Although previous approaches have been tried to explain risk associated with SNPs in regulatory DNA elements, so far epigenetic readers such as bromodomain containing protein 4 (BRD4) and super-enhancers have not been used to annotate SNPs. In prostate cancer (PC), androgen receptor (AR) binding...

  8. General and species-specific transcriptional responses to downy mildew infection in a susceptible (Vitis vinifera) and a resistant (V. riparia) grapevine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Downy mildew is a destructive grapevine disease caused by Plasmopara viticola (Berk. and Curt.) Berl. and de Toni, which can only be controlled by intensive fungicide treatments. Natural sources of resistance from wild grapevine (Vitis) species are used in conventional breeding approaches, but the signals and effectors involved in resistance in this important crop species are not well understood. Results Early transcriptional changes associated with P. viticola infection in susceptible V. vinifera and resistant V. riparia plants were analyzed using the Combimatrix microarray platform. Transcript levels were measured 12 and 24 h post-inoculation, reflecting the time points immediately preceding the onset of resistance in V. riparia, as determined by microscopic analysis. Our data indicate that resistance in V. riparia is induced after infection, and is not based on differences in basal gene expression between the two species. The strong and rapid transcriptional reprogramming involves the induction of pathogenesis-related proteins and enzymes required for the synthesis of phenylpropanoid-derived compounds, many of which are also induced, albeit to a lesser extent, in V. vinifera. More interestingly, resistance in V. riparia also involves the specific modulation of numerous transcripts encoding components of signal transduction cascades, hypersensitive reaction markers and genes involved in jasmonate biosynthesis. The limited transcriptional modulation in V. vinifera represents a weak attempted defense response rather than the activation of compatibility-specific pathways. Conclusions Several candidate resistance genes were identified that could be exploited in future biotechnological approaches to increase disease resistance in susceptible grapevine species. Measurements of jasmonic acid and methyl jasmonate in infected leaves suggest that this hormone may also be involved in V. riparia resistance to P. viticola. PMID:20167053

  9. Emergence of a Homo sapiens-specific gene family and chromosome 16p11.2 CNV susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttle, Xander; Giannuzzi, Giuliana; Duyzend, Michael H; Schraiber, Joshua G; Narvaiza, Iñigo; Sudmant, Peter H; Penn, Osnat; Chiatante, Giorgia; Malig, Maika; Huddleston, John; Benner, Chris; Camponeschi, Francesca; Ciofi-Baffoni, Simone; Stessman, Holly A F; Marchetto, Maria C N; Denman, Laura; Harshman, Lana; Baker, Carl; Raja, Archana; Penewit, Kelsi; Janke, Nicolette; Tang, W Joyce; Ventura, Mario; Banci, Lucia; Antonacci, Francesca; Akey, Joshua M; Amemiya, Chris T; Gage, Fred H; Reymond, Alexandre; Eichler, Evan E

    2016-08-11

    Genetic differences that specify unique aspects of human evolution have typically been identified by comparative analyses between the genomes of humans and closely related primates, including more recently the genomes of archaic hominins. Not all regions of the genome, however, are equally amenable to such study. Recurrent copy number variation (CNV) at chromosome 16p11.2 accounts for approximately 1% of cases of autism and is mediated by a complex set of segmental duplications, many of which arose recently during human evolution. Here we reconstruct the evolutionary history of the locus and identify bolA family member 2 (BOLA2) as a gene duplicated exclusively in Homo sapiens. We estimate that a 95-kilobase-pair segment containing BOLA2 duplicated across the critical region approximately 282 thousand years ago (ka), one of the latest among a series of genomic changes that dramatically restructured the locus during hominid evolution. All humans examined carried one or more copies of the duplication, which nearly fixed early in the human lineage--a pattern unlikely to have arisen so rapidly in the absence of selection (P sapiens-specific duplication. In summary, the duplicative transposition of BOLA2 at the root of the H. sapiens lineage about 282 ka simultaneously increased copy number of a gene associated with iron homeostasis and predisposed our species to recurrent rearrangements associated with disease.

  10. Nanocalorimeter platform for in situ specific heat measurements and x-ray diffraction at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willa, K. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Diao, Z. [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden; Laboratory of Mathematics, Physics and Electrical Engineering, Halmstad University, P.O. Box 823, SE-301 18 Halmstad, Sweden; Campanini, D. [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden; Welp, U. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Divan, R. [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Hudl, M. [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden; Islam, Z. [X-ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Kwok, W. -K. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Rydh, A. [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden

    2017-12-01

    Recent advances in electronics and nanofabrication have enabled membrane-based nanocalorimetry for measurements of the specific heat of microgram-sized samples. We have integrated a nanocalorimeter platform into a 4.5 T split-pair vertical-field magnet to allow for the simultaneous measurement of the specific heat and x-ray scattering in magnetic fields and at temperatures as low as 4 K. This multi-modal approach empowers researchers to directly correlate scattering experiments with insights from thermodynamic properties including structural, electronic, orbital, and magnetic phase transitions. The use of a nanocalorimeter sample platform enables numerous technical advantages: precise measurement and control of the sample temperature, quantification of beam heating effects, fast and precise positioning of the sample in the x-ray beam, and fast acquisition of x-ray scans over a wide temperature range without the need for time-consuming re-centering and re-alignment. Furthermore, on an YBa2Cu3O7-delta crystal and a copper foil, we demonstrate a novel approach to x-ray absorption spectroscopy by monitoring the change in sample temperature as a function of incident photon energy. Finally, we illustrate the new insights that can be gained from in situ structural and thermodynamic measurements by investigating the superheated state occurring at the first-order magneto-elastic phase transition of Fe2P, a material that is of interest for magnetocaloric applications.

  11. The combined effect of salinity and heat reveals a specific physiological, biochemical and molecular response in tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Rosa M; Mestre, Teresa C; Mittler, Ron; Rubio, Francisco; Garcia-Sanchez, Francisco; Martinez, Vicente

    2014-05-01

    Many studies have described the response mechanisms of plants to salinity and heat applied individually; however, under field conditions some abiotic stresses often occur simultaneously. Recent studies revealed that the response of plants to a combination of two different stresses is specific and cannot be deduced from the stresses applied individually. Here, we report on the response of tomato plants to a combination of heat and salt stress. Interestingly, and in contrast to the expected negative effect of the stress combination on plant growth, our results show that the combination of heat and salinity provides a significant level of protection to tomato plants from the effects of salinity. We observed a specific response of plants to the stress combination that included accumulation of glycine betaine and trehalose. The accumulation of these compounds under the stress combination was linked to the maintenance of a high K(+) concentration and thus a lower Na(+) /K(+) ratio, with a better performance of the cell water status and photosynthesis as compared with salinity alone. Our findings unravel new and unexpected aspects of the response of plants to stress combination and provide a proposed list of enzymatic targets for improving crop tolerance to the abiotic field environment. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Simultaneous Measurement of Thermal Conductivity and Specific Heat in a Single TDTR Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fangyuan; Wang, Xinwei; Yang, Ming; Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Hang; Tang, Dawei

    2018-01-01

    Time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR) technique is a powerful thermal property measurement method, especially for nano-structures and material interfaces. Thermal properties can be obtained by fitting TDTR experimental data with a proper thermal transport model. In a single TDTR experiment, thermal properties with different sensitivity trends can be extracted simultaneously. However, thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity usually have similar trends in sensitivity for most materials; it is difficult to measure them simultaneously. In this work, we present a two-step data fitting method to measure the thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity simultaneously from a set of TDTR experimental data at single modulation frequency. This method takes full advantage of the information carried by both amplitude and phase signals; it is a more convenient and effective solution compared with the frequency-domain thermoreflectance method. The relative error is lower than 5 % for most cases. A silicon wafer sample was measured by TDTR method to verify the two-step fitting method.

  13. [Antifungal susceptibility profiles of Candida species to triazole: application of new CLSI species-specific clinical breakpoints and epidemiological cutoff values for characterization of antifungal resistance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabıçak, Nilgün; Alem, Nihal

    2016-01-01

    The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) Subcommittee on Antifungal Susceptibility Testing has newly introduced species-specific clinical breakpoints (CBPs) for fluconazole and voriconazole. When CBPs can not be determined, wild-type minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) distributions are detected and epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) provide valuable means for the detection of emerging resistance. The aim of this study is to determine triazole resistance patterns in Candida species by the recently revised CLSI CBPs. A total of 140 Candida strains isolated from blood cultures of patients with invasive candidiasis hospitalized in various intensive care units in Turkey and sent to our reference laboratory between 2011-2012, were included in the study. The isolates were identified by conventional methods, and susceptibility testing was performed against fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole, by the 24-h CLSI broth microdilution (BMD) method. Azole resistance rates for all Candida species were determined using the new species-specific CLSI CBPs and ECVs criteria, when appropriate. The species distribution of the isolates were as follows; C.parapsilosis (n= 31 ), C.tropicalis (n= 26 ), C.glabrata (n= 21), C.albicans (n= 18), C.lusitaniae (n= 16), C.krusei (n= 16), C.kefyr (n= 9), C.guilliermondii (n= 2), and C.dubliniensis (n= 1). According to the newly determined CLSI CBPs for fluconazole and C.albicans, C.parapsilosis, C.tropicalis [susceptible (S), ≤ 2 µg/ml; dose-dependent susceptible (SDD), 4 µg/ml; resistant (R), ≥ 8 µg/ml], and C.glabrata (SDD, ≤ 32 µg/ml; R≥ 64 µg/ml) and for voriconazole and C.albicans, C.parapsilosis, C.tropicalis (S, ≤ 0.12 µg/ml; SDD, 0.25-0.5 µg/ml; R, ≥ 1 µg/ml), and C.krusei (S, ≤ 0.5 µg/ml; SDD, 1 µg/ml; R, ≥ 2 µg/ml), it was found that three of C.albicans, one of C.parapsilosis and one of C.glabrata isolates were resistant to fluconazole, while two of C.albicans and two of C

  14. Carbohydrate ingestion and pre-cooling improves exercise capacity following soccer-specific intermittent exercise performed in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, N D; Maclaren, D P M; Reilly, T; Drust, B

    2011-07-01

    Ingestion of carbohydrate and reducing core body temperature pre-exercise, either separately or combined, may have ergogenic effects during prolonged intermittent exercise in hot conditions. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effect of carbohydrate ingestion and pre-cooling on the physiological responses to soccer-specific intermittent exercise and the impact on subsequent high-intensity exercise performance in the heat. Twelve male soccer players performed a soccer-specific intermittent protocol for 90 min in the heat (30.5°C and 42.2% r.h.) on four occasions. On two occasions, the participants underwent a pre-cooling manoeuvre. During these sessions either a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CHOc) or a placebo was consumed at (PLAc). During the remaining sessions either the carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CHO) or placebo (PLA) was consumed. At 15-min intervals throughout the protocol participants performed a mental concentration test. Following the soccer-specific protocol participants performed a self-chosen pace test and a test of high-intensity exercise capacity. The period of pre-cooling significantly reduced core temperature, muscle temperature and thermal sensation (P carbohydrate during exercise enhances exercise capacity and helps maintain mental performance during intermittent exercise in hot conditions.

  15. Specific heat and phonon density of state of cubic phase of protonic conductor LaAlO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Anupam Deep, E-mail: dr.anupamdeep@yahoo.com [Sant Baba Bhag Singh University, Padhiana, Jalandhar (Punjab) – 144030 (India); Sinha, M. M. [Department of Physics, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology Longowal, Sangrur (Punjab) – 148106 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Perovskite oxides find wide range of applications like oxygen sensors, catalyst support, high frequency capacitors, high temperature superconducting microwave devices, solid state oxide fuel cell (SOFC) etc. LaAlO{sub 3} is one of such type of prominent perovskite oxides and very prominent material for protonic conductions. Therefore knowledge of the thermal properties of LaAlO{sub 3} is most significant. Hence in the present study we have studied phonon density of states and specific heat of LaAlO{sub 3} in cubic structure by applying lattice dynamical theoretical model. The calculated results are interpreted with existing experimental or theoretical results.

  16. Heat stress in pigs is accompanied by adipose tissue-specific responses that favor increased triglyceride storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, H; Yan, H; Lu, H; Donkin, S S; Ajuwon, K M

    2016-05-01

    Heat stress (HS) negatively affects all aspects of performance in pigs. Although certain tissue-specific responses in the liver, skeletal muscle, and intestine are known, there is paucity of information on responses within the adipose tissue. Therefore, the objective of this study was to delineate adipose tissue responses during HS in pigs. Thirty crossbred (Ossabaw × Duroc × Landrace) pigs were assigned to 3 treatments for 7 d. Treatments were 1) control and libitum fed (CON) with room temperature set at 20°C ± 1°C, 2) pair fed (PF) with room temperature as the CON treatment but pair fed to HS pigs, and 3) HS with room temperature 35°C ± 1°C and ad libitum access to feed. Compared with CON pigs, HS pigs had decreased feed intake and elevated skin temperature and respiration rate ( Heat stress also caused increased heat shock protein 70 (HSP70; = 0.067) and CCAT/enhancer-binding homologous protein (CHOP) content ( < 0.05) in the mesenteric fat compared with the CON treatment. In conclusion, induction of PCK1 expression in adipose tissue by HS suggests elevated glyceroneogenesis might be involved in the increased fat storage in pigs under HS.

  17. 16 kDa Heat Shock Protein from Heat-Inactivated Mycobacterium tuberculosis Is a Homodimer – Suitability for Diagnostic Applications with Specific Llama VHH Monoclonals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Saurabh K.; Ruigrok, Vincent J. B.; Thompson, Natalie J.; Trilling, Anke K.; Heck, Albert J. R.; van Rijn, Cees; Beekwilder, Jules; Jongsma, Maarten A.

    2013-01-01

    Background The 16 kDa heat shock protein (HSP) is an immuno-dominant antigen, used in diagnosis of infectious Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb.) causing tuberculosis (TB). Its use in serum-based diagnostics is limited, but for the direct identification of M.tb. bacteria in sputum or cultures it may represent a useful tool. Recently, a broad set of twelve 16 kDa specific heavy chain llama antibodies (VHH) has been isolated, and their utility for diagnostic applications was explored. Methodology/Principal Findings To identify the epitopes recognized by the nine (randomly selected from a set of twelve 16 kDa specific VHH antibodies) distinct VHH antibodies, 14 overlapping linear epitopes (each 20 amino acid long) were characterized using direct and sandwich ELISA techniques. Seven out of 14 epitopes were recognized by 8 out of 9 VHH antibodies. The two highest affinity binders B-F10 and A-23 were found to bind distinct epitopes. Sandwich ELISA and SPR experiments showed that only B-F10 was suitable as secondary antibody with both B-F10 and A-23 as anchoring antibodies. To explain this behavior, the epitopes were matched to the putative 3D structure model. Electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and size exclusion chromatography were used to determine the higher order conformation. A homodimer model best explained the differential immunological reactivity of A-23 and B-F10 against heat-treated M.tb. lysates. Conclusions/Significance The concentrations of secreted antigens of M.tb. in sputum are too low for immunological detection and existing kits are only used for identifying M.tb. in cultures. Here we describe how specific combinations of VHH domains could be used to detect the intracellular HSP antigen. Linked to methods of pre-concentrating M.tb. cells prior to lysis, HSP detection may enable the development of protein-based diagnostics of sputum samples and earlier diagnosis of diseases. PMID:23737964

  18. 16 kDa heat shock protein from heat-inactivated Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a homodimer - suitability for diagnostic applications with specific llama VHH monoclonals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh K Srivastava

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The 16 kDa heat shock protein (HSP is an immuno-dominant antigen, used in diagnosis of infectious Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb. causing tuberculosis (TB. Its use in serum-based diagnostics is limited, but for the direct identification of M.tb. bacteria in sputum or cultures it may represent a useful tool. Recently, a broad set of twelve 16 kDa specific heavy chain llama antibodies (VHH has been isolated, and their utility for diagnostic applications was explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To identify the epitopes recognized by the nine (randomly selected from a set of twelve 16 kDa specific VHH antibodies distinct VHH antibodies, 14 overlapping linear epitopes (each 20 amino acid long were characterized using direct and sandwich ELISA techniques. Seven out of 14 epitopes were recognized by 8 out of 9 VHH antibodies. The two highest affinity binders B-F10 and A-23 were found to bind distinct epitopes. Sandwich ELISA and SPR experiments showed that only B-F10 was suitable as secondary antibody with both B-F10 and A-23 as anchoring antibodies. To explain this behavior, the epitopes were matched to the putative 3D structure model. Electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and size exclusion chromatography were used to determine the higher order conformation. A homodimer model best explained the differential immunological reactivity of A-23 and B-F10 against heat-treated M.tb. lysates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The concentrations of secreted antigens of M.tb. in sputum are too low for immunological detection and existing kits are only used for identifying M.tb. in cultures. Here we describe how specific combinations of VHH domains could be used to detect the intracellular HSP antigen. Linked to methods of pre-concentrating M.tb. cells prior to lysis, HSP detection may enable the development of protein-based diagnostics of sputum samples and earlier diagnosis of diseases.

  19. Evaluation of Specific Heat, Sound Velocity and Lattice Thermal Conductivity of Strained Nanocrystalline Bismuth Antimony Telluride Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, D.; Tanaka, S.; Miyazaki, K.; Takashiri, M.

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the effect of strain on specific heat, sound velocity and lattice thermal conductivity of nanocrystalline bismuth antimony telluride thin films, we performed both experimental study and modeling. The nanocrystalline thin films had mostly preferred crystal orientation along c-axis, and strains in the both directions of c-axis and a- b-axis. It was found that the thermal conductivity of nanocrystalline thin films decreased greatly as compared with that of bulk alloys. To gain insight into the thermal transport in the strained nanocrystalline thin films, we estimated the lattice thermal conductivity based on the phonon transport model of full distribution of mean free paths accounting for the effects of grain size and strain which was influenced to both the sound velocity and the specific heat. As a result, the lattice thermal conductivity was increased when the strain was shifted from compressive to tensile direction. We also confirmed that the strain was influenced by the lattice thermal conductivity but the reduction of the lattice thermal conductivity of thin films can be mainly attributed to the nano-size effect rather than the strain effect. Finally, it was found that the measured lattice thermal conductivities were in good agreement with modeling.

  20. Influence of tribomechanical micronization and hydrocolloids addition on enthalpy and apparent specific heat of whey protein model solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Herceg

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of thermophysical properties, especially the phase transitions temperature, specific heat and enthalpy, are essential in defining the freezing process parameters as well as storage conditions of frozen food. In this work thermophysical properties of 10% model solutions prepared with 60% whey protein concentrate (WPC with various hydrocolloids addition (HVEP, YO-EH, YO-L i YO-M were investigated. Powdered whey protein concentrate was treated in equipment for tribomechanical micronization and activation at 40000 rpm (Patent: PCT/1B99/00757 just before model solutions preparation. Particle size analysis was performed using Frich –laser particle sizer “analysette 22”. The phase transition temperatures were determined by differential thermal analysis (DTA, while specific heat and enthalpy were calculated according to several mathematical equations. The results have shown that, due to tribomechanical treatment, certain changes in thermophysical and energetic properties of materials occurred. Tribomechanical treatment affects changes in granulometrical composition of WPC which result in higher abilities of reactions with hydrocolloids in model solutions and significant changes in thermophysical properties of the mentioned models.

  1. Evaluation of high specific-heat ceramic for regenerator use at temperatures between 2-30 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, W. N.

    1979-01-01

    Specific heat, thermal conductivity (both in the range 2-30 K), and microhardness data were measured on the ceramics labelled LS-8, LS-8A, and LS-8A doped with CsI, SnCl2, and AgCl. A work hardened sample of LS-8A was also studied in an effort to determine the feasibility of using these types of LS-8 materials to replace Pb spheres in the regenerator of the JPL cryocooler. The LS-8A materials are all more than an order of magnitude harder than Pb, and the dopants do not significantly improve the hardness. However, the SnCl2 dopant has a remarkable effect in improving the specific heat and thermal conductivity of LS-8A. The SnCl2 doping level which maximized the regenerator enthalpy change in going from an unloaded to a loaded condition was found to be 0.2 percent SnCl2 in LS-8A. It was also found that the enthalpy change for a regenerator employing the LS-8A material is more than three times larger than for the Pb spheres case. The use of rods, rather than spheres, of optimally doped LS-8A in regenerators is discussed.

  2. Studies of Nucleation and Growth, Specific Heat and Viscosity of Undercooled Melts of Quasicrystals and Polytetrehedral-Phase-Forming Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    By investigating the properties of quasicrystals and quasicrystal-forming liquid alloys, we may determine the role of ordering of the liquid phase in the formation of quasicrystals, leading to a better fundamental understanding of both the quasicrystal and the liquid. A quasicrystal is solid characterized by a symmetric but non-periodic arrangement of atoms, usually in the form of an icosahedron (12 atoms, 20 triangular faces). It is theorized that the short-range order in liquids takes this same form. The degree of ordering depends on the temperature of the liquid, and affects many of the liquid s properties, including specific heat, viscosity, and electrical resistivity. The MSFC role in this project includes solidification studies, phase diagram determination, and thermophysical property measurements on the liquid quasicrystal-forming alloys, all by electrostatic levitation (ESL). The viscosity of liquid quasicrystal-forming alloys is measured by the oscillating drop method, both in the stable and undercooled liquid state. The specific heat of solid, undercooled liquid, and stable liquid are measured by the radiative cooling rate of the droplets.

  3. Unusual temperature dependence in the low-temperature specific heat of U3Ni5Al19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. S.; Stewart, G. R.; Bauer, E. D.; Ronning, F.

    2008-10-01

    Specific heat has been measured down to 0.053 K on a single crystal of the heavy-fermion antiferromagnet U3Ni5Al19 that orders at TN=23K . As has been previously reported, these data can be fitted between 0.4 and 4 K by the spin-fluctuation model of Moriya and Takimoto, which describes the contribution of weakly interacting critical spin fluctuations to the specific heat, C , where, as T→0 , C/T=γ0-a√T . However, below 0.35 K a noticeable divergence in C/ Ttilde logT dependence, consistent with the existence of strongly interacting fluctuations, is observed. This increase in the divergence of C/T at the lowest temperatures—which is contrary to the self-consistent renormalization theory of Moriya and Takimoto, which predicts √T dependence for C/T as T→0 and logT dependence at higher temperatures—has been measured as a function of magnetic field to further understand its origin. The field data in the low-temperature regime, where C/ Ttilde logT exhibit scaling with ΔB/T1.9 , further evidence that there exist strongly interacting fluctuations below 0.35 K in U3Ni5Al19 .

  4. A broad set of different llama antibodies specific for a 16 kDa heat shock protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke K Trilling

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recombinant antibodies are powerful tools in engineering of novel diagnostics. Due to the small size and stable nature of llama antibody domains selected antibodies can serve as a detection reagent in multiplexed and sensitive assays for M. tuberculosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Antibodies for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb recognition were raised in Alpaca, and, by phage display, recombinant variable domains of heavy-chain antibodies (VHH binding to M. tuberculosis antigens were isolated. Two phage display selection strategies were followed: one direct selection using semi-purified protein antigen, and a depletion strategy with lysates, aiming to avoid cross-reaction to other mycobacteria. Both panning methods selected a set of binders with widely differing complementarity determining regions. Selected recombinant VHHs were produced in E. coli and shown to bind immobilized lysate in direct Enzymelinked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA tests and soluble antigen by surface plasmon resonance (SPR analysis. All tested VHHs were specific for tuberculosis-causing mycobacteria (M. tuberculosis, M. bovis and exclusively recognized an immunodominant 16 kDa heat shock protein (hsp. The highest affinity VHH had a dissociation constant (KD of 4 × 10(-10 M. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A broad set of different llama antibodies specific for 16 kDa heat shock protein of M. tuberculosis is available. This protein is highly stable and abundant in M. tuberculosis. The VHH that detect this protein are applied in a robust SPR sensor for identification of tuberculosis-causing mycobacteria.

  5. Enhanced specific absorption rate of bi-magnetic nanoparticles for heating applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammad, Mohaned; Hempelmann, Rolf, E-mail: r.hempelmann@mx.uni-saarland.de

    2017-02-15

    Truncated octahedron bi-magnetic core/shell nanoparticles of Zn{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}@Zn{sub 0.4}Mn{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} with different size distributions have been synthesized, and their structural and magnetic properties have been studied. The structure and morphology of the core/shell nanostructures were established by using X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. Dark field-TEM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results confirmed the formation of bi-magnetic core/shell nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles are superparamagnetic at room temperature. The Curie temperature increases with the increase of particle size from 360 K to 394 K. The experimental results showed that core/shell nanoparticles have a higher specific absorption rate compared to the core ones. These nanoparticles are interfacial exchange coupled between hard and soft magnetic phases. We demonstrated that the specific absorption rate could be tuned by the concentration of precursor and the synthesis time. - Highlights: • Zn{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}@Zn{sub 0.4}Mn{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were synthesized by seed-mediated growth method. • Exchange-coupling between magnetic hard and soft phase of the magnetic nanoparticles affects the specific absorption rate. • The specific absorption rate could be tuned by the concentration of precursor and the synthesis time. • An increase of the core/shell magnetic nanoparticles size resulted in the increase of Curie temperature.

  6. Magnetic, specific heat and electrical transport properties of Frank-Kasper cage compounds RTM2Al20 [R  =  Eu, Gd and La; TM  =  V, Ti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K. Ramesh; Nair, Harikrishnan S.; Christian, Reinke; Thamizhavel, A.; Strydom, André M.

    2016-11-01

    Single crystals of Frank-Kasper compounds RTM2Al20 (R  =  Eu, Gd and La; TM  =  V and Ti) were grown by self-flux method and their physical properties were investigated through magnetization (M), magnetic susceptibility (χ), specific heat (C P) and electrical resistivity (ρ) measurements. Powder x-ray diffraction studies and structural analysis showed that these compounds crystallize in the cubic crystal structure with the space group Fd\\bar{3}m . The magnetic susceptibility for the compounds EuTi2Al20 and GdTi2Al20 showed a sudden jump below the Néel temperature T N indicative of plausible double magnetic transition. Specific heat (C P) and electrical resistivity (ρ) measurements also confirm the first-order magnetic transition (FOMT) and possible double magnetic transitions. Temperature variation of heat capacity showed a sharp phase transition and huge C P value for the (Eu/Gd)Ti2Al20 compounds’ full width at half-maximum (FWHM) (RTM2Al20 compounds. In contrast, linear variation of C P is observed in the ordered state for (Eu/Gd)V2Al20 compounds suggesting a λ-type transition. We observed clear anomaly between heating and cooling cycle in temperature-time relaxation curve for the compounds GdTi2Al20 (2.38 K) and EuTi2Al20 (3.2 K) which is indicating a thermal arrest due to the latent heat. The temperature variation of S mag for GdTi2Al20 saturates to a value 0.95R\\ln 8 while the other magnetic systems exhibited still lower entropy saturation values in the high temperature limit. ≤ft({{C}\\text{P}}-γ T\\right)/{{T}3} versus T plot showed a maximum near 27 K for all the compounds indicating the presence of low frequency Einstein modes of vibrations. Resistivity measurements showed that all the samples behave as normal Fermi liquid type compounds and ρ (T) due to electron-phonon scattering follows Bloch-Grüneisen-Mott relation in the paramagnetic region.

  7. Association of polymorphisms in heat shock protein 70 genes with the susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Shimin; Zeng, Xue; Liu, Tianyi; Wan, Fangmin; Luo, Pan; Xiao, Hongjun

    2017-01-01

    Several case-control studies reported the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in HSP70 genes and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). However, their conclusions are conflicting. This meta-analysis aims to identify the association of HSP70 variants and NIHL susceptibility. A systematical literature search was performed in PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and Wanfang Chinese database. The pooled odds radio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI) and p value were calculated in fixed- or random-effects model according to the I2 value in the heterogeneity test. Four articles containing five studies, including 633 cases and 926 controls, were included. Under the allele, homozygote and dominant model, the pooled ORs (95%CI, p-value) of rs1061581 were 1.32 (1.06-1.67, p = 0.019), 1.93 (1.10-3.36, p = 0.021) and 1.455 (1.408-2.019, p = 0.025), respectively. In addition, a significant association was found between rs2227956 in Caucasians and the NIHL susceptibility under all five genetic models. We did not discover evidence sufficient to prove the associations between the other three SNPs (rs1043618, rs2763979 and rs2075800) and the NIHL susceptibility. This meta-analysis indicated that the two HSP70 variants, rs1061581 and rs2227956, may serve as genetic susceptibility factors for NIHL. Larger scale studies are required to further update the results.

  8. Specific heat measurements of Ba0.68 K0.32 Fe2 As2 single crystals: evidence for a multiband strong-coupling superconducting state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popovich, P.; Boris, A.V.; Dolgov, O.V.; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch; Sun, S.L.; Lin, C.T.; Kremer, R.K.; Keimer, B.

    2010-01-01

    The specific heat of high-purity Ba0.68 K0.32 Fe2 As2 single crystals with the highest reported superconducting Tc =38.5  K was studied. The electronic specific heat Cp below Tc shows two gap features, with Δ1≈11  meV and Δ2≈3.5  meV obtained from an α-model analysis. The reduced gap value,

  9. Effect of high energy electron beam (10MeV) on specific heat capacity of low-density polyethylene/hydroxyapatite nano-composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Z; Ziaie, F; Ghaffari, M; Beigzadeh, A M

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, thermal properties of low density polyethylene (LDPE) and its nano composites are investigated. For this purpose LDPE reinforced with different weight percents of hydroxyapatite (HAP) powder which was synthesized via hydrolysis method are produced. The samples were irradiated with 10MeV electron beam at doses of 75 to 250kGy. Specific heat capacity measurement have been carried out at different temperatures, i.e. 25, 50, 75 and 100°C using modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry (MTDSC) apparatus and the effect of three parameters include of temperature, irradiation dose and the amount of HAP nano particles as additives on the specific heat capacity of PE/HAP have been investigated precisely. The MTDSC results indicate that the specific heat capacity have decreased by addition of nano sized HAP as reinforcement for LDPE. On the other hand, the effect of radiation dose is reduction in the specific heat capacity in all materials including LDPE and its nano composites. The HAP nano particles along with cross-link junctions due to radiation restrain the movement of the polymer chains in the vicinity of each particle and improve the immobility of polymer chains and consequently lead to reduction in specific heat capacity. Also, the obtained results confirm that the radiation effect on the specific heat capacity is more efficient than the reinforcing effect of nano-sized hydroxyapatite. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Tissue-Specific Transcriptomics Reveals an Important Role of the Unfolded Protein Response in Maintaining Fertility upon Heat Stress in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuang-Shuang; Yang, Hongxing; Ding, Lan; Song, Ze-Ting; Ma, Hong; Chang, Fang; Liu, Jian-Xiang

    2017-05-01

    High temperatures have a great impact on plant reproductive development and subsequent fruit and seed set, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. We used transcriptome profiling to investigate the effect of heat stress on reproductive development of Arabidopsis thaliana plants and observed distinct response patterns in vegetative versus reproductive tissues. Exposure to heat stress affected reproductive developmental programs, including early phases of anther/ovule development and meiosis. Also, genes participating in the unfolded protein response (UPR) were enriched in the reproductive tissue-specific genes that were upregulated by heat. Moreover, we found that the UPR-deficient bzip28 bzip60 double mutant was sensitive to heat stresses and had reduced silique length and fertility. Comparison of heat-responsive wild type versus bzip28 bzip60 plants identified 521 genes that were regulated by bZIP28 and bZIP60 upon heat stress during reproductive stages, most of which were noncanonical UPR genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with high-throughput sequencing analyses revealed 133 likely direct targets of bZIP28 in Arabidopsis seedlings subjected to heat stress, including 27 genes that were also upregulated by heat during reproductive development. Our results provide important insights into heat responsiveness in Arabidopsis reproductive tissues and demonstrate the protective roles of the UPR for maintaining fertility upon heat stress. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  11. QTLs and Potential Candidate Genes for Heat Stress Tolerance Identified from the Mapping Populations Specifically Segregating for Fv/Fm in Wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Dew Kumari; Torp, Anna Maria; Rosenqvist, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Despite the fact that F-v/F-m (maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II) is the most widely used parameter for a rapid non-destructive measure of stress detection in plants, there are barely any studies on the genetic understanding of this trait under heat stress. Our aim was to identify...... quantitative trait locus (QTL) and the potential candidate genes linked to F-v/F-m for improved photosynthesis under heat stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Three bi-parental F-2 mapping populations were generated by crossing three heat tolerant male parents (origin: Afghanistan and Pakistan) selected...... for high F-v/F-m with a common heat susceptible female parent (origin: Germany) selected for lowest F-v/F-m out of a pool of 1274 wheat cultivars of diverse geographic origin. Parents together with 140 F-2 individuals in each population were phenotyped by F-v/F-m under heat stress (40 degrees C for 3 days...

  12. Constant-pressure specific heat to hemispherical total emissivity ratio for undercooled liquid nickel, zirconium, and silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rulison, A.J.; Rhim, W.K. [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Radiative cooling curves of nickel, zirconium, and silicon melts that were obtained using the high-temperature, high-vacuum electrostatic levitator (HTHVESL) have been analyzed to determine the ratio between the constant-pressure specific heat and the hemispherical total emissivity, c{sub p}(T)/{var_epsilon}{sub T}(T). This ratio determined over a wide liquid temperature range for each material allows one to determine c{sub p}(T) if {var_epsilon}{sub T}(T) is known or vice versa. Following the recipe, the hemispherical total emissivities for each sample at its melting temperature, {var_epsilon}{sub T}(T{sub m}), have been determined using c{sub p}(T{sub m}) values available in the literature. They are 0.15, 0.29, and 0.17, for Ni, Zr, and Si, respectively.

  13. Constant-pressure specific heat to hemispherical total emissivity ratio for undercooled liquid nickel, Zirconium, and Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulison, Aaron J.; Rhim, Won-Kyu

    1995-05-01

    Radiative cooling curves of nickel, zirconium, and silicon melts that were obtained using the high-temperature, high-vacuum electrostatic levitator (HTHVESL) have been analyzed to determine the ratio between the constant-pressure specific heat and the hemispherical total emissivity, c p(T)/∈T(T).This ratio determined over a wide liquid temperature range for each material allows us to determine c p(T) if ∈T (T) is known or vice versa.Following the recipe, the hemispherical total emissivities for each sample at its melting temperature, ∈T (T) m, have been determined using c p(Tm) values available in the literature. They are 0.15, 0.29, and 0.17, for Ni, Zr, and Si, respectively.

  14. Constant-Pressure Specific Heat to Hemispherical Total Emissivity Ratio for Undercooled Liquid Nickel, Zirconium, and Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulison, Aaron J.; Rhim, Won-Kyu

    1995-01-01

    Radiative cooling curves of nickel, zirconium, and silicon melts that were obtained using the high-temperature, high-vacuum electrostatic levitator (HTHVESL) have been analyzed to determine the ratio between the constant-pressure specific heat and the hemispherical total emissivity, c(sub p)(T)epsilon(sub T)(T). This ratio determined over a wide liquid temperature range for each material allows us to determine c(sub p)(T) if epsilon(sub T)(T) is known or vice versa. Following the recipe, the hemi-spherical total emissivities for each sample at its melting temperature, epsilon(sub T)(T(sub M)), have been determined using c(sub p)(T(sub m)) values available in the literature. They are 0.15, 0.29, and 0.17, for Ni, Zr, and Si, respectively.

  15. 3d X-Y scaling of the specific heat of YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overend, Neil; Howson, Mark A.; Lawrie, Ian D.

    1994-12-01

    The specific heat of a single crystal sample of YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ (YBCO) has been measured with magnetic fields up to 8 Tesla applied parallel to the c-axis of the crystal. We analyse the data in terms of the Lowest Landau Level (LLL) and critical scaling theories. Recent measurements of magnetisation and resistivity have been unable to distinguish between the critical scaling and LLL regimes. We find that the data does not scale using the LLL theory and therefore conclude that the LLL theory is not applicable in magnetic fields less than 8 Tesla. However, we find that the data does scale using the 3-dimensional XY model. This provides strong evidence for the existence of a critical regime within which there is scaling behaviour characteristic of the 3-dimensional XY model with critical exponents consistent with those observed in superfluid 4He.

  16. Solid and liquid equation of state for initially porous aluminum where specific heat and γ/v are constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Jerry W.; Lemar, E. R.; Brown, Mary

    2012-03-01

    A porous solid's initial state is off the thermodynamic surface of the solid to start with but when pressure is high enough to cause total pore collapse or crush up, the final states are on the thermodynamic surfaces. The Hugoniot for the fully compacted initially porous solid has pressure above the principal Hugoniot at the same v due to an additional thermal pressure contribution. There are a number of ways to define this hotter Hugoniot, which can be referenced to other thermodynamic paths on this thermodynamic surface. The choice here was to use the Rose-Vinet isotherm to define a consistent thermodynamic surface for the solid and melt phase of 6061 aluminum where specific heat is constant for the P-v-T space of interest. Analytical equations are developed for principal Hugoniots PH(v) and TH(v).

  17. Polymorphisms of heat shock protein 70 genes (HSPA1A, HSPA1B and HSPA1L and susceptibility of noise-induced hearing loss in a Chinese population: A case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Li

    Full Text Available Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL is the second-most frequent form of sensorineural hearing loss. When exposed to the same noise, some workers develop NIHL while others do not, suggesting that NIHL may be associated with genetic factors. To explore the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in heat shock protein 70 (HSP70 genes (HSPA1A, HSPA1B and HSPA1L and susceptibility to NIHL in Han Chinese workers exposed to noise, a case-control association study was carried out with 286 hearing loss cases and 286 matched with gender, age, type of work, and exposure time, drawn from a population of 3790 noise-exposed workers. Four SNPs were selected and genotyped. Subsequently, the effects of the alleles and genotypes of the three HSP70 genes (HSPA1A, HSPA1B and HSPA1L on NIHL were analyzed by using a conditional logistic regression. A generalized multiple dimensionality reduction (GMDR was applied to further detect an interaction between the four SNPs. Compared with the combined genotypes CC/TC, carriers of the TT genotype of rs2763979 appeared to show greater susceptibility to NIHL (P = 0.042, adjusted OR = 1.731, 95% CI 1.021-2.935. A significant interaction between rs2763979 and CNE was found (P = 0.029, and a significant association was found between TT of s2763979 and NIHL (P = 0.024, adjusted OR = 5.694, 95%CI 1.256-25.817 in the 96 dB (A≤CNE<101 dB (A group. The results suggest that the rs2763979 locus of the HSP70 genes may be associated with susceptibility to NIHL in Chinese individuals, and other HSP70 genes may also be susceptibility genes for NIHL, but the results must be further replicated in additional independent sample sets.

  18. Gender-dependent and age-of-onset-specific association of the rs11675434 single-nucleotide polymorphism near TPO with susceptibility to Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuś, Aleksander; Szymański, Konrad; Jurecka-Lubieniecka, Beata; Pawlak-Adamska, Edyta; Kula, Dorota; Miśkiewicz, Piotr; Bolanowski, Marek; Płoski, Rafał; Bossowski, Artur; Daroszewski, Jacek; Jarząb, Barbara; Bednarczuk, Tomasz

    2017-03-01

    The role of TPO gene polymorphism in the susceptibility to Graves' disease (GD) remains unclear. However, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) near TPO have been recently associated with serum levels of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibody in two independent genome-wide association studies. Moreover, we have observed a strong association between the rs11675434 SNP located near TPO and the presence of clinically evident Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO). The aim of the current study was to reevaluate and dissect this association in an extended group of 1231 well-characterized patients with GD (1043 adults and 188 children) and 1130 healthy controls from the Polish Caucasian population, considering possible gender-dependent and age-of-onset-specific effects of the studied SNP. We found that the T allele of rs11675434 was significantly more frequent in GD patients with than without GO (odds ratio (OR)=1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.05-1.51, P=0.012), which was consistent with our previous findings. Further analyses performed in subgroups of patients showed that the association with GO was significant in adult patients with age of GD onset ⩾45 years (OR=1.34, 95% CI=1.03-1.75, P=0.031), but not in children and adolescents or adult patients with earlier onset of the disease (OR=1.72, 95% CI=0.77-3.84, P=0.18 and OR=1.05, 95% CI=0.79-1.40, P=0.75, respectively). Moreover, a strong association with GO was present in males (OR=2.06, 95% CI=1.40-3.02, P=0.0002), whereas it was absent in females (OR=1.10, 95% CI=0.90-1.35, P=0.35). The results of our study further suggest that rs11675434 SNP located near TPO is associated with the development of GO, especially in males and patients with later age of GD onset.

  19. Influence of chemical composition on the X-ray photoemission, thermopower, specific heat, and magnetic properties of CeNi{sub 2}(Si{sub 1-y}Ge{sub y}){sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolinski, T.; Synoradzki, K. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Molecular Physics, Poznan (Poland); Bajorek, A.; Chelkowska, G. [Silesian University, Institute of Physics, Katowice (Poland); Koterlyn, M. [K. Wielkiego University, Institute of Physics, Bydgoszcz (Poland); Ivan Franko National University of L' viv, Faculty of Electronics, L' viv (Ukraine); Koterlyn, G. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, Western Scientific Center, L' viv (Ukraine); Yasnitskii, R. [Ivan Franko National University of L' viv, Faculty of Electronics, L' viv (Ukraine)

    2017-06-15

    We report our studies of the intermediate compositions between CeNi{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and CeNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}, i.e., the alloys CeNi{sub 2}(Si{sub 1-y}Ge{sub y}){sub 2} by means of the thermopower, electrical resistivity, specific heat, magnetic susceptibility, and X-ray photoemission measurements. CeNi{sub 2}Si{sub 2} is a fluctuating valence system and CeNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} is known to show the heavy fermion behaviour. The change of the temperature dependence of the resistivity towards the typical metallic behaviour occurs below y ∝ 0.25. The transition between CeNi{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and CeNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} is discussed in the frames of competition between the crystal electric field and Kondo interactions. It is found that valence stabilisation occurs for Ge content y > 0.25. The hybridization energy Δ determined from the XPS Ce 3d spectrum reflects well the behaviour of the parameter E{sub ex} obtained from the analysis of the magnetic susceptibility by the interconfiguration fluctuation model. It has been also shown that thermopower data can be successfully described employing the single ion model for 0.6 < y < 1.0 and two-band model including the crystal electric field splitting for y ≤ 0.25. (orig.)

  20. THE SUSCEPTIBILITY OF MICE TO BACTERIAL ENDOTOXINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaedler, Russell W.; Dubos, Rene J.

    1961-01-01

    Albino mice (Rockefeller NCS strain) raised and maintained free of ordinary bacterial pathogens, as well as of intestinal Escherichia coli and of Proteus bacilli, were found to be highly resistant to the lethal effect of bacterial endotoxins. When newborn mice of this NCS colony were nursed by foster mothers from another colony raised under ordinary conditions (SS colony from which the NCS colony was derived), they acquired the intestinal flora of the latter animals and became susceptible to the lethal effects of endotoxins. NCS adult mice could be rendered susceptible to the lethal effect of endotoxins by vaccination with heat killed Gram-negative bacilli. The susceptibility thus induced exhibited a certain degree of specificity for the bacterial strain used in vaccination. Although untreated NCS mice were resistant to the lethal effect of endotoxins, they proved exquisitively susceptible to the infection-enhancing effect of these materials. For example, 1 µg. or less of endotoxin was found sufficient to help establish a rapidly fatal septicemia with Staphylococcus aureus. Small amounts of endotoxin (1 µg. or less), administered alone, caused a marked but transient loss of weight. Vaccination with heat-killed Gram-negative bacilli or with killed BCG increased the resistance of NCS mice to the infection-enhancing effect of small amounts of endotoxin. This protective effect exhibited a certain degree of specificity for the bacterial strain from which the toxin used in the infection-enhancing test was derived. These various findings can be explained by assuming that the pathological effects of endotoxins involve at least two unrelated mechanisms; (a) a primary toxicity illustrated in this study by the loss of weight and enhancement of infection resulting from the injection of small doses of toxin; (b) an immunological reaction with lethal consequences which became manifest only in animals sensitized to the endotoxin by prior exposure to Gram-negative bacilli. PMID

  1. Effect of Al₂O₃ nanoparticle dispersion on the specific heat capacity of a eutectic binary nitrate salt for solar power applications

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Y.; Y. He; Z.; Zhang; Wen, D

    2017-01-01

    Molten salts can be used as heat transfer fluids or thermal storage materials in a concentrated solar power plant. Improving the thermal properties can influence the utilization efficiency of solar energy. In this study, the effect of doping eutectic binary salt solvent with Al₂O₃ nanoparticles on its specific heat capacity (cp) was investigated. The effects of the mass fraction of nanoparticles on the cp of the composite nanofluid were analyzed, using both differential scanning calorimetry m...

  2. Sex and age specific effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol during the periadolescent period in the rat: The unique susceptibility of the prepubescent animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Lindsay; Black, Rita; Michaelides, Michael; Hurd, Yasmin L; Dow-Edwards, Diana

    Adolescents who use marijuana are more likely to exhibit anxiety, depression, and other mood disorders, including psychotic-like symptoms. Additionally, the age at onset of use and the stress history of the individual can affect responses to cannabis. To examine the effect of early life experience on adolescent Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure, we exposed adolescent (postnatal day (P) 29-38) male and female rats, either shipped from a supplier or born in our vivarium, to once daily injections of 3mg/kg THC. Our findings suggest that males are more sensitive to the anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of THC, as measured by the elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swim test (FST), respectively, than females. Exposure to the FST increased plasma corticosterone levels, regardless of drug treatment or origin and females had higher levels than males overall. Shipping increased THC responses in females (acoustic startle habituation) and in males (latency to immobility in FST). No significant effects of THC or shipping on pre-pulse inhibition were observed. Due to differences in timing of puberty in males and females during the P29-38 period of THC treatment, we also dosed female rats between P21-30 (pre-puberty) and male rats between P39-48 (puberty). Pre-pubertal animals showed reductions in anxiety on the EPM, an effect that was not seen in animals treated during puberty. These results suggest that both sexes are more susceptible to changes in emotional behavior when THC exposure occurs just prior to the onset of puberty. Within the animals dosed from P29-38, THC increased cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) mRNA expression and tended to decrease CP55,940 stimulated [35S]GTPγS binding in the central amygdala only of females. Therefore, early stress enhances THC responses in males (in FST) and females (ASR habituation), THC alters CB1R expression and function in females only and prepubescent rats are generally more responsive to THC than pubertal rats. In summary

  3. Sex-specific effects of naturally occurring variants in the dopamine receptor D2 locus on insulin secretion and Type 2 diabetes susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guigas, B; de Leeuw van Weenen, J E; van Leeuwen, N

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Modulation of dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) activity affects insulin secretion in both rodents and isolated pancreatic β-cells. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms in the DRD2/ANKK1 locus may affect susceptibility to Type 2 diabetes in humans. METHODS: Four potentially...

  4. HEAT RECUPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Rovin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat recovery is an effective method of shortening specific energy consumption. new constructions of recuperators for heating and cupola furnaces have been designed and successfully introduced. two-stage recuperator with computer control providing blast heating up to 600 °C and reducing fuel consumption by 30% is of special interest.

  5. Effect of crystallinity and irradiation on thermal properties and specific heat capacity of LDPE and LDPE/EVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borhani zarandi, Mahmoud, E-mail: mborhani@yazduni.ac.ir [Physics Department, Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amrollahi Bioki, Hojjat; Mirbagheri, Zahra-alsadat [Physics Department, Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tabbakh, Farshid [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirjalili, Ghazanfar [Physics Department, Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    In this paper a series of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) blends with different percentages (10%, 20%, and 30%) of EVA and sets of low-density polyethylene sheets were prepared. This set consists of four subsets, which were made under different cooling methods: fast cooling in liquid nitrogen, cooling with cassette, exposing in open air, and cooling in oven, to investigate the crystallinity effects. All of the samples were irradiated with 10 MeV electron-beam in the dose range of 0-250 kGy using a Rhodotron accelerator system. The variation of thermal conductivity (k) and specific heat capacity (C{sub p}) of all of the samples were measured. We found that, for the absorption dose less than 150 kGy, k of the LDPE samples at a prescribed temperature range decreased by increasing the amount of dose, but then the change is insignificant. With increasing the crystallinity, k of the LDPE samples increased, whereas C{sub p} of this material is decreased. In the case of LDPE/EVA blends, for the dose less than 150 kGy, C{sub p} (at 40 Degree-Sign C) and k (in average) decreased, but then the change is insignificant. With increasing the amount of additive (EVA), C{sub p} and k increased.

  6. Probing the nodal structures of heavy electron superconductors by means of specific heat measurements in magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakakibara, T. [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277 8581 (Japan)], E-mail: sakaki@issp.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Custers, J. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Vienna University of Technology, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Yano, K.; Yamada, A.; Tayama, T. [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277 8581 (Japan); Aoki, Y.; Sato, H. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji 192 0397 (Japan); Sugawara, H. [Faculty of Integrated Arts and Sciences, University of Tokushima, Tokushima 770 8502 (Japan); Amitsuka, H. [Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060 0810 (Japan); Yokoyama, M. [Faculty of Science, Ibaraki University, Mito 310 8512 (Japan)

    2008-04-01

    Measurements of the angle-resolved specific heat C(H,{theta}) have been performed on PrOs{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} and URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} in order to examine their superconducting gap structures. In the filled skutterudite PrOs{sub 4}Sb{sub 12}, a clear fourfold angular dependence is observed with H rotated in the (1 0 0) planes, whose field variation suggests gap minima along [1 0 0] directions. Interestingly, a reversed angular oscillation of C(H,{theta}) has been observed in the normal state above H{sub c2} which continues to grow as the high-field antiferroquadrupole phase is approached. In URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}, C(H,{theta}) with H rotated around the tetragonal c-axis suggests that the nodal structure has rotational symmetry. Comparison between the C(H) data for a- and c-axes indicates the existence of point nodes along the [0 0 1] direction.

  7. Alternating current calorimeter for specific heat capacity measurements at temperatures below 10 K and pressures up to 10 GPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umeo, Kazunori, E-mail: kumeo@sci.hiroshima-u.ac [Cryogenics and Instrumental Analysis Division, N-BARD, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama 1-3-1, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    A developed alternating current calorimeter for measuring the absolute value of specific heat C of a very small sample under a pressure up to 10 GPa and low temperature below 10 K is described. A Bridgman anvil cell made of tungsten carbide with a top diameter of 3 mm is used. A hollow at the top prevents expansion of the sample space over the anvil top. Two chip resistors, which act as a thermometer and a heater, are mounted on the outer part of a copper–beryllium gasket with a frying pan-like shape. Thus, the thermometer is not pressurized. In order to isolate the gasket from the anvil thermally, diamond powder with a grain size of 0.25 μm is placed on the anvil top. Two jumps of C at the superconducting transitions of Pb (3.3 mg) and In (5.0 mg) are observed under various pressures up to 9 GPa, as clearly as those at the ambient pressure.

  8. Studies of Nucleation and Growth, Specific Heat and Viscosity of Undercooled Melts of Quasicrystal and Polytetrahedral-Phase Forming Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelton, K. F.; Gangopadhyay, Anup K.; Lee, G. W.; Hyers, Robert W.; Rathz, T. J.; Robinson, Michael B.; Rogers, Jan R.

    2003-01-01

    From extensive ground based work on the phase diagram and undercooling studies of Ti-Zr-Ni alloys, have clearly identified the composition of three different phases with progressively increasing polytetrahedral order such as, (Ti/Zr), the C14 Laves phase, and the i-phase, that nucleate directly from the undercooled liquid. The reduced undercooling decreases progressively with increasing polytetrahedral order in the solid, supporting Frank s hypothesis. A new facility for direct measurements of the structures and phase transitions in undercooled liquids (BESL) was developed and has provided direct proof of the primary nucleation of a metastable icosahedral phase in some Ti-Zr-Ni alloys. The first measurements of specific heat and viscosity in the undercooled liquid of this alloy system have been completed. Other than the importance of thermo-physical properties for modeling nucleation and growth processes in these materials, these studies have also revealed some interesting new results (such as a maximum of C(sup q, sub p) in the undercooled state). These ground-based results have clearly established the necessary background and the need for conducting benchmark nucleation experiments at the ISS on this alloy system.

  9. Assessment of thermal conductivity, viscosity and specific heat of nanofluids in single phase laminar indernal forced convection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanapalli, Srinivas; ter Brake, Hermanus J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Nanofluids are considered for improving the heat exchange in forced convective flow. In literature, the benefit of nanofluids compared to the corresponding base fluid is represented by several figures-of-merit in which the heat transfer benefit and the cost of pumping the fluid are considered. These

  10. Antigen-specific influence of GM/KM allotypes on IgG isotypes and association of GM allotypes with susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giha, Hayder A; Nasr, Amre; Iriemenam, Nnaemeka C

    2009-01-01

    malaria-free period. The GM/KM allotypes of the donors were determined. RESULTS: The GM 1,17 5,13,14,6 phenotype was associated with a higher incidence of malaria compared with the non-1,17 5,13,14,6 phenotypes (P = 0.037). Paradoxically, the carriers of the GM 1,17 5,13,14,6 phenotype had significantly......-dependent. DISCUSSION: The results show that GM but not KM allotypes appeared to influence host susceptibility to uncomplicated malaria as well as the antibody profile of the donors, and the carriers of the GM 1,17 5,13,14,6 phenotype were the most susceptible CONCLUSIONS: The GM allotypes have significant influence......BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a complex disease in which genetic and environmental factors influence susceptibility. IgG isotypes are in part genetically controlled, and GM/KM allotypes are believed to be involved in this control. METHODS: In this study, 216 individuals from...

  11. Level of tissue differentiation influences the activation of a heat-inducible flower-specific system for genetic containment in poplar (Populus tremula L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenicka, Hans; Lehnhardt, Denise; Nunna, Suneetha; Reinhardt, Richard; Jeltsch, Albert; Briones, Valentina; Fladung, Matthias

    2016-02-01

    Differentiation level but not transgene copy number influenced activation of a gene containment system in poplar. Heat treatments promoted CRE gene body methylation. The flower-specific transgene deletion was confirmed. Gene flow between genetic modified trees and their wild relatives is still motive of concern. Therefore, approaches for gene containment are required. In this study, we designed a novel strategy for achieving an inducible and flower-specific transgene removal from poplar trees but still expressing the transgene in the plant body. Hence, pollen carrying transgenes could be used for breeding purposes under controlled conditions in a first phase, and in the second phase genetic modified poplars developing transgene-free pollen grains could be released. This approach is based on the recombination systems CRE/loxP and FLP/frt. Both gene constructs contained a heat-inducible CRE/loxP-based spacer sequence for in vivo assembling of the flower-specific FLP/frt system. This allowed inducible activation of gene containment. The FLP/frt system was under the regulation of a flower-specific promoter, either CGPDHC or PTD. Our results confirmed complete CRE/loxP-based in vivo assembling of the flower-specific transgene excision system after heat treatment in all cells for up to 30 % of regenerants derived from undifferentiated tissue cultures. Degradation of HSP::CRE/loxP spacer after recombination but also persistence as extrachromosomal DNA circles were detected in sub-lines obtained after heat treatments. Furthermore, heat treatment promoted methylation of the CRE gene body. A lower methylation level was detected at CpG sites in transgenic sub-lines showing complete CRE/loxP recombination and persistence of CRE/loxP spacer, compared to sub-lines with incomplete recombination. However, our results suggest that low methylation might be necessary but not sufficient for recombination. The flower-specific FLP/frt-based transgene deletion was confirmed in 6.3 % of

  12. Specific heat of a localized magnetic impurity in a non-magnetic host: A spectral density method for the Anderson–Holstein model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, Ch. Narasimha; Chatterjee, Ashok, E-mail: acsp@uohyd.ernet.in

    2015-10-01

    The effect of electron–phonon interaction on the spectral function of a magnetic impurity in a non-magnetic host metal is studied within the framework of the Anderson–Holstein model using a spectral density method. The impurity contribution to the specific heat of the host metal is also calculated.

  13. Specific heat of a localized magnetic impurity in a non-magnetic host: A spectral density method for the Anderson-Holstein model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Ch. Narasimha; Chatterjee, Ashok

    2015-10-01

    The effect of electron-phonon interaction on the spectral function of a magnetic impurity in a non-magnetic host metal is studied within the framework of the Anderson-Holstein model using a spectral density method. The impurity contribution to the specific heat of the host metal is also calculated.

  14. Heat and hydration status: Predictors of repeated measures of urine specific gravity among Tsimane' adults in the Bolivian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosinger, Asher

    2015-12-01

    Hydration status is critical to physiological and cognitive health, yet it is unclear how populations living in hot-humid environments experiencing lifestyle transitions manage this underexplored facet of heat adaptation. This study assesses the predictors of repeated measures of hydration status for adults from two villages (close and distant from a market town) in the Bolivian Amazon. Interviews and focal follows were conducted with 36 Tsimane' (50% male). Urine samples, temperature, activity levels, and anthropometrics were measured pre-interview and post-follow and yielded a small panel (72 observations). Urine samples were analyzed for urine specific gravity (USG), a biomarker of hydration, with a refractometer. The mean USG was 1.020 g/ml (SD ± 0.008) with men (1.022 ± 0.008) slightly more dehydrated than women (1.018 ± 0.007). Using 1.020 as the criteria for clinical dehydration, 42% of the participants were dehydrated at both intervals and 21% were extremely dehydrated. Controlling for activity level, village membership, and covariates in random-effects linear regression models, each degree centigrade increase was associated with a USG increase of 0.0008 g/ml (P = 0.000). Adults from the village closer to the market town had significantly higher USG (B = 0.0041; P = 0.04) than those in the distant village. Dehydration was predicted to occur at 29°C, just above the thermoneutral range, and extreme dehydration at 37°C. These findings suggest that hotter temperatures coupled with lifestyle transitions may create conditions that increase vulnerability to dehydration among rural populations through landscape modifications and diet changes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The Effect of Moisture Content and Temperature on the Specific Heat Capacity of Nut and Kernel of Two Iranian Pistachio Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R Salari Kia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pistachio has a special ranking among Iranian agricultural products. Iran is known as the largest producer and exporter of pistachio in the world. Agricultural products are imposed under different thermal treatments during storage and processing. Designing all these processes requires thermal parameters of the products such as specific heat capacity. Regarding the importance of pistachio processing as an exportable product, in this study the specific heat capacity of nut and kernel of two varieties of Iranian pistachio (Kalle-Ghochi and Badami were investigated at four levels of moisture content (initial moisture content (5%, 15%, 25% and 40% w.b. and three levels of temperature (40, 50 and 60°C. In both varieties, the differences between the data were significant at the 1% of probability; however, the effect of moisture content was greater than that of temperature. The results indicated that the specific heat capacity of both nuts and kernels increase logarithmically with increase of moisture content and also increase linearly with increase of temperature. This parameter has altered for nut and kernel of Kalle-Ghochi and Badami varieties within the range of 1.039-2.936 kJ kg-1 K-1, 1.236-3.320 kJ kg-1 K-1, 0.887-2.773 kJ kg-1 K-1 and 0.811-2.914 kJ kg-1 K-1, respectively. Moreover, for any given level of temperature, the specific heat capacity of kernels was higher than that of nuts. Finally, regression models with high R2 values were developed to predict the specific heat capacity of pistachio varieties as a function of moisture content and temperature

  16. Requirement of extracellular Ca2+binding to specific amino acids for heat-evoked activation of TRPA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurganov, Erkin; Saito, Shigeru; Tanaka Saito, Claire; Tominaga, Makoto

    2017-04-15

    We found that extracellular Ca 2+ , but not other divalent cations (Mg 2+ and Ba 2+ ) or intracellular Ca 2+ , is involved in heat-evoked activation of green anole (ga) TRPA1. Heat-evoked activation of chicken (ch) and rat snake (rs) TRPA1 does not depend solely on extracellular Ca 2+ . Neutralization of acidic amino acids on the outer surface of TRPA1 by extracellular Ca 2+ is important for heat-evoked large activation of gaTRPA1, chTRPA1 and rsTRPA1. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) is a homotetrameric non-selective cation-permeable channel that has six transmembrane domains and cytoplasmic N- and C-termini. The N-terminus is characterized by an unusually large number of ankyrin repeats. Although the 3-dimensional structure of human TRPA1 has been determined, and TRPA1 channels from insects to birds are known to be activated by heat stimulus, the mechanism for temperature-dependent TRPA1 activation is unclear. We previously reported that extracellular Ca 2+ , but not intracellular Ca 2+ , plays an important role in heat-evoked TRPA1 activation in green anole lizards (gaTRPA1). Here we focus on extracellular Ca 2+ -dependent heat sensitivity of gaTRPA1 by comparing gaTRPA1 with heat-activated TRPA1 channels from rat snake (rsTRPA1) and chicken (chTRPA1). In the absence of extracellular Ca 2+ , rsTRPA1 and chTRPA1 are activated by heat and generate small inward currents. A comparison of extracellular amino acids in TRPA1 identified three negatively charged amino acid residues (glutamate and aspartate) near the outer pore vestibule that are involved in heat-evoked TRPA1 activation in the presence of extracellular Ca 2+ . These results suggest that neutralization of acidic amino acids by extracellular Ca 2+ is important for heat-evoked activation of gaTRPA1, chTRPA1, and rsTRPA1, which could clarify mechanisms of heat-evoked channel activation. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  17. Reduced susceptibility of tomato stem to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea is associated with a specific adjustment of fructose content in the host sugar pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecompte, François; Nicot, Philippe C; Ripoll, Julie; Abro, Manzoor A; Raimbault, Astrid K; Lopez-Lauri, Félicie; Bertin, Nadia

    2017-03-01

    Plant soluble sugars, as main components of primary metabolism, are thought to be implicated in defence against pathogenic fungi. However, the function of sucrose and hexoses remains unclear. This study aimed to identify robust patterns in the dynamics of soluble sugars in sink tissues of tomato plants during the course of infection by the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea . Distinct roles for glucose and fructose in defence against B. cinerea were hypothesized. We examined sugar contents and defence hormonal markers in tomato stem tissues before and after infection by B. cinerea , in a range of abiotic environments created by various nitrogen and water supplies. Limited nitrogen or water supplies increased tomato stem susceptibility to B. cinerea . Glucose and fructose contents of tissues surrounding infection sites evolved differently after inoculation. The fructose content never decreased after inoculation with B. cinerea , while that of glucose showed either positive or negative variation, depending on the abiotic environment. An increase in the relative fructose content (defined as the proportion of fructose in the soluble sugar pool) was observed in the absence of glucose accumulation and was associated with lower susceptibility. A lower expression of the salicylic acid marker PR1a , and a lower repression of a jasmonate marker COI1 were associated with reduced susceptibility. Accordingly, COI1 expression was positively correlated with the relative fructose contents 7 d after infection. Small variations of fructose content among the sugar pool are unlikely to affect intrinsic pathogen growth. Our results highlight distinct use of host glucose and fructose after infection by B. cinerea and suggest strongly that adjustment of the relative fructose content is required for enhanced plant defence.

  18. Effect of variable thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity on the calculation of the critical metal hydride thickness for Ti1.1CrMn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzucco, Andrea; Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    model is applied to the metal hydride system, with Ti 1.1 CrMn as the absorbing alloy, to predict the weight fraction of absorbed hydrogen and solid bed temperat ure . Dependencies of thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity upon pressure and hydrogen content respectively , are accounted for...... with activated powder and embedded heat exchanger makes difficult to set up experimental facilities. Trustable simulation models that can address the system ́s performances to a particular design are then a funda mental step to be taken prior any experimental setup. This study considers a detailed 1D fueling...

  19. Anisotropic Ru{sup 3+} - 4d{sup 5} - magnetism in the α-RuCl{sub 3} honeycomb system: susceptibility, specific heat and zero field NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baenitz, Michael; Majumder, Mayukh; Rosner, Helge; Yasuoka, Hiroshi; Schmidt, Markus [MPI for the Chemical Physics of Solids, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Tsirlin, Alexander [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Tallinn (Estonia)

    2015-07-01

    Low dimensional 4d- and 5d-magnets show a wide variety of magnetic ground states due to crystal electric field (CEF) splitting and strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC). The Heisenberg-Kitaev model was applied for the competing bond-dependent magnetic exchange interactions in the 5d-honeycomb lattices (Li{sub 2}IrO{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}IrO{sub 3}). α-RuCl{sub 3} turns out to be an excellent candidate for that model because the low-spin 3+ state of Ru (4d{sup 5}) is equivalent to the low-spin 4+ state of Ir (5d{sup 5}). Hexagonal α-Ru trichloride single crystals exhibit a strong magnetic anisotropy and we show that upon applying fields up to 14 T in the honeycomb plane the successive magnetic order at T{sub 1} = 14 K and T{sub 2} = 8 K could be completely suppressed whereas in the perpendicular direction the magnetic order is robust. Furthermore the field dependence of χ(T) implies coexisting ferro- and antiferromagnetic exchange between in-plane components of Ru{sup 3+}-spins, whereas for out-of-plane components a strong antiferromagnetic exchange becomes evident. {sup 101}Ru zero-field nuclear magnetic resonance evidence a complex (probably chiral) long-range magnetic order below 14 K. The large orbital moment on Ru{sup 3+} is found in density-functional calculations.

  20. Stage and cell-specific expression and intracellular localization of the small heat shock protein Hsp27 during oogenesis and spermatogenesis in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economou, Katerina; Kotsiliti, Elena; Mintzas, Anastassios C

    2017-01-01

    The cell-specific expression and intracellular distribution of the small heat protein Hsp27 was investigated in the ovaries and testes of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (medfly), under both normal and heat shock conditions. For this study, a gfp-hsp27 strain was used to detect the chimeric protein by confocal microscopy. In unstressed ovaries, the protein was expressed throughout egg development in a stage and cell-specific pattern. In germarium, the protein was detected in the cytoplasm of the somatic cells in both unstressed and heat-shocked ovaries. In the early stages of oogenesis of unstressed ovaries, the protein was mainly located in the perinuclear region of the germ cells and in the cytoplasm of the follicle cells, while in later stages (9-10) it was distributed in the cytoplasm of the germ cells. In late stages (12-14), the protein changed localization pattern and was exclusively associated with the nuclei of the somatic cells. In heat shocked ovaries, the protein was mainly located in the nuclei of the somatic cells throughout egg chamber's development. In unstressed testes, the chimeric protein was detected in the nuclei of primary spermatocytes and in the filamentous structures of spermatid bundles, called actin cones. Interestingly, after a heat shock, the protein presented the same cell-specific localization pattern as in unstressed testes. Furthermore, the protein was also detected in the nuclei of the epithelial cells of the deferent duct, the accessory glands and the ejaculatory bulb. Our data suggest that medfly Hsp27 may have cell-specific functions, especially in the nucleus. Moreover, the association of this protein to actin cones during spermatid individualization, suggests a possible role of the protein in the formation and stabilization of actin cones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of Heat and Cold on Total and Cause-Specific Mortality in Vadu HDSS--A Rural Setting in Western India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingole, Vijendra; Rocklöv, Joacim; Juvekar, Sanjay; Schumann, Barbara

    2015-12-02

    Many diseases are affected by changes in weather. There have been limited studies, however, which have examined the relationship between heat and cold and cause-specific mortality in low and middle-income countries. In this study, we aimed to estimate the effects of heat and cold days on total and cause-specific mortality in the Vadu Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) area in western India. We used a quasi-Poisson regression model allowing for over-dispersion to examine the association of total and cause-specific mortality with extreme high (98th percentile, >39 °C) and low temperature (2nd percentile, Heat was significantly associated with daily deaths by non-infectious diseases (RR = 1.57; CI: 1.18-2.10). There was an increase in the risk of total mortality in the age group 12-59 years on lag 0 day (RR = 1.43; CI: 1.02-1.99). A high increase in total mortality was observed among men at lag 0 day (RR = 1.38; CI: 1.05-1.83). We did not find any short-term association between total and cause-specific mortality and cold days. Deaths from neither infectious nor external causes were associated with heat or cold. Our results showed a strong and rather immediate relationship between high temperatures and non-infectious disease mortality in a rural population located in western India, during 2003-2012. This study may be used to develop targeted interventions such as Heat Early Warning Systems in the area to reduce mortality from extreme temperatures.

  2. Specific mutations of penicillin-binding protein 1A in 77 clinically acquired amoxicillin-resistant Helicobacter pylori strains in comparison with 77 amoxicillin-susceptible strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong Hwan; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kim, Nayoung; Park, Ji Hyun; Nam, Ryoung Hee; Lee, Sun Min; Kim, Jin-Wook; Kim, Jung Mogg; Park, Jong Youn; Lee, Dong Ho

    2017-08-25

    Amoxicillin (Amx) is one of the most important antibiotics for eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Main determinants of genetically stable Amx resistance are mutations in the C-terminus of penicillin-binding protein 1A (pbp1A). However, contribution of individual mutation remains unclear. 77 Amx-resistant (Amx(R) ) and 77 Amx-susceptible (Amx(S) ) H. pylori strains were isolated from gastric tissues, and DNA sequencing was performed to compare C-terminus sequences of pbp1A gene between Amx(R) and Amx(S) strains. Natural transformation of these mutated genes into amoxicillin-susceptible strains was performed. Among many mutations in pbp1A, D479E (OR: 37.4, 95% CI: 5.53-252.49, P < .001), and T593 mutation (OR: 32.0, 95% CI: 4.04-252.86, P < .001) independently contributed to Amx resistance in H. pylori strains. In the transformation experiment, T593 mutations were identified in their transformants showing Amx resistance. However, PCR product of D479E was not inserted into recipient (ATCC 43504) resulting in transformation failure. Amx resistance is associated with various substitutions in pbp1A and T593 mutation contributes to Amx resistance of H. pylori. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Thermophysical Properties of Matter - the TPRC Data Series. Volume 6S. Specific Heat - Nonmetallic Liquids and Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    1200 0.725 1300 0.728 1400 0.731 1500 0.733 CHLORINE TRIFLUORIDE CIF, - G 250 0.655 0 Theor 401 273.16 0.680 298.16 0.704 300 0.705 400 0.772 500...CYMENE Liquid: 22724 CHLORINE OXIDE Gas: 10530 10718 10928 17036 24959 D CHLORINE TRIFLUORIDE Gas: 1799 1809 7001 10� DEUTERIUM, MONATOMIC Liquid...01799 THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES Of CHLORINE TRIFLUORIDE SCHEER MILTON D 01562 HEAT CAPACITIES OF LIQUIDS. I. HEAT CAPACITY Of J CHER PHS 4 AENZNE

  4. Targeted gene expression without a tissue-specific promoter: creating mosaic embryos using laser-induced single-cell heat shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfon, M. S.; Kose, H.; Chiba, A.; Keshishian, H.

    1997-01-01

    We have developed a method to target gene expression in the Drosophila embryo to a specific cell without having a promoter that directs expression in that particular cell. Using a digitally enhanced imaging system to identify single cells within the living embryo, we apply a heat shock to each cell individually by using a laser microbeam. A 1- to 2-min laser treatment is sufficient to induce a heat-shock response but is not lethal to the heat-shocked cells. Induction of heat shock was measured in a variety of cell types, including neurons and somatic muscles, by the expression of beta-galactosidase from an hsp26-lacZ reporter construct or by expression of a UAS target gene after induction of hsGAL4. We discuss the applicability of this technique to ectopic gene expression studies, lineage tracing, gene inactivation studies, and studies of cells in vitro. Laser heat shock is a versatile technique that can be adapted for use in a variety of research organisms and is useful for any studies in which it is desirable to express a given gene in only a distinct cell or clone of cells, either transiently or constitutively, at a time point of choice.

  5. Genome-wide association study implicates testis-sperm specific FKBP6 as a susceptibility locus for impaired acrosome reaction in stallions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terje Raudsepp

    Full Text Available Impaired acrosomal reaction (IAR of sperm causes male subfertility in humans and animals. Despite compelling evidence about the genetic control over acrosome biogenesis and function, the genomics of IAR is as yet poorly understood, providing no molecular tools for diagnostics. Here we conducted Equine SNP50 Beadchip genotyping and GWAS using 7 IAR-affected and 37 control Thoroughbred stallions. A significant (PA and g.11040379C>A (p.166H>N in exon 4 that were significantly associated with the IAR phenotype both in the GWAS cohort (n = 44 and in a large multi-breed cohort of 265 horses. All IAR stallions were homozygous for the A-alleles, while this genotype was found only in 2% of controls. The equine FKBP6 was exclusively expressed in testis and sperm and had 5 different transcripts, of which 4 were novel. The expression of this gene in AC/AG heterozygous controls was monoallelic, and we observed a tendency for FKBP6 up-regulation in IAR stallions compared to controls. Because exon 4 SNPs had no effect on the protein structure, it is likely that FKBP6 relates to the IAR phenotype via regulatory or modifying functions. In conclusion, FKBP6 was considered a susceptibility gene of incomplete penetrance for IAR in stallions and a candidate gene for male subfertility in mammals. FKBP6 genotyping is recommended for the detection of IAR-susceptible individuals among potential breeding stallions. Successful use of sperm as a source of DNA and RNA propagates non-invasive sample procurement for fertility genomics in animals and humans.

  6. Genome-wide association study implicates testis-sperm specific FKBP6 as a susceptibility locus for impaired acrosome reaction in stallions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudsepp, Terje; McCue, Molly E; Das, Pranab J; Dobson, Lauren; Vishnoi, Monika; Fritz, Krista L; Schaefer, Robert; Rendahl, Aaron K; Derr, James N; Love, Charles C; Varner, Dickson D; Chowdhary, Bhanu P

    2012-01-01

    Impaired acrosomal reaction (IAR) of sperm causes male subfertility in humans and animals. Despite compelling evidence about the genetic control over acrosome biogenesis and function, the genomics of IAR is as yet poorly understood, providing no molecular tools for diagnostics. Here we conducted Equine SNP50 Beadchip genotyping and GWAS using 7 IAR-affected and 37 control Thoroughbred stallions. A significant (Phorse chromosome 13 in FK506 binding protein 6 (FKBP6). The gene belongs to the immunophilins FKBP family known to be involved in meiosis, calcium homeostasis, clathrin-coated vesicles, and membrane fusions. Direct sequencing of FKBP6 exons in cases and controls identified SNPs g.11040315G>A and g.11040379C>A (p.166H>N) in exon 4 that were significantly associated with the IAR phenotype both in the GWAS cohort (n = 44) and in a large multi-breed cohort of 265 horses. All IAR stallions were homozygous for the A-alleles, while this genotype was found only in 2% of controls. The equine FKBP6 was exclusively expressed in testis and sperm and had 5 different transcripts, of which 4 were novel. The expression of this gene in AC/AG heterozygous controls was monoallelic, and we observed a tendency for FKBP6 up-regulation in IAR stallions compared to controls. Because exon 4 SNPs had no effect on the protein structure, it is likely that FKBP6 relates to the IAR phenotype via regulatory or modifying functions. In conclusion, FKBP6 was considered a susceptibility gene of incomplete penetrance for IAR in stallions and a candidate gene for male subfertility in mammals. FKBP6 genotyping is recommended for the detection of IAR-susceptible individuals among potential breeding stallions. Successful use of sperm as a source of DNA and RNA propagates non-invasive sample procurement for fertility genomics in animals and humans.

  7. FKBP5 and specific microRNAs via glucocorticoid receptor in the basolateral amygdala involved in the susceptibility to depressive disorder in early adolescent stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingjing; Wang, Rui; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Dexiang; Jiang, Hong; Pan, Fang

    2017-12-01

    Exposure to stressful events induces depressive-like symptoms and increases susceptibility to depression. However, the molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Studies reported that FK506 binding protein51 (FKBP5), the co-chaperone protein of glucocorticoid receptors (GR), plays a crucial role. Further, miR-124a and miR-18a are involved in the regulation of FKBP5/GR function. However, few studies have referred to effects of early life stress on depressive-like behaviours, GR and FKBP5, as well as miR-124a and miR-18a in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) from adolescence to adulthood. This study aimed to examine the dynamic alternations of depressive-like behaviours, GR and FKBP5, as well as miR-124a and miR-18a expressions in the BLA of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) rats and dexamethasone administration rats during the adolescent period. Meanwhile, the GR antagonist, RU486, was used as a means of intervention. We found that CUMS and dexamethasone administration in the adolescent period induced permanent depressive-like behaviours and memory impairment, decreased GR expression, and increased FKBP5 and miR-124a expression in the BLA of both adolescent and adult rats. However, increased miR-18a expression in the BLA was found only in adolescent rats. Depressive-like behaviours were positively correlated with the level of miR-124a, whereas GR levels were negatively correlated with those in both adolescent and adult rats. Our results suggested FKBP5/GR and miR-124a in the BLA were associated with susceptibility to depressive disorder in the presence of stressful experiences in early life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Specific heat measurements on (Nd{sub 1-x}Sm{sub x}){sub 2}CuO{sub 4} in applied magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbeta, V.B. [California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States). Inst. of Pure and Applied Physical Sciences; Allenspach, P. [Labor.-fuer Neutronenstreuung, ETH Zuerich, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Maple, M.B. [California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States). Inst. of Pure and Applied Physical Sciences; Jardim, R.F. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 20516, 01452-990 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    1995-03-01

    Low-temperature specific heat measurements were performed on polycrystalline samples of (Nd{sub 1-x}Sm{sub x}){sub 2}CuO{sub 4}. All samples show an anomaly at low temperatures characterized by a maximum in the specific heat, as previously reported for the pure compounds, which has been associated with a transition to an ordered state of the rare earth ion. The results at zero field show that there are two different mechanisms involved in the rare earth ordering process in the mixed compounds. Measurements on these samples in applied magnetic fields reveal that the temperature at which the maximum occurs decreases slightly with increasing field for Sm-rich samples and increases for Nd-rich samples. ((orig.)).

  9. A study of the disorder in heavily doped Ba1-xLaxF2+x by neutron scattering, ionic conductivity and specific heat measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Niels Hessel; Clausen, Kurt Nørgaard; Kjems, Jørgen

    1986-01-01

    The ionic disorder in single crystals of the fluorite-type solid solutions Ba1-xLaxF2+x (with x=0.209 and x=0.492) has been studied in the temperature range from room temperature to 800 degrees C by diffuse neutron scattering, ionic conductivity, and specific heat measurements. From the diffuse...... neutron scattering it was found that the disorder was dominated by 222 clusters, which at low temperatures (T>10-10s), in agreement with NMB results which suggest a jump frequency below 75 MHz. The temperatures at which the steepest slopes are found in the loss of correlations and in the conductivity...... coincide at approximately 650 degrees C. At this temperature no clear anomaly is observed in the specific heat. Based on these findings the authors propose a conduction mechanisms where F- ions are moving through the lattice by means of rearrangements of the 222 clusters....

  10. Functional regions of HpaXm as elicitors with specific heat tolerance induce the hypersensitive response or plant growth promotion in nonhost plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue; Zhou, Xiaoyun; Liu, Wenbo; Xiong, Xiaohui; Lv, Chuyang; Zhou, Xiang; Miao, Weiguo

    2018-01-01

    HpaXm produced by the cotton leaf blight bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. malvacearum is a novel harpin elicitor of the induced hypersensitive response (HR) in tobacco. We investigated whether fragments of HpaXm, compared with fragments of Hpa1Xoo, are sufficient for HR or plant growth promotion (PGP) elicitation using four synthetic peptides (HpaXm35-51, HpaXm10-39, Hpa1Xoo36-52 and Hpa1Xoo10-40). We also heated the fragments to determine the heat tolerance of the functional fragments. HpaXm35-51 and Hpa1Xoo36-52 induced hypersensitive response (HR). Bursts of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) induced by HpaXm35-51 and Hpa1Xoo36-52 were earlier and stronger than those induced by HpaXm and Hpa1Xoo. In plants treated with HpaXm35-51 or Hpa1Xoo36-52, the expression of the HR marker genes Hin1 and Hsr203J and the active oxygen metabolism related gene AOX were significantly upregulated. These findings suggest that the predicted α-helical structures of the HpaXm35-51 and Hpa1Xoo36-52 fragments are crucial for HR. PGP result by soaking seeds in unheated/heated HpaXm10-39 or Hpa1Xoo10-40 solution prior to transfer, which obviously enhances root growth and the aerial parts of plants. The PGP related gene NtEXP6 was greatly enhanced when plants were sprayed with a solution of HpaXm10-39 or Hpa1Xoo10-40; heated fragment treatments induced higher levels of NtEXP6 expression than unheated HpaXm fragments. In addition, HR marker genes induced by the heated fragments had lower expression levels than when induced with unheated HpaXm fragments. Moreover, the expression levels of HR marker genes and PGP related genes induced by treatment with Hpa1Xoo fragments before or after heating were the opposite of those induced by HpaXm fragments. Different functional fragments of harpin and different harpins with the same functional region have different degrees of heat tolerance. Therefore, the heat resistance of harpin is conservative, but the degree of heat tolerance of the

  11. The specific heat of ErxY1-xRh1.1Sn3.6 for x=0.4, 0.8 and 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willekers, R.W.; Bosch, W.A.; Meijer, H.C.; Bakker, S.J.M.; Postma, H.; Flokstra, Jakob

    1987-01-01

    Specific heat measurements between 50 and 800 mK of the three magnetic superconductors ErxY1-xRh1.1Sn3.6 With x = 0.4, 0.8 and 1, respectively, are presented. For these compounds broad anomalies with maxima at 245, 360 and 435 mK, respectively, were observed. No sharp peaks were detected. This means

  12. Thermophysical Properties of Cold- and Vacuum Plasma-Sprayed Cu-Cr-X Alloys, NiAl and NiCrAlY Coatings II: Specific Heat Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, S. V.

    2017-10-01

    Part I of the paper discussed the temperature dependencies of the electrical resistivities, thermal conductivities, thermal diffusivities and total hemispherical emissivities of several vacuum plasma-sprayed (VPS) and cold-sprayed (CS) copper alloy monolithic coatings, VPS NiAl, VPS NiCrAlY, extruded GRCop-84 and as-cast Cu-17(wt.%)Cr-5%Al. Part II discusses the temperature dependencies of the constant-pressure specific heat capacities, C P, of these coatings. The data were empirically regression-fitted with the equation: \\varvec{C}_{P} = AT^{4} + BT^{3} + CT^{2} + DT + \\varvec{E} where T is the absolute temperature and A, B, C, D and E are regression constants. The temperature dependencies of the molar enthalpy, molar entropy and Gibbs molar free energy determined from experimental values of molar specific heat capacity are reported. Calculated values of C P using the Neumann-Kopp (NK) rule were in poor agreement with experimental data. Instead, a modification of the NK rule was found to predict values closer to the experimental data with an absolute deviation less than 6.5%. The specific molar heat capacities for all the alloys did not agree with the Dulong-Petit law, and C P > 3R, where R is the universal gas constant, were measured for all the alloys except NiAl for which C P < 3R at all temperatures.

  13. Thermophysical Properties of Cold and Vacuum Plasma Sprayed Cu-Cr-X Alloys, NiAl and NiCrAlY Coatings. Part 2; Specific Heat Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, S. V.

    2017-01-01

    Part I of the paper discussed the temperature dependencies of the electrical resistivities, thermal conductivities, thermal diffusivities and total hemispherical emissivities of several vacuum plasma sprayed (VPS) and cold sprayed copper alloy monolithic coatings, VPS NiAl, VPS NiCrAlY, extruded GRCop-84 and as-cast Cu-17(wt.%)Cr-5%Al. Part II discusses the temperature dependencies of the constant pressure specific heat capacities, CP, of these coatings. The data were empirically were regression-fitted with the equation: CP = AT4 + BT3 + CT2 + DT +E where T is the absolute temperature and A, B, C, D and E are regression constants. The temperature dependencies of the molar enthalpy, molar entropy and Gibbs molar free energy determined from experimental values of molar specific heat capacity are reported. Calculated values of CP using the Neumann-Kopp (NK) rule were in poor agreement with experimental data. Instead, a modification of the Neumann-Kopp rule was found to predict values closer to the experimental data with an absolute deviation less than 6.5%. The specific molar heat capacities for all the alloys did not agree with the Dulong-Petit law, and CP is greater than 3R, where R is the universal gas constant, were measured for all the alloys except NiAl for which CP is less than 3R at all temperatures.

  14. Specific heat of a DyBa 2Cu 3O 7- y single crystal in magnetic fields up to 8 T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, N. J.; Howson, M. A.; Yang, G.; Abell, S.

    1999-08-01

    The specific heat of a twinned DyBa 2Cu 3O 7- y (DyBCO) single crystal has been measured in magnetic fields up to 8 T near Tc. The measurements were performed on a small single crystal with an a.c. calorimetry technique. We have scaled the specific heat both by the method of removing a non-singular background and by the method of scaling the magnetic field derivative of the specific heat. Both lowest Landau level (LLL) scaling and 3D XY scaling have been tested by these methods. We find that by the method of field derivative scaling, the two models give similar results, but by the method of removing a non-singular background, the LLL scaling fails in fields below 2 T. On the low temperature side of the transition, small steps are observed in low fields which turn into small peaks (∼0.3% of C/ T) for higher fields. The position of these peaks is consistent with the vortex melting line and gives a melting entropy of 0.3 K B per vortex per CuO 2 bi-layer in an applied magnetic field of 5 T.

  15. Thermophysical Properties of Cold- and Vacuum Plasma-Sprayed Cu-Cr-X Alloys, NiAl and NiCrAlY Coatings II: Specific Heat Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, S. V.

    2017-11-01

    Part I of the paper discussed the temperature dependencies of the electrical resistivities, thermal conductivities, thermal diffusivities and total hemispherical emissivities of several vacuum plasma-sprayed (VPS) and cold-sprayed (CS) copper alloy monolithic coatings, VPS NiAl, VPS NiCrAlY, extruded GRCop-84 and as-cast Cu-17(wt.%)Cr-5%Al. Part II discusses the temperature dependencies of the constant-pressure specific heat capacities, C P, of these coatings. The data were empirically regression-fitted with the equation: \\varvec{C}_{P} = {AT}^{4} + {BT}^{3} + {CT}^{2} + DT + \\varvec{E}where T is the absolute temperature and A, B, C, D and E are regression constants. The temperature dependencies of the molar enthalpy, molar entropy and Gibbs molar free energy determined from experimental values of molar specific heat capacity are reported. Calculated values of C P using the Neumann-Kopp (NK) rule were in poor agreement with experimental data. Instead, a modification of the NK rule was found to predict values closer to the experimental data with an absolute deviation less than 6.5%. The specific molar heat capacities for all the alloys did not agree with the Dulong-Petit law, and C P > 3 R, where R is the universal gas constant, were measured for all the alloys except NiAl for which C P < 3 R at all temperatures.

  16. Susceptible Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünenberg, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    This article explores a group of complementary alternative medical (CAM) practitioners’ perceptions and cultivation of a specific type of relationship to their clients, which is connected to what they consider a successful treatment process. More specifically, the article explores how what is und...... of new worlds. Methodologically the article draws on practitioner interviews and participant-observation in clinics of acupuncture and reflexology....

  17. Exposure of Lactating Dairy Cows to Acute Pre-Ovulatory Heat Stress Affects Granulosa Cell-Specific Gene Expression Profiles in Dominant Follicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Vanselow

    Full Text Available High environmental temperatures induce detrimental effects on various reproductive processes in cattle. According to the predicted global warming the number of days with unfavorable ambient temperatures will further increase. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of acute heat stress during the late pre-ovulatory phase on morphological, physiological and molecular parameters of dominant follicles in cycling cows during lactation. Eight German Holstein cows in established lactation were exposed to heat stress (28°C or thermoneutral conditions (15°C with pair-feeding for four days. After hormonal heat induction growth of the respective dominant follicles was monitored by ultrasonography for two days, then an ovulatory GnRH dose was given and follicular steroid hormones and granulosa cell-specific gene expression profiles were determined 23 hrs thereafter. The data showed that the pre-ovulatory growth of dominant follicles and the estradiol, but not the progesterone concentrations tended to be slightly affected. mRNA microarray and hierarchical cluster analysis revealed distinct expression profiles in granulosa cells derived from heat stressed compared to pair-fed animals. Among the 255 affected genes heatstress-, stress- or apoptosis associated genes were not present. But instead, we found up-regulation of genes essentially involved in G-protein coupled signaling pathways, extracellular matrix composition, and several members of the solute carrier family as well as up-regulation of FST encoding follistatin. In summary, the data of the present study show that acute pre-ovulatory heat stress can specifically alter gene expression profiles in granulosa cells, however without inducing stress related genes and pathways and suggestively can impair follicular growth due to affecting the activin-inhibin-follistatin system.

  18. CHNO Energetic Polymer Specific Heat Prediction From The Proposed Nominal/Generic (N/G) CP Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    HMX can exist in different solid polymorphic forms. At a certain temperature, TT, one form may change to another form if the heat energy of...TR ideas were demonstrated for HMX and HNS which are also important basic secondary explosive compounds. The impact shock response of these seven...other. In Reference 3, it was demonstrated that the CP for HNS was very close to that for TATB, and the CP for HMX was somewhat less than the TATB CP at

  19. The calculation of specific heats for some important solid components in hydrogen production process based on CuCl cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Avsec Jurij

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen is one of the most promising energy sources of the future enabling direct production of power and heat in fuel cells, hydrogen engines or furnaces with hydrogen burners. One of the last remainder problems in hydrogen technology is how to produce a sufficient amount of cheap hydrogen. One of the best options is large scale thermochemical production of hydrogen in combination with nuclear power plant. copper-chlorine (CuCl) cycle is the most promissi...

  20. Sex- and limb-specific differences in the nitric oxide-dependent cutaneous vasodilation in response to local heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanhewicz, Anna E; Greaney, Jody L; Kenney, W Larry; Alexander, Lacy M

    2014-10-01

    Local heating of the skin is commonly used to assess cutaneous microvasculature function. Controversy exists as to whether there are limb or sex differences in the nitric oxide (NO)-dependent contribution to this vasodilation, as well as the NO synthase (NOS) isoform mediating the responses. We tested the hypotheses that 1) NO-dependent vasodilation would be greater in the calf compared with the forearm; 2) total NO-dependent dilation would not be different between sexes within limb; and 3) women would exhibit greater neuronal NOS (nNOS)-dependent vasodilation in the calf. Two microdialysis fibers were placed in the skin of the ventral forearm and the calf of 19 (10 male and 9 female) young (23 ± 1 yr) adults for the local delivery of Ringer solution (control) or 5 mM N(ω)-propyl-l-arginine (NPLA; nNOS inhibition). Vasodilation was induced by local heating (42°C) at each site, after which 20 mM N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) was perfused for within-site assessment of NO-dependent vasodilation. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated as laser-Doppler flux/mean arterial pressure and normalized to maximum (28 mM sodium nitroprusside, 43°C). Total NO-dependent vasodilation in the calf was lower compared with the forearm in both sexes (Ringer: 42 ± 5 vs. 62 ± 4%; P 0.05). These data suggest that the NO-dependent component of local heating-induced cutaneous vasodilation is lower in the calf compared with the forearm. Contrary to our original hypothesis, there was no contribution of nNOS to NO-dependent vasodilation in either limb during local heating. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  1. The ratio of specific heats for postshock plasmas of a detached bow shock - An MHD model. [in solar wind-earth interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, J. K.; Wiskerchen, M. J.

    1974-01-01

    The empirical relationship between the standoff distance of a detached bow shock (generated by the flow of a supersonic gas past an impenetrable obstacle), the size of the obstacle, the Mach number of the gas, and the ratio of specific heats has been generalized to include the magnetic field. The value of the ratio of specific heats (gamma-prime) in the postshock plasma has been calculated in terms of the preshock Alfvenic and sonic Mach numbers and orientation of the magnetic field. The empirical relationship is further generalized by taking into consideration the normal momentum and energy flux due to waves and/or turbulence and/or heat flow in association with high Mach number shocks. The computed value of gamma prime is substantially modified in comparison with that given by the MHD or the gas dynamic model. For this generalized model the computed gamma prime can be considered to be a more precise thermodynamic quantity, since the macroscopic parameters of the plasma have been separated out. Application of this empirical relationship to the earth's bow shock has been given.

  2. Genome-wide association study using the ethnicity-specific Japonica array: identification of new susceptibility loci for cold medicine-related Stevens-Johnson syndrome with severe ocular complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueta, Mayumi; Sawai, Hiromi; Shingaki, Ryosei; Kawai, Yusuke; Sotozono, Chie; Kojima, Kaname; Yoon, Kyung-Chul; Kim, Mee Kum; Seo, Kyoung Yul; Joo, Choun-Ki; Nagasaki, Masao; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Tokunaga, Katsushi

    2017-04-01

    A genome-wide association study (GWAS) for cold medicine-related Stevens-Johnson syndrome (CM-SJS) with severe ocular complications (SOC) was performed in a Japanese population. A recently developed ethnicity-specific array with genome-wide imputation that was based on the whole-genome sequences of 1070 unrelated Japanese individuals was used. Validation analysis with additional samples from Japanese individuals and replication analysis using samples from Korean individuals identified two new susceptibility loci on chromosomes 15 and 16. This study might suggest the usefulness of GWAS using the ethnicity-specific array and genome-wide imputation based on large-scale whole-genome sequences. Our findings contribute to the understanding of genetic predisposition to CM-SJS with SOC.

  3. Species-specific interactions between algal endosymbionts and coral hosts define their bleaching response to heat and light stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrego, David; Ulstrup, Karin E; Willis, Bette L

    2008-01-01

    The impacts of warming seas on the frequency and severity of bleaching events are well documented, but the potential for different Symbiodinium types to enhance the physiological tolerance of reef corals is not well understood. Here we compare the functionality and physiological properties...... and a potential role for host factors in determining the physiological performance of reef corals....... of juvenile corals when experimentally infected with one of two homologous Symbiodinium types and exposed to combined heat and light stress. A suite of physiological indicators including chlorophyll a fluorescence, oxygen production and respiration, as well as pigment concentration consistently demonstrated...

  4. SPECIFIC DEGRADATION STRUCTURE FEATURES AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FURNACE AND HEAT POWER EQUIPMENT ELEMENTS AFTER LONG-TERM OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Panteleenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of investigations on structure and mechanical properties of technological equipment elements made of heat-resistant steels. A scale of chrome and molybdenum steel microstructure degradation based on evaluation of  coagulated carbide size and material mechanical properties (a point from 0-operation without time limits, up to 4-operation prohibition has been proposed in the paper. It has been  established that an analysis of  steel microstructure directly on equipment elements by means of a portable microscope is an efficient express method for evaluation of equipment condition and structures due to control of material structure degradation rate of a diagnosed object.

  5. Exergy-based ecological performance of an irreversible Otto cycle with temperature-linear-relation variable specific heat of working fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yanlin; Chen, Lingen; Qin, Xiaoyong; Xie, Zhihui

    2017-05-01

    Considering internal irreversibility loss (IIL), friction loss (FL) and heat transfer loss (HTL), an irreversible Otto cycle (IOC) model is built up by using air standard (AS) assumption. Based on finite-time thermodynamics (FTT), computing entropy generation rate (EGR) by using the irreversible losses in the cycle, the ecological function (EF) performance of the cycle is optimized when the specific heat (SH) of the working fluid (WF) varies with temperature with linear relation. Some important expressions, including efficiency, power output, EGR and EF, are obtained. Moreover, the effects of variable SH of WF and three losses on cycle performance are investigated. The research conclusion can provide some guidelines for the actual Otto cycle engine performance optimization.

  6. Improved Thin, Flexible Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, John H.; Gernert, Nelson J.; Sarraf, David B.; Wollen, Peter J.; Surina, Frank C.; Fale, John E.

    2004-01-01

    Flexible heat pipes of an improved type are fabricated as layers of different materials laminated together into vacuum- tight sheets or tapes. In comparison with prior flexible heat pipes, these flexible heat pipes are less susceptible to leakage. Other advantages of these flexible heat pipes, relative to prior flexible heat pipes, include high reliability and greater ease and lower cost of fabrication. Because these heat pipes are very thin, they are highly flexible. When coated on outside surfaces with adhesives, these flexible heat pipes can be applied, like common adhesive tapes, to the surfaces of heat sinks and objects to be cooled, even if those surfaces are curved.

  7. Self consistently calibrated photopyroelectric calorimeter for the high resolution simultaneous absolute measurement of the specific heat and of the thermal conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Zammit

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available High temperature resolution study of the specific heat and of the thermal conductivity over the smecticA-nematic and nematic-isotropic phase transitions in octylcynobephenyl liquid crystal using a new photopyroelectric calorimetry configuration are reported, where, unlike previously adopted ones, no calibration is required other than the procedure used during the actual measurement. This makes photopyroelectric calorimetry suitable for “absolute” measurements of the thermal parameters like most other existing conventional calorimetric techniques where, however, the thermal conductivity cannot be measured.

  8. SPECIFIC HEAT STUDY OF FERROMAGNETIC ORDERING IN [Cr (NH3)6-n (H2O)n] [Cr (CN)6

    OpenAIRE

    Lázaro, F.; Bartolomé, J.; Burriel, R.; Pons, J.; Casabó, J.; Nugteren, P.

    1988-01-01

    Specific heat measurements below 1 K on [Cr(NH3)6] [Cr(CN)6] and [Cr(NH3)5 (H2O)] [Co(CN)6] are reported. The first compound orders as a Heisenberg bcc S = 3/2 ferromagnet. The second remains paramagnetic showing only a crystal field Schottky behaviour. Previous results on [Cr(NH3)5 (H2O)] [Cr(CN)6], where the water molecule is randomly localized, are interpreted within a bond-dilution scheme.

  9. Pressure data from a 64A010 airfoil at transonic speeds in heavy gas media of ratio of specific heats from 1.67 to 1.12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, A. R.; Steinle, F. W., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A NACA 64A010 pressure-instrumented airfoil was tested at transonic speeds over a range of angle of attack from -1 to 12 degrees at various Reynolds numbers ranging from 2 to 6 million in air, argon, Freon 12, and a mixture of argon and Freon 12 having a ratio of specific heats corresponding to air. Good agreement of results is obtained for conditions where compressibility is not significant and for the air and comparable argon-Freon 12 mixture. Comparison of heavy gas results with air, when adjusted for transonic similarity, show improved, but less than desired agreement.

  10. Cryogenic heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Barron, Randall F

    2016-01-01

    Cryogenic Heat Transfer, Second Edition continues to address specific heat transfer problems that occur in the cryogenic temperature range where there are distinct differences from conventional heat transfer problems. This updated version examines the use of computer-aided design in cryogenic engineering and emphasizes commonly used computer programs to address modern cryogenic heat transfer problems. It introduces additional topics in cryogenic heat transfer that include latent heat expressions; lumped-capacity transient heat transfer; thermal stresses; Laplace transform solutions; oscillating flow heat transfer, and computer-aided heat exchanger design. It also includes new examples and homework problems throughout the book, and provides ample references for further study.

  11. Simultaneous specific heat, thermal conductivity and imaging evaluations in thin samples of 8CB liquid crystal dispersed with microemulsion of DDAB/water micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoloni, S.; Mercuri, F.; Zammit, U.

    2016-09-01

    In this work we use a photopyroelectric calorimetric set up to analyze the transformations occurring in thin samples of liquid crystal-microemulsion system by combining the results of the simultaneously performed high temperature resolution polarization microscopy observations and the temperature dependence of the specific heat, and of the thermal conductivity. This enabled an accurate direct correlation of the observations concerning the different measured quantities for a most comprehensive interpretation of the obtained results. It is found that the I-N conversion progresses in the entire nematic range because of the micelles expelled from the nucleating nematic volumes remaining confined in the residual isotropic material. A hysteretic behavior is observed in the nematic range between cooling and heating run because of the different micelle content in the material during the cooling and heating runs. A moderate hysteresys also over the N-A transition indicated an additional material refinement from micelles during the transition. Finally in samples with different micelle concentration the same maximum micelle content is retained in the nematic and smectic phases.

  12. Osmotic and Heat Stress Effects on Segmentation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weiss, Julian; Devoto, Stephen H

    2016-01-01

    .... Environmental stresses such as hypoxia or heat shock produce segmentation defects, and significantly increase the penetrance and severity of vertebral defects in genetically susceptible individuals...

  13. The calculation of specific heats for some important solid components in hydrogen production process based on CuCl cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avsec Jurij

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen is one of the most promising energy sources of the future enabling direct production of power and heat in fuel cells, hydrogen engines or furnaces with hydrogen burners. One of the last remainder problems in hydrogen technology is how to produce a sufficient amount of cheap hydrogen. One of the best options is large scale thermochemical production of hydrogen in combination with nuclear power plant. copper-chlorine (CuCl cycle is the most promissible thermochemical cycle to produce cheap hydrogen.This paper focuses on a CuCl cycle, and the describes the models how to calculate thermodynamic properties. Unfortunately, for many components in CuCl cycle the thermochemical functions of state have never been measured. This is the reason that we have tried to calculate some very important thermophysical properties. This paper discusses the mathematical model for computing the thermodynamic properties for pure substances and their mixtures such as CuCl, HCl, Cu2OCl2 important in CuCl hydrogen production in their fluid and solid phase with an aid of statistical thermodynamics. For the solid phase, we have developed the mathematical model for the calculation of thermodynamic properties for polyatomic crystals. In this way, we have used Debye functions and Einstein function for acoustical modes and optical modes of vibrations to take into account vibration of atoms. The influence of intermolecular energy we have solved on the basis of Murnaghan equation of state and statistical thermodynamics.

  14. Page 1 s l i. i. i 118 E Gmelin et al 2. Experimental Specific heat and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    study was performed with two single Crystals with a total Weight of 2764 mg. An adiabatic microcalorimeter (Brill and Gmelin 1987), high temperature scanning calorimeters (Netsch DSC404, Perkin-Elmer DSC-2) and a sensitive Faraday balance magnetometer (using a field of B = 2 Tesla) were used to determine specific ...

  15. Thermal expansion and specific heat of a superior IR-SOFC cathode material Sr1-xCexCoO3-δ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Archana; Thakur, Rasna; Gaur, N. K.

    2017-05-01

    We present the specific heat (Cv) and thermal expansion (α) of lightly doped Sr1-xCexCoO3-δ (x=0.0-0.15) using Modified Rigid Ion Model (MRIM) and a novel atomistic approach of Atom in Molecules(AIM) theory. We partial replaced the A-site Strontium cation by other element (Cerium) of different size, valence and mass. The effect of Cerium doping on lattice specific heat (Cv)lat, thermal expansion(α) of Sr1-xCexCoO3-δ (x = 0.0-0.15) as a function of temperature (20K≤T≤ 1000K) is reported probably for the first time. The results indicate better thermal compatibility of Sr0.95Ce0.05CoO3 with Samaria doped Ceria (SDC) electrolyte than other studied compounds. The Debye temperature of these perovskite material as cathode for Intermediate Range Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (IR-SOFC) is also predicted.

  16. Specific heat of Ce{sub x}La{sub 1-x}B{sub 6} in the low cerium concentration limit (x {<=} 0.03)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anisimov, M. A., E-mail: anisimov.m.a@gmail.com; Glushkov, V. V.; Bogach, A. V.; Demishev, S. V.; Samarin, N. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Gavrilkin, S. Yu.; Mitsen, K. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Shitsevalova, N. Yu.; Levchenko, A. V.; Filippov, V. B. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Institute of Problems of Materials Science (Ukraine); Gabani, S.; Flachbart, K. [IEP SAS, Centre of Low Temperature Physics (Slovakia); Sluchanko, N. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2013-05-15

    The specific heat of high-quality Ce{sub x}La{sub 1-x}B{sub 6} (x = 0, 0.01, 0.03) single crystals is studied in the temperature range 0.4-300 K. LaB{sub 6} samples with various boron isotope compositions ({sup 10}B, {sup 11}B, {sup nat}B) are analyzed to estimate the effect of boron vacancies. The experimental data are used to take into account the electron component correctly under the renormalization of the density of states at T < 8 K, the contribution of the quasi-local vibrational mode of a rare-earth ion with the Einstein temperature {Theta}{sub E} Almost-Equal-To 152 K, the Debye contribution from the rigid cage of boron atoms with the Debye temperature {Theta}{sub D} Almost-Equal-To 1160 K, and the low-temperature Schottky contribution related to the presence of 1.5-2.3% boron vacancies in the rare-earth hexaborides. The detected low-temperature anomalies in the specific heat are shown to be interpreted in terms of the formation of two-level systems with an energy {Delta}E = 92-98 K caused by the displacement of rare-earth ions from their centrosymmetric positions. A scenario of heavy fermion formation that is alternative to the Kondo mechanism is proposed for the systems with a magnetic impurity.

  17. Specific heats and thermodynamic critical fields in Zn-doped YBa2Cu3O(7-x) according to an induced-pairing model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles, D. M.

    1993-01-01

    Electronic specific heats and thermodynamic critical fields are calculated in a mean-field version of an induced-pairing model for superconductivity, and compared with results of Loram et al. (1990) on YBa2(Cu(1-y)Zn(y))3O(7-x). This model involves induction of pairing of holes in a wideband by strongly bound electronlike pairs. It is assumed that the planar hole concentration for no Zn addition is close to, but slightly higher than, that for the maximum Tc, and that it increases by 0.015 per planar Cu ion for each increase of y by 0.01. Parameters of the model are taken to be the same as in a previous publication in which energy gaps were discussed, except that an effective hybridization parameter is adjusted for each Zn concentration to give agreement with the observed Tc. Results are presented for y = 0.0, 0.01, and 0.03. The agreement with experiment is good for thermodynamic critical fields, and is fair for specific heats. For specimens with larger y, with relatively low T(c)s, it is argued that the model should be supplemented to include effects of a BCS-type interaction amongst the wideband carriers.

  18. An Experimental Parametric Study of Geometric, Reynolds Number, and Ratio of Specific Heats Effects in Three-Dimensional Sidewall Compression Scramjet Inlets at Mach 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Scott D.; Murphy, Kelly J.

    1993-01-01

    Since mission profiles for airbreathing hypersonic vehicles such as the National Aero-Space Plane include single-stage-to-orbit requirements, real gas effects may become important with respect to engine performance. The effects of the decrease in the ratio of specific heats have been investigated in generic three-dimensional sidewall compression scramjet inlets with leading-edge sweep angles of 30 and 70 degrees. The effects of a decrease in ratio of specific heats were seen by comparing data from two facilities in two test gases: in the Langley Mach 6 CF4 Tunnel in tetrafluoromethane (where gamma=1.22) and in the Langley 15-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel in perfect gas air (where gamma=1.4). In addition to the simulated real gas effects, the parametric effects of cowl position, contraction ratio, leading-edge sweep, and Reynolds number were investigated in the 15-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel. The models were instrumented with a total of 45 static pressure orifices distributed on the sidewalls and baseplate. Surface streamline patterns were examined via oil flow, and schlieren videos were made of the external flow field. The results of these tests have significant implications to ground based testing of inlets in facilities which do not operate at flight enthalpies.

  19. The specific heat loss combined with the thermoelastic effect for an experimental analysis of the mean stress influence on axial fatigue of stainless steel plain specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Meneghetti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The energy dissipated to the surroundings as heat in a unit volume of material per cycle, Q, was recently proposed by the authors as fatigue damage index and it was successfully applied to correlate fatigue data obtained by carrying out fully reversed stress- and strain-controlled fatigue tests on AISI 304L stainless steel plain and notched specimens. The use of the Q parameter to analyse the experimental results led to the definition of a scatter band having constant slope from the low- to the high-cycle fatigue regime. In this paper the energy approach is extended to analyse the influence of mean stress on the axial fatigue behaviour of unnotched cold drawn AISI 304L stainless steel bars. In view of this, stress controlled fatigue tests on plain specimens at different load ratios R (R=-1; R=0.1; R=0.5 were carried out. A new energy parameter is defined to account for the mean stress effect, which combines the specific heat loss Q and the relative temperature variation due to the thermoelastic effect corresponding to the achievement of the maximum stress level of the stress cycle. The new two-parameter approach was able to rationalise the mean stress effect observed experimentally. It is worth noting that the results found in the present contribution are meant to be specific for the material and testing condition investigated here.

  20. The ingestion of combined carbohydrates does not alter metabolic responses or performance capacity during soccer-specific exercise in the heat compared to ingestion of a single carbohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, N D; Campbell, I T; Drust, B; Evans, L; Reilly, T; Maclaren, D P M

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of ingesting a glucose plus fructose solution on the metabolic responses to soccer-specific exercise in the heat and the impact on subsequent exercise capacity. Eleven male soccer players performed a 90 min soccer-specific protocol on three occasions. Either 3 ml · kg(-1) body mass of a solution containing glucose (1 g · min(-1) glucose) (GLU), or glucose (0.66 g · min(-1)) plus fructose (0.33 g · min(-1)) (MIX) or placebo (PLA) was consumed every 15 minutes. Respiratory measures were undertaken at 15-min intervals, blood samples were drawn at rest, half-time and on completion of the protocol, and muscle glycogen concentration was assessed pre- and post-exercise. Following the soccer-specific protocol the Cunningham and Faulkner test was performed. No significant differences in post-exercise muscle glycogen concentration (PLA, 62.99 ± 8.39 mmol · kg wet weight(-1); GLU 68.62 ± 2.70; mmol · kg wet weight(-1) and MIX 76.63 ± 6.92 mmol · kg wet weight(-1)) or exercise capacity (PLA, 73.62 ± 8.61 s; GLU, 77.11 ± 7.17 s; MIX, 83.04 ± 9.65 s) were observed between treatments (P > 0.05). However, total carbohydrate oxidation was significantly increased during MIX compared with PLA (P carbohydrate does not influence metabolism during soccer-specific intermittent exercise or affect performance capacity after exercise in the heat.

  1. Evaluation of specific heat peak and half-width for magnetic regenerative materials (RCuO) of 4K refrigerator; 4K reitoki yo jisei chikureizai kagobutsu (RCuO) no hinetsu piku to hannehaba no hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, S.; Nakane, H.; Hashimoto, T.; Sakagami, H. [Kogakuin Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Okamura, M. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Numazawa, T. [National Research Inst. for Metals, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-11-10

    For material selection in the multistory structure regeneration vessel of the GM refrigerating machine, we have the meaning in which specific heat peak value and half-value width of material are important. It announced specific heat peak-half-value width characteristics of rare earth magnetic material RSb. For the purpose of searching new regeneration material it improves a refrigerating capacity of refrigerating machine for 4K, it evaluated R{sub 2}BaCuO{sub 5} mainly noticed as superconducting material and R{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 5} specific heat peak and half-value width as a magnetic material, which covered the specific heat characteristics of helium in low temperature. (NEDO)

  2. Floor heating maximizes residents` comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirkkanen, P.; Wikstroem, T.

    1996-11-01

    Storing heat in floors by using economical night-time electricity does not increase the specific consumption of heating. According to studies done by IVO, the optimum housing comfort is achieved if the room is heated mainly by means of floor heating that is evened out by window or ceiling heating, or by a combination of all three forms of heating. (orig.)

  3. Roles of heat shock factors in gametogenesis and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abane, Ryma; Mezger, Valérie

    2010-10-01

    Heat shock factors form a family of transcription factors (four in mammals), which were named according to the first discovery of their activation by heat shock. As a result of the universality and robustness of their response to heat shock, the stress-dependent activation of heat shock factor became a ‘paradigm’: by binding to conserved DNA sequences (heat shock elements), heat shock factors trigger the expression of genes encoding heat shock proteins that function as molecular chaperones, contributing to establish a cytoprotective state to various proteotoxic stress and in several pathological conditions. Besides their roles in the stress response, heat shock factors perform crucial roles during gametogenesis and development in physiological conditions. First, during these process, in stress conditions, they are either proactive for survival or, conversely, for apoptotic process, allowing elimination or, inversely, protection of certain cell populations in a way that prevents the formation of damaged gametes and secure future reproductive success. Second, heat shock factors display subtle interplay in a tissue- and stage-specific manner, in regulating very specific sets of heat shock genes, but also many other genes encoding growth factors or involved in cytoskeletal dynamics. Third, they act not only by their classical transcription factor activities, but are necessary for the establishment of chromatin structure and, likely, genome stability. Finally, in contrast to the heat shock gene paradigm, heat shock elements bound by heat shock factors in developmental process turn out to be extremely dispersed in the genome, which is susceptible to lead to the future definition of ‘developmental heat shock element’.

  4. Thermolysis, nonisothermal decomposition kinetics, specific heat capacity and adiabatic time-to-explosion of [Cu(NH3)4](DNANT)2 (DNANT= dinitroacetonitrile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Wu, Hao; Xu, Kangzhen; Zhang, Wantao; Ren, Zhaoyu; Song, Jirong; Zhao, Fengqi

    2014-02-20

    A new energetic copper complex of dinitroacetonitrile (DNANT), [Cu(NH3)4](DNANT)2, was first synthesized through an unexpected reaction. The thermal decomposition of [Cu(NH3)4](DNANT)2 was studied with DSC and TG/DTG methods. The gas products were analyzed through a TG-FTIR-MS method. The nonisothermal kinetic equation of the exothermic process is dα/dT = 10(10.92)/β4(1 - α)[-ln(1 - α)](3/4) exp(-1.298 × 10(5)/RT). The self-accelerating decomposition temperature and critical temperature of thermal explosion are 217.9 and 221.0 °C. The specific heat capacity of [Cu(NH3)4](DNANT)2 was determined with a micro-DSC method, and the molar heat capacity is 512.6 J mol(-1) K(-1) at 25 °C. Adiabatic time-to-explosion of Cu(NH3)4(DNANT)2 was also calculated to be about 137 s.

  5. The caste- and age-specific expression signature of honeybee heat shock genes shows an alternative splicing-dependent regulation of Hsp90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamodt, Randi M

    2008-11-01

    I report the investigation of the age- and caste-specific expression patterns of eight genes involved in protein maintenance and repair in wing muscle tissue of the honeybee Apis mellifera. mRNA levels of seven heat shock genes and the protein repair gene pcmt (encoding L-isoaspartyl-O-methyltransferase) were measured in a comparative study of queens and ageing workers. Two hsp90 orthologs, transcribed from the same locus, showed different age- and caste-dependent expression patterns suggesting an alternative splicing-dependent regulatory mechanism. One transcript showed decreasing expression levels with worker age and four times higher levels in queens than workers on average, while the other variant had much higher and even expression levels. An hsp22-like gene was sevenfold upregulated in workers from the newly emerged-stage and showed an age-dependent decreasing slope for the subsequent stages. Honeybee ageing seems therefore not to be accompanied by increase in the heat shock response at the level of gene expression. The method used provides very sensitive measurements of a limited number of genes, and this study is one of the first of the regulation of expression of protein protection and repair genes during aging, performed in an un-manipulated model organisms living in a natural environment.

  6. Specific Glial Functions Contribute to Schizophrenia Susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudriaan, A.; de Leeuw, C.A.; Ripke, S.; Hultman, C. M.; Sklar, P.; Sullivan, P.F.; Smit, A.B.; Posthuma, D.; Verheijen, M.H.G.

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a highly polygenic brain disorder. The main hypothesis for disease etiology in schizophrenia primarily focuses on the role of dysfunctional synaptic transmission. Previous studies have therefore directed their investigations toward the role of neuronal dysfunction. However, recent

  7. Field dependence of the specific heat for single-crystalline ErBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarnawski, Z.; Li, J.N.; Menken, M.J.V.; Radwanski, R.J.; Franse, J.J.M.; Bakker, K.; Menovsky, A.A. (Van der Waals-Zeeman Lab., Univ. van Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1992-02-01

    The specific heat of single-crystalline ErBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} has been measured in the temperature range 0.3-3 K in magnetic fields between 0 and 2 T applied parallel and perpendicular to the c-direction. For low fields the antiferromagnetic phase transition at 0.60 K is shifted to lower temperatures and remains sharp. At higher fields a splitting of the Kramer's doublet ground state of the Er{sup 3+} ion is observed. The splitting is anisotropic being larger for fields perpendicular to the c-direction, with the ratio of the effective gyromagnetic factors of 2.0. (orig.).

  8. Hyperfine coupling in gadolinium-praseodymium alloys by specific heat measurements; Etude du couplage hyperfin dans les alliages gadolinium-praseodyme par mesures de chaleur specifique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-12-01

    We have studied the hyperfine coupling in gadolinium-praseodymium alloys by specific heat measurements down to 0.3 K. In the first part we describe the apparatus used to perform our measurements. The second part is devoted to some theoretical considerations. We have studied in detail the case of praseodymium which is an exception in the rare earth series. The third part shows the results we have obtained. (author) [French] Nous avons etudie le couplage hyperfin d'alliages de gadolinium-praseodyme par des mesures de chaleur specifique jusqu'a 0.3 K. Dans la premiere partie de cette etude nous decrivons le dispositif experimental. La deuxieme partie est consacree a des considerations theoriques. Nous avons etudie en detail le cas du praseodyme qui est une exception dans la serie des terres rares. La troisieme partie est consacree aux resultats experimentaux. (auteur)

  9. Magnetic susceptibilities of minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Sam; Brownfield, I.K.

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic separation of minerals is a topic that is seldom reported in the literature for two reasons. First, separation data generally are byproducts of other projects; and second, this study requires a large amount of patience and is unusually tedious. Indeed, we suspect that most minerals probably are never investigated for this property. These data are timesaving for mineralogists who concentrate mono-mineralic fractions for chemical analysis, age dating, and for other purposes. The data can certainly be used in the ore-beneficiation industries. In some instances, magnetic-susceptibility data may help in mineral identification, where other information is insufficient. In past studies of magnetic separation of minerals, (Gaudin and Spedden, 1943; Tille and Kirkpatrick, 1956; Rosenblum, 1958; Rubinstein and others, 1958; Flinter, 1959; Hess, 1959; Baker, 1962; Meric and Peyre, 1963; Rojas and others, 1965; and Duchesne, 1966), the emphasis has been on the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic ranges of extraction. For readers interested in the history of magnetic separation of minerals, Krumbein and Pettijohn (1938, p. 344-346) indicated nine references back to 1848. The primary purpose of this paper is to report the magnetic-susceptibility data on as many minerals as possible, similar to tables of hardness, specific gravity, refractive indices, and other basic physical properties of minerals. A secondary purpose is to demonstrate that the total and best extraction ranges are influenced by the chemistry of the minerals. The following notes are offered to help avoid problems in separating a desired mineral concentrate from mixtures of mineral grains.

  10. Characterization and quantification of path dependency in landslide susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samia, Jalal; Temme, Arnaud; Bregt, Arnold; Wallinga, Jakob; Guzzetti, Fausto; Ardizzone, Francesca; Rossi, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    Landslides cause major environmental damage, economic losses and casualties. Although susceptibility to landsliding is usually considered an exclusively location-specific phenomenon, indications exist that landslide history co-determines susceptibility to future landslides. In this contribution,

  11. Fine-mapping of the 5p15.33, 6p22.1-p21.31, and 15q25.1 regions identifies functional and histology-specific lung cancer susceptibility loci in African-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kyle M; Gorlov, Ivan P; Hansen, Helen M; Wu, Xifeng; Spitz, Margaret R; Zhang, Huifeng; Lu, Emily Y; Wenzlaff, Angela S; Sison, Jennette D; Wei, Chongjuan; Lloyd, Stacy M; Chen, Wei; Frazier, Marsha L; Seldin, Michael F; Bierut, Laura J; Bracci, Paige M; Wrensch, Margaret R; Schwartz, Ann G; Wiencke, John K; Amos, Christopher I

    2013-02-01

    Genome-wide association studies of European and East Asian populations have identified lung cancer susceptibility loci on chromosomes 5p15.33, 6p22.1-p21.31, and 15q25.1. We investigated whether these regions contain lung cancer susceptibly loci in African-Americans and refined previous association signals by using the reduced linkage disequilibrium observed in African-Americans. 1,308 African-American cases and 1,241 African-American controls from 3 centers were genotyped for 760 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) spanning 3 regions, and additional SNP imputation was carried out. Associations between polymorphisms and lung cancer risk were estimated using logistic regression, stratified by tumor histology where appropriate. The strongest associations were observed on 15q25.1 in/near CHRNA5, including a missense substitution [rs16969968: OR, 1.57; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.97; P, 1.1 × 10(-4)) and variants in the 5'-UTR. Associations on 6p22.1-p21.31 were histology specific and included a missense variant in BAT2 associated with squamous cell carcinoma (rs2736158: OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.48-0.85; P, 1.82 × 10(-3)). Associations on 5p15.33 were detected near TERT, the strongest of which was rs2735940 (OR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.73-0.93; P, 1.1 × 10(-3)). This association was stronger among cases with adenocarcinoma (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.65-0.86; P, 8.1 × 10(-5)). Polymorphisms in 5p15.33, 6p22.1-p21.31, and 15q25.1 are associated with lung cancer in African-Americans. Variants on 5p15.33 are stronger risk factors for adenocarcinoma and variants on 6p21.33 associated only with squamous cell carcinoma. Results implicate the BAT2, TERT, and CHRNA5 genes in the pathogenesis of specific lung cancer histologies.

  12. Susceptibility Genes in Thyroid Autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Ban

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD are complex diseases which are caused by an interaction between susceptibility genes and environmental triggers. Genetic susceptibility in combination with external factors (e.g. dietary iodine is believed to initiate the autoimmune response to thyroid antigens. Abundant epidemiological data, including family and twin studies, point to a strong genetic influence on the development of AITD. Various techniques have been employed to identify the genes contributing to the etiology of AITD, including candidate gene analysis and whole genome screening. These studies have enabled the identification of several loci (genetic regions that are linked with AITD, and in some of these loci, putative AITD susceptibility genes have been identified. Some of these genes/loci are unique to Graves' disease (GD and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT and some are common to both the diseases, indicating that there is a shared genetic susceptibility to GD and HT. The putative GD and HT susceptibility genes include both immune modifying genes (e.g. HLA, CTLA-4 and thyroid specific genes (e.g. TSHR, Tg. Most likely, these loci interact and their interactions may influence disease phenotype and severity.

  13. Inherited susceptibility and radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, J.B. [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States)

    1997-03-01

    There is continuing concern that some people in the general population may have genetic makeups that place them at particularly high risk for radiation-induced cancer. The existence of such a susceptible subpopulation would have obvious implications for the estimation of risks of radiation exposure. Although it has been long known that familial aggregations of cancer do sometimes occur, recent evidence suggests that a general genetic predisposition to cancer does not exist; most cancers occur sporadically. On the other hand, nearly 10% of the known Mendelian genetic disorders are associated with cancer. A number of these involve a familial predisposition to cancer, and some are characterized by an enhanced susceptibility to the induction of cancer by various physical and chemical carcinogens, including ionizing radiation. Such increased susceptibility will depend on several factors including the frequency of the susceptibility gene in the population and its penetrance, the strength of the predisposition, and the degree to which the cancer incidence in susceptible individuals may be increased by the carcinogen. It is now known that these cancer-predisposing genes may be responsible not only for rare familial cancer syndromes, but also for a proportion of the common cancers. Although the currently known disorders can account for only a small fraction of all cancers, they serve as models for genetic predisposition to carcinogen-induced cancer in the general population. In the present report, the author describes current knowledge of those specific disorders that are associated with an enhanced predisposition to radiation-induced cancer, and discusses how this knowledge may bear on the susceptibility to radiation-induced cancer in the general population and estimates of the risk of radiation exposure.

  14. Thermal Diffusivity and Specific Heat Measurements of Titanium Potassium Perchlorate Titanium Subhydride Potassium Perchlorate 9013 Glass 7052 Glass SB-14 Glass and C-4000 Muscovite Mica Using the Flash Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, Paul Elliott [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cooper, Marcia A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The flash technique was used to measure the thermal diffusivity and specific heat of titanium potassium perchlorate (TKP) ignition powder (33wt% Ti - 67wt% KP) with Ventron sup- plied titanium particles, TKP ignition powder (33wt% Ti - 67wt% KP) with ATK supplied titanium particles, TKP output powder (41wt% Ti - 59wt% KP), and titanium subhydride potassium perchlorate (THKP) (33wt% TiH 1.65 - 67wt% KP) at 25°C. The influence of density and temperature on the thermal diffusivity and specific heat of TKP with Ventron supplied titanium particles was also investigated. Lastly, the thermal diffusivity and specific heats of 9013 glass, 7052 glass, SB-14 glass, and C-4000 Muscovite mica are presented as a function of temperature up to 300° C.

  15. Comparison between experimental and predicted specific absorption rate of functionalized iron oxide nanoparticle suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan Yuan [Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering Department Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Tasciuc, Diana-Andra Borca, E-mail: borcad@rpi.edu [Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering Department Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Radio-frequency heated magnetic nanoaparticle suspensions have potential applications in cancer hyperthermia. To optimize these systems for hyperthermia applications it is important to be able to predict how their heat generation or specific absorption rate (SAR) is influenced by various factors, including nanoparticle coating or functionalization and aggregation. However, at present it is unclear how well-existing models predict experimental SAR results. Direct comparisons between predicted and measured SAR are scarce, despite an abundance of works reporting on heat generation rate of various magnetic nanoparticles suspensions. The main objective of this paper is to experimentally assess the validity of current models for SAR and extract information on the effects of coating and aggregation on heat generation rate. In this context, AC susceptibility and magnetization of suspensions of uncoated particles, as well as particles with aminosilane and carboxymethyl-dextran functionalizations, were measured. These properties were then used to predict the heat generation rate in alternating magnetic field starting from first principles, which was then compared to measured SAR. It was found that experimental SAR agrees relatively well with predictions (by a factor of two) when using experimental susceptibility values for the SAR calculation. However, for uncoated and amine-functionalized particles poor agreement (more than an order of magnitude difference) was found when the experimental susceptibility was substituted with predictions based on the Debye model. This apparent discrepancy is attributed to dipolar interactions between nanoparticles within aggregates in these samples, which enhances the imaginary part of the susceptibility and, consequently, the SAR values. The results also suggest that the thermal resistance effect of the coating has little influence on the SAR. - Highlights: > Thermal resistance of nanoparticle coating has little impact on heat dissipation

  16. Heat capacity measurements on high T sub c superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Oezcan, S

    1998-01-01

    temperature interval. The phase transition jump increases with the increasing of oxygen amount in the CuO sub 2 layers. The hight of the jump is varying from 1.5% to 3.5% of the total specific heat which is the nature of the bulk superconductivity. The small coherence length increases fluctuation effects and also causes the dependence of superconducting properties on structural defects. The fluctuation effects on the heat capacity of YBCO is investigated on the sample that shows clear superconducting properties. In this work, a heat capacity measurement system which has high sensitivity and reproducibility designed and constructed. The investigation of the effect of oxygen stoichiometry on the superconducting properties of high T sub c superconductors was aimed. For this purpose electrical resistivity, magnetic susceptibility and heat capacity experiment were performed. The constructed system is a computerized adiabatic calorimeter which has temperature resolution of about 0.1 mk and operates in the temperatu...

  17. Aerodynamics and Heat Transfer Studies of Parameters Specific to the IGCC-Requirements: Endwall Contouring, Leading Edge and Blade Tip Ejection under Rotating Turbine Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schobeiri, Meinhard; Han, Je-Chin

    2014-09-30

    This report deals with the specific aerodynamics and heat transfer problematic inherent to high pressure (HP) turbine sections of IGCC-gas turbines. Issues of primary relevance to a turbine stage operating in an IGCC-environment are: (1) decreasing the strength of the secondary flow vortices at the hub and tip regions to reduce (a), the secondary flow losses and (b), the potential for end wall deposition, erosion and corrosion due to secondary flow driven migration of gas flow particles to the hub and tip regions, (2) providing a robust film cooling technology at the hub and that sustains high cooling effectiveness less sensitive to deposition, (3) investigating the impact of blade tip geometry on film cooling effectiveness. The document includes numerical and experimental investigations of above issues. The experimental investigations were performed in the three-stage multi-purpose turbine research facility at the Turbomachinery Performance and Flow Research Laboratory (TPFL), Texas A&M University. For the numerical investigations a commercial Navier-Stokes solver was utilized.

  18. Susceptibility to heat and antifungal agents of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans (serotype D isolated from Eucalyptus spp in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Susceptibilidade de Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans (sorotipo D isolados de Eucalyptus spp., no Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil, frente ao calor e a agentes antifúngicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A Horta

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we studied the susceptibility to heat and antifungal agents of the first strains of environmental Cryptococcus neoformans var neoformans (serotype D isolated in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. In order to achieve a rigorous analysis, we employed the methodology recommended by NCCLS, Yeast Nitrogen Base (YNB proposed by Ghannoum et al (YNB-1, Antibiotic medium 3 (AM3 indicated by others, YNB adjusted to the NCCLS methodology (YNB-2 and Etest. Our results indicate that all strains were susceptible to amphotericin B (0.0625-0.5 µg/mL, fluconazole (0.125-8.0 µg/mL, itraconazole (0.031-0.25 µg/mL and flucytosine (0.125-4.0 µg/mL. The C. neoformans serotype D strains were more susceptible to heat (47ºC/30 min than C. neoformans serotype A.Este estudo foi realizado com os primeiros isolados ambientais de C. neoformans sorotipo D, obtidos no Rio Grande do Sul. Objetivando-se avaliar a susceptibilidade a agentes antifúngicos de forma mais rigorosa, utilizou-se a técnica de referência proposta pelo NCCLS, Caldo Yeast Nitrogen Base (YNB proposto por Ghannoum et al., Antibiotic medium 3, caldo YNB adequado à metodologia do NCCLS e o E-test. Os resultados indicaram que todos os isolados foram sensíveis à anfotericina B (0,0625-0,5 µg/mL, fluconazol (0,125-4,0 µg/mL, itraconazol (0,031-0,25 µg/ml e fluorocitosina (0,125-4,0 µg/mL através das técnicas empregadas. Nos testes de termotolerância (47ºC/30 min, observou-se que as culturas de C. neoformans sorotipo D são mais sensíveis do que as de C. neoformans sorotipo A.

  19. Opportunities and Challenges for Personal Heat Exposure Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuras, Evan R; Richardson, Molly B; Calkins, Miriam M; Ebi, Kristie L; Hess, Jeremy J; Kintziger, Kristina W; Jagger, Meredith A; Middel, Ariane; Scott, Anna A; Spector, June T; Uejio, Christopher K; Vanos, Jennifer K; Zaitchik, Benjamin F; Gohlke, Julia M; Hondula, David M

    2017-08-01

    Environmental heat exposure is a public health concern. The impacts of environmental heat on mortality and morbidity at the population scale are well documented, but little is known about specific exposures that individuals experience. The first objective of this work was to catalyze discussion of the role of personal heat exposure information in research and risk assessment. The second objective was to provide guidance regarding the operationalization of personal heat exposure research methods. We define personal heat exposure as realized contact between a person and an indoor or outdoor environment that poses a risk of increases in body core temperature and/or perceived discomfort. Personal heat exposure can be measured directly with wearable monitors or estimated indirectly through the combination of time-activity and meteorological data sets. Complementary information to understand individual-scale drivers of behavior, susceptibility, and health and comfort outcomes can be collected from additional monitors, surveys, interviews, ethnographic approaches, and additional social and health data sets. Personal exposure research can help reveal the extent of exposure misclassification that occurs when individual exposure to heat is estimated using ambient temperature measured at fixed sites and can provide insights for epidemiological risk assessment concerning extreme heat. Personal heat exposure research provides more valid and precise insights into how often people encounter heat conditions and when, where, to whom, and why these encounters occur. Published literature on personal heat exposure is limited to date, but existing studies point to opportunities to inform public health practice regarding extreme heat, particularly where fine-scale precision is needed to reduce health consequences of heat exposure. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP556.

  20. Susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoeck, Marcus Matheus Johannes

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis the author studied the diagnostic procedures for susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia (MH), with special emphasis upon refining the biological diagnostic test and improving protocols and guidelines for investigation of MH susceptibility. MH is a pharmacogenetic disease of skeletal

  1. Heavily doped M1−xUxF2+2x fluorites studied by quasielastic neutron scattering(M=Ba) and specific heat measurements (M=Pb)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Niels Hessel; Clausen, Kurt Nørgaard; Kjems, Jørgen

    1983-01-01

    The thermal generation of defects in pure and doped Pb1−xUxF2+2x (x=0, 0.05and0.10) has been studied by specific heat measurements between 475 k and 875 k. A simple phenomenological mean field thermodynamic model has been developed and used to interpret the data. At low temperatures the result...

  2. Mutations in the substrate binding site of human heat-shock protein 70 indicate specific interaction with HLA-DR outside the peptide binding groove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Karin M; Haug, Markus; Schwörer, Daniela; Kalbacher, Hubert; Holzer, Ursula

    2014-06-01

    Heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70)-peptide complexes are involved in MHC class I- and II-restricted antigen presentation, enabling enhanced activation of T cells. As shown previously, mammalian cytosolic Hsp70 (Hsc70) molecules interact specifically with HLA-DR molecules. This interaction might be of significance as Hsp70 molecules could transfer bound antigenic peptides in a ternary complex into the binding groove of HLA-DR molecules. The present study provides new insights into the distinct interaction of Hsp70 with HLA-DR molecules. Using a quantitative binding assay, it could be demonstrated that a point mutation of amino acids alanine 406 and valine 438 in the substrate binding pocket led to reduced peptide binding compared with the wild-type Hsp70 whereas HLA-DR binding remains unaffected. The removal of the C-terminal lid neither altered the substrate binding capacity nor the Hsp70 binding characteristics to HLA-DR. A truncated variant lacking the nucleotide binding domain showed no binding interactions with HLA-DR. Furthermore, the truncated ATPase subunit of constitutively expressed Hsc70 revealed similar binding affinities to HLA-DR compared with the complete Hsc70. Hence, it can be assumed that the Hsp70-HLA-DR interaction takes place outside the peptide binding groove and is attributed to the ATPase domain of HSP70 molecules. The Hsp70-chaperoned peptides might thereby be directly transferred into the binding groove of HLA-DR, so enabling enhanced presentation of the peptide on antigen-presenting cells and leading to an improved proliferation of responding T cells as shown previously. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Heat Shock Proteins 60 and 70 Specific Proinflammatory and Cytotoxic Response of CD4+CD28null Cells in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok K. Yadav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. CD4+CD28null T cells are expanded in peripheral blood of patients with chronic kidney disease and associated with subclinical atherosclerosis. However, triggers for the oligoclonal expansion and activation of these cells are not clear. Methods. We investigated twenty-five stage V-IV chronic kidney disease (CKD patients and eight healthy subjects (HC. Peripheral mononuclear cells were isolated and incubated with heat shock protein- (HSP 60 and 70. CD4+CD28null and CD4+CD28+ cells were sorted by flowcytometry and antigen specific response was assessed by the mRNA and protein expression of interferon (IFN-γ, perforin, and granzyme B using qRT-PCR and Elispot. Results. The basal mRNA expression of IFN-γ, perforin, and granzyme B in CD4+CD28null cells was higher in subjects with CKD compared to that in HC (P<0.0001. Subjects with CKD also showed expression of IFN-γ, perforin, and granzyme B in the CD4+CD28+ subset, but this was much weaker than that seen in the CD4+CD28null population (P<0.0001. We did not note the expression of these molecules at mRNA or protein level in either subset of CD4 cells in HC. After incubation with HSP60 and HSP70, CD4+CD28null cells showed increased expression at mRNA (P<0.001 and protein level (P<0.001. CD4+CD28+ cells also showed a weak increase in expression. No antigen-specific response was noted in HC. Conclusion. These data show that CD4+CD28null cells in subjects with CKD react with HSP60 and HSP70 by upregulating the expression of IFN-γ, perforin and granzyme B. Increased circulating level of HSP60 and HSP70 might play a role in initiation and/or progression of atherosclerosis in CKD subjects through perturbation of CD4+CD28null cells.

  4. Systematic analysis of geothermal plants. Influence of temperatures in consumer systems on the specific cost of the distributed heat; Systemanalytische Erfassung von Nutzungsanlagen hydrogeothermaler Ressourcen. Einfluss der Temperaturen in den Abnehmersystemen auf den Waermegestehungspreis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schallenberg, K. [GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    On the basis of a general investigation of the impact of geological situation, thermal water loop and consumer structure on the economy of heating systems, different geothermal plants are analysed in detail. In the study, for example, variations of the temperature conditions in district heating systems were considered while the geologic conditions are maintained. It is shown that the specific costs calculated for the distributed heat are sensitive to the amount of heat extracted from the Earth`s interior. Therefore, it was necessary to make assumptions for the duration curve of the consumer system. An exponential duration curve was verified by comparison with data from an existing district heating system. The calculated specific heat costs for different network layouts are transformed finally into an equivalent investment potential. The results clearly indicate the possibilities for an optimization of the system when investments into the heating network would be made. (orig.) [Deutsch] Hydrogeothermale Nutzungsanlagen wurden auf Basis der Einflussgroessen Geologie, Thermalwasserkreis und Abnehmerstruktur systemanalytisch erfasst. Daraus ergibt sich die Grundlage zum Vergleich verschiedener Anlagen. Nachhaltige Einfluesse auf die Wirtschaftlichkeit von Geothermieanlagen ergeben sich aus der Betriebsweise der Abnehmerstruktur. Die dargestellten Untersuchungen zielen deshalb zunaechst auf die Variation der Temperaturparameter des Netzes und deren Einfluss auf die Waermegestehungskosten ab. Bei diesem Ansatz wurden zunaechst die geologischen Eingangsgroessen konstant gehalten. Grundlage der statischen Kostenrechnung in Anlehnung an VDI 2067 ist eine Kostenzusammenstellung der Einzelkomponenten einer geothermischen Heizzentrale. Um den geothermischen Beitrag zur Waermeversorgung moeglichst genau zu beschreiben, ist die Kenntnis von geordneten Jahresganglinien der Abnehmersysteme erforderlich. Zur mathematischen Beschreibung diente eine Exponentialfunktion, deren

  5. Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  6. Heat Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat Waves Dangers we face during periods of very high temperatures include: Heat cramps: These are muscular pains and ... having trouble with the heat. If a heat wave is predicted or happening… - Slow down. Avoid strenuous ...

  7. FcGammaRIIa polymorphism and anti-malaria specific IgG and IgG subclass responses in populations differing in susceptibility to malaria in Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherif, Mariama K; Sanou, Guillaume S; Maiga, Boubakar

    2012-01-01

    Fc¿RIIa is known to be polymorphic; and certain variants err associated with differt susceptibilities to malaria. Studies involving the Fulani ethnic group reported an ethnic difference in Fc¿RIIa-R131H genotype frequencies between the Fulani and other sympatric groups. No previous studies have a...

  8. Liquid/liquid heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. G.

    1980-01-01

    Conceptual design for heat exchanger, utilizing two immiscible liquids with dissimilar specific gravities in direct contact, is more efficient mechanism of heat transfer than conventional heat exchangers with walls or membranes. Concept could be adapted for collection of heat from solar or geothermal sources.

  9. Structures to radiate heat softly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perilae, T.; Wikstroem, T. [ed.

    1997-11-01

    Over the past fifty years, heating systems in single-family houses have taken a great leap forward. First wood-burning stoves gave way to oil heaters; then these were superseded by central heating systems; and now conventional central heating systems have lost their way with the increasingly widespread use of room-specific heating systems

  10. Effects of different industrial heating processes of milk on site-specific protein modifications and their relationship to in vitro and in vivo digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yasuaki; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2014-05-07

    Heating processes are applied to milk and dairy products to ensure their microbiological safety and shelf lives. However, how differences in "industrial" thermal treatments affect protein digestibility is still equivocal. In this study, raw milk was subjected to pasteurization, three kinds of ultra-high-temperature (UHT) treatment, and in-can sterilization and was investigated by in vitro and in vivo digestion and proteomic methods. In-can sterilized milk, followed by UHT milk samples, showed a rapid decrease in protein bands during the course of digestion. However, protein digestibility determined by a Kjeldahl procedure showed insignificant differences. Proteomic analysis revealed that lactulosyllysine, which reflects a decrease in protein digestibility, in α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, and caseins was higher in in-can sterilized milk, followed by UHT milk samples. Thus, industrial heating may improve the digestibility of milk proteins by denaturation, but the improvement is likely to be offset by heat-derived modifications involved in decreased protein digestibility.

  11. Relationship between high esterase activity and in vitro degradation of /sup 14/C-malathion by organophosphate-resistant and susceptible strains of the Kanzawa spider mite, Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida (Acarina: Tetranychidae), and their inhibition with specific synergists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwahara, M. (National Inst. of Agricultural Sciences, Yatabe, Ibaraki (Japan)); Miyata, T.; Saito, T.; Eto, M.

    1981-08-01

    The relationship between the enzymes which catalyze hydrolysis of ..beta..-naphthyl acetate and degradation of malathion was studied in resistant and susceptible strains of the Kanzawa spider mite, Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida. The homogenate of resistant mites exhibited higher activity in the degradation of malathion in vitro than that of susceptible mites, but such activity was remarkably inhibited by the compound K-1, which also manifested a prominent synergism with malathion to resistant mites. Six esterase bands and three peaks of malathion degradation were resolved by agar-gel electrophoresis. Resistance to malathion was associated with increased esterase activity at E/sub 3/ and E/sub 4/ bands on which the main peak of malathion degradation was detected. The compound K-1 selectively inhibited the esterase and degradation activities. Compounds K-9 and IBP, on the other hand, selectively inhibited E/sub 1/ and E/sub 2/ bands which overlapped with the minor peaks of malanthion degradation.

  12. Crystalline electric field and lattice contributions to thermodynamic properties of PrGaO{sub 3}: specific heat and thermal expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senyshyn, A [Materialwissenschaft, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Petersenstrasse 23, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Schnelle, W [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Noethnitzer Strasse 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Vasylechko, L [Semiconductor Electronics Department, Lviv Polytechnic National University, 12 Bandera St, 79013 Lviv (Ukraine); Ehrenberg, H [Materialwissenschaft, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Petersenstrasse 23, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Berkowski, M [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Aleja Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland)

    2007-04-16

    The low-temperature heat capacity of perovskite-type PrGaO{sub 3} has been measured in the temperature range from 2 to 320 K. Thermodynamic standard values at 298.15 K are reported. An initial Debye temperature {theta}{sub D}(0) (480 {+-} 10) K was determined by fitting the calculated lattice heat capacity. The entropy of the derived Debye temperature functions agrees well with values calculated from thermal displacement parameters and from atomistic simulations. The thermal expansion and the Grueneisen parameter, arising from a coupling of crystal field states of Pr{sup 3+} ion and phonon modes at low temperature, were analysed.

  13. Heat Tolerance Induction of the Indian Meal Moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Is Accompanied by Upregulation of Heat Shock Proteins and Polyols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minhyun; Lee, Seunghee; Chun, Yong Shik; Na, Jahyun; Kwon, Hyeok; Kim, Wook; Kim, Yonggyun

    2017-08-01

    The Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella, causes massive damage to stored grains and processed foods. Heat treatment has been widely used to control insect pests infesting stored grains. However, heat treatment may result in unsatisfactory control owing to heat tolerance of target insects. This study quantified the heat tolerance and analyzed its induction in P. interpunctella. Susceptibility of P. interpunctella to different high temperatures was assessed in all developmental stages. Heat treatment at 44 °C for 1 h caused significant mortalities to all developmental stages, with late-instar larvae exhibiting the highest tolerance. However, the survivorship to heat treatment was significantly increased by pre-exposure to 37 °C for 30 min. The induction of heat tolerance was accompanied by upregulation of two heat shock proteins of Hsc70 and Hsp90. Trehalose and glycerol concentrations in the hemolymph also increased after pre-exposure to 37 °C for 30 min. RNA interference (RNAi) by specific double-stranded RNAs effectively suppressed the inducible expressions of both Hsc70 and Hsp90 in response to 37 °C for 30 min. Either RNAi of Hsc70 or Hsp90 significantly impaired the heat tolerance induction of P. interpunctella. These results suggest that the induction of heat tolerance in P. interpunctella involves the upregulation of these heat shock proteins and hemolymph polyol levels. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Specific Heat of Ce{sub 0.8}La{sub 0.2}Al{sub 3} in Magnetic Fields: A Test of the Anisotropic Kondo Picture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietri, R.; Ingersent, K.; Andraka, B.

    2001-02-05

    The specific heat C of Ce{sub 0.8}La {sub 0.2}Al{sub 3} has been measured as a function of temperature T in magnetic fields up to 14T. A large peak in C at 2.3K has recently been ascribed to an anisotropic Kondo effect in this compound. A 14-T field depresses the temperature of the peak by only 0.2K, but strongly reduces its height. The corresponding peak in C/T shifts from 2.1K at zero field to 1.7K at 14T. The extrapolated specific heat coefficient {gamma}=lim/T{yields}0 C/T increases with field over the range studied. We show that these trends are inconsistent with the anisotropic Kondo model.

  15. Bulk modulus and specific heat of B-site doped (La0.3Pr0.7)0.65Ca0.35Mn1-xBxO3 (B=Fe, Cr, Ru, Al, Ga)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Archana; Thakur, Rasna; Gaur, N. K.

    2014-04-01

    Specific heat (Cp) thermal expansion (α) and Bulk modulus (BT) of lightly doped Rare Earth manganites (La0.3Pr0.7)0.65Ca0.35Mn1-xBxO3 (B3+ = Fe3+,Cr3+,Ga3+,Al3+,Ru4+); (0.3specific heat (Cp)lat of (La0.3Pr0.7)0.65Ca0.35Mn0.97Fe0.03O3 as a function of temperature (10K≤T≤ 200K) is found to be in agreement with the published data. The trend of variation of Debye temperature with B-site cationic radius is predicted probably for the first time for the B-site doped rare earth manganites.

  16. Structural, magnetic and specific heat studies of Bi1-xLaxMn2O5 (x=0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3) multiferroics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, E.; Kumar, N. Pavan; Reddy, P. Venugopal

    2016-12-01

    A series of multiferroic materials with the compositional formula Bi1-xLaxMn2O5 (x=0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3) in single phase were prepared by the solid state reaction technique. After characterizing the samples structurally, a systematic investigation of specific heat and magnetization studies were carried out over the temperature range, 2-300 K. Based on these studies, it has been observed that the magnetization versus temperature plots of all the samples are found to split in the ZFC and FC modes and the observed behavior is explained on the basis of magnetic inhomogeneity. Finally, using the specific heat data, the magnetic entropy values were calculated using Einstein model.

  17. Evolution of the specific-heat anomaly of the high-temperature superconductor YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} under the influence of doping through application of pressure up to 10 GPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lortz, Rolf [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, University of Geneva, 24 Quai Ernest-Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Junod, Alain [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, University of Geneva, 24 Quai Ernest-Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Jaccard, Didier [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, University of Geneva, 24 Quai Ernest-Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Wang, Yuxing [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, University of Geneva, 24 Quai Ernest-Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Meingast, Christoph [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Masui, Takahiko [Superconductivity Research Laboratory-ISTEC, 10-13 Shinonome I-Chome, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135 (Japan); Tajima, Setsuko [Superconductivity Research Laboratory-ISTEC, 10-13 Shinonome I-Chome, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135 (Japan)

    2005-07-06

    The evolution of the specific-heat anomaly in the overdoped range of a single crystal of the high-temperature superconductor YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} has been studied under the influence of pressure up to 10 GPa, using AC calorimetry in a Bridgman-type pressure cell. We show that the specific-heat jump as well as the bulk T{sub c} are reduced with increasing pressure in accordance with a simple charge-transfer model. This new method enables us through pressure-induced charge transfer to study the doping dependence of the superconducting transition, as well as the evolution of the superconducting condensation energy on a single stoichiometric sample without adding atomic disorder.

  18. Walking dead: Permeabilization of heat-treated Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 12980 spores under growth-preventing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtimet, Narjes; Trunet, Clément; Mathot, Anne-Gabrielle; Venaille, Laurent; Leguérinel, Ivan; Coroller, Louis; Couvert, Olivier

    2017-06-01

    Although heat treatment is probably the oldest and the most common method used to inactivate spores in food processes, the specific mechanism of heat killing of spores is still not fully understood. The purpose of this study is to investigate the evolution of the permeabilization and the viability of heat-treated spores during storage under growth-preventing conditions. Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores were heat-treated under various conditions of temperature and pH, and then stored under conditions of temperature and pH that prevent growth. Spore survival was evaluated by count plating immediately after heat treatment, and then during storage over a period of months. Flow cytometry analyses were performed to investigate the Syto 9 permeability of heat-treated spores. Sub-lethally heat-treated spores of G. stearothermophilus were physically committed to permeabilization after heat treatment. However, prolonged heat treatment may abolish the spore permeabilization and block heat-treated spores in the refractive state. However, viability loss and permeabilization during heat treatment seem to be two different mechanisms that occur independently, and the loss of permeabilization properties takes place at a much slower rate than spore killing. Under growth-preventing conditions, viable heat-treated spores presumably lose their viability due to the permeabilization phenomena, which makes them more susceptible to the action of adverse conditions precluding growth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Susceptibility to mortality in weather extremes: effect modification by personal and small-area characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanobetti, Antonella; O'Neill, Marie S; Gronlund, Carina J; Schwartz, Joel D

    2013-11-01

    Extremes of temperature have been associated with short-term increases in daily mortality. We identified subpopulations with increased susceptibility to dying during temperature extremes, based on personal demographics, small-area characteristics, and preexisting medical conditions. We examined Medicare participants in 135 US cities and identified preexisting conditions based on hospitalization records before their deaths, from 1985 to 2006. Personal characteristics were obtained from the Medicare records, and area characteristics were assigned based on zip code of residence. We conducted a case-only analysis of over 11 million deaths and evaluated modification of the risk of dying associated with extremely hot days and extremely cold days, continuous temperatures, and water vapor pressure. Modifiers included preexisting conditions, personal characteristics, zip code-level population characteristics, and land cover characteristics. For each effect modifier, a city-specific logistic regression model was fitted and then an overall national estimate was calculated using meta-analysis. People with certain preexisting conditions were more susceptible to extreme heat, with an additional 6% (95% confidence interval = 4%-8%) increase in the risk of dying on an extremely hot day in subjects with previous admission for atrial fibrillation, an additional 8% (4%-12%) in subjects with Alzheimer disease, and an additional 6% (3%-9%) in subjects with dementia. Zip code level and personal characteristics were also associated with increased susceptibility to temperature. We identified several subgroups of the population who are particularly susceptible to temperature extremes, including persons with atrial fibrillation.

  20. Environmentally Induced Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance of Disease Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Eric E.; Skinner, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental insults, such as exposure to toxicants or nutritional abnormalities, can lead to epigenetic changes that are in turn related to increased susceptibility to disease. The focus of this review is on the transgenerational inheritance of such epigenetic abnormalities (epimutations), and how it is that these inherited epigenetic abnormalities can lead to increased disease susceptibility, even in the absence of continued environmental insult. Observations of environmental toxicant specificity and exposure specific disease susceptibility are discussed. How epimutations are transmitted across generations and how epigenetic changes in the germline are translated into an increased disease susceptibility in the adult is reviewed in regards to disease etiology. PMID:24657180

  1. Hemispherical total emissivity and specific heat capacity of deeply undercooled Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10.0Be22.5 melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, R.; Kim, Y. J.; Johnson, W. L.; Rulison, A. J.; Rhim, W. K.; Isheim, D.

    1995-06-01

    High-temperature high-vacuum electrostatic levitation (HTHVESL) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were combined to determine the hemispherical total emissivity ɛT, and the specific heat capacity cp, of the undercooled liquid and throughout the glass transition of the Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10.0Be22.5 bulk metallic glass forming alloy. The ratio of cp/ɛT as a function of undercooling was determining from radiative cooling curves measured in the HTHVESL. Using specific heat capacity data obtained by DSC investigations close to the glass transition and above the melting point, ɛT and cp were separated and the specific heat capacity of the whole undercooled liquid region was determined. Furthermore, the hemispherical total emissivity of the liquid was found to be about 0.22 at 980 K. On undercooling the liquid, the emissivity decreases to approximately 0.18 at about 670 K, where the undercooled liquid starts to freeze to a glass. No significant changes of the emissivity are observed as the alloy undergoes the glass transition.

  2. Heat Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH HEAT STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir NEW OSHA- ... hot environments may be at risk of heat stress. Exposure to extreme heat can result in occupational ...

  3. Diagnostic Value of Direct Antibiotic Susceptibility Test for Faster BacterialSusceptibility Reporting in Bacteremia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebriarina Hapsari

    2012-12-01

    Methods: Bloods from positive BACTEC bottles which met inclusion and exclusion criteria were put into sterile tubes and centrifuged. The pellets were then used to make 0.5 McFarland bacterial suspensions and directly used for antibiotic susceptibility testing. Interpretations of direct method were compared to standard method to count sensitivity, specificity, sensitive predictive value, resistant predictive value, accuracy, and kappa value. Results: From 58 samples (containing 22 gram negative, 36 gram positive bacteria, there were 309 total antibiotic susceptibility tests. Direct method showed sensitivity, specificity, sensitive predictive value, resistant predictive value, accuracy, and kappa value of 89.3%, 92.9%, 93.8%, 87.8%, 86.4%, and 0.82, respectively. Conclusion: Direct antibiotic susceptibility testing has a good agreement with the standard method so it can aid faster antibiotic susceptibility reporting in bacteraemia (Sains Medika, 4(2:174-181.

  4. Genetic susceptibility of periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laine, M.L.; Crielaard, W.; Loos, B.G.

    2012-01-01

    In this systematic review, we explore and summarize the peer-reviewed literature on putative genetic risk factors for susceptibility to aggressive and chronic periodontitis. A comprehensive literature search on the PubMed database was performed using the keywords ‘periodontitis’ or ‘periodontal

  5. Fourie susceptible.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    a number of cultivars exhibited field resistance to halo blight and bacterial brown spot, all cultivars were more or less susceptible to .... Cerillos. Alubia. I. 91. 57. Kranskop. Red speckled sugar. II. 97. 63. OPS-RS1. Red speckled sugar. II. 96. 63. OPS-RS2. Red speckled sugar. I. 100. 61. OPS-RS3. Red speckled sugar. II. 97.

  6. Heat shock induced excision of selectable marker genes in transgenic banana by the Cre-lox site-specific recombination system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong-Pérez, Borys; Kosky, Rafael G; Reyes, Maritza; Rojas, Luis; Ocaña, Bárbara; Tejeda, Marisol; Pérez, Blanca; Angenon, Geert

    2012-06-30

    Selectable marker genes are indispensable for efficient production of transgenic events, but are no longer needed after the selection process and may cause public concern and technological problems. Although several gene excision systems exist, few have been optimized for vegetatively propagated crops. Using a Cre-loxP auto-excision strategy, we obtained transgenic banana plants cv. Grande Naine (Musa AAA) devoid of the marker gene used for selection. We used T-DNA vectors with the cre recombinase gene under control of a heat shock promoter and selectable marker gene cassettes placed between two loxP sites in direct orientation, and a gene of interest inserted outside of the loxP sites. Heat shock promoters pGmHSP17.6-L and pHSP18.2, from soybean and Arabidopsis respectively, were tested. A transient heat shock treatment of primary transgenic embryos was sufficient for inducing cre and excising cre and the marker genes. Excision efficiency, as determined by PCR and Southern hybridization was 59.7 and 40.0% for the GmHSP17.6-L and HSP18.2 promoters, respectively. Spontaneous excision was not observed in 50 plants derived from untreated transgenic embryos. To our knowledge this is the first report describing an efficient marker gene removal system for banana. The method described is simple and might be generally applicable for the production of marker-free transgenic plants of many crop species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Epidemiological and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of infectious ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-09-28

    Sep 28, 2011 ... isolation rates among different age groups, educational status, gender, water drank, use of chlorine, toilet use, exposure at home to .... with intermediate susceptibility to ciprofloxacin in the majority of .... Antibiotic and bacterial strain specific distribution of resistance in bacteria isolated from patients attending.

  8. Chapter 23: Combined Heat and Power Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Simons, George [Itron, Davis, CA (United States); Barsun, Stephan [Itron, Davis, CA (United States)

    2017-11-06

    The main focus of most evaluations is to determine the energy-savings impacts of the installed measure. This protocol defines a combined heat and power (CHP) measure as a system that sequentially generates both electrical energy and useful thermal energy from one fuel source at a host customer's facility or residence. This protocol is aimed primarily at regulators and administrators of ratepayer-funded CHP programs; however, project developers may find the protocol useful to understand how CHP projects are evaluated.

  9. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Macmichael, DBA

    1988-01-01

    A fully revised and extended account of the design, manufacture and use of heat pumps in both industrial and domestic applications. Topics covered include a detailed description of the various heat pump cycles, the components of a heat pump system - drive, compressor, heat exchangers etc., and the more practical considerations to be taken into account in their selection.

  10. Ribosome display of combinatorial antibody libraries derived from mice immunized with heat-killed Xylella fastidiosa and the selection of MopB-specific single-chain antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Armaghan; Arora, Arinder; Markiv, Anatoliy; Lampe, David J; Miller, Thomas A; Kang, Angray S

    2012-04-01

    Pierce's disease is a devastating lethal disease of Vitus vinifera grapevines caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. There is no cure for Pierce's disease, and control is achieved predominantly by suppressing transmission of the glassy-winged sharpshooter insect vector. We present a simple robust approach for the generation of panels of recombinant single-chain antibodies against the surface-exposed elements of X. fastidiosa that may have potential use in diagnosis and/or disease transmission blocking studies. In vitro combinatorial antibody ribosome display libraries were assembled from immunoglobulin transcripts rescued from the spleens of mice immunized with heat-killed X. fastidiosa. The libraries were used in a single round of selection against an outer membrane protein, MopB, resulting in the isolation of a panel of recombinant antibodies. The potential use of selected anti-MopB antibodies was demonstrated by the successful application of the 4XfMopB3 antibody in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), a Western blot assay, and an immunofluorescence assay (IFA). These immortalized in vitro recombinant single-chain antibody libraries generated against heat-killed X. fastidiosa are a resource for the Pierce's disease research community that may be readily accessed for the isolation of antibodies against a plethora of X. fastidiosa surface-exposed antigenic molecules.

  11. Genetic Susceptibility to Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Kovacic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a complex multifocal arterial disease involving interactions of multiple genetic and environmental factors. Advances in techniques of molecular genetics have revealed that genetic ground significantly influences susceptibility to atherosclerotic vascular diseases. Besides further investigations of monogenetic diseases, candidate genes, genetic polymorphisms, and susceptibility loci associated with atherosclerotic diseases have been identified in recent years, and their number is rapidly increasing. This paper discusses main genetic investigations fields associated with human atherosclerotic vascular diseases. The paper concludes with a discussion of the directions and implications of future genetic research in arteriosclerosis with an emphasis on prospective prediction from an early age of individuals who are predisposed to develop premature atherosclerosis as well as to facilitate the discovery of novel drug targets.

  12. Marijuana Usage and Hypnotic Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzini, Louis R.; McDonald, Roy D.

    1973-01-01

    Anonymous self-reported drug usage data and hypnotic susceptibility scores were obtained from 282 college students. Frequent marijuana users (more than 10 times) showed greater susceptibility to hypnosis than nonusers. (Author)

  13. Tissue-specific induction of Hsp90 mRNA and plasma cortisol response in chinook salmon following heat shock, seawater challenge, and handling challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmisano, Aldo N.; Winton, J.R.; Dickhoff, Walton W.

    2000-01-01

    In studying the whole-body response of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) to various stressors, we found that 5-hour exposure to elevated temperature (mean 21.6??C; + 10.6??C over ambient) induced a marked increase in Hsp90 messenger RNA accumulation in heart, brain, gill, muscle, liver, kidney, and tail fin tissues. The most vital tissues (heart, brain, gill, and muscle) showed the greatest Hsp90-mRNA response, with heart tissue increasing approximately 35-fold, Heat shock induced no increase in plasma cortisol. In contrast, a standard handling challenge induced high plasma cortisol levels, but no elevation in Hsp90 mRNA in any tissue, clearly separating the physiological and cellular stress responses. We saw no increase either in tissue Hsp90 mRNA levels or in plasma cortisol concentrations after exposing the fish to seawater overnight.

  14. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Brodowicz, Kazimierz; Wyszynski, M L; Wyszynski

    2013-01-01

    Heat pumps and related technology are in widespread use in industrial processes and installations. This book presents a unified, comprehensive and systematic treatment of the design and operation of both compression and sorption heat pumps. Heat pump thermodynamics, the choice of working fluid and the characteristics of low temperature heat sources and their application to heat pumps are covered in detail.Economic aspects are discussed and the extensive use of the exergy concept in evaluating performance of heat pumps is a unique feature of the book. The thermodynamic and chemical properties o

  15. original article antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of lactic acid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    objective of this study was to evaluate the current resistance or susceptibility patterns of lactic acid ... In this study, all 57 strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated ..... antibiotics. This is particularly important, because our traditional fermented milk product, ergo, is also consumed without any further heat treatment; and some of the.

  16. Cubic-tetragonal phase transition in Ca sub 0 sub . sub 0 sub 4 Sr sub 0 sub . sub 9 sub 6 TiO sub 3 a combined specific heat and neutron diffraction study

    CERN Document Server

    Gallardo, M C; Romero, F J; Cerro, J D; Seifert, F; Redfern, S A T

    2003-01-01

    The specific heat corresponding to the tetragonal-to-cubic transition in Ca sub 0 sub . sub 0 sub 4 Sr sub 0 sub . sub 9 sub 6 TiO sub 3 perovskite has been measured by conduction calorimetry. The order parameter of the transition has been obtained by means of neutron diffraction at low temperatures. Comparison of calorimetric data with the evolution of the order parameter indicates that this transition seems to follow a mean field Landau potential as in SrTiO sub 3. The linear behaviour of the excess of entropy versus temperature suggests that a 2-4 Landau potential is sufficient to describe the transition.

  17. The specific heat and a first order phase transition due to charge ordering in Nd1/2Sr1/2MnO3 in a magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, N. J.; Howson, M. A.; Balakrishnan, G.; Paul, D. M. K.

    1996-03-01

    We present results for the specific heat of a Nd1/2Sr1/2MnO3 crystal. The continuous phase transition from paramagnet to metallic ferromagnet is observed at 250K and a first order transition from metallic ferromagnet to the insulating charge ordered state is observed at 150K in zero field. Hysteresis is observed on warming and cooling, which increases in a magnetic field. The magnetic field is seen to drive the low temperature charged ordered state into the ferromagnetic state through a first order transition.

  18. Fault-Tolerant Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Crowley, Christopher J.

    2005-01-01

    A compact, lightweight heat exchanger has been designed to be fault-tolerant in the sense that a single-point leak would not cause mixing of heat-transfer fluids. This particular heat exchanger is intended to be part of the temperature-regulation system for habitable modules of the International Space Station and to function with water and ammonia as the heat-transfer fluids. The basic fault-tolerant design is adaptable to other heat-transfer fluids and heat exchangers for applications in which mixing of heat-transfer fluids would pose toxic, explosive, or other hazards: Examples could include fuel/air heat exchangers for thermal management on aircraft, process heat exchangers in the cryogenic industry, and heat exchangers used in chemical processing. The reason this heat exchanger can tolerate a single-point leak is that the heat-transfer fluids are everywhere separated by a vented volume and at least two seals. The combination of fault tolerance, compactness, and light weight is implemented in a unique heat-exchanger core configuration: Each fluid passage is entirely surrounded by a vented region bridged by solid structures through which heat is conducted between the fluids. Precise, proprietary fabrication techniques make it possible to manufacture the vented regions and heat-conducting structures with very small dimensions to obtain a very large coefficient of heat transfer between the two fluids. A large heat-transfer coefficient favors compact design by making it possible to use a relatively small core for a given heat-transfer rate. Calculations and experiments have shown that in most respects, the fault-tolerant heat exchanger can be expected to equal or exceed the performance of the non-fault-tolerant heat exchanger that it is intended to supplant (see table). The only significant disadvantages are a slight weight penalty and a small decrease in the mass-specific heat transfer.

  19. Thermal entanglement and sharp specific-heat peak in an exactly solved spin-1/2 Ising-Heisenberg ladder with alternating Ising and Heisenberg inter-leg couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Onofre; Strečka, J.; de Souza, S. M.

    2016-11-01

    The spin-1/2 Ising-Heisenberg two-leg ladder accounting for alternating Ising and Heisenberg inter-leg couplings in addition to the Ising intra-leg coupling is rigorously mapped onto to a mixed spin-(3/2,1/2) Ising-Heisenberg diamond chain with the nodal Ising spins S = 3 / 2 and the interstitial spin-1/2 Heisenberg dimers. The latter effective model with higher-order interactions between the nodal and interstitial spins is subsequently exactly solved within the transfer-matrix method. The model under investigation exhibits five different ground states: ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, superantiferromagnetic and two types of frustrated ground states with a non-zero residual entropy. A detailed study of thermodynamic properties reveals an anomalous specific-heat peak at low enough temperatures, which is strongly reminiscent because of its extraordinary height and sharpness to an anomaly accompanying a phase transition. It is convincingly evidenced, however, that the anomalous peak in the specific heat is finite and it comes from vigorous thermal excitations from a two-fold degenerate ground state towards a macroscopically degenerate excited state. Thermal entanglement between the nearest-neighbor Heisenberg spins is also comprehensively explored by taking advantage of the concurrence. The threshold temperature delimiting a boundary between the entangled and disentangled parameter space may show presence of a peculiar temperature reentrance.

  20. Validation of Heat Shock Protein 70 as a Tumor-Specific Biomarker for Monitoring the Outcome of Radiation Therapy in Tumor Mouse Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayer, Christine; Liebhardt, Michael E.; Schmid, Thomas E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Trajkovic-Arsic, Marija [II Medizinische Klinik, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Hube, Kathrin; Specht, Hanno M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Schilling, Daniela [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Clinical Kooperation Group, Innate Immunity in Tumor Biology, HelmholtzZentrum München, Munich (Germany); Gehrmann, Mathias; Stangl, Stefan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Siveke, Jens T. [II Medizinische Klinik, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Wilkens, Jan J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Multhoff, Gabriele, E-mail: Gabriele.multhoff@lrz.tum.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Clinical Kooperation Group, Innate Immunity in Tumor Biology, HelmholtzZentrum München, Munich (Germany)

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: Tumor cells, in contrast to normal cells, frequently overexpress heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in the cytosol, present it on their cell surface, and actively release it. Therefore, soluble Hsp70 (sHsp70) was investigated as a potential tumor biomarker for monitoring the outcome of radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Plasma from mice bearing membrane Hsp70 (mHsp70)-positive FaDu human squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck and spontaneous pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) was investigated. A cohort of mice with FaDu tumors (0.32 cm{sup 3}) was irradiated with 30 Gy, and plasma was collected 24 hours after irradiation, after the tumors had shrunk to 50% of their starting volume and after complete remission. sHsp70 levels in the plasma were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: sHsp70 levels were significantly higher in the blood of tumor-bearing mice than that of control animals. A correlation between increasing sHsp70 plasma levels and tumor volume in the range of 0.01 cm{sup 3} to 0.66 cm{sup 3} was observed. Radiation-induced regression of the tumors was associated with significantly decreased sHsp70 levels, which returned to the level of control animals after complete remission. Conclusion: We propose sHsp70 as an innovative biomarker for detecting tumors and for monitoring the clinical outcome of radiation therapy in cancer patients.

  1. Alcohol increases hypnotic susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmens-Wheeler, Rebecca; Dienes, Zoltán; Duka, Theodora

    2013-09-01

    One approach to hypnosis suggests that for hypnotic experience to occur frontal lobe activity must be attenuated. For example, cold control theory posits that a lack of awareness of intentions is responsible for the experience of involuntariness and/or the subjective reality of hypnotic suggestions. The mid-dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex and the ACC are candidate regions for such awareness. Alcohol impairs frontal lobe executive function. This study examined whether alcohol affects hypnotisability. We administered 0.8 mg/kg of alcohol or a placebo to 32 medium susceptible participants. They were subsequently hypnotised and given hypnotic suggestions. All participants believed they had received some alcohol. Participants in the alcohol condition were more susceptible to hypnotic suggestions than participants in the placebo condition. Impaired frontal lobe activity facilitates hypnotic responding, which supports theories postulating that attenuation of executive function facilitates hypnotic response, and contradicts theories postulating that hypnotic response involves enhanced inhibitory, attentional or other executive function. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Virulent ¤Blumeria graminis¤ infection induces penetration susceptibility and suppresses race-specific hypersensitive resistance against avirulent attack in ¤Mla1¤-barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngkjær, M.L.; Carver, T.L.W.; Zeyen, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    Leaves of near isogenic barley lines containing the race-specific resistance alleles. Mla1 or mla1 were subjected to double inoculation treatments with virulent and avirulent Blumeria graminis isolates. Attack by the avirulent isolate alone frequently caused hypersensitive death of individual Mla1....... It appears that suppressive factors released during virulent inducer infection prevented the hypersensitive epidermal cell death that normally is induced by the race-specific avirulence elicitor. However, suppression of Mla1 race-specific resistance vas confined to the epidermis. The presence of successful...... avirulent fungus infection of the epidermis often: led to the death of the underlying mesophyll cells, thus generating a novel cellular response phenotype in B. graminis attacked Mla1 barley. (C) 2001 Academic Press....

  3. Impact Of Phenylpropanoid Compounds On Heat Stress Tolerance In Carrot Cell Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Commisso

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe phenylpropanoid and flavonoid families include thousands of specialized metabolites that influence a wide range of processes in plants, including seed dispersal, auxin transport, photoprotection, mechanical support and protection against insect herbivory. Such metabolites play a key role in the protection of plants against abiotic stress, in many cases through their well-known ability to inhibit the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. However, the precise role of specific phenylpropanoid and flavonoid molecules is unclear. We therefore investigated the role of specific anthocyanins (ACs and other phenylpropanoids that accumulate in carrot cells cultivated in vitro, focusing on their supposed ability to protect cells from heat stress. First we characterized the effects of heat stress to identify quantifiable morphological traits as markers of heat stress susceptibility. We then fed the cultures with precursors to induce the targeted accumulation of specific compounds, and compared the impact of heat stress in these cultures and unfed controls. Data modeling based on Projection to Latent Structures (PLS regression revealed that metabolites containing coumaric or caffeic acid, including ACs, correlate with less heat damage. Further experiments suggested that one of the cellular targets damaged by heat stress and protected by these metabolites is the actin microfilament cytoskeleton.

  4. Characteristics of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of IgG antibodies specific to Сhlamydia trachomatis heat shock protein (HSP-60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yu. Galkin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to study sensitivity and specificity of the developed ELISA set for the identification of IgG antibodies against Chlamydia trachomatis HSP-60 (using biotinylated tyramine-based signal amplification system. The study was conducted using a panel of characterized sera, as well as two reference ELISA sets of similar purpose. According to the results of ELISA informative value parameters, the ELISA we have developed showed the highest specificity and sensitivity parameters (no false negative or false positive results were registered. In 4 out of 15 intralaboratory panel serum samples initially identified as negative, anti-HSP-60 IgG-antibodies test result in reference ELISA sets upon dilution changed from negative to positive. The nature of titration curves of false negative sera and commercial monoclonal antibodies А57-В9 against C. trachomatis HSP-60 after incubation for 24 h was indicative of the presence of anti-idiotypic antibodies in these samples. Upon sera dilution, idiotypic-anti-idiotypic complexes dissociated, which caused the change of test result. High informative value of the developed ELISA set for identification of IgG antibodies against C. trachomatis HSP-60 has been proven. Anti-idiotypic antibodies possessing C. trachomatis anti-HSP-60 activity and being one of the causes of false negative results of the relevant ELISA-based tests have been identified in blood sera of individuals infected with chlamydial genitourinary infection agents.

  5. Graphene susceptibility in Holstein model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousavi, Hamze, E-mail: hamze.mousavi@gmail.co [Department of Physics, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nano Science and Nano Technology Research Center, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    We study the effects of the electron-phonon interaction on the temperature dependence of the orbital magnetic susceptibility of monolayer graphene. We use the linear response theory and Green's function formalism within the Holstein Hamiltonian model. The results show that the effects of the electron-phonon interaction on the susceptibility of graphene sheet have different behaviors in two temperature regions. In the low temperature region, susceptibility increases when the electron-phonon coupling strength increases. On the other hand, the susceptibility reduces with increasing the electron-phonon coupling strength in the high temperature region. - Highlights: Effect of electron-phonon interaction on the susceptibility of graphene is studied. Linear response theory and Green's function technique in Holstein model are used. Effect of electron-phonon on susceptibility has different behaviors in two temperature regions.

  6. Elementary heat transfer analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Whitaker, Stephen; Hartnett, James P

    1976-01-01

    Elementary Heat Transfer Analysis provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of the nature of transient heat conduction. This book presents a thorough understanding of the thermal energy equation and its application to boundary layer flows and confined and unconfined turbulent flows. Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the use of heat transfer coefficients in formulating the flux condition at phase interface. This text then explains the specification as well as application of flux boundary conditions. Other chapters consider a derivation of the tra

  7. Topological susceptibility from slabs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bietenholz, Wolfgang [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-543, Distrito Federal, C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Forcrand, Philippe de [Institute for Theoretical Physics, ETH Zürich,CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); CERN, Physics Department, TH Unit, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Gerber, Urs [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-543, Distrito Federal, C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo,Edificio C-3, Apdo. Postal 2-82, Morelia, Michoacán, C.P. 58040 (Mexico)

    2015-12-14

    In quantum field theories with topological sectors, a non-perturbative quantity of interest is the topological susceptibility χ{sub t}. In principle it seems straightforward to measure χ{sub t} by means of Monte Carlo simulations. However, for local update algorithms and fine lattice spacings, this tends to be difficult, since the Monte Carlo history rarely changes the topological sector. Here we test a method to measure χ{sub t} even if data from only one sector are available. It is based on the topological charges in sub-volumes, which we denote as slabs. Assuming a Gaussian distribution of these charges, this method enables the evaluation of χ{sub t}, as we demonstrate with numerical results for non-linear σ-models.

  8. Topological Susceptibility from Slabs

    CERN Document Server

    Bietenholz, Wolfgang; Gerber, Urs

    2015-01-01

    In quantum field theories with topological sectors, a non-perturbative quantity of interest is the topological susceptibility chi_t. In principle it seems straightforward to measure chi_t by means of Monte Carlo simulations. However, for local update algorithms and fine lattice spacings, this tends to be difficult, since the Monte Carlo history rarely changes the topological sector. Here we test a method to measure chi_t even if data from only one sector are available. It is based on the topological charges in sub-volumes, which we denote as slabs. Assuming a Gaussian distribution of these charges, this method enables the evaluation of chi_t, as we demonstrate with numerical results for non-linear sigma-models.

  9. Lunar Base Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D.; Fischbach, D.; Tetreault, R.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project was to investigate the feasibility of constructing a heat pump suitable for use as a heat rejection device in applications such as a lunar base. In this situation, direct heat rejection through the use of radiators is not possible at a temperature suitable for lde support systems. Initial analysis of a heat pump of this type called for a temperature lift of approximately 378 deg. K, which is considerably higher than is commonly called for in HVAC and refrigeration applications where heat pumps are most often employed. Also because of the variation of the rejection temperature (from 100 to 381 deg. K), extreme flexibility in the configuration and operation of the heat pump is required. A three-stage compression cycle using a refrigerant such as CFC-11 or HCFC-123 was formulated with operation possible with one, two or three stages of compression. Also, to meet the redundancy requirements, compression was divided up over multiple compressors in each stage. A control scheme was devised that allowed these multiple compressors to be operated as required so that the heat pump could perform with variable heat loads and rejection conditions. A prototype heat pump was designed and constructed to investigate the key elements of the high-lift heat pump concept. Control software was written and implemented in the prototype to allow fully automatic operation. The heat pump was capable of operation over a wide range of rejection temperatures and cooling loads, while maintaining cooling water temperature well within the required specification of 40 deg. C +/- 1.7 deg. C. This performance was verified through testing.

  10. Magnetic susceptibility of tektites and some other glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senftle, F.E.; Thorpe, A.

    1959-01-01

    The magnetic susceptibility at several magnetic field strengths of about thirty tektites from various localities have been measured. The susceptibility ranges from 2 ?? 10-6 to about 7.9 ?? 10-6 e.m.u./g. Tektites from a given locality have similar susceptibilities. The intensity of magnetization of all the tektites measured is zero or very small. For comparison, the same measurements have been made on about thirty obsidians. The magnetic susceptibilities cover approximately the same range, but the intensity of magnetization of the impurity was found to be much higher. By heating the obsidians to 1450??C the intensity of magnetization was reduced to zero. From the above data, it is shown that the tektites must have been heated well above 1400??C, and that essentially all the iron is in solution. On the other hand, the evidence shows that obsidians have not been heated much above this temperature, and that there is a significant amount of undissolved iron in the glass, probably as magnetite. Further, if tektites are extraterrestrial, they probably entered the earth's atmosphere as a glass. ?? 1959.

  11. Heated Goggles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The electrically heated ski goggles shown incorporate technology similar to that once used in Apollo astronauts' helmet visors, and for the same reason-providing fogfree sight in an activity that demands total vision. Defogging is accomplished by applying heat to prevent moisture condensation. Electric heat is supplied by a small battery built into the h goggles' headband. Heat is spread across the lenses by means of an invisible coating of electrically conductive metallic film. The goggles were introduced to the market last fall. They were designed by Sierracin Corporation, Sylmar, California, specialists in the field of heated transparent materials. The company produces heated windshields for military planes and for such civil aircraft as the Boeing 747, McDonnell Douglas DC-10 and Lockheed L-1011 TriStar.

  12. Analyzing screen heat insulation and its effect on energy consumption while heating building envelopes in conditions of intermittent heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vytchikov Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to screen heat insulation and its effect on energy consumption while heating building envelopes in conditions of intermittent heating. It also describes the non-stationary process of heat transfer through heat insulated outer walls. The authors introduce calculation results of specific energy consumption for heating insulated and non-insulted outer walls. The paper proves that energy consumption for heating insulated outer walls depends on the thickness of non-aerated air-space insulation The research shows positive effects of using thermal protection systems with screen thermal insulation in outer building envelopes in conditions of intermitten heating.

  13. Specific heat of holmium and YNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C. Criticalbehaviour and superconducting properties; Spezifische Waerme von Holmium und YNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C. Kritisches Verhalten und supraleitende Eigenschaften

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekkali, Abdelhakim

    2010-01-04

    Object of the thesis is the study of the specific heat of holmium and YNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C in the temperature ranges from 50 to 200 KI respectively from 380 mK to 20 K in magnetic fields up to 9 T. In the present thesis the criticalbehaviour of YNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C and properties of the superconducting state of tne non-magnetic rare-earth nickel borocarbide YNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C are studied by means of a self-developed measurement apparatur of the specific heat using the quasi-adiabatic heating-pulse method as well as of holmium by means of the relaxation method. In this thesis reliable statements about the critical exponents on monocrystalline holmium could be made. The study on holmium proves that the critical behaviour of the specific heats cannot be described in the framework of the predictions of the chiral universality classes. By means of measurements of the specific heat in this thesis could be confirmed that YNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C is a multiband superconductor. The positive curvature of the boundary line below T{sub c} in the phase diagram yields a first hint to the many-band character of YNI{sub 2}B{sub 2}C. In the zero-field the electronic specific heat in the superconducting state c{sub es}(T) can be not explained in the framework of the pure BCS theory. At low temperatures a residual contribution by normally conducting electrons could be detected, which hints to a not completely opened energy gap. A possible explanation would be that a band (or several bands) with low charge-carrier concentration not contribute to the superconductivity. This result agrees with de Haas-van Alphen measurements on isostructural superconducting LuNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C monocrystals, which suggest the many-band character of the superconductivity as well as a vanishing energy gap in one band. The fluctuation behaviour of the specific heat of YNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C in the neighbourhood of the superconducting-normally conducting transition agrees well with that of the 3D-XY model. [German

  14. Microwave heating causes rapid degradation of antioxidants in polypropylene packaging, leading to greatly increased specific migration to food simulants as shown by ESI-MS and GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alin, Jonas; Hakkarainen, Minna

    2011-05-25

    Microwave heating of commercial microwavable polypropylene packaging in contact with fatty food simulants caused significant antioxidant degradation and increased specific migration as shown by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Degradation of the antioxidants Irgafos 168 and Irganox 1010 was not detected during conventional heating of polypropylene packaging at the same temperature. The migration into aqueous food simulants was primarily restricted by the water solubility of the migrants. Using isooctane as fatty food simulant caused significant swelling and greatly enhanced overall migration values compared to the other fatty food simulant, 99.9% ethanol, or the aqueous food simulants 10% ethanol, 3% acetic acid, or water. ESI-MS spectra clearly reflected the overall migration values, and the number and amount of compounds detected decreased as the hydrophilicity of the food simulant increased. ESI-MS was shown to be an excellent tool for the analysis of semivolatile migrants and a good complement to GC-MS analysis of volatile migrants.

  15. Economical noise- and heat insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-06-01

    All noise protection and heat insulations measures are interlinked. While noise abatement and insulation is primarily a task of health protection, the economically optimised heat insulation is rather a problem for financial mathematics. Parameters, influencing the heat insulation are subject to changes which will affect the profitability of heat insulation measures in turn. Several options for reducing the noise level are described and some standard values for material cost are supplied. Depending on the kind of noise different abatement methods are suitable which require materials with specific properties. Measures for heat insulation are described which to a great extent are identical will noise abatement measures.

  16. Evidence for line nodes in the energy gap for (La{sub 1.85}Sr{sub 0.15})CuO{sub 4} from low-temperature specific-heat measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, R. A. [Department of Chemistry, University of California and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Phillips, N. E. [Department of Chemistry, University of California and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Schilling, A. [Department of Chemistry, University of California and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Buffeteau, B. [CEA/Grenoble, DRFMC/LCP, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38942 Grenoble 9, (France); Calemczuk, R. [CEA/Grenoble, DRFMC/LCP, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38942 Grenoble 9, (France); Hargreaves, T. E. [CEA/Grenoble, DRFMC/LCP, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38942 Grenoble 9, (France); Marcenat, C. [CEA/Grenoble, DRFMC/LCP, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38942 Grenoble 9, (France); Dennis, K. W. [Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); McCallum, R. W. [Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); O' Connor, A. S. [Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The dependence of the low-temperature specific heat of (La{sub 1.85}Sr{sub 0.15})CuO{sub 4} on magnetic field (H) is reported. Low concentrations of paramagnetic centers allow a different approach to analysis of the data that minimizes the problem of identifying the effects of the line nodes in the energy gap that are expected for d-wave pairing. As a consequence, these effects can be recognized even in the raw data. The data show evidence of the T{sup 2} term expected for H=0, and a well defined H{sup 1/2}T term for H{ne}0. They conform to a scaling relation recently predicted for d-wave pairing. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  17. Microwave susceptibility experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConaghy, C.

    1984-05-29

    In certain experimental environments, systems can be affected or damaged by microwave pulses. I have conducted tests at LLNL to understand the phenomenology of microwave susceptibility of system components and subsystem components. To date, my experiments have concentrated on bipolar transistors, similar to what might be used in discrete analog circuits, and on CMOS RAM chips, which might be used in a computer memory system. I observed a decrease in failure energies for both the transistor and the integrated curcuit as I shortened the microwave pulse width. An S band (2.86 GHz) transmit/receive (T/R) tube has also been tested both at S band and at X band (8.16 GHz). The S band pulse had limitations in rise-time from zero power, which had an effect on the amount of power that could be transmitted through the T/R tube, as much as 0.7% of the incident power passed through the tube. All tests were conducted in closed-waveguide or coax test-fixtures, in contrast to the anechoic chambers utilized by other experimenters. I have used both S band and X band Klystron generators. For very high power (greater than 1 MW), I used an additional pulse-compression cavity at S band. Other subsystem components such as an X band mixer and an X band T/R tube will be tested in the future. 8 references.

  18. [Antimicrobial susceptibility cumulative reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canut-Blasco, Andrés; Calvo, Jorge; Rodríguez-Díaz, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Martínez, Luis

    2016-10-01

    Cumulative reports on antimicrobial susceptibility tests data are important for selecting empirical treatments, as an educational tool in programs on antimicrobial use, and for establishing breakpoints defining clinical categories. These reports should be based on data validated by clinical microbiologists using diagnostic samples (not surveillance samples). In order to avoid a bias derived from including several isolates obtained from the same patient, it is recommended that, for a defined period, only the first isolate is counted. A minimal number of isolates per species should be presented: a figure of >=30 isolates is statistically acceptable. The report is usually presented in a table format where, for each cell, information on clinically relevant microorganisms-antimicrobial agents is presented. Depending on particular needs, multiple tables showing data related to patients, samples, services or special pathogens can be prepared. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  19. Heat pipes as perspective base elements of heat recovery in heat supply and ventilating systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matveev Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermotechnical characteristics of heat pipes are considered as high-efficient heat-transfer devices, which can provide energy-saving technologies for heat supply and ventilating systems and for different branches of industry. Thermotechnical and working (”performance capability” characteristics of heat pipes are investigated. By ”performance capability” of heat pipes and heat-transfer devices on heat pipes we mean the system state, where it can perform set functions and keep parameter values (thermal power, conductivity, thermal resistance, heat-transfer coefficient, temperature level and differential, etc. within the regulations of standardized specifications. The article presents theoretical and experimental methods of «gaslock» length determination on noncondensable gases during long-lasting tests of ammonia heat pipes made of aluminum shape АS – КRА 7.5 – R1 (alloy АD – 31. The paper gives results of research of thermotechnical characteristics of heat pipes in horizontal and vertical states (separate and as a set part while using different systems of thermal insulation. The obtained results of thermotechnical and resource tests show the advantages of ammonia heat pipes as basic elements for heat exchanger design in heating and ventilation systems.

  20. Heat Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Sofie Søndergaard; Andersen, Johnny Dohn Holmgren; Bestle, Morten Heiberg

    2017-01-01

    Heat stroke is an acute, life-threatening emergency characterized clinically by elevated body temperature and central nervous system dysfunction. Early recognition and treatment including aggressive cooling and management of life-threatening systemic complications are essential to reduce morbidity...... and mortality. This case report describes two Danish patients diagnosed with heat stroke syndrome during a heat wave in the summer of 2014. Both patients were morbidly obese and had several predisposing illnesses. However since heat stroke is a rare condition in areas with temperate climate, they were...... not diagnosed until several days after admittance; hence treatment with cooling was delayed. Both patients were admitted to the intensive care unit, where they were treated with an external cooling device and received treatment for complications. Both cases ended fatally. As global warming continues, more heat...

  1. Ion and electron heating in ICRF heating experiments on LHD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, K. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kumazawa, R.; Mutoh, T. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)] [and others

    2001-02-01

    This paper reports on the Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating conducted in 1999 in the 3rd experimental campaign on the Large Helical Device (LHD) with an emphasis on the optimization of the heating regime. Specifically, an exhaustive study of seven different heating regimes was carried out by changing the RF frequency relative to the magnetic field intensity, and the dependence of the heating efficiency on H-minority concentration was investigated. It was found in the experiment that both ion and electron heating are attainable with the same experimental setup by properly choosing the frequency relative to the magnetic field intensity. In the cases of both electron heating and ion heating, the power absorption efficiency depends on the minority ion concentration. An optimum minority concentration exists in the ion heating case while, in the electron heating case, the efficiency increases with concentration monotonically. A simple model calculation is introduced to provide a heuristic understanding of these experimental results. Among the heating regimes examined in this experiment, one of the ion heating regimes was finally chosen as the optimized heating regime and various high performance discharges were realized with it. (author)

  2. Genetic heterogeneity in breast cancer susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, T I

    1996-01-01

    Approximately 20% of breast cancer patients have a family history of the disease, and in one-fourth of these cases breast cancer appears to be inherited as an autosomally dominant trait. Five genes and gene regions involved in breast cancer susceptibility have been uncovered. Germ-line mutations in the recently cloned BRCA1 gene at 17q21 is considered to be responsible for the disease in a majority of the breast-ovarian cancer families and in 40-45% of the site-specific breast cancer families, but appears not to be involved in families with both male and female breast cancer cases. The BRCA2 locus at 13q12-q13 appears to be involved in 40-45% of the site-specific breast cancer families, and in most of the families with affected males. The gene located in this region, however, does not seem to confer susceptibility to ovarian cancer. The TP53 gene is involved in breast cancer development in the Li-Fraumeni syndrome and Li-Fraumeni syndrom-like families, whereas germ-line mutations in the androgen receptor (AR) gene is present in a subset of male breast cancers. Furthermore, females who are obligate carriers of ataxia telangiectasia (AT) have a 4-12 times relative risk of developing breast cancer as compared with the general female population, indicating that germ-line mutations in AT also confer susceptibility to breast cancer.

  3. Heat and mass transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Karwa, Rajendra

    2017-01-01

    This textbook presents the classical treatment of the problems of heat transfer in an exhaustive manner with due emphasis on understanding of the physics of the problems. This emphasis is especially visible in the chapters on convective heat transfer. Emphasis is laid on the solution of steady and unsteady two-dimensional heat conduction problems. Another special feature of the book is a chapter on introduction to design of heat exchangers and their illustrative design problems. A simple and understandable treatment of gaseous radiation has been presented. A special chapter on flat plate solar air heater has been incorporated that covers thermo-hydraulic modeling and simulation. The chapter on mass transfer has been written looking specifically at the needs of the students of mechanical engineering. The book includes a large number and variety of solved problems with supporting line diagrams. The author has avoided duplicating similar problems, while incorporating more application-based examples. All the end-...

  4. Policies for Renewable Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This paper builds on IEA publications, Deploying Renewables, Principles for Effective Policies and Deploying Renewables, Best and Future Policy Practice, that discuss the 'integrated policy approach,' whereby renewable energy technologies require different support policies at different stages of their maturity pathways. The paper discusses how the integrated policy approach applies to renewable heat. It attempts to provide guidance for policy-makers on renewable heat throughout the different phases of the policy lifecycle, allowing for the specific challenges of renewable heat and needs of the many stakeholders involved. Stimulating a market for heat involves challenges that are different and, often, more difficult to overcome than in the electricity and transport sectors.

  5. Magnetic induction heating of FeCr nanocrystalline alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Polo, C., E-mail: gpolo@unavarra.es [Depto. de Fisica, Universidad Publica de Navarra, Campus de Arrosadia, 31006 Pamplona (Spain); Larumbe, S.; Perez-Landazabal, J.I.; Pastor, J.M.; Olivera, J.; Soto-Armananzas, J. [Depto. de Fisica, Universidad Publica de Navarra, Campus de Arrosadia, 31006 Pamplona (Spain)

    2012-06-15

    In this work the thermal effects of magnetic induction heating in (FeCr){sub 73.5}Si{sub 13.5}Cu{sub 1}B{sub 9}Nb{sub 3} amorphous and nanocrystalline wires were analyzed. A single piece of wire was immersed in a glass capillary filled with water and subjected to an ac magnetic field (frequency, 320 kHz). The initial temperature rise enabled the determination of the effective Specific Absorption Rate (SAR). Maximum SAR values are achieved for those samples displaying high magnetic susceptibility, where the eddy current losses dominate the induction heating behavior. Moreover, the amorphous sample with Curie temperature around room temperature displays characteristic features of self-regulated hyperthermia. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Amorphous and nanocrystalline Fe based alloys with tailored Curie temperature of the amorphous phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Induction heating effects under the action of a ac magnetic field. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Self-regulated characteristics based on the control of the Curie temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dominant role of the eddy-current losses in the self-heating phenomena.

  6. Chloroplast retrograde regulation of heat stress responses in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Zhen eSun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that intracellular signaling from chloroplast to nucleus plays a vital role in stress responses to survive environmental perturbations. The chloroplasts were proposed as sensors to heat stress since components of the photosynthetic apparatus housed in the chloroplast are the primary susceptible targets of thermal damage in plants. Thus, communicating subcellular perturbations to the nucleus is critical during exposure to extreme environmental conditions such as heat stress. By coordinating expression of stress specific nuclear genes essential for adaptive responses to hostile environment, plants optimize different cell functions and activate acclimation responses through retrograde signaling pathways. Such diverse metabolic and biosynthetic functions require efficient communication between plastids and the nucleus. In recent years several putative retrograde signals released from plastids that regulate nuclear genes have been identified and signaling pathways have been proposed. In this review, we provide an update on retrograde signals derived from tetrapyrroles, carotenoids, reactive oxygen species (ROS and organellar gene expression (OGE in the context of heat stress responses and address their roles in retrograde regulation of heat-responsive gene expression, systemic acquired acclimation and cellular coordination in plants.

  7. Novel susceptibility loci for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Christiane

    2015-12-01

    Late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD), a highly prevalent neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive deterioration in cognition, function and behavior terminating in incapacity and death, is a clinically and pathologically heterogeneous disease with a substantial heritable component. During the past 5 years, the technological developments in next-generation high-throughput genome technologies have led to the identification of more than 20 novel susceptibility loci for AD, and have implicated specific pathways in the disease, in particular intracellular trafficking/endocytosis, inflammation and immune response and lipid metabolism. These observations have significantly advanced our understanding of underlying pathogenic mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets. This review article summarizes these recent advances in AD genomics and discusses the value of identified susceptibility loci for diagnosis and prognosis of AD.

  8. Differential susceptibility to maternal expressed emotion in children with ADHD and their siblings? Investigating plasticity genes, prosocial and antisocial behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, Jennifer S; Hartman, Catharina A; Franke, Barbara; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Arias Vásquez, Alejandro; Buitelaar, Jan K

    The differential susceptibility theory states that children differ in their susceptibility towards environmental experiences, partially due to plasticity genes. Individuals carrying specific variants in such genes will be more disadvantaged in negative but, conversely, more advantaged in positive

  9. Thermal Performance of High Temperature Titanium -- Water Heat Pipes by Multiple Heat Pipe Manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzi, James L.

    2007-01-01

    Titanium - water heat pipes are being investigated for use in heat rejection systems for lunar and Mars fission surface power systems. Heat pipes provide an efficient and reliable means to transfer heat to a radiator heat rejection system. NASA Glenn Research Center requisitioned nine titanium water heat pipes from three vendors. Each vendor supplied three heat pipes 1.25 cm diameter by 1.1 meter long with each vendor selecting a different wick design. Each of the three heat pipes is slightly different in construction. Additional specifications for the heat pipes included 500 K nominal operating temperature, light weight, and freeze tolerance. The heat pipes were performance tested gravity-aided, in the horizontal position and at elevations against gravity at 450 K and 500 K. Performance of the three heat pipes is compared. The heat pipe data will be used to verify models of heat pipe radiators that will be used in future space exploration missions.

  10. Thermal Performance of High Temperature Titanium-Water Heat Pipes by Multiple Heat Pipe Manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzi, James L.

    2007-01-01

    Titanium-water heat pipes are being investigated for use in heat rejection systems for lunar and Mars fission surface power systems. Heat pipes provide an efficient and reliable means to transfer heat to a radiator heat rejection system. NASA Glenn Research Center requisitioned nine titanium water heat pipes from three vendors. Each vendor supplied three heat pipes 1.25 cm diameter by 1.1 meter long with each vendor selecting a different wick design. Each of the three heat pipes is slightly different in construction. Additional specifications for the heat pipes included 500 K nominal operating temperature, light weight, and freeze tolerance. The heat pipes were performance tested gravity-aided, in the horizontal position and at elevations against gravity at 450 and 500 K. Performance of the three heat pipes is compared. The heat pipe data will be used to verify models of heat pipe radiators that will be used in future space exploration missions.

  11. Heat distribution and the future competitiveness of district heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Urban; Werner, Sven [School of Business and Engineering, Halmstad University, PO Box 823, SE-30118 Halmstad (Sweden)

    2011-03-15

    The competitiveness of present and future district heating systems can be at risk when residential and service sector heat demands are expected to decrease in the future. In this study, the future competitiveness of district heating has been examined by an in depth analysis of the distribution capital cost at various city characteristics, city sizes, and heat demands. Hereby, this study explores an important market condition often neglected or badly recognised in traditional comparisons between centralised and decentralised heat supply. By a new theoretical approach, the traditional and empirical expression for linear heat density is transformed into an analytical expression that allows modelling of future distribution capital cost levels also in areas where no district heating exists today. The independent variables in this new analytical expression are population density, specific building space, specific heat demand and effective width. Model input data has primarily been collected from national and European statistical sources on heat use, city populations, city districts and residential living areas. Study objects were 83 cities in Belgium, Germany, France, and the Netherlands. The average heat market share for district heat within these cities was 21% during 2006. The main conclusion is that the future estimated capital costs for district heat distribution in the study cities are rather low, since the cities are very dense. At the current situation, a market share of 60% can be reached with a marginal distribution capital cost of only 2.1 EUR/GJ, corresponding to an average distribution capital cost of 1.6 EUR/GJ. The most favourable conditions appear in large cities and in inner city areas. In the future, there is a lower risk for reduced competitiveness due to reduced heat demands in these areas, since the increased distribution capital cost is low compared to the typical prices of district heat and competing heat supply. However, district heating will lose

  12. Heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn, Peter D

    1994-01-01

    It is approximately 10 years since the Third Edition of Heat Pipes was published and the text is now established as the standard work on the subject. This new edition has been extensively updated, with revisions to most chapters. The introduction of new working fluids and extended life test data have been taken into account in chapter 3. A number of new types of heat pipes have become popular, and others have proved less effective. This is reflected in the contents of chapter 5. Heat pipes are employed in a wide range of applications, including electronics cooling, diecasting and injection mo

  13. [Antimicrobial susceptibility in Chile 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes-D, Marcela; Silva, Francisco; García, Patricia; Bello, Helia; Briceño, Isabel; Calvo-A, Mario; Labarca, Jaime

    2014-04-01

    Bacteria antimicrobial resistance is an uncontrolled public health problem that progressively increases its magnitude and complexity. The Grupo Colaborativo de Resistencia, formed by a join of experts that represent 39 Chilean health institutions has been concerned with bacteria antimicrobial susceptibility in our country since 2008. In this document we present in vitro bacterial susceptibility accumulated during year 2012 belonging to 28 national health institutions that represent about 36% of hospital discharges in Chile. We consider of major importance to report periodically bacteria susceptibility so to keep the medical community updated to achieve target the empirical antimicrobial therapies and the control measures and prevention of the dissemination of multiresistant strains.

  14. Orientational Glasses: NMR and Electric Susceptibility Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Sullivan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We review the results of a wide range of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMRmeasurements of the local order parameters and the molecular dynamics of solid ortho-para hydrogen mixtures and solid nitrogen-argon mixtures that form novel molecular orientational glass states at low temperatures. From the NMR measurements, the distribution of the order parameters can be deduced and, in terms of simple models, used to analyze the thermodynamic measurements of the heat capacities of these systems. In addition, studies of the dielectric susceptibilities of the nitrogen-argon mixtures are reviewed in terms of replica symmetry breaking analogous to that observed for spin glass states. It is shown that this wide set of experimental results is consistent with orientation or quadrupolar glass ordering of the orientational degrees of freedom.

  15. Research on High-Specific-Heat Dielectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-11

    parameter A was set to 10. Circles denote the same data (Cm ) with a different A and after renormalizing Cp and Cm at (T/T N ) = 0.8. inversely as the...P 2 - ,7- is the dielectric V larization energy including the coupling to the externa . electric field 1, and finally the coupling terms, .J h~7 P2 2

  16. Universal locality of quantum thermal susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Palma, Giacomo; De Pasquale, Antonella; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2017-05-01

    The ultimate precision of any measurement of the temperature of a quantum system is the inverse of the local quantum thermal susceptibility [A. De Pasquale et al., Nat. Commun. 7, 12782 (2016), 10.1038/ncomms12782] of the subsystem with which the thermometer interacts. If this subsystem can be described with the canonical ensemble, such quantity reduces to the variance of the local Hamiltonian, which is proportional to the heat capacity of the subsystem. However, the canonical ensemble might not apply in the presence of interactions between the subsystem and the rest of the system. In this work, we address this problem in the framework of locally interacting quantum systems. We prove that the local quantum thermal susceptibility of any subsystem is close to the variance of its local Hamiltonian, provided the volume-to-surface ratio of the subsystem is much larger than the correlation length. This result greatly simplifies the determination of the ultimate precision of any local estimate of the temperature and rigorously determines the regime where interactions can affect this precision.

  17. pso.ATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    isolates vere made using standard methods, Antibiotic susceptibility tests against commonly prescribed ... Acute otitis media is rapid with short .... sensitivity tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests: The antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of major Gram positive and negative bacterial isolates obtained from clinical specimens.

  18. Hypnotic susceptibility and dream characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamore, N; Barrett, D

    1989-11-01

    This study examined the relationship of hypnotic susceptibility to a variety of dream characteristics and types of dream content. A Dream Questionnaire was constructed synthesizing Gibson's dream inventory and Hilgard's theoretical conceptions of hypnosis. Employing the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility and the Field Inventory for evaluating hypnotic response, several dream dimensions correlated significantly with hypnotizability. For subjects as a whole, the strongest correlates were the frequency of dreams which they believed to be precognitive and out-of-body dreams. Ability to dream on a chosen topic also correlated significantly with hypnotic susceptibility for both genders. For females only, there was a negative correlation of hypnotic susceptibility to flying dreams. Absorption correlated positively with dream recall, ability to dream on a chosen topic, reports of conflict resolution in dreams, creative ideas occurring in dreams, amount of color in dreams, pleasantness of dreams, bizarreness of dreams, flying dreams and precognitive dreams.

  19. Testing abstract behavioral specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.Y.H. Wong; R. Bubel (Richard); F.S. de Boer (Frank); C.P.T. de Gouw (Stijn); M. Gómez-Zamalloa; R Haehnle; K. Meinke; M.A. Sindhu

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractWe present a range of testing techniques for the Abstract Behavioral Specification (ABS) language and apply them to an industrial case study. ABS is a formal modeling language for highly variable, concurrent, component-based systems. The nature of these systems makes them susceptible to

  20. Ancestral susceptibility to colorectal cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Huhn, S.; Pardini, Barbara; Naccarati, Alessio; Vodička, Pavel (ed.); Hemminki, K.; Försti, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2012), s. 197-204 ISSN 0267-8357 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/07/1430; GA ČR GAP304/10/1286 Grant - others:EU FP7(XE) HEALTH-F4-2007-200767 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : cancer susceptibility * molecular epidemiology * genetic susceptibility Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.500, year: 2012

  1. Modular Heat Exchanger With Integral Heat Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    1992-01-01

    Modular heat exchanger with integral heat pipe transports heat from source to Stirling engine. Alternative to heat exchangers depending on integrities of thousands of brazed joints, contains only 40 brazed tubes.

  2. Genetic architecture of intrinsic antibiotic susceptibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany S Girgis

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic exposure rapidly selects for more resistant bacterial strains, and both a drug's chemical structure and a bacterium's cellular network affect the types of mutations acquired.To better characterize the genetic determinants of antibiotic susceptibility, we exposed a transposon-mutagenized library of Escherichia coli to each of 17 antibiotics that encompass a wide range of drug classes and mechanisms of action. Propagating the library for multiple generations with drug concentrations that moderately inhibited the growth of the isogenic parental strain caused the abundance of strains with even minor fitness advantages or disadvantages to change measurably and reproducibly. Using a microarray-based genetic footprinting strategy, we then determined the quantitative contribution of each gene to E. coli's intrinsic antibiotic susceptibility. We found both loci whose removal increased general antibiotic tolerance as well as pathways whose down-regulation increased tolerance to specific drugs and drug classes. The beneficial mutations identified span multiple pathways, and we identified pairs of mutations that individually provide only minor decreases in antibiotic susceptibility but that combine to provide higher tolerance.Our results illustrate that a wide-range of mutations can modulate the activity of many cellular resistance processes and demonstrate that E. coli has a large mutational target size for increasing antibiotic tolerance. Furthermore, the work suggests that clinical levels of antibiotic resistance might develop through the sequential accumulation of chromosomal mutations of small individual effect.

  3. Temperature alters host genotype-specific susceptibility to chytrid infection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gsell, A.S; De Senerpont Domis, L.N; Van Donk, E; Ibelings, B.W

    2013-01-01

    .... We exposed seven genetically different but concurrent strains of the diatom Asterionella formosa to one genotype of its naturally co-occurring chytrid parasite Zygorhizidium planktonicum across five...

  4. Local magnetic susceptibility in rare-earth compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Shiozawa, H; Obu, K

    2003-01-01

    The element specific magnetic susceptibilities of some rare-earth compounds are estimated by measuring magnetic circular dichroism at rare-earth M sub 4 sub , sub 5 absorption edges. The temperature dependences of the rare-earth 4f local magnetic susceptibilities in dense Kondo materials, CeNi, CeSn sub 3 and CeRu sub 4 Sb sub 1 sub 2 , are remarkably different from those of the bulk magnetic susceptibilities measured by a conventional magnetometer, although the 4f electron is regarded to mainly hold the magnetic moment in these compounds. In contrast, the rare-earth 4f local magnetic susceptibility of ferromagnetic NdFe sub 4 P sub 1 sub 2 shows almost as similar behavior as the bulk one.

  5. Heat treatment deformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bavaro, A. (Soliveri SpA, Caravaggio (Italy))

    1990-02-01

    Types and causes of heat treatement derived isotropic and anisotropic dilatancies in ferrous materials are reviewed. The concepts are developed in such a way as to allow extension to all materials exhibiting martensitic tempering behaviour. This paper intends to illustrate the basic processes of dimensional variations undergone by the materials under heat treatments. The parametric analysis includes an analysis of the interactions amongst the parameters themselves. The relative importance of each parameter is assessed in order to determine methods to attenuate deformation action. Simplified examples are offered to provide technicians explanations as to why specific deformations occur and indications on improved materials working techniques.

  6. Genomic Selection Improves Heat Tolerance in Dairy Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, J B; Douglas, M L; Williams, S R O; Wales, W J; Marett, L C; Nguyen, T T T; Reich, C M; Hayes, B J

    2016-09-29

    Dairy products are a key source of valuable proteins and fats for many millions of people worldwide. Dairy cattle are highly susceptible to heat-stress induced decline in milk production, and as the frequency and duration of heat-stress events increases, the long term security of nutrition from dairy products is threatened. Identification of dairy cattle more tolerant of heat stress conditions would be an important progression towards breeding better adapted dairy herds to future climates. Breeding for heat tolerance could be accelerated with genomic selection, using genome wide DNA markers that predict tolerance to heat stress. Here we demonstrate the value of genomic predictions for heat tolerance in cohorts of Holstein cows predicted to be heat tolerant and heat susceptible using controlled-climate chambers simulating a moderate heatwave event. Not only was the heat challenge stimulated decline in milk production less in cows genomically predicted to be heat-tolerant, physiological indicators such as rectal and intra-vaginal temperatures had reduced increases over the 4 day heat challenge. This demonstrates that genomic selection for heat tolerance in dairy cattle is a step towards securing a valuable source of nutrition and improving animal welfare facing a future with predicted increases in heat stress events.

  7. Specific heat in quasi-one-dimensional conductors K{sub 0.3}MoO{sub 3} and (TMTTF){sub 2}AsF{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasawa, Mitsuharu [Department of Physics, College of Engineering, Tokyo Denki University, Chiyoda, Tokyo 101-8457 (Japan); Department of Green and Sustainable Chemistry, College of Engineering, Tokyo Denki University, Chiyoda, Tokyo 101-8457 (Japan)], E-mail: nagasawa@chiba.dendai.ac.jp; Nagasawa, Tokiko [Department of Green and Sustainable Chemistry, College of Engineering, Tokyo Denki University, Chiyoda, Tokyo 101-8457 (Japan); Ichimura, Koichi [Division of Applied Physics, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Nomura, Kazushige [Division of Physics, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan)

    2009-03-01

    We measured the specific heat c{sub p}(T) of single crystals of quasi-one-dimensional conductors K{sub 0.3}MoO{sub 3} and (TMTTF){sub 2}AsF{sub 6} by differential thermal analysis (DTA) method. In K{sub 0.3}MoO{sub 3}, a clear discontinuous change {delta}c{sub p0}{approx}1.2 J/mol/K was detected at the charge density wave (CDW) transition temperature T{sub CDW}=180 K. On the other hand, in (TMTTF){sub 2}AsF{sub 6}, c{sub p}(T) showed a weak anomaly at the charge order (CO) transition temperature T{sub CO}=100 K. The entropy lost at around T{sub CO} was {delta}S {approx}0.24 J/mol/K at most, that is much smaller than R ln 2{approx}5.8 J/mol/K, which is the expected magnitude in the case of order-disorder transition. The CO of (TMTTF){sub 2}AsF{sub 6} might be related to the displacive type ferroelectric.

  8. GASP: A computer code for calculating the thermodynamic and transport properties for ten fluids: Parahydrogen, helium, neon, methane, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, oxygen, fluorine, argon, and carbon dioxide. [enthalpy, entropy, thermal conductivity, and specific heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Baron, A. K.; Peller, I. C.

    1975-01-01

    A FORTRAN IV subprogram called GASP is discussed which calculates the thermodynamic and transport properties for 10 pure fluids: parahydrogen, helium, neon, methane, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, oxygen, fluorine, argon, and carbon dioxide. The pressure range is generally from 0.1 to 400 atmospheres (to 100 atm for helium and to 1000 atm for hydrogen). The temperature ranges are from the triple point to 300 K for neon; to 500 K for carbon monoxide, oxygen, and fluorine; to 600 K for methane and nitrogen; to 1000 K for argon and carbon dioxide; to 2000 K for hydrogen; and from 6 to 500 K for helium. GASP accepts any two of pressure, temperature and density as input conditions along with pressure, and either entropy or enthalpy. The properties available in any combination as output include temperature, density, pressure, entropy, enthalpy, specific heats, sonic velocity, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and surface tension. The subprogram design is modular so that the user can choose only those subroutines necessary to the calculations.

  9. Phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C/heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70)/transcription factor B-cell translocation gene 2 signaling in rat bone marrow stromal cell differentiation to cholinergic neuron-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jing; Sun, Chunhui; Su, Le; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Shangli; Miao, Junying

    2012-12-01

    Although bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) can differentiate into neuron-like cells, the mechanisms underlying neuronal differentiation are not well understood. We recently found that inhibition of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) by its inhibitor D609 promoted BMSCs' differentiation into cholinergic neuron-like cells. Using the effective small molecule D609 and gene microarray technology, we investigated the change of gene expression profile to identify key mediators involved in the neuronal differentiation. We selected heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and transcription factor B-cell translocation gene 2 (Btg2) that were maximally up-regulated for further study. We found that functional suppression of Hsp70 blocked D609-induced increase of Btg2 expression and cholinergic neuronal differentiation of BMSCs. These results demonstrated that Hsp70 was the pivotal factor in PC-PLC-medicated neuronal differentiation of BMSCs, and Btg2 might be its downstream target. Our findings provide new clues for controlling BMSCs' differentiation into cholinergic neuron-like cells and provide a putative strategy for neurodegenerative diseases therapies. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Heat convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiji, L.M. [City Univ. of New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Professor Jiji's broad teaching experience lead him to select the topics for this book to provide a firm foundation for convection heat transfer with emphasis on fundamentals, physical phenomena, and mathematical modelling of a wide range of engineering applications. Reflecting recent developments, this textbook is the first to include an introduction to the challenging topic of microchannels. The strong pedagogic potential of Heat Convection is enhanced by the following ancillary materials: (1) Power Point lectures, (2) Problem Solutions, (3) Homework Facilitator, and, (4) Summary of Sections and Chapters. (orig.)

  11. Gene expression profiles during short-term heat stress; branching vs. massive Scleractinian corals of the Red Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keren Maor-Landaw

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It is well-established that there is a hierarchy of susceptibilities amongst coral genera during heat-stress. However, molecular mechanisms governing these differences are still poorly understood. Here we explored if specific corals possessing different morphologies and different susceptibilities to heat stress may manifest varied gene expression patterns. We examined expression patterns of seven genes in the branching corals Stylophora pistillata and Acropora eurystoma and additionally in the massive robust coral, Porites sp. The tested genes are representatives of key cellular processes occurring during heat-stress in Cnidaria: oxidative stress, ER stress, energy metabolism, DNA repair and apoptosis. Varied response to the heat-stress, in terms of visual coral paling, algal maximum quantum yield and host gene expression was evident in the different growth forms. The two branching corals exhibited similar overall responses that differed from that of the massive coral. A. eurystoma that is considered as a susceptible species did not bleach in our experiment, but tissue sloughing was evident at 34 °C. Interestingly, in this species redox regulation genes were up-regulated at the very onset of the thermal challenge. In S. pistillata, bleaching was evident at 34 °C and most of the stress markers were already up-regulated at 32 °C, either remaining highly expressed or decreasing when temperatures reached 34 °C. The massive Porites species displayed severe bleaching at 32 °C but stress marker genes were only significantly elevated at 34 °C. We postulate that by expelling the algal symbionts from Porites tissues, oxidation damages are reduced and stress genes are activated only at a progressed stage. The differential gene expression responses exhibited here can be correlated with the literature well-documented hierarchy of susceptibilities amongst coral morphologies and genera in Eilat’s coral reef.

  12. Large-scale solar heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolonen, J.; Konttinen, P.; Lund, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Advanced Energy Systems

    1998-10-01

    Solar heating market is growing in many European countries and annually installed collector area has exceeded one million square meters. There are dozens of collector manufacturers and hundreds of firms making solar heating installations in Europe. One tendency in solar heating is towards larger systems. These can be roof integrated, consisting of some tens or hundreds of square meters of collectors, or they can be larger centralized solar district heating plants consisting of a few thousand square meters of collectors. The increase of size can reduce the specific investments of solar heating systems, because e.g. the costs of some components (controllers, pumps, and pipes), planning and installation can be smaller in larger systems. The solar heat output can also be higher in large systems, because more advanced technique is economically viable

  13. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for signs of heat stroke or exhaustion. Heat Stroke and Exhaustion Symptoms of early heat exhaustion symptoms ... heavy sweating; nausea; and giddiness. Symptoms of heat stroke (late stage of heat illness) include flushed, hot, ...

  14. Renewable Heating and Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable heating and cooling is a set of alternative resources and technologies that can be used in place of conventional heating and cooling technologies for common applications such as water heating, space heating, space cooling and process heat.

  15. A regenerative elastocaloric heat pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrecht, Kurt; Eriksen, Dan; Dallolio, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    A large fraction of global energy use is for refrigeration and air-conditioning, which could be decarbonized if efficient renewable energy technologies could be found. Vapour-compression technology remains the most widely used system to move heat up the temperature scale after more than 100 years...... a regenerative elastocaloric heat pump that exhibits a temperature span of 15.3 K on the water side with a corresponding specific heating power up to 800 W kg−1 and maximum COP (coefficient-of-performance) values of up to 7. The efficiency and specific heating power of this device exceeds those of other devices...... based on caloric effects. These results open up the possibility of using the elastocaloric effect in various cooling and heat-pumping applications....

  16. Elements of heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Rathakrishnan, Ethirajan

    2012-01-01

    1 Basic Concepts and Definitions1.1 Introduction1.1.1 Driving Potential1.2 Dimensions and Units1.2.1 Dimensional Homogeneity1.3 Closed and Open Systems1.3.1 Closed System (ControlMass)1.3.2 Isolated System1.3.3 Open System (ControlVolume)1.4 Forms of Energy1.4.1 Internal Energy1.5 Properties of a System1.5.1 Intensive and Extensive Properties1.6 State and Equilibrium1.7 Thermal and Calorical Properties1.7.1 Specific Heat of an Incompressible Substance1.7.2 Thermally Perfect Gas 1.8 The Perfect Gas1.9 Summary1.10 Exercise ProblemsConduction Heat Transfer2.1 Introduction2.2 Conduction Heat Trans

  17. Individual Genetic Susceptibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric J. Hall

    2008-12-08

    Risk estimates derived from epidemiological studies of exposed populations, as well as the maximum permissible doses allowed for occupational exposure and exposure of the public to ionizing radiation are all based on the assumption that the human population is uniform in its radiosensitivity, except for a small number of individuals, such as ATM homozygotes who are easily identified by their clinical symptoms. The hypothesis upon which this proposal is based is that the human population is not homogeneous in radiosensitiviry, but that radiosensitive sub-groups exist which are not easy to identify. These individuals would suffer an increased incidence of detrimental radiation effects, and distort the shape of the dose response relationship. The radiosensitivity of these groups depend on the expression levels of specific proteins. The plan was to investigate the effect of 3 relatively rare, high penetrate genes available in mice, namely Atm, mRad9 & Brca1. The purpose of radiation protection is to prevent! deterministic effects of clinical significance and limit stochastic effects to acceptable levels. We plan, therefore to compare with wild type animals the radiosensitivity of mice heterozygous for each of the genes mentioned above, as well as double heterozygotes for pairs of genes, using two biological endpoints: a) Ocular cataracts as an important and relevant deterministic effect, and b) Oncogenic transformation in cultured embryo fibroblasts, as a surrogate for carcinogenesis, the most relevant stochastic effect.

  18. Infrared heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    IR heating was first industrially used in the 1930s for automotive curing applications and rapidly became a widely applied technology in the manufacturing industry. Contrarily, a slower pace in the development of IR technologies for processing foods and agricultural products was observed, due to lim...

  19. pitting corrosion susceptibility pitting corrosion susceptibility of aisi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Abstract. The susceptibility of austenitic (AISI 301) stainless steel to pitting corrosion was evaluated in sodium chloride. (NaCl) solutions ... AISI 301 steel suffers from pitting corrosion in all the investigated solutions. AISI 301 steel suffers from ..... [1] Ijeomah, M.N.C. Elements of Corrosion and Protection. Theory, Auto Century ...

  20. Magnetic Susceptability Measurements in Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jason; Mallory, Kendall; Seim, Ryan

    2000-04-01

    A new undergraduate research facility in magnetic susceptability measurements on superconductors is being developed at the University of Northern Colorado. Initial data measurements of the magnetic susceptability of various superconductors will be presented. These measurements were obtained with a liquid helium/nitrogen dewar that was reassembled for use in this project. The cryostat consists of two separate dewars, the first of which contains liquid nitrogen, the second, liquid helium. The liquid nitrogen dewar is used to keep the helium bath from evaporating off too quickly. Data on the evaporation rates of the two liquids will also be presented.

  1. Hotterdam: mapping the Rotterdam urban heat island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank van der Hoeven

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The urban heat island is considered to be one of the contemporary health aspects that cities urgently need to respond to. The Hotterdam research project addresses the Rotterdam urban heat island, in order to explain the links between the health of the city’s population and the features of its built environment that make it more or rather less warm. The work resulted in two heat maps that make the city of Rotterdam and its inhabitants more aware of and less susceptible to the health effects of heat waves. The insights into the urban heat island that were gained in this project are relevant for other cities in Holland (Amsterdam, The Hague and abroad.

  2. Currents and fluctuations of quantum heat transport in harmonic chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motz, T.; Ankerhold, J.; Stockburger, J. T.

    2017-05-01

    Heat transport in open quantum systems is particularly susceptible to the modeling of system-reservoir interactions. It thus requires us to consistently treat the coupling between a quantum system and its environment. While perturbative approaches are successfully used in fields like quantum optics and quantum information, they reveal deficiencies—typically in the context of thermodynamics, when it is essential to respect additional criteria such as fluctuation-dissipation theorems. We use a non-perturbative approach for quantum dissipative dynamics based on a stochastic Liouville-von Neumann equation to provide a very general and extremely efficient formalism for heat currents and their correlations in open harmonic chains. Specific results are derived not only for first- but also for second-order moments, which requires us to account for both real and imaginary parts of bath-bath correlation functions. Spatiotemporal patterns are compared with weak coupling calculations. The regime of stronger system-reservoir couplings gives rise to an intimate interplay between reservoir fluctuations and heat transfer far from equilibrium.

  3. Specific heat of Ca{sub 0.32}Na{sub 0.68}Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} single crystals: unconventional s{sub ±} multi-band superconductivity with intermediate repulsive interband coupling and sizable attractive intraband couplings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drechsler, S.L.; Johnston, S.; Abdel-Hafiez, M.; Grinenko, V.; Harnagea, L.; Krupskaya, Y.; Bombor, D.; Wurmehl, S.; Hess, C.; Wolter, A.; Buechner, B. [IFW-Dresden (Germany); Rosner, H. [MPI CPfS-Dresden (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    We report a low-temperature specific heat study of single crystals of the heavily hole doped superconductor Ca{sub 0.32}Na{sub 0.68}Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2}. This compound exhibits bulk superconductivity with a transition temperature T{sub c} ∼ 34 K, which is evident from the magnetization, transport, and specific heat measurements. The zero field data manifests a significant electronic specific heat in the normal state with a Sommerfeld coefficient γ ∼ 53 mJ/mol K{sup 2}. Using a multi-band Eliashberg analysis, we demonstrate that the dependence of the zero field specific heat in the superconducting state is well described by a three-band model with an unconventional s{sub ±} pairing symmetry and gap magnitudes Δ{sub i} of about 2.35, 7.48, and -7.50 meV. Our analysis indicates a non-negligible attractive intraband coupling,which contributes significantly to the relatively high value of T{sub c}. The Fermi surface averaged repulsive and attractive coupling strengths are of comparable size and outside the strong coupling limit frequently adopted for describing high-T{sub c} iron pnictide superconductors. We further infer a total mass renormalization of the order of five, including the effects of correlations and electron-boson interactions.

  4. Residential Variable-Capacity Heat Pumps Sized to Heating Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munk, Jeffrey D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jackson, Roderick K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Odukomaiya, Adewale [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Gehl, Anthony C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Variable capacity heat pumps are an emerging technology offering significant energy savings potential and improved efficiency. With conventional single-speed systems, it is important to appropriately size heat pumps for the cooling load as over-sizing would result in cycling and insufficient latent capacity required for humidity control. These appropriately sized systems are often under-sized for the heating load and require inefficient supplemental electric resistance heat to meet the heating demand. Variable capacity heat pumps address these shortcomings by providing an opportunity to intentionally size systems for the dominant heating season load without adverse effects of cycling or insufficient dehumidification in the cooling season. This intentionally-sized system could result in significant energy savings in the heating season, as the need for inefficient supplemental electric resistance heat is drastically reduced. This is a continuation of a study evaluating the energy consumption of variable capacity heat pumps installed in two unoccupied research homes in Farragut, a suburb of Knoxville, Tennessee. In this particular study, space conditioning systems are intentionally sized for the heating season loads to provide an opportunity to understand and evaluate the impact this would have on electric resistance heat use and dehumidification. The results and conclusions drawn through this research are valid and specific for portions of the Southeastern and Midwestern United States falling in the mixed-humid climate zone. While other regions in the U.S. do not experience this type of climate, this work provides a basis for, and can help understand the implications of other climate zones on residential space conditioning energy consumption. The data presented here will provide a framework for fine tuning residential building EnergyPlus models that are being developed.

  5. Topological susceptibility from the overlap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Debbio, Luigi; Pica, Claudio

    2003-01-01

    The chiral symmetry at finite lattice spacing of Ginsparg-Wilson fermionic actions constrains the renormalization of the lattice operators; in particular, the topological susceptibility does not require any renormalization, when using a fermionic estimator to define the topological charge. Theref...

  6. Heat pump

    OpenAIRE

    Klíma, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Bakalářská práce popisuje a charakterizuje tepelné čerpadlo. Obsahuje souhrn jednotlivých druhů tepelných čerpadel z hlediska získávání energie, princip jejich funkce a popis odlišností mezi jednotlivými druhy kompresorů, použití pracovní látky a její vývin do budoucna. Závěrem je zde uveden můj vlastní názor na tepelné čerpadlo, které bych preferoval. Bachelor thesis describes and characterizes the heat pump. Summarizes the various types of heat pumps in terms of energy production, princi...

  7. Heat Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Bottomley, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Heat Exchange’ is an international touring exhibition of enamel metalwork curated by Turrell.E (UK), Gegenwart (Germany/UK) and Cameron (Australia). Bottomley was one of twenty-three international artists invited to join a transcontinental on-line blog and forum that recorded individual contemporary approaches to working with vitreous enamel the year prior to the 2012 exhibition that coincided with the SNAG (Society of North American Goldsmiths) National Conference in Phoenix Arizona USA.Vitr...

  8. Sociodemographic and economic characteristics of susceptibility to rubella among women preparing for pregnancy in rural China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangchao Liu

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: There is a clear difference in rubella-specific susceptibility among rural women preparing for pregnancy of different sociodemographic and economic backgrounds. The number of rubella-susceptible rural women preparing for pregnancy, especially in relatively low GDP per capita regions in China, was high. Offering rubella vaccination to women who are rubella-susceptible and who plan to become pregnant should become one of the priorities in the field of public health work in China.

  9. Nonadiabatic electron heat pump

    OpenAIRE

    Rey, Miguel; Strass, Michael; Kohler, Sigmund; Hänggi, Peter; Sols, Fernando

    2006-01-01

    We investigate a mechanism for extracting heat from metallic conductors based on the energy-selective transmission of electrons through a spatially asymmetric resonant structure subject to ac driving. This quantum refrigerator can operate at zero net electronic current as it replaces hot by cold electrons through two energetically symmetric inelastic channels. We present numerical results for a specific heterostructure and discuss general trends. We also explore the conditions under which the...

  10. Heat pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Paul F.; Moore, Paul B.

    1979-01-01

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion-type refrigeration circuit and a heat engine. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The heat engine includes a heat rejection circuit having a source of rejected heat and a primary heat exchanger connected to the source of rejected heat. The heat rejection circuit also includes an evaporator in heat exchange relation with the primary heat exchanger, a heat engine indoor heat exchanger, and a heat engine outdoor heat exchanger. The indoor heat exchangers are disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine indoor heat exchanger being disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit indoor heat exchanger. The outdoor heat exchangers are also disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine outdoor heat exchanger disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit outdoor heat exchanger. A common fluid is used in both of the indoor heat exchangers and in both of the outdoor heat exchangers. In a first embodiment, the heat engine is a Rankine cycle engine. In a second embodiment, the heat engine is a non-Rankine cycle engine.

  11. Differential host susceptibility to Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, an emerging amphibian pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.L. Searle; S.S. Gervasi; J. Hua; J.I. Hammond; R.A. Relyea; D.H. Olson; A.R. Blaustein

    2011-01-01

    The amphibian fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has received considerable attention due to its role in amphibian population declines worldwide. Although many amphibian species appear to be affected by Bd, there is little information on species-specific differences in susceptibility to this pathogen. We used a comparative...

  12. Temperament Alters Susceptibility to Negative Peer Influence in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrug, Sylvie; Madan, Anjana; Windle, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The role of deviant peers in adolescent antisocial behavior has been well documented, but less is known about individual differences in susceptibility to negative peer influence. This study examined whether specific temperament dimensions moderate the prospective relationship between peer deviance and delinquent behavior in early adolescence.…

  13. Heat-Exchanger/Heat-Pipe Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, H. J.; Van Hagan, T. H.

    1987-01-01

    Monolithic assembly reliable and light in weight. Heat exchanger and evaporator ends of heat pipes integrated in monolithic halves welded together. Interface assembly connects heat exchanger of furnace, reactor, or other power source with heat pipes carrying heat to radiator or power-consuming system. One of several concepts proposed for nuclear power supplies aboard spacecraft, interface useful on Earth in solar thermal power systems, heat engines, and lightweight cooling systems.

  14. Temperatures and Heat Flows in a Soil Enclosing a Slinky Horizontal Heat Exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Neuberger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Temperature changes and heat flows in soils that host “slinky”-type horizontal heat exchangers are complex, but need to be understood if robust quantification of the thermal energy available to a ground-source heat pump is to be achieved. Of particular interest is the capacity of the thermal energy content of the soil to regenerate when the heat exchangers are not operating. Analysis of specific heat flows and the specific thermal energy regime within the soil, including that captured by the heat-exchangers, has been characterised by meticulous measurements. These reveal that high concentrations of antifreeze mix in the heat-transfer fluid of the heat exchanger have an adverse impact on heat flows discharged into the soil.

  15. Heating systems for heating subsurface formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Scott Vinh [Houston, TX; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX

    2011-04-26

    Methods and systems for heating a subsurface formation are described herein. A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a sealed conduit positioned in an opening in the formation and a heat source. The sealed conduit includes a heat transfer fluid. The heat source provides heat to a portion of the sealed conduit to change phase of the heat transfer fluid from a liquid to a vapor. The vapor in the sealed conduit rises in the sealed conduit, condenses to transfer heat to the formation and returns to the conduit portion as a liquid.

  16. Hydride heat pump with heat regenerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A regenerative hydride heat pump process and system is provided which can regenerate a high percentage of the sensible heat of the system. A series of at least four canisters containing a lower temperature performing hydride and a series of at least four canisters containing a higher temperature performing hydride is provided. Each canister contains a heat conductive passageway through which a heat transfer fluid is circulated so that sensible heat is regenerated. The process and system are useful for air conditioning rooms, providing room heat in the winter or for hot water heating throughout the year, and, in general, for pumping heat from a lower temperature to a higher temperature.

  17. Process and apparatus for preparing textured crystalline materials using anisotropy in the paramagnetic susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, A.

    1992-01-07

    The present invention discloses a process and apparatus for forming textures in materials. The process comprises heating a material having an anisotropy in the paramagnetic or diamagnetic susceptibility within a magnetic field. The material is heated to a temperature approaching its melting point while a magnetic field of at least 10[sup 4]Oe is simultaneously applied. The process and apparatus produce highly textured bulk and elongated materials with high current densities below critical superconducting temperatures. 6 figs.

  18. Liquid droplet heat exchanger studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, A. P.; Hedges, D. E.; Yungster, S.

    1987-01-01

    Recent analytical and experimental investigations of the liquid droplet heat exchanger (LDHX) concept for space power applications are described. The performance of the LDHX is compared to that of a conventional heat exchanger for heat rejection applications in a Brayton cycle, using the mass-specific heat exchanger effectiveness as a figure of merit. It is shown that the LDHX has an order of magnitude advantage over the conventional heat exchanger. Furthermore, significant improvement in cycle efficiency and power to mass ratio is possible. Two-phase flow experiments in a laboratory scale LDHX, using air and water as the two media, show very good agreement with the quasi-one-dimensional model used in the parametric studies.

  19. Susceptibility-matched plugs for microcoil NMR probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kc, Ravi; Gowda, Yashas N.; Djukovic, Danijel; Henry, Ian D.; Park, Gregory H. J.; Raftery, Daniel

    2010-07-01

    For mass-limited samples, the residual sample volume outside the detection coil is an important concern, as is good base line resolution. Here, we present the construction and evaluation of magnetic susceptibility-matched plugs for microcoil NMR sample cells which address these issues. Mixed-epoxy glue and ultem tube plugs that have susceptibility values close to those of perfluorocarbon FC-43 (fluorinert) and copper were used in small volume (0.5-2 μL) and larger volume (15-20 μL) thin glass capillary sample cells. Using these plugs, the sample volume efficiency (i.e. ratio of active volume to total sample volume in the microcoil NMR cell) was improved by 6-12-fold without sensitivity and resolution trade-offs. Comparison with laser etched or heat etched microcoil sample cells is provided. The approaches described are potentially useful in metabolomics for biomarkers detection in mass limited biological samples.

  20. Impact of heat shock step on bacterial transformation efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimzadeh, Maral; Sadeghizadeh, Majid; Najafi, Farhood; Arab, Seyed; Mobasheri, Hamid

    2016-12-01

    CaCl2 treatment followed by heat shock is the most common method for artificial transformation. Here, the cells were transformed using CaCl2 treatment either with heat shock (standard protocol) or without heat shock (lab protocol) to comprehend the difference in transformation efficiency. The BL21 strain of Escherichia coli (E. coli) was being susceptible using CaCl2 treatment. Some Cells were kept at -80 oC while the others were kept at 4 ˚C. Afterwards the susceptible cells were transformed using either standard or lab protocol. The transformation efficiency between cells experienced heat shock and those were not influenced by heat shock was almost the same. Moreover, regardless of transformation protocol, the cells kept at 4 ˚C were transformed more efficiently in compared to those were kept at -80 oC.

  1. Heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn, Peter D

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive, up-to-date coverage of the theory, design and manufacture of heat pipes and their applications. This latest edition has been thoroughly revised, up-dated and expanded to give an in-depth coverage of the new developments in the field. Significant new material has been added to all the chapters and the applications section has been totally rewritten to ensure that topical and important applications are appropriately emphasised. The bibliography has been considerably enlarged to incorporate much valuable new information. Thus readers of the previous edition, which has established

  2. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Emergencies A-Z Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Heat-Related Illnesses Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at ... about heat cramps and heat stroke and exhaustion. Heat Cramps Symptoms include muscle spasms, usually in the ...

  3. Low temperature nuclear heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotakorpi, J.; Tarjanne, R. (comps.)

    1977-08-01

    The meeting was concerned with the use of low grade nuclear heat for district heating, desalination, process heat, and agriculture and aquaculture. The sessions covered applications and demand, heat sources, and economics.

  4. Regenerative Hydride Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.

    1992-01-01

    Hydride heat pump features regenerative heating and single circulation loop. Counterflow heat exchangers accommodate different temperatures of FeTi and LaNi4.7Al0.3 subloops. Heating scheme increases efficiency.

  5. FLOOD SUSCEPTIBILITY ASSESSMENT IN THE NIRAJ BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANDA ROŞCA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Flood susceptibility assessment in the Niraj basin. In the context of global warming and the increasing frequency of extreme weather events, it becomes evident that we have to face natural hazards, such as floods. In the area of Niraj basin this phenomenon is specific both in the spring, because of the snow melting and of the precipitations which come along with the season, and then in the summer because of the torrential precipitations but rarely in autumn and winter. The aim of this paper is to determinate the susceptibility of the zone and obtain a map which will take into consideration the possibility of a flooding. Defining vulnerability can help us understand this type of natural disasters and find the best ways to reduce it. For this purpose we use thematic layers, morphological characteristics (slope and depth fragmentation, hydrological characteristics, geology, pedology (permeability and soil texture, landuse, precipitation data, and human interventions because in this way we have the possibility to use data mining for this purpose. Data mining will allow us to extract new information based on the existing sets of data.The final result will be a thematic map that highlights the areas which are exposed to the flood. Therefore, this map can be used as a support decision for local government or business purposes.

  6. Reducing Susceptibility to Courtesy Stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachleda, Catherine L; El Menzhi, Leila

    2017-04-19

    In light of the chronic shortage of health professionals willing to care for HIV/AIDS patients, and rising epidemics in many Muslim countries, this qualitative study examined susceptibility and resistance to courtesy stigma as experienced by nurses, doctors, and social workers in Morocco. Forty-nine in-depth interviews provided rich insights into the process of courtesy stigma and how it is managed, within the context of interactions with Islam, interactions within the workplace (patients, other health professionals), and interactions outside the workplace (the general public, friends, and family). Theoretically, the findings extend understanding of courtesy stigma and the dirty work literature. The findings also offer practical suggestions for the development of culturally appropriate strategies to reduce susceptibility to courtesy stigmatization. This study represents the first to explore courtesy stigma as a process experienced by health professionals providing HIV/AIDS care in an Islamic country.

  7. Antimycotics susceptibility testing of dermatophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsić-Arsenijević Valentina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatophytes are moulds that produce infections of the skin, hair and nails of humans and animals. The most common forms among these infections are onychomycosis and tinea pedis affecting 20% of world population. These infections are usually chronic. The treatment of dermatophytoses tends to be prolonged partly because available treatments are not very effective. Antifungal drug consumption and public health expenditure are high worldwide, as well as in Serbia. For adequate therapy, it is necessary to prove infection by isolation of dermatophytes and to test the antifungal susceptibility of isolates. Susceptibility testing is important for the resistance monitoring, epidemiological research and to compare in vitro activities of new antifungal agents. The diffusion and dilution methods of susceptibility tests are used, and technical issues of importance for the proper performance and interpretation of test results are published in the document E.DEF 9.1 (EUCAST and M38-A2 (CLSI. The aim of our paper is to promptly inform the public about technical achievements in this area, as well as the new organization of laboratory for medical mycology in our country. The formation of laboratory networks coordinated by the National Reference Laboratory for the cause of mycosis need to enable interlaboratory studies and further standardization of methods for antifungal susceptibility testing of dermatophytes, reproducibility of tests and clinical correlation monitoring (MIK values and clinical outcome of dermatophytosis. The importance of the new organization is expected efficient improvement in the dermatophytosis therapy at home, better quality of patient's life and the reduction of the cost of treatment.

  8. Antibiotic susceptibility of Atopobium vaginae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verschraegen Gerda

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have indicated that a recently described anaerobic bacterium, Atopobium vaginae is associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV. Thus far the four isolates of this fastidious micro-organism were found to be highly resistant to metronidazole and susceptible for clindamycin, two antibiotics preferred for the treatment of BV. Methods Nine strains of Atopobium vaginae, four strains of Gardnerella vaginalis, two strains of Lactobacillus iners and one strain each of Bifidobacterium breve, B. longum, L. crispatus, L. gasseri and L. jensenii were tested against 15 antimicrobial agents using the Etest. Results All nine strains of A. vaginae were highly resistant to nalidixic acid and colistin while being inhibited by low concentrations of clindamycin (range: G. vaginalis strains were also susceptible for clindamycin ( 256 μg/ml but susceptible to clindamycin (0.023 – 0.125 μg/ml. Conclusion Clindamycin has higher activity against G. vaginalis and A. vaginae than metronidazole, but not all A. vaginae isolates are metronidazole resistant, as seemed to be a straightforward conclusion from previous studies on a more limited number of strains.

  9. Heat stroke in Hajj ceremonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadr Sh

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Three hundred and seventy seven patients with different degrees of heat stroke were treated by the haji medical team of the Islamic Republic of Iran in 1371 (1992. Studies were carried out on sex of the patients, time and intensity of occurance and the vital signs after a medical examination. The most important method of treatment employed for intense heat stroke was iced bath. This procedure leads to 64.5% of patients being treated in te specific heat stroke unit and 35% were sent to a general hospital ward for furthur treatment. Morbidity and mortality were seen in less than 0.5% of the patients.

  10. The "Stube" and its Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atzbach, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of smoke-free heated living rooms between the Alps and the Norh Sea with a special focus on the tile stove. In the circum-Alpine zone, a new heating system was invented between the 8th and 11th century. It consisted of a clay cupola oven with inserted ceramic...... vessels and was mostly run as a "breechloader". This provided not only a comfortable living room, but also tended to create a specific ground plan for the house - with a core of the heated stube and an adjacent kitchen. The tile stove and the corresponding ground plan spread, but was also modified...

  11. Controlled human exposures to ambient pollutant particles in susceptible populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghio Andrew J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Epidemiologic studies have established an association between exposures to air pollution particles and human mortality and morbidity at concentrations of particles currently found in major metropolitan areas. The adverse effects of pollution particles are most prominent in susceptible subjects, including the elderly and patients with cardiopulmonary diseases. Controlled human exposure studies have been used to confirm the causal relationship between pollution particle exposure and adverse health effects. Earlier studies enrolled mostly young healthy subjects and have largely confirmed the capability of particles to cause adverse health effects shown in epidemiological studies. In the last few years, more studies involving susceptible populations have been published. These recent studies in susceptible populations, however, have shown that the adverse responses to particles appear diminished in these susceptible subjects compared to those in healthy subjects. The present paper reviewed and compared control human exposure studies to particles and sought to explain the "unexpected" response to particle exposure in these susceptible populations and make recommendations for future studies. We found that the causes for the discrepant results are likely multifactorial. Factors such as medications, the disease itself, genetic susceptibility, subject selection bias that is intrinsic to many controlled exposure studies and nonspecificity of study endpoints may explain part of the results. Future controlled exposure studies should select endpoints that are more closely related to the pathogenesis of the disease and reflect the severity of particle-induced health effects in the specific populations under investigation. Future studies should also attempt to control for medications and genetic susceptibility. Using a different study design, such as exposing subjects to filtered air and ambient levels of particles, and assessing the improvement in

  12. Clay mineralogy and magnetic susceptibility of Oxisols in geomorphic surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Arantes Camargo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies analyzing the variability of clay minerals and magnetic susceptibility provide data for the delineation of site-specific management areas since many of their attributes are important to agronomy and the environment. This study aimed to evaluate the spatial variability of clay minerals, magnetic susceptibility, adsorbed phosphorus and physical attributes in Oxisols of sandstones in different geomorphic surfaces. For that purpose, soil samples were collected every 25 m along a transect located within the area where the geomorphic surfaces were identified and mapped. The transect occupied the central portion of 500 ha, where it was also sampled for density purposes with one sample per six hectares. Soil samples were collected at a depth of 0.0-0.2 m. The results of the physical, chemical, mineralogical and magnetic susceptibility analyses were subjected to statistical and geostatistical analyses. The nature of the clay minerals and magnetic susceptibility was dependent on the variation of the soil parent material. High values of magnetic susceptibility were associated with the presence of maghemite and magnetite of coarse size. The spatial variability of crystallinity and the content of Fe oxides, as well as magnetic susceptibility, were dependent on the age of the geomorphic surfaces. The youngest surface had greater spatial variability of these attributes. The iron (goethite and hematite and aluminum (gibbsite oxides in the youngest geomorphic surface influenced the low values of soil density and high values of total pore volume, micropores and P adsorption. The characterization of the spatial variability of Fe oxides and susceptibility allowed for the delineation of homogeneous areas.

  13. Projecting future climate change impacts on heat-related mortality in large urban areas in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Ren, Ting; Kinney, Patrick L; Joyner, Andrew; Zhang, Wei

    2018-02-12

    Global climate change is anticipated to raise overall temperatures and has the potential to increase future mortality attributable to heat. Urban areas are particularly vulnerable to heat because of high concentrations of susceptible people. As the world's largest developing country, China has experienced noticeable changes in climate, partially evidenced by frequent occurrence of extreme heat in urban areas, which could expose millions of residents to summer heat stress that may result in increased health risk, including mortality. While there is a growing literature on future impacts of extreme temperatures on public health, projecting changes in future health outcomes associated with climate warming remains challenging and underexplored, particularly in developing countries. This is an exploratory study aimed at projecting future heat-related mortality risk in major urban areas in China. We focus on the 51 largest Chinese cities that include about one third of the total population in China, and project the potential changes in heat-related mortality based on 19 different global-scale climate models and three Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). City-specific risk estimates for high temperature and all-cause mortality were used to estimate annual heat-related mortality over two future twenty-year time periods. We estimated that for the 20-year period in Mid-21st century (2041-2060) relative to 1970-2000, incidence of excess heat-related mortality in the 51 cities to be approximately 37,800 (95% CI: 31,300-43,500), 31,700 (95% CI: 26,200-36,600) and 25,800 (95% CI: 21,300-29,800) deaths per year under RCP8.5, RCP4.5 and RCP2.6, respectively. Slowing climate change through the most stringent emission control scenario RCP2.6, relative to RCP8.5, was estimated to avoid 12,900 (95% CI: 10,800-14,800) deaths per year in the 51 cities in the 2050s, and 35,100 (95% CI: 29,200-40,100) deaths per year in the 2070s. The highest mortality risk is primarily in cities

  14. Measurements of temperature dependence of 'localized susceptibility'

    CERN Document Server

    Shiozawa, H; Ishii, H; Takayama, Y; Obu, K; Muro, T; Saitoh, Y; Matsuda, T D; Sugawara, H; Sato, H

    2003-01-01

    The magnetic susceptibility of some rare-earth compounds is estimated by measuring magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) of rare-earth 3d-4f absorption spectra. The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility obtained by the MCD measurement is remarkably different from the bulk susceptibility in most samples, which is attributed to the strong site selectivity of the core MCD measurement.

  15. Segmented heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean; Willi, Martin Leo; Fiveland, Scott Byron; Timmons, Kristine Ann

    2010-12-14

    A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

  16. Dual source heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Amir L.; Pietsch, Joseph A.

    1982-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid provides energy for defrosting the second heat exchanger when operating in the air source mode and also provides a alternate source of heat.

  17. Assessing transport susceptibility of rapeseed meal fractionation products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Bojanowska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Having considered increasing production of liquid and solid biofuels from rapeseed and bearing in mind its stable and unquestionable position in  the food and animal feed industries, a rational approach towards technologically and logistically efficient utilization of by-products from rapeseed processing is required. The aim of the research presented in the article is to assess the transport susceptibility of rapeseed meal fractions, varying according to particle size and chemical composition. Methods: Resistance to changes stimulating self-heating has been assumed as the main criterion of transport susceptibility. The following diagnostic variables have been experimentally determined: total protein, crude fat and crude fiber content, porosity, and water activity in the fraction of examined meal. In order to organize a set of particles and to indicate their optimal applications according to criteria chosen with regard to both  utilization and transportation, two aggregate indicators have been calculated. Results: It has been proved that medium-sized particle fractions (0.075-0.4 mm exhibit the lowest transport susceptibility, whereas the those with the largest granulations (>3 mm -have the highest. One significant relationship is the decline of feeding value and concurrent increase in the transport susceptibility of meal fractions, which in practice means that those fractions least-favoured by the animal feed industry can be least cumbersome to transport. Conclusions: It has been suggested that there should be a division of rapeseed meal into two products with different applications and different transport susceptibility. The fractioning of meal can bring numerous, measurable benefits for the meal industry and logistics processes for solid biofuels, where storage and transport properties have considerable importance, alongside commodity price and transport costs.

  18. The effect of coating on heat generation properties of Iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuan

    Magnetic nanoparticles have attracted more and more attention for their potential application as heating agents in cancer hyperthermia. The effectiveness of cancer hyperthermia can be increased by using particles that have a higher heat generation rate, quantified by specific absorption rate (SAR), at a smaller applied field. In order to optimize the functionality of nanoparticles as heating agents, it is essential to have a comprehensive understanding of factors that may influence SAR including coating and aggregation. In all biomedical applications, the magnetic particles are coated with surfactants and polymers to enhance biocompatibility, prevent agglomeration and add functionality. Coatings may profoundly influence particles' clustering behavior and magnetic properties. Yet its effect on the heat generation rate of the nanoparticles has been scarcely investigated. In this context, a systematic investigation was carried out in this dissertation in order to understand the impact of the surface coating of magnetic nanoparticles on their heat generation rate. The study also includes investigation of normal nerve cell viability in presence of biofunctionalized magnetic nanoparticles with and without exposure to magnetic heating. Commercially available suspensions of iron oxide nanoparticles with a diameter of approximately 10 nm and different coatings relevant to biomedical applications such as aminosilane, carboxymethyl-dextran, protein A, biotin were extensively characterized. First of all, magnetic phase reduction of magnetite nanoparticles was examined by studying the discrepancy between the volume fraction of magnetic phase calculated from magnetization curve and the magnetic core concentration obtained from Tiron chelation test. The findings indicated that coatings might interact with the surface atoms of the magnetic core and form a magnetically disordered layer reducing the total amount of the magnetic phase. Secondly, the impact of coating and aggregation

  19. Sociability and susceptibility to the common cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Sheldon; Doyle, William J; Turner, Ronald; Alper, Cuneyt M; Skoner, David P

    2003-09-01

    There is considerable evidence that social relationships can influence health, but only limited evidence on the health effects of the personality characteristics that are thought to mold people's social lives. We asked whether sociability predicts resistance to infectious disease and whether this relationship is attributable to the quality and quantity of social interactions and relationships. Three hundred thirty-four volunteers completed questionnaires assessing their sociability, social networks, and social supports, and six evening interviews assessing daily interactions. They were subsequently exposed to a virus that causes a common cold and monitored to see who developed verifiable illness. Increased sociability was associated in a linear fashion with a decreased probability of developing a cold. Although sociability was associated with more and higher-quality social interactions, it predicted disease susceptibility independently of these variables. The association between sociability and disease was also independent of baseline immunity (virus-specific antibody), demographics, emotional styles, stress hormones, and health practices.

  20. Characterization and quantification of path dependency in landslide susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samia, Jalal; Temme, Arnaud; Bregt, Arnold; Wallinga, Jakob; Guzzetti, Fausto; Ardizzone, Francesca; Rossi, Mauro

    2017-09-01

    Landslides cause major environmental damage, economic losses and casualties. Although susceptibility to landsliding is usually considered an exclusively location-specific phenomenon, indications exist that landslide history co-determines susceptibility to future landslides. In this contribution, we quantified the role of landslide path dependency (the effect of landslides on landslides) using a multi-temporal landslide inventory from Italy. The fraction of landslides following earlier landslides in the same location exhibited an exponential decay, with susceptibility increasing 15-fold right after an initial landslide, and returning to pre-landslide values after about 25 years. We investigated the role of the geometry and location of a previous landslide for the occurrence of follow-up landslides. Larger landslides are more likely to cause follow-up landslides. Also landslide shape, topographic wetness index, the vertical distance to the nearest channel network, the absolute profile curvature and relative slope position of an earlier landslide, however, are important in predicting whether a follow-up landslide occurs. Combined in a binary logistic model, these attributes correctly predict 60% of times whether a landslide will be followed-up. These findings open the way for time-variant mapping of susceptibility to landslides, by including the effect of the spatio-temporal history of landsliding on susceptibility.