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Sample records for susceptibility results show

  1. Map showing landslide susceptibility in Prince Georges County, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomeroy, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    Prince Georges County was identified during a statewide investigation of landslide susceptibility (MF-2048) as the county with the most serious slope-stability problems. This map uses a ranking system ranging from 1 (nil to very low susceptibility) to 4 (moderate to severe susceptibility). Geologic factors and precipitation are major elements in the initiation of landslides in the county. The Potomac Group and the Marlboro Clay are the most slideprone units. This map should enable users to make a rapid, generalized evaluation of the potential for mass movement. Planners, engineers, soil scientists, geologist, university faculty, and elected officials should find it useful in the assessment of slope hazards for county-wide analyses.

  2. Usefulness of Routine Antibacterial Susceptibility Testing Results for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective was to evaluate the usefulness and reliability of routine antibacterial susceptibility testing data in antibacterial resistance surveillance in Lagos Metropolis. The antibacterial susceptibility testing results of 3,961 clinical isolates of bacteria from four highly rated hospitals in Lagos metropolis were collated and ...

  3. Characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility of motile aeromonads isolated from freshwater ornamental fish showing signs of septicaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagoda, S S S de S; Wijewardana, T G; Arulkanthan, A; Igarashi, Y; Tan, E; Kinoshita, S; Watabe, S; Asakawa, S

    2014-05-13

    A total of 74 phenotypically identified presumptive motile Aeromonas isolates recovered from septicaemic freshwater ornamental fish in Sri Lanka were genetically characterized by sequencing of rpoD and gyrB genes. rpoD/gyrB phylogeny confirmed only 53 isolates as Aeromonas, among which A. veronii was the predominant species (79.2%), followed by A. hydrophila (7.5%), A. caviae (5.7%), A. jandaei (1.9%), A. dhakensis (3.8%) and A. entero pelogenes (1.9%). The aeromonads confirmed by sequencing were further subjected to 16S rDNA PCR-RFLP which substantiated sequencing results for 83% of isolates. Fingerprinting of A. enteropelogenes (n = 42) using ERIC-PCR revealed no dominant clones, and the majority were genetically distinct. All isolates were screened by PCR for 7 virulence determinant genes (aer, act, ast, alt, fla, ser, exu) and 2 integrase encoding genes (intI1, intI2). Each isolate contained ≥3 of the virulence genes tested for, with a heterogeneous distribution. Of the isolates, 77% harboured the intI1 gene, while none had intI2. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed highest resistances towards tetracycline (58.5%) and erythromycin (54.7%). Our results indicate the diverse range of aeromonads that could potentially be associated with motile aeromonad septicaemia in ornamental fish. This is the first isolation of A. dhakensis from a septicaemic ornamental fish since its original description from the same host.

  4. Telling true from false: cannabis users show increased susceptibility to false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riba, J; Valle, M; Sampedro, F; Rodríguez-Pujadas, A; Martínez-Horta, S; Kulisevsky, J; Rodríguez-Fornells, A

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies on the neurocognitive impact of cannabis use have found working and declarative memory deficits that tend to normalize with abstinence. An unexplored aspect of cognitive function in chronic cannabis users is the ability to distinguish between veridical and illusory memories, a crucial aspect of reality monitoring that relies on adequate memory function and cognitive control. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that abstinent cannabis users have an increased susceptibility to false memories, failing to identify lure stimuli as events that never occurred. In addition to impaired performance, cannabis users display reduced activation in areas associated with memory processing within the lateral and medial temporal lobe (MTL), and in parietal and frontal brain regions involved in attention and performance monitoring. Furthermore, cannabis consumption was inversely correlated with MTL activity, suggesting that the drug is especially detrimental to the episodic aspects of memory. These findings indicate that cannabis users have an increased susceptibility to memory distortions even when abstinent and drug-free, suggesting a long-lasting compromise of memory and cognitive control mechanisms involved in reality monitoring.

  5. Method of Evaluating Hydrogen Embrittlement Susceptibility of Tempered Martensitic Steel Showing Intergranular Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yu; Takai, Kenichi

    2018-02-01

    A stress application method in delayed fracture susceptibility tests was investigated using 1450 MPa class tempered martensitic steel. Its fracture mode under hydrogen charging was mainly intergranular because of its relatively small Si content of 0.21 mass pct. The conditions for consistency in fracture strength between tensile tests and constant load tests (CLTs) were clarified: first, to conduct hydrogen precharging before stress application; and second, to choose a sufficiently low crosshead speed in tensile tests. When hydrogen precharging was not conducted before CLTs, the fracture strength was higher than the values in CLTs with hydrogen charging and in tensile tests. If the crosshead speed was too high, the fracture strength obtained was higher than the values in CLTs. The dependence of the fracture strength on crosshead speed was seen for both notched and smooth bar specimens. These results suggested that plastic deformation, i.e., dislocation motion, was related to intergranular fracture with a tear pattern as well as to quasi-cleavage fracture. In addition, cathodic electrolysis in an alkaline solution containing NaOH should be used as the hydrogen charging method to avoid the effects of corrosion.

  6. Method of Evaluating Hydrogen Embrittlement Susceptibility of Tempered Martensitic Steel Showing Intergranular Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yu; Takai, Kenichi

    2017-12-01

    A stress application method in delayed fracture susceptibility tests was investigated using 1450 MPa class tempered martensitic steel. Its fracture mode under hydrogen charging was mainly intergranular because of its relatively small Si content of 0.21 mass pct. The conditions for consistency in fracture strength between tensile tests and constant load tests (CLTs) were clarified: first, to conduct hydrogen precharging before stress application; and second, to choose a sufficiently low crosshead speed in tensile tests. When hydrogen precharging was not conducted before CLTs, the fracture strength was higher than the values in CLTs with hydrogen charging and in tensile tests. If the crosshead speed was too high, the fracture strength obtained was higher than the values in CLTs. The dependence of the fracture strength on crosshead speed was seen for both notched and smooth bar specimens. These results suggested that plastic deformation, i.e., dislocation motion, was related to intergranular fracture with a tear pattern as well as to quasi-cleavage fracture. In addition, cathodic electrolysis in an alkaline solution containing NaOH should be used as the hydrogen charging method to avoid the effects of corrosion.

  7. Method of Evaluating Delayed Fracture Susceptibility of Tempered Martensitic Steel Showing Quasi-Cleavage Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yu; Takai, Kenichi

    2017-02-01

    The difference in the hydrogen charging methods, immersion in a NH4SCN aqueous solution, and cathodic electrolysis in a NaOH aqueous solution, did not affect the hydrogen state present in the steel, but it did affect the surface state of the specimens through corrosion, causing fracture strength to fluctuate in tensile testes. As for stress application method, the fracture strength at lower crosshead speeds in tensile tests was consistent with that found for hydrogen precharging prior to stress application in CLTs as long as hydrogen charging was conducted by cathodic electrolysis. However, the fracture strength obtained with concurrent hydrogen charging without precharging prior to stress application in CLTs was higher than that with hydrogen precharging prior to stress application in CLTs regardless of the same hydrogen content. In other words, delayed fracture susceptibility was affected by the order of hydrogen charging and stress application for quasi-cleavage fracture associated with local plastic deformation, i.e., dislocation motion. Therefore, by taking into account the cathodic electrolysis in the NaOH solution, the low crosshead speed and the order of hydrogen charging and stress application, the fracture strength in CLTs, and tensile tests coincided with respect to quasi-cleavage fracture even though the stress application methods were different.

  8. Female Nur77-deficient mice show increased susceptibility to diet-induced obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Perez-Sieira

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is essential in the regulation of body weight. The key process in fat catabolism and the provision of energy substrate during times of nutrient deprivation or enhanced energy demand is the hydrolysis of triglycerides and the release of fatty acids and glycerol. Nur77 is a member of the NR4A subfamily of nuclear receptors that plays an important metabolic role, modulating hepatic glucose metabolism and lipolysis in muscle. However, its endogenous role on white adipose tissue, as well as the gender dependency of these mechanisms, remains largely unknown. Male and female wild type and Nur77 deficient mice were fed with a high fat diet (45% calories from fat for 4 months. Mice were analyzed in vivo with the indirect calorimetry system, and tissues were analyzed by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. Female, but not male Nur77 deficient mice, gained more weight and fat mass when compared to wild type mice fed with high fat diet, which can be explained by decreased energy expenditure. The lack of Nur77 also led to a decreased pHSL/HSL ratio in white adipose tissue and increased expression of CIDEA in brown adipose tissue of female Nur77 deficient mice. Overall, these findings suggest that Nur77 is an important physiological modulator of lipid metabolism in adipose tissue and that there are gender differences in the sensitivity to deletion of the Nur77 signaling. The decreased energy expenditure and the actions of Nur77 on liver, muscle, brown and white adipose tissue contribute to the increased susceptibility to diet-induced obesity in females lacking Nur77.

  9. Mode-Stirred Method Implementation for HIRF Susceptibility Testing and Results Comparison with Anechoic Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Ely, Jay J.; Koppen, Sandra V.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of mode-stirred method for susceptibility testing according to the current DO-160D standard. Test results on an Engine Data Processor using the implemented procedure and the comparisons with the standard anechoic test results are presented. The comparison experimentally shows that the susceptibility thresholds found in mode-stirred method are consistently higher than anechoic. This is consistent with the recent statistical analysis finding by NIST that the current calibration procedure overstates field strength by a fixed amount. Once the test results are adjusted for this value, the comparisons with the anechoic results are excellent. The results also show that test method has excellent chamber to chamber repeatability. Several areas for improvements to the current procedure are also identified and implemented.

  10. Telling true from false: cannabis users show increased susceptibility to false memories

    OpenAIRE

    Riba, J; Valle, M.; Sampedro, F; Rodr?guez-Pujadas, A; Mart?nez-Horta, S; Kulisevsky, J; Rodr?guez-Fornells, A

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies on the neurocognitive impact of cannabis use have found working and declarative memory deficits that tend to normalize with abstinence. An unexplored aspect of cognitive function in chronic cannabis users is the ability to distinguish between veridical and illusory memories, a crucial aspect of reality monitoring that relies on adequate memory function and cognitive control. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that abstinent cannabis users have an increased s...

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing for bovine respiratory disease: getting more from diagnostic results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubbers, Brian V; Turnidge, John

    2015-02-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is one of the most common diseases of cattle worldwide. Given the significant bacterial component of this disease, antimicrobial agents remain one of the mainstays of therapy. However, the potential welfare and economic impact resulting from the selection of inappropriate antimicrobial therapy for BRD poses significant risks to both animal and animal owner. To determine the 'best' antimicrobial agent for a specific case, the decision-making process needs to incorporate all available evidence, often including the results of bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. While antimicrobial susceptibility testing can be a valuable diagnostic tool, integrating the test results into the clinical decision making process can be a challenging experience. This review details the process by which interpretive criteria for susceptibility tests are developed. Principles for how to best integrate antimicrobial susceptibility testing, both at the individual animal test and aggregate test levels, into the clinical decision making process are discussed. Non-traditional testing methodologies and how they may improve susceptibility testing in the future are also reviewed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Rubella susceptibility in pregnant women and results of a postpartum immunization strategy in Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilajeliu, Alba; García-Basteiro, Alberto L; Valencia, Salomé; Barreales, Saul; Oliveras, Laura; Calvente, Valentín; Goncé, Anna; Bayas, José M

    2015-04-08

    Elimination of congenital rubella syndrome depends not only on effective childhood immunization but also on the identification and immunization of rubella susceptible women. We assessed rubella susceptibility among pregnant women and evaluated the adherence and response to postpartum immunization with measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine. Cross-sectional study of women who gave birth at the Hospital Clinic de Barcelona (Spain) between January 2008 and December 2013. Antenatal serological screening for rubella was performed in all women during pregnancy. In rubella-susceptible women, two doses of MMR vaccine were recommended following birth. We evaluated rubella serological response to MMR vaccination in mothers who complied with the recommendations. A total of 22,681 pregnant women were included in the study. The mean age was 32.3 years (SD 5.6), and 73.6% were primipara. The proportion of immigrants ranged from 43.4% in 2010 to 38.5% in 2012. The proportion of women susceptible to rubella was 5.9% (1328). Susceptibility to rubella declined with increasing maternal age. Immigrant pregnant women were more susceptible to rubella (7.6%) than women born in Spain (4.6%). Multivariate analyses showed that younger age (≤19 years) aOR 1.7 (95% CI 1.1-2.5), primiparas aOR 1.3 (95% CI 1.1-1.5) and immigrant women aOR 1.6 (95% CI 1.4-1.8) were more likely to be susceptible. The second dose of MMR vaccine was received by 57.2% (718/1256) of rubella-susceptible women, with the highest proportion being immigrant women compared with women born in Spain. After vaccination, all women showed rubella immunity. The higher rubella susceptibility found in the three youngest age groups and in immigrant women highlights the relevance of antenatal screening, in order to ensure identification and postpartum immunization. The postpartum immunization strategy is an opportunity to protect women of childbearing age and consequently prevent occurrence of CRS, and to increase vaccination

  13. Uncertainty into statistical landslide susceptibility models resulting from terrain mapping units and landslide input data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zêzere, José Luis; Pereira, Susana; Melo, Raquel; Oliveira, Sérgio; Garcia, Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    There are multiple sources of uncertainty within statistically-based landslide susceptibility assessment that needs to be accounted and monitored. In this work we evaluate and discuss differences observed on landslide susceptibility maps resulting from the selection of the terrain mapping unit and the selection of the feature type to represent landslides (polygon vs point). The work is performed in the Silveira Basin (18.2 square kilometres) located north of Lisbon, Portugal, using a unique database of geo-environmental landslide predisposing factors and an inventory of 81 shallow translational slides. The Logistic Regression is the statistical method selected to combine the predictive factors with the dependent variable. Four landslide susceptibility models were computed using the complete landslide inventory and considering the total landslide area over four different terrain mapping units: Slope Terrain Units (STU), Geo-Hydrological Terrain Units (GHTU), Census Terrain Units (CTU) and Grid Cell Terrain Units (GCTU). Four additional landslide susceptibility models were made over the same four terrain mapping units using a landslide training group (50% of the inventory randomly selected). These models were independently validated with the other 50% of the landslide inventory (landslide test group). Lastly, two additional landslide susceptibility models were computed over GCTU, one using the landslide training group represented as point features corresponding to the centroid of landslide, and other using the centroid of landslide rupture zone. In total, 10 landslide susceptibility maps were constructed and classified in 10 classes of equal number of terrain units to allow comparison. The evaluation of the prediction skills of susceptibility models was made using ROC metrics and Success and Prediction rate curves. Lastly, the landslide susceptibility maps computed over GCTU were compared using the Kappa statistics. With this work we conclude that large differences

  14. Is working memory working against suggestion susceptibility? Results from extended version of DRM paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciaszek Patrycja

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates relationship between working memory efficiency, defined as the result of its’ processing & storage capacity (Oberauer et al., 2003 and the tendency to (1 create assosiative memory distortions (false memories, FM; (2 yield under the influence of external, suggesting factors. Both issues were examined using extended version of Deese-Roediger-McDermott procedure (1959, 1995, modified in order to meet the study demands. Suggestion was contained in an ostentatious feedback information the participants (N=88 received during the DRM procedure. Working memory (WM was measured by standardized tasks (n-back, Jaeggi et al., 2010; automatic-ospan, Unsworth et al., 2005. Study included 3 conditions, differing in the quality of suggestion (positive, negative or neutral. Participants were assigned into 3 groups, depending on results they achieved completing the WM tasks. Obtained results alongside the previously set hypothesis, revealed that (1 WM impacts individuals’ tendency to create false memories in DRM and (2 that the individuals showing higher rates in WM tasks are less willing to yield to suggestion compared to those with lesser ones. It also showed that the greater amount to shift (Gudjonsson, 2003, emerges under the negative suggestion condition (collating positive. Notwithstanding that the interaction effect did not achieve saliency, both analyzed factors (WM and suggesting content are considered as meaningful to explain memory suggestion susceptibility in presented study. Although, obtained results emphasize the crucial role of WM efficiency, that is believed to decide the magnitude of feedback that is influential in every subject. Therefore, issue demands further exploration.

  15. Real-time PCR using mycobacteriophage DNA for rapid phenotypic drug susceptibility results for Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pholwat, Suporn; Ehdaie, Beeta; Foongladda, Suporn; Kelly, Kimberly; Houpt, Eric

    2012-03-01

    Managing drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis requires drug susceptibility testing, yet conventional drug susceptibility testing is slow, and molecular testing does not yield results for all antituberculous drugs. We addressed these challenges by utilizing real-time PCR of mycobacteriophage D29 DNA to evaluate the drug resistance of clinical M. tuberculosis isolates. Mycobacteriophages infect and replicate in viable bacterial cells faster than bacterial cells replicate and have been used for detection and drug resistance testing for M. tuberculosis either by using reporter cells or phages with engineered reporter constructs. Our primary protocol involved culturing M. tuberculosis isolates for 48 h with and without drugs at critical concentrations, followed by incubation with 10(3) PFU/ml of D29 mycobacteriophage for 24 h and then real-time PCR. Many drugs could be incubated instantly with M. tuberculosis and phage for 24 h alone. The change in phage DNA real-time PCR cycle threshold (C(T)) between control M. tuberculosis and M. tuberculosis treated with drugs was calculated and correlated with conventional agar proportion drug susceptibility results. Specifically, 9 susceptible clinical isolates, 22 multidrug-resistant (MDR), and 1 extensively drug-resistant (XDR) M. tuberculosis strains were used and C(T) control-C(T) drug cutoffs of between +0.3 and -6.0 yielded 422/429 (98%) accurate results for isoniazid, rifampin, streptomycin, ethambutol, amikacin, kanamycin, capreomycin, ofloxacin, moxifloxacin, ethionamide, para-aminosalicylic acid, cycloserine, and linezolid. Moreover, the ΔC(T) values correlated with isolate MIC for most agents. This D29 quantitative PCR assay offers a rapid, accurate, 1- to 3-day phenotypic drug susceptibility test for first- and second-line drugs and may suggest an approximate MIC.

  16. Cacodylic acid for precommercial thinning in mixed-conifer stands shows erratic results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William W. Oliver

    1970-01-01

    In a small-scale test, a silvicide consisting of cacodylic acid was injected during the growing season at dosages recommended by the manufacturer. The treatment did not thin adequately two of three mixed-conifer stands. Ponderosa pine and lower crown classes seemed more susceptible to the silvicide than Douglas-fir and upper crown classes. No flashback was recognized....

  17. Biofilms of Listeria monocytogenes produced at 12 °C either in pure culture or in co-culture with Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed reduced susceptibility to sanitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, António; Machado, Henrique; Brito, Luisa

    2011-03-01

    The biofilm-forming ability of 21 Listeria monocytogenes isolates, previously pulsotyped and corresponding to 16 strains, from different origins was evaluated using the Calgary Biofilm Device, at 37 °C. Biofilms of 4 selected strains were also produced either on pure cultures or on co-cultures with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1), at 12 °C and at 37 °C. For these biofilms, the minimum biofilm eradication concentrations (MBECs) of 4 commercial dairy sanitizers (1 alkyl amine acetate based--T99, 2 chlorine based--T66 and DD, and 1 phosphoric acid based--BP) were determined. Listeria monocytogenes biofilms grown, either at 37 °C or 12 °C, were able to achieve similar cell densities by using different incubation periods (24 h and 7 d, respectively). In co-culture biofilms, P. aeruginosa was the dominant species, either at 37 °C or at 12 °C, representing 99% of a total biofilm population of 6 to 7 log CFU/peg. Co-culture biofilms were generally less susceptible than L. monocytogenes pure cultures. More interestingly, the biofilms produced at 12 °C were usually less susceptible to the sanitizers than when produced at 37 °C. Single or co-culture biofilms of L. monocytogenes and PAO1, particularly produced at 12 °C, retrieved MBEC values for agents T99 and BP that were, at times, above the maximum in-use recommended concentrations for these agents. The results presented here reinforce the importance of the temperature used for biofilm formation, when susceptibility to sanitizers is being assessed. Since most food plants have cold wet growth niches in production and storage areas, susceptibility testing should be performed on biofilms produced at refrigeration temperatures. Moreover, the efficiency of the sanitizers used in food industries should be performed on mixed culture biofilms, since in field conditions these will predominate. The results presented here highlight the importance of the temperature used for biofilm formation, when susceptibility to

  18. Gun shows and gun violence: fatally flawed study yields misleading results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintemute, Garen J; Hemenway, David; Webster, Daniel; Pierce, Glenn; Braga, Anthony A

    2010-10-01

    A widely publicized but unpublished study of the relationship between gun shows and gun violence is being cited in debates about the regulation of gun shows and gun commerce. We believe the study is fatally flawed. A working paper entitled "The Effect of Gun Shows on Gun-Related Deaths: Evidence from California and Texas" outlined this study, which found no association between gun shows and gun-related deaths. We believe the study reflects a limited understanding of gun shows and gun markets and is not statistically powered to detect even an implausibly large effect of gun shows on gun violence. In addition, the research contains serious ascertainment and classification errors, produces results that are sensitive to minor specification changes in key variables and in some cases have no face validity, and is contradicted by 1 of its own authors' prior research. The study should not be used as evidence in formulating gun policy.

  19. Fully automated disc diffusion for rapid antibiotic susceptibility test results: a proof-of-principle study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hombach, Michael; Jetter, Marion; Blöchliger, Nicolas; Kolesnik-Goldmann, Natalia; Böttger, Erik C

    2017-06-01

    Antibiotic resistance poses a significant threat to patients suffering from infectious diseases. Early readings of antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) results could be of critical importance to ensure adequate treatment. Disc diffusion is a well-standardized, established and cost-efficient AST procedure; however, its use in the clinical laboratory is hampered by the many manual steps involved, and an incubation time of 16-18 h, which is required to achieve reliable test results. We have evaluated a fully automated system for its potential for early reading of disc diffusion diameters after 6-12 h of incubation. We assessed availability of results, methodological precision, categorical agreement and interpretation errors as compared with an 18 h standard. In total, 1028 clinical strains (291 Escherichia coli , 272 Klebsiella pneumoniae , 176 Staphylococcus aureus and 289 Staphylococcus epidermidis ) were included in this study. Disc diffusion plates were streaked, incubated and imaged using the WASPLab TM automation system. Our results demonstrate that: (i) early AST reading is possible for important pathogens; (ii) methodological precision is not hampered at early timepoints; and (iii) species-specific reading times must be selected. As inhibition zone diameters change over time and are phenotype/drug combination dependent, specific cut-offs and expert rules will be essential to ensure reliable interpretation and reporting of early susceptibility testing results.

  20. A Pharmacogenetics Study in Mozambican Patients Treated with Nevirapine: Full Resequencing of TRAF3IP2 Gene Shows a Novel Association with SJS/TEN Susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Ciccacci

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Steven–Johnson Syndrome (SJS and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN are severe adverse drug reactions, characterized by extensive epidermal detachment and erosions of mucous membrane. SJS/TEN is one of the most serious adverse reactions to Nevirapine (NVP treatment, commonly used in developing countries as first-line treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection. In the last years TRAF3IP2 gene variants had been described as associated with susceptibility to several diseases such as psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. We hypothesized that this gene, involved in immune response and in NF-κB activation, could also be implicated in the SJS/TEN susceptibility. We performed a full resequencing of TRAF3IP2 gene in a population of patients treated with NVP. Twenty-seven patients with NVP-induced SJS/TEN and 78 controls, all from Mozambique, were enrolled. We identified eight exonic and three intronic already described variants. The case/control association analysis highlighted an association between the rs76228616 SNP in exon 2 and the SJS/TEN susceptibility. In particular, the variant allele (C resulted significantly associated with a higher risk to develop SJS/TEN (p = 0.012 and OR = 3.65 (95% CI 1.33–10.01. A multivariate analysis by logistic regression confirmed its significant contribution (p = 0.027, OR = 4.39 (95% CI 1.19–16.23. In conclusion, our study suggests that a variant in TRAF3IP2 gene could be involved in susceptibility to SJS/TEN.

  1. A pharmacogenetics study in Mozambican patients treated with nevirapine: full resequencing of TRAF3IP2 gene shows a novel association with SJS/TEN susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccacci, Cinzia; Rufini, Sara; Mancinelli, Sandro; Buonomo, Ersilia; Giardina, Emiliano; Scarcella, Paola; Marazzi, Maria C; Novelli, Giuseppe; Palombi, Leonardo; Borgiani, Paola

    2015-03-12

    Steven-Johnson Syndrome (SJS) and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN) are severe adverse drug reactions, characterized by extensive epidermal detachment and erosions of mucous membrane. SJS/TEN is one of the most serious adverse reactions to Nevirapine (NVP) treatment, commonly used in developing countries as first-line treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection. In the last years TRAF3IP2 gene variants had been described as associated with susceptibility to several diseases such as psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. We hypothesized that this gene, involved in immune response and in NF-κB activation, could also be implicated in the SJS/TEN susceptibility. We performed a full resequencing of TRAF3IP2 gene in a population of patients treated with NVP. Twenty-seven patients with NVP-induced SJS/TEN and 78 controls, all from Mozambique, were enrolled. We identified eight exonic and three intronic already described variants. The case/control association analysis highlighted an association between the rs76228616 SNP in exon 2 and the SJS/TEN susceptibility. In particular, the variant allele (C) resulted significantly associated with a higher risk to develop SJS/TEN (p = 0.012 and OR = 3.65 (95% CI 1.33-10.01)). A multivariate analysis by logistic regression confirmed its significant contribution (p = 0.027, OR = 4.39 (95% CI 1.19-16.23)). In conclusion, our study suggests that a variant in TRAF3IP2 gene could be involved in susceptibility to SJS/TEN.

  2. Chimpanzees show a developmental increase in susceptibility to contagious yawning: a test of the effect of ontogeny and emotional closeness on yawn contagion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elainie Alenkær Madsen

    Full Text Available Contagious yawning has been reported for humans, dogs and several non-human primate species, and associated with empathy in humans and other primates. Still, the function, development and underlying mechanisms of contagious yawning remain unclear. Humans and dogs show a developmental increase in susceptibility to yawn contagion, with children showing an increase around the age of four, when also empathy-related behaviours and accurate identification of others' emotions begin to clearly evince. Explicit tests of yawn contagion in non-human apes have only involved adult individuals and examined the existence of conspecific yawn contagion. Here we report the first study of heterospecific contagious yawning in primates, and the ontogeny of susceptibility thereto in chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus. We examined whether emotional closeness, defined as attachment history with the yawning model, affected the strength of contagion, and compared the contagiousness of yawning to nose-wiping. Thirty-three orphaned chimpanzees observed an unfamiliar and familiar human (their surrogate human mother yawn, gape and nose-wipe. Yawning, but not nose-wiping, was contagious for juvenile chimpanzees, while infants were immune to contagion. Like humans and dogs, chimpanzees are subject to a developmental trend in susceptibility to contagious yawning, and respond to heterospecific yawn stimuli. Emotional closeness with the model did not affect contagion. The familiarity-biased social modulatory effect on yawn contagion previously found among some adult primates, seem to only emerge later in development, or be limited to interactions with conspecifics. The influence of the 'chameleon effect', targeted vs. generalised empathy, perspective-taking and visual attention on contagious yawning is discussed.

  3. Chimpanzees show a developmental increase in susceptibility to contagious yawning: a test of the effect of ontogeny and emotional closeness on yawn contagion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Elainie Alenkær; Persson, Tomas; Sayehli, Susan; Lenninger, Sara; Sonesson, Göran

    2013-01-01

    Contagious yawning has been reported for humans, dogs and several non-human primate species, and associated with empathy in humans and other primates. Still, the function, development and underlying mechanisms of contagious yawning remain unclear. Humans and dogs show a developmental increase in susceptibility to yawn contagion, with children showing an increase around the age of four, when also empathy-related behaviours and accurate identification of others' emotions begin to clearly evince. Explicit tests of yawn contagion in non-human apes have only involved adult individuals and examined the existence of conspecific yawn contagion. Here we report the first study of heterospecific contagious yawning in primates, and the ontogeny of susceptibility thereto in chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus. We examined whether emotional closeness, defined as attachment history with the yawning model, affected the strength of contagion, and compared the contagiousness of yawning to nose-wiping. Thirty-three orphaned chimpanzees observed an unfamiliar and familiar human (their surrogate human mother) yawn, gape and nose-wipe. Yawning, but not nose-wiping, was contagious for juvenile chimpanzees, while infants were immune to contagion. Like humans and dogs, chimpanzees are subject to a developmental trend in susceptibility to contagious yawning, and respond to heterospecific yawn stimuli. Emotional closeness with the model did not affect contagion. The familiarity-biased social modulatory effect on yawn contagion previously found among some adult primates, seem to only emerge later in development, or be limited to interactions with conspecifics. The influence of the 'chameleon effect', targeted vs. generalised empathy, perspective-taking and visual attention on contagious yawning is discussed.

  4. Goats are susceptible to Bubaline alphaherpesvirus 1 infection: Results of an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camero, M; Larocca, V; Losurdo, M; Lorusso, E; Patruno, G; Staffa, V N; Martella, V; Buonavoglia, C; Tempesta, M

    2017-02-01

    Herpesvirus infections are generally subjected to strong host species restriction, although virological and serological investigations have revealed the possibility of cross-species infections in closely related animal species. In this study we evaluated susceptibility of goats to infection by Bubaline alphaherpesvirus 1 (BuHV-1). Four goats were inoculated intra-nasally with BuHV-1 and monitored clinically, virologically and serologically for 42days. None of the goats displayed clinical signs although all the animals variably shed the virus by the nasal route during the first 12days after infection. BuHV-1 was also detected in the white blood cells of two animals in the first week post infection. The results suggest that goats are susceptible to BuHV-1 infection and that they could play an epidemiological role in the circulation/transmission of the virus among domestic and wild ruminants and impact to some extent on the control plans for herpesviruses in cattle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Selective reporting of antibiotic susceptibility test results in European countries: an ESCMID cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulcini, Céline; Tebano, Gianpiero; Mutters, Nico T; Tacconelli, Evelina; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Kahlmeter, Gunnar; Jarlier, Vincent

    2017-02-01

    Selective reporting of antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) results is one possible laboratory-based antibiotic stewardship intervention. The primary aim of this study was to identify where and how selective reporting of AST results is implemented in Europe both in inpatient and in outpatient settings. An ESCMID cross-sectional, self-administered, internet-based survey was conducted among all EUCIC (European Committee on Infection Control) or EUCAST (European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing) national representatives in Europe and Israel. Of 38 countries, 36 chose to participate in the survey. Selective reporting of AST results was implemented in 11/36 countries (31%), was partially implemented in 4/36 (11%) and was limited to local initiatives or was not adopted in 21/36 (58%). It was endorsed as standard of care by health authorities in only three countries. The organisation of selective reporting was everywhere discretionally managed by each laboratory, with a pronounced intra- and inter-country variability. The most frequent application was in uncomplicated community-acquired infections, particularly urinary tract and skin and soft-tissue infections. The list of reported antibiotics ranged from a few first-line options, to longer reports where only last-resort antibiotics were hidden. Several barriers to implementation were reported, mainly lack of guidelines, poor system support, insufficient resources, and lack of professionals' capability. In conclusion, selective reporting of AST results is poorly implemented in Europe and is applied with a huge heterogeneity of practices. Development of an international framework, based on existing initiatives and identified barriers, could favour its dissemination as one important element of antibiotic stewardship programmes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  6. Transgenic apple plants overexpressing the chalcone 3-hydroxylase gene of Cosmos sulphureus show increased levels of 3-hydroxyphloridzin and reduced susceptibility to apple scab and fire blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutabarat, Olly Sanny; Flachowsky, Henryk; Regos, Ionela; Miosic, Silvija; Kaufmann, Christine; Faramarzi, Shadab; Alam, Mohammed Zobayer; Gosch, Christian; Peil, Andreas; Richter, Klaus; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Treutter, Dieter; Stich, Karl; Halbwirth, Heidi

    2016-05-01

    Overexpression of chalcone-3-hydroxylase provokes increased accumulation of 3-hydroxyphloridzin in Malus . Decreased flavonoid concentrations but unchanged flavonoid class composition were observed. The increased 3-hydroxyphlorizin contents correlate well with reduced susceptibility to fire blight and scab. The involvement of dihydrochalcones in the apple defence mechanism against pathogens is discussed but unknown biosynthetic steps in their formation hamper studies on their physiological relevance. The formation of 3-hydroxyphloretin is one of the gaps in the pathway. Polyphenol oxidases and cytochrome P450 dependent enzymes could be involved. Hydroxylation of phloretin in position 3 has high similarity to the B-ring hydroxylation of flavonoids catalysed by the well-known flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H). Using recombinant F3'H and chalcone 3-hydroxylase (CH3H) from Cosmos sulphureus we show that F3'H and CH3H accept phloretin to some extent but higher conversion rates are obtained with CH3H. To test whether CH3H catalyzes the hydroxylation of dihydrochalcones in planta and if this could be of physiological relevance, we created transgenic apple trees harbouring CH3H from C. sulphureus. The three transgenic lines obtained showed lower polyphenol concentrations but no shift between the main polyphenol classes dihydrochalcones, flavonols, hydroxycinnamic acids and flavan 3-ols. Increase of 3-hydroxyphloridzin within the dihydrochalcones and of epicatechin/catechin within soluble flavan 3-ols were observed. Decreased activity of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase and chalcone synthase/chalcone isomerase could partially explain the lower polyphenol concentrations. In comparison to the parent line, the transgenic CH3H-lines showed a lower disease susceptibility to fire blight and apple scab that correlated with the increased 3-hydroxyphlorizin contents.

  7. Application of bone scans for prostate cancer staging: Which guideline shows better result?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Ari; Hwang, Insang; Ha, Jung-min; Yu, Seong Hyeon; Hwang, Eu Chang; Yu, Ho Song; Kim, Sun Ouck; Jung, Seung-Il; Kang, Taek Won; Kwon, Dong Deuk; Park, Kwangsung

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: We evaluated the accuracy of current guidelines by analyzing bone scan results and clinical parameters of patients with prostate cancer to determine the optimal guideline for predicting bone metastasis. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed patients who were diagnosed with prostate cancer and who underwent a bone scan. Bone metastasis was confirmed by bone scan results with clinical and radiological follow-up. Serum prostate-specific antigen, Gleason score, percent of positive biopsy core, clinical staging and bone scan results were analyzed. We analyzed diagnostic performance in predicting bone metastasis of the guidelines of the European Association of Urology (EAU), American Urological Association (AUA), and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines as well as Briganti’s classification and regression tree (CART). We also compared the percent of positive biopsy core between patients with and without bone metastases. Results: A total 167 of 806 patients had bone metastases. Receiver operating curve analysis revealed that the AUA and EAU guidelines were better for detecting bone metastases than were Briganti’s CART and NCCN. No significant difference was observed between AUA and EAU guidelines. Patients with bone metastases had a higher percent positive core than did patients without metastasis (the cut-off value >55.6). Conclusion: The EAU and AUA guidelines showed better results than did Briganti’s CART and NCCN for predicting bone metastasis in the enrolled patients. A bone scan is strongly recommended for patients who have a higher percent positive core and who meet the EAU and AUA guidelines. PMID:25210554

  8. Combined analysis of 19 common validated type 2 diabetes susceptibility gene variants shows moderate discriminative value and no evidence of gene-gene interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparsø, T; Grarup, N; Andreasen, C

    2009-01-01

    the area under a ROC curve to estimate the discrimination rate between glucose-tolerant individuals and type 2 diabetes patients based on the 19 variants. We found an area under the ROC curve of 0.60. Two-way gene-gene interaction showed few nominal interaction effects. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Combined...... analysis of the 19 validated variants enables detection of subgroups at substantially increased risk of type 2 diabetes; however, the discrimination between glucose-tolerant and type 2 diabetes individuals is still too inaccurate to achieve clinical value.......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The list of validated type 2 diabetes susceptibility variants has recently been expanded from three to 19. The variants identified are common and have low penetrance in the general population. The aim of the study is to investigate the combined effect of the 19 variants by applying...

  9. Association of breast cancer risk with genetic variants showing differential allelic expression: Identification of a novel breast cancer susceptibility locus at 4q21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adoue, Véronique; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Canisius, Sander; Lemaçon, Audrey; Droit, Arnaud; Andrulis, Irene L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Arndt, Volker; Baynes, Caroline; Blomqvist, Carl; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Bojesen, Stig E.; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Bonanni, Bernardo; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Brand, Judith S.; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Broeks, Annegien; Burwinkel, Barbara; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Couch, Fergus J.; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Czene, Kamila; Darabi, Hatef; Dennis, Joe; Devilee, Peter; Dörk, Thilo; Dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Eriksson, Mikael; Fasching, Peter A.; Figueroa, Jonine; Flyger, Henrik; García-Closas, Montserrat; Giles, Graham G.; Goldberg, Mark S.; González-Neira, Anna; Grenaker-Alnæs, Grethe; Guénel, Pascal; Haeberle, Lothar; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hamann, Ute; Hallberg, Emily; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hopper, John L.; Jakubowska, Anna; Jones, Michael; Kabisch, Maria; Kataja, Vesa; Lambrechts, Diether; Marchand, Loic Le; Lindblom, Annika; Lubinski, Jan; Mannermaa, Arto; Maranian, Mel; Margolin, Sara; Marme, Frederik; Milne, Roger L.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Neven, Patrick; Olswold, Curtis; Peto, Julian; Plaseska-Karanfilska, Dijana; Pylkäs, Katri; Radice, Paolo; Rudolph, Anja; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Southey, Melissa C.; Swerdlow, Anthony; Tollenaar, Rob A.E.M.; Tomlinson, Ian; Torres, Diana; Truong, Thérèse; Vachon, Celine; Van Den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; Wang, Qin; Winqvist, Robert; Investigators, kConFab/AOCS; Zheng, Wei; Benitez, Javier; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Dunning, Alison M.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Kristensen, Vessela; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F.; Pastinen, Tomi; Nord, Silje; Simard, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    There are significant inter-individual differences in the levels of gene expression. Through modulation of gene expression, cis-acting variants represent an important source of phenotypic variation. Consequently, cis-regulatory SNPs associated with differential allelic expression are functional candidates for further investigation as disease-causing variants. To investigate whether common variants associated with differential allelic expression were involved in breast cancer susceptibility, a list of genes was established on the basis of their involvement in cancer related pathways and/or mechanisms. Thereafter, using data from a genome-wide map of allelic expression associated SNPs, 313 genetic variants were selected and their association with breast cancer risk was then evaluated in 46,451 breast cancer cases and 42,599 controls of European ancestry ascertained from 41 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. The associations were evaluated with overall breast cancer risk and with estrogen receptor negative and positive disease. One novel breast cancer susceptibility locus on 4q21 (rs11099601) was identified (OR = 1.05, P = 5.6x10-6). rs11099601 lies in a 135 kb linkage disequilibrium block containing several genes, including, HELQ, encoding the protein HEL308 a DNA dependant ATPase and DNA Helicase involved in DNA repair, MRPS18C encoding the Mitochondrial Ribosomal Protein S18C and FAM175A (ABRAXAS), encoding a BRCA1 BRCT domain-interacting protein involved in DNA damage response and double-strand break (DSB) repair. Expression QTL analysis in breast cancer tissue showed rs11099601 to be associated with HELQ (P = 8.28x10-14), MRPS18C (P = 1.94x10-27) and FAM175A (P = 3.83x10-3), explaining about 20%, 14% and 1%, respectively of the variance inexpression of these genes in breast carcinomas. PMID:27792995

  10. Association of breast cancer risk with genetic variants showing differential allelic expression: Identification of a novel breast cancer susceptibility locus at 4q21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi, Yosr; Soucy, Penny; Adoue, Véronique; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Canisius, Sander; Lemaçon, Audrey; Droit, Arnaud; Andrulis, Irene L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Arndt, Volker; Baynes, Caroline; Blomqvist, Carl; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Bojesen, Stig E; Bolla, Manjeet K; Bonanni, Bernardo; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Brand, Judith S; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Broeks, Annegien; Burwinkel, Barbara; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Couch, Fergus J; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Czene, Kamila; Darabi, Hatef; Dennis, Joe; Devilee, Peter; Dörk, Thilo; Dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Eriksson, Mikael; Fasching, Peter A; Figueroa, Jonine; Flyger, Henrik; García-Closas, Montserrat; Giles, Graham G; Goldberg, Mark S; González-Neira, Anna; Grenaker-Alnæs, Grethe; Guénel, Pascal; Haeberle, Lothar; Haiman, Christopher A; Hamann, Ute; Hallberg, Emily; Hooning, Maartje J; Hopper, John L; Jakubowska, Anna; Jones, Michael; Kabisch, Maria; Kataja, Vesa; Lambrechts, Diether; Le Marchand, Loic; Lindblom, Annika; Lubinski, Jan; Mannermaa, Arto; Maranian, Mel; Margolin, Sara; Marme, Frederik; Milne, Roger L; Neuhausen, Susan L; Nevanlinna, Heli; Neven, Patrick; Olswold, Curtis; Peto, Julian; Plaseska-Karanfilska, Dijana; Pylkäs, Katri; Radice, Paolo; Rudolph, Anja; Sawyer, Elinor J; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Southey, Melissa C; Swerdlow, Anthony; Tollenaar, Rob A E M; Tomlinson, Ian; Torres, Diana; Truong, Thérèse; Vachon, Celine; Van Den Ouweland, Ans M W; Wang, Qin; Winqvist, Robert; Zheng, Wei; Benitez, Javier; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Dunning, Alison M; Pharoah, Paul D P; Kristensen, Vessela; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F; Pastinen, Tomi; Nord, Silje; Simard, Jacques

    2016-12-06

    There are significant inter-individual differences in the levels of gene expression. Through modulation of gene expression, cis-acting variants represent an important source of phenotypic variation. Consequently, cis-regulatory SNPs associated with differential allelic expression are functional candidates for further investigation as disease-causing variants. To investigate whether common variants associated with differential allelic expression were involved in breast cancer susceptibility, a list of genes was established on the basis of their involvement in cancer related pathways and/or mechanisms. Thereafter, using data from a genome-wide map of allelic expression associated SNPs, 313 genetic variants were selected and their association with breast cancer risk was then evaluated in 46,451 breast cancer cases and 42,599 controls of European ancestry ascertained from 41 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. The associations were evaluated with overall breast cancer risk and with estrogen receptor negative and positive disease. One novel breast cancer susceptibility locus on 4q21 (rs11099601) was identified (OR = 1.05, P = 5.6x10-6). rs11099601 lies in a 135 kb linkage disequilibrium block containing several genes, including, HELQ, encoding the protein HEL308 a DNA dependant ATPase and DNA Helicase involved in DNA repair, MRPS18C encoding the Mitochondrial Ribosomal Protein S18C and FAM175A (ABRAXAS), encoding a BRCA1 BRCT domain-interacting protein involved in DNA damage response and double-strand break (DSB) repair. Expression QTL analysis in breast cancer tissue showed rs11099601 to be associated with HELQ (P = 8.28x10-14), MRPS18C (P = 1.94x10-27) and FAM175A (P = 3.83x10-3), explaining about 20%, 14% and 1%, respectively of the variance inexpression of these genes in breast carcinomas.

  11. [Mini-open Approach Shows Good Results in Treatment of Femoroacetabular Impingement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Stephanie Maria; Sitterlee, Frank; Perka, Carsten; Müller, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Background Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) describes a painful, abnormal (bony) contact between the femoral neck and acetabulum, which, if left untreated, contributes to early osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip. Despite its flat learning curve and long operation times, hip arthroscopy has been used increasingly often in recent years in the surgery of femoroacetabular impingement. The mini-open technique (MOT) offers a possible alternative that addresses the abnormal morphological prominence and allows minimally invasive clearance of hip motion. There is still a lack of information on the influence of the greater degree of soft tissue intrusion inherent to the mini-open approach. Therefore we decided to evaluate the medium-term outcome of the mini-open technique and to compare the results to those of the arthroscopic technique reported in the literature. Patients, Material und Methods 99 patients (105 hips, 40 women, 59 men) underwent mini-open surgical treatment for FAI between 2005 and 2012 and were followed-up for an average of 40.5 months. The evaluation focused on the pre- and postoperative pain intensity (NRS: numeric rating scale), the clinical and functional outcomes such as ROM (range of motion), HOS (Hip Outcome Score) and mHHS (modified Harris Hip Score), changes in athletic behaviour and the satisfaction of the patients. Radiological analysis (α-angle, anterior head-neck-offset (HNO), head-neck-offset ratio, ossification, grade of OA) was performed using preoperative, immediate postoperative as well as follow-up radiographs. Finally our results were compared to those reported for the arthroscopic technique in the literature. Results The average pain level decreased from 6.5 ± 2.3 to 2.3 ± 2.6 (p impact and more patients were performing low-impact sports after surgery. Flexion (113°±16 to 117°±16) and internal rotation (12°±8 to 25°±12) improved significantly. α-angle reduction from 62°±11 to 42°± 9 (p < 0.01) was observed

  12. MyD88-, but not Nod1- and/or Nod2-deficient mice, show increased susceptibility to polymicrobial sepsis due to impaired local inflammatory response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Sônego

    Full Text Available Pathogen recognition and triggering of the inflammatory response following infection in mammals depend mainly on Toll-like and Nod-like receptors. Here, we evaluated the role of Nod1, Nod2 and MyD88-dependent signaling in the chemokine production and neutrophil recruitment to the infectious site during sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP in C57Bl/6 mice. We demonstrate that Nod1 and Nod2 are not involved in the release of chemokines and recruitment of neutrophils to the infectious site during CLP-induced septic peritonitis because these events were similar in wild-type, Nod1-, Nod2-, Nod1/Nod2- and Rip2-deficient mice. Consequently, the local and systemic bacterial loads were not altered. Accordingly, neither Nod1 nor Nod2 was involved in the production of the circulating cytokines and in the accumulation of leukocytes in the lungs. By contrast, we showed that MyD88-dependent signaling is crucial for the establishment of the local inflammatory response during CLP-induced sepsis. MyD88-deficient mice were susceptible to sepsis because of an impaired local production of chemokines and defective neutrophil recruitment to the infection site. Altogether, these data show that Nod1, Nod2 and Rip2 are not required for local chemokine production and neutrophil recruitment during CLP-induced sepsis, and they reinforce the importance of MyD88-dependent signaling for initiation of a protective host response.

  13. Long-Term Trial Results Show No Mortality Benefit from Annual Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirteen year follow-up data from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) cancer screening trial show higher incidence but similar mortality among men screened annually with the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test and digital rectal examination

  14. Development of a New Technique to Assess Susceptibility to Predation Resulting from Sublethal Stresses (Indirect Mortality)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cada, G.F.

    2003-08-25

    Fish that pass through a hydroelectric turbine may not be killed directly, but may nonetheless experience sublethal stresses that will increase their susceptibility to predators (indirect mortality). There is a need to develop reliable tests for indirect mortality so that the full consequences of passage through turbines (and other routes around a hydroelectric dam) can be assessed. We evaluated a new technique for assessing indirect mortality, based on a behavioral response to a startling stimulus (akin to perceiving an approaching predator). We compare this technique to the standard predator preference test. The behavioral response is a rapid movement commonly referred to as a startle response, escape response, or C-shape, based on the characteristic body position assumed by the fish. When viewed from above, a startled fish bends into a C-shape, then springs back and swims away in a direction different from its original orientation. This predator avoidance (escape) behavior can be compromised by sublethal stresses that temporarily stun or disorient the fish. We subjected striped shiners and fathead minnows to varying intensities of either turbulence (10-, 20- or 30-min) or 2-min exposures to a fish anesthetic (100 or 200 mg/L of tricaine methanesulfonate), and evaluated their subsequent behavior. Individual fish were given a startle stimulus and filmed with a high-speed video camera. Each fish was startled and filmed twice before being stressed, and then at 1-, 5-, 15-, and 30-min post-exposure. The resulting image files were analyzed for a variety of behavioral measures including: presence of a response, time to first reaction, duration of reaction, time to formation of maximum C-shape, time to completion of C-shape, and completeness of C-shape. The most immediate measure of potential changes in fish behavior was whether stressed fish exhibited a startle response. For striped shiners, the number of fish not responding to the stimulus was significantly different

  15. Early results from the Northern Gulf of Mexico Ecosystem Change and Hazard Susceptibility Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, John C.; Lavoie, Dawn L.; Poore, Richard Z.

    2011-01-01

    The northern Gulf of Mexico coastal region and its diverse ecosystems are threatened by population and development pressure and by the impacts of rising sea level and severe storms such as the series of hurricanes that has impacted the northern Gulf in recent years. In response to the complex management issues facing the region, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) organized a multidisciplinary research program to coordinate the activities of USGS and other scientists working in the northern Gulf of Mexico region (fig. 1). The Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) Ecosystem Change and Hazard Susceptibility Project aims to develop a thorough understanding of the dynamic coastal ecosystems on the northern Gulf coast, the impact of human activities on these ecosystems, and the vulnerability of ecosystems and human communities to more frequent and more intense hurricanes in the future. A special issue of Geo-Marine Letters published in December 2009 is devoted to early results of studies completed as part of this project. These studies, which have been conducted at sites throughout the northern Gulf region, from the Chandeleur Islands to Apalachicola Bay, have focused on three themes: (1) The underlying geologic framework that exerts controls over coastal processes (2) The impact of human activities on nearshore water quality (3) Hurricanes and associated effects

  16. Results from a survey of the South African GISc community show ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serena Coetzee

    spatial data in digital or graphic form for legal, social, political, educational, and design purposes. May work with Geographic Information Systems (GIS). ... Figure 1 shows that gender and population group transformation are well underway but do not. (yet) correlate with the demographics of South Africa's population ...

  17. Data for behavioral results and brain regions showing a time effect during pair-association retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Jimura

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The current data article provides behavioral and neuroimaging data for the research article "Relatedness-dependent rapid development of brain activity in anterior temporal cortex during pair-association retrieval” (Jimura et al., 2016 [1]. Behavioral performance is provided in a table. Fig. 2 of the article is based on this table. Brain regions showing time effect are provided in a table. A statistical activation map for the time effect is shown in Fig. 3C of the article.

  18. Results from a survey of the South African GISc community show ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents results of a survey by the Geo-information Society of South Africa (GISSA) to gain a better understanding of who the members of the South ... members of the GISc community fulfil roles of data analysis and interpretation, together with data acquisition, data management, and/or visualization/mapping.

  19. Antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring of dermatological bacterial pathogens isolated from diseased dogs and cats across Europe (ComPath results).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, C; de Jong, A; Moyaert, H; El Garch, F; Janes, R; Klein, U; Morrissey, I; Thiry, J; Youala, M

    2016-11-01

    The ComPath project is a pan-European programme dedicated to the monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogens from diseased dogs and cats using standardized methods and centralized minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination. Here, the susceptibility of major pathogens is reported from antimicrobial nontreated animals with acute clinical signs of skin, wound or ear infections in 2008-2010. MICs were determined by agar dilution for commonly used antibiotics and interpreted using CLSI breakpoints, if available. Of the 1408 strains recovered, the main canine species was Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, followed by Pseudomonas and Streptococcus. In cats, Pasteurella multocida and Staph. pseudintermedius were most prevalent. For Staph. pseudintermedius, resistance was 18·4-25·2% for penicillin, clindamycin and chloramphenicol, but below 11% for ampicillin, amoxi/clav and fluoroquinolones. For Staphylococcus aureus, beta-lactam resistance was high (26·7-62·1%) but low (0·0-4·4%) for other antibiotics. 6·3% of Staph. pseudintermedius and 5·4% of Staph. aureus were confirmed mecA-positive. Gentamicin and fluoroquinolones exhibited moderate activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. For streptococci, resistance was absent/very low for penicillin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and fluoroquinolones. For Escherichia coli, resistance was low to fluoroquinolones, chloramphenicol and gentamicin. No resistance was observed in Past. multocida. Overall, antimicrobial resistance was low in skin and soft tissue infections in dogs and cats. The results show the need for ongoing monitoring. The results are a reference baseline for future surveillance. The paucity of clinical breakpoints underlines the need to set breakpoints for relevant antibiotics. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Comb-push ultrasound shear elastography of breast masses: initial results show promise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Denis

    Full Text Available To evaluate the performance of Comb-push Ultrasound Shear Elastography (CUSE for classification of breast masses.CUSE is an ultrasound-based quantitative two-dimensional shear wave elasticity imaging technique, which utilizes multiple laterally distributed acoustic radiation force (ARF beams to simultaneously excite the tissue and induce shear waves. Female patients who were categorized as having suspicious breast masses underwent CUSE evaluations prior to biopsy. An elasticity estimate within the breast mass was obtained from the CUSE shear wave speed map. Elasticity estimates of various types of benign and malignant masses were compared with biopsy results.Fifty-four female patients with suspicious breast masses from our ongoing study are presented. Our cohort included 31 malignant and 23 benign breast masses. Our results indicate that the mean shear wave speed was significantly higher in malignant masses (6 ± 1.58 m/s in comparison to benign masses (3.65 ± 1.36 m/s. Therefore, the stiffness of the mass quantified by the Young's modulus is significantly higher in malignant masses. According to the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC, the optimal cut-off value of 83 kPa yields 87.10% sensitivity, 82.61% specificity, and 0.88 for the area under the curve (AUC.CUSE has the potential for clinical utility as a quantitative diagnostic imaging tool adjunct to B-mode ultrasound for differentiation of malignant and benign breast masses.

  1. Comb-push ultrasound shear elastography of breast masses: initial results show promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Max; Mehrmohammadi, Mohammad; Song, Pengfei; Meixner, Duane D; Fazzio, Robert T; Pruthi, Sandhya; Whaley, Dana H; Chen, Shigao; Fatemi, Mostafa; Alizad, Azra

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of Comb-push Ultrasound Shear Elastography (CUSE) for classification of breast masses. CUSE is an ultrasound-based quantitative two-dimensional shear wave elasticity imaging technique, which utilizes multiple laterally distributed acoustic radiation force (ARF) beams to simultaneously excite the tissue and induce shear waves. Female patients who were categorized as having suspicious breast masses underwent CUSE evaluations prior to biopsy. An elasticity estimate within the breast mass was obtained from the CUSE shear wave speed map. Elasticity estimates of various types of benign and malignant masses were compared with biopsy results. Fifty-four female patients with suspicious breast masses from our ongoing study are presented. Our cohort included 31 malignant and 23 benign breast masses. Our results indicate that the mean shear wave speed was significantly higher in malignant masses (6 ± 1.58 m/s) in comparison to benign masses (3.65 ± 1.36 m/s). Therefore, the stiffness of the mass quantified by the Young's modulus is significantly higher in malignant masses. According to the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC), the optimal cut-off value of 83 kPa yields 87.10% sensitivity, 82.61% specificity, and 0.88 for the area under the curve (AUC). CUSE has the potential for clinical utility as a quantitative diagnostic imaging tool adjunct to B-mode ultrasound for differentiation of malignant and benign breast masses.

  2. FES Training in Aging: interim results show statistically significant improvements in mobility and muscle fiber size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Kern

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a multifactorial process that is characterized by decline in muscle mass and performance. Several factors, including reduced exercise, poor nutrition and modified hormonal metabolism, are responsible for changes in the rates of protein synthesis and degradation that drive skeletal muscle mass reduction with a consequent decline of force generation and mobility functional performances. Seniors with normal life style were enrolled: two groups in Vienna (n=32 and two groups in Bratislava: (n=19. All subjects were healthy and declared not to have any specific physical/disease problems. The two Vienna groups of seniors exercised for 10 weeks with two different types of training (leg press at the hospital or home-based functional electrical stimulation, h-b FES. Demografic data (age, height and weight were recorded before and after the training period and before and after the training period the patients were submitted to mobility functional analyses and muscle biopsies. The mobility functional analyses were: 1. gait speed (10m test fastest speed, in m/s; 2. time which the subject needed to rise from a chair for five times (5x Chair-Rise, in s; 3. Timed –Up-Go- Test, in s; 4. Stair-Test, in s; 5. isometric measurement of quadriceps force (Torque/kg, in Nm/kg; and 6. Dynamic Balance in mm. Preliminary analyses of muscle biopsies from quadriceps in some of the Vienna and Bratislava patients present morphometric results consistent with their functional behaviors. The statistically significant improvements in functional testings here reported demonstrates the effectiveness of h-b FES, and strongly support h-b FES, as a safe home-based method to improve contractility and performances of ageing muscles.

  3. The comparative analysis of anatomical traits of four largefruited hazelnut cultivars showing different susceptibility to filbert aphid (Myzocallis coryli Goetze feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations related to morphological and anatomical traits of leaves of four largefruited hazelnut (Corylus L. cultivars characterised by different susceptibility to filbert aphid (Myzocallis coryli Goetze feeding. The following parameters were measured: the thickness of leaf blade, the number of stomata, the length of secretory and mechanical hairs and their density on the leaf, the thickness of adaxial and abaxial epidermis and the thickness of their external cell walls. Observations of cross sections of the leaves were made in a light microscope and the surface of the adaxial epidermis was analysed in a scanning electron microscope. It was shown that leaves of the cultivars susceptible to M. coryli feeding had the thinnest leaf blade, especially in the main vein, and many more stomata. Besides, the cultivar most resistant to filbert aphid feeding, White Filbert, was marked by the largest height of the adaxial epidermis cells and the strongest striation of the cuticle in abaxial epidermis. On leaves of this cultivar, the number of mechanical hairs was the highest, while the lowest number of them was noted on Wonder from Bollwiller, the most susceptible cultivar.

  4. Susceptibility of frequent urinary pathogens to fosfomycin trometamol and eight other antibiotics: results of an Italian multicenter survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schito, G C; Chezzi, C; Nicoletti, G; Moreddu, M; Arcangeletti, M C; Stefani, S; Albini, E; Del Bono, G P

    1992-01-01

    In order to assess the resistance profile for fosfomycin trometamol after several years of clinical use in Italy, this study has explored the susceptibility to fosfomycin and eight other antibacterial drugs of 6,021 strains isolated from 23,816 urines during 1990 in three teaching hospitals located in Genoa, Parma and Catania. Gram-negative strains, notably Escherichia coli (41.6%), were primarily involved. Amoxicillin was the least active compound with resistance in 41.4% of the isolates. Fosfomycin showed the lowest rate of resistance in both gram-negative (2.8%) and gram-positive (2.1%) pathogens. This was followed by norfloxacin with a resistance rate of 11.8% and netilmicin with 12.2%. These results indicate that fosfomycin-trometamol may continue to be used in single-dose treatment of urinary tract infections even in the absence of microbiological data since the prevalence of resistance to the drug is, at present, so low that therapeutic failure is highly improbable.

  5. Field assessment of the susceptibility of onion cultivars to thrips attack – preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pobożniak Maria

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments on the susceptibility of onion to thrips infestation were carried out in 2012 and 2013. The investigation used 18 cultivars and 5 breeding lines of Allium cepa, and the species A. fistulosum and A. roylei. In 2012 A. fistulosum was one of the most infested plants, whereas in 2013 infestation was no more than average. The most infested cultivars of A. cepa were ‘Efekt’, ‘Alonso F1’, ‘Alibaba’ and ‘Wama’ and the ‘NOE5’ breeding line. In 2012 the extent of damage ranged from 12 to 55%, in 2013 from 20 to 30%. The ‘NOE2’, ‘NOE3’ and ‘Wama’ cultivars were the most seriously damaged by thrips. Leaf damage to A. fistulosum was minimal. No damage was caused to the wild species A. roylei by feeding onion thrips.

  6. SOLiD SAGE sequencing shows differential gene expression in jejunal lymph node samples of resistant and susceptible red deer (Cervus elaphus) challenged with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackintosh, C G; Griffin, J F T; Scott, I C; O'Brien, R; Stanton, J L; MacLean, P; Brauning, R

    2016-01-01

    This study compared in vivo lymph node gene expression levels between six young red deer that were either relatively resistant (R) or susceptible (S) to paratuberculosis following experimental challenge with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Intestinal lymph nodes were biopsied at 4, 12 and 50 weeks post challenge (pc) and parallel changes in histopathology, immunology and bacterial load monitored. SOLiD SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression) next generation sequencing of biopsied lymph node samples generated a total of 373 million transcript tags 26-28bp in length after filtering. A total of 36,632 unique transcripts were identified and 14,325 of these were able to be annotated. The copy number of each transcript was counted, averaged and compared for R and S animals (R-S). P values and False Discovery Rates (FDR) were calculated for each transcript. Genes differentially upregulated ≥2 fold (FDR<0.5) totalled 9, 40 and 32 in R animals (+ values) and 23, 164 and 47 in S animals (- values) at weeks 4, 12, and 50pc, respectively. Transcripts displaying greatest differential expression between R and S animals at each time point were IFIT2 (189 fold) and S100A8 (-32.7 fold) at week 4, LRR1 (52.7 fold), SERPINF2 (-214.6 fold) at week 12 and CEACAM8 (84.6 fold), and STK31 (-129.5 fold) at week 50, respectively. All 9 genes significantly upregulated at week 4 in R animals relate specifically to host defence and all involve Type I interferon stimulated genes. By contrast genes upregulated in S animals at week 4, relate predominantly to inflammation, but also involve adaptive immune responses, mitochondrial function and apoptosis regulation. At week 12, the genes differentially upregulated in R animals are linked predominantly to regulation of adaptive immunity and mucosal immunity, while many of the genes in S animals are associated with pro-inflammatory interleukins involved with innate and adaptive immunity. These correlated with greater lesion severity

  7. Liofilchem(®) Chromatic VRE and vancomycin MIC Test Strip detected glycopeptide resistance in a vanB neonatal Enterococcus faecium isolate showing alternate vancomycin susceptibility and resistance with bioMérieux Vitek2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savini, Vincenzo; Marrollo, Roberta; Coclite, Eleonora; Fusilli, Paola; D'Incecco, Carmine; Fazii, Paolo; Gherardi, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    A 1-month old neonate urine sample yielded vanB Enterococcus faecium; nevertheless, the isolate alternatively showed susceptibility and resistance to vancomycin with bioMérieux Vitek2 (cards AST592, AST632, AST586), while glycopeptide resistance was detected by Liofilchem(®) vancomycin MIC Test Strip and disc along with the Chromatic VRE chromogenic medium. This communication emphasizes that, as vanB gene may be heterogeneously expressed within a given Enterococcus population, glycopeptide resistance may be missed when using automated systems for antibiotic susceptibility testing. We suggest therefore that vancomycin in vitro activity be studied on all clinical isolates through agar methods, including use of chromogenic media.

  8. [Identification of filamentous fungi isolated from clinical samples by two different methods and their susceptibility results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direkel, Sahin; Otağ, Feza; Aslan, Gönül; Ulger, Mahmut; Emekdaş, Gürol

    2012-01-01

    Molds are widely distributed in nature. Aspergillus spp. represent the most frequently observed causative agents, however less frequent pathogens Fusarium, Scedosporium and Zygomycetes have also been considered the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in profoundly immunosuppressed hosts. The aims of this study were to identify filamentous fungi isolated from clinical specimens by conventional and molecular methods, and to detect their antifungal susceptibilities. A total of 6742 clinical specimens obtained from hospitalized patients at critical units of Mersin University Medical Faculty Hospital and sent to our laboratory between April 2008-January 2010 were included in the study. The isolates were identified by classical mycological methods and polymerase chain reaction-based DNA sequencing. Susceptibilities to fluconazole and voriconazole were tested by disk diffusion method and to fluconazole, voriconazole, amfoterisin B, caspofungin and posaconazole by E-test. Filamentous fungi were isolated from 71 (1.05%) samples (13 sputum, 4 wound, 4 peritoneal fluid, 3 extrenal ear discharge, 3 abscess and one of each cerebrospinal fluid, blood, tissue biopsy, nasal swab and conjunctival swab) which belonged to 32 patients (13 female, 19 male; age range 7 months-77 years, mean age: 46.6 years). Of the patients 62.3% presented one or more risk factors such as chronic renal failure (n= 8), chronic obstructive lung disease (n= 6), malignancy (n= 6), diabetes mellitus (n= 5) and peripheral vascular disease (n= 5). Of the isolates six were identified as Aspergillus niger, six as Aspergillus flavus, five as Aspergillus fumigatus, four as Aspergillus terreus, five as Fusarium spp., two as Bipolaris spp., and one of each as Acremonium spp., Aurebasidium spp., Mucor spp., and Scedosporium spp. By conventional methods. Three isolates exhibited different identities by DNA sequencing. All Aspergillus isolates were correctly identified at species level by both methods

  9. Antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring of bacterial pathogens isolated from respiratory tract infections in dogs and cats across Europe: ComPath results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Ian; Moyaert, Hilde; de Jong, Anno; El Garch, Farid; Klein, Ulrich; Ludwig, Carolin; Thiry, Julien; Youala, Myriam

    2016-08-15

    ComPath is a pan-European resistance monitoring programme collecting bacterial pathogens from dogs and cats. We present data for respiratory tract infection (RTI) isolates collected between 2008 and 2010. Antimicrobial minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined and susceptibility calculated following Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) standards for veterinary medicine. The main pathogen from dogs was Staphylococcus intermedius Group (49/215, 22.8%) which was >90% susceptible to most antimicrobials (including oxacillin - 93.9%; 3 isolates confirmed mecA-positive) but only 59.2%, 73.5% and 87.8% susceptible to tetracycline, chloramphenicol and penicillin. Bordetella bronchiseptica (48/215, 22.3%), streptococci (36/215, 16.7%), Escherichia coli (24/215, 11.2%) and Pasteurella multocida (23/215, 10.7%) were also found in dog RTI. There are no breakpoints for Bordetella bronchiseptica. Most streptococci were penicillin- chloramphenicol-, ampicillin- and pradofloxacin-susceptible. None were enrofloxacin-resistant but 6 isolates (16.7%) were of intermediate susceptibility. The least active agent against streptococci was tetracycline (47.2% susceptible). For E. coli, 37.5% were ampicillin-susceptible but 83.3% were amoxicillin/clavulanic acid-susceptible. Only chloramphenicol showed susceptibility>90% against E. coli, with 66.7% tetracycline-susceptible and 79.2% to 87.5% susceptibility to enrofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or pradofloxacin. P. multocida were susceptible to pradofloxacin (no other breakpoints are available). The main pathogen from cats was P. multocida (82/186, 44.1%), where only pradofloxacin has breakpoints (100% susceptible). Streptococci were also collected from cats (25/186, 13.4%) and were >90% susceptible to all antimicrobials except tetracycline (36% susceptible). Most susceptibility was calculated with human-derived breakpoints and some antimicrobials had no breakpoints. Therefore predictions of clinical utility

  10. Graphene susceptibility in Holstein model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousavi, Hamze, E-mail: hamze.mousavi@gmail.co [Department of Physics, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nano Science and Nano Technology Research Center, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    We study the effects of the electron-phonon interaction on the temperature dependence of the orbital magnetic susceptibility of monolayer graphene. We use the linear response theory and Green's function formalism within the Holstein Hamiltonian model. The results show that the effects of the electron-phonon interaction on the susceptibility of graphene sheet have different behaviors in two temperature regions. In the low temperature region, susceptibility increases when the electron-phonon coupling strength increases. On the other hand, the susceptibility reduces with increasing the electron-phonon coupling strength in the high temperature region. - Highlights: Effect of electron-phonon interaction on the susceptibility of graphene is studied. Linear response theory and Green's function technique in Holstein model are used. Effect of electron-phonon on susceptibility has different behaviors in two temperature regions.

  11. Detection of 140 clinically relevant antibiotic-resistance genes in the plasmid metagenome of wastewater treatment plant bacteria showing reduced susceptibility to selected antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepanowski, Rafael; Linke, Burkhard; Krahn, Irene; Gartemann, Karl-Heinz; Gützkow, Tim; Eichler, Wolfgang; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas

    2009-07-01

    To detect plasmid-borne antibiotic-resistance genes in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) bacteria, 192 resistance-gene-specific PCR primer pairs were designed and synthesized. Subsequent PCR analyses on total plasmid DNA preparations obtained from bacteria of activated sludge or the WWTP's final effluents led to the identification of, respectively, 140 and 123 different resistance-gene-specific amplicons. The genes detected included aminoglycoside, beta-lactam, chloramphenicol, fluoroquinolone, macrolide, rifampicin, tetracycline, trimethoprim and sulfonamide resistance genes as well as multidrug efflux and small multidrug resistance genes. Some of these genes were only recently described from clinical isolates, demonstrating genetic exchange between clinical and WWTP bacteria. Sequencing of selected resistance-gene-specific amplicons confirmed their identity or revealed that the amplicon nucleotide sequence is very similar to a gene closely related to the reference gene used for primer design. These results demonstrate that WWTP bacteria are a reservoir for various resistance genes. Moreover, detection of about 64 % of the 192 reference resistance genes in bacteria obtained from the WWTP's final effluents indicates that these resistance determinants might be further disseminated in habitats downstream of the sewage plant.

  12. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from children with impetigo in China from 2003 to 2007 shows community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to be uncommon and heterogeneous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Kong, F; Zhang, X; Brown, M; Ma, L; Yang, Y

    2009-12-01

    The number of patients with impetigo caused by community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has been increasing. To investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility of S. aureus causing impetigo in children in China from 2003 to 2007 and further characterize isolates of CA-MRSA. We examined 984 S. aureus isolates for antimicrobial susceptibility to 11 antimicrobials using the agar dilution method. CA-MRSA isolates were analysed for Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) genes, and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing was performed. The largest proportion (94.5%) of strains were resistant to penicillin, followed by erythromycin (86.2%) and clindamycin (69.6%). In total 772 of 984 (78.5%) S. aureus strains were multiresistant. The incidence of CA-MRSA was 1.1%, with a high rate of resistance to clindamycin (90.9%) and tetracycline (72.7%), but all were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. The susceptibility profiles of MRSA to other antimicrobial agents were similar to those of methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA). None of the S. aureus strains were resistant to vancomycin and fusidic acid; moreover, only one strain was resistant to mupirocin. Typing of the SCCmec showed that 54.5% were type IV, 18.2% were type V and 9.1% were type VI. All the PVL-positive CA-MRSA carried SCCmec type IV. CA-MRSA is still relatively uncommon and heterogeneous in children in China. Penicillin and erythromycin are no longer appropriate agents. Effective antibiotic agents for patients with impetigo are mupirocin and fusidic acid.

  13. The Rock Engineering System (RES) applied to landslide susceptibility zonation of the northeastern flank of Etna: methodological approach and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apuani, Tiziana; Corazzato, Claudia

    2015-04-01

    instability-related numerical ratings are assigned to classes. An instability index map is then produced by assigning, to each areal elementary cell (in our case a 10 m pixel), the sum of the products of each weight factor to the normalized parameter rating coming from each input zonation map. This map is then opportunely classified in landslide susceptibility classes (expressed as a percentage), enabling to discriminate areas prone to instability. Overall, the study area is characterized by a low propensity to slope instability. Few areas have an instability index of more than 45% of the theoretical maximum imposed by the matrix. These are located in the few steep slopes associated with active faults, and strongly depending on the seismic activity. Some other areas correspond to limited outcrops characterized by significantly reduced lithotechnical properties (low shear strength). The produced susceptibility map combines the application of the RES with the parameter zonation, following methodology which had never been applied up to now in in active volcanic environments. The comparison of the results with the ground deformation evidence coming from monitoring networks suggests the validity of the approach.

  14. Conventional physical therapy and physical therapy based on reflex stimulation showed similar results in children with myelomeningocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Y. P. Aizawa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We aimed to investigate whether infants with myelomeningocele would improve their motor ability and functional independence after ten sessions of physical therapy and compare the outcomes of conventional physical therapy (CPT to a physical therapy program based on reflex stimulation (RPT. Twelve children were allocated to CPT (n = 6, age 18.3 months or RPT (n = 6, age 18.2 months. The RPT involved proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation. Children were assessed with the Gross Motor Function Measure and the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory before and after treatment. Mann-Whitney tests compared the improvement on the two scales of CPT versus RPT and the Wilcoxon test compared CPT to RPT (before vs. after treatment. Possible correlations between the two scales were tested with Spearman correlation coefficients. Both groups showed improvement on self-care and mobility domains of both scales. There were no differences between the groups, before, or after intervention. The CPT and RPT showed similar results after ten weeks of treatment.

  15. The role of disease perceptions and results sharing in psychological adaptation after genetic susceptibility testing: the REVEAL Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Sato; Koehly, Laura M; Roberts, J Scott; Chen, Clara A; Hiraki, Susan; Green, Robert C

    2010-12-01

    This study evaluates the extent to which psychological adaptation (validated measures of depressive symptoms, anxiety, and test-specific distress) after genetic susceptibility testing is influenced by changes in beliefs about Alzheimer's disease (AD) and sharing of test results with others. Adult children of AD patients (N=269) from a randomized clinical trial involving genetic testing for apolipoprotein E (APOE) provided information before, as well as 6 weeks and 12 months after results disclosure. The levels of adaptation varied highly among participants at 12-month assessment. Participants who learned that they were ε4 negative (lower risk) had a reduction in perceived risk and concern about developing AD compared with those who learned that they were ε4 positive. Those who received results through an extended educational protocol (three in-person visits) had a larger decline in AD concern than those in a condensed protocol (educational brochure and two in-person visits). Increase in AD concern 6 weeks after disclosure was associated with increase in depression scores (b=0.20, Ppsychological adaptation.

  16. Continuous exposure to Plasmodium results in decreased susceptibility and transcriptomic divergence of the Anopheles gambiae immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimopoulos George

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium infection has been shown to compromise the fitness of the mosquito vector, reducing its fecundity and longevity. However, from an evolutionary perspective, the impact of Plasmodium infection as a selective pressure on the mosquito is largely unknown. Results In the present study we have addressed the effect of a continuous Plasmodium berghei infection on the resistance to infection and global gene expression in Anopheles gambiae. Exposure of A. gambiae to P. berghei-infected blood and infection for 16 generations resulted in a decreased susceptibility to infection, altered constitutive expression levels for approximately 2.4% of the mosquito's total transcriptome and a lower basal level of immune genes expression, including several anti-Plasmodium factors. The infection-responsiveness for several defense genes was elevated in the P. berghei exposed mosquito colonies. Conclusion Our study establishes the existence of a selective pressure exerted by the parasite P. berghei on the malaria vector A. gambiae that results in a decreased permissiveness to infection and changes in the mosquito transcriptome regulation that suggest a decreased constitutive immune gene activity but a more potent immune response upon Plasmodium challenge.

  17. Treatment history and antimicrobial susceptibility results for Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni isolates from bovine respiratory disease cases submitted to the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory from 2013 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magstadt, Drew R; Schuler, Adlai M; Coetzee, Johann F; Krull, Adam C; O'Connor, Annette M; Cooper, Vickie L; Engelken, Terry J

    2017-10-01

    Bovine respiratory disease is the most costly disease facing the cattle industry. Increasing resistance to antimicrobial treatment has been presented as a significant contributing factor, often through summarized susceptibility testing data. We assessed the relationship between previous antimicrobial treatment and antimicrobial susceptibility results from isolates of Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni cultured from bovine respiratory cases submitted to the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory from 2013 to 2015. Antimicrobial susceptibility data from 1,251 bacterial isolates were included for analysis. More bacterial isolates from cattle that received antimicrobial treatment showed resistance compared to isolates from untreated cattle, and the percentage of resistant isolates increased as the number of antimicrobial treatments increased. Resistance to enrofloxacin, spectinomycin, tilmicosin, and tulathromycin was present in >75% of M. haemolytica isolates from cattle that had received 3 or more antimicrobial treatments; resistance to each of those 4 antimicrobials was present in ≤10% of M. haemolytica isolates from untreated cattle. Similar but less dramatic trends were apparent for isolates of P. multocida and H. somni. The percentage of multi-drug resistant bacterial isolates also increased with the number of treatments. Results of our study suggest that previous antimicrobial treatment may have a profound effect on antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Summarized susceptibility results from diagnostic laboratories should not be used to make generalized statements regarding trends in antimicrobial resistance without providing context regarding antimicrobial treatment history.

  18. Genomic and Enzymatic Results Show Bacillus cellulosilyticus Uses a Novel Set of LPXTA Carbohydrases to Hydrolyze Polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, David; Drinkwater, Colleen; Brumm, Phillip J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Alkaliphilic Bacillus species are intrinsically interesting due to the bioenergetic problems posed by growth at high pH and high salt. Three alkaline cellulases have been cloned, sequenced and expressed from Bacillus cellulosilyticus N-4 (Bcell) making it an excellent target for genomic sequencing and mining of biomass-degrading enzymes. Methodology/Principal Findings The genome of Bcell is a single chromosome of 4.7 Mb with no plasmids present and three large phage insertions. The most unusual feature of the genome is the presence of 23 LPXTA membrane anchor proteins; 17 of these are annotated as involved in polysaccharide degradation. These two values are significantly higher than seen in any other Bacillus species. This high number of membrane anchor proteins is seen only in pathogenic Gram-positive organisms such as Listeria monocytogenes or Staphylococcus aureus. Bcell also possesses four sortase D subfamily 4 enzymes that incorporate LPXTA-bearing proteins into the cell wall; three of these are closely related to each other and unique to Bcell. Cell fractionation and enzymatic assay of Bcell cultures show that the majority of polysaccharide degradation is associated with the cell wall LPXTA-enzymes, an unusual feature in Gram-positive aerobes. Genomic analysis and growth studies both strongly argue against Bcell being a truly cellulolytic organism, in spite of its name. Preliminary results suggest that fungal mycelia may be the natural substrate for this organism. Conclusions/Significance Bacillus cellulosilyticus N-4, in spite of its name, does not possess any of the genes necessary for crystalline cellulose degradation, demonstrating the risk of classifying microorganisms without the benefit of genomic analysis. Bcell is the first Gram-positive aerobic organism shown to use predominantly cell-bound, non-cellulosomal enzymes for polysaccharide degradation. The LPXTA-sortase system utilized by Bcell may have applications both in anchoring

  19. Children of low socioeconomic status show accelerated linear growth in early childhood; results from the Generation R Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay M Silva

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: People of low socioeconomic status are shorter than those of high socioeconomic status. The first two years of life being critical for height development, we hypothesized that a low socioeconomic status is associated with a slower linear growth in early childhood. We studied maternal educational level (high, mid-high, mid-low, and low as a measure of socioeconomic status and its association with repeatedly measured height in children aged 0-2 years, and also examined to what extent known determinants of postnatal growth contribute to this association. METHODS: This study was based on data from 2972 mothers with a Dutch ethnicity, and their children participating in The Generation R Study, a population-based cohort study in Rotterdam, The Netherlands (participation rate 61%. All children were born between April 2002 and January 2006. Height was measured at 2 months (mid-90% range 1.0-3.9, 6 months (mid-90% range 5.6-11.4, 14 months (mid-90% range 13.7-17.9 and 25 months of age (mid-90% range 23.6-29.6. RESULTS: At 2 months, children in the lowest educational subgroup were shorter than those in the highest (difference: -0.87 cm; 95% CI: -1.16, -0.58. Between 1 and 18 months, they grew faster than their counterparts. By 14 months, children in the lowest educational subgroup were taller than those in the highest (difference at 14 months: 0.40 cm; 95% CI: 0.08,0.72. Adjustment for other determinants of postnatal growth did not explain the taller height. On the contrary, the differences became even larger (difference at 14 months: 0.61 cm; 95% CI: 0.26,0.95; and at 25 months: 1.00 cm; 95% CI: 0.57,1.43 CONCLUSIONS: Compared with children of high socioeconomic status, those of low socioeconomic status show an accelerated linear growth until the 18th month of life, leading to an overcompensation of their initial height deficit. The long-term consequences of these findings remain unclear and require further study.

  20. Genome-wide high-density SNP linkage search for glioma susceptibility loci: results from the Gliogene Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shete, Sanjay; Lau, Ching C; Houlston, Richard S

    2011-01-01

    Gliomas, which generally have a poor prognosis, are the most common primary malignant brain tumors in adults. Recent genome-wide association studies have shown that inherited susceptibility plays a role in the development of glioma. Although first-degree relatives of patients exhibit a two-fold i...

  1. Deficiency in macrophage-stimulating protein results in spontaneous intestinal inflammation and increased susceptibility toward epithelial damage in zebrafish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witte, Merlijn; Huitema, Leonie F. A.; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E. S.; Brugman, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Several genome-wide association studies have identified the genes encoding for macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP) and its receptor RON (Recepteur d'Origine Nantais) as possible susceptibility factors in inflammatory bowel disease. While it has been shown that the MSP-RON signaling pathway

  2. Short communication: Heritability estimates for susceptibility to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection defined by ELISA and fecal culture test results in Jersey cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Y; Shook, G E; Collins, M T; Kirkpatrick, B W

    2014-07-01

    Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease), an enteric disorder in ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis, causes economic losses in excess of $200 million annually to the US dairy industry. Costly diagnostic testing, cumbersome control programs, incurability, and ineffective vaccination all make M. avium ssp. paratuberculosis susceptibility a good candidate for genetic studies and genetic selection a potentially useful adjunct to management-based control programs. No report has been published for heritability of susceptibility to M. avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection in Jersey cattle. The objective of this study was to estimate variance components and heritability for susceptibility to M. avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection in US Jersey cattle. Data consisted of complete serum ELISA and partial fecal culture results on a total of 2,861 Jersey cows from 23 commercial herds throughout the United States after editing. Four M. avium ssp. paratuberculosis susceptibility phenotypes were defined using (1) ELISA sample-to-positive ratios as a continuous trait, (2) ELISA results as a binary trait (positive=1, negative=0), (3) ELISA results as an ordered categorical trait, and (4) a combined test in which ELISA and fecal culture results were both taken into account in a binary analysis. Three statistical models, including linear, binary threshold, and ordered threshold sire models, were used to analyze the data. All analyses were executed using the restricted maximum likelihood method in ASReml 3 software. The heritability estimates were low to moderate and ranged from 0.08 (±0.03) to 0.27 (±0.11) based on different trait definitions. The nonzero heritability indicates that susceptibility to M. avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection in Jersey cattle is influenced by genetic factors. Therefore, selection of the least susceptible animals could decrease genetic predisposition to M. avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection in Jersey populations in future

  3. PROLONGED DUAL ANTIPLATELET THERAPY AFTER MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION: WHAT THE RESULTS OF THE PEGASUS-TIMI 54 TRIAL SHOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Yavelov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Prerequisites for the prolonged dual antiplatelet therapy after myocardial infarction are presented. The results of a large randomized placebo-controlled PEGASUS-TIMI 54 trial on the evaluation of efficacy and safety of prolonged use of a combination of acetylsalicylic acid and blocker P2Y12 platelet receptor, ticagrelor, in patients with high risk of thrombotic complications of atherosclerosis with a history of myocardial infarction 1-3 years ago are considered. The contribution of the results of this clinical trial in the modern understanding of the optimal use of antiplatelet agents in patients after myocardial infarction is analyzed.

  4. Early Results Show Reduced Infection Rate Using No-touch Technique for Expander/ADM Breast Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry B. Wilson, MD, FACS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Infection is a common complication of immediate breast reconstruction that often leads to device removal, a result emotionally devastating to the patient and frustrating for her surgeon. “No-touch” techniques have been used in other surgical disciplines and plastic surgery, but they have not been reported for breast reconstruction with tissue expanders or implants and acellular dermis. We report a novel technique of tissue expander and acellular dermis placement using no-touch principles with a self-retaining retractor system that holds promise to decrease infectious complications of breast reconstruction.

  5. Norwegian lakes show widespread recovery from acidification; results from national surveys of lakewater chemistry 1986-1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. L. Skjelkvåle

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Surveys of 485 lakes in Norway conducted in 1986 and again in 1995 reveal widespread chemical recovery from acidification. Sulphate concentrations in lakes have decreased by 40% in acidified areas in southern Norway. This decrease has been compensated about 25% by decreases in concentrations of base cations and of 75% by increased Acid Neutralising Capacity (ANC. The increased ANC in turn reflects lower concentrations of acidic cations Aluminum (ALn+ and Hydrogen (H+. A sub-set of 78 of the 485 lakes sampled yearly between 1986 and 1997 shows that, at first most of the decrease in non-marine sulphate (SO4* was compensated by a decrease in base cations, such that ANC remained unchanged. Then as SO4* continued to decrease, the concentrations of non- marine calcium and magnesium ((Ca+Mg* levelled out. Consequently, ANC increased, and H+ and Aln+ started to decrease. In eastern Norway, this shift occurred in 1989–90, and came slightly later in southern and western Norway. Similar shifts in trends in about 1991–92 can also be seen in the non-acidified areas in central and northern Norway. This shift in trends is not as pronounced in western Norway, perhaps because of the confounding influence of sea-salt episodes on water chemistry. This is the first documented national-scale recovery from acidification due to reduced acid deposition. Future climate warming and potentially increased N-leaching can counteract the positive trends in recovery from acidification.

  6. Bilateral femoral neck fractures resulting from pregnancy-associated osteoporosis showed bone marrow edema on magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Kyoko; Kita, Nobuyuki; Kawasaki, Taku; Morisaki, Shinsuke; Yomo, Hiroko; Murakami, Takashi

    2017-06-01

    Femoral neck fractures resulting from pregnancy-associated osteoporosis is a rare condition. Herein, we report an undoubted case of pregnancy-associated osteoporosis in a 38-year-old primiparous patient with pre-existing anorexia nervosa who suffered bilateral femoral neck fractures in the third trimester and early post-partum period. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed femoral neck fractures as well as diffuse marrow edema involving both femoral heads, which are considered under ordinary circumstances as characteristic imaging findings of transient osteoporosis of the hip. Based on our experience, we propose that pregnancy-associated osteoporosis might be present in femoral neck fractures attributed to transient osteoporosis of the hip in pregnancy. Conversely, bone status should be carefully and accurately estimated in cases of potential transient osteoporosis of the hip in pregnancy to reduce future fracture risk. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. A transposable element insertion in the susceptibility gene CsaMLO8 results in hypocotyl resistance to powdery mildew in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Jeroen A; Appiano, Michela; Santillán Martínez, Miguel; Hermans, Freddy W K; Vriezen, Wim H; Visser, Richard G F; Bai, Yuling; Schouten, Henk J

    2015-10-09

    Powdery mildew (PM) is an important disease of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). CsaMLO8 was previously identified as a candidate susceptibility gene for PM in cucumber, for two reasons: 1) This gene clusters phylogenetically in clade V, which has previously been shown to harbour all known MLO-like susceptibility genes for PM identified in dicot species; 2) This gene co-localizes with a QTL on chromosome 5 for hypocotyl-specific resistance to PM. CsaMLO8 alleles from susceptible and resistant cucumber were cloned and transformed to mlo-mutant tomato. Cucumber seedlings were inoculated with Podosphaera xanthii, tissues were studied for CsaMLO8 expression at several timepoints post inoculation using qRT-PCR. The occurrence of the observed loss-of-function allele of CsaMLO8 in resequenced cucumber accessions was studied in silico. We cloned CsaMLO8 alleles from susceptible and resistant cucumber genotypes, the latter carrying the QTL for hypocotyl resistance. We found that insertion of a non-autonomous Class LTR retrotransposable element in the resistant genotype leads to aberrant splicing of CsaMLO8 mRNA. Heterologous expression of the wild-type allele of CsaMLO8 in a tomato mlo-mutant restored PM susceptibility. However, heterologous expression of the CsaMLO8 allele cloned from the resistant cucumber genotype failed to restore PM susceptibility. Furthermore we showed that inoculation of susceptible cucumber with the PM pathogen Podosphaera xanthii induced transcriptional upregulation of CsaMLO8 in hypocotyl tissue, but not in cotyledon or leaf tissue. This coincides with the observation that the QTL at the CsaMLO8-locus causes full resistance in hypocotyl tissue, but only partial resistance in cotyledons and true leafs. We studied the occurrence of the loss-of-function allele of CsaMLO8 in cucumber germplasm by an in silico approach using resequencing data of a collection of 115 cucumber accessions, and found that this allele was present in 31 out of 115 accessions

  8. Carbapenem non-susceptible enterobacteriaceae in Quebec, Canada: results of a laboratory surveillance program (2010-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Lefebvre

    Full Text Available The emergence and spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE represent a major public health concern because these bacteria are usually extensively resistant to most antibiotics. In order to evaluate their dissemination in Quebec, a surveillance program was introduced in 2010. We report the molecular and epidemiological profiles of CPE isolates collected. Between August 2010 and December 2012, a total of 742 non-duplicate isolates non-susceptible to carbapenems were analysed. AmpC β-lactamase and metallo-β-lactamase production were detected by Etest and carbapenemase production by the modified Hodge test (MHT. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles were determined using broth microdilution or Etest. Clonality of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC strains was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. The presence of genes encoding carbapenemases as well as other β-lactamases was detected using PCR. Of the 742 isolates tested, 169 (22.8% were CPE. Of these 169 isolates, 151 (89.3% harboured a blaKPC gene while the remaining isolates carried blaSME (n = 9, blaOXA-48 (n = 5, blaNDM (n = 3, and blaNMC (n = 1 genes. Among the 93 KPC strains presenting with a unique pattern (unique PFGE pattern and/or unique antibiotics susceptibility profile, 99% were resistant to ertapenem, 95% to imipenem, 87% to meropenem, 97% to aztreonam, 31% to colistin and 2% to tigecycline. In 19 patients, 2 to 5 KPC strains from different species or with a different PFGE pattern were isolated. CPE strains were present in the province of Quebec with the majority of strains harbouring KPC. Alternately, SME, OXA-48 and NMC containing strains were rarely found.

  9. Enhancement of bactericidal activity against group B streptococci with reduced penicillin susceptibility by uptake of gentamicin into cells resulting from combination with β-lactam antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebara, Yoshifumi; Morozumi, Miyuki; Sato, Mamiko; Moritoki, Nobuko; Toyofuku, Meiwa; Takata, Misako; Murata, Mitsuru; Ubukata, Kimiko; Iwata, Satoshi

    2017-05-01

    Combined effects of penicillin (PEN) and gentamicin (GM) against Streptococcus agalactiae, i.e. group B streptococci (GBS), are known to occur, but synergy has not been examined in strains with reduced PEN susceptibility, usually called PEN-resistant GBS (PRGBS). We therefore studied combined effects of β-lactam antibiotics and GM in cultures of 3 PRGBS strains belonging to serotype Ia or III that were isolated from Japanese adults with invasive infections. Killing kinetics were determined at 2-h intervals from 0 to 6 h after exposure to ampicillin (AMP) or cefotaxime (CTX) combined with GM. Concentrations of GM in bacterial cells were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Morphologic changes after exposure to agents were observed by transmission electron microscopy. Combining AMP or CTX with GM synergistically increased bactericidal activity against PRGBS beyond that of either β-lactam alone. GM concentrations in bacterial cells increased 5- to 8-fold when GM was combined with AMP or CTX. Electron microscopically, bacterial cells showed aggregates of strands and ribosomal damage most likely reflecting enhanced GM uptake into bacterial cells. This uptake appeared to result from cell wall damage caused by β-lactam antibiotics. This study suggests that combining β-lactam antibiotics with GM might be useful against severe PRGBS infection. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of species-level identification and antifungal susceptibility results from diagnostic and reference laboratories for bloodstream Candida surveillance isolates, South Africa, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naicker, Serisha D; Govender, Nevashan; Patel, Jaymati; Zietsman, Inge L; Wadula, Jeannette; Coovadia, Yacoob; Kularatne, Ranmini; Seetharam, Sharona; Govender, Nelesh P

    2016-11-01

    From February 2009 through August 2010, we compared species-level identification of bloodstream Candida isolates and susceptibility to fluconazole, voriconazole, and caspofungin between diagnostic and reference South African laboratories during national surveillance for candidemia. Diagnostic laboratories identified isolates to genus/species level and performed antifungal susceptibility testing, as indicated. At a reference laboratory, viable Candida isolates were identified to species-level using automated systems, biochemical tests, or DNA sequencing; broth dilution susceptibility testing was performed. Categorical agreement (CA) was calculated for susceptibility results of isolates with concordant species identification. Overall, 2172 incident cases were detected, 773 (36%) by surveillance audit. The Vitek 2 YST system (bioMérieux Inc, Marcy l'Etoile, France) was used for identification (360/863, 42%) and susceptibility testing (198/473, 42%) of a large proportion of isolates. For the five most common species (n = 1181), species-level identification was identical in the majority of cases (Candida albicans: 98% (507/517); Candida parapsilosis: 92% (450/488); Candida glabrata: 89% (89/100); Candida tropicalis: 91% (49/54), and Candida krusei: 86% (19/22)). However, diagnostic laboratories were significantly less likely to correctly identify Candida species other than C. albicans versus C. albicans (607/664, 91% vs. 507/517, 98%; P albicans (36/362, 10% vs. 3/362, 0.8%; P Candida species other than C. albicans, under-reported fluconazole resistance for C. parapsilosis and over-reported fluconazole resistance for C. albicans. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility determined by the E test, Löwenstein-Jensen proportion, and DNA sequencing methods among Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates discrepancies, preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inês Moura Freixo

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains resistant to streptomycin (SM, isoniazid (INH, and/or rifampin (RIF as determined by the conventional Löwenstein-Jensen proportion method (LJPM were compared with the E test, a minimum inhibitory concentration susceptibility method. Discrepant isolates were further evaluated by BACTEC and by DNA sequence analyses for mutations in genes most often associated with resistance to these drugs (rpsL, katG, inhA, and rpoB. Preliminary discordant E test results were seen in 75% of isolates resistant to SM and in 11% to INH. Discordance improved for these two drugs (63% for SM and none for INH when isolates were re-tested but worsened for RIF (30%. Despite good agreement between phenotypic results and sequencing analyses, wild type profiles were detected on resistant strains mainly for SM and INH. It should be aware that susceptible isolates according to molecular methods might contain other mechanisms of resistance. Although reproducibility of the LJPM susceptibility method has been established, variable E test results for some M. tuberculosis isolates poses questions regarding its reproducibility particularly the impact of E test performance which may vary among laboratories despite adherence to recommended protocols. Further studies must be done to enlarge the evaluated samples and looked possible mutations outside of the hot spot sequenced gene among discrepant strains.

  12. Correlation between genotypic and phenotypic testing for resistance to rifampin in Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates in Haiti: investigation of cases with discrepant susceptibility results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Ocheretina

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization has recommended use of molecular-based tests MTBDRplus and GeneXpert MTB/RIF to diagnose multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in developing and high-burden countries. Both tests are based on detection of mutations in the Rifampin (RIF Resistance-Determining Region of DNA-dependent RNA Polymerase gene (rpoB. Such mutations are found in 95-98% of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains determined to be RIF-resistant by the "gold standard" culture-based drug susceptibility testing (DST. We report the phenotypic and genotypic characterization of 153 consecutive clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains diagnosed as RIF-resistant by molecular tests in our laboratory in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. 133 isolates (86.9% were resistant to both RIF and Isoniazid and 4 isolates (2.6% were RIF mono-resistant in MGIT SIRE liquid culture-based DST. However the remaining 16 isolates (10.5% tested RIF-sensitive by the assay. Five strains with discordant genotypic and phenotypic susceptibility results had RIF minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC close to the cut-off value of 1 µg/ml used in phenotypic susceptibility assays and were confirmed as resistant by DST on solid media. Nine strains had sub-critical RIF MICs ranging from 0.063 to 0.5 µg/ml. Finally two strains were pan-susceptible and harbored a silent rpoB mutation. Our data indicate that not only detection of the presence but also identification of the nature of rpoB mutation is needed to accurately diagnose resistance to RIF in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Observed clinical significance of low-level resistance to RIF supports the re-evaluation of the present critical concentration of the drug used in culture-based DST assays.

  13. Marijuana Usage and Hypnotic Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzini, Louis R.; McDonald, Roy D.

    1973-01-01

    Anonymous self-reported drug usage data and hypnotic susceptibility scores were obtained from 282 college students. Frequent marijuana users (more than 10 times) showed greater susceptibility to hypnosis than nonusers. (Author)

  14. A multiplex single nucleotide polymorphism typing assay for detecting mutations that result in decreased fluoroquinolone susceptibility in Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Song, Yajun

    2010-08-01

    OBJECTIVES: Decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones has become a major problem for the successful therapy of human infections caused by Salmonella enterica, especially the life-threatening typhoid and paratyphoid fevers. METHODS: By using Luminex xTAG beads, we developed a rapid, reliable and cost-effective multiplexed genotyping assay for simultaneously detecting 11 mutations in gyrA, gyrB and parE of S. enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A that result in nalidixic acid resistance (Nal(R)) and\\/or decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones. RESULTS: This assay yielded unambiguous single nucleotide polymorphism calls on extracted DNA from 292 isolates of Salmonella Typhi (Nal(R) = 223 and Nal(S) = 69) and 106 isolates of Salmonella Paratyphi A (Nal(R) = 24 and Nal(S) = 82). All of the 247 Nal(R) Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A isolates were found to harbour at least one of the target mutations, with GyrA Phe-83 as the most common one (143\\/223 for Salmonella Typhi and 18\\/24 for Salmonella Paratyphi A). We also identified three GyrB mutations in eight Nal(S) Salmonella Typhi isolates (six for GyrB Phe-464, one for GyrB Leu-465 and one for GyrB Asp-466), and mutations GyrB Phe-464 and GyrB Asp-466 seem to be related to the decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility phenotype in Salmonella Typhi. This assay can also be used directly on boiled single colonies. CONCLUSIONS: The assay presented here would be useful for clinical and reference laboratories to rapidly screen quinolone-resistant isolates of Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A, and decipher the underlying genetic changes for epidemiological purposes.

  15. Comparability of antimicrobial susceptibility test results from 22 European countries and Israel : an external quality assurance exercise of the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS) in collaboration with the United Kingdom National External Quality Assurance Scheme (UK NEQAS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronzwaer, S; Buchholz, U; Courvalin, P; Snell, J; Cornaglia, G; de Neeling, A; Aubry-Damon, H; Degener, J

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this exercise was to organize external quality assurance (QA) of antibiotic susceptibility testing for laboratories participating in EARSS and to assess the comparability of susceptibility test results across countries, and guidelines. In September 2000, UK NEQAS distributed a set of

  16. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Monitoring of Bacterial Pathogens Isolated from Urinary Tract Infections in Dogs and Cats Across Europe: ComPath Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyaert, Hilde; Morrissey, Ian; de Jong, Anno; El Garch, Farid; Klein, Ulrich; Ludwig, Carolin; Thiry, Julien; Youala, Myriam

    2017-04-01

    ComPath is a pan-European antimicrobial surveillance program collecting bacterial pathogens from dogs and cats not recently exposed to antimicrobials. We present minimum inhibitory concentration data obtained using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methodology for 616 urinary tract infection (UTI) isolates collected between 2008 and 2010. In both dogs and cats, the most common pathogen was Escherichia coli (59.8% and 46.7%, respectively). Antimicrobial activity against E. coli in dogs and cats was similar with fluoroquinolone and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole susceptibility >90%. Ampicillin susceptibility was ∼80%. Staphylococcus intermedius Group isolates from dogs (67/437, 15.3%) had high antimicrobial susceptibility (>90%) toward beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Four canine isolates (6%) were oxacillin resistant, and harbored mecA. Proteus mirabilis from dogs (48/437, 11.0%) had high antimicrobial susceptibility (∼90%) to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, enrofloxacin, and marbofloxacin and slightly lower susceptibility (∼80-85%) to ampicillin and orbifloxacin. Streptococcus canis isolates (35/437, 8.0%) from dogs were all susceptible to ampicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and >90% susceptible to marbofloxacin. Although resistance was not observed, high intermediate susceptibility was seen for both enrofloxacin (28.6%) and orbifloxacin (85.7%). Overall, antimicrobial in vitro activity appears to be high in UTI pathogens from dogs and cats with low multidrug resistance, although a lack of specific dog and cat breakpoints for important antimicrobials such as cefovecin, cephalexin, and ibafloxacin prevents analysis of susceptibility for these agents.

  17. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Listeria species isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antimicrobial susceptibility profile of L. monocytogenes and other Listeria species isolated from some ready-to-eat (RTE) foods sold in Kano metropolis, north-western Nigeria was carried out using disc-diffusion method. The results obtained showed that L. monocytogenes was moderately susceptible to all the ...

  18. Impacts of a water stress followed by an early frost event on beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) susceptibility to Scolytine ambrosia beetles - Research strategy and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Spina, Sylvie; de Cannière, Charles; Molenberg, Jean-Marc; Vincke, Caroline; Deman, Déborah; Grégoire, Jean-Claude

    2010-05-01

    Climate change tends to induce more frequent abiotic and biotic extreme events, having large impacts on tree vitality. Weakened trees are then more susceptible to secondary insect outbreaks, as it happened in Belgium in the early 2000s: after an early frost event, secondary Scolytine ambrosia beetles attacks were observed on beech trees. In this study, we test if a combination of stress, i.e. a soil water deficit preceding an early frost, could render trees more attractive to beetles. An experimental study was set in autumn 2008. Two parcels of a beech forest were covered with plastic tents to induce a water stress by rain interception. The parcels were surrounded by 2-meters depth trenches to avoid water supply by streaming. Soil water content and different indicators of tree water use (sap flow, predawn leaf water potential, tree radial growth) were followed. In autumn 2010, artificial frost injuries will be inflicted to trees using dry ice. Trees attractivity for Scolytine insects, and the success of insect colonization will then be studied. The poster will focus on experiment setting and first results (impacts of soil water deficit on trees).

  19. Antibiotic susceptibility in Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pyogenes in Pakistan: a review of results from the Survey of Antibiotic Resistance (SOAR) 2002-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, A; Hasan, R; Nizamuddin, S; Mahmood, N; Mukhtar, S; Ali, F; Morrissey, I; Barker, K; Torumkuney, D

    2016-05-01

    To investigate changes in the antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pyogenes from the Survey of Antibiotic Resistance (SOAR) in community-acquired respiratory tract infections (CA-RTIs) between 2002 and 2015 in Pakistan. This is a review based on previously published studies from 2002-03, 2004-06 and 2007-09 and also new data from 2014-15. Susceptibility was determined by Etest(®) or disc diffusion according to CLSI and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) breakpoints. A total of 706 isolates from CA-RTIs comprising 381 S. pneumoniae, 230 H. influenzae and 95 S. pyogenes were collected between 2002 and 2015 and tested against a range of antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance in S. pneumoniae rose steeply from 2002 to 2009, with isolates non-susceptible to penicillin and macrolides increasing from 10% to 34.1% and from 13%-14% to 29.7%, respectively. Susceptibility to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (and by inference amoxicillin) remained between 99.4% and 100% from 2002 to 2015. Over the years, the prevalence of susceptibility to cefuroxime was 98%-100% among S. pneumoniae. Resistance in S. pneumoniae to some older antibiotics between 2007 and 2009 was high (86.8% for trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and 57.2% for tetracycline). Between 2002 and 2015, ampicillin resistance (β-lactamase-positive strains) among H. influenzae has remained low (between 2.6% and 3.2%) and almost unchanged over the years (H. influenzae was not tested during 2004-06). For S. pyogenes isolates, macrolide resistance reached 22%; however, susceptibility to penicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and cefuroxime remained stable at 100%. In S. pneumoniae from Pakistan, there has been a clear reduction in susceptibility to key antibiotics since 2002, but not to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (amoxicillin) or cefuroxime. However, susceptibility in H. influenzae has remained stable. Local antibiotic susceptibility/resistance data are essential to

  20. The role of rheumatoid arthritis genetic susceptibility markers in the prediction of erosive disease in patients with early inflammatory polyarthritis: results from the Norfolk Arthritis Register

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Darren; Thomson, Wendy; Lunt, Mark; Flynn, Edward; Martin, Paul; Eyre, Steven; Farragher, Tracey; Bunn, Diane; Worthington, Jane; Symmons, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. Recent whole-genome and candidate gene association studies in RA have identified a number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that predispose to disease with moderate risk. It remains poorly understood how recently identified genetic factors may contribute to RA severity. We therefore sought to investigate the role of recently identified RA susceptibility SNP markers in predicting erosive outcome in patients with recent-onset inflammatory polyarthritis (IP). Methods. DNA and X-ray data were available for 1049 patients who were registered between 1990 and 2003 with the Norfolk Arthritis Register (NOAR); a primary care-based inception cohort of patients with recent-onset IP. Demographic and clinical data were recorded at inclusion, and at yearly assessments thereafter. Patients were genotyped for 18 SNP markers. The presence of serum anti citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPAs) was assessed in samples collected at inclusion to the NOAR. The association of serological and genetic markers with poor radiological (Larsen) score at Years 1 and 5, and erosions at Years 1 and 5 was investigated. Results. Baseline ACPA positivity was associated with erosive disease and higher radiological damage. SNP markers within the TRAF1/C5 locus were associated with erosive disease at Year 1 [rs2900180: odds ratio (OR) 1.53 (95% CI 1.14, 2.05)] and Year 5 [rs2900180: OR 1.47 (95% CI 1.07, 2.02)]. None of the SNP markers tested was associated with Larsen score. Conclusion. Our results are in keeping with a previous report and suggest that the TRAF1/C5 region is associated with risk of development of radiological erosions in IP/RA patients. The finding requires replication in other large data sets. PMID:20219786

  1. Results of Use of WHO Global Salm-Surv External Quality Assurance System for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Salmonella Isolates from 2000 to 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Rene S.; Seyfarth, Anne Mette; Jensen, Arne Bent

    2009-01-01

    An international External Quality Assurance System (EQAS) for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Salmonella was initiated in 2000 by the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Salm-Surv in order to enhance the capacities of national reference laboratories to obtain reliable data for surveill......An international External Quality Assurance System (EQAS) for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Salmonella was initiated in 2000 by the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Salm-Surv in order to enhance the capacities of national reference laboratories to obtain reliable data...

  2. Treatment default amongst patients with tuberculosis in urban Morocco: predicting and explaining default and post-default sputum smear and drug susceptibility results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad Cherkaoui

    Full Text Available Public tuberculosis (TB clinics in urban Morocco.Explore risk factors for TB treatment default and develop a prediction tool. Assess consequences of default, specifically risk for transmission or development of drug resistance.Case-control study comparing patients who defaulted from TB treatment and patients who completed it using quantitative methods and open-ended questions. Results were interpreted in light of health professionals' perspectives from a parallel study. A predictive model and simple tool to identify patients at high risk of default were developed. Sputum from cases with pulmonary TB was collected for smear and drug susceptibility testing.91 cases and 186 controls enrolled. Independent risk factors for default included current smoking, retreatment, work interference with adherence, daily directly observed therapy, side effects, quick symptom resolution, and not knowing one's treatment duration. Age >50 years, never smoking, and having friends who knew one's diagnosis were protective. A simple scoring tool incorporating these factors was 82.4% sensitive and 87.6% specific for predicting default in this population. Clinicians and patients described additional contributors to default and suggested locally-relevant intervention targets. Among 89 cases with pulmonary TB, 71% had sputum that was smear positive for TB. Drug resistance was rare.The causes of default from TB treatment were explored through synthesis of qualitative and quantitative data from patients and health professionals. A scoring tool with high sensitivity and specificity to predict default was developed. Prospective evaluation of this tool coupled with targeted interventions based on our findings is warranted. Of note, the risk of TB transmission from patients who default treatment to others is likely to be high. The commonly-feared risk of drug resistance, though, may be low; a larger study is required to confirm these findings.

  3. Susceptibility of respiratory and urinary pathogens to ceftibuten and other comparative drugs: results of an Italian multicenter survey. The Italian Ceftibuten Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schito, G C; Nicoletti, G

    1994-04-01

    A survey aimed at assessing the ability of ceftibuten, a new oral third-generation cephalosporin, to eradicate in vitro selected bacterial pathogens was conducted in 1991 in 17 microbiology laboratories evenly distributed in Italy. Over 8700 organisms collected from in- and outpatients affected mainly by respiratory and urinary tract infections were analyzed. This collection of bacteria did not include staphylococci, enterococci, Pseudomonas and other oxidative species naturally refractory to the action of most antibiotics employed. Susceptibility to ceftibuten, cefaclor, cefuroxime, amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, cotrimoxazole and erythromycin was assessed using a standardized agar-diffusion method. Production of beta-lactamases was confirmed by the nitrocefin test. Among the microorganisms studied E. coli (32.1%) prevailed, followed by P. mirabilis (17.1%), K. pneumoniae (10.9%), S. pyogenes (6.6%), E. cloacae (5.1%), Serratia spp. (4.5%), Enterobacter spp. (4.2%), H. influenzae (3.6%), S. pneumoniae (2.2%) and M. catarrhalis (2%). Within this group of pathogens amoxicillin resistance, often mediated by synthesis of beta-lactamases, was widely diffused (46.2%). The overall inhibitory activity of the drugs tested decreased as follows: ceftibuten (90.4%), cefuroxime (80.4%), amoxicillin-clavulanate (77.4%), cotrimoxazole (75.3%), cefaclor (72.6%), amoxicillin (53.8%) and erythromycin (32.8%). When the efficacy of the antibiotics was assessed against the collection of respiratory isolates producing beta-lactamases only ceftibuten maintained the same overall potency manifested against the general population while the comparative agents were far less effective. The results of this national survey indicate that, given the low incidence of resistance among the most prevalent causative agents of respiratory and urinary tract infections, ceftibuten can be safely used at present in the empiric therapy of these conditions especially when they occur in community

  4. A transposable element insertion in the susceptibility gene CsaMLO8 results in hypocotyl resistance to powdery mildew in cucumber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, J.A.; Appiano, M.; Santillán Martínez, M.I.; Hemans, F.W.K.; Vriezen, W.H.; Visser, R.G.F.; Bai, Y.; Schouten, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background - Powdery mildew (PM) is an important disease of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). CsaMLO8 was previously identified as a candidate susceptibility gene for PM in cucumber, for two reasons: 1) This gene clusters phylogenetically in clade V, which has previously been shown to harbour all known

  5. Genotype versus phenotype: conflicting results in mapping a lung tumor susceptibility locus to the G7c recombination interval in the mouse MHC class III region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kooij, M.; de Groot, K.; van Vugt, H.; Aten, J.; Snoek, M.

    2001-01-01

    Susceptibility to chemically induced lung tumorigenesis has previously been mapped to a genomic interval of 27 kb in the MHC class III region of the mouse using two H2 (a/b) intra- H2 recombinants, B10.A(1R) and B10.A(2R). Three genes are located within this interval, G7e (encoding a viral envelope

  6. Dynamics of malaria transmission and susceptibility to clinical malaria episodes following treatment of Plasmodium falciparum asymptomatic carriers: results of a cluster-randomized study of community-wide screening and treatment, and a parallel entomology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiono, Alfred B; Guelbeogo, Moussa W; Sagnon, N Falé; Nébié, Issa; Sirima, Sodiomon B; Mukhopadhyay, Amitava; Hamed, Kamal

    2013-11-12

    In malaria-endemic countries, large proportions of individuals infected with Plasmodium falciparum are asymptomatic and constitute a reservoir of parasites for infection of newly hatched mosquitoes. Two studies were run in parallel in Burkina Faso to evaluate the impact of systematic identification and treatment of asymptomatic carriers of P. falciparum, detected by rapid diagnostic test, on disease transmission and susceptibility to clinical malaria episodes. A clinical study assessed the incidence of symptomatic malaria episodes with a parasite density >5,000/μL after three screening and treatment campaigns ~1 month apart before the rainy season; and an entomological study determined the effect of these campaigns on malaria transmission as measured by entomological inoculation rate. The intervention arm had lower prevalence of asymptomatic carriers of asexual parasites and lower prevalence of gametocyte carriers during campaigns 2 and 3 as compared to the control arm. During the entire follow-up period, out of 13,767 at-risk subjects, 2,516 subjects (intervention arm 1,332; control arm 1,184) had symptomatic malaria. Kaplan-Meier analysis of the incidence of first symptomatic malaria episode with a parasite density >5,000/μL showed that, in the total population, the two treatment arms were similar until Week 11-12 after campaign 3, corresponding with the beginning of the malaria transmission season, after which the probability of being free of symptomatic malaria was lower in the intervention arm (logrank p entomological inoculation rate was comparable in both arms, with September peaks in both indices. Community screening and targeted treatment of asymptomatic carriers of P. falciparum had no effect on the dynamics of malaria transmission, but seemed to be associated with an increase in the treated community's susceptibility to symptomatic malaria episodes after the screening campaigns had finished. These results highlight the importance of further

  7. Diagnostic Value of Direct Antibiotic Susceptibility Test for Faster BacterialSusceptibility Reporting in Bacteremia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebriarina Hapsari

    2012-12-01

    Methods: Bloods from positive BACTEC bottles which met inclusion and exclusion criteria were put into sterile tubes and centrifuged. The pellets were then used to make 0.5 McFarland bacterial suspensions and directly used for antibiotic susceptibility testing. Interpretations of direct method were compared to standard method to count sensitivity, specificity, sensitive predictive value, resistant predictive value, accuracy, and kappa value. Results: From 58 samples (containing 22 gram negative, 36 gram positive bacteria, there were 309 total antibiotic susceptibility tests. Direct method showed sensitivity, specificity, sensitive predictive value, resistant predictive value, accuracy, and kappa value of 89.3%, 92.9%, 93.8%, 87.8%, 86.4%, and 0.82, respectively. Conclusion: Direct antibiotic susceptibility testing has a good agreement with the standard method so it can aid faster antibiotic susceptibility reporting in bacteraemia (Sains Medika, 4(2:174-181.

  8. Storytelling Slide Shows to Improve Diabetes and High Blood Pressure Knowledge and Self-Efficacy: Three-Year Results among Community Dwelling Older African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertera, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    This study combined the African American tradition of oral storytelling with the Hispanic medium of "Fotonovelas." A staggered pretest posttest control group design was used to evaluate four Storytelling Slide Shows on health that featured community members. A total of 212 participants were recruited for the intervention and 217 for the…

  9. The role of dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced perfusion MR imaging in differentiating between infectious and neoplastic focal brain lesions: results from a cohort of 100 consecutive patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdeci Hélio Floriano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Differentiating between infectious and neoplastic focal brain lesions that are detected by conventional structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI may be a challenge in routine practice. Brain perfusion-weighted MRI (PWI may be employed as a complementary non-invasive tool, providing relevant data on hemodynamic parameters, such as the degree of angiogenesis of lesions. We aimed to employ dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced perfusion MR imaging (DSC-MRI to differentiate between infectious and neoplastic brain lesions by investigating brain microcirculation changes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DSC-MRI perfusion studies of one hundred consecutive patients with non-cortical neoplastic (n = 54 and infectious (n = 46 lesions were retrospectively assessed. MRI examinations were performed using a 1.5-T scanner. A preload of paramagnetic contrast agent (gadolinium was administered 30 seconds before acquisition of dynamic images, followed by a standard dose 10 seconds after starting imaging acquisitions. The relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV values were determined by calculating the regional cerebral blood volume in the solid areas of lesions, normalized to that of the contralateral normal-appearing white matter. Discriminant analyses were performed to determine the cutoff point of rCBV values that would allow the differentiation of neoplastic from infectious lesions and to assess the corresponding diagnostic performance of rCBV when using this cutoff value. RESULTS: Neoplastic lesions had higher rCBV values (4.28±2.11 than infectious lesions (0.63±0.49 (p<0.001. When using an rCBV value <1.3 as the parameter to define infectious lesions, the sensitivity of the method was 97.8% and the specificity was 92.6%, with a positive predictive value of 91.8%, a negative predictive value of 98.0%, and an accuracy of 95.0%. CONCLUSION: PWI is a useful complementary tool in distinguishing between infectious and neoplastic brain

  10. Alzheimer skin fibroblasts show increased susceptibility to free radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesco, G; Latorraca, S; Piersanti, P; Piacentini, S; Amaducci, L; Sorbi, S

    1992-11-01

    We have studied the response to toxic oxygen metabolites of fibroblasts derived from skin biopsies of 5 patients with familial (FAD) and 4 with sporadic (AD) Alzheimer's disease compared with those derived from 4 normal controls. Fibroblasts were damaged by the generation of oxygen metabolites during the enzymatic oxidation of acetaldehyde by 50 munits of xanthine-oxidase (Xo). To quantify cell damage we measured lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in the culture medium and cell viability in fibroblast cultures. We found a significant increase in LDH activity in the FAD vs. controls and also in the AD vs. controls.

  11. Species distribution and susceptibility profile of yeasts isolated from blood cultures: results of a multicenter active laboratory-based surveillance study in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba, Susana; Vivot, Walter; Bosco-Borgeat, Maria E; Taverna, Constanza; Szusz, Wanda; Murisengo, Omar; Isla, Guillermina; Davel, Graciela

    2011-01-01

    The Mycology Department of the Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Infecciosas "Dr. C. Malbrán", conducted the Second National Multicenter Survey on Fungemia due to Yeasts in Argentina. The aim was to obtain updated data of the frequency of the causative species encountered and their in vitro susceptibility to seven antifungal agents. Yeast species were identified by micromorphological and biochemical studies. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed by the reference microdilution method E.Def 7.1 of the European Committee on Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). A total of 461 viable yeasts were identified. The most frequent species were: Candida albicans (38.4 %), Candida parapsilosis (26 %), Candida tropicalis (15.4 %) and Candida glabrata (4.3 %). Other uncommon species, such as Candida viswanathii (0.6 %), Candida haemulonii (0.4 %), Candida inconspicua (0.2 %) and Candida fermentati (0.2 %) were also isolated. Among the Candida spp., 5.4 % and 1.6 % were resistant to fluconazole and voriconazole, respectively. Itraconazole and caspofungin were the most efficient agents against all Candida spp. tested (MIC 8 mg/l), 75 % of Trichosporon spp., and 100 % of Rhodotorula spp., Geotrichum candidum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The global percentage of mortality was 20 %. The presence of uncommon species reinforces the need for performing continuous laboratory surveillance in order to monitor possible changes, not only in the epidemiological distribution of species, but also in the resistance to antifungal drugs.

  12. Transgene silencing of the Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome mutation results in a reversible bone phenotype, whereas resveratrol treatment does not show overall beneficial effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandgren, Charlotte; Nasser, Hasina Abdul; McKenna, Tomás

    2015-01-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare premature aging disorder that is most commonly caused by a de novo point mutation in exon 11 of the LMNA gene, c.1824C>T, which results in an increased production of a truncated form of lamin A known as progerin. In this study, we used a mouse...... progerin splicing give hope to patients who are affected by HGPS.-Strandgren, C., Nasser, H. A., McKenna, T., Koskela, A., Tuukkanen, J., Ohlsson, C., Rozell, B., Eriksson, M. Transgene silencing of the Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome mutation results in a reversible bone phenotype, whereas...

  13. Showing results? An analysis of the perceptions of internal and external stakeholders of the public performance communication by the Belgian and Dutch Railways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelders, Dave; Galetzka, Mirjam; Verckens, Jan Pieter; Seydel, E.R.

    2008-01-01

    Information Quarterly, 15: 153–156). In Belgium and the Netherlands, one Performance measurement and communicating about it with the broader public is not self-evident if one looks at public services organizations (Hernon, 1998 P. Hernon, The government performance and results act. Government

  14. Cells exposed to a huntingtin fragment containing an expanded polyglutamine tract show no sign of ion channel formation: results arguing against the ion channel hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørremølle, Anne; Grunnet, Morten; Hasholt, Lis

    2003-01-01

    Ion channels formed by expanded polyglutamine tracts have been proposed to play an important role in the pathological processes leading to neurodegeneration in Huntington's disease and other CAG repeat diseases. We tested the capacity of a huntingtin fragment containing an expanded polyglutamine ...... in the currents recorded in any of the two expression systems, indicating no changes in ion channel activity. The results therefore argue against the proposed hypothesis of expanded polyglutamines forming ion channels....

  15. Empty polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages in anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion (ACDF) show slow radiographic fusion that reduces clinical improvement: results from the prospective multicenter "PIERCE-PEEK" study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, Olaf; Schomaker, Martin; Cabraja, Mario; Danne, Marco; Kombos, Theodoros; Hanna, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion (ACDF) is a well-established surgical treatment for radiculopathy and myelopathy. Previous studies showed that empty PEEK cages have lower radiographic fusion rates, but the clinical relevance remains unclear. This paper's aim is to provide high-quality evidence on the outcomes of ACDF with empty PEEK cages and on the relevance of radiographic fusion for clinical outcomes. This large prospective multicenter clinical trial performed single-level ACDF with empty PEEK cages on patients with cervical radiculopathy or myelopathy. The main clinical outcomes were VAS (0-10) for pain and NDI (0-100) for functioning. Radiographic fusion was evaluated by two investigators for three different aspects. The median (range) improvement of the VAS pain score was: 3 (1-6) at 6 months, 3 (2-8) at 12 months, and 4 (2-8) at 18 months. The median (range) improvement of the NDI score was: 12 (2-34) at 6 months, 18 (4-46) at 12 months, and 22 (2-44) at 18 months. Complete radiographic fusion was reached by 126 patients (43%) at 6 months, 214 patients (73%) at 12 months, and 241 patients (83%) at 18 months. Radiographic fusion was a highly significant (p PEEK cages is slow and insufficient. Lack of complete radiographic fusion leads to less improvement of pain and disability. We recommend against using empty uncoated pure PEEK cages in ACDF. ISRCTN42774128. Retrospectively registered 14 April 2009.

  16. [First results of a German second opinion program show high patient satisfaction and large discrepancies between initial therapy recommendations and second opinion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyerstraß, Jan; Prediger, Barbara; Neugebauer, Edmund; Pieper, Dawid

    2018-02-23

    Although legally anchored, there are no empirical results from German second opinion programs. In this study, various aspects within a population of a second opinion program are examined. In this study patients were analyzed who sought a second opinion in the period from August 2011 to December 2016. Differences in patient characteristics, differentiated by agreement of first and second opinion, were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Patients' satisfaction and quality of life were examined one, three and six months after obtaining the second opinion. In total, 1,414 patients sought a second opinion. Most frequent medical indications were the knee (38.7 %), the back (26.8 %), the hip (11.7 %), and the shoulder (10.2 %). Except for the indication (p=0.035), no patient characteristic had influence on the conformation of the second opinion. Approximately two out of three initial recommendations were not confirmed by the specialists. 89 % of the patients were satisfied or very satisfied with the second opinion and the service offered. The second opinion offers patients the opportunity to seek an additional independent medical opinion and thus provide support for decision making. Further research is needed to examine the reasons for the high discrepancies between the first and second opinions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  17. Antimicrobial susceptibility trends among gram-positive and -negative clinical isolates collected between 2005 and 2012 in Mexico: results from the Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfin-Otero, Rayo; Noriega, Eduardo Rodriguez; Dowzicky, Michael J

    2015-12-15

    The Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (T.E.S.T) is a global antimicrobial surveillance study of both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. This report presents data on antimicrobial susceptibility among organisms collected in Mexico between 2005 and 2012 as part of T.E.S.T., and compares rates between 2005-2007 and 2008-2012. Each center in Mexico submitted at least 200 isolates per collection year; including 65 gram-positive isolates and 135 gram-negative isolates. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined using Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) broth microdilution methodology and antimicrobial susceptibility was established using the 2013 CLSI-approved breakpoints. For tigecycline US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) breakpoints were applied. Isolates of E. coli and K. pneumoniae with a MIC for ceftriaxone of >1 mg/L were screened for ESBL production using the phenotypic confirmatory disk test according to CLSI guidelines. The rates of some key resistant phenotypes changed during this study: vancomycin resistance among Enterococcus faecium decreased from 28.6 % in 2005-2007 to 19.1 % in 2008-2012, while β-lactamase production among Haemophilus influenzae decreased from 37.6 to 18.9 %. Conversely, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus increased from 38.1 to 47.9 %, meropenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. increased from 17.7 to 33.0 % and multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter spp. increased from 25.6 to 49.7 %. The prevalence of other resistant pathogens was stable over the study period, including extended-spectrum β-lactamase-positive Escherichia coli (39.0 %) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (25.0 %). The activity of tigecycline was maintained across the study years with MIC90s of ≤2 mg/L against Enterococcus spp., S. aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterobacter spp., E. coli, K. pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Serratia marcescens, H. influenzae, and Acinetobacter spp. All gram

  18. Impact of revised CLSI breakpoints for susceptibility to third-generation cephalosporins and carbapenems among Enterobacteriaceae isolates in the Asia-Pacific region: results from the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART), 2002-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chi-Chang; Chen, Yao-Shen; Toh, Han-Siong; Lee, Yu-Lin; Liu, Yuag-Meng; Ho, Cheng-Mao; Lu, Po-Liang; Liu, Chun-Eng; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Wang, Jen-Hsien; Tang, Hung-Jen; Yu, Kwok-Woon; Liu, Yung-Ching; Chuang, Yin-Ching; Xu, Yingchun; Ni, Yuxing; Ko, Wen-Chien; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2012-06-01

    This study examined the rates of susceptibility to third-generation cephalosporins and carbapenems among Enterobacteriaceae isolates that had been obtained from patients with intraabdominal infections in the Asia-Pacific region as part of the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART). Susceptibility profiles obtained using 2009 Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) breakpoints were compared with those obtained using the 2011 CLSI breakpoints. From 2002 to 2010, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae together accounted for more than 60% of the 13714 Enterobacteriaceae isolates analyzed during the study period. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producers comprised 28.2% of E. coli isolates and 22.1% of K. pneumoniae isolates in the Asia-Pacific region, with China (55.6% and 33.7%, respectively) and Thailand (43.1% and 40.7%, respectively) having the highest proportions of ESBL producers. Based on the 2011 CLSI criteria, 77.2% of the Enterobacteriaceae isolates, 40.4% of ESBL-producing E. coli, and 25.2% of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates were susceptible to ceftazidime. Carbapenems showed in vitro activity against >90% of Enterobacteriaceae isolates in all participating countries, except for ertapenem in South Korea (susceptibility rate 82.2%). Marked differences (>5%) in susceptibility of ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates to carbapenems were noted between the profiles obtained using the 2009 CLSI criteria and those using the 2011 CLSI criteria. Continuous monitoring of antimicrobial resistance is necessary in the Asia-Pacific region. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Gram-negative bacteria isolated in urinary tract infections in Venezuela: Results of the SMART study 2009-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Napoleón; Guzmán, Manuel; Merentes, Altagracia; Rizzi, Adele; Papaptzikos, Juana; Rivero, Narlesky; Oranges, Carmela; Vlllarroel, Héctor; Limas, Yoxsivell

    2015-12-01

    Antimicrobial resistance of pathogens causing urinary tract infection (UTI) is a growing problem, which complicates their effective treatment. Surveillance is needed to guide appropriate empiric therapy. to describe the susceptibility patterns of Gram-negative bacteria isolated of patients with UTI to twelve antibiotics as part of the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends in Venezuela. Between 2009-2012 a total of 472 Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from hospitalized patients with UTI. The isolates were sent to Central Laboratory (Central Laboratory of International Health Management Associates) to confirm their identification, and to make susceptibility testing as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Enterobacteriacea comprised 96.6% of the total, where Escherichia coli (76.9%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (10.6%) were the most frequent. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) was detected in 21.6% of isolates. Top antimicrobial activity were ertapenem, imipenem, and amikacin (> 90.0%), slightly lower for amikacin (85.1%) in ESBL-producing strains. Resistance rates to fluoroquinolones and ampicillin/sulbactam were high (40 y 64%, respectively). These data suggest a necessary revision of the therapeutic regimens for the empirical treatment of UTI in Venezuela.

  20. The Introduction into Bacillus sphaericus of the Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. medellin cyt1Ab1 Gene Results in Higher Susceptibility of Resistant Mosquito Larva Populations to B. sphaericus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiéry, I.; Hamon, S.; Delécluse, A.; Orduz, S.

    1998-01-01

    The fragment containing the gene encoding the cytolytic Cyt1Ab1 protein from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. medellin and its flanking sequences (I. Thiery, A. Delécluse, M. C. Tamayo, and S. Orduz, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63:468–473, 1997) was introduced into Bacillus sphaericus toxic strains 2362, 2297, and Iab872 by electroporation with the shuttle vector pMK3. Only small amounts of the protein were produced in recombinant strains 2362 and Iab872. The protein was detected in these strains only by Western blotting and immunodetection with antibody raised against Cyt1Ab1 protein. Large amounts of Cyt1Ab1 protein were produced in B. sphaericus recombinant strain 2297, and there was an additional crystal, other than that of the binary toxin, within the exosporium. The production of the Cyt1Ab1 protein in addition to the binary toxin did not increase the larvicidal activity of the B. sphaericus recombinant strain against susceptible mosquito populations of Culex pipiens or Aedes aegypti. However, it partially restored (10 to 20 times) susceptibility of the resistant mosquito populations of C. pipiens (SPHAE) and Culex quinquefasciatus (GeoR) to the binary toxin. The Cyt1Ab1 protein produced in recombinant B. thuringiensis SPL407(pcyt1Ab1) was synthesized in two types of crystal—one round and with various dense areas, surrounded by an envelope, and the other a regular cuboid crystal, very similar to that found in the B. sphaericus recombinant strain. PMID:9758818

  1. Results from the ARTEMIS DISK Global Antifungal Surveillance Study, 1997 to 2007: 10.5-year analysis of susceptibilities of noncandidal yeast species to fluconazole and voriconazole determined by CLSI standardized disk diffusion testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, M A; Diekema, D J; Gibbs, D L; Newell, V A; Bijie, H; Dzierzanowska, D; Klimko, N N; Letscher-Bru, V; Lisalova, M; Muehlethaler, K; Rennison, C; Zaidi, M

    2009-01-01

    Fluconazole in vitro susceptibility test results determined by the CLSI M44-A disk diffusion method for 11,240 isolates of noncandidal yeasts were collected from 134 study sites in 40 countries from June 1997 through December 2007. Data were collected for 8,717 yeast isolates tested with voriconazole from 2001 through 2007. A total of 22 different species/organism groups were isolated, of which Cryptococcus neoformans was the most common (31.2% of all isolates). Overall, Cryptococcus (32.9%), Saccharomyces (11.7%), Trichosporon (10.6%), and Rhodotorula (4.1%) were the most commonly identified genera. The overall percentages of isolates in each category (susceptible, susceptible dose dependent, and resistant) were 78.0%, 9.5%, and 12.5% and 92.7%, 2.3%, and 5.0% for fluconazole and voriconazole, respectively. Less than 30% of fluconazole-resistant isolates of Cryptococcus spp., Cryptococcus albidus, Cryptococcus laurentii, Trichosporon beigelii/Trichosporon cutaneum, Rhodotorula spp., Rhodotorula rubra/Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, and Rhodotorula glutinis remained susceptible to voriconazole. Emerging resistance to fluconazole was documented among isolates of C. neoformans from the Asia-Pacific, Africa/Middle East, and Latin American regions but not among isolates from Europe or North America. This survey documents the continuing broad spectrum of activity of voriconazole against opportunistic yeast pathogens but identifies several of the less common species with decreased azole susceptibility. These organisms may pose a future threat to optimal antifungal therapy and emphasize the importance of prompt and accurate species identification.

  2. Evaluation of the Safety and Effectiveness of Add-On Tacrolimus in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Who Failed to Show an Adequate Response to Biological DMARDs: The Interim Results of a Specific Drug Use-Results Survey of Tacrolimus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Kota; Shiraki, Katsuhisa; Yoshiyasu, Takashi

    2015-12-01

    Tacrolimus (TAC) is an immunosuppressive macrolide that blocks T-cell activation by specifically inhibiting calcineurin. TAC was approved in Japan for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in 2005. However, the safety and effectiveness of TAC adding on to biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) in the real clinical setting may not be clear enough. We report here the interim results of post marketing surveillance (PMS) of TAC adding on to biological DMARDs in RA patients who failed to show an adequate response to biological DMARDs. Patients who had an inadequate response to biological DMARDs were enrolled. An inadequate response to biological DMARDs was defined as that all of the following conditions were met: a Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI) score of >3.3 when TAC was started; both the tender joint count and swollen joint count were the same or increased compared with those at 4-8 weeks prior to TAC; and biological DMARDs were used for at least 8 weeks prior to TAC. This study was conducted in compliance with the ministerial ordinance on "Good Post-Marketing Study Practice" (GPSP). The safety data collection and evaluation for 172 patients and effectiveness data collection and evaluation for 165 patients were reported. The mean age was 61.9 years. Adverse drug reactions occurred in 18 patients. The mean SDAI decreased from 20.1 at baseline to 11.7 at week 24. TAC is well tolerated and effective when added on to biological DMARDs in RA patients who failed to achieve an adequate response to biological DMARDs.

  3. Correlation Between CASC8, SMAD7 Polymorphisms and the Susceptibility to Colorectal Cancer: An Updated Meta-Analysis Based on GWAS Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Kunhou; Hua, Long; Wei, Lunshou; Meng, Jiming; Hu, Junhong

    2015-11-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and a number of case-control studies have suggested that several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs7837328, rs7014346, rs6983267, rs10505477 on CASC8 gene and rs4939827, rs4464148, rs12953717 on SMAD7 gene are significantly correlated with the susceptibility to colorectal cancer (CRC). For the sake of clarifying the association, a meta-analysis was conducted and population heterogeneity was considered in the study.A total of 34 articles including 90 studies (168,471 cases and 163,223 controls) that evaluated the relationship between the CASC8, SMAD7 genes and the risk of CRC under the allelic model were reviewed. Also subgroup analysis was performed by ethnicity (Caucasian, Asian, and African) and all of the analyses were implemented in R 3.2.1 software.Pooled data from the meta-analysis revealed that the A allele of rs7837328, the A allele of rs7014346, the G allele of rs6983267, the A allele of rs10505477, the T allele of rs4939827, the T of rs4464148, and the T of rs12953717 were significantly associated with an increased risk of CRC under the allelic model. Additionally, subgroup analyses of 6 SNPs by ethnicity (rs4464148 excepted) witnessed that the A allele of rs7837328, the G allele of rs6983267, and the T of rs12953717 were notably associated with an increased risk of CRC among Caucasian and Asian. Furthermore, the A allele of rs7014346, the A allele of rs10505477, and the T allele of rs4939827 were significantly related with an elevated risk of CRC only among Caucasian.Our study suggested that for CASC8 gene, SNP of rs7837328 and rs6983267 are risk factors for CRC among both Caucasian and Asian whereas rs7014346 and rs10505477 are risky gene polymorphisms only among Caucasian. For SMAD7 gene, rs4939827 and rs4464148 are risk factors for CRC among Caucasian whereas rs12953717 could elevate the susceptibility to CRC in both Caucasian and Asian.

  4. Effect of BiTek agar on lysostaphin susceptibility of staphylococci.

    OpenAIRE

    Langlois, B E; Dawson, K.; Akers, K

    1990-01-01

    Staphylococci which were considered to be lysostaphin susceptible on P agar containing Bacto-Agar showed different degrees of resistance to lysostaphin when tested on P agar made with BiTek agar. As a result, lysostaphin-susceptible strains were misidentified as lysostaphin-resistant strains.

  5. Nutrition affects insect susceptibility to Bt toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, Carrie A.; Behmer, Spencer T.; Tessnow, Ashley E.; Tamez-Guerra, Patricia; Pusztai-Carey, Marianne; Sword, Gregory A.

    2017-01-01

    Pesticide resistance represents a major challenge to global food production. The spread of resistance alleles is the primary explanation for observations of reduced pesticide efficacy over time, but the potential for gene-by-environment interactions (plasticity) to mediate susceptibility has largely been overlooked. Here we show that nutrition is an environmental factor that affects susceptibility to Bt toxins. Protein and carbohydrates are two key macronutrients for insect herbivores, and the polyphagous pest Helicoverpa zea self-selects and performs best on diets that are protein-biased relative to carbohydrates. Despite this, most Bt bioassays employ carbohydrate-biased rearing diets. This study explored the effect of diet protein-carbohydrate content on H. zea susceptibility to Cry1Ac, a common Bt endotoxin. We detected a 100-fold increase in LC50 for larvae on optimal versus carbohydrate-biased diets, and significant diet-mediated variation in survival and performance when challenged with Cry1Ac. Our results suggest that Bt resistance bioassays that use ecologically- and physiologically-mismatched diets over-estimate susceptibility and under-estimate resistance.

  6. Immunogenetics and genetic susceptibility in the pathogenesis of autoimmune hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Anup K

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available vAutoimmune hepatitis is a progressive liver disease. Its pathogenesis is unclear, but needs a ‘trigger’ to initiate the disease in a genetically susceptible person. The susceptibility is partly related to MHCII class genes, and more so with human leukocyte antigen (HLA. Several mechanisms have been proposed which, however, cannot fully explain the immunologic findings in autoimmune hepatitis. The susceptibility to any autoimmune disease is determined by several factors where genetic and immunological alterations, along with, environmental factor are active. MHCII antigens as a marker for AIH, or a predictor of treatment response and prognosis has been investigated. Since MHCII antigens show significant ethnic heterogeneity, mutations in MHCII may merely act as only precursors of the surface markers of immune cells, which can be of significance, because the changes in HLA and MHC are missing in certain populations. One such marker is the CTLA-4 (CD152 gene mutation, reported in the phenotypes representing susceptibility to AIH. Other candidate genes of cytokines, TNF, TGF-beta1 etc, have also been investigated but with unvalidated results. Paediatric AIH show differences in genetic susceptibility. Genetic susceptibility or resistance to AIH may be associated with polypeptides in DRB1 with certain amino-acid sequences. Understanding which genes are implicated in genesis and/or disease progression will obviously help to identify key pathways in AIH and provide better insights into its pathogenesis. But studies to identify responsible genes are complex because of the complex trait of AIH.

  7. Results from EQAS 2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, A.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Jensen, A.B.

    laboratories from 67 countries participated. For serotyping, almost 90 % of the results were correct. For susceptibility testing, 91 % of the results were in agreement with the expected results, and 86 % of the performed tests with the reference strain E. coli ATCC 25922 were inside the quality control range......An international external quality assurance program on serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of eight Salmonella enterica strains was performed to enhance the capacity of national and regional reference laboratories in WHO Global Salm-Surv (WHO GSS). In 2002 a total of 117...... specified by NCCLS guidelines. Comparing the results of EQAS 2002 to the results from 2000 and 2001 showed a clear improvement in the laboratories capacity to accurately serotype and susceptibility test Salmonella. We attribute this improvement to the training provided by WHO GSS, the EQAS...

  8. The absence of cutaneous lymph nodes results in a Th2 response and increased susceptibility to Leishmania major infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrchen, Jan M; Roth, Johannes; Roebrock, Kirsten; Varga, Georg; Domschke, Wolfram; Newberry, Rodney; Sorg, Clemens; Müller-Tidow, Carsten; Sunderkötter, Cord; Kucharzik, Torsten; Spahn, Thomas W

    2008-09-01

    Lymph nodes (LNs) are important sentinel organs where antigen-presenting cells interact with T cells to induce adaptive immune responses. In cutaneous infection of mice with Leishmania major, resistance depends on the induction of a T-helper-cell-1 (Th1)-mediated cellular immune response in draining, peripheral LNs. We investigated whether draining, peripheral LNs are absolutely required for resistance against L. major infection. We investigated the course of experimental leishmaniasis in wild-type (wt) mice lacking peripheral LNs (pLNs), which we generated by in utero blockade of membrane-bound lymphotoxin, and in mice lacking pLNs or all LNs due to genetic deletion of lymphotoxin ligands or receptors. wt mice of the resistant C57BL/6 strain without local skin-draining LNs were still able to generate specific T-cell responses, but this yielded Th2 cells. This switch to a Th2 response resulted in severe systemic infection. We also confirmed these results with mice lacking pLNs due to genetic depletion of lymphotoxin-beta. The complete absence of LNs due to a genetic depletion of the lymphotoxin-beta receptor also resulted in a marked deterioration of disease and a Th2 response. Thus, in the absence of pLNs, an L. major-specific Th2 response is induced in the remaining secondary lymphoid organs, such as the spleen and non-skin-draining LNs. This indicates a critical requirement for pLNs to induce protective Th1 immunity and suggests that whether Th1 or Th2 priming to the same antigen occurs depends on the site of the primary antigen recognition.

  9. ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY OF POTENTIALLY PROBIOTIC LACTOBACILLUS STRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhua Han

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Susceptibility of 29 Lactobacilli to 13 antibiotics was assayed by paper disc diffusion method. Plasmids and gastrointestinal tolerance were detected. The relationship between plasmids andantibiotic resistance was discussed. The results showed that all of the strains were resistant to bacitracin, polymyxin B, kanamycin, and nalidixic acid. Many strains were relatively sensitive tochloramphenicol and tetracycline. Six strains contained plasmids and showed good gastrointestinal tolerance. β-lactam resistance gene blr was found in the plasmid of L. plantarum CICC 23180by PCR. The study will be helpful to promote the safety evaluation and development of potentially probiotic lactic acid bacteria.

  10. Susceptibility to peer pressure and attachment to friends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotar-Rihtarić Martina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of attachment to friends in the explanation of adolescents’ susceptibility to peer pressure was explored, regarding the way these two constructs are measured. In Study 1, 475 high school students (194 boys and 281 girls were given Susceptibility to Peer Pressure Questionnaire, and their attachment to friends was measured with Modified Experiences in Close Relationships Inventory and Relationship Scales Questionnaire. One month later, 80 boys and 80 girls participated in Study 2, where they completed the same Susceptibility to Peer Pressure Questionnaire in a chat-room simulation, convinced that they can see other students’ answers and that their own answers could be seen by others. When susceptibility to peer pressure was measured by self-report questionnaire, the level of avoidance proved to be a significant predictor for boys, while the level of anxiety and the model of others were significant predictors for girls. When susceptibility to peer pressure was measured experimentally, the results showed that attachment dimensions predict only girls’ susceptibility and that the only significant predictor is their model of others.

  11. Adult-onset deletion of the Prader-Willi syndrome susceptibility gene Snord116 in mice results in reduced feeding and increased fat mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purtell, Louise; Qi, Yue; Campbell, Lesley; Sainsbury, Amanda; Herzog, Herbert

    2017-04-01

    The imprinted small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) Snord116 is implicated in the aetiology of Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), a disease associated with hyperphagia and obesity. Germline deletion of Snord116 in mice has been found to lead to increased food intake but not to the development of obesity. To determine the role of Snord116 independent of potential compensatory developmental factors, we investigated the effects of conditional adult-onset deletion of Snord116 in mice. Deletion of Snord116 was induced at 8 weeks of age by oral administration of tamoxifen to male Snordlox/lox; ROSAcre/+ mice, with vehicle-treated mice used as controls. Body weight (BW) was monitored weekly and body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and tissue dissection. Non-fasted and fasting-induced food intake was determined, and glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed. Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure and physical activity were assessed by indirect calorimetry. Adult-onset deletion of Snord116 led to reduced food intake and increased adiposity, albeit with no concomitant change in BW or lean mass compared to controls. Adult onset Snord116 deletion was also associated with worsened glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. This study identified a key role for Snord116 in feeding behaviour and growth. Further, it is likely that the effects of this gene are modulated by developmental stage, as mice with adult-onset deletion showed an opposite phenotype, with respect to food intake and body composition, to previously published data on mice with germline deletion.

  12. Red meat and poultry, cooking practices, genetic susceptibility and risk of prostate cancer: results from a multiethnic case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Mariana C.

    2012-01-01

    Red meat, processed and unprocessed, has been considered a potential prostate cancer (PCA) risk factor; epidemiological evidence, however, is inconclusive. An association between meat intake and PCA may be due to potent chemical carcinogens that are generated when meats are cooked at high temperatures. We investigated the association between red meat and poultry intake and localized and advanced PCA taking into account cooking practices and polymorphisms in enzymes that metabolize carcinogens that accumulate in cooked meats. We analyzed data for 1096 controls, 717 localized and 1140 advanced cases from the California Collaborative Prostate Cancer Study, a multiethnic, population-based case–control study. We examined nutrient density-adjusted intake of red meat and poultry and tested for effect modification by 12 SNPs and 2 copy number variants in 10 carcinogen metabolism genes: GSTP1, PTGS2, CYP1A2, CYP2E1, EPHX1, CYP1B1, UGT1A6, NAT2, GSTM1 and GSTT1. We observed a positive association between risk of advanced PCA and high intake of red meat cooked at high temperatures (trend P = 0.026), cooked by pan-frying (trend P = 0.035), and cooked until well-done (trend P = 0.013). An inverse association was observed for baked poultry and advanced PCA risk (trend P = 0.023). A gene-by-diet interaction was observed between an SNP in the PTGS2 gene and the estimated levels of meat mutagens (interaction P = 0.008). Our results support a role for carcinogens that accumulate in meats cooked at high temperatures as potential PCA risk factors, and may support a role for heterocyclic amines (HCAs) in PCA etiology. PMID:22822096

  13. Estimation of the Population Susceptibility Against Measles in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibolenová, Jana; Chladná, Zuzana; Švihrová, Viera; Baška, Tibor; Waczulíková, Iveta; Hudečková, Henrieta

    2017-03-01

    In Slovakia, thanks to a highly effective vaccination programme, no domestic cases of measles have been reported since 1999. However, there are several outbreaks of measles currently hitting some countries in Europe. Difficulties in reaching the goal of measles elimination make it necessary to monitor the status of the population susceptibility to prevent similar outbreaks in the future. We hypothesize that immunity wanes overtime, which can substantially impact the population susceptibility. This work introduces a model that estimates a proportion of individuals susceptible to measles in the Slovak population in 2015. Our analysis is based on an age-cohort model that incorporates waning immunity, vaccination schedule and changes in demographic structure. The inputs of the model are data on the vaccination coverage, last seroprevalence survey in 2002 and age structure of the population. In a short-term horizon, waning immunity does not affect the estimated proportion of the susceptible population. However, in a long-term horizon, the antibody titers can fall below the level of protection, which would result in a substantial transfer of initially immune individuals to the compartment of the susceptible ones. Incorporating of waning immunity in the cohort model has indicated that the most susceptible cohorts are not-vaccinated youngest children and cohorts born between 1969 and 1986. Applying the model to the current situation shows that people aged 30-45 years and unvaccinated infants represent the most susceptible groups. Model partially replaces missing seroprevalence survey, but, because the parameters of model and phenomenon of waning immunity are not exactly known, we suggest reintroducing the regular national serosurveys in order to empirically determine the level of susceptibility for measles in Slovakia.

  14. Susceptibility Of Mosquito Larvae To Conventional Insecticides In A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The susceptibility of 4th instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus to dieldrin, dichlovos and cypermethrin were evaluated in laboratory. Larval mortality was assessed 24 hour afterexposure. The result showed that the LD50 values for Aedes aegypti exposed to dieldrin, dichlovos and cypermethrin were 0.48 ...

  15. In Vitro Susceptibility Test of Different Clinical Isolates against Ceftriaxone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Hakim Masood

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Because of the prevailing penicillin resistance in microorganisms, broad spectrum cephalosporins are used empirically specially in developing countries. The aim of this study is to determine the susceptibility pattern of different gram positive and gram negative pathogens against third generation cephalosporin-ceftriaxone to explore the existing effectiveness of this antibiotic.Methods: 180 clinical isolates of different gram positive and gram negative pathogens including P.mirabilis, S. typhi P.aeruginosa, E. coli, S. aureus and Klebsiella were collected from blood and urine samples of in-patients. 30 isolates of all species were tested against each of six brands of ceftriaxone using in vitro sensitivity tests by disc diffusion method (NCCLS criteria. The susceptibility limit was ≥21 mm zone of inhibition, while moderately susceptible was considered at 20-14 mm, and those isolates which showed >13 mm or no zone of inhibition were resistant to this antibacterial drug.Results: Ceftriaxone was found most effective against S. aureus. While 96.1% of the isolates showed susceptibility towards ceftriaxone, followed by E. coli (95%, P. aeruginosa (92.7%, K. pneumonia (89.4% and S. typhi (87.2%. P. mirabilis showed lowest susceptibility amongst all the test organisms (83.8%.Conclusion: Ceftriaxone can be used as a drug of choice in infections caused by S. aureus, E. coli, P. aurigenosa, K. pneumonia and S. typhi. However, it should be used with other antimicrobial agents in order to increase its effectiveness against P. mirabilis.

  16. Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping using Structural Feature based Collaborative Reconstruction (SFCR) in the Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Congbo; Chen, Zhong; van Zijl, Peter C.M.

    2017-01-01

    The reconstruction of MR quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) from local phase measurements is an ill posed inverse problem and different regularization strategies incorporating a priori information extracted from magnitude and phase images have been proposed. However, the anatomy observed in magnitude and phase images does not always coincide spatially with that in susceptibility maps, which could give erroneous estimation in the reconstructed susceptibility map. In this paper, we develop a structural feature based collaborative reconstruction (SFCR) method for QSM including both magnitude and susceptibility based information. The SFCR algorithm is composed of two consecutive steps corresponding to complementary reconstruction models, each with a structural feature based l1 norm constraint and a voxel fidelity based l2 norm constraint, which allows both the structure edges and tiny features to be recovered, whereas the noise and artifacts could be reduced. In the M-step, the initial susceptibility map is reconstructed by employing a k-space based compressed sensing model incorporating magnitude prior. In the S-step, the susceptibility map is fitted in spatial domain using weighted constraints derived from the initial susceptibility map from the M-step. Simulations and in vivo human experiments at 7T MRI show that the SFCR method provides high quality susceptibility maps with improved RMSE and MSSIM. Finally, the susceptibility values of deep gray matter are analyzed in multiple head positions, with the supine position most approximate to the gold standard COSMOS result. PMID:27019480

  17. A comparison of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for Staphylococcus aureus in organic and conventional dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikofsky, Linda L; Barlow, John W; Santisteban, Carlos; Schukken, Ynte H

    2003-01-01

    Selective pressure from antimicrobial use, mutations, or acquisition of foreign resistance determinants mediate antimicrobial resistance. If antimicrobial use is the major selective pressure encouraging the development of resistance, then reduced use should result in decreased resistance. We compared antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Staphylococcus aureus isolates obtained from milk samples from 22 organic (nonantibiotic using) dairy herds to isolates from 16 conventional dairy herds. Susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion, and zone diameters were recorded in millimeters for 144 isolates from organic farms and 117 isolates from conventional farms and were also classified as susceptible or not-susceptible (intermediate and resistant categories combined). Strength of association between high or low use and proportion susceptible was evaluated by Chi-square analysis and differences in mean zone diameter for isolates from organic farms versus isolates from conventional farms were compared by analysis of variance. Analysis was done for each antimicrobial and deemed significant at p organic and conventional herds for seven of the nine antibiotics studied. Herds that were certified organic had S. aureus isolates that were more susceptible to antimicrobials. Overall, S. aureus isolates from both organic and conventional herds showed good susceptibility to most commonly used bovine mastitis antimicrobials; however, isolates from organic herds were significantly more susceptible. Longitudinal studies of herds undergoing the transition to organic farming would help elucidate the dynamics of antimicrobial resistance and the potential return of antimicrobial susceptibility.

  18. Multifractal magnetic susceptibility distribution models of hydrothermally altered rocks in the Needle Creek Igneous Center of the Absaroka Mountains, Wyoming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Gettings

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic susceptibility was measured for 700 samples of drill core from thirteen drill holes in the porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit of the Stinkingwater mining district in the Absaroka Mountains, Wyoming. The magnetic susceptibility measurements, chemical analyses, and alteration class provided a database for study of magnetic susceptibility in these altered rocks. The distribution of the magnetic susceptibilities for all samples is multi-modal, with overlapping peaked distributions for samples in the propylitic and phyllic alteration class, a tail of higher susceptibilities for potassic alteration, and an approximately uniform distribution over a narrow range at the highest susceptibilities for unaltered rocks. Samples from all alteration and mineralization classes show susceptibilities across a wide range of values. Samples with secondary (supergene alteration due to oxidation or enrichment show lower susceptibilities than primary (hypogene alteration rock. Observed magnetic susceptibility variations and the monolithological character of the host rock suggest that the variations are due to varying degrees of alteration of blocks of rock between fractures that conducted hydrothermal fluids. Alteration of rock from the fractures inward progressively reduces the bulk magnetic susceptibility of the rock. The model introduced in this paper consists of a simulation of the fracture pattern and a simulation of the alteration of the rock between fractures. A multifractal model generated from multiplicative cascades with unequal ratios produces distributions statistically similar to the observed distributions. The reduction in susceptibility in the altered rocks was modelled as a diffusion process operating on the fracture distribution support. The average magnetic susceptibility was then computed for each block. For the purpose of comparing the model results with observation, the simulated magnetic susceptibilities were then averaged over the same

  19. Topological susceptibility from slabs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bietenholz, Wolfgang [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-543, Distrito Federal, C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Forcrand, Philippe de [Institute for Theoretical Physics, ETH Zürich,CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); CERN, Physics Department, TH Unit, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Gerber, Urs [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-543, Distrito Federal, C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo,Edificio C-3, Apdo. Postal 2-82, Morelia, Michoacán, C.P. 58040 (Mexico)

    2015-12-14

    In quantum field theories with topological sectors, a non-perturbative quantity of interest is the topological susceptibility χ{sub t}. In principle it seems straightforward to measure χ{sub t} by means of Monte Carlo simulations. However, for local update algorithms and fine lattice spacings, this tends to be difficult, since the Monte Carlo history rarely changes the topological sector. Here we test a method to measure χ{sub t} even if data from only one sector are available. It is based on the topological charges in sub-volumes, which we denote as slabs. Assuming a Gaussian distribution of these charges, this method enables the evaluation of χ{sub t}, as we demonstrate with numerical results for non-linear σ-models.

  20. Topological Susceptibility from Slabs

    CERN Document Server

    Bietenholz, Wolfgang; Gerber, Urs

    2015-01-01

    In quantum field theories with topological sectors, a non-perturbative quantity of interest is the topological susceptibility chi_t. In principle it seems straightforward to measure chi_t by means of Monte Carlo simulations. However, for local update algorithms and fine lattice spacings, this tends to be difficult, since the Monte Carlo history rarely changes the topological sector. Here we test a method to measure chi_t even if data from only one sector are available. It is based on the topological charges in sub-volumes, which we denote as slabs. Assuming a Gaussian distribution of these charges, this method enables the evaluation of chi_t, as we demonstrate with numerical results for non-linear sigma-models.

  1. Antifungal susceptibility testing of yeast isolated from corneal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mascaro Vera Lucia Degaspare Monte

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To report the antifungal susceptibility profile of yeast isolates obtained from cases of keratitis. METHODS: Susceptibility testing of 15 yeast strains isolated from corneal infections to amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole and ketoconazole was performed using the NCCLS broth microdilution assay. RESULTS: Most episodes of eye infections were caused by Candida albicans. The antifungal drugs tested showed the following minimal inhibitory concentration values against yeast isolates: 0.125-0.5 mg/ml for amphotericin B; 0.125->64.0 mg/ml for fluconazole; 0.015-1.0 mg/ml for itraconazole and 0.015-0.125 mg/ml for ketoconazole. Despite the fact that all Candida isolates were judged to be susceptible to azoles, one isolate showed a minimal inhibitory concentration value significantly higher than a 90% minimal inhibitory concentration of all tested isolates. Rhodotorula rubra was resistant to fluconazole and itraconazole. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the fact that most yeast isolates from corneal infections are usually susceptible to amphotericin B and azoles, they exhibit a wide range of minimal inhibitory concentration values for antifungal drugs. The identification of strains at species level and their susceptibility pattern to antifungal drugs should be considered before determining the concentration to be used in topical antifungal formulations in order to optimize therapeutic response in eye infections.

  2. Susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoeck, Marcus Matheus Johannes

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis the author studied the diagnostic procedures for susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia (MH), with special emphasis upon refining the biological diagnostic test and improving protocols and guidelines for investigation of MH susceptibility. MH is a pharmacogenetic disease of skeletal

  3. Impact of wastewater application on magnetic susceptibility in Terric Histosol soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokołowska, Zofia; Alekseev, Andrey; Skic, Kamil; Brzezińska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we attempted to analyse the changes in magnetic susceptibility in Terric Histosol soil irrigated with municipal wastewater in a period of four years. Effects of different plants (poplar and willow), wastewater doses, depths, as well as the concentration of the elements and the total carbon content were tested. The study showed that systematic wastewater irrigation diminished magnetic susceptibility values in the top layer of soil. However, statistical analysis revealed that both doses of wastewater and growing plants did not have a significant impact on the magnetic susceptibility of obtained results. Magnetic susceptibility decreased significantly with the depth, in accordance with higher total carbon and lower content of magnetic particles. High correlation coefficients were found between magnetic susceptibility and Zn, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MnO content, whereas no correlation was observed for Cr, as well as for Pb.

  4. [Association of functional genes polymorphisms of key enzymes in the metabolism of biogenic amines with paranoid schizophrenia susceptibility and the influence of these polymorphisms on PANSS results in antipsychotic treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tybura, Piotr; Grzywacz, Anna; Syrek, Szymon; Parus, Michał; Samochowiec, Jerzy

    2006-01-01

    The genetic components of the schizophrenia susceptibility are calculated as being 50%. We evaluated the frequency of alleles and genotypes of COMT and MAO-A genes polymorphisms in patients with schizophrenia and in the healthy population. We searched for the associations between genotypes and PANSS results among patients in a three month antipsychotic therapy. The study comprised 72 unrelated patients who met ICD-10 criteria for schizophrenia, and 187 unrelated healthy controls. The analysis of COMT and MAO-A genes polymorphisms were performed using the polymerase chain reaction technique (RFLP-restriction fragments length polymorphism and VNTR-variable number tandem repeats). The severity of psychopathological symptoms was measured by the PANSS (Positive and Negative Schizophrenia Scale). We did not find an association between the genotype of COMT and MAO-A genes polymorphisms and schizophrenia. We found statistically significant different allele distribution in MAO gene polymorphism: alleles with three tandem repeats in the promoter region were more frequent among females with schizophrenia. We did not find any association between the genotype of COMT and MAO-A genes polymorphisms and PANSS results in any time periods. Due to a small number of patients in this study the obtained results should be regarded as preliminary.

  5. Toluene exposure increases aminophylline-induced seizure susceptibility in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ming-Huan; Chen, Hwei-Hsien

    2003-12-01

    The effects of toluene on the sensitivity to seizures induced by aminophylline were investigated. Mice were pretreated with an ip injection of corn oil or toluene (100-500 mg/kg) followed by a timed intravenous infusion of aminophylline at various time intervals to assess the seizure thresholds and lethal doses. Toluene increased seizure susceptibility to aminophylline in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Toluene-induced enhancement of seizure susceptibility to aminophylline occurred as early as 30 min and persisted for at least 3 days after a single administration of toluene (500 mg/kg). Treatment of benzaldehyde, one of toluene's metabolites, also showed an increase in the susceptibility to aminophylline. The enhancing effect was also observed in caffeine-induced seizures 1 h, but not 1 day after toluene treatment. These results suggest that individuals with toluene exposure may increase the risk for convulsive and even lethal complications associated with the therapeutic use of aminophylline.

  6. Strong ties promote the epidemic prevalence in susceptible-infected-susceptible spreading dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, Ai-Xiang; Zhou, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Understanding spreading dynamics will benefit society as a whole in better preventing and controlling diseases, as well as facilitating the socially responsible information while depressing destructive rumors. In network-based spreading dynamics, edges with different weights may play far different roles: a friend from afar usually brings novel stories, and an intimate relationship is highly risky for a flu epidemic. In this article, we propose a weighted susceptible-infected-susceptible model on complex networks, where the weight of an edge is defined by the topological proximity of the two associated nodes. Each infected individual is allowed to select limited number of neighbors to contact, and a tunable parameter is introduced to control the preference to contact through high-weight or low-weight edges. Experimental results on six real networks show that the epidemic prevalence can be largely promoted when strong ties are favored in the spreading process. By comparing with two statistical null models respe...

  7. Magnetic susceptibility as a biosignature in stromatolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petryshyn, Victoria A.; Corsetti, Frank A.; Frantz, Carie M.; Lund, Steve P.; Berelson, William M.

    2016-03-01

    results. The results of these experiments suggest that magnetic susceptibility shows promise as a new biosignature in the study of putative microbialites.

  8. Severity and Susceptibility Beliefs Associated with Urban Air Pollution: Results of a Qualitative Study; Creencias de Severidad y Susceptibilidad Asociadas a la Contaminación Atmosférica Urbana: Resultados de un Estudio Cualitativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oltra, C.; Sala, R.

    2015-07-01

    In this report we present the results of a qualitative study based on recombined focus groups with lay citizens. The main objective is to analyze individuals’ beliefs on urban air pollution and perceived benefits and barriers of some self-protective actions, such as using special masks, avoidance of polluted streets, etc. The analytical framework on which the study is based is the Health Belief Model, whose basic idea is that it is more likely that individuals take actions to protect themselves if they think they are potentially susceptible to a serious threat to your health, if they think adopting certain actions has advantages, and if they think there are no significant barriers for such conduct. A secondary objective is to explore the perception of different existing materials to inform the public about air pollution. The results of the study are intended to contribute to the design of interventions aimed at reducing health impacts of urban air pollution and, specifically, to the design of messages in the context of information campaigns on health and environmental risk.

  9. Magnetic susceptibility of molecular carbon: nanotubes and fullerite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, A.P.; Haddon, R.C.; Zhou, O.; Fleming, R.M.; Zhang, J.; McClure, S.M.; Smalley, R.E. (AT T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ (United States))

    1994-07-01

    Elemental carbon can be synthesized in a variety of geometrical forms, from three-dimensional extended structures (diamond) to finite molecules (C[sub 60] fullerite). Results are presented here on the magnetic susceptibility of the least well-understood members of this family, nanotubes and C[sub 60] fullerite. (1) Nanotubes represent the cylindrical form of carbon, intermediate between graphite and fullerite. They are found to have significantly larger orientation-averaged susceptibility, on a per carbon basis, than any other form of elemental carbon. This susceptibility implies an average band structure among nanotubes similar to that of graphite. (2) High-resolution magnetic susceptibility data on C[sub 60] fullerite near the molecular orientational-ordering transition at 259 K show a sharp jump corresponding to 2.5 centimeter-gram-second parts per million per mole of C[sub 60]. This jump directly demonstrates the effect of an intermolecular cooperative transition on an intramolecular electronic property, where the susceptibility jump may be ascribed to a change in the shape of the molecule due to lattice forces.

  10. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    librarians on student achievement. Todd notes, “If we do not show value, we will not have a future. Evidence-based practice is not about the survival of school librarians, it’s about the survival of our students” (40. In this issue we feature school libraries and their connection to evidence based practice. Former Editor-in-Chief, Lindsay Glynn, began putting the wheels in motion for this feature almost a year ago. She invited Carol Gordon and Ross Todd to act as guest editors of the section, drawing upon their contacts and previous work in this field. The result is an issue with five feature articles exploring different aspects of the connection between school libraries and evidence based practice, from the theoretical to the practical. In addition, there is a thought-provoking Commentary by David Loertscher, asking whether we need the evolutionary model of evidence based practice, or something more revolutionary!In addition to the Feature section, we have a well-rounded issue with articles on the topics of library human resources, and the development of a scholars’ portal. As well, there are a record 10 evidence summaries and our educational EBL101 column. I hope there is something for everyone in this issue of EBLIP – enjoy, and see you soon in Stockholm!

  11. Etiology and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of community-acquired ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Streptomycin showed the highest susceptibility to bacteria isolates while the least susceptibility was observed with augmentin. Rational use of antibiotics with regular antibiotics susceptibility surveillance studies is recommended to maintain high antibiotic therapeutic profile. Keywords: Community-acquired urinary tract ...

  12. Susceptibility Status of Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    susceptible 'Kisumu' strain, both Korle-Bu and Airport populations were highly resistant to DDT and gave resistance levels which were over nine-fold for permethrin and over 2.5-fold for deltamethrin. Both wild and susceptible populations showed full susceptibility to malathion. The S and M forms of A. gambiae s.s. were ...

  13. Susceptibility status of Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    susceptible 'Kisumu' strain, both Korle-Bu and Airport populations were highly resistant to DDT and gave resistance levels which were over nine-fold for permethrin and over 2.5-fold for deltamethrin. Both wild and susceptible populations showed full susceptibility to malathion. The S and M forms of A. gambiae s.s. were ...

  14. Quark number density and susceptibility calculation under one loop ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Somorendro Singh

    2017-05-30

    May 30, 2017 ... Abstract. We calculate quark number density and susceptibility under one-loop correction in the mean- field potential. The calculation shows continuous increase in the number density and susceptibility up to the temperature T = 0.4 GeV. Then the values of number density and susceptibility approach the ...

  15. [Antimicrobial susceptibility cumulative reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canut-Blasco, Andrés; Calvo, Jorge; Rodríguez-Díaz, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Martínez, Luis

    2016-10-01

    Cumulative reports on antimicrobial susceptibility tests data are important for selecting empirical treatments, as an educational tool in programs on antimicrobial use, and for establishing breakpoints defining clinical categories. These reports should be based on data validated by clinical microbiologists using diagnostic samples (not surveillance samples). In order to avoid a bias derived from including several isolates obtained from the same patient, it is recommended that, for a defined period, only the first isolate is counted. A minimal number of isolates per species should be presented: a figure of >=30 isolates is statistically acceptable. The report is usually presented in a table format where, for each cell, information on clinically relevant microorganisms-antimicrobial agents is presented. Depending on particular needs, multiple tables showing data related to patients, samples, services or special pathogens can be prepared. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  16. Diagnostic Value of Direct Antibiotic Susceptibility Test for Faster BacterialSusceptibility Reporting in Bacteremia

    OpenAIRE

    Rebriarina Hapsari; Vincentia Rizke Ciptaningtyas; Masfiyah Masfiyah

    2012-01-01

    Background: Rapid and accurate information on susceptibility of bacteria causing bacteraemia is very helpful in sepsis management. Blood culture is the gold standard for bacteraemia diagnosis. Standard antibiotic susceptibility testing needs at least three days for completion while direct method can give the result a day earlier. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of direct antibiotic susceptibility testing in blood culture. Methods: Bloods from positive BACTEC b...

  17. Susceptibility to hypoxia and breathing control changes after short-term cold exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila T. Kovtun

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . Hypoxia is the reduction of oxygen availability due to external or internal causes. There is large individual variability of response to hypoxia. Objective . The aim of this study was to define individual and typological features in susceptibility to hypoxia, its interrelation with hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory responses (HVR and HCVR, respectively and their changes after cold acclimation. Design . Twenty-four healthy men were tested. HVR and HCVR were measured by the rebreathing method during hypoxic and hypercapnic tests, respectively. These tests were carried out in thermoneutral conditions before and after cold exposures (nude, at 13°C, 2 h daily, for 10 days. Susceptibility to hypoxia (sSaO2 was determined as haemoglobin saturation slope during hypoxic test. Results . It was found that HVR and HCVR significantly increased and susceptibility to hypoxia (sSaO2 tended to decrease after cold acclimation. According to sSaO2 results before cold exposures, the group was divided into 3: Group 1 – with high susceptibility to hypoxia, Group 2 – medium and Group 3 – low susceptibility. Analysis of variances (MANOVA shows the key role of susceptibility to hypoxia and cold exposures and their interrelation. Posterior analysis (Fisher LSD showed significant difference in susceptibility to hypoxia between the groups prior to cold acclimation, while HVR and HCVR did not differ between the groups. After cold acclimation, susceptibility to hypoxia was not significantly different between the groups, while HCVR significantly increased in Groups 1 and 3, HVR significantly increased in Group 3 and HCVR, HVR did not change in Group 2. Conclusions . Short-term cold exposures caused an increase in functional reserves and improved oxygen supply of tissues in Group 1. Cold exposure hypoxia has caused energy loss in Group 3. Group 2 showed the most appropriate energy conservation reaction mode to cold exposures. No relation was found between

  18. Show-Bix &

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies...... are made from digital scans of the original dias slides located in the collection of the Museum of Contemporary Art in Roskilde. In front of the audience entering the space and placed on it’s own stand, is an original 60s style telephone with turning dial. Action begins when the audience lift the phone...... and dial a number. Any number will make the Dias change. All numbers are also assigned to specific sound documents: clips form rare interviews and the complete sound-re-enactment of the Show-Bix piece ‘Omringning’ (‘Surrounding’) in five channels (a quintophonie). This was originally produced...

  19. Show and Tell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Fredag d. 1 november blev Kunsthal Charlottenborg indtaget af performanceprogrammet Show & Tell med et bredspektret program af danske og internationale kunstnere indenfor performance-, lyd- og installationskunst. Programmet præsenterer værker, der undersøger kroppens stadig mere symbiotiske forhold...... og studienævnet på Performance-design. Show & Tell - Performance program: kl. 16.30-19 Adresse: Kunsthal Charlottenborg, Nyhavn 2, 1051 København K...

  20. Identification of Plasmid-Mediated AmpC β-Lactamases in Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., and Proteus Species Can Potentially Improve Reporting of Cephalosporin Susceptibility Testing Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenover, Fred C.; Emery, Shannon L.; Spiegel, Carol A.; Bradford, Patricia A.; Eells, Samantha; Endimiani, Andrea; Bonomo, Robert A.; McGowan, John E.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine if the interpretations of extended-spectrum and advanced-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs and ASCs, respectively) for isolates of Enterobacteriaceae would be impacted by the results of aminophenylboronic acid (APBA) testing. Fifty-three isolates of Escherichia coli, 21 Klebsiella species, and 6 Proteus species that were resistant to at least one ESC were tested by disk diffusion with ceftazidime and cefotetan disks with and without APBA. Ceftazidime disks with and without clavulanic acid (CLAV) were also tested to confirm extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) carriage. Twenty-nine (36.3%) isolates were only APBA test positive, 27 were only CLAV test positive, 2 were positive with both substrates, and 22 were negative with both substrates. Thirteen (41.9%) of the 31 APBA-test-positive isolates (all E. coli) tested susceptible to cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, or ceftazidime. Since clinical data suggest that AmpC-producing isolates should be reported as resistant to all ESCs, APBA testing can be helpful in identifying such organisms. Screening for AmpC-producing organisms using nonsusceptibility to cefoxitin and amoxicillin-clavulanate was less specific than APBA testing; it identified ESBL as well as AmpC-producing organisms. Only 18 of 31 APBA-positive isolates were positive by PCR for an AmpC β-lactamase gene. Thus, testing with APBA could improve the accuracy of reporting ESCs, especially for E. coli. However, results of APBA and CLAV testing did not correlate well for isolates containing both AmpC β-lactamases and ESBLs. Thus, additional data are needed before formal recommendations can be made on changing the reporting of ASC test results. PMID:19036936

  1. Negative electric susceptibility and magnetism from translational invariance and rotational invariance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Je Huan, E-mail: koo@kw.ac.kr

    2015-02-01

    In this work we investigate magnetic effects in terms of the translational and rotational invariances of magnetisation. Whilst Landau-type diamagnetism originates from translational invariance, a new diamagnetism could result from rotational invariance. Translational invariance results in only conventional Landau-type diamagnetism, whereas rotational invariance can induce a paramagnetic susceptibility for localised electrons and also a new kind of diamagnetism that is specific to conducting electrons. In solids, the moving electron shows a paramagnetic susceptibility but the surrounding screening of electrons may produce a new diamagnetic response by Lenz's law, resulting in a total susceptibility that tends to zero. For electricity, similar behaviours are obtained. We also derive the DC-type negative electric susceptibility via two methods in analogy with Landau diamagnetism. - Highlights: • The translational invariance of magnetisation. • The rotational invariance of magnetisation. • An electron attached to an electric vortex. • A kind of Landau paramagnetism. • A kind of Pauli diamagnetism.

  2. Susceptibility to hypoxia and breathing control changes after short-term cold exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovtun, Lyudmila T; Voevoda, Mikhail I

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia is the reduction of oxygen availability due to external or internal causes. There is large individual variability of response to hypoxia. The aim of this study was to define individual and typological features in susceptibility to hypoxia, its interrelation with hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory responses (HVR and HCVR, respectively) and their changes after cold acclimation. Twenty-four healthy men were tested. HVR and HCVR were measured by the rebreathing method during hypoxic and hypercapnic tests, respectively. These tests were carried out in thermoneutral conditions before and after cold exposures (nude, at 13°C, 2 h daily, for 10 days). Susceptibility to hypoxia (sSaO2) was determined as haemoglobin saturation slope during hypoxic test. It was found that HVR and HCVR significantly increased and susceptibility to hypoxia (sSaO2) tended to decrease after cold acclimation. According to sSaO2 results before cold exposures, the group was divided into 3: Group 1--with high susceptibility to hypoxia, Group 2--medium and Group 3--low susceptibility. Analysis of variances (MANOVA) shows the key role of susceptibility to hypoxia and cold exposures and their interrelation. Posterior analysis (Fisher LSD) showed significant difference in susceptibility to hypoxia between the groups prior to cold acclimation, while HVR and HCVR did not differ between the groups. After cold acclimation, susceptibility to hypoxia was not significantly different between the groups, while HCVR significantly increased in Groups 1 and 3, HVR significantly increased in Group 3 and HCVR, HVR did not change in Group 2. Short-term cold exposures caused an increase in functional reserves and improved oxygen supply of tissues in Group 1. Cold exposure hypoxia has caused energy loss in Group 3. Group 2 showed the most appropriate energy conservation reaction mode to cold exposures. No relation was found between the thermoregulation and the susceptibility to hypoxia.

  3. Talking with TV shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Laursen, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    User interaction with radio and television programmes is not a new thing. However, with new cross-media production concepts such as X Factor and Voice, this is changing dramatically. The second-screen logic of these productions encourages viewers, along with TV’s traditional one-way communication...... mode, to communicate on interactive (dialogue-enabling) devices such as laptops, smartphones and tablets. Using the TV show Voice as our example, this article shows how the technological and situational set-up of the production invites viewers to engage in new ways of interaction and communication....... More specifically, the article demonstrates how online comments posted on the day of Voice’s 2012 season finale can be grouped into four basic action types: (1) Invitation to consume content, (2) Request for participation, (3) Request for collaboration and (4) Online commenting. These action types...

  4. Um show de cacau

    OpenAIRE

    Rezende, José Francisco; UNIGRANRIO / PPGA; Mello, Simone; UNIGRANRIO

    2016-01-01

    O caso de ensino apresenta a trajetória de Alexandre Tadeu da Costa e da chocolateria Cacau Show. Seu objetivo é levar os estudantes a identificar alternativas e tomar decisões sobre posicionamento para continuidade do desenvolvimento de vantagens competitivas, sustentação de competência logística e possíveis abordagens ao mercado externo. 

  5. Is alcohol mixed with energy drinks consumption associated with susceptibility to smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azagba, Sunday; Sharaf, Mesbah F

    2014-04-01

    This paper examines whether adolescent students in Canada who have never smoked but who drink alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) are more susceptible to smoking than those who do not consume AmED. A nationally representative sample of 15,875 never-smoking students in grades 9 to 12 from the 2010-2011 Canadian Youth Smoking Survey is used. The association between AmED and susceptibility to smoking is examined using a logistic regression. About 28% of the never-smoking adolescents in grades 9 to 12 are susceptible to smoking, and 13% report using AmED. Results of the adjusted logistic regression analysis show a statistically significant positive association between consuming AmED and susceptibility to smoking. Never-smoking students who reported using AmED are more susceptible to smoking when compared with those who have not consumed AmED (OR=1.89; 95% CI=1.71-2.10). Similar results are obtained when the analysis is stratified by gender. The consumption of AmED is associated with higher odds of smoking susceptibility among Canadian adolescents. AmED use could be a potential marker for smoking susceptibility among never-smoking adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Taking in a Show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Timothy W

    2016-01-01

    Many medical practices have cut back on education and staff development expenses, especially those costs associated with conventions and conferences. But there are hard-to-value returns on your investment in these live events--beyond the obvious benefits of acquired knowledge and skills. Major vendors still exhibit their services and wares at many events, and the exhibit hall is a treasure-house of information and resources for the savvy physician or administrator. Make and stick to a purposeful plan to exploit the trade show. You can compare products, gain new insights and ideas, and even negotiate better deals with representatives anxious to realize returns on their exhibition investments.

  7. Manifestation of a neuro-fuzzy model to produce landslide susceptibility map using remote sensing data derived parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Biswajeet; Lee, Saro; Buchroithner, Manfred

    Landslides are the most common natural hazards in Malaysia. Preparation of landslide suscep-tibility maps is important for engineering geologists and geomorphologists. However, due to complex nature of landslides, producing a reliable susceptibility map is not easy. In this study, a new attempt is tried to produce landslide susceptibility map of a part of Cameron Valley of Malaysia. This paper develops an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) based on a geographic information system (GIS) environment for landslide susceptibility mapping. To ob-tain the neuro-fuzzy relations for producing the landslide susceptibility map, landslide locations were identified from interpretation of aerial photographs and high resolution satellite images, field surveys and historical inventory reports. Landslide conditioning factors such as slope, plan curvature, distance to drainage lines, soil texture, lithology, and distance to lineament were extracted from topographic, soil, and lineament maps. Landslide susceptible areas were analyzed by the ANFIS model and mapped using the conditioning factors. Furthermore, we applied various membership functions (MFs) and fuzzy relations to produce landslide suscep-tibility maps. The prediction performance of the susceptibility map is checked by considering actual landslides in the study area. Results show that, triangular, trapezoidal, and polynomial MFs were the best individual MFs for modelling landslide susceptibility maps (86

  8. Topological susceptibility from the twisted mass Dirac operator spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cichy, Krzysztof [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Poznan Univ. (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Garcia-Ramos, Elena [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany); Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Cyprus Univ., Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; Collaboration: European Twisted Mass Collaboration

    2013-12-15

    We present results of our computation of the topological susceptibility with N{sub f}=2 and N{sub f}= +1+1 flavours of maximally twisted mass fermions, using the method of spectral projectors. We perform a detailed study of the quark mass dependence and discretization effects. We make an attempt to confront our data with chiral perturbation theory and extract the chiral condensate from the quark mass dependence of the topological susceptibility. We compare the value with the results of our direct computation from the slope of the mode number. We emphasize the role of autocorrelations and the necessity of long Monte Carlo runs to obtain results with good precision. We also show our results for the spectral projector computation of the ratio of renormalization constants Z{sub P}/Z{sub S}.

  9. Absolute method of measuring magnetic susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, A.; Senftle, F.E.

    1959-01-01

    An absolute method of standardization and measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of small samples is presented which can be applied to most techniques based on the Faraday method. The fact that the susceptibility is a function of the area under the curve of sample displacement versus distance of the magnet from the sample, offers a simple method of measuring the susceptibility without recourse to a standard sample. Typical results on a few substances are compared with reported values, and an error of less than 2% can be achieved. ?? 1959 The American Institute of Physics.

  10. Common breast cancer susceptibility alleles are associated with tumour subtypes in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: results from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulligan, Anna Marie; Couch, Fergus J.; Barrowdale, Daniel; Domchek, Susan M.; Eccles, Diana; Nevanlinna, Heli; Ramus, Susan J.; Robson, Mark; Sherman, Mark; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Lee, Andrew; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Janavicius, Ramunas; Hansen, Thomas vO; Nielsen, Finn C.; Ejlertsen, Bent; Osorio, Ana; Muñoz-Repeto, Iván; Durán, Mercedes; Godino, Javier; Pertesi, Maroulio; Benítez, Javier; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Cattaneo, Elisa; Bonanni, Bernardo; Viel, Alessandra; Pasini, Barbara; Papi, Laura; Ottini, Laura; Savarese, Antonella; Bernard, Loris; Radice, Paolo; Hamann, Ute; Verheus, Martijn; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E. J.; Wijnen, Juul; Gómez García, Encarna B.; Nelen, Marcel R.; Kets, C. Marleen; Seynaeve, Caroline; Tilanus-Linthorst, Madeleine M. A.; van der Luijt, Rob B.; van Os, Theo; Rookus, Matti; Frost, Debra; Jones, J. Louise; Evans, D. Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Eeles, Ros; Izatt, Louise; Adlard, Julian; Davidson, Rosemarie; Cook, Jackie; Donaldson, Alan; Dorkins, Huw; Gregory, Helen; Eason, Jacqueline; Houghton, Catherine; Barwell, Julian; Side, Lucy E.; McCann, Emma; Murray, Alex; Peock, Susan; Godwin, Andrew K.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Rhiem, Kerstin; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ruehl, Ina; Arnold, Norbert; Niederacher, Dieter; Sutter, Christian; Deissler, Helmut; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Kast, Karin; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Schoenbuchner, Ines; Fiebig, Britta; Heinritz, Wolfram; Schäfer, Dieter; Gevensleben, Heidrun; Caux-Moncoutier, Virginie; Fassy-Colcombet, Marion; Cornelis, François; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Léoné, Mélanie; Boutry-Kryza, Nadia; Hardouin, Agnès; Berthet, Pascaline; Muller, Danièle; Fricker, Jean-Pierre; Mortemousque, Isabelle; Pujol, Pascal; Coupier, Isabelle; Lebrun, Marine; Kientz, Caroline; Longy, Michel; Sevenet, Nicolas; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Isaacs, Claudine; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blanco, Ignacio; Lazaro, Conxi; Barkardottir, Rosa B.; Soucy, Penny; Dumont, Martine; Simard, Jacques; Montagna, Marco; Tognazzo, Silvia; D'Andrea, Emma; Fox, Stephen; Yan, Max; Rebbeck, Tim; Olopade, Olufunmilayo; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Lynch, Henry T.; Ganz, Patricia A.; Tomlinson, Gail E.; Wang, Xianshu; Fredericksen, Zachary; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Lindor, Noralane M.; Szabo, Csilla; Offit, Kenneth; Sakr, Rita; Gaudet, Mia; Bhatia, Jasmine; Kauff, Noah; Singer, Christian F.; tea, Muy-Kheng; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Mai, Phuong L.; Greene, Mark H.; Imyanitov, Evgeny; O'Malley, Frances P.; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Glendon, Gordon; Toland, Amanda E.; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Thomassen, Mads; Kruse, Torben A.; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Caligo, Maria A.; Soller, Maria; Henriksson, Karin; Wachenfeldt, von Anna; Arver, Brita; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Karlsson, Per; Ding, Yuan Chun; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Beattie, Mary; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Gross, Jenny; John, Esther M.; Daly, Mary B.; Buys, Saundra M.; Southey, Melissa C.; Hopper, John L.; Terry, Mary Beth; Chung, Wendy; Miron, Alexander F.; Goldgar, David; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Ellis, Steve; Fineberg, Elena; Platte, Radka; Miedzybrodzka, Zosia; Morrison, Patrick; Jeffers, Lisa; Cole, Trevor; Ong, Kai-Ren; Hoffman, Jonathan; James, Margaret; Paterson, Joan; Downing, Sarah; Taylor, Amy; Rogers, T.; Kennedy, John M.; Barton, David; Porteous, Mary; Drummond, Sarah; Brewer, Carole; Kivuva, Emma; Searle, Anne; Goodman, Selina; Hill, Kathryn; Murday, Victoria; Bradshaw, Nicola; Snadden, Lesley; Longmuir, Mark; Watt, Catherine; Gibson, Sarah; Haque, Eshika; Tobias, Ed; Duncan, Alexis; Jacobs, Chris; Langman, Caroline; Whaite, Anna; Chu, Carol; Miller, Julie; Ellis, Ian; Taylor, Jane; Male, Alison; Berlin, Cheryl; Collier, Rebecca; Douglas, Fiona; Claber, Oonagh; Jobson, Irene; Walker, Lisa; McLeod, Diane; Halliday, Dorothy; Durell, Sarah; Stayner, Barbara; Shanley, Susan; Rahman, Nazneen; Houlston, Richard; Bancroft, Elizabeth; D'Mello, Lucia; Page, Elizabeth; Ardern-Jones, Audrey; Kohut, Kelly; Wiggins, Jennifer; Castro, Elena; Mitra, Anita; Robertson, Lisa; Quarrell, Oliver; Bardsley, Cathryn; Hodgson, Shirley; Goff, Sheila; Brice, Glen; Winchester, Lizzie; Eddy, Charlotte; Tripathi, Vishakha; Attard, Virginia; Lucassen, Anneke; Crawford, Gillian; McBride, Donna; Smalley, Sarah; Barjhoux, Laure; Verny-Pierre, Carole; Giraud, Sophie; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Buecher, Bruno; Houdayer, Claude; Belotti, Muriel; Tirapo, Carole; de Pauw, Antoine; Roussy, Gustave; Bressac-de-Paillerets, Brigitte; Remenieras, Audrey; Byrde, Véronique; Caron, Olivier; Lenoir, Gilbert; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Uhrhammer, Nancy; Bérard, Léon; Lasset, Christine; Bonadona, Valérie; Baclesse, François; Sobol, Hagay; Bourdon, Violaine; Noguchi, Tetsuro; Eisinger, François; Coulet, Florence; Colas, Chrystelle; Soubrier, Florent; Peyrat, Jean-Philippe; Fournier, Joëlle; Révillion, Françoise; Vennin, Philippe; Adenis, Claude; Rouleau, Etienne; Lidereau, Rosette; Demange, Liliane; Nogues, Catherine; Barouk-Simonet, Emmanuelle; Bonnet, Françoise; Bubien, Virginie; Toulas, Christine; Guimbaud, Rosine; Gladieff, Laurence; Feillel, Viviane; Leroux, Dominique; Dreyfus, Hélène; Rebischung, Christine; Peysselon, Magalie; Coron, Fanny; Faivre, Laurence; Prieur, Fabienne; Ferrer, Sandra Fert; Lacassagne, Antoine; Frénay, Marc; Vénat-Bouvet, Laurence; Delnatte, Capucine; Snyder, Carrie L.; Hogervorst, F. B. L.; Verhoef, S.; Verheus, M.; van 't Veer, L. J.; van Leeuwen, F. E.; Collée, M.; van den Ouweland, A. M. W.; Jager, A.; Hooning, M. J.; van Asperen, C. J.; Wijnen, J. T.; Vreeswijk, M. P.; Tollenaar, R. A.; Devilee, P.; Ligtenberg, M. J.; Hoogerbrugge, N.; Ausems, M. G.; Aalfs, C. M.; Gille, J. J. P.; Waisfisz, Q.; Gomez-Garcia, E. B.; van Roozendaal, C. E.; Blok, Marinus J.; Caanen, B.; Oosterwijk, J. C.; van der Hout, A. H.; Mourits, M. J.; Vasen, H. F.; Nordling, Margareta; Bergman, Annika; Einbeigi, Zakaria; Liedgren, Sigrun; Borg, Åke; Loman, Niklas; Olsson, Håkan; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Jernström, Helena; Harbst, Katja; Lindblom, Annika; Liljegren, Annelie; Barbany-Bustinza, Gisela; Rantala, Johanna; Melin, Beatrice; Grönberg, Henrik; Stattin, Eva-Lena; Emanuelsson, Monica; Ehrencrona, Hans; Rosenquist, Richard; Dahl, Niklas

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that common breast cancer susceptibility alleles are differentially associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutation carriers. It is currently unknown how these alleles are associated with different breast cancer subtypes in BRCA1 and BRCA2

  11. Common breast cancer susceptibility alleles are associated with tumor subtypes in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: results from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulligan, Anna Marie; Couch, Fergus J; Barrowdale, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have demonstrated that common breast cancer susceptibility alleles are differentially associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutation carriers. It is currently unknown how these alleles are associated with different breast cancer subtype...

  12. Prevalence and bacterial susceptibility of hospital acquired urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Neto José Anastácio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Urinary tract infection is the most common nosocomially acquired infection. It is important to know the etiology and antibiotic susceptibility infectious agents to guide the initial empirical treatment. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of bacterial strains and their antibiotic susceptibility in nosocomially acquired urinary tract infection in a university hospital between January and June 2003. METHODS: We analyzed the data of 188 patients with positive urine culture (= 10(5 colony-forming units/mL following a period of 48 hours after admission. RESULTS: Half of patients were male. Mean age was 50.26 ± 22.7 (SD, range 3 months to 88 years. Gram-negative bacteria were the agent in approximately 80% of cases. The most common pathogens were E. coli (26%, Klebsiella sp. (15%, P. aeruginosa (15% and Enterococcus sp. (11%. The overall bacteria susceptibility showed that the pathogens were more sensible to imipenem (83%, second or third generation cephalosporin and aminoglycosides; and were highly resistant to ampicillin (27% and cefalothin (30%. It is important to note the low susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (42% and norfloxacin (43%. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that if one can not wait the results of urine culture, the best choices to begin empiric treatment are imipenem, second or third generation cephalosporin and aminoglycosides. Cefalothin and ampicillin are quite ineffective to treat these infections.

  13. Dietary fiber showed no preventive effect against colon and rectal cancers in Japanese with low fat intake: an analysis from the results of nutrition surveys from 23 Japanese prefectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugawara Kazuo

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since Fuchs' report in 1999, the reported protective effect of dietary fiber from colorectal carcinogenesis has led many researchers to question its real benefit. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between diet, especially dietary fiber and fat and colorectal cancer in Japan. Methods A multiple regression analysis (using the stepwise variable selection method was performed using the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs of colon and rectal cancer in 23 Japanese prefectures as objective variables and dietary fiber, nutrients and food groups as explanatory variables. Results As for colon cancer, the standardized partial correlation coefficients were positively significant for fat (1,13, P = 0.000, seaweeds (0.41, P = 0.026 and beans (0.45, P = 0.017 and were negatively significant for vitamin A (-0.63, P = 0.003, vitamin C (-0.42, P = 0.019 and yellow-green vegetables (-0.37, P = 0.046. For rectal cancer, the standardized partial correlation coefficient in fat (0.60, P = 0.002 was positively significant. Dietary fiber was not found to have a significant relationship with either colon or rectal cancers. Conclusions This study failed to show any protective effect of dietary fiber in subjects with a low fat intake (Japanese in this analysis, which supports Fuchs' findings in subjects with a high fat intake (US Americans.

  14. Real-Time Optical Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredborg, Marlene; Andersen, Klaus R; Jørgensen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing is in highly demand in health-care fields as antimicrobial resistant bacterial strains emerge and spread. Here we describe an optical screening system (oCelloScope), which based on time-lapse imaging of 96 bacteria-antibiotic combinations at a time, introdu......Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing is in highly demand in health-care fields as antimicrobial resistant bacterial strains emerge and spread. Here we describe an optical screening system (oCelloScope), which based on time-lapse imaging of 96 bacteria-antibiotic combinations at a time......, introduces real-time detection of bacterial growth and antimicrobial susceptibility, with imaging material to support the automatically generated graphs. Automated antibiotic susceptibility tests of a monoculture showed statistically significant antibiotic effect within 6 minutes and within 30 minutes...

  15. Antibiotic susceptibility of Atopobium vaginae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verschraegen Gerda

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have indicated that a recently described anaerobic bacterium, Atopobium vaginae is associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV. Thus far the four isolates of this fastidious micro-organism were found to be highly resistant to metronidazole and susceptible for clindamycin, two antibiotics preferred for the treatment of BV. Methods Nine strains of Atopobium vaginae, four strains of Gardnerella vaginalis, two strains of Lactobacillus iners and one strain each of Bifidobacterium breve, B. longum, L. crispatus, L. gasseri and L. jensenii were tested against 15 antimicrobial agents using the Etest. Results All nine strains of A. vaginae were highly resistant to nalidixic acid and colistin while being inhibited by low concentrations of clindamycin (range: G. vaginalis strains were also susceptible for clindamycin ( 256 μg/ml but susceptible to clindamycin (0.023 – 0.125 μg/ml. Conclusion Clindamycin has higher activity against G. vaginalis and A. vaginae than metronidazole, but not all A. vaginae isolates are metronidazole resistant, as seemed to be a straightforward conclusion from previous studies on a more limited number of strains.

  16. Antimycotics susceptibility testing of dermatophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsić-Arsenijević Valentina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatophytes are moulds that produce infections of the skin, hair and nails of humans and animals. The most common forms among these infections are onychomycosis and tinea pedis affecting 20% of world population. These infections are usually chronic. The treatment of dermatophytoses tends to be prolonged partly because available treatments are not very effective. Antifungal drug consumption and public health expenditure are high worldwide, as well as in Serbia. For adequate therapy, it is necessary to prove infection by isolation of dermatophytes and to test the antifungal susceptibility of isolates. Susceptibility testing is important for the resistance monitoring, epidemiological research and to compare in vitro activities of new antifungal agents. The diffusion and dilution methods of susceptibility tests are used, and technical issues of importance for the proper performance and interpretation of test results are published in the document E.DEF 9.1 (EUCAST and M38-A2 (CLSI. The aim of our paper is to promptly inform the public about technical achievements in this area, as well as the new organization of laboratory for medical mycology in our country. The formation of laboratory networks coordinated by the National Reference Laboratory for the cause of mycosis need to enable interlaboratory studies and further standardization of methods for antifungal susceptibility testing of dermatophytes, reproducibility of tests and clinical correlation monitoring (MIK values and clinical outcome of dermatophytosis. The importance of the new organization is expected efficient improvement in the dermatophytosis therapy at home, better quality of patient's life and the reduction of the cost of treatment.

  17. Genetic susceptibility of periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laine, M.L.; Crielaard, W.; Loos, B.G.

    2012-01-01

    In this systematic review, we explore and summarize the peer-reviewed literature on putative genetic risk factors for susceptibility to aggressive and chronic periodontitis. A comprehensive literature search on the PubMed database was performed using the keywords ‘periodontitis’ or ‘periodontal

  18. Fourie susceptible.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    a number of cultivars exhibited field resistance to halo blight and bacterial brown spot, all cultivars were more or less susceptible to .... Cerillos. Alubia. I. 91. 57. Kranskop. Red speckled sugar. II. 97. 63. OPS-RS1. Red speckled sugar. II. 96. 63. OPS-RS2. Red speckled sugar. I. 100. 61. OPS-RS3. Red speckled sugar. II. 97.

  19. Gender difference in acquired seizure susceptibility in adult rats after early complex febrile seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yun-Jian; Xu, Zheng-Hao; Feng, Bo; Xu, Ceng-Lin; Zhao, Hua-Wei; Wu, Deng-Chang; Hu, Wei-Wei; Chen, Zhong

    2014-12-01

    Gender differences are involved in many neurological disorders including epilepsy. However, little is known about the effect of gender difference on the risk of epilepsy in adults with a specific early pathological state such as complex febrile seizures (FSs) in infancy. Here we used a well-established complex FS model in rats and showed that: (1) the susceptibility to seizures induced by hyperthermia, pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), and maximal electroshock (MES) was similar in male and female rat pups, while males were more susceptible to PTZ- and MES-induced seizures than age-matched females in normal adult rats; (2) adult rats with complex FSs in infancy acquired higher seizure susceptibility than normal rats; importantly, female FS rats were more susceptible to PTZ and MES than male FS rats; and (3) the protein expression of interleukin-1β, an inflammatory factor associated with seizure susceptibility, was higher in adult FS females than in males, which may reflect a gender-difference phenomenon of seizure susceptibility. Our results provide direct evidence that the acquired seizure susceptibility after complex FSs is gender-dependent.

  20. Natural Hazard Susceptibility Assessment for Road Planning Using Spatial Multi-Criteria Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Caroline S J; Kalantari, Zahra; Mörtberg, Ulla; Olofsson, Bo; Lyon, Steve W

    2017-08-18

    Inadequate infrastructural networks can be detrimental to society if transport between locations becomes hindered or delayed, especially due to natural hazards which are difficult to control. Thus determining natural hazard susceptible areas and incorporating them in the initial planning process, may reduce infrastructural damages in the long run. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of expert judgments for assessing natural hazard susceptibility through a spatial multi-criteria analysis approach using hydrological, geological, and land use factors. To utilize spatial multi-criteria analysis for decision support, an analytic hierarchy process was adopted where expert judgments were evaluated individually and in an aggregated manner. The estimates of susceptible areas were then compared with the methods weighted linear combination using equal weights and factor interaction method. Results showed that inundation received the highest susceptibility. Using expert judgment showed to perform almost the same as equal weighting where the difference in susceptibility between the two for inundation was around 4%. The results also showed that downscaling could negatively affect the susceptibility assessment and be highly misleading. Susceptibility assessment through spatial multi-criteria analysis is useful for decision support in early road planning despite its limitation to the selection and use of decision rules and criteria. A natural hazard spatial multi-criteria analysis could be used to indicate areas where more investigations need to be undertaken from a natural hazard point of view, and to identify areas thought to have higher susceptibility along existing roads where mitigation measures could be targeted after in-situ investigations.

  1. Natural Hazard Susceptibility Assessment for Road Planning Using Spatial Multi-Criteria Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Caroline S. J.; Kalantari, Zahra; Mörtberg, Ulla; Olofsson, Bo; Lyon, Steve W.

    2017-11-01

    Inadequate infrastructural networks can be detrimental to society if transport between locations becomes hindered or delayed, especially due to natural hazards which are difficult to control. Thus determining natural hazard susceptible areas and incorporating them in the initial planning process, may reduce infrastructural damages in the long run. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of expert judgments for assessing natural hazard susceptibility through a spatial multi-criteria analysis approach using hydrological, geological, and land use factors. To utilize spatial multi-criteria analysis for decision support, an analytic hierarchy process was adopted where expert judgments were evaluated individually and in an aggregated manner. The estimates of susceptible areas were then compared with the methods weighted linear combination using equal weights and factor interaction method. Results showed that inundation received the highest susceptibility. Using expert judgment showed to perform almost the same as equal weighting where the difference in susceptibility between the two for inundation was around 4%. The results also showed that downscaling could negatively affect the susceptibility assessment and be highly misleading. Susceptibility assessment through spatial multi-criteria analysis is useful for decision support in early road planning despite its limitation to the selection and use of decision rules and criteria. A natural hazard spatial multi-criteria analysis could be used to indicate areas where more investigations need to be undertaken from a natural hazard point of view, and to identify areas thought to have higher susceptibility along existing roads where mitigation measures could be targeted after in-situ investigations.

  2. Microdilution procedure for antifungal susceptibility testing of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis to amphotericin b and itraconazole

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    E Takahagi-Nakaira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro tests employing microdilution to evaluate fungal susceptibility to antifungal drugs are already standardized for fermentative yeasts. However, studies on the susceptibility of dimorphic fungi such as Paracoccidioides brasiliensis employing this method are scarce. The present work introduced some modifications into antifungal susceptibility testing from the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST, concerning broth medium and reading time, to determine minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of amphotericin B and itraconazole against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Yeast-like cells of P. brasiliensis (Pb18 strain were tested for susceptibility to amphotericin B and itraconazole in RPMI 1640 medium, supplemented with 2% glucose and nitrogen source and incubated at 35°C. The MIC of amphotericin B and itraconazole against Pb18 were respectively 0.25 µg/mL and 0.002 µg/mL. The results of minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC showed that amphotericin B at 0.25 µg/mL or higher concentrations displayed fungicidal activity against Pb18 while itraconazole at least 0.002 µg/mL has a fungistatic effect on P. brasiliensis. In conclusion, our results showed that the method employed in the present study is reproducible and reliable for testing the susceptibility of P. brasiliensis to antifungal drugs.

  3. Hyperglycemia Increases Susceptibility to Ischemic Necrosis

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    D. Lévigne

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic patients are at risk for spontaneous foot ulcers, chronic wounds, infections, and tissue necrosis. Current theories suggest that the development and progression of diabetic foot ulcers are mainly caused by arteriosclerosis and peripheral neuropathy. Tissue necrosis plays a primordial role in the progression of diabetic foot ulcers but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of hyperglycemia per se on the susceptibility of ischemic tissue to necrosis, using a critical ischemic hind limb animal model. We inflicted the same degree of ischemia in both euglycemic and streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemic rats by resecting the external iliac, the femoral, and the saphenous arteries. Postoperative laser Doppler flowmetry of the ischemic feet showed the same degree of reduction in skin perfusion in both hyperglycemic and euglycemic animals. Nevertheless, we found a significantly higher rate of limb necrosis in hyperglycemic rats compared to euglycemic rats (71% versus 29%, resp.. In this study, we revealed that hyperglycemia per se increases the susceptibility to limb necrosis in ischemic conditions. Our results may help to better understand the physiopathology of progressive diabetic wounds and underline the importance of strict glycemic control in patients with critical limb ischemia.

  4. Statistical analysis for assessing shallow-landslide susceptibility in South Tyrol (south-eastern Alps, Italy)

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    Piacentini, Daniela; Troiani, Francesco; Soldati, Mauro; Notarnicola, Claudia; Savelli, Daniele; Schneiderbauer, Stefan; Strada, Claudia

    2012-05-01

    This paper conducts a statistical analysis to determine shallow-landslide susceptibility in an approximately 7500-km2 region of the south-eastern Alps (South Tyrol, Italy). The study applies the weight of evidence (WofE) method, which is useful in determining landslide susceptibility in large areas with complex geological and geomorphological settings. The statistical analysis and landslide susceptibility mapping are based on 882 past landslides, three geometric/topographic factors and two anthropogenic factors, which are the most relevant landslide predisposing factors. The quality of the proposed model, particularly the fitting performance, was assessed; the landslide database was divided into a training set to obtain the model and a validation set to estimate the model quality. The results show that the developed susceptibility model predicts an acceptable percentage (75%) of landslides. Therefore, the model can be useful and reliable for land planners and decision makers also due to its cost-effectiveness ratio.

  5. Susceptibility of Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae) to permethrin in dairies in Aguascalientes, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Vázquez, Carlos; Altamira, Guicelda; Ramos, Miguel; Medina, Leticia; Garcia-Vazquez, Zeferino; George, John

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a survey for the susceptibility of the horn fly, Hematobia irritans (L.), populations to permethrin on dairy cattle from Aguascalientes, Mexico. Samples of populations of horn flies at 25 dairies were exposed to two discriminating doses (2.5 and 6.0 microg/cm2) on permethrin-treated filter papers and the percentage of mortality was compared with that of a susceptible strain treated with same doses of permethrin. The results show that there was a difference in the mortality from two discriminating doses and the mortality of the susceptible strain. Therefore, horn fly populations at all dairies tested in Aguascalientes, Mexico, were susceptible to permethrin. This insecticide, as well as other pyrethroids, could continue to be used to provide satisfactory control of horn flies in the study region.

  6. Increased LDL susceptibility to oxidation accelerates future carotid artery atherosclerosis

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    Aoki Toshinari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We analyzed the causal relationship between LDL susceptibility to oxidation and the development of new carotid artery atherosclerosis over a period of 5 years. We previously described the determinants related to a risk of cardiovascular changes determined in a Japanese population participating in the Niigata Study, which is an ongoing epidemiological investigation of the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Methods We selected 394 individuals (169 males and 225 females who underwent a second carotid artery ultrasonographic examination in 2001 - 2002 for the present study. The susceptibility of LDL to oxidation was determined as the photometric absorbance and electrophoretic mobility of samples that had been collected in 1996 - 1997. The measurements were compared with ultrasonographic findings obtained in 2001 - 2002. Results The multivariate-adjusted model showed that age (odds ratio (OR, 1.034; 95% confidence interval (95%CI, 1.010 - 1.059, HbA1c (OR, 1.477; 95%CI, 0.980 - 2.225, and photometric O/N (OR, 2.012; 95%CI, 1.000 - 4.051 were significant variables that could independently predict the risk of new carotid artery atherosclerosis. Conclusion The susceptibility of LDL to oxidation was a significant parameter that could predict new carotid artery atherosclerosis over a 5-year period, and higher susceptibility was associated with a higher incidence of new carotid artery atherosclerosis.

  7. Properties and susceptibility of papaya (Carica papaya L. in postharvest

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    Dayana Marin Darias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The papaya (Carica papaya L. is an important crop due to its nutritious and medical properties and flavor. Therefore, an investigation was carried out for evaluating physical and chemical properties, as well as parameters of Post harvest fruit susceptibility. A sample fruit of Red Maradol variety was selected. The analyses were carried out in the laboratories of the Faculty of Chemistry – Pharmacy and in the Center for the study of Applied Chemistry, both located in the Central University "Marta Abreu" of Las Villas. The physical properties, weight of the sample, polar and equatorial diameter, and density, were determined. The chemical properties, total regular acidity, pH and total soluble solids (0Brix, were analyzed. The parameters of susceptibility, diameter and depth of the impacts, area and volume of bruise and the fruit susceptibility to the impacts, were also evaluated. Among the main reached results, stand out that the changes in the physical properties were not decisive in the postharvest. The chemical properties analyzed as total regular acidity, pH, and total soluble solids showed significant changes at postharvest phase. Finally, the parameters of susceptibility were increased in a significant way starting from the 6 days of postharvest.

  8. Smoking tobacco in Costa Rica: susceptibility, consumption and dependence

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    Sandra Fonseca-Chaves

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify factors associated with susceptibility, tobacco use and addiction in young people from 13 to 15 years of age, to determine conditions of risk and identify possible correlates to the development of public policies on smoking in Costa Rica. Materials and methods. Information available from the four rounds of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS Costa Rica was used. It was based on a sample size of 11 540 youngsters from public and private schools. Indicators of interest and logistic regression models for smoking, susceptibility and addiction were estimated. Results. The prevalence of current consumption shows a significant decrease over the 14 years of the study (17.3% in 1999 and 5.0% in 2013 and, to a lesser intensity, in the index of smoking susceptibility (19.3% in 1999 and 12.4% in 2013. The proportion of young people with addiction has shown a significant increase in the same period. Conclusions. The conditions that explained the significant reduction in smoking prevalence and less susceptibility must be maintained and deepened to achieve full compliance of the MPower measures.

  9. Soil susceptibility to compaction under use conditions in southern Brazil

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    Michael Mazurana

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The degree of soil compaction is intensified by its inadequate management, compaction being variable depending on soil type since even under identical management conditions, different types have different abilities to withstand load. The objective of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility to compaction of different classes of soils under no-tillage (NT croping system compared to the original condition. Thus, i soils with the same source material have distinct resistance to compression with increased NT adoption time; ii the most sensitive indicators of this change are the ratios mass:volume and volume:volume and; iii there is a relationship between resistance and compaction susceptibility with the amount and type of oxide. Soil samples were collected in areas under NT and under natural condition in order to assess the impact imposed by the NT on the attributes density and porosity, precompression stress and compressibility index and relate them to the oxide type of, and content in, the soils under study. The results show that the density and macroporosity were those most affected by the NT agricultural use, regardless of soil type, that is, its dynamic is related more to soil use and less to mineralogical characteristics. The soil resistance and compaction susceptibility were higher in soil developed in basalt, followed by those developed in sandstone and granite. Both the organic matter content and type and concentration of iron oxides were related to the soil resistance and susceptibility to compaction.

  10. Spatially varying prediction uncertainties and their implications on landslide susceptibility maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petschko, Helene; Brenning, Alexander; Goetz, Jason; Bell, Rainer; Glade, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Statistical methods for landslide susceptibility modelling are popular methods assessing the landslide susceptibility of a region (e.g. countries, province, municipalities), as they operate with less data compared to physically-based models. With statistical methods an overview over the region can be provided to identify areas where more detailed analysis (e.g. using geotechnical site investigation) is necessary to learn more about the slope stability. As with any model, statistical models are riddled with epistemic and aleatory uncertainties. As one model uncertainty spatially varying prediction uncertainties arise from the usage of a statistical model. The output of a statistical model is an individual value for each grid cell or terrain unit giving an estimated conditional mean value of the predicted probability. Therefore, there is a possible range to this value, a prediction uncertainty, as determined by the spatially varying standard error of the predicted probabilities conditional on the selected model form. Our objective is to assess and visualize the prediction uncertainties and their implications on a landslide susceptibility map with three susceptibility classes in a case study in Lower Austria. We performed the statistical landslide susceptibility modelling with generalized additive models (GAM). The standard error of the prediction for each grid cell in the prediction map was assessed using a lookup table. The resulting standard error map aided to estimate the upper and lower limit of a 95% confidence interval of the predicted probability. The comparison of the classified maps of the upper and lower confidence limits and the map showing the predicted probability of landslide susceptibility revealed the spatially varying prediction uncertainties shown by overlaps of different susceptibility classes (high, medium or low). While seven types of overlaps of different susceptibility classes were found, the most frequent overlap occurred between the low and

  11. Landslide susceptibility map: from research to application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorucci, Federica; Reichenbach, Paola; Ardizzone, Francesca; Rossi, Mauro; Felicioni, Giulia; Antonini, Guendalina

    2014-05-01

    Susceptibility map is an important and essential tool in environmental planning, to evaluate landslide hazard and risk and for a correct and responsible management of the territory. Landslide susceptibility is the likelihood of a landslide occurring in an area on the basis of local terrain conditions. Can be expressed as the probability that any given region will be affected by landslides, i.e. an estimate of "where" landslides are likely to occur. In this work we present two examples of landslide susceptibility map prepared for the Umbria Region and for the Perugia Municipality. These two maps were realized following official request from the Regional and Municipal government to the Research Institute for the Hydrogeological Protection (CNR-IRPI). The susceptibility map prepared for the Umbria Region represents the development of previous agreements focused to prepare: i) a landslide inventory map that was included in the Urban Territorial Planning (PUT) and ii) a series of maps for the Regional Plan for Multi-risk Prevention. The activities carried out for the Umbria Region were focused to define and apply methods and techniques for landslide susceptibility zonation. Susceptibility maps were prepared exploiting a multivariate statistical model (linear discriminant analysis) for the five Civil Protection Alert Zones defined in the regional territory. The five resulting maps were tested and validated using the spatial distribution of recent landslide events that occurred in the region. The susceptibility map for the Perugia Municipality was prepared to be integrated as one of the cartographic product in the Municipal development plan (PRG - Piano Regolatore Generale) as required by the existing legislation. At strategic level, one of the main objectives of the PRG, is to establish a framework of knowledge and legal aspects for the management of geo-hydrological risk. At national level most of the susceptibility maps prepared for the PRG, were and still are obtained

  12. Genetic Susceptibility to Atherosclerosis

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    Sanja Kovacic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a complex multifocal arterial disease involving interactions of multiple genetic and environmental factors. Advances in techniques of molecular genetics have revealed that genetic ground significantly influences susceptibility to atherosclerotic vascular diseases. Besides further investigations of monogenetic diseases, candidate genes, genetic polymorphisms, and susceptibility loci associated with atherosclerotic diseases have been identified in recent years, and their number is rapidly increasing. This paper discusses main genetic investigations fields associated with human atherosclerotic vascular diseases. The paper concludes with a discussion of the directions and implications of future genetic research in arteriosclerosis with an emphasis on prospective prediction from an early age of individuals who are predisposed to develop premature atherosclerosis as well as to facilitate the discovery of novel drug targets.

  13. Landslide Inventory and Susceptibility Mapping in Tropical Areas - Southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidzik, K.; Ramirez-Herrera, M. T.; Regmi, N. R.; Leshchinsky, B. A.

    2016-12-01

    Landslides are one of the common catastrophic phenomena in the world. In regions of humid-warm tropical climate they are triggered by extreme storms causing loss of life and economic devastation. In this study we mapped susceptibility to landslides in the tropical mountains of Guerrero (South Mexico) based on the inventory of landslide features triggered by the hurricane Manuel of September 2013. Landslide inventory was produced using interpretation of satellite images and automatic identification of landslides employing the Contour Connection Method (CCM). A map of susceptibility to landslides was developed by computing probability of landslide occurrence from statistical relationships of existing landslides using LiDAR elevation model and derived landslide-causing factors using a logistic regression method. Landslide inventory includes 419 features produced by the hurricane Manuel on the area of 22 km2, and > 1,000 older features, suggesting high landslide activity in this area. Most landslides in the region are small, but some large slides exist, such as the catastrophic landslide in La Pintada that caused 71 fatalities and destroyed a large part of the village. Our results indicate that the distance to streams, human activity, presence or absence of dense vegetation and orientation of slopes (on some areas) strongly influence the spatial distribution of landslides. Results showed high susceptibility zones encompass 30% of the study area and occur mostly along topographic convergence. Applied approach identified most of the landslides within the high susceptibility zone and suggested that it is a valid applicable method to map areas susceptible to landslides in southern Mexico but also on other humid-warm tropical regions.

  14. Extended biofilm susceptibility assay for Staphylococcus aureus bovine mastitis isolates: evidence for association between genetic makeup and biofilm susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior, M B; van Osch, M H J; Lam, T J G M; Vernooij, J C M; Gaastra, W; Fink-Gremmels, J

    2011-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most prevalent causes of bovine mastitis. The antimicrobial treatment of this disease is currently based on antimicrobial susceptibility tests according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute standards. However, various authors have shown a discrepancy between the results of this standard susceptibility test and the actual cure rate of the applied antimicrobial treatment. Increasing evidence suggests that in vivo biofilm formation by Staph. aureus, which is not assessed in the antimicrobial susceptibility tests, is associated with this problem, resulting in disappointing cure rates, especially for infections of longer duration. Previous data obtained with a limited number of strains showed that the extended biofilm antimicrobial susceptibility (EBS) assay reveals differences between strains, which cannot be derived from a standard susceptibility test or from a 24-h biofilm susceptibility test. The objective of this study was to test a collection of Staph. aureus bovine mastitis strains in the EBS assay and to model the effect of antimicrobial exposure, duration of antimicrobial exposure, and genotype profile of the strains on antimicrobial susceptibility. With the results from a previous study with the same collection of strains, the effect of genotype represented by accessory gene regulator gene (agr-type), the presence of insertional sequence 257 (IS257), intercellular adhesion (ica), and the β-lactamase (blaZ) gene were entered as explanatory factors in a logistic regression model. The agr locus of Staph. aureus controls the expression of most of the virulence factors, represses the transcription of several cell wall-associated proteins, and activates several exoproteins during the post-exponential phase. The IS257 gene has been related to biofilm formation in vitro and was found earlier in 50% of the agr-type 2 strains. The ica gene cluster encodes for the production of an extracellular polysaccharide adhesin, termed

  15. Susceptibilities of Candida albicans mouth isolates to antifungal agents, essentials oils and mouth rinses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalhinho, Sara; Costa, Ana Margarida; Coelho, Ana Cláudia; Martins, Eugénio; Sampaio, Ana

    2012-07-01

    Forty Candida albicans strains isolated from patient's mouth with fixed orthodontic appliances were analyzed to their susceptibilities to antifungal agents, mouth rinses and essential oils. Susceptibility to fluconazole, econazole, miconazole and ketoconazole, amphotericin B and nystatin was assessed by the disk diffusion (DD) method based on the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M44-A protocol, and by Etest (fluconazole and amphotericin B). The susceptibilities to mouth rinses and essential oils were also determined by the DD technique. All isolates tested were susceptible (S) to amphotericin B, nystatin and fluconazole. The overall concordance between the DD and the Etest was 100% for amphotericin and fluconazole. One isolate was resistant to econazole (2.5%) and the other to ketoconazole (2.5%). Econazole and ketoconazole had the highest percentages of susceptible dose dependent (SDD), 55 and 95%, respectively. Regarding to the susceptibility isolates profile, seven phenotypes were detected, and the 3 more represented (90% of the isolates) of them were SDD to one, two or three azoles. The study of mouth rinses showed a high variability of efficacy against C. albicans. The results showed that the isolates susceptibility to essential oils differed (P cinnamon > laurel > mint > eucalyptus > rosemary > lemon > myrrh > tangerine. The main finding was that the susceptibility to cinnamon and laurel varied among the three more representative antifungal phenotypes (P cinnamon and lemon was higher than those of the econazole-S yeasts (P < 0.05). In contrast, econazole-SDD isolates were less affected by laurel than econazole-S counterparts (P < 0.05).

  16. Suppressive oligodeoxynucleotides reduce lung cancer susceptibility in mice with silicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Christian; Kinjo, Takeshi; Alvord, W Gregory; Klinman, Dennis M

    2014-05-01

    Silicosis is an inflammatory lung disease induced by the inhalation of silica-containing dust particles. There is conflicting data on whether patients with silicosis are more susceptible to lung cancer induced by cigarette smoke. To examine this issue experimentally, a model was developed in which one of the most abundant and potent carcinogens present in cigarette smoke [4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)] was administered to mice at the peak of silica-induced pulmonary inflammation. Results show that the incidence of lung tumors in silicotic mice treated with NNK was significantly increased compared with mice exposed to silica or NNK alone. Synthetic oligonucleotides (ODN) containing repetitive TTAGGG motifs can block pathologic inflammation. We therefore examined whether treatment with these suppressive (Sup) ODN could block silica-induced pulmonary inflammation and thereby reduce susceptibility to lung cancer. Results show that Sup (but not control) ODN inhibit pulmonary fibrosis and other inflammatory manifestations of chronic silicosis. Of greater import, Sup ODN reduced lung tumor incidence and multiplicity in silicotic mice exposed to NNK. These findings establish an experimental model for examining the role of silicotic inflammation in cancer susceptibility and demonstrate that Sup ODN represent a novel therapy for chronic silicosis.

  17. Susceptibility of various cell lines to Neospora caninum tachyzoites cultivation

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    Khordadmehr, M.,

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Neospora caninum is a coccidian protozoan parasite which is a major cause of bovine abortions and neonatal mortality in cattle, sheep, goat and horse. Occasionally, cultured cells are used for isolation and multiplication of the agent in vitro with several purposes. In this study the tachyzoite yields of N. caninum were compared in various cell cultures as the host cell lines. Among the cell cultures tested, two presented good susceptibility to the agent: cell lines Vero and MA-104. SW742 and TLI (in vitro suspension culture of lymphoid cells infected with Theileria lestoquardi showed moderate sensitivity. No viable tachyzoite were detected in the culture of MDCK and McCoy cell lines. These results demonstrate that MA-104 and SW742 cells present adequate susceptibility to N. caninum compared to Vero cells, which have been largely used to multiply the parasite in vitro. Moreover, these have easy manipulation, fast multiplication and relatively low nutritional requirements. In addition, the result of this study showed that TLI cell line as a suspension cell culture is susceptible to Nc-1 tachyzoites infection and could be used as an alternative host cell line for tachyzoites culture in vitro studies.

  18. Multifractal model of magnetic susceptibility distributions in some igneous rocks

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    M. E. Gettings

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of in-situ magnetic susceptibility were compiled from mainly Precambrian crystalline basement rocks beneath the Colorado Plateau and ranges in Arizona, Colorado, and New Mexico. The susceptibility meter used measures about 30 cm3 of rock and measures variations in the modal distribution of magnetic minerals that form a minor component volumetrically in these coarsely crystalline granitic to granodioritic rocks. Recent measurements include 50–150 measurements on each outcrop, and show that the distribution of magnetic susceptibilities is highly variable, multimodal and strongly non-Gaussian. Although the distribution of magnetic susceptibility is well known to be multifractal, the small number of data points at an outcrop precludes calculation of the multifractal spectrum by conventional methods. Instead, a brute force approach was adopted using multiplicative cascade models to fit the outcrop scale variability of magnetic minerals. Model segment proportion and length parameters resulted in 26 676 models to span parameter space. Distributions at each outcrop were normalized to unity magnetic susceptibility and added to compare all data for a rock body accounting for variations in petrology and alteration. Once the best-fitting model was found, the equation relating the segment proportion and length parameters was solved numerically to yield the multifractal spectrum estimate. For the best fits, the relative density (the proportion divided by the segment length of one segment tends to be dominant and the other two densities are smaller and nearly equal. No other consistent relationships between the best fit parameters were identified. The multifractal spectrum estimates appear to distinguish between metamorphic gneiss sites and sites on plutons, even if the plutons have been metamorphosed. In particular, rocks that have undergone multiple tectonic events tend to have a larger range of scaling exponents.

  19. Studies on maize inbred lines susceptibility to herbicides

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    Stefanović Lidija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of results obtained during long- term studies on the response of maize inbred lines to herbicides. Under the agroecological conditions of Zemun Polje the response (reaction of maize inbred lines to herbicides of different classes was investigated. Biological tests were performed and some agronomic, morphological, physiological and biochemical parameters were determined when the response of maize inbred lines to herbicides was estimated. The use of active ingredients of herbicides from triazine, acetanilide, thiocarbamate to new chemical groups (sulfonylurea etc., have been resulted in changes in weed suppression and susceptibility of inbred lines. Obtained results show that effects of herbicides on susceptible maize genotypes can be different: they can slowdown the growth and development and affect the plant height; they can also affect the stages of the tassel and ear development and at the end they can reduced grain yield of the tested inbreds. Numerous studies confirmed the existence of differences in susceptibility level of maize genotypes in relation to herbicides. According to gained results the recommendations for growers are made on the possibility of the application of new herbicides in the hybrid seed production.

  20. Susceptibilities and Spin Gaps of Weakly Coupled Spin Ladders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larochelle, S.

    2004-05-11

    We calculate the uniform and staggered susceptibilities of two-chain spin-1/2 Heisenberg ladders using Monte-Carlo simulations. We show that the gap extracted from the uniform susceptibility and the saturation value of the staggered susceptibility are independent of the sign of the interchain coupling J{perpendicular} in the asymptotic limit |J{perpendicular}|/J {yields} 0. Furthermore, we examine the existence of logarithmic corrections to the linear scaling of the gap with |J{perpendicular}|.

  1. Susceptibility to declarative memory interference is pronounced in primary insomnia.

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    Hermann Griessenberger

    Full Text Available Sleep has been shown to stabilize memory traces and to protect against competing interference in both the procedural and declarative memory domain. Here, we focused on an interference learning paradigm by testing patients with primary insomnia (N = 27 and healthy control subjects (N = 21. In two separate experimental nights with full polysomnography it was revealed that after morning interference procedural memory performance (using a finger tapping task was not impaired in insomnia patients while declarative memory (word pair association was decreased following interference. More specifically, we demonstrate robust associations of central sleep spindles (in N3 with motor memory susceptibility to interference as well as (cortically more widespread fast spindle associations with declarative memory susceptibility. In general the results suggest that insufficient sleep quality does not necessarily show up in worse overnight consolidation in insomnia but may only become evident (in the declarative memory domain when interference is imposed.

  2. The susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model for viral marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Siti Suhaila; Akil, Ku Azlina Ku; Chulan, Majdah; Sharif, Noorzila

    2017-11-01

    Viral marketing is a marketing strategy utilizes social media to spread information about a product or services provided. It is the most powerful way to share information in a short amount of time. The objective of this study is to investigate the dynamic of viral marketing within a time duration in the point of view of mathematics. This study used the epidemiological model known as Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR). The model consists of a system of three differential equations with three state variables namely susceptible (S), infected (I) and recovered (R). It considers a case of SIR model with demography. Numerical experiments have been performed. The results show that viral marketing reaches its peak within two days. The online messages shared will become higher if the initial number of the infected individual has been increased.

  3. Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirov, Ivan I; Whitlow, Christopher T; Zamora, Carlos

    2018-02-01

    Although susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) studies have suggested an increased number of microhemorrhages in concussion, most show no significant differences compared with controls. There have been mixed results on using SWI to predict neurologic outcomes. Drawbacks include inability to time microhemorrhages and difficulty in attributing them to the concussion. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in concussion can identify metabolic abnormalities, with many studies showing correlations with clinical outcome. Applications in individual patients are impeded by conflicting data and lack of consensus on an optimal protocol. Therefore, currently MRS has most utility in group-level comparisons designed to reveal the pathophysiology of concussion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of the VCX3A, VCX2 and VCX3B genes shows that VCX3A gene deletion is not sufficient to result in mental retardation in X-linked ichthyosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas-Covarrubias, S A; González-Huerta, L M

    2008-03-01

    X-linked ichthyosis (XLI), an inborn error of metabolism, is due to steroid sulphatase (STS) deficiency. Most patients with XLI harbour complete deletion of the STS gene and flanking sequences. The presence of low copy number repeats on either side of the STS gene seems to have a major role in the high frequency of these deletions. Some patients with XLI with terminal deletions of Xp22.3 involving marker DXS1139 and the STS gene show mental retardation (MR); VCX3A is the only gene located on this critical region. To analyse the VCX3A, VCX, VCX2 and VCX3B genes in 80 unrelated Mexican patients with XLI with normal intelligence. STS activity was measured in the leucocytes using 7-[3H]-dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate as a substrate. Amplification of the regions from telomeric DXS89 to centromeric DXS1134 including both extremes of the STS and the VCX3A, VCX, VCX2 and VCX3B genes was performed using polymerase chain reaction. No STS activity was detected in the patients with XLI (0.00 pmol mg(-1) protein h(-1)). We observed two different deletion patterns: the first group included 62 patients with deletion of VCX3A and VCX genes. The second group included 18 patients with breakpoints at several regions on either side of the STS gene not including the VCX3A gene. These data indicate that more complex mechanisms, apart from possible VCX3A gene participation, are occurring in the genesis of MR in XLI, at least in the sample of Mexican patients analysed.

  5. SELECTED MACROECONOMIC FACTORS OBSERVATION IMPACT ON THE ECONOMY OF THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA AND THE WESTERN BALKANS IN THE OBSERVATION PERIOD 2000-2012, SHOWING RESULTS FROM 2008 TO 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOGDAN LABAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of the neoliberal concept in the Western Balkans has had effects on the economies of those countries that can say das resulted in unsustainable economic growth and macroeconomic instability. Besides the application of the same given the developments that had features of weakness especially since 2008., from the onset of the global economic crisis. The consequences of the liberalization of international economic developments have enabled the countries of the Western Balkans obtain foreign investment in the form of foreign direct investment, but their economies have done even more dependent on foreign capital, which is increasingly going in economic activities that have a faster way could fertilize the invested capital.

  6. The "Life Potential": a new complex algorithm to assess "Heart Rate Variability" from Holter records for cognitive and diagnostic aims. Preliminary experimental results showing its dependence on age, gender and health conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Barra, Orazio A

    2013-01-01

    Although HRV (Heart Rate Variability) analyses have been carried out for several decades, several limiting factors still make these analyses useless from a clinical point of view. The present paper aims at overcoming some of these limits by introducing the "Life Potential" (BMP), a new mathematical algorithm which seems to exhibit surprising cognitive and predictive capabilities. BMP is defined as a linear combination of five HRV Non-Linear Variables, in turn derived from the thermodynamic formalism of chaotic dynamic systems. The paper presents experimental measurements of BMP (Average Values and Standard Deviations) derived from 1048 Holter tests, matched in age and gender, including a control group of 356 healthy subjects. The main results are: (a) BMP always decreases when the age increases, and its dependence on age and gender is well established; (b) the shape of the age dependence within "healthy people" is different from that found in the general group: this behavior provides evidence of possible illn...

  7. Assessing MRI susceptibility artefact through an indicator of image distortion

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    Illanes Alfredo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Susceptibility artefacts in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI caused by medical devices can result in a severe degradation of the MR image quality. The quantification of susceptibility artefacts is regulated by the ASTM standard which defines a manual method to assess the size of an artefact. This means that the estimated artefact size can be user dependent. To cope with this problem, we propose an algorithm to automatically quantify the size of such susceptibility artefacts. The algorithm is based on the analysis of a 3D surface generated from the 2D MR images. The results obtained by the automatic algorithm were compared to the manual measurements performed by study participants. The results show that the automatic and manual measurements follow the same trend. The clear advantage of the automated algorithm is the absence of the inter- and intra-observer variability. In addition, the algorithm also detects the slice containing the largest artefact which was not the case for the manual measurements.

  8. Magnetic susceptibilities of minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Sam; Brownfield, I.K.

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic separation of minerals is a topic that is seldom reported in the literature for two reasons. First, separation data generally are byproducts of other projects; and second, this study requires a large amount of patience and is unusually tedious. Indeed, we suspect that most minerals probably are never investigated for this property. These data are timesaving for mineralogists who concentrate mono-mineralic fractions for chemical analysis, age dating, and for other purposes. The data can certainly be used in the ore-beneficiation industries. In some instances, magnetic-susceptibility data may help in mineral identification, where other information is insufficient. In past studies of magnetic separation of minerals, (Gaudin and Spedden, 1943; Tille and Kirkpatrick, 1956; Rosenblum, 1958; Rubinstein and others, 1958; Flinter, 1959; Hess, 1959; Baker, 1962; Meric and Peyre, 1963; Rojas and others, 1965; and Duchesne, 1966), the emphasis has been on the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic ranges of extraction. For readers interested in the history of magnetic separation of minerals, Krumbein and Pettijohn (1938, p. 344-346) indicated nine references back to 1848. The primary purpose of this paper is to report the magnetic-susceptibility data on as many minerals as possible, similar to tables of hardness, specific gravity, refractive indices, and other basic physical properties of minerals. A secondary purpose is to demonstrate that the total and best extraction ranges are influenced by the chemistry of the minerals. The following notes are offered to help avoid problems in separating a desired mineral concentrate from mixtures of mineral grains.

  9. Alcohol increases hypnotic susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmens-Wheeler, Rebecca; Dienes, Zoltán; Duka, Theodora

    2013-09-01

    One approach to hypnosis suggests that for hypnotic experience to occur frontal lobe activity must be attenuated. For example, cold control theory posits that a lack of awareness of intentions is responsible for the experience of involuntariness and/or the subjective reality of hypnotic suggestions. The mid-dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex and the ACC are candidate regions for such awareness. Alcohol impairs frontal lobe executive function. This study examined whether alcohol affects hypnotisability. We administered 0.8 mg/kg of alcohol or a placebo to 32 medium susceptible participants. They were subsequently hypnotised and given hypnotic suggestions. All participants believed they had received some alcohol. Participants in the alcohol condition were more susceptible to hypnotic suggestions than participants in the placebo condition. Impaired frontal lobe activity facilitates hypnotic responding, which supports theories postulating that attenuation of executive function facilitates hypnotic response, and contradicts theories postulating that hypnotic response involves enhanced inhibitory, attentional or other executive function. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. GIS-Based Integration of Subjective and Objective Weighting Methods for Regional Landslides Susceptibility Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhua Zhou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of landslide susceptibility maps is of great importance due to rapid urbanization. The purpose of this study is to present a method to integrate the subjective weight with objective weight for regional landslide susceptibility mapping on the geographical information system (GIS platform. The analytical hierarchy process (AHP, which is subjective, was employed to weight predictive factors’ contribution to landslide occurrence. The frequency ratio (FR method, which is objective, was used to derive subclasses’ frequency ratio with respect to landslides that indicate the relative importance of a subclass within each predictive factor. A case study was carried out at Tsushima Island, Japan, using a historical inventory of 534 landslides and seven predictive factors: elevation, slope, aspect, terrain roughness index (TRI, lithology, land cover and mean annual precipitation (MAP. The landslide susceptibility index (LSI was calculated using the weighted linear combination of factors’ weights and subclasses’ weights. The study area was classified into five susceptibility zones according to the LSI. In addition, the produced susceptibility map was compared with maps generated using the conventional FR and AHP method and validated using the relative landslide index (RLI. The validation result showed that the proposed method performed better than the conventional application of the FR method and AHP method. The obtained landslide susceptibility maps could serve as a scientific basis for urban planning and landslide hazard management.

  11. Evaluation of real-time data obtained from gravimetric preparation of antineoplastic agents shows medication errors with possible critical therapeutic impact: Results of a large-scale, multicentre, multinational, retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terkola, R; Czejka, M; Bérubé, J

    2017-08-01

    Medication errors are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality especially with antineoplastic drugs, owing to their narrow therapeutic index. Gravimetric workflow software systems have the potential to reduce volumetric errors during intravenous antineoplastic drug preparation which may occur when verification is reliant on visual inspection. Our aim was to detect medication errors with possible critical therapeutic impact as determined by the rate of prevented medication errors in chemotherapy compounding after implementation of gravimetric measurement. A large-scale, retrospective analysis of data was carried out, related to medication errors identified during preparation of antineoplastic drugs in 10 pharmacy services ("centres") in five European countries following the introduction of an intravenous workflow software gravimetric system. Errors were defined as errors in dose volumes outside tolerance levels, identified during weighing stages of preparation of chemotherapy solutions which would not otherwise have been detected by conventional visual inspection. The gravimetric system detected that 7.89% of the 759 060 doses of antineoplastic drugs prepared at participating centres between July 2011 and October 2015 had error levels outside the accepted tolerance range set by individual centres, and prevented these doses from reaching patients. The proportion of antineoplastic preparations with deviations >10% ranged from 0.49% to 5.04% across sites, with a mean of 2.25%. The proportion of preparations with deviations >20% ranged from 0.21% to 1.27% across sites, with a mean of 0.71%. There was considerable variation in error levels for different antineoplastic agents. Introduction of a gravimetric preparation system for antineoplastic agents detected and prevented dosing errors which would not have been recognized with traditional methods and could have resulted in toxicity or suboptimal therapeutic outcomes for patients undergoing anticancer treatment.

  12. Terrestrial Laser Scanner for assessing rockfall susceptibility in the Cilento rocky coast (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrentino, Valerio; Matasci, Battista; Abellan, Antonio; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Marino, Ermanno; Pignalosa, Antonio; Santo, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Rockfalls and other types of landslides are the dominant processes causing a retreat of sea cliffs. The coastal areas constitute an important tourist attraction and a large number of people rest beneath the cliffs on a daily basis, considerably increasing the risk associated to rockfalls. We present an approach to assess rockfall susceptibility at the cliff scale based on terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) point clouds. The test area is a coastal cliff situated in the southern part of the Cilento (Centola Municipality, Campania Region), in which a natural arch was formed. This cliff is constituted by heavy fractured carbonate rock mass with a strong structural control. In June 2015 TLS data were acquired with long-range scanner RIEGL VZ1000®. The structural analysis of the cliff was performed in the field and using Coltop 3D software on the point cloud. As a result, 10 discontinuity sets (joint, faults and bedding planes) were individuated and the different characteristics such as orientation, spacing and persistence were measured. The kinematically unstable areas were highlighted using a script that computes an index of susceptibility to rockfalls based on the spatial distribution of failure mechanisms. The susceptibility index computation is based on the average surface that every joint set (or combinations of two joint sets in the case of wedge failure) forms on the topography according to its spacing, trace length, and incidence angle. This susceptibility index also depends on the steepness of the joint set (or of the intersection line in the case of wedge failure). As a result the most important discontinuity sets in terms of potential planar failure, wedge failure and toppling were individuated and an assessment of rockfall susceptibility at the cliff scale was achieved. Results show that the kinematically feasible failures are not equally distributed along the cliff but concentrated on certain areas. The most susceptible areas for planar failure are related to

  13. Ureolytic Biomineralization Reduces Proteus mirabilis Biofilm Susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaobao; Lu, Nanxi; Brady, Hannah R; Packman, Aaron I

    2016-05-01

    Ureolytic biomineralization induced by urease-producing bacteria, particularly Proteus mirabilis, is responsible for the formation of urinary tract calculi and the encrustation of indwelling urinary catheters. Such microbial biofilms are challenging to eradicate and contribute to the persistence of catheter-associated urinary tract infections, but the mechanisms responsible for this recalcitrance remain obscure. In this study, we characterized the susceptibility of wild-type (ure+) and urease-negative (ure-) P. mirabilis biofilms to killing by ciprofloxacin. Ure+ biofilms produced fine biomineral precipitates that were homogeneously distributed within the biofilm biomass in artificial urine, while ure- biofilms did not produce biomineral deposits under identical growth conditions. Following exposure to ciprofloxacin, ure+ biofilms showed greater survival (less killing) than ure- biofilms, indicating that biomineralization protected biofilm-resident cells against the antimicrobial. To evaluate the mechanism responsible for this recalcitrance, we observed and quantified the transport of Cy5-conjugated ciprofloxacin into the biofilm by video confocal microscopy. These observations revealed that the reduced susceptibility of ure+ biofilms resulted from hindered delivery of ciprofloxacin into biomineralized regions of the biofilm. Further, biomineralization enhanced retention of viable cells on the surface following antimicrobial exposure. These findings together show that ureolytic biomineralization induced by P. mirabilis metabolism strongly regulates antimicrobial susceptibility by reducing internal solute transport and increasing biofilm stability. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Biochemical characters and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Subhankari Prasad; Mahapatra, Santanu Kar; Roy, Somenath

    2011-06-01

    To observe the biochemical characters and antibiotic susceptibility of isolated Staphylococcus aureus (S. auerus) strains against some conventional and traditional antibiotics. Thirty post operative pathogenic isolated S. aureus strains were used in this study. Bacterial culture was done in Mueller-Hinton broth at 37 °C. Characters of these strains were determined by traditional biochemical tests such as hydrolysis test of gelatin, urea, galactose, starch and protein, and fermentation of lactose and sucrose. Antibiotic susceptibility were carried out by minimum inhibitory concentration test, minium bactericidal concentration test, disc agar diffusion test and brain heart infusion oxacillin screening agar. From this study, it was observed that 100% S. aureus isolates showed positive results in gelatin, urea and galactose hydrolysis test, 50% isolates were positive in starch hydrolysis test, 35% in protein hydrolysis test, 100% isolates in lactose fermenting test, but no isolate was positive in sucrose fermenting test. Antibiotic susceptibility testing suggested that 20% of isolates were resistant to kanamycin and 46.67% were resistant to oxacillin. These findings show that all these isolates have gelatin, urea, galactose hydrolysis and lactose fermenting activity. 20% of these isolates were resistant to kanamycin and 46.67% were resistant to oxacillin.

  15. C4BPB/C4BPA is a new susceptibility locus for venous thrombosis with unknown protein S-independent mechanism: results from genome-wide association and gene expression analyses followed by case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buil, Alfonso; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Souto, Juan Carlos; Saut, Noémie; Germain, Marine; Rotival, Maxime; Tiret, Laurence; Cambien, Françcois; Lathrop, Mark; Zeller, Tanja; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Rodriguez de Cordoba, Santiago; Münzel, Thomas; Wild, Philipp; Fontcuberta, Jordi; Gagnon, France; Emmerich, Joseph; Almasy, Laura; Blankenberg, Stefan; Soria, José-Manuel; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel

    2010-06-10

    Through its binding with protein S (PS), a key element of the coagulation/fibrinolysis cascade, the C4b-binding protein (C4BP) has been hypothesized to be involved in the susceptibility to venous thrombosis (VT). To identify genetic factors that may influence the plasma levels of the 3 C4BP existing isoforms, alpha(7)beta(1), alpha(6)beta(1), and alpha(7)beta(0), we conducted a genome-wide association study by analyzing 283 437 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Genetic Analysis of Idiopathic Thrombophilia (GAIT) study composed of 352 persons. Three SNPs at the C4BPB/C4BPA locus were found genome-wide significantly associated with alpha(7)beta(0) levels. One of these SNPs was further found to explain approximately 11% of the variability of mRNA C4BPA expression in the Gutenberg Heart Study composed of 1490 persons, with no effect on C4BPB mRNA expression. The allele associated with increased alpha(7)beta(0) plasma levels and increased C4BPA expression was further found associated with increased risk of VT (odds ratio [OR] = 1.24 [1.03-1.53]) in 2 independent case-control studies (MARseille THrombosis Association study [MARTHA] and FActeurs de RIsque et de récidives de la maladie thromboembolique VEineuse [FARIVE]) gathering 1706 cases and 1379 controls. This SNP was not associated with free PS or total PS. In conclusion, we observed strong evidence that the C4BPB/C4BPA locus is a new susceptibility locus for VT through a PS-independent mechanism that remains to be elucidated.

  16. HIV-1 subtype influences susceptibility and response to monotherapy with the protease inhibitor lopinavir/ritonavir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, K A; Ghosn, J; Gregson, J; Mbisa, J L; Chaix, M L; Cohen Codar, I; Delfraissy, J F; Delaugerre, C; Gupta, R K

    2015-01-01

    PI susceptibility results from a complex interplay between protease and Gag proteins, with Gag showing wide variation across HIV-1 subtypes. We explored the impact of pre-treatment susceptibility on the outcome of lopinavir/ritonavir monotherapy. Treatment-naive individuals who experienced lopinavir/ritonavir monotherapy failure from the MONARK study were matched (by subtype, viral load and baseline CD4 count) with those who achieved virological response ('successes'). Successes were defined by viral load protease was amplified from patient samples for in vitro phenotypic susceptibility testing, with susceptibility expressed as fold change (FC) relative to a subtype B reference strain. Baseline lopinavir susceptibility was lower in viral failures compared with viral successes, but the differences were not statistically significant (median lopinavir susceptibility: 4.4 versus 8.5, respectively, P = 0.17). Among CRF02_AG/G patients, there was a significant difference in lopinavir susceptibility between the two groups (7.1 versus 10.4, P = 0.047), while in subtype B the difference was not significant (2.7 versus 3.4, P = 0.13). Subtype CRF02_AG/G viruses had a median lopinavir FC of 8.7 compared with 3.1 for subtype B (P = 0.001). We report an association between reduced PI susceptibility (using full-length Gag-protease sequences) at baseline and subsequent virological failure on lopinavir/ritonavir monotherapy in antiretroviral-naive patients harbouring subtype CRF02_AG/G viruses. We speculate that this may be important in the context of suboptimal adherence in determining viral failure. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.

  17. Detection of homozygosity in near isogenic Lines of non-susceptible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The near isogenic lines (NILs) of non-susceptible to DNV-Z were bred through backcrossing successively using L10 as donor parent and Js as recurrent parent. The homozygosity of the NILs was detected using the SSR markers from the SSR linkage map. The results showed that the ratio of the linkage groups from the ...

  18. Common genetic variations in cell cycle and DNA repair pathways associated with pediatric brain tumor susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahmideh, Maral Adel; Lavebratt, Catharina; Schüz, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    is based on the largest series of PBT cases to date. Saliva DNA from 245 cases and 489 controls, aged 7-19 years at diagnosis/reference date, was genotyped for 68 SNPs. Data were analyzed using unconditional logistic regression. The results showed EGFRrs730437 and EGFRrs11506105 may decrease susceptibility...

  19. The Prevalence and Inter-Relationship of Negative Body Image Perception, Depression and Susceptibility to Eating Disorders among Female Medical Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaf, Nurajirahbt Abdul; Zuhrah, Beevi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Female students are thought to be more negatively impacted by body image ideals and often more susceptible to various eating related disorders compared to men. A previous study using a sample of female students in Malaysia did not identify whether the increase in susceptibility to eating disorders can be explained by the level of body image acceptance. Aim To identify the prevalence of depression and susceptibility to eating disorders among a sample of 206 female students in one of the private universities in Malaysia and explore the relationship between depression, body image and susceptibility to eating disorders. In addition, this study aimed to determine whether depression is a mediator between body image and susceptibility to eating disorders among female college students. Materials and Methods The Body Image Acceptance and Action Questionnaire were used to assess body image acceptance, the Patient Health Questionnaire to measure depression and the Eating Attitude Test- 26 was used to assess susceptibility to eating disorders. Results The results showed that 65.5% (n=135) of the students were depressed and 6.3% (n=13) were susceptible to eating disorders. There was a significant positive relationship between depression and eating disorders and a negative relationship between body image and depression as well as between body image and eating disorder. Further, the regression model showed that depression was partially mediating the effect of body image on eating disorders. Conclusion Body image and depression contribute to eating disorders and treating depression could reduce susceptibility to eating disorders. PMID:27134977

  20. Reduced fluoroquinolone susceptibility in Salmonella enterica isolates from travelers, Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Marianne M; Kotilainen, Pirkko; Huovinen, Pentti; Hurme, Saija; Lukinmaa, Susanna; Webber, Mark A; Piddock, Laura J V; Siitonen, Anja; Hakanen, Antti J

    2009-05-01

    We tested the fluoroquinolone susceptibility of 499 Salmonella enterica isolates collected from travelers returning to Finland during 2003-2007. Among isolates from travelers to Thailand and Malaysia, reduced fluoroquinolone susceptibility decreased from 65% to 22% (p = 0.002). All isolates showing nonclassical quinolone resistance were from travelers to these 2 countries.

  1. Stem cells show promising results for lymphoedema treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toyserkani, Navid Mohamadpour; Quaade, Marlene Louise; Sheikh, Søren Paludan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Lymphoedema is a debilitating condition, manifesting in excess lymphatic fluid and swelling of subcutaneous tissues. Lymphoedema is as of yet still an incurable condition and current treatment modalities are not satisfactory. The capacity of mesenchymal stem cells to promote angiogenesis......, secrete growth factors, regulate the inflammatory process, and differentiate into multiple cell types make them a potential ideal therapy for lymphoedema. Adipose tissue is the richest and most accessible source of mesenchymal stem cells and they can be harvested, isolated, and used for therapy...... in a single stage procedure as an autologous treatment. The aim of this paper was to review all studies using mesenchymal stem cells for lymphoedema treatment with a special focus on the potential use of adipose-derived stem cells. A systematic search was performed and five preclinical and two clinical...

  2. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in India: Prevalence & susceptibility pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indian Network for Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance (INSAR group, India

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is endemic in India and is a dangerous pathogen for hospital acquired infections. This study was conducted in 15 Indian tertiary care centres during a two year period from January 2008 to December 2009 to determine the prevalence of MRSA and susceptibility pattern of S. aureus isolates in India. Methods: All S. aureus isolates obtained during the study period in the participating centres were included in the study. Each centre compiled their data in a predefined template which included data of the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, location of the patient and specimen type. The data in the submitted templates were collated and analysed. Results: A total of 26310 isolates were included in the study. The overall prevalence of methicillin resistance during the study period was 41 per cent. Isolation rates for MRSA from outpatients, ward inpatients and ICU were 28, 42 and 43 per cent, respectively in 2008 and 27, 49 and 47 per cent, respectively in 2009. The majority of S. aureus isolates was obtained from patients with skin and soft tissue infections followed by those suffering from blood stream infections and respiratory infections. Susceptibility to ciprofloxacin was low in both MSSA (53% and MRSA (21%. MSSA isolates showed a higher susceptibility to gentamicin, co-trimoxazole, erythromycin and clindamycin as compared to MRSA isolates. No isolate was found resistant to vancomycin or linezolid. Interpretation & conclusions: The study showed a high level of MRSA in our country. There is a need to study epidemiology of such infections. Robust antimicrobial stewardship and strengthened infection control measures are required to prevent spread and reduce emergence of resistance.

  3. Selection strategies for body weight and reduced ascites susceptibility in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakdel, A; Bijma, P; Ducro, B J; Bovenhuis, H

    2005-04-01

    Ascites syndrome is a metabolic disorder in broilers. Mortality due to ascites results in significant economic losses and has a negative impact on animal welfare. It has been shown that genetic factors play a considerable role in susceptibility of birds to ascites, which offers perspectives for selection against this syndrome. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the consequences of alternative selection strategies for BW and resistance to ascites syndrome using deterministic simulation. In addition to the consequences of current selection (i.e., selection for increased BW only) alternative selection strategies including information on different ascites-related traits measured under normal or cold conditions and the consequences of having information on the underlying genes (i.e., MAS) were quantified. Five different breeding schemes were compared based on the selection response for BW, ascites susceptibility, and the rate of inbreeding. Traits investigated in the index as indicators for ascites were hematocrit value (HCT) and ratio of right ventricle to the total ventricular weight of the heart (RV:TV). The results indicated that by ignoring ascites susceptibility in the breeding goal, the gain for BW is 130 g and the birds will become more susceptible to ascites. Testing 50% of the birds under cold temperature conditions and including information of ascites related traits (HCT and RV:TV) measured under normal and cold conditions makes it possible to achieve a relatively high gain for BW (111.4 g) while controlling the genetic level for ascites susceptibility (selection response was 0). The results of scenarios including QTL information of ascites susceptibility showed that QTL information could be used very effectively in controlling ascites susceptibility.

  4. Middle Prut plain's erosion susceptibility evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor CASTRAVEȚ

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The given article is dedicated to Middle Prut Plain’s erosion susceptibility evaluation  using factorial analysis and methodology of principal component analysis implemented byGeographical Informational System GRASS. Susceptibility evaluation is executed in a qualitative mode, and the results have preliminary character, for further quantitative andmore precise study. This type of natural hazards analysis offers information on probable localization and severity of erosion phenomena, as well as their manifestation probabilityin a given place.

  5. Antifungal susceptibility profile of Trichosporon isolates: correlation between CLSI and etest methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemes, Raquel M L; Lyon, Juliana P; Moreira, Leonardo M; de Resende, Maria Aparecida

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antifungal susceptibility profile of Trichosporon species isolated from different sources employing the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) method and E-test method. Thirty-four isolates of Trichosporon spp. and six CBS reference samples were tested for their susceptibility to Amphotericin B, 5-flucytosine, Fluconazole, Itraconazole, Voriconazole and Terbinafine. All species showed high Minimun Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) for Itraconazole and susceptibility to Fluconazole, The comparison among the results obtained by the CLSI method and E-test revealed larger discrepancies among 5-flucytosine and Itraconazole. The present work provides epidemiological data that could influence therapeutic choices. Furthermore, the comparison between different methodologies could help to analyze results obtained by different laboratories.

  6. Genetic susceptibility to environmental toxicants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    The toxicological challenges to the chemical industry have in recent years been greatly affected by the rapid innovation and development of analytical, molecular and genetic technologies. ECETOC recognises the importance of developing the technical and intellectual skill bases in academia...... and industrial based laboratories to meet the rapid development of the science base of toxicology. As the technology to determine genetic susceptibility develops, so scientist will be able to describe altered gene expression provoked by chemicals long before they are able to offer valid interpretations...... of their meaning. A potential for inadvertently raising concerns over the effect of chemicals in experimental animals or man, or even the intentional misrepresentation of results to suggest chemicals are “playing” with our genes is enormous. History has shown that some individuals and groups in society are willing...

  7. Wound-induced pectin methylesterases enhance banana (Musa spp. AAA) susceptibility to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Jiang, Shuang; Lin, Guimei; Cai, Jianghua; Ye, Xiaoxi; Chen, Houbin; Li, Minhui; Li, Huaping; Takác, Tomás; Samaj, Jozef; Xu, Chunxiang

    2013-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that plant pectin methylesterases (PMEs) are directly involved in plant defence besides their roles in plant development. However, the molecular mechanisms of PME action on pectins are not well understood. In order to understand how PMEs modify pectins during banana (Musa spp.)-Fusarium interaction, the expression and enzyme activities of PMEs in two banana cultivars, highly resistant or susceptible to Fusarium, were compared with each other. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of PMEs and their effect on pectin methylesterification of 10 individual homogalacturonan (HG) epitopes with different degrees of methylesterification (DMs) were also examined. The results showed that, before pathogen treatment, the resistant cultivar displayed higher PME activity than the susceptible cultivar, corresponding well to the lower level of pectin DM. A significant increase in PME expression and activity and a decrease in pectin DM were observed in the susceptible cultivar but not in the resistant cultivar when plants were wounded, which was necessary for successful infection. With the increase of PME in the wounded susceptible cultivar, the JIM5 antigen (low methyestrified HGs) increased. Forty-eight hours after pathogen infection, the PME activity and expression in the susceptible cultivar were higher than those in the resistant cultivar, while the DM was lower. In conclusion, the resistant and the susceptible cultivars differ significantly in their response to wounding. Increased PMEs and thereafter decreased DMs acompanied by increased low methylesterified HGs in the root vascular cylinder appear to play a key role in determination of banana susceptibility to Fusarium.

  8. Short Communication Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern and Beta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The multiple drug resistance as evident in high MICs of the antibiotics tested could probably be due to abuse/misuse of antibiotics resulting in recurrence of furuncles in the patients. Keywords: Antibiotic susceptibility, β-lactamase, Recurrent furunculosis, Staphylococcus aureus. Received 08 August 2011/ Accepted 30 ...

  9. Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Extended Spectrum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibiotics susceptibility tests including, ESBL screening and confirmation, were carried out by disc diffusion technique using Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) criteria. Results: Ten different types of bacteria genera were observed from nine different clinical samples. E. coli was the most frequently isolated bacteria ...

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile of selected bacteraemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed by 12 participating laboratories according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Extended-spectrum 13-lactamase (ESBL) production was determined in selected species of Enterobacteriaceae irrespective of source. Results. The overall ...

  11. Helicobacter pylori : Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E-test strips for metronidazole, amoxicillin and clarithromycin were used for susceptibility testing. Results. The prevalence of H. pylori infection in children was 73.3%, and 54.8% in adults. All the H. pylori investigated in this study were largely sensitive to clarithromycin (100%, minimum inhibiting concentration (MIC) <2 ìg/ml) ...

  12. Insecticide susceptibility and resistance development in malathion selected Aedes albopictus (Skuse).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvi, S; Edah, M A; Nazni, W A; Lee, H L; Tyagi, B K; Sofian-Azirun, M; Azahari, A H

    2010-12-01

    Aedes albopictus was bioassayed to determine resistance development to malathion (OP). Two methods were applied, including WHO larval bioassay to determine the susceptibility to lethal concentration (LC), and adult bioassay to determine lethal time (LT). Larvae from colonies that had undergone selection pressure with malathion to yield 50% mortality were further subjected to selection for subsequent 10 generations. Selection of Ae. albopictus with malathion could relatively induce a consistent resistance ratio of 1.0 throughout 10 generations. It was noted that Ae. albopictus larvae showed less susceptibility to malathion compared to adults. The susceptibility test of adult mosquitoes to diagnostic dosage of 5.0% malathion-impregnated paper showed a variety of susceptibility to malathion when compared to the susceptible strain. Bioassay results indicated that the LT50 values of malathion-selected Ae. albopictus ranged between 11.5 - 58.8 minutes for ten consecutive generations. Biochemical enzyme studies indicated that there was a significant difference (p albopictus suggested that non-specific esterases do not play a role in resistance of malathion-selected Ae. albopictus.

  13. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability by combining drastic and susceptibility index: Application to Annaba superficial aquifer (Algeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedrati, Nassima; Djabri, Larbi; Chaffai, Hicham; Bougherira, Nabil

    2016-07-01

    Groundwater pollution due to anthropogenic activities is one of the major environmental problems in urban and industrial areas. The aim of this work is to propose a new integrated methodology to assess actual and forecasted groundwater vulnerability by combining Drastic and susceptibility index. The contamination susceptibility index (SI) at a given location was calculated by taking the product of the vulnerability DRASTIC index (VI) and the quality index (QI): SI=VI x QI. The superficial aquifer of Annaba plain was the study case proposed for the application of this methodology. The study revealed that the area with Very High vulnerability would increase 73 % in this superficial layer. This result can be explained by the susceptibility index map shows both hydrogeological and hydrochemical data related to the contamination problem including areas that should be taken into consideration during water management planning. The index map indicates that the most susceptible groundwater is occupies the majority of the study area. The validity of the DRASTIC and the susceptibility index methods, verified by comparing the distribution of some pollutants (Daouad, 2013) in the groundwater and the different vulnerability classes, shows a high contamination that affect the water quality in study areas.

  14. Shallow Landslide Susceptibility Modeling Using the Data Mining Models Artificial Neural Network and Boosted Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Joo Oh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to present some potential applications of sophisticated data mining techniques, such as artificial neural network (ANN and boosted tree (BT, for landslide susceptibility modeling in the Yongin area, Korea. Initially, landslide inventory was detected from visual interpretation using digital aerial photographic maps with a high resolution of 50 cm taken before and after the occurrence of landslides. The debris flows were randomly divided into two groups: training and validation sets with a 50:50 proportion. Additionally, 18 environmental factors related to landslide occurrence were derived from the topography, soil, and forest maps. Subsequently, the data mining techniques were applied to identify the influence of environmental factors on landslide occurrence of the training set and assess landslide susceptibility. Finally, the landslide susceptibility indexes from ANN and BT were compared with a validation set using a receiver operating characteristics curve. The slope gradient, topographic wetness index, and timber age appear to be important factors in landslide occurrence from both models. The validation result of ANN and BT showed 82.25% and 90.79%, which had reasonably good performance. The study shows the benefit of selecting optimal data mining techniques in landslide susceptibility modeling. This approach could be used as a guideline for choosing environmental factors on landslide occurrence and add influencing factors into landslide monitoring systems. Furthermore, this method can rank landslide susceptibility in urban areas, thus providing helpful information when selecting a landslide monitoring site and planning land-use.

  15. Susceptibility to emotional contagion for negative emotions improves detection of smile authenticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria eManera

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A smile is a context-dependent emotional expression. A smiling face can signal the experience of enjoyable emotions, but people can also smile to convince another person that enjoyment is occurring when it is not. For this reason, the ability to discriminate between felt and faked enjoyment expressions is a crucial social skill. Despite its importance, adults show remarkable individual variation in this ability. Revealing the factors responsible for these huge individual differences is a key challenge in this domain. Here we investigated, on a large sample of participants, whether individual differences in smile authenticity recognition are accounted for by differences in the predisposition to experience other people’s emotions, i.e., by susceptibility to emotional contagion. Results showed that susceptibility to emotional contagion for negative emotions increased smile authenticity detection, while susceptibility to emotional contagion for positive emotions worsened detection performance, because it leaded to categorize most of the faked smiles as sincere. These findings suggest that susceptibility to emotional contagion plays a key role in complex emotion recognition, and point out the importance of analyzing the susceptibility to experience other people’s positive and negative emo-tions as separate abilities.

  16. Spectroscopic AC susceptibility imaging (sASI) of magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ficko, Bradley W., E-mail: Bradley.W.Ficko@Dartmouth.edu; Nadar, Priyanka M.; Diamond, Solomon G.

    2015-02-01

    This study demonstrates a method for alternating current (AC) susceptibility imaging (ASI) of magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs) using low cost instrumentation. The ASI method uses AC magnetic susceptibility measurements to create tomographic images using an array of drive coils, compensation coils and fluxgate magnetometers. Using a spectroscopic approach in conjunction with ASI, a series of tomographic images can be created for each frequency measurement set and is termed sASI. The advantage of sASI is that mNPs can be simultaneously characterized and imaged in a biological medium. System calibration was performed by fitting the in-phase and out-of-phase susceptibility measurements of an mNP sample with a hydrodynamic diameter of 100 nm to a Brownian relaxation model (R{sup 2}=0.96). Samples of mNPs with core diameters of 10 and 40 nm and a sample of 100 nm hydrodynamic diameter were prepared in 0.5 ml tubes. Three mNP samples were arranged in a randomized array and then scanned using sASI with six frequencies between 425 and 925 Hz. The sASI scans showed the location and quantity of the mNP samples (R{sup 2}=0.97). Biological compatibility of the sASI method was demonstrated by scanning mNPs that were injected into a pork sausage. The mNP response in the biological medium was found to correlate with a calibration sample (R{sup 2}=0.97, p<0.001). These results demonstrate the concept of ASI and advantages of sASI. - Highlights: • Development of an AC susceptibility imaging model. • Comparison of AC susceptibility imaging (ASI) and susceptibility magnitude imaging (SMI). • Demonstration of ASI and spectroscopic ASI (sASI) using three different magnetic nanoparticle types. • SASI scan separation of three different magnetic nanoparticles samples using 5 spectroscopic frequencies. • Demonstration of biological feasibility of sASI.

  17. The Prevalence and Inter-Relationship of Negative Body Image Perception, Depression and Susceptibility to Eating Disorders among Female Medical Undergraduate Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaf, Nurajirahbt Abdul; Saravanan, Coumaravelou; Zuhrah, Beevi

    2016-03-01

    Female students are thought to be more negatively impacted by body image ideals and often more susceptible to various eating related disorders compared to men. A previous study using a sample of female students in Malaysia did not identify whether the increase in susceptibility to eating disorders can be explained by the level of body image acceptance. To identify the prevalence of depression and susceptibility to eating disorders among a sample of 206 female students in one of the private universities in Malaysia and explore the relationship between depression, body image and susceptibility to eating disorders. In addition, this study aimed to determine whether depression is a mediator between body image and susceptibility to eating disorders among female college students. The Body Image Acceptance and Action Questionnaire were used to assess body image acceptance, the Patient Health Questionnaire to measure depression and the Eating Attitude Test- 26 was used to assess susceptibility to eating disorders. The results showed that 65.5% (n=135) of the students were depressed and 6.3% (n=13) were susceptible to eating disorders. There was a significant positive relationship between depression and eating disorders and a negative relationship between body image and depression as well as between body image and eating disorder. Further, the regression model showed that depression was partially mediating the effect of body image on eating disorders. Body image and depression contribute to eating disorders and treating depression could reduce susceptibility to eating disorders.

  18. Acremonium species: new emerging fungal opportunists--in vitro antifungal susceptibilities and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarro, J; Gams, W; Pujol, I; Gené, J

    1997-11-01

    We provide an overview of opportunistic fungal infections caused by Acremonium (Cephalosporium) species and discuss the classification of these species as well as the diagnosis and treatment of acremonium infections. We used a microdilution broth method to compare in vitro susceptibilities and minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum fungicidal concentrations of amphotericin B, miconazole, itraconazole, 5-fluorocytosine, fluconazole, and ketoconazole for 33 clinical and environmental isolates of Acremonium. In general, the isolates tested displayed little susceptibility to the antifungals tested. Fluconazole and 5-fluorocytosine were ineffective in all cases. The efficacy of the remaining drugs was dependent on the strain. Amphotericin B showed the best results.

  19. Cave Cyanobacteria showing antibacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki Lamprinou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cave Cyanobacteria - thriving in an ‘extreme’ environment with interesting species biodiversity - are supposed to be a potential source of bioactive compounds. Lipid extracts from pure cultures of two recently established Cyanobacteria from Greek caves, Toxopsis calypsus and Phormidium melanochroun, were used for antibacterial screening against human pathogenic bacteria (reference and clinical isolates. Antimicrobial Susceptibility testing for both taxa was carried out using the disc-diffusion (Kirby Bauer method, while preliminary data applying the standard broth microdilution method for the determination of the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC are given only for T. calypsus. Antibacterial activity was demonstrated against the Gram-positive clinical and reference bacteria, mostly pronounced in enterococci; no activity was observed against the Gram-negative bacteria. The above screening is the first record of antibacterial activity from lipid extracts of cave Cyanobacteria enhancing the importance of cave microbiota and the necessity for cave conservation.

  20. Microwave susceptibility experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConaghy, C.

    1984-05-29

    In certain experimental environments, systems can be affected or damaged by microwave pulses. I have conducted tests at LLNL to understand the phenomenology of microwave susceptibility of system components and subsystem components. To date, my experiments have concentrated on bipolar transistors, similar to what might be used in discrete analog circuits, and on CMOS RAM chips, which might be used in a computer memory system. I observed a decrease in failure energies for both the transistor and the integrated curcuit as I shortened the microwave pulse width. An S band (2.86 GHz) transmit/receive (T/R) tube has also been tested both at S band and at X band (8.16 GHz). The S band pulse had limitations in rise-time from zero power, which had an effect on the amount of power that could be transmitted through the T/R tube, as much as 0.7% of the incident power passed through the tube. All tests were conducted in closed-waveguide or coax test-fixtures, in contrast to the anechoic chambers utilized by other experimenters. I have used both S band and X band Klystron generators. For very high power (greater than 1 MW), I used an additional pulse-compression cavity at S band. Other subsystem components such as an X band mixer and an X band T/R tube will be tested in the future. 8 references.

  1. Landslide susceptibility mapping & prediction using Support Vector Machine for Mandakini River Basin, Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Thakur, Manoj; Dubey, Chandra S.; Shukla, Dericks P.

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, various machine learning techniques have been applied for landslide susceptibility mapping. In this study, three different variants of support vector machine viz., SVM, Proximal Support Vector Machine (PSVM) and L2-Support Vector Machine - Modified Finite Newton (L2-SVM-MFN) have been applied on the Mandakini River Basin in Uttarakhand, India to carry out the landslide susceptibility mapping. Eight thematic layers such as elevation, slope, aspect, drainages, geology/lithology, buffer of thrusts/faults, buffer of streams and soil along with the past landslide data were mapped in GIS environment and used for landslide susceptibility mapping in MATLAB. The study area covering 1625 km2 has merely 0.11% of area under landslides. There are 2009 pixels for past landslides out of which 50% (1000) landslides were considered as training set while remaining 50% as testing set. The performance of these techniques has been evaluated and the computational results show that L2-SVM-MFN obtains higher prediction values (0.829) of receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-area under the curve) as compared to 0.807 for PSVM model and 0.79 for SVM. The results obtained from L2-SVM-MFN model are found to be superior than other SVM prediction models and suggest the usefulness of this technique to problem of landslide susceptibility mapping where training data is very less. However, these techniques can be used for satisfactory determination of susceptible zones with these inputs.

  2. Investigation on the Effect of Cooling Rate on Hot Tearing Susceptibility of Al2024 Alloy Using Thermal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabestari, S. G.; Ghoncheh, M. H.

    2015-12-01

    Effect of different cooling rates and Al-5Ti-1B grain refiner on hot tearing susceptibility of Al2024 alloy were studied using thermal analysis. Influence of cooling rates on microsegregation, and the amount of gas and shrinkage porosities was investigated. The cooling rates used in the present study range from 0.4 to 17.5 K s-1. To evaluate the hot tearing susceptibility, Clyne and Davies' criterion is used. To calculate solid fraction during solidification, solid fraction vs time is plotted based on Newtonian technique via thermal analysis. The results show that the hot tearing susceptibility reduces initially by increasing the cooling rate and then increases at higher cooling rates. Hot tearing susceptibility is decreased by grain refinement. Solidification characteristics of Al2024 e.g., microsegregation, gas, and shrinkage porosities are decreased by increasing cooling rate.

  3. The electricity sector susceptibility of European countries to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Daniel R.; Olonscheck, Mady; Walther, Carsten; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2014-05-01

    Due to the close relationship between electricity consumption, production and temperature, the electricity systems of countries are particularly susceptible to climate change. Based on a number of quantitative influencing factors, we provide a relative index for 21 European countries. This allows relevant stakeholders to identify the main influencing factors that determine the electricity system susceptibility of their country. The index was determined using 14 influencing factors that include those that increase or decrease susceptibility. This includes information on monthly mean temperature, electricity consumption, import, export and production by energy source for the period 2000-2011. Moreover, we consider the results of nine global climate models regarding future temperature changes as well as data on air conditioner prevalence by country. A quantitative relative ranked index describing the susceptibility of each country's electricity system is provided. In both Luxembourg and Greece, which top the list, the inability to meet electricity demand with inland production as well as a heavy reliance on combustible fuel electricity production explain part of the high relative susceptibility. Summer electricity consumption (another influencing factor) is expected to increase in Greece where current relatively warm temperatures, in the context of the countries included in this study, are expected to increase in the future. Comparatively, Norway was the least susceptible country based on our index. Norway is expected to benefit from rising projected temperatures, which will decrease winter electricity consumption and limit susceptibility. Furthermore, Norway's current electricity production exceeds consumption demand and is largely based on hydro, which also decreases susceptibility. The findings of this study enable policy makers, scientists and energy managers to examine the most important influencing factors that increase susceptibility and focus their adaptation

  4. Mosquito transcriptome profiles and filarial worm susceptibility in Armigeres subalbatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T Aliota

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Armigeres subalbatus is a natural vector of the filarial worm Brugia pahangi, but it kills Brugia malayi microfilariae by melanotic encapsulation. Because B. malayi and B. pahangi are morphologically and biologically similar, comparing Ar. subalbatus-B. pahangi susceptibility and Ar. subalbatus-B. malayi refractoriness could provide significant insight into recognition mechanisms required to mount an effective anti-filarial worm immune response in the mosquito, as well as provide considerable detail into the molecular components involved in vector competence. Previously, we assessed the transcriptional response of Ar. subalbatus to B. malayi, and now we report transcriptome profiling studies of Ar. subalbatus in relation to filarial worm infection to provide information on the molecular components involved in B. pahangi susceptibility.Utilizing microarrays, comparisons were made between mosquitoes exposed to B. pahangi, B. malayi, and uninfected bloodmeals. The time course chosen facilitated an examination of key events in the development of the parasite, beginning with the very start of filarial worm infection and spanning to well after parasites had developed to the infective stage in the mosquito. At 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 h post infection and 2-3, 5-6, 8-9, and 13-14 days post challenge there were 31, 75, 113, 76, 54, 5, 3, 13, and 2 detectable transcripts, respectively, with significant differences in transcript abundance (increase or decrease as a result of parasite development.Herein, we demonstrate that filarial worm susceptibility in a laboratory strain of the natural vector Ar. subalbatus involves many factors of both known and unknown function that most likely are associated with filarial worm penetration through the midgut, invasion into thoracic muscle cells, and maintenance of homeostasis in the hemolymph environment. The data show that there are distinct and separate transcriptional patterns associated with filarial worm susceptibility

  5. The usefulness of microscopic observation for drug susceptibility of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to establish microscopic observation for drug susceptibility (MODS) in clinical microbiology routine. Thirty Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates and four smear positive sputum specimens were tested for susceptibility to isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and streptomycin using MODS. Results were ...

  6. Skin fibroblasts from individuals hemizygous for the familial adenopolyposis susceptibility gene show delayed crisis in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S.; Kazim, D.; Kraveka, J.; Pollack, R.E. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (USA))

    1989-03-01

    Normal human fibroblast cells have not been reported to escape crisis--that is they die after about 24 doublings in culture. The authors have been studying the growth properties of skin fibroblast cells from persons in families with familial adenopolyposis of the colon (FAP). An individual hemizygous at the FAP locus will develop hyperplasia of the colonic epithelium followed by colonic polyps, both at an early age. Polyps themselves still retain a single functional FAP allele. A mutation or deletion in this allele in a polyp is hypothesized to lead to further loss of growth control; thus, a tumor is formed. They found that the in vitro life-span of skin fibroblast cells from FAP individuals and from some asymptomatic children were markedly extended when compared with normal individuals.

  7. Real-Time Optical Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Klaus R.; Jørgensen, Erik; Droce, Aida; Olesen, Tom; Jensen, Bent B.; Rosenvinge, Flemming S.; Sondergaard, Teis E.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing is in high demand in health care fields as antimicrobial-resistant bacterial strains emerge and spread. Here, we describe an optical screening system (oCelloScope) which, based on time-lapse imaging of 96 bacteria-antibiotic combinations at a time, introduces real-time detection of bacterial growth and antimicrobial susceptibility with imaging material to support the automatically generated graphs. Automated antibiotic susceptibility tests of a monoculture showed statistically significant antibiotic effects within 6 min and within 30 min in complex samples from pigs suffering from catheter-associated urinary tract infections. The oCelloScope system provides a fast high-throughput screening method for detecting bacterial susceptibility that might entail an earlier diagnosis and introduction of appropriate targeted therapy and thus combat the threat from multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria. The oCelloScope system can be employed for a broad range of applications within bacteriology and might present new vistas as a point-of-care instrument in clinical and veterinary settings. PMID:23596243

  8. [Antimicrobial susceptibilities of clinical Nocardia isolates identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uner, Mahmut Celalettin; Hasçelik, Gülşen; Müştak, Hamit Kaan

    2016-01-01

    highest resistance to ciprofloxacin (n: 25, 96.2%). When the susceptibility test results were compared, amikacin (κ= 1), linezolid (κ= 1), and ceftriaxone (κ= 0.903) showed very good agreement, whereas ciprofloxacin showed good agreement (κ= 0.672). For TMP-SMX no agreement was found between the two test methods (κ= 0.092). In conclusion, due to the identification of different species with molecular methods and increased frequency of Nocardia infections in recent years, in vitro susceptibility testing for Nocardia species is important to guide the appropriate antimicrobial treatment.

  9. Antibiotic Susceptibility of Potentially Probiotic Vaginal Lactobacilli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Ocaña

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study the antimicrobial susceptibility of six vaginal probiotic lactobacilli. Methods. The disc diffusion method in Müeller Hinton, LAPTg and MRS agars by the NCCLS (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards procedure was performed. Due to the absence of a Lactobacillus reference strains, the results were compared to those of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC29213. Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC with 21 different antibiotics in LAPTg agar and broth was also determined. Results. LAPTg and MRS agars are suitable media to study antimicrobial susceptibility of lactobacilli. However, the NCCLS procedure needs to be standardized for this genus. The MICs have shown that all Lactobacillus strains grew at concentrations above 10 μg/mL of chloramphenicol, aztreonam, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, streptomycin and kanamycin. Four lactobacilli were sensitive to 1 μg/mL vancomycin and all of them were resistant to 1000 μg/mL of metronidazole. Sensitivity to other antibiotics depended on each particular strain. Conclusions. The NCCLS method needs to be standardized in an appropriate medium to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Lactobacillus. Vaginal probiotic lactobacilli do not display uniform susceptibility to antibiotics. Resistance to high concentrations of metronidazole suggests that lactobacilli could be simultaneously used with a bacterial vaginosis treatment to restore the vaginal normal flora.

  10. Antibiotic Susceptibility of Potentially Probiotic Vaginal Lactobacilli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaña, Virginia; Silva, Clara; Nader-Macías, María Elena

    2006-01-01

    Objective. To study the antimicrobial susceptibility of six vaginal probiotic lactobacilli. Methods. The disc diffusion method in Müeller Hinton, LAPTg and MRS agars by the NCCLS (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards) procedure was performed. Due to the absence of a Lactobacillus reference strains, the results were compared to those of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC29213. Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) with 21 different antibiotics in LAPTg agar and broth was also determined. Results. LAPTg and MRS agars are suitable media to study antimicrobial susceptibility of lactobacilli. However, the NCCLS procedure needs to be standardized for this genus. The MICs have shown that all Lactobacillus strains grew at concentrations above 10 μg/mL of chloramphenicol, aztreonam, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, streptomycin and kanamycin. Four lactobacilli were sensitive to 1 μg/mL vancomycin and all of them were resistant to 1000 μg/mL of metronidazole. Sensitivity to other antibiotics depended on each particular strain. Conclusions. The NCCLS method needs to be standardized in an appropriate medium to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Lactobacillus. Vaginal probiotic lactobacilli do not display uniform susceptibility to antibiotics. Resistance to high concentrations of metronidazole suggests that lactobacilli could be simultaneously used with a bacterial vaginosis treatment to restore the vaginal normal flora. PMID:17485797

  11. Landslide Susceptibility Mapping in Vertical Distribution Law of Precipitation Area: Case of the Xulong Hydropower Station Reservoir, Southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Cao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on landslide susceptibility analysis mapping of the Xulong hydropower station reservoir, which is located in the upstream of Jinsha River, a rapidly uplifting region of the Tibetan Plateau region. Nine factors were employed as landslide conditioning factors in landslide susceptibility mapping. These factors included the slope angle, slope aspect, curvature, geology, distance-to-fault, distance-to-river, vegetation, bedrock uplift and annual precipitation. The rapid bedrock uplift factor was represented by the slope angle. The eight factors were processed with the information content model. Since this area has a significant vertical distribution law of precipitation, the annual precipitation factor was analyzed separately. The analytic hierarchy process weighting method was used to calculate the weights of nine factors. Thus, this study proposed a component approach to combine the normalized eight-factor results with the normalized annual precipitation distribution results. Subsequently, the results were plotted in geographic information system (GIS and a landslide susceptibility map was produced. The evaluation accuracy analysis method was used as a validation approach. The landslide susceptibility classes were divided into four classes, including low, moderate, high and very high. The results show that the four susceptibility class ratios are 12.9%, 35.06%, 34.11%and 17.92% of the study area, respectively. The red belt in the high elevation area represents the very high susceptibility zones, which followed the vertical distribution law of precipitation. The prediction accuracy was 85.74%, which meant that the susceptibility map was confirmed to be reliable and reasonable. This susceptibility map may contribute to averting the landslide risk in the future construction of the Xulong hydropower station.

  12. Antibiotic susceptibility of Acinetobacter species in intensive care unit in Montenegro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijovic, Gordana; Pejakov, Ljubica; Vujosevic, Danijela

    2016-08-01

    The global increase in multidrug resistance of Acinetobacter has created widespread problems in the treatment of patients in intensive care units (ICUs). The aim of this study was to assess the current level of antimicrobial susceptibility of Acinetobacter species in ICU of Clinical Centre of Montenegro and determine their epidemiology. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested in 70 isolates of Acinetobacter collected from non-repeating samples taken from 40 patients. The first nine isolates were genotyped by repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR). Tigecycline was found to be the most active antimicrobial agent with 80.6% of susceptibility. All the isolates were multidrug resistant with fully resistance to cefalosporinas, piperacillin and piperacillin/tazobactam. More than half of them (58.5%) were probably extensively resistant. Seven out of nine examined strains were clonally related by rep-PCR. Our results showed extremely high rate of multidrug resistance (MDR) of Acinetobacter isolates and high percentage of its clonally spreading.

  13. Behavioural Susceptibility Theory: Professor Jane Wardle and the Role of Appetite in Genetic Risk of Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Clare H; Fildes, Alison

    2017-03-01

    There is considerable variability in human body weight, despite the ubiquity of the 'obesogenic' environment. Human body weight has a strong genetic basis and it has been hypothesised that genetic susceptibility to the environment explains variation in human body weight, with differences in appetite being implicated as the mediating mechanism; so-called 'behavioural susceptibility theory' (BST), first described by Professor Jane Wardle. This review summarises the evidence for the role of appetite as a mediator of genetic risk of obesity. Variation in appetitive traits is observable from infancy, drives early weight gain and is highly heritable in infancy and childhood. Obesity-related common genetic variants identified through genome-wide association studies show associations with appetitive traits, and appetite mediates part of the observed association between genetic risk and adiposity. Obesity results from an interaction between genetic susceptibility to overeating and exposure to an 'obesogenic' food environment.

  14. Low-temperature magnetic susceptibility of concentrated ferrofluids: The influence of polydispersity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Alexey O., E-mail: Alexey.Ivanov@usu.ru; Elfimova, Ekaterina A.

    2015-01-15

    In this paper we address the question of theoretical explanation of extremely high low-temperature initial magnetic susceptibility of concentrated ferrofluids. These laboratory synthesized samples [A.F. Pshenichnikov, A.V. Lebedev, J. Chem. Phys. 121(11) (2004) 5455; Colloid J. 67(2) (2005) 189] demonstrated the record-breaking values χ∼120–150 at temperatures ∼ 230–240 K. The existing models predict such high susceptibility only under the assumption of unreasonably large dipolar coupling constant, which is out of the range of applicability. Here we calculate the second virial contribution to susceptibility for polydisperse ferrofluid, modeled by the dipolar hard sphere fluid. In the resulting expression there exists the parameter, which plays a part of dipolar coupling constant and which is defined in a form of double averaging of high powers of particle sizes over the granulometric distribution. For real particle size distribution this effective parameter at least twice exceeds the commonly defined polydisperse dipolar coupling constant. We show that the low-temperature magnetic susceptibility of the record-breaking ferrofluids could be explained theoretically on the basis of the first terms of the polydisperse second virial contribution in combination with the second-order modified mean field model. - Highlights: • Record-breaking magnetic susceptibility of ferrofluids at low temperatures. • Second virial contribution to magnetic susceptibility of polydisperse ferrofluids. • Interparticle dipole correlations are more pronounced in dense ferrofluids. • Presented model describes the ferrofluid susceptibility χ∼120 at temperature 240 K.

  15. Molecular analysis and dimorphism of azole-susceptible and resistant Candida albicans isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Rodrigues Costa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Candida albicans is responsible for superficial or systemic infections known as candidiasis, which may be found in infected tissue as unicellular budding yeasts, hyphae, or pseudohyphae. In this study, the effects of both fluconazole and itraconazole antifungal agents on the hyphal formation and genotypic characterization of C. albicans isolates classified as either susceptible or resistant were investigated. METHODS: The hyphal production of five C. albicans isolates under the action of antifungal agents was investigated by culturing yeast on growth medium and on hyphal induction medium. The genotypic characterization was carried out for 13 isolates of C. albicans using the random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR method. RESULTS: The dimorphism analysis showed that the hyphal formation was higher in resistant than in the susceptible isolates to both azoles. The RAPD-PCR method identified the formation of two different groups. In group A, four resistant and two susceptible isolates were clustered, and in group B, one resistant and six susceptible isolates were clustered. CONCLUSIONS: Considering that hyphal formation was higher in resistant isolates in the presence of azole drugs, we confirmed that the hyphal production is closely related to susceptibility to azoles. These drugs may affect the morphogenesis of C. albicans depending on their susceptibility to these drugs. In relation to RAPD-PCR, most resistant isolates classified in group A and susceptible isolates in group B demonstrated that this method presented a similar standard between the two groups, suggesting that by this technique, a strong correlation between genotypes and fluconazole-resistant samples may be found.

  16. Definition of a magnetic susceptibility of conglomerates with magnetite particles. Particularities of defining single particle susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandulyak, A. A.; Sandulyak, A. V.; Ershova, V.; Pamme, N.; Ngmasom, B.; Iles, A.

    2017-11-01

    Data of a magnetic susceptibility of ferro-and the ferrimagnetic particles of many technogenic, natural, special media are especially demanded for the solution of various tasks connected with purposeful magnetic impact on these particles. One of productive approaches to definition of a magnetic susceptibility χ of these particles consists in receiving experimental data of a susceptibility of disperse samples with a disperse phase of these particles. The paper expounds and analyses the results of experiments on defining (by Faraday method in a magnetic field with intensity H = 90-730 kA/m) the magnetic susceptibility of disperse samples (conglomerates) with a given volume ratio γ of magnetite particles (γ = 0.0065-0.25). The corresponding families of concentration and field dependences are provided alongside with discussing the applicability of linear and exponential functions to describe these dependences. We consider the possibility of defining single particles susceptibility χ (with simultaneous obtaining field dependence of this susceptibility) by the commonly used relation χ = /γ both at relatively small (preferable for accuracy reasons) values γ - to γ = 0.02…0.025, as well as at increased values γ - up to γ = 0.25. The data χ are provided depending on H and correlating with known data at H defined here value of constant-multiplier (0.8), it provides the grounds for obtaining valid data χ, employing the results of measuring for conglomerates with not obligatory small values of γ. It is demonstrated that being obtained by data χ, the calculated field dependence of the particle matter magnetic susceptibility χm (for the case when the particles are traditionally likened to balls with the characteristic for them demagnetising factor equalling 1/3) complies with the anticipated inverse function χm ∼ 1/H in the studied area H (where magnetization M expressed as M = χH reaches saturation M = Const).

  17. Effect of lithological data of different scales on modelling landslide susceptibility maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassner, C.; Petschko, H.; Bell, R.; Glade, T.

    2012-04-01

    In landslide susceptibility modelling, lithology is often only available at rather coarse scales. The effects of this course resolution on the final map are often unknown. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate how different lithological data affect the results of landslide susceptibility modelling and to analyse spatial differences in the resulting maps in Scheibbs, a district of Lower Austria. Within this study logistic regression is used to model landslide susceptibility, focusing on the consequences deriving from the use of two different lithological datasets (mapping scale 1:200,000 and 1:50,000). Here, the dependent variable is the landslide inventory and the independent variables are derivates of the digital elevation model (DEM) at a 10m resolution (slope, aspect, and curvature), the land cover map (10m x 10m) and lithological maps. Nominal data (land cover and lithology) were transformed to metric data by frequency ratios. Three different techniques are applied to evaluate model performance to allow for a comparison of the models/maps using lithological data with varying scales. The first approach uses AUROC curves of the test and training datasets, which were generated by random sampling. Secondly, the resulting susceptibility maps were classified into four classes with equal intervals. Then, the performance was evaluated from the percentages of terrain units that each model correctly classifies and the number of landslides falling within the area classified as unstable (true positives). In a third evaluation step the geomorphological quality of the resulting susceptibility maps was visually interpreted. Different classification methods (e.g. quartiles, jenks) were tested. The results show that the lithological data (1:50,000) have slightly better AUROC values. Surprisingly, the statistical validation of the true positives does not allow a definite preference in terms of best accuracy for either dataset. Test results on geomorphological value show

  18. Susceptibility of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), to flubendiamide in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min; Zhang, Shuai; Yao, Rong; Wu, Shunfan; Su, Jianya; Gao, Congfen

    2014-06-01

    The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), is an important rice pest in China, and has evolved resistance to several classes of insecticides. Flubendiamide is a phthalic diamide insecticide that shows selective insecticidal activity against lepidopterous insects. The susceptibility of 40 field populations of C. suppressalis, collected in 2011 and 2012 in seven provinces of south-eastern China, to flubendiamide was determined through rice seedling dipping bioassay method. Of these 40 populations, seven populations that were seldom exposed to flubendiamide were used to set up the baseline sensitivity, and the LC50 value was 0.092 mg/L. Variation in susceptibility among the 40 field populations was high (34-fold). The range of mean lethal concentration (LC50) values in response to this chemical was between 0.032 mg/L (FS11) and 1.090 mg/L (JH12) across the populations. Substantial variations of the susceptibility to flubendiamide were detected among different geographic populations. There was no significant difference observed between years for most populations, except for populations from Jinhua and Lujiang. Resistance ratios to the chemical ranged from 0.8 to 11.8, indicating that most colonies remained susceptible or showed certain decrease in susceptibility. It was found that 16 of the 40 populations had some level of resistance. However, moderate level of resistance was discovered in only one population from JH12 from Zhejiang province (11.8-fold). Other 15 populations showed low level of resistance (5.1-9.3-fold) to flubendiamide. These data are useful in future monitoring programs for detecting any changes in susceptibility as a result of using flubendiamide.

  19. [Antimicrobial susceptibility in Chile 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes-D, Marcela; Silva, Francisco; García, Patricia; Bello, Helia; Briceño, Isabel; Calvo-A, Mario; Labarca, Jaime

    2014-04-01

    Bacteria antimicrobial resistance is an uncontrolled public health problem that progressively increases its magnitude and complexity. The Grupo Colaborativo de Resistencia, formed by a join of experts that represent 39 Chilean health institutions has been concerned with bacteria antimicrobial susceptibility in our country since 2008. In this document we present in vitro bacterial susceptibility accumulated during year 2012 belonging to 28 national health institutions that represent about 36% of hospital discharges in Chile. We consider of major importance to report periodically bacteria susceptibility so to keep the medical community updated to achieve target the empirical antimicrobial therapies and the control measures and prevention of the dissemination of multiresistant strains.

  20. AC susceptibility of the Fe(Al, Co) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Aljarayesh, I.; Al-Hussein, K.

    1993-08-01

    The temperature and field dependence of the low-field ac susceptibility of the FeAl 1- xCo x (for 0.1 ≤ x ≤ 0.45) system are studied in the temperature range 160-300 K. The results of the κ'- T curves show broad maxima for samples with x ≤ 0.3. The positions of the maxima for samples with x = 0.25 and 0.3 show a weak frequency dependence. For samples with x ≥ 0.3 the susceptibility continues to increase with temperature in the range studied. When an external transverse dc magnetic field is applied, κ' decreases rapidly with increasing the magnitude of the dc field for all studied samples. The obtained paramagnetic temperature θ p, increases rapidly with x. The results are discussed within the context of the Néel theory of superparamagnetism. The environmental effects on the magnetic moment of Fe and Co atoms are used to interpret the results.

  1. Scaling in dynamic susceptibility of herbertsmithite and heavy-fermion metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaginyan, V.R., E-mail: vrshag@thd.pnpi.spb.ru [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina 188300 (Russian Federation); Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314 (United States); Msezane, A.Z. [Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314 (United States); Popov, K.G. [Komi Science Center, Ural Division, RAS, Syktyvkar 167982 (Russian Federation); Khodel, V.A. [Russian Research Center Kurchatov Institute, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences and Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States)

    2012-08-06

    We present a theory of the dynamic magnetic susceptibility of quantum spin liquid. The obtained results are in good agreement with experimental facts collected on herbertsmithite ZnCu{sub 3}(OH){sub 6}Cl{sub 2} and on heavy-fermion metals, and allow us to predict a new scaling in magnetic fields in the dynamic susceptibility. Under the application of strong magnetic fields quantum spin liquid becomes completely polarized. We show that this polarization can be viewed as a manifestation of gapped excitations when investigating the spin-lattice relaxation rate. -- Highlights: ► We present a theory of the dynamic magnetic susceptibility of quantum spin liquid. ► We calculate the dynamic susceptibility of ZnCu{sub 3}(OH){sub 6}Cl{sub 2} as a function of temperature versus energy. ► Our calculations are in good agreement with experimental facts. ► We explain the scaling of the dynamic susceptibility and predict a new scaling in magnetic fields. ► The polarization in magnetic fields can be viewed as a manifestation of gapped excitations.

  2. Use of Satellite Remote Sensing Data in the Mapping of Global Landslide Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yang; Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George J.

    2007-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing data has significant potential use in analysis of natural hazards such as landslides. Relying on the recent advances in satellite remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques, this paper aims to map landslide susceptibility over most of the globe using a GIs-based weighted linear combination method. First , six relevant landslide-controlling factors are derived from geospatial remote sensing data and coded into a GIS system. Next, continuous susceptibility values from low to high are assigned to each of the six factors. Second, a continuous scale of a global landslide susceptibility index is derived using GIS weighted linear combination based on each factor's relative significance to the process of landslide occurrence (e.g., slope is the most important factor, soil types and soil texture are also primary-level parameters, while elevation, land cover types, and drainage density are secondary in importance). Finally, the continuous index map is further classified into six susceptibility categories. Results show the hot spots of landslide-prone regions include the Pacific Rim, the Himalayas and South Asia, Rocky Mountains, Appalachian Mountains, Alps, and parts of the Middle East and Africa. India, China, Nepal, Japan, the USA, and Peru are shown to have landslide-prone areas. This first-cut global landslide susceptibility map forms a starting point to provide a global view of landslide risks and may be used in conjunction with satellite-based precipitation information to potentially detect areas with significant landslide potential due to heavy rainfall. 1

  3. PRNP promoter polymorphisms are associated with BSE susceptibility in Swiss and German cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziegler Ute

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-synonymous polymorphisms within the prion protein gene (PRNP influence the susceptibility and incubation time for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE in some species such as sheep and humans. In cattle, none of the known polymorphisms within the PRNP coding region has a major influence on susceptibility to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE. Recently, however, we demonstrated an association between susceptibility to BSE and a 23 bp insertion/deletion (indel polymorphism and a 12 bp indel polymorphism within the putative PRNP promoter region using 43 German BSE cases and 48 German control cattle. The objective of this study was to extend this work by including a larger number of BSE cases and control cattle of German and Swiss origin. Results Allele, genotype and haplotype frequencies of the two indel polymorphisms were determined in 449 BSE cattle and 431 unaffected cattle from Switzerland and Germany including all 43 German BSE and 16 German control animals from the original study. When breeds with similar allele and genotype distributions were compared, the 23 bp indel polymorphism again showed a significant association with susceptibility to BSE. However, some additional breed-specific allele and genotype distributions were identified, mainly related to the Brown breeds. Conclusion Our study corroborated earlier findings that polymorphisms in the PRNP promoter region have an influence on susceptibility to BSE. However, breed-specific differences exist that need to be accounted for when analyzing such data.

  4. Species distribution and antifungal susceptibility profile of Candida isolates from bloodstream infections in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, B; Martins, M A; Bonfietti, L X; Szeszs, M W; Jacobs, J; Garcia, C; Melhem, M S C

    2014-06-01

    Yeast identification and in vitro susceptibility testing provide helpful information for appropriate administration of antifungal treatments; however, few reports from the Latin American region have been published. The aim of this study was to identify the species present in isolates from bloodstream infections diagnosed in nine hospitals in Lima, Peru and to determine their in vitro susceptibility to four antifungal drugs. We tested and identified 153 isolates collected between October 2009 and August 2011 using standard methods. PCR and PCR-RFLP assays were performed to distinguish Candida albicans from Candida dubliniensis and to identify species of the Candida parapsilosis and Candida glabrata complexes. Antifungal susceptibility testing for fluconazole, anidulafungin and voriconazole was performed using the CSLI M27-A3 method, and amphotericin B susceptibility was determined using the Etest method. The most frequently isolated species were: C. albicans (61; 39.9 %), C. parapsilosis (43; 28.1 %), C. tropicalis (36; 23.5%) and C. glabrata (8; 5.2 %). The overall susceptibility rates were 98.0 %, 98.7 %, 98.0 % and 97.4 % for amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole and anidulafungin, respectively. No isolate was resistant to more than one drug. These results showed that the rate of resistance to four antifungal drugs was low among Candida bloodstream isolates in Lima, Peru. © 2014 The Authors.

  5. Susceptibility of pathogenic and nonpathogenic Naegleria ssp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiteman, L.Y.

    1988-01-01

    The susceptibility of four species of Naegleria amoebae to complement-mediated lysis was determined. The amoebicidal activity of normal human serum (NHS) and normal guinea pig serum (NGPS) for Naegleria amoebae was measured by an in vitro cytotoxicity assay. Release of radioactivity from amoebae labeled with {sup 3}H-uridine and visual observation with a compound microscope were used as indices of lysis. Susceptibility or resistance to complement-mediated lysis in vitro correlated with the in vivo pathogenic potential. Nonpathogenic Naegleria amoebae were lysed at a faster rate and at higher cell concentrations than were pathogenic amoebae. Electrophoretic analysis of NHS incubated with pathogenic or nonpathogenic Naegleria spp. demonstrated that amoebae activate the complement cascade resulting in the production of C3 and C5 complement cleavage products. Treatment with papain or trypsin for 1 h, but not with sialidase, increase the susceptibility of highly pathogenic, mouse-passaged N. fowleri to lysis. Treatment with actinomycin D, cycloheximide or various protease inhibitors for 4 h did not increase susceptibility to lysis. Neither a repair process involving de novo protein synthesis nor a complement-inactivating protease appear to account for the increase resistance of N. fowleri amoebae to complement-mediated lysis. A binding study with {sup 125}I radiolabeled C9 indicated that the terminal complement component does not remain stably bound to the membrane of pathogenic amoebae.

  6. pso.ATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    isolates vere made using standard methods, Antibiotic susceptibility tests against commonly prescribed ... Acute otitis media is rapid with short .... sensitivity tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests: The antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of major Gram positive and negative bacterial isolates obtained from clinical specimens.

  7. [Evolution of use of antibiotics of restricted prescription and trend of bacterial susceptibility in Concepcion Regional Hospital, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Felipe E; Villa, Lorenzo A; Fernández, Pola B; López, Mariela A; Mella, Sergio; Muñoz, Maritza

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was analyze the use of restricted antibiotics by patients hospitalized between 2004 and 2008 in Guillermo Grant Benavente Hospital in Concepcion. Also we attempted to identify possible correlations between antibiotic consumption and patterns of bacterial susceptibility. We performed a retrospective observational study that quantified the use of restricted antibiotics using DDD/100-bed-days, and cumulative susceptibility reports informed by the hospital's microbiology laboratory for bacterial susceptibility. The consumption of restricted antibiotics significantly increased between 2004 and 2008 (35%, p = 0.005). The groups with largest use were glycopeptides (37%) and carbapenems (30 %). These results can be explained by the emergence of endemic Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and of Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) Gram negative bacilli. Results showed a decrease in susceptibility of P. aeruginosa to imipenem (p = 0.038) and K. pneumoniae to ciprofloxacin (p = 0.021). The total consumption of restricted antibiotic has significantly increased, especially among complex medical services. A significant decrease in bacterial susceptibility has been observed mainly in gram-negative bacilli. The monitoring of antimicrobial prescribing practices and local susceptibility patterns are essential to promote the rational use of antibiotics.

  8. Assessment of the comparability of CLSI, EUCAST and Stokes antimicrobial susceptibility profiles for Escherichia coli uropathogenic isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, C; Walsh, N; O'Grady, M C; Barry, L; Hooton, C; Corcoran, G D; Lucey, B

    2018-01-01

    As many clinical laboratories convert between Stokes, Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) methods, the problem of comparing differently derived sets of antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) data with each other arises, owing to a scarcity of knowledge of inter-method comparability. The purpose of the current study was to determine the comparability of CLSI, EUCAST and Stokes AST methods for determining susceptibility of uropathogenic Escherichia coli to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, trimethoprim, cephradine/cephalexin, ciprofloxacin and nitrofurantoin. A total of 100 E. coli isolates were obtained from boric acid urine samples from patients attending GP surgeries. For EUCAST and CLSI, the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method was used and results interpreted using the respective breakpoint guidelines. For the Stokes method, direct susceptibility testing was performed on the urine samples. The lowest levels of agreement were for amoxicillin-clavulanate (60%) and ciprofloxacin (89%) between the three AST methods, when using 2017 interpretive guidelines for CLSI and EUCAST. A comparison of EUCAST and CLSI without Stokes showed 82% agreement for amoxicillin-clavulanate and 94% agreement for ciprofloxacin. Discrepancies were compounded by varying breakpoint susceptibility guidelines issued during the period 2011-2017, and through the inclusion of a definition of intermediate susceptibility in some cases. Our data indicate that the discrepancies generated through using different AST methods and different interpretive guidelines may result in confusion and inaccuracy when prescribing treatment for urinary tract infection.

  9. Penicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus: susceptibility testing, resistance rates and outcome of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagstrand Aldman, Malin; Skovby, Annette; I Påhlman, Lisa

    2017-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (SA) is an important human pathogen that causes both superficial and invasive infections. Penicillin is now rarely used in the treatment of SA infections due to widespread resistance and a concern about the accuracy of existing methods for penicillin susceptibility testing. The aims of the present study were to determine the frequency of penicillin-susceptible SA isolates from blood and wound cultures in Lund, Sweden, and to evaluate methods for penicillin testing in SA. We also wanted to investigate if penicillin-susceptible isolates are associated with higher mortality. Hundred blood culture isolates collected 2008/2009, 140 blood culture isolates from 2014/2015, and 141 superficial wound culture strains from 2015 were examined. Penicillin susceptibility was tested with disk diffusion according to EUCAST guidelines, and results were confirmed with a cloverleaf assay and PCR amplification of the BlaZ gene. Patient data for all bacteraemia cases were extracted from medical records. The disk diffusion method with assessment of both zone size and zone edge appearance had high accuracy in our study. About 57% of bacteraemia isolates from 2008/2009 were sensitive to penicillin compared to 29% in 2014/2015 (p penicillin susceptible. There was no difference in co-morbidity or mortality rates between patients with penicillin resistant and penicillin sensitive SA bacteraemia. Disk-diffusion is a simple and reliable method to detect penicillin resistance in SA, and susceptibility rates are significant. Penicillin has many theoretical advantages and should be considered in the treatment of SA bacteraemia when susceptible.

  10. Hypnotic susceptibility and dream characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamore, N; Barrett, D

    1989-11-01

    This study examined the relationship of hypnotic susceptibility to a variety of dream characteristics and types of dream content. A Dream Questionnaire was constructed synthesizing Gibson's dream inventory and Hilgard's theoretical conceptions of hypnosis. Employing the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility and the Field Inventory for evaluating hypnotic response, several dream dimensions correlated significantly with hypnotizability. For subjects as a whole, the strongest correlates were the frequency of dreams which they believed to be precognitive and out-of-body dreams. Ability to dream on a chosen topic also correlated significantly with hypnotic susceptibility for both genders. For females only, there was a negative correlation of hypnotic susceptibility to flying dreams. Absorption correlated positively with dream recall, ability to dream on a chosen topic, reports of conflict resolution in dreams, creative ideas occurring in dreams, amount of color in dreams, pleasantness of dreams, bizarreness of dreams, flying dreams and precognitive dreams.

  11. Ancestral susceptibility to colorectal cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Huhn, S.; Pardini, Barbara; Naccarati, Alessio; Vodička, Pavel (ed.); Hemminki, K.; Försti, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2012), s. 197-204 ISSN 0267-8357 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/07/1430; GA ČR GAP304/10/1286 Grant - others:EU FP7(XE) HEALTH-F4-2007-200767 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : cancer susceptibility * molecular epidemiology * genetic susceptibility Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.500, year: 2012

  12. Dermatophyte susceptibility varies towards antimicrobial textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Timo R; Mucha, Helmut; Hoefer, Dirk

    2012-07-01

    Dermatophytoses are a widespread problem worldwide. Textiles in contact with infected skin can serve as a carrier for fungus propagation. Hitherto, it is unknown, whether antifungal textiles could contribute in controlling dermatophytes e.g. by disrupting the chain of infection. Testing of antimicrobial fabrics for their antifungal activities therefore is a fundamental prerequisite to assess the putative clinical relevance of textiles for dermatophyte prevention. Fabrics finished with either didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC), poly-hexamethylenbiguanide, copper and two silver chloride concentrations were tested for their antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Candida albicans. To prove dermatophyte susceptibility towards the textiles, swatches were subjected to DIN EN 14199 (Trichophyton sp.) or DIN EN ISO 20743 (C. albicans) respectively. In addition, samples were embedded, and semi-thin sections were analysed microscopically. While all samples showed a clear inhibition of C. albicans, activity against Trichophyton sp. varied significantly: For example, DDAC completely inhibited T. rubrum growth, whereas T. mentagrophytes growth remained unaffected even in direct contact to the fibres. The results favour to add T. mentagrophytes as a test organism in textile dermatophyte efficacy tests. Microscopic analysis of swatches allowed detailed evaluation of additional parameters like mycelium thickness, density and hyphae penetration depth into the fabric. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Antimicrobial susceptibility and glycopeptide-resistance of enterococci in vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Torre

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE, often responsible for nosocomial infections, have frequently been isolated from animal and vegetable foods. In our study we evaluated the antibiotic susceptibility of enterococci isolated from eight types of vegetables randomly selected from grocery stores in Naples.

    Methods: From July to November 2008, we analyzed 150 samples: the bacteria were isolated with standardized methods and antibiotic susceptibility was determined using the disc diffusion method. The resistance to vancomycin versus other antibiotics was assessed by the Kappa test.

    Results: 70% of the samples, mainly parsley (96.2%, showed enterococci. Of these, 59.1% belonged to the species Enterococcus faecium. Strains resistant to vancomycin and teicoplanin were isolated respectively in 47.6% and 49.5% of the samples: the first one mainly in curly endive (72.7% and the second one in parsley (76.9%. Almost all the isolated strains showed resistance to methicillin (89%, kanamycin (82% and cephalothin (68%. The Kappa test showed statistically significant associations between resistance to vancomycin and resistance to teicoplanin, erythromycin, methicillin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol.

    Conclusions: Because of the possible involvement of food in the transmission of resistant micro-organisms to human intestinal microbiota, our data may provide the basis for future studies.

  14. Evaluation of susceptibility of Mycobacterium bovis to antituberculous drugs by radiometric BACTEC 460TB system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavirani, S; Fanti, F; Benecchi, M; Calderaro, A; Taddei, S; Arcangeletti, C; Medici, M C; Dettori, G; Chezzi, C

    2003-04-01

    Susceptibility of Mycobacterium bovis strains to antituberculous drugs (isoniazid and rifampin) was detected by radiometric BACTEC 460TB system. M.bovis strains were isolated from tissue samples showing tuberculous lesions collected at an abbattoir from cattle belonging to 47 tuberculosis outbreaks occurring in Northern Italy in 1995-1999. Forty-six out of 61 strains (75.4%) resulted susceptible to both isoniazid and rifampin. Thirteen strains (21.3%) were resistant to isoniazid only. No strains showed resistance to rifampin only. Two strains (3.3%) resulted resistant to both drugs, showing antituberculous multidrug-resistance. Given the compulsory eradication program of bovine tuberculosis by elimination of infected animals and the ban on antituberculous drug treatments in animals, detection of resistant M. bovis strains appears of great interest.

  15. Susceptibility profiles of Nocardia isolates based on current taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaberg, Robert; Fisher, Mark A; Hanson, Kimberley E

    2014-01-01

    The genus Nocardia has undergone rapid taxonomic expansion in recent years, and an increasing number of species are recognized as human pathogens. Many established species have predictable antimicrobial susceptibility profiles, but sufficient information is often not available for recently described organisms. Additionally, the effectiveness of sulfonamides as first-line drugs for Nocardia has recently been questioned. This led us to review antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for a large number of molecularly identified clinical isolates. Susceptibility results were available for 1,299 isolates representing 39 different species or complexes, including 11 that were newly described, during a 6-year study period. All tested isolates were susceptible to linezolid. Resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) was rare (2%) except among Nocardia pseudobrasiliensis (31%) strains and strains of the N. transvalensis complex (19%). Imipenem susceptibility varied for N. cyriacigeorgica and N. farcinica, as did ceftriaxone susceptibility of the N. nova complex. Resistance to more than one of the most commonly used drugs (amikacin, ceftriaxone, TMP-SMX, and imipenem) was highest for N. pseudobrasiliensis (100%), N. transvalensis complex (83%), N. farcinica (68%), N. puris (57%), N. brasiliensis (51%), N. aobensis (50%), and N. amikacinitolerans (43%). Thus, while antimicrobial resistance can often be predicted, susceptibility testing should still be considered when combination therapy is warranted, for less well characterized species or those with variable susceptibility profiles, and for patients with TMP-SMX intolerance.

  16. Quantitative susceptibility mapping of small objects using volume constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Saifeng; Neelavalli, Jaladhar; Cheng, Yu-Chung N; Tang, Jin; Mark Haacke, E

    2013-03-01

    Microbleeds have been implicated to play a role in many neurovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. The diameter of each microbleed has been used previously as a possible quantitative measure for grading microbleeds. We propose that magnetic susceptibility provides a new quantitative measure of extravasated blood. Recently, a Fourier-based method has been used that allows susceptibility quantification from phase images for any arbitrarily shaped structures. However, when very small objects, such as microbleeds, are considered, the accuracy of this susceptibility mapping method still remains to be evaluated. In this article, air bubbles and glass beads are taken as microbleed surrogates to evaluate the quantitative accuracy of the susceptibility mapping method. We show that when an object occupies only a few voxels, an estimate of the true volume of the object is necessary for accurate susceptibility quantification. Remnant errors in the quantified susceptibilities and their sources are evaluated. We show that quantifying magnetic moment, rather than the susceptibility of these small structures, may be a better and more robust alternative. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. [Antibiotics susceptibility of Streptococcus and Enterococcus: data of Onerba network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachée, A; Varon, E; Jouy, E; Meunier, D

    2009-05-01

    This work was aimed to analyze trends in susceptibility to antibiotics among the main species of beta-hemolytic streptococci involved in community-acquired infections in human (Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus agalactiae), or in animals (Streptococcus suis and Streptococcus uberis) and also among the main enterocci species, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Data were recorded since 1996 through the Onerba networks. S. pyogenes, as the other beta-hemolytic streptococci studied remained fully susceptible to beta-lactam antibiotics. However, susceptibility to macrolides is clearly decreasing in S. pyogenes. In 2002, only 62 to 65% of the strains according to the network considered, were susceptible to erythromycin. A similar trend was observed for S. agalactiae with only 75% of erythromycin susceptibility in 2002, and for both species isolated from animals S. suis and S. uberis, with respectively 35 and 76% of strains susceptible to erythromycin. In enterococci, susceptibility to beta-lactams remained stable between 2000 and 2004. Indeed, the susceptibility to aminopenicillins remained high in E. faecalis (about 98%), whereas the proportion of E. faecium isolates susceptible to these antibiotics were lower than 60%. From 1999 to 2004, various studies conducted in French hospitals showed that the vancomycin resistance among enterococci accounted for less than 2%. However, the recent emergence of glycopeptide resistant enterococci clusters in French hospitals is a matter of concern and emphasizes the need for an ongoing surveillance. Such trend in macrolide resistance among S. pyogenes or S. agalactiae should consequently lead to propose other alternatives in case of beta-lactam allergy, and for pharyngitis, to rethink the place of the culture for susceptibility testing.

  18. Entanglement susceptibility: area laws and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanardi, Paolo; Campos Venuti, Lorenzo

    2013-04-01

    Generic quantum states in the Hilbert space of a many-body system are nearly maximally entangled whereas low-energy physical states are not; the so-called area laws for quantum entanglement are widespread. In this paper we introduce the novel concept of entanglement susceptibility by expanding the 2-Rényi entropy in the boundary couplings. We show how this concept leads to the emergence of area laws for bi-partite quantum entanglement in systems ruled by local gapped Hamiltonians. Entanglement susceptibility also captures quantitatively which violations one should expect when the system becomes gapless. We also discuss an exact series expansion of the 2-Rényi entanglement entropy in terms of connected correlation functions of a boundary term. This is obtained by identifying Rényi entropy with ground state fidelity in a doubled and twisted theory.

  19. Cytokines and mother sporocysts in susceptible and resistant Bulinus truncatus snails infected with Schistosoma haematobium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Din, Abdel Hakim Saad; Gawish, Fathiya Ali; Abu El Einin, Hanaa Mohamed; Mansour, Shereen Mahfouz

    2014-08-01

    The presence of immunoreactive interleukin (IL-2), interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in addition to the citation of mother sporscytes in cephalopodal musculature in the susceptible and resistance Bulinus truncatus the specific intermediate host for the trematode Schistosoma haematobium were investigated,. Using ELISA tests, Results indicated that the concentration of IL-2-like activity in the susceptible and resistant snails decreased significantly after infection then persisted at low levels until the 4th week post exposure (WPE) in susceptible snails, while in resistant snails elevated during the second WPE, and returned to initial level at 3 and 4 WPE. Susceptible snails had low detectable levels of TNF-α and INF-γ like-activity after infection. However, the resistant snails had significant low levels of TNF-α and INF-γ like-activity from 3 WPE until the 4th WPE without any sign of normalization. Histological sections in the head- foot region of susceptible and resistance B. truncatus infected with S. haematobium, mother sporocysts exists from 1 to 7(day post exposure) DPE, in the susceptible snail the mother sporocysts were found as single, multiple and mature types. No mother sporocysts were appear in the lip and mantle of the snail on 2, 5, 7 DPE and on 1-3, 6 DPE respectively. In the resistant snails few mother sporocysts were found in the lip, mantle and tentacles. The results showed that schistosome-resistant Bulinus can be an alternative strategy for the control of schistosomiasis.

  20. In vitro drug susceptibility of Leishmania infantum isolated from humans and dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Carla; Nunes, Mónica; Marques, Mónica; Henriques, Sofia; Rolão, Nuno; Campino, Lenea

    2013-09-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by parasites of Leishmania donovani complex is a severe human disease which often leads to death if left untreated. Domestic dogs are the main reservoir hosts for zoonotic human visceral infection caused by Leishmania infantum. In the absence of effective human and dog vaccines, the only feasible way to treat and control leishmaniasis is through the use of suitable medications. To know the drug susceptibility of human and canine Leishmania strains from Lisbon-Portugal, a study on a panel of strains was conducted by testing the susceptibility of promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes to the common drugs used in canine leishmaniasis (CanL) and human VL (meglumine antimoniate, amphotericin B, miltefosine and allopurinol). Although a high heterogeneity of susceptibilities was obtained to each drug on both axenic promastigote and intracellular amastigote assays, intracellular amastigotes system correlated better with treatment outcome. Parasites isolated from the refractory human case were the least susceptible to the drugs used highlighting that the emergence of cross-resistance to the drugs available for human therapy should not be neglected. Furthermore, parasites isolated from dogs showed low susceptibility to the main drugs used in CanL treatment. Our results focus the importance of reducing/avoiding the emergence and spread of resistant parasites in the canine and human populations, a factor that requires special consideration when dogs are treated using the same available anti-Leishmania drugs for human VL. In addition, efforts should be made in order to standardize the conditions used to test drug susceptibility (methodologies, drug formulations and media) in order to compare results between laboratories. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Show Me My Health Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary C. Politi PhD

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Since the Affordable Care Act was passed, more than 12 million individuals have enrolled in the health insurance marketplace. Without support, many struggle to make an informed plan choice that meets their health and financial needs. Methods: We designed and evaluated a decision aid, Show Me My Health Plans (SMHP, that provides education, preference assessment, and an annual out-of-pocket cost calculator with plan recommendations produced by a tailored, risk-adjusted algorithm incorporating age, gender, and health status. We evaluated whether SMHP compared to HealthCare.gov improved health insurance decision quality and the match between plan choice, needs, and preferences among 328 Missourians enrolling in the marketplace. Results: Participants who used SMHP had higher health insurance knowledge (LS-Mean = 78 vs. 62; P < 0.001, decision self-efficacy (LS-Mean = 83 vs. 75; P < 0.002, confidence in their choice (LS-Mean = 3.5 vs. 2.9; P < 0.001, and improved health insurance literacy (odds ratio = 2.52, P < 0.001 compared to participants using HealthCare.gov . Those using SMHP were 10.3 times more likely to select a silver- or gold-tier plan (P < 0.0001. Discussion: SMHP can improve health insurance decision quality and the odds that consumers select an insurance plan with coverage likely needed to meet their health needs. This study represents a unique context through which to apply principles of decision support to improve health insurance choices.

  2. Identification of the tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type 2 as a rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility locus in europeans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna E Cobb

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Genome-wide association studies have facilitated the identification of over 30 susceptibility loci for rheumatoid arthritis (RA. However, evidence for a number of potential susceptibility genes have not so far reached genome-wide significance in studies of Caucasian RA. METHODS: A cohort of 4286 RA patients from across Europe and 5642 population matched controls were genotyped for 25 SNPs, then combined in a meta-analysis with previously published data. RESULTS: Significant evidence of association was detected for nine SNPs within the European samples. When meta-analysed with previously published data, 21 SNPs were associated with RA susceptibility. Although SNPs in the PTPN2 gene were previously reported to be associated with RA in both Japanese and European populations, we show genome-wide evidence for a different SNP within this gene associated with RA susceptibility in an independent European population (rs7234029, P = 4.4×10(-9. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides further genome-wide evidence for the association of the PTPN2 locus (encoding the T cell protein tyrosine phosphastase with Caucasian RA susceptibility. This finding adds to the growing evidence for PTPN2 being a pan-autoimmune susceptibility gene.

  3. Identification of the Tyrosine-Protein Phosphatase Non-Receptor Type 2 as a Rheumatoid Arthritis Susceptibility Locus in Europeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Joanna E.; Plant, Darren; Flynn, Edward; Tadjeddine, Meriem; Dieudé, Philippe; Cornélis, François; Ärlestig, Lisbeth; Dahlqvist, Solbritt Rantapää; Goulielmos, George; Boumpas, Dimitrios T.; Sidiropoulos, Prodromos; Krintel, Sophine B.; Ørnbjerg, Lykke M.; Hetland, Merete L.; Klareskog, Lars; Haeupl, Thomas; Filer, Andrew; Buckley, Christopher D.; Raza, Karim; Witte, Torsten; Schmidt, Reinhold E.; FitzGerald, Oliver; Veale, Douglas; Eyre, Stephen; Worthington, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Genome-wide association studies have facilitated the identification of over 30 susceptibility loci for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, evidence for a number of potential susceptibility genes have not so far reached genome-wide significance in studies of Caucasian RA. Methods A cohort of 4286 RA patients from across Europe and 5642 population matched controls were genotyped for 25 SNPs, then combined in a meta-analysis with previously published data. Results Significant evidence of association was detected for nine SNPs within the European samples. When meta-analysed with previously published data, 21 SNPs were associated with RA susceptibility. Although SNPs in the PTPN2 gene were previously reported to be associated with RA in both Japanese and European populations, we show genome-wide evidence for a different SNP within this gene associated with RA susceptibility in an independent European population (rs7234029, P = 4.4×10−9). Conclusions This study provides further genome-wide evidence for the association of the PTPN2 locus (encoding the T cell protein tyrosine phosphastase) with Caucasian RA susceptibility. This finding adds to the growing evidence for PTPN2 being a pan-autoimmune susceptibility gene. PMID:23840476

  4. Pre-Use Susceptibility to Ceftaroline in Clinical Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Germany: Is There a Non-Susceptible Pool to be Selected?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Strommenger

    Full Text Available Ceftaroline is a new cephalosporin active against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. Based on a representative collection of clinical S. aureus isolates from Germany, supplemented with isolates of clonal lineages ST228 and ST239, we demonstrate the in-vitro susceptibility towards ceftaroline prior to its introduction into clinical use for a total of 219 isolates. Susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution, disc diffusion and Etest, respectively. Results were interpreted according to EUCAST guidelines and showed considerable variance in dependence on clonal affiliation of the isolates tested. Among isolates of widespread hospital-associated lineages we found a high proportion of clinical isolates with MICs close to the EUCAST breakpoint (MIC50/90 1.0/1.5 mg/L; currently, interpretation of these "borderline" MICs is complicated by a lack of concordant susceptibility testing methods and reasonable breakpoint determination. Isolates of clonal lineages ST228 and ST239 demonstrated increased MIC50/90 values of 2.5/3.33 mg/L. Sequencing of mecA revealed no association of resistance to a specific mecA polymorphism, but rather reveals two regions in the non-penicillin-binding domain of PbP2a which displayed different combinations of mutations putatively involved in resistance development. This study provides national baseline data to (i adjust susceptibility testing methods and current breakpoints to clinical and epidemiological requirements, (ii evaluate current breakpoints with respect to therapeutic outcome and (iii monitor further resistance evolution.

  5. Hey Teacher, Your Personality's Showing!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, James R.

    1977-01-01

    A study of 30 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade teachers and 300 of their students showed that a teacher's age, sex, and years of experience did not relate to students' mathematics achievement, but that more effective teachers showed greater "freedom from defensive behavior" than did less effective teachers. (DT)

  6. Planning a Successful Tech Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikirk, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Tech shows are a great way to introduce prospective students, parents, and local business and industry to a technology and engineering or career and technical education program. In addition to showcasing instructional programs, a tech show allows students to demonstrate their professionalism and skills, practice public presentations, and interact…

  7. Defense response of susceptible and resistant Biomphalaria alexandrina snails against Schistosoma mansoni infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman F. Abou-El-Naga

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Egypt, Biomphalaria alexandrina is the intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni. The fates of Schistosoma miracidia in the snails varies between different species of Biomphalaria. The internal defense system is one of the factors that influence the susceptibility pattern of the snails. The interaction between Biomphalaria snails and S. mansoni needs to be identified for each species, and even between the members of the same species with different degrees of susceptibility. In the present study, the first generation of susceptible and resistant parents of B. alexandrina was examined histologically at the 30th day post exposure. The study includes the characterization of the immune response, as expressed by tissue reactions, of susceptible and resistant B. alexandrina snails against S. mansoni. It was also designed to determine the impact of the resistance increase in parent snails, on the mechanisms of interaction of their offspring against infection. The results showed that the infection rate of the offspring from the susceptible parents was 92%. No susceptible offspring was produced from the resistant parents. When the parents were of equal number of susceptible and resistant snails, they gave an offspring with an infection rate of 20%. Susceptible snails that had susceptible parents showed a higher degree of susceptibility than those that had both susceptible and resistant parents. A common feature of the resistant snails was the absence of any viable parasites. The tissue reactions of the resistant snails having only resistant parents occurred at the site of miracidial penetration. In resistant snails for which susceptible ones were included in their parents, the reactions occurred in the deep tissues. These results characterized the immune response of B. alexandrina snails against Schistosoma infection which was found to occur by two different mechanisms. One type of defense occurs in highly resistant snails, and employs direct

  8. Theoretical Calculations of The Magnetic Susceptibility in Some Organic Molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Sadykova, A. Yu.

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic susceptibility of a number of sizeable organic molecules is calculated by using the model of additivity of localized molecular fragments. The results are in a good agreement with available experimental data.

  9. SPECIATION AND ANTIFUNGAL SUSCEPTIBILITY TESTING OF CANDIDA ISOLATED FROM URINE

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. M.N. Sumana*, Satya Sai B, Netra Devraj Kademani, Madhuri M J

    2017-01-01

    Candiduria is uncommon and appears more often in females and catheterized males. C.albicans& C.tropicals were the species most frequently identified. Our results provide contemporary insight into the antifungal susceptibility profile of Candida species causing candiduria

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing in biofilm‐growing bacteria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Macià, M. D; Rojo‐Molinero, E; Oliver, A

    2014-01-01

    .... The lack of correlation between conventional susceptibility test results and therapeutic success in chronic infections is probably a consequence of the use of planktonically growing instead of biofilm‐growing bacteria...

  11. Susceptibility Genes in Thyroid Autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Ban

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD are complex diseases which are caused by an interaction between susceptibility genes and environmental triggers. Genetic susceptibility in combination with external factors (e.g. dietary iodine is believed to initiate the autoimmune response to thyroid antigens. Abundant epidemiological data, including family and twin studies, point to a strong genetic influence on the development of AITD. Various techniques have been employed to identify the genes contributing to the etiology of AITD, including candidate gene analysis and whole genome screening. These studies have enabled the identification of several loci (genetic regions that are linked with AITD, and in some of these loci, putative AITD susceptibility genes have been identified. Some of these genes/loci are unique to Graves' disease (GD and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT and some are common to both the diseases, indicating that there is a shared genetic susceptibility to GD and HT. The putative GD and HT susceptibility genes include both immune modifying genes (e.g. HLA, CTLA-4 and thyroid specific genes (e.g. TSHR, Tg. Most likely, these loci interact and their interactions may influence disease phenotype and severity.

  12. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten I.

    2008-01-01

    We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games......, and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention....

  13. Polymyxins: Antimicrobial susceptibility concerns and therapeutic options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Balaji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogens such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae poses a great challenge to the treating physicians. The paucity of newer effective antimicrobials has led to renewed interest in the polymyxin group of drugs, as a last resort for treatment of gram-negative bacterial infections. There is a dearth of information on the pharmacological properties of colistin, leading to difficulties in selecting the right dose, dosing interval, and route of administration for treatment, especially in critically-ill patients. The increasing use of colistin over the last few years necessitates the need for accurate and reliable in vitro susceptibility testing methods. Development of heteroresistant strains as a result of colistin monotherapy is also a growing concern. There is a compelling need from the clinicians to provide options for probable and possible colistin combination therapy for multidrug-resistant bacterial infections in the ICU setting. Newer combination drug synergy determination tests are being developed and reported. There are no standardized recommendations from antimicrobial susceptibility testing reference agencies for the testing and interpretation of these drug combinations. Comparison and analysis of these reported methodologies may help to understand and assist the microbiologist to choose the best method that produces accurate results at the earliest. This will help clinicians to select the appropriate combination therapy. In this era of multidrug resistance it is important for the microbiology laboratory to be prepared, by default, to provide timely synergistic susceptibility results in addition to routine susceptibility, if warranted. Not as a favour or at request, but as a responsibility.

  14. Understanding the susceptibility to HIV of female and male students case study of LAMS school in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kissezounnon, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    This research project aims to understand the factors that influence susceptibility to HIV for female and male students in LAMS (Lycee Agricole Meidji o Sekou in Benin), in order to contribute to the reduction of the phenomenon. The results of questionnaires, group discussions and interviews show the

  15. Susceptibility of chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) to Trichinella patagoniensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualetti, M; Fariña, F; Falzoni, E; Cardillo, N; Aronowicz, T; Krivokapich, S; Rosa, A; Ribicich, M

    2014-09-15

    Trichinella spp. is a genus of parasites that is widespread all over the world. In Argentina, T. spiralis was for years the only species involved in human and animal outbreaks. During the last decade, T. patagoniensis, a new Trichinella species, was discovered in Argentina. Up to now, this species has only been found in cougars (Puma concolor). Experimental infections in pigs, cats, mice and rats with this new genotype showed that cats and mice were the most susceptible hosts. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the susceptibility of chickens to infection with T. patagoniensis. In order to study the intestinal and muscular phase, and the histopathological changes, 27 Leghorn chickens were inoculated per os with 1000 muscle larvae of T. patagoniensis and were euthanized on days 4, 5, 6, 7, 11, 14, 21, 28 and 35. Adult worms of T. patagoniensis were recovered from the small intestine of chickens up to day 14p.i. Gross examination of small intestine showed a moderate congestive appearance. Microscopically, an inflammatory response with lymphocytes and eosinophils in lamina propria, slight hyperemia, oedema and some haemorrhagic areas were detected. Lesions observed in chickens were similar to those described in different animal species during the intestinal phase. No muscular larvae were recovered from the muscle samples. These results suggest that T. patagoniensis is not capable to complete its entire life cycle in chickens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Susceptibility of Acanthamoeba to multipurpose lens-cleaning solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aguiar, Ana Paula Costa; de Oliveira Silveira, Caroline; Todero Winck, Mari Aline; Rott, Marilise Brittes

    2013-09-01

    The present study investigated the susceptibility of Acanthamoeba spp. trophozoites to two multipurpose systems for cleaning and maintenance of contact lenses. Three strains of trophozoites from the ATCC (A. castellani T4, A. castellani Neff, and A. polyphaga) and two Acanthamoeba isolates obtained from swimming pools (PT5 and PO1) were placed in monoxenic culture. To test their survival in cleaning solutions for contact lenses, the trophozoites were exposed for 4 and 24 h to two multipurpose solutions (A and B), and were then inoculated into a new monoxenic culture. Amoebic growth on the plates was observed after 72 h of incubation. Trophozoites from all three ATCC strains and one isolate from a swimming pool (PO1) grew in all plates after 4 h of exposure to solutions A and B. After 24 h, the ATCC strains and the PO1 isolate showed growth in most of the plates treated. Only the PT5 isolate showed susceptibility to both solutions over the time intervals tested. The two solutions were not completely effective against most strains and isolates over the time intervals tested. These results are important, since species of Acanthamoeba are widely distributed in the environment and are potential agents of eye pathologies.

  17. Representation of linguistic information determines its susceptibility to memory interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Myra A; Wammes, Jeffrey D; Hsiao, Janet H

    2013-08-08

    We used the dual-task paradigm to infer how linguistic information is represented in the brain by indexing its susceptibility to retrieval interference. We measured recognition memory, in bilingual Chinese-English, and monolingual English speakers. Participants were visually presented with simplified Chinese characters under full attention, and later asked to recognize them while simultaneously engaging in distracting tasks that required either phonological or visuo-spatial processing of auditorily presented letters. Chinese speakers showed significantly greater memory interference from the visuo-spatial than phonological distracting task, a pattern that was not present in the English group. Such a pattern suggests that retrieval of simplified Chinese characters differentially requires visuo-spatial processing resources in Chinese speakers; these are compromised under dual-task conditions when such resources are otherwise engaged in a distracting task. In a secondary analysis, we showed the complementary pattern in a group of English speakers, whose memory for English words was disrupted to a greater degree from the phonological than visuo-spatial distracting task. Together, these results suggest the mode of representation of linguistic information can be indexed behaviorally by susceptibility to retrieval interference that occurs when representations overlap with resources required in a competing task.

  18. Representation of Linguistic Information Determines Its Susceptibility to Memory Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey D. Wammes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We used the dual-task paradigm to infer how linguistic information is represented in the brain by indexing its susceptibility to retrieval interference. We measured recognition memory, in bilingual Chinese-English, and monolingual English speakers. Participants were visually presented with simplified Chinese characters under full attention, and later asked to recognize them while simultaneously engaging in distracting tasks that required either phonological or visuo-spatial processing of auditorily presented letters. Chinese speakers showed significantly greater memory interference from the visuo-spatial than phonological distracting task, a pattern that was not present in the English group. Such a pattern suggests that retrieval of simplified Chinese characters differentially requires visuo-spatial processing resources in Chinese speakers; these are compromised under dual-task conditions when such resources are otherwise engaged in a distracting task. In a secondary analysis, we showed the complementary pattern in a group of English speakers, whose memory for English words was disrupted to a greater degree from the phonological than visuo-spatial distracting task. Together, these results suggest the mode of representation of linguistic information can be indexed behaviorally by susceptibility to retrieval interference that occurs when representations overlap with resources required in a competing task.

  19. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...... of the scale's reliability, factor structure, and validity on the basis of analyzing data from independent samples of exhibitors at the international trade shows SIAL (Paris) and ANUGA (Cologne); and it concludes with a discussion of potential managerial applications and implications for future research. New...

  20. Is Streptococcus pyogenes Resistant or Susceptible to Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole?

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Asha C.; Lilliebridge, Rachael A; Tong, Steven Y. C.; Baird, Robert W.; Ward, Peter; McDonald, Malcolm I.; Currie, Bart J.; Jonathan R Carapetis

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is commonly believed to be resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT), resulting in reservations about using SXT for skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) where S. pyogenes is involved. S. pyogenes' in vitro susceptibility to SXT depends on the medium's thymidine content. Thymidine allows S. pyogenes to bypass the sulfur-mediated inhibition of folate metabolism and, historically, has resulted in apparently reduced susceptibility of S. pyogenes to sulfur antibacte...

  1. Comparison of three standardized disc susceptibility testing methods for colistin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Thean Yen; Ng, Lily Siew Yong

    2006-10-01

    With increasing antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria, the use of the polymyxins has increased in recent years. Antibiotic disc susceptibility testing remains the most widely used method in clinical laboratories, but there is very little data on the accuracy of disc testing methods for colistin. In this study, the accuracy of three standardized methods of disc susceptibility testing for colistin was compared with agar dilution. A total of 228 clinical isolates of Acinetobacter spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacteriaceae were included in the study. Isolates were tested by agar dilution for susceptibility to colistin, and results were compared with those obtained by three disc susceptibility testing methods (product insert based on CLSI methodology, British BSAC and French SFM). Colistin displayed good activity against Acinetobacter spp., Klebsiella spp. and Escherichia coli (MIC(90) 2 mg/L) but was less active against P. aeruginosa (MIC(90) 4 mg/L) and Enterobacter spp. (MIC(90) >or= 128 mg/L). Totally, 81%, 79% and 89% of colistin-resistant isolates were falsely reported as susceptible when tested by the product insert, BSAC and SFM testing methods, respectively. There were no false-resistant results. Disc susceptibility testing methods are unreliable at detecting colistin resistance. Dilution methods should be the method of choice for susceptibility testing of colistin.

  2. Prediction of autism susceptibility genes based on association rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Lejun; Yan, Yunyang; Xie, Jianming; Liu, Hongde; Sun, Xiao

    2012-06-01

    Autism is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder with high heritability and an unclear etiology. The identification of key genes related to autism may elucidate its etiology. The current study provides an approach to predicting autism susceptibility genes. Genes are first extracted from the biomedical literature, and some autism susceptibility genes are then recognized as seeds by the prior knowledge. As candidates, the remaining genes are predicted by creating association rules between the seeds and candidates. In an evaluated data set, 27 autism susceptibility genes (type "Y") are extracted and 43 possible autism susceptibility genes (type "P") are predicted. The sum of "Y" and "P" genes accounts for 93.3% of the data set that are not contained in the typical database of autism susceptibility genes. Our approach can effectively extract and predict autism susceptibility genes from the biomedical literature. These predicted results complement the typical database of autism susceptibility genes. The web portal for the predicted results, which is freely available at http://biolab.hyit.edu.cn/ar, can be a valuable resource in studies of diseases related to genes. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. A hybrid fuzzy weight of evidence method in landslide susceptibility analysis on the Wuyuan area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Haoyuan; Ilia, Ioanna; Tsangaratos, Paraskevas; Chen, Wei; Xu, Chong

    2017-08-01

    The present study proposed a hybrid fuzzy weight of evidence model for constructing a landslide susceptibility map in the Wuyuan area, China, where disastrous landslide events have occurred. The model combines the knowledge of experts obtained through a fuzzy logic approach and a hybrid weight of evidence method. The estimated knowledge-based fuzzy membership value of each environmental variable is combined with data-based conditional probabilities to derive fuzzy posterior probabilities and landslide susceptibility. The developed model was compared with a landslide susceptibility map produced using the data-driven weight of evidence method, based on 510 landslide and non-landslide sites. The sites were identified by analyzing airborne imagery, field investigation and previous studies. Landside susceptibility for these sites was analyzed using 10 geo-environmental variables: slope, aspect, lithology, soil, rainfall, plan curvature, the normalized difference vegetation index, distance to roads, distance to rivers and distance to faults. The resultant hybrid fuzzy weight of evidence method showed high predictive power, with the area under the success and predictive curves being 0.770 and 0.746, respectively. Additional analyses showed that the developed model could work effectively even with limited data.

  4. Trypanosoma cruzi: infection patterns in intact and athymic mice of susceptible and resistant genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves da Costa, S C; Calabrese, K S; Zaverucha do Valle, T; Lagrange, P H

    2002-01-01

    Inbred strains of mice inoculated with the T cruzi Y strain behaved as susceptible (A/J, C3H/HeN), intermediate (BALB/c) or relatively resistant (C57BL/6) with respect to the magnitude of parasitaemia and mortality rate. C57BL/10 mice were susceptible in relation to parasitaemia but resistant when mortality was analyzed. Infection with T cruzi CL strain presented the same results, except for C57BL/6 which behaved as susceptible mice. Athymic mice of various backgrounds revealed no differences in susceptibility, presenting the same dramatic parasitaemia, tissue colonization pattern and no inflammatory reaction in any of the tissues studied. Infection of euthymic and athymic BALB/c mice elicited the production of parasite-specific antibodies, which reached similar levels on the first 9 days but differed after day 13. Serum transfer experiments in BALB/c mice did not show great differences in parasitaemia but altered T. cruzi polymorphism reducing the slender forms in athymic mice. Histopathology of athymic BALB/c mice showed the same tissue tropism when infected either with T cruzi Y or CL strain.

  5. Susceptibility to emotional contagion for negative emotions improves detection of smile authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manera, Valeria; Grandi, Elisa; Colle, Livia

    2013-01-01

    A smile is a context-dependent emotional expression. A smiling face can signal the experience of enjoyable emotions, but people can also smile to convince another person that enjoyment is occurring when it is not. For this reason, the ability to discriminate between felt and faked enjoyment expressions is a crucial social skill. Despite its importance, adults show remarkable individual variation in this ability. Revealing the factors responsible for these huge individual differences is a key challenge in this domain. Here we investigated, on a large sample of participants, whether individual differences in smile authenticity recognition are accounted for by differences in the predisposition to experience other people's emotions, i.e., by susceptibility to emotional contagion. Results showed that susceptibility to emotional contagion for negative emotions increased smile authenticity detection, while susceptibility to emotional contagion for positive emotions worsened detection performance, because it leaded to categorize most of the faked smiles as sincere. These findings suggest that susceptibility to emotional contagion plays a key role in complex emotion recognition, and point out the importance of analyzing the tendency to experience other people's positive and negative emotions as separate abilities.

  6. Individual differences in susceptibility to inattentional blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seegmiller, Janelle K; Watson, Jason M; Strayer, David L

    2011-05-01

    Inattentional blindness refers to the finding that people do not always see what appears in their gaze. Though inattentional blindness affects large percentages of people, it is unclear if there are individual differences in susceptibility. The present study addressed whether individual differences in attentional control, as reflected by variability in working memory capacity, modulate susceptibility to inattentional blindness. Participants watched a classic inattentional blindness video (Simons & Chabris, 1999) and were instructed to count passes among basketball players, wherein 58% noticed the unexpected: a person wearing a gorilla suit. When participants were accurate with their pass counts, individuals with higher working memory capacity were more likely to report seeing the gorilla (67%) than those with lesser working memory capacity (36%). These results suggest that variability in attentional control is a potential mechanism underlying the apparent modulation of inattentional blindness across individuals.

  7. [Rapid antibiotic susceptibility test in Clinical Microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    March Rosselló, Gabriel Alberto; Bratos Pérez, Miguel Ángel

    2016-01-01

    The most widely used antibiotic susceptibility testing methods in Clinical Microbiology are based on the phenotypic detection of antibiotic resistance by measuring bacterial growth in the presence of the antibiotic being tested. These conventional methods take typically 24hours to obtain results. A review is presented here of recently developed techniques for the rapid determination of antibiotic susceptibility. Data obtained with different methods such as molecular techniques, flow cytometry, chemiluminescence, mass spectrometry, commercial methods used in routine work, colorimetric methods, nephelometry, microarrays, microfluids, and methods based on cell disruption and sequencing, are analyzed and discussed in detail. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  8. Inherited susceptibility and radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, J.B. [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States)

    1997-03-01

    There is continuing concern that some people in the general population may have genetic makeups that place them at particularly high risk for radiation-induced cancer. The existence of such a susceptible subpopulation would have obvious implications for the estimation of risks of radiation exposure. Although it has been long known that familial aggregations of cancer do sometimes occur, recent evidence suggests that a general genetic predisposition to cancer does not exist; most cancers occur sporadically. On the other hand, nearly 10% of the known Mendelian genetic disorders are associated with cancer. A number of these involve a familial predisposition to cancer, and some are characterized by an enhanced susceptibility to the induction of cancer by various physical and chemical carcinogens, including ionizing radiation. Such increased susceptibility will depend on several factors including the frequency of the susceptibility gene in the population and its penetrance, the strength of the predisposition, and the degree to which the cancer incidence in susceptible individuals may be increased by the carcinogen. It is now known that these cancer-predisposing genes may be responsible not only for rare familial cancer syndromes, but also for a proportion of the common cancers. Although the currently known disorders can account for only a small fraction of all cancers, they serve as models for genetic predisposition to carcinogen-induced cancer in the general population. In the present report, the author describes current knowledge of those specific disorders that are associated with an enhanced predisposition to radiation-induced cancer, and discusses how this knowledge may bear on the susceptibility to radiation-induced cancer in the general population and estimates of the risk of radiation exposure.

  9. Host susceptibility of citrus cultivars to Queensland fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, A C; Hamacek, E L; Smith, D; Kopittke, R A; Gu, H

    2013-04-01

    Citrus crops are considered to be relatively poor hosts for Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), as for other tephritid species. Australian citrus growers and crop consultants have reported observable differences in susceptibility of different citrus cultivars under commercial growing conditions. In this study we conducted laboratory tests and field surveys to determine susceptibility to B. tryoni of six citrus cultivars [(Eureka lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck); Navel and Valencia oranges (C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck); and Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins (C. reticulata Blanco). The host susceptibility of these citrus cultivars was quantified by a Host Susceptibility Index, which is defined as the number of adult flies produced per gram of fruit infested at a calculated rate of one egg per gram of fruit. The HSI was ranked as Murcott (0.083) > Imperial (0.052) > Navel (0.026) - Ellendale (0.020) > Valencia (0.008) > Eureka (yellow) (0.002) > Eureka (green) (0). Results of the laboratory study were in agreement with the level of field infestation in the four citrus cultivars (Eureka lemon, Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins) that were surveyed from commercial orchards under baiting treatments against fruit flies in the Central Burnett district of Queensland. Field surveys of citrus hosts from the habitats not subject to fruit fly management showed that the numbers of fruit flies produced per gram of fruit were much lower, compared with the more susceptible noncitrus hosts, such as guava (Psidium guajava L.), cherry guava (P. littorale Raddi), mulberry (Morus nigra L.), loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.), and pear (Pyrus communis L.). Therefore, the major citrus crops commercially cultivated in Australia have a relatively low susceptibility to B. tryoni, with Eureka lemons being a particularly poor host for this tephritid fruit fly.

  10. A gene for familial psoriasis susceptibility maps to the distal end of human chromosome 17q

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowcock, A.; Tomfohrde, J.; Barnes, R. [Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory dermatosis that affects approximately 2% of the population. A gene for psoriasis susceptibility was localized to the distal region of human chromosome 17q as a result of a genome wide linkage-analysis with polymorphic microsatellites and eight multiply affected psoriasis kindreds. With one large kindred a maximum two-point lod score with D17S784 was 5.70 at 15% recombination. Heterogeneity testing indicated that psoriasis susceptibility in 50% of the families was linked to distal 17q. Susceptibility to psoriasis has repeatedly been found to be associated with HLA-Cw6 and associated HLA alleles. We therefore genotyped the families for loci within and flanking HLA; these included PCR assays for susceptibility alleles. By lod score analysis no evidence of linkage of psoriasis susceptibility to HLA was detected. The distribution of HLA-Cw6 and HLA-Class II alleles showed that HLA-Cw6 was frequent among patients, particularly in 4 of the 5 unlinked families. All affected members of two of these unlinked families carried HLA-Cw6 (empirical P values of 0.027 and 0.004). In 2 other families 4 of 6 and 6 of 7 had HLA-Cw6. In some of these families, an inability to detect linkage to HLA may have been due to the occurrence of multiple haplotypes carrying the psoriasis associated allele, HLA-Cw6. Contrasting with these findings, we observed a lack of association between HLA-Cw6 and psoriasis in the 3 families in which 17q markers were linked to susceptibility. The ability to detect linkage to 17q confirms that some forms of familial psoriasis are due to molecular defects at a single major genetic locus other than HLA.

  11. pitting corrosion susceptibility pitting corrosion susceptibility of aisi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Abstract. The susceptibility of austenitic (AISI 301) stainless steel to pitting corrosion was evaluated in sodium chloride. (NaCl) solutions ... AISI 301 steel suffers from pitting corrosion in all the investigated solutions. AISI 301 steel suffers from ..... [1] Ijeomah, M.N.C. Elements of Corrosion and Protection. Theory, Auto Century ...

  12. Prolonged pre-incubation increases the susceptibility of Galleria mellonella larvae to bacterial and fungal infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Niall; Surlis, Carla; Maher, Amie; Gallagher, Clair; Carolan, James C; Clynes, Martin; Kavanagh, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Galleria mellonella larvae are widely used for assessing the virulence of microbial pathogens and for measuring the in vivo activity of antimicrobial agents and produce results comparable to those that can be obtained using mammals. The aim of the work described here was to ascertain the effect of pre-incubation at 15°C for 1, 3, 6 or 10 weeks on the susceptibility of larvae to infection with Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus. Larvae infected with C. albicans after 1 week pre-incubation at 15°C showed 73.3 ± 3.3% survival at 24 hours post-infection while those infected after 10 weeks pre-incubation showed 30 ± 3.3% survival (P mellonella larvae are a useful in vivo model system but the duration of the pre-incubation stage significantly affects their susceptibility to microbial pathogens possibly as a result of altered metabolism. PMID:25785635

  13. Magnetic Susceptability Measurements in Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jason; Mallory, Kendall; Seim, Ryan

    2000-04-01

    A new undergraduate research facility in magnetic susceptability measurements on superconductors is being developed at the University of Northern Colorado. Initial data measurements of the magnetic susceptability of various superconductors will be presented. These measurements were obtained with a liquid helium/nitrogen dewar that was reassembled for use in this project. The cryostat consists of two separate dewars, the first of which contains liquid nitrogen, the second, liquid helium. The liquid nitrogen dewar is used to keep the helium bath from evaporating off too quickly. Data on the evaporation rates of the two liquids will also be presented.

  14. Brain Injury Lesion Imaging Using Preconditioned Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping without Skull Stripping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soman, S; Liu, Z; Kim, G; Nemec, U; Holdsworth, S J; Main, K; Lee, B; Kolakowsky-Hayner, S; Selim, M; Furst, A J; Massaband, P; Yesavage, J; Adamson, M M; Spincemallie, P; Moseley, M; Wang, Y

    2018-02-22

    Identifying cerebral microhemorrhage burden can aid in the diagnosis and management of traumatic brain injury, stroke, hypertension, and cerebral amyloid angiopathy. MR imaging susceptibility-based methods are more sensitive than CT for detecting cerebral microhemorrhage, but methods other than quantitative susceptibility mapping provide results that vary with field strength and TE, require additional phase maps to distinguish blood from calcification, and depict cerebral microhemorrhages as bloom artifacts. Quantitative susceptibility mapping provides universal quantification of tissue magnetic property without these constraints but traditionally requires a mask generated by skull-stripping, which can pose challenges at tissue interphases. We evaluated the preconditioned quantitative susceptibility mapping MR imaging method, which does not require skull-stripping, for improved depiction of brain parenchyma and pathology. Fifty-six subjects underwent brain MR imaging with a 3D multiecho gradient recalled echo acquisition. Mask-based quantitative susceptibility mapping images were created using a commonly used mask-based quantitative susceptibility mapping method, and preconditioned quantitative susceptibility images were made using precondition-based total field inversion. All images were reviewed by a neuroradiologist and a radiology resident. Ten subjects (18%), all with traumatic brain injury, demonstrated blood products on 3D gradient recalled echo imaging. All lesions were visible on preconditioned quantitative susceptibility mapping, while 6 were not visible on mask-based quantitative susceptibility mapping. Thirty-one subjects (55%) demonstrated brain parenchyma and/or lesions that were visible on preconditioned quantitative susceptibility mapping but not on mask-based quantitative susceptibility mapping. Six subjects (11%) demonstrated pons artifacts on preconditioned quantitative susceptibility mapping and mask-based quantitative susceptibility mapping

  15. Rainfall-induced Landslide Susceptibility assessment at the Longnan county

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Haoyuan; Zhang, Ying

    2017-04-01

    Landslides are a serious disaster in Longnan county, China. Therefore landslide susceptibility assessment is useful tool for government or decision making. The main objective of this study is to investigate and compare the frequency ratio, support vector machines, and logistic regression. The Longnan county (Jiangxi province, China) was selected as the case study. First, the landslide inventory map with 354 landslide locations was constructed. Then landslide locations were then randomly divided into a ratio of 70/30 for the training and validating the models. Second, fourteen landslide conditioning factors were prepared such as slope, aspect, altitude, topographic wetness index (TWI), stream power index (SPI), sediment transport index (STI), plan curvature, lithology, distance to faults, distance to rivers, distance to roads, land use, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and rainfall. Using the frequency ratio, support vector machines, and logistic regression, a total of three landslide susceptibility models were constructed. Finally, the overall performance of the resulting models was assessed and compared using the Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve technique. The result showed that the support vector machines model is the best model in the study area. The success rate is 88.39 %; and prediction rate is 84.06 %.

  16. Susceptibility weighted imaging: differentiating between calcification and hemosiderin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Jeam Haroldo Oliveira; Salmon, Carlos Ernesto Garrido, E-mail: jeamharoldo@hotmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FFCLRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras; Santos, Antonio Carlos [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2015-03-15

    Objective: to present a detailed explanation on the processing of magnetic susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI), demonstrating the effects of echo time and sensitive mask on the differentiation between calcification and hemosiderin. Materials and methods: computed tomography and magnetic resonance (magnitude and phase) images of six patients (age range 41-54 years; four men) were retrospectively selected. The SWI images processing was performed using the Matlab's own routine. Results: four out of the six patients showed calcifications at computed tomography images and their SWI images demonstrated hyperintense signal at the calcification regions. The other patients did not show any calcifications at computed tomography, and SWI revealed the presence of hemosiderin deposits with hypointense signal. Conclusion: the selection of echo time and of the mask may change all the information on SWI images, and compromise the diagnostic reliability. Amongst the possible masks, the authors highlight that the sigmoid mask allows for contrasting calcifications and hemosiderin on a single SWI image. (author)

  17. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  18. Is Streptococcus pyogenes Resistant or Susceptible to Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilliebridge, Rachael A.; Tong, Steven Y. C.; Baird, Robert W.; Ward, Peter; McDonald, Malcolm I.; Currie, Bart J.; Carapetis, Jonathan R.

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is commonly believed to be resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT), resulting in reservations about using SXT for skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) where S. pyogenes is involved. S. pyogenes' in vitro susceptibility to SXT depends on the medium's thymidine content. Thymidine allows S. pyogenes to bypass the sulfur-mediated inhibition of folate metabolism and, historically, has resulted in apparently reduced susceptibility of S. pyogenes to sulfur antibacterials. The low thymidine concentration in Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA) is now regulated. We explored S. pyogenes susceptibility to SXT on various media. Using two sets of 100 clinical S. pyogenes isolates, we tested for susceptibility using SXT Etests on MHA containing defibrinated horse blood and 20 mg/liter β-NAD (MHF), MHA with sheep blood (MHS), MHA alone, MHA with horse blood (MHBA), and MHA with lysed horse blood (MHLHBA). European Committee on Antibacterial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) breakpoints defined susceptibility (MIC, ≤1 mg/liter) and resistance (MIC, >2 mg/liter). In study 1, 99% of S. pyogenes isolates were susceptible to SXT on MHA, MHBA, and MHLHBA, with geometric mean MICs of 0.04, 0.04, and 0.05 mg/liter, respectively. In study 2, all 100 S. pyogenes isolates were susceptible to SXT on MHF, MHS, MHA, and MHLHBA with geometric mean MICs of 0.07, 0.16, 0.07, and 0.09 mg/liter, respectively. This study confirms the in vitro susceptibility of S. pyogenes to SXT, providing support for the use of SXT for SSTIs. A clinical trial using SXT for impetigo is ongoing. PMID:23052313

  19. PROTOCOL OF FACTORS ASSESSMENT INFLUENTIAL IN SUSCEPTIBILITY TO EROSION OF RIVER SLOPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josita Soares Monteiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Actions to conserve rivers must be preceded by an environmental diagnosis, however, beyond the body of water, the adjacent atmosphere must also be characterized by ability of recognizing the human impacts and differentiate them of the natural variation of these ecosystems. This study aimed to develop a rapid assessment protocol (PAR, composed of seven parameters - vegetation, soil texture, part of the river, slope inclination slope gradient, soil depth in slope, stroke width of water course, use and land cover -, assigning them weights 0-4, in order to assess the influence of their categories in susceptibility to erosion of the river slope. The PAR was applied in 40 sampling unities (UA in the watershed of Arroio Val de Buia in Silveira Martins, RS. From the final result of the PAR it was created erosion susceptibility classes, "stable", "susceptible" and "instable". The t test showed significant differences between the evaluated units and the Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (AHA distinguished two classes of UA, according to the categories of susceptibility to erosion resulting from PAR. The basic parameters that determined the groupings were: soil, soil depth in slope, vegetation, the stretch of water course and, land use and land cover. We conclude that the PAR is presented as a good rapid assessment tool river, similar to the studied stream, being useful to the environmental planning considering the regional characteristics.

  20. Modified mean-field theory of the magnetic properties of concentrated, high-susceptibility, polydisperse ferrofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovyova, Anna Yu.; Elfimova, Ekaterina A.; Ivanov, Alexey O.; Camp, Philip J.

    2017-11-01

    The effects of particle-size polydispersity on the magnetostatic properties of concentrated ferrofluids are studied using theory and computer simulation. The second-order modified mean-field (MMF2) theory of Ivanov and Kuznetsova [Phys. Rev. E 64, 041405 (2001), 10.1103/PhysRevE.64.041405] has been extended by calculating additional terms of higher order in the dipolar coupling constant in the expansions of the initial magnetic susceptibility and the magnetization curve. The theoretical predictions have been tested rigorously against results from Monte Carlo simulations of model monodisperse, bidisperse, and highly polydisperse ferrofluids. Comparisons have been made between systems with the same Langevin susceptibility and the same saturation magnetization. In all cases, the new theoretical magnetization curve shows better agreement with simulation data than does the MMF2 theory. As for the initial susceptibility, MMF2 theory is most accurate for the monodisperse model, while the new theory works best for polydisperse systems with a significant proportion of large particles. These results are important for the analysis and characterization of recently synthesized polydisperse ferrofluids with record-breaking values of the initial magnetic susceptibility.

  1. Precise measurements of diamagnetic susceptibility of benzophenone and paraffin by using a magnetic levitation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, K; Mogi, I; Awaji, S; Watanabe, K [High Field Laboratory for Superconducting Materials, Institute of Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan)], E-mail: kohki@imr.tohoku.ac.jp

    2009-03-01

    Measurements for temperature dependence of diamagnetic susceptibility were performed under the magnetic levitation condition. The magnetic susceptibility of a single crystal of benzophenone showed monotonous decrease toward to the melting point with increasing temperature. The minimum change of the susceptibility was detected by 1.4 x 10{sup -12} m{sup 3}/kg. On the contrary, slight increase was observed below the melting point in the case of paraffin. The susceptibility of a paraffin melt was found to be smaller than that of the solid state. It was demonstrated that the magnetic levitation enables sensitive and contactless measurements of the diamagnetic susceptibility across the melting point.

  2. Application of a perialpine landslide susceptibility model in the Alpine region (Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Komac

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A very good landslide susceptibility prediction model was developed for the area in the perialpine region in the central western Slovenia. Using multivariate statistics the interactions between spatial factors and landslide distribution were tested, and the importance of individual factor to the landslide susceptibility was defined. On the basis of the statistical results several landslide prediction models were developed using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP method. These models gave very different results, with a prediction error ranging from 6,89 % to 31,8 %. As a final result of the research, weights of different spatial factors from the best models calculated with the AHP method were derived. The results showed that the lithology (31 % variance, the slope inclination (21,2% variance, land cover type (13,7 % variance, the terrain roughness (10,1 % variance, and the terrain curvature (8,6 % variance play an important role in landslide susceptibility in general. Minor roles also play the distance to streams and the distance to structuralelements. These factors weights values were later used as input values in a simple linear weighted landslide susceptibility prediction model for the area in the Alpine region (north-western Slovenia. The fact is that the ideal weight’s value of a factor differs from area to area. Each original weight value used in the new (Alpine model presented only the mean of the new weight’s range/distribution, which was used as an input to the linearmodel. The analysis of the ideal factors weights in the Alpine area included several analytical trials, where different factors with different weight distribution were used.Altogether, almost 65 000 different models were calculated and tested to the landslide distribution. The best prediction results gave the model, where lithology played the major role in the landslide susceptibility (30 %, slope inclination contributed less (22 %, andland cover type contributed 20

  3. Early gut colonizers shape parasite susceptibility and microbiota composition in honey bee workers

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarz, Ryan S; Moran, Nancy A.; Evans, Jay D.

    2016-01-01

    Using a social insect model, we tested how supplementing young adult bees with a resident microbiota species affects host physiology and microbiome composition. This supplementation had significant consequences for host development and detoxification responses, parasite susceptibility, and microbiome community structure. Our results show that early perturbation of the microbiota composition can have sustained consequences for hosts. Additionally, this work provides a cautionary tale to the ar...

  4. AC susceptibility as a characterization tool for coated conductor tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gömöry, F.; Vojenčiak, M.; Solovyov, M.; Frolek, L.; Šouc, J.; Seiler, E.; Bauer, M.; Falter, M.

    2017-11-01

    The measurement and analysis of magnetic AC susceptibility is a useful tool in the study of superconductor (SC) materials. Exposure of a sample to a magnetic field changing in time generates loops of electrical currents that are detectable in a contactless way with the help of a suitable pick-up system. In this paper the applicability of this technique in the characterization and quality control of coated conductor (CC) tapes is evaluated. First we recollect the essential results of the analytical theory derived for thin SC strips and their extrapolation to strips with finite thickness. From the analytical expressions one can see how the properties of CC tape that are important for application in electric power devices, namely its critical current and AC loss, can be deduced from AC susceptibility data in straightforward way. The main focus of our study is to investigate the influence that various cases of non-uniformities in SC layer exhibit on the magnetic properties examined in an AC regime. Numerical computations were used to explore the consequences of lateral variation in the critical current density. Predictions derived for some model cases were compared with experimental findings. A dedicated experiment was also carried out to demonstrate that a transverse scratch that would be detrimental for DC transport could sneak unobserved through the AC magnetic experiment on a long sample. Our study shows that the analysis of both parts of the complex magnetic susceptibility in place of a mere AC loss determination in a common AC magnetization experiment is worth the additional effort.

  5. Susceptibility of Chinese Perch Brain (CPB Cell and Mandarin Fish to Red-Spotted Grouper Nervous Necrosis Virus (RGNNV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiagang Tu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nervous necrosis virus (NNV is the causative agent of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER, a neurological disease responsible for high mortality of fish species worldwide. Taking advantage of our established Chinese perch brain (CPB cell line derived from brain tissues of Mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi, the susceptibility of CPB cell to Red-Spotted Grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV was evaluated. The results showed that RGNNV replicated well in CPB cells, resulting in cellular apoptosis. Moreover, the susceptibility of Mandarin fish to RGNNV was also evaluated. Abnormal swimming was observed in RGNNV-infected Mandarin fish. In addition, the cellular vacuolation and viral particles were also observed in brain tissues of RGNNV-infected Mandarin fish by Hematoxylin-eosin staining or electronic microscopy. The established RGNNV susceptible brain cell line from freshwater fish will pave a new way for the study of the pathogenicity and replication of NNV in the future.

  6. Local magnetic susceptibility in rare-earth compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Shiozawa, H; Obu, K

    2003-01-01

    The element specific magnetic susceptibilities of some rare-earth compounds are estimated by measuring magnetic circular dichroism at rare-earth M sub 4 sub , sub 5 absorption edges. The temperature dependences of the rare-earth 4f local magnetic susceptibilities in dense Kondo materials, CeNi, CeSn sub 3 and CeRu sub 4 Sb sub 1 sub 2 , are remarkably different from those of the bulk magnetic susceptibilities measured by a conventional magnetometer, although the 4f electron is regarded to mainly hold the magnetic moment in these compounds. In contrast, the rare-earth 4f local magnetic susceptibility of ferromagnetic NdFe sub 4 P sub 1 sub 2 shows almost as similar behavior as the bulk one.

  7. Molecular identification and antifungal susceptibility profiles of Candida parapsilosis complex species isolated from culture collection of clinical samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Silvestre Ataides

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractINTRODUCTION:Candida parapsilosis is a common yeast species found in cases of onychomycosis and candidemia associated with infected intravascular devices. In this study, we differentiated Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis , and Candida metapsilosis from a culture collection containing blood and subungual scraping samples. Furthermore, we assessed the in vitro antifungal susceptibility of these species to fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, amphotericin B, and caspofungin.METHODS:Differentiation of C. parapsilosis complex species was performed by amplification of the secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (SADH gene and digestion by the restriction enzyme Ban I. All isolates were evaluated for the determination of minimal inhibitory concentrations using Etest, a method for antifungal susceptibility testing.RESULTS:Among the 87 isolates, 78 (89.7% were identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto , five (5.7% were identified as C. orthopsilosis , and four (4.6% were identified as C. metapsilosis . Analysis of antifungal susceptibility showed that C. parapsilosis sensu strictoisolates were less susceptible to amphotericin B and itraconazole. One C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolate was resistant to amphotericin B and itraconazole. Moreover, 10.2% of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolates were resistant to caspofungin. Two C. parapsilosis sensu strictoisolates and one C. metapsilosis isolate were susceptible to fluconazole in a dose-dependent manner.CONCLUSIONS:We reported the first molecular identification of C. parapsilosiscomplex species in State of Goiás, Brazil. Additionally, we showed that although the three species exhibited differences in antifungal susceptibility profiles, the primary susceptibility of this species was to caspofungin.

  8. Reality show: um paradoxo nietzschiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Feldman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O fenômeno dos reality shows - e a subseqüente relação entre imagem e verdade - assenta-se sobre uma série de paradoxos. Tais paradoxos podem ser compreendidos à luz do pensamento do filósofo alemão Friedrich Nietzsche, que, através dos usos de formulações paradoxais, concebia a realidade como um mundo de pura aparência e a verdade como um acréscimo ficcional, como um efeito. A ficção é então tomada, na filosofia de Nietzsche, não em seu aspecto falsificante e desrealizador - como sempre pleiteou nossa tradição metafísica -, mas como condição necessária para que certa espécie de invenção possa operar como verdade. Sendo assim, a própria expressão reality show, através de sua formulação paradoxal, engendra explicitamente um mundo de pura aparência, em que a verdade, a parte reality da proposição, é da ordem do suplemento, daquilo que se acrescenta ficcionalmente - como um adjetivo - a show. O ornamento, nesse caso, passa a ocupar o lugar central, apontando para o efeito produzido: o efeito-de-verdade. Seguindo, então, o pensamento nietzschiano e sua atualização na contemporaneidade, investigaremos de que forma os televisivos “shows de realidade” operam paradoxalmente, em consonância com nossas paradoxais práticas culturais.

  9. Genetic architecture of intrinsic antibiotic susceptibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany S Girgis

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic exposure rapidly selects for more resistant bacterial strains, and both a drug's chemical structure and a bacterium's cellular network affect the types of mutations acquired.To better characterize the genetic determinants of antibiotic susceptibility, we exposed a transposon-mutagenized library of Escherichia coli to each of 17 antibiotics that encompass a wide range of drug classes and mechanisms of action. Propagating the library for multiple generations with drug concentrations that moderately inhibited the growth of the isogenic parental strain caused the abundance of strains with even minor fitness advantages or disadvantages to change measurably and reproducibly. Using a microarray-based genetic footprinting strategy, we then determined the quantitative contribution of each gene to E. coli's intrinsic antibiotic susceptibility. We found both loci whose removal increased general antibiotic tolerance as well as pathways whose down-regulation increased tolerance to specific drugs and drug classes. The beneficial mutations identified span multiple pathways, and we identified pairs of mutations that individually provide only minor decreases in antibiotic susceptibility but that combine to provide higher tolerance.Our results illustrate that a wide-range of mutations can modulate the activity of many cellular resistance processes and demonstrate that E. coli has a large mutational target size for increasing antibiotic tolerance. Furthermore, the work suggests that clinical levels of antibiotic resistance might develop through the sequential accumulation of chromosomal mutations of small individual effect.

  10. Tolerant and Susceptible Sesame Genotypes Reveal Waterlogging Stress Response Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linhai; Li, Donghua; Zhang, Yanxin; Gao, Yuan; Yu, Jingyin; Wei, Xin; Zhang, Xiurong

    2016-01-01

    Waterlogging is a common adverse environmental condition that limits plant growth. Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is considered a drought-tolerant oil crop but is typically susceptible to harmful effects from waterlogging. The present study used comparative analysis to explore the waterlogging stress response associated with two sesame genotypes. The RNA-seq dataset generated during a time course of 0, 3, 9 and 15 h of waterlogging as well as 20 h post-drainage indicated that stress gradually suppressed the expression of sesame genes, with 9 h as the critical time point for the response of sesame to waterlogging stress. Of the 19,316 genes expressed during waterlogging, 72.1% were affected significantly. Sesame of both tolerant and susceptible genotypes showed decreased numbers of upregulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) but increased numbers of downregulated DEGs at the onset of waterlogging. However, the tolerant-genotype sesame exhibited 25.5% more upregulated DEGs and 29.7% fewer downregulated DEGs than those of the susceptible-genotype strain between 3 and 15 h. The results indicated that the tolerant sesame displayed a more positive gene response to waterlogging. A total of 1,379 genes were significantly induced and commonly expressed in sesame under waterlogging conditions from 3 to 15 h regardless of tolerance level; of these genes, 98 are known homologous stress responsive genes, while the remaining 1,281 are newly reported here. This gene set may represent the core genes that function in response to waterlogging, including those related mainly to energy metabolism and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. Furthermore, a set of 3,016 genes functioning in energy supply and cell repair or formation was activated in sesame recovery from waterlogging stress. A comparative analysis between sesame of the tolerant and susceptible genotypes revealed 66 genes that may be candidates for improving sesame tolerance to waterlogging. This study provided a comprehensive

  11. THE SUSCEPTIBILITY OF MICE TO BACTERIAL ENDOTOXINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaedler, Russell W.; Dubos, Rene J.

    1961-01-01

    Albino mice (Rockefeller NCS strain) raised and maintained free of ordinary bacterial pathogens, as well as of intestinal Escherichia coli and of Proteus bacilli, were found to be highly resistant to the lethal effect of bacterial endotoxins. When newborn mice of this NCS colony were nursed by foster mothers from another colony raised under ordinary conditions (SS colony from which the NCS colony was derived), they acquired the intestinal flora of the latter animals and became susceptible to the lethal effects of endotoxins. NCS adult mice could be rendered susceptible to the lethal effect of endotoxins by vaccination with heat killed Gram-negative bacilli. The susceptibility thus induced exhibited a certain degree of specificity for the bacterial strain used in vaccination. Although untreated NCS mice were resistant to the lethal effect of endotoxins, they proved exquisitively susceptible to the infection-enhancing effect of these materials. For example, 1 µg. or less of endotoxin was found sufficient to help establish a rapidly fatal septicemia with Staphylococcus aureus. Small amounts of endotoxin (1 µg. or less), administered alone, caused a marked but transient loss of weight. Vaccination with heat-killed Gram-negative bacilli or with killed BCG increased the resistance of NCS mice to the infection-enhancing effect of small amounts of endotoxin. This protective effect exhibited a certain degree of specificity for the bacterial strain from which the toxin used in the infection-enhancing test was derived. These various findings can be explained by assuming that the pathological effects of endotoxins involve at least two unrelated mechanisms; (a) a primary toxicity illustrated in this study by the loss of weight and enhancement of infection resulting from the injection of small doses of toxin; (b) an immunological reaction with lethal consequences which became manifest only in animals sensitized to the endotoxin by prior exposure to Gram-negative bacilli. PMID

  12. Topological susceptibility from the overlap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Debbio, Luigi; Pica, Claudio

    2003-01-01

    The chiral symmetry at finite lattice spacing of Ginsparg-Wilson fermionic actions constrains the renormalization of the lattice operators; in particular, the topological susceptibility does not require any renormalization, when using a fermionic estimator to define the topological charge. Theref...

  13. Multiple phase transitions of the susceptible-infected-susceptible epidemic model on complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mata, Angélica S

    2014-01-01

    We show that the susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) epidemic dynamics running on the top of networks with a power law degree distribution can exhibit multiple phase transitions. Three main transitions involving different mechanisms responsible by sustaining the epidemics are identified: A short-term epidemics concentrated around the most connected vertex; a long-term (asymptotically stable) localized epidemics with a vanishing threshold; and an endemic phase occurring at a finite threshold. The different transitions are suited through different mean-field approaches. We finally show that the multiple transitions are due to the activations of different domains of the network that are observed in rapid (singular) variations of both stationary density of infected vertices and the participation ratio against the infection rate.

  14. Determining magnetic susceptibilities of everyday materials using an electronic balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laumann, Daniel; Heusler, Stefan

    2017-05-01

    The magnetic properties of an object and its interaction with an external magnetic field can be described through the magnetic (volume) susceptibility χV, which divides nearly all kinds of matter into diamagnetic, paramagnetic, and ferromagnetic substances. Quantitative measurements of χV are usually technically sophisticated or require the investigation of substances with high values of χV to reveal meaningful results. Here, we show that both diamagnetic and paramagnetic effects in everyday materials can be measured using only an electronic balance and a neodymium magnet, both of which are within the reach of typical introductory college and high school physics classrooms. The experimental results match related literature values remarkably well.

  15. Insecticide susceptibility status and major detoxifying enzymes' activity in Aedes albopictus (Skuse), vector of dengue and chikungunya in Northern part of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharati, Minu; Saha, Dhiraj

    2017-06-01

    Mosquitoes belonging to Aedes genus, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus transmit many globally important arboviruses including Dengue (DENV) and Chikungunya (CHIKV). Vector control with the use of insecticide remains the suitable method of choice to stop the transmission of these diseases. However, vector control throughout the world is failing to achieve its target results because of the worldwide development of insecticide resistance in mosquitoes. To assess the insecticide susceptibility status of Aedes albopictus from northern part of West Bengal, the susceptibility of eight different Aedes albopictus populations were tested against a commonly used larvicide (temephos) and some adulticides (malathion, deltamethrin and lambda cyhalothrin) along with the major insecticide detoxifying enzymes' activity in them. Through this study, it was revealed that most of the populations were found susceptible to temephos except Nagrakata (NGK) and Siliguri (SLG), which showed both a higher resistance ratio (RR99) and a lower susceptibility, thereby reflecting the development of resistance against temephos in them. However, all tested adulticides caused 100% mortality in all the population implying their potency in control of this mosquito in this region of India. Through the study of carboxylesterase activity, it was revealed that the NGK population showed a 9.6 fold higher level of activity than susceptible population. The same population also showed a lower level of susceptibility and a higher resistance ratio (RR99), indicating a clear correlation between susceptibility to temephos and carboxylesterase enzymes' activity in this population. This preliminary data reflects that the NGK population is showing a trend towards resistance development and with time, there is possibility that this resistance phenomenon will spread to other populations. With the recurrence of dengue and chikungunya, this data on insecticide susceptibility status of Aedes albopictus could help the

  16. Cross-resistance and baseline susceptibility of spirotetramat in Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén, Juan; Navarro, Miguel; Bielza, Pablo

    2014-06-01

    Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is an economically important pest all over the world. New products against thrips are necessary, as there are few effective compounds exhibiting cross-resistance among them. Lethal effects, cross-resistance, and baseline susceptibility to spirotetramat were evaluated in this study. A new bioassay method for testing thrips against spirotetramat was developed. Spirotetramat showed a significant mortality effect on larvae after 7 d of exposure, but a low effect was observed on adults. Baseline results for larval instars showed LC50 values ranging from 11.59 to 49.81 mg AI/liter, with a low natural variability (3.2-fold). Cross-resistance studies showed overlapping confidence limits of the LC50 values for laboratory-selected (against acrinathrin, methiocarb, formetanate, and spinosad) resistant and susceptible strains, and low resistance factors, from 0.5 to 1.9, suggesting no cross-resistance to conventional insecticides previously used. A slight ovicidal effect (21-40% reduction) was also detected. Despite presenting low effects on adults, spirotetramat showed high but slow efficacy on F. occidentalis larvae. Field populations in southeast Spain showed a consistent susceptibility to spirotetramat. Given the scarcity of effective products and the lack of cross-resistance to other insecticides, spirotetramat can be considered as a good chemical tool to control F. occidentalis.

  17. Graphene Oxides Show Angiogenic Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sudip; Sriram, Pavithra; Barui, Ayan Kumar; Nethi, Susheel Kumar; Veeriah, Vimal; Chatterjee, Suvro; Suresh, Kattimuttathu Ittara; Patra, Chitta Ranjan

    2015-08-05

    Angiogenesis, a process resulting in the formation of new capillaries from the pre-existing vasculature plays vital role for the development of therapeutic approaches for cancer, atherosclerosis, wound healing, and cardiovascular diseases. In this report, the synthesis, characterization, and angiogenic properties of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) have been demonstrated, observed through several in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis assays. The results here demonstrate that the intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species as well as activation of phospho-eNOS and phospho-Akt might be the plausible mechanisms for GO and rGO induced angiogenesis. The results altogether suggest the possibilities for the development of alternative angiogenic therapeutic approach for the treatment of cardiovascular related diseases where angiogenesis plays a significant role. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Assessment of neural network, frequency ratio and regression models for landslide susceptibility analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, B.; Buchroithner, M. F.; Mansor, S.

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents the assessment results of spatially based probabilistic three models using Geoinformation Techniques (GIT) for landslide susceptibility analysis at Penang Island in Malaysia. Landslide locations within the study areas were identified by interpreting aerial photographs, satellite images and supported with field surveys. Maps of the topography, soil type, lineaments and land cover were constructed from the spatial data sets. There are nine landslide related factors were extracted from the spatial database and the neural network, frequency ratio and logistic regression coefficients of each factor was computed. Landslide susceptibility maps were drawn for study area using neural network, frequency ratios and logistic regression models. For verification, the results of the analyses were compared with actual landslide locations in study area. The verification results show that frequency ratio model provides higher prediction accuracy than the ANN and regression models.

  19. Comparison of susceptibility patterns using commercially available susceptibility testing methods performed on prevalent Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretella, David; Barber, Katie E; King, S Travis; Stover, Kayla R

    2016-12-01

    The rising rates of invasive fungal infections caused by non-albicans Candida and the increasing emergence of antifungal resistance complicate the management of invasive candidiasis. Accurate and timely antifungal susceptibility testing is critical to targeting antifungal therapy. The purpose of this study was to compare commercially available susceptibility testing methods using prospectively collected Candida isolates. Susceptibility testing was performed on 74 Candida isolates collected from July 2014 to March 2015 using broth microdilution according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute method, Etest, Vitek 2 (YS-05) and Sensititre. Essential agreement and categorical agreement (CA) were assessed using the reference method. Of the 34 total blood isolates collected, Candida albicans comprised only 38 % (13) of the Candida spp. with Candidaglabrata being nearly as prevalent (29 %, 10). CA using Etest was 86 % for fluconazole, 72 % for caspofungin, 98 % for micafungin and 97 % for anidulafungin. Vitek 2 CA was 90 % for fluconazole and 98 % for caspofungin. Sensititre CA was 93 % for fluconazole, 98 % for caspofungin, 98 % for micafungin and 100 % for anidulafungin. Although our study tested a small population of Candida isolates, our results were variable by method. When implementing antifungal susceptibility testing, clinicians should be aware of the strengths and limitations of each testing method.

  20. What Do Blood Tests Show?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 9 to 12 hours of fasting. High blood cholesterol is a risk factor for coronary heart disease . Your doctor should discuss your results ... NEWS August 04, 2015 | News Release Measurement of Cholesterol Function Might Provide Link to Heart Attack Risk in Patients with Psoriasis WHAT: Scientists now report ...

  1. Phase processing for quantitative susceptibility mapping of regions with large susceptibility and lack of signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, Véronique; Levesque, Ives R

    2017-11-11

    Phase processing impacts the accuracy of quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). Techniques for phase unwrapping and background removal have been proposed and demonstrated mostly in brain. In this work, phase processing was evaluated in the context of large susceptibility variations (Δχ) and negligible signal, in particular for susceptibility estimation using the iterative phase replacement (IPR) algorithm. Continuous Laplacian, region-growing, and quality-guided unwrapping were evaluated. For background removal, Laplacian boundary value (LBV), projection onto dipole fields (PDF), sophisticated harmonic artifact reduction for phase data (SHARP), variable-kernel sophisticated harmonic artifact reduction for phase data (V-SHARP), regularization enabled sophisticated harmonic artifact reduction for phase data (RESHARP), and 3D quadratic polynomial field removal were studied. Each algorithm was quantitatively evaluated in simulation and qualitatively in vivo. Additionally, IPR-QSM maps were produced to evaluate the impact of phase processing on the susceptibility in the context of large Δχ with negligible signal. Quality-guided unwrapping was the most accurate technique, whereas continuous Laplacian performed poorly in this context. All background removal algorithms tested resulted in important phase inaccuracies, suggesting that techniques used for brain do not translate well to situations where large Δχ and no or low signal are expected. LBV produced the smallest errors, followed closely by PDF. Results suggest that quality-guided unwrapping should be preferred, with PDF or LBV for background removal, for QSM in regions with large Δχ and negligible signal. This reduces the susceptibility inaccuracy introduced by phase processing. Accurate background removal remains an open question. Magn Reson Med, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  2. Landslide susceptibility assessment of SE Bartin (West Black Sea region, Turkey by artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ercanoglu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Landslides are significant natural hazards in Turkey, second only to earthquakes with respect to economic losses and casualties. The West Black Sea region of Turkey is known as one of the most landslide-prone regions in the country. The work presented in this paper is aimed at evaluating landslide susceptibility in a selected area in the West Black Sea region using Artificial Neural Network (ANN method. A total of 317 landslides were identified and mapped in the area by extensive field work and by use of air photo interpretations to build a landslide inventory map. A landslide database was then derived automatically from the landslide inventory map. To evaluate landslide susceptibility, six input parameters (slope angle, slope aspect, topographical elevation, topographical shape, wetness index, and vegetation index were used. To obtain maps of these parameters, Digital Elevation Model (DEM and ASTER satellite imagery of the study area were used. At the first stage, all data were normalized in [0, 1] interval, and parameter effects on landslide occurrence were expressed using Statistical Index values (Wi. Then, landslide susceptibility analyses were performed using an ANN. Finally, performance of the resulting map and the applied methodology is discussed relative to performance indicators, such as predicted areal extent of landslides and the strength of relation (rij value. Much of the areal extents of the landslides (87.2% were classified as susceptible to landsliding, and rij value of 0.85 showed a high degree of similarity. In addition to these, at the final stage, an independent validation strategy was followed by dividing the landslide data set into two parts and 82.5% of the validation data set was found to be correctly classified as landslide susceptible areas. According to these results, it is concluded that the map produced by the ANN is reliable and methodology applied in the study produced high performance, and satisfactory results.

  3. Disk diffusion, agar dilution and the E-test for susceptibility testing of Corynebacterium jeikeium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennekamp, Andreas; Pünter, Verena; Zbinden, Reinhard

    1996-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: The susceptibilities to penicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin, gentamicin, vancomycin and teicoplanin of 58 strains of Corynebacterium jeikeium were assessed by disk diffusion and agar dilution reference methods. METHODS: Zone sizes and minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) by agar dilution were interpreted using the ranges in the NCCLS tables for organisms other than Haemophilus, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. RESULTS: By agar dilution, 14%, 88%, 17% and 26% of the 58 isolates were susceptible to penicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin, and gentamicin, respectively. Using the breakpoints for Listeria monocytogenes, all strains showed concordant results for penicillin by disk diffusion. Discrepancies in the interpretative categories by disk diffusion were found in four cases (two very major and two minor) for tetracycline, in nine (two very major, two major, and five minor) for erythromycin, and in 1 case (very major) for gentamicin. All 58 strains were susceptible to vancomycin and teicoplanin by agar dilution and disk diffusion. The overall agreement of interpretative disk diffusion for all six antibiotics was 95.9%. In addition, all strains were susceptible to both glycopeptides by E-test. However, for vancomycin the MIC results in 58.6% were two log2 dilutions and in 1.7% more than two log2 dilutions higher by E-test than by agar dilution, whereas for teicoplanin agreement within one log2 dilution was 100%. CONCLUSIONS: Further evaluation of methodologies of disk diffusion is required to obtain a better agreement for erythromycin and tetracycline. The criteria of the NCCLS for interpretation of disk diffusion are adequate for susceptibility testing of C. jeikeium to penicillin, gentamicin, vancomycin and teicoplanin.

  4. Experimental infection of Aphanomyces invadans and susceptibility in seven species of tropical fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh F. Afzali

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS causes by aquatic oomycete fungus, Aphanomyces invadans is a dangerous fish disease of a wide range of fresh and brackish water, wild and farmed fish throughout the world. The objective of the present study was to determine the susceptibility of a number of tropical fish species to the EUS and compare the severity of infection between experimental groups. Materials and Methods: Snakehead, Channa striata (Bloch, 1793; snakeskin gourami, Trichopodus pectoralis (Regan, 1910; koi carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758; broadhead catfish, Clarias macrocephalus (Günther, 1864; goldfish, Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758; climbing perch, Anabas testudineus (Bloch, 1792; and Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 were challenged by intramuscular injection using zoospores of Aphanomyces invadans (NJM9701. The infected fish skins and muscles were examined for EUS histopathological characteristics, and the results on the severity of lesions and mortality were analyzed using SPSS program. Results: All zoospore-injected fish were shown to be susceptible to the EUS infection except Nile tilapia. Although, the general histopathological pattern was similar in the zoospore-injected group, but there were some variation in granulomatous reaction, that is the presence or absence of giant cells, and time of mortality were detected. The result of statistical analysis showed that there was a significant difference between species, (c2=145.11 and p<0.01. Conclusion: Gourami, koi carp, and catfish were demonstrated to be highly susceptible while goldfish and climbing perch were found to be moderately susceptible to the EUS infection. These findings suggested that the cellular response of fish to mycotic infection and granulomatous reaction varied in different fish species, which could not be an indicator of susceptibility or resistant to the EUS itself, although it was shown that the granulation rate and the level of

  5. Why do animals differ in their susceptibility to geometrical illusions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lynna C; Chouinard, Philippe A; Howell, Tiffani J; Bennett, Pauleen C

    2017-04-01

    In humans, geometrical illusions are thought to reflect mechanisms that are usually helpful for seeing the world in a predictable manner. These mechanisms deceive us given the right set of circumstances, correcting visual input where a correction is not necessary. Investigations of non-human animals' susceptibility to geometrical illusions have yielded contradictory results, suggesting that the underlying mechanisms with which animals see the world may differ across species. In this review, we first collate studies showing that different species are susceptible to specific illusions in the same or reverse direction as humans. Based on a careful assessment of these findings, we then propose several ecological and anatomical factors that may affect how a species perceives illusory stimuli. We also consider the usefulness of this information for determining whether sight in different species might be more similar to human sight, being influenced by contextual information, or to how machines process and transmit information as programmed. Future testing in animals could provide new theoretical insights by focusing on establishing dissociations between stimuli that may or may not alter perception in a particular species. This information could improve our understanding of the mechanisms behind illusions, but also provide insight into how sight is subjectively experienced by different animals, and the degree to which vision is innate versus acquired, which is difficult to examine in humans.

  6. Comparative analysis of three data treatment techniques for landslide susceptibility assessment in the Eastern Pyrenees, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, S.; Corominas, J.; Lantada, N.; Angulo, C.; Baeza, C.

    2009-04-01

    In this communication, the comparison of three data treatment methodologies for assessing landslide susceptibility is presented. The artificial neural networks (ANN) analysis, discriminant analysis (DA) and logistic regression (LR) have been performed in a test area of the Eastern Pyrenees (Spain), at a local scale (1:5.000). The main objective of our research is the comparison of the results obtained with the different techniques and to discuss the advantages and drawbacks of each of them. A database containing an inventory of 280 shallow landslides triggered during the intense rainy event of November of 1982 has been used. Additional information on significant conditioning factors such as vegetation cover and presence of superficial formation has been included as well as other input variables captured automatically from the Digital Elevation Model (DEM). ANN was performed with MATLAB while DA and LR with the statistical package SPSS. The input data and the results have been implemented on a GIS platform (ArcGIS). The test area has a size of about 40km2 and the susceptibility has been determined at each cell (15x15m). The input variables were selected from previous susceptibility assessment studies carried out in the area. The training and validation analyses have worked with two input cell classes (stable and unstable) and final maps with five susceptibility levels have been prepared. DA and LR classify dichotomous variables. The ANN analysis has been carried out with both classification and regression structures. The Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves obtained are similar in all the models. However, frequency histograms on stable and unstable populations show significant differences in the distance between the mean values of the populations and in the distribution of the overlapping area. The susceptibility maps prepared with ANN and LR minimize the potentially unstable area. The cumulative percentage curves (Duman et al. 2006) show that using

  7. Two-Component Systems Involved in Susceptibility to Nisin A in Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada-Matsuo, Miki; Tatsuno, Ichiro; Arii, Kaoru; Zendo, Takeshi; Oogai, Yuichi; Noguchi, Kazuyuki; Hasegawa, Tadao; Sonomoto, Kenji; Komatsuzawa, Hitoshi

    2016-10-01

    Two-component systems (TCSs) are regulatory systems in bacteria that play important roles in sensing and adapting to the environment. In this study, we systematically evaluated the roles of TCSs in the susceptibility of the group A Streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) SF370 strain to several types of lantibiotics. Using individual TCS deletion mutants, we found that the deletion of srtRK (spy_1081-spy_1082) in SF370 increased the susceptibility to nisin A, which is produced by Lactococcus lactis ATCC 11454, but susceptibility to other types of lantibiotics (nukacin ISK-1, produced by Staphylococcus warneri, and staphylococcin C55, produced by Staphylococcus aureus) was not altered in the TCS mutants tested. The expression of srtFEG (spy_1085 to spy_1087), which is located downstream of srtRK and is homologous to ABC transporters, was increased in response to nisin A. However, srtEFG expression was not induced by nisin A in the srtRK mutant. The inactivation of srtFEG increased the susceptibility to nisin A. These results suggest that SrtRK controls SrtFEG expression to alter the susceptibility to nisin A. Further experiments showed that SrtRK is required for coexistence with L. lactis ATCC 11454, which produces nisin A. Our results elucidate the important roles of S. pyogenes TCSs in the interactions between different bacterial species, including bacteriocin-producing bacteria. In this study, we focused on the association of TCSs with susceptibility to bacteriocins in S. pyogenes SF370, which has no ability to produce bacteriocins, and reported two major new findings. We demonstrated that the SrtRK TCS is related to susceptibility to nisin A by controlling the ABC transporter SrtFEG. We also showed that S. pyogenes SrtRK is important for survival when the bacteria are cocultured with nisin A-producing Lactococcus lactis This report highlights the roles of TCSs in the colocalization of bacteriocin-producing bacteria and non-bacteriocin-producing bacteria. Our

  8. Antifungal susceptibility of invasive yeast isolates in Italy: the GISIA3 study in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mussap Michele

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yeasts are a common cause of invasive fungal infections in critically ill patients. Antifungal susceptibility testing results of clinically significant fungal strains are of interest to physicians, enabling them to adopt appropriate strategies for empiric and prophylactic therapies. We investigated the antifungal susceptibility of yeasts isolated over a 2-year period from hospitalised patients with invasive yeast infections. Methods 638 yeasts were isolated from the blood, central venous catheters and sterile fluids of 578 patients on general and surgical intensive care units and surgical wards. Etest strips and Sensititre panels were used to test the susceptibility of the isolates to amphotericin B, anidulafungin, caspofungin, fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole and voriconazole in 13 laboratories centres (LC and two co-ordinating centres (CC. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI reference broth microdilution method was used at the CCs for comparison. Results Etest and Sensititre (LC/CC MIC90 values were, respectively: amphotericin B 0.5/0.38, 1/1 mg/L; anidulafungin 2/1.5 and 1/1 mg/L; caspofungin 1/0.75 and 0.5/0.5 mg/L; fluconazole 12/8 and 16/16 mg/L; itraconazole 1/1.5, 0.5/0.5 mg/L; posaconazole 0.5 mg/L and voriconazole 0.25 mg/L for all. The overall MIC90 values were influenced by the reduced susceptibility of Candida parapsilosis isolates to echinocandins and a reduced or lack of susceptibility of Candida glabrata and Candida krusei to azoles, in particular fluconazole and itraconazole. Comparison of the LC and CC results showed good Essential Agreement (90.3% for Etest and 92.9% for Sensititre, and even higher Categorical Agreement (93.9% for Etest and 96% for Sensititre; differences were observed according to the species, method, and antifungal drug. No cross-resistance between echinocandins and triazoles was detected. Conclusions Our data confirm the different antifungal susceptibility

  9. The mediational pathway among parenting styles, attachment styles and self-regulation with addiction susceptibility of adolescents*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinali, Ali; Sharifi, Hassanpasha; Enayati, Mirsalahadine; Asgari, Parviz; Pasha, Gohlamreza

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of present study was to create and test a model that illustrates variables that influence the development of addiction susceptibility and determine how different styles of parenting may indirectly influence the addiction susceptibility of children through the mediators of attachment style and self-regulation. METHODS: Using random cluster sampling, 508 adolescent high school boys and girls aged 14-19 years were enrolled. Data were analyzed using structural equations modeling (path analysis). RESULTS: The results showed that authoritative and permissive parenting styles were associated with secure attachment whereas authoritarian and neglectful parenting styles were associated with insecure attachment. Insecure attachment was associated with a low level of self-regulation whereas secure attachment was associated with a high level of self-regulation. We found that a low level of self-regulation increased the adolescent's addiction susceptibility whereas a high level of self-regulation decreased their addiction susceptibility. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of present study suggest the authoritative and permissive parenting styles as the most efficient styles and authoritarian and neglectful parenting styles as the most inefficient styles in terms of addiction susceptibility. Accordingly, efficient parenting style training to parents should be the main goal of drug demand reduction program. PMID:22973379

  10. Use of phylogenetical analysis to predict susceptibility of pathogenic Candida spp. to antifungal drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheux, Andrée F; Sellam, Adnane; Piché, Yves; Boissinot, Maurice; Pelletier, René; Boudreau, Dominique K; Picard, François J; Trépanier, Hélène; Boily, Marie-Josée; Ouellette, Marc; Roy, Paul H; Bergeron, Michel G

    2016-12-01

    Successful treatment of a Candida infection relies on 1) an accurate identification of the pathogenic fungus and 2) on its susceptibility to antifungal drugs. In the present study we investigated the level of correlation between phylogenetical evolution and susceptibility of pathogenic Candida spp. to antifungal drugs. For this, we compared a phylogenetic tree, assembled with the concatenated sequences (2475-bp) of the ATP2, TEF1, and TUF1 genes from 20 representative Candida species, with published minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the four principal antifungal drug classes commonly used in the treatment of candidiasis: polyenes, triazoles, nucleoside analogues, and echinocandins. The phylogenetic tree revealed three distinct phylogenetic clusters among Candida species. Species within a given phylogenetic cluster have generally similar susceptibility profiles to antifungal drugs and species within Clusters II and III were less sensitive to antifungal drugs than Cluster I species. These results showed that phylogenetical relationship between clusters and susceptibility to several antifungal drugs could be used to guide therapy when only species identification is available prior to information pertaining to its resistance profile. An extended study comprising a large panel of clinical samples should be conducted to confirm the efficiency of this approach in the treatment of candidiasis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Mind the gap: glucocorticoids modulate hippocampal glutamate tone underlying individual differences in stress susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasca, C; Bigio, B; Zelli, D; Nicoletti, F; McEwen, B S

    2015-06-01

    Why do some individuals succumb to stress and develop debilitating psychiatric disorders, whereas others adapt well in the face of adversity? There is a gap in understanding the neural bases of individual differences in the responses to environmental factors on brain development and functions. Here, using a novel approach for screening an inbred population of laboratory animals, we identified two subpopulations of mice: susceptible mice that show mood-related abnormalities compared with resilient mice, which cope better with stress. This approach combined with molecular and behavioral analyses, led us to recognize, in hippocampus, presynaptic mGlu2 receptors, which inhibit glutamate release, as a stress-sensitive marker of individual differences to stress-induced mood disorders. Indeed, genetic mGlu2 deletion in mice results in a more severe susceptibility to stress, mimicking the susceptible mouse sub-population. Furthermore, we describe an underlying mechanism by which glucocorticoids, acting via mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs), decrease resilience to stress via downregulation of mGlu2 receptors. We also provide a mechanistic link between MRs and an epigenetic control of the glutamatergic synapse that underlies susceptibility to stressful experiences. The approach and the epigenetic allostasis concept introduced here serve as a model for identifying individual differences based upon biomarkers and underlying mechanisms and also provide molecular features that may be useful in translation to human behavior and psychopathology.

  12. Developing an Accessible Landslide Susceptibility Model Using Open-Source Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungjin An

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Landslide susceptibility models are important for public safety, but often rely on inaccessible or unaffordable software and geospatial data. Thus, affordable and accessible landslide prediction systems would be especially useful in places that lack the infrastructure for acquiring and analyzing geospatial data. Current landslide susceptibility models and existing methodologies do not consider such issues; therefore, this study aimed to develop an accessible and affordable landslide susceptibility modeling application and methodology based on open-source software and geospatial data. This model used TRIGRS (asc format and QGIS (Digital Elevation Models (DEMs extracted from GeoTIFF format with widely accessible environmental parameters to identify potential landslide risks. In order to verify the suitability of the proposed application and methodology, a case study was conducted on Lantau Island, Hong Kong to assess the validity of the results, a comparison with 1999 landslide locations. The application developed in this study showed a good agreement with the four previous landslide locations marked as highly susceptible, which proves the validity of the study. Therefore, the developing model and the cost-effective approach, in this study simulated the landslide performance well and suggested the new approach of the landslide prediction system.

  13. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Acinetobacter clinical isolates and emerging antibiogram trends for nosocomial infection management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sohail

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Introduction: The drug resistant Acinetobacter strains are important causes of nosocomial infections that are difficult to control and treat. This study aimed to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Acinetobacter strains isolated from different clinical specimens obtained from patients belonging to different age groups. METHODS: In total, 716 non-duplicate Acinetobacter isolates were collected from the infected patients admitted to tertiary-care hospitals at Lahore, Pakistan, over a period of 28 months. The Acinetobacter isolates were identified using API 20E, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed and interpreted according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines. RESULTS: The isolation rate of Acinetobacter was high from the respiratory specimens, followed by wound samples. Antibiotic susceptibility analyses of the isolates revealed that the resistance to cefotaxime and ceftazidime was the most common, in 710 (99.2% specimens each, followed by the resistance to gentamicin in 670 (93.6% isolates, and to imipenem in 651 (90.9% isolates. However, almost all isolates were susceptible to tigecycline, colistin, and polymyxin B. CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed the alarming trends of resistance of Acinetobacter strains isolated from clinical specimens to the various classes of antimicrobials. The improvement of microbiological techniques for earlier and more accurate identification of bacteria is necessary for the selection of appropriate treatments.

  14. Antifungal Susceptibility Profiles of 1698 Yeast Reference Strains Revealing Potential Emerging Human Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desnos-Ollivier, Marie; Robert, Vincent; Raoux-Barbot, Dorothée; Groenewald, Marizeth; Dromer, Françoise

    2012-01-01

    New molecular identification techniques and the increased number of patients with various immune defects or underlying conditions lead to the emergence and/or the description of novel species of human and animal fungal opportunistic pathogens. Antifungal susceptibility provides important information for ecological, epidemiological and therapeutic issues. The aim of this study was to assess the potential risk of the various species based on their antifungal drug resistance, keeping in mind the methodological limitations. Antifungal susceptibility profiles to the five classes of antifungal drugs (polyens, azoles, echinocandins, allylamines and antimetabolites) were determined for 1698 yeast reference strains belonging to 992 species (634 Ascomycetes and 358 Basidiomycetes). Interestingly, geometric mean minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of all antifungal drugs tested were significantly higher for Basidiomycetes compared to Ascomycetes (p<0.001). Twenty four strains belonging to 23 species of which 19 were Basidiomycetes seem to be intrinsically “resistant” to all drugs. Comparison of the antifungal susceptibility profiles of the 4240 clinical isolates and the 315 reference strains belonging to 53 shared species showed similar results. Even in the absence of demonstrated in vitro/in vivo correlation, knowing the in vitro susceptibility to systemic antifungal agents and the putative intrinsic resistance of yeast species present in the environment is important because they could become opportunistic pathogens. PMID:22396754

  15. Antifungal susceptibility profiles of 1698 yeast reference strains revealing potential emerging human pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Desnos-Ollivier

    Full Text Available New molecular identification techniques and the increased number of patients with various immune defects or underlying conditions lead to the emergence and/or the description of novel species of human and animal fungal opportunistic pathogens. Antifungal susceptibility provides important information for ecological, epidemiological and therapeutic issues. The aim of this study was to assess the potential risk of the various species based on their antifungal drug resistance, keeping in mind the methodological limitations. Antifungal susceptibility profiles to the five classes of antifungal drugs (polyens, azoles, echinocandins, allylamines and antimetabolites were determined for 1698 yeast reference strains belonging to 992 species (634 Ascomycetes and 358 Basidiomycetes. Interestingly, geometric mean minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of all antifungal drugs tested were significantly higher for Basidiomycetes compared to Ascomycetes (p<0.001. Twenty four strains belonging to 23 species of which 19 were Basidiomycetes seem to be intrinsically "resistant" to all drugs. Comparison of the antifungal susceptibility profiles of the 4240 clinical isolates and the 315 reference strains belonging to 53 shared species showed similar results. Even in the absence of demonstrated in vitro/in vivo correlation, knowing the in vitro susceptibility to systemic antifungal agents and the putative intrinsic resistance of yeast species present in the environment is important because they could become opportunistic pathogens.

  16. Detection of clindamycin susceptibility in macrolide resistant phenotypes of Staphylococcus Aureus

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    Goyal R

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at in vitro detection of macrolide resistant phenotypes of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and interpretation of susceptibility tests to guide therapy. The study included 25 MRSA strains that were resistant to erythromycin and clindamycin, 25 MRSA strains that were sensitive to both erythromycin and clindamycin and 100 MRSA isolates which displayed erythromycin resistant but clindamycin susceptible phenotype. Erythromycin and clindamycin double disc susceptibility testing was done to detect inducible clindamycin resistance. Dilution susceptibility testing for clindamycin and erythromycin alone and in combination was performed for all 150 strains. Seventy-six strains showed blunting around clindamycin disc (inducible resistance. After induction with erythromycin, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of clindamycin was noticed to rise from atleast 16 to 256 g/mL in iMLSB phenotypes indicating inducible resistance. The detailed result analysis suggests the possible role of clindamycin in treatment of some of the erythromycin resistant isolates (non inducible, as there are multiplicity of resistance mechanisms and diversity of phenotypic expressions.

  17. Desertification Susceptibility Mapping Using Logistic Regression Analysis in the Djelfa Area, Algeria

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    Farid Djeddaoui

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this work was to identify the areas that are most susceptible to desertification in a part of the Algerian steppe, and to quantitatively assess the key factors that contribute to this desertification. In total, 139 desertified zones were mapped using field surveys and photo-interpretation. We selected 16 spectral and geomorphic predictive factors, which a priori play a significant role in desertification. They were mainly derived from Landsat 8 imagery and Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission digital elevation model (SRTM DEM. Some factors, such as the topographic position index (TPI and curvature, were used for the first time in this kind of study. For this purpose, we adapted the logistic regression algorithm for desertification susceptibility mapping, which has been widely used for landslide susceptibility mapping. The logistic model was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve. The model accuracy was 87.8%. We estimated the model uncertainties using a bootstrap method. Our analysis suggests that the predictive model is robust and stable. Our results indicate that land cover factors, including normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and rangeland classes, play a major role in determining desertification occurrence, while geomorphological factors have a limited impact. The predictive map shows that 44.57% of the area is classified as highly to very highly susceptible to desertification. The developed approach can be used to assess desertification in areas with similar characteristics and to guide possible actions to combat desertification.

  18. Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis : Its utility in resource poor settings

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    Poojary A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the rapid colorimetric nitrate reductase based antibiotic susceptibility (CONRAS test performed on Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates with the conventional method i.e., the proportion method. Methods: One hundred clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis were tested for susceptibility to isoniazid (INH and rifampicin (RIF by the conventional proportion method and CONRAS in Middlebrook 7H9 liquid medium enriched with growth supplements (MB7H9S. Results: The performance of the CONRAS test was evaluated using proportion method as the gold standard. The sensitivity (ability to detect true drug resistance and specificity (ability to detect true drug susceptibility of the CONRAS test to INH was 93.75 and 98.52% and for RIF it was 96.10 and 100% respectively. The mean time for reporting was 6.3 days and the test showed excellent reproducibility. The kappa (k value for INH was 0.92 and for RIF was 0.99, indicating excellent agreement between the two methods. Conclusions: CONRAS test is a rapid and reliable method of drug susceptibility for M. tuberculosis.

  19. Oculomotor function during space flight and susceptibility to space motion sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, William E.; Uri, John J.

    Horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) and saccadic eye movements (SEM) were studied in 18 subjects before and during five Space Shuttle missions to evaluate the effects of weightlessness and correlations between results and susceptibility to and actual presence of space motion sickness (SMS). Active sinusoidal head oscillation was the stimulus for VOR tests with vision (VVOR), with eyes shaded (VOR-ES), and VOR suppression (VOR-S). Eye movements were recorded by electrooculography and head position by a potentiometer. No pathological nystagmus or other abnormal eye movements were seen. No significant in-flight changes were seen in the gain, phase shift or waveform of VVOR, VOR-ES or VOR-S. Statistically significant increases in saccadic latency and decreases in saccadic velocity were seen, with no change in saccadic accuracy. Preflight differences between SMS susceptible and non-susceptible subjects were noted only in VOR-S, with less complete suppression in susceptible subjects, a finding also seen in flight. During flight, VVOR gain was significantly increased in three non-affected subjects. Saccades of SMS-affected subjects showed increased latency and velocity and decreased accuracy compared to saccades of unaffected subjects.

  20. Antibiotic susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Mónica; Martínez, Claudia; Aguerre, Lorena; Rocca, María Florencia; Cipolla, Lucía; Callejo, Raquel

    2016-02-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of listeriosis, a food-borne disease that mainly affects pregnant women, the elderly, and immunocompromised patients. The primary treatment of choice of listeriosis is the combination of ampicillin or penicillin G, with an aminoglycoside, classically gentamicin. The second-choice therapy for patients allergic to β-lactams is the combination of trimethoprim with a sulfonamide (such as co-trimoxazole). The aim of this study was to analyze the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of strains isolated from human infections and food during the last two decades in Argentina. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 8 antimicrobial agents was determined for a set of 250 strains of L. monocytogenes isolated in Argentina during the period 1992-2012. Food-borne and human isolates were included in this study. The antibiotics tested were ampicillin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin, gentamicin, penicillin G, tetracycline and rifampicin. Breakpoints for penicillin G, ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were those given in the CLSI for L. monocytogenes. CLSI criteria for staphylococci were applied to the other antimicrobial agents tested. Strains were serotyped by PCR, and confirmed by an agglutination method. Strains recovered from human listeriosis patients showed a prevalence of serotype 4b (71%), with the remaining 29% corresponding to serotype 1/2b. Serotypes among food isolates were distributed as 62% serotype 1/2b and 38% serotype 4b. All antimicrobial agents showed good activity. The strains of L. monocytogenes isolated in Argentina over a period of 20 years remain susceptible to antimicrobial agents, and that susceptibility pattern has not changed during this period. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  1. Studies on insecticide susceptibility of Aedes aegypti (Linn) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) vectors of dengue and chikungunya in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivan, Arun; Shriram, A N; Sunish, I P; Vidhya, P T

    2015-12-01

    Dengue and chikungunya are important arboviral infections in the Andaman Islands. Competent vectors viz. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are widely prevalent. The most effective proven method for interrupting the transmission of these arboviruses is vector control, mediated through insecticides. Currently, DDT and temephos are the insecticides used for vector control in these islands. Lack of information on susceptibility necessitated assessing the susceptibility profile of A. aegypti and A. albopictus. F1 generation of adult and larvae were assayed, and LT50 and LT90 values were interpreted following the World Health Organization (WHO) protocol. Adults were found resistant to DDT-4 % while susceptible to dieldrin-0.4 %. Against organophosphates, both showed resistance to fenitrothion but susceptible to malathion-5 %. Both species showed resistance to carbamate and bendiocarb-0.1 % while susceptible to propoxur-0.1 %. Of the four synthetic pyrethroids, both were susceptible to deltamethrin-0.05 %, while resistant to permethrin-0.75 %, lambdacyhalothrin-0.05 % and cyfluthrin-0.15 %. Larvae of both species showed resistance to temephos at 0.02 mg/L but susceptible to malathion at 1 mg/L and fenthion at 0.05 mg/L. Currently, there is no prescribed WHO dose for adult-insecticide susceptibility testing. The emergence of resistance to DDT and temephos in the vector population poses a challenge to the on-going vector control measures. The results highlight the need for monitoring resistance to insecticides in the vector population. Impetus for source reduction and alternative choices of control measures are discussed for tackling future threat of arboviral infections in these islands.

  2. In vitro susceptibilities of Brucella melitensis isolates to eleven antibiotics

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    Loukaides Feidias

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis is an endemic disease present in many countries worldwide, but it is rare in Europe and North America. Nevertheless brucella is included in the bacteria potentially used for bioterrorism. The aim of this study was the investigation of the antibiotic susceptibility profile of brucella isolates from areas of the eastern Mediterranean where it has been endemic. Methods The susceptibilities of 74 Brucella melitensis isolates derived from clinical samples (57 and animal products (17 were tested in vitro. The strains originate from Crete (59, Cyprus (10, and Syria (5. MICs of tetracycline, rifampicin, streptomycin, gentamicin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, and erythromycin were detected by E-test method. The NCCLS criteria for slow growing bacteria were considered to interpret the results. Results All the isolates were susceptible to tetracycline, streptomycin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and levofloxacin. Two isolates presented reduced susceptibility to rifampicin (MIC value: 1.5 mg/l and eight to SXT (MIC values: 0.75–1.5 mg/l. Erythromycin had the highest (4 mg/l MIC90value and both norfloxacin and erythromycin the highest (1.5 mg/l MIC50 value. Conclusion Brucella isolates remain susceptible in vitro to most antibiotics used for treatment of brucellosis. The establishment of a standardized antibiotic susceptibility method for Brucella spp would be useful for resistance determination in these bacteria and possible evaluation of bioterorism risks.

  3. Effects of Inventory Bias on Landslide Susceptibility Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, T. A.; Kirschbaum, D. B.

    2017-01-01

    Many landslide inventories are known to be biased, especially inventories for large regions such as Oregon's SLIDO or NASA's Global Landslide Catalog. These biases must affect the results of empirically derived susceptibility models to some degree. We evaluated the strength of the susceptibility model distortion from postulated biases by truncating an unbiased inventory. We generated a synthetic inventory from an existing landslide susceptibility map of Oregon, then removed landslides from this inventory to simulate the effects of reporting biases likely to affect inventories in this region, namely population and infrastructure effects. Logistic regression models were fitted to the modified inventories. Then the process of biasing a susceptibility model was repeated with SLIDO data. We evaluated each susceptibility model with qualitative and quantitative methods. Results suggest that the effects of landslide inventory bias on empirical models should not be ignored, even if those models are, in some cases, useful. We suggest fitting models in well-documented areas and extrapolating across the study region as a possible approach to modeling landslide susceptibility with heavily biased inventories.

  4. Effects of Inventory Bias on Landslide Susceptibility Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Thomas; Kirschbaum, Dalia B.

    2017-01-01

    Many landslide inventories are known to be biased, especially inventories for large regions such as Oregons SLIDO or NASAs Global Landslide Catalog. These biases must affect the results of empirically derived susceptibility models to some degree. We evaluated the strength of the susceptibility model distortion from postulated biases by truncating an unbiased inventory. We generated a synthetic inventory from an existing landslide susceptibility map of Oregon, then removed landslides from this inventory to simulate the effects of reporting biases likely to affect inventories in this region, namely population and infrastructure effects. Logistic regression models were fitted to the modified inventories. Then the process of biasing a susceptibility model was repeated with SLIDO data. We evaluated each susceptibility model with qualitative and quantitative methods. Results suggest that the effects of landslide inventory bias on empirical models should not be ignored, even if those models are, in some cases, useful. We suggest fitting models in well-documented areas and extrapolating across the study region as a possible approach to modelling landslide susceptibility with heavily biased inventories.

  5. Monocot and dicot MLO powdery mildew susceptibility factors are functionally conserved in spite of the evolution of class-specific molecular features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appiano, Michela; Catalano, Domenico; Santillán Martínez, Miguel; Lotti, Concetta; Zheng, Zheng; Visser, Richard G F; Ricciardi, Luigi; Bai, Yuling; Pavan, Stefano

    2015-10-26

    Specific members of the plant Mildew Locus O (MLO) protein family act as susceptibility factors towards powdery mildew (PM), a worldwide-spread fungal disease threatening many cultivated species. Previous studies indicated that monocot and dicot MLO susceptibility proteins are phylogenetically divergent. A bioinformatic approach was followed to study the type of evolution of Angiosperm MLO susceptibility proteins. Transgenic complementation tests were performed for functional analysis. Our results show that monocot and dicot MLO susceptibility proteins evolved class-specific conservation patterns. Many of them appear to be the result of negative selection and thus are likely to provide an adaptive value. We also tested whether different molecular features between monocot and dicot MLO proteins are specifically required by PM fungal species to cause pathogenesis. To this aim, we transformed a tomato mutant impaired for the endogenous SlMLO1 gene, and therefore resistant to the tomato PM species Oidium neolycopersici, with heterologous MLO susceptibility genes from the monocot barley and the dicot pea. In both cases, we observed restoration of PM symptoms. Finally, through histological observations, we demonstrate that both monocot and dicot susceptibility alleles of the MLO genes predispose to penetration of a non-adapted PM fungal species in plant epidermal cells. With this study, we provide insights on the evolution and function of MLO genes involved in the interaction with PM fungi. With respect to breeding research, we show that transgenic complementation assays involving phylogenetically distant plant species can be used for the characterization of novel MLO susceptibility genes. Moreover, we provide an overview of MLO protein molecular features predicted to play a major role in PM susceptibility. These represent ideal targets for future approaches of reverse genetics, addressed to the selection of loss-of-function resistant mutants in cultivated species.

  6. Adolescent Susceptibility to Peer Influence in Sexual Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widman, Laura; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Helms, Sarah W.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose One consistent predictor of adolescents’ engagement in sexual risk behavior is their belief that peers are engaging in similar behavior; however, not all youth are equally susceptible to these peer influence effects. Understanding individual differences in susceptibility to peer influence is critical to identifying adolescents at risk for negative health outcomes. The purpose of this project was to identify predictors of susceptibility to peer influence using a novel performance-based measure of sexual risk-taking. Methods Participants were 300 early adolescents (Mage=12.6; 53% female; 44% Caucasian) who completed 1) a pretest assessment of demographics, sexual attitudes, and hypothetical scenarios measuring the likelihood of engaging in sexual risk behavior, and 2) a subsequent experimental procedure that simulated an internet chat room in which youth believed they were communicating with peers regarding these same hypothetical scenarios. In reality, these “peers” were computer-programmed e-confederates. Changes in responses to the sexual scenarios in the private pretest versus during the public chat room provided a performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility. Results In total, 78% of youth provided more risky responses in the chat room than in pretest. The most robust predictor of this change was gender, with boys significantly more susceptible to peer influence than girls. Significant interactions also were noted, with greater susceptibility among boys with later pubertal development and African American boys. Conclusion Results confirm that not all youth are equally susceptible to peer influence. Consistent with sexual script theory, boys evidence greater susceptibility to social pressure regarding sexual behavior than girls. PMID:26794431

  7. Reducing Susceptibility to Courtesy Stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachleda, Catherine L; El Menzhi, Leila

    2017-04-19

    In light of the chronic shortage of health professionals willing to care for HIV/AIDS patients, and rising epidemics in many Muslim countries, this qualitative study examined susceptibility and resistance to courtesy stigma as experienced by nurses, doctors, and social workers in Morocco. Forty-nine in-depth interviews provided rich insights into the process of courtesy stigma and how it is managed, within the context of interactions with Islam, interactions within the workplace (patients, other health professionals), and interactions outside the workplace (the general public, friends, and family). Theoretically, the findings extend understanding of courtesy stigma and the dirty work literature. The findings also offer practical suggestions for the development of culturally appropriate strategies to reduce susceptibility to courtesy stigmatization. This study represents the first to explore courtesy stigma as a process experienced by health professionals providing HIV/AIDS care in an Islamic country.

  8. Susceptibility of laboratory and field-collected Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus to Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis H-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y W; Zairi, J

    2006-03-01

    Susceptibility levels of a few laboratory-cultured and dengue-endemic area field-collected strains of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus to Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) at different storage ages were studied. The susceptibility of laboratory-cultured World Health Organization (WHO) Bora Bora reference, Vector Control Research Unit (VCRU), and Fumakilla Malaysia Berhad (FMB) strains of Ae. aegypti to Bti was examined. The sensitivity to Bti decreased with storage age. The median lethal concentration (LC50) for Bti increased by 2-3 times after 2 years compared to a fresh sample (3-6 months of storage). However, after the 2-year storage period, Bti still provided very good efficacy against all laboratory-cultured susceptible strains of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. The observed 95% lethal concentration values were about 20 times lower than the recommended concentration (6,000 international toxic units (ITU)/liter). Results obtained from the study against the dengue-endemic area field-collected strains of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus confirmed the effectiveness of the Bti after storage for 2 years (18-24 months). For Ae. aegypti, the Ujung Batu strain was the most susceptible to Bti, whereas the Sungai Nibong strain showed the most tolerance. Susceptibility of laboratory-cultured strains varied; the Air Itam strain of Ae. albopictus was the most susceptible to Bti, whereas the Kampung Serani strain was the most tolerant among the field strains. However, the laboratory strain of Ae. albopictus was more susceptible than all the field strains.

  9. Collateral damage: rapid exposure-induced evolution of pesticide resistance leads to increased susceptibility to parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Mieke; Stoks, Robby; Coors, Anja; van Doorslaer, Wendy; de Meester, Luc

    2011-09-01

    Although natural populations may evolve resistance to anthropogenic stressors such as pollutants, this evolved resistance may carry costs. Using an experimental evolution approach, we exposed different Daphnia magna populations in outdoor containers to the carbamate pesticide carbaryl and control conditions, and assessed the resulting populations for both their resistance to carbaryl as well as their susceptibility to infection by the widespread bacterial microparasite Pasteuria ramosa. Our results show that carbaryl selection led to rapid evolution of carbaryl resistance with seemingly no cost when assessed in a benign environment. However, carbaryl-resistant populations were more susceptible to parasite infection than control populations. Exposure to both stressors reveals a synergistic effect on sterilization rate by P. ramosa, but this synergism did not evolve under pesticide selection. Assessing costs of rapid adaptive evolution to anthropogenic stress in a semi-natural context may be crucial to avoid too optimistic predictions for the fitness of the evolving populations. © 2011 The Author(s).

  10. Susceptibility to affect: a comparison of three personality taxonomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenski, J M; Larsen, R J

    1999-10-01

    This study had three major goals: to clarify the relationships between Eysenck's, Gray's, and Cloninger's personality taxonomies, to show that traits from these taxonomies predict differential sensitivities to emotional states, and to explore the relationship between sensitivity to an emotional state and how much that state is actually experienced. A factor analysis of traits from Eysenck's, Gray's, and Cloninger's personality taxonomies resulted in three factors that were named reward sensitivity, impulsivity-thrill seeking, and punishment sensitivity. These factors predicted a global measure of affect, emotional reactions to a laboratory mood induction, and self-reported affect in daily life. Generally, reward sensitivity predicted positive, but not negative emotions, whereas punishment sensitivity predicted negative, but not positive emotions. Impulsivity-thrill seeking predicted few emotions in either context. Coherence among the relationships found across methodological contexts suggests that the traits that predict emotion susceptibilities in the laboratory similarly predict emotional experience in ongoing daily life.

  11. Operator fidelity susceptibility, decoherence, and quantum criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiao-Ming; Sun, Zhe; Wang, Xiaoguang; Zanardi, Paolo

    2008-09-01

    The extension of the notion of quantum fidelity from the state-space to the operator level can be used to study environment-induced decoherence. The state-dependent operator fidelity susceptibility (OFS), the leading-order term for slightly different operator parameters, is shown to have a nontrivial behavior when the environment is at critical points. Two different contributions to the OFS are identified which have distinct physical origins and temporal dependence. Exact results are obtained for the finite-temperature decoherence caused by a bath described by the Ising model in a transverse field.

  12. Thyroid status affects membranes susceptibility to free radicals and oxidative balance in skeletal muscle of Muscovy ducklings (Cairina moschata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Benjamin; Romestaing, Caroline; Bodennec, Jacques; Dumet, Adeline; Fongy, Anaïs; Duchamp, Claude; Roussel, Damien

    2014-10-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are major contributor to oxidative stress in mammals because they (1) stimulate reactive oxygen species generation (ROS), (2) impair antioxidant defenses, and (3) increase the susceptibility to free radicals of most tissues. Unlike mammals, THs seem to diminish mitochondrial ROS while they have limited effect on the antioxidant machinery in birds. However, how THs modify the susceptibility to ROS has never been explored in an avian model, and very little is known about their effect on oxidative balance in birds. Therefore, the objective of our study was to examine the effect of chronic pharmacological hypo- and hyperthyroidism on (i) the susceptibility of mitochondrial membranes to ROS; and (ii) the level of oxidative stress assessed by measuring oxidative damage to lipids, nucleic acids and proteins in the gastrocnemius muscle of ducklings. We show that hypothyroidism had no effect on the susceptibility of mitochondrial membranes to free radicals. Hypothyroid ducklings had lower oxidized lipids (-31%) and DNA (-25%) but a similar level of protein carbonylation relative to controls. Conversely, mitochondrial membranes of hyperthyroid ducklings exhibited higher unsaturation (+12%) and peroxidation (+31%) indexes than in controls indicating a greater susceptibility to free radicals. However, hyperthyroid ducklings exhibited more oxidative damages on proteins (+67%) only, whereas lipid damages remained unchanged, and there was a slight reduction (-15%) in damages to DNA compared to euthyroid controls. Our results indicate that birds and mammals present fundamental differences in their oxidative stress response to thyroid status. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Recapitulation of Clinical Individual Susceptibility to Drug-Induced QT Prolongation in Healthy Subjects Using iPSC-Derived Cardiomyocytes

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    Tadahiro Shinozawa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To predict drug-induced serious adverse events (SAE in clinical trials, a model using a panel of cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs of individuals with different susceptibilities could facilitate major advancements in translational research in terms of safety and pharmaco-economics. However, it is unclear whether hiPSC-derived cells can recapitulate interindividual differences in drug-induced SAE susceptibility in populations not having genetic disorders such as healthy subjects. Here, we evaluated individual differences in SAE susceptibility based on an in vitro model using hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs as a pilot study. hiPSCs were generated from blood samples of ten healthy volunteers with different susceptibilities to moxifloxacin (Mox-induced QT prolongation. Different Mox-induced field potential duration (FPD prolongation values were observed in the hiPSC-CMs from each individual. Interestingly, the QT interval was significantly positively correlated with FPD at clinically relevant concentrations (r > 0.66 in multiple analyses including concentration-QT analysis. Genomic analysis showed no interindividual significant differences in known target-binding sites for Mox and other drugs such as the hERG channel subunit, and baseline QT ranges were normal. The results suggest that hiPSC-CMs from healthy subjects recapitulate susceptibility to Mox-induced QT prolongation and provide proof of concept for in vitro preclinical trials.

  14. The mediational pathway among parenting styles, attachment styles and self-regulation with addiction susceptibility of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinali, Ali; Sharifi, Hassanpasha; Enayati, Mirsalahadine; Asgari, Parviz; Pasha, Gohlamreza

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of present study was to create and test a model that illustrates variables that influence the development of addiction susceptibility and determine how different styles of parenting may indirectly influence the addiction susceptibility of children through the mediators of attachment style and self-regulation. Using random cluster sampling, 508 adolescent high school boys and girls aged 14-19 years were enrolled. Data were analyzed using structural equations modeling (path analysis). The results showed that authoritative and permissive parenting styles were associated with secure attachment whereas authoritarian and neglectful parenting styles were associated with insecure attachment. Insecure attachment was associated with a low level of self-regulation whereas secure attachment was associated with a high level of self-regulation. We found that a low level of self-regulation increased the adolescent's addiction susceptibility whereas a high level of self-regulation decreased their addiction susceptibility. The findings of present study suggest the authoritative and permissive parenting styles as the most efficient styles and authoritarian and neglectful parenting styles as the most inefficient styles in terms of addiction susceptibility. Accordingly, efficient parenting style training to parents should be the main goal of drug demand reduction program.

  15. Density-independent population projection trajectories of chromosome-substituted lines resistant and susceptible to organophosphate insecticides in Drosophila melanogaster

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    Miyo Takahiro

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seasonal fluctuations in susceptibility to organophosphate insecticides were observed in the Katsunuma population of Drosophila melanogaster for two consecutive years; susceptibility to three organophosphates tended to increase in the fall. To examine the hypothesis that variation in fitness among resistant and susceptible genotypes could trigger the change of genetic constitution within the fall population, we investigated density-independent population projection trajectories starting from single adult females with characteristics of chromosome-substituted lines resistant and susceptible to the three organophosphates. Results Density-independent population projection trajectories, expressed as the ratios of the number of each chromosome-substituted line to that of line SSS, for which all chromosomes were derived from the susceptible line, showed significant declines in numbers with time for all the resistant chromosome-substituted lines. Conclusion The declining tendency in the density-independent population projection trajectories of the resistant chromosome-substituted lines could explain the simultaneous decline in the levels of resistance to the three organophosphates, observed in the Katsunuma population in the fall.

  16. Lupus nephritis susceptibility loci in women with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sharon A; Brown, Elizabeth E; Williams, Adrienne H; Ramos, Paula S; Berthier, Celine C; Bhangale, Tushar; Alarcon-Riquelme, Marta E; Behrens, Timothy W; Criswell, Lindsey A; Graham, Deborah Cunninghame; Demirci, F Yesim; Edberg, Jeffrey C; Gaffney, Patrick M; Harley, John B; Jacob, Chaim O; Kamboh, M Ilyas; Kelly, Jennifer A; Manzi, Susan; Moser-Sivils, Kathy L; Russell, Laurie P; Petri, Michelle; Tsao, Betty P; Vyse, Tim J; Zidovetzki, Raphael; Kretzler, Matthias; Kimberly, Robert P; Freedman, Barry I; Graham, Robert R; Langefeld, Carl D

    2014-12-01

    Lupus nephritis is a manifestation of SLE resulting from glomerular immune complex deposition and inflammation. Lupus nephritis demonstrates familial aggregation and accounts for significant morbidity and mortality. We completed a meta-analysis of three genome-wide association studies of SLE to identify lupus nephritis-predisposing loci. Through genotyping and imputation, >1.6 million markers were assessed in 2000 unrelated women of European descent with SLE (588 patients with lupus nephritis and 1412 patients with lupus without nephritis). Tests of association were computed using logistic regression adjusting for population substructure. The strongest evidence for association was observed outside the MHC and included markers localized to 4q11-q13 (PDGFRA, GSX2; P=4.5×10(-7)), 16p12 (SLC5A11; P=5.1×10(-7)), 6p22 (ID4; P=7.4×10(-7)), and 8q24.12 (HAS2, SNTB1; P=1.1×10(-6)). Both HLA-DR2 and HLA-DR3, two well established lupus susceptibility loci, showed evidence of association with lupus nephritis (P=0.06 and P=3.7×10(-5), respectively). Within the class I region, rs9263871 (C6orf15-HCG22) had the strongest evidence of association with lupus nephritis independent of HLA-DR2 and HLA-DR3 (P=8.5×10(-6)). Consistent with a functional role in lupus nephritis, intra-renal mRNA levels of PDGFRA and associated pathway members showed significant enrichment in patients with lupus nephritis (n=32) compared with controls (n=15). Results from this large-scale genome-wide investigation of lupus nephritis provide evidence of multiple biologically relevant lupus nephritis susceptibility loci. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  17. Measurements of temperature dependence of 'localized susceptibility'

    CERN Document Server

    Shiozawa, H; Ishii, H; Takayama, Y; Obu, K; Muro, T; Saitoh, Y; Matsuda, T D; Sugawara, H; Sato, H

    2003-01-01

    The magnetic susceptibility of some rare-earth compounds is estimated by measuring magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) of rare-earth 3d-4f absorption spectra. The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility obtained by the MCD measurement is remarkably different from the bulk susceptibility in most samples, which is attributed to the strong site selectivity of the core MCD measurement.

  18. Taxonomy and antifungal susceptibility of clinically important Rasamsonia species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houbraken, J.; Giraud, S.; Meijer, M.

    2013-01-01

    reported clinical isolates from animal or human patients. Susceptibility tests showed that the antifungal susceptibility profiles of the four members of the R. argillacea complex are similar, and caspofungin showed significant activity in vitro, followed by amphotericin B and posaconazole. Voriconazole...

  19. High susceptibility prevalence for F4+and F18+Escherichia coli in Flemish pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ut V; Coddens, Annelies; Melkebeek, Vesna; Devriendt, Bert; Goetstouwers, Tiphanie; Poucke, Mario Van; Peelman, Luc; Cox, Eric

    2017-04-01

    F4 and/or F18 enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (F4 + /F18 + ETEC) are responsible for diarrhea while F18 + verotoxigenic E. coli (F18 + VTEC) cause edema disease in pigs. Both infections can result in severe economic losses, which are mainly the result of the medication, growth retardation and mortality. The susceptibility of piglets to these pathogens is determined by the presence of F4 and F18 receptors (F4R and F18R). Understanding the composition of the susceptibility phenotypes of pigs is useful for animal health and breeding management. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of the F4 ETEC susceptibility phenotypes and F18 + E. coli susceptibility among Flemish pig breeds by using the in vitro villous adhesion assay. In this study, seven F4 ETEC susceptibility phenotypes were found, namely A (F4 ab R + , ac R + , ad R + ; 59.16%), B (F4 ab R + , ac R + , ad R - ; 6.28%), C (F4 ab R + , ac R - , ad R + ; 2.62%), D (F4 ab R - , ac R - , ad R + ; 6.28%), E (F4 ab R - , ac R - , ad R - ; 24.08%), F (F4 ab R + , ac R - , ad R - ; 1.05%) and G (F4 ab R - , ac R + , ad R - ; 0.52%). F4ab and F4ac E. coli showed a stronger degree of adhesion to the intestinal villi (53.40% and 52.88% strong adhesion, respectively), compared to F4ad E. coli (43.46% strong adhesion). Furthermore, the correlation between F4ac and F4ab adhesion was higher (r=0.78) than between F4ac and F4ad adhesion (r=0.41) and between F4ab and F4ad adhesion (r=0.57). For F18 + E. coli susceptibility, seven out of 82 pigs were F18R negative (8.54%), but only two of these seven pigs (2.44%) were also negative for F4R. As such, the chance to identify a pig that is positive for a F4 ETEC variant or F18 + E. coli is 97.56%. Therefore, significant economic losses will arise due to F4 + and/or F18 + E. coli infections in the Flemish pig population due to the high susceptibility prevalence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Debris Flow Susceptibility Assessment in the Wudongde Dam Area, China Based on Rock Engineering System and Fuzzy C-Means Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Debris flows in the Wudongde dam area, China could pose a huge threat to the running of the power station. Therefore, it is of great significance to carry out a susceptibility analysis for this area. This paper presents an application of the rock engineering system and fuzzy C-means algorithm (RES_FCM for debris flow susceptibility assessment. The watershed of the Jinsha River close to the Wudongde dam site in southwest China was taken as the study area, where a total of 22 channelized debris flow gullies were mapped by field investigations. Eight environmental parameters were selected for debris flow susceptibility assessment, namely, lithology, watershed area, slope angle, stream density, length of the main stream, curvature of the main stream, distance from fault and vegetation cover ratio. The interactions among these parameters and their weightings were determined using the RES method. A debris flow susceptibility map was produced by dividing the gullies into three categories of debris flow susceptibility based on the susceptibility index (SI using the FCM algorithm. The results show that the susceptibility levels for nine of the debris flow gullies are high, nine are moderate and four are low, respectively. The RES based K-means algorithm (RES_KM was used for comparison. The results suggest that the RES_FCM method and the RES_KM method provide very close evaluation results for most of the debris flow gullies, which also agree well with field investigations. The prediction accuracy of the new method is 90.9%, larger than that obtained by the RES_KM method (86.4%. Therefore, the RES_FCM method performs better than the RES_KM method for assessing the susceptibility of debris flows.

  1. Adolescent Susceptibility to Peer Influence in Sexual Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widman, Laura; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Helms, Sarah W; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2016-03-01

    One consistent predictor of adolescents' engagement in sexual risk behavior is their belief that peers are engaging in similar behavior; however, not all youth are equally susceptible to these peer influence effects. Understanding individual differences in susceptibility to peer influence is critical to identifying adolescents at risk for negative health outcomes. The purpose of this project was to identify predictors of susceptibility to peer influence using a novel performance-based measure of sexual risk taking. Participants were 300 early adolescents (Mage = 12.6 years; 53% female; 44% Caucasian) who completed (1) a pretest assessment of demographics, sexual attitudes, and hypothetical scenarios measuring the likelihood of engaging in sexual risk behavior and (2) a subsequent experimental procedure that simulated an Internet chat room in which youth believed that they were communicating with peers regarding these same hypothetical scenarios. In reality, these "peers" were computer-programmed e-confederates. Changes in responses to the sexual scenarios in the private pretest versus during the public chat room provided a performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility. In total, 78% of youth provided more risky responses in the chat room than those in pretest. The most robust predictor of this change was gender, with boys significantly more susceptible to peer influence than girls. Significant interactions also were noted, with greater susceptibility among boys with later pubertal development and African-American boys. Results confirm that not all youth are equally susceptible to peer influence. Consistent with sexual script theory, boys evidence greater susceptibility to social pressure regarding sexual behavior than girls. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Heterozygote loss of ACE2 is sufficient to increase the susceptibility to heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wang; Patel, Vaibhav B; Parajuli, Nirmal; Fan, Dong; Basu, Ratnadeep; Wang, Zuocheng; Ramprasath, Tharmarajan; Kassiri, Zamaneh; Penninger, Josef M; Oudit, Gavin Y

    2014-08-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) metabolizes Ang II into Ang 1-7 thereby negatively regulating the renin-angiotensin system. However, heart disease in humans and in animal models is associated with only a partial loss of ACE2. ACE2 is an X-linked gene; and as such, we tested the clinical relevance of a partial loss of ACE2 by using female ACE2(+/+) (wildtype) and ACE2(+/-) (heterozygote) mice. Pressure overload in ACE2(+/-) mice resulted in greater LV dilation and worsening systolic and diastolic dysfunction. These changes were associated with increased myocardial fibrosis, hypertrophy, and upregulation of pathological gene expression. In response to Ang II infusion, there was increased NADPH oxidase activity and myocardial fibrosis resulting in the worsening of Ang II-induced diastolic dysfunction with a preserved systolic function. Ang II-mediated cellular effects in cultured adult ACE2(+/-) cardiomyocytes and cardiofibroblasts were exacerbated. Ang II-mediated pathological signaling worsened in ACE2(+/-) hearts characterized by an increase in the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 and STAT-3 pathways. The ACE2(+/-) mice showed an exacerbated pressor response with increased vascular fibrosis and stiffness. Vascular superoxide and nitrotyrosine levels were increased in ACE2(+/-) vessels consistent with increased vascular oxidative stress. These changes occurred with increased renal fibrosis and superoxide production. Partial heterozygote loss of ACE2 is sufficient to increase the susceptibility to heart disease secondary to pressure overload and Ang II infusion. Heart disease in humans with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy is associated with a partial loss of ACE2. Heterozygote female ACE2 mutant mice showed enhanced susceptibility to pressure overload-induced heart disease. Heterozygote female ACE2 mutant mice showed enhanced susceptibility to Ang II-induced heart and vascular diseases. Partial loss of ACE2 is sufficient to enhance the susceptibility to

  3. Susceptibility of Some Stone and Pome Fruit Rootstocks to Crown Gall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rhouma

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of different fruit rootstocks to crown gall disease was investigated in greenhouse and field experiments with numerous strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens over three years. Plants were inoculated in the roots and shoots for pot experiments. Field experiments were performed in a naturally contaminated nursery plot. The genotypes Prunus dulcis and P. persica showed a high level of susceptibility to A. tumefaciens. Among the stone rootstocks, bitter almond was highly susceptible in all experiments. Apricot and Cadaman rootstocks displayed low susceptibility but larger galls, showing that there was no relation between rootstock susceptibility and gall size. Among pome rootstocks, quince BA29 was resistant to the disease, while MM106 was susceptible in potted trials; however, in the field essays, pome rootstocks did not become galled, possibly because the strains had selected for and adapted to stone rootstocks.

  4. Brief report: personality correlates of susceptibility to peer influence in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stautz, Kaidy; Cooper, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    Adolescents show a heightened susceptibility to peer influence compared to adults. Individual differences in this susceptibility exist, yet there has been little effort to link these with broader personality processes. Reward sensitivity and impulsive behaviour are also heightened in adolescence and could affect the tendency to be influenced by peers. This study examined associations between self-reported resistance to peer influence, facets of reward sensitivity and impulsivity, and subjective social status in a sample of 269 British sixth form students (mean age 16.79). Multiple regression analyses showed that negative and positive urgency were significantly negatively associated with resistance to peer influence. The relationship between negative urgency and resistance was moderated by subjective social status, such that individuals reporting low status showed a stronger negative relationship. Results suggest that a susceptibility to peer influence is linked with a tendency to act impulsively when in heightened emotional states. Adolescents high in negative urgency who feel lower in their social hierarchy may be particularly vulnerable. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Genetic Characterisation of Burkholderia pseudomallei Isolated from Malaysian Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalda Khosravi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, is intrinsically resistant to many antibiotics. Ceftazidime (CAZ, the synthetic β-lactam, is normally used as the first-line antibiotic therapy for treatment of melioidosis. However, acquired CAZ resistance can develop in vivo during treatment with CAZ, leading to mortality if therapy is not switched to a different antibiotic(s in a timely manner. In this study, susceptibilities of 81 B. pseudomallei isolates to nine different antimicrobial agents were determined using the disk diffusion method, broth microdilution test and Etest. Highest percentage of susceptibility was demonstrated to CAZ, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, meropenem, imipenem, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Although these drugs demonstrated the highest percentage of susceptibility in B. pseudomallei, the overall results underline the importance of the emergence of resistance in this organism. PCR results showed that, of the 81 B. pseudomallei, six multidrug resistant (MDR isolates carried bpeB, amrB, and BPSS1119 and penA genes. Genotyping of the isolates using random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis showed six different PCR fingerprinting patterns generated from the six MDR isolates clusters (A and eight PCR fingerprinting patterns generated for the remaining 75 non-MDR isolates clusters (B.

  6. Iron mapping using the temperature dependency of the magnetic susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkl, Christoph; Langkammer, Christian; Krenn, Heinz; Goessler, Walter; Ernst, Christina; Haybaeck, Johannes; Stollberger, Rudolf; Fazekas, Franz; Ropele, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    The assessment of iron content in brain white matter (WM) is of high importance for studying neurodegenerative diseases. While R2 * mapping and quantitative susceptibility mapping is suitable for iron mapping in gray matter, iron mapping in WM still remains an unsolved problem. We propose a new approach for iron mapping, independent of diamagnetic contributions of myelin by assessing the temperature dependency of the paramagnetic susceptibility. We used unfixed human brain slices for relaxometry and calculated R2 ' as a measure for microscopic susceptibility variations at several temperatures (4°C-37°C) at 3 Tesla. The temperature coefficient of R2 ' (TcR2p) was calculated by linear regression and related to the iron concentration found by subsequent superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry and by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. In line with SQUID measurements, R2 ' mapping showed a linear temperature dependency of the bulk susceptibility with the highest slope in gray matter. Even in WM, TcR2p yielded a high linear correlation with the absolute iron concentration. According to Curie's law, only paramagnetic matter exhibits a temperature dependency while the diamagnetism shows no effect. We have demonstrated that the temperature coefficient (TcR2p) can be used as a measure of the paramagnetic susceptibility despite of an unknown diamagnetic background. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Innate immune defense defines susceptibility of sarcoma cells to measles vaccine virus-based oncolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchtold, Susanne; Lampe, Johanna; Weiland, Timo; Smirnow, Irina; Schleicher, Sabine; Handgretinger, Rupert; Kopp, Hans-Georg; Reiser, Jeanette; Stubenrauch, Frank; Mayer, Nora; Malek, Nisar P; Bitzer, Michael; Lauer, Ulrich M

    2013-03-01

    The oncolytic potential of measles vaccine virus (MeV) has been demonstrated in several tumor entities. Here, we investigated the susceptibility of eight sarcoma cell lines to MeV-mediated oncolysis and found five to be susceptible, whereas three proved to be resistant. In the MeV-resistant cell lines, we often observed an inhibition of viral replication along with a strong upregulation of the intracellular virus-sensing molecule RIG-I and of the interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene IFIT1. Not only expression of IFIT1 but also phosphorylation of IFN-stimulated Stat1 took place rapidly and were found to be persistent over time. In contrast, susceptible cell lines showed a much weaker, delayed, or completely missing expression of IFIT1 as well as a delayed or only transient phosphorylation of Stat1, whereas exogenic stimulation with beta interferon (IFN-β) resulted in a comparable profound activation of Stat1 and expression of IFIT1 in all cell lines. Pretreatment with IFN-β rendered three of the susceptible cell lines more resistant to MeV-mediated oncolysis. These data suggest that differences in the innate immune defense often account for different degrees of susceptibility of sarcoma cell lines to MeV-mediated oncolysis. From a therapeutic perspective, we were able to overcome resistance to MeV by increasing the multiplicity of infection (MOI) and by addition of the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (FC), thereby exploiting the suicide gene function of virotherapeutic vector MeV-SCD armed with the SCD fusion protein, which consists of yeast cytosine deaminase and yeast uracil phosphoribosyltransferase.

  8. Susceptibility to a metal under global warming is shaped by thermal adaptation along a latitudinal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh Van, Khuong; Janssens, Lizanne; Debecker, Sara; De Jonge, Maarten; Lambret, Philippe; Nilsson-Örtman, Viktor; Bervoets, Lieven; Stoks, Robby

    2013-09-01

    Global warming and contamination represent two major threats to biodiversity that have the potential to interact synergistically. There is the potential for gradual local thermal adaptation and dispersal to higher latitudes to mitigate the susceptibility of organisms to contaminants and global warming at high latitudes. Here, we applied a space-for-time substitution approach to study the thermal dependence of the susceptibility of Ischnura elegans damselfly larvae to zinc in a common garden warming experiment (20 and 24 °C) with replicated populations from three latitudes spanning >1500 km in Europe. We observed a striking latitude-specific effect of temperature on the zinc-induced mortality pattern; local thermal adaptation along the latitudinal gradient made Swedish, but not French, damselfly larvae more susceptible to zinc at 24 °C. Latitude- and temperature-specific differences in zinc susceptibility may be related to the amount of energy available to defend against and repair damage since Swedish larvae showed a much stronger zinc-induced reduction of food intake at 24 °C. The pattern of local thermal adaptation indicates that the predicted temperature increase of 4 °C by 2100 will strongly magnify the impact of a contaminant such as zinc at higher latitudes unless there is thermal evolution and/or migration of lower latitude genotypes. Our results underscore the critical importance of studying the susceptibility to contaminants under realistic warming scenarios taking into account local thermal adaptation across natural temperature gradients. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Drug susceptibility prediction against a panel of drugs using kernelized Bayesian multitask learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gönen, Mehmet; Margolin, Adam A

    2014-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and cancer require personalized therapies owing to their inherent heterogeneous nature. For both diseases, large-scale pharmacogenomic screens of molecularly characterized samples have been generated with the hope of identifying genetic predictors of drug susceptibility. Thus, computational algorithms capable of inferring robust predictors of drug responses from genomic information are of great practical importance. Most of the existing computational studies that consider drug susceptibility prediction against a panel of drugs formulate a separate learning problem for each drug, which cannot make use of commonalities between subsets of drugs. In this study, we propose to solve the problem of drug susceptibility prediction against a panel of drugs in a multitask learning framework by formulating a novel Bayesian algorithm that combines kernel-based non-linear dimensionality reduction and binary classification (or regression). The main novelty of our method is the joint Bayesian formulation of projecting data points into a shared subspace and learning predictive models for all drugs in this subspace, which helps us to eliminate off-target effects and drug-specific experimental noise. Another novelty of our method is the ability of handling missing phenotype values owing to experimental conditions and quality control reasons. We demonstrate the performance of our algorithm via cross-validation experiments on two benchmark drug susceptibility datasets of HIV and cancer. Our method obtains statistically significantly better predictive performance on most of the drugs compared with baseline single-task algorithms that learn drug-specific models. These results show that predicting drug susceptibility against a panel of drugs simultaneously within a multitask learning framework improves overall predictive performance over single-task learning approaches. Our Matlab implementations for binary classification and regression are available at

  10. A landslide susceptibility map of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeckx, Jente; Vanmaercke, Matthias; Duchateau, Rica; Poesen, Jean

    2017-04-01

    Studies on landslide risks and fatalities indicate that landslides are a global threat to humans, infrastructure and the environment, certainly in Africa. Nonetheless our understanding of the spatial patterns of landslides and rockfalls on this continent is very limited. Also in global landslide susceptibility maps, Africa is mostly underrepresented in the inventories used to construct these maps. As a result, predicted landslide susceptibilities remain subject to very large uncertainties. This research aims to produce a first continent-wide landslide susceptibility map for Africa, calibrated with a well-distributed landslide dataset. As a first step, we compiled all available landslide inventories for Africa. This data was supplemented by additional landslide mapping with Google Earth in underrepresented regions. This way, we compiled 60 landslide inventories from the literature (ca. 11000 landslides) and an additional 6500 landslides through mapping in Google Earth (including 1500 rockfalls). Various environmental variables such as slope, lithology, soil characteristics, land use, precipitation and seismic activity, were investigated for their significance in explaining the observed spatial patterns of landslides. To account for potential mapping biases in our dataset, we used Monte Carlo simulations that selected different subsets of mapped landslides, tested the significance of the considered environmental variables and evaluated the performance of the fitted multiple logistic regression model against another subset of mapped landslides. Based on these analyses, we constructed two landslide susceptibility maps for Africa: one for all landslide types and one excluding rockfalls. In both maps, topography, lithology and seismic activity were the most significant variables. The latter factor may be surprising, given the overall limited degree of seismicity in Africa. However, its significance indicates that frequent seismic events may serve as in important

  11. Multiscale/multiresolution landslides susceptibility mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grozavu, Adrian; Cătălin Stanga, Iulian; Valeriu Patriche, Cristian; Toader Juravle, Doru

    2014-05-01

    Within the European strategies, landslides are considered an important threatening that requires detailed studies to identify areas where these processes could occur in the future and to design scientific and technical plans for landslide risk mitigation. In this idea, assessing and mapping the landslide susceptibility is an important preliminary step. Generally, landslide susceptibility at small scale (for large regions) can be assessed through qualitative approach (expert judgements), based on a few variables, while studies at medium and large scale requires quantitative approach (e.g. multivariate statistics), a larger set of variables and, necessarily, the landslide inventory. Obviously, the results vary more or less from a scale to another, depending on the available input data, but also on the applied methodology. Since it is almost impossible to have a complete landslide inventory on large regions (e.g. at continental level), it is very important to verify the compatibility and the validity of results obtained at different scales, identifying the differences and fixing the inherent errors. This paper aims at assessing and mapping the landslide susceptibility at regional level through a multiscale-multiresolution approach from small scale and low resolution to large scale and high resolution of data and results, comparing the compatibility of results. While the first ones could be used for studies at european and national level, the later ones allows results validation, including through fields surveys. The test area, namely the Barlad Plateau (more than 9000 sq.km) is located in Eastern Romania, covering a region where both the natural environment and the human factor create a causal context that favor these processes. The landslide predictors were initially derived from various databases available at pan-european level and progressively completed and/or enhanced together with scale and the resolution: the topography (from SRTM at 90 meters to digital

  12. SU-F-I-24: Feasibility of Magnetic Susceptibility to Relative Electron Density Conversion Method for Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, K; Kadoya, N; Chiba, M; Matsushita, H; Jingu, K [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan); Sato, K; Nagasaka, T; Yamanaka, K [Tohoku University Hospital, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan); Dobashi, S; Takeda, K [Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to develop radiation treatment planning using magnetic susceptibility obtained from quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) via MR imaging. This study demonstrates the feasibility of a method for generating a substitute for a CT image from an MRI. Methods: The head of a healthy volunteer was scanned using a CT scanner and a 3.0 T MRI scanner. The CT imaging was performed with a slice thickness of 2.5 mm at 80 and 120 kV (dual-energy scan). These CT images were converted to relative electron density (rED) using the CT-rED conversion table generated by a previous dual-energy CT scan. The CT-rED conversion table was generated using the conversion of the energy-subtracted CT number to rED via a single linear relationship. One T2 star-weighted 3D gradient echo-based sequence with four different echo times images was acquired using the MRI scanner. These T2 star-weighted images were used to estimate the phase data. To estimate the local field map, a Laplacian unwrapping of the phase and background field removal algorithm were implemented to process phase data. To generate a magnetic susceptibility map from the local field map, we used morphology enabled dipole inversion method. The rED map was resampled to the same resolution as magnetic susceptibility, and the magnetic susceptibility-rED conversion table was obtained via voxel-by-voxel mapping between the magnetic susceptibility and rED maps. Results: A correlation between magnetic susceptibility and rED is not observed through our method. Conclusion: Our results show that the correlation between magnetic susceptibility and rED is not observed. As the next step, we assume that the voxel of the magnetic susceptibility map comprises two materials, such as water (0 ppm) and bone (-2.2 ppm) or water and marrow (0.81ppm). The elements of each voxel were estimated from the ratio of the two materials.

  13. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchgässner, C; Schmitt, S; Borgström, A; Wittenbrink, M M

    2016-06-01

    Brachyspira (B.) hyodysenteriae is the causative agent of swine dysentery (SD), a severe mucohaemorrhagic diarrheal disease in pigs worldwide. So far, the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of B. hyodysenteriae in Switzerland have not been investigated. Therefore, a panel of 30 porcine B. hyodysenteriae isolates were tested against 6 antimicrobial agents by using the VetMIC Brachy panel, a broth microdilution test. Tiamulin and valnemulin showed high antimicrobial activity inhibiting all isolates at low concentrations. The susceptibility testing of doxycycline revealed values from ≤0.25 μg/ ml (47%) to 2 μg/ml (10%). The MIC values of lincomycin ranged between ≤0.5 μg/ml (30%) and 32 μg/ml (43%). For tylosin, 57% of the isolates could not be inhibited at the highest concentration of ≥128 μg/ml. The MIC values for tylvalosin were between ≤0.25 μg/ml (10%) and 8 μg/ml (20%). These findings reveal Switzerland's favourable situation compared to other European countries. Above all, tiamulin and valnemulin are still effective antimicrobial agents and can be further used for the treatment of SD.

  14. Chemical and transcriptional responses of Norway spruce genotypes with different susceptibility to Heterobasidion spp. infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielsson Marie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Norway spruce [Picea abies (L. Karst.] is one of the most important conifer species in Europe. The wood is economically important and infections by wood-rotting fungi cause substantial losses to the industry. The first line of defence in a Norway spruce tree is the bark. It is a very efficient barrier against infection based on its mechanical and chemical properties. Once an injury or an infection is recognized by the tree, induced defences are activated. In this study we examined transcriptional response, using 454-sequencing, and chemical profiles in bark of Norway spruce trees with different susceptibility to Heterobasidion annosum s.l. infection. The aim was to find associations between the transcriptome and chemical profiles to the level of susceptibility to Heterobasidion spp. in Norway spruce genotypes. Results Both terpene and phenol compositions were analysed and at 28 days post inoculation (dpi high levels of 3-carene was produced in response to H. annosum. However, significant patterns relating to inoculation or to genotypes with higher or lower susceptibility could only be found in the phenol fraction. The levels of the flavonoid catechin, which is polymerized into proanthocyanidins (PA, showed a temporal variation; it accumulated between 5 and 15 dpi in response to H. annosum infection in the less susceptible genotypes. The transcriptome data suggested that the accumulation of free catechin was preceded by an induction of genes in the flavonoid and PA biosynthesis pathway such as leucoanthocyanidin reductase. Quantitative PCR analyses verified the induction of genes in the phenylpropanoid and flavonoid pathway. The qPCR data also highlighted genotype-dependent differences in the transcriptional regulation of these pathways. Conclusions The varying dynamics in transcriptional and chemical patterns displayed by the less susceptible genotypes suggest that there is a genotypic variation in successful spruce defence

  15. Chemical and transcriptional responses of Norway spruce genotypes with different susceptibility to Heterobasidion spp. infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] is one of the most important conifer species in Europe. The wood is economically important and infections by wood-rotting fungi cause substantial losses to the industry. The first line of defence in a Norway spruce tree is the bark. It is a very efficient barrier against infection based on its mechanical and chemical properties. Once an injury or an infection is recognized by the tree, induced defences are activated. In this study we examined transcriptional response, using 454-sequencing, and chemical profiles in bark of Norway spruce trees with different susceptibility to Heterobasidion annosum s.l. infection. The aim was to find associations between the transcriptome and chemical profiles to the level of susceptibility to Heterobasidion spp. in Norway spruce genotypes. Results Both terpene and phenol compositions were analysed and at 28 days post inoculation (dpi) high levels of 3-carene was produced in response to H. annosum. However, significant patterns relating to inoculation or to genotypes with higher or lower susceptibility could only be found in the phenol fraction. The levels of the flavonoid catechin, which is polymerized into proanthocyanidins (PA), showed a temporal variation; it accumulated between 5 and 15 dpi in response to H. annosum infection in the less susceptible genotypes. The transcriptome data suggested that the accumulation of free catechin was preceded by an induction of genes in the flavonoid and PA biosynthesis pathway such as leucoanthocyanidin reductase. Quantitative PCR analyses verified the induction of genes in the phenylpropanoid and flavonoid pathway. The qPCR data also highlighted genotype-dependent differences in the transcriptional regulation of these pathways. Conclusions The varying dynamics in transcriptional and chemical patterns displayed by the less susceptible genotypes suggest that there is a genotypic variation in successful spruce defence strategies against

  16. Spatial distribution and insecticide susceptibility status of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in dengue affected urban areas of Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Ali; Rathor, Hamayun Rashid; Mukhtar, Muhammad Uzair; Mushtaq, Shumaila; Bhatti, Adil; Asif, Muhammad; Arshad, Israr; Ahmad, Jam Farooq

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is one of the most common arthropod-borne viral diseases which is transmitted mainly by two vector species, Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus 1762) and Ae. albopictus (Skuse, 1894) worldwide. As there is no effective medicine and vaccine available, vector control remains the most effective measure to prevent its transmission and outbreak. The aim of the study was to confirm the co-occurrence of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus populations in the different localities of Rawalpindi, Pakistan and examine their susceptibility status against different groups of insecticides. Ovitraps were randomly placed in the study localities. The number of eggs from all the ovitraps were counted and incubated for hatching in Medical Entomology and Disease Vector Control (MEDVC) insectarium for rearing up to adult stage. The adults were then identified by using the pictorial keys. Spatial distribution and aggregation of both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus populations was determined by using Index of dispersion or variance to mean ratio and k values of the negative binomial distribution. The susceptibility status of both the species against different insecticides was assessed by using the World Health Organization (WHO) standard bioassay tests. The results showed that there was coexistence among Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus populations and the aggregation of their eggs was also observed in all the localities studied in Rawalpindi. Larval bioassays of both the populations exhibited incipient resistance against temephos while adult susceptibility testing results showed that both the species were resistant to DDT, malathion, bendiocarb and permethrin. The results suggested that all the field populations of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus existed together and showed qualitative changes in their susceptibility status. Resistance against deltamethrin and lambdacyhalothrin was not confirmed and further investigation was recommended to confirm the change in their susceptibility status. This

  17. Species distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of staphylococci isolated from canine otitis externa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, Bruno; Varges, Renato; Medeiros, Luciana; Martins, Gabriel M; Martins, Rodrigo R; Lilenbaum, Walter

    2010-06-01

    The diversity of species of the genus Staphylococcus sp. and the antimicrobial resistance of isolates from 151 unmedicated dogs of both sexes with a clinical diagnosis of otitis were recorded. Ninety-one isolates of Staphylococcus spp. were identified by biochemical reactions and tested for susceptibility to 15 antimicrobials. Coagulase-positive species were most common; S. pseudintermedius (38.4%), S. schleiferi schleiferi (15.4%), S. aureus (14.3%), S. epidermidis (11%), S. simulans (11%), S. schleiferi coagulans (8.8%) and S. saprophyticus (1.1%). All the isolates showed resistance to at least one drug and 89% were multiresistant. Amoxicillin combined with clavulanic acid and oxacillin were the most effective, while resistance was widely observed for neomycin and erythromycin. The results highlight the recognition and the potential need for bacterial culture with species identification and antimicrobial susceptibility tests for appropriate antimicrobial therapy.

  18. Low maternal care exacerbates adult stress susceptibility in the chronic mild stress rat model of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Kim; Dyrvig, Mads; Bouzinova, Elena V

    2012-01-01

    to a differential stress-coping ability. Thus rats fostered by low maternal care dams became more prone to adopt a stress-susceptible phenotype developing an anhedonic-like condition. Moreover, low maternal care offspring had lower weight gain and lower locomotion, with no additive effect of stress. Subchronic......In the present study we report the finding that the quality of maternal care, in early life, increased the susceptibility to stress exposure in adulthood, when rats were exposed to the chronic mild stress paradigm. Our results indicate that high, as opposed to low maternal care, predisposed rats...... exposure to chronic mild stress induced an increase in faecal corticosterone metabolites, which was only significant in rats from low maternal care dams. Examination of glucocorticoid receptor exon 17 promoter methylation in unchallenged adult, maternally characterized rats, showed an insignificant...

  19. Evaluation of self-welding susceptibility of an austenitic stainless steel (alloy D9) in sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Hemant; Albert, S. K.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Meikandamurthy, C.; Amarendra, G.; Bhaduri, A. K.

    2008-02-01

    Self-welding susceptibility of a 15Cr-15Ni-2Mo titanium-modified austenitic stainless steel (alloy D9), in both annealed and 20% cold-worked conditions, have been evaluated in flowing sodium at 823 K for 2160 and 4320 h under contact stress of 9.4 MPa. Tests were performed on flat-on-flat geometry of hollow cylindrical specimens under compression. One pair of 20% cold-worked alloy D9 vs. 20% cold-worked alloy D9 specimens tested for 4320 h was self-welded for which the breakaway shear force was measured. Scanning electron micrographs of the self-welded region showed that portions of the original interface no longer existed. The paper discusses the experimental set-up installed in the sodium loop test facility and the results of self-welding susceptibility studies on this material.

  20. Anomalously large spin susceptibility enhancement in n-doped CdMnTe quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Cheikh, Z. [Laboratoire Charles Coulomb, UMR 5221, Département Semi-conducteurs, Matériaux et Capteurs, Université Montpellier 2, France and Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux: Structures et Propriétés, Faculté (Tunisia); Cronenberger, S.; Vladimirova, M.; Scalbert, D. [Laboratoire Charles Coulomb, UMR 5221, Departement Semi-conducteurs, Materiaux et Capteurs, Universite Montpellier 2 (France); Boujdaria, K. [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux: Structures et Propriétés, Faculté des Sciences de Bizerte, Université de Carthage, 7021 Zarzouna (Tunisia); Baboux, F.; Perez, F. [Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, CNRS/Université Paris 6, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); Wojtowicz, T.; Karczewski, G. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland)

    2013-12-04

    We report on time-resolved Kerr rotation (TRKR) experiments done on n-doped CdMnTe quantum wells (QWs), in the regime where strong coupling between the electron and the Mn spin-flip excitations shows up. It has been proposed previously to deduce the 2D electron gas spin susceptibility from the coupling energy between these spin excitations. Here we measure the coupling energy on a high mobility sample down to very low excitation density, and compare the results with spin-flip Raman scattering (SFRS) on the same sample. The electron spin polarizations measured by TRKR and SFRS are found in relatively good agreement. However the spin susceptibility measured by TRKR exceeds systematically the values predicted by many-body theory. This could be an indication that the two-oscillator model used to describe mixed electron-Mn spin excitations needs to be improved.

  1. Susceptibility of KSHV-Infected PEL Cell Lines to the Human Complement System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Seung-Min; Jeon, Hyungtaek; Lee, Suhyuk; Lee, Myung-Shin

    2016-03-01

    Pleural effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a rare B-cell lymphoma that has a very poor prognosis with a median survival time of around 6 months. PEL is caused by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, and is often co-infected with the Epstein Barr virus. The complement system is fundamental in the innate immune system against pathogen invasion and tumor development. In the present study, we investigated the activation of the complement system in PEL cells using human serum complements. Interestingly, two widely used PEL cell lines, BCP-1 and BCBL-1, showed different susceptibility to the complement system, which may be due to CD46 expression on their cell membranes. Complement activation did not induce apoptosis but supported cell survival considerably. Our results demonstrated the susceptibility of PEL to the complement system and its underlying mechanisms, which would provide insight into understanding the pathogenesis of PEL.

  2. Prostate Cancer Susceptibility Polymorphism rs2660753 Is Not Associated with Invasive Ovarian Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amankwah, Ernest K; Kelemen, Linda E; Wang, Qinggang

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We previously reported an association between rs2660753, a prostate cancer susceptibility polymorphism, and invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC; OR = 1.2, 95% CI=1.0-1.4, P(trend) = 0.01) that showed a stronger association with the serous histological subtype (OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.......1-1.5, P(trend) = 0.003). METHODS: We sought to replicate this association in 12 other studies comprising 4,482 cases and 6,894 controls of white non-Hispanic ancestry in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. RESULTS: No evidence for an association with all cancers or serous cancers was observed.......0-1.2, P(trend) = 0.11). There was no evidence for statistical heterogeneity in ORs across the studies. CONCLUSIONS: Although rs2660753 is a strong prostate cancer susceptibility polymorphism, the association with another hormonally related cancer, invasive EOC, is not supported by this replication study...

  3. Standardised procedures can improve the validity of susceptibility testing of uropathogenic bacteria in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerrum, L; Grinsted, P; Petersen, P H; Søgaard, P

    2000-12-01

    To investigate whether the validity of susceptibility testing in general practice would improve when preceded by an intervention. Instruction in standardised susceptibility testing procedures given by laboratory instructors. Urine specimens containing monocultures of typical uropathogenic bacteria were sent to 23 general practices before and after the intervention. Practices performed susceptibility testing by the Sensicult and the Iso-Res agar methods and the validity of the results before and after the intervention was compared. Results from susceptibility testing at the bacteriological laboratory, Odense University Hospital, were used as gold standard. The median frequency of correct results increased from 82% to 98% for susceptibility testing based on Sensicult (p = 0.001) and from 90% to 96% based on Iso-Res agar (p = 0.05). The validity of susceptibility testing in general practice improves when preceded by instruction in standardised procedures.

  4. Inflammatory responses to induced infectious endometritis in mares resistant or susceptible to persistent endometritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoffersen Mette

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of the study was to evaluate the gene expression of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, IL-1 receptor antagonist [ra] and serum amyloid A (SAA in endometrial tissue and circulating leukocytes in response to uterine inoculation of 105 colony forming units (CFU Escherichia coli in mares. Before inoculation, mares were classified as resistant or susceptible to persistent endometritis based on their uterine inflammatory response to infusion of 109 killed spermatozoa and histological assessment of the endometrial quality. Endometrial biopsies were obtained 3, 12, 24 and 72 hours (h after bacterial inoculation and blood samples were obtained during the 7 day period post bacterial inoculation. Expression levels of cytokines and SAA were determined by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR. Results Compared to levels in a control biopsy (obtained in the subsequent estrous, resistant mares showed an up-regulation of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α at 3 h after E. coli inoculation, while susceptible mares showed increased gene expression of IL-6 and IL-1ra. Susceptible mares had a significant lower gene expression of TNF-α,IL-6 and increased expression of IL-1ra 3 h after E. coli inoculation compared to resistant mares. Susceptible mares showed a sustained and prolonged inflammatory response with increased gene expression levels of IL-1β, IL-8, IL-1ra and IL-1β:IL-1ra ratio throughout the entire study period (72 h, whereas levels in resistant mares returned to estrous control levels by 12 hours. Endometrial mRNA transcripts of IL-1β and IL-1ra were significantly higher in mares with heavy uterine bacterial growth compared to mares with no/mild growth. All blood parameters were unaffected by intrauterine E. coli infusion, except for a lower gene expression of IL-10 at 168 h and an increased expression of IL-1ra at 48 h observed in susceptible

  5. Controlled human exposures to ambient pollutant particles in susceptible populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghio Andrew J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Epidemiologic studies have established an association between exposures to air pollution particles and human mortality and morbidity at concentrations of particles currently found in major metropolitan areas. The adverse effects of pollution particles are most prominent in susceptible subjects, including the elderly and patients with cardiopulmonary diseases. Controlled human exposure studies have been used to confirm the causal relationship between pollution particle exposure and adverse health effects. Earlier studies enrolled mostly young healthy subjects and have largely confirmed the capability of particles to cause adverse health effects shown in epidemiological studies. In the last few years, more studies involving susceptible populations have been published. These recent studies in susceptible populations, however, have shown that the adverse responses to particles appear diminished in these susceptible subjects compared to those in healthy subjects. The present paper reviewed and compared control human exposure studies to particles and sought to explain the "unexpected" response to particle exposure in these susceptible populations and make recommendations for future studies. We found that the causes for the discrepant results are likely multifactorial. Factors such as medications, the disease itself, genetic susceptibility, subject selection bias that is intrinsic to many controlled exposure studies and nonspecificity of study endpoints may explain part of the results. Future controlled exposure studies should select endpoints that are more closely related to the pathogenesis of the disease and reflect the severity of particle-induced health effects in the specific populations under investigation. Future studies should also attempt to control for medications and genetic susceptibility. Using a different study design, such as exposing subjects to filtered air and ambient levels of particles, and assessing the improvement in

  6. Landslide susceptibility assessment in the Pays d'Auge plateau (Normandy, France): application at different scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fressard, M.; Thiery, Y.; Maquaire, O.

    2012-04-01

    This research takes place in the hilly valleys of the Pays d'Auge where few scientific works have been conducted on landslide risk in spite of the activity of the processes. Moreover, the local authorities are still lacking operational mapping resources in order to improve the landuse planning and risk reduction. The susceptibility or hazard maps performed by statistical approaches can sometimes be difficult to understand by end-users. Therefore, they usually prefer to work with direct methods (i.e. expert mapping), even if they are often considered as subjective by scientists. Independently of the mapping method, it is difficult to obtain rapidly susceptibility maps on large areas that fit to the operational scale. These small scale maps are often not accepted by end-users, particularly because of the lack of accuracy of the available datasets. Then, this presentation focus on the production of landslide susceptibility maps at different scales, using GIS as a first stage towards operational landslide hazard assessment. The main objective is to show the research process coupling the geomorphological approach and the statistical modelling. This study is splitted in three major steps: (1) a geomorphological approach at the landslide scale; (2) a landslide susceptibility mapping at regional scale; and finally (3) a landslide susceptibility mapping at detailed scale. (1) Due to the lack of bibliographical and expert references on the existing landslides in this area, a first geomorphological study was conducted in order to build a landslide inventory with a detailed typology. Then, for each landslide type, the predisposing and triggering factors were defined. This first step is essential in order to supply the geomorphologist's expert opinion on this specific site. (2) These observations on predisposing factors were formalized into a heuristic model (SMCE) in order to assess the regional landslide susceptibility at small scale i.e. 1/100.000. In this case, only simple

  7. Variations in the susceptibility to landslides, as a consequence of land cover changes: A look to the past, and another towards the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisano, L; Zumpano, V; Malek, Ž; Rosskopf, C M; Parise, M

    2017-12-01

    Land cover is one of the most important conditioning factors in landslide susceptibility analysis. Usually it is considered as a static factor, but it has proven to be dynamic, with changes occurring even in few decades. In this work the influence of land cover changes on landslide susceptibility are analyzed for the past and for future scenarios. For the application, an area representative of the hilly-low mountain sectors of the Italian Southern Apennines was chosen (Rivo basin, in Molise Region). With this purpose landslide inventories and land cover maps were produced for the years 1954, 1981 and 2007. Two alternative future scenarios were created for 2050, one which follows the past trend (2050-trend), and another one more extreme, foreseeing a decrease of forested and cultivated areas (2050-alternative). The landslide susceptibility analysis was performed using the Spatial Multi-Criteria Evaluation method for different time steps, investigating changes to susceptibility over time. The results show that environmental dynamics, such as land cover change, affect slope stability in time. In fact there is a decrease of susceptibility in the past and in the future 2050-trend scenario. This is due to the increase of forest or cultivated areas, that is probably determined by a better land management, water and soil control respect to other land cover types such as shrubland, pasture or bareland. Conversely the results revealed by the alternative scenario (2050-alternative), show how the decrease in forest and cultivated areas leads to an increase in landslide susceptibility. This can be related to the assumed worst climatic condition leading to a minor agricultural activity and lower extension of forested areas, possibly associated also to the effects of forest fires. The results suggest that conscious landscape management might contribute to determine a significant reduction in landslide susceptibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Landslide susceptibility mapping using logistic statistical regression in Babaheydar Watershed, Chaharmahal Va Bakhtiari Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Karimi Sangchini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Landslides are amongst the most damaging natural hazards in mountainous regions. Every year, hundreds of people all over the world lose their lives in landslides; furthermore, there are large impacts on the local and global economy from these events. In this study, landslide hazard zonation in Babaheydar watershed using logistic regression was conducted to determine landslide hazard areas. At first, the landslide inventory map was prepared using aerial photograph interpretations and field surveys. The next step, ten landslide conditioning factors such as altitude, slope percentage, slope aspect, lithology, distance from faults, rivers, settlement and roads, land use, and precipitation were chosen as effective factors on landsliding in the study area. Subsequently, landslide susceptibility map was constructed using the logistic regression model in Geographic Information System (GIS. The ROC and Pseudo-R2 indexes were used for model assessment. Results showed that the logistic regression model provided slightly high prediction accuracy of landslide susceptibility maps in the Babaheydar Watershed with ROC equal to 0.876. Furthermore, the results revealed that about 44% of the watershed areas were located in high and very high hazard classes. The resultant landslide susceptibility maps can be useful in appropriate watershed management practices and for sustainable development in the region.

  9. Typing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from hospitalized patients: a comparison of susceptibility and biochemical profiles with genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Freitas

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Typing techniques are essential for understanding hospital epidemiology, permitting the elucidation of the source of infection and routes of bacterial transmission. Although DNA-based techniques are the "gold standard" for the epidemiological study of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, antibiotic profiles and biochemical results are used because they are easy to perform and to interpret and relatively inexpensive. Antibiotypes (susceptibility profiles and biotypes (biochemical profiles were compared to genotypes established by DNA restriction enzyme analysis in 81 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa from three hospitals in Porto Alegre, Brazil. The epidemiological relationship among patients was also evaluated. Susceptibility and restriction profiles were discrepant in more than 50% of the cases, and many antibiotypes were observed among isolates from the same genotype. Furthermore, susceptibility profiles did not allow the distinction of isolates from unrelated genotypes. Since a large number of isolates (63% yielded the same biochemical results, only 10 biotypes were detected, showing that this typing method has a low discriminatory power. On the other hand, DNA restriction enzyme typing allowed us to establish 71 distinct types. Epidemiological data about the relation among P. aeruginosa isolates were not conclusive. The results of the present study indicate that the only method that can establish a clonal relation is DNA restriction enzyme typing, whereas the other methods may cause misleading interpretations and are inadequate to guide proper infection control measures.

  10. In vitro susceptibility of Trypanosoma cruzi strains from Santander, Colombia, to hexadecylphosphocholine (miltefosine), nifurtimox and benznidazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Katherine Paola; Hernández, Indira Paola; Rueda, César Mauricio; Zorro, María Magdalena; Croft, Simon L; Escobar, Patricia

    2009-09-01

    The current chemotherapy for Chagas disease is unsatisfactory with only two drugs available for treatment. Research to discover new drugs for Chagas disease is urgent. Hexadecyl-phosphocholine (HPC, miltefosine) has been demonstrated to have in vitro activity against Trypanosoma cruzi parasites, but its activity on different Colombian T. cruzi strains is not known. To evaluate the in vitro susceptibility of T. cruzi strains isolated from humans and vectors in Santander, Colombia. to miltefosine, nifurtimox and benznidazole. Eight T. cruzi Colombian strains and three reference strains (Esmeraldo, SilvioX10 and Y) were studied. Drug activities against extracellular epimastigotes and intracellular amastigotes were determined by microscopic counting. The results were expressed as the concentrations that inhibited 50% and 90% growth (IC50 and IC90). For miltefosine a similar range of drug activity was observed against all the Colombian strains, all parasites being more susceptible to miltefosine than to the reference drugs. The intracellular amastigotes were more susceptible to miltefosine (IC50 0.08 to 0.63 microM and IC90 0.21 to 2.21 microM) than extracellular forms (IC50 nifurtimox than to benznidazole and some differences in activity of benznidazole between T. cruzi strains was observed. The results showed the significant in vitro activity of miltefosine against T. cruzi stages, and the expected results for the reference drugs. Further in vivo studies with miltefosine are planned.

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility and β-lactamase production in Bacillus cereus isolates from stool of patients, food and environment samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Dejana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Bacillus cereus (B. cereus usually ingested by food can cause two types of diseases: vomiting due to the presence of emetic toxin and diarrheal syndrome, due to the presence of diarrheal toxins. Systemic manifestations can also occur. The severe forms of disease demand antibiotic treatmant. The aim of this study was to determine the differences in antibiotic susceptibility and β-lactamase activity of B. cereus isolates from stools of humans, food and environment. Methods. Identification of B. cereus was performed with selective medium, classical biochemical test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR with primers specific for bal gene. Thirty isolates from each group were analysed for antibiotic susceptibility using the disk-diffusion assay. Production of β-lactamase was determined by cefinase test, and double-disc method. Results. All strains identified as B. cereus using classical biochemical test, yielded 533 bp fragment with PCR. Isolates from all the three groups were susceptible to imipenem, vancomycin, and erythromycin. All isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin but one from the environment. A statistically significant difference between the groups was confirmed to tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole sensitivity. A total of 28/30 (93.33% samples from the foods and 25/30 (83.33% samples from environment were approved sensitive to tetracycline, while 10/30 (33.33% isolates from stools were sensitive. Opposite to this result, high susceptibility to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole was shown in samples from stools (100%, while isolates from foods (63.33% and from environment (70% had low susceptibility. All samples produced β-lactamases. Conclusion. The strains of B. cereus from all the three groups showed high rate of sensitivity to most tested antibiotics, except to tetracycline in samples from human stool and to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole in samples from food and environment. The production of

  12. Comparison between the antimicrobial susceptibility of Burkholderia pseudomallei to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole by standard disk diffusion method and by minimal inhibitory concentration determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumbiganon, P; Tattawasatra, U; Chetchotisakd, P; Wongratanacheewin, S; Thinkhamrop, B

    2000-08-01

    Melioidosis, an infection caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, usually occurs in immunocompromised patients and requires prolonged antibiotic therapy. Previously, oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TM/SM), an inexpensive and effective drug has been used as a maintenance therapy. The susceptibility of B. pseudomallei to TM/SM by the standard disk diffusion method is very low. However, some patients who were treated with TM/SM as a maintenance therapy despite the in vitro resistance showed good clinical responses. There were no data comparing the susceptibility of B. pseudomallei by the standard disk diffusion method with other quantitative susceptibility tests. The objective of this study was to determine the agreement between the antimicrobial susceptibility of B. pseudomallei to TM/SM by standard disk diffusion and minimal inhibitory concentration determination (MIC). We performed the susceptibility test of 144 strains of B. pseudomallei to TM/SM by both the standard disk diffusion and microbroth dilution MIC. The sensitivity results were 53.5 per cent and 84.0 per cent respectively. The agreement between the 2 tests was very poor (Kappa = 0.14; 95% CI = -0.01 to 0.29). The false resistant rate by the standard disk diffusion test was 67.9 per cent. Further in vitro susceptibility and clinical study are needed to define the interpretive criteria that correlate with clinical response.

  13. Effects of disruption of heat shock genes on susceptibility of Escherichia coli to fluoroquinolones

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    Morioka Mizue

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that expression of certain bacterial genes responds rapidly to such stimuli as exposure to toxic chemicals and physical agents. It is generally believed that the proteins encoded in these genes are important for successful survival of the organism under the hostile conditions. Analogously, the proteins induced in bacterial cells exposed to antibiotics are believed to affect the organisms' susceptibility to these agents. Results We demonstrated that Escherichia coli cells exposed to levofloxacin (LVFX, a fluoroquinolone (FQ, induce the syntheses of heat shock proteins and RecA. To examine whether the heat shock proteins affect the bactericidal action of FQs, we constructed E. coli strains with mutations in various heat shock genes and tested their susceptibility to FQs. Mutations in dnaK, groEL, and lon increased this susceptibility; the lon mutant exhibited the greatest effects. The increased susceptibility of the lon mutant was corroborated by experiments in which the gene encoding the cell division inhibitor, SulA, was subsequently disrupted. SulA is induced by the SOS response and degraded by the Lon protease. The findings suggest that the hypersusceptibility of the lon mutant to FQs could be due to abnormally high levels of SulA protein resulting from the depletion of Lon and the continuous induction of the SOS response in the presence of FQs. Conclusion The present results show that the bactericidal action of FQs is moderately affected by the DnaK and GroEL chaperones and strongly affected by the Lon protease. FQs have contributed successfully to the treatment of various bacterial infections, but their widespread use and often misuse, coupled with emerging resistance, have gradually compromised their utility. Our results suggest that agents capable of inhibiting the Lon protease have potential for combination therapy with FQs.

  14. Patterns of antibiotics susceptibility of isolates and plasmid analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S. aureus showed percentage susceptibility of 50-100% and Staphylococcus epidermidis (50-100%) for cloxacillin and augmentin, and less than 60% for amoxacillin, erythromycin, tetracycline, cotrimoxazole, gentamicin and chloramphenicol. Multi drug resistance (MDR) of S. aureus strains to at least three classes of the ...

  15. 62 original article in-vitro antimicrobial susceptibility pattern

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    This study shows that S. aureus strains isolated from clinical specimens and healthy students in Umuahia are highly resistant to common antibiotics. This may not be ... Key words: Staphylococcus aureus, antimicrobial resistance, disc agar diffusion, antibiotic susceptibility ... healthcare facilities and in the community (4).

  16. Topological susceptibility in lattice QCD and perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochicchio, M.; Testa, M.; Rossi, G.C.; Yoshida, K.

    1984-12-27

    We consider the definition of topological susceptibility suggested by the anomalous Usub(A)(1) Ward identity in lattice QCD with Wilson fermions and show that, in the limit of zero renormalized quark mass, its perturbative expansion is zero to all orders. This definition is thus suitable for Monte Carlo simulations. (orig.).

  17. Topological susceptibility in lattice QCD and perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochicchio, M.; Testa, M. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Rome (Italy)); Rossi, G.C. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)); Yoshida, K. (Salerno Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Naples (Italy))

    1984-12-27

    We consider the definition of topological susceptibility suggested by the anomalous Usub(A)(1) Ward identity in lattice QCD with Wilson fermions and show that, in the limit of zero renormalized quark mass, its perturbative expansion is zero to all orders. This definition is thus suitable for Monte Carlo simulations.

  18. Genetic Susceptibility to Vitiligo: GWAS Approaches for Identifying Vitiligo Susceptibility Genes and Loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Changbing; Gao, Jing; Sheng, Yujun; Dou, Jinfa; Zhou, Fusheng; Zheng, Xiaodong; Ko, Randy; Tang, Xianfa; Zhu, Caihong; Yin, Xianyong; Sun, Liangdan; Cui, Yong; Zhang, Xuejun

    2016-01-01

    Vitiligo is an autoimmune disease with a strong genetic component, characterized by areas of depigmented skin resulting from loss of epidermal melanocytes. Genetic factors are known to play key roles in vitiligo through discoveries in association studies and family studies. Previously, vitiligo susceptibility genes were mainly revealed through linkage analysis and candidate gene studies. Recently, our understanding of the genetic basis of vitiligo has been rapidly advancing through genome-wide association study (GWAS). More than 40 robust susceptible loci have been identified and confirmed to be associated with vitiligo by using GWAS. Most of these associated genes participate in important pathways involved in the pathogenesis of vitiligo. Many susceptible loci with unknown functions in the pathogenesis of vitiligo have also been identified, indicating that additional molecular mechanisms may contribute to the risk of developing vitiligo. In this review, we summarize the key loci that are of genome-wide significance, which have been shown to influence vitiligo risk. These genetic loci may help build the foundation for genetic diagnosis and personalize treatment for patients with vitiligo in the future. However, substantial additional studies, including gene-targeted and functional studies, are required to confirm the causality of the genetic variants and their biological relevance in the development of vitiligo. PMID:26870082

  19. Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns of Vibrio cholerae isolates

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    S D Shrestha

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cholera is one of the most common diarrhoeal diseases in Nepal. Etiological agent of cholera is Vibrio cholerae which removes essential body fluids, salts and vital nutrients, which are necessary for life causing dehydration and malnutrition. Emerging antimicrobial resistant is common. The aim of the present study was to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of cholera patients in Nepal. METHODS: All the laboratory works were conducted in the bacteriology section of National Public Health Laboratory, Teku from March to September 2005. During this period a total of 340 stool samples from diarrhoeal patients were collected and processed according to the standard laboratory methods. Each patient suffering from diarrhoea was directly interviewed for his or her clinical history during sample collection. RESULTS: A total of 340 stool samples were processed and studied from both sex including all ages of patients. Among the processed sample 53 Vibrio cholerae cases were found. All isolated Vibrio cholerae O1 were El Tor, Inaba. All isolated (100% Vibrio cholerae O1 were sensitive to Ampicillin, Ciprofloxacin, Erythromycin and Tetracycline whereas all were resistant to Nalidixic acid and Cotrimoxazole. Only 15.1% cases were sensitive to Furazolidone whereas 84.9% were resistant. CONCLUSION: All V. cholerae strains isolated in this study were found resistant to Multi Drug Resistant (resistant to at least two antibiotics of different group. Ampicillin, Ciprofloxacin, Erythromycin and Tetracycline were found still more potent antibiotics against Vibrio cholerae isolated during the study. Keywords: antibiotics, susceptibility, Vibrio cholera.

  20. Universal locality of quantum thermal susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Palma, Giacomo; De Pasquale, Antonella; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2017-05-01

    The ultimate precision of any measurement of the temperature of a quantum system is the inverse of the local quantum thermal susceptibility [A. De Pasquale et al., Nat. Commun. 7, 12782 (2016), 10.1038/ncomms12782] of the subsystem with which the thermometer interacts. If this subsystem can be described with the canonical ensemble, such quantity reduces to the variance of the local Hamiltonian, which is proportional to the heat capacity of the subsystem. However, the canonical ensemble might not apply in the presence of interactions between the subsystem and the rest of the system. In this work, we address this problem in the framework of locally interacting quantum systems. We prove that the local quantum thermal susceptibility of any subsystem is close to the variance of its local Hamiltonian, provided the volume-to-surface ratio of the subsystem is much larger than the correlation length. This result greatly simplifies the determination of the ultimate precision of any local estimate of the temperature and rigorously determines the regime where interactions can affect this precision.

  1. FLOOD SUSCEPTIBILITY ASSESSMENT IN THE NIRAJ BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANDA ROŞCA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Flood susceptibility assessment in the Niraj basin. In the context of global warming and the increasing frequency of extreme weather events, it becomes evident that we have to face natural hazards, such as floods. In the area of Niraj basin this phenomenon is specific both in the spring, because of the snow melting and of the precipitations which come along with the season, and then in the summer because of the torrential precipitations but rarely in autumn and winter. The aim of this paper is to determinate the susceptibility of the zone and obtain a map which will take into consideration the possibility of a flooding. Defining vulnerability can help us understand this type of natural disasters and find the best ways to reduce it. For this purpose we use thematic layers, morphological characteristics (slope and depth fragmentation, hydrological characteristics, geology, pedology (permeability and soil texture, landuse, precipitation data, and human interventions because in this way we have the possibility to use data mining for this purpose. Data mining will allow us to extract new information based on the existing sets of data.The final result will be a thematic map that highlights the areas which are exposed to the flood. Therefore, this map can be used as a support decision for local government or business purposes.

  2. Growth, carcase and meat characteristics of stress susceptible and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    resultant loss in mass (Klingbiel, Naude & Van Essen,. 1976), undesirable colour and accumulation of undesirable fluid (Lister, Gregory & Warris, 1981). In summary, results of the present study support previous data collected on the growth and carcase characteristics of stress susceptible Landrace pigs. In general, stress ...

  3. Nanotoxicity Overview: Nano-Threat to Susceptible Populations

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    Yang Li

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing applications of nanomaterials and nanotechnology, potential danger of nanoparticle exposure has become a critical issue. However, recent nanotoxicity studies have mainly focused on the health risks to healthy adult population. The nanotoxicity effects on susceptible populations (such as pregnant, neonate, diseased, and aged populations have been overlooked. Due to the alterations in physiological structures and functions in susceptible populations, they often suffer more damage from the same exposure. Thus, it is urgent to understand the effects of nanoparticle exposure on these populations. In order to fill this gap, the potential effects of nanoparticles to pregnant females, neonate, diseased, and aged population, as well as the possible underlying mechanisms are reviewed in this article. Investigations show that responses from susceptible population to nanoparticle exposure are often more severe. Reduced protection mechanism, compromised immunity, and impaired self-repair ability in these susceptible populations may contribute to the aggravated toxicity effects. This review will help minimize adverse effects of nanoparticles to susceptible population in future nanotechnology applications.

  4. Hybridism between Biomphalaria cousini and Biomphalaria amazonica and its susceptibility to Schistosoma mansoni

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    Tatiana Maria Teodoro

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Molecular techniques can aid in the classification of Biomphalaria species because morphological differentiation between these species is difficult. Previous studies using phylogeny, morphological and molecular taxonomy showed that some populations studied were Biomphalaria cousini instead of Biomphalaria amazonica. Three different molecular profiles were observed that enabled the separation of B. amazonica from B. cousini. The third profile showed an association between the two and suggested the possibility of hybrids between them. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the hybridism between B. cousini and B. amazonica and to verify if the hybrids are susceptible to Schistosoma mansoni. Crosses using the albinism factor as a genetic marker were performed, with pigmented B. cousini and albino B. amazonica snails identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. This procedure was conducted using B. cousini and B. amazonica of the type locality accordingly to Paraense, 1966. In addition, susceptibility studies were performed using snails obtained from the crosses (hybrids and three S. mansoni strains (LE, SJ, AL. The crosses between B. amazonica and B. cousini confirmed the occurrence of hybrids. Moreover, hybrids can be considered potential hosts of S. mansoni because they are susceptible to LE, SJ and AL strains (4.4%, 5.6% and 2.2%, respectively. These results indicate that there is a risk of introducing schistosomiasis mansoni into new areas.

  5. Comparative susceptibility of three Western honeybee taxa to the microsporidian parasite Nosema ceranae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontbonne, Régis; Garnery, Lionel; Vidau, Cyril; Aufauvre, Julie; Texier, Catherine; Tchamitchian, Sylvie; El Alaoui, Hicham; Brunet, Jean-Luc; Delbac, Frédéric; Biron, David G

    2013-07-01

    Genetic diversity of a host species is a key factor to counter infection by parasites. Since two separation events and the beginning of beekeeping, the Western honeybee, Apis mellifera, has diverged in many phylogenetically-related taxa that share common traits but also show specific physiological, behavioural and morphological traits. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that A. mellifera taxa living in a same habitat should respond differently to parasites like Nosema ceranae, a microsporidia living in host's midgut. We used the Poulin and Combes' concept of virulence to compare the susceptibility of three A. mellifera taxa to N. ceranae infection. Three criteria were measured 10 days post-infection (dpi): the host mortality, the host sugar consumption and the development success of the parasite (i.e. number of spores produced). Interestingly, we showed that the observed variation in susceptibility to infection by N. ceranae is not linked to honeybee taxa but results from the variability between colonies, and that those differences are probably linked to genetic variations. The use of these three criteria allows us to conclude that the differences in susceptibility are mediated by a genetic variability in honeybee workers from resistance to tolerance. Finally, we discuss the consequences of our findings for beekeeping management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [Onychomycosis-causing yeasts in four Mexican dermatology centers and their antifungal susceptibility to azolic compounds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano-Gayosso, Patricia; Méndez-Tovar, Luis Javier; Arenas, Roberto; Hernández-Hernández, Francisca; Millán-Chiu, Blanca; Torres-Rodríguez, Josep M; Cortés-González, Elda; Fernández, Ramón; López-Martínez, Rubén

    2011-01-01

    Yeasts represent the second cause of nail fungal infection in the world, and Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis are the two most common species. To determine the yeast species frequency and their in vitro antifungal susceptibility, obtained from patients with clinical features suggestive of onychomycosis. A prospective study was carried out in four dermatological care centers in Mexico from 2004 to 2007. Clinical diagnosis was corroborated by direct examination and culture. The yeast species was determined by morphological and biochemical tests. An antifungal susceptibility test to ketoconazole, itraconazole and fluconazole by the broth microdilution method was performed on each isolate (document M27-A2). One hundred sixty-six yeast isolates were obtained; the most frequently found species were C. parapsilosis (31.9%), C. albicans (22.4%) and Candida guilliermondii (12.7%). Of all isolates, 51 showed resistance to one or several of the azole compounds: 33 to itraconazole, 12 to ketoconazole and 6 to fluconazole. It was remarkable that the four Candida glabrata isolates were resistant to the three azole compounds; C. guilliermondii and Candida famata were resistant to itraconazole in 42.9% and 54.5%, respectively. The results obtained show the importance of identifying the aetiological agent and antifungal susceptibility testing in order to avoid therapeutic failures in onychomycosis. Copyright © 2010 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Prioritization of Disease Susceptibility Genes Using LSM/SVD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Lejun; Yang, Ronggen; Yan, Qin; Sun, Xiao

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the role of genetics in diseases is one of the most important tasks in the postgenome era. It is generally too expensive and time consuming to perform experimental validation for all candidate genes related to disease. Computational methods play important roles for prioritizing these candidates. Herein, we propose an approach to prioritize disease genes using latent semantic mapping based on singular value decomposition. Our hypothesis is that similar functional genes are likely to cause similar diseases. Measuring the functional similarity between known disease susceptibility genes and unknown genes is to predict new disease susceptibility genes. Taking autism as an instance, the analysis results of the top ten genes prioritized demonstrate they might be autism susceptibility genes, which also indicates our approach could discover new disease susceptibility genes. The novel approach of disease gene prioritization could discover new disease susceptibility genes, and latent disease-gene relations. The prioritized results could also support the interpretive diversity and experimental views as computational evidence for disease researchers.

  8. In Vitro Antibiotic Susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Jakarta, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesmana, Murad; Lebron, Carlos I.; Taslim, Djufri; Tjaniadi, Periska; Subekti, Decy; Wasfy, Momtaz O.; Campbell, James R.; Oyofo, Buhari A.

    2001-01-01

    Antibiotic susceptibilities were determined for 122 Neisseria gonorrheae isolates obtained from 400 sex workers in Jakarta, Indonesia, and susceptibilities to ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime, cefoxitin, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, and spectinomycin were found. All isolates were resistant to tetracycline. A number of the isolates demonstrated decreased susceptibilities to erythromycin (MIC ≥ 1.0 μg/ml), thiamphenicol (MIC ≥ 1.0 μg/ml), kanamycin (MIC ≥ 16.0 μg/ml), penicillin (MIC ≥ 2.0 μg/ml), gentamicin (MIC ≥ 16.0 μg/ml), and norfloxacin (MIC = 0.5 μg/ml). These data showed that certain antibiotics previously used in the treatment of gonorrhea are no longer effective. PMID:11120999

  9. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus species isolated from clinical mastitis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin-Faublée, Véronique; Tardy, Florence; Bouveron, Clarisse; Carret, Gérard

    2002-03-01

    The antimicrobial susceptibility was determined for 50 Streptococcus uberis, 42 S. dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae and eight S. agalactiae strains isolated from cow mastitis. Only 27% of the strains were susceptible to all antimicrobial compounds tested. Resistance to tetracycline was most frequent (particularly for S. dysgalactiae strains), then macrolide and/or lincomycin resistance. High level resistance to streptomycin and kanamycin was detected. All S. dysgalactiae and S. agalactiae strains were susceptible to beta-lactams but 44% of the S. uberis strains showed an elevated penicillin G MIC. All strains were susceptible to chloramphenicol and rifampicin.

  10. Perceptual Load Affects Eyewitness Accuracy & Susceptibility to Leading Questions

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    Gillian Murphy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Load Theory (Lavie, 1995; 2005 states that the level of perceptual load in a task (i.e. the amount of information involved in processing task-relevant stimuli determines the efficiency of selective attention. There is evidence that perceptual load affects distractor processing, with increased inattentional blindness under high load. Given that high load can result in individuals failing to report seeing obvious objects, it is conceivable that load may also impair memory for the scene. The current study is the first to assess the effect of perceptual load on eyewitness memory. Across three experiments (two video-based and one in a driving simulator, the effect of perceptual load on eyewitness memory was assessed. The results showed that eyewitnesses were less accurate under high load, in particular for peripheral details. For example, memory for the central character in the video was not affected by load but memory for a witness who passed by the window at the edge of the scene was significantly worse under high load. High load memories were also more open to suggestion, showing increased susceptibility to leading questions. High visual perceptual load also affected recall for auditory information, illustrating a possible cross-modal perceptual load effect on memory accuracy. These results have implications for eyewitness memory researchers and forensic professionals.

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility of porcine Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and Brachyspira pilosicoli isolated in Sweden between 1990 and 2010

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    Pringle Märit

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The anaerobic spirochetes Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and Brachyspira pilosicoli cause diarrheal diseases in pigs. Their fastidious nature has hampered standardization of methods for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. For monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility wild type cutoff values are needed to define where the wild type distribution of MICs ends and no approved cutoffs are available for Brachyspira spp. In this study antimicrobial susceptibility data for both species (in total 906 isolates were compiled and analyzed and wild type cut off values for B. hyodysenteriae proposed. Methods The MICs of tiamulin, valnemulin, tylosin, tylvalosin, doxycycline and lincomycin were determined by broth dilution in brain heart infusion broth supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum. Results The compiled MICs from the broth dilution tests of the B. hyodysenteriae type strain, B78T (ATCC® 27164T, showed that the method yields reproducible results. In an international perspective the frequencies of isolates with decreased antimicrobial susceptibility were low among both B. hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli. However, in B. pilosicoli a constant level of 10-15% isolates with tiamulin MICs >4 μg/ml was detected between 2002 and 2010 and in B. hyodysenteriae a gradual increase in tiamulin MICs was seen between 1990 and 2003 although this increase has ceased during the last years. The wild type cutoff values proposed for B. hyodysenteriae are: tiamulin >0.25 μg/ml, valnemulin >0.125 μg/ml, tylosin >16 μg/ml, tylvalosin >1 μg/ml, lincomycin >1 μg/ml and doxycycline >0.5 μg/ml. Conclusions The broth dilution method used in this study has over the years generated tightly grouped MIC populations for the field isolates and reproducible results for the control strain B78T and is therefore a suitable antimicrobial susceptibility test method for monitoring of Brachyspira spp. Here we propose wild type cutoff values for six antimicrobial

  12. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing in India - A status survey

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    Sudha V

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to a variety of antimicrobial agents is emerging in bacterial pathogens throughout the world. Since the accuracy of the antimicrobial susceptibility data is associated with the performance standard of the test, strict adherence to the standard procedures is essential. The Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion susceptibility test, performed in accordance to NCCLS method gives reliable results and hence predicts clinical efficacy of the antibiotic tested. To assess the standard of performance of the antimicrobial susceptibility test, a survey was conducted by National Institute of Biologicals during 1999-2000. The findings indicated an urgent need of setting up a national quality control laboratory to provide the performance standards, reference Q.C. strains and quality antibiotic discs to ensure reproducible and reliable results.

  13. Clay mineralogy and magnetic susceptibility of Oxisols in geomorphic surfaces

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    Livia Arantes Camargo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies analyzing the variability of clay minerals and magnetic susceptibility provide data for the delineation of site-specific management areas since many of their attributes are important to agronomy and the environment. This study aimed to evaluate the spatial variability of clay minerals, magnetic susceptibility, adsorbed phosphorus and physical attributes in Oxisols of sandstones in different geomorphic surfaces. For that purpose, soil samples were collected every 25 m along a transect located within the area where the geomorphic surfaces were identified and mapped. The transect occupied the central portion of 500 ha, where it was also sampled for density purposes with one sample per six hectares. Soil samples were collected at a depth of 0.0-0.2 m. The results of the physical, chemical, mineralogical and magnetic susceptibility analyses were subjected to statistical and geostatistical analyses. The nature of the clay minerals and magnetic susceptibility was dependent on the variation of the soil parent material. High values of magnetic susceptibility were associated with the presence of maghemite and magnetite of coarse size. The spatial variability of crystallinity and the content of Fe oxides, as well as magnetic susceptibility, were dependent on the age of the geomorphic surfaces. The youngest surface had greater spatial variability of these attributes. The iron (goethite and hematite and aluminum (gibbsite oxides in the youngest geomorphic surface influenced the low values of soil density and high values of total pore volume, micropores and P adsorption. The characterization of the spatial variability of Fe oxides and susceptibility allowed for the delineation of homogeneous areas.

  14. Susceptibility profile and metabolic mechanisms involved in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus resistant to DDT and deltamethrin in the Central African Republic

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    Carine Ngoagouni

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are the main epidemic vectors of dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses worldwide. Their control during epidemics relies mainly on control of larvae and adults with insecticides. Unfortunately, loss of susceptibility of both species to several insecticide classes limits the efficacy of interventions. In Africa, where Aedes-borne viruses are of growing concern, few data are available on resistance to insecticides. To fill this gap, we assessed the susceptibility to insecticides of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus populations in the Central African Republic (CAR and studied the mechanisms of resistance. Methods Immature stages were sampled between June and September 2014 in six locations in Bangui (the capital of CAR for larval and adult bioassays according to WHO standard procedures. We also characterized DDT- and pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes molecularly and biochemically, including tests for the activities of nonspecific esterases (α and β, mixed-function oxidases, insensitive acetylcholinesterase and glutathione S-transferases. Results Larval bioassays, carried out to determine the lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC95 and resistance ratios (RR50 and RR95, suggested that both vector species were susceptible to Bacillus thuringiensis var. israeliensis and to temephos. Bioassays of adults showed susceptibility to propoxur and fenitrothion, except for one Ae. albopictus population that was suspected to be resistant to fenithrothion. None of the Ae. aegypti populations was fully susceptible to DDT. Ae. albopictus presented a similar profile to Ae. aegypti but with a lower mortality rate (41%. Possible resistance to deltamethrin was observed among Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, although some were susceptible. No kdr mutations were detected in either species; however, the activity of detoxifying enzymes was higher in most populations than in the susceptible Ae. aegypti strain, confirming decreased

  15. Evaluation of SLE Susceptibility Genes in Malaysians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molineros, Julio E; Chua, Kek Heng; Sun, Celi; Lian, Lay Hoong; Motghare, Prasenjeet; Kim-Howard, Xana; Nath, Swapan K

    2014-01-01

    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a clinically heterogeneous autoimmune disease with strong genetic and environmental components. Our objective was to replicate 25 recently identified SLE susceptibility genes in two distinct populations (Chinese (CH) and Malays (MA)) from Malaysia. We genotyped 347 SLE cases and 356 controls (CH and MA) using the ImmunoChip array and performed an admixture corrected case-control association analysis. Associated genes were grouped into five immune-related pathways. While CH were largely homogenous, MA had three ancestry components (average 82.3% Asian, 14.5% European, and 3.2% African). Ancestry proportions were significantly different between cases and controls in MA. We identified 22 genes with at least one associated SNP (P SLE genes are also associated in the major ethnicities of Malaysia. However, these novel SNPs showed stronger association in these Asian populations than with the SNPs reported in previous studies.

  16. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Breakpoints and First-Step parC Mutations in Streptococcus pneumoniae: Redefining Fluoroquinolone Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Sue; Bast, Darrin; McGeer, Allison; de Azavedo, Joyce; Low, Donald E.

    2003-01-01

    Clinical antimicrobial susceptibility breakpoints are used to predict the clinical outcome of antimicrobial treatment. In contrast, microbiologic breakpoints are used to identify isolates that may be categorized as susceptible when applying clinical breakpoints but harbor resistance mechanisms that result in their reduced susceptibility to the agent being tested. Currently, the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) guidelines utilize clinical breakpoints to characterize...

  17. Orientational Glasses: NMR and Electric Susceptibility Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Sullivan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We review the results of a wide range of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMRmeasurements of the local order parameters and the molecular dynamics of solid ortho-para hydrogen mixtures and solid nitrogen-argon mixtures that form novel molecular orientational glass states at low temperatures. From the NMR measurements, the distribution of the order parameters can be deduced and, in terms of simple models, used to analyze the thermodynamic measurements of the heat capacities of these systems. In addition, studies of the dielectric susceptibilities of the nitrogen-argon mixtures are reviewed in terms of replica symmetry breaking analogous to that observed for spin glass states. It is shown that this wide set of experimental results is consistent with orientation or quadrupolar glass ordering of the orientational degrees of freedom.

  18. Investigation of Caucasian rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility loci in African patients with the same disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The largest genetic risk to develop rheumatoid arthritis (RA) arises from a group of alleles of the HLA DRB1 locus ('shared epitope', SE). Over 30 non-HLA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) predisposing to disease have been identified in Caucasians, but they have never been investigated in West/Central Africa. We previously reported a lower prevalence of the SE in RA patients in Cameroon compared to European patients and aimed in the present study to investigate the contribution of Caucasian non-HLA RA SNPs to disease susceptibility in Black Africans. Methods RA cases and controls from Cameroon were genotyped for Caucasian RA susceptibility SNPs using Sequenom MassArray technology. Genotype data were also available for 5024 UK cases and 4281 UK controls and for 119 Yoruba individuals in Ibadan, Nigeria (YRI, HapMap). A Caucasian aggregate genetic-risk score (GRS) was calculated as the sum of the weighted risk-allele counts. Results After genotyping quality control procedures were performed, data on 28 Caucasian non-HLA susceptibility SNPs were available in 43 Cameroonian RA cases and 44 controls. The minor allele frequencies (MAF) were tightly correlated between Cameroonian controls and YRI individuals (correlation coefficient 93.8%, p = 1.7E-13), and they were pooled together. There was no correlation between MAF of UK and African controls; 13 markers differed by more than 20%. The MAF for markers at PTPN22, IL2RA, FCGR2A and IL2/IL21 was below 2% in Africans. The GRS showed a strong association with RA in the UK. However, the GRS did not predict RA in Africans (OR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.29 - 1.74, p = 0.456). Random sampling from the UK cohort showed that this difference in association is unlikely to be explained by small sample size or chance, but is statistically significant with p<0.001. Conclusions The MAFs of non-HLA Caucasian RA susceptibility SNPs are different between Caucasians and Africans, and several polymorphisms are barely detectable in

  19. Biological processes, properties and molecular wiring diagrams of candidate low-penetrance breast cancer susceptibility genes

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    Moreno Víctor

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent advances in whole-genome association studies (WGASs for human cancer risk are beginning to provide the part lists of low-penetrance susceptibility genes. However, statistical analysis in these studies is complicated by the vast number of genetic variants examined and the weak effects observed, as a result of which constraints must be incorporated into the study design and analytical approach. In this scenario, biological attributes beyond the adjusted statistics generally receive little attention and, more importantly, the fundamental biological characteristics of low-penetrance susceptibility genes have yet to be determined. Methods We applied an integrative approach for identifying candidate low-penetrance breast cancer susceptibility genes, their characteristics and molecular networks through the analysis of diverse sources of biological evidence. Results First, examination of the distribution of Gene Ontology terms in ordered WGAS results identified asymmetrical distribution of Cell Communication and Cell Death processes linked to risk. Second, analysis of 11 different types of molecular or functional relationships in genomic and proteomic data sets defined the "omic" properties of candidate genes: i/ differential expression in tumors relative to normal tissue; ii/ somatic genomic copy number changes correlating with gene expression levels; iii/ differentially expressed across age at diagnosis; and iv/ expression changes after BRCA1 perturbation. Finally, network modeling of the effects of variants on germline gene expression showed higher connectivity than expected by chance between novel candidates and with known susceptibility genes, which supports functional relationships and provides mechanistic hypotheses of risk. Conclusion This study proposes that cell communication and cell death are major biological processes perturbed in risk of breast cancer conferred by low-penetrance variants, and defines the common

  20. A two-hour antibiotic susceptibility test by ATP-bioluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March Rosselló, Gabriel Alberto; García-Loygorri Jordán de Urries, María Cristina; Gutiérrez Rodríguez, María Purificación; Simarro Grande, María; Orduña Domingo, Antonio; Bratos Pérez, Miguel Ángel

    2016-01-01

    The antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) in Clinical Microbiology laboratories is still time-consuming, and most procedures take 24h to yield results. In this study, a rapid antimicrobial susceptibility test using ATP-bioluminescence has been developed. The design of method was performed using five ATCC collection strains of known susceptibility. This procedure was then validated against standard commercial methods on 10 strains of enterococci, 10 staphylococci, 10 non-fermenting gram negative bacilli, and 13 Enterobacteriaceae from patients. The agreement obtained in the sensitivity between the ATP-bioluminescence method and commercial methods (E-test, MicroScan and VITEK2) was 100%. In summary, the preliminary results obtained in this work show that the ATP-bioluminescence method could provide a fast and reliable AST in two hours. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  1. Susceptibility, Oviposition Preference, and Biology of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Prunus Spp. Rootstock Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, D; Lazzari, J C; Andreazza, F; Mayer, N A; Botton, M; Nava, D E

    2017-08-01

    Studying the susceptibility of peach trees to Grapholita molesta (Busck) is one of the major steps in the development of pest-resistant peach varieties. This work evaluated the susceptibility of 55 genotypes of the "Prunus Rootstock Collection" ("Coleção Porta-enxerto de Prunus") of Embrapa Temperate Climate (Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil) to the natural infestation of G. molesta, assessed the oviposition preference of G. molesta in choice and no-choice bioassays, and estimated the biological parameters and the fertility life table on different Prunus spp. genotypes in the laboratory. Genotypes Prunus kansuensis (Rehder), I-67-52-9, and I-67-52-4 were the most susceptible to G. molesta infestation in the field (>60% of branches infested), while 'Sharpe' (Prunus angustifolia x Prunus spp.) and Prunus sellowii (Koehne) were the least infested (0% of branches infested). In choice and no-choice bioassays, G. molesta preferred to oviposit on P. kansuensis when compared with Sharpe. The Sharpe genotype also showed an antibiosis effect, resulting in negative effects on the fertility life table parameters when compared with the genotypes P. kansuensis and 'Capdeboscq.' The results found in the present study can provide information to initiate a long-term breeding program moving desired G. molesta resistance traits from the rootstock into the Prunus spp. cultivars. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Magnetic susceptibility of surface soils in the Mu Us Desert and its environmental significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaokang; Lu, Ruijie; Lü, Zhiqiang; Du, Jing; Jia, Feifei; Li, Tengfei; Chen, Lu; Wu, Yongqiu

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic susceptibility has been widely used as a climatic proxy in paleoclimatic research. In arid and semi-arid regions, the magnetic properties of modern surface soil are significantly influenced by precipitation. This is demonstrated by observed positive correlations between percentage frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility (χfd%), which reflects the presence of fine-grained (superparamagnetic, SP) grains produced during weathering and pedogenesis, and regional mean annual precipitation (MAP). To further investigate this relationship, we measured the magnetic properties of 104 surface soil samples collected along two transects (AA and BB) spanning a rainfall gradient across the Mu Us Desert in northern China. There were no systematic trends in magnetic properties along transect BB; the χfd% values remained relatively low and stable, probably reflecting weak pedogenesis and the domination of the magnetic properties by lithology. In contrast, along transect AA there was a significant positive correlation (p modern Mu Us Desert. The results show that the variations of reconstructed precipitation are consistent with those of lithological properties, and they also confirm previous conclusions that paleosol development in the study area is dominated by precipitation. Overall the results further demonstrate the feasibility of using frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility to quantitatively reconstruct regional paleo-precipitation, including within a geographically diverse desert area. In addition, they provide an improved understanding of the main sand provenance in Mu Us Desert.

  3. Vascular endothelial growth factor genotypes and haplotypes contribute to the susceptibility of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Cao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To investigate whether VEGF polymorphisms (-460 T/C, +405 G/C, and +936 C/T/haplotypes influence the susceptibility of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. METHOD: A prospective case-control study was conducted to evaluate the genetic effects of VEGF polymorphisms on the development of OSA. 150 patients and 225 healthy controls were recruited for this study and their genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP. The odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated by logistic regression analysis. RESULT: Our study showed that the -460 C allele (C vs. T: OR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.38-2.76 and +936 T allele (T vs. C: OR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.02-2.15 were associated with an increased OSA risk, whereas +405 C allele was associated with a decreased susceptibility to OSA (C vs. G: OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.45-0.83. Compared with the most common haplotype CCT, CGC (OR = 2.22, 95% CI = 1.19-4.13 and TGC (OR = 3.83, 95% CI = 1.56-9.40 were associated with a significantly increased risk of OSA. CONCLUSION: These observations implied that VEGF gene polymorphisms might be associated with the susceptibility to OSA. These results need to be validated by other independent studies, especially in diverse ethnic populations.

  4. A torque balance measurement of anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility in white matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gelderen, Peter; Mandelkow, Hendrik; de Zwart, Jacco A; Duyn, Jeff H

    2015-11-01

    Recent MRI studies have suggested that the magnetic susceptibility of white matter (WM) in the human brain is anisotropic, providing a new contrast mechanism for the visualization of fiber bundles and allowing the extraction of cellular compartment-specific information. This study provides an independent confirmation and quantification of this anisotropy. Anisotropic magnetic susceptibility results in a torque exerted on WM when placed in a uniform magnetic field, tending to align the WM fibers with the field. To quantify the effect, excised spinal cord samples were placed in a torque balance inside the magnet of a 7 T MRI system and the magnetic torque was measured as function of orientation. All tissue samples (n = 5) showed orienting effects, confirming the presence of anisotropic susceptibility. Analysis of the magnetic torque resulted in reproducible values for the WM volume anisotropy that ranged from 13.6 to 19.2 ppb. The independently determined anisotropy values confirm estimates inferred from MRI experiments and validate the use of anisotropy to extract novel information about brain fiber structure and myelination. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The influence of land use change on landslide susceptibility zonation: the Briga catchment test site (Messina, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, P; Busca, C; Mondini, A C; Rossi, M

    2014-12-01

    The spatial distribution of landslides is influenced by different climatic conditions and environmental settings including topography, morphology, hydrology, lithology, and land use. In this work, we have attempted to evaluate the influence of land use change on landslide susceptibility (LS) for a small study area located in the southern part of the Briga catchment, along the Ionian coast of Sicily (Italy). On October 1, 2009, the area was hit by an intense rainfall event that triggered abundant slope failures and resulted in widespread erosion. After the storm, an inventory map showing the distribution of pre-event and event landslides was prepared for the area. Moreover, two different land use maps were developed: the first was obtained through a semi-automatic classification of digitized aerial photographs acquired in 1954, the second through the combination of supervised classifications of two recent QuickBird images. Exploiting the two land use maps and different land use scenarios, LS zonations were prepared through multivariate statistical analyses. Differences in the susceptibility models were analyzed and quantified to evaluate the effects of land use change on the susceptibility zonation. Susceptibility maps show an increase in the areal percentage and number of slope units classified as unstable related to the increase in bare soils to the detriment of forested areas.

  6. Study of Candida Bloodstream Infections in Surgical Intensive Care Unit Patients and Susceptibility Profile of the Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya S. Rajmane

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increased incidence of fungal infections in the past two decades has been overwhelming. Despite the fact that invasive fungal infections are still under-diagnosed and underreported, bloodstream infection due to Candida is now being recognized as an important public health problem especially in ICU patients with considerable morbidity, mortality and health care costs. Objective: To study the incidence, risk factors and antifungal susceptibility of Candida bloodstream infection in our hospital. Material and Methods: In the present study, the blood samples were collected from patients admitted in Surgical ICU. Samples were processed and antifungal susceptibility of the isolates was performed using standard protocol. Results: Out of total 93 patients, 14 (15.05% were positive for candidemia with equal distribution of both C. albicans and nonalbicans Candida spp. The risk factors associated with candidemia showing statistical significance were length of ICU stay > 7 days, mechanical ventilation, central venous catheters and uncontrolled diabetes. Among the patients with candidemia the mortality rate was 78.57 %. Resistance to Amphotericin B was seen in 33.33 % isolates of C. tropicalis and 100 % isolates of C. rugosa. 33.33 % of C. tropicalis and 50 % of C. rugosa showed dose dependent susceptibility to Fluconazole. Conclusion: Early diagnosis and antifungal susceptibility testing is very important in the treatment of candidemia for reducing the mortality rate.

  7. Molecular epidemiology of acute leukemia in children: causal model, interaction of three factors-susceptibility, environmental exposure and vulnerability period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel

    Acute leukemias have a huge morphological, cytogenetic and molecular heterogeneity and genetic polymorphisms associated with susceptibility. Every leukemia presents causal factors associated with the development of the disease. Particularly, when three factors are present, they result in the development of acute leukemia. These phenomena are susceptibility, environmental exposure and a period that, for this model, has been called the period of vulnerability. This framework shows how the concepts of molecular epidemiology have established a reference from which it is more feasible to identify the environmental factors associated with the development of leukemia in children. Subsequently, the arguments show that only susceptible children are likely to develop leukemia once exposed to an environmental factor. For additional exposure, if the child is not susceptible to leukemia, the disease does not develop. In addition, this exposure should occur during a time window when hematopoietic cells and their environment are more vulnerable to such interaction, causing the development of leukemia. This model seeks to predict the time when the leukemia develops and attempts to give a context in which the causality of childhood leukemia should be studied. This information can influence and reduce the risk of a child developing leukemia. Copyright © 2016 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  8. [Drug susceptibility and homologous analysis on Corynebacterium striatum strains isolated from inpatients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junrui; Du, Xiaoli; Cui, Jinghua; Guo, Sufang; Fu, Quan; Wang, Yanyan; Fan, Wenbing; Han, Yanqiu

    2014-08-26

    To explore the molecular epidemiological features and in vitro susceptibility profile of Corynebacterium striatum strains isolated from different sites of inpatients, and further provide new data and idea for clinicians to better get knowledge of the clinical significance of Corynebacterium striatum. Fourty-five strains of Corynebacterium striatum isolated from different sites of inpatients from November, 2013 to March, 2014 in Affiliated hospital of Inner Mongolian medical university, and microdilution method was employed to do in vitro antibiotics susceptibility test. Saline-cotton swab method was used to sample the surrounding environmental surfaces for Corynebacterium striatum carrying patients, and suspected colonies were further identified and in vitro drug susceptibility test were performed. Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis(PFGE) method was used to do molecular typing for 41 isolates of Corynebacterium striatum. Fourty-five isolates of Corynebacterium striatum strains were mainly isolated from neurosurgical unit(21 isolates), respiratory unit(8 isolates) and intensive care unit(8 isolates), 39 isolates of which were isolated from lower respiratory tract. The 45 isolates presented an aggregate distribution in the following 3 months, which were December 2013, January 2014 and February 2014.In vitro antibiotics susceptibility test showed that MIC90 for penecillin, erythromycin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and clindamycin were 64 µg/ml or higher and the MIC90 for gentamicin, vancomycin and rifampicin were all 0.5 µg/ml. Only one isolate was sensitive to all of the antibiotics tested, except clindamycin. PFGE typing results showed that 41 isolates were divided into 7 genotypes, among which 0002 type and 0006 type were the predominant types and accounted for 63% (26/41) and 22% (9/41), respectively. The isolates from different patients showed high homology, which were isolated from the same unit during the same periods.For surrounding surfaces sampling

  9. Differential susceptibility to discipline: the moderating effect of child temperament on the association between maternal discipline and early childhood externalizing problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zeijl, Jantien; Mesman, Judi; Stolk, Mirjam N; Alink, Lenneke R A; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Juffer, Femmie; Koot, Hans M

    2007-12-01

    This study investigated the interaction of child temperament and maternal discipline in the prediction of externalizing problems in early childhood. Interaction effects were evaluated in a sample of 227 one- to three-year-old children with relatively high externalizing problems scores on the Child Behavior Checklist/1 1/2-5. Child temperament was reported by the mothers, maternal discipline was observed in a laboratory session, and child outcome measures included both mother-reported externalizing problems and observed physical aggression. Results indicate that children with difficult temperaments are more susceptible to negative discipline (i.e., they showed more externalizing problems) as well as more susceptible to positive discipline (i.e., they showed fewer externalizing problems and less physical aggression), as compared with children with relatively easy temperaments. These findings provide empirical evidence for the differential susceptibility hypothesis and suggest directions for enhancing the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing early childhood externalizing problems.

  10. Conjunctivitis Caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates with Reduced Cephalosporin Susceptibility and Multidrug Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Yutaka; Maruyama, Yosuke; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Sakane, Yuri; Miyamoto, Hitoshi; Ohashi, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    We report two cases of conjunctivitis caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae with reduced cephalosporin susceptibility. Patients showed no response to cefmenoxime eye drops and intravenous ceftriaxone administration. The patients' condition improved after the addition of oral minocycline. The isolates contained the mosaic penA for reduction of β-lactam susceptibility. PMID:24025911

  11. Wave Vector Dependent Susceptibility at T>Tc in a Dipolar Ising Ferromagnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Holmes, L. M:; Guggenheim, H. J.

    1974-01-01

    The wave-vector-dependent susceptibility of LiTbF4 has been investigated by means of neutron scattering. The observations show a singularity of the susceptibility near wave vector Q=0 which is characteristic of the dipolar Coulomb interaction and good agreement with theory is obtained...

  12. Sex-specific effects of NLRP6/AVR and ADM loci on susceptibility to essential hypertension in a Sardinian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Glorioso

    Full Text Available Coronary artery disease, heart failure, fatal arrhythmias, stroke, and renal disease are the most common causes of mortality for humans, and essential hypertension remains a major risk factor. Elucidation of susceptibility loci for essential hypertension has been difficult because of its complex, multifactorial nature involving genetic, environmental, and sex- and age-dependent nature. We investigated whether the 11p15.5 region syntenic to rat chromosome 1 region containing multiple blood pressure quantitative trait loci (QTL detected in Dahl rat intercrosses harbors polymorphisms that contribute to susceptibility/resistance to essential hypertension in a Sardinian population. Initial testing performed using microsatellite markers spanning 18 Mb of 11p15.5 detected a strong association between D11S1318 (at 2.1 Mb, P = 0.004 and D11S1346 (at 10.6 Mb, P = 0.00000004, suggesting that loci in close proximity to these markers may contribute to susceptibility in our Sardinian cohort. NLR family, pyrin domain containing 6/angiotensin-vasopressin receptor (NLRP6/AVR, and adrenomedullin (ADM are in close proximity to D11S1318 and D11S1346, respectively; thus we tested single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within NLRP6/AVR and ADM for their association with hypertension in our Sardinian cohort. Upon sex stratification, we detected one NLRP6/AVR SNP associated with decreased susceptibility to hypertension in males (rs7948797G, P = 0.029; OR = 0.73 [0.57-0.94]. For ADM, sex-specific analysis showed a significant association between rs4444073C, with increased susceptibility to essential hypertension only in the male population (P = 0.006; OR = 1.44 [1.13-1.84]. Our results revealed an association between NLRP6/AVR and ADM loci with male essential hypertension, suggesting the existence of sex-specific NLRP6/AVR and ADM variants affecting male susceptibility to essential hypertension.

  13. Revisiting the health effects of psychological stress-its influence on susceptibility to ionizing radiation: a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Katsube, Takanori; Begum, Nasrin; Nenoi, Mitsuru

    2016-07-01

    Both psychological stress (PS) and ionizing radiation (IR) cause varied detrimental effects on humans. There has been no direct evidence so far showing PS alone could cause cancer; however, long-lasting PS may affect our overall health and ability to cope with cancer. Due to their living conditions and occupations, some people may encounter concurrent exposure to both PS and IR to a high extent. In addition to possible health effects resulting directly from exposure to IR on these people, fear of IR exposure is also a cause of PS. The question of whether PS would influence susceptibility to IR, radiocarcinogenesis in particular, is of great concern by both the academic world and the public. Recently, investigations using animal PS models demonstrated that PS could modulate susceptibility to IR, causing increased susceptibility to radiocarcinogenesis in Trp53-heterozygous mice, hematological toxicity in peripheral blood and elevated chromosome aberration (dicentrics) frequency in splenocytes of Trp53-wild-type mice. To actively reduce health risk from exposure to IR, further studies are needed to cumulate more evidence and provide insights into the mechanisms underlying the alterations in susceptibility due to PS modulation. This mini-review gives a general overview of the significance of PS effects on humans and experimental animals, with a special focus on summarizing the latest weight-of-evidence approaches to radiobiological studies on PS-induced alterations in susceptibility in experimental animal models. The susceptibility being investigated is mainly in the context of the impact of the modulatory effect of PS on radiocarcinogenesis; we seek to improve understanding of the combined effects of exposure to both PS and IR in order to facilitate, via active intervention, strategies for radiation risk reduction. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  14. [Molecular identification and in vitro antifungal susceptibility of blood isolates of the Candida parapsilosis species complex in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Xiomara; Reviakina, Vera; Panizo, María M; Ferrara, Giusseppe; García, Nataly; Alarcón, Víctor; Garcés, María F; Dolande, Maribel

    Candida parapsilosis is a species complex consisting of Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis. Studies worldwide have described its epidemiology and susceptibility to antifungal agents. The aims of this study were to carry out the molecular identification of blood isolates belonging to the Candida parapsilosis species complex, and to determine their in vitro susceptibility to antifungals of systemic use. A study of 86 strains of C. parapsilosis species complex collected in 2008-2011 and obtained from the Candidaemia Surveillance Network of Mycology Department of the Rafael Rangel National Institute of Hygiene, was made. Secondary alcohol-dehydrogenase gene amplification was performed using polymerase chain reaction, and the products were analysed by restriction fragments length polymorphisms using the enzyme BanI. Susceptibility tests were performed using Etest(®), following the manufacturer's instructions with modifications. Of the 86 isolates studied, 81 (94.2%) were C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, 4 (4.6%) C. orthopsilosis, and one (1.2%) C. metapsilosis. C. parapsilosis isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B and caspofungin, showing low rates of resistance to fluconazole and voriconazole. C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis were susceptible to all the antifungals tested. The results obtained in Venezuela provide for the first time important information about the distribution of C. parapsilosis species complex in cases of candidaemia, and support the need for continuing surveillance programs, including molecular discrimination of species and antifungal susceptibility tests, which may guide specific therapy. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in ocular infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugenia Vola

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among S. aureus ocular infections in a tertiary health center in Brazil and compare antibiotic susceptibility patterns between MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates. METHODS: Electronic records from the ocular microbiology laboratory of the Universidade Federal de São Paulo were retrospectively reviewed. During a 10-year period (between January 2000 and December 2009 all conjunctivitis, keratitis, and endophthalmitis cases with a positive culture for S. aureus were identified. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. RESULTS: Five hundred sixty-six S. aureus isolates were identified; of those, 56 (9.9% were resistant to methicillin. Throughout the 10-year period, Staphylococcus aureus showed a significant increasing trend from 7.55% to 16.18% among overall S. aurues infections (p=0.001 and from 3.7% to 13.16% in conjunctivitis (p=0.001. Conversely, we did not observe the same trend among those with keratitis (p=0.38. Staphylococcus aureus isolates showed higher resistance rates to tobramycin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, and moxifloxacin when compared with S. aureus isolates (p< 0.001. All cases were susceptible to vancomycin. CONCLUSION: We observed an increasing trend in the overall prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus ocular infections and statistically significant higher resistance rates to commonly used antibiotics compared to Staphylococcus aureus. Our data supports the need for constant bacterial surveillance and should be taken into consideration before initiating empiric treatment of ocular infections.

  16. Risk modification of colorectal cancer susceptibility by interleukin-8 -251T>A polymorphism in Malaysians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Mohd Aminudin; Shahpudin, Siti Nurfatimah Mohd; Aziz, Ahmad Aizat Abdul; Ankathil, Ravindran

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the allele and genotype frequencies and associated risk of interleukin (IL)-8 -251T>A polymorphism on colorectal cancer (CRC) susceptibility risk. METHODS: Peripheral blood samples of 255 normal controls and 255 clinically and histopathologically confirmed CRC patients were genotyped for IL-8 -251T>A polymorphism employing allele-specific polymerase chain reaction. The relative association of variant allele and genotypes with CRC susceptibility risk was determined by calculating the odds ratios (ORs). Corresponding χ2 tests on the CRC patients and controls were carried out and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were determined using Fisher’s exact test. The allele frequencies and its risk association were calculated using FAMHAP, haplotype association analysis software. RESULTS: On comparing the frequencies of genotypes of patients and controls, the homozygous variant AA was significantly higher in CRC patients (P = 0.002) compared to controls. Investigation on the association of the polymorphic genotypes with CRC susceptibility risk, showed that the homozygous variant IL-8 -251AA had a significantly increased risk with OR 3.600 (95% CI: 1.550-8.481, P = 0.001). In the case of allele frequencies, variant allele A of IL-8 -251 showed a significantly increased risk of CRC predisposition with OR 1.32 (95% CI: 1.03-1.69, P = 0.003). CONCLUSION: Variant allele and genotype of IL-8 (-251T>A) was significantly associated with CRC susceptibility risk and could be considered as a high-risk variant for CRC predisposition. PMID:22690076

  17. SUSCEPTIBILITY OF BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS STRAINS TO ANTIBACTERIAL PREPARATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yu. Borisova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 178 strains of B. pertussis isolated from infected individuals in various regions of Russia from 1948 to 2012 have been studied for their susceptibility to six antibacterial preparations. It has been shown, that B. pertussis strains isolated from 1948 to 1989 were predominantly sensitive to erythromycin. In the following years a gradual decrease in susceptibility of circulating strains of B. pertussis to this antibiotic was registered with the emergence of strains with intermediate susceptibility in 22% of cases from 1990 to 2005 (MIC 0,060 mcg/mL, up to 59,3% in the last six years (MIC 0,125 mcg/mL. As for azithromycin, high susceptibility of strains of B. pertussis to this preparation was shown throughout the entire duration of the survey. However, the rate of incidence of intermediate strains reached 14% among those strains isolated from 1990 to 2005, and is now at 32%. Thus, after several decades of active use of antibiotics pertussis underwent a series of transformations resulting in a decrease in susceptibility of B. pertussis strains to erythromycin and azithromycin.

  18. Antimicrobial susceptibility of porcine Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and Brachyspira pilosicoli isolated in Sweden between 1990 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Märit; Landén, Annica; Unnerstad, Helle Ericsson; Molander, Benedicta; Bengtsson, Björn

    2012-09-21

    The anaerobic spirochetes Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and Brachyspira pilosicoli cause diarrheal diseases in pigs. Their fastidious nature has hampered standardization of methods for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. For monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility wild type cutoff values are needed to define where the wild type distribution of MICs ends and no approved cutoffs are available for Brachyspira spp. In this study antimicrobial susceptibility data for both species (in total 906 isolates) were compiled and analyzed and wild type cut off values for B. hyodysenteriae proposed. The MICs of tiamulin, valnemulin, tylosin, tylvalosin, doxycycline and lincomycin were determined by broth dilution in brain heart infusion broth supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum. The compiled MICs from the broth dilution tests of the B. hyodysenteriae type strain, B78T (ATCC® 27164T), showed that the method yields reproducible results. In an international perspective the frequencies of isolates with decreased antimicrobial susceptibility were low among both B. hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli. However, in B. pilosicoli a constant level of 10-15% isolates with tiamulin MICs >4 μg/ml was detected between 2002 and 2010 and in B. hyodysenteriae a gradual increase in tiamulin MICs was seen between 1990 and 2003 although this increase has ceased during the last years. The wild type cutoff values proposed for B. hyodysenteriae are: tiamulin >0.25 μg/ml, valnemulin >0.125 μg/ml, tylosin >16 μg/ml, tylvalosin >1 μg/ml, lincomycin >1 μg/ml and doxycycline >0.5 μg/ml. The broth dilution method used in this study has over the years generated tightly grouped MIC populations for the field isolates and reproducible results for the control strain B78T and is therefore a suitable antimicrobial susceptibility test method for monitoring of Brachyspira spp. Here we propose wild type cutoff values for six antimicrobial agents for B. hyodysenteriae tested by broth dilution based on MIC

  19. TRAIL/TRAIL receptor system and susceptibility to multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos López-Gómez

    Full Text Available The TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL/TRAIL receptor system participates in crucial steps in immune cell activation or differentiation. It is able to inhibit proliferation and activation of T cells and to induce apoptosis of neurons and oligodendrocytes, and seems to be implicated in autoimmune diseases. Thus, TRAIL and TRAIL receptor genes are potential candidates for involvement in susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS. To test whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the human genes encoding TRAIL, TRAILR-1, TRAILR-2, TRAILR-3 and TRAILR-4 are associated with MS susceptibility, we performed a candidate gene case-control study in the Spanish population. 59 SNPs in the TRAIL and TRAIL receptor genes were analysed in 628 MS patients and 660 controls, and validated in an additional cohort of 295 MS patients and 233 controls. Despite none of the SNPs withstood the highly conservative Bonferroni correction, three SNPs showing uncorrected p values<0.05 were successfully replicated: rs4894559 in TRAIL gene, p = 9.8×10(-4, OR = 1.34; rs4872077, in TRAILR-1 gene, p = 0.005, OR = 1.72; and rs1001793 in TRAILR-2 gene, p = 0.012, OR = 0.84. The combination of the alleles G/T/A in these SNPs appears to be associated with a reduced risk of developing MS (p = 2.12×10(-5, OR = 0.59. These results suggest that genes of the TRAIL/TRAIL receptor system exerts a genetic influence on MS.

  20. Landslide susceptibility mapping in three selected target zones in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Seegers, Joe; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2015-04-01

    In May 2014, a large and mobile landslide destroyed the village Ab Barek, a village in Badakshan Province, Afghanistan. The landslide caused several hundred fatalities and once again demonstrated the vulnerability of Afghanistan's population to extreme natural events following more than 30 years of civil war and violent conflict. Increasing the capacity of Afghanistan's population by strengthening the disaster preparedness and management of responsible government authorities and institutions is thus a major component of international cooperation and development strategies. Afghanistan is characterized by high relief and widely varying rock types that largely determine the spatial distribution as well as emplacement modes of mass movements. The major aim of our study is to characterize this variability by conducting a landslide susceptibility analysis in three selected target zones: Greater Kabul Area, Badakhshan Province and Takhar Province. We expand on an existing landslide database by mapping landforms diagnostic for landslides (e.g. head scarps, normal faults and tension cracks), and historical landslide scars and landslide deposits by visual interpretation of high-resolution satellite imagery. We conduct magnitude frequency analysis within subregional physiogeographic classes based on geological maps, climatological and topographic data to identify regional parameters influencing landslide magnitude and frequency. In addition, we prepare a landslide susceptibility map for each area using the Weight-of-Evidence model. Preliminary results show that the three selected target zones vastly differ in modes of landsliding. Low magnitude but frequent rockfall events are a major hazard in the Greater Kabul Area threatening buildings and infrastructure encroaching steep terrain in the city's outskirts. Mass movements in loess covered areas of Badakshan are characterized by medium to large magnitudes. This spatial variability of characteristic landslide magnitudes and

  1. Enhanced brain susceptibility to negative stimuli in adolescents: ERP evidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajin eYuan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: previous studies investigated neural substrates of emotional face processing in adolescents and its comparison with adults. As emotional faces elicit more of emotional expression recognition rather than direct emotional responding, it remains undetermined how adolescents are different from adults in brain susceptibility to emotionally stressful stimuli. Methods: Event-Related Potentials were recorded for highly negative (HN, moderately negative (MN and Neutral pictures in 20 adolescents and 20 adults while subjects performed a standard/deviant distinction task by pressing different keys, irrespective of the emotionality of deviant stimuli. Results: Adolescents exhibited more negative amplitudes for HN versus neutral pictures in N1 (100-150ms, P2 (130-190ms, N2 (210-290ms and P3 (360-440ms components. In addition, adolescents showed more negative amplitudes for MN compared to neutral pictures in N1, P2 and N2 components. By contrast, adults exhibited significant emotion effects for HN stimuli in N2 and P3 amplitudes but not in N1 and P2 amplitudes, and they did not exhibit a significant emotion effect for MN stimuli at all these components. In the 210-290ms time interval, the emotion effect for HN stimuli was significant across frontal and central regions in adolescents, while this emotion effect was noticeable only in the central region for adults. Conclusions: Adolescents are more emotionally sensitive to negative stimuli compared to adults, regardless of the emotional intensity of the stimuli, possibly due to the immature prefrontal control system over the limbic emotional inputs during adolescence. Keywords: Event-Related Potentials (ERPs; Adolescence; Emotion intensity; Negative pictures; Emotional Susceptibility

  2. Accuracy of magnetic resonance based susceptibility measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdevig, Hannah E.; Russek, Stephen E.; Carnicka, Slavka; Stupic, Karl F.; Keenan, Kathryn E.

    2017-05-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is increasingly used to map the magnetic susceptibility of tissue to identify cerebral microbleeds associated with traumatic brain injury and pathological iron deposits associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Accurate measurements of susceptibility are important for determining oxygen and iron content in blood vessels and brain tissue for use in noninvasive clinical diagnosis and treatment assessments. Induced magnetic fields with amplitude on the order of 100 nT, can be detected using MRI phase images. The induced field distributions can then be inverted to obtain quantitative susceptibility maps. The focus of this research was to determine the accuracy of MRI-based susceptibility measurements using simple phantom geometries and to compare the susceptibility measurements with magnetometry measurements where SI-traceable standards are available. The susceptibilities of paramagnetic salt solutions in cylindrical containers were measured as a function of orientation relative to the static MRI field. The observed induced fields as a function of orientation of the cylinder were in good agreement with simple models. The MRI susceptibility measurements were compared with SQUID magnetometry using NIST-traceable standards. MRI can accurately measure relative magnetic susceptibilities while SQUID magnetometry measures absolute magnetic susceptibility. Given the accuracy of moment measurements of tissue mimicking samples, and the need to look at small differences in tissue properties, the use of existing NIST standard reference materials to calibrate MRI reference structures is problematic and better reference materials are required.

  3. Proteochemometric modeling of HIV protease susceptibility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lapins, Maris; Eklund, Martin; Spjuth, Ola; Prusis, Peteris; Wikberg, Jarl E S

    2008-01-01

    .... Therefore, we used proteochemometrics to model the susceptibility of HIV to protease inhibitors in current use, utilizing descriptions of the physico-chemical properties of mutated HIV proteases...

  4. Aggregation of Argulus coregoni (Crustacea: Branchiura) on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): a consequence of host susceptibility or exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandilla, M; Hakalahti, T; Hudson, P J; Valtonen, E T

    2005-02-01

    By sampling individual rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, at a fish farm we showed that Argulus coregoni were aggregated within their host population. The relative significance of susceptibility and exposure generating the observed pattern was tested using experimental infections. We examined, whether rainbow trout developed protective resistance mechanisms against the louse following a challenge infection and if there was variation between individual trout in their susceptibility to A. coregoni metanauplii. Fish were exposed to 20 A. coregoni for 5, 25, 50, 85 or 120 min and the numbers attaching recorded. Three weeks later, developing argulids were removed and the experiment repeated with a standardized exposure of 20 metanauplii. Prior exposure of fish with A. coregoni did not reduce the total infection intensity compared to naive fish, but fish gained infection more rapidly. We suggest that there is no protective acquired resistance of pre-exposed rainbow trout to subsequent Argulus exposure. The possibility that an immunosuppressive mechanism by argulids was acting enabling the higher attachment rate could be refuted since control individuals, not previously exposed to lice, gained the infection at a similar rate as the fish challenged twice. Our results do not indicate clear differences in susceptibility among individual fish but the transmission of metanauplii on fish seemed to be opportunistic and non-selective. Our results support the view that variation in exposure time, rather than differences in susceptibility of individual hosts, might be the key factor in generating the aggregated distribution of Argulus on their hosts.

  5. Evaluation of rifampicin and isoniazid susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by a mycobacteriophage D29-based assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauca, José A; Palomino, Juan-Carlos; Guerra, Humberto

    2007-03-01

    Conventional methods for determining drug susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis require several weeks to obtain results, limiting their usefulness; automated methods and those based on molecular biology techniques have been able to reduce the turnaround time, but their high cost and need for sophisticated equipment restrict their use in developing countries. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a rapid (3-4 days) low-cost test based on the use of mycobacteriophage D29 to determine the susceptibility of strains of M. tuberculosis to rifampicin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH). Results obtained show that susceptibility testing for RIF has a high diagnostic accuracy as compared to the standard indirect proportion method on Löwenstein-Jensen medium (sensitivity 100% and specificity 98%). Given the association between the resistance to RIF and INH, which define multidrug resistance (MDR), this test seems suitable for rapid detection of MDR tuberculosis strains (kappa=0.978). Susceptibility testing for INH using mycobacteriophage D29 had a good but lower diagnostic accuracy as compared to the standard method (sensitivity 80.4% and specificity 80.8%); the test would then be of limited usefulness in the management of tuberculosis patients. Further studies to determine the relationship of mycobacteriophage D29 tests to in vivo correlates of sensitivity to specific antituberculosis drugs are warranted.

  6. Equilibrium susceptibilities of superparamagnets: longitudinal and transverse, quantum and classical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Palacios, J L; Gong, J B; Luis, F

    2009-11-11

    The equilibrium susceptibility of uniaxial paramagnets is studied in a unified framework which permits us to connect traditional results of the theory of quantum paramagnets, S = 1/2,1,3/2,..., with molecular magnetic clusters, S∼5,10,20 all the way up (S = 30,50,100,...,) to the theory of classical superparamagnets. This is done using standard tools of quantum statistical mechanics and linear-response theory (the Kubo correlator formalism). Several features of the temperature dependence of the susceptibility curves (crossovers, peaks, deviations from Curie law) are studied and their scalings with S identified and characterized. Both the longitudinal and transverse susceptibilities are discussed, as well as the response of the ensemble with anisotropy axes oriented at random. For the latter case a simple approximate formula is derived too, and its range of validity assessed, which could be used in the modelization of experiments.

  7. Equilibrium susceptibilities of superparamagnets: longitudinal and transverse, quantum and classical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GarcIa-Palacios, J L; Gong, J B [Department of Physics and Centre of Computational Science and Engineering, NUS, 117542 (Singapore); Luis, F [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2009-11-11

    The equilibrium susceptibility of uniaxial paramagnets is studied in a unified framework which permits us to connect traditional results of the theory of quantum paramagnets, S = 1/2,1,3/2,..., with molecular magnetic clusters, Sapprox5,10,20 all the way up (S = 30,50,100,...,) to the theory of classical superparamagnets. This is done using standard tools of quantum statistical mechanics and linear-response theory (the Kubo correlator formalism). Several features of the temperature dependence of the susceptibility curves (crossovers, peaks, deviations from Curie law) are studied and their scalings with S identified and characterized. Both the longitudinal and transverse susceptibilities are discussed, as well as the response of the ensemble with anisotropy axes oriented at random. For the latter case a simple approximate formula is derived too, and its range of validity assessed, which could be used in the modelization of experiments.

  8. Immune-Neuroendocrine Interactions: Evolution, Ecology, and Susceptibility to Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Johanna M C; Ottaviani, Enzo

    2017-11-16

    The integration between immune and neuroendocrine systems is crucial for maintaining homeostasis from invertebrates to humans. In the first, the phagocytic cell, i.e., the immunocyte, is the main actor, while in the latter, the principle player is the lymphocyte. Immunocytes are characterized by the presence of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) peptides, CRH, and other molecules that display a significant similarity to their mammalian counterparts regarding their functions, as both are mainly involved in fundamental functions such as immune (chemotaxis, phagocytosis, cytotoxicity, etc.) and neuroendocrine (stress) responses. Furthermore, the immune-neuroendocrine system provides vital answers to ecological and immunological demands in terms of economy and efficiency. Finally, susceptibility to disease emerges as the result of a continuous dynamic interaction between the world within and the world outside. New fields such as ecological immunology study the susceptibility to pathogens in an evolutionary perspective while the field of neuro-endocrine-immunology studies the susceptibility from a more immediate perspective.

  9. Investigation of odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities in atomic vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Yaqi [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Teaching and Research Section of Maths and Physics, Guangzhou Commanding Academy of Chinese People’s Armed Police Force, Guangzhou, 510440 (China); Wu, Zhenkun; Si, Jinhai; Yan, Lihe; Zhang, Yiqi; Yuan, Chenzhi; Sun, Jia [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Zhang, Yanpeng, E-mail: ypzhang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China)

    2013-06-15

    We theoretically deduce the macroscopic symmetry constraints for arbitrary odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities in homogeneous media including atomic vapors for the first time. After theoretically calculating the expressions using a semiclassical method, we demonstrate that the expressions for third- and fifth-order nonlinear susceptibilities for undressed and dressed four- and six-wave mixing (FWM and SWM) in atomic vapors satisfy the macroscopic symmetry constraints. We experimentally demonstrate consistence between the macroscopic symmetry constraints and the semiclassical expressions for atomic vapors by observing polarization control of FWM and SWM processes. The experimental results are in reasonable agreement with our theoretical calculations. -- Highlights: •The macroscopic symmetry constraints are deduced for homogeneous media including atomic vapors. •We demonstrate that odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities satisfy the constraints. •We experimentally demonstrate the deduction in part.

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibilities and clinical sources of Facklamia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaClaire, L; Facklam, R

    2000-08-01

    Facklamia spp. are gram-positive cocci, arranged in short chains or diplos, and resemble viridans streptococci on 5% sheep blood agar. Eighteen strains representing four species of Facklamia were isolated from blood cultures, an abscess, bone, cerebrospinal fluid, gall bladder, vaginal swab, and one unknown source. Cultures were tested against 15 antimicrobial agents by using the broth microdilution MIC method. Reduced susceptibilities to the beta lactams, erythromycin, clindamycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline were found. These results indicate that the susceptibilities of the Facklamia species are varied and that some strains have resistance patterns which may present difficulty in managing systemic infections in patients.

  11. ramR mutations affecting fluoroquinolone susceptibility in epidemic multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky ST198

    OpenAIRE

    Baucheron, Sylvie; Le Hello, Simon; Doublet, Benoît; Giraud, Etienne; Weill, François-Xavier; Cloeckaert, Axel

    2013-01-01

    International audience; A screening for non-target mutations affecting fluoroquinolone susceptibility was conducted in epidemic multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky ST198. Among a panel of representative isolates (n = 27), covering the epidemic, only three showed distinct mutations in ramR resulting in enhanced expression of genes encoding the AcrAB-TolC efflux system and low increase in ciprofloxacin MIC. No mutations were detected in other regulatory regions of this effl...

  12. Evaluating performance of simplified physically based models for shallow landslide susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formetta, Giuseppe; Capparelli, Giovanna; Versace, Pasquale

    2016-11-01

    Rainfall-induced shallow landslides can lead to loss of life and significant damage to private and public properties, transportation systems, etc. Predicting locations that might be susceptible to shallow landslides is a complex task and involves many disciplines: hydrology, geotechnical science, geology, hydrogeology, geomorphology, and statistics. Two main approaches are commonly used: statistical or physically based models. Reliable model applications involve automatic parameter calibration, objective quantification of the quality of susceptibility maps, and model sensitivity analyses. This paper presents a methodology to systemically and objectively calibrate, verify, and compare different models and model performance indicators in order to identify and select the models whose behavior is the most reliable for particular case studies.The procedure was implemented in a package of models for landslide susceptibility analysis and integrated in the NewAge-JGrass hydrological model. The package includes three simplified physically based models for landslide susceptibility analysis (M1, M2, and M3) and a component for model verification. It computes eight goodness-of-fit indices by comparing pixel-by-pixel model results and measurement data. The integration of the package in NewAge-JGrass uses other components, such as geographic information system tools, to manage input-output processes, and automatic calibration algorithms to estimate model parameters. The system was applied for a case study in Calabria (Italy) along the Salerno-Reggio Calabria highway, between Cosenza and Altilia. The area is extensively subject to rainfall-induced shallow landslides mainly because of its complex geology and climatology. The analysis was carried out considering all the combinations of the eight optimized indices and the three models. Parameter calibration, verification, and model performance assessment were performed by a comparison with a detailed landslide inventory map for the

  13. Evaluating performance of simplified physically based models for shallow landslide susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Formetta

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall-induced shallow landslides can lead to loss of life and significant damage to private and public properties, transportation systems, etc. Predicting locations that might be susceptible to shallow landslides is a complex task and involves many disciplines: hydrology, geotechnical science, geology, hydrogeology, geomorphology, and statistics. Two main approaches are commonly used: statistical or physically based models. Reliable model applications involve automatic parameter calibration, objective quantification of the quality of susceptibility maps, and model sensitivity analyses. This paper presents a methodology to systemically and objectively calibrate, verify, and compare different models and model performance indicators in order to identify and select the models whose behavior is the most reliable for particular case studies.The procedure was implemented in a package of models for landslide susceptibility analysis and integrated in the NewAge-JGrass hydrological model. The package includes three simplified physically based models for landslide susceptibility analysis (M1, M2, and M3 and a component for model verification. It computes eight goodness-of-fit indices by comparing pixel-by-pixel model results and measurement data. The integration of the package in NewAge-JGrass uses other components, such as geographic information system tools, to manage input–output processes, and automatic calibration algorithms to estimate model parameters. The system was applied for a case study in Calabria (Italy along the Salerno–Reggio Calabria highway, between Cosenza and Altilia. The area is extensively subject to rainfall-induced shallow landslides mainly because of its complex geology and climatology. The analysis was carried out considering all the combinations of the eight optimized indices and the three models. Parameter calibration, verification, and model performance assessment were performed by a comparison with a detailed landslide

  14. Is the full susceptibility of the square-lattice Ising model a differentially algebraic function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmann, A. J.; Jensen, I.; Maillard, J.-M.; Pantone, J.

    2016-12-01

    We study the class of non-holonomic power series with integer coefficients that reduce, modulo primes, or powers of primes, to algebraic functions. In particular we try to determine whether the susceptibility of the square-lattice Ising model belongs to this class, and more broadly whether the susceptibility is a solution of a differentially algebraic equation. Initial results on Tutte's nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) and other simple quadratic nonlinear ODEs suggest that a large set of differentially algebraic power series solutions with integer coefficients might reduce to algebraic functions modulo primes, or powers of primes. Since diagonals of rational functions are well-known to reduce, modulo primes, or powers of primes, to algebraic functions, a large subset of differentially algebraic power series with integer coefficients may be viewed as a natural ‘nonlinear’ generalisation of diagonals of rational functions. Here we give several examples of series with integer coefficients and non-zero radius of convergence that reduce to algebraic functions modulo (almost) every prime (or power of a prime). These examples satisfy differentially algebraic equations with the encoding polynomial occasionally possessing quite high degree (and thus difficult to identify even with long series). These examples shed important light on the very nature of such differentially algebraic series. Additionally, we have extended both the high- and low-temperature Ising square-lattice susceptibility series to 5043 coefficients. We find that even this long series is insufficient to determine whether it reduces to algebraic functions modulo 3, 5, etc. This negative result is in contrast to the comparatively easy confirmation that the corresponding series reduce to algebraic functions modulo powers of 2. Finally we show that even with 5043 terms we are unable to identify an underlying differentially algebraic equation for the susceptibility, ruling out a number of

  15. Biological processes, properties and molecular wiring diagrams of candidate low-penetrance breast cancer susceptibility genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifaci, Núria; Berenguer, Antoni; Díez, Javier; Reina, Oscar; Medina, Ignacio; Dopazo, Joaquín; Moreno, Víctor; Pujana, Miguel Angel

    2008-12-18

    Recent advances in whole-genome association studies (WGASs) for human cancer risk are beginning to provide the part lists of low-penetrance susceptibility genes. However, statistical analysis in these studies is complicated by the vast number of genetic variants examined and the weak effects observed, as a result of which constraints must be incorporated into the study design and analytical approach. In this scenario, biological attributes beyond the adjusted statistics generally receive little attention and, more importantly, the fundamental biological characteristics of low-penetrance susceptibility genes have yet to be determined. We applied an integrative approach for identifying candidate low-penetrance breast cancer susceptibility genes, their characteristics and molecular networks through the analysis of diverse sources of biological evidence. First, examination of the distribution of Gene Ontology terms in ordered WGAS results identified asymmetrical distribution of Cell Communication and Cell Death processes linked to risk. Second, analysis of 11 different types of molecular or functional relationships in genomic and proteomic data sets defined the "omic" properties of candidate genes: i/ differential expression in tumors relative to normal tissue; ii/ somatic genomic copy number changes correlating with gene expression levels; iii/ differentially expressed across age at diagnosis; and iv/ expression changes after BRCA1 perturbation. Finally, network modeling of the effects of variants on germline gene expression showed higher connectivity than expected by chance between novel candidates and with known susceptibility genes, which supports functional relationships and provides mechanistic hypotheses of risk. This study proposes that cell communication and cell death are major biological processes perturbed in risk of breast cancer conferred by low-penetrance variants, and defines the common omic properties, molecular interactions and possible functional

  16. FGF receptor genes and breast cancer susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, D; Pineda, S; Michailidou, K

    2014-01-01

    Background:Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women. Genome-wide association studies have identified FGFR2 as a breast cancer susceptibility gene. Common variation in other fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors might also modify risk. We tested this hypothesis by studying...... genotyped single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and imputed SNPs in FGFR1, FGFR3, FGFR4 and FGFRL1 in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.Methods:Data were combined from 49 studies, including 53 835 cases and 50 156 controls, of which 89 050 (46 450 cases and 42 600 controls) were of European ancestry......, 12 893 (6269 cases and 6624 controls) of Asian and 2048 (1116 cases and 932 controls) of African ancestry. Associations with risk of breast cancer, overall and by disease sub-type, were assessed using unconditional logistic regression.Results:Little evidence of association with breast cancer risk...

  17. A Laboratory Study to Determine the Effect of Field Strength and Magnetic Susceptibility on the NMR Estimated Water Content in Unconsolidated Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, K.; Grunewald, E. D.; Walsh, D. O.

    2015-12-01

    Geophysical nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) well logging data can provide direct information about subsurface water content. While NMR water content estimates are known to be accurate in low magnetic susceptibility materials, it has often been assumed that NMR measurements cannot be used in high magnetic susceptibility materials due to internal magnetic field inhomogeneities that arise due to magnetic susceptibility contrasts in the material. In this study we compare the NMR estimated water content using laboratory measurements made at two low magnetic field strengths (with Larmor frequencies of 275 kHz and 2 MHz) on both synthetic and natural unconsolidated sediments with a range of magnetic susceptibility values. NMR measurements were collected on seven water-saturated materials with magnetic susceptibility values spanning three orders of magnitude (3.6x10-6 SI to 7.0 x10-3 SI). T2 relaxation time data was collected with echo times, tE, ranging from 200 to 3000 μs. The results show that for the materials with low magnetic susceptibilities (magnetic susceptibilities (> 5x10-4 SI) the water content was more accurately estimated using the data collected at 275 kHz (> 80% detected at tE = 400 μs) than the data collected at 2 MHz (< 40% detected at tE = 400 μs). Furthermore, the 275 kHz data showed water content underestimation errors increased only slightly with increased tE, compared to substantial increases in errors for the 2 MHz data as tE was increased. This finding suggests that there is an advantage for collecting measurements at lower field strengths even for long tE. We explain the differences in the water content estimates at the two field strengths by considering the shape of the echoes and the coil and pulse bandwidths, and find excellent agreement with the range of collected NMR data.

  18. Gentamicin Susceptibility among a Sample of Multidrug-Resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Manju; Singh, Vikram; Bhargava, Aradhana; Kakran, Monika; Joshi, Naveen Chandra; Bhatnagar, Ravi

    2016-12-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 258 Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates by Etest determined that 60.1% were multidrug resistant (MDR), while 5% of the strains had decreased susceptibility to currently recommended extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs). Among these, 84.5% of MDR strains and 76.9% of strains that had decreased susceptibility to ESCs were susceptible to gentamicin. No MDR isolate was resistant to gentamicin. These in vitro results suggest that gentamicin might be an effective treatment option for the MDR strains and in dual therapy for gonorrhea. However, further research regarding the clinical treatment outcomes is essential. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Dynamic magnetic susceptibility and electrical detection of ferromagnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yin; Wang, X. S.; Yuan, H. Y.; Kang, S. S.; Zhang, H. W.; Wang, X. R.

    2017-03-01

    The dynamic magnetic susceptibility of magnetic materials near ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) is very important in interpreting the dc voltage obtained in its electrical detection. Based on the causality principle and the assumption that the usual microwave absorption lineshape of a homogeneous magnetic material around FMR is Lorentzian, the general forms of the dynamic magnetic susceptibility of an arbitrary sample and the corresponding dc voltage lineshapes of its electrical detection were obtained. Our main findings are as follows. (1) The dynamic magnetic susceptibility is not a Polder tensor for a material with an arbitrary magnetic anisotropy. The two off-diagonal matrix elements of the tensor near FMR are not, in general, opposite to each other. However, the linear response coefficient of the magnetization to the total radio frequency (rf) field (the sum of the external and internal rf fields due to precessing magnetization is a quantity which cannot be measured directly) is a Polder tensor. This may explain why the two off-diagonal susceptibility matrix elements were always wrongly assumed to be opposite to each other in almost all analyses. (2) The frequency dependence of dynamic magnetic susceptibility near FMR is fully characterized by six real numbers, while its field dependence is fully characterized by seven real numbers. (3) A recipe of how to determine these numbers by standard microwave absorption measurements for a sample with an arbitrary magnetic anisotropy is proposed. Our results allow one to unambiguously separate the contribution of the anisotropic magnetoresistance to the dc voltage signals from the anomalous Hall effect. With these results, one can reliably extract the information of spin pumping and the inverse spin-Hall effect, and determine the spin-Hall angle. (4) In the case that resonance frequency is not sensitive to the applied static magnetic field, the field dependence of the matrix elements of dynamic magnetic susceptibility, as

  20. [Enterobacteriaceae and beta-lactams : wild susceptibility patterns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippon, A; Arlet, G

    2012-04-01

    Four susceptibility patterns of wild types of enterobacteria against old beta-lactams including aminopenicillins, carboxypenicillins and first-generation cephalosporins were individualized during the 1980s : susceptible, penicillinase low level, cephalosporinase and a combination of penicillinase and cephalosporinase. Such indirect detection of a mechanism of resistance allowed an interpretative reading for this class of antibiotics. At the present time, seven susceptibility patterns were proposed for this family of gram negative bacilli. Nevertheless, an analysis of results in terms of MICs and diameters of inhibition zone sizes of the main bacterial species of enterobacteria, mainly obtained from the databank of European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST), compared to that observed when overproducing strains were isolated in vivo and in vitro and to the type of beta-lactamase identified and their amino acid sequences conducted to a proposal of five susceptibility patterns. The fifth wild type individualized in several enterobacteria since 2005 is related to the synthesis of various chromosomal extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) which hydrolyze many beta-lactams including oxyimino-cephalosporins such as ceftriaxone or cefotaxime. Their expression in a wild strain is characteristic and conducted to our interest for their role as progenitors of the transferable CTM-M types. Otherwise, a medical biologist must consider the possibility of selection of a mutant with a chromosomal overproduced beta-lactamase. But within the same beta-lactam susceptibility pattern such as for Klebsiella pneumoniae and K. oxytoca or Citrobacter amalonaticus, the spectrum of inactivation will be highly variable according to the type of enzyme overproduced. Finally, a nice synergy observed between clavulanic acid and cefotaxime or ceftriaxone or even aztreonam does not mean anytime a transferable ESBL. In some cases according to the result of

  1. Mendelian Genetics of Human Susceptibility to Fungal Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lionakis, M.S.; Netea, M.G.; Holland, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    A recent surge in newly described inborn errors of immune function-related genes that result in susceptibility to fungal disease has greatly enhanced our understanding of the cellular and molecular basis of antifungal immune responses. Characterization of single-gene defects that predispose to

  2. Topological susceptibility for the SU(3) Yang--Mills theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Debbio, Luigi; Giusti, Leonardo; Pica, Claudio

    2004-01-01

    We present the results of a computation of the topological susceptibility in the SU(3) Yang--Mills theory performed by employing the expression of the topological charge density operator suggested by Neuberger's fermions. In the continuum limit we find r_0^4 chi = 0.059(3), which corresponds to c...

  3. Page 1 44 P. Nilakantan Absolute Susceptibilities. The absolute ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    balance method. The wood samples were all used in the form of fine powder dried at 102–04° C. for 12 hrs, and the susceptibilities compared with that of pure water. Results. Raw wood gave somewhat inconsistent values of anisotropy probably due to occluded impurities. After extraction with alcohol-benzene and boil-.

  4. Suitability of Vitek 2 System in Identification and Susceptibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To verify the accuracy of direct Vitek testing for blood cultures with Gramnegative bacilli. Design: Validation study. Setting: Aga Khan University Hospital Nairobi. Subjects: Twenty two positive blood cultures. Main outcome measures: Correct bacteria identification and errors for susceptibility testing. Results: Of the ...

  5. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) studies of Campanian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The observed AMS parameters like shape factor () (prolate to oblate), value and random distribution of minimum (3) and maximum (1) susceptibility axes are supported for secondary fabrics in Kallankurichchi Formation as a result of post-depositional processes. Based on petrographic studies, it can be established ...

  6. The usefulness of microscopic observation for drug susceptibility of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correct diagnosis of TB is needed to improve treatment, reduce transmission, and control ... observation for drug susceptibility (MODS) in clinical microbiology routine. ... The median turn around time (TAT) was six days for both direct and indirect assays. Results ... was evaluated in large field studies in 2006 and different ...

  7. Arrangement and number of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat spacers are associated with erythromycin susceptibility in emm12, emm75 and emm92 of group A streptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, P-X; Chiang-Ni, C; Wang, S-Y; Tsai, P-J; Kuo, C-F; Chuang, W-J; Lin, Y-S; Liu, C-C; Wu, J-J

    2014-06-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) are composed of numerous repeat-spacer units and are considered a prokaryotic defence system against foreign nucleic acids. Since antibiotic-resistant genes are frequently encoded in foreign nucleic acids, the aim of this study was to test whether erythromycin susceptibility in group A streptococcus (Streptococcus pyogenes) is associated with characteristics of CRISPR elements. Erythromycin susceptibility of 330 isolates collected between 1997 and 2003 was analysed. Among 29 emm types, emm12, emm75 and emm92 showed significant changes in erythromycin-resistance rates. By sequencing the spacers from two CRISPR loci, spacer contents in emm12, emm75 and emm92 strains were associated with erythromycin susceptibility. Strains with fewer spacers were more resistant to erythromycin. Moreover, in emm4 strains, which showed no significant change in their annual erythromycin-resistance rate, CRISPR type and number of spacers were not correlated with erythromycin susceptibility. These results highlight a novel association between CRISPR spacer content and erythromycin susceptibility in group A streptococcus. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  8. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of grown blood cultures by combining culture and real-time polymerase chain reaction is rapid and effective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Beuving

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early administration of appropriate antibiotic therapy in bacteraemia patients dramatically reduces mortality. A new method for RApid Molecular Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing (RAMAST that can be applied directly to positive blood cultures was developed and evaluated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Growth curves and antibiotic susceptibility of blood culture isolates (Staphylococcus aureus, enterococci and (facultative aerobic gram-negative rods were determined by incubating diluted